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Jungian archetypes in selected plays of James Reaney Ashdown, Sheena 1986

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JUNGIAN ARCHETYPES IN SELECTED PLAYS OF JAMES REANEY By SHEENA ASHDOWN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Western Washington, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Theatre) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1986 © S h e e n a Ashdown, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date Qofoloer (4-, R 8 4a ABSTRACT James Reaney, Canadian p l a y w r i g h t and poet, attempted i n h i s e a r l y p l a y s f o r a d u l t s t o b l e n d Northrop Frye's d e s c r i p t i o n of New Comedy w i t h the a r c h e t y p a l t h e o r i e s of C a r l Jung. Reaney was i n t e r e s t e d , as was Jung, i n the i n n e r journey of the human s o u l t o m a t u r i t y , and he wanted t o p o r t r a y t h i s on stage. To t h i s end, he used many of the archeytypes d e s c r i b e d by Jung. T h i s inward journey i s u s u a l l y the s t u f f of tragedy, but Reaney d i d not want t o w r i t e t r a g e d i e s . He wanted i n s t e a d t o p o r t r a y success and a happy r e s o l u t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , he adhered c l o s e l y t o the form of New Comedy, which p o r t r a y s the s u c c e s s f u l s t r u g g l e of a young man t o overcome the r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on him by the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n as he attempts t o marry and become an a d u l t . The archetypes conform t o the c h a r a c t e r s d e s c r i b e d by Frye as e s s e n t i a l t o New Comedy and they a l s o a l l o w Reaney t o p o r t r a y i n an e x t e r n a l and t h e a t r i c a l manner the i n n e r c h a r a c t e r s of the s o u l . T h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s the archetypes t h a t Reaney has ' used and how he has used them i n t h r e e of h i s p l a y s , The  E a s t e r Egg, L i s t e n t o the Wind, and C o l o u r s i n the Dark. These p l a y s have been s e l e c t e d because each p l a y r e p r e s e n t s a p a r t i c u l a r way i n which Reaney has used the archetypes. In c o n c l u s i o n , a broad a n a l y s i s of Reaney's p r o g r e s s i v e use i i of the archetypes has been attempted as wel l as an examination of h i s more recent play The Donnellys . In The Easter Egg the Jungian s tructure of the soul i s presented i n nearly perfect form. The anima, shadow and wise o ld man archetypes can be seen i n the characters and Kenneth at the end of the play becomes the c h i l d archetype. In L i s t e n to the Wind, the archetypes are le s s important than they are i n The Easter Egg. The characters form the marriage quaternio archetype. In Colours i n the Dark the archetypes are only minimally evident i n the characters . Instead, the s tructure of the play i t s e l f assumes importance. I t i s c i r c u l a r and creates the archetype of the sphere. The f i n a l archetypes i n a l l the plays symbolize wholeness and the complete sou l . There i s a progression i n Reaney's use of them. In The Easter Egg, the i n d i v i d u a l character has become the c h i l d archetype. In L i s t e n to the  Wind, a group of characters has become the marriage quarternio archetype. In Colours i n the Dark, the play i t s e l f has become the sphere archetype. The archetypes have become progres s ive ly l a rger , le s s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and more encompassing. When Reaney wrote The Donnellys. he was no longer in teres ted i n the journey of the s o u l . These characters cannot be considered the archetypes of the s o u l ; Reaney has become more interes ted i n the characters for t h e i r own sakes. Thi s focus makes The Donnellys play not only much i i i more r e a l i s t i c , but a l s o more t h e a t r i c a l . Reaney's l e a s t J ungian p l a y i s l e s s f a n t a s t i c a l but a l s o more stageworthy. He has l e f t behind the i n n e r world of mysterious c h a r a c t e r s and t r e a d s more ear t h y ground where the people of everyday l i f e a re t o be found. As a r e s u l t , h i s p l a y s have become more a c c e s s i b l e t o the t h e a t r e - g o i n g p u b l i c . Reaney's use of the archetypes allowed him t o p o r t r a y on stage the d i f f i c u l t combination of the inward journey of a s o u l and the happy r e s o l u t i o n o f the comedic s t r u c t u r e . The t a s k he s e t h i m s e l f was d i f f i c u l t and the r e s u l t s may have been flawed, but he i n g e n i o u s l y used the archetypes as an i m a g i n a t i v e s o l u t i o n t o a perhaps i m p o s s i b l e problem. i v CONTENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n : The I n f l u e n c e o f Northrop Frye and C a r l Jung on James Reaney 1 J u n g i a n Archetypes 10 The E a s t e r Egg and the C h i l d Archetype 24 L i s t e n t o the Wind and the Marriage Q u a r t e r n i o Archetype. 