UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Sex-role orientation and sex stereotyping influences on same- and cross-sex friendships Conrad, Linda Muriel 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1986_A8 C66.pdf [ 3.9MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096947.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096947-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096947-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096947-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096947-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096947-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096947-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096947-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096947.ris

Full Text

SEX-ROLE ORIENTATION AND SEX STEREOTYPING INFLUENCES ON SAME- AND CROSS-SEX FRIENDSHIPS By LINDA MURIEL CONRAD B.H.E., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D i v i s i o n o f F a m i l y S c i e n c e s S c h o o l of F a m i l y and N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH A u g u s t , 1986 (c) L i n d a M u r i e l C o n r a d , COLUMBIA 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of ^/Irwt&^j- ^ A i W ^ i^4^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e of two i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s - - s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and l e v e l of sex s t e r e o t y p i n g — o n t h e q u a l i t y o f p e o p l e ' s own same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s i n g e n e r a l . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s would e x p e r i e n c e t h e h i g h e s t q u a l i t y i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s , f o l l o w e d by t h e s e x -t y p e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . L e v e l o f s t e r e o t y p i n g was p r e d i c t e d t o i n f l u e n c e b o t h t h e q u a l i t y o f p e o p l e s ' f r i e n d s h i p s , and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e c o n c e p t s same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . H i g h - s e x s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s were e x p e c t e d t o have l o w e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s and have l e s s f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h t h e low s t e r e o t y p e d . One h u n d r e d and one a d u l t s (62 f e m a l e s , 39 m a l e s ) sampled f r o m t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r c o m p l e t e d a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o t a p t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r same-and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d sairie-and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . The Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI, Bern, 1974) was u s e d t o measure sex t y p i n g ( a n d r o g y n o u s , s e x -t y p e d , u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ) and an i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d by t h e a u t h o r was u s e d t o t e s t l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g . As p r e d i c t e d , a n d r o g y n y was r e l a t e d t o b e t t e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s . A n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i i q u a l i t y s c o r e s t h a n e i t h e r s e x - t y p e d o r u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p e r s o n s . Q u a l i t y s c o r e s were no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s compared w i t h u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . T h e s e f i n d i n g s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n t e r m s of t h e g r e a t e r b e h a v i o r a l f l e x i b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n d r o g y n y . A l t h o u g h not p r e d i c t e d , sex t y p i n g was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n e v a l u a t i o n s o f f r i e n d s h i p s and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s s p e c i f i c a l l y . A n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e v a l u a t i o n s t o f r i e n d s h i p s and were more a c c e p t i n g o f c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s t h a n p e r s o n s i n t h e o t h e r two s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n g r o u p s . In l i g h t o f t h i s f i n d i n g a m o d i f i c a t i o n was made t o t h e o r i g i n a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework t o a c c o u n t f o r sex t y p i n g e f f e c t s on e v a l u a t i o n s of f r i e n d s h i p s . None of t h e p r e d i c t i o n s f o r l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g i n f l u e n c e s on q u a l i t y and e v a l u a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s was s u p p o r t e d . P s y c h o m e t r i c p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e m e a sures u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . O t h e r f i n d i n g s showed same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r q u a l i t y r a t i n g s t h a n c r o s s - s e x and same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s r e c e i v e d more p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s compared w i t h o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e l a t t e r f i n d i n g s were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . i i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i Acknowledgments v i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 S e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s 3 Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g 4 R e l a t e d R e s e a r c h 7 Q u a l i t y of F r i e n d s h i p s 10 Q u a l i t y and S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n 11 Q u a l i t y and Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g 13 A t t i t u d e s Toward F r i e n d s h i p s 17 A t t i t u d e s and S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n 17 A t t i t u d e s and Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g 18 Method 21 P r o c e d u r e 21 S u b j e c t s 22 M a t e r i a l s . 23 Q u a l i t y m e a s u r e s 23 A t t i t u d e m e a sures 26 S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n measure 28 Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g measure 30 i v R e s u l t s 32 I n d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s 32 S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n 33 Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g 36 O t h e r outcomes 36 D i s c u s s i o n 40 S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n 40 Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g 48 Same-Sex and C r o s s - S e x F r i e n d s h i p s 54 Summary 57 F o o t n o t e s 60 R e f e r e n c e s 61 A p p e n d i c e s 68 V L i s t o f T a b l e s Page T a b l e I . Mean S c o r e s on Dependent M e a s u r e s by S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n 35 T a b l e I I . Mean S c o r e s on Dependent M e a s u r e s by L e v e l of Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g 35 T a b l e I I I . Type o f F r i e n d s h i p M a i n E f f e c t s on Q u a l i t y , F r e q u e n c y and E v a l u a t i o n o f F r i e n d s h i p s 38 T a b l e IV. Q u a l i t y S c o r e s f o r Type o f F r i e n d s h i p By Sex o f Re s p o n d e n t I n t e r a c t i o n 38 T a b l e V. Mean S c o r e s on Dependent M e a s u r e s by C u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d Sex S t e r e o t y p e s 53 y i A c k n o w l e d g m e n t I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e members o f my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , D r . C a r o l M a r t i n , D r . Dan P e r l m a n , D r . Roy R o d g e r s , a n d D r . P h i l S m i t h f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e A l u m n i F u n d o f t h e S c h o o l o f F a m i l y a n d N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s a n d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G r a d u a t e F e l l o w s h i p . v i i S e x - r o l e O r i e n t a t i o n and S t e r e o t y p i n g I n f l u e n c e s on F r i e n d s h i p s P e o p l e engage i n a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s r a n g i n g f r o m s u p e r f i c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h a c q u a i n t a n c e s t o i n t i m a t e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h l o v e d o n e s . Somewhere between t h e s e two e x t r e m e s i s a c a t e g o r y o f r e l a t i n g c a l l e d f r i e n d s h i p . F r i e n d s h i p s p r o v i d e p e o p l e w i t h a s e n s e of w o r t h , a s o u r c e o f e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t , and a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t o e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g s and e v e n t s . R e s e a r c h on f r i e n d s h i p has f o c u s s e d on s e v e r a l a r e a s i n c l u d i n g d e f i n i n g t h e c o n c e p t ( D a v i s & Todd, 1985; W r i g h t , 1969), e x a m i n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s i n how p e o p l e view f r i e n d s h i p (La G a i p a , 1979), and i d e n t i f y i n g t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f a t t r a c t i o n ( B y r n e , 1971; Duck, 1973; K a n d e l , 1978; S e y f r i e d & H e n d r i c k , 1973). What m i g h t be c a l l e d t h e f i r s t law o f f r i e n d s h i p f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t " l i k e a t t r a c t s l i k e . " F r i e n d s t e n d t o be more s i m i l a r t h a n n o n - f r i e n d s i n a t t i t u d e s , age, e t h n i c i t y , a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e , and sex ( B o o t h & H e s s , 1974; D a v i s & Todd, 1985; Werner & P a r m e l e e , 1979). P r e f e r e n c e f o r same-sex p e e r s i s s t r o n g among c h i l d r e n ( S e r b i n & S p r a f k i n , 1983; S e r b i n , T o n i c k & S t e r n g l a n z , 1977) and, among a d u l t s , same-sex p a i r i n g s a c c o u n t f o r a b o u t 80% o f f r i e n d s h i p s ( B o o t h & H e s s , 1974). P e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r same-sex p e e r s and t h e r e l a t i v e i n f r e q u e n c y o f c r o s s - s e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s o u t s i d e o f i n t i m a t e p a i r i n g s , most r e s e a r c h f o c u s s e s on same-sex 1 r e l a t i o n s h i p s and makes o n l y t a n g e n t i a l r e f e r e n c e t o c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . From t h i s r e s e a r c h c o m p a r i s o n s between same- and c r o s s - s e x d y a d s r e v e a l t h a t , a s e a r l y a s two y e a r s o l d , same-sex d y a d s engage i n more s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s t h a n m i x e d - s e x p a i r s , and c h i l d r e n a r e more i n f l u e n c e d by r e w a r d s and p u n i s h m e n t s r e c e i v e d from same-sex compared w i t h c r o s s - s e x p e e r s ( J a c k l i n & Maccoby, 1978). D a v i s and Todd (1985) f o u n d t h a t a d u l t c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s were l e s s i n t i m a t e and s t a b l e t h a n same-sex, and t h a t c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s s h a r e d fewer a c t i v i t i e s compared w i t h same-sex f r i e n d s . However, c r o s s - s e x and same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o d i f f e r on t r u s t , r e s p e c t , a c c e p t a n c e , o r s p o n t a n e i t y , and s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d e n j o y i n g t h e i r c r o s s - s e x and same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s e q u a l l y . A d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y done by B e l l (1981) s u g g e s t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a c c o u n t f o r some of t h e v a r i a t i o n between same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . A c c o r d i n g t o B e l l , n o n c o n v e n t i o n a l women were more s a t i s f i e d w i t h c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l women. F o r men, t h e n o n c o n v e n t i o n a l s were more l i k e l y t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l s t o r e p o r t t h a t t h e y would d i s c l o s e t o t a l l y t o a t l e a s t some of t h e i r c l o s e women f r i e n d s , and b o t h c o n v e n t i o n a l m a l e s and f e m a l e s f e l t c l o s e r t o same-sex t h a n c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s . In a s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n by B o o t h and Hess (1974) m a r i t a l s t a t u s was i d e n t i f i e d a s a f a c t o r i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a l i t y between t h e two t y p e s o f f r i e n d s h i p s . G e n e r a l l y , m a r r i e d men and women 2 had fewer i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h and c o n f i d e d l e s s i n c r o s s - s e x compared w i t h same-sex f r i e n d s . T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e s f u r t h e r t h e v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . C r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s a r e d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y a s n o n - s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between m a l e s and f e m a l e s . C r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s a r e assumed t o be b a s e d on t h e same or s i m i l a r p r e m i s e s a s same-sex, and t h e c o n c e p t i s meant t o e x c l u d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t e n d e d f o r mate s e l e c t i o n . Two i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s t h a t w i l l be e x a m i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r i e n d s h i p s a r e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and sex s t e r e o t y p i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s t u d y w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g on i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e p o r t e d q u a l i t y and e v a l u a t i o n s o f same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . S e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s ( a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s sex t y p e s ) a r e c o m p o s i t e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , b e h a v i o r s , and i n t e r e s t s i n d i v i d u a l s use t o d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s . The t r a i t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c l u s t e r i n t o two d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h e r s l a b e l e d i n s t r u m e n t a l / a g e n t i c and e x p r e s s i v e / communal (Bakan, 1966; P a r s o n s & B a l e s , 1955). More r e c e n t l y , t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s have been t e r m e d " m a s c u l i n e " and " f e m i n i n e " (Bern, 1974; Spence & H e l m r e i c h , 1 9 7 8 1 ) . D i f f e r e n t i a l e n d orsement o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and b e h a v i o r a l 3 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n t a i n e d i n two p o p u l a r sex t y p i n g m e a s u r e s - -t h e Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI, Bern, 1974) and t h e P e r s o n a l A t t r i b u t e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PAQ, Sp e n c e & H e l m r e i c h , 1 9 7 8 ) — h a s l e d t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f o u r d i s t i n c t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s . The f e m i n i n e sex r o l e has been shown t o r e f l e c t a " r e a c t i v e , e m o t i o n a l l y r e s p o n s i v e , and e x p r e s s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " t o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , w h i l e t h e m a s c u l i n e r o l e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an " a c t i v e , c o n t r o l l i n g , and i n s t r u m e n t a l " s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n ( I c k e s , 1981, p . 9 6 ) . A n d r o g y n y i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e m a s c u l i n e sex r o l e w i t h t h e e x p r e s s i v i t y o f t h e f e m i n i n e r o l e ( I c k e s , 1981) s u c h t h a t a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s a r e d e f i n e d by r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e t r a i t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n c o n t r a s t , u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p e r s o n s e x h i b i t o n l y low l e v e l s o f b o t h s e t s o f q u a l i t i e s (Bern, 1977; I c k e s , 1981; S p e n c e , H e l m r e i c h & S t a p p , 1975). V a r i o u s s t u d i e s have shown s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s t o be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o m a t u r i t y o f m o r a l judgment ( B l o c k , 1973), s e l f - e s t e e m ( S p e n c e , H e l m r e i c h & S t a p p , 1975), t h e a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m s e x - t y p e d b e h a v i o r s (Bern & L e n n e y , 1976), a n d s t y l e o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n ( I c k e s , 1981). Sex s t e r e o t y p e s a r e s t r u c t u r e d s e t s o f b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h women and men a s s e p a r a t e s o c i a l g r o u p s (Ashmore & D e l B o c a , 1979; S m i t h , 1985). I n t e r m s of i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y , sex 4 s t e r e o t y p e s a r e t h e " i n f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t l i n k p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s t o t h e s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s f e m a l e and male" (Ashmore & D e l B oca, 1979,p.225). The p r o c e s s o f u s i n g sex s t e r e o t y p e s i s t e r m e d s t e r e o t y p i n g . R e s e a r c h has shown t h a t sex s t e r e o t y p i n g a f f e c t s a d u l t s ' t r e a t m e n t o f i n f a n t boys and g i r l s ( s e e K a t z , 1983; R u b i n , P r o v e n z a n o & L u r i a , 1974), t h e e n c o d i n g and r e t r i e v a l o f g e n d e r - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n by c h i l d r e n ( M a r t i n & H a l v e r s o n , 1983), judgments a b o u t m e n t a l h e a l t h ( B r o v e r m a n , V o g e l , B r overman, C l a r k s o n , & R o s e n k r a n t z , 1972), and t h e s o c i a l b e h a v i o r o f b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l h o l d i n g t h e s t e r e o t y p e and t h e p e r s o n b e i n g s t e r e o t y p e d (Ashmore & D e l B o ca, 1979). [See a l s o Basow ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and W i l l i a m s & B e s t ( 1 9 8 2 ) . ] S e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and sex s t e r e o t y p i n g have r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n i n t h e o r i z i n g and r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s o v e r t h e p a s t two d e c a d e s ( s e e Deaux, 1984; R u b l e & R u b l e , 1982; S m i t h , 1985 f o r r e v i e w s ) . The f o c u s o f t h i s work has been on m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g measurement of t h e c o n c e p t s . An i n t e r e s t i n t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t o f a n d r o g y n y has d o m i n a t e d sex t y p i n g r e s e a r c h , w h i l e work on s t e r e o t y p e s has f o c u s s e d on t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n and impact on p e r c e p t i o n s . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have p r e s e n t e d t h e o r e t i c a l a n d / o r e m p i r i c a l a r g u m e n t s f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t e r e o t y p i n g 5 and sex t y p i n g . K o h l b e r g ' s (1966) t h e o r y on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s e x - r o l e i d e n t i t y p r e d i c t s a c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e two v a r i a b l e s , a r e l a t i o n s h i p s u p p o r t e d e m p i r i c a l l y by Storms ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Bern (1979) b a s e s h e r c o n c e p t o f a n d r o g y n y on a s e x -r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n — s t e r e o t y p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . A c c o r d i n g t o Bern i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y m o t i v a t e d t o keep b e h a v i o r s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h sex s t e r e o t y p e s (Bern, 1979). F i n a l l y , sex s t e r e o t y p e s have been t h e b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g most m e a s u r e s of sex t y p i n g , d e s p i t e t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s t o c a p t u r e a l l a s p e c t s o f s t e r e o t y p e s ( S m i t h , 1985). W h i l e t h e c o n c e n s u s seems t o be f o r a s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n — s t e r e o t y p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , Spence, H e l m r e i c h and S t a p p (1975) f o u n d no c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e v a r i a b l e s and a r g u e t h a t r a t i n g s o f s e l f ( s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n ) and o t h e r s ( s t e r e o t y p i n g ) a r e made r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y . A r e c e n t s t u d y by M a r t i n (1984) s u p p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f Spence e t a l . . I n t h i s s t u d y , s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and sex s t e r e o t y p i n g w i l l be t r e a t e d as non r e l a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e of s t a t i n g h y p o t h e s e s . However, a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r f e m i n i n i t y , m a s c u l i n i t y , and s t e r e o t y p i n g and an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on s t e r e o t y p i n g by s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d t o t e s t f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The outcome o f t h e s e p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s w i l l g u i d e s u b s e q u e n t t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a . 