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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teacher preparation for art curriculum implementation Blatherwick, Mary Louise 1985

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TEACHER PREPARATION FOR ART CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION by MARY LOUISE BLATHERWICK B. A., The Nova S c o t i a C o l l e g e of A r t and D e s i g n , 1976 B.F.A., The Nova S c o t i a C o l l e g e of A r t and D e s i g n , 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1985 (c) Mary B l a t h e r w i c k , 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date Hit, J ms* DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s study addresses the q u e s t i o n of how w e l l prepared are elementary teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia to implement the New Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource  Book. Through q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s conducted with elementary t e a c h e r s i n a l a r g e Lower Mainland s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and u n i v e r s i t y elementary a r t methods course i n s t r u c t o r s at three u n i v e r s i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y and d i s c u s s some of the e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s t h at i n f l u e n c e c u r r i c u l u m implementation i n a r t . T h i s study o f f e r s recommendations to promote a more u n i f i e d approach to implementation by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m committees, teacher educators and t e a c h e r s , to u l t i m a t e l y improve the a r t education that i s o f f e r e d to elementary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i Acknowledgements v CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 - J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study A - Purpose of the Study 5 - Research Question 5 - Design of the Study 5 - Procedure and Data A n a l y s i s 7 - L i m i t a t i o n s 7 - Assumptions 8 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 3. CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE NEW ELEMENTARY FINE ARTS CURRICULUM GUIDE/RESOURCE BOOK 18 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 18 - D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s 19 - The Goals of the M i n i s t r y of Education and C u r r i c u l u m Committee 22 - E x p e c t a t i o n s R e l a t e d to Concepts and S k i l l s 24 - Summary 34 4. ELEMENTARY TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRES 37 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 37 - Tasks 37 i i i - V a r i a b l e s 38 - P r o c e d u r e s and Data A n a l y s i s . 38 - Summary of F i n d i n g s 39 - D i s c u s s i o n and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 46 5. ELEMENTARY TEACHER INTERVIEWS 50 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 50 - R e s u l t s 51 - Summary and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 60 6. TEACHER EDUCATOR INTERVIEWS 64 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 64 - R e s u l t s 65 - Summary and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 70 7. SUMMARY RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 73 - I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Study 82 F o o t n o t e s 83 R e f e r e n c e s 84 APPENDICES I E l e m e n t a r y Teacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 87 I I Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s u l t s 97 I I I E l e m e n t a r y Teacher I n t e r v i e w Schedule 111 IV Teacher E d u c a t o r I n t e r v i e w Schedule 117 V L e t t e r of P e r m i s s i o n 122 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n to my a d v i s e r , Dr. G. Chalmers, and my committee members, Dr. R. MacGregor and P r o f e s s o r M. F o s t e r f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e . Louise Lemieux i s g r a t e f u l l y acknow-ledged f o r her e d i t o r i a l and t y p i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s . S p e c i a l thanks are extended to my f r i e n d s and f a m i l y f o r o f f e r i n g i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e to my mother who has always been a source of u n f a i l i n g support. 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Elementary a r t programs provide the fo u n d a t i o n f o r a l l other a r t i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c h o o l . Art at the elementary l e v e l i s c o n s i d e r e d important enough by the M i n i s t r y of Education to warrant development of a r t c u r r i c u l a , which promote a p a r t i c u l a r view of a r t educa t i o n with a number of expected l e a r n i n g outcomes, and advocate a r t i n s t r u c t i o n on a weekly b a s i s . Even though these requirements have been e s t a b l i s h e d , c e r t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l and other f a c t o r s can determine the a b i l i t y of teachers to implement a r t c u r r i c u l a . At present many teachers do not r e c e i v e s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n how to understand and implement a r t c u r r i c u l a . Elementary a r t methods courses, i n s e r v i c e workshops and classroom a s s i s t a n c e , o f f e r e d by a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r s , r a r e l y focus on the content of the e x i s t i n g elementary a r t c u r r i -culum. Laura Chapman (1982) p o i n t s out i n In s t a n t Art  Instant C u l t u r e t h a t : Instead there i s a tendency to co n c e n t r a t e on planni n g l e s s o n s as i s o l a t e d events, as i f each l e s s o n had no bearing on anything e l s e . T h i s p r a c t i c e may a c t u a l l y encourage the p r o s p e c t i v e teacher to thin k of an a r t program as l i t t l e more than a s e r i e s of short-term, u n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s (p. 97). 2 In the past, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, there have been o c c a s i o n s where teacher p r e p a r a t i o n was much more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the implementation of a r t c u r r i c u l a . During the p e r i o d when the P r o v i n c i a l Normal Schools were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n , two i n s t r u c t o r s , David B l a i r (1901-1910) and C h a r l e s Weston (1915-1946) had t i g h t c o n t r o l over how teach e r s were t r a i n e d and what they subsequently were expected to teach to t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h i s c o n t r o l was p o s s i b l e because both B l a i r and Weston not only developed the teacher e d u c a t i o n programs, but they a l s o produced the c u r r i c u l u m used i n elementary a r t c l a s s e s . Teachers, consequently, were c o n f i d e n t and knowledgeable about how to implement the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m . The c u r r i c u l a d uring that p e r i o d of time, however, were f a i r l y r i g i d and i n f l e x i b l e which tended to s t i f l e the c r e a t i v i t y and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s of both the teach e r s and the st u d e n t s . Elementary t e a c h e r s were encouraged to f u r t h e r develop t h e i r a r t i s t i c s k i l l s through evening courses o f f e r e d by the Vancouver School of D e c o r a t i v e and A p p l i e d A r t s and summer sch o o l a r t courses o f f e r e d by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . I n s p e c t o r s were appointed to make sure the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l a were being f o l l o w e d and to o f f e r t e a c h e r s guidance and support. G r a d u a l l y new p h i l o s o p h i e s of a r t education began to i n f l u e n c e the teacher education programs and a r t c u r r i c u l a . 3 Art e d u c a t i o n was taken over by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1956. T h i s marked a c r u c i a l change i n the way a r t c u r r i c u l a would be u t i l i z e d and approached i n teacher e d u c a t i o n . Up to t h i s p o i n t , the M i n i s t r y of Education d i c t a t e d the d i r e c t i o n teacher e d u c a t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m development was to f o l l o w . T h i s was p o s s i b l e through i t s c o n t r o l of r e g u l a r and summer sch o o l a r t programs o f f e r e d by the two P r o v i n c i a l Normal Scho o l s . The U n i v e r s i t y was t h e r e a f t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e t t i n g the g u i d e l i n e s f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n . Although the M i n i s t r y continued to i s s u e elementary a r t c u r r i c u l a , the u n i v e r s i t y ' s a r t e d u c a t i o n department was not o b l i g e d to r e l a t e the content of i t s courses to that of the p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l a . The second major change o c c u r r e d i n the content of the a r t c u r r i c u l a . Art educators who s t r e s s e d the need f o r g r e a t e r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and c r e a t i v i t y began to i n f l u e n c e the concepts on which the a r t c u r r i c u l a were based. The focus was becoming " c h i l d - c e n t r e d . " With t h i s new focus came a more l i b e r a l view of how teachers should be educated and how they should teach a r t to c h i l d r e n . These two changes began the d i v i s i o n t h a t developed between teacher p r e p a r a t i o n and the use of a r t c u r r i c u l a . The s i t u a t i o n today i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the almost t o t a l l a c k of emphasis placed on the p r e s c r i b e d a r t c u r r i c u l u m i n elementary a r t methods courses, i n s e r v i c e workshops and 4 assistance offered by art co-ordinators. Although the art education that teachers received at Normal School was perhaps too l i t e r a l and " t i e d " to the curriculum, the present s i t u a t i o n might be too diverse and unrelated to classroom practice. What might be needed, therefore, i s a compromise between these two extremes. J u s t i f i c a t i o n For the Study A new B r i t i s h Columbia elementary art curriculum has been developed and now must be implemented. Elementary teachers who are expected to implement the new curriculum might f e e l inadequate as implementors because their knowledge and understanding of art and art education i s inconsistent with the material in the guide. Many are not f a m i l i a r with the former art curriculum and, therefore, they might be skeptical about implementing a new guide when i t has been possible to "survive" without the previous one. The f a c i l i t i e s with which most teachers are required to teach art are usually l i m i t e d . This factor can contribute to a f e e l i n g of discouragement and f r u s t r a t i o n . Without consideration being given to these factors by the Ministry of Education, curriculum committees and school administrators, the New Elementary Fine Arts Curriculum Guide/Resource  Book stands a very real chance of being improperly and inadequately implemented. 5 Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s to give p a r t i c u l a r v i s i b i l i t y to the e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s that might determine the success or f a i l u r e of the implementation process. By i n c r e a s i n g the awareness of teachers and o t h e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r imple-menting the c u r r i c u l u m of problems r e l a t e d to p r e p a r a t i o n and r e a d i n e s s , perhaps a more s u c c e s s f u l implementation can occur. U l t i m a t e l y the study w i l l suggest ways i n which a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p can be developed between teacher e d u c a t i o n , the c u r r i c u l u m and elementary a r t programs. Research Question How w e l l prepared are B r i t i s h Columbia elementary teach e r s to implement the new New Elementary Fine A r t s  C u r r i c u l u m Guide/ Resource Book? S u b s i d i a r y Question In terms of teacher p r e p a r a t i o n , what part can elementary methods co u r s e s , i n s e r v i c e workshops and a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r s play i n b r i n g i n g about a s u c c e s s f u l implementation? Design of the Study The study, conceived as a survey with i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m implementation, i n v o l v e d t w e n t y - f i v e elementary 6 t e a c h e r s from one Lower Mainland s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and one u n i v e r s i t y elementary methods course i n s t r u c t o r from each of the three p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t i e s . The study was conducted over a p e r i o d of f i v e months. In order to answer the r e s e a r c h and s u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d to the elementary t e a c h e r s (see Appendix I) and i n t e r v i e w s were c a r r i e d out with ten of the t e a c h e r s and three u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s (see Appendix I I I & I V ) . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed to encourage teac h e r s to comment on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l background and a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h i n g a r t . I t i s acknowledged that the teachers might r e p r e s e n t a b i a s e d sample because they are from a d i s t r i c t with a f u l l - t i m e a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o l l o w e d up by i n t e r v i e w s i n which a random sample of ten t e a c h e r s , who f i l l e d out a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , were asked to assess the new c u r r i c u l u m a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r a b i l i t y to implement i t s concepts and c o n t e n t . To assess the present focus of u n i v e r s i t y elementary a r t methods cou r s e s , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with three u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s . The q u e s t i o n s were based on the content of the former and present a r t c u r r i c u l a to determine i f the graduates from these courses were being prepared to understand and implement a r t c u r r i c u l a . 7 Procedure and Data A n a l y s i s A content a n a l y s i s of the new c u r r i c u l u m was undertaken to assess i t s focus and to determine what t e a c h e r s were expected to know i n order to implement i t s c o n t e n t s . The a n a l y s i s provided the b a s i s f o r the qu e s t i o n s on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s . Data p e r t a i n i n g to whether teac h e r s could a c t u a l l y do what they were being asked to do was c o l l e c t e d and a n a l y z e d . Three instruments were used: A) elementary teacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e B) elementary teacher i n t e r v i e w C) teacher educator i n t e r v i e w The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were analyzed and the data were mainly presented i n q u a n t i t a t i v e form (see appendix I I ) . C e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s c a l l e d f o r w r i t t e n responses and, t h e r e f o r e , t h i s m a t e r i a l was recorded as q u a l i t a t i v e data. The i n t e r v i e w s probed beyond the data from the ques-t i o n n a i r e s to help determine the t e a c h e r s ' s p e c i f i c r e a c t i o n s to the new c u r r i c u l u m and to f i n d out the focus of three elementary a r t methods courses, taught i n three d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s . L i m i t a t i o n s As a l r e a d y s t a t e d t h i s might re p r e s e n t a bi a s e d sample of t e a c h e r s because only one school d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h 8 Columbia and three u n i v e r s i t y teacher educators were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study. Although there might be d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g e n e r a l i z i n g to a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n , the review of l i t e r a t u r e shows that teacher p r e p a r a t i o n i s a major f a c t o r i n the implementation of any c u r r i c u l u m . Assumptions The implementation of the New Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book w i l l improve the q u a l i t y of elementary a r t programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In other words, the c u r r i c u l u m i s seen by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n as worth implementing. T h i s does not imply, however, that i t i s n e c e s s a r i l y the most d e s i r a b l e or " b e s t " c u r r i c u l u m t h a t the author has encountered.. 9 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The focus of t h i s study i s on the a b i l i t y of elementary teachers to implement the new Elementary Fine Art C u r r i c u l u m  Guide/Resource Book. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the r o l e that the teacher performs i n implementation r e v e a l s the v a r i o u s p e r c e p t i o n s and viewpoints held by those i n v o l v e d i n implementation and c l a r i f i e s the problems that a r i s e from the d i f f e r e n t viewpoints held by teach e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Although t h i s study i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the implementation of a r t c u r r i c u l a , l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with c u r r i c u l u m implementation i n gen e r a l i s c o n s i d e r e d , as many s i m i l a r problems e x i s t i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new m a t e r i a l i n any s u b j e c t area. The review of l i t e r a t u r e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s toward implementation, and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the improvement of the t e a c h e r s ' r o l e i n implementation. Through a review of l i t e r a t u r e which r e v e a l s v a r i o u s problems and s o l u t i o n s a g r e a t e r understanding and i n s i g h t can be gained i n t o the nature of the tea c h e r ' s involvement i n implementation. Implementation can be d e f i n e d as the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new concepts and methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . Common (1980) s t a t e s that the process c o n s i s t s of three fundamental elements; a c u r r i c u l u m , agents of implementation and a r e c e i v i n g 10 o r g a n i z a t i o n . She goes on to d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that teachers should have i n order to be s u c c e s s f u l imple-mentors. The teacher must have knowledge, a b i l i t y , and an a t t i t u d e a p p r o p r i a t e to implementation. He or she must have the s k i l l s p r e s c r i b e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m , and must be motivated to implement new m a t e r i a l . Implementation i s commonly c o n s i d e r e d a normal p a r t or aspect of a t e a c h e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s but the r e a l i t y of what a c t u a l l y takes p l a c e i s o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y to t h i s b e l i e f . Problem areas and d i s c r e p a n c i e s have been i d e n t i f i e d by s e v e r a l c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h e r s . Z a i s (1976) argues that t e a c h e r s simply are not o r i e n t e d toward imple-mentation i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g and he q u e s t i o n s whether they even view c u r r i c u l u m development as one of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . K i r s t and Walker (1971) i n t h e i r s t u d i e s of implementation of s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a d i s c o v e r e d that t e a c h e r s present the s u b j e c t i n ways that are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the conceptions intended by the c u r r i c u l u m deve-l o p e r s . E i s n e r (1969) d e s c r i b e s the t e a c h e r ' s approach to implementation i n the f o l l o w i n g way: Teachers w i l l sometimes only skim c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l that one hopes they would read q u i t e t h o r o u g h l y . . . the c u r r i c u l u m guide at b e s t . . . p r o v i d e s to the teacher a r a t i o n a l e , a d e s c r i p t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s , they 11 suggest m o t i v a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s but they provide n e i t h e r a s c r i p t nor a r e c i p e . The te a c h e r , a f t e r i n i t i a t i n g a sequence i n c l a s s , must e x e r c i s e judgement which no guide can p r o v i d e . I f her s e n s i t i v i t y to a r t i s meager and her understanding of i t s requirements s m a l l , a p p r o p r i a t e judgements w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to make. The gap between what i s intended and what i s executed i n c l a s s can be q u i t e wide (p. 132). Teachers p e r c e i v e t h e i r part i n implementation as being i n t e r p r e t i v e . Carson (1983) s t a t e s t h a t : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m depends upon the t e a c h e r ' s stock of knowledge and b e l i e f s about how c h i l d r e n l e a r n , what s o c i e t y wants, what the f u t u r e w i l l be l i k e and the teach e r s understanding of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context of t h e i r work ( s c h o o l p o l i c i e s , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e of the p r i n c i p a l , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n s , v a r i o u s m i n i s t r y d i r e c t i v e s and so f o r t h (p.20). What seems apparent i s that the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e