42 C o l o u r s i n the Dark and the C i r c l e Archetype 59 C o n c l u s i o n 7 0 B i b l i o g r a p h y 7 6 v 1 INTRODUCTION James Reaney, Canadian poet and d r a m a t i s t , has attempted i n h i s p l a y s t o blen d elements o f the t h e o r i e s of Northrop Frye w i t h those o f C a r l Jung. In the 1950's, he was Northrop Frye's student a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto. Frye was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l on Reaney not o n l y i n h i s t h e o r i e s of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , but i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t a coherent world of myth and metaphor e x i s t s and i s a v a l i d means of understanding l i f e and o r g a n i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e . 1 During h i s undergraduate y e a r s , Reaney passed through a b l e a k time when he doubted t h a t p o e t r y had any v a l u e whatsoever. He was caught i n the " f i n a l c l u t c h o f the so-c a l l e d s c i e n t i f i c world", where "metaphors seemed l i e s " . 2 H i s s a l v a t i o n began wi t h h i s d i s c o v e r y o f Blake and was confirmed by F r y e . 3 A f r i e n d , R i c h a r d S t i n g l e , convinced Reaney t o a t t e n d a l e c t u r e Frye gave i n a course " L i t e r a r y Symbolism i n the B i b l e " . Reaney went u n w i l l i n g l y because he c o n s i d e r e d the B i b l e p a r t o f the r e p r e s s i v e system from which he was t r y i n g t o break away. 4 S i n c e my p r e v i o u s experience o f sermons had not been happy, I went al o n g w i t h some r e l u c t a n c e , but t h i s 'sermon' was d i f f e r e n t . As a work o f l i t e r a t u r e , [Frye] c a l m l y d i s c u s s e d E c c l e s i a s t i c u s , a book not even i n my B i b l e ; God wants us each t o be a candle of w i t n e s s . Suddenly the whole co n g r e g a t i o n changed i n t o l i g h t e d c a n d l e s . He began t o have f a i t h a g a i n i n "the b e l i e f I had h e l d as a c h i l d t h a t metaphor i s r e a l i t y . " 6 Frye's calm assumption of 2 the i n h e r e n t v a l u e of metaphor gave Reaney the courage to b e l i e v e a g a i n and enabled him t o make a stand a g a i n s t the "anti-symbol, anti-anagogy gang 1 1. 7 Reaney found Frye's t h e o r y of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m compatible w i t h h i s own d e v e l o p i n g view of p o e t r y and i t s p l a c e i n the world. Frye proposed t h a t the p o e t i c world has an i n t e g r a l coherence t h a t can be d e c i p h e r e d i n myths and symbols. 8 The world of l i t e r a t u r e not o n l y has i t s own i n t e g r a l order, but i t can a l s o g i v e the d i s o r g a n i z e d , seemingly a r b i t r a r y c o n f u s i o n of r e a l l i f e a s t r u c t u r e and form t o o . Metaphor, myth, symbol, language and the word s o r t out and o r g a n i z e l i f e and a l l o w the u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n s t o emerge. Dragland quotes the r i d d l e t h a t Reaney used as an advertisement f o r Alphabet, h i s l i t e r a r y magazine: LIFE IS BMQUIBCFU ART IS ALPHABET When the second l i n e i s used as a key f o r s o r t i n g out the apparent randomness of the f i r s t , then i t reads ALPHABET t o o . 9 Under the s u r f a c e c o n f u s i o n of l i f e , a coherent d e s i g n can be d e c i p h e r e d i f the word, the primary b u i l d i n g b l o c k of l i t e r a t u r e , i s used as the key. The r i d d l e makes Frye's p o i n t t h a t a r t p r o v i d e s the means t o understand the world. A c c o r d i n g t o Dragland, t h i s view p l a c e s Frye and Reaney o u t s i d e of the mainstream of contemporary l i t e r a t u r e , which i s based on the p h i l o s o p h y t h a t l i f e has no coherence or meaning, a b e l i e f born out of h o r r o r a t the b r u t a l i t y of 20th Century e v e n t s . 