UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Implications for art education of strategies adopted by elementary school children during manipulation,… Bergland, Donald Lowell 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1986_A8 B47.pdf [ 8.29MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096942.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096942-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096942-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096942-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096942-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096942-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096942-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096942-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096942.ris

Full Text

IMPLICATIONS FOR ART EDUCATION OF STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN DURING MANIPULATION, RECOGNITION, AND DISCRIMINATION TASKS by DONALD LOWELL BERGLAND B.A. University of British Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1986 • DONALD LOWELL BERGLAND, 1986 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at The University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: October 1986 ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to discover the kinds of strategies and abilities revealed by elementary school children in response to tasks relating to visual structure and to determine whether the nature of those strategies and abilities would support or refute the assumption that perceptual learning and development are uniform, automatic, and universal. The study was conducted with twelve elementary school children ranging in ages from 6 to 13. It consisted of the presentation of computer-generated images which involved the subjects in manipulation, recognition, and discrimination tasks. Subjects responded verbally to the images and the questions posed by the researcher. These responses were documented on video tape and later transcribed for analysis. The nature of the subjects' responses comprised data relating to the kinds of strategies used in manipulating, recognizing, and concealing a given shape, and evidence of the ability to recognize given shapes and discriminate specific visual masking techniques. The study showed that perceptual learning and development may not be uniform, automatic, or universal. Some children responded with different abilities and strategies to visual tasks. Children with specific strategies and the ability to base those strategies on structural knowledge were most successful in recognition and discrimination tasks. Implications for the utilization of the findings by art educators, in creating and designing art programs are discussed. 111 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d s i n ce r e l y l i ke to t h a n k H o n M a c G r e g o r for o f f e r i ng m e the o p p o r t u n i t y to become i n v o l v e d i n th i s s t u d y . T h e m a n y hou r s he spen t s h a r i n g h i s t ime , know l edge , a n d b r i l l i a n t i deas , w e r e h i gh l i g h t s i n the course o f m y academ i c l i fe . I w o u l d a l so l i ke to t h a n k Theo G o l d b e r g w h o s e c r e a t i v e e ne r gy a n d sense o f ded i c a t i on he lped i n s p i r e m e no t on l y i n the t e chn i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f th i s s t u d y , b u t a lso i n the k i n d s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g needed to see i t t h r o u g h . I a l so t h a n k R o y T r a v i s w h o s e i n t e l l e c t ua l v i r t u o s i t y a n d keen i n s i g h t k e p t me h u m b l e a n d c o n t i n u a l l y consc i ous o f the w o r k s t i l l to be done. iv T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Acknowledgements iv Table of Contents v List of Tables viii List of Figures ix Chapter I. Introduction to the Study 1 A. Introduction 1 B. Statement of the Problem 2 C. Purpose of the Study . 3 D. Justification 3 E. Research Questions 4 F. Design of the Study 5 1. Sample 5 2. Setting 5 3. Instruments 6 a. Computer and Accessories (Hardware) 6 b. Computer-Generated Programs (Software) .. 6 4. Methods of Data Collection and Analysis 7 5. Limitations 8 6. Delimitations 8 7. Definitions 9 Chapter II. Review of the Literature 11 Chapter III. Conduct of the Study 21 A. Sample 21 B. Setting 21 C. Instruments 23 D. Procedure 23 E. Methods of Data Collection 25 F. Methods of Data Analysis 25 G. Preliminary Trial and Pilot Study 25 Chapter IV. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results 27 A. Introduction 27 B. Strategies Used in Manipulating a Given Shape 27 1. Procedure 27 a. Manipulation 1 28 b. Manipulation 2 28 2. Results and Interpretation 28 3. Summary 41 C. Strategies Used in Recognizing a Given Shape 42 1. Procedure 42 v a. The Structure and Administration of the Recognition Task 44 2. Results and Interpretation 44 3. Summary 56 D. Evidence of the Ability To Recognize a Given Shape ... 57 1. Procedure 57 2. Results and Interpretation 58 3. Summary 65 E. Strategies Used in Selecting a Location for Concealing a Given Shape 66 1. Procedure 66 2. Results and Interpretation 66 3. Summary 74 F. Evidence of the Ability to Discriminate the Techniques Used in Masking a Given Shape 74 1. Procedure 74 2. Results and Interpretation 75 a. Discriminating Shared Contour 78 b. Discriminating Interrupted Contour 79 < c. Discriminating Close-Color Harmony 80 3. Summary 81 Chapter V. Summary and Conclusions 82 1. Implications for Art Education 84 References 88 Appendix A 105 Appendix B 107 Appendix C 109 Appendix D I l l Appendix E 113 Appendix F 117 Appendix G 119 Appendix H 123 Appendix I 126 Appendix J 128 Appendix K 130 v i Appendix L 145 Appendix M 147 Appendix N 149 Appendix O 188 Appendix P 201 Appendix Q 204 Appendix R 237 Appendix S 244 Appendix T 246 Appendix U 249 v i i LIST OF T A B L E S Table 1 Subjects and setting 22 2 Number of operations requested in manipulating a given shape 29 3 Consistency of operational requests 30 A Frequency of operations requested 33 5 Kinds of requested operations - Rectangle 34 6 Kinds of operations requested - Circle 35 7 Kinds of requests made according to age of subjects 36 8 Methods of arriving at f i n a l images 38 9 Objectives - Final image AO 10 Nature of the recognition tasks A3 11 Number of incorrect guesses in recognizing a given shape 51 12 Incorrect guesses by shape 55 13 Incorrect guesses by masking technique 56 IA The a b i l i t y to recognize a given shape .....59 15 Ability by shape 62 16 Low scorers (under 7.25) 6A 17 Subjects making few incorrect guesses (12 or fewer) 65 18 Selected locations for concealing a given shape 67 19 Close spatial proximity to model location 70 20 Discrimination responses 76 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Number of incorrect guesses by subject 53 2 Number of incorrect guesses by task 54 3 The ab i l i t y to recognize a given shape by task .....54 4 Ability to recognize a given shape (Subject mean) 63 5 Frequency of selection in location 68 ix C H A P T E R I. INTRODUCTION TO T H E STUDY A. INTRODUCTION One important factor relating to a child's development in the visual arts is the ability to impose upon and extract from the visual world as much meaning as possible. The full understanding of this ability may come about through a study of the perceptual and cognitive processes of the child. Although art educators have shown that cognition and art do not have to be considered inimical (Carter, 1983; Eisner, 1982, 1983; Engel, 1983; Olson, 1983; Pariser, 1983), it has not always been a function of traditionally-conceived art education to provide programs that address the nature of cognitive and perceptual processes in interpreting visual information. Many educators have indicated the need for structured art programs which deal with the organization and interpretation of visual information (Cowan, 1984; Eisner, 1974; MacGregor, 1972, 1975; Rowland, 1965, 1974, 1976). Most art programs today, however, are probably structured without regard for the kinds of perceptual and cognitive information underlying the interpretation of visual structure (Cowan, 1985). The processing of visual information has traditionally been addressed within the field of perception. The concept of perception has broadened to mean more than the clinical charting of sensory input. For the purposes of this study, perception refers to the processes associated with the organization and integration of sensory data. It is concerned not only with the immediate apprehension of stimuli, but with the cognitive processes 1 Introduction to the Study / 2 involved in forming constructs. Although art educators recognize that perception does influence artistic behavior and the actual creation of art (Lansing, 1976), the usual consideration of perceptual development has been casual. The perceptual world is basically taken for granted. Involvement in art experience usually takes place on the assumption that learning about visual structure is automatic and universal. Vernon (1970) has stated that it is known that individual differences exist in many types of perception, but that there is little systematic work into the study of these. Various ways of explaining perception in cognitive terms have been developed (Goodenough, 1926; Gibson, 1969), and attempts have even been made to develop programs which identify and train the perceptual abilities used in classifying and structuring visual data so as to increase perceptual efficiency (MacGregor, 1977; Rowland, 1965, 1974, 1976). But there still exists a need for specific work designed to discover and explore what kinds of strategies children develop in order to make sense of what they see and how they manipulate what they see. The existence of these strategies and these individual abilities for shape recognition and manipulation among children have not yet been fully documented. B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Increased awareness of and reflective participation in the visual world can be thought of as a general aim of art education. But in order to fully realize this aim, the art educator should understand the nature of the I n t r oduc t i on to the S t u d y / 3 processes t h r o u g h w h i c h v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n is so r ted a n d o r gan i z ed . T h r o u g h t h i s k i n d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c on s i d e r a t i o n c a n be g i v e n to h o w ch i l d r en m a k e sense of t he i r v i s u a l w o r l d s , h o w t hey look a t a n d m a k e sense o f s t r u c t u r e . C u r r e n t l y , a r t p r o g r a m s a r e c rea ted a s i f p e r c ep t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d l e a r n i n g w e r e u n i f o r m , a u t o m a t i c , a n d u n i v e r s a l . U n t i l ev idence to the c o n t r a r y is p r oduced , t he ep i s t emo l og i c a l a n d psycho l og i c a l bases fo r s u c h a n a s s u m p t i o n w i l l a l w a y s h a v e a p r ob l ema t i c c h a r a c t e r . C. PURPOSE OF T H E STUDY T h e pu rpo se o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y i s to add r e s s t h a t p r o b l e m a n d to p rov i de e m p i r i c a l ev idence abou t t he n a t u r e o f p e r c ep t ua l ab i l i t i e s , l e a r n i n g , a n d d e v e l o p m e n t i n ch i l d r en . T h e co l l ec ted d a t a w i l l c on t r i bu t e to the e l u c i da t i on o f t he k i n d s o f cogn i t i v e p r o ce s se s a n d s t r a t eg i e s c h i l d r en use i n m a k i n g sense o f s t r u c t u r e . I t is hoped t h a t t h i s m i g h t i n some w a y he lp c l a r i f y t he a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p e r c e p t u a l l e a r n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a re u n i v e r s a l a n d a u t o m a t i c . I n v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h a s se s se s the soundnes s o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n c a n m a k e a c on t r i b u t i o n to the f ounda t i o n u p o n w h i c h a r t educa t i on p r o g r a m s c a n be b a s e d . D. JUSTIFICATION A l t h o u g h m u c h w o r k h a s been done i n the f ie ld o f p s y cho l o gy i n a t t e m p t i n g to d i s cove r h o w c h i l d r e n g a i n i deas abou t s t r u c t u r e , t h i s w o r k h a s e i t he r b een t a s k - r e l a t e d , u s i n g c h i l d r e n s ' o w n c rea t i ons , o r h a s used pho t og r aph i c a n d d i a g r a m m a t i c m a t e r i a l t h a t is l i m i t e d i n i t s r e spon se - gene r a t i n g c apa c i t y . T h i s s t u d y u sed a c o m p u t e r to p r e s en t I n t r o du c t i o n to the S t u d y / 4 i m a g e s i n sequences o f g r ad i en t s s m a l l e nough to a l l ow finer d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s to be m a d e t h a n a re poss ib le w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l penc i l a n d p a p e r m e t h o d s . T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f pa t t e r n s o f r e cogn i t i on a n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l ed to the f o r m a t i o n o f ca tegor i es of r e l a t i v e c ompe t en c y t h a t m a y s h o w h o w c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r en t ages use p e r c e p t u a l s t r a t eg i e s i n c o m p l e t i n g spec i f i c t a s k s . I n d e t e r m i n i n g these s t r a t eg i e s , t he g r o u n d w o r k h a s been l a i d fo r f u r t h e r s t u d y i n th i s a r e a . B y u n d e r s t a n d i n g the n a t u r e o f t he s t r a t e g i e s en t a i l ed i n pe r cep t i on , f u n d a m e n t a l dec i s i ons c on ce rn i ng i m a g e p r odu c t i o n a n d recogn i t i on i n a r t educa t i on c a n be i n t e l l i g en t l y f o r m u l a t e d . E. R E S E A R C H QUESTIONS T h i s s t u d y d ea l s w i t h t w o k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s : bu i l d i n g u p v a r i a t i o n s on a s i m p l e f o r m (man i pu l a t i o n ) , a n d b r e a k i n g d o w n c o m p l e x f o r m s i n the d i s c o ve r y o f s i m p l e f o r m s ( recogn i t ion) . A s p e c t s o f t hese ac t i v i t i e s a re i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the f o r m o f s i x r e s e a r c h ques t i ons . a . G i v e n a s i m p l e s hape , w h a t k i n d s o f m a n i p u l a t i o n s w i l l the subject r e que s t i n o r d e r to exp l o i t i t s pe r ce i ved p rope r t i e s ? b. W h a t a c c oun t s w i l l the subjec ts p r ov i de o f the s t r a t e g i e s used i n the m a n i p u l a t i o n p rocess? c. T o w h a t e x t e n t w i l l sub jec ts be ab le to recogn i ze a s imp l e shape concea l ed w i t h i n a se r i es o f s i m i l a r s hapes ? Introduction to the Study / 5 d. How will subjects respond to the masking of the shape by shared contour, interrupted contour, and close-color harmony, and be able to discriminate the differences between them? e. How will subjects respond to the converse of the recognition activity in being able to select their own concealment locations for a given shape? f. How will the subjects verbally articulate the strategies used in the recognition, concealment, and discrimination tasks? F. DESIGN OF T H E STUDY 1. Sample Twelve children between 6 and 13 years old comprised the sample tested. These were selected to provide 4 each from the age groups 6-8 years old, 9-11 years old, and 12-13 years old. 2. Setting An environment was selected that allowed for the monitoring of verbal responses between subject and computer-generated images. Subjects were seated in a chair about three feet from the video screen monitor. Introduction to the Study / 6 3. Instruments The instruments consisted of the computer and related accessories (hardware), the computer-generated program (software), and the collected field notes. a. Computer and Accessories (Hardware) For this study a Sony SMC-70G microcomputer (See Appendix A, p. 105), with an RGB Trinitron Color Monitor (See Appendix B, p. 107) was used. The screen size was 9 x 12 inches. In addition, a Summagraphics M1201 Data Tablet with stylus was used for the manipulation sequence (See Appendix C, p. 109). b. Computer-Generated Programs (Software) The basic program used in this study involved two phases, a manipulation sequence and a recognition sequence. The programs for both these sequences were created and generated with the Sony CP/M Disk Graphics Editor (See Appendix D, p. I l l ) giving a standard resolution plane of 320 x 200 in 16 basic colors. The program was stored on twelve separate micro disks (See Appendix E, p. 113). The Manipulation sequence involved two pre-created images which were stored for use on one disk. This sequence involved the individual manipulation by the subject of two shapes, a rectangle and a circle. The researcher performed the physical manipulations in response to verbal instructions by the subjects. Introduction to the Study / 7 The Recognition sequence involved four shapes (See Appendix F, p. 117) hidden by means of three different masking techniques (See Appendix G, p. 119). The shape was initially displayed for identification and then hidden in a display through the use of one particular masking technique. The subject attempted to recognize the shape through ten stages of decreasing complexity. This sequence consisted of 156 images stored on 11 disks. Four shapes, a rectangle, triangle, circle, and free-form, were each masked three times using Shared Contour masking, Interrupted Contour masking, and Close-Color Harmony masking, producing twelve basic tasks. Each task was then simplified through 10 gradients. 4. Methods of Data Collection and Analysis The entire project was recorded on video tape and the recognition task ability scores and concealment locations were recorded on specially prepared response sheets (See Appendix H, p. 123). Observer notes were also taken. The video tapes were transcribed and content analysis was performed on the collected data. Introduction to the Study / 8 5. Limitations This study was limited by a number of factors. The sample was collected only from one school. It was limited to a very small and select sample, i.e M subjects selected by teachers and then by parental consent. No other tests were conducted with the subjects and results from other standardized tests were not available. Because of these limiting factors, generalizing was not attempted. The study was also limited by the artificial and contrived setting and the contraints of time. The manipulation sequence was determined by the nature and limited versatility of the computer and its programming capabilities. Certain requests could not be processed. The recognition sequence was limited by the nature of the masking and image degradation that could be accomplished on this equipment. The kinds of images presented to the subjects were of a very specific kind, i.e., computer graphics presented on a television screen. 6. Delimitations In designing and conducting this study a deliberate choice was made not to use subjects under 6 or over 13 years old. A choice was also made not to conduct it in a more natural setting, nor to extend the study to images presented by means other than through computer images on a television screen. Introduction to the Study / 9 7. D e f i n i t i o n s Ability - Compentence at any particular point in time. Contrasted with capacity, which refers to potential (Eisner, 1983). Close-Color Harmony - A masking technique which utilizes a background of similar shapes in closely-related colors to mask foreground shapes superimposed over the background in outline only (See Appendix G, p. 119). Discrimination - The ability to perceive and respond to differences between stimuli (Fellows, 1968; Greene & Hicks, 1984). Distractor - A shape or other visual element used to conceal the target shape. Interrupted Contour - A masking technique in which contours of shapes are overlapped (See Appendix G, p. 119). Manipulation - The physical change of the shape or its component parts. Masking - The process of blocking one image by another (Statt, 1981). Perception - The processes associated with the organization and integration of sensory data. It is concerned not only with the immediate apprehension Introduction to the Study / 10 of stimuli, but also with the cognitive processes involved in forming constructs. Recognition - The act of comparing the representation of an image to one stored in memory (Glass, Hollyoak, & Santa, 1979). Shared Contour - A masking technique in which all shapes share common contours (See Appendix G, p. 119). Strategy - A set of mental operations used in the acquisition, retention, and utilization of information in order to achieve some objective (Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1962). Target Shape - The shape presented to the subject for study and then concealed. The shape to be found. CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE What evidence is there that children respond to and manipulate shapes with different strategies and abilities? This question involves exploration in the areas of perception, cognition, and developmental theory. The study of perception is considered by some to be paramount in understanding human existence (Ittelson, 1973) and by others as a foundational area for education and especially art education (Stroh, 1983). A history of the development of perceptual theory is not germane to this study. Others have done detailed work in this respect (Boring, 1942; Hochberg, 1962; Matlin, 1983; Pastore, 1971; Wertheimer, 1974). But some knowledge of the seminal ideas and theories is necessary, if only to indicate how the foundational ideas of art education are dated. Many of us who teach design or drawing are not aware of much information which has been gathered by psychologists during this century, and we still teach many of the ideas about human perception which are, literally, 19th century ideas (Stroh, 1983, p. 45). An overview of the prevalent ideas in perception may be useful, therefore, in familiarizing art educators with the theories presently provided by psychologists. This brief overview should be regarded not as an attempt to cover the field, but simply to set a frame within which the family of cognitive approaches to perception may be identified. This study takes the position that cognitive ability and perception are interactive in learning. 