act i s the e f f o r t by teach e r s to connect the c u r r i c u l u m plan as t e x t with t e a c h i n g as a " l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e . " Z a h o r i k (1976) s t a t e s that the teacher a c t s l i k e a 12 f i l t e r i n the implementation p r o c e s s . " A l l c u r r i c u l u m changes, before they can get i n t o the classroom, are f i l t e r e d through the l e s s o n plan or u n i t p l a n " (p. 487). The r e s u l t of t h i s process " s t r o k e s and shapes the changes that are put i n t o i t i n such a way that what comes out of i t can be q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t " (p. 487). As w i l l be shown i n Chapter 5, elementary t e a c h e r s , who were i n t e r v i e w e d as part of t h i s study, i d e n t i f i e d a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g of inadequacy i n terms of t h e i r a b i l i t y to understand the content of the a r t c u r r i c u l u m and then to e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r y out i t s implementation. What seems to be apparent by r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e that d e a l s with the approach teac h e r s take toward implementation are s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t problems or concerns a f f e c t i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y to i n t r o d u c e new c u r r i c u l a . C r a n d a l l (1983) c a t e g o r i z e s the problems i n t o four a r e a s : the l a c k of t e a c h e r s ' commitment, exemplary p r a c t i c e s , t r a i n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s p e r c e i v e the teacher as a f a c i l i t a t o r i n the implementation p r o c e s s . Teachers are, t h e r e f o r e , expected to t r a n s l a t e the t h e o r i e s embodied i n the new c u r r i c u l u m i n t o p r a c t i c e with r e l a t i v e ease. Werner (1980) s t a t e s that t h i s p o i n t of view suggests t h a t : Teachers need only know where to get the m a t e r i a l s and how to use them most e f f e c t i v e l y ; workshops 13 and v a r i o u s i n s e r v i c e programs can be set up to make teach e r s aware of p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s (p.140). Aoki (1984) sees a fundamental problem with the way i n which the a u t h o r i t i e s or a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p e r c e i v e the r o l e of the t e a c h e r . He e x p l a i n s t h a t : A know-how-to-do view of implementation i s embedded i n a s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l thought/ac-t i o n framework which reduces human competence to i n s t r u m e n t a l reason and i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i o n . Here the teacher i s seen as a r u l e - o r i e n t e d , r u l e - g o v e r n e d being c a s t w i t h i n a m a n i p u l a t i v e ethos (p. 6). Aoki c o n t i n u e s on to express how t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l view of implementation minimizes or n e g l e c t s the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s that the teacher i s engaged i n when he encounters a new c u r r i c u l u m . In the DESSI f i e l d study conducted by Huberman and C r a n d a l l (1983) they d e s c r i b e d how a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of implementation a f f e c t t e a c h e r s : The c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r , who i s u s u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c u r r i c u l u m and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , puts pressure on users to adopt or develop the p r a c t i c e . Such strong-arming can, and o f t e n does, lower u s e r s ' i n i t i a l commitment (p. 65). IA In g e n e r a l , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f e e l that t e a c h e r s should be able to f o l l o w the content and methods of i n s t r u c t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n a new c u r r i c u l u m . Teachers are expected to adopt and understand the new concepts and processes whether or not they helped to assess or formulate them. I t i s obvious from a review of the l i t e r a t u r e that the teacher and a d m i n i s t r a t o r have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s about the r o l e of teach e r s i n the implementation p r o c e s s . On the one hand t e a c h e r s i n t e r p r e t new c u r r i c u l a a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r commitment. While on the other hand, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s view teachers as instruments or f a c i l i t a t o r s i n the process of implementation, t h e r e f o r e o v e r l o o k i n g the p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e a c h e r s a t t a c h to i n t r o d u c i n g new m a t e r i a l . F o r t u n a t e l y , c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h has focused on t h i s i s s u e to some extent and, t h e r e f o r e , s e v e r a l s o l u t i o n s have been put f o r t h . L a t e r i n t h i s chapter some suggestions o f f e r e d by r e s e a r c h e r s d e a l i n g with ways to improve the r o l e of teach e r s i n the implementation process are o u t l i n e d . In most cases a "team e f f o r t " approach on the part of teach e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s promoted, t h e r e f o r e l i n k i n g together the key p a r t i c i p a n t s and e l i m i n a t i n g , to some extent, the d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s about the part teachers should play i n implementation. Huberman (1983) conducted a study i n which he s t u d i e d 15 one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s implementation of a program. The process was s u c c e s s f u l mainly because the teach e r s r e c e i v e d a l a r g e amount of q u a l i t y t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and were " s u s t a i n e d by c e n t r a l o f f i c e and b u i l d i n g l e v e l s u p p o r t " (p. 111). He mentions that c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s proved e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e . Teachers f r e q u e n t l y exchanged " t i p s , war s t o r i e s , encouragements, complaints and formulated requests to the h e l p i n g t e a c h e r " (p. 71). Commitment seems to i n c r e a s e and communication develops when a team e f f o r t approach i s adopted i n which teac h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s work toge-t h e r . Herron (1971) f e e l s t h a t although support and communi-c a t i o n i s important, teachers should be given an e f f e c t i v e understanding of how the new c u r r i c u l u m ' s f o u n d a t i o n a l r a t i o n a l e was fo r m u l a t e d . He s t a t e s that "those i n d i v i d u a l s who are going to teach the program should be i n v o l v e d i n many phases of i t s c r e a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n and r e v i s i o n " (p. 50). Time and reso u r c e s must a l s o be made a v a i l a b l e f o r tea c h e r s to be able to play a more a c t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e r o l e i n the implementation process. In terms of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n F u l l a n (1983) o u t l i n e s s e v e r a l ways i n which teac h e r s can be a s s i s t e d . He suggests that the f o l l o w i n g changes o f f e r support f o r t e a c h e r s : i n s t r u c t i o n a l l y focused l e a d e r s h i p at the s c h o o l l e v e l , c l e a r goals and d i r e c t i v e s , a system f o r mo n i t o r i n g performance, 16 on-going s t a f f development and an o r d e r l y and s e c u r e - c l i m a t e . He a l s o s t r e s s e s the importance of c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The p r i n c i p a l , f o r i n s t a n c e , p l a y s a key r o l e i n m o t i v a t i n g t e a c h e r s , p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e , o r g a n i z i n g i n s e r v i c e workshops and a r r a n g i n g f o r the a v a i l a b i l i t y of resource m a t e r i a l s . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s to express t h e i r a t t i t u d e s about t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and t e a c h i n g a r t have been p r o v i d e d i n other s t u d i e s done by Ann Wolfe (1978), Laura Chapman (1979), and James Gray (1981). Ann Wolfe compared the changes i n a t t i t u d e s of t e a c h e r s who were new to t e a c h i n g with those who had taught f o r a number of y e a r s . Her study r e v e a l e d the need f o r i n t e r n s h i p experiences and i n s e r v i c e programs f o r beginning a r t t e a c h e r s to help those teachers meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s and goals which brought them to a r t t e a c h i n g (Wolfe, 1978). In 1979 Laura Chapman conducted a survey through School  A r t s Magazine i n which 187 a r t teachers v o l u n t a r i l y o f f e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r a r t programs. T h i s survey r e v e a l e d the core elementary s c h o o l a r t program that 75% of the t e a c h e r s were o f f e r i n g . I t was made up of drawing, p a i n t i n g , p r i n t m a k i n g , b a s i c d e s i g n , c o l l a g e , weaving or s t i t c h e r y , mixed media f o r p i c t o r i a l work, s c u l p t u r e and ceramics. As w e l l as f o c u s i n g on the areas being i n c l u d e d i n programs, i t asked s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to the p h i l o s o p h i e s that t e a c h e r s have about t h e i r aims and emphasis i n t e a c h i n g 17 a r t . Chapman (1974 r e v e a l e d t h a t : "Most teac h e r s saw themselves as d e v e l o p i n g openness to new i d e a s , o r i g i n a l i t y and i m a g i n a t i o n , making a r t r e l e v a n t to s t u d e n t s ' n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t s and e x p e r i e n c e , and b u i l d i n g p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s and the a b i l i t y to use media" (p. 5 ) . By examining the a t t i t u d e s of t e a c h e r s , c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s or emphasis i n a r t e d u c a t i o n became apparent. James Gray's study (1981) d e a l t with t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . In the d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s i t was apparent that f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g was needed to improve the o v e r a l l performance of t e a c h e r s . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that r e s e a r c h i s being done i n t o ways i n which the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n implementation can be i n c r e a s e d . The success of imple-mentation i s dependent to a c e r t a i n degree on the commitment, knowledge and involvement of t e a c h e r s . Chapter 3 CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE NEW  ELEMENTARY FINE ARTS CURRICULUM GUIDE/RESOURCE BOOK Int r o d u c t i o n In most i n s t a n c e s elementary classroom t e a c h e r s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing the The New Elementary Fine  A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book. To determine the concepts and s k i l l s that t e a c h e r s should be aware of i n order to implement t h i s document, i t i s necessary to analyze i t s c o n t e n t s . By i d e n t i f y i n g the concepts and s k i l l s needed to i n t e r p r e t and implement the new c u r r i c u l u m , i t i s then p o s s i b l e to ask a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s of t e a c h e r s and teacher educators i n order to gain a c l e a r e r idea of what co u l d be focused on i n both teacher e d u c a t i o n programs and i n i n s e r v i c e workshops. T h i s content a n a l y s i s has three o b j e c t i v e s : A) to d e s c r i b e the s e c t i o n s of the c u r r i c u l u m guide and resource book B) to i d e n t i f y the goals of the M i n i s t r y of Educati o n and the c u r r i c u l u m committee C) to i d e n t i f y the knowledge and s k i l l s that t e a c h e r s are expected to have i n order to i n t e r p r e t and implement the c u r r i c u l u m . 19 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s The i n t r o d u c t i o n to the c u r r i c u l u m document d e s c r i b e s the b a s i s and purpose of the content a r e a s . C e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of the i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , are recorded i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . The document i s t i t l e d The New Elementary Fine A r t s  C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book. I t c o n t a i n s three a r t s a r e a s : a r t , drama and music, and i s d i v i d e d i n t o two main s e c t i o n s : The Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide and the Elementary Fine A r t s Resource Book. The Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide: d e s c r i b e s the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s on which the content of t h i s book r e s t s . I t i s most important that you f a m i l i a r i z e y o u r s e l f with i t s contents p r i o r to making use of the resource book. The statement of philosophy given here emphasizes the r i c h n e s s of the a r t s experience that teachers can o f f e r , the c u r r i c u l u m goals d e f i n e areas of growth and development that are enhanced and extended through e d u c a t i o n i n the f i n e a r t s . An overview and an o u t l i n e of content h i g h l i g h t the two o r g a n i z e r s f o r grouping concepts i n each of the a r t s - c r e a t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n ; content themes are o f f e r e d at each grade l e v e l f o r use by the teacher i n p l a n n i n g an i n t e g r a t e d 20 l e a r n i n g experience f o r c h i l d r e n , and f i n a l l y , the s k i l l s and concepts s p e c i f i c to each s u b j e c t area are presented i n the l e a r n i n g outcomes p. ( i x ) . The Elementary Fine A r t s Resource Book c o n t a i n s : three main s e c t i o n s , each d e a l i n g with one of the f i n e a r t s areas: a r t , drama, and music. The overview s e c t i o n of the resource book p r o v i d e s an o u t l i n e of the ways i n which m a t e r i a l f o r i n s t r u c t i o n can be o r g a n i z e d i n order to accomplish the c u r r i c u l u m l e a r n i n g outcomes. In a d d i t i o n i t p r o v i d e s v a l u a b l e suggestions as to how the three a r t s areas can be i n t e r r e l a t e d through the use of themes p. ( i x ) . The a r t resource s e c t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way : c o n t a i n s the c o n c e p t u a l model and sequence of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a r t i n the elementary grades. D e f i n i t i o n s of terms, su g g e s t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g , and guidance f o r e v a l u a t i o n and g e n e r a l c l a s s management are g i v e n , and sample l e s s o n plans, i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l 21 needs, and i n f o r m a t i o n on s a f e t y , m a t e r i a l s and s u p p l i e s , other r e s o u r c e s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s are provided p. ( i x ) . The former and new a r t c u r r i c u l a are compared and c o n t r a s t e d to i l l u s t r a t e to the teacher how r e v i s i o n s have improved the q u a l i t y of the document and h o p e f u l l y made i t a more u s e f u l and p u r p o s e f u l guide to f o l l o w : - p r o v i d e s more guidance f o r , and o f f e r s more sugges-t i o n s to, the elementary t e a c h e r ; - has s p e c i f i c s e q u e n t i a l l e a r n i n g outcomes i n content areas f o r each grade l e v e l from 1-7 with s u p p o r t i n g l e s s o n p l a n s ; - c o n t a i n s four i n t e r r e l a t e d content a r e a s : Deve-l o p i n g Images, Elements and P r i n c i p l e s of Design, M a t e r i a l s and P r o c e s s e s , and Responding to A r t ; - g i v e s equal emphasis to both making a r t and responding to a r t ; - expands the purpose of image development beyond c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n ; - g i v e s responding to a r t more scope than a r t appre-c i a t i o n , and p r o v i d e s c l e a r e r a p p l i c a t i o n s ; - emphasizes using and understanding the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n ; - d i v i d e s the a r t processes i n t o c a t e g o r i e s s i m i l a r 22 to those used i n the secondary guide and keeps these c o n s i s t e n t f o r primary and i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s ; - complements the l e a r n i n g outcomes of the secondary a r t c u r r i c u l u m ; - p r o v i d e s more guidance f o r e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s ; - d e s c r i b e s the stages of c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c development; - p r o v i d e s more help i n p l a n n i n g a r t l e s s o n s and u n i t s ; - g i v e s m u l t i - c u l t u r a l examples; and - suggests p o s s i b l e l i n k s to the elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m p. ( i x ) . The Goals of the M i n i s t r y of Education and  the C u r r i c u l u m Committee The M i n i s t r y of Education's goal or o b j e c t i v e i s that r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n i n f i n e a r t s should take place and t h i s process should i n v o l v e a l l students from grade 1 through 7. A c c o r d i n g to the p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i -culum c o - o r d i n a t o r , 1 1985/86 w i l l be the year i n which teach e r s should become f a m i l i a r with the new c u r r i c u l u m and then i n 1986/87 they w i l l be expected to o f f i c i a l l y c a r r y out i t s implementation. The s p e c i f i c e x p e c t a t i o n s that the M i n i s t r y has; of teachers are d i s c u s s e d i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n of the content a n a l y s i s . In g e n e r a l , the C u r r i c u l u m Committee f e e l s that the 23 c u r r i c u l u m has been developed to guide and d i r e c t the te a c h i n g of the Fine A r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t pr o v i d e s a "common s t a r t i n g p o i n t , based on the understanding that there are no l i m i t s to e i t h e r the r i c h n e s s of the a r t s experience that t e a c h e r s can o f f e r or the v a r i e t y of responses a r i s i n g from c h i l d r e n ' s i m a g i n a t i o n s " (p. v i ) . The c u r r i c u -lum should provide a "foundations grounding" i n the three a r t s a r e a s . I t i s hoped that students w i l l gain "enthusiasm f o r , and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f , the f i n e a r t s , and one that t h i s w i l l enable them to continue t h e i r s t u d i e s i n a r t , drama, and/or music i n the secondary s c h o o l s they a t t e n d " (p. v i ) . The s p e c i f i c philosophy and goals of the C u r r i c u l u m Committee are o u t l i n e d i n the Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide: P h i l o s o p h y E d u c a t i o n i n the a r t s i s an e s s e n t i a l part of the development of every c h i l d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r t , drama, and music p r o v i d e s a unique mode of experience that s t i m u l a t e s c r e a t i v e and i n t u i t i v e thought w h i l e d e v e l o p i n g the i n t e l l e c t . A r t s e d u c a t i o n a s s i s t s the c h i l d to p e r c e i v e and respond to the environment through the senses. I t a l s o helps the c h i l d to achieve s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , to experience success, and to r e a l i z e p e r s o n a l p o t e n t i a l . L e a r n i n g through the 24 A r t s p r o v i d e s a f u l l e r understanding and enjoyment of l i f e " (p. 3). The goals f o r elementary f i n e a r t s e d u c a t i o n a r e : 1. to f o s t e r the c h i l d ' s enthusiasm f o r the a r t s through involvement i n a r t , drama, and music; 2. to develop the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to e x p l o r e , express, communicate, i n t e r p r e t , and c r e a t e ; 3. to develop the c h i l d ' s s k i l l and t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y i n the a r t s ; 4. to nurture the c h i l d ' s c a p a c i t y f o r c r i t i c a l and s e n s i t i v e response to the a r t s ; 5. to encourage the c h i l d ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of the a r t s ; and 6. to advance the c h i l d ' s knowledge of the ways i n which the a r t s i n f l u e n c e and are i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i e t y and the environment (p. 3). E x p e c t a t i o n s R e l a t e d to Concepts and S k i l l s The s p e c i f i c concept and s k i l l e x p e c t a t i o n s that the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n and the C u r r i c u l u m Committee have of the t e a c h e r s who w i l l be implementing the c u r r i c u -lum are c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d i n v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the document. The e x p e c t a t i o n s of the M i n i s t r y of Education appear i n the p r e f a c e and s t a t e that elementary t e a c h e r s are expected to decide the o r g a n i z a t i o n and content of t h e i r a r t programs. I t i s a l s o seen as t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to d e c i d e : - the r a t i o of a r t , drama, and music with the program; - the extent to which these areas w i l l be o f f e r e d i n d i s c r e t e u n i t s or i n i n t e r r e l a t e d format; and - the extent to which l e a r n i n g i n the f i n e a r t s i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m i n the s c i e n c e s and humanities as p a r t of the process of p r e s e n t i n g the r e l a t i o n between a l l areas of l e a r n i n g (p. v i ) . The requirements imply that t e a c h e r s must have the knowledge and a b i l i t y to teach the three a r t s areas and possess the necessary i n s i g h t p l a n n i n g s k i l l s i n order to adapt and expand t h e i r present program to i n c l u d e the concept of i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s as i t i s presented i n the c u r r i c u l u m . The concepts and s k i l l s t h a t the C u r r i c u l u m Committee focus on are necessary i n order to teach the content of the document. These e x p e c t a t i o n s appear mainly i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide and a r t r e s o u r c e s e c t i o n . The c u r r i -culum guide i n d i c a t e s the expected l e a r n i n g outcomes of each a r t s area as they r e l a t e to s i x major g o a l s . The a r t area of the r e s o u r c e book, however, r e v e a l s more s p e c i f e x p e c t a t i o n s i n terms of the concepts and s k i l l s that t e a c h e r s are expected to understand and a p p l y . The a r t r e s o u r c e s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g : The Conceptual Model, E x p l a n a t i o n s and D e f i n i t i o n s , 26 P l a n n i n g f o r Program Development and the Appendix. Each area d e s c r i b e s s p e c i f i c concepts and s k i l l s t h a t are r e q u i r e d by t e a c h e r s . The e x p e c t a t i o n s or requirements are l i s t e d under the v a r i o u s sub-headings found i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Conceptual Model The model shows four content areas that make up the c u r r i c u l u m : Developing Images, M a t e r i a l s and P r o c e s s e s , Elements and P r i n c i p l e s of Design and Responding to A r t . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the e x p e c t a t i o n s found i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A teacher s h o u l d : - be aware of the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of the f o u r content areas; - be a b l e to design a program that develops students a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r and e x p r e s s i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s . The program should, i n c l u d e a l l four areas; - i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y , through the use of terminology r e l a t e d to the content a r e a s . E x p l a n a t i o n s and D e f i n i t i o n s The Learner i n A r t . T h i s s e c t i o n b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s the developmental stages of c h i l d r e n ' s a r t . 27 - a t e a c h e r n e e d s t o have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n o r m a l s t a g e s o f image d e v e l o p m e n t ; - a t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o c h o o s e a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e " s t i m u l a t i n g and s u i t a b l e t o t h e i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s o f s t u d e n t s " ( p . 2 5 ) . D e v e l o p i n g Images Image-making i s d e s c r i b e d as "a human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and can become an i m p o r t a n t l a n g u a g e — a way o f r e c o r d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s , p a s t e v e n t s , f e e l i n g s and f a n t a s i e s . . . a way o f k n o w i n g " ( p . 2 8 ) . A t e a c h e r s h o u l d : - p r o v i d e r i c h s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s t o c r e a t e p e r s o n a l images ; - i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s i n d i s c u s s i o n t h a t i n c r e a s e s t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f image s o u r c e s ; - p r o v i d e r i c h s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s t o c r e a t e p e r s o n a l i m a g e s ; - i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s i n d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t i n c r e a s e t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f image s o u r c e s . - e n c o u r a g e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f v a r i o u s i m a g e s . - be a b l e t o promote t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t images 28 can be recorded i n many ways and encourage the students to develop an open-mindedness to such v a r i e t y ; - s t r e s s the use of m a t e r i a l s and processes i n image development; - encourage students to develop an ease and s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e i n u s i n g m a t e r i a l s i n unique and i n t e r e s t i n g ways; - s t r e s s "the power of images to convey an emotional q u a l i t y and communicate a message, or r e c o r d an event" (p. 28); - encourage students to comment on t h e i r own images and d i s c u s s those of o t h e r s ; - s t r e s s t h a t students become f l u e n t i n t h e i r use of d e sign terms i n order to d e s c r i b e t h e i r f e e l i n g s about images; - be a b l e to r e f l e c t the s t u d e n t s ' own i d e a s and f e e l i n g s through image development a c t i v i t i e s . Elements and P r i n c i p l e s of Design The elements, p r i n c i p l e s and a s p e c t s of v i s u a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n c o n c e p t u a l i z e and d e s c r i b e the " p r o p e r t i e s " of a r t . A teacher s h o u l d : - r e l a t e the study of the elements and p r i n c i p l e s to the development of imagery and/or responding to a r t ; 29 allow students "to e x p e r i e n c e both the depth and v a r i e t y of v i s u a l a r t as a' s o c i a l phenomena and human e x p e r i e n c e " (p.29); encourage students to d i s c o v e r a l t e r n a t e ways of t h i n k i n g about the v i s u a l a r t s ; be s e n s i t i v e i n the c h o i c e of m a t e r i a l s and t o p i c s of i n t e r e s t so that they develop a growing awareness of l i n e , shape, c o l o u r and t e x t u r e ; encourage competency and accomplishment i n the use of m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s ; encourage e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n before u n d e r t a k i n g a major p r o j e c t ; be a b l e to r e l a t e the m a t e r i a l s and processes to the p r o j e c t ; i n t r o d u c e students to h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , equipment and p r o c e s s e s ; when a p p r o p r i a t e , encourage students to improvise t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s ; s t r e s s the use of m a t e r i a l s so that they a p p r e c i a t e the c r a f t s m a n s h i p of o t h e r s ; teach them how to handle v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s so that they a p p r e c i a t e the c r a f t s m a n s h i p of o t h e r s ; be a b l e to make use of the g e n e r a l l i s t of m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d on page 32. 30 Responding to Art I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t young c h i l d r e n have the o p p o r t u n i t y to respond to a r t as w e l l as to be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n i t s c r e a t i o n (p. 33). A teacher s h o u l d : - encourage students to respond as w e l l as c r e a t e ; - encourage students to make c r i t i c a l judgements about t h e i r own work and works of others as a n a t u r a l part of the whole e x p e r i e n c e ; - be a b l e to use examples of h i s t o r i c a l , contemporary f i n e a r t , f o l k a r t or commercial a r t to motivate s t u d e n t s ' understanding of t h e i r own work; - s t r e s s p r i d e i n one's h e r i t a g e and p r o v i d e oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r s e e i n g and d i s c u s s i n g a r t from other c u l t u r a l groups; - teach students to view and t a l k about a r t a c c o r d i n g to t hree main s t e p s : d e s c r i p t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and judgement of a work of a r t ; - encourage, through d i s c u s s i o n , the s a t i s f a c t i o n and value of a r t ; - teach the students to d e s c r i b e , i n t e r p r e t and judge a r t so that they become more a c t i v e c r i t i c s , consumers and c r e a t o r s of a r t . 31 C h i l d r e n with S p e c i a l Needs These c h i l d r e n should be o f f e r e d the same core c u r r i c u l u m . A teacher s h o u l d : - be able to modify and expand the content to s u i t the s p e c i a l needs of the s t u d e n t s ; - s t r e s s the e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s as w e l l as s k i l l development; - r e l a t e the a c t i v i t i e s to academic l e a r n i n g such as r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , math, s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . E v a l u a t i o n of the Learner i n Art Teachers should e v a l u a t e i n the most a c c u r a t e way p o s s i b l e "based on the a n a l y s i s of p e r s o n a l growth over a p e r i o d of time and an accumulated r e c o r d of the s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g i n each l e s s o n or u n i t " (p. 35). A teacher s h o u l d : - e v a l u a t e both the s t u d e n t s ' growth i n l e a r n i n g about making and responding to a r t ; - e v a l u a t e through formal and i n f o r m a l means; - e v a l u a t e s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g through "a student's performance i n a r t , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of that r e c o r d and c r i t e r i a upon which the f i n a l judgement i s made" (p. 35 ) ; - c o n s i d e r both process and product work i n the f i n a l judgement; 32 - e v a l u a t e p o r t f o l i o s and sketchbooks; - design t e s t s f o r a s s e s s i n g f a c t u a l knowledge; - make c h e c k l i s t s of prepared l e a r n i n g outcomes; - keep i n mind the degree of c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , i n g e n u i t y , the e x p r e s s i v e n e s s and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s developed by the s t u d e n t s ; - combine i n f o r m a t i o n to form an a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n i n a r t . A r t S a f e t y Many m a t e r i a l s are p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h hazards and t h e r e f o r e i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the teacher to be informed about and aware of any d i f f i c u l t i e s and s i t u a t i o n s that c o u l d develop. P l a n n i n g f o r Program Development P l a n n i n g f o r Content Area The f o u r content area c h a r t s p r o v i d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , emphasize the importance of p l a n n i n g and program development i n the elementary s c h o o l . A teacher s h o u l d : - encourage the use of themes i n t h e i r program p l a n n i n g ; - view the c h a r t s as p r o v i d i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r 33 p l a n n i n g an overview, u n i t s and d a i l y l e s s o n s ; - plan programs that meet the s t r e n g t h s , needs and i n t e r e s t s of each c l a s s ; - "expand upon these a c t i v i t i e s , c o n n e c t i o n s and t e a c h i n g s u g g e s t i o n s " (p. 41); - i n t e g r a t e a r t e x p e r i e n c e s , when p o s s i b l e , with l e a r n i n g i n other s u b j e c t areas; - plan s e q u e n t i a l l y f o r one or more years "to ensure c o n t i n u i t y and cumulative l e a r n i n g " (p. 41). - develop both u n i t s and l e s s o n s i n a r t , keeping i n mind the r e s o u r c e s a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s needed; - present concepts i n i n c r e a s i n g l y " c h a l l e n g i n g and complex ways, to ensure that a s t i m u l a t i n g a r t program i s m a i n t a i n e d " (p. 41). U n i t P l a n n i n g "When pl a n n i n g f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r t , a u n i t approach i s h i g h l y recommended. U n i t s i n v o l v e a s e r i e s of l e s s o n s that i n some way c l o s e l y r e l a t e to one another" (p. 50). A teacher s h o u l d : - c o n s t r u c t u n i t s around a p a r t i c u l a r theme or f o c u s ; - w i t h i n an a r t u n i t , be a b l e to design l e s s o n s t h a t , " r e l a t e to each o t h e r , to r e l a t e to the u n i t focus or theme, and to help f u l f i l l l e a r n i n g i n the f o u r content a r e a s " (p. 50). 34 Sample Lesson Plans The sample l e s s o n plans show how to adapt the a c t i v i t i e s , given on the content area c h a r t s when p l a n n i n g f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . They p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r adapti o n and development. A teacher should: - plan l e s s o n s based on these sample l e s s o n s ; - choose a r t a c t i v i t i e s that are a p p r o p r i a t e to i n d i v i d u a l needs and t e a c h i n g s t y l e s ; The Appendix The appendix c o n t a i n s three a r e a s : a statement on c o n t e s t s and c o m p e t i t i o n s , a g l o s s a r y and l i s t s of re s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . The g l o s s a r y and resource m a t e r i a l s r e v e a l the emphasis on c e r t a i n concepts and s k i l l s . What i s apparent, i s that these concepts and s k i l l s are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to those r e v e a l e d i n other areas of the a r t res o u r c e s e c t i o n . Summary The Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book c o n t a i n s a r t , drama and music. To d e a l with the unique and i n t e r r e l a t e d q u a l i t i e s of each a r t ar e a , the c u r r i c u l u m docu-ment i s d i v i d e d i n t o two main s e c t i o n s : The Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide and the Elementary F i n e A r t s Resource Book. The Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide focuses on a l l three a r t s areas and d e s c r i b e s them as having s i m i l a r 35 goals and o b j e c t i v e s . The Elementary Fine A r t s Resource Book c o n t a i n s an i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n which s t a t e s the p h i l o s o p h y and goals f o r a l l three a r t s a r e a s . The remainder of the document, however, i s d i v i d e d i n t o three separate a r t s s e c t i o n s . The goals and/or o b j e c t i v e s of the M i n i s t r y of Education and the C u r r i c u l u m Committee are found throughout the document. The M i n i s t r y p r e s c r i b e s the use of the c u r r i c u l u m that a l l students r e c e i v e an e d u c a t i o n i n the a r t s i n every grade from 1 to 7. The C u r r i c u l u m Committee p r o v i d e s t e a c h e r s with a p h i l o s o p h y and set of goals that do not r e s t r i c t t h e i r freedom to s e l e c t and p l a n , but i n s t e a d o f f e r s u g g e s t i o n s of p o s s i b l e ways to c o n s t r u c t , expand and e n r i c h t h e i r present a r t programs. The e x p e c t a t i o n s that become apparent through an examination of the a r t s r e s o u r c e s e c t i o n f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : concepts and s k i l l s . In c e r t a i n cases s p e c i f i c words and phrases r e - o c c u r which help determine the emphasis pl a c e d on s i g n i f i c a n t concepts and s k i l l s . Words such as suggest, i n t e r r e l a t e , d i s c u s s and develop were used throughout the document, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e f e r e n c e to p l a n n i n g programs and c u l t i v a t i n g v i s u a l awareness. C e r t a i n requirements and/or e x p e c t a t i o n s a l s o r e - o c c u r i n the a n a l y s i s of the f o u r content a r e a s . The a b i l i t y of t e a c h e r s to develop s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y , the s e n s i t i v i t y 36 t o s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s , and t h e c o n f i d e n c e and k nowledge t o i n t e r r e l a t e and d e v e l o p t h e f o u r c o n t e n t a r e a s ( D e v e l o p i n g Images, E l e m e n t s and P r i n c i p l e s o f D e s i g n , M a t e r i a l s and P r o c e s s e s and R e s p o n d i n g t o A r t ) were f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c u r r i c u l u m document. W i t h t h e use o f t h i s g u i d e and r e s o u r c e book t e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a m e a n i n g f u l a r t p r o g r am t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s and b a c k g r o u n d f o r s t u d e n t s t o be a b l e t o c o n t i n u e on i n a r t a t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . The e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r d e t e r m i n e s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t w h e t h e r or n o t t h e s e g o a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s can be met. To a s s e s s how t e a c h e r s f e e l a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t , g o a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h i s document a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e have been d e v e l o p e d . The q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , r e l a t e t o t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . 37 Chapter 4  ELEMENTARY TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRES I n t r o d u c t i o n With a u t h o r i z a t i o n by the Lower Mainland s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e with a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r was sent to 50 elementary t e a c h e r s . The completed elementary q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o l l e c t e d t ogether by the d i s t r i c t a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d i n mid-November 1984, and requested to be completed and r e t u r n e d by January 15, 1985. To i n c r e a s e the number of r e t u r n s , the c o - o r d i n a t o r d i s t r i b u t e d a fol l o w - u p l e t t e r to the elementary t e a c h e r s which extended the completion date u n t i l January 30, 1985. Twenty-five completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d . Tasks The t e a c h e r s were asked to pr o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n a r t . S p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s d e a l t with areas i n which they f e l t s t r o n g or weak. The c h o i c e s they were provided with r e f l e c t e d the content of u n i v e r s i t y elementary a r t methods courses and the p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l a , both past and p r e s e n t . To r e v e a l the a t t i t u d e s t h at t e a c h e r s have towards t e a c h i n g a r t , s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s provided c h o i c e s of commonly hel d views or o p i n i o n s . Space was pr o v i d e d at the end of each q u e s t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d responses. In c e r t a i n 38 cases the t e a c h e r s were asked to r a t e t h e i r responses, u s i n g a 1 to 10 s c a l e . V a r i a b l e s Although such f a c t o r s as a t e a c h e r ' s age, years of experie n c e and t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d e s they develop about a r t , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n c e n t r a t e d on examining the e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds and the a t t i t u d e s that might have developed from t h e i r t r a i n i n g . U n l i k e many d i s t r i c t s i n the p r o v i n c e , t h i s one has an a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r who p r o v i d e s r e g u l a r i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s at both the elementary and secondary l e v e l . The v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h e r s ' e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , became apparent when post secondary courses and other t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d . Procedures and Data A n a l y s i s The r e s u l t s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c o l l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1) The number of t e a c h e r s ' responses to each c h o i c e l i s t e d a f t e r every q u e s t i o n was t a l l i e d . 2) Teachers who r a t e d t h e i r responses a c c o r d i n g to the same format had t h e i r responses d i s p l a y e d i n a t a b l e f o l l o w i n g the t a l l i e d responses. 3) W r i t t e n responses were r e c o r d e d . 39 The r e s u l t s of the t a l l i e d and r a t e d responses appear i n Appendix I I . The summary of f i n d i n g s , d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s form the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s of t h i s c h a p ter. Summary of F i n d i n g s 1. In response to "Did you take a r t elementary i n u n i v e r -s i t y ? " : 52% of t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d t h e i r a r t e d u c a t i o n at U.B.C. 16% had no formal t r a i n i n g at a u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . 2. In response to "Did your course work i n c l u d e : " (see Appendix I) 72% of t e a c h e r s took elementary methods courses while at u n i v e r s i t y . Art p r o c e s s e s , a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r i e s and p r i n c i p l e s , and a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n were a l s o i n c l u d e d as part of the e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d by 50% of the t e a c h e r s . 3. In response to "Please i n d i c a t e your p e r s o n a l involvement i n a r t ? " : 60% of the t e a c h e r s expressed a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s and a t t e n d i n g a r t e x h i b i t i o n s . 24% expressed that they have l i t t l e time f o r , or involvement i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e of the s c h o o l environment. 