1 0 Frye and Reaney d i s a g r e e . L i f e may indeed seem a r b i t r a r y and random on the s u r f a c e , but t h e r e 3 i s an u n d e r l y i n g o r d e r or p a t t e r n which can be d i s c o v e r e d . The p a t t e r n i s composed of the s t o r i e s and myths which are the f o u n d a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e . They inform and or d e r l i f e , and a re themselves the s t r u c t u r e on which l i f e r e s t s . Frye examines these myths i n g r e a t d e t a i l i n Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m . Relevant t o s e v e r a l o f Reaney's p l a y s i s Frye's d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p a t t e r n o r standard p l o t o f New Comedy: What normally happens i s t h a t a young man wants a young woman, t h a t h i s d e s i r e i s r e s i s t e d by some o p p o s i t i o n , u s u a l l y p a t e r n a l , and t h a t near the end o f the p l a y some t w i s t i n the p l o t enables the hero t o have h i s w i l l . In t h i s simple p a t t e r n t h e r e are s e v e r a l complex elements. In the f i r s t p l a c e , the movement of comedy i s u s u a l l y a movement from one k i n d o f s o c i e t y t o another. At the be g i n n i n g o f the p l a y the o b s t r u c t i n g c h a r a c t e r s a re i n charge of the p l a y ' s s o c i e t y , and the audience r e c o g n i z e s t h a t they are us u r p e r s . At the end of the p l a y the d e v i c e i n the p l o t t h a t b r i n g s hero and h e r o i n e t o g e t h e r causes a new s o c i e t y t o c r y s t a l l i z e around the hero, and the moment when t h i s c r y s t a l l i z a t o n occurs i s the p o i n t of r e s o l u t i o n i n the a c t i o n , the comic d i s c o v e r y , a n a g n o r i s i s or c o g n i t i o . 1 A l v i n Lee c o n s i d e r s t h i s s t r u c t u r e t o be the found a t i o n of s e v e r a l o f Reaney's p l a y s , e s p e c i a l l y The K i l l d e e r . 1 2 S e v e r a l o f Reaney's e a r l y p l a y s f o r a d u l t s , i n c l u d i n g The  E a s t e r Egg and L i s t e n t o the Wind, conform t o some degree t o t h i s s t r u c t u r e . T h i s comedic p l o t i s s u i t e d t o the stage. I t i s e x t e r n a l i z e d and d e a l s w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s ; such concerns are e a s i l y dramatized. But Reaney's main purpose i n h i s drama i s more i n t r o v e r t e d : he wants t o p o r t r a y the journey o f the human s o u l towards m a t u r i t y . 1 3 T h i s purpose, d e a l i n g as i t does w i t h the 4 i n t e r n a l workings of the i n d i v i d u a l psyche, i s e a s i l y expressed i n h i s poetry, but i s l e s s adaptable t o the stage. When such a theme i s p o r t r a y e d d r a m a t i c a l l y , i t u s u a l l y assumes the form of tragedy. The f a l l o f the t r a g i c hero f o r c e s an examination and r e e v a l u a t i o n of s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , not s o c i a l ones as i n comedy. The i n n e r s e l f assumes more importance. I t i s the i n n e r s e l f t h a t i s of primary concern t o Reaney, but he i s not concerned w i t h p o r t r a y i n g a person e x p l o r i n g h i s i n n e r s e l f i n the f a c e o f events which cause h i s d o w n f a l l , but w i t h the workings of a s o u l on i t s journey t o m a t u r i t y . And i n s t e a d of the u l t i m a t e d o w n f a l l i n tragedy, Reaney wants t o p o r t r a y the s u c c e s s f u l attainment of m a t u r i t y and the overthrow of the o l d e r , e v i l regime, i n s h o r t , the end r e s u l t of comedy. N e v e r t h e l e s s , he does not want t o dramatize tragedy w i t h a happy ending; he does not want t o w r i t e t r a g i c o m e d i e s . H i s problem then i s how t o combine the form of comedy wit h the concerns of tragedy. T h i s mandate i s d i f f i c u l t ; he has not always succeeded i n w r i t i n g stageworthy p l a y s . He has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r b e i n g "an accomplished l y r i c poet t r y i n g t o e x p l o i t a medium which he i s u n w i l l i n g t o come t o g r i p s w i t h " , 1 4 " f o r p r o c e e d i n g [ i n h i s p l a y s ] on s e v e r a l l e v e l s — n a t u r a l i s t i c , f a n t a s t i c and s y m b o l i c — which f a i l t o c o i n c i d e . " 1 5 These flaws r e s u l t from h i s attempt t o combine Frye's comedic s t r u c t u r e