11 Review of the Literature / Although there are many different ways of classifying approaches to perception, four main ones can be identified for the purposes of this overview (Matlin, 1983). The Empiricist approach, initiated in the 17th century, emphasizes that all information comes from sensory experience and perception. All perceptual ability must come from learning. Some elements of this approach are still popular today. The Gestalt approach came about as an objection to the Empiricist approach. It emphasizes that we perceive objects as wholes rather than as separate parts and that shape perception is innate. Perceptual learning, therefore, is relatively unimportant (Matlin, 1983). The Gibsonian approach was developed by James Gibson (1950, 1966), and emphasizes that perception is direct and that we do not need to perform "calculations and interpretations in order to perceive" QMatlin, 1983, p. 7). Gibson's ideas have been very influential, affecting many researchers working in the field (Mace, 1977; Neisser, 1976; Turvey & Shaw, 1977). The Information-Processing approach to perception was developed in response to computer and communication science. This approach emphasizes that information is handled in a series of individual stages and that sensation, perception, and other higher mental functions are interrelated rather than separate from each other (Matlin, 1983) and that they must be dealt with within the concept of a single system (Haber, 1974). The Review of the Literature / 13 Information-Processing approach is but one approach that has led to the development of a model that sees sensation, perception and all higher mental processes as interdependent and unified in the field of cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology has sometimes been called "information-processing psychology" (Glass, Holyoak, Santa, 1979). and many working in the field acknowledge the popularity of this model (Howard, 1983; Klahr & Wallace, 1976: Lachman, Lachman, & Butterfield, 1979; Rohwer, Ammon, & Cramer, 1974). Cognitive psychology "refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used" (Neisser, 1967, p. 17). It is concerned with general principles of how the mind works and deals with perception, learning, memory, and thinking (Wickelgren, 1979). Because it deals with the mind and its intellectual functions, many art educators have rejected it as being irrelevant and even inimical to the processes of art. Recently, however, many educators have put forth excellent arguments for the cognitive status of the arts (Arnheim, 1969, 1983; Eisner, 1982, 1983; Engel, 1983; MacGregor, 1983). Their claim is that the arts are cognitive in nature and cannot exist independently from thought. They make it quite clear that many cognitive processes must function in the artistic act. An essential part of the artistic process is recognition, a cognitive function. Without the act of recognition, a sustained existence in the visual world would be impossible. One of the essential components of recognition is Review of the Literature / memory. Recognition and memory are essential to the artistic act and are vital components of the present study. The importance of memory in recognition tasks has been studied extensively. Work relating to the unreliability of memory and the fact that forgetting takes place very quickly has been conducted (Peterson & Peterson, 1959; Sternberg, 1970; Wickelgren, 1973). Studies have also been conducted as to how spatial knowledge is represented in memory Q3aum, 1977; Jonides & Baum, 1978). The evidence gathered from these studies indicates that the memory stores spatial knowledge using specific visual strategies. There also exists evidence to suggest that in memory tasks, fewer errors are made when information is presented visually than when it is presented verbally QKroll, Parks, Parkinson, Bieder, & Johnson, 1970). In the present study, recognition of shape is a primary task. Most of the psychological work on recognition memory has been focused on visual capabilities (Glass, Holyoak, Santa, 1979). According to Glass, Holyoak, and Santa (1979), recognition consists of a process by which the representation of an input is matched against the contents of memory, followed by a decision to evaluate whether the matching process was successful (p. 57). Much research has been conducted concerning masking techniques and distractors in the recognition process. Distractors similar to the target item result in confusion, but if the distractors are dissimilar, recognition memory increases (Glass, Holyoak, Santa, 1979). The kinds of masking procedures employed and the particular individual who responds to them have also been studied (Witkin, Lewis, Hertzman, Machover, Review of the Literature / Meissner, & Wapner, 1954). If the recognition process consists of matching accompanied by an individual decision as to the success of the matching process, the nature of incorrect and successful responses must be significant. Falmagne (1972) has indicated that a subject's confidence in a hypothesis is strengthened as the number of guesses increases. Work exists to show the alternative strategies that subjects use when told that a response is incorrect (Trabasso & Bower, 1966). Various individual research projects in the field of cognitive psychology elucidate the nature of individual recognition strategies. Subjects appear to learn rule-based strategies and these also appear to reduce recognition problems (Bourne, 1967). Subjects appear to retain the same strategy after success in recognition tasks (Levine, 1966). There exists information to indicate that a number of different strategies are used following incorrect guesses (Coltheart, 1973; Levine, 1966; Millward & Spoehr, 1973). Because organized learning about various recognition strategies is not practised, children are usually left to develop their own strategies. Some strategies are more effective than others. Some are extremely inefficient (Dunn Rankin, 1978; Matlin, 1983). One important aspect of cognition and perception relevant to this study is shape and pattern recognition. This area has been extensively researched (Dodd & White, 1980; Juola, 1979). In harmony with the information-processing approach to perception and cognition, computer programs have been developed to recognize visual patterns (Lindsay & Review of the Literature / Norman, 1977; Rumelhart, 1977; Selfridge, 1959; Selfridge & Neisser, 1960). Although many different theories of pattern recognition have been developed, three important ones appear in the literature. The template matching theory attempts to account for pattern recognition through the comparison of an object to a specific pattern or template (Anderson, 1980; Juola, 1979; Matlin, 1983). This theory has largely been abandoned as being too inefficient (Juola, 1979; Kaufman, 1979; Matlin, 1983). The Distinctive Features theory accounts for pattern recognition through the distinguishing of distinctive features (Matlin, 1983). This theory was developed by Eleanor Gibson (E.J. Gibson, 1969; E.J. Gibson & Levin, 1975). The theory has many critics and has, like the template matching theory, been abandoned by many investigators (Juola, 1979; Naus & Shillman, 1976). The Prototype matching theory proposes that we compare an object with an ideal figure or prototype to see if it matches (Matlin, 1983). The difference between this and the Template theory is that prototype patterns are abstract and not specific in shape whereas templates are specific. There are many current proponents of this particular theory (Franks & Bransford, 1971; Naus & Shillman, 1976; Posner, Goldsmith, & Welton, 1967). There also exist many other ideas to bring the perceptual and cognitive worlds into union. Howard Gardner (1983) has developed a theory of Review of the Literature / spatial intelligence to account for the capacities used in perceiving the visual world accurately and in performing transformations and modifications upon those initial perceptions. The present study concerns itself not only with the ways in which children might recognize and manipulate shape, but also with the differences in ability and development that might be evident. The idea of cognitive or intellectual development has been around since the 19th century (Case, 1985) and has itself undergone many developments. In 1894, James Baldwin first proposed a theory of cognitive development which involved three stages through which a child passed. Jean Piaget elaborated on Baldwin's concepts and devised a fourstage theory which covered the child's development to adulthood. Pascal-Leone (1969) attempted to devise a new theory which eliminated the weaknesses of Piaget's theories. Jerome Bruner (1964, 1968) offered a theory of cognitive development which was a "counterpoint" to Piaget's (Case, 1985, p.40). Both Piaget (Flavell, 1963) and Bruner (1973) argue that the child's thinking is at first very concrete and tied to sensory experience and then develops towards more abstraction independent of perception. Heinz Werner (1957) developed a theory which views the child's cognitive and perceptual abilities as undergoing a gradual change from general, vague, and global, to more distinct and articulated. Today, developmental psychology is alive with many competing ideas and theories. According to Case (1985), there are three basic perspectives in regard to Review of the Literature / 18 the application of developmental theory to education. The Piagetian perspective views the child as a rational and autonomous scientist. The Brunerian perspective sees the child as the user of cultural tools. The Information-Processing perspective sees the child as a "manipulator of symbols whose internal procedures for performing these manipulations are learned from experience" (Case, 1985). It is interesting to note that the Information-Processing model can be seen as a common linking feature between cognitive psychology, perceptual theory, and intellectual development. Much work has been done in the field of perceptual learning (Dodwell, 1970; Gibson & Gibson, 1955; Hebb, 1949; Held & Hein, 1963; Postman, 1955; Rock, 1966; Salapateck & Kessen, 1966). The role of learning in perceptual development has been experimentally displayed (Von Senden, 1960) and many experimental studies show improved perception with learning (Fantz, 1961; Riesen, 1947, 1953, 1961; Siegel, 1953). Some art educators have investigated the relationship of perceptual training to areas of learning and behavior in art and have concluded that training strategies affect art behavior (Silverman, 1962). The systematic teaching of perceptual skills improves visual perception (Salome, 1965). In general, there is much experimental work to support the idea that older children respond in different ways to visual stimuli than do younger children (Anglin, 1977; Flavell, 1977; Hale & Taweel, 1974; Matlin, 1983; Meyer, 1978; Neisser, 1979; Mednick & Lehtinen, 1957; Odom & Review of the Literature / Guzman, 1972; Nelson, 1974; Riess, 1946; Vurpillot, 1968, 1976; Yonas & Gibson, 1967). However, no universal and consistent principles relating age and perceptual and cognitive development have been made. Some researchers have determined that individual differences in order of appearance in development are the rule rather than the exception (Klahr & Wallace, 1976). Another approach to visual development has been adopted by some art educators. This approach involves the examination of childrens' drawings as an indicator of intellectual maturity (Goodenough, 1924; Harris, 1963). Viktor Lowenfeld, the most famous proponent of this approach, based his theory of development on the examination of children's drawings. According to his theory, there are five stages through which children move. These are natural aspects of human development (Lowenfeld & Brittain, 1982). Although perceptual growth is mentioned as a desirable aim of art education, it is assumed that it will occur naturally, as a consequence of involvement with art production. Probably the greatest criticism in using drawings for determining the full extent of the child's development is summarized by Vernon (1976). Several studies reveal that young children are highly inaccurate in copying shapes. One might conclude that children have poor shape perception. However, "children can discriminate between different shapes even if they cannot copy them correctly" (Matlin, 1983, p. 321). The limitations of this approach are evident. In order "to understand a child's development, one Review of the Literature / 20 would have to go far beyond his drawing" (McFee, 1970, p. 23). It is in the use of the ideas, concepts, and theories offered by cognitive psychology, perceptual research, and developmental theory that the most complete evidence can be gained about children's abilities and strategies for manipulating and recognizing given shapes. The conduct of this study is based on that premise. CHAPTER III. CONDUCT OF THE STUDY A. SAMPLE Twelve elementary school children ranging in ages from 6 to 13 were selected by individual classroom teachers in one elementary school as suitable for participation in the project. The final selection was made with the help of a parental consent form (See Appendix I). The subjects were selected on the basis of interest and ability to verbalize. No other criteria were stipulated. Although this study attempted to involve an equal number of male and female subjects, seven female and five male subjects only were available for participation (See Table 1). The researcher is aware of the possible bias resulting from the initial selection process and the use of a parental consent form (Kearney, 1983). B. SETTING The study was conducted in the Learning Assistance room at University Hill Elementary School, 5395 Chancellor Boulevard, Vancouver, B.C. during the week from Monday June 9 to Friday June 13, 1986. The subjects were seen during three different periods of the day, 8:45 to 10:15, 10:40 21 Conduct of the Study / 22 to 12:00, and 12:45 to 2:15 (See Table 1). Table 1 Subjects and Setting Subject Age Sex Test Period Subject 1 6.6 F Monday 12:45-2:15 Subject 2 6.8 M Monday 8:45-10:15 Subject 3 7.3 F Friday 10:40-12:00 Subject 4 7.4 M Monday 10:40-12:00 Subject 5 9.1 M Tuesday 8:45-10:15 Subject 6 9.2 F Tuesday 10:40-12:00 Subject 7 10.8 F Wednesday 8:45-10:15 Subject 8 10.11 F Tuesday 12:45-2:15 Subject 9 12.5 F Thursday 10:40-12:00 Subject 10 12.7 M Thursday 8:45-10:15 Subject 11 12.11 M Wednesday 10:40-12:00 Subject 12 13.3 F Friday 8:45-10:15 Conduct of the Study / 23 C. INSTRUMENTS The equipment was arranged in a suitable manner in the allocated room (See Appendix J , p. 126). Consideration was given to the ease of visual and physical access to the video monitor screen and the ease of administration by the researcher. The computer was situated so as to allow the best possible control by the researcher. The video monitor was made easily accessible both to the subject and the researcher. The Data Tablet and stylus were used by the researcher only in the manipulation sequence and became a surface for note-taking and documenting scores in the recognition sequence. The software, in the form of twelve micro disks, was arranged in sequential order and held in ready access for use. D. PROCEDURE Following a schedule issued by the school principal, the researcher called at the appointed classroom and brought the subject back to the allocated room. A brief and informal discussion was initiated by the researcher in order to put the subjects at ease The subjects were seated in the same location, about three feet from the video. monitor screen. They were seen individually and only for one session each. The basic rationale for the project was explained along with the general expectations for participation. The VCR was then turned on and the actual project began. Detailed instructions were given regarding each step in the study and every attempt was made to clear up all problems in understanding. The study began with the manipulation sequence and documentation of the Conduct of the Study / 24 kinds of changes the subject requested in order to change the appearance of the rectangle and circle (See Appendix K, p. 130). Termination of this activity was determined by the subject. After the subject terminated manipulation for the two activities, the recognition sequence was immediately presented. Standardized instructions were then given concerning subject expectations for the twelve recognition tasks (See Appendix K, p. 130). Subjects were shown a shape and asked to remember it. They were then asked to find it while it was hidden in a complex array of similar shapes. After finding the target shape, the subject was then asked to find a suitable concealment location for the shape. After indicating the desired location, the subject was immediately presented with the next recognition task until the twelve tasks were completed. Immediately after tasks 3 ORectangle), 6 (Triangle), and 9 (Circle), the subject was shown an image illustrating the three different masking techniques used (Shared Contour, Interrupted Contour, and Close Color Harmony). On those occasions the subject was asked to identify the differences among these three techniques. The entire period spent with each individual subject was approximately 90 minutes. After this period, the subject returned to the classroom while the researcher wrote any comments that might be appropriate to the study. This process was repeated for the twelve subjects involved in the study. Conduct of the Study / 25 E. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Documentation of the procedure consisted of video tape, response sheets, and observer notes. The entire procedure was recorded on video tape for later transcription and analysis. Evidence of the ability to recognize shapes and the choices for concealment locations were recorded on prepared sheets of paper (See Appendix H, p. 123). Informal notes were made by the researcher during the procedure and at the conclusion of each subject's session. F. METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS The twelve video tapes comprising the twelve subjects' project participation were later transcribed into a written set of notes. Content analysis of the verbal responses and descriptions and the numerical data gathered from the response sheets was used to determine strategies and abilities employed in the areas of shape manipulation, shape recognition, recognition ability, choices and strategies for location, and discrimination ability. G. PRELIMINARY TRIAL AND PILOT STUDY A preliminary trial was conducted in April 1986. This trial resulted in a number of alterations in the procedural conduct of the study. It was discovered that in order to conduct the project in an efficient and effective way, consideration had to be given to the actual physical orderliness of the presentation. The physical distribution and layout of all equipment had to allow for smooth sequencing of all images and had to allow the subject both visual and physical access to the video monitor screen. It was found Conduct of the Study / 26 necessary to visually number the recognition sub-tasks in decreasing order, and the images comprising the recognition sequence held in disk storage had to be presented in a fashion other than that allowed by the "Load" computer function. This was solved by using the Slide Show function which is a feature of the Sony SMC-70G (See Appendix L, p. 145). It was also noted that a consistent and strictly ordered questioning technique by the researcher was necessary (See Appendix K, p. 130). The appropriate changes were made and observed in a subsequent pilot study. The pilot study was conducted early in June, 1986. This study showed a vast improvement in presentation over that observed in the preliminary trial. The only caution resulting from this study was the observation to remain careful and consistent in questioning techniques. C H A P T E R I V . A N A L Y S I S A N D I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F T H E R E S U L T S A . I N T R O D U C T I O N The study consisted of a manipulation sequence and a recognition sequence. All images used in these sequences were generated on the Sony microcomputer and were presented to the subjects on the video monitor. The subjects responded verbally to all questions and all computer functions were controlled by the researcher. Each subject in the study was considered individually B . S T R A T E G I E S U S E D I N M A N I P U L A T I N G A G I V E N S H A P E 1. P r o c e d u r e The manipulation sequence consisted of two parts. The first part employed a rectangle as the object of manipulation and was referred to as manipulation 1, while the second part employed a circle as the object of manipulation and was referred to as manipulation 2. These two parts were presented in order and sequentially. After finishing with manipulation 1 the subject was immediately presented with the tasks involved in manipulation 2. 27 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 28 o. Manipulation 1 The subject was first presented with the image of a rectangle and asked to identify it (See Appendix F, p. 117). The subject was then asked to think of ways to change the shape so that it looked different. All changes were to be considered in terms of the given shape itself: rectangular additions, horizontal and vertical lines for manipulation 1, and circular additions and lines for manipulation 2. The computer had certain functional limitations which precluded carrying out certain operations (See Appendix M, p. 147). The question was repeated after each requested operation had been performed until the subject wished to stop. At this point the subject was introduced to the tasks involved in manipulation 2. b. Manipulation 2 This part was identical in procedure and administration to the tasks of manipulation 1, except that a circle rather than a rectangle was the object of manipulation (See Appendix F, p. 117). 2. Results and Interpretation The purpose of this sequence was to determine in part the kinds of strategies that might be employed in manipulating a given shape. For the purposes of this study, a strategy refers to a set of mental operations used to achieve an objective. A manipulation strategy, therefore, consists of the number and kinds of operations performed on a given shape and the objective towards which those operations moved. In response to the question, "What can you do to make that shape look different." the Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 29 subject requested the performance of an operation (See Appendix N, p. 149). The number of operations requested by the subject was one of the constituents of the overall strategy. As table 2 indicates, the number of operations requested for both manipulation tasks ranged from 6 to 37 operations. Table 2 Number of Operations Requested in Manipulating _a_ Given Shape Subject Rectangle Circle Total Subject 1 8 10 18 Subject 2 10 6 16 Subject 3 4 2 6 Subject 4 8 10 18 Subject 5 21 16 37 Subject 6 11 12 23 Subject 7 10 9 19 Subject 8 4 5 9 Subject 9 6 4 10 Subject 10 6 9 15 Subject 11 3 5 8 Subject 12 6 3 9 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 30 Roughly the same number of operations was requested for both manipulation tasks. The number of operations requested by each subject remained fairly consistent for both activities. A subject who requested a large number of operations for manipulation 1 usually requested a large number of operations for manipulation 2. The converse was generally also true. Subjects who requested very few operations for one activity also requested very few for the other activity (See Table 3). Table 3 Consistency of Operational Requests Subject Rectangle Circle Total Subject 1 M* M M Subject 2 M M M Subject 3 L L L Subject 4 M M M Subject 5 H H H Subject 6 M M M Subject 7 M M M Subject 8 L L L Subject 9 L L L Subject 10 L M M Subject 11 L L L Subject 12 L L L Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 31 *The number of operations was classified as low medium or high. Rectangle - 0-7 low; 8-14 medium; 15-21 high Circle - 0-5 low; 6-10 medium; 11-16 high Total - 0-12 low; 13-24 medium; 25-37 high A convenient division of subjects into a simple age classification suggests itself by the fact that the sample consists of six subjects under the age of ten, and six subjects ten years of age and older. This classification is designated "younger" and "older" subjects and used throughout the study. In general, fewer operations were requested by the older subjects (37%) while more operations were requested by the younger subjects (63%). No significant findings were evident in an examination of the number of operations requested by sex. Research has been conducted to show that there are no real or apparent differences between sexes in visualization tasks (Linn & Petersen, 1983). In examining the components of the strategies used in manipulation, consideration was given not only to the number of operations requested, but to the kind of operations. Although a given shape can be manipulated in an infinite variety of ways, the subjects requested certain operations which could be classified as additive, alterational, positional, and subtractive. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 32 Additive operations consisted of those which added a shape or shape element or color to the existing image. Examples of these kinds of requests were, "Put a little square on top of it," "add a rectangle there," "add a big square around the whole thing." Color, when considered as an addition to the existing image is an additive operation. Alterational operations were those which somehow altered the structure of the existing image. Requests which demonstrated an alterational operation were, "Shrink it down," "Expand that middle box out," "Make it higher," "Make these lines extend out." Color was considered an alterational operation when the request was made to change the existing color. Positional operations were those which relocated or repositioned the existing image. Requests which illustrated this operation were, "Make it turn a bit," "Flop it down on its side," "Flip it right over," "Turn it around." Subtractive operations were those which removed some or all of the existing image. Examples of these requests were, "Remove those middle lines," "Take those three edges off," "Cut this part off," "Erase the top semi-circle." Although this broad classification is capable of refinements, it is a starting point in attempting to construct the nature of the strategies used. A general schema which depicts the kind and number of operations requested can be constructed from this classification. A summary of this can be Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 33 seen in Appendix O, p. 188. An interesting result which emerges from this classification concerns the number of times certain operations were requested (See Table 4). Table 4 Frequency of Operations Requested Operation Rectangle Circle Total Additive 64 (66%) 79 (87%) 143 (76%) Alterational 11 (11%) 7 ( 8%) 18 ( 9%) Positional 7 ( 7%) 0 ( 0%) 7 ( 4%) Subtractive 15 (16%) 5 ( 5%) 20 (11%) Total 97 91 188 The additive operation was the one most frequently requested (76%) while the positional operation was least frequently requested (7%). Only two subjects, both female (Subjects 7 and 9), chose to use color in their manipulations. Both these colors were requested as additions, e.g. "Add red there," and were considered additive operations. No positional operations were requested for manipulation 2 (circle), even though operational requests such as flip it over were available after some additions to the image. Tables 5 and 6 summarize the kinds of requested operations according to Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 34 individual subjects and reveal a range of different kinds of requested operations. Table 5 Kinds of Requested Operations j_ Rectangle O p e r a t i o n s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 3 14 1-5 16 17 1 8 19 2 0 21 S u b j e c t 1 s P A A A A A A S u b j e c t 2 A A A A A A A A A A S u b j e c t 3 A A A A S u b j e c t 4 A P S P P S S P S u b j e c t 5 A S A A A A A A A A S u b j e c t 6 A A A A A A A A A A S u b j e c t 7 X S X S P A A A A A S u b j e c t 8 X s X S S u b j e c t 9 A A A A A A S u b j e c t 1 0 X s X X S A S u b j e c t 11 X X S S u b j e c t 12 P s X S X S Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 35 Table 6 Kinds of Operations Requested - Circle O p e r a t i o n s S u b j e c t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 n 12 13 14 15 16 17 S u b j e c t 1 A A A A A A A A A A S u b j e c t 2 A A A A A A S u b j e c t 3 A A S u b j e c t 4 A A S A A A A A A A S u b j e c t 5 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A S u b j e c t 6 A A A A A A A A A A A A S u b j e c t 7 X A A A A A A A A S u b j e c t 8 X A A A A S u b j e c t 9 X A A A S u b j e c t 10 A X X A A A A A S S u b j e c t 11 S A A A S S u b j e c t 12 X X S Table 7 presents the kind of operational requests made with respect to Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 36 age. Table 7 Kinds of Requests Made According to Age of Subjects R e c t a n g l e Young O l d e r C i r c l e Young O l d e r T o t a l Young O l d e r A d d i t i v e A l t e r a t i o n a l P o s i t i o n a l S u b t r a c t i v e 52(812) 0 5(71Z) 5(332) 12(19Z) 11(100Z) 2 (29Z) 10(672) 55(70Z) 0 0 1(20Z) 24 (302) 7(100Z) 0 4(802) 107(75Z) 0 5(71Z) 6(30Z) 36 (25Z) 18(1002) 2 (29Z) 14 (70Z) The younger subjects tended to use long strings of additive operations and to be fairly consistent in the application of the same strategy for both manipulation activities. The older subjects tended to vary the operations requested and to choose different sets of operations for each manipulation activity. None of the younger subjects used an alterational operation while every one of the older subjects used at least one. The older subjects appeared to be much more experimental and varied in their choice of operations. No significant findings were discovered in an examination of the results according to sex. Strategy has been defined in this study as a set of operations used to achieve an objective. Since the kinds of operations involved in manipulation Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 37 strategy have been examined, it remains to examine the objectives which constitute the strategy. The objective of the operation was the changed visual appearance of the given image. Two factors were involved in the analysis of the extent to which the objective was met. First, at any stage during the operations and at the conclusion, the images could be examined. Second, the verbal responses from the subjects helped provide information as to the objective (See Appendix P, p. 201). A simple way to classify the objective was to observe those behaviors most evident in the subjects' manipulations. These observations yielded two concepts, symmetrical and representational, and their opposites, asymmetrical and non-representational as categories. It was observed that there were different ways in which a subject could arrive at images that could be classified as representational or non-Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 38 representational. (See Table 8). Table 8 Methods of Arriving at Final Images Begin Process End 1. NR* continue NR 2. NR change R 3. NR identify R R 4. NR identify R NR 5. R continue R 6. R change NR * NR = Non-Representational R = Representational Subjects arrived at a final non-representational image in three ways. Some subjects began with operations that generated non-representational images and simply continued this until the task was terminated. Others began constructing a representational image and without any verbal indication, changed the process and selection of operations so that a non representational image resulted at the end. Still others began with a non-representational image, identified something representational in it, but then continued constructing a non-representational image. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 39 There were also three ways by which subjects arrived at a representational image. Some subjects began with representational intentions and then contined these through to the end. Others began non-representationally and without any verbal indication changed the process into representational manipulation. The remainder began with a non-representational image, then verbally identified something representational in it and then continued building upon this identification. For this study and the analysis of objectives, the final image was the one classified according to the symmetrical/representational and their opposities category. Determination of this assignment was made through analysis of the final image and any verbal clues given by the subject which helped determine intention (See Appendix P, p. 201). The results, as seen in Table 9, show that the most frequent objective Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 40 was a symmetrical, non representational image (62%). Table 9 Objectives j_ Final Image Subject Rectangle Circ le Subject 1 S/N S/N Subject 2 S/R S/R Subject 3 S/N S/N Subject 4 A/N S/N Subject 5 A/R S/R Subject 6 S/N S/N Subject 7 S/N S/N Subject 8 S/N S/R Subject 9 A/N A/N Subject 10 S/N S/R Subject 11 S/N S/N Subject 12 S/N S/N S/N = 15(62%) S/R = 5(21%) A/N = 3(13%) A/R = 1( 4%) Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 41 Only one subject arrived at an asymmetrical non representational image. Most of the final images were symmetrical (83%) and non representational (75%). Eight of the twelve subjects arrived at the same objective for both manipulation activities. Examination of the data showed no relationships between age, sex, and objectives. Analyses of operations and objectives revealed that no subject requested any change which involved perspective, three-dimensional effects, or depth illusion. All manipulation was done on a two-dimensional surface using only two dimensional effects. Whether this was a product of the imposition of the restrictions or expectations set up by the computer, or some cognitive factor is material for further study. 3. S u m m a r y The subjects in this study were varied in their choices of strategies for manipulating a given shape. There was some consistency shown in the number of operations a subject would request; the older subjects generally requested fewer operations. Additive operations were requested most frequently by all subjects, however, the younger subjects tended to request them more than the older ones. No subject under ten years of age used an alterational operation while all subjects ten and older requested an alterational operation. The older subjects were much more experimental in their choice of operations. Many different ways were adopted to get to the same final image. In terms of objectives, symmetrical and non representational image objectives were by far the most common. A great Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 42 many varied types of operations were shown to lead to results which had common characteristics. The most variation in individual choice of operations seemed to come at the beginning of the activity. After one operation had been tried, a chain of similar ones followed. C. STRATEGIES USED IN RECOGNIZING A GIVEN SHAPE 1. Procedure The recognition sequence comprised twelve individual recognition tasks consisting of four different shapes masked in three different ways (See Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 43 Table 10). Table 10 Nature of the Recognition Tasks 1 2 Task Shape Masking Technique Task 1 Rectangle Shared Contour Task 2 Rectangle Interrupted Contour Task 3 Rectangle Close-Color Harmony Task 4 Triangle Shared Contour Task 5 Triangle Interrupted Contour Task 6 Triangle Close-Color Harmony Task 7 Circle Shared Contour Task 8 Circle Interrupted Contour Task 9 Circle Close-Color Harmony Task 10 Free-Form Shared Contour Task 11 Free-Form Interrupted Contour Task 12 Free-Form Close-Color Harmony ^ See Appendix G, p. 119 2 See Appendix H, p. 123 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 44 Each subject experienced all twelve tasks sequentially. Except for the shape and masking procedure used, the structure of each task was identical and was administered in the same way. a. The Structure and Administration of the Recognition Task Each task consisted of ten sub-tasks. The sub-tasks were simplifications of the original image, called sub-task 10. Sub-task 10 consisted of the target shape masked within a complex structure. Each succeeding sub-task removed some of the distractors until only the target shape remained as sub-task 1. After sub-task 10, the screen was covered and the subject was asked for any ideas about how the shape was going to be found. This procedure was repeated after sub-tasks 7 and 4. When the target shape was finally recognized, the subject was asked how it was found. The verbal responses to the questions asked constitute the data for this section and are contained in detail in Appendix Q, p. 204. 2. Results and Interpretation In using only verbal responses to document the kinds of strategies used in recognizing a given shape, regard must be paid to the inability of some subjects to verbalize intellectual activities. The research literature indicates difficulties with equating conscious awareness with verbal expression. There is support for the idea of some correspondence between verbal description and conscious awareness (Manis, 1971). But the lack of an alternative has "led researchers to rely upon verbal inquiry as a means of assessing awareness" (Manis, 1971, p. 82). In the present study, there was much Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 45 evidence of inconsistency in responses and of inability to articulate the mental process. It is best to consider this section simply as an examination of the subject's reflections on the strategies they employed in the tasks. As in the manipulation strategies, recognition strategies consisted of operations and an objective. The objective in this case was the successful recognition of the target shape. The kinds of operations which constituted the strategies, as articulated by the subjects, were extremely varied. For the purposes of this study, a four-part classification of operations was evidenced in the verbal responses. The greatest number of responses were those reflecting structural recognition. This refers to the kinds of mental operations which seek to recognize the object with direct reference to its structure. Responses indicated that the subject was using structural properties as the basis for recognition. References to the image's size and shape and the way it was sitting were most common. It can certainly be argued that this was influenced by the initial directions of the researcher, i.e., the subject was specifically asked to remember and recognize the shape in terms of its structure (See Appendix K, p. 130). Some subjects did merely repeat the keywords and instructions given to them, while others appeared from their accounts to display a grasp of structural principles in their search. The frequency of this kind of response was fairly even across all age groups. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 46 Second in frequency were those operations unable to be identified or articulated by the subject. This either suggests lack of awareness of the operation, inability to verbalize it properly, or unwillingness to articulate it. Examples of statements which demonstrate this operation are, "I don't know,""Just looking," or a simple "No" to the question posed by the researcher. It is difficult to determine the difference between inability and unwillingness to answer. Most of the subjects displayed great enthusiasm during the recognition sequence and were very impatient with questions asked of them. Many of the subjects became quite agitated when the screen was covered after sub-tasks 10, 7, and 4, and they were asked a question. They displayed a desire to be left alone until they had successfully found the target shape. This may account for the difference between the quality of response to the questions posed during the task and response to the question after they had found the target shape. The latter seemed much more complete and genuine than the former. Responses indicating an unidentified operation were given more frequently the longer a subject. took in recognizing the shape. Most of the responses to the question posed after sub-task 4, for example, were of this type. This type of response was given more frequently as the recognition sequence itself progressed. Some subjects used this response totally in the last few tasks. All subjects gave at least one unidentified response. The younger subjects gave approximately three times more unidentified responses than the older subjects. Generally speaking, the older the subject, the fewer of these kinds of responses were given. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 47 The next most frequent response concerned the process of scanning. This process referred to the way subjects scanned the screen in order to locate the target shape. All subjects, of course, use some form of scanning technique. Some subjects were more conscious of what they did than others. Again, responses from the older subjects outnumbered those from the younger subjects, three to one. Support for this may exist in the literature. Research reveals that older children scan pictures more completely and systematically than younger ones and the search time of younger children is shorter (Vurpillot, 1968, 1976). Only one subject did not talk about scanning operations (Subject 2). All of the remaining eleven subjects indicated that they did not have any particular set way of scanning. How they scanned depended on a number of variables. One approach to scanning was the scattered method. Comments which summarized this approach were "I look all over the place,""I start just where my eyes are, ""I just look in all different directions, "looking everywhere." This may be a legitimate explanation of a method that is indeed scattered, or it may be an indication that the subject is unconscious of any scanning pattern or unable to express it. Although subjects may be unaware of a pattern to their scanning, and may indeed feel that it is scattered and without pattern, research has shown that eye movements and scanning is by no means random Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 48 (Boynton, 1960). Even with those subjects who verbalized their scanning methods as random and scattered, evidence was given that supported the case for systematic searching. Their attention was first attracted towards complex areas and their scanning patterns tended to move from one complex source of information to another (Mackworth, 1965). Many subjects, however, did make their own distinctions between a scattered approach and a planned or patterned approach. The usual method followed was to use a quick scattered approach to see if the shape could be seen readily. If this scattered approach failed to locate the target shape, the subjects began searching in a more systematic way. Many subjects also quickly assessed the recognition task in terms of its difficulty. Those tasks which appeared easy merited the scattered, followed by the structured approach. Those that were perceived immediately to be difficult merited a structured approach right away. Some of the responses which indicate this behavior were, "I'm using a plan because it looks harder" (Subject 7), "I used a pattern because it's a lot harder if you look at it generally" (Subject 10), "I used a pattern again because it's hard" (Subject 10), "I don't do it [structured scanning] always, just for this" (Subject 11), "It's easier [structured scanning] when there's a lot" (Subject 12). These statements appear to confirm the proposition that children learn rule-based strategies and that these types of strategies reduce problems (Bourne, 1967). When the subject decided to use a structured scanning approach, that structure was not set or rigid. Most subjects used a different kind of Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 49 approach each time, varying their scanning strategy from spirals starting at the middle to spirals starting at the outside, from horizontal to vertical and diagonal. It is difficult to classify these approaches since they were so individual. The most common starting place, however, seemed to be the top left, leading to a progression which duplicated the left to right horizontal reading pattern. All the subjects, however, used a different pattern each time. Some subjects gave responses to the researcher's question which revealed a logical approach to scanning. Some subjects used, or at least articulated a logical operation referring to spatial location. Their responses reveal the kinds of logical processes involved in the recognition tasks. Some subjects deduced the location pattern used by the researcher in concealing the target shape and only looked in those areas. Others used the information that they developed in the concealment (Appendix K, Discrimination Sequence 12, p. 130) to help them in the recognition tasks, e.g., "I said that people wouldn't look on the bottom, so I thought it might be hidden on the bottom," (Subject 1), "I remember where I was going to hide it," (Subject 2), "I'm going to look around the corners because that's where I hide them a lot." (Subject 5). Even if the employment of this kind of operation did not necessarily result in a better chance of recognition, it did reveal a logical operation within the recognition strategy and provided evidence of the interesting way various components of the study influenced each other. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 50 Most of these kinds of logical-locational responses were made by the older children (71%). Many of the older subjects gave examples of how they eliminated shapes that did not correspond to the target shape. Some gave logical reasons that supported their choice of search pattern, e.g., "Because the screen changes vertically, I use a vertical search pattern." The most common reason for the adoption of a structured approach to scanning was that it was prompted by the difficulty of locating the image. Some subjects observed that the fewer distractors in the image, the easier it gets. "That's why I take so long," (Subject 3) "I could wait until they are all erased, then I could find it," Probably many or even most of the operations involved in a recognition strategy spring from a logical base, but evidence for saying so is confined to the responses offered by the subjects. The older subjects responded more readily with responses indicating logical operations (86%). Probably the most commonly used recognition operation was the incorrect guess. Much work has been done on incorrect responses in recognition tasks (Trabasso & Bower, 1966, 1968). There exists information to show that a number of various strategies are involved in using an incorrect guess (Coltheart, 1973; Levine, 1966; Millward & Spoehr, 1973). Some of the subjects obviously used the incorrect guess as an elimination device. This was difficult to detect unless the subject verbalized it. The number of incorrect guesses was tabulated from the video tape transcriptions (See Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 51 Table 11). Table 11 Number of Incorrect Guesses in Recognizing _a_ Given Shape Task Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Subject 1 0 2 1 5 4 16 5 0 1 0 0 39 Subject 2 4 2 0 0 4 8 0 1 6 0 3 1 29 Subject 3 5 4 0 0 3 2 5 1 0 0 3 0 23 Subject 4 8 2 1 11 8 1 10 8 2 1 2 8 62 Subject 5 4 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 1 13 Subject 6 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 7 Subject 7 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 4 Subject 8 5 1 7 0 2 9 3 0 1 1 0 0 29 Subject Q 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Subject 10 6 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Subject 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Subject 12 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 7 36 12 9 19 23 43 26 10 14 7 12 14 225 The mean number of incorrect guesses was 18. It is interesting to note Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 52 that the older subjects made fewer incorrect guesses. This is consistent with research studies that show younger children tend to give a higher percentage of incorrect responses than do older children (Mednick & Lehtinen, 1957; Riess, 1946). Evidence in this study may be seen as confirming research that shows that the search times of younger children are shorter than those of older children (Vurpillot, 1968, 1979). Two very significant exceptions to this are noticed with subjects 4 and 8 (See Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 53 Figure 1). Figure 1 Number of Incorrect Guesses by Subject Subjects 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 i 2 r ~ i i i i i i i i i i r In the collected verbal responses, only three subjects indicate that guessing is an operation they use for recognition strategy. Subjects 4 and 8 are two of these. Both mention several times that guessing is a part of their strategy. This may account for the high number of incorrect guesses Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 54 Subjects 4 and 8 made in relation to others of their age. It should not be assumed, however, that just because a subject did not verbalize guessing as a technique, it wasn't used. In order to determine whether some tasks prompted more incorrect guesses than others, Figure 2 was prepared. Figure 2 Number of Incorrect Guesses by Task Tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | j | j | , | | | | pi w c o • H to t-H o c o o 60 50 40 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 55 Task 6, Close-Color Harmony circle, generated the most incorrect guesses, while task 10, Shared Contour free-form, generated the least. The triangle, as a shape, elicited the most incorrect guesses, while the free-form elicited the least (See Table 12). Table 12 Incorrect Guesses by Shape Shape Incorrect Guesses Rectangle Triangle Circle Free-Form 57 (25%) 85 (38%) 50 (22%) 33 (15%) In terms of masking technique, shared contour received the most incorrect Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 56 responses while interrupted contour received the least (See Table 13). Table 13 Incorrect Guesses by Masking Technique Masking Technique Incorrect Guesses Shared Contour 88 (39%) Interrupted Contour 57 (25%) Close-Color Harmony 80 (36%) 3. Summary As in the strategies used in manipulating a given shape, strategies used in recognizing a given shape were individual and varied. A strategy consisted of a number of operations and an objective. In this case, the objective was predetermined and Fixed, i.e., the recognition of a given shape. Responses illustrating the operations constituting the recognition strategy were extremely varied and resulted in the identification of individual strategies. The most common response was that indicating unwillingness or inability to articulate the operation used. Next in Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 57 frequency were those operations which described scanning operations. All responding subjects used a variety of operations. The most common feature seemed to be a scattered approach followed by a more focused and structured search pattern. If the task was perceived as difficult, the scattered approach was abandoned and the structured scan pattern immediately adopted. Older subjects were able to articulate some of the logical processes used in location and elimination operations. A frequently employed operation was the incorrect guess. Younger subjects made more incorrect guesses than older subjects. The two exceptions to this trend, subjects who used an exceptionally high number of guesses in relation to others of their age, were both subjects who stated that they used guessing as a strategy in image recognition. D. E V I D E N C E OF THE ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE A GIVEN SHAPE 1. Procedure Each recognition task consisted of ten sub-tasks. Sub-tasks, numbered in decreasing order from 10 to 1, were progressive simplifications of the original masked image. The subject was shown sub-task 10 of the particular recognition task for 15 seconds before sub-task 9 appeared on the screen. Each subsequent sub-task was presented for 15 seconds before the next simplified image appeared. This progression from a complex to a more simplified image continued until the subject correctly identified the target shape. The number of the sub-task at which the shape was correctly recognized was recorded on a data sheet (See Appendix H, p. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 58 123). Analysis of these documented results provides evidence of the subjects' ability to recognize the given shapes. 2. Results and Interpretation Individual recognition scores were recorded and reported according to Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 5 9 subject and task (See Table 14). Table 14 The Ability to Recognize _a_ Given Shape Task Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 1 2 T M Subject 1 9 6 5 1 3 2 6 1 0 8 1 0 8 9 77 6.42 Subject 2 2 5 9 8 4 5 9 8 6 1 0 7 1 0 8 3 6 . 9 2 Subject 3 4 7 1 0 9 3 9 6 8 1 0 1 0 6 1 0 9 2 7 . 6 7 Subject 4 5 9 8 3 5 9 6 6 1 0 1 0 9 7 87 7 . 2 5 Subject 5 1 9 9 4 8 1 0 5 1 0 1 0 9 7 1 0 92 7 . 6 7 Subject 6 3 7 9 7 8 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 8 5 97 8 . 0 8 Subject 7 8 8 1 0 8 9 1 5 1 0 9 1 0 7 1 0 9 5 7 . 9 2 Subject 8 2 9 1 1 8 2 7 9 9 1 0 1 0 1 0 7 8 6 . 5 0 Subject 9 1 8 8 7 5 8 8 1 0 9 8 6 8 8 6 7 . 1 7 Subject 1 0 4 9 9 4 9 6 1 0 1 0 9 7 1 0 9 9 6 8 . 0 0 Subject 11 9 8 1 0 3 9 8 9 1 0 1 0 1 0 9 9 104 8 . 6 7 Subject 12 2 8 7 6 9 3 7 1 0 1 0 9 6 4 81 6 . 7 5 Total 5 0 9 3 9 5 61 8 0 7 3 8 8 111 1 1 0 1 1 3 9 3 101 1 0 6 8 Mean i — t o C J ON CO o CO o m C J t— C J CNJ t— ( — NO t— cr\ ON ON CO The recognition task sequence is a direct reflection of reaction time, a "concrete and quantitative measure of very covert and unobservable Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 60 cognitive processes of thought" (Leahey, 1985, p. 136). A longer reaction time reflects either a more complex process or more processes than a shorter reaction time indicates (Donders, 1868; Leahey, 1985). Analysis of the results obtained in this study reveals that the subjects showed increasing ability in recognition as the study progressed. In examining the subjects' individual profiles (See Appendix R, p. 237). a clear pattern emerges. Generally speaking, the subjects individually displayed an increase in their ability to recognize the given shapes, Although a wide variety of abilities is displayed, this seems to settle into a rising pattern after task 6. This is better illustrated when the ability mean is displayed as in Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 61 Figure 3. Figure 3 The Ability to Recognize _a_ Given Shape by Task Recognition Task It is interesting to note that the lowest score (4.17) is for the first task in the recognition sequence. The second lowest score is for task 4, which Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / is the beginning of a new shape. There was evidence of ability to recognize a given shape more readily as the study progressed. This trend is represented in Table 15. Table 15 Ability by Shape Shape Mean Rectangle 6.61 Triangle 5.94 Circle 8.58 Free-Form 8.53 There does not appear to be a significant increase in ability according to the ages of the subjects. (See Figure 4). This is in direct contrast to some of the research which indicates that reaction time in recognition studies decreases with age (Yonas & Gibson, 1967), and that younger children have more difficulty in recognition tasks than older ones (Vernon, 1976). Other research studies, however, state that individual variations and order of appearance in recognition and cognitive development is the rule rather than the exception (Klahr & Wallace, 1976) and that the ability to make accurate spatial judgments is not a general trait in children (Smith Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 63 and Smith, 1966). Figure 4 Ability to Recognize _a_ Given Shape (Subject Mean) Subject The mean ability level of the younger subjects was 7.33. The mean ability level of the older subjects was 7.50. Generally, the higher scores Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 64 were achieved by older subjects, but some of the lower scores were also achieved by them. Most of the subjects who achieved low scores in ability were also those who made the greatest number of incorrect guesses. Subjects 1, 4 and 8, who articulated that they were using guessing as a means of recognition, gave the most incorrect guesses and also achieved the lowest ability scores (See Table 16). Table 16 Low Scorers (Under 7.25) Subject Ability Mean Guesses Subject 1 6.42 39 Subject 2 6.92 29 Subject 4 7.25 62 Subject 8 6.50 29 Subject 9 7.17 1 Subject 12 6.75 7 There appeared to be no significant links between the manipulation and recognition strategies employed by subjects. The results were examined to see what relationship existed between those who made very few incorrect guesses and their ability scores (See Table Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 65 17). Table 17 Subjects Making Few Incorrect Guesses (12 or fewer) Subject Guesses A b i l i t y Mean Subject 6 Subject 7 Subject 9 Subject 10 Subject 11 Subject 12 7 4 1 10 1 7 8.08 7.92 7.17 8.00 8.67 6.75 Of the six subjects who made 12 or fewer incorrect guesses, 4 were high ability scorers. 3. Summary Examination of ability to recognize a given shape provides yet more evidence of individuality and diversity. Among the subjects studied, there does not appear to be any real progression in ability according to age. There does appear to be direct evidence of an increase in individual ability as each subject progressed through the recognition tasks. It was shown that the subjects who used guessing as a recognition strategy and Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 66 who also made the highest number of incorrect guesses, achieved among the lowest recognition scores. Generally those subjects who made the least number of incorrect guesses achieved the highest scores. E. STRATEGIES USED IN SELECTING A LOCATION FOR CONCEALING A GIVEN SHAPE 1. Procedure At the completion of each recognition task, i.e., after the subject had correctly recognized the shape and had responded to the researcher's questions, the image constituting sub-task 10 was re-presented on the screen. The subject was then asked to find a place to hide the target shape so that it would be difficult to find. After selecting a location, the subject was asked to provide a reason for the choice. The location was registered on an 8 x 8 transparent grid and recorded on a specifically prepared sheet (See Appendix H, p. 123). 2. Results and Interpretation This activity, in a sense, is the converse of the recognition sequence. Instead of asking subjects to recognize a shape hidden within a field of distractors, the subjects were asked to find a location within the field of distractors in which to hide a target shape. The data consisted of the selected locations and the verbal responses rationalizing the choice. Again, as table 18 reveals, diversity of selection and rationalization characterized Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 67 this part of the study. Table 18 Selected Locations For Concealing _a_ Given Shape* Subj ects 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Task 1 B/8 B/7 E/4,5 c/3,4 G/2 C/6,7 C/7 D/6 D/7 D/6 C/7 D/4,5 Task 2 B/4 C D/5 c/2,3 D/3 D,E/3,4 D/5 c/5 F/3 D/3 E.F/5 B/7 Task 3 D/4,5 E/4 E/3,4 E/6 F/3 C/3,4 D/4 D/5 C/5 C/2 D/6 C/6 Task 4 D.E/3 7,8 D/4,5 E/2 E/4 F/6 C/2 E/1,2 F/3,4 F/6 D/4 D,E/4,5 Task c B/2 P.G/5,6 D/5 E/7 P/7 B/2 B/2 0/7 C/6 D/2 C/4 B/4 Task 6 c/2 c/8 D/4,5 P,c/2 E/5 F/4,5 C/6 E/5 E/4 C/4 D/4 C,D/5,6 Task 7 c/6 c/6 E/4 E/6 D/5 C/2,3 D/4 F/4,5 E/3 F/6 C /6 c/6,7 Task 8 E/7 D/7 D,E/3,4 A/1 E/5 K,c/7 F/6 D/4,5 B.c/4,5 D/5 0/6 c/6 Task 9 c/4 C/4 E/4. 5 C/4 E/2 D/5 F/6 D/4,5 - F/4 E/3,4 D.E/4,5 Task 10 P/2,3 C.D/7 D.E/4,5 C/4 B/6 E/3,4 D/3 E/6 C/2 F/3 C/3 C.D/6 TaEk ^  i c/5 E/6 E,F/5 H/8 F/5 E.F/4 D/4 E/4 D/3 C/7 c/4,5 C/3 Task i ? B/7,8 c/6,7 D.E/4 D/7 F/6 C/8 C/7 E/6 D/4 F/4 C/5 c/2 * Explanation of symbols appears as Appendix H, p. 123. There were, however, some common elements which allowed classification. In general, the center areas were chosen more often, and the outside edges least often as good concealment locations. The frequency of selected Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 68 locations can best be seen in Figure 5. Figure 5 Frequency of Selection in Location Video Screen Here the most frequently selected locations appear as the darkest areas with a tonal gradation to light indicating decreasing frequency of selection. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 69 One factor in the determination of choice is certainly the model location provided by the target shape hidden in the recognition task just undergone by the subject. This model location may have influenced the subjects' choices. In order to determine whether the target shape and location provided a model which influenced the subject's choice, the results were analyzed according to whether the chosen location was spatially proximate to the model location. Criteria for what constituted close spatial proximity were established (See Appendix S, p. 244) and the results reported in Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 70 Table 19. Table 19 Close Spatial Proximity to Model Location Tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 T o t a l Subject 1 X X X X 4(33*) Subject 2 X X X 3(25$) Subject 3 X X X X X X X 7(58$) Subject 4 X X X X 4(33$) Subject 5 X X X X 4(33$) Subject 6 X X X 3(25$) Subject 7 X X X X X X X X 8(67$) Subject 8 X X X X X X X 7(58$) Subject 9 X X X X X X 6(50$) Subject 10 X X X X X 5(42$) Subject 11 X X X X 4(33$) Subject 12 X X X X X X X X 8(67$) Total 1 4 8 7 7 9 3 7 6 2 5 4 63 *X - indi c a t e s a close proximity l o c a t i o n Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 71 Most of the chosen locations were not close to the model location (56%). The choices, however, as Table 19 shows, are fairly evenly divided between those near and those distant from the model location. The older subjects selected more locations (60%) near the model location than did the younger subjects. Only one subject chose a location near the model on Task 1. Shared Contour masking elicited the fewest close proximity locations (21%). Interrupted Contour masking received the next (36%), while the most close proximity location selections were made for Close-Color Harmony (43%). This hierarchy from Shared contour to Close-color harmony manifests itself in various ways throughout the study. The shape that was most frequently located near the model was the triangle (37%), followed by the circle (25%). The shape least frequently located near the model was the free-form (17%). The task that elicited the greatest number of close proximity responses was Task 6. Nine subjects (75%) chose a close location for this task. Task 6 also received the greatest number of incorrect guesses during the recognition sequence. The shape was chosen for concealment in exactly the same place as the model on only six occasions. Five of those six exact locations were generated by only two subjects (subjects 4 and 7) who also gave the majority of their selections as close (67%). All the subjects who chose the exact location were female. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / An analysis of the subjects' verbal responses indicating the reasons for their choice of location revealed a number of different explanations. Subjects in this task, more than in any other, tended to get very impatient with the question posed by the researcher as to why that particular location was chosen. The general tendency of most subjects was to give some detailed answers for the first few tasks and then respond with the same answer for the remaining tasks, or respond with statements such as, "Same reason as before," "I don't know," or "Same as I said before." By far the most common sets of operations governing the concealment strategy derived from notions of quantity. It was evident that subjects chose locations that were structurally complex, and they were aware of this. The areas that were most filled with shapes and lines seemed to be the best place to hide the shape. The response that best characterized this reason stated "That is where the most shapes are." This type of reason was given frequently by both age groups. An extention of this reason was provided by some subjects, usually the older subjects, who stated that they hid the shape in the most structurally complex area for some particular reason. The most common reason was that overlapping occurred in this area. A shape that was overlapped was considered to be more difficult to find than one that wasn't. Half of the twelve subjects gave responses that used overlap as an explanation. Another explanation for concealment was that putting the shapes beside others that looked like it would make it difficult to find. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 73 Some of the subjects employed a locational explanation. They put the shape in a place they thought would be hidden because "nobody would look there." They explained this choice in various ways. "I try to hide it around the corners because people look in the middle" (Subject 5). "I usually look in the middle" (Subject 7). Some identified their own search strategies and then applied them to the concealment tasks. "I don't usually look down on the bottoms. I usually look in the middle"(Subject 7). "I always find it in the middle. Putting it on the edges would be hard to Find." This locational operation was used by Five subjects, three of whom were older. One subject (Subject 4) employed a peculiar strategy. After noticing that the chosen location was recorded by the use of a transparent grid marked with letters and numbers, he began using the numbers and letters as devices for locating concealment locations. After choosing a location which he determined would be area E7 on the grid, he explained his choice. "Because it stands for my name and my age" (E7 = Evon, age 7). Again, after selecting A l , he explained, "it's A and it's 1 and it's my secret code. A is 1 and 1 is A." He seemed serious in answering that this would indeed be the best place for hiding the shape. He then started selecting letters distant from certain numbers. To him, H and 1 would be a difficult place "because H is not very close to 1." Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 74 3. Summary Diversity of reasons characterized the strategies used in concealing the given shape. The middle areas of the visual screen were chosen most often for concealment locations. Choices were fairly evenly divided between those that were close and those that were distant from the model location. The older subjects chose more locations near the model than did the younger ones. Subjects who chose locations identical to those of the model were also those with the highest number of near locations. The responses describing reasons for selections were varied. Subjects gave statements that employed locational, structural, and logical considerations for their choices. The most widely given response indicated that the most structurally complex area was the best choice for a concealment location. F. E V IDENCE OF T H E ABILITY TO DISCRIMINATE THE TECHNIQUES USED IN MASKING A GIVEN SHAPE 1. Procedure At the completion of tasks 3, 6, and 9, a further task was undertaken by the subjects. After the subject had indicated reasons for concealing the shape in a chosen location, an image showing the three different masking procedures used in the previous three tasks was presented on the screen (See Appendix T, p. 246). The subject was introduced to them by being told that these were the different ways in which the shape had been hidden, and then asked to explain what the differences between them Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 75 were. 2. Results and Interpretation Verbal responses given in answer to the question "Can you tell me the differences between them," constitute the data for analysis (See Appendix U, p. 249). The responses were basically of three types that explained the differences in terms of difficulty, quantity, or structure. The ability to correctly discriminate the masking techniques had been determined as involving structural discrimination and was the criterion for successful performance. As the administration of this task was terminated when the subject gave what was considered to be a correct explanation, not all subjects gave an equal number of responses. As Table 20 shows, the least used response was that which discriminated Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / the difference in terms of difficulty (17%). Table 20 Discrimination Responses D i f f i c u l t y Quant i ty Structure Task 3 6 9 3 6 9 3 6 9 Subject 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 3 2 0 Subject 2 0 0 0 2 3 3 1 0 0 Subject 3 0 0 0 1 3 1 3 0 3 Subject 4 3 0 0 0 2 2 1 1 1 Subject 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 3 3 Subject 6 3 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 Subject 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 Subject 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 Subject 9 3 2 0 0 1 0 3 2 0 Subject 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Subject 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 Subject 12 3 0 0 0 2 0 3 1 3 T o t a l 12 3 3 4 16 6 26 1 16 The most common form of this response was a statement explaining that Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 77 one particular technique was harder or easier than the other two. Those who employed this response used it most frequently (71%) on their first exposure to this discrimination activity (at task 3). Only two of the five subjects who used this response continued to use it after the first time. Subjects who used it were unanimous in indicating that there was a hierarchy of difficulty in the masking techniques. They perceived Shared Contour to be the easiest, Interrupted Contour to be the next hardest, and Close-Color Harmony to be the most difficult. This perceived order of difficulty was also voiced by other subjects throughout the study. The most common reaction to the tasks involving Close-Color Harmony as a masking technique was shock. The majority of subjects expressed agreement that Close-Color Harmony was the most difficult of the three techniques yet this perceived general difficulty was not reflected in the actual difficulty and performance as revealed in the subject's ability scores. The order of actual difficulty is the reverse of the perceived difficulty. According to the recognition ability scores, shapes employing Close Color Harmony were the most easily recognized (7.90) followed by Interrupted Contour (7.85), and Shared Contour was the most difficult (6.50). It may well be that shapes employing Close-Color Harmony masking were the most difficult. The reason they were so readily recognized may have been provided by the subjects when they explained the strategies they used in recognition. Many of the subjects stated that their scan and search patterns became much more structured and disciplined when the task was perceived to be more difficult. The more Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 78 organized strategy may indeed produce better results. The second most used response discriminated differences in the observed masking techniques on the basis of the quantity of shapes present (26%). The usual response indicated that Shared Contour had fewer shapes than Interrupted Contour, and that Close-Color Harmony had more than both of them. This certainly corresponds with the perceived hierarchy of difficulty. Younger subjects seemed to use this response more (88%) than did older subjects. It was also used more for the tasks involving triangles (62%) than for any of the other shapes. It seems that in this section of the study, the younger children concentrated on number while the older children concentrated on structure. This is in contrast to some other research studies which show that younger children ignore the number of items and concentrate on shape and color, while older children ignore shape and color and concentrate on the number of items (Odom & Guzman, 1972). a. Discriminating Shared Contour The response used most frequently (57%) was that dealing with structure or quality of the masking technique employed. In various ways, discrimination of difference was perceived as residing in the visual structure of the shapes themselves. The criterion established for evidence of the successful ability to discriminate the masking technique was basically structural. The criterion for discriminating shared contour was simply understanding that the shapes shared their contours. None of the Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 79 younger subjects gave a response that indicated their understanding of this. The usual type of structural response from the younger subjects dealt with the size of the shapes and their plainness or complexity. All but one of the older subjects gave responses which displayed ability to discriminate the masking technique. Their responses ranged from a simple observation like, "It is simple with nothing overlapping" (Subject 11), to some very intricate explanations. Subject 7 explained shared contour in terms of wholeness. "It's whole. There's not just outlines. Like we could color each one in. There's not one sitting behind it. Whole is when there's no lines underneath interfering with the whole shape." Subject 10 gave another kind of explanation. Shared contour "is straight blocks all grouped together with no spacing, no color, and they don't overlap each other." Subject 8 echoed Subject 7's idea about being able to color the blocks in. "There is no space in the background. Everything is the shape." Subject 12 was the only older subject not to successfully discriminate this masking technique. b. Discriminating Interrupted Contour The criterion for discriminating the second masking technique, Interrupted Contour, was understanding that the shapes overlapped. Most of the subjects (67%) were able to correctly discriminate this technique. Half of the younger subjects were also successful. Most of the responses used the word "overlapping," however some responses implied other concepts like "tied together." All but one of the older subjects displayed their understanding of this technique. Some of the older subjects expanded on the word "overlapping." Subject 7 stated that "there is just the outline. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 80 There are boxes behind it that you can see...the lines are interfering." Subject 8 said that "there is more space in the background and the shapes are ringed around each other." Again, Subject 12 was the only older subject not to provide a structure-based explanation. c. Discriminating Close-Color Harmony Establishing a criterion for the correct discrimination of Close-Color Harmony masking was more difficult. The technique employs a background of similar shapes in closely-related solid colors to mask the foreground shapes which are superimposed, in outline only, over the background. The subjects responded with a variety of answers explaining their perceptions. All the subjects gave color as the primary difference. The younger subjects gave color alone as the difference, whereas the older subjects tended to name color along with other explanations of difference. Subjects 9 and 12 were the only older subjects to give only color as the perceived difference. Subject 7 stated that the colors were different and that there were "outlines and whole boxes. It's a mixture of one and two. There are pink outlines with lots of colors in them." Subject 10 stated that they were "all spaced out with none of them touching and there was color added in the back and shapes in some of the shapes." This was perhaps the fullest explanation received from any of the older subjects. The other older subjects explained the differences as being combinations of all three masking techniques. Analysis and Interpretation of the Results / 81 3. Summary The subjects displayed evidence of their ability to discriminate the masking technique through responses that were classified as dealing with difference related to difficulty, quantity, or structure. Difference in terms of difficulty was the least given response while difference in structural terms was given most. Subjects generally perceived Shared Contour to be the easiest and Close-Color Harmony to be the most difficult. Examination of their recognition ability scores showed the reverse to be case. Perceived degree of difficulty of the three masking techniques was similar for younger and older subjects. Responses differentiating the technique in terms of the number of shapes present were made more often by the younger subjects. Responses concerning structural differences were made fairly evenly by both younger and older subjects. The older subjects, however, displayed a much better understanding of the technique used. Almost invariably they correctly discriminated the structural properties of the masking technique. C H A P T E R V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This study was conducted in order to determine whether the strategies and abilities revealed by elementary school children to tasks related to visual structure would support or refute the assumption that perceptual learning is automatic and universal. The study was conducted with twelve elementary school children over the period of one week. It consisted of the presentation and completion of a computer-generated program which involved subjects in manipulation, recognition, concealment, and discrimination tasks. The results of the study comprised several distinct yet interrelated areas. When asked to think of ways to make a specific shape look different, subjects showed. consistency in the number of operations they chose to do over two tasks. Younger subjects seemed to request more operations than older subjects. Additive operations were the most frequently requested by all subjects. Younger subjects, however, generally requested more additive operations than older subjects. Positional operations were least frequently requested. No alterational operations were requested by the younger subjects while all the older subjects requested at least one. Younger subjects seemed to request long strings of additive operations for both manipulation tasks, while the older subjects were much more experimental and varied in their choice of operations, while those choices differed for both tasks. The manipulation objectives tended towards non-representation and symmetry. No attempt was made by any subject to generate image changes which employed depth illusion. 82 Summary and Conclusions / 83 When asked to perform tasks involving the recognition of a specific shape, subjects revealed increasing ability to perform more successfully as the study progressed. There was very little evidence, however, of significant difference in ability according to age. The subjects employed a variety of personal strategies in the recognition tasks. Most subjects based their strategy on structural knowledge. The method of scanning or searching played a large role in the strategies. Older subjects talked about their scanning strategies much more than younger subjects. Scanning operations seemed to follow a standard routine. Subjects used a rather casual and scattered approach when the task appeared easy. If the task appeared to be difficult, or if the subject encountered some difficulty in a previously perceived easy task, a change was immediately made to a more structured and patterned scanning approach. Subjects who did this were unanimous in their belief that a structured approach was more effective in successful performance. These structured approaches were unique to each subject. Some subjects admitted to using guessing as a strategy for recognition. Subjects who admitted this, and who also had very high incorrect guess scores, also achieved very low recognition ability scores. In general, older subjects gave fewer incorrect guesses than younger subjects. Subjects were asked to select a location amongst a complex arrangement of shapes in which to hide a given shape. The greatest number of selected locations were positioned in the center of the viewing screen. There did not seem to be any real influence generated from the location of the model shape. Subjects generally stated a strategy for concealment 0 Summary and Conclusions / 84 which used the most visually complex area as the best hiding place. Finally, subjects were asked to discriminate the difference between the masking techniques used in the recognition sequence. Older subjects were able to verbalize much more lucidly about this activity than younger ones. The older subjects were almost always correct in their explanations for discriminations. Many subjects perceived a hierarchy of difficulty in the three masking techniques and most agreed that Shared Contour was the easiest while Close-Color Harmony was the most difficult. This perceived difficulty was exactly opposite to the ability scores, which showed that Close-Color Harmony was the most easily recognized while Shared Contour was the most difficult. 1. Implications for Art Education The results reported from the conduct of this study raise interesting questions for art education. If we can accept that art is a cognitive activity, then we must realize the "need for deliberate structuring of experiences within a visual arts program so as to make explicit the characteristics and methods of organizing visual phenomena" (Cowan, 1984, p. 30). In order to structure those experiences properly, attention must be paid to certain cognitive functions, i.e., strategies relating to manipulation, recognition, and discrimination. This study shows that some children respond with different abilities and strategies to specific visual tasks. Children with definite perceptual Summary and Conclusions / 85 strategies and the ability to base those strategies on structural knowledge were better able to recognize and discriminate visual shapes than children who used ineffective strategies. Perceptual learning does take place. Indications of increasing competency in recognition ability as the study progressed were revealed. How much more effective could children's perceptual abilities be if the art program consciously helped them develop strategies for coping with complex visual structure. Some art educators may find it important to redevelop art programs based on the awareness that perceptual learning may not occur naturally, and that children do possess different and varyingly effective strategies for dealing with visual structure. These programs should take into account the fact that perception of the visual world takes place in degrees of success dependent on the kind of mental strategy employed. Without guided instruction in devising perceptual strategies, children are left on their own to develop both effective and ineffective ones. This is a problem that has been recognized through research (Dunn-Rankin, 1978; Matlin, 1983). Art educators should be aware of this and construct programs which help children make sense of their visual worlds in the most effective way possible. Only by mastering such skills and acquiring the ability to control them, can a child "begin to deal efficiently with an increasingly complex environment" (Brown, 1975, p. 146). To further these ideas, it would be profitable to continue work based on the results of this study. More detailed and specific knowledge is needed Summary and Conclusions / 86 about the kinds of perceptual strategies used by children. What kinds of operational changes in the structure of a shape are children of certain ages able to perform? What would be the effect of an educational program which gave children opportunities to learn about structure and gave them viable and effective strategies for perception, manipulation, and discrimination of visual form? Since the perception of structure in the visual world is an essential part of the art program, should it not be taught in a systematic way, based on the latest research in the field? In order to do this with intelligence, more must be learned about what constitutes effective and ineffective perceptual strategies and the mechanisms for teaching the effective ones. This would involve some sort of alliance of art education with other disciplines now working in this area. In order to construct a program as independent of fortuitous circumstance as possible, controlled observation is necessary. Research studies into children's perceptual abilities might employ, as did this study, the computer as a means of presenting material in ways that are more efficient and economical than are afforded by graphic media. A computer bank of collected information would allow greater sharing, access, and uniformity for future replication. Concentrated and competent work in this area will provide a solid data source of information about how children make sense of their visual worlds. The understanding that results may provide an empirically sound basis for the development and administration of art programs that may ultimately lead to a more universal form of visual literacy than exists at Summary and Conclusions / 87 REFERENCES Anderson, J.K. (1980). Cognitive psychology and its implications. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Co. Anglin, J.M. (1977). Word, object, and conceptual development. New York: W.W. Norton. Arnheim, R. (1969). Visual thinking. Berkeley: University of California Press. Arnheim, R. (1983). Perceiving, thinking, forming. Art Education.36(2), 9-11. Baum, D.R. (1977). Cognitive maps: The mental representation of geographic distance. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Michigan. Beilin, H. (1971). Developmental stages and developmental processes. In D.R. Green, M.P. Ford, & G.B. Flamer (Eds.), Measurement and  Piaget (pp. 172-196). New York: McGraw-Hill. Booth, D. (1982). Art education and young children's spontaneous pattern painting. Journal of the Institute of Art Education,6(3), 1-15. Boring, E.G. (1942). Sensation and perception in the history of psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Bourne, L.E. Jr. (1967). Learning and utilization of conceptual rules. In B. Kleinmuntz (Ed.), Concepts and the structure of memory. New York: 88 Wiley. Boynton, R.M. (1960). Visual search techniques. National Academy of Science. National Research Council Publication, 712, 232. Brown, A.L. (1974). The role of strategic behavior in retardate memory. In N.R. Ellis (Ed.). International review of research in mental  retardation, (pp. 37-68). Academic Press, T. Brown, A.L. (1975). The development of memory: Knowing, knowing about knowing, and knowing how to know. In W.R. Reese (Ed.). Advances in child development and behavior, (pp. 236-275). New York: Academic Press Bruner, J. (1964). The course of cognitive growth. American Psychologist, 19, 1-15. Bruner, J . (1968). Processes of cognitive growth: Infancy. Worcester: Clark University Press. Bruner, J. (1973). Beyond the information given . New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc. Bruner, J.S., Goodnow, J.J. , & Austin, G.A. (1962). _A Study of thinking. New York: Science Editions Inc. Carter, C.L. (1983). Arts and cognition: Performance, criticism, and aesthetics. Art Education, March, 1983, 61-67. Case, R. (1977). Responsiveness to conservation training as a function of induced subjective uncertainty, m-space, and cognitive style. Canadian  Journal of Behavioral Science, _9, 12-26. Case R. (1978). Piaget and beyond: Toward a developmentally based theory and technology of instruction. In R. Glaser (Ed.). Advances in instructional psychology (pp. 167-228). Hillside, N.J.: Erlbaum. Case, R. (1985). Intellectual development. New York: Academic Press Inc. Coltheart, V. (1973). Confidence ratings as a response index in concept identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 87, 46-50. Cowan, D.A. (1984). Educating vision. Art Education , September, 1984, 30-31. Dodd, D.H., & White, R.M. (1980). Cognition: Mental structures and  processes. Boston: Allyn & Bacon Inc. Dodwell, P.C. (1970). Visual pattern recognition . New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, Inc. Dunn-Rankin, P. (1978). The visual characteristics of words. Scientific  American, 238, 122-130. Eisner, E.W. (1972). Educating artistic vision. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. Eisner, E.W. (1974). The mythology of art education. Curriculum Theory  Network, 4, 89-100. / 91 Eisner, E.W. (1982). Cognition and curriculum. New York: Longman. Eisner, E.W. (1983). On the relationship of conception to representation. Art Education, 36(2), 22-27. Engel, M. (1983). Art and the Mind. Art Education. 36(2), 6-8. Eriksen, C.W. (1958). Unconscious processes. In M.R. Jones (Ed.). Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 169-227. Falmagne, R. (1972). Memory processes in concept identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 92, 33-42. Fantz, R.L. (1961). The origin of form perception. Scientific American, 204, 66-72. Flavell, J.H. (1963). The Developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. Princeton: Van Nostrand. Flavell, J.H. (1970). Developmental studies of mediated memory. In H.W. Reese, & L.P. Lipsitt (Eds.). Advances in child development and  behavior.Volume 5. New York: Academic Press, pp. 181-211. Flavell, J.H. (1977). Cognitive development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Franks, J.J., & Bransford, J.D. (1971). Abstraction of visual patterns. Jornal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 65-74. / 92 Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Gibson, E.J. (1969). Principles of perceptual development. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Gibson, E.J. (1969b). Principles of perceptual learning and development. New York: Meredith Corporation. Gibson, J.J. (1950). The Perception of the visual world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Gibson, J.J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Gibson, J.J., & Gibson, E.J. (1955). Perceptual learning: Differentiation or enrichment? Psychological Review, 62, 1-32. Glass, A.L., Holyoak, K.J., & Santa, J.L. (1979). Cognition. Reading: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Goodenough, F. (1924). The intellectual factor in children's drawings. Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University. Goodenough, F.L. (1926). Measurement of intelligence by drawings. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World. Greene, J., & Hicks, C. (1984). Basic cognitive processes. Oxford: Open University Press. Groen, G.J. (1978). The theoretical ideas of Piaget and educational practise. In P. Suppes (Ed.). Impact of research on education: Some  case studies (pp. 267-318). Washington: National Academy of Education. Haber, R.N. (1974). Information Processing. In E.C. Carterette, & M.P. Friedman (Eds.). Handbook of perception vol. J_ (pp. 335-364). New York: Academic Press. Hale, G.A., & Taweel, S.S. (1974). Age differences in children's performance on measures of component selection and incidental learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 107-116. Harris, D. (1963). Children's drawings as measures of intellectual maturity. New York: Brace & World. Hebb, D.O. (1949). The organization of behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Held, R., & Hein, A. (1963). Movement-produced stimulation in the development of visually guided behavior. Journal of Comparative and  Physiological Psychology, 56, 872-876. Helson, H. (1926). The psychology of gestalt. American Journal of Psychology, 37, 25-62. Hochberg, J . (1962). Nativism and empiricism in perception. In L. Postman (Ed.). Psychology in the making, New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc. / 94 Hochberg, J . (1966). In the mind's eye. In R.N. Haber (Ed.). Contemporary theory and research, (pp. 309-332). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, Inc. Hooper, F., & Sheehan, N. (1977). Logical concept attainment during the aging years: Issues in the neo-Piagetian research literature. In W. Overton, & J . Gallagher (Eds.). Knowledge and development, (pp. 205-255). New York: Plenum. Howard, D.V. (1983). Cognitive psychology: Memory, language, and  thought. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc. Ittleson, W.H. (1973). Environment and cognition. New York: Seminar Press. Jackson, S. (1965). The growth of logical thinking in normal and subnormal children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 35, 255-258. Jonides, J . , & Baum, D.R. (1978). Cognitive maps as revealed by distance estimates. Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago. Juola, J.F. (1979). Pattern recognition. In R. Lachman, J.L. Lachman, & E.C. Butterfield (Eds.). Cognitive psychology and information processing: An introduction, (pp. 489-523). New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates. Kearney, J. (1983). Sample bias resulting from parental consent forms. Public Opinion Quarterly, 47 (1), 97-111. Keating, D. (1979). Adolescent thinking. In J. Adleson (Ed.). Handbook of adolescence, (pp. 77-134). N.Y: Wiley. Kerpelman, L.C., & Pollack, R.H. (1964). Developmental changes in the location of form discrimination cues. In R.N. Haber(Ed.). Contemporary theory and research, (pp. 547-553). New York: Rineholt & Winston, Inc. Klahr, D., & Wallace, J.G. (1976). Cognitive development: An information  processing view. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Kroll, N.E.A., Parks, T., Parkinson, S.R., Bieber, S.L., & Johnson, A.L. (1970). Short-term memory while shadowing: Recall of visually and aurally presented letters. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 85, 220-224. Lachman, R., Lachman, J . , & Butterfield, E.C. (1979). Cognitive  psychology and information processing. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lansing, K.M. (1976). Art, artists, and art education. Iowa: Hendall Hunt Publishing Company. Lashley, K.S., Chow, L.K., & Semmes, J. (1951). An examination of the electrical field theory of cerebral integration. Psychological Review, 58, 123-136. / 96 Leahey, T.H. (1985). Human learning. Englewood Cliffs,N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc. Levine, M. (1966). Hypothesis behavior by humans during discrimination learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 331-338. Lindsay, P.H., & Norman, D.A. (1977). Human information processing. New York: Academic Press. Lovell, K., & Shields, J.B. (1967). Some aspects of the study of the gifted child. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 37, 201-208. Lowenfeld, V., & Brittain, L. (1982). Creative and mental growth. Lunzer, E.A. (1965). Problems of formal reasoning in test situations. Monographs of the society for research in child development, 30, (entire issue). Lunzer, E.A. (1968). Formal reasoning. In E.A. Lunzer, & J.F. Morris (Eds.). Development in human learning. London: Staples Press. McFee, J.K. (1970). Preparation for art. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc. MacGregor, R.N. (1972). The development and validation of a perceptual index for utilization in the teaching of art, Studies in Art Education, 13(2), 11-18. MacGregor, R.N. (1975). Response strategies adopted by elementary school children to items in a perceptual index. Studies jn Art Education, / 97 78(3), 54-61. MacGregor, R.N. (1977). Art plus. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited. MacGregor, R.N. (1983). Brain, mind, and the art curriculum. Art  Education, 36(2), 84-86. Mace, W.M. (1977). James J . Gibson's strategy for perceiving: Ask not what's inside your head, but what your head's inside of. In R. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.). Perceiving, acting, and knowing: Toward  an ecological psychology, (pp. 43-66). N.J.: Erlbaum Associates. . Mackworth, N.H. (1965). Visual noise causes tunnel vision. In R.N. Haber (Ed.). Contemporary theory and research, (pp.433-437). New York: Rinehart & Winston, Inc. Manis, M. (1971). An introduction to cognitive psychology. Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole. Matlin, M.W. (1983). Perception. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc. Mednick, S.A., & Lehtinen, L.E. (1957). Stimulus generalization as a function of age in children. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 180-183. Meyer, J.S. (1978). Visual and verbal processes involved in the development of picture recognition skills. Child Development, 49, 178-187. Millward, R.B., & Spoehr, K.T. (1973). A direct measurement of / 98 hypothesis-sampling strategies. Cognitive Psychology, _4, 1-38. Nagel, E. (1963). Wholes, sums, and organic unities. In D. Lerner (Ed.). Parts and wholes. New York: Free Press of Glencoe. Naus, M.J., & Shillman, R.J. (1976). Why a Y is not a V: A new look at the distinctive features of letters. Journal of Experimental  Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2, 394-400. Neimark, E. (1975). Intellectual development during adolescence. In F. Horowitz (Ed.). Review of child development research, Volume _4_. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Neisser, U. (1979). The control of information pickup in selective looking. In A.D. Pick (Ed.). Perception and its development: _A tribute to Eleanor J . Gibson. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Nelson K. (1974). Concept, word, and sentence: Interrelations in acquisition and development. Psychological Review, 81, 267-285. Odom, R.D., & Guzman, R.D. (1972). Development of hierarchies of dimensional salience. Developmental Psychology, J5, 271-287. Olson, D.R. (1983). The role of the arts in cognition. Art Education, 36(2), 36-83. Pariser, D. (1983). The arts, cognition, and craft. Implications for teaching and research. Art Education, 36(2), 50-57. Pascual-Leone, J. (1969). Cognitive development and cognitive style. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva. Pastore, N. (1971). Selective history of theories of visual perception. Oxford University Press. Peterson, L.R., & Peterson, M.J. (1959). Short-term retention of individual verbal items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 193-198. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International Universities. Pinard, J . , & Laurendeau, H. (1969). Stage in Piaget's developmental theory: Exegesis of a concept. In D. Elkind, & J.H. Flavell (Eds.). Studies in cognitive development, (pp. 121-170). London: Oxford University Press. Posner, M.L, Goldsmith, R., & Welton, K.E. Jr. (1967). Perceived distance and the classification of distorted patterns. Journal of Experimental  Psychology, 73, 28-38. Postman, L. (1955). Association theory and Perceptual Learning. Psychological Review, 62, 438-446. Riesen, A.H. (1947). The development of visual perception in man and chimpanzee. Science, 106, 107-108. Riesen, A.H. (1953). Interocular transfer of habits learned monocularly in / 100 visually naive and visually experienced cats. Journal of Comparative  and Physiological Psychology , 46, 166-172. Riesen, A.H. (1961). Stimulation as a requirement for growth and function in behavioral development. In D.W. Fiske, & S.R. Maddi (Eds.). Functions of varied experience (pp. 57-80). Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press. Riess, B.F. (1946). Genetic changes in semantic conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 143-152. Rock, I. (1966). The Nature of perceptual adaptation . New York: Basic Books. Rock, I. (1975). An Introduction to perception. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. Rohwer, W.D. Jr. (1974). Understanding intellectual development. Hinsdale, Illinois: The Dryden Press. Rowland, K. (1965). Looking and seeing. London: Ginn & Company. Rowland, K. (1974). Sight and insight. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Rowland, K. (1976). Visual education and beyond. London: Ginn & Company. Rumelhart, D.E. (1977). An Introduction to human information processing. New York: Wiley. / 101 Salapateck, P., & Kessen, W. (1966). Visual Scanning of triangles by the human newborn. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 3, 155-167. Salome, R.A. (1965). The effects of perceptual training upon two-dimensional drawing of children. Studies in Art Education, _7_(1), 18-33. Selfridge, O.G. (1959). Pandemonium: A paradigm for learning. In Symposium on the mechanization of thought processes, (pp.26-37). London: HM Stationery Office. Selfridge, O.G., & Neisser, U. (1960). Pattern recognition by machine. Scientific American, 203, 60-68. Senden, M. von, (1960). Space and sight. New York: Free Press. Siegel, A.I. (1953). Deprivation of visual form definition in the ring dove. 1. Discriminating learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological  Psychology, 46, 115-119. Silverman, R. (1962). Comparing the effects of two versus  three-dimensional art activity upon spatial visualization, aesthetic  judgment, and art interest. Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation, Stanford University. Smith, O.W., & Smith, P. (1966). Developmental studies of spatial judgments by children and adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 22, 62-72. / 102 Sony Corporation. (1983). Sony micro computer "genlocker" operating  instructions. Japan: Sony Corporation. Sony Corporation. (1984). Sony trinitron color video monitor  PVM-127Q/1371QM _-_ operating manual. Japan: Sony Corporation. Sony Corporation. (1985). Sony graphics editor. Japan: Sony Corporation. Statt, D. (1981). Dictionary of psychology. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. Sternberg, S. (1970). Memory scanning: Mental processes revealed by reaction-time experiments. In J.S. Antrobus (Ed.). Cognition and  affect. Boston: Little & Brown. Stroh, C. (1983). A brief primer on vision and human perception. Art  Education, July, 44-45. Summagraphics. (1984). MM1201 and MM961 data tablets technical  reference. Connecticut: Summagraphics Corporation. Trabasso, T., & Bower, G. (1966). Presolutional dimensional shifts in concept identification: A test of the sampling with replacement axiom in all-or-none models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, _3_, 163-173. Trabasso, T., & Bower, G. (1968). Attention in learning: Theory and  research. New York: Wiley. Turvey, M.T., & Shaw, R.E. (1977). Memory (or knowing) as a matter of specification not representation: notes towards a different class of machines. Paper presented at the conference on levels of processing, Rockport, Massachusetts. Vernon, M.D. (1970). Perception through experience. London: Methuen & Co., Ltd. Vernon, M.D. (1976). A_ further study of visual perception . Conn: Hafner Publishing Company. Vurpillot, E. (1968). The development of scanning strategies and their relation to visual differentiation. Journal of Experimental Child  Psychology, _6, 632-650. Vurpillot, E. (1976). The visual world of the child. New York: International Universities Press. Werner, H. (1957). The conception of development from a comparative and organismic point of view. In D. Harris (Ed.). The Concept of development, (pp. 218-255). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Wertheimer, M. (1974). The problem of perceptual structure. In E.C. Carterette, & M.P. Friedman (Eds.). Handbook of perception, volume J_. (pp. 75-92). N.Y.: Academic Press. Wickelgren, W.A. (1973). The long and short of memory. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 425-438. Wickelgren, W.A. (1979). Cognitive psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Yonas, A., & Gibson, E.J. (1967, April). _A developmental study of feature processing strategies in letter discrimination. Paper presented at Einstein Psychological Association Meeting, Boston. Young, F.M. (1985) Visual studies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall Inc. APPENDIX A Sony SMC-70G "Genlocker" Microcomputer 105 Sony SMC-70G "Genlocker" Microcomputer The Sony SMC-70G "GENLOCKER" microcomputer has a l l the basic functions of a microcomputer. Its hardware has the f l e x i b i l i t y to fa c i l i t a t e general applications, and is designed so that i t can be operated by a variety of software. It ut i l i z e s a circuit that enables GENLOCK synchronization of the computer output to a video signal. The SMC-70G supports the disk operating system CP/M which permits many kinds of application programs. The SMC-70G incorporates a Z-80A central processing unit (CPU). The Z-80A has 158 basic instructions including block transfer and block search, bit operation, and other functions. The SMC-70G i s an 8-bit general purpose computer. The entire 64K byte memory consists of RAM and is open to the user. The video RAM is mapped in the I/O area. The System Monitor and Sony BASIC interpreter are written in shadow ROM format. A general-purpose Disk Operating System CP/M is available as the standard system of the SMC-70G (Sony, 1983). 106 APPENDIX B Sony Trinitron Color Video Monitor 107 Sony T r i n i t r o n Color Video Monitor -'PVM-1271QM The Sony T r i n i t r o n Color Video Monitor p i c ture tube has a g r i l l aperture of 0.25 m m and. g ives a high r e s o l u t i o n p i c tu re (composite: 550 l i n e s , RGB: 600 l i n e s . When used as a character d i s p l a y , up to 2000 characters (80 characters/ l ine x 25 l i n e s ) can be d isp layed with c l a r i t y . Analog RGB and d i g i t a l (TTL l e v e l ) RGB input s i g n a l s can be fed to the RGB input connectors (BNC type and 25-pin mul t i connectors) , which al lows a microcomputer, such as the Sony SMC-70G "GENLOCKER" microcomputer to be connected to t h i s monitor. (Sony, 1984). 108 A P P E N D I X C Summagraphics MM1201 Data Tablet with Stylus 109 Summagraphics MM1201 Data Tablet with S ty lus A data tab le t i s an input device a l lowing the t r a n s l a t i o n o f graphic informat ion in to d i g i t a l information su i tab le f o r a d i g i t a l device such as a computer or computer t e rmina l . The MM1201 tab le t has a nominal ac t ive area o f 11.7" x 11.7". The s t y l u s , a hand he ld -dev i ce , i s used with the tab le t to locate p o i n t s . The MM t r a n s l a t e s the p o s i t i o n of the s t y l u s on the tab le t in to d i g i t a l information and communicates the d i g i t a l information to the computer. (Summagraphics, 1984). Computer 1 Stylus 110 A P P E N D I X D Sony Graphics Editor 111 Sony Graphics E d i t o r The Sony Graphics E d i t o r program allows a f u l l range of graphic functions, such as f u l l c o l o r p i c t u r e s , graphs, charts, and drawing functions. Two components of the program were used in t h i s study. E d i t Mode Ed i t mode allows the c o l o r i n g of i n d i v i d u a l p i x e l s that comprise the d i s p l a y screen. In t h i s mode the pi c t u r e can also be maginified by a f a c t o r of two, four, or eight i n order to do e d i t i n g of fine d e t a i l s . Command Mode The command mode allows a v a r i e t y of functions such as drawing simple complex shapes, c o l o r i n g , c l e a r i n g and erasing, and mixing and superimposing p i c t u r e s on a di s k . (Sony, 1985). 112 APPENDIX E Micro Floppy Disks 113 Micro Floppy Disks Specially designed, 3% inch Micro Floppy disks were used for the project. The disks are designed by Sony for use in the Sony SMC-70 and SMC-70G computer systems (Sony, 1983). The programs and images used in the study were stored on twelve disks (See Table E l ) . 114 Table E 1 Contents of Disks Disk Sequence Contents Disk 1 Recognition Disk 2 Disk 3 Disk 4 Disk 5 Disk 6 Disk 7 Disk 8 Disk 9 Disk 10 Task 1 -Task 2 -Contour. Task 3 -Harmony. Task 4 -Task 5 -Contour. Task 6 -Harmony. Task 7 -Task 8 -Contour. Task 9 -Harmony. Task 10 Task 11 Contour Task 12 Harmony. Rectangle - Shared Contour Rectangle - Interrupted Rectangle - Close Color Triangle - Shared Contour Triangle - Interrupted Triangle - Close Color Circle - Shared Contour Circle - Interrupted Circle - Close Color - Free Form - Shared Contour - Free Form - Interrupted - Free Form - Close Color 115 Disk Sequence Contents Disk 11 Task 12 - continued. Disk 12 Manipulation Manipulation 1 - Rectangle Manipulation 2 - Circle 116 APPENDIX F The Shapes Used in the Study 117 MANIPULATION Rectangle Circle RECOGNITION Rectangle Triangl Circle 118 A P P E N D I X G Masking Techniques 119 Masking Techniques A rectangle, triangle, c i r c l e , and free-form were each masked three different ways: 1. Shared Contour - A l l shapes share common contours. 2 . Interrupted Contour - Contours of shapes are overlapped. 3. Close-Color Harmony - A background of similar shapes in closely-related colors is used to mask foreground shapes superimposed over the background in outline only. See the example on the next page. 120 Close-Color Harmony - Triangle (Task 6) 122 APPENDIX H Recogn i t i on a n d C o n c e a l m e n t R e c o r d i n g Shee t s 123 Recognition Task Score Sheet g C O ON CO NO fNJ PIC PIC O o \ c o t— NO |T> «*) CNJ FSC FSC O ON CO r— NO e g CCH O ON co NO U"N «"N CsJ CIC O ON 00 t— NO U-N T T CN) CSC O ON 00 t— NO <NJ -TCH o ON CO r— NO U"N ^» rr> (NI — TIC o ON CO r- NO ITN CNJ -TSC o ON CO NO ir\ CNJ 6 c e • o — ON c o t— NO ITN CNJ RIC o ON CO f— NO ITN CM o to or o ON CO NO <~N CNI 124 Concealment Location Sheet SUBJECT ACE TASK I_ I TASK 2 TASK 3 I L TASK 4 TASK 5 TASK 6 I I I. I I I I ' I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 , 1 I I - 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J I TASK 7 TASK 8 TASK 9 1 1 I I I I i i I I I I j . l 1 i 1 1 1 i 1 1 I I I I i i I l t I I • 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 i I I I i i 1 I I I I ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I i i 1 1 1 1 1 l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I i i i 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! i i i i i i i l 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 i i i i t i l l 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i ; i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TASK 10 TASK 11 TASK 12 * * * * i _ « • • _t > i • 125 APPENDIX I Parental Consent Form 126 APPENDIX J Layout of Instruments 128 LAYOUT OF INSTRUMENTS, SUBJECT, AND RESEARCHER 129 APPENDIX K Questions Posed by Researcher 130 MANIPULATION SEQUENCE DISK 12 1 . A Rectangle 2. B Circle INSTRUCTIONS IDENTIFICATION - Do you know what this is? We're going to c a l l this a rectangle. MANIPULATION - We're going to play a l i t t l e game with this rectangle. Let's see how we can change i t so that i t looks different. 1 . Can you think of one way you can change this rectangle so that i t looks different? 2. What made you think of that? 3« Is there anything else? 131 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE RECTANGLE - SHARED CONTOUR COMPUTER IMAGE 1 . A Identification 2 . B Rect. S.C. 1 ( 3 . C Rect. S.C. 9 4 . D Rect. S.C. 8 5 - E Rect. S.C. 7 6 . P Rect. S.C. 6 7 . G Rect. S.C. 5 8 . H Rect. S.C. 4 9 - I Rect. S.C. 3 1 0 . J Rect. S.C. 2 1 1 . K Rect. S.C. 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 1 2 . L Rect. S.C. 1 0 DISK 1 VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS We are going to ca l l this a RECTANGLE. I want you to look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size and shape. I'm going to hide i t among some other rectangles and I want you to see i f you can find this exact  one. It's going to be the same size and shape and sit t i n g the same way, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change a bit, but I want you to keep looking for i t . AFTER 1 0 , COVER - It's really well hidden isn't i t ? Do you have any idea how you are going to find this yet? AFTER 7 , COVER - Repeat Cover question above. AFTER 4 t COVER - Repeat cover question above 1 . If you were hiding this rectangle, where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2 . Why would you put i t there? 132 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE RECTANGLE - INTERRUPTED CONTOUR DISK 1 COMPUTER IMAGE VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS M Identification 14. Rect. I.C. 10 This is our rectangle again. I want you to look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size and shape. I'm going to hide i t among some other rectangles and I want you to see i f you can find this exact one. It's going to be the same size and shape and sit t i n g the same way, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change a bit, but I want you to keep looking for i t . AFTER 10, COVER - It's really well hidden isn't i t? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? 15. 0 Rect. I.C. 9 16. P Rect. I.C. 8 17. Q Rect. I.C. 7 AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat Cover question above. 18. R Rect. I.C. 6 19. S Rect. I.C. 5 20. T Rect. I.C. 4 AFTER 4, COVER - Repeat cover question above. 21. U Rect. I.C. 3 22. V Rect. I.C. 2 23- W Rect. I.C. 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 24. X Rect. I.C. 10 1. If you were hiding this rectangle, where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2. Why would you put i t there? 133 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE RECTANCLE - CLOSE-COLOUR HARMONY COMPUTER IMAGE DISK 2 1 . Identification 2. B Rect. C.C.H. 10 3. C Rect. C.C.H. 9 4. D Rect. C.C.H. 8 5- E Rect. C.C.H. 7 6. F Rect. C.C.H. 6 7. G Rect. C.C.H. 5 8. H Rect. C.C.H. 4 9. I Rect. C.C.H. 3 10. J Rect. C.C.H. 2 11. K Rect. C.C.H. 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 12. L Rect. C.C.H. 10 13- M Rect. (Masks) VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS This is our rectangle again. Notice that i t is a different color with a different color background. Look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size shape and color. I'm going to hide i t among some other rectangles and I want you to see i f you can find this  exact one. It's going to be the same size, shape, and color, and s i t t i n g the same way, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change a bit, but I want you to keep looking for i t . AFTER 10, COVER - I t ' s really well hidden isn't it? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat cover question above. AFTER 41 COVER -Repeat cover question above. 1. If you were hiding this rectangle, where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2. Why would you put i t there? This shows the different ways we've been hiding the shapes. Can you t e l l me the difference? 134 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE TRIANGLE - SHARED CONTOUR COMPUTER IMAGE 1 . A Identification 2 . B T r i . S.C. 1C 3. C T r i . S.C. 9 4 . D T r i . S.C. 8 5- E T r i . S.C. 7 6 . F T r i . S.C. 6 7. G T r i . S.C. 5 8 . H T r i . S.C. 4 9. I T r i . S.C. 3 1 0 . J T r i . S.C. 2 1 1 . K T r i . S.C. 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 1 2 . L T r i . S.C. 1 0 DISK 3 VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS We are going to c a l l this a TRIANGLE. I want you to look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size and shape. I'm going to hide i t among some other rectangles and I want you to see i f you can find this exact  one. It's going to be the same size and shape and s i t t i n g the same way, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change a bit, but I want you to keep looking for i t . AFTER 1 0 , COVER - It's really well hidden isn't i t ? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat Cover question above? AFTER 4 , COVER - Repeat cover question above. 1 . If you were hiding this triangle, where would you put i t so that i t would be hard to find? 2 . Why would you put i t there? 135 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE TRIANGLE - INTERRUPTED CONTOUR DISK 3 COMPUTER IMAGE VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS 1 3 . M Identification 1 4 . N T r i . I.C. 1 0 1 5 . 0 16. P 1 7 . Q 1 8 . R 1 9 . 2 0 . 2 1 . 2 2 . 2 3 . S T U V W T r i . I.C. 9 T r i . I.C. 8 T r i . I.C. 7 T r i . I.C. 6 T r i . I.C. 5 T r i . I.C. 4 T r i . I.C. 3 T r i . I.C. 2 T r i . I.C. 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 24. X T r i . I.C. 1 0 This i s our triangle again. I want you to look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size and shape. I'm going to hide i t among some other triangles and I want you to see i f you can find this exact one. It's going to be the same size and shape and s i t t i n g the same way, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change a b i t , but I want you to keep looking for i t . AFTER 1 0 , COVER - It's really well hidden isn't i t? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? AFTER 7 t COVER - Repeat cover question above. AFTER 41 COVER - Repeat cover question above 1 . If you were hiding this rectangle, where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2 . Why would you put i t there? 136 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE TRIANGLE - CLOSE COLOUR HARMONY COMPUTER IMAGE DISK 4 1 . Identification 2. B T r i . C.C.H. 10 3- C T r i . C.C.H. 9 4. D T r i . C.C.H. 8 5. E T r i . C.C.H. 7 6. F T r i . C.C.H. 6 7- G T r i . C.C.H. 5 8. H T r i . C.C.H. 4 9- I T r i . C.C.H. 3 10. J T r i . C.C.H. 2 11 . K T r i . C.C.H. 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 12. L T r i . C.C.H. 10 13- M T r i . (Masks) VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS This is our triangle again. Notice that i t is a different color with a different color background. Look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size, shape, and color. I'm going to hide i t among some other triangles and I want you to see i f you can find this  exact one. It's going to be the same size, and color, and sit t i n g the same way, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change a bi t , but I want you to keep looking for i t . AFTER 10, COVER - It's really well hidden isn't it? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat cover question above. AFTER 4, COVER - Repeat cover question above. 1. If you were hiding this triangle, where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2. Why would you put i t there? This shows the different ways we've been hiding the shapes. Can you t e l l me the difference? 137 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE CIRCLE - SHARED CONTOUR  COMPUTER IMAGE 1 . A Identification 2. B Cir. S.C. 1C 3. C Cir. S.C. 9 4. D Cir. S.C. 8 5. E Cir. S.C. 7 6. F Cir. S.C. 6 7. G Cir. S.C. 5 8. H Cir. S.C. 4 9- I Cir. S.C. 3 1 0 . J Cir. S.C. 2 1 1 . K Cir. S.C. 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 12. L Cir. S.C. 10 DISK 5 VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. We are going to ca l l this a CIRCLE. I want you to look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size and shape. I'm going to hide i t among some other rectangles and I want you to see i f you can find this exact  one. It's going to be the same size and shape, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change a bit. 2. IMAGE CHANGE - When we show the shape hidden among other shapes, the picture changes after a while. Can you t e l l me how i t changes? AFTER 10, COVER - It's really well hidden isn't it? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat cover question above. AFTER 4 t COVER - Repeat cover question above. 1 . If you were hiding this ci r c l e , where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2. Why would you put i t there? 138 Task 8 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE CIRCLE - INTERRUPTED CONTOUR DISK 6 COMPUTER IMAGE VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS Identification 2. Cir. I.C. 10 3. C Cir. I.C. 9 4- D Cir. I.C. 8 5. E Cir. I.C. 7 6. F Cir. I.C. 6 7. G Cir. I.C. 5 8. H Cir. I.C. 4 9- I Cir. I.C. 3 10. J Cir. I.C. 2 11. K Cir. I.C. 1 1. This is our circle again. I want you to look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size and shape. I'm going to hide i t among some other triangles and I want you to see i f you can find this exact one. It's going to be the same size and shape, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then the picture w i l l change a bit. 2. IMAGE CHANGE - (Ask i f S could not answer in Task 7)« When we show the shape hidden among other shapes, the picture changes after a while. Can you t e l l me how i t changes? AFTER 10, COVER - It's really well hidden isn't i t ? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat cover question above. AFTER 4, COVER - Repeat cover question above. AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 12. L Cir. I.C. 10 1. If you were hiding this c i r c l e , where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2. Why would you put i t there? 139 Task 9 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE CIRCLE - CLOSE COLOUR HARMONY DISK 7 COMPUTER IMAGE VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS 1 . Identification 2. 3. 4. 5-6. 7. 8. 9-10. 11. Cir. C C H . 10 C Cir. C C H . 9 D Cir. C C H . 8 E Cir. C C H . 7 F Cir. C C H . 6 G Cir. C C H . 5 H Cir. C C H . 4 I Cir. C C H . 3 J Cir. C C H . 2 K Cir. C C H . 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 12. 13. M Cir. C C H . 10 Cir. (Masks) This is our circ l e again.Notice that i t is a different color with a different color background. Look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size, shape, and color. I'm going to hide i t among some other circles and I want you to see i f you can find this  exact one. It's going to be the same size and color, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change a bit, but I want you to keep looking for i t . AFTER 10, COVER - It's really well hidden isn't it? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat cover question above. AFTER 4, COVER - Repeat cover question above. 1. If you were hiding this c i r c l e , where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2. Why would you put i t there? This shows the different ways we've been hiding the shapes. Can you t e l l me the difference? 140 Task 10 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE  FREE FORM - SHARED CONTOUR DISK 8 COMPUTER IMACE VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. A Identification 1. We are going to ca l l this a FREE FORM. I want you to look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size and shape. I'm going to hide i t among some other free forms and I want you to see i f you can find this exact one. It's going to be the same size and shape and sit t i n g the same way, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change. 2. IMACE CHANCE - (Ask i f S could not answer in task 8). When we show the shape hidden among other shapes, the picture changes after a while. Can you t e l l me how i t changes? 2. B F.F. S.C. 10 AFTER 10, COVER - It's really well hidden isn't i t ? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? 3- c F.F. S.C. 9 4. D F.F. S.C. 8 5- E F.F. S.C. 7 AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat cover question above. 6. F F.F. S.C. 6 7. G F.F. S.C. 5 8. H F.F. S.C. 4 AFTER 4, COVER - Repeat cover question above 9- I F.F. S.C. 3 10. J F.F. S.C. 2 11. K F.F. S.C. 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 12. L F.F. S.C. 10 1. If you were hiding this free form, where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2. Why would you put i t there? 141 Task 11 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE FREE FORM - INTERRUPTED CONTOUR DISK 9 COMPUTER IMAGE VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. A Identification 1. This is our free form again. I want you to look at i t and see i f you can remember it s size and shape. I'm going to hide i t among some other free forms and I want you to see i f you can find this exact one. It's going to be the same size and shape and sitting the same way, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things in the picture w i l l change a bit, but I want you to keep looking for i t . 2. IMAGE CHANGE - (Ask i f S could not answer in task 9)- When we show the shape hidden among other shapes, the picture changes after a while. Can you t e l l me how i t changes? 2. B F.F. I.C. 10 AFTER 10, COVER - It's really well hidden, isn't it? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? 3. C F.F. I.C. 9 4. D F.F. I.C. 8 5. E F.F. I.C. 7 AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat cover question above. 6. F F.F. I.C. 6 7- G F.F. I.C. 5 8. H F.F. I.C. 4 AFTER COVER - Repeat cover question above. 9. I F.F. I.C. 3 10. J F.F. I.C. 2 11. K F.F. I.C. 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 12. L F.F. I.C. 10 1. If you were hiding this c i r c l e , where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2. Why would you put i t there? 142 Task 12 DISCRIMINATION SEQUENCE FREE FORM - CLOSE COLOUR HARMONY DISK 10 1 . COMPUTER IMAGE Identification B F.F. C.C.H. 10 3. C F.F. C • C • H * 9 4. D F.F. C«C • H • 8 5- E F.F. CmC «H• 7 6. F F.F. C•C «H• 6 7. G F.F. C•C *H• 5 8. H F.F. C* C «H» 4 9- I F.F. C.C.H. 3 10. J F.F. C • C • H • 211. K F.F. C«C «H• 1 AFTER SHAPE HAS BEEN FOUND 12. L F.F. C.C.H. 10 VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS This i s our free form again. Notice that i t is a different color with a different color background. Look at i t and see i f you can remember i t s size, shape, and color. I'm going to hide i t among some other f r e e forms and I want you to see i f you can find this  exact one. It's going to be the same size and color, and si t t i n g the same way, but hidden in a different place. It's going to be on for a short time and then some things are going to change a bit, but I want you to keep looking for i t . AFTER 10, COVER - It's really well hidden isn't i t ? Do you have any idea how you are going to find i t yet? AFTER 7, COVER - Repeat cover question above. AFTER 4, COVER - Repeat cover question above. 1. If you were hiding this free form, where would you put i t so i t would be hard to find? 2. Why would you put i t there? 143 Disk 11 Task 12 continued 13. M F.F. (Masks) \ 144 This shows the different ways we've been hiding the shapes. Can you t e l l me the difference? APPENDIX L Slide Show Function 145 The Slide Show Feature The Slide Show feature displays the f i l e s stored on disk in the order they stored. Duration i s controlled by programmed instructions. It allows one stored image to be shown immediately after another, instead of calling up computer functions to load and present a subsequent f i l e . The SMC-70 w i l l automatically run the sequencing, as in a slide show (Sony, 1985). 146 APPENDIX M Computer Limitations 147 Appendix Operational Requests by Subjects Which Violated Experimental Criteria or Computer Capacity Subject Activity Operation Request Subject 2 1 1 Put a roof on i t . 2 1 Put a straight line on top. Subject 4 1 1 Flop i t down like this (obliquely). 5 You could cut off the corners and make a circle with i t . Subject 5 1 2 Cut i t down into two triangles (a diagonal). 2 1 Squish i t down into an oval. Subject 6 1 1 Put a diagonal through i t . 2 1 Can we do straight lines? Subject 9 1 1 Add a triangle. 148 APPENDIX N Manipulation Sequence: Operations 149 S u b j e c t " - M a n i p u l a t i o n 1 1 _ 1 151 S u b j e c t 1 - M a n i p u l a t i o n 2 152 * - 2 153 S u b j e c t o - M a n i p u l a t i o n 1 n n n n n n n 154 n n 8 9 • n — 10 155 S u b j e c t 2 _ M a n i p u l a t i o n 2 o o o 1 156 S u b j e c t J - M a n i p u l a t i o n 1 T l I 157 S u b j e c t J - M a n i p u l a t i o n 2 o © 1 © 2 I 158 S u b j e c t 4 - M a n i p u l a t i o n 1 • 159 4 _ 2 • 8 160 S u b j e c t 4 - M a n i p u l a t i o n 2 o <§> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 161 4 - 2 8 9 ^ ° 9 10 162 S u b j e c t 5 — M a n i p u l a t i o n 1 1 0 12 13 1 4 15 164 5 _ 1 : 1 16 17 D D • 18 19 D n 0 D D D i i i 20 21 r65 S u b j e c t I - M a n i p u l a t i o n 2 166 10 11 167 o 1 0 1 o ^ _ y v Jo 16 168 S u b j e c t 6 - M a n i p u l a t i o n 1 1 4 5 6 _ 1 JLL i . i 10 11 170 S u b j e c t 6 - M a n i p u l a t i o n 2 o ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 5 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^ 171 172 S u b j e c t 7 - M a n i p u l a t i o n 1 1 o u t l i n :s from grey t o \ l u e p i n k p i n k p i n k p i n k 173 7 - 1 pink pink orange pink pink pink pink orange pink pink oran/re pink orange pink orange pink orange pink orange 10 174 • • 9 176 Subject 3 _ Manipulation Subject 3 - Manipulation 2 178 Subject Q - Manipulation 1 • red y e l l o w -r* .blue green -L 6 179 Subject a - Manipulation 2 o 1 2 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ orange 3 4 180 Subject 1 0 - Manipulation 1 • • n a LI a 181 Subject '0- Manipulation 2 o QD 1 CD 2 GO 3 OO o 4 CD o 5 OO o 6 OO o o 7 182 10 _ 2 OO o OO o ( ) 9 • 1 8 3 Subject Manipulation 1 Subject11 - Manipulation 2 o w 1 2 3 4 • 0 5 I 185 Subject "2 - Manipulation 1 Subject 1 2 - Manipulation 2 o 1 ® 2 o 3 187 APPENDIX O Operations Used by Subjects 188 Subject 1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 4 15 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 ? 2 0 2, Manipulation 2 - C i r c l e A = A d d i t i v e X = A l t e r a t i o n a l P = P o s i t i o n a l S = S u b t r a c t i v e 189 Subject 2 6 7 8 9 10 i i 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 1 -Rectangle -I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I l I i l I I I l i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ,3 , 4 ,5 1 6 1 ? 1 8 ? 0 v Manipulation 2 - Circle 190 Subject 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 i 4 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle J 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 4 15 1 6 1 ? 1 8 1 9 J 0 2 1 Manipulation 2 - Circle 1-91 Subject 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 '0 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle 1 0 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 2 - Circle 192 Subject 5 I I I J I J I I J I L 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle 1 0 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 2 - Circle 193 Subject 6 i 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle Manipulation 2 - Circle 194 Subject 7 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle A X P S 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 '3 14 15 16 17 ,8 1 9 2 0 2 1 Manipulation 2 - Circle 195 Subject 8 6 7 8 9 10 u 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle 14 '5 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 2 - Circle 196 Subject 9 5 6 7 8^  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle -I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I l l 1 i 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ,3 1 4 ,5 1 6 , 7 1fJ , 9 2 Q 2 1 Manipulation 2 - Circle 197 Subject 10 l I l l l I I I I I l I l I I I I I I I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 4 15 16 17 18 19 2 0 21 Manipulation 2 - Circle 198 Subject 11 7 8 9 10 11 i 2 1 3 1 4 ,5 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle Manipulation 2 - Circle 199 Subject 12 9 1 0 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 1 - Rectangle 1 0 1 1 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Manipulation 2 - Circle 200 APPENDIX P Identfication of Representational Images 201 Appendix Subject Identification of Representational Images Subject Manipulation Operation Comment Subject 1 1 2 Subject 2 1 5 5 Subject 4 3 5 4 10 Make one equals one. That looks like a person. Cause then we could make a battery. Cause then you got an airplane. Cause then you got a house. I mean a f i r e -place. Then i t ' s an upside-down person except no feet. Like a box opening. Flip i t over so i t ' s like a staircase. Looks like the Expo sign. Looks like two giraffe heads, or you could change it into a spaceship. 202 Subject 5 11 14 15 16 Subject 10 1 3 2 4 Four circles around the hands. I wish we had ovals so we could put a skate-board under there. Some buttons there. We could put a sun up there. It's like a camera. We can do a l i t t l e face. 203 A P P E N D I X Q Verbal Responses in the Recognition Seq 204 Appendix Verbal Responses of Subjects to Questions Concerning the Recognition  of a Given Shape Subject T Q* Response Subject 1 1 1 By looking at the way i t ' s standing, and the shape. 4 I just looked at i t . I thought i t was supposed to be t a l l e r because of those two. They might have been covering i t up. I just guessed because sometimes my guesses are right. 2 1 I can look at the shapes because some are bigger than other ones and some are skinnier. 2 No. I " l l try to remember i t in my head. 3 1 I'm going to try and find the one with pink, like just with the pink ones on i t . 2 I'm s t i l l trying to look for i t , but there's too much, too many rectangles in i t . 4 1 No./ Just keep on looking. 2 No./ Just keep on looking. That's the best way. 3 Just looking at the shapes. Some of them are 205 wide like that and others are thin like that. It's always as I said, just keep on looking. (How is that?) I don't know. No. No. ...I'm going to try and remember i t and then I ' l l probably be able to find i t / I ' l l try and remember what i t looked like by i t s e l f . Just keep on looking. S t i l l the same way. I think I tried everywhere else, so I picked that one. No, not really./ Just keep on looking. (How w i l l you look?) Try and find i t . No. They a l l look the same but this one has a l i t t l e edge right there, and this one I don't think does, because I can't really see i t because i t ' s covered from this one. I don't know./ It just wasn't hidden very good, I guess. ...Just keep on looking. (How?) Like trying to remember from when i t was by i t s e l f . I said that people wouldn't look on the 206 bottom so I thought i t would be on the bottom./ I started at the top, then the middle arid then the bottom. (Always use this way?) No. Before I used the middle and the bottom. I don't know. That's another one I don't know./ I guess I just remembered i t from before. (Did you look the same way?) Yes. From the top, the middle and the bottom. This time I looked from the bottom f i r s t . . . The top, I mean. ...Not really, just trying to find i t . I looked./ Carefully./ (What i s carefully?) Like I didn't want to pick any one. I just wanted to look a l l over f i r s t , then I would pick the one I wanted to pick and that would probably be right./ I just try to look at i t , like I look there, there, and there, then I look over that way and then I look that way, then I look every way I can, like the f i r s t time I looked. I don't know how I got i t . Just keep on looking t i l l i t gets less and le It's kind of hard but I just found i t . I don' 207 know how, though./ I told myself, look that way, that way, and that way...Then I looked a l l the ways that I could. That way, that way, every way I could. (Was that the same as always?) Yes, but sometimes I just do what I want, like I just guess. Subject 2 1 1 Remembering the size. 2 Looking very carefully./ Looking very closely. 3 No. 2 1 Looking. 2 No. 3 T Looking. 4 1 Always the same. Looking. 4 I just looked...And then I remembered the size and then I thinked and then I said, T h a t ' s i t . 5 1 Remember where I was going to hide i t . 2 Looking. 6 1 No. 2 No. 7 1 Looking. Looking just carefully. (How?) Open you eyes up and don't f a l l asleep. 4 I remembered the lines on the top were sort 208 of long and I remembered the size and I knew i t was a real c i r c l e , and I just knew i t . 8 1 No. 4 I remembered you had the side hanging down like that. The l i t t l e lines that make the circl e , you had 4, one at the top and one at the bottom and then the edges. 9 1 No. 2 No. Looking. 10 4 I don't know. Because I knew that this side was fatter than that side. 11 1 Looking and not sleeping. 12 4 Well, the big i t was, I knew i t couldn't be a small one, and I knew i t couldn't be a very big one. I knew i t was just a medium. I start at the edges and I look at every line, and i f I find i t , I find i t . Subject 3 1 1 No, I don't think so. 2 I'm looking for the certain shape, the way i t ' s sitting. I can't find i t . 4 I don't know. I was just looking at the lines and seeing which way i t went, but I thought i t had been about that size, but I had forgotten. 209 Yes. I'm going to look at the size and shape and things like that. I looked for i t really hard. It's kind of hard. It's hard to see them with a l l the other colors behind them./ I don't know./ I just looked at the shapes. Same way as most times. As the other times. (How is that?) I forgot. I don't know./ I started looking from up here [right top] then I came around here, then I came back up and then I came down [right top to l e f t , down, back across]. (Do you always use this way?) No. I use different ways each time. I'm going to look at them one by one. Starting up here, and then down and there and there and then go in the middle. I'm looking. I'm looking. No. There were'nt very many l e f t . The less there are the easier i t gets. That's why I take so long. Looking at the shape. I don't know./ I don't know. 210 4 Ho r e a l way. I was going to come down kind of squishy squashy [ t o p . r i g h t to l e f t , and back and f o r t h ] 7 1 The same. The shape and s i ze and tha t . Looking squishy squashy aga in . 2 No. 4 I t ' s k ind of l i k e an eyeba l l with a p u p i l in the c i r c l e . 8 1 1 don' t know. 4 I don' t know. I just d i d . 9 4 I don' t know./ I was about to guess that one but I sa id no because i t was a l i t t l e jaggeder around the edges. 10 4 Because i t looked the same./ I came across here and I came down [ r i g h t top, a long, then d i a g o n a l ] . (Do you always use t h i s way?) Nope. I don't th ink so. Except when I went s w i r l s , sort o f the same. 11 1 No. 2 No. 12 4 1 don't know. / I s ta r ted up there and I came down, across and down [ r i g h t to l e f t ] , ( i s that the way you u s u a l l y use?) Yes. Subject 4 1 1 N o « 211 •2 No. 4 Wel l , i t ' s kind of the fat l i n e s and I remembered i t . 2 1 I s t a r t look ing a l l over the place and then th ink ing before I choose. 3 1 No, because there i s so much c o l o r . 4 1 We l l , probably 1*11 compare. I ' l l see which ones are the same and the best one of a l l of them that I remember, I ' l l p i c k . 2 I ' l l probably just keep on going the way I am l i k e , just keep on guess ing. 5 1 Not r e a l l y . 2 Not r e a l l y . Look c l o s e l y . 6 1 No, not r e a l l y . 7 1 Probably keep on moving my head around, l i k e t h i s , and then when I f i r s t see i t , I keep on going around and a r o u n d . . . ! go l i k e t h i s , or t h i s [moves head in apparently random f a s h i o n ] . 8 1 No. Keep on guessing probably . 9 4 We l l , i t ' s a l i t t l e b i t hard, but I just guessed. 12 1 No. I ' l l just say, "wiggly, w igg ly ." That w i l l probably get i t . 212 Look for the rectangle t h a t ' s about t h i s b i g , s i t t i n g t h i s way up and . . . see i f I can f i n d i t . See i f there are any smal ler ones. I t ' s a l i t t l e smaller than some of these bigger ones up there , the ones that I p i cked . That one i s my only choice because t h e r e ' s no more that are s i t t i n g the r i g h t way up, except f o r that one which I a l ready p i cked . Can you show me that aga in . I ' l l look r i g h t there [at the shape] and you. . . [ image 10 goes o n ] . . . O h , I thought i t was b igger than that! I'm going to look around the corners because t h a t ' s where I hide them a l o t and I sometimes th ink that i f I t e l l somebody where I hide them, they w i l l use my i d e a . I'm going to look at a l l the pink rectangles standing s t ra ight up. Just look around. I'm ge t t i ng some ideas but they ' re not s t ra ight enough./ I'm look ing around the s ide because i t was k ind of bumpy, but some of thes are a l i t t l e bumpy. They go down and come up again . 213 ...Looking for the bumpy one that kind of has a crown at the top, starting in the middle going out. I just looked around and I saw the one that had the crown. It's kind of weird because there's a l l sorts of squished ci r c l e s . It seems like there's only going to be one circl e that's going to be a c i r c l e . The others w i l l be a l l squished. No. It's just kind of hard./ Just looking around. I just started looking around and I saw that one that looked like i t but i t was too much of an oval, and I just came up this way and I saw i t . I just looked around. I saw a perfectly round circ l e about that size and I pointed to i t . [ s t a r t B in center, moves out in a spiral way]. No. I don't think so. I just saw the whole screen at the same time, and I just saw i t and pointed to i t . I start in the middle and go out in a sp i r a l . I had two choices. I looked at the f i r s t one 214 and "then I got the second one./ I looked s p i r a l u n t i l I got up to the end and then I just went back and f o r t h [bottom, l e f t to r i g h t , and then back]. And then I saw t h i s person with the head and the face and there's the arm, and the bean i s where the legs would be. 12 4 Well, there were two that looked kind of a l i k e . Instead, of doing the s p i r a l , I just looked and I saw them. I chose one. It was wrong. I got the other one. Subject 6 1 1 Look f o r one that's up l i k e t h i s with i t smaller there./ Standing up s t r a i g h t . 2 No. 4 I thought i t was bigger. 2 1 Remember i t waB that b i g . Before I thought i t was that b i g [using finger as guide to s i z e ] . / Look where they're hidden. Looking where there's l o t s more rectangles. 4 I don't know. 3 1 No./ I'm going to look at the ones that are not f i l l e d up. Just the ones that have the pink o u t l i n e . 4 I don't know. It looked the most l i k e i t . 215 4 1 No./No. There was something, but I don't think i t was that. It just had l i t t l e jaggedier edges and i t was that long. 4 It had two jagged edges and a flat bottom. (This one also has that?) This one was smaller and chubbier. 5 1 No./ I'm just going to start looking. 4 ...I thought i t was this one, but I pointed to this one. Because i t ' s a different size./ I start looking where there's most of them. 6 4 I looked down through here, some of them axe bent the other way. Most of them are. [l e f t hand top, straight down, along bottom, then back to right], 7 4 Most of the other ones were crooked, sort of, and that's bigger and that one's smaller. I looked for the ones that had this l i t t l e straight ends and then a crooked body. 8 4 I looked for the ones that were'nt crooked. 9 4 / I just look where my eyes are. 10 4 It had a fl a t top and was sort of curved in there and had stairs coming down. (What about that one?) It wasn't curved enough in 216 there . 11 1 No. I'm just going to look for the same th ing as l a s t t ime. The s t a i r s coming down and the curve up there . 4 I saw i t before you put the cover over . 12 1 No. ( S t a r t i n g i n any p a r t i c u l a r p lace?) No. 4 I don't know. Subject 7 1 1 I'm going to look at every rec tang le . 4 I remembered the s i z e and the shape, and how i t was s i t t i n g and how long the top was and how long the s ides were and I looked r e a l l y h a r d . / I sort of looked at the l i n e s , the o u t l i n e s of everyth ing . 2 1 No. I th ink I'm going to s t a r t at the bottom aga in . 