4. In response to "In what areas would you l i k e to r e c e i v e more t r a i n i n g ? " : 84% of the t e a c h e r s . s p e c i f i e d that they would l i k e 40 to r e c e i v e more t r a i n i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y a r t methods. 80% would l i k e t o l e a r n more about i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s . A r t a p p r e c i a t i o n , c r a f t s and m u l t i -c u l t u r a l a r t e d u c a t i o n were not seen t o be as i m p o r t a n t (see Appendix I I ) . The r a t e d r e s p o n s e s p a r a l l e l e d the t a l l i e d r e s p o n s e s . I n r e s p o n s e to "What form of t r a i n i n g do you p r e f e r ? " : 88% of t e a c h e r s p r e f e r r e d r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h s h o r t workshops and s e m i n a r s o f f e r e d by the d i s t r i c t a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r . Summer and e v e n i n g c o u r s e s a t u n i v e r s i t y were l e s s p o p u l a r . In r e s p o n s e to "What has h e l p e d you most?": 72% found o t h e r t e a c h e r s ' i d e a s on a r t e d u c a t i o n to be the most h e l p f u l . A r t a c t i v i t y books and magazines were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d v e r y u s e f u l . Low p r i o r i t y was g i v e n to u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s and workshops o r g a n i z e d by the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . I n r e s p o n s e to "What a r e a s do you f e e l most p r e p a r e d to t e a c h ? " : 68% of the t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t they were most p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h p a i n t i n g and m o d e l l i n g / c a r v i n g / c o n s t r u c t i o n . D r a w i n g , elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n , and p r i n t -making were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a r e a s t h a t 60% of the t e a c h e r s f e l t p r e p a r e d to t e a c h . D e v e l o p i n g imagery, r e a s o n e d c r i t i c i s m and a r t h i s t o r y were a r e a s they 41 f e l t the l e a s t a b l e to teach. The r a t e d responses p a r a l l e l e d the t a l l i e d responses. In response to "Which of the above areas ( r e f e r r i n g to number 7) do you f e e l you should know more about?": 48% of the t e a c h e r s wanted to know more about elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . 44% expressed an i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g more about drawing and t e x t i l e s . Developing imagery, reasoned c r i t i c i s m and a r t h i s t o r y were areas i n which 32% of the t e a c h e r s f e l t i n a d e q u a t e l y prepared. In response to "What would help you teach more e f f e c -t i v e l y " : 80% of the t e a c h e r s f e l t that more i n s e r v i c e workshops and more handouts on a c t i v i t i e s and p r o j e c t i d e a s would help them teach more e f f e c t i v e l y . V i s u a l a i d s such as p o s t e r s and books were p e r c e i v e d as l e s s important. The r a t e d responses p a r a l l e l e d the t a l l i e d responses. In response to "What b a s i c q u a l i t i e s and/or s k i l l s do you f e e l a teacher should have i n order to teach a r t at the elementary l e v e l ? " : 88% f e l t i t was necessary to enjoy working with m a t e r i a l s and processes with c h i l d r e n . Being a c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l and a b l e to r e l a t e other s u b j e c t s to a r t were a l s o seen by 82% of the t e a c h e r s as important s k i l l s . The a b i l i t y to draw or be t r a i n e d as an a r t s p e c i a l i s t were seen as l e s s important. The r a t e d responses 42 p a r a l l e l e d the t a l l i e d responses. 11. In response to "What areas do you f e e l are necessary to i n c l u d e i n an elementary a r t program?": the f o l l o w i n g areas were p e r c e i v e d as being important to i n c l u d e i n an elementary a r t program, i n t h i s o r d e r : 1) s k i l l development i n drawing and p a i n t i n g 2) design p r i n c i p l e s 3) i n t e g r a t e d s u b j e c t a c t i v i t i e s 4) a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m 5) c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g I n d i v i d u a l responses i n c l u d e d the use of media and the r e p e t i t i o n of t e c h n i q u e s . In the r a t e d responses, i n t e g r a t e d s u b j e c t a c t i v i t i e s were c o n s i d e r e d the most important a r e a s . Every teacher c o n s i d e r e d en-couraging i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n to be the most important goal i n t e a c h i n g a r t . 12. In response to "What are your main goals i n t e a c h i n g a r t ? " : 84% p e r c e i v e d d e v e l o p i n g a r t i s t i c s k i l l s , p r o v i d i n g a " f u n " a c t i v i t y and encouraging s e l f - r e l i a n c e as important g o a l s . Developing c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s , i n c r e a s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s c a p a c i t y to be more r e s o u r c e f u l were p e r c e i v e d as l e s s important. The r a t e d responses p a r a l l e l e d the t a l l i e d responses. 43 13. In response to "How f r e q u e n t l y do you make use of the f o l l o w i n g [ r e s o u r c e s ] ? " : Ideas from other t e a c h e r s , and handouts from a r t workshops were used by 40% of the t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r a r t c l a s s e s . The p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m and a r t g a l l e r i e s were seldom or never u t i l i z e d . 14. In response to "On what b a s i s do you g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t a p r o j e c t ? " : 88% of the t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d p r o j e c t s on one or more of the f o l l o w i n g bases: 1) i t c h a l l e n g e s the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c s k i l l s 2) i t s u i t s the time of year 3) i t a l l o w s f o r a v a r i e t y of s o l u t i o n s 60% of the teac h e r s chose as t h e i r b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g an a r t p r o j e c t : 1) i t can be e a s i l y completed i n one s e s s i o n 2) the product i s p r e d i c t a b l e and uniform. The r a t e d responses p a r a l l e l the t a l l i e d responses. 15. In response to "Do you f e e l adequately prepared to teach a r t ? " : 48% of the t e a c h e r s f e l t adequately prepared to teach a r t . F i v e were undecided - comments i n c l u d e d : - "I am h e s i t a n t to go i n t o some areas of a r t i n which I f e e l unsure of my own a b i l i t i e s . " - "Our f i n i s h e d products seem to please the c h i l d r e n but am I r e a l l y p r o v i d i n g a good, w e l l - b a l a n c e d a r t program f o r my primary c l a s s ? " - "Only sometimes - because of a l a c k of m a t e r i a l s , or ideas r e l a t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r theme." 32% of the te a c h e r s f e l t i n a d e q u a t e l y prepared to teach a r t . W r i t t e n responses i n c l u d e d : - "don't have enough t r a i n i n g i n s p e c i f i c l e s s o n types and s k i l l s at t h e i r l e v e l s . " - "had very l i t t l e t r a i n i n g - had a very poor s e l f -image about my e f f o r t s i n a r t from the time I was i n elementary s c h o o l . " - "very l i t t l e background and t r a i n i n g i n elementary a r t . " - "not enough t r a i n i n g . " - " l a c k i n g i n p e r s o n a l t a l e n t , don't know much about d e s i g n , s k i l l s , e t c . " - "have r e c e i v e d very l i t t l e ' f o r m a l ' t r a i n i n g . " - "enjoy the s u b j e c t but f e e l d i r e c t i o n i s l a c k i n g . " - "I don't have enough r e s o u r c e s . I have l i t t l e knowledge of a r t s k i l l s and d e s i g n . " In response to "Do you f e e l a r t i s a necessary p a r t of the s c h o o l program?": Every teacher f e l t a r t was a necessary part of the sc h o o l program. 45 17. In response to "How do you view a r t i n the elementary s c h o o l ? " : 92% of the t e a c h e r s viewed a r t i n the elementary s c h o o l as a v i t a l p art of a c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . 18. In response to "Do you f e e l that c h i l d r e n are a f f e c t e d by your o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s toward a r t ? " : every teacher f e l t that t h e i r o p i n i o n s about a r t i n f l u e n c e d the a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . 19. In response to "Do you f e e l elementary a r t programs are p r o v i d i n g c h i l d r e n with a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n i n a r t [ f o r higher grade l e v e l s ] ? " : 40% of the t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t elementary programs are not p r o v i d i n g c h i l d r e n with a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n i n a r t . 36% were undecided. W r i t t e n responses i n c l u d e d : - "The program i s too g e n e r a l . I wish there was more s t r u c t u r e . I'd f e e l l i k e I was c o v e r i n g the r i g h t t h i n g s i n s t e a d of a hodge-podge." - "No c o n t a c t between elementary and secondary" - "Gaps occur a c c o r d i n g to the c h o i c e of p r o g r a m / s k i l l s t a u g h t / e x p e r i e n c e and a b i l i t i e s of each t e a c h e r . The f o u n d a t i o n v a r i e s . " - "The problem today i s a shortage of m a t e r i a l s not a shortage of good a r t t e a c h e r s . " - "More e x p e r t i s e i s needed. Teachers g e n e r a l l y give i t a low p r i o r i t y . " 46 - "Teachers do not r e a l i z e how e s s e n t i a l a r t l e a r n i n g i s to c h i l d r e n , nor do they f e e l adequately prepared to teach a r t . " - "There i s too much u n i f o r m i t y and not enough encouragement to be c r e a t i v e and d i f f e r e n t , and to develop the c h i l d ' s own eye f o r a r t . " - " d i f f e r i n g t e a c h e r s ' p h i l o s o p h i e s . " - "Not a l l teachers are comfortable t e a c h i n g a r t . " 20. In response to "What changes do you f e e l need to take pl a c e i n order to improve the s t a t u s of a r t e d u c a t i o n ? " : 92% of the te a c h e r s f e l t that i n c r e a s e d a s s i s t a n c e and improved teacher t r a i n i n g at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l would e l e v a t e the s t a t u s of a r t e d u c a t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c awareness was c o n s i d e r e d l e s s important. The r a t e d responses p a r a l l e l e d the t a l l i e d responses. 21. In response to "How do your students view a r t as a s u b j e c t a r e a ? " : 80% of the te a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r students viewed a r t as a chance to express themselves v i s u a l l y and c r e a t i v e l y . 8% of the te a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e i r s t u dents c o n s i d e r e d a r t to be a " f r i l l . " D i s c u s s i o n and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n In a d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s , 47 i t i s necessary to r e c o n s i d e r the o b j e c t i v e s and purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and then to assess to what degree the v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s have been answered. Teachers i n d i c a t e d what s u b j e c t s were necessary to i n c l u d e i n an elementary program. They a l s o r e v e a l e d what s u b j e c t s they were not adequately t r a i n e d to t e a c h . There was a s i m i l a r i t y i n the areas they f e l t should be i n c l u d e d and those i n which they needed more t r a i n i n g . 52% of the t e a c h e r s e i t h e r f e l t undecided or n e g a t i v e about t h e i r a b i l i t y to teach a r t . From the above i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e i r w r i t t e n responses, which i d e n t i f y the l a c k of t r a i n i n g as a problem i n t e a c h i n g a r t , i t i s e v i d e n t that a r t cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y taught by t e a c h e r s who are not p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d . Teachers i n d i c a t e d t h at they p r e f e r r e d workshops o f f e r e d by t h e i r d i s t r i c t a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r to courses o f f e r e d by the u n i v e r s i t i e s . G e n e r a l l y t e a c h e r s who had l i t t l e t r a i n i n g f e l t unsure about t h e i r a b i l i t y to teach a r t and the q u a l i t y of the program they were, o f f e r i n g . Comments such as "because of having ' l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n a r t ' and having 'a very poor s e l f - i m a g e about my e f f o r t s i n a r t from the time I was i n elementary s c h o o l ' " suggest that c e r t a i n i n s e c u r i t i e s of t e a c h e r s might n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Another teacher suggested that because of "a l a c k of e x p e r t i s e , 48 a r t i s given a low p r i o r i t y . " A l l of the te a c h e r s f e l t t h a t they i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s ; t h e r e f o r e , i f they g i v e a r t a low p r i o r i t y , i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y that t h e i r s t udents w i l l a l s o b e a f f e c t e d by t h i s a t t i t u d e . Every teacher f e l t a r t was a necessary part of the sc h o o l program. Many f e l t a need f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n order to o f f e r b e t t e r a r t programs. The goals t h a t the m a j o r i t y of te a c h e r s chose d e a l t with encouraging i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n and s e l f - r e l i a n c e , and de v e l o p i n g a r t i s t i c s k i l l s . What t h i s i n d i c a t e s i s a d e s i r e f o r improvement and a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a r t i s important i n the development of i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s and p e r c e p t i o n s . The a t t i t u d e s , t h e r e f o r e , do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t from s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g programs but r a t h e r from exposure to the g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n and s t a t u s of a r t e d u c a t i o n . T r a i n i n g programs, however, seem to play a v i t a l r o l e i n i n s t i l l i n g the " w i l l i n g n e s s or d e s i r e " of teach e r s to improve t h e i r s k i l l s and knowledge of a r t . With g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , t e a c h e r s would be able to p r o v i d e more c o n s i s t e n t and c h a l l e n g i n g a r t programs. Teachers i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s study t h a t they r a r e l y use the p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s is: not s u r p r i s i n g when so many f e e l inadequate about t h e i r t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y and knowledge of a r t . A r t e d u c a t i o n at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d inadequate. I f courses at the post secondary 49 l e v e l were r e v i s e d t o c o v e r more o f t h e a r e a s t e a c h e r s f e l t u n a b l e t o t e a c h , and i f t h e c o u r s e s f o c u s e d on t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m , t e a c h e r s w o u l d f e e l b e t t e r p r e p a r e d o f o f f e r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a r t p r o g r a m . 50 C h a p t e r 5 THE ELEMENTARY TEACHER INTERVIEWS I n t r o d u c t i o n The f o u r p u r p o s e s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s were t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h o f t h e 10 t e a c h e r s f e l t p r e p a r e d t o im p l e m e n t t h e New E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e - s o u r c e Book, t o e n c o u r a g e them t o e x p r e s s t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e use o f a r t c u r r i c u l a , t o i d e n t i f y what f o r m s o f a s s i s t a n c e t h e y need i n o r d e r t o i m p l e m e n t t h e new c u r r i c u l u m , and t o f i n d o u t how t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d t o t h e c o n t e n t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m document. Weaknesses i n t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n were a p p a r e n t i n t h e way some t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d e d t o q u e s t i o n i n g . I t i s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t c e r t a i n r e s p o n s e s m i g h t be u n r e a l i s t i c or g u a r d e d i n an e f f o r t t o g i v e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r a p a r t i c u l a r i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s k n o w l e d g e or use o f an a r t c u r r i c u l u m . The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d a f t e r t h e t e a c h e r s had o n l y had a b r i e f o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a d t h r o u g h t h e new c u r r i c u l u m . T h e r e f o r e a n o t h e r weakness i n t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was t h e l a c k o f " t e s t i n g o u t " o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m document. The i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s : - what t e a c h e r s a r e p r e p a r e d t o i m p l e m e n t - how t e a c h e r s f e e l a b o u t t h e use o f a r t c u r r i c u l a - what a s s i s t a n c e i s r e q u i r e d f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n 51 - how t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d t o t h e c o n t e n t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m document. E a c h q u e s t i o n o f f e r e d a l i m i t e d number o f p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s t o c h o o s e f r o m and a d d i t i o n a l s p a c e was p r o v i d e d f o r r e c o r d i n g f u r t h e r comments. The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d by t e l e p h o n e . A l l r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d on t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s . The w o r d i n g o f d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s was c a r e f u l l y c h e c k e d w i t h t h e t e a c h e r b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d . A copy o f t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e i s i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x I I I . R e s u l t s 1. I n r e s p o n s e t o "How w e l l p r e p a r e d do you f e e l you a r e t o i m p l e m e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s e s , as t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e new c u r r i c u l u m ? ( d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , p r i n t m a k i n g , t e x t i l e s , m o d e l l i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and c e r a m i c s ) " : t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t t h e y f e l t p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , p r i n t m a k i n g , and t e x t i l e s w h e r e a s t h e y were l e s s c o n f i d e n t a b o u t t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i m p l e m e n t m o d e l l i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and c e r a m i c s . 2. I n r e s p o n s e t o "Why do you f e e l p r e p a r e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e s e p r o c e s s e s ? " : t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y methods c o u r s e s had p r e p a r e d them t o t e a c h t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . 52 I n s e r v i c e workshops o f f e r e d by the d i s t r i c t and the a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r and p e r s o n a l involvement i n a r t a l s o were c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s to implement these p r o c e s s e s . In response to "How w e l l prepared do you f e e l you are to implement the f o l l o w i n g concepts as they are presented i n the new c u r r i c u l u m ? (responding to a r t , d e v e l o p i n g images and elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n ) " : the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s s t a t e d that they f e l t prepared to implement a l l three concepts. Teaching elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design were c o n s i d e r e d the e a s i e s t to teach or implement, next was responding to a r t and t h i r d l y d e v e l o p i n g images. Those t e a c h e r s who f e l t i n a d e q u a t e l y prepared l a c k e d t r a i n i n g and/or experience i n t e a c h i n g a r t . In response to "Why do you f e e l prepared or not prepared to implement these c o n c e p t s ? " : the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s s t a t e d that they f e l t t h a t t h e i r course work at u n i v e r s i t y , i n s e r v i c e workshops and a s s i s t a n c e from the d i s t r i c t c o - o r d i n a t o r , had prepared them to teach these concepts. In response to "How does the content of the new c u r r i -culum compare with the program you now o f f e r ? " , the f o l l o w i n g responses were r e c o r d e d : - " I t helps d i r e c t me i n t o other p a r t s of a r t . " - " T h i s year I taught a l l these a r e a s . " - "The e v a l u a t i o n of a r t would be a new a r e a . " - "The terminology i s new." - "I haven't put a program together b e f o r e . I'm going to design my program based on the new c u r r i -culum . " - " S i m i l a r - t h i s i s e x a c t l y what we d i d with the [ d i s t r i c t ] m a t e r i a l that [the c o - o r d i n a t o r ] had developed." - " I t expands what I do a l r e a d y . " - "I t r i e d to r e l a t e a r t to s o c i a l s t u d i e s but i t d i d n ' t work so t h i s showed me how to i n t e g r a t e . - " S i m i l a r - I work on a theme approach. I t r y to i n t e g r a t e as much as p o s s i b l e . " - I focus on s o c i a l s t u d i e s and s c i e n c e . " In response to "How w i l l the new elementary a r t c u r r i -culum a f f e c t your a r t program?": the m a j o r i t y of te a c h e r s s a i d t h a t they f e l t that they would use i t as a guide f o r s e l e c t i n g processes and concepts to i n c l u d e i n t h e i r a r t programs. Some te a c h e r s f e l t i t should be used as the b a s i s of t h e i r a r t programs, while others c o u l d only see u s i n g i t as a r e f e r e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g responses were r e c o r d e d : - "I work on themes anyway - thematic approach f i t s i n b e a u t i f u l l y with my concept of a r t . " - " I ' l l t r y and expand on what i s here." - "I'm i n agreement with the philosophy of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m because i t i s s i m i l a r to the [ d i s t r i c t ] program." - "...because I t h i n k i t s q u i t e thorough." - " I can use i t as a r e s o u r c e as w e l l as t r y i n g the i d e a s which i t p r e s e n t s . " - " I t makes i t e a s i e r to plan an overview." In response to "What purpose do you f e e l a p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m should serve i n and elementary a r t program? Why?": the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s s t a t e d that they saw an a r t c u r r i c u l u m being used as a g u i d e l i n e f o r what processes and concepts should be i n c l u d e d . Some t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t a l s o can be used as r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l . The f o l l o w i n g responses were r e c o r d e d : - " A r t c u r r i c u l a should e x p l a i n how to implement. I t should give me i d e a s about how to develop my program." - " I t should p r o v i d e good p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s and/or r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l to go along with i t . 