6 R e l a t e d R e s e a r c h R e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s d i s c u s s s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n a n d / o r sex s t e r e o t y p i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o p e o p l e ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( f o r e x c e p t i o n see B a n i k i o t e s , N e i m e y e r & Lepkowsky, 1981; F i s c h e r & N a r u s , 1981; Hammen & P e p l a u , 1978; I c k e s , 1981, 1985; P u r s e l l & B a n i k i o t e s , 1978; S e y f r i e d & H e n d r i c k , 1973; W h e e l e r , R e i s & N e z l e k ; 1983). C o m p a r i s o n o f r e s u l t s f r o m t h e e x i s t i n g body o f r e s e a r c h i s d i f f i c u l t due t o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . F o u r s t u d i e s u s e d t h e BSRI (Bern, 1974) t o measure s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , one u s e d t h e PAQ (Spence & H e l m r e i c h , 1978) and a s i x t h u s e d a measure d e v e l o p e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . The o n l y s t u d y t o use sex s t e r e o t y p i n g a s t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e (Hammen & P e p l a u , 1978) e m p l o y e d a measure d e v e l o p e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e above s t u d i e s r a n g e d from q u a l i t a t i v e m e a sures of i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i o n ( i n t i m a c y , l i k i n g ) t o q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a sures o f i n t e r a c t i o n (amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t a n c e ) . None o f t h e s t u d i e s l o o k e d a t p e o p l e ' s e v a l u a t i o n s o f f r i e n d s h i p s and o n l y two e x a m i n e d v a r i a b l e s h a v i n g some r e l a t i o n s h i p t o q u a l i t y . The f i r s t s t u d y ( F i s c h e r & N a r u s , 1981) e x amined t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n on l e v e l o f i n t i m a c y i n f r i e n d s h i p s . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e s t u d y showed s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r sex of s u b j e c t , sex of t a r g e t p e r s o n , and s e x - r o l e 7 o r i e n t a t i o n . F e m a l e s r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r i n t i m a c y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s compared w i t h m a l e s . In a d d i t i o n , r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f e m a l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t i m a t e t h a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h m a l e s . A n d r o g y n y was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o l e v e l of i n t i m a c y . A n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n t i m a c y compared w i t h u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p e r s o n s . S e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n t i m a c y compared w i t h u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p e r s o n s but d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s were i n t e r p r e t e d a s r e f l e c t i n g t h e g r e a t e r b e h a v i o r a l f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e a n d r o g y n o u s s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . The s t u d y a l s o examined t h e i n f l u e n c e o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g on l e v e l o f i n t i m a c y . I t was a r g u e d t h a t i f s o c i e t a l s t e r e o t y p e s a b o u t men and women were b e i n g a d h e r e d t o t h e r e w o u l d be g r e a t e r i n t i m a c y i n f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s g e n e r a l l y , r e g a r d l e s s o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and, t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f i n t i m a c y would be f o u n d i n f e m a l e - f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e l o w e s t i n m a l e - m a l e . A l t h o u g h no d i r e c t measure of sex s t e r e o t y p i n g was t a k e n , i n t i m a c y l e v e l s f o l l o w e d t h e p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n . The s e c o n d s t u d y (Hammen & P e p l a u , 1978) e x a m i n e d t h e i n f l u e n c e of sex s t e r e o t y p i n g on amount of i n t e r a c t i o n and d e g r e e o f l i k i n g i n s t r a n g e r p a i r s . Amount of i n t e r a c t i o n may s e r v e as a g r o s s i n d i c a t o r o f t h e q u a l i t y o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p . 8 W r i g h t (1969) f o u n d q u a n t i t a t i v e measures o f i n t e r a c t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between b e s t and o t h e r f r i e n d s h i p s . In a d d i t i o n , i n t h e Hammen and P e p l a u (1978) s t u d y v e r b a l and v i s u a l i n t e r a c t i o n were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l i k i n g of s t r a n g e r (r_=.46 f o r v e r b a l , .41 f o r v i s u a l ) . R e s u l t s f r om t h e Hammen and P e p l a u (1978) s t u d y showed i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r a c t e d more when p a i r e d w i t h an o p p o s i t e - s e x o t h e r t h a n w i t h a same-sex o t h e r . W i t h i n t h e o p p o s i t e - s e x p a i r i n g s , low s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s i n t e r a c t e d more w i t h t h e s t r a n g e r t h a n d i d h i g h s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s . T h e r e was a t h r e e - w a y sex of s u b j e c t by s t e r e o t y p i n g by t y p e o f p a i r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . S t e r e o t y p i n g was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l e v e l s of i n t e r a c t i o n f o r ma l e s i n same-sex p a i r i n g s a nd w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n o p p o s i t e - s e x p a i r i n g s . The p a t t e r n was r e v e r s e d f o r f e m a l e s . S t e r e o t y p i n g was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f i n t e r a c t i o n f o r f e m a l e s i n same-sex p a i r i n g s and w i t h low l e v e l s i n o p p o s i t e - s e x p a i r i n g s . The a u t h o r s n o t e d t h a t sex s t e r e o t y p i n g " a p p e a r e d t o have s t r o n g e f f e c t s on p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n , and a p p e a r e d t o be more p r e d i c t i v e o f b e h a v i o r t h a n g e n d e r a l o n e " (Hammen & P e p l a u , 1978; p. 8 7 ) . T h e r e were no sex s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s f o r d e g r e e o f l i k i n g i n t h e Hammen and P e p l a u (1978) s t u d y . However, sex o f s u b j e c t and sex o f t a r g e t d i d a p p e a r t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i k i n g . F e m a l e s r a t e d male and f e m a l e p a r t n e r s e q u a l l y on 9 l i k i n g and m a l e s r a t e d f e m a l e p a r t n e r s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n male p a r t n e r s . The two s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d above f a l l s h o r t o f e x a m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and sex s t e r e o t y p i n g w i t h q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s . In t h e Hammen and P e p l a u (1978) s t u d y p a i r s o f s t r a n g e r s were s t u d i e d and, i n t h e F i s c h e r and N a r u s (1981) s t u d y sex s t e r e o t y p e s were not m e a s u r e d d i r e c t l y . N e i t h e r s t u d y l o o k e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a t r e l a t i o n s h i p q u a l i t y but i n s t e a d u s e d some a s p e c t of q u a l i t y — i n t i m a c y ( F i s c h e r & N a r u s , 1981), amount of i n t e r a c t i o n , and d e g r e e o f l i k i n g (Hammen & P e p l a u , 1978). The c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h hopes t o improve on t h e s e s t u d i e s by u s i n g a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l measure t o a s s e s s q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s , by a s s e s s i n g sex t y p i n g and s t e r e o t y p i n g d i r e c t l y and, by a s k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s a b o u t t h e i r a c t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s . Q u a l i t y o f F r i e n d s h i p s The f i r s t s e t o f h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and sex s t e r e o t y p i n g t o q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s . Q u a l i t y i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s a s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g of c l o s e n e s s t o t h e o t h e r p e r s o n , a s w e l l as a more o b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f f r i e n d s h i p a r e a c h i e v e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . I m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f f r i e n d s h i p have been i d e n t i f i e d by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s ( B e l l , 1981; D a v i s & Todd, 1985; La G a i p a , 1979; W r i g h t , 1969) and i n c l u d e e n j o y m e n t , m u t u a l t r u s t , i n t i m a c y , s h a r e d a c t i v i t i e s , f r e q u e n c y o f 10 c o n t a c t , and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a s s i s t a n c e . Q u a l i t y and S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e of F i s c h e r a n d N a r u s (1981) on l e v e l o f i n t i m a c y , a n d r o g y n y i s e x p e c t e d t o be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p . A n d r o g y n o u s p e r s o n s a r e e x p e c t e d t o have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h s e x - t y p e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p e r s o n s and, s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o have h i g h e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The g r e a t e r b e h a v i o r a l f l e x i b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n d r o g y n y s h o u l d a l l o w t h e a n d r o g y n o u s p e r s o n t o engage i n a w i d e r r a n g e o f f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e s e x - t y p e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , e x p e r i e n c e h i g h e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s . W h i l e t h e a n d r o g y n o u s and s e x - t y p e d d i d n o t d i f f e r on l e v e l of i n t i m a c y i n t h e F i s c h e r and N a r u s (1981) s t u d y , t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o d i f f e r on q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Q u a l i t y i s a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l measure o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f f r i e n d s h i p a r e e x p e r i e n c e d . The measure s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e , t h e r e f o r e , t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e h a v i o r a l f l e x i b i l i t y among e a c h o f t h e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e s e x - t y p e d c a t e g o r y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s f l e x i b i l i t y t h a n t h e a n d r o g y n o u s , s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d e x p e r i e n c e l o w e r q u a l i t y i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 11 s h o u l d have l o w e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s t h a n b o t h t h e a n d r o g y n o u s and s e x - t y p e d . F i s c h e r and N arus (1981) f o u n d sex of s u b j e c t and sex o f t a r g e t main e f f e c t s on i n t i m a c y . F e m a l e s r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r i n t i m a c y i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f e m a l e s were more i n t i m a t e t h a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h m a l e s . O t h e r r e s e a r c h ( C a l d w e l l & P e p l a u , 1982; D a v i d s o n & Duberman, 1982) s u p p o r t t h e s e f i n d i n g s . However, C a l d w e l l and P e p l a u (1982) c a u t i o n t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s u s e d t o a s s e s s i n t i m a c y i n f r i e n d s h i p s may be a c c o u n t i n g f o r some of t h e sex d i f f e r e n c e s . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y sex d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t p r e d i c t e d s i n c e t h e q u a l i t y measure goes b e y o n d m e a s u r i n g i n t i m a c y and i n c l u d e s a r a n g e of i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r s . As a r e s u l t , i t i s n o t e x p e c t e d t h a t one gender w i l l s c o r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r . B a s e d on f i n d i n g s f r o m D a v i s and Todd ( 1 9 8 5 ) , and d a t a f r o m a p i l o t s t u d y I c o n d u c t e d , same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be d e s c r i b e d a s h i g h e r i n q u a l i t y t h a n c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . S o c i a l norms may a c c o u n t f o r t h i s o v e r a l l t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p e f f e c t . Norms f a v o r t h e f o r m a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e of same-sex o v e r c r o s s - s e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r , m a r r i e d p e r s o n s a r e n o t e n c o u r a g e d t o m a i n t a i n or d e v e l o p c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e t h e c o u p l e u n i t ( s e e Gag.non & G r e e n b l a t , 1978; H e s s , 1972). As a r e s u l t o f p r e s s u r e s a g a i n s t c r o s s - s e x 1 2 f r i e n d s h i p s , p e o p l e may e n j o y t h e i r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s more t h a n t h e i r c r o s s - s e x and f e e l c l o s e r t o same-sex f r i e n d s . In a d d i t i o n , s i m i l a r i t y may be p e r c e i v e d a s g r e a t e r i n same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s as a r e s u l t of b e i n g i n t h e same g e n d e r c a t e g o r y . S i m i l a r i t y has been f o u n d t o be r e i n f o r c i n g ( s e e B y r n e , 1971), and t h e r e f o r e , same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s may be assumed t o have g r e a t e r r e w a r d v a l u e . To summarize t h e e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s a r e o f f e r e d : 1.0 T h e r e w i l l be a main e f f e c t o f t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p on q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p . 1.1 Same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s w i l l be r a t e d h i g h e r i n q u a l i t y t h a n c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . 2.0 T h e r e w i l l be a main e f f e c t o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n on q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p . 2.1 A n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h s e x - t y p e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . 2.2 S e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . Q u a l i t y and Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g . The n e x t g r o u p o f h y p o t h e s e s e x amines t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between sex s t e r e o t y p i n g and f r i e n d s h i p q u a l i t y . S t e r e o t y p e s a r e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s o r schemas and s t e r e o t y p i n g i s t h e use o f t h e s e c o g n i t i v e schemas t o p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n ( s e e Ashmore & D e l B o c a , 1979). 13 S t e r e o t y p e s a r e u s e d i n p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n two i n t e r r e l a t e d ways. F i r s t , f a m i l i a r and n o v e l i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be f i t i n t o a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g c o g n i t i v e " p a c k a g e s " ( s t e r e o t y p e s ) . T h i s p r o c e s s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n t h e b i a s i n g o f i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e ( M a r t i n & H a l v e r s o n , 1983; M a r t i n , 1985). S e c o n d , i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t o t h e r w i s e unknown a s p e c t s o f a t a r g e t o b j e c t o r p e r s o n c a n be made on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e . In t h i s way s t e r e o t y p e s c a n p l a y a r o l e i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . By u s i n g a s t e r e o t y p e schema one can a n t i c i p a t e b e h a v i o r s f r o m a n o t h e r and a d j u s t one's own b e h a v i o r a c c o r d i n g l y ( s e e Ashmore & D e l Boca, 1979; M a r t i n & H a l v e r s o n , 1981). The p r e d i c t e d i n f l u e n c e o f sex s t e r e o t y p e s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s f o r h i g h sex s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s t o r e p o r t l o w e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h low s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s . W h i l e r e p o r t s o f q u a l i t y i n same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s s h o u l d n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e two g r o u p s , t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on q u a l i t y i n c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . The h i g h s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d a r e e x p e c t e d t o r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r q u a l i t y c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h t h e low s e x -s t e r e o t y p e d . T h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s a r e b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a p e r s o n who i s h i g h l y sex s t e r e o t y p e d w i l l b e l i e v e t h a t an o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d has many i n t e r e s t s t h a t a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h i s o r h e r own. The s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n may, t h e r e f o r e , f i n d t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s u n a t t r a c t i v e a n d / o r 1 4 i n a p p r o p r i a t e and c o n s e q u e n t l y l i m i t b o t h t h e c o n t a c t and ra n g e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e f r i e n d s h i p . A l s o , i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d may be j u d g e d t o be l e s s i n v o l v i n g and l e s s e n j o y a b l e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e b i a s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h w e l l - d e f i n e d s t e r e o t y p e s q u a l i t y w i l l be lo w e r i n c r o s s - s e x compared w i t h same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l e s s w e l l - d e f i n e d s t e r e o t y p e s , who do not s ee men and women as i n h e r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t , a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e same d e g r e e o f d i f f e r e n c e i n q u a l i t y between t h e two t y p e s o f f r i e n d s h i p s . T h e s e p e o p l e w i l l s ee b o t h s e x e s a s p o t e n t i a l l y a b l e t o p r o v i d e t h e f u l l r a n g e o f f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e s a n d w i l l n o t f a v o r one o v e r t h e o t h e r . Q u a l i t y i n t h e same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s o f t h e l e s s s t e r e o t y p e d s h o u l d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y , and t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r q u a l i t y i n t h e i r c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h h i g h s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s . The p r e d i c t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s between sex s t e r e o t y p i n g and q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s a r e n o t e n t i r e l y s u p p o r t e d by r e s u l t s f r o m t h e Hammen and P e p l a u (1978) s t u d y . The r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d l e v e l s o f i n t e r a c t i o n t o be h i g h e s t i n o p p o s i t e - s e x p a i r i n g s , and t h e y f o u n d h i g h s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d m a l e s i n t e r a c t e d more i n o p p o s i t e - s e x p a i r i n g s t h a n i n same-sex d y a d s . A c c o r d i n g t o 15 t h e r a t i o n a l e u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , l e v e l o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n o p p o s i t e - s e x d y ads s h o u l d be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o l e v e l of sex s t e r e o t y p i n g . T h i s was t h e c a s e o n l y f o r f e m a l e s i n t h e s t u d y . The a p p a r e n t anomalous f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e Hammen and P e p l a u (1978) s t u d y may be t h e r e s u l t o f s u b j e c t s ' a g e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s u s e d m a i n l y f i r s t - y e a r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . T h i s g r o u p may be i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s by b e i n g i n t h e mate s e l e c t i o n y e a r s . The f a c t t h a t m a l e s i n t h e s t u d y were p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e l y t o have h i g h l e v e l s of c r o s s -sex i n t e r a c t i o n p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f m a l e s t o i n i t i a t e c r o s s - s e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l use a n o n - u n i v e r s i t y , o l d e r a d u l t sample t o a t t e m p t t o overcome t h i s p r o b l e m . The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s summarize p r e d i c t i o n s f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g and q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p . 3.0 T h e r e w i l l be a main e f f e c t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g on q u a l i t y of f r i e n d s h i p . 3.1 Low s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h h i g h s e x -s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s . 4.0 T h e r e w i l l be a s t e r e o t y p i n g by t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p . 4.1 H i g h s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r q u a l i t y i n t h e i r same-sex compared w i t h t h e i r c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . Low s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l n o t d i f f e r i n t h e q u a l i t y of t h e two t y p e s of f r i e n d s h i p s . 