4 I looked through the bottom and then I went across , across , and then I found that one. I looked at i t and looked at i t . I wasn't sure i f i t was the one, so I looked around the screen q u i c k l y to see i f there were any others that looked a l i t t l e more l i k e i t , and that one looked l i k e i t . [bottom r i g h t , across , then work way back up] , ( i s that always the way you use?) . No. Sometimes I 217 look quickly around and see i f i t ' s there, and then I start in the middle sometimes, and then I start on the edges and the corners. I looked around here and I saw i t right off the bat. I looked at everything pink. A l l the square outlines in pink, [bottom, then straight up]. No./ I'm probably going to start from the lef t side and look across. I looked across and before you covered i t up, I had started looking and I noticed that one and i t looks pretty much the same, cause i t s basically the only one in there that the three sides are the same. Up and down that way. (is that a different way?) Yes. But I use a different way most of the time. I started by that way [sideways] and then up and down. I'm not sure. I haven't decided yet. I'm probably going to look in a l l different directions, which isn'i" probably a good idea. I'm looking across. I'm having troubles deciding whether i t i s 218 any of the ones sitting up. When everything turns to just pink outlines, then I ' l l be able to know. I'm looking for the one that i f you turn i t any direction with the point up i t ' l l be the same. I don't know./ No. No. It's perfectly round. I looked around and after twice I didn't get i t , I looked around and when some erased I noticed that one. I looked and I just found i t . My eyes just went across the screen and I found i t . My eyes just looked at the whole screen. I'm just scattering a l l over the place. I'm probably just going to scatter and then i f I can't find i t , I w i l l go up and down the screen. Scattered. I scattered again and I looked for the wide end and then the thin end. Across. (Are you using a pattern?) Yes. Because i t looks harder. I'm looking from the left side to the right side and then from the 219 right side to the l e f t side, [ s t a r t i n g at the bottom]. 12 4 I scattered again. I went l i k e t h i s . [indicates a pattern]. (So you used a pattern?) Yes. I t was too complicated to look scattered, cause there was so much orange i n i t and everything, that i t sort of hides the l i n e s . Subject 8 1 1 Well, I have an idea of the length and the width, so, I'm going to start from t h i s side and work one way through [ l e f t top, to bottom]. 2 I'm going to start from the center. 3 Wild guesses. 4 Well, after a l l that you just take a wild guess. 2 4 Well, I concentrated a l o t . I knew i t was something l i k e t h i s , l i k e i t was about t h i s s i z e , and when you showed me just the rectangle i t s e l f , I concentrated and I looked at the.shape more ca r e f u l l y , and the si z e , (same way of looking?). No. I just went a l l over the place. 3 1 Well, I just look for the ones with the pink outlines f i r s t . I'm looking just whatever way. 220 How I'm just going like that [horizontally]. No. Well, I looked at the other ones and I found that the other ones I said were too long or too skinny and that one was a l i t t l e fatter. No. Just go sideways, back and forth. No. I can't even take a wild guess. Sideways, [back and forth from bottom]. Well, I was doing the same thing. I was going sideways and I thought that this was kind of similar. The shape was bigger so I decided to look for something smaller. Well, f i r s t of a l l , when you just showed the one triangle, I concentrated not on the outside pink, but the shape inside. How big i t was and stuff. Same way. No. I'm just looking sideways. Well, like I said, after I started looking sideways I started looking for ones that are going the way i t was, like, B i t t i n g that way. I looked inside a l l of them instead of the around part. 221 Well, just the s i z e . Not too small, not too bi g . F i r s t of a l l I noticed that the f i r s t ones I pointed to were bigger and so I started to look f o r l i t t l e smaller. It didn't seem to be that b i g when you f i r s t showed i t to me. Well, I just r e a l l y remembered. I concentrated on the s i z e and shape when you showed me f i r s t . From the pink c i r c l e s that have a l i n e around them. Well I also concentrated on the size and shape and the pink l i n e outside. I looked at a l l the c i r c l e s with pink l i n e s outside. The s i z e and the shape. F i r s t of a l l I picked t h i s , but then I found out i t was a l i t t l e too wide and then t h i s looked about the r i g h t shape, [bottom, sideways back and f o r t h ] . F i r s t of a l l I started here because you said i t might be i n a d i f f e r e n t spot, and then I di d that as a clue. It wasn't there and so I just started going sideways, back and f o r t h . I concentrated on the shape and d i d t h i s again [sideways]. You d i d three d i f f e r e n t ways to hide i t and I kind of got the idea 222 what the shape was and how to f i n d i t . Subject 9 1 1 We l l , not r e a l l y . Just by look ing . 2 I'm just going to t r y and f ind the same s i z e rec tang le . 2 1 . . . I just looked to see how the s i ze of the rectangle i s , and I looked in areas that were over lapping to see i f they were there . 4 I don't know. I just looked around./ I sometimes go h o r i z o n t a l l y and sometimes v e r t i c a l l y . 3 1 No. Not r e a l l y . I'm just looking for the o u t l i n e . I s ta r ted h o r i z o n t a l l y . 4 I just looked a l l over the place fo r i t . 4 1 1 don't know. I guess I'm t r y i n g to f i n d the same length of the s i d e s . 4 . . . . I don't r e a l l y know. I just looked for the angle of i t . . . I just looked fo r the shape. 5 1 Try to sort out the d i f f e r e n t ones. 4 . . . . I just t r i e d to see i f there were any t r i a n g l e s that looked l i k e that and then to see i f they were the same s i z e . 6 1 No. We l l , I was look ing h o r i z o n t a l l y t r y i n g to see i t . 4 I looked h o r i z o n t a l l y because some of the 223 t r i a n g l e s were f i t t i n g t h i s way . I s t a r t e d l o o k i n g f rom t h e m i d d l e . 7 1 I 'm l o o k i n g i n some t h i n g s . 4 I j u s t went a l l o v e r t h e p l a c e . 8 4 I j u s t l o o k e d a r ound and t h a t one seemed a l o t r o u n d e r t h a n t h e o t h e r o n e s , cause t h e o t h e r ones k i n d o f l o o k o v a l . 9 1 J u s t l o o k i n g a l l o v e r . 4 I j u s t l o o k e d a round f o r i t and I came a c r o s s i t . 10 1 N o . I 'm j u s t l o o k i n g a r o u n d . 4 J u s t k i n d o f j ump i ng a r o u n d . 11 1 No . 2 Y e s . I 'm g o i n g v e r t i c a l l y . 4 I l o o k e d v e r t i c a l l y . When some o f t h e l i t t l e shapes i n s i d e d i s a p p e a r t h e y l o o k l i k e t h e y a r e g o i n g down t h i s way . So , I j u s t went t h a t way . 12 1 No . S u b j e c t 10 1 1 [ S u b j e c t has measured shape w i t h f i n g e r s ] . W e l l , I know t h a t i t ' s g o i n g t o be up l e n g t h w i s e , t h e way i t was i n t h e p i c t u r e , so f i r s t I ' l l c o r n e r ou t a l l t h e r e c t a n g l e s l i k e t h a t , t h en I know, t h a t ' s about t h e r e a l l y 224 big thing I know about i t . No. That's quite odd. It looks like a square with a l l those other rectangles, cause a l l those other rectangles, some of them are stretched like that and that and they are bigger and i t makes the one in the corner look smaller. Well, now I know that i t w i l l probably stand out a bit because i t ' s not long and thin, and lots of those are long and thin, so I know i t ' s not long and thin. That's about i t . I just looked really hard...It did stand out a b i t . / I kind of blocked the long ones like that and that out of my mind, and I blocked out the more square looking shapes, like that, and then I only had a couple l e f t , a couple of rectangles. And then I knew that i t was in that size, so then I only had that and that, and that, and that. Then I kind of choose between them. Well I know that i t ' s pinkish, so I can look at a l l the ones that are pinkish and again I know that i t isn't a long rectangle or very similar to a square rectangle, i f there are 225 squares./ I just s t a r t anywhere and then look. I d i d i t by knowing that i t was a rectangle, and I knew that i t was around that s i z e . It was kind of s i m i l a r to a square, but i t was stretched out a b i t , and I kind of blocked out a l l the long ones l i k e that that I knew. And the r e a l l y t i n y ones that I knew i t wouldn't be and the very square l i k e that and that, and a l l the rectangles that had the longest l i n e s l i k e that instead of l i k e that, and then I came out with only, again, very few. About those two, r e a l l y . I kind of knew i t was that. I knew that i t was close to an e q u i l a t e r a l . It i s n ' t . And so I blocked out a l l the ones that didn't look very s i m i l a r to an e q u i l a t e r a l and then, that's about a l l I've done so f a r . [during sub-tasks] Another thing I knew i s that the t r i a n g l e , the ridges look the same. The ridges are not d i f f e r e n t . I think the computer does that, and I can kind of notice what kind of length i t i s , i f i t i s the same length or d i f f e r e n t . 226 I th ink I kept on looking at that t r i a n g l e , when I looked at i t I saw a t r i a n g l e kind of s t a r t i n g at the longest l i n e and i t went out l i k e that and d i d n ' t look l i k e an e q u i l a t e r a l . It looked l i k e that l i n e was longer because i t was there , longer . I knew that i t was c lose to an e q u i l a t e r a l , l i k e i t i s n ' t , aga in . I knew that I could block out the other shapes that were'nt p re t ty much l i k e tha t , and then I a lso knew that the two s ides coming down l i k e that were the same rough edges and the bottom one was p r e t t y much s t r a i g h t . / I'm look ing anywhere and then when I see a c e r t a i n t r i a n g l e I just c lose i n on i t and study i t and i f that wasn't i t I would go to another a rea . I looked around and that one k ind of stood out . The co lor throws me o f f a b i t . I ' l l use the same way. I looked and I t r i e d to get the edges exac t ly the same. I knew that the l i n e s were p r e t t y much congruent. The others are a l l p r e t t y much wiggly and i t looked r e a l l y equal on i t s round shape./ I 227 started looking everywhere, r e a l l y , and then I saw that one and i t stood out cause i t was so equal. I just looked around and that one looked very equal./ I generally looked close-up and then maybe I pick out a few, l i k e that one looked p r e t t y good, and that one, and that one. Then I kind of looked at them more c l o s e l y and then, they were'nt equal. I was kind of torn i n between that one too, because that one looked pretty even. But that one was more round there./ I looked at i t and I kind of blocked out of my mind things l i k e that, and the background which I knew d e f i n .tely were not the shape. There are a l o t of fake moustaches that look very s i m i l a r . / A c t u a l l y I think I ' l l s t a r t up at the top and go l i k e that and look at them c l o s e r . Go l e f t , r i g h t , l e f t , r i g h t , l i k e I'm reading a book. I just looked across and I knew that i t was kind of rounded and I knew that there were two l i n e s that were b a s i c a l l y the same length and they were st r a i g h t instead of edges, and 228 that's about a l l I went by. (Because i t was harder you used a regular search pattern. Why?) Because i t ' s a l o t harder when you look at i t generally. You can see a l o t generally, l i k e that, and that, that, and that, but there i s a l o t more that look very s i m i l a r to i t , than say the rectangle, or l e t ' s say the c i r c l e s , because i t ' s an actual d e f i n i t e shape. That's more b u i l t i n my head. Also, through the whole school I've been taught to recognize c i r c l e s and t r i a n g l e s and s t u f f . 11 4 I t ' s a l o t harder. I used the same way I did l a s t time. 12 1 I'm doing i t the same way, because again, i t ' s r e a l l y hard. Using the same search pattern [going across]. Subject 1 1 1 1 F i r s t of a l l , I ' l l t r y to look f o r the height and width of i t . 4 I t ' s s i t t i n g i n the same p o s i t i o n as you said, and i t looks the same. It looks a b i t smaller with a l l the other ones./ I was just going to go across looking f o r i t [top l e f t & ac r o s s ] . 2 1 I t ' s more d i f f i c u l t than the other one. 229 Because a l l those lines are in there and a l l the squares are overlapping./ Just do what I did before. Well I was looking from here, and then the lines started disappearing and I went down here and I just saw that. It's confusing with a l l the different colors and I just looked for the pink boxes and I just worked my way around here and I saw i t . [top, along, down right edge, along bottom]. (Do you use that way often?) No. Like I just did that for this one, cause I don't know why. Also there's a l i t t l e pink box in there I looked at and saw. I was just looking along and I saw that. It looked smaller, like I was just looking at this one and I saw that box. I'm going to try and find the straight lines and then look for things going up. Not really. I just don't think that i t ' s there. In a l l the triangles, I thought i t was larger than that. I thought i t was larger. As soon as i t goes to the next screen, I'd look where i t was before. Then I started 230 looking in the corner again, (is the corner usually where you start?) Yes. I was just looking and my eyes went up as they went up and I saw that one. Not any different than the other times. I was going on the edges and I came up and I turned and I saw i t . Try to find a ci r c l e that's not lop-sided. I found there's been a couple hidden in there. I've found there's been shapes hidden in here and here and I just looked up in that one cause i t ' s kind of in from the corner a bi t , so I looked up in that corner. I don't know. I looked up there and then I looked down there and then I looked there. And i t ' s also in from the corner again. (Do you use a pattern?) Not really. I don't know. I just look. I just did the triangle again. I looked down there and over there [top middle to le f t bottom, to right bottom]. No. I just moved across and down and just came up. That looks like a l i t t l e man there. Two l i t t l e 231 legs, arm, and head./ I went across, then around, then up. This one's not in the corners. That's another thing I've found, the corners. You look near the corners./ I kind of skimmed the corners and then I looked across here, across the center and then I looked at the corners again. I remember the way i t ' s s i t t i n g and I remember how t a l l i t was and how wide i t was, and i f I see i t again I can remember what i t looks like. No. No. I'm just looking at the height and the way i t was standing, and I thought that i f I see i t again I would recognize i t . I thought i t was another one but i t went off the screen. So then I picked another one. Probably the same way./ I picked some and then the screen would erase some. The one I picked would erase. Then.I would pick another one that looked the same./ I start from the corners. (Do you always do that?) No. Just sometimes. I started from the middle last time. 232 I don't know./ I started from this corner. I went this way[right] and then that way [ l e f t ] and then just the bit in the middle. By the color of the outside and how t a l l i t i s . I'm going to go around the outside and then into the middle. ...I went on the outside ones then I went around on these ones, and then I just looked in the middle. I went around again, cause I couldn't find i t and then I looked closely and then I could see i t cause some of them were blending with the other colors and you couldn't 6ee them. I'm going to look for the shape and the height and this time I'm going to go around the outside again. It's easier to find that way. Easier for me. I'm going around the outside then I'm going in the middle. I went around the outside twice and then in to the middle once. I'm going to start from the middle this time. I don't know. I was just looking at this one and I started going that way and then I just 233 saw that one. I'm going to go across, f i r s t line, then second line [top l e f t , like reading a book]. No. Same way. Same way. I'm going to start coming from the middle now. ...This last one I went from the middle and I went around and looked around here. I might go in order again, like from the top then the next one and next one. It would be easier. This one looks not as crooked as these ones. I found i t again cause i t looks like i t ' s the roundest one there and a l l the other ones are crooked and things like that. I just looked at this corner, I don't know why. I just started at this corner f i r s t . I can t e l l cause i t ' s so perfect and these other ones look like eggs. I don't know. I started looking when the screen moved down. I sort of followed the screen and then I just sort of looked on the way down and I saw that. I was going to start from this corner and then 234 I'm going to go around and then go up [lower right - start], 4 This one, this end i s skinny and that end is fatter and I remembered that and I just thought that was that because i t was the third one I looked at. 1 1 1 I'm going to start from the bottom and go up [bottom right]. I think i t ' s easier, yhat way when there's a l o t . 2 Same way. Going across. 4 I could t e l l by the shape, the way each end was, cause these are really fat and everything. This one's sort of skinny and the ends are different. 1 2 1 I'm going to start from the corner and I'm going to look around and then go this way and this way. [upper l e f t , down, then across and up]. 2 Same way. 4 I looked across. Then I went around the outside. I was looking for the end shape too, like that. * Questions 1 (After sub-task 1 0 ) Do you have any ideas about 235 how you are going to f i n d the shape? ( A f t e r sub-task 7) Repeat Question 1. ( A f t e r sub-task 4) Repeat Question 1 . ( A f t e r subject has located the shape) How d id you f i n d i t ? 236 APPENDIX R A b i l i t y to Recogn i z e S h a p e 237 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tasks 238 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tasks Tasks 239 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tasks 240 241 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tasks 242 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tasks 243 APPENDIX S Criteria For Close Spatial Proximity 244 Close Spatial Proximity A shape was considered to be spatially proximate to the model shape i f i t f e l l within a certain specified area around the model shape. The specified area was determined to be l / 8 t h the size of the total visual f i e l d . 245 A P P E N D I X T Discrimination Images 246 Discrimination - The three masking techniques - Rectangle 247 Discrimination - The three masking techniques - Circle 248 APPENDIX U Verbal Responses in the Discrimination Task 249 Identification of Procedures Used to Mask a Given Shape Subject Task Mask* Subject 1 3 1 This one i s not mixed up like these ones, they're not overlapping them. 2 These ones are so close to each other you can't really see them. 6 1 This, you didn't put so much triangles in i t . You put lots, but you didn't put in too much. 2 And this one you put them a l l l i t t l e and big and you overlapped them. 3 And this one was really hard because of the colors and you didn't know which way they were. Subject 2 3 1 This one has less rectangles. 2 This one has a l i t t l e bit more. 3 This one has totally different colors. 6 1 This one has less triangles than that one. 2 This one has less than that one (3). 9 2 This one has less circles than that one (1). 3 This one has less circles than that one (2) 250 Subject 3 3 1 2 3 6 2 3 9 1 2 3 Subject 4 3 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 9 1 2 3 Subject 5 3 1 This one has bigger shapes. This one has more different shapes than this one (1). This one has lots of different colors. That one has more triangles than that one (1). That one has more colors than the other two. This one has more circles than that one Because this one looks tied together more and these ones (1) look just sitting on each other. A l l colored. This one's a bit more easier. This one's a bit more harder because i t has more rectangles. This one's a way more harder because i t ' s pink. This one has less. This one has more. This one has color. Bigger circles. L i t t l e r circles. Colored circles. This one is just kind of plain, just 251 2 3 6 1 2 3 9 1 2 3 Subject 6 3 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 9 1 2 3 Subject 7 3 1 lots of shapes. This was kind of a l l like overlapped. This was overlapped and a l l sorts of colors to make i t quite hard. This one is just kind of plain. This one's overlapped. This one's overlapped color. That one kind of has circles a l l over the place, inside each other and out. This one's overlapped a l l over the place. This one's got color and overlapping. This one's easy. This one's a l i t t l e harder. This one's a l i t t l e harder than this one (2). This one doesn't have so many triangles. This one has got a l i t t l e more triangles. This one has more triangles. This one's easier, I think. This onei'is easier than that (3). This one's harder. That one there i s the whole box. 252 2 And that one there is just the outline. 3 That one has different colors and there i s outlines and whole boxes. 6 1 This one's whole. 2 This one's lined. 3 This one's color. Whole is when there's not just outlines, like we could color each one in, there's not one sitting behind i t . This one (2) i s only outlines, there's boxes behind i t that you can see. And then this one (3) has color. It's colored and i t s a mixture of both of those. 9 1 There's whole circles which is when there's no lines underneath interfering with the whole c i r c l e . 2 There's the lines interfering. 3 There's the colors and the lines and the whole and everything. Subject 8 6 1 These are like squares and you make triangles in the squares. 2 These are triangles and there's more space in the background. There's no space whatsoever in the background of 253 this (1). Everything's triangles. 3 You have different colors of triangles and some are just pink outlined and there's lots of colors in them. 9 1 These circles were more like in each other. 2 These were ringed around each other. 3 These are colors, different colors and some were pink outline. Subject 9 3 1 The f i r s t one should have been the easier to find because i t ' s just around each other. 2 The second one i s harder because they were overlapping. 3 The third one was hardest because they were doing a l l three things. 6 1 It was more like trying to find angles because they were in each other. 2 It was harder because they were l i t t l e . 3 It was harder because there were colors, some dark and some light, and the triangles are harder to see. Subject 10 3 1 This one is just straight blocks a l l grouped together with no spacing. They 254 11 somehow grouped together and there's no definite color in any of them. They are just the same color and they also don't overlap each other. 2 I think a l l of them overlap something, LVXJ-: another shape, and again there is no definite color and they are not touching each other. 3 They are a l l spaced out with none of them overlapping and there was color added in the back and shapes in some of the shapes. Subject 11 3 1 It's simple. There's nothing overlapping. 2 Here they overlap. 3 Here i t changes color and no overlapping. 9 1 Same as I said before. Subject 12 3 1 This one would probably be the easiest. 3 Here i t is different colors like the colors blend in so i t ' s hard. 2 This one has got lots of rectangles so i t would be hard to find. 6 1 The difference i s in the way they are organized. The way i t ' s put on the screen. It's a different order. 2 This one is smaller triangles. 3 These are a l l in different ways. The 255 colored one is different from this one cause this one i s not the same as this one and they don't look a l l the same. 9 1 This one's the same sort, like they are squiggly so this sort of fools you so you won't be able to find i t . 2 It's a l l squiggly and everything. 3 It's the color again, i t sort of fools you. * Mask refers to the masking procedure used. 1 = Shared Contour 2 = Interrupted Contour 3 = Close-Color Harmony 256 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096942/manifest

Comment

Related Items