55 I t r e a s s u r e s ' t e a c h e r s who a l r e a d y have a b a c k g r o u n d . I t r e i n f o r c e s what t h e y a r e d o i n g . I t d o e s n ' t g i v e an i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r v e r y much h e l p i n g e t t i n g s t a r t e d i n how t o do t h i n g s . " 8. I n r e s p o n s e t o "Do you f e e l w i l l i n g and a b l e t o i m p l e m e n t t h e new c u r r i c u l u m w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e ? Why?": t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were w i l l i n g t o i m p l e m e n t t h e c u r r i c u l u m b e c a u s e i t was e x p e c t e d o f them. Most o f t h e t e a c h e r s a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t a b l e t o i m p l e m e n t t h e p r o c e s s e s and c o n c e p t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e new c u r r i c u l u m , b u t t h a t a s s i s t a n c e , t h r o u g h i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y . The f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d : - " I need a s s i s t a n c e w i t h weak a r e a s . On i n s e r v i c e d a y s i t wo u l d be h e l p f u l f o r t h e s t a f f as a g r o u p t o g e t t o g e t h e r - teamwork a p p r o a c h . " - " I t ' s w r i t t e n f o r e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . T h e r e s h o u l d be i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n s e r v i c e . I d o n ' t f e e l i t w i l l be r e a d by i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . " - " I t d o e s n ' t g i v e an i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r v e r y much h e l p i n g e t t i n g s t a r t e d i n how t o do t h i n g s . " - " I ' l l have t o t r y but I wo u l d p r e f e r a s s i s t a n c e . " - " I d o n ' t have any c h o i c e . Workshops a r e n e e d e d . " - " B a s i c a l l y , I w o u l d g i v e i t a t r y . T d o n ' t f o r e s e e 56 needing too much a s s i s t a n c e . " In response to "Do you f e e l t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s you with enough i n f o r m a t i o n to implement a new a r t program? Why?": a number of teachers s t a t e d that the c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s enough i n f o r m a t i o n . An equal number f e l t that they d i d not have enough i n f o r m a t i o n to implement the c u r r i c u l u m . The f o l l o w i n g responses were recorded-: - " I t l a c k s a l i s t of books or s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . I n t e g r a t i o n may be d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i s reason." - " I t ' s j u s t a guide. I f there were more l e s s o n plans i t would be more thorough." - "...needs more how to, more r e c i p e s , more v i s u a l s , more s u g g e s t i o n s f o r l e s s o n s that can be used by d i f f e r e n t grades. The [ d i s t r i c t ] a r t bind e r s are what I'd use i n s t e a d of the c u r r i c u l u m . " - " I t ' s not f o r a new te a c h e r . Rather than a s l i m s e l e c t i o n of l e s s o n s , I t h i n k there should be a s e c t i o n f o r each grade or at l e a s t f o r primary and i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s . " - " I t ' s a good overview but needs more i d e a s . I would l i k e a l o t more sample l e s s o n s , s t a r t e r i d e a s , even themes." In response to "What form of a s s i s t a n c e do you f e e l would be most h e l p f u l i n implementing t h i s c u r r i c u l u m ? " : 57 the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s s t a t e d that i n s e r v i c e workshops on implementation and a s s i s t a n c e from an a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r would be the most h e l p f u l . Other t e a c h e r s s a i d that they p r e f e r r e d workshops on s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and people to do p r e s e n t a t i o n s to the s t a f f on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . In response to "Do you f e e l the c u r r i c u l u m w i l l help you plan more e f f e c t i v e l y ? Why?": h a l f of the t e a c h e r s s a i d t h at they f e l t that i t would help them plan more e f f e c t i v e l y . The other h a l f s t a t e d that they would not gain much guidance from the new c u r r i c u l u m . The f o l l o w i n g responses were r e c o r d e d : - " I t i n c l u d e s a c o n c e p t u a l model but I d i d n ' t t h i n k that h e l p e d . " - "I don't t h i n k i t w i l l get used i f i t t a l k s i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and doesn't p r o v i d e c o n c r e t e concepts and good examples on how a u n i t would be planned. People won't use i t . I t doesn't h e l p . " - " I t ' s the one a r t s area that most teachers t h i n k r e q u i r e s l i t t l e s k i l l to teach, t h e r e f o r e they won't take the c u r r i c u l u m s e r i o u s l y . " - "What i s presented i s c o n f u s i n g - too few l e s s o n s . " - "I have a l o t of e x p e r i e n c e . I don't need i t . " - " I t ' s not necessary f o r me, and i t won't help 58 i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . " - " I t c l a r i f i e s t h i n g s f o r me. The s t a f f s a i d they see a l i n k i n the processes and how to implement them." In response to "How do you f e e l about the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m ? " , the f o l l o w i n g comments were re c o r d e d : - " I t ' s an o u t l i n e . " - "I c o u l d n ' t f i g u r e out the l e s s o n plans a c c o r d i n g to the g o a l s . " - "I l i k e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i t , but I don't l i k e the combination of the a r t s . I t ' s too much a l l at once. " - "Confusing - I would p r e f e r three d i f f e r e n t books, because I have to keep r e f e r r i n g back to the f r o n t s e c t i o n . " - "The book i s not w e l l - o r g a n i z e d . The images d i d n ' t go together - t h a t ' s c o n f u s i n g . " - " I t s t r e n g t h e n s the a r t s a r e a s . I f i n d the c h a r t s very u s e f u l - easy to r e f e r t o . M u l t i - c u l t u r a l aspect i s g r e a t . The g l o s s a r y i s very u s e f u l f o r v o c a b u l a r y development." - "I l i k e the set-up. I t ' s very thorough." - "Sequence c h a r t s are very u s e f u l . I ' l l be u s i n g them the most." - " I ' l i k e them [the a r t s ] a l t o g e t h e r . I t helps 59 present the areas i n an i n t e g r a t e d way but i t ' s not complete. I t ' s l i k e a s k e l e t o n without the f l e s h . " In response to "What would you change or a l t e r i n the new c u r r i c u l u m ? " : the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t they would change or a l t e r c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the new c u r r i c u l u m . The f o l l o w i n g responses were r e c o r d e d : - "Three a r t s combined, I r e a l i z e i t ' s a t r e n d . I don't t h i n k you do j u s t i c e to any of them. I t cheats a l l the a r e a s . Not enough i s p r o v i d e d i n any s e c t i o n s . " - " . . . l a y o u t i s c o n f u s i n g . I would t r y to s i m p l i f y the l a y o u t . A r t area was cumbersome to read -s c a t t e r e d , d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of p r e s e n t a t i o n throughout the a r t s e c t i o n . " - " . . . s h o u l d i n c l u d e v i s u a l i z a t i o n i d e a s . Doesn't s t r e s s how p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d k i d s a r e . There i s no mention of experimenting with m a t e r i a l s . " - " I t needs more r e s o u r c e s o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g to p r o c e s s e s . " - "A supplement would h e l p . Any teacher would l i k e i d e a s i n a d d i t i o n to the c u r r i c u l u m . " - "I would f l e s h i t out. I t would be n i c e to have a s e c t i o n f o r each grade - p r a c t i c a l i d e a s and 60 l e s s o n p l a n s . " - "I l i k e the f a c t t h a t i t ' s compact, i t ' s easy to use. I t ' s l i k e a summary, e s p e c i a l l y the c h a r t s . " - "More sample l e s s o n s - a sequence of l e s s o n s would be h e l p f u l . " - "More l e s s o n plans are needed." Summary and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n In summary, the t e a c h e r s ' responses to the New Elementary  F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book seemed to vary a c c o r d i n g to t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Those who had developed a r t programs f e l t a ble to implement the c u r r i c u l u m because much of what i t o f f e r e d was s i m i l a r to what they were al r e a d y t e a c h i n g . I n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s f e l t l e s s able to implement the new c u r r i c u l u m because they were more r e l i a n t on i t s contents f o r i d e a s and methods. They b a s i c a l l y f e l t t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m d i d n ' t supply enough i n f o r m a t i o n about d e v e l o p i n g l e s s o n s and a r t programs. In g e n e r a l , t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d that t h e i r elementary a r t methods courses at u n i v e r s i t y had helped prepare them f o r t e a c h i n g a v a r i e t y of processes and concepts but not s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r implementing a r t c u r r i c u l a . S e v e r a l t e a c h e r s mentioned that i n s e r v i c e workshops and a s s i s t a n c e from the d i s t r i c t a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r had a l s o 61 p r o v i d e d them with u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and guidance. Although they had a l l r e c e i v e d i n s e r v i c e on v a r i o u s processes there was g e n e r a l agreement that implementation workshops were a l s o needed. T h i s seemed to i n d i c a t e that t e a c h e r s f e l t a need f o r l e a r n i n g how to develop programs from the content of the c u r r i c u l u m . Being knowledgeable about the concepts and processes was not p e r c e i v e d , t h e r e f o r e , as a problem ar e a , whereas knowing how to use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n order to implement and develop programs was c o n s i d e r e d a problem. Most t e a c h e r s d i d not t h i n k that the new c u r r i c u l u m would have much impact, e i t h e r because the i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s wouldn't use i t anyway, or because t h e i r own t r a i n i n g was e x t e n s i v e enough to e l i m i n a t e the need to be shown how to plan a program. The m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t an a r t c u r r i c u l u m should be used only as a guide f o r d e t e r m i n i n g what processes and concepts to i n c l u d e i n an a r t program. The t e a c h e r s s t a t e d that they were w i l l i n g to implement the new c u r r i c u l u m , because i t was expected of them, and not because they n e c e s s a r i l y had a thorough understanding of the goals and contents of the document. Even the t e a c h e r s who f e l t a b l e to implement the new c u r r i c u l u m p o i n t e d out t h a t i n s e r v i c e on implementation was needed to s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r s k i l l s and to c l a r i f y the o b j e c t i v e s and l e a r n i n g outcomes of the document. 62 Few t e a c h e r s f e l t that the new c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e d them with enough i n f o r m a t i o n to implement a new a r t program. Reference was made to the a r t b i n d e r s that were developed by the d i s t r i c t a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r . Many f e l t that the b i n d e r s were of g r e a t e r value than the c u r r i c u l u m i n h e l p i n g to design a new program because they o f f e r e d a wide v a r i e t y of s u g g e s t i o n s and l e s s o n i d e a s . Most t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t implementation i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s were necessa r y . One teacher mentioned t h a t the elementary a r t methods course she had taken at u n i v e r s i t y d i d not s t r e s s program p l a n n i n g or implementation. T h e r e f o r e , she f e l t t h a t without a t t e n d i n g a s p e c i a l implementation i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n , she would not be able to succeed i n i n t r o d u c i n g the new c u r r i c u l u m to her s t u d e n t s . G e n e r a l l y t e a c h e r s wanted to be shown how to implement the new c u r r i c u l u m . Some te a c h e r s commented on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the document. I t was o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as c o n f u s i n g and d i s -j o i n t e d . S e v e r a l f e l t t h a t the combination of the three a r t s weakened the importance of a r t as a s u b j e c t i n i t s own r i g h t . In most cases the t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t a supplement was needed to help expand the concepts and processes o u t l i n e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m . As one teacher commented: " I t ' s l i k e a s k e l e t o n without the f l e s h . " In c o n c l u s i o n , t e a c h e r s were w i l l i n g to implement 63 t h e c u r r i c u l u m , n o t b e c a u s e t h e y have r e c e i v e d s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n how t o u s e i t , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y f e l t i t was t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h most o f t h e t e a c h e r s seemed t o f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e t e a c h i n g a number o f c o n c e p t s and p r o c e s s e s t h e y d i d n o t f e e l as c o n f i d e n t a b o u t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . A few t e a c h e r s , however, f o c u s on s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n t h e i r a r t p rograms a l r e a d y so t h e y were r e a d y t o c o n t i n u e t o d e v e l o p a t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h to p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . 64 Chapter 6 TEACHER EDUCATOR INTERVIEWS I n t r o d u c t i o n To determine the present focus of some elementary a r t methods courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and to uncover the a t t i t u d e s towards the use of p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l a i n these c o u r s e s , one elementary a r t methods course i n s t r u c t o r , from each of the three u n i v e r s i t i e s i n B.C., was i n t e r v i e w e d . The three i n s t r u c t o r s s e l e c t e d to be i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s study had taught an elementary a r t methods course f o r at l e a s t f i v e years and, t h e r e f o r e , had developed a p h i l o s o p h y and method of i n s t r u c t i o n . One i n s t r u c t o r had an e x t e n s i v e background i n t e a c h i n g both at the s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s and i s p r e s e n t l y a department head i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . As pa r t of her i n t e r e s t i n o f f e r i n g elementary a r t methods courses she had developed an e x t e n s i v e a r t c u r r i c u l u m which emphasized concepts, processes and program development. The second i n s t r u c t o r had l e s s e xperience i n t e a c h i n g i n s c h o o l and had not yet completed a masters degree i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . Her approach to t e a c h i n g elementary a r t methods courses tended to focus on the development of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s r a t h e r than a r t techniques and p r o c e s s e s . The t h i r d i n s t r u c t o r had e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g at the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary l e v e l s and had completed a masters degree i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . 65 Her course o u t l i n e concentrated on both concepts and processes and r e f l e c t e d the ge n e r a l content areas of the New F i n e  A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book, The c a l e n d a r o u t l i n e s f o r the three elementary a r t methods courses s t a t e d that the courses were i n t r o d u c t o r y a r t s e s s i o n s f o r elementary classroom t e a c h e r s . The q u e s t i o n s on the i n t e r v i e w schedule were d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l t with the processes and concepts found i n both the present c u r r i c u l u m and the New  Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book. In the second s e c t i o n the i n s t r u c t o r s were asked to express t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the use of a r t c u r r i c u l a , i n g e n e r a l , and s p e c i f i c a l l y the New Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book. The i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n person. A l l responses were recorded on the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s . The wording of d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s was c a r e f u l l y checked with the i n s -t r u c t o r being i n t e r v i e w e d . Although each q u e s t i o n o f f e r e d a l i m i t e d number of p o s s i b l e responses, a d d i t i o n a l comments were a l s o r e c o r d e d . A copy of the Inte r v i e w Schedule i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix IV. R e s u l t s 1 . In response to the q u e s t i o n "Does the elementary a r t methods course you o f f e r i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s e s ? " : 66 a l l three i n s t r u c t o r s s t a t e d that they i n c l u d e d drawing, p a i n t i n g , p r i n t m a k i n g , m o d e l l i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and ceramics. Two i n s t r u c t o r s i n c l u d e d : t e x t i l e s , p a p e r c u t t i n g and f o l d i n g and l e t t e r i n g . Two i n s t r u c t o r s , i n a d d i t i o n to the above areas, i n c l u d e d photography, animation and c r a f t s . A l l t h r e e i n s t r u c t o r s f e l t t h a t c o v e r i n g many processes p r o v i d e d a good i n t r o d u c t i o n to t e a c h i n g a r t . In response to "What importance do you presenty p l a c e on the f o l l o w i n g processes and why?": a l l t h ree i n s t r u c t o r s s t a t e d that they p l a c e d equal importance on the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s e s : drawing, p a i n t i n g , p r i n t m a k i n g , m o d e l l i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and ceramics. P a p e r c u t t i n g and f o l d i n g , l e t t e r i n g , photography, animation and c r a f t s were given l e s s importance by a l l three i n s t r u c t o r s . One i n s t r u c t o r commented that she d i d n ' t i n c l u d e t e x t i l e s because " a p p l i e d design c o u l d be taught i n other ways," using other m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s . A second i n s t r u c t o r commented that she i n c l u d e d those areas because they are " t r a d i t i o n a l l y important a r t a r e a s . " ) In response to "What importance do you p r e s e n t l y p l a c e on the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t s ? " : 67 a l l three i n s t r u c t o r s s t a t e d that they placed g r e a t importance on d e v e l o p i n g images and e x p l o r i n g i d e a s . Two i n s t r u c t o r s f e l t t e a c h i n g elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n , emphasizing s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and e x p e r i -menting with m a t e r i a l s were of great importance. The same two i n s t r u c t o r s f e l t responding to a r t , working t o g e t h e r , d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and