1 6 4.2 F o r c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , low s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r q u a l i t y compared w i t h h i g h s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s , t h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e low and h i g h s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s on r e p o r t e d q u a l i t y . A t t i t u d e s Toward F r i e n d s h i p s The n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and s t e r e o t y p i n g i n f l u e n c e s on p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f r i e n d s h i p s . A t t i t u d e s a r e o r i e n t a t i o n s away from o r t o w a r d an o b j e c t o r p e r s o n and a r e made up of t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s — c o g n i t i o n s , a f f e c t , and b e h a v i o r a l t e n d e n c i e s ( H e n d r i c k & H e n d r i c k , 1983). The b e l i e f s a p e r s o n h o l d s a b o u t a t a r g e t f o r m t h e c o g n i t i v e component o f h e r o r h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h a t t a r g e t . The a f f e c t i v e component i s an e m o t i o n a l f e e l i n g — p o s i t i v e , n e u t r a l , o r n e g a t i v e — ' t o w a r d t h e t a r g e t , and i s t y p i c a l l y m e asured by v e r b a l e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e t a r g e t ( R o s e n b e r g & H o v l a n d , 1960). B e h a v i o r a l t e n d e n c i e s a r e t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e a f f e c t and c o g n i t i o n and t r a n s l a t e i n t o an a p p r o a c h / a v o i d a n c e a c t i o n . A t t i t u d e s and S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n . As n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e c l u s t e r s o f t r a i t s , b e h a v i o r s , and i n t e r e s t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s use t o d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s . The f o u r sex t y p e s d e f i n e more o r l e s s d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s - - m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e , a n d r o g y n o u s and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . As c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by I c k e s (1981) t h e s e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s 1 7 t r a n s l a t e i n t o d i s t i n c t s t y l e s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . S e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f r i e n d s h i p s b e c a u s e a t t i t u d e s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f c o g n i t i o n s a b o u t and a f f e c t t o w a r d a t a r g e t , w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t y l e a d t o a p p r o a c h / a v o i d a n c e b e h a v i o r ( F i s h b e i n & A j z e n , 1975). W h i l e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e p r e d i c t e d t o i n f l u e n c e q u a l i t y i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s t h e y a r e n o t c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o one's c o g n i t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f t a r g e t e d o t h e r s . No p r e d i c t i o n s w i l l be made, t h e r e f o r e , f o r sex t y p i n g e f f e c t s on p e o p l e ' s e v a l u a t i o n s o f f r i e n d s h i p s . A t t i t u d e s and Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g . Sex s t e r e o t y p e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o i n f l u e n c e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f r i e n d s h i p s . S t e r e o t y p e s a r e c o g n i t i v e schemas and a t t i t u d e s a r e made up, i n p a r t , o f c o g n i t i o n s a b o u t a t a r g e t o b j e c t o r p e r s o n . The c o g n i t i o n s one h o l d s a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women a r e l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e a t t i t u d e s one h o l d s a b o u t t h e f r i e n d s h i p s between t h e two g r o u p s . The e v a l u a t i o n of e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n c e p t s has been c e n t r a l t o most a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h ( R o s e n b e r g & H o v l a n d , 1960). The i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o measure a t t i t u d e s w i l l e m p h a s i z e r e s p o n d e n t s ' e v a l u a t i o n s o f same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . A main e f f e c t of l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g on e v a l u a t i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p s i s p r e d i c t e d , a l o n g w i t h a s t e r e o t y p i n g by t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p i n t e r a c t i o n . Low 18 s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s a r e e x p e c t e d t o g i v e h i g h e r e v a l u a t i o n s t o f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h h i g h ' s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s . H i g h s e x -s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o g i v e l o w e r e v a l u a t i o n s t o c r o s s - s e x compared w i t h same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . T h i s g r o u p i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t o g i v e l o w e r e v a l u a t i o n s t o c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h t h e low s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d g r o u p . S i m i l a r t o t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p e f f e c t s on q u a l i t y , a main e f f e c t o f t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p on e v a l u a t i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p i s p r e d i c t e d . Same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s a r e e x p e c t e d t o r e c e i v e h i g h e r e v a l u a t i o n s t h a n c r o s s - s e x , r e g a r d l e s s o f l e v e l o f s t e r e o t y p i n g . B o t h s c h e m a t i c p r o c e s s i n g ( M a r t i n & H a l v e r s o n , 1981) and t h e r e i n f o r c i n g f u n c t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t y ( B y r n e , 1971) p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s . S t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s see l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e two s e x e s , and between t h e m s e l v e s and members o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x . S i n c e s i m i l a r i t y h as been f o u n d t o be r e i n f o r c i n g ( s e e B y r n e , 1971; B y r n e , C l o r e & W o r c h e l , 1966) r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e who a r e v i e w e d as d i s s i m i l a r ( i n t h i s c a s e c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s ) s h o u l d be j u d g e d as h a v i n g l e s s r e w a r d v a l u e compared w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s i m i l a r p e r s o n s ( i n t h i s c a s e same-sex f r i e n d s ) . The l o w e r r e w a r d v a l u e o f c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s s h o u l d be r e f l e c t e d i n a l o w e r e v a l u a t i o n o f c r o s s - s e x compared w i t h same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . No p r e d i c t i o n s f o r sex o f s u b j e c t w i l l 19 be made f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex s t e r e o t y p i n g and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f r i e n d s h i p s . The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s summarize t h e e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 5.0 T h e r e w i l l be a main e f f e c t o f t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p on e v a l u a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s . 5.1 Same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s w i l l be e v a l u a t e d h i g h e r t h a n c r o s s -sex f r i e n d s h i p s . 6.0 T h e r e w i l l be a main e f f e c t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g on e v a l u a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s . 6.1 Low s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e v a l u a t i o n s t o f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h h i g h s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s . 7.0 T h e r e w i l l be an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g by t y p e of f r i e n d s h i p on e v a l u a t i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p . 7.1 H i g h s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e v a l u a t i o n s t o same-sex compared w i t h c r o s s -sex f r i e n d s h i p s . Low s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l n o t g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t e v a l u a t i o n s t o t h e two t y p e s of f r i e n d s h i p s . 7.2 F o r c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , low sex s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e v a l u a t i o n s t h a n h i g h s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s , low s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d a l s w i l l n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on e v a l u a t i o n s f r o m h i g h s e x -s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s . 20 METHOD P r o c e d u r e A p a c k a g e c o n t a i n i n g a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r , t h e F r i e n d s h i p Q u e s t i o n n a i r e [ s e e A p p e n d i x A ] , and a stamped, a d d r e s s e d , r e t u r n e n v e l o p e was d e l i v e r e d t o 494 h o u s e h o l d s drawn r a n d o m l y from a s a m p l i n g frame of 4,887 a d d r e s s e s . A d d r e s s e s were c o m p i l e d u s i n g t h e 1985 V a n c o u v e r C i t y D i r e c t o r y and c e n s u s maps o f two r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s j u d g e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r on t h e b a s i s o f a v e r a g e f a m i l y income and l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . The c o v e r i n g l e t t e r b r i e f l y e x p l a i n e d t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t u d y and i n d i c a t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y . A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e - f i f t h s o f t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s r e q u e s t e d t h a t an a d u l t male (21 y e a r s o r o v e r ) c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h e r e m a i n d e r a s k e d t h a t an a d u l t f e m a l e (21 y e a r s o r o v e r ) c o m p l e t e i t . M a l e s were o v e r s a m p l e d s i n c e women have been shown t o be more l i k e l y t h a n men t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n v o l u n t e e r s t u d i e s ( D a v i s & Todd, 1981; R o s e n t h a l & Rosnow, 1975). R e s p o n d e n t s were a d v i s e d t h a t i f no a d u l t i n t h e h o u s e h o l d f i t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e o l d e s t male o r f e m a l e s h o u l d c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were numbered and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d w i t h a d d r e s s e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e weeks a f t e r t h e f i r s t m a i l i n g a d d r e s s e s n o t r e s p o n d i n g r e c e i v e d a f o l l o w - u p c a r d ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) . One month l a t e r 74 a d d r e s s e s , w h i c h had n o t r e s p o n d e d , and w h i c h had o r i g i n a l l y r e c e i v e d a r e q u e s t f o r a 21 male t o p a r t i c i p a t e , r e c e i v e d a s e c o n d f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x C) and a c o p y of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e 74 a d d r e s s e s was made on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c p r o x i m i t y t o one a n o t h e r and e a s e o f a c c e s s . From t h e 494 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e l i v e r e d i n t h e f i r s t r o u n d and t h e 74 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e i s s u e d t o a male s u b s a m p l e , 120 2 (24%) were r e t u r n e d . One h u n d r e d and one q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (62 f e m a l e , 39 male) were u s a b l e , 12 were s p o i l e d , and 7 were r e t u r n e d u n a n s wered. The main p r o b l e m w i t h s p o i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was m i s s i n g d a t a on one or more s c a l e s m e a s u r i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t a n d / o r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . S u b j e c t s R e s p o n d e n t s ' mean age was 39.5 ( m a l e s = 40.9, f e m a l e s 38.5) w i t h a r a n g e f r o m 20 t o 76 y e a r s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y -f i v e p e r c e n t of a l l r e s p o n d e n t s were m a r r i e d o r c o h a b i t i n g (48.7% o f a l l m a l e s and 58.1% o f a l l f e m a l e s f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y ) ; 24.8% o f t h e sample were s i n g l e ( 3 5 . 9 % o f t h e m a l e s , 17.7% o f t h e f e m a l e s ) and 20.8% were e i t h e r s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d , o r widowed (15.4% o f t h e m a l e s , 24.2% o f t h e f e m a l e s ) . F o r t y - s i x and a h a l f p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had no c h i l d r e n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 25% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had a n n u a l f a m i l y incomes o f $20,000 or l e s s , 44.5% had a n n u a l f a m i l y incomes between $21,000 and $40,000 and 30.7% were o v e r $40,000. The a v e r a g e income f o r f a m i l i e s i n t h e c i t y as a 22 whole i s j u s t o v e r $32,000 ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983). S l i g h t l y o v e r f i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had some u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n ( 5 1 . 3 % o f t h e m a l e s , 62.9% o f t h e f e m a l e s ) . T h e s e f i g u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e 18% f o r t h e c i t y a s a whole, and t h e 25% f o r t h e two sampled c e n s u s t r a c t s ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983). M a t e r i a l s The F r i e n d s h i p Q u e s t i o n n a i r e employed i n t h i s s t u d y was composed of a s e r i e s o f p e n c i l - a n d - p a p e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e F r i e n d s h i p Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u e s t s b a c k g r o u n d and d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s u b j e c t s ' age, s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , income, and o c c u p a t i o n . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e number and q u a l i t y o f s u b j e c t s ' same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h f r i e n d s , and s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f r i e n d s h i p s . The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n n a i r e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s c a l e s . Two of t h e s e s c a l e s measure t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and sex s t e r e o t y p i n g , t h e t h i r d s c a l e i s i n c l u d e d as a " f i l l e r " and m e a s u r e s l o n e l i n e s s . Q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p was measured by a s k i n g s u b j e c t s t o i n d i c a t e on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e , once f o r a same-sex f r i e n d s h i p and once f o r a c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p , how o f t e n ( l = n e v e r t o 5=always) t h e y e x p e r i e n c e e i g h t t y p e s o f f r i e n d s h i p i n t e r a c t i o n . F o u r of t h e e i g h t i n t e r a c t i o n s t a t e m e n t s d e r i v e 23 from L a G a i p a ' s ( 1 9 7 7 ) r e s e a r c h on f r i e n d s h i p . Items from h i s F r i e n d s h i p E x p e c t a n c y I n v e n t o r y were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d t o d e v e l o p an o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a l e (D. P e r l m a n , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 4 , 1 9 8 5 ) . The r e s u l t i n g s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 4 3 u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n a p i l o t s t u d y I c o n d u c t e d . S t u d e n t s f i r s t r a t e d a c l o s e same-sex f r i e n d u s i n g t h e s c a l e , and t h e n a c l o s e o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d . I t e m - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were u s e d t o s e l e c t f o u r s t a t e m e n t s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e q u a l i t y of same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p m e a s u r e s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I t e m - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e f o u r i t e m s r a n g e d f r o m . 7 0 t o . 7 9 on t h e same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s c a l e , and i 7 2 t o . 8 5 on t h e c r o s s - s e x s c a l e . A t y p i c a l s t a t e m e n t i s "I f e e l f r e e t o e x p r e s s my most i n n e r p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s t o my f r i e n d " . A l l f o u r s t a t e m e n t s were j u d g e d t o t a p o n l y e x p r e s s i v e a s p e c t s o f f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e s . F o u r a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s were d e v e l o p e d t o r e p r e s e n t i n s t r u m e n t a l f r i e n d s h i p b e h a v i o r s . T hese i t e m s were s e l e c t e d f r o m s e v e n s t a t e m e n t s s u b m i t t e d t o a p a n e l o f j u d g e s who r a t e d them on t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y r e f l e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t a l b e h a v i o r s , and t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h they, were l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n a f r i e n d s h i p . The f o u r i t e m s r a t e d h i g h e s t on i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y , w h i c h a l s o r e c e i v e d h i g h r a t i n g s on f r e q u e n c y , were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f r i e n d s h i p e x p e r i e n c e s q u e s t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y . An example o f one o f t h e 24 f o u r i t e m s i s , "I c a n a s k my f r i e n d f o r a d v i c e on m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g my p r e s e n t j o b s i t u a t i o n o r my f u t u r e work o r r e t i r e m e n t p l a n s " . The f i n a l e i g h t - i t e m s c a l e s ( f o u r e x p r e s s i v e and f o u r i n s t r u m e n t a l i t e m s f o r e a c h o f same-sex a n d o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s ) were p r e t e s t e d on a sample o f t w e n t y - e i g h t u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . I t e m - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e f o u r e x p r e s s i v e i t e m s r a n g e d f r o m .48 t o .77 f o r t h e same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s c a l e , and .77 t o .84 f o r t h e c r o s s - s e x s c a l e . C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e f o u r i n s t r u m e n t a l i t e m s r a n g e d from .41 t o .77 f o r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s and .70 t o .91 f o r c r o s s - s e x . T e s t - r e t e s t d a t a from t h e same sample gave c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f .81 f o r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s and .89 f o r c r o s s - s e x . H i g h s c o r e s a c r o s s t h e e i g h t - i t e m s c a l e i n d i c a t e h i g h q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e two q u a l i t y q u e s t i o n s , s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e how c l o s e t h e y f e e l t o t h e same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e q u a l i t y m easure. T h i s s i n g l e - i t e m s c a l e r a n g e s from 1 ( n o t a t a l l c l o s e ) t o 5 ( e x t r e m e l y c l o s e ) w i t h h i g h s c o r e s r e f l e c t i n g h i g h q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s . F i n a l l y , s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p . The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s were s c a l e d so t h a t one i n d i c a t e s low f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n and f i v e h i g h f r e q u e n c y . H i g h s c o r e s r e f l e c t h i g h l e v e l s o f i n t e r a c t i o n . 25 A c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x ( s e e A p p e n d i x D) was c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e e i g h t - i t e m q u a l i t y s c a l e , t h e c l o s e n e s s i t e m s , and t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n i t e m s . C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r q u a l i t y and c l o s e n e s s were .65 f o r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s and .72 f o r c r o s s - s e x . F r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n c o r r e l a t e d o n l y .30 w i t h q u a l i t y of same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s and .35 w i t h q u a l i t y o f c r o s s -sex f r i e n d s h i p s ( a l l p v a l u e s <.001). As a r e s u l t , t h e s i n g l e i t e m c l o s e n e s s measure was c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e e i g h t - i t e m q u a l i t y s c a l e t o c r e a t e o v e r a l l q u a l i t y s c a l e s f o r same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . The f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n i t e m s were t r e a t e d a s s e p a r a t e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s . The median i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e f i n a l n i n e - i t e m q u a l i t y s c a l e s were .41 f o r same-sex and .47 f o r c r o s s - s e x . A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f r i e n d s h i p s were measured w i t h a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s s t u d y t o t a p t h e e v a l u a t i v e component o f a t t i t u d e s . A s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e (Osgood, S u c i & Tannenbaum, 1957) u s i n g e i g h t a d j e c t i v e p a i r s r e l a t e d t o e v a l u a t i o n s o f f r i e n d s h i p s was e m p l o y e d once f o r same-sex and once f o r c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r a t e e a c h a d j e c t i v e p a i r on a s e v e n - p o i n t s c a l e . To r e d u c e r e s p o n s e b i a s , f o u r o f t h e a d j e c t i v e p a i r s were r e v e r s e d so t h a t t h e " p o s i t i v e " a d j e c t i v e was a t t h e l e f t end of t h e s c a l e . S c o r e s f o r t h e s e f o u r i t e m s were l a t e r r e v e r s e d . H i g h s c o r e s o v e r a l l e i g h t i t e m s r e f l e c t p o s i t i v e 26 a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e f r i e n d s h i p . F o u r o f t h e e i g h t a d j e c t i v e p a i r s s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y were b a s e d on f r i e n d s h i p r e s e a r c h by D a v i s and Todd ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e i r work i n v o l v e d i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and q u a l i t i e s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e f r i e n d s h i p s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The c o n c e p t s o f i n t i m a c y , a c c e p t a n c e , s t a b i l i t y , and e n j o y m e n t were f o u n d t o be some of t h e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f f r i e n d s h i p s . T h ese c o n c e p t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by f o u r o f t h e a d j e c t i v e p a i r s . The o t h e r f o u r p a i r s of words were u s e d by Tannenbaum (1966) i n a s t u d y on a t t i t u d e c h a n g e . He f o u n d t h e f o u r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s t o be a r e l i a b l e measure o f s u b j e c t s ' e v a l u a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g methods. An example o f one o f t h e e v a l u a t i v e p a i r s i s s u c c e s s f u l - u n s u c c e s s f u l . T e s t -r e t e s t d a t a on t h e e i g h t - i t e m s c a l e s t a k e n o v e r a p e r i o d o f two weeks y i e l d e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f .84 f o r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s and .78 f o r o p p o s i t e - s e x . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i t e m - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s on t h e two 8 - i t e m e v a l u a t i o n s c a l e s i n d i c a t e d a weakness i n i t e m one ( i n t i m a t e — n o n - i n t i m a t e ) f o r b o t h s c a l e s ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) . T h i s i t e m was d r o p p e d i n s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s e s . Median i n t e r -i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s on t h e f i n a l s e v e n - i t e m s c a l e were .67 f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s , and .53 f o r c r o s s - s e x . S u b j e c t s were a s k e d two a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t a p a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . On a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e f r o m 1 ( n o t a t a l l a c c e p t a b l e ) t o 5 27 ( c o m p l e t e l y a c c e p t a b l e ) s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y of o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , f i r s t f o r t h e m s e l v e s , and t h e n f o r t h e i r s p o u s e . ( I f t h e s u b j e c t had no s p o u s e he o r she was a s k e d t o answer a s i f he or she d i d have a s p o u s e . ) The two i t e m s c o r r e l a t e d .79 w i t h e a c h o t h e r and were com b i n e d t o f o r m a s e p a r a t e s i n g l e i t e m i n d i c a t o r o f s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n . S e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n was measured u s i n g t h e s h o r t f o r m Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (BSRI) (Bern, 1981). S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r a t e on a s c a l e of 1 ( n e v e r o r a l m o s t n e v e r t r u e ) t o 7 ( a l w a y s o r a l m o s t a l w a y s t r u e ) t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h 10 m a s c u l i n e , 10 f e m i n i n e , and 10 n e u t r a l t r a i t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s e l f d e s c r i p t i v e . M a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by Bern as two i n d e p e n d e n t d i m e n s i o n s . As a r e s u l t , t h e BSRI was d e s i g n e d t o be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y p e o p l e who p o s s e s s b o t h s e t s o f t r a i t s . E m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y i s p r o v i d e d by t h e low, and non s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e two s c a l e s . I n a 1973 s t u d y t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r a sample o f 279 f e m a l e s was .10 and f o r 444 m a l e s , .33. A 1978 s t u d y showed c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e two s c a l e s o f .19 and .12 f o r 340 f e m a l e s and 476 m a l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y (Bern, 1981). In t h i s s t u d y m a s c u l i n i t y c o r r e l a t e d .24 (p>.05) w i t h f e m i n i n i t y f o r m a l e s and .11 (p>.20) f o r 28 f e m a l e s . The a b i l i t y o f t h e BSRI t o measure m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y i n d e p e n d e n t l y makes i t a p r e f e r r e d s c a l e . Items f o r t h e s h o r t f o r m BSRI were s e l e c t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f b o t h t h e m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y s c a l e s , and t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e were i m p r o v e d o v e r t h a t o f t h e o r i g i n a l s c a l e v e r s i o n (Bern, 1981). I t e m - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r b o t h s c a l e s were u s e d t o i d e n t i f y i t e m s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h were t h e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e s h o r t f o r m . C o r r e l a t i o n s on t h e f e m i n i n e s c a l e i t e m s r a n g e d from .37 t o .65, w h i l e m a s c u l i n e i t e m s r a n g e d from .43 t o .64. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a f r o m a sample o f 28 m a l e s and 28 f e m a l e s , a d m i n i s t e r e d f o u r weeks a p a r t , gave r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s r a n g i n g from .76 t o .91 (Bern, 1981). A c o n t r o v e r s y e x i s t s o v e r t h e b e s t method f o r s c o r i n g t h e BSRI ( s e e S p e n c e , H e l m r i c h & S t a p p , 1975; S t r a h a n , 1975; Bern, 1974, 1977). O r i g i n a l l y Bern (1974) employed a d i f f e r e n c e < s c o r e t e c h n i q u e t o c l a s s i f y s u b j e c t s a s s e x - t y p e d m a s c u l i n e , s e x - t y p e d f e m i n i n e , o r a n d r o g y n o u s . S c o r i n g was done u s i n g S t u d e n t ' s t r a t i o t o a s s e s s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a p e r s o n ' s e n d o r s e m e n t o f f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e i t e m s on t h e BSRI. U s i n g t h i s method o f s c o r i n g , p e o p l e w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h e m a s c u l i n e s c a l e were c l a s s i f i e d s e x - t y p e d m a s c u l i n e , t h o s e w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h e f e m i n i n e s c a l e were c l a s s i f i e d s e x - t y p e d f e m i n i n e , and a l l s u b j e c t s w i t h e q u a l o r s i m i l a r s c o r e s on b o t h s c a l e s were 29 l a b e l e d a n d r o g y n o u s . Spence, H e l m r e i c h , and S t a p p (1975) p o i n t e d out t h e f a i l u r e of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e p r o c e d u r e t o s e p a r a t e p e o p l e s c o r i n g low on b o t h m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s c a l e s f r o m t h o s e s c o r i n g h i g h on b o t h . They c l a i m e d t h a t low s c o r e r s , a l t h o u g h g i v i n g e q u a l e n d o r s e m e n t t o b o t h s e t s of t r a i t s , were n o t e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e h i g h s c o r e r s and s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be p l a c e d i n a f o u r t h c a t e g o r y w h i c h t h e y c a l l e d u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a f o u r - f o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m — s e x - t y p e d m a s c u l i n e , s e x - t y p e d f e m i n i n e , a n d r o g y n o u s , and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d — s c o r e s f o r t h e m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s u b s c a l e s a r e compared t o t h e median s c o r e f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . S u b j e c t s whose m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s c o r e s a r e b o t h above t h e median a r e c l a s s i f i e d a n d r o g y n o u s , t h o s e w i t h b o t h s c o r e s below t h e median u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , and t h o s e w i t h one s c o r e above and one below, s e x - t y p e d m a s c u l i n e or f e m i n i n e . Spence, H e l m r e i c h and S t a p p (1975) p r o v i d e a s t r o n g t h e o r e t i c a l argument f o r i n c l u d i n g t h e c a t e g o r y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n r e s e a r c h . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e median s p l i t s c o r i n g method w i l l be u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g . A measure o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g was d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l m e a s u r e s o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g e x i s t ( s e e B e e r e , 1979) none was 30 f o u n d s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . S e v e r a l of t h e s c a l e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y f o r c h i l d r e n , and t h e m a j o r i t y o f mea s u r e s a s s e s s s u b j e c t s ' knowledge a b o u t t h e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , o r o c c u p a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h g e n d e r ( B e e r e , 1979). In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y I am n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s e s s i n g knowledge a b o u t c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d sex s t e r e o t y p e s b u t r a t h e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e s i m i l a r i t y o r d i s s i m i l a r i t y between m a l e s and f e m a l e s . The t w o - p a r t s t e r e o t y p i n g measure u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y u s e s t h e same i t e m s and s c a l e a s i n BSRI. S u b j e c t s a r e a s k e d f i r s t t o r a t e women on e a c h i t e m and s e c o n d t o r a t e men. Items i n t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g s c a l e were r a n d o m l y o r d e r e d i n a d i f f e r e n t s e q u e n c e t h a n i n t h e BSRI and were s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e BSRI by a " f i l l e r " s c a l e on l o n e l i n e s s . S c o r e s were c a l c l u a t e d by t a k i n g t h e a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e of t h e r a t i n g g i v e n t o women and men on e a c h i t e m . A s c o r e o f z e r o s u g g e s t s an a b s e n c e o f s t e r e o t y p i n g ( t h e s u b j e c t does n o t see any d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women), w h i l e a h i g h s c o r e r e f l e c t s a sex s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n . S c o r e s c a n r a n g e from a low o f z e r o t o a h i g h o f 180. A l t h o u g h t h e s t e r e o t y p e measure i s b e l i e v e d t o have f a c e v a l i d i t y , no o t h e r v a l i d i t y o r r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a have been o b t a i n e d . 31 RESULTS S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n and Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g To t e s t f o r r e l a t e d n e s s of t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and sex s t e r e o t y p i n g , a P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l m a s c u l i n i t y , f e m i n i n i t y , and s t e r e o t y p i n g s c o r e s . In a d d i t i o n , a 2 x 3 a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , w i t h g e n d e r and s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n ( a n d r o g y n y , sex t y p e d , u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ) as between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s and s t e r e o t y p i n g a s t h e d e p e n d e n t f a c t o r , was c a l c u l a t e d . F e m i n i n i t y c o r r e l a t e d -.04 w i t h l e v e l of s t e r e o t y p i n g and m a s c u l i n i t y -.11, p_ > « 2 . The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e showed no s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s . Mean s t e r e o t y p i n g s c o r e s f o r sex t y p e d , a n d r o g y n o u s , and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s were 29.9, 30.8 and 31.0 r e s p e c t i v e l y , F ( 2,76)=.04, p>.10. F o r a l l s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s e s , sex t y p i n g and l e v e l o f s t e r e o t y p i n g were t r e a t e d as o r t h o g o n a l . The o v e r a l l r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m was a r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e u s i n g a 2 x 3 x 2 x 2 d e s i g n w i t h sex o f s u b j e c t , s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n (sex t y p e d , a n d r o g y n o u s , u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ) , and l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g ( l o w , h i g h ) as between s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e s , and t y p e of f r i e n d s h i p (same-s e x , c r o s s - s e x ) as t h e w i t h i n f a c t o r . T h i s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e two main d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , q u a l i t y o f same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , and e v a l u a t i o n s of same-and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . As n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e f r e q u e n c y 32 of i n t e r a c t i o n i t e m s d i d not c o r r e l a t e s t r o n g l y w i t h t h e q u a l i t y m e a s u r e s . T h e r e f o r e , f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d as a s e p a r a t e d e p e n d e n t measure and was a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e r e p e a t e d m e asures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e d e s i g n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . An a d d i t i o n a l d e p e n d e n t measure c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y was a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . T h i s i t e m was a s k e d o n l y a b o u t c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s and was t h e r e f o r e not i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h t h e e v a l u a t i o n s c a l e s i n c e t h i s w o u l d have c r e a t e d an 8 - i t e m s c a l e f o r c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s and a 7 - i t e m s c a l e f o r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y i t e m and t h e two e v a l u a t i o n s c a l e s were .16 (p_>.05) f o r same-sex, and .31 (p_<.0l) f o r c r o s s - s e x . A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s was a n a l y z e d u s i n g a 2 x 3 x 2 a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h sex of s u b j e c t , s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and l e v e l o f s t e r e o t y p i n g a s between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s . S e x - r o l e O r i e n t a t i o n and F r i e n d s h i p s T a b l e I p r e s e n t s f i n d i n g s f o r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s on e a c h d e p e n d e n t measure. As p r e d i c t e d , t h e r e was a s t r o n g s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n main e f f e c t on q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s , F ( 2 , 5 5 ) = 8 . 5 3 , 2 < • 0 1 • T u k e y ' s HSD m u l t i v a r i a t e c o m p a r i s o n s t e s t (P=.05) showed a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r q u a l i t y s c o r e s t h a n sex t y p e d and 33 u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d (M=4.05, 3.62, 3.34 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The sex-typed and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each other on q u a l i t y s c o r e s . A s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n main e f f e c t was a l s o found f o r frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n , F(2,61)=4.21, p<.05. Based on Tukey's comparisons, androgynous persons i n t e r a c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more with t h e i r f r i e n d s (M=3.07) than sex-typed (M=2.13). U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the other two groups. Although no p r e d i c t i o n s were made f o r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s on e v a l u a t i o n s of f r i e n d s h i p s , a main e f f e c t was o b t a i n e d , F(2,60)=4.56, p>.05. Tukey-HSD post-hoc a n a l y s i s (p_=.05) showed androgynous persons d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from sex-typed i n t h e i r o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n s of f r i e n d s h i p s (M=6.61 f o r androgynous and 6.09 f o r sex-typed). No other groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other on e v a l u a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s . R e s u l t s from the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y of c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s showed a main e f f e c t f o r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , F(2 ,72) =3 . 59, p_<.05. No two groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t u s i n g Tukey-HSD a n a l y s i s . A c c o r d i n g l y , Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t was used with alpha set to .05. Duncan's post-hoc comparison t e s t i s a s l i g h t l y l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e t e s t than the Tukey. T h i s subsequent 34 T a b l e I . Mean S c o r e s on Dependent M e a s u r e s by S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n SRO Measure S e x t A n d r o U n d i f f "Mean S q s . F R a t i o Q u a l i t y 3. 62 4. 05 3. 34 5.85 (2,55)=8.53* F r e q u e n c y 2. 13 3. 07 2. 27 9.36 (2,61)=4.21* E v a l u a t i o n 6. 09 6. 61 6. 21 3.70 (2,60)=4.56* A c c e p t a b i l i t y 4. 00 4. 65 3. 98 3.75 (2,72)=3.59* N o t e . * 2 < ' ° 5 T a b l e I I . Mean S c o r e s on Dependent M e a s u r e s by L e v e l o f Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g S t e r e o t y p i n g M e asure Low H i g h Mean S q s . F R a t i o Q u a l i t y 3.84 3. 56 1. 08 (1.55)=1 .57 F r e q u e n c y 2.38 2. 67 4. 32 (1,61)=1 .95 E v a l u a t i o n 6.30 6. 35 • 1 7 (1,60)= .21 A c c e p t a b i l i t y 4.45 4. 04 3. 1 1 (1,72)=2 .98 N o t e . None o f t h e above F v a l u e s were s i g n i f i c a n t . 35 a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a n d r o g y n o u s g r o u p were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c c e p t i n g o f c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s (M=4.65) compared w i t h t h e s e x - t y p e d (M=4.00) and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d g r o u p s (M=3.98). The s e x - t y p e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m one a n o t h e r . Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g and F r i e n d s h i p s R e s u l t s f o r l e v e l of sex s t e r e o t y p i n g on f r i e n d s h i p outcomes a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I I . No s u p p o r t was f o u n d f o r p r e d i c t i o n s o f s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s on q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s , F(1,55)=1.57,p>.10. Mean q u a l i t y s c o r e s were 3.84 f o r low s t e r e o t y p e d a d u l t s compared w i t h 3.56 f o r h i g h s t e r e o t y p e d a d u l t s . No s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s were o b t a i n e d f o r f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n f r i e n d s h i p s , F(1 , 61) = 1.95, p_>.l0, nor f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p s , ' F ( 1 , 6 0 ) = . 2 1 , p > . l 0 . A non-s i g n i f i c a n t s t e r e o t y p i n g t r e n d was f o u n d f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , F ( 1 , 7 2 ) = 2 . 9 8 , £ < . 1 0 . Low s e x -s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s had more a c c e p t i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o p p o s s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r s p o u s e (M=4.45) t h a n d i d h i g h s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s (M=4.04). O t h e r outcomes As p r e d i c t e d , a main e f f e c t f o r t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p on q u a l i t y was f o u n d . Same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s on q u a l i t y (M=3.99) compared w i t h c r o s s - s e x (M=3.41), F(1,55)=33.24, p < . 0 l ) . T h i s t r e n d was 36 not f o u n d f o r f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n F ( 1 , 6 1 ) = . 7 7 , p>.10. F r e q u e n c y of i n t e r a c t i o n i n same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m f r e q u e n c y i n c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s (M=2.64 and 2.43 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r t y p e of f r i e n d s h i p on e v a l u a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s was f o u n d , F(1 ,60)=3.31 , 2<.10. Same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s were e v a l u a t e d more p o s i t i v e l y (M=6.42) t h a n c r o s s - s e x (M=6.24). (See T a b l e I I I ) . A sex o f s u b j e c t by t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p i n t e r a c t i o n on q u a l i t y was a l s o f o u n d , F(1 ,55) = 1 .57, p_<.05. (See T a b l e I V ) . However, p o s t - h o c a n a l y s i s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between g e n d e r g r o u p s a t t h e .05 l e v e l . F e m a l e s r a t e d t h e i r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n m a l e s (M=4.05 and 3.88 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and mean q u a l i t y s c o r e s f o r t h e two g r o u p s were e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same on c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s (M=3.36 f o r f e m a l e s u b j e c t s , 3.49 f o r m a l e s ) . T a b l e s showing t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on q u a l i t y , f r e q u e n c y and e v a l u a t i o n , and t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x F. 37 T a b l e I I I . Type o f F r i e n d s h i p M a i n E f f e c t s on Q u a l i t y , F r e q u e n c y and E v a l u a t i o n o f F r i e n d s h i p s Type of F r i e n d s h i p Measure Same-Sex C r o s s - S e x Mean S q s . F R a t i o Q u a l i t y 3.99 3.41 8.14 (1,55)=33. 24* F r e q u e n c y 2.64 2.43 1 .07 (1,61)= . 77 E v a l u a t i o n 6.42 6.24 .97 (1,60)= 3. 31 N o t e . *p = .001, a l l o t h e r F v a l u e s were non-s i g n i f i c a n t T a b l e IV. Q u a l i t y S c o r e s f o r Type o f F r i e n d s h i p X Sex o f Re s p o n d e n t I n t e r a c t i o n T y pe o f F r i e n d s h i p Same-Sex C r o s s - S e x F e m a l e s M a l e s F e m a l e s M a l e s Mean S q s . F R a t i o 4.05 3.88 3.36 3.49 1.09 (1,55)=4.43* N o t e . * p_<.05 38 I n summary, h y p o t h e s e s 1 and 2 were s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e d a t a . Same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s were r a t e d h i g h e r i n q u a l i t y t h a n c r o s s - s e x , and a n d r o g y n y was r e l a t e d t o h i g h e r q u a l i t y s c o r e s . The p r e d i c t i o n t h a t s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s would have h i g h e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s t h a n u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( h y p o t h e s i s 2.2) was n o t s u p p o r t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 5 o b t a i n e d modest s u p p o r t (p_<.05), w i t h same- sex f r i e n d s h i p s r e c e i v i n g h i g h e r e v a l u a t i o n s (M=6.42) t h a n c r o s s - s e x (M=6.23). The d a t a d i d not s u p p o r t s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s on q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s ( h y p o t h e s e s 3 and 4 ) , n o r s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s on e v a l u a t i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p s ( h y p o t h e s e s 6 and 7 ) . 