w i t h h i s i n t e r e s t i n the s o u l ' s journey. In t h i s attempt, he has superimposed upon Frye's model of comedy a s t r u c t u r e d e r i v e d from C a r l Jung's theory of the 5 archetypes o f the u n i v e r s a l unconscious. T h i s s t r u c t u r e i s both symbolic and f a n t a s t i c and o c c a s i o n a l l y j a r s the n a t u r a l i s t i c base o f Reaney's p l a y s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he uses Jung's concepts because they serve h i s purpose. The archetypes a l l o w Reaney t o p o r t r a y on stage the i n t r o v e r t e d , p o e t i c a l , n o n - t h e a t r i c a l journey o f the s o u l . L i k e Reaney, Jung was extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o u l ' s journey t o m a t u r i t y , a pro c e s s he c a l l e d " i n d i v i d u a t i o n " . He proposed the the o r y t h a t as the s o u l p r o g r e s s e s on i t s journey, i t meets the archetypes o f the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious, f i r s t the shadow, then the anima, then the wise o l d man. These archetypes have become c h a r a c t e r s i n Reaney's p l a y s . As c h a r a c t e r s , they do conform t o Frye's c a t a l o g u e o f e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r s i n comedy, but they a l s o have the added dimension o f being archetypes. Thus Reaney accomplishes h i s purpose w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f Frye's d e s c r i p t i o n o f comedy. Although many c r i t i c s o f Reaney mention Jung's i n f l u e n c e on Reaney, no d e t a i l e d o r s y s t e m a t i c study of Reaney's use of the Jungian archetypes has been undertaken. Those c r i t i c s who d i s c u s s Jung do so o n l y b r i e f l y , and i n e v i t a b l y use as t h e i r b a s i s an a r t i c l e Reaney wrote f o r Canadian L i t e r a t u r e i n which he d e s c r i b e s Jung's f o u r - s i d e d schema o f the human s o u l . 1 6 Jung d i v i d e d t he s o u l i n t o f o u r p a r t s : a young man, a young woman, an o l d woman and an o l d man, and Reaney has used t h i s d i v i s i o n as the foundation f o r many of h i s p l a y s . Reaney's s h o r t paragraph o f Jung's 6 schema has been a sp r i n g b o a r d f o r many c r i t i c s i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Reaney's p l a y s , but none has ex p l o r e d i n depth Reaney's debt t o J u n g . 1 7 A l v i n Lee has done the most work on Reaney's use of Jungian archetypes, but i t i s not h i s c h i e f concern. He attempts i n h i s book James Reaney t o g i v e an overview of Reaney's work, how i t has been i n f l u e n c e d not o n l y by Jung, but by the Brontes, Blake, Frye, Yeats and Spenser, and how i t has formed a cohesiv e whole i n i t s e l f t o c r e a t e a world he c a l l s Reaneyland. ° He does a c u r s o r y c a t a l o g u i n g o f the archetypes as they appear i n The K i l l d e e r , The E a s t e r Egg and L i s t e n t o the Wind, but he does not attempt t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s . He tends t o be f a c i l e i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . For example, Taken a l l t o g e t h e r , Mr. T a y l o r , Dr. S p e t t i g u e and Mr. Gleneden might c o n c e i v a b l y add up t o one wise o l d man. 1 9 A c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f the p l a y shows Mr. T a y l o r t o be a s p i n e l e s s weakling, Mr. S p e t t i g u e t o be n a i v e and g u l l i b l e and Mr. Gleneden t o be completely i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Adding up these n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r s , o l d men t h a t they might be, does not g i v e a t o t a l o f one wise o l d man. Lee has not ex p l o r e d the r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f the archetypes f a r enough. He mentions the c h i l d archetype as an e x p l a n a t i o n of "Reaney's p e r e n n i a l use of the innocent c h i l d f i g u r e i n a h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t " . 2 0 He d e s c r i b e s the archetype of the hermadrophite i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h "A S u i t o f N e t t l e s " , one of 7 Reaney's e a r l y poems. He r e c o g n i z e s Reaney's a f f i n i t y f o r Jung: Reaney i s more Jungian than Freudian. By t h i s I mean t h a t the b a r i n g of c h i l d h o o d traumata and the concern w i t h the unconscious i n h i s w r i t i n g s are o n l y a step on t h e way t o something more than the f r e e i n g of an i n d i v i d u a l psyche. They are a movement i n t o what Jung c a l l e d the c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s . 