emphasizing s o c i a l a s p e c t s were l e s s important. In response to "What importance do you place on any a d d i t i o n a l concepts that are i n c l u d e d i n your c o u r s e ? " : one i n s t r u c t o r s t a t e d that she placed great importance on t e a c h i n g m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m . A second i n s t r u c t o r f e l t e v a l u a t i o n and b u i l d i n g s e l f - a w a r e n e s s were of importance. The t h i r d i n s t r u c t o r s t a t e d that she emphasized program p l a n n i n g . In response to "why do you emphasize c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s ? ": one i n s t r u c t o r s t a t e d that she teaches these concepts because "I f e e l there i s r e a l merit i n making a r t , and a l l the b e n e f i t that can come from i t . " She s t r e s s e d p e r s o n a l involvement, s e l f - e s t e e m , and s t r e n g t h e n i n g t e a c h i n g s k i l l s through a r t e d u c a t i o n . A second i n s t r u c t o r s t a t e d that she taught these concepts because : "I b e l i e v e c h i l d r e n need to l e a r n the why and how about a r t i n a d d i t i o n to the development 68 of t e c h n i q u e s . " A t h i r d i n s t r u c t o r chose to teach c e r t a i n concepts because they p r o v i d e a background i n a r t . In response to "What purpose do you f e e l a p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m should serve i n an elementary a r t methods course? Why?": one i n s t r u c t o r f e l t t h a t an a r t c u r r i c u l u m , to some degree, serves as a g u i d e l i n e to what processes and concepts should be i n c l u d e d . She s t a t e d t h a t , " I t g i v e s you a good f e e l i n g of the goals and o b j e c t i v e s . " Two i n s t r u c t o r s f e l t t h a t i t should be used only as r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l . One i n s t r u c t o r s t a t e d t h a t : "Teachers go to the c u r r i c u l u m to f i n d out what i t says, not to n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w i t . " One i n s t r u c t o r f e l t that a p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m does not prove u s e f u l because she has developed her own approach to t e a c h i n g processes and concepts. In response to "To what extent does the former a r t c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e the content of your c o u r s e ? " a l l t h ree i n s t r u c t o r s answered that the former c u r r i -culum d i d not i n f l u e n c e the content of t h e i r course. One i n s t r u c t o r s t a t e d that the former a r t c u r r i c u l u m was "an example of what not to do. I t ' s too technique o r i e n t e d . I t s p h i l o s o p h y i s opposed to mine. I am more i n t e r e s t e d i n t e a c h i n g the how and why about 69 In response to "To what extent do you f e e l the New Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book w i l l i n f l u e n c e the content of your course? Why?": one i n s t r u c t o r f e l t that the new c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d be used as a g u i d e l i n e of what processes and concepts should be i n c l u d e d . A l l three i n s t r u c t o r s s a i d that i t would be u s e f u l as r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l . One i n s t r u c t o r s t a t e d that " i t would not i n f l u e n c e the content of my course. I would only use i t as a t o o l f o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and d i s c u s s i o n . " One i n s t r u c t o r p o i n t e d out that there i s a s p e c i f i c course o f f e r e d i n t h e i r department which d e a l s with the use and implementation of a r t c u r r i c u l a . T h e r e f o r e , she would not f i n d i t necessary to focus on i t i n a methods course. In response to "What are your g e n e r a l impressions about the content and format of the new c u r r i c u l u m ? " : one i n s t r u c t o r s t r e s s e d that i n order to implement i t , "a summer i n s t i t u t e should be held on implementation and a resource person should be made a v a i l a b l e to elementary t e a c h e r s to a s s i s t with the implementation p r o c e s s . " Two i n s t r u c t o r s f e l t t.hat i t i s much b e t t e r than the former c u r r i c u l u m but that i t w i l l c r e a t e problems because of being s p l i t i n t o three a r t s a r e a s . Both i n s t r u c t o r s s t a t e d that "There i s not enough emphasis on v i s u a l a r t . " One i n s t r u c t o r c r i t i c i z e d the l e s s o n plans as "being m i s l e a d i n g . " She a l s o f e l t that t y i n g the content to the s o c i a l s t u d i e s program was r e s t r i c t i v e , and tha t the c u r r i c u l u m "surveys what you might do but i t needs a follow-up book," to f u l l y e x p l a i n the areas o u t l i n e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m document. Summary and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n In g e n e r a l , the three i n s t r u c t o r s covered most of the areas o u t l i n e d i n both the former a r t c u r r i c u l u m and the New Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book. i n t h e i r c o u r s e s . In most cases they emphasized s i m i l a r processes "although i t was made c l e a r by two i n s t r u c t o r s t h a t t e c h n i q u e s were not t h e i r main f o c u s . Developing images and e x p l o r i n g i d e a s were c o n s i d e r e d the most important concepts to emphasize even though many other areas were a l s o covered i n t h e i r c o u r s e s . The other areas of the new c u r r i c u l u m ; M a t e r i a l s and P r o c e s s e s , Elements and P r i n c i p l e s of Design and Responding to A r t , r e c e i v e d mixed r e a c t i o n s . Photography, animation and c r a f t s were three a d d i t i o n a l areas mentioned by two of 71 the i n s t r u c t o r s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n what they o f f e r e d i n terms of processes and concepts seemed to r e f l e c t t h e i r p h i l osophy of how and why they teach a r t . The reasons f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s v a r i e d from wanting to o f f e r a broad range of a r t processes and concepts i n order to i n t r o d u c e students to t r a d i t i o n a l a r t methods, to t e a c h i n g students about themselves through a r t . I t became c l e a r t h a t each i n s t r u c t o r shaped h i s or her own course depending on p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s toward elementary a r t methods, and not on the p r e s c r i b e d p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l a . The former elementary a r t c u r r i c u l u m was not s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n any of the i n s t r u c t o r s ' courses and yet a l l three of them covered most of the processes and concepts found i n that c u r r i c u l u m and the new c u r r i c u l u m document. The New F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book was seen as being v a l u a b l e as a r e f e r e n c e and as something "to analyze and d i s c u s s , " but not as a guide f o r t e a c h i n g elementary a r t methods courses at u n i v e r s i t y . The c r i t i c i s m s of the new c u r r i c u l u m document focused on the supposed l a c k of i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r i t s implementation, the need f o r a resource person to help i n t e r p r e t the document, and the "weakening" of a r t as a s u b j e c t area by combining i t with drama and music i n one c u r r i c u l u m document. In c o n c l u s i o n , i t seems that the New F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m 72 Guide/Resource Book w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d by some i n s t r u c t o r s only as a r e f e r e n c e and won't be used as the b a s i s f o r t h e i r elementary a r t methods c o u r s e s . Although t h i s i s apparent, many of the concepts and processes present i n the new c u r r i c u l u m documents are being covered i n the courses o f f e r e d by these i n s t r u c t o r s . 73 Chapter 7 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY T h i s study i d e n t i f i e s some of the e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s s urrounding implementation. I t d e s c r i b e s the a t t i t u d e s of t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s toward the implementation process and through an a n a l y s i s of the New Elementary  F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book, i t c l a r i f i e s the e x p e c t a t i o n s that the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n and the C u r r i c u l u m Committee have of elementary t e a c h e r s , i n terms of implementation. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n provided the b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i n t o the e d u c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s as i t r e l a t e d to t h e i r understanding of a r t concepts and p r o c e s s e s , and more s p e c i a l l y , how they f e l t about the implementation of the new c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e / r e s o u r c e book. To e s t a b l i s h the emphasis of some elementary a r t methods c o u r s e s , one i n s t r u c t o r from each of the three of the U n i v e r s i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia was i n t e r v i e w e d . What became apparent i n t h i s study, which focused on how w e l l t e a c h e r s are being prepared to implement the New  Elementary F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book, was that v a r i o u s people r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g , i n s t r u c t i n g and c a r r y i n g out the implementation are not u n i f i e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s . T h e r e f o r e , t e a c h e r s are not r e c e i v i n g 74 a thorough, cohesi v e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r implementation. The purpose of t h i s study was to g i v e g r e a t e r v i s i b i l i t y to the e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the implementation p r o c e s s , so that u l t i m a t e l y recommendations and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r study might stem from t h i s r e s e a r c h , which would promote a c l o s e r working r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i o u s people r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementation. In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e f o r e , recommendations and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r study, based on the r e s e a r c h and s u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n s , are p r e s e n t e d . As i n d i c a t e d i n the review of the l i t e r a t u r e , t e a c h e r s f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g out the implementation of new a r t c u r r i c u l a , whether or not they have r e c e i v e d s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n the new content and s k i l l s . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s expect them to i n t r o d u c e new m a t e r i a l with l i t t l e or no a s s i s t a n c e , even though many of them have a l i m i t e d knowledge of a r t e d u c a t i o n . These e x p e c t a t i o n s , coupled with the t e a c h e r s ' l a c k of e x p e r t i s e , can c r e a t e f e e l i n g s of resentment and f r u s t r a t i o n on the part of t e a c h e r s who are expected to implement new m a t e r i a l . T h i s resentment was apparent i n the r e a c t i o n s s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s had toward the way i n which the new c u r r i c u l u m has been presented to them. The t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y accepted that they would have to implement the c u r r i c u l u m , but the m a j o r i t y f e l t t h a t they should have been given s p e c i f i c pre-implementation t r a i n i n g 75 before r e c e i v i n g the document, i n order to be more s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to understand and i n t r o d u c e the new m a t e r i a l . The q u e s t i o n s a r i s e : where and by whom should t h i s t r a i n i n g be o f f e r e d and what forms are most e f f e c t i v e ? More s p e c i f i c a l l y i n terms of teacher p r e p a r a t i o n , what par t can methods co u r s e s , i n s e r v i c e s and a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r s play i n b r i n g i n g about a s u c c e s s f u l implementation? The teac h e r s were g e n e r a l l y i n favour of i n s e r v i c e workshops and a s s i s t a n c e from a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r s . A few teache r s f e l t t h a t i n s e r v i c e , o f f e r e d to the s t a f f as a whole, strengthened a "team work approach" to implementation. Huberman (1983) has commented on the value of t h i s form of implementation. He s t r e s s e d that commitment i n c r e a s e s and communication develops when an e n t i r e s t a f f becomes i n v o l v e d . Although none of the teache r s i n t e r v i e w e d mentioned that a d m i n i s t r a t o r s should be i n v o l v e d , i t cou l d be assumed that the statement "a s t a f f as a whole" i n c l u d e d the p r i n -c i p a l who would o f f e r l e a d e r s h i p i n the implementation p r o c e s s . Common (1980) p o i n t e d out that f o r tea c h e r s to be s u c c e s s f u l as implementors they must have the knowledge, a b i l i t y and a t t i t u d e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r implementation. Without the necessary s k i l l s and m o t i v a t i o n to want to implement new m a t e r i a l the implementation process cannot 76 be s u c c e s s f u l . From the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t became apparent that most t e a c h e r s had only taken the elementary a r t methods course i n u n i v e r s i t y and o c c a s i o n a l i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s to prepare them f o r implementing and d e v e l o p i n g a r t programs at the elementary l e v e l . The i n t e r v i e w s with elementary a r t methods course i n s t r u c t o r s r e v e a l e d that t h e i r courses expose student t e a c h e r s to a wide v a r i e t y of processes and concepts but that program p l a n n i n g , based on the c u r r e n t p r e s c r i b e d a r t c u r r i c u l u m i s not i n c l u d e d . As Laura Chapman s t a t e d i n r e f e r e n c e to elementary a r t teacher t r a i n i n g programs i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; " t h e r e i s a tendency to c o n c e n t r a t e on p l a n n i n g l e s s o n s as i s o l a t e d events, as i f each l e s s o n had no b e a r i n g on anything e l s e " (p. 97). T h i s i s probably a l s o the case i n most of the a r t teacher t r a i n i n g courses o f f e r e d i n B.C. What needs to be addressed, t h e r e f o r e , are the r e p e r c u s s i o n s of not f o c u s i n g on program development as i t r e l a t e s to the use and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l . I f t e a c h e r s are expected to use an a r t c u r r i c u l u m , then i t seems reasonable to expect t h a t they should r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g i n ways of understanding and implementing a r t programs based on the c u r r i c u l u m document. Perhaps one reason t h i s i s r a r e l y a focus i n elementary * a r t methods courses i s that over the years a r t c u r r i c u l a 77 has tended to evoke mixed r e a c t i o n s from both u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and t e a c h e r s . As these two groups have had l e s s and l e s s d i r e c t involvement i n the p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i -z i n g of new a r t c u r r i c u l a , the commitment and m o t i v a t i o n to use the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l a has d i m i n i s h e d . As the review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d , t e a c h e r s are expected to adopt and understand the new concepts and processes whether or not they helped to assess or formulate them. A recommendation of t h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , would be that the people who must use the new m a t e r i a l should a l s o have a say i n how i t i s developed. Although elementary a r t methods course i n s t r u c t o r s would be ab l e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g new a r t c u r r i c u l a , many elementary a r t t e a c h e r s , because of t h e i r l i m i t e d knowledge of a r t , would not. What elementary t e a c h e r s would be ab l e to c o n t r i b u t e , however, i s an i n s i g h t i n t o what they f i n d most h e l p f u l , given t h e i r present l a c k of t r a i n i n g and e x p e r t i s e . The Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource  Book was developed by a v a r i e t y of educators with d i f f e r e n t a r t backgrounds. Few o f f e r elementary a r t methods courses and fewer s t i l l are p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n classroom t e a c h i n g at the elementary l e v e l . Whether or not an a r t c u r r i c u l u m i s adequately imple-mented u l t i m a t e l y depends on how the teacher i n t e r p r e t s 78 the new m a t e r i a l . I f nothing has been d i s c u s s e d about how to i n t e r p r e t and implement a new c u r r i c u l u m i n elementary a r t methods cour s e s , then i t seems reasonable to assume t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l be l e f t to decide the meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the new m a t e r i a l on the b a s i s of t h e i r l i m i t e d t r a i n i n g i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s can g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e the use of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l by e x p l o r i n g the v a r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s , g o a l s , concepts and methods found i n a c u r r i c u l u m document. A second recommendation, t h e r e f o r e , would be that elementary a r t methods course i n s t r u c t o r s become more i n v o l v e d i n the development of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and i n the i n s t r u c t i o n of the new content and s k i l l s to elementary t e a c h e r s . Another recommendation f o r improving the knowledge and s k i l l s of t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the implementation process would be f o r the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n to p r o v i d e pre-implementation i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s . I f t e a c h e r s had a thorough background i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , a s e r i e s of workshops p r i o r to implementation would p r o v i d e them with the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n about the new approaches, p h i l o s o p h i e s and methods o u t l i n e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m . What the teacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d , however, was t h a t few f e l t they had an adequate background i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the type of implementation i n s e r v i c e that i s planned,^ might only p r o v i d e a "bandage" s t y l e i n t r o d u c t i o n 79 to how to implement the new m a t e r i a l . The i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s to the new c u r r i c u l u m , recorded i n the i n t e r v i e w s , r e v e a l e d that many te a c h e r s found the document c o n f u s i n g and l a c k i n g i n v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . I f p r e - i m p l e -mentation i n s e r v i c e does not take p l a c e , t h i s f i r s t r e a c t i o n to the contents of the c u r r i c u l u m might a f f e c t the recep-t i v e n e s s and w i l l i n g n e s s of the te a c h e r s to c a r r y out i t s implementation. T h i s might add to the resentment some teach e r s a l r e a d y f e e l about the amount of new c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l , i n g e n e r a l , that the M i n i s t r y expects t e a c h e r s to i n t r o d u c e . In order f o r a s u c c e s s f u l implementation to take p l a c e , t h e r e f o r e , a recommendation c o u l d be made that the M i n i s t r y of Education should become more s e n s i t i v e to the needs of te a c h e r s who have l i t t l e e x p e r t i s e i n the s u b j e c t of a r t but who are expected to i n t r o d u c e new m a t e r i a l which embodies s p e c i f i c p h i l o s o p h i e s , goals and methodologies that can only be f u l l y understood through a more thorough under-s t a n d i n g of a r t e d u c a t i o n . Even i n the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n i n which teac h e r s have a good background i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , they might f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to a l t e r t h e i r present program a c c o r d i n g to a new set of g u i d e l i n e s . I f they have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the development of the new m a t e r i a l they might a l s o r e s e n t having to change t h e i r program a c c o r d i n g to someone 80 e l s e ' s p h i l o s o p h i e s and g o a l s . In t h i s case, and i n g e n e r a l , a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r s provide a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e to elementary t e a c h e r s . They can e x p l a i n , c l a r i f y and a s s i s t i n the m o d i f i -c a t i o n s of programs. For t e a c h e r s with l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n a r t , a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r s can act as a d i r e c t source of i n f o r -mation and support d u r i n g the implementation p r o c e s s . Without the s e r v i c e s of a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r s to help u n i f y the e f f o r t s of t e a c h e r s and p r o v i d e support both i n terms of i n f o r m a t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n , i t seems d o u b t f u l that any elementary teacher can t o t a l l y f e e l prepared to implement a new a r t c u r r i c u l u m . A f u r t h e r recommendation, t h e r e f o r e , would be to employ a r t c o - o r d i - n a t o r s who, among other d u t i e s , might a s s i s t with the i n t r o d u c t i o n and development of new a r t programs based on the c u r r i c u l u m document. What remains paramount i s the need f o r a more focused approach to teacher t r a i n i n g i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . As one teacher p o i n t e d out i n t h i s study, a r t i s c o n s i d e r e d a s u b j e c t r e q u i r i n g " l i t t l e s k i l l to t e a c h , " i n comparison to drama or music. T h i s b e l i e f can perpetuate the p r a c t i c e of implementing new m a t e r i a l without p r o v i d i n g a thorough t r a i n i n g i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n beforehand. I t seems that as long as a r t i s thought of as r e q u i r i n g " l i t t l e s k i l l to t e a c h , " then the programs at u n i v e r s i t y w i l l not be expanded, 81 a l i m i t e d amount of i n s e r v i c e w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e and a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r s w i l l c o ntinue to l o s e t h e i r j o b s . The M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m committees, d i s t r i c t a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r s , and elementary a r t methods course i n s t r u c t o r s need to c o n s i d e r the s p e c i f i c needs of elementary t e a c h e r s i n attempting to implement new m a t e r i a l about a s u b j e c t they know l i t t l e about. F u l l a n (1983) and other c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h e r s have o u t l i n e d what i s necessary i n order to c a r r y out a s u c c e s s f u l imp-l e m e n t a t i o n . The recommendation i s made, t h e r e f o r e , that g r e a t e r n o t i c e needs to be taken of the s u g g e s t i o n s made by c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h e r s who s p e c i a l i z e i n s t u d y i n g the process of implementation. With a more u n i f i e d approach e s t a b l i s h e d by those who develop the a r t c u r r i c u l a , t r a i n elementary t e a c h e r s and i n t r o d u c e the c u r r i c u l u m to s t u d e n t s , i t seems that the New Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource  Book co u l d s t a r t to serve the s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , elementary a r t methods course i n s t r u c t o r s , c u r r i c u l u m committees and the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n a more cohesiv e and s i g n i -f i c a n t way, which u l t i m a t e l y might help to s t r e n g t h e n the outcome and impact of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. 