39 DISCUSSION S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n and F r i e n d s h i p s R e s u l t s f o r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s were s t r o n g and c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s t h r e e o f t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s — q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s , f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p s . The s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y of c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s a l s o s u p p o r t e d a s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t . A n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d h i g h e r q u a l i t y i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s , e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h e r l e v e l s of i n t e r a c t i o n , and e v a l u a t e d f r i e n d s h i p s more p o s i t i v e l y t h a n s e x - t y p e d m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e p e r s o n s . The a n d r o g y n o u s g r o u p a l s o t e n d e d t o be more a c c e p t i n g o f o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r s p o u s e s compared w i t h t h e s e x - t y p e d g r o u p . The s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s r e f l e c t i n g t h e g r e a t e r b e h a v i o r a l f l e x i b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n d r o g y n y . A n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s a r e d e f i n e d a s h a v i n g a r a n g e o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s b o t h a m a s c u l i n e / i n s t r u m e n t a l and a f e m i n i n e / e x p r e s s i v e d i m e n s i o n . T h i s a l l o w s t h e a n d r o g y n o u s p e r s o n t o be b e t t e r a b l e t o r e s p o n d a p p r o p r i a t e l y and w i t h e a s e i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s . In c o n t r a s t , s e x - t y p e d p e r s o n s a r e d e f i n e d a s h a v i n g i n t e r n a l i z e d o n l y e x p r e s s i v e t r a i t s o r o n l y m a s c u l i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t may demand q u a l i t i e s i n 40 w h i c h t h e y a r e d e f i c i e n t . A n d r o g y n y has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r b e h a v i o r a l f l e x i b i l i t y on b o t h an i n d i v i d u a l , and i n t e r a c t i o n a l l e v e l ( s e e Spence & H e l m r e i c h , 1978 f o r a r e v i e w ) . Bakan (1966) a r g u e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y s u f f e r i f i n s t r u m e n t a l o r e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e o t h e r . A r e v i e w o f r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e by Maccoby (1966) p r o v i d e s s u p p o r t f o r t h i s c l a i m a t t h e l e v e l of t h e i n d i v i d u a l . In a d d i t i o n , a n d r o g y n o u s p e r s o n s have been f o u n d t o p e r f o r m c r o s s - s e x t a s k s w i t h r e l a t i v e e a s e (Bern & L e n n e y , 1976), and t o d i s p l a y b o t h a " m a s c u l i n e " and " f e m i n i n e " s i d e of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s (Bern, 1975; Bern, M a r t y n a & Watson, 1976). On an i n t e r a c t i o n a l l e v e l , d y a ds composed o f a t l e a s t one a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l h a v e been shown t o have more s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s and h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n t e r a c t i o n t h a n d y a ds w i t h no a n d r o g y n o u s members ( I c k e s & B a r n e s , 1978; I c k e s , Schermer & S t e e n o , 1979; Lamke & B e l l , 1982). The p r e s e n t s t u d y l e n d s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o t h e t h e s i s t h a t a n d r o g y n y e n c o u r a g e s maximal f u n c t i o n i n g i n a s o c i a l s y s t e m . A n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s had b e t t e r q u a l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a n e i t h e r s e x - t y p e d o r u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . In a d d i t i o n , p e o p l e who s c o r e d a s a n d r o g y n o u s i n t e r a c t e d more w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s t h a n p e o p l e who s c o r e d a s s e x - t y p e d . 41 I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t i t i s a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y e f f e c t , n o t a s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t , t h a t e x p l a i n s t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The 3 0 - i t e m BSRI s c a l e t a p s o n l y s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P e o p l e who e n d o r s e b o t h m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e q u a l i t i e s f r o m t h e s c a l e may n o t a c t u a l l y be a n d r o g y n o u s b ut may s i m p l y be r e s p o n d i n g i n a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e manner. In o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n a oneway a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e t h r e e s e x -r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n g r o u p s u s i n g s c o r e s f o r t h e 10 n e u t r a l ( n e i t h e r f e m i n i n e nor m a s c u l i n e ) BSRI i t e m s . I f a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y e f f e c t was o p e r a t i n g , i n d i v i d u a l s who s c o r e d as a n d r o g y n o u s s h o u l d have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r n e u t r a l - i t e m s c o r e s compared w i t h s e x - t y p e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . The a n a l y s i s showed a main e f f e c t f o r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n on n e u t r a l s c o r e s , F ( 2 , 7 9 ) = 12.10 , £ < . 0 1 , however, T u k e y ' s c o m p a r i s o n s (p_=.05) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a n d r o g y n o u s and s e x - t y p e d g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e a c h o t h e r (M=6.04 and 6.06 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The two g r o u p s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d (M=5.46) on n e u t r a l s c o r e s . W h i l e t h i s a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a f a c t o r ( s i n c e a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s d i d n o t s c o r e h i g h e r on n e u t r a l i t e m s compared w i t h s e x - t y p e d ) , i t does n o t e n t i r e l y r u l e o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y . N e u t r a l s c o r e s 42 f o r a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s were s t i l l h i g h . A s e c o n d a n a l y s i s was t h e r e f o r e done t o d e t e r m i n e i f a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r i e n d s t h a n t h e o t h e r s e x -r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n g r o u p s . B e c a u s e h a v i n g f r i e n d s i s r e g a r d e d as a g o od t h i n g , i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n d i n g i n s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e ways m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o i n f l a t e t h e number of f r i e n d s t h e y r e p o r t . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s on number of f r i e n d s . In f a c t , a l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n c e s were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , i t was t h e s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s , n o t t h e a n d r o g y n o u s , who r e p o r t e d t h e h i g h e s t number of f r i e n d s (M=11.08 compared w i t h 9.14). B a s e d on t h e above a n a l y s e s a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y r e s p o n s e b i a s was r u l e d o u t . D a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who p o s s e s s h i g h and e q u a l l e v e l s o f i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s ( a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s ) e x p e r i e n c e h i g h e r q u a l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s . The f a c t t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n was s t r o n g i n t h e s t u d y of f r i e n d s h i p s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e f f e c t s a r e q u i t e p o w e r f u l . T r a d i t i o n a l s t u d y d e s i g n s , w h i c h use s h o r t , s t r u c t u r e d s e t t i n g s t o examine t h e i m p a c t o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , have been c r i t i c i z e d b e c a u s e t h e y v i r t u a l l y i n s u r e t h a t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s w i l l be f o u n d ( I c k e s , 1 9 8 1 ) . The argument i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s r e l y o n l y on 43 w e l l - l e a r n e d b e h a v i o r s when t h e y a r e i n u n f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g s w i t h s t r a n g e r s . F o r s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s t h i s w o u l d mean a l i m i t e d r a n g e o f b e h a v i o r s . As a r e s u l t s i g n i f i c a n t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d i n s t u d i e s u s i n g b r i e f e n c o u n t e r s between s t r a n g e r s . To c o u n t e r a c t t h i s p r o b l e m I c k e s (1981) u s e d a d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d o l o g y t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s and had i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r a c t i n u n s t r u c t u r e d s e t t i n g s o v e r a p e r i o d o f 5 m i n u t e s . Lamke and B e l l (1982) e x t e n d e d t h e I c k e s ' p a r a d i g m t o two 5-minute m e e t i n g s , and one 10-minute m e e t i n g f o r a t o t a l o f 20 m i n u t e s . Even o v e r t h e s e e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s t r o n g s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s were d e t e c t e d . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e x t e n d s f u r t h e r t h e b o u n d a r i e s and c o n d i t i o n s u nder w h i c h i n t e r a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , and t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e s a more r o b u s t t e s t f o r sex t y p i n g e f f e c t s . The v e r y n a t u r e of a f r i e n d s h i p i n w h i c h a c t o r s have a h i s t o r y o f s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e s e n c o u r a g e s p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be f l u i d i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s . Where s t r a n g e r s m i g h t t e n d t o assume r i g i d l y d e f i n e d r o l e s v i s a v i s one a n o t h e r , f r i e n d s a r e f r e e t o e x p r e s s a f u l l r a n g e o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( D a v i s & Todd, 1985). F o r s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s t h i s m i g h t mean t h e l e s s d e v e l o p e d q u a l i t i e s o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n w ould be e x p r e s s e d . Any e f f e c t o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f r i e n d s h i p s on q u a l i t y may be m i n i m i z e d , t h e r e f o r e , by t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( t h e f r i e n d s h i p ) 44 i t s e l f . The f a c t t h a t t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e x e r t s a" s t r o n g f o r c e on i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . S e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s were u n e x p e c t e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n s o f f r i e n d s h i p s , but r e s u l t s showed a n d r o g y n o u s i n d i v i d u a l s r a t e d f r i e n d s h i p s more p o s i t i v e l y t h a n d i d s e x -t y p e d , and were more a c c e p t i n g of c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r s p o u s e s . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t sex s t e r e o t y p e s ( c o g n i t i o n s ) n o t s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s ( b e h a v i o r a l s t y l e s ) w o u l d i n f l u e n c e e v a l u a t i o n s of same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s p r e d i c t i o n r e l a t e d t o s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s as p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . B e c a u s e t h e d i f f e r e n t s e x - r o l e s t r a n s l a t e i n t o d i s t i n c t s t y l e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n , i t was e x p e c t e d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w o u l d be on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e a c t u a l f r i e n d s h i p and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e f r i e n d s h i p . E v a l u a t i o n s w h i c h d e r i v e f r o m c o g n i t i o n s a b o u t a t a r g e t o b j e c t were e x p e c t e d t o be i n f l u e n c e d by l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g n o t by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In l i g h t of t h e main e f f e c t s f o u n d f o r sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n on e v a l u a t i o n s f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l t h e o r e t i c a l model was r e q u i r e d . To r e v i e w t h e model, sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n was p r e d i c t e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e q u a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s own f r i e n d s h i p s t h r o u g h 45 d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a p a c i t i e s f o r s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . Sex s t e r e o t y p i n g was p r e d i c t e d t o i n f l u e n c e b o t h t h e q u a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s own f r i e n d s h i p s and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e c o n c e p t s same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p t h r o u g h i t s e f f e c t on c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g . I t a p p e a r s l i k e l y , however, t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e s a p e r s o n has i n h i s o r h e r a c t u a l same- and c r o s s -sex f r i e n d s h i p s would i n f l u e n c e how t h e y would e v a l u a t e same-and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s i n g e n e r a l . The i n f l u e n c e , t h e n , o f s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s on e v a l u a t i o n s o f same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s i s t h r o u g h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n a c t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s . An u n e x p e c t e d p a t t e r n emerged i n t h e a n a l y s e s w i t h s e x -r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e s e x - t y p e d would have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r q u a l i t y f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( h y p o t h e s i s 2 . 2 ) . T h i s , however, was n o t t h e c a s e . The u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e s e x - t y p e d on q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s , and t h e y d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e i t h e r t h e s e x - t y p e d o r a n d r o g y n o u s on f r e q u e n c y of i n t e r a c t i o n . U s i n g t h e argument t h a t t h e t h r e e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t c a p a c i t i e s t o i n t e r a c t i n a s o c i a l e x c h a n g e , t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , who a r e d e f i n e d by r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s , s h o u l d be t h e l e a s t " s u c c e s s f u l " i n t h e i r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . I n s t e a d , t h e y were o n l y s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n s e x - t y p e d on q u a l i t y (M=3.34 compared w i t h 3.62), and were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r on f r e q u e n c y of i n t e r a c t i o n (M=2.27 and 2 . 1 3 ) . 46 Some o f t h e a p p a r e n t c o n f u s i o n may stem from t h e n a t u r e of what i t means t o be u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n I c k e s (1981) r e f e r s t o as a d e f a u l t c a t e g o r y . E a r l y work by Bern (1974) f a i l e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . L a t e r , S pence, H e l m r e i c h and S t a p p (1975) p o i n t e d o u t t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i n s e p a r a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h s c o r e s on b o t h m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s c a l e s ( t h e a n d r o g y n o u s ) from t h o s e w i t h low s c o r e s on b o t h s c a l e s ( t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ) . They f o u n d t h a t p e r s o n s c l a s s i f i e d a s u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d were l o w e r i n s e l f - e s t e e m ( S p e n c e , H e l m r e i c h & S t a p p , 1 9 75). In r e s p o n s e t o t h e Spence e t a l . c r i t i c i s m , Bern (1977) compared t h e t h r e e s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n g r o u p s on s i x outcome v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g s e l f - e s t e e m . In g e n e r a l , t h e a n d r o g y n o u s and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t o n l y on s e l f - e s t e e m , w i t h t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s c o r i n g l o w e r t h a n t h e a n d r o g y n o u s . The g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r i n any p r e d i c t a b l e way on t h e o t h e r f i v e m e a s u r e s . Bern (1977) p o i n t e d o u t t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u s i n g a c a t e g o r y w i t h low p r e d i c t i v e power b ut a g r e e d t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d . R e s u l t s from t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u g g e s t t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o be p r o b l e m a t i c and no c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s c an be made c o n c e r n i n g outcomes f o r t h i s g r o u p . 47 L e v e l o f Sex S t e r e o t y p i n g and F r i e n d s h i p s None o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t i n g l e v e l o f s t e r e o t y p i n g t o f r i e n d s h i p outcomes was s u p p o r t e d . Low s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d a d u l t s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m h i g h s t e r e o t y p e d a d u l t s i n t h e r e p o r t e d q u a l i t y o f t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s , and i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s o f same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . A n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d was e v i d e n t f o r s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s on i n d i v i d u a l s a c c e p t a n c e of c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . Low s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s were more a c c e p t i n g (M=4.45) of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r s p o u s e s t h a n h i g h s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s (M=4.04, F( 1 ,72) = 2.98, p_<. 1 0) . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . • F i r s t , a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e measures o f s t e r e o t y p i n g , q u a l i t y of same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , a n d ' e v a l u a t i o n s o f same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s a r e v a l i d and r e l i a b l e , i t may be t h a t t h e r e a s o n i n g u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h a l i n k between l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i s f a u l t y . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has. e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t s t e r e o t y p i n g schemas do i n f a c t b i a s p e r c e p t i o n s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e . However, t h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t s t e r e o t y p e s a r e most l i k e l y t o be u s e d when no i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e o t h e r t h a n g r o u p membership ( e . g . g e n d e r ) , a n d / o r when t h e s i t u a t i o n i s ambiguous ( R u b l e & R u b l e , 1982). A l s o , t h e sex t y p i n g o f t h e t a s k i n f l u e n c e s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a s t e r e o t y p e b e i n g u s e d 48 ( R u b l e & R u b l e , 1982). W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r r e s p o n d e n t s ' e v a l u a t i o n s of f r i e n d s h i p s , i t may be t h a t t h e s c a l e s u s e d t o measure e v a l u a t i o n s f a i l e d t o t r i g g e r t h e use of g e n d e r schemas. Gender i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n s s c a l e s but i t was not t h e o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d , and t h e t a s k was n e i t h e r ambiguous nor sex t y p e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e measure may n o t have met t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r use o f s t e r e o t y p e s and i n d i v i d u a l s may n o t have u s e d t h e i r g e n d e r schemas when making judgments a b o u t same-and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . A r e l a t e d f a c t o r i s t h a t o v e r t i m e and i n c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s t h e e f f e c t s o f s t e r e o t y p i n g may be d i m i n i s h e d by t h e e f f e c t o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e s t e r e o t y p e and, by i n c r e a s e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e t a r g e t p e r s o n ( s e e J o n e s & N i s b e t t , 1972). H i g h sex s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s may have t h e i r g e n d e r schemas c o n t i n u a l l y c h a l l e n g e d by i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e i r c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s t h a t go a g a i n s t t h e i r s t e r e o t y p e s . Men's and women's c l o s e same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s o f l o n g d u r a t i o n have been shown t o be s u r p r i s i n g l y s i m i l a r (Rose, 1985). C o n s e q u e n t l y , one m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t sex s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s i n c l o s e c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s w o u l d e n j o y r e a s o n a b l y c o m p a t i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e r e w o u l d be ample i n s t a n c e s where t h e i n f l u e n c e o f sex s t e r e o t y p e s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be m o d e r a t e d by c o n t r a d i c t o r y a c t i o n s . As 49 a r e s u l t , s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s may come t o view t h e i r c r o s s - s e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e r u l e i n t e r m s o f t h e i r sex s t e r e o t y p e schemas. S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n c r e a s e d f a m i l i a r i t y between sex s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s w o u l d s h i f t t h e e mphasis from t h e use o f s t e r e o t y p i c a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r e x p l a i n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s t o s i t u a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s ( s e e J o n e s & N i s b e t t , 1972). W i t h s u c h a s h i f t , sex s t e r e o t y p e s would not have t h e impact on i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e f r i e n d s h i p s t h a t would o t h e r w i s e be e x p e c t e d . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h i s would e x p l a i n t h e l a c k o f s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s on q u a l i t y i n p e o p l e ' s same- and c r o s s -sex f r i e n d s h i p s . The f o r e g o i n g argument may a l s o be r e l e v a n t t o t h e non-s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r e v a l u a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s were a s k e d f o r t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e c o n c e p t s same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p , b u t t h e y may have s i m p l y e v a l u a t e d t h e i r own f r i e n d s h i p s . Q u a l i t y c o r r e l a t e d .49 w i t h e v a l u a t i o n f o r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s and .27 f o r c r o s s - s e x (p_<.0l). The u n e x p e c t e d l y h i g h q u a l i t y i n t h e f r i e n d s h i p s o f t h e h i g h sex s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s would t h e r e f o r e be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e s e same f r i e n d s h i p s . P r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h sample s i z e o f f e r an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r l e v e l of sex s t e r e o t y p i n g . D e s p i t e i n i t i a l s a m p l i n g of n e a r l y 500 a d u l t s , o n l y 120 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d , 101 o f w h i c h were 50 u s a b l e . Of t h e u s a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 15 had d a t a m i s s i n g on one o r more s c a l e s . W i t h t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e a n a l y s e s f i n a l c e l l s i z e s were s m a l l e r t h a n recommended f o r s u r v e y r e s e a r c h ( R o s c o e , 1975). S u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s e s were done w i t h s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n d r o p p e d from t h e e q u a t i o n t o see i f s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s c o u l d be d e t e c t e d w i t h l a r g e r c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s . T h e s e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d a s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t f o r q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p s F (1,78)=4.72, p_<.05, w i t h low s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s g i v i n g h i g h e r a v e r a g e r a t i n g s on q u a l i t y (M=3.81) compare w i t h h i g h s t e r e o t y p e d (M=3.48). However, i n c r e a s i n g c e l l s i z e s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s on e v a l u a t i o n o f same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s d i d n o t a l t e r t h e non-s i g n i f i c a n t s t e r e o t y p i n g f i n d i n g s . A f i n a l p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one o r more of t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g , q u a l i t y , and e v a l u a t i o n s c a l e s may have u n d e r m i n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex s t e r e o t y p i n g and f r i e n d s h i p o u t comes. A l l s c a l e s were j u d g e d t o have f a c e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g measure i t may be t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s were n o t a c c u r a t e l y c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o low and h i g h sex s t e r e o t y p e d g r o u p s . The measure was a d a p t e d f r o m work by M a r t i n (1984) and u s e s t h e same i t e m s a s t h e BSRI. R e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d men and women on t h e t h i r t y BSRI t r a i t s on a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e . S c o r e s 51 were c a l c u l a t e d a s t h e a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e between r a t i n g s f o r women and men on e a c h i t e m . W h i l e t h i s g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h p e o p l e v i e w men and women as d i f f e r e n t , i t does n o t i n d i c a t e i f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i n c u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d s t e r e o t y p i c d i r e c t i o n s . An a l t e r n a t e p r o c e d u r e ( s e e A p p e n d i x G) was u s e d t o o b t a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r h i g h s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d and low s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s b a s e d on c u l t u r a l l y -d e f i n e d m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The c a t e g o r i e s were d i v i d e d a t t h e median (1.8) w i t h r e s p o n d e n t s s c o r i n g above t h e median l a b e l e d h i g h sex s t e r e o t y p e d and t h o s e below, low sex s t e r e o t y p e d . The c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d s t e r e o t y p i n g s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d .78 w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e s method. R e p e a t e d m easures a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e u s i n g g e n d e r , s e x -r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , and c u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d l e v e l o f s t e r e o t y p i n g as between f a c t o r s , were c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h d e p e n d e n t m easure. As w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l ANOVARs no s t e r e o t y p i n g main o r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were f o u n d . (See T a b l e V ) . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e u s i n g t h e c u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d s t e r e o t y p e g r o u p s was c a l c u l a t e d f o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . The a n a l y s i s showed no s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s . Low s t e r e o t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s were as a c c e p t i n g o f c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s (M=4.38) as h i g h s t e r e o t y p e d (M=4.10, F ( 1 , 7 3 ) = 1 . 3 2 , £ > . 1 0 ) . E v i d e n c e f r o m t h e s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s e s u s i n g c u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d s t e r e o t y p i n g g r o u p s s u g g e s t t h e d e c i s i o n t o s c o r e s t e r e o t y p i n g 52 T a b l e V. Mean S c o r e s on Dependent M e a s u r e s by C u l t u r a l l y -D e f i n e d Sex S t e r e o t y p e s S t e r e o t y p i ng Measure Low H i g h Mean S q s . F R a t i o Q u a l i t y 3. 73 3. 65 • 1 1 (1.56)= . 16 F r e q u e n c y 2. 39 2. 71 2. 01 (1 ,62)= . 80 E v a l u a t i o n 6. 34 6. 33 • 03 (1,61)= . 04 A c c e p t a b i l i t y 4. 38 4. 10 1 . 39 (1,73) = 1 . 32 N o t e . None o f t h e above F v a l u e s were s i g n i f i c a n t . 53 as t h e a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e s between r a t i n g s f o r men and women d i d n o t a c c o u n t f o r t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . Of c o u r s e , o t h e r p s y c h o m e t r i c w eaknesses i n t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g measure, s u c h as low r e l i a b i l i t y o r p r e c i s i o n , may have u n d e r m i n e d t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t e r e o t y p i n g and f r i e n d s h i p s o u t c o m e s . P r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h weaknesses i n t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g measure, t h e c o n d i t i o n s u nder w h i c h p e o p l e use s t e r e o t y p e s , and sample s i z e may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o a f a i l u r e i n t h i s s t u d y t o d e t e c t sex s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s . Same-sex and C r o s s - s e x F r i e n d s h i p s W h i l e v e r y few s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s compare w i t h c r o s s - s e x , t h e f o r m e r seem t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more i n v o l v i n g e x c h a n g e s ( D a v i s & Todd, 1985) and h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a s s i s t a n c e a n d l o y a l t y (Rose, 1985). The p r e s e n t s t u d y p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e f o r an a p p a r e n t a d v a n t a g e of same-sex o v e r c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . As m e a sured i n t h i s s t u d y , same-sex f r i e n d s e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h e r q u a l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s compared w i t h c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s (M=3.99 and 3.41 r e s p e c t i v e l y , £ < . 0 1 ) . Two r e l a t e d f a c t o r s p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e of same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . F i r s t , s o c i a l norms f a v o r t h e f o r m a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f same-sex o v e r o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s and d i s c o u r a g e c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e t h e c o u p l e u n i t ( H e s s , 1972). S e c o n d , t h i s n o r m a t i v e p r e s s u r e , i n 54 p a r t , d e t e r m i n e s t h e r e l a t i v e numbers of e a c h t y p e o f f r i e n d s h i p . O p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s a r e common d u r i n g t h e m a t e - s e l e c t i o n y e a r s , u s u s a l l y t h e l a t e t e e n s and e a r l y t w e n t i e s . However, once i n t i m a t e h e t e r o s e x u a l p a i r s a r e formed t h e number o f c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s d e c l i n e s a n d / o r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e f r i e n d s h i p s i s r e d u c e d . The p o t e n t i a l t o a c h i e v e a h i g h l e v e l of q u a l i t y i n c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s i s r e d u c e d w i t h fewer o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s w i t h w h i c h t o i n t e r a c t and w i t h c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s . The g e n d e r c o m p o s i t i o n of same-sex compared w i t h c r o s s -sex f r i e n d s h i p s i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a l i t y . Most p e o p l e i d e n t i f y , a t some l e v e l , w i t h t h e i r own gende r g r o u p , and f e e l t h e y s h a r e common l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and i n t e r e s t s w i t h same-sex o t h e r s . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f a common bond may t r a n s l a t e i n t o r e p o r t s o f h i g h e r q u a l i t y i n same-sex compared w i t h o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s t a t u s a f f o r d e d women and men i n o u r s o c i e t y may a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o l o w e r q u a l i t y i n c r o s s -sex compared w i t h same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s (Rose, 1985). In a r e c e n t s t u d y Rose (1985) f o u n d men p r o v i d e d c o m p a n i o n s h i p t o f e m a l e f r i e n d s i n exch a n g e f o r a c c e p t a n c e and i n t i m a c y w h i l e women s e t t l e d f o r l e s s a c c e p t a n c e and i n t i m a c y i n r e t u r n f o r th e s t a t u s a f f o r d e d them t h r o u g h an o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p . The d i f f e r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n d y n a m i c s t h a t a p p e a r t o be p r e s e n t 55 i n t h e c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s may a c c o u n t i n p a r t f o r t h e l o w e r q u a l i t y f o u n d i n t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e l a t i v e t o same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s m ight a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o d i f f e r e n c e s between same-sex and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . I f women have d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s o r e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t h e i r same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s compared w i t h men, t h e n i t m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t h a t a m a l e - f e m a l e f r i e n d s h i p would no t n e c e s s a r i l y meet t h e needs o f e a c h o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . G e n e r a l l y , women's same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s c e n t e r a r o u n d p e r s o n a l and e m o t i o n a l e x c h a n g e s w h i l e men's same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s s t r e s s a c t i v i t y as t h e b a s i s f o r i n t e r a c t i n g ( B e l l , 1982; C a l d w e l l & P e p l a u , 1982). Women t e n d t o have more i n t i m a c y i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s ( F i s c h e r & N a r u s , 1981), p e r h a p s b e c a u s e men d i s c l o s e l e s s p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i r f r i e n d s ( W r i g h t , 1982). In t e r m s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p d e v e l o p m e n t , women's f r i e n d s h i p s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d f r o m t h e s t a r t by e q u a l e m p h a s i s on b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s h a r i n g . F o r men, b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s p r i m a r y i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p d e v e l o p m e n t and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s h a r i n g i s s e c o n d a r y . O n l y a f t e r a p e r i o d of a b o u t t w e l v e months does p s y c h o l o g i c a l s h a r i n g i n men's f r i e n d s h i p s r e a c h t h e same l e v e l as b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e ( W r i g h t , 1982). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p d e v e l o p m e n t and f r i e n d s h i p a c t i v i t i e s may p r o h i b i t some c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s 56 from p r o g r e s s i n g t o more i n v o l v i n g s t a g e s t h a t w o u l d l e a d t o h i g h e r q u a l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W h i l e sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n men's and women's same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s may c o n t r i b u t e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a l i t y between same-sex and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s , t h e f i n d i n g s f o r sex d i f f e r e n c e s must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . W r i g h t (1982) f o u n d t h a t men's and women's same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s w h i c h were of l o n g d u r a t i o n or h i g h l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t d i d n o t d i f f e r a p p r e c i a b l y f r o m e a c h o t h e r . Rose (1985) c o n f i r m s t h i s . She r e p o r t s "sex s i m i l a r i t i e s i n same-sex c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p f u n c t i o n i n g , f o r m a t i o n , and m a i n t e n a n c e p r e d o m i n a t e d i n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s of f r i e n d s h i p s " (1982; p. 73) [ E m p h a s i s mine.] Summary The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how two i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s v a r i a b l e s s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g — c o n t r i b u t e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a l i t y and e v a l u a t i o n o f same- and o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . The s t u d y d i f f e r e d i n i m p o r t a n t ways f r o m p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h by s e l e c t i n g a n o n - u n i v e r s i t y s a mple, by a s k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s a b o u t t h e i r a c t u a l f r i e n d s h i p s , and by u s i n g m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l m e asures o f q u a l i t y and e v a l u a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s . The d a t a p r o v i d e d s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n 57 e f f e c t s on o n g o i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W h i l e t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n t i n u e s t o be a p r o b l e m a t i c c a t e g o r y f o r making p r e d i c t i o n s , t h e a n d r o g y n o u s c l e a r l y have an a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e s e x - t y p e d i n t h e q u a l i t y of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The g r e a t e r b e h a v i o r a l f l e x i b i l i t y of t h e a n d r o g y n o u s s e x - r o l e was i m p l i c a t e d i n t h e s e f i n d i n g s . The f a i l u r e t o f i n d s t e r e o t y p i n g e f f e c t s on q u a l i t y and e v a l u a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s may be due i n p a r t t o i n a d e q u a c i e s i n t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g measure a n d / o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t u s e d t o measure a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e c o n c e p t s same-and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p . I t may be t h a t p e o p l e r e g a r d t h e i r c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s a s e x c e p t i o n s t o g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p e s and as a r e s u l t o f good q u a l i t y c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s t h e y h o l d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e i d e a o f o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . However, v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measures need t o be d e v e l o p e d f o r a s s e s s i n g n o t o n l y l e v e l o f sex s t e r e o t y p i n g b u t a l s o a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f r i e n d s h i p s b e f o r e f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be drawn. More r e s e a r c h a l s o needs t o be done t o e s t a b l i s h what sex d i f f e r e n c e s , i f any, t r u l y e x i s t between men's and women's same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . T h i s w o u l d p r o v i d e a b e t t e r b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g m e a s u r e s t o a s s e s s q u a l i t y i n o p p o s i t e -sex f r i e n d s h i p s . W i t h t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e s f o r b o t h men and women i n o u r s o c i e t y , o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e t h e c o u p l e u n i t may become more p r e v a l e n t . As men and women i n t e r a c t on more e q u a l g r o u n d i n t h e work p l a c e a nd e l s e w h e r e , f r i e n d s h i p bonds a r e 58 more l i k e l y to occur across gender boundaries. Identifying how these relationships are similar and d i f f e r e n t from same-sex friendships, and finding ways to enhance the quality of these friendships may provide many people with a previously untapped source of s o c i a l support. 59 FOOTNOTES Spence and H e l m r e i c h (1979) now use t h e t e r m s i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e . The low r e s p o n s e r a t e i s p r o b a b l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o two f a c t o r s . F i r s t , t h e sample from e a c h c e n s u s t r a c t c o n t a i n e d a l a r g e number o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e . S e v e r a l o f t h e s e p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s c a l l e d o r w r o t e t o say t h e y d i d not f e e l t h e i r o p i n i o n s were o f v a l u e . S e c o n d , t h e r e was a l a r g e e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n i n one c e n s u s t r a c t . Language and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s l i k e l y i n h i b i t e d t h e s e p e o p l e from r e s p o n d i n g . Sex t y p e d f e m i n i n e f e m a l e s and sex t y p e d m a s c u l i n e m a l e s were p l a c e d i n a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y l a b e l e d sex t y p e d and g e n d e r was u s e d as a s e p a r a t e f a c t o r i n a l l a n a l y s e s . E i g h t e e n c r o s s - s e x t y p e d s u b j e c t s (6 f e m i n i n e m a l e s , 12 m a s c u l i n e f e m a l e s ) were d r o p p e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s e s . 60 REFERENCES Ashmore, R. D., & D e l Boca, F. K. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Sex s t e r e o t y p e s and i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y : Toward a c o g n i t i v e -s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . Sex R o l e s , 5, 219-248. Bakan, D. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . The d u a l i t y o f human e x i s t e n c e . C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y . B a n i k i o t e s , P. G., Ne i m e y e r , G. J . , & Lepkowsky, C. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Gender and s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n e f f e c t s on f r i e n d s h i p " c h o i c e . P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n , 7, 605-610. Basow, S. A. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . S e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s : T r a d i t i o n s and a l t e r n a t i v e s . M o n t e r e y , C a l i f o r n i a : B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Company. B e e r e , C. A. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Women and women's i s s u e s : A handbook o f t e s t s and m e a s u r e s . San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s P u b l i s h e r s . B e l l , R. R. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . F r i e n d s h i p s o f men and women. P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 5, 402-417. Bern, S. L. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . The measurement o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d r o g y n y . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 42, 155-162. Bern, S. L. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . S e x - r o l e a d a p t a b i l i t y : One c o n s e q u e n c e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d r o g y n y . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y  and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 31, 634-643. Bern, S. L . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . On t h e u t i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s f o r a s s e s s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d r o g y n y . J o u r n a l o f  C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 45, 196-205. Bern, S. L. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e o r y and measurement of a n d r o g y n y : A r e p l y t o t h e P e d h a z u r - T e t e n b a u m and L o c k s l e y - C o l t e n c r i t i q u e s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 37, 1047-1054. Bern, S. L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y : P r o f e s s i o n a l  m a n u a l . P a l o A l t o , CA.: C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , I n c . 61 Bern, S. L., & Lenney, E . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Sex t y p i n g and t h e a v o i d a n c e o f c r o s s - s e x b e h a v i o r . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 33, 48-54. Bern, S. L., M a r t y n a , W., & Watson, C. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Sex t y p i n g and a n d r o g y n y : F u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n s o f t h e e x p r e s s i v e d omain. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 34, 1016-1023. B l o c k , J . H. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . C o n c e p t i o n s o f sex r o l e s : Some c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 28, 512-526. B o o t h , A. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . Sex and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A m e r i c a n  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 37, 183-192. B o o t h , A., & H e s s , E. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . C r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p . J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and t h e F a m i l y , 36, 39-47. Broverman, I . K., V o g e l , S. R., B roverman, D. M., C l a r k s o n , F. E . , & R o s e n k r a n t z , P. S. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . S e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s : A c u r r e n t a p p r a i s a l . J o u r n a l  o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , 28, 59-78. B y r n e , D. (1971) . The a t t r a c t i o n p a r a d i g m . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . B y r n e , D. , C l o r e , G. L., J r . , & W o r c h e l , P.. ( 1966). E f f e c t o f e conomic s i m i l a r i t y - d i s s i m i l a r i t y on i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y  and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4, 220-224. C a l d w e l l , M. A., & P e p l a u , L. A. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . Sex R o l e s , 8, 721-732. D a v i d s o n , L. R., & Duberman, L. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . F r i e n d s h i p : C o m m u n i c a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s i n same-sex d y a d s . Sex R o l e s , 8, 809-822. D a v i s , K. E . , & Todd, M. (1981, J u n e ) . F r i e n d s h i p s and  l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e c y c l e : Age,  g e n d e r , and e t h n i c g r o u p e f f e c t s on t h e number and  q u a l i t y o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P aper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g s of t h e C a n a d i a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , T o r o n t o . 62 D a v i s , K, & Todd, M. J . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A s s e s s i n g f r i e n d s h i p : P r o t o t y p e s , p a r a d i g m c a s e s & r e l a t i o n s h i p d e s c r i p t i o n . In S. W. Duck & D. P e r l m a n ( E d s . ) , U n d e r s t a n d i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p s : An i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h (pp. 17-37). London: Sage. Deaux, K. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . From i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s t o s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s : A n a l y s i s o f a d e c a d e ' s r e s e a r c h on g e n d e r . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 39, 105-116. Duck, S. W. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . S i m i l a r i t y and p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s a s i n f l u e n c e s on f r i e n d s h i p c h o i c e . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of S o c i a l a nd C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , J_2, 1-6. F i s c h e r , J . L., & N a r u s , L. R., J r . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Sex r o l e s and i n t i m a c y i n same sex and o t h e r sex r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 5, 444-455. F i s h b e i n , M., & A j z e n , I . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . B e l i e f , a t t i t u d e , i n t e n t i o n a nd b e h a v i o r : An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e o r y  and r e s e a r c h . R e a d i n g , MA: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . Gagnon, J . H., & G r e e n b l a t , C. S. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . L i f e D e s i g n s . G l e n v i e w , 111.: S c o t t , F oresman and Company. G i b b s , M., A u e r b a c h , D., & Fox, M. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f male and f e m a l e same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l o f Women's S t u d i e s , 3_, 261-271. Hammen, C. L., & P e p l a u , L. A. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . B r i e f e n c o u n t e r s : Impact o f g e n d e r , s e x - r o l e a t t i t u d e s , and p a r t n e r s ' g e n d e r on i n t e r a c t i o n a nd c o g n i t i o n . Sex R o l e s , 4, 75-90. H e n d r i c k , C , & H e n d r i c k , S. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . L i k i n g , l o v i n g  and r e l a t i n g . M o n t e r e y , CA.: B r o o k / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Company. He s s , B. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . F r i e n d s h i p . In M. W. R i l e y , M. J o h n s o n , & A. F o n e r ( E d s . ) , A g i n g and S o c i e t y , V o l . 3:  A s o c i o l o g y o f age s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ( p p . 3 5 7 - 3 9 3 ) . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n . I c k e s , W. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Sex r o l e i n f l u e n c e s i n d y a d i c i n t e r a c t i o n : A t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l . I n C. Mayo & N. H e n l e y ( E d s . ) , G e n d e r , a n d r o g y n y , and n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r (pp. 95 - 1 2 8 ) . New Y o r k : S p r i n g e r . 63 I c k e s , W. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S e x - r o l e i n f l u e n c e s on c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n W. I c k e s ( E d . ) , C o m p a t i b l e and  i n c o m p a t i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s (pp. 1 87-208) . New Y o r k : S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g New Y o r k I n c . I c k e s , W., & B a r n e s , R. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Boys and g i r l s t o g e t h e r — and a l i e n a t e d : On e n a c t i n g s t e r e o t y p e d sex r o l e s i n m i x e d - s e x d y a d s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 36, 669-683. I c k e s , W., S c h e r m e r , B., & S t e e n o , J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Sex and s e x -r o l e i n f l u e n c e s on same-sex d y a d s . S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y  Q u a r t e r l y , 42, 373-385. J a c k l i n , C. N., & Maccoby, E. E. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S o c i a l b e h a v i o r a t t h i r t y - t h r e e months i n same-sex and m i x e d - s e x d y a d s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 49, 557-569. J o n e s , E . E . , & N i s b e t t , R. E. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The a c t o r and o b s e r v e r : D i v e r g e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e c a u s e s o f b e h a v i o r . In E . J o n e s , D. Kanouse, H. K e l l y , S. V a l i n s & B. W e i n e r ( E d s . ) , A t t r i b u t i o n :  P e r c e i v i n g t h e c a u s e s of b e h a v i o r ( p p . 7 9 - 9 4 ) . New Y o r k : G e n e r a l L e a r n i n g P r e s s . K a n d e l , D. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S i m i l a r i t y i n r e a l - l i f e a d o l e s c e n t f r i e n d s h i p p a i r s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 36, 306-312. K a p l a n , A., & Sedney, M. A. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s o f women and men. In A. G. K a p l a n & M. Sedney ( E d s . ) , P s y c h o l o g y and sex r o l e s : An  a n d r o g y n o u s p e r s p e c t i v e ( p p . 2 3 5 - 2 6 8 ) . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown & Company. K a t z , P. A. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f g e n d e r and r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s . In R. L. L e a h y ( E d . ) . The  c h i l d ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , ( p p . 4 1 - 7 8 ) . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . K o h l b e r g , L. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A c o g n i v i t e - d e v e l o p m e n t a l a n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n ' s s e x - r o l e c o n c e p t s and a t t i t u d e s . In E . E. Maccoby ( E d . ) , The d e v e l o p m e n t of sex  d i f f e r e n c e s (pp.82-173Ti S t a n f o r d , C a l i f . : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 64 L a G a i p a , J . J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T e s t i n g a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o f r i e n d s h i p . In S. Duck ( E d . ) , T h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n  i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i o n (pp. 249-270). London: Academic P r e s s . La G a i p a , J . J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t u d y o f t h e meaning o f f r i e n d s h i p i n a d o l e s c e n c e . J o u r n a l o f A d o l e s c e n c e , 2, 201-213. Lamke, L. K., & B e l l , N. J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . S e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p d e v e l o p m e n t i n same-sex d y a d s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n P e r s o n a l i t y , 16, 343-354. Maccoby, E. E . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s . S t a n f o r d , C a l f . : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . M a r t i n , C. L. (1984, May). A s s e s s i n g t h e a c c u r a c y of sex  s t e r e o t y p e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l s e l f  c o n c e p t s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h e A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , T o r o n t o . M a r t i n , C. L. (1985, J u l y ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f g e n d e r r o l e s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y o f B e h a v i o r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T o u r s , F r a n c e . M a r t i n , C. L., & H a l v e r s o n , C. F., J r . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A s c h e m a t i c p r o c e s s i n g model o f sex t y p i n g and s t e r e o t y p i n g i n c h i l d r e n . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 52, 1119-1134. M a r t i n , C. L., & H a l v e r s o n , C. F., J r . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The e f f e c t s o f s e x - t y p i n g schemas on young c h i l d r e n ' s memory. C h i I d " D e v e l o p m e n t , 54, 563-574. Osgood, C. E . , S u c c i , G. J . , & Tannenbaum, P. H. ( 1 9 5 7 ) . The measurement o f meaning. C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s . P a r s o n s , T., & B a l e s , R. ( 1 9 5 5 ) . F a m i l y , s o c i a l i z a t i o n  a nd i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s . New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s of G l e n c o e . P u r s e l l , S. A., & B a n i k i o t e s , P. G. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . A n d r o g y n y and i n i t i a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i o n . P e r s o n a l i t y and  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n , 4, 235-239. R o s c o e , J . T. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . F u n d a m e n t a l r e s e a r c h s t a t i s t i c s  f o r t h e b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . 65 Rose, S. M. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Same- and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s and t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f h o m o s o c i a l i t y . Sex R o l e s , 12, 63-74. R o s e n b e r g , M. J . , & H o v l a n d , C. I . ( 1 9 6 0 ) . C o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and b e h a v i o r a l components o f a t t i t u d e s . In M. J . R o s e n b e r g , C. I . H o v l a n d , W. J . M c G u i r e , R. P. A b e l s o n , J . W. Brehm ( E d s . ) , A t t i t u d e  o r g a n i z a t i o n and change ( p p . 1 - 1 4 ) . New Haven, Conn.: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R o s e n t h a l , R., & Rosnow, R. L. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The v o l u n t e e r  s u b j e c t . New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons. R u b i n , J . S., P r o v e n z a n o , F. J . , & L u r i a , Z. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . The eye o f t h e b e h o l d e r : P a r e n t s ' v i e w s on sex o f newborns. A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 44, 513-519. R u b l e , D. N., & R u b l e , T. L. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Sex s t e r e o t y p e s . In A. G. M i l l e r ( E d . ) , In t h e eye o f t h e b e h o l d e r (pp. 188-252). New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s . S e r b i n , L. A., & S p r a f k i n , C. (1983, A p r i l ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t  o f g e n d e r s a l i e n c e and a f f i l i a t i o n p a t t e r n s f r o m  t h r e e t o s e v e n . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , D e t r o i t , M i . S e r b i n , L. A., T o n i c k , I . J . , & S t e r n g l a n z , S. H. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . S h a p i n g c o o p e r a t i v e c r o s s - s e x p l a y . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 48, 924-929. S e y f r i e d , B. A., & H e n d r i c k , C. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . When do o p p o s i t e s a t t r a c t ? When t h e y a r e o p p o s i t e i n sex and s e x - r o l e a t t i t u d e s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 25, 15-20. S m i t h , P. M. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Language, t h e s e x e s and s o c i e t y . O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l P u b l i s h e r L t d . Spe n c e , J . T., & H e l m r e i c h , R. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . M a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y : T h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s , c o r r e l a t e s and  a n t e c e d e n t s . A u s t i n , T ex.: U n i v e r s i t y of T e x a s P r e s s . 66 S p e n c e , J . T., H e l m r e i c h , R., & S t a p p , J . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . R a t i n g s o f s e l f a nd p e e r s on sex r o l e a t t r i b u t e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o s e l f - e s t e e m and c o n c e p t i o n s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 32, 29-39. S t a t i s t i c s Canada ( S e p t . 1 9 8 3 ) V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s ( C a t a l o g u e 9 5 - 9 7 8 ) . O t t a w a : D e p a r t m e n t o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s . S t o r m s , M. D. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Sex r o l e i d e n t i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o sex r o l e a t t r i b u t e s and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 37, 1779-1789. S t r a h a n , R. F. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Remarks on Bern's measurement o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d r o g y n y : A l t e r n a t i v e methods and a s u p p l e m e n t a r y a n a l y s i s . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and  C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 43, 568-571. Tannenbaum, P. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . M e d i a t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of a t t i t u d e change v i a t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n g r u i t y . J o u r n a l o f  P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 3_, 493-499. Werner, C , & P a r m e l e e , P. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . S i m i l a r i t y of a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s among f r i e n d s : T h o s e who p l a y t o g e t h e r s t a y t o g e t h e r . S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y Q u a r t e r l y , 42, 62-66. W h e e l e r , L. , R e i s , H., s> N e z l e k , J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . L o n e l i n e s s , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and sex r o l e s . J o u r n a l o f  P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 45, 943-953. W i l l i a m s , J . E . , & B e s t , D. L. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . M e a s u r i n g  sex s t e r e o t y p e s . B e v e r l y H i l l s , CA.: Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . W r i g h t , P. H. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . A model and a t e c h n i q u e f o r s t u d i e s o f f r i e n d s h i p . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 5, 295-309. W r i g h t , P. H. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Men's f r i e n d s h i p s , women's f r i e n d s h i p s and t h e a l l e g e d i n f e r i o r i t y o f t h e l a t t e r . Sex R o l e s , 1982, 8, 1-20. 67 Appendix A THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S c h o o l of F a m i l y and N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s 2205 E a s t M a l l VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 D i v i s i o n of F a m i l y S c i e n c e s "a penny f o r your t h o u g h t s " F r i e n d s h i p Study I am a graduate s t u d e n t a t U.B.C. i n the S c h o o l of F a m i l y and N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s . As p a r t of my master's degree, I am u n d e r t a k i n g a study on a d u l t f r i e n d s h i p s . A l t h o u g h many s t u d i e s a r e conducted u s i n g u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , I f e e l s t u d e n t s do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t the v i e w s of most p e o p l e . For t h i s reason I have d e l i v e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of households i n Vancouver. At f i r s t i t may seem u n i m p o r t a n t t o s t u d y f r i e n d s h i p , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h c u r r e n t w o r l d problems. But perhaps because of t h e s e problems, i t i s even more i m p o r t a n t t o know something about f r i e n d s h i p and t h e r o l e f r i e n d s p l a y i n our l i v e s . For many p e o p l e , f r i e n d s a r e a major source of a s s i s t a n c e , c o m f o r t , e m o t i o n a l s h a r i n g , and j u s t p l a i n f u n . A r e c e n t a r t i c l e i n the Vancouver Sun (Feb. 3rd) d e a l t w i t h the importance of f r i e n d s h i p s . However, the i n f o r m a t i o n was based on American d a t a and i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r us t o know more about f r i e n d s h i p s from a Canadian p o i n t of v i e w . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n t h i s study w i l l be h e l d i n s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e , and w i l l be used i n s t a t i s t i c a l form o n l y . You a r e not asked t o g i v e your name anywhere on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A c c e s s t o completed forms w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d t o m y s e l f and my three-member r e s e a r c h committee. You a r e under no o b l i g a t i o n t o complete the e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and you are f r e e t o r e f u s e t o answer any or a l l of the q u e s t i o n s . Of c o u r s e , I hope you w i l l f i n d i t of i n t e r e s t and d e c i d e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I t s h o u l d t a k e 20 t o 30 minutes t o complete the q u e s t i o n s . For your h o u s e h o l d , I would ask t h a t an a d u l t FEMALE (21 y e a r s or o l d e r ) complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (Some households have been asked t o have an a d u l t male p a r t i c i p a t e . ) I f no a d u l t female i s a v a i l a b l e i n your h o u s e h o l d , the e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e can be answered by an a d u l t male. I f no member of t h e h o u s e h o l d i s over 21 p l e a s e have the o l d e s t member, 68 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e h as t o do w i t h y o u r a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s a b o u t f r i e n d s h i p s and f r i e n d s , a s w e l l a s y o u r v i e w s on some r e l a t e d m a t t e r s . B e c a u s e I am i n t e r e s t e d i n YOUR o p i n i o n s , I would ask t h a t y ou n o t s h a r e t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h any o f y o u r f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y , b u t r a t h e r t h a t y o u c o m p l e t e i t on y o u r own. You a r e f r e e t o r e f u s e t o answer any or a l l of t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h e l d i n s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . W h i l e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e may a p p e a r t o be l e n g t h y , i t i s m o s t l y a r e s u l t o f t h e s p a c i n g o f q u e s t i o n s f o r e a s i e r r e a d i n g . A l s o some q u e s t i o n s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r t o one a n o t h e r . C o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d t a k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 m i n u t e s . P l e a s e answer t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e o r d e r p r e s e n t e d a s c o m p l e t e l y a n d a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . Upon c o m p l e t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p l e a s e r e t u r n i t t o me i n t h e e n c l o s e d stamped, a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e . Thank you v e r y much f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e . Y o u r s t r u l y , L i n d a M. C o n r a d 70 PART I GENERAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e y o u r sex by c i r c l i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e number. 1. male 2. f e m a l e 2. P l e a s e s t a t e y o u r age i n y e a r s . y e a r s o l d , 3. What i s y o u r c u r r e n t m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e number 1. n e v e r m a r r i e d 4. d i v o r c e d / s e p a r a t e d 2. m a r r i e d 5. widowed 3. c o h a b i t i n g 4. How l o n g have you been w i t h y o u r c u r r e n t s p o u s e / p a r t n e r ? P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number f o r y o u r answer 1. n o t c u r r e n t l y 4. 16 - 25 y e a r s m a r r i e d / c o h a b i t i n g 2. l e s s t h a n 5 y e a r s 5. o v e r 25 y e a r s 3. 6 - 15 y e a r s 5. How many c h i l d r e n do y o u h a v e ? C i r c l e t h e number f o r y o u r a nswer. 1. none 4. t h r e e c h i l d r e n 2. one c h i l d 5. f o u r o r more c h i l d r e n 3. two c h i l d r e n 71 6. What i s t h e age o f your o l d e s t c h i l d ? do n o t have any c h i l d r e n . y e a r s o l d 7. P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t i n d i c a t e s y o u r l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n . 