82 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r S t u d y On t h e b a s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y , r e s e a r c h c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1. M e t h o d s o f T r a i n i n g I t would be v a l u a b l e f o r t h o s e i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y o r i n s e r v i c e l e v e l t o know what f o r m s o f t r a i n i n g have a g r e a t e r i m p a c t and p r o v e more u s e f u l t o e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s . 2. A p p l i c a t i o n o f T r a i n i n g Once t e a c h e r s have been t r a i n e d i n t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e s s e s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n , t h e n i t would be i m p o r t a n t f o r t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s t o know how t e a c h e r s a p p l y t h i s k n owledge i n t h e i r a r t p r o g r a m s . 3. The R o l e o f E x p e r i e n c e i n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n As some t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e y f e l t more p r e p a r e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e c u r r i c u l u m document n o t b e c a u s e o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g as much as t h e i r y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g a r t . A s t u d y i n t o t h e ways i n w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e can p r e p a r e t e a c h e r s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m i g h t p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h o s e who d e c i d e who i s t h e b e s t q u a l i f i e d t o e i t h e r c a r r y o u t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s or a s s i s t o t h e r s i n how t o i m p l e m e n t new a r t c u r r i c u l a . FOOTNOTES 1 1985/86 has been d e s i g n a t e d as the year of o p t i o n a l use. T h i s has been done to enable t e a c h e r s to f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the contents of the new c u r r i c u l u m document before being r e q u i r e d to implement i t i n 1986/87. During the o f f i c i a l implementation year, p r i n c i p a l s are expected to oversee the p r o c e s s . 2 The M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n has o r g a n i z e d implementation s e s s i o n s to be o f f e r e d by three teams of a r t e d u c a t o r s . These s e s s i o n s w i l l be given on a request b a s i s , t h e r e f o r e not every s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l r e c e i v e t h i s form of a s s i s t a n c e . Handouts on demonstration l e s s o n s and video p r o d u c t i o n s made of the implementation s e s s i o n s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to a l l elementary t e a c h e r s . P r o v i d e d there i s enough funding a v a i l a b l e , two t e x t s w i l l be purchased to be used along with the c u r r i c u l u m document. 1 A r t i n the Making by R i d d e l l ^ A r t from Many Hands by Schuman 83 84 REFERENCES Ao k i , T. (1984). C u r r i c u l u m implementation as i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i o n and as s i t u a t i o n a l p r a x i s , understanding s i t u a t i o n a l meanings of c u r r i c u l u m i n - s e r v i c e a c t s : implementing con-s u l t i n g , i n s e r v i c i n g . C u r r i c u l u m P r a x i s Monograph, 9_, (pp. 4-17). A l b e r t a : P u b l i c a t i o n S e r v i c e s . B l a i r , D. (1902). Canadian drawing s e r i e s . Toronto: Copp C l a r k ( r e v i s e d 1907). Carson, T. (1983). C o n v e r s a t i o n s with p a r t i c i p a n t s about c u r r i c u l u m implementation, understanding s i t u a t i o n a l meanings of c u r r i -culum i n - s e r v i c e a c t s : implementing, c o n s u l t i n g , i n s e r v i c i n g . C u r r i c u l u m P r a x i s Monograph 9, (pp. 18-42). A l b e r t a : P u b l i -c a t i o n S e r v i c e s . Chapman, L. (1979). I n s t a n t a r t i n s t a n t c u l t u r e : The unspoken  p o l i c y f o r American s c h o o l s . New York: Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s . Common, D. (1980). A c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n f o r the implementation p r o c e s s , Implementation Viewpoints: Monograph (pp. 3-22). B r i t i s h Columbia: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. C r a n d a l l , D. (1983). The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n s c h o o l improvement. E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p s , 54, (pp. 6-9). E i s n e r , E. (1969). Teaching a r t to the young: a c u r r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . 85 Elementary f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e / r e s o u r c e book. (1985). V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r . Elementary School a r t c u r r i c u l u m . (1972). V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r . F u l l a n , M. (1983). Changes processes and s t r a t e g i e s at the l o c a l l e v e l . Paper commissioned by the n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o . Gray, J . (1981). A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t to the U.B.C. department  of v i s u a l and performing a r t s i n e d u c a t i o n : Art program. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Herron, M. (1971). On teacher p e r c e p t i o n and c u r r i c u l a r i n n o -v a t i o n , i n Elements of c u r r i c u l u m development: Monograph  Supplement, 1_ Toronto: The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n . Huberman, M. & C r a n d a l l , D. (1983). A study of d i s e m i n a t i o n e f f o r t s s u p p o r t i n g s c h o o l improvement. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A c t i o n , j), Andover, Mass: The Network. K i r s t , M. & Walker, D. (1971). An a n l y s i s of c u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y -making. Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research: December i s s u e , (pp. 493). Werner, W. (1981). An i n t e r p r e t i v e approach to c u r r i c u l u m imple-mentation, i n K. Leithwood & A. Hughes ( e d s . ) , C u r r i c u l u m  Canada: C u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h and development and c r i t i c a l  student outcomes (pp. 137-160). B r i t i s h Columbia: Centre f o r the study of c u r r i c u l u m & i n s t r u c t i o n , U.B.C. 86 Weston, W.P. (1933). A t e a c h e r s manual of drawing. Toronto: Nelson. Wolfe, A. (1978). Responses of neophyte and ex p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s  of a r t i n matters a f f e c t i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s t i y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, A l b e r t a . Z a h o r i k , J . (1976). A task f o r c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h . E d u c a t i o n a l  L e a d e r s h i p , 33, (pp 487-489). Z a i s , R. (1976). C u r r i c u l u m : p r i n c i p l e s and f o u n d a t i o n s , New York: Thomas Y. C r o w e l l company. APPENDIX I THE ELEMENTARY TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE 87 I n t r o d u c t i o n The a r t e d u c a t i o n t h a t a t e a c h e r r e c e i v e s , t o some e x t e n t , s h a p e s t h e i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s he o r she w i l l i m p a r t t o s t u d e n t s . Does t h e q u a l i t y o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n and t h e a t t i t u d e s t h a t d e v e l o p f r o m i t , a f f e c t t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l ? I n an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e an a nswer, I have d e s i g n e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o e n c o u r a g e t e a c h e r s t o comment on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , n e e d s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a r t e d u c a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e O b j e c t i v e The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l h e l p i n a n s w e r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. Can a r t be e f f e c t i v e l y t a u g h t by t e a c h e r s w i t h l i t t l e o r no t r a i n i n g i n a r t ? 2. What k i n d o f t r a i n i n g do e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s f e e l i s n e c e s s a r y ? Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e i t ? 3. What a f f e c t does t r a i n i n g have on t h e t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a r t as a s u b j e c t a r e a ? A. Do t e a c h e r s a f f e c t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o w a r d a r t ? 5. How do t h e a t t i t u d e s o f b o t h t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s 8 8 i n elementary s c h o o l c o n t r i b u t e to the s t a t u s of a r t ed u c a t i o n i n general? Procedure The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u i r e s a l i m i t e d amount of time to complete. The q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e a l i s t of a l t e r n a t i v e answers to reduce the need f o r w r i t t e n responses. As a means of r e c e i v i n g more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be f o l l o w e d up by p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . Please i n d i c a t e whether you would be w i l l i n g to be i n t e r v i e w e d . yes, i n person yes, by telephone (day) &/or (eve) QUESTIONNAIRE: 1. DID YOU TAKE ART ELEMENTARY IN UNIVERSITY? yes ( l o c a t i o n ) no 2. DID YOUR COURSE WORK INCLUDE? elementary methods courses c h i l d development ( i n a r t ) c r a f t s a r t processes such as drawing and p a i n t i n g 8 9 a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n an i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r i e s and p r i n c i p l e s o t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) _ _ 3. PLEASE INDICATE YOUR PERSONAL INVOLVEMENT IN ART? e n j o y d o i n g v a r i o u s c r a f t s a c t i v i t i e s t a k e e v e n i n g c o u r s e s i n a r t draw, p a i n t , t a k e p h o t o g r a p h s , e t c . i n s p a r e t i m e r e a d a r t books a t t e n d a r t e x h i b i t i o n s o t h e r ( p l e s e s p e c i f y ) 4. IN WHAT AREAS WOULD YOU L I K E TO RECEIVE MORE TRAINING? P l e a s e r a t e y o u r a n s w e r ( s ) e l e m e n t a r y a r t methods c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t ( i n a r t ) c r a f t s a r t p r o c e s s e s s u c h as d r a w i n g and p a i n t i n g a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n m u l t i - c u l t u r a l a r t e d u c a t i o n i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 90 WHAT FORM OF TRAINING DO YOU PREFER? sho r t workshops and seminars o f f e r e d by the d i s t r i c t c o - o r d i n a t o r . summer courses by a c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y evening courses o f f e r e d by a c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) WHAT HAS HELPED YOU MOST? u n i v e r s i t y courses i n a r t e d u c a t i o n workshops o r g a n i z e d by your s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p r o v i n c i a l workshops other t e a c h e r s ' i d e a s on a r t e d u c a t i o n a r t a c t i v i t y books and magazines other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) WHAT AREAS DO YOU FEEL MOST PREPARED TO-TEACH? Ple a s e r a t e your answer(s) drawing p a i n t i n g p r i n tmaking t e x t i l e s m o d e l l i n g / c a r v i n g / c o n s t r u e t i o n elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design 91 reasoned c r i t i c i s m d e v e l o p i n g imagery a r t h i s t o r y other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) WHICH OF THE ABOVE AREAS DO YOU FEEL YOU SHOULD KNOW MORE ABOUT? drawing p a i n t i n g printmaking t e x t i l e s m o d e l l i n g / c a r v i n g / c o n s t r u c t i o n elements and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . reasoned c r i t i c i s m d e v e l o p i n g imagery a r t h i s t o r y other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) WHAT WOULD HELP YOU TEACH MORE EFFECTIVELY? Please r a t e your answer(s) more time to do a r t a c t i v i t i e s more i n s e r v i c e workshops more a s s i s t a n c e i n the classroom by the a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r more v i s u a l a i d s such as p o s t e r s and books 92 more handouts on a c t i v i t i e s and p r o j e c t i d e a s would other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 1 0 . WHAT BASIC QUALITIES AND/OR SKILLS DO YOU FEEL A TEACHER SHOULD HAVE IN ORDER TO TEACH ART AT THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL? Please r a t e your answer(s) be i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n be a c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l be t r a i n e d as an a r t s p e c i a l i s t enjoy working with m a t e r i a l s & processes with c h i l d r e n be a b l e to plan an a r t program be able to draw be ab l e to r e l a t e other s u b j e c t areas to a r t other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 1 1 . WHAT AREAS DO YOU FEEL ARE NECESSARY TO INCLUDE IN AN ELEMENTARY ART PROGRAM? Please r a t e your answer(s) a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m s k i l l development i n drawing and p a i n t i n g e t c . c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g Design p r i n c i p l e s i n t e g r a t e d s u b j e c t a c t i v i t i e s other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 93 WHAT ARE YOUR MAIN GOALS IN TEACHING ART? Please r a t e your answer(s) p r o v i d i n g a " f u n " a c t i v i t y encouraging i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n d e v e l o p i n g c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s i n c r e a s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s awareness of t h e i r environment de v e l o p i n g a r t i s t i c s k i l l s t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n to be more observant and c r i t i c a l t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n to be r e s o u r c e f u l encouraging s e l f - r e l i a n c e other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 13. HOW FREQUENTLY DO YOU MAKE USE OF THE FOLLOWING? o f t e n sometimes seldom never v i s u a l a i d s l i b r a r i e s a r t g a l l e r i e s i n f o r m a t i o n handouts from d i s t r i c t c o - o r d i n a t o r p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m handouts from a r t workshops ideas from other elementary t e a c h e r s other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 94 and uniform 14. ON WHAT BASIS DO YOU GENERALLY SELECT A PROJECT? i t can e a s i l y be completed i n one s e s s i o n the product i s p r e d i c t a b l e i t s u i t s the time of year the m a t e r i a l s can be e a s i l y handled i t a l l o w s f o r a v a r i e t y of s o l u t i o n s i t c h a l l e n g e s the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c s k i l l s other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y 15. DO YOU FEEL ADEQUATELY PREPARED TO TEACH ART? yes no undecided Please e x p l a i n your answer 16. DO YOU FEEL ART IS A NECESSARY PART OF THE SCHOOL PROGRAM? yes no undecided I f you answer no, please e x p l a i : '  17. HOW DO YOU VIEW ART IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL? as a f r i l l 95 as a way to enhance other s u b j e c t areas as a v i t a l p a r t of a c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g experience as a fun a c t i v i t y with l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n a l value as an e x t r a concern f o r busy t e a c h e r s other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 18. DO YOU FEEL THAT CHILDREN ARE AFFECTED BY YOUR OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD ART? yes no undecided Please e x p l a i n your response 19. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EDUCATION IS DESIGNED TO LAY THE FOUN-DATIONS FOR ALL OTHER GRADE LEVELS. DO YOU FEEL ELEMENTARY ART PROGRAMS ARE PROVIDING CHILDREN WITH A SOLID FOUNDATION IN ART? yes no undecided Pleas e e x p l a i n your response 96 20. WHAT CHANGES DO YOU FEEL NEED TO TAKE PLACE IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE STATUS OF ART EDUCATION? Please r a t e your answer(s) improve teacher t r a i n i n g at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l p r o v i d e i n s e r v i c e workshops f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e p u b l i c awareness through a r t i c l e s , e x h i b i t i o n s and t e l e v i s i o n programs a l l o t more time f o r a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n the s c h o o l program i n c r e a s e a s s i s t a n c e to g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 21. HOW DO YOUR STUDENTS VIEW ART AS A SUBJECT AREA? as a f r i l l as a way to l e a r n about other s u b j e c t s as a fun a c t i v i t y with l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n a l content as a chance to express themselves v i s u a l l y and c r e a -t i v e l y as a c h a l l e n g i n g s u b j e c t both a r t i s t i c a l l y and i n t e l -l e c t u a l l y other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) THANK YOU FOR YOUR INTEREST AND COOPERATION! 97 APPENDIX I I RESULTS OF THE ELEMENTARY TEACHER QUESTIONAIRES Elementary Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e are presented i n three s e c t i o n s , 1) E d u c a t i o n a l background, 2) E d u c a t i o n a l requirements, 3) A t t i t u d e s . A l l c h o i c e s are t a l l i e d a f t e r each g u e s t i o n . Rated responses are re c o r d e d i n q u e s t i o n s 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 20 (N r e p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s ) . A. E d u c a t i o n a l Background 1. Did you take a r t ed u c a t i o n i n u n i v e r s i t y ? N Yes, at U.B.C. 13 Yes, at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y England M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a A u s t r a l i a Yes, no l o c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d 2 No 2. Did your course work i n c l u d e ? elementary a r t methods a r t process such as drawing and p a i n t i n g 18 12 98 a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n an i n t r o d u c t i o n to a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r i e s and p r i n c i p l e s c h i l d development c r a f t s o t h e r : a r t h i s t o r y 2 Master's course 1 stage a r t 1 3. Please i n d i c a t e your p e r s o n a l involvement i n a r t . N enjoy doing v a r i o u s c r a f t s a c t i v i t i e s 15 a t t e n d a r t e x h i b i t i o n s 14 draw, p a i n t , take photographs, e t c . i n spare time 9 read a r t books 8 take evening courses i n a r t 5 no answer 1 o t h e r : 6 no time 1 main i n t e r e s t i n l i f e 1 very l i t t l e involvement 2 none except i n s c h o o l 1 N 12 12 10 8 4 E d u c a t i o n a l / T r a i n i n g Needs. 4. In what areas would you l i k e to r e c e i v e more t r a i n i n g ? P l e a s e r a t e your answer(s) . N (a) elementary a r t methods (program p l a n n i n g ) 21 i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s 20 c h i l d development ( i n a r t ) 16 a r t p rocesses such as drawing and p a i n t i n g 16 m u l t i - c u l t u r a l a r t e d u c a t i o n 14 a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n 13 c r a f t s 12 other 0 (b) Six t e a c h e r s rank ordered t h e i r responses. The r e s u l t s were: 1-2 3 4 5 6 ; elementary a r t methods 1 2 1 1 1 c h i l d development 2 1 1 1 1 c r a f t s 1 2 2 1 a r t p r o c e s s e s 3 1 1 1 a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n 1 1 2 2 m u l t i - c u l t u r a l a r t e d u c a t i o n 1 1 1 1 1 1 i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t s / a c t i v i t i e s 3 2 1 What form of t r a i n i n g do you p r e f e r ? s h o r t workshops/seminars o f f e r e d by d i s t r i c t c o - o r d i n a t o r . N 22 100 N summer courses o f f e r e d by c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y 4 evening courses o f f e r e d b c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y 2 ot h e r : 1 evening courses other than at e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e s 1 What has helped you most? N other t e a c h e r s ' i d e a s on a r t e d u c a t i o n 18 a r t a c t i v i t y books and magazines 15 workshops org a n i z e d by your s c h o o l d i s t r i c t 9 u n i v e r s i t y courses i n a r t ed u c a t i o n 7 other 0 What areas do you f e e l most prepared to teach? Please r a t e your answer(s) N p a i n t i n g 18 m o d e l l i n g / c a r v i n g / c o n s t r u c t i o n 17 printmaking 15 drawing 14 elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design 14 t e x t i l e s 11 d e v e l o p i n g imagery 10 a r t h i s t o r y 10 101 reasoned c r i t i c i s m 9 no response 2 o t h e r : 1 none 1 (b) Seven t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h e i r responses. The r e s u l t s were: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ! drawing 3 2 1 1 p a i n t i n g 1 5 1 printmaking 1 1 4 1 t e x t i l e s 2 2 2 1 m o d e l l i n g / c a r v i n g / c o n s t r u c t i o n 1 1 2 1 1 1 elements and p r i n c i p l e s / d e s i g n 1 2 3 1 reasoned c r i t i c i s m 1 1 2 2 1 d e v e l o p i n g imagery 1 1 1 1 1 1 a r t h i s t o r y 1 1 1 1 3 8. Which of the above areas do you f e e l you should  know more about? N elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design 12 t e x t i l e s 11 drawing 11 m o d e l l i n g / c a r v i n g / c o n s t r u c t i o n 10 p a i n t i n g 8 printmaking 8 102 deve l o p i n g imagery 7 reasoned c r i t i c i s m 6 a r t h i s t o r y 5 ot h e r : 3 a l l of the above 3 9. What would help you teach more e f f e c t i v e l y ?  P l e a s e r a t e your answer(s) N (a) more i n s e r v i c e workshops 20 more handouts on a c t i v i t e s & p r o j e c t i d e a s 20 more time to do a r t a c t i v i t i e s 17 more a s s i s t a n c e i n the classroom by the a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r 14 more v i s u a l a i d s such as p o s t e r s & books 8 ot h e r : 2 a r t m a t e r i a l s 1 workshops by c o o r d i n a t o r 1 (b) Six t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h e i r responses. The r e s u l t s were: 1 2 3 4 5 more time to do a r t a c t i v i t i e s 1 1 1 2 more i n s e r v i c e workshops 2 3 1 more a s s i s t a n c e i n the classroom by the a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r 2 3 1 more v i s u a l a i d s such as p o s t e r s & books 2 1 3 more handouts on a c t i v i t i e s / p r o j e c t i d e a s 3 1 2 103 10. What b a s i c q u a l i t i e s and/or s k i l l s do you f e e l a  teacher should have i n order to teach a r t at the  elementary l e v e l ? P l e a s e r a t e your answer(s) (a) enjoy working with m a t e r i a l s & N p r o c e s s e s with c h i l d r e n 22 be a c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l 21 be able to r e l a t e other s u b j e c t s to a r t 21 be a b l e to plan an a r t program 18 be i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n 17 be a b l e to draw 15 be t r a i n e d as an a r t s p e c i a l i s t 14 o t h e r : 3 enthusiasm and i n t e r e s t 2 s t r e s s i n d i v i d u a l i s m and encouragement 1 (b) Ten t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h e i r responses. The r e s u l t s were: 1 2 3 4 5 6 : be i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n 1 be a c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l 2 be t r a i n e d as an a r t s p e c i a l i s t 1 enjoy working with m a t e r i a l s and processes with c h i l d r e n 7 3 2 3 2 2 1 2 104 be a b l e to plan a r t program 2 3 2 3 be able to draw . 2 3 4 be a b l e to r e l a t e other s u b j e c t s to a r t 4 1 4 1 A t t i t u d e s 11. What areas do you f e e l are necessary to i n c l u d e  i n an elementary a r t program? Please r a t e your  answer(s) N (a) s k i l l development i n d r a w i n g / p a i n t i n g 26 design p r i n c i p l e s 23 i n t e g r a t e d s u b j e c t a c t i v i t i e s 23 a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n & c r i t i c i s m 21 c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g 20 o t h e r : 2 use of media 1 r e p e t i t i o n of s p e c i f i c techniques 1 (b) E l e v e n t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h e i r responses. The r e s u l t s were: 1 2 3 4 5 a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m 1 3 1 3 3 s k i l l development i n drawing/ p a i n t i n g 3 2 3 2 1 c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g 2 3 3 3 design p r i n c i p l e s 2 1 5 3 i n t e g r a t e d s u b j e c t a c t i v i t i e s 2 4 3 1 1 105 12. What are your main goals i n t e a c h i n g a r t ? P l e a s e r a t e your answers N (a) encouraging i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n 25 p r o v i d i n g a'fun' a c t i v i t y 21 d e v e l o p i n g a r t i s t i c s k i l l s 21 encouraging s e l f - r e l i a n c e 21 t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n to be more observant and c r i t i c a l 20 i n c r e a s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s awareness of t h e i r environment 18 t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n to be more r e s o u r c e f u l 18 de v e l o p i n g c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s 17 other 0 (b) Twelve t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h e i r responses. The r e s u l t s were: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 p r o v i d i n g a 'fun' a c t i v i t y 1 1 1 1 3 5 encouraging i n d i v i d u a l exp. 5 2 3 1 1 de v e l o p i n g c r e a t i v e problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s 1 2 1 4 3 1 i n c r e a s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s aware-ness of t h e i r environment 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 d e v e l o p i n g a r t i s t i c s k i l l s 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n to be more observant and c r i t i c a l 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n to be more r e s o u r c e f u l 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 encouraging s e l f - r e l i a n c e 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 106 13. How f r e q u e n t l y do you make use of the f o l l o w i n g ? o f t e n sometimes seldom never v i s u a l a i d s 9 12 6 0 l i b r a r i e s 7 11 6 .1 a r t g a l l e r i e s 2 5 8 10 i n f o r m a t i o n handouts 4 10 8 2 p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m 3 6 13 3 handouts from a r t workshops 10 14 0 0 i d e a s from other t e a c h e r s 17 8 0 0 o t h e r : my own i d e a s 4 2 14. On what b a s i s do you g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t a p r o j e c t ?  Pl ea se r a t e your answer(s) N (a) i t c h a l l e n g e s the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c s k i l l s 23 i t s u i t s the time of year 22 i t a l l o w s f o r a v a r i e t y of s o l u t i o n s 22 the m a t e r i a l s can be e a s i l y handled 18 the product i s p r e d i c t a b l e and uniform 15 i t can be e a s i l y completed i n one s e s s i o n 15 o t h e r : 1 i n t e g r a t i o n with other s u b j e c t s 1 107 (b) Nine t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h e i r responses. The r e s u l t s were: 1 2 3 4 5 6 i t can e a s i l y be completed i n one s e s s i o n 1 2 2 1 3 the product i s p r e d i c t a b l e and uniform 1 2 3 3 i t s u i t s the time of year 2 4 1 2 the m a t e r i a l s can be e a s i l y handled 3 1 1 2 1 1 i t a l l o w s f o r a v a r i e t y of s o l u t i o n s 1 2 2 2 2 i t w i l l c h a l l e n g e the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l & a r t i s t i c s k i l l s 3 4 2 15. Do you f e e l adequately prepared to teach a r t ? Yes 12 No 8 Undecided 5 W r i t t e n responses are recorded i n the summary. 16. Do you f e e l a r t i s a necessary part of the  s c h o o l program? Yes 25 No 0 Undecided 0 108 17. How do you view a r t i n elementary s c h o o l ? N as a v i t a l p art of a c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e 23 as a way to enhance other s u b j e c t areas 14 as a fun a c t i v i t y 2 as a f r i l l 0 as a concern f o r busy t e a c h e r s 0 18. Do you f e e l t h a t c h i l d r e n are a f f e c t e d by your o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s toward a r t ? Yes 25 No 0 Undecided 0 19. Elementary s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i s designed to l a y the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r a l l other grade l e v e l s . Do you f e e l  elementary a r t programs are p r o v i d i n g c h i l d r e n with  a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n i n a r t ? Yes 6 No 10 Undecided 9 W r i t t e n responses are recorded i n the summary. 109 20. What changes do you f e e l need to take p l a c e i n order  to improve the s t a t u s of a r t education?  Please r a t e your answer(s) N (a) i n c r e a s e a s s i s t a n c e f o r g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s 23 improve teacher t r a i n i n g at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l 22 p r o v i d e i n s e r v i c e workshops f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 16 i n c r e a s e p u b l i c awareness 15 a l l o t more time f o r a r t i n s c h o o l program 12 o t h e r : 1 p r o v i d e a r t rooms 1 (b) Nine t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h e i r responses. The r e s u l t s were: 1 2 3 4 5 improve teacher t r a i n i n g at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l 4 4 1 p r o v i d e i n s e r v i c e workshops f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n 2 1 2 3 1 i n c r e a s e p u b l i c awareness through a r t i c l e s , e x h i b i t i o n s and t e l e v i s i o n programs 1 2 2 4 a l l o t more time f o r a r t i n the s c h o o l program 2 2 4 i n c r e a s e a s s i s t a n c e to g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s 5 2 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 . How do your students view a r t as a s u b j e c t area?. N as a chance to express themselves v i s u a l l y and c r e a t i v e l y 2 0 as a c h a l l e n g i n g s u b j e c t both a r t i s t i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y 12 as a fun a c t i v i t y with l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n a l content 12 as a way to l e a r n about other s u b j e c t s 10 as a f r i l l 2 other 0 I l l APPENDIX I I I ELEMENTARY TEACHER INTERVIEW SCHEDULE O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n : 1) To a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t e a c h e r s f e e l p r e p a r e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e New E l e m e n t a r y F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e /  R e s o u r c e Book. 2) To e n c o u r a g e them t o e x p r e s s t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e use o f a r t c u r r i c u l a . 3) To i d e n t i f y what f o r m s o f a s s i s t a n c e t h e y need t o i m p l e m e n t t h e new c u r r i c u l u m document. 4) To f i n d o u t how t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d t o t h e c o n t e n t s and o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m document. P r o c e d u r e : T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a l i m i t e d - r e s p o n s e i n t e r v i e w . E a c h q u e s t i o n o f f e r s a l i m i t e d number o f p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s . At t h e end o f most q u e s t i o n s s p a c e i s p r o v i d e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r -m a t i o n and comments. The i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : 1) What t e a c h e r s a r e p r e p a r e d t o i m p l e m e n t 2) How t e a c h e r s f e e l a b o u t t h e use o f a r t c u r r i c u l a 3) What a s s i s t a n c e i s r e q u i r e d f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n 4) How t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d t o t h e c o n t e n t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m document. 112 What T e a c h e r s a r e P r e p a r e d t o Implement 1) How w e l l p r e p a r e d do you f e e l you a r e t o i m p l e m e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s e s as t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e new c u r r i c u l u m ? d r a w i n g p a i n t i n g p r i n t m a k i n g t e x t i l e s m o d e l l i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n c e r a m i c s 2) Why do you f e e l p r e p a r e d or n o t p r e p a r e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e s e p r o c e s s e s ? d r a w i n g p a i n t i n g p r i n t m a k i n g t e x t i l e s m o d e l l i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n c e r a m i c s O p t i o n s : U n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s , i n s e r v i c e w o r k s h o p s , o t h e r t e a c h e r s ' a s s i s t a n c e , b o o k s , o t h e r . F u r t h e r comments: 113 3) How w e l l prepared do you f e e l you are to implement the f o l l o w i n g concepts as they are presented i n the new c u r r i c u l u m ? responding to a r t d e v e l o p i n g images t e a c h i n g elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design F u r t h e r comments: 4) Why do you f e e l prepared or not prepared to implement the f o l l o w i n g concepts as they are presented i n the new c u r r i c u l u m ? responding to a r t d e v e l o p i n g images t e a c h i n g elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design F u r t h e r comments: 5) How does the content of the new c u r r i c u l u m compare with the a r t program you now o f f e r ? Comments: B) How Teachers F e e l About the Use of Art C u r r i c u l a 1) How w i l l the new Elementary A r t C u r r i c u l u m a f f e c t your a r t program? - i t w i l l p r o v i d e the b a s i s of the a r t program - i t w i l l p r o v i d e the b a s i c processes and concepts to i n c l u d e i n the a r t program 114 - i t w i l l be used f o r r e f e r e n c e purposes only - i t w i l l not be used - other F u r t h e r Comments: 2) What purpose do you f e e l an a r t c u r r i u c u l u m should serve i n an elementary a r t program? Why? - form the b a s i s of the program - serve as a g u i d e l i n e of what processes and concepts should be i n c l u d e d - serve as r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l only - does not serve any u s e f u l purpose - other F u r t h e r Comments: C) What A s s i s t a n c e i s Required f o r Implementation 1) Do you f e e l w i l l i n g and able to implement the new c u r r i c u l u m without a s s i s t a n c e ? Why? yes no undecided F u r t h e r Comments: 2) Do you f e e l t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s you with enough i n f o r m a t i o n to implement a new a r t program? Why? 115 yes no undecided F u r t h e r Comments: 3) What form of a s s i s t a n c e do you f e e l would be the most h e l p f u l i n implementing t h i s c u r r i c u l u m ? - i n s e r v i c e workshops on implementation - a s s i s t a n c e from an a r t c o - o r d i n a t o r - u n i v e r s i t y courses - other F u r t h e r Comments: D) How Teachers Respond to the Contents and O r g a n i z a t i o n of  the New C u r r i c u l u m Document 1) Do you f e e l the c u r r i c u l u m w i l l help you plan more e f f e c t i v e l y ? Why? yes no undecided F u r t h e r Comments: 116 2) How do you f e e l a b o u t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m document? 3) What would you change ; or a l t e r i n t h e new c u r r i c u l u m document? 117 APPENDIX IV TEACHER EDUCATOR INTERVIEW SCHEDULE O b j e c t i v e s of the I n v e s t i g a t i o n ; 1) To assess the extent to which the content of the elementary a r t methods courses r e l a t e to the content of the former a r t c u r r i c u l u m . 2) To f i n d out what i n s t r u c t o r s f e e l i s important to empha-s i z e i n elementary a r t methods courses and why they f e e l t h i s . 3) To examine t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the use of a r t c u r r i c u l a i n elementary a r t methods c o u r s e s . Procedure: T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a l i m i t e d - r e s p o n s e i n t e r v i e w . Each q u e s t i o n o f f e r s a l i m i t e d number of p o s s i b l e responses. At the end of each q u e s t i o n a space i s p r o v i d e d f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of any a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n or a t t i t u d e s . The i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s are d i v i d e d i n t o t hree c a t e g o r i e s : 1) A n a l y s i s of the course content 2) Emphasized processes and concepts 3) A t t i t u d e s toward a r t c u r r i c u l a and the New Elementary  F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book 1) Does t h e e l e m e n t a r y a r t methods c o u r s e you o f f e r i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s e s ? d r a w i n g p a i n t i n g p r i n t m a k i n g t e x t i l e s m o d e l l i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n c e r a m i c s p a p e r c u t t i n g & f o l d i n g l e t t e r i n g - A r e t h e r e any a d d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e i n c l u d e d i n y o u r c o u r s e ? - F u r t h e r Comments: B) E m p h a s i z e d P r o c e s s e s and C o n c e p t s 2) What i m p o r t a n c e do you p r e s e n t l y p l a c e on t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s e s and why? G r e a t Some L i t t l e None d r a w i n g p a i n t i n g p r i n t m a k i n g t e x t i l e s m o d e l l i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n 1 1 9 ceramics paper c u t t i n g & f o l d i n g l e t t e r i n g - What importance i s p l a c e d on any a d d i t i o n a l processes t h a t are i n c l u d e d i n your course? - Why do you g i v e or not g i v e importance to c e r t a i n p rocesses? What importance do you p r e s e n t l y place on the f o l l o w i n g concepts ? d e v e l o p i n g images responding to a r t t e a c h i n g elements & p r i n c i p l e s of design working together d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s emphasizing s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n emphasizing s o c i a l a s p e c t s experimenting with m a t e r i a l s e x p l o r i n g i d e a s - What importance do you p l a c e on any a d d i t i o n a l concept that are i n c l u d e d i n your course? - Why do you emphasize or not emphasize c e r t a i n concepts 120 C) A t t i t u d e s Toward A r t C u r r i c u l a and t h e New E l e m e n t a r y F i n e  A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e R e s o u r c e Book 4) What p u r p o s e do you f e e l a p r o v i n c i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d s e r v e i n an e l e m e n t a r y a r t methods c o u r s e ? Why? - f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t - s e r v e s as a g u i d e l i n e o f what p r o c e s s e s and c o n c e p t s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d - s e r v e s as r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l o n l y - does n o t p r o v e u s e f u l - o t h e r : - F u r t h e r Comments: 5) To what e x t e n t does t h e f o r m e r a r t c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e t h e c o n t e n t o f y o u r c o u r s e ? - f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t - s e r v e s as a g u i d e l i n e o f what p r o c e s s e s and c o n c e p t s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d - s e r v e s as r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l o n l y - does n o t p r o v e u s e f u l - o t h e r : - F u r t h e r Comments: 121 6 ) To what e x t e n t do you f e e l t h e New E l e m e n t a r y F i n e  A r t s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e c o n t e n t o f y o u r c o u r s e ? Why? - f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o u r s e - s e r v e s as a g u i d e l i n e o f what p r o c e s s e s and c o n c e p t s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d - s e r v e s as r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l o n l y - w i l l n o t be u s e f u l - o t h e r : - F u r t h e r Comments: 7) "What a r e y o u r g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n s a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t and f o r m a t o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m ? " : 122 APPENDIX V LETTER OF PERMISSION 

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