1. h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n 3. u n i v e r s i t y o r l e s s (no d e g r e e ) 2. t r a d e o r o t h e r 4. u n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l i n g ( d e g r e e o b t a i n e d ) 8. P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t s y o u r c u r r e n t j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I f y o u . a r e r e t i r e d o r unemployed, p l e a s e c h e c k t h i s s p a c e , and i n d i c a t e what k i n d o f j o b you d i d b e f o r e r e t i r e m e n t / u n e m p l o y m e n t . 1. s e r v i c e worker ( i n c l u d i n g 6. homemaker d o m e s t i c h e l p e r ) 2. l a b o u r e r ( i n c l u d i n g f a r m w o r k e r ) 7. p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l o r s i m i l a r 3. m a c h i n e , t r a n s p o r t e q u i p m e n t o p e r a t o r 4. c r a f t s m a n , foreman o r s i m i l a r 5. s a l e s worker 8. s t u d e n t 9. manager, a d m i n i s t r a t o r , b u s i n e s s owner 10. c l e r i c a l o r s i m i l a r 9. P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t s y o u r a n n u a l f a m i l y l e v e l o f income ( b e f o r e t a x e s ) . 1. l e s s t h a n $10,000 4. $31,000 - 40,000 2. $10,000 - 20,000 5. $41,000 - 50,000 3. $21,000 - 30,000 6. o v e r $50,000 72 PART I I FRIENDSHIP QUESTIONS 10. T h i s n e x t q u e s t i o n a s k s t h a t you l i s t , by i n i t i a l s o n l y , p e o p l e whom you c o n s i d e r t o be "good f r i e n d s " . I n a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n p l e a s e use t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n of f r i e n d : "A good f r i e n d i s someone you l i k e , someone w i t h whom you e n j o y d o i n g t h i n g s , a n d / o r someone w i t h whom you f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e d i s c u s s i n g p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s . " U s i n g t h e above d e f i n i t i o n g i v e t h e i n i t i a l s o f t h e p e o p l e whom you c a l l f r i e n d s . Do NOT i n c l u d e y o u r s p o u s e , c o h a b i t i n g , o r d a t i n g p a r t n e r . You do not need t o l i s t a p e r s o n f o r e a c h s p a c e . B e s i d e e a c h s e t of i n i t i a l s i n d i c a t e t h e sex o f t h e f r i e n d by c i r c l i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r : m=male, f = f e m a l e ; i n d i c a t e how c l o s e y ou f e e l t o t h e f r i e n d : 1=NOT VERY CLOSE, 5=EXTREMELY CLOSE; and f i n a l l y , i n d i c a t e how f r e q u e n t l y y ou g e t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f r i e n d : 1=once a month, 2=two-three t i m e s a month, 3 = f o u r - f i v e t i m e s , 4 = s i x - s e v e n t i m e s , 5 = e i g h t o r more SEX CLOSENESS CONTACT m f 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m f 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m f V 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m f 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m f 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m f 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m f 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m f 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m f 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m f 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 73 11. T h i n k a b o u t a good f r i e n d o f t h e o p p o s i t e - s e x as y o u . C i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e number on t h e s c a l e a f t e r e a c h o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o i n d i c a t e how o f t e n y ou e x p e r i e n c e what i s d e s c r i b e d . Answer i n t e r m s o f a good o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d . Do not i n c l u d e a s p o u s e , d a t i n g o r r o m a n t i c  p a r t n e r . N e v e r My f r i e n d shows c o n c e r n f o r my w e l f a r e and h e l p s promote i t . I f e e l a b l e t o a s k my f r i e n d f o r a d v i c e on where t o g e t a d e a l o r on what b r a n d name t o buy. I f e e l f r e e t o e x p r e s s my p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s t o my f r i e n d . My f r i e n d t e a c h e s me t o do t h i n g s l i k e p l a y a s p o r t o r make s o m e t h i n g . I t a l k t o my f r i e n d a b o u t p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s . I ask my f r i e n d f o r a d v i c e c o n c e r n i n g my p r e s e n t j o b s i t u a t i o n o r f u t u r e work o r r e t i r m e n t p l a n s . My f r i e n d shows t h a t h e /she knows how I f e e l even when I c a n ' t p u t i t i n t o words. I e n j o y b u i l d i n g o r making t h i n g s a n d / o r o r g a n i z i n g / p l a n n i n g t h i n g s w i t h my f r i e n d . A l w a y s 4 5 11(a) How o f t e n do you see t h i s f r i e n d ? P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t s y o u r answer. 1. once a month or l e s s 4. 6 - 7 t i m e s a month 2. 2 - 3 t i m e s a month 5. 8 o r more t i m e s a month 3. 4 - 5 t i m e s a month 74 11(b) O v e r a l l , how c l o s e w ould you s a y you and t h i s f r i e n d a r e ? C i r c l e t h e number on t h e s c a l e f o r y o u r answer. NOT AT ALL CLOSE EXTREMELY CLOSE 1 2 3 4 5 12. The f o l l o w i n g s e t s o f words c a n be u s e d t o d e s c r i b e e i t h e r two p e o p l e i n a f r i e n d s h i p o r t h e f r i e n d s h i p i t s e l f . P l a c e an X on t h e l i n e between t h e two words t o i n d i c a t e how much YOU b e l i e v e t h e word d e s c r i b e s an o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p . T h i s does n o t mean YOUR o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d s h i p , b u t r a t h e r any s u c h f r i e n d s h i p . i n t i m a t e n o n - i n t i m a t e bad good r e l a x e d n e r v o u s w o r t h l e s s v a l u a b l e a c c e p t a b l e u n a c c e p t a b l e u n s u c c e s s f u l s u c c e s s f u l s t a b l e u n s t a b l e u n i m p o r t a n t i m p o r t a n t 75 13. T h i n k a b o u t a good f r i e n d o f t h e same-sex as y o u . C i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e number on t h e s c a l e a f t e r e a c h o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o i n d i c a t e how o f t e n y o u e x p e r i e n c e what i s d e s c r i b e d . Answer i n t e r m s o f a good same-sex f r i e n d . N e v er My f r i e n d shows c o n c e r n f o r my w e l f a r e and h e l p s promote i t . I f e e l a b l e t o ask my f r i e n d f o r a d v i c e on where t o g e t a d e a l o r on what b r a n d name t o buy. I f e e l f r e e t o e x p r e s s my p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s t o my f r i e n d . My f r i e n d t e a c h e s me t o do t h i n g s l i k e p l a y a s p o r t o r make s o m e t h i n g . I t a l k t o my f r i e n d a b o u t p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s . I ask my f r i e n d f o r a d v i c e c o n c e r n i n g my p r e s e n t j o b s i t u a t i o n o r f u t u r e work o r r e t i r m e n t p l a n s . My f r i e n d shows t h a t h e /she knows how I f e e l even when I c a n ' t p u t i t i n t o words. I e n j o y b u i l d i n g o r making t h i n g s a n d / o r o r g a n i z i n g / p l a n n i n g t h i n g s w i t h my f r i e n d . 13(a) How o f t e n do you see t h i s f r i e n d ? P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t s y o u r answer. A l w a y s 3 4 1. once a month o r l e s s 2. 2 - 3 t i m e s a month 3. 4 - 5 t i m e s a month 4 . 6 - 7 t i m e s a month 5. 8 o r more t i m e s a month 76 13(b) O v e r a l l , how c l o s e would y o u say you and t h i s f r i e n d a r e ? C i r c l e t h e number on t h e s c a l e f o r y o u r answer. NOT AT ALL CLOSE EXTREMELY CLOSE 1 2 3 4 5 14. The f o l l o w i n g s e t s of words c a n be u s e d t o d e s c r i b e e i t h e r two p e o p l e i n a f r i e n d s h i p o r t h e f r i e n d s h i p i t s e l f . P l a c e an X on t h e l i n e between t h e two words t o i n d i c a t e how much YOU b e l i e v e t h e word d e s c r i b e s a same-sex f r i e n d s h i p . T h i s d o e s n o t mean YOUR same-sex f r i e n d s h i p , b u t r a t h e r any s u c h f r i e n d s h i p . i n t i m a t e n o n - i n t i m a t e bad good r e l a x e d n e r v o u s w o r t h l e s s v a l u a b l e a c c e p t a b l e u n a c c e p t a b l e u n s u c c e s s f u l s u c c e s s f u l s t a b l e u n s t a b l e u n i m p o r t a n t i m p o r t a n t 77 In a n s w e r i n g t h e n e x t few q u e s t i o n s , keep i n mind t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f f r i e n d : A good f r i e n d i s someone y o u l i k e , someone w i t h whom you e n j o y d o i n g t h i n g s , a n d / o r someone w i t h whom you f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e d i s c u s s i n g p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s . 15. How i m p o r t a n t a r e f r i e n d s h i p s t o you? NOT AT ALL VERY IMPORTANT IMPORTANT 1 2 3 4 5 16. How a c c e p t a b l e do you f e e l i t i s ( o r wou l d be) a) f o r you t o have f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h members of t h e o p p o s i t e sex? (REMEMBER t h i s does n o t mean w i t h a s p o u s e / c o h a b i t o r o r r o m a n i t c p a r t n e r . ) NOT AT ALL COMPLETELY ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE b) f o r y o u r s p o u s e t o have f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h members of t h e o p p o s i t e sex? ( I f y o u do n o t have a spouse answer how you t h i n k y ou wou l d i f y o u had a s p o u s e . ) NOT AT ALL COMPLETELY ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE 1 2 3 4 5 78 IF YOU ARE MARRIED, COHABITING OR HAVE A ROMANTIC PARTNER PLEASE ANSWER THIS NEXT QUESTION, OTHERWISE GO ON TO PART I I I 17. How a c c e p t a b l e do you t h i n k y o u r p a r t n e r f e e l s i t i s a) f o r you t o have a f r i e n d s h i p w i t h someone o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x ? NOT AT ALL COMPLETELY ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE 1 2 3 4 5 b) f o r t h e m s e l v e s t o have a f r i e n d s h i p w i t h someone o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x ? NOT AT ALL COMPLETELY ACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE 1 2 3 4 5 PART I I I GENERAL OPINION AND RELATED QUESTIONS T h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h e f r i e n d s h i p q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n s t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . Answer e a c h q u e s t i o n a s a c c u r a t e l y a s you can, 18. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e how a c c u r a t e YOU THINK e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g 30 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b e h a v i o u r s a r e i n d e s c r i b i n g what y o u a r e l i k e . P l a c e a number from t h e s c a l e below b e s i d e e a c h of t h e 30 words t o i n d i c a t e how t r u e t h e y a r e i n d e s c r i b i n g what you a r e l i k e . The s c a l e i s : 1 = n e v e r o r a l m o s t n e v e r t r u e 2 = u s u a l l y n o t t r u e 3 = sometimes but i n f r e q u e n t y t r u e 4 = o c c a s i o n a l l y t r u e 5 = o f t e n t r u e 6 = u s u a l l y t r u e 7 = a l w a y s o r a l m o s t a l w a y s t r u e 79 u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l i a b l e s i n c e r e warm_ t r u t h f u l _ c o n s c i e n t i o u s s e n s i t i v e t o t h e needs o f o t h e r s l o v e c h i l d r e n w i l l i n g t o t a k e a s t a n d f r i e n d l y _ l i k a b l e _ t a c t f u l have l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y dominant_ happy_ t e n d e r s y m p a t h e t i c e a g e r t o s o o t h e h u r t f e e l i n g s w i l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s i n d e p e n d e n t d e f e n d s own b e l i e f s_ c o m p a s s i o n a t e _ has s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y _ h e l p f u l _ a s s e r t i v e _ a d a p t a b l e _ f o r c e f u l _ a f f e c t i o n a t e _ g e n t l e _ a g g r e s s i v e ^ 19. F o r t h i s s e c o n d q u e s t i o n p l e a s e i n d i c a t e how o f t e n y o u f e e l t h e way d e s c r i b e d i n e a c h of t h e s t a t e m e n t s . Use t h e s c a l e a t t h e r i g h t and c i r c l e t h e number f o r e a c h s t a t e m e n t t o i n d i c a t e how o f t e n y o u f e e l t h a t way. Never R a r e l y Sometimes O f t e n 1 2 3 4 I f e e l i n t u n e w i t h t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d me. No one r e a l l y knows me w e l l . I c an f i n d c o m p a n i o n s h i p when I want i t . P e o p l e a r e a r o u n d me but not w i t h me. 3 3 3 3 80 20. T h i s n e x t (and l a s t ! ) q u e s t i o n u s e s some o f t h e same words a s q u e s t i o n 18. T h i s t i m e , however, I would l i k e y ou t o i n d i c a t e how a c c u r a t e YOU THINK e a c h o f t h e 30 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b e h a v i o u r s a r e i n : a) d e s c r i b i n g what WOMEN a r e l i k e b) d e s c r i b i n g what MEN a r e l i k e P l e a s e do n o t r e f e r back t o q u e s t i o n 18. A g a i n , p l a c e a number from t h e s c a l e i n t h e b l a n k b e s i d e e a c h o f t h e 30 words, f i r s t t o i n d i c a t e how much y o u b e l i e v e t h e word d e s c r i b e s " w h a t women a r e l i k e , a nd s e c o n d l y , what men a r e l i k e . The s c a l e i s : 1 = n e v e r or a l m o s t n e v e r t r u e 2 = u s u a l l y n ot t r u e 3 = sometimes b u t i n f r e q u e n t y t r u e 4 = o c c a s i o n a l l y t r u e 5 = o f t e n t r u e 6 = u s u a l l y t r u e 7 = a l w a y s o r a l m o s t a l w a y s t r u e How a c c u r a t e i s e a c h word i n d e s c r i b i n g WOMEN? tender_ dominant_ r e l i a b l e _ a d a p t a b l e e a g e r t o s o o t h e h u r t f e e l i n g s a g g r e s s i v e _ s e n s i t i v e t o t h e needs o f o t h e r s s y mpathet i c _ l i k a b l e c o n s c l e n t I O U S t r u t h f u l _ has s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y warm_ s i n c e r e has l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y f r i e n d l y _ w i l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s c o m p a s s i o n a t e _ d e f e n d s own b e l i e f s happy_ u n d e r s t a n d i n g _ i n d e p e n d e n t w i l l i n g t o t a k e a s t a n d l o v e c h i l d r e n _ a s s e r t i v e _ t a c t f u l _ h e l p f u l _ a f f e c t i o n a t e _ f o r c e f u l g e n t l e 81 How accurate i s tender dominant each r e l i a b l e . adaptable eager to soothe hurt f e e l i n g s — a g gressive. s e n s i t i v e t o the needs of o t h e r s _ sympathetic^ l i k a b l e . c o n s c i e n t i o u s . word i n d e s c r i b i n g t r u t h f u l has s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y . warm, s i n c e r e . has l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y . MEN? happy, understanding independent w i l l i n g to tak a stand f r i e n d l y . w i l l i n g to take r i s k s compassionate. defends own b e l i e f s . l o v e c h i l d r e n a s s e r t i v e t a c t f u l h e l p f u l a f f e c t i o n a t e f o r c e f u l g e n t l e 82 A p p e n d i x C THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S c h o o l of F a m i l y and N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s 2205 E a s t M a l l VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 D i v i s i o n o f F a m i l y S c i e n c e s To a MALE member o f t h e h o u s e h o l d : R e c e n t l y y ou r e c e i v e d a r e q u e s t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s t u d y h a v i n g t o do w i t h a d u l t f r i e n d s h i p s . You may a l s o have r e c e i v e d a " f r i e n d l y " r e m i n d e r a s k i n g t h a t y ou c o m p l e t e and r e t u r n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t y o u r e a r l i e s t o p p o r t u n i t y . I r e a l i z e t h a t by t h a t t i m e y ou may have m i s p l a c e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I am e n c l o s i n g a s e c o n d c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e hope t h a t y ou w i l l t a k e a few m i n u t e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . I have come back t o you w i t h t h i s t h i r d r e q u e s t b e c a u s e i t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t when d o i n g " m a i l - o u t " r e s e a r c h t h a t t h e g r o u p of p e o p l e f i r s t s a m p l e d a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I f o n l y a few o f t h e s e p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e t h e n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n we g a t h e r i s not an a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n o f how " p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l " f e e l a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . YOUR v i e w s a r e i m p o r t a n t b o t h b e c a u s e y o u were i n t h e o r i g i n a l sample and b e c a u s e y o u a r e MALE. A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e s t h a n m a l e s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e f i r s t r e q u e s t and I need t o h e a r more from t h e m a l e s and how t h e y view t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s . A g a i n I have e n c l o s e d a stamped s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e and a n o t h e r "penny f o r y o u r t h o u g h t s " . P l e a s e t a k e a few m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e and r e t u r n t h e e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I thank y o u s i n c e r e l y f o r y o u r e f f o r t . Y o u r s t r u l y , L i n d a M. C o n r a d G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t 84 A p p e n d i x D C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r q u a l i t y , i n t e r a c t i o n i n same- and c r o s s - s QSSF CS FS QSSF 1 .65 .30 CS 1 .29 FS 1 QCSF CC FC c l o s e n e s s and f r e q u e n c y f r i e n d s h i p s . QCSF CC FC .57 .29 .19 .35 .28 .13 .25 . 1 3 .35 1 .72 .35 1 .39 1 N o t e . QSSF = q u a l i t y o f same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s ; CS - c l o s e n e s s t o same-sex f r i e n d ; FS = f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h same-sex f r i e n d ; QCSF = q u a l i t y of c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p ; CC = c l o s e n e s s t o c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d ; FC = f r e q u e n c y of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d . 85 A p p e n d i x E I t e m - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o f s c a l e s f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s and c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s . I n d i v i d u a l i t e m s from e v a l u a t i o n o f same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s EVSSF .40 .84 .81 .88 .85 .79 .77 .78 P=.000 I n d i v i d u a l i t e m s from e v a l u a t i o n o f c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s EVCSF .30 .72 .76 .79 .76 .72 .60 .80 P<.001 N o t e . EVSSF = 8 ~ i t e m e v a l u a t i o n of same-sex f r i e n d s h i p s c a l e EVCSF = 8 - i t e m e v a l u a t i o n of c r o s s - s e x f r i e n d s h i p s c a l e 86 A p p e n d i x F R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on Q u a l i t y o f F r i e n d s h i p s BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - SEX: 1 male, 2 f e m a l e B - SEX ROLE ORIENTATION: 1 sex t y p e d , 2 a n d r o g y n o u s , 3 u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d C - LEVEL OF SEX STEREOTYPING: 1 low, 2 h i g h WITHIN SUBJECTS FACTORS ARE: D - TYPE OF FRIENDSHIP: 1 same-sex, 2 c r o s s - s e x DEGREES OF MEAN F SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 1 .03 .05 NS B 2 5.85 8.53 .001 AB 2 .39 .58 NS C 1 1 .08 1 .57 NS AC 1 .21 .31 NS BC 2 .53 .77 NS ABC 2 .00 .00 NS S-WITHIN 55 .69 D 1 8.14 33.24 .001 AD 1 1 .09 4.43 .04 BD 2 .09 .39 NS ABD 2 .26 1 .06 NS CD 1 .05 .20 NS ACD 1 .20 .81 NS BCD 2 .57 2.31 NS ABCD 2 .50 2.04 NS DS-WITHIN 55 .25 87 R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on F r e q u e n c y o f I n t e r a c t i o n BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - SEX: 1 male, 2 f e m a l e B - SEX ROLE ORIENTATION: 1 sex t y p e d , 2 a n d r o g y n o u s , 3 u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d C - LEVEL OF SEX STEREOTYPING: 1 low, 2 h i g h WITHIN SUBJECTS FACTORS ARE: D - TYPE OF FRIENDSHIP: 1 same-sex, 2 c r o s s - s e x DEGREES OF MEAN F SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 1 6.69 3.01 NS B 2 9.36 4.21 .01 AB 2 2.15 .97 NS C 1 4.32 1 .95 NS AC 1 4.91 2.21 NS BC 2 3.17 1 .43 NS ABC 2 4.69 2.11 NS S-WITHIN 61 2.22 D 1 1 .07 .77 NS AD 1 .07 .05 NS BD 2 1.17 .85 NS ABD 2 .09 .07 NS CD 1 2.70 1 .95 NS ACD 1 .09 .06 NS BCD 2 1 .36 .98 NS ABCD 2 1 .39 1 .00 NS DS-WITHIN 61 1 .39 88 R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on E v a l u a t i o n o f F r i e n d s h i p s BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - SEX: 1 male, 2 f e m a l e B - SEX ROLE ORIENTATION: 1 sex t y p e d , 2 a n d r o g y n o u s , 3 u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d C - LEVEL OF SEX STEREOTYPING: 1 low, 2 h i g h WITHIN SUBJECTS FACTORS ARE: D - TYPE OF FRIENDSHIP: 1 same-sex, 2 c r o s s - s e x DEGREES OF MEAN F SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 1 2.06 2.53 NS B 2 3.70 4.56 .01 AB 2 .43 .53 NS C 1 .17 .21 NS AC 1 .22 .27 NS BC 2 .01 .02 NS ABC 2 .06 .08 NS S-WITHIN 60 .81 D 1 .97 3.31 NS AD 1 .00 .00 NS BD 2 .26 .87 NS ABD 2 .83 2.83 NS CD 1 . 1 1 .36 NS ACD 1 .02 .08 NS BCD 2 .17 .57 NS ABCD 2 .04 .15 NS DS-WITHIN 60 .29 89 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e on A c c e p t a n c e of C r o s s - s e x F r i e n d s h i p s VARIABLES: A - SEX B - SEX ROLE ORIENTATION C - LEVEL OF SEX STEREOTYPING SOURCE DEGREES OF FREEDOM MEAN SQUARES F RATIO PROBABILITY MAIN A B C EFFECTS 4 1 2 1 2.79 .75 3.75 3.11 67 72 59 98 .04 NS .03 NS INTERACTIONS 2-WAY AB AC BC 5 2 1 2 1 .30 2.20 .91 .55 25 1 1 87 53 NS NS NS NS 3-WAY ABC 2 2 63 63 60 60 NS NS 90 A p p e n d i x G Mean s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d on a l l m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e i t e m s from t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g s c a l e s . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e v a l u e g i v e n t o t h e g r o u p "women" f o r m a s c u l i n e i t e m s f r o m t h e v a l u e g i v e n t o t h e g r o u p "men" on t h a t same m a s c u l i n e i t e m s . T h i s was done f o r a l l 10 m a s c u l i n e i t e m s . The v a l u e s were t h e n summed and a v e r a g e d . The p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d f o r t h e 10 f e m i n i n e i t e m s . A c u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s c o r e was t h e n c a l c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e mean f o r a l l f e m i n i n e i t e m s from t h e mean f o r a l l m a s c u l i n e i t e m s . The median s p l i t ( a t 1.8) was u s e d t o d i v i d e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o low and h i g h s t e r e o t y p e d g r o u p s . 91 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096947/manifest

Comment

Related Items