2 1 N e v e r t h e l e s s , he does not e x p l o r e the p a r t i c u l a r s of the u n i v e r s a l unconscious. He l i n k s i t vaguely w i t h Blake's d i s c o v e r y of a l l minds and the i n d i v i d u a l s e e i n g "with the eyes of God". 2 2 He has not attempted t o understand the archetypes or t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , nor does he e x p l a i n Reaney's a t t r a c t i o n t o Jung or why Reaney has used the archetypes. T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s Reaney's use of Jung's concept of the a r c h e t y p e s . The next chapter d i s c u s s e s i n g e n e r a l Reaney's use of the archetypes. In the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c h a p t e r s , The E a s t e r Egg. L i s t e n t o the Wind, and Colours i n the Dark are examined. These p l a y s have been s e l e c t e d because each p l a y i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p a r t i c u l a r way i n which Reaney has used the archetypes. In the c o n c l u s i o n , a broader a n a l y s i s o f Reaney's use of the archetypes i s attempted t o see i f a p r o g r e s s i v e development has o c c u r r e d . As w e l l , Reaney's l a t e r p l a y The Donnellys i s examined t o see how he has m o d i f i e d t h i s s t r u c t u r e . 8 NOTES 1 Stan Dragland, "Afterword: Reaney's Relevance", Approaches t o the Work of James Reaney, (Downsview: ECW Pres s , 1983) 216. 2 James Reaney, E d i t o r i a l , Alphabet. No. 1 (Sept. 1960) 3. 3 Dragland, 216. 4 R i c h a r d S t i n g l e , " ' a l l the o l d l e v e l s ' : Reaney and Frye " , Approaches t o the Work of James Reaney. (Downsview: ECW Pr e s s , 1983) 34, 39. 5 James Reaney, "The I d e n t i f i e r E f f e c t " , The CEA  C r i t i c . 42, No. 2 (Jan. 1980) 27. 6 Reaney, E d i t o r i a l , 3. 7 Reaney, E d i t o r i a l , 4. 8 Northrop Frye, Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m , ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1957) 134-5. 9 Dragland, 219. 1 0 Dragland, 211. 1 1 Frye, 163. 1 2 A l v i n A. Lee, James Reaney, (New York: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1968) 131. 1 3 Lee, 155. 1 4 Lee, 130. 1 5 Lee, 130. 1 6 James Reaney, "An Evening w i t h Babble and Doodle: P r e s e n t a t i o n s o f Poetry", Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . XII (Spring 1962): 39. 1 7 The f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c s mention Reaney's use of Jung, though t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s tend t o be p e r i p h e r a l and s u p e r f i c i a l . 9 Jay MacPherson b r i e f l y mentions Reaney's a t t r a c t i o n t o the f o u r - f e a t u r e d s o u l , b u t does not attempt t o analyze the archetypes on which t h i s concept i s based. (Jay MacPherson, "Educated Doodle: Some Notes on One-Man Masque", Dragland 93-94.) M i c h a e l T a i t d i s c u s s e s Reaney's use o f t h i s Jungian p a t t e r n i n C o l o u r s i n the Dark, but he does not d i s c u s s t h i s p a t t e r n f o r i t s own sake. (Michael T a i t , " E v e r y t h i n g i s Something: James Reaney's Colours i n the Dark." Dramatists  i n Canada, ed. W i l l i a m H. New, (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1972) 140-44.) J u l i a Schneider d i s c u s s e s the f a c t t h a t Reaney's use of the c h i l d archetype a l l o w s him t o c r e a t e a m y t h o l o g i c a l l e v e l i n h i s p l a y s , but she does not analyze e i t h e r the archetype i t s e l f o r the m y t h o l o g i c a l aspect of Reaney's p l a y s . ( J u l i a Schneider, "Negative and P o s i t i v e Elements i n James Reaney's P l a y s " , Canadian Drama 2 1 (1976): 98-114.) B r i a n Parker develops the t h e o r y t h a t the Canadian mind i s p a r t i c u l a r y amenable t o a modern form of a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n which i s n o n - l i n e a r and s p a t i a l . He f e e l s t h a t the J u n g i a n t h e o r y of myth and archetype, as i n t e r p r e t e d by Frye, i s p a r t i a l l y a b a s i s f o r t h i s e x p r e s s i o n . He then d i s c u s s e s Reaney's p l a y s i n these terms, but does not d i s c u s s the archetypes nor Jung's i n f l u e n c e on Reaney's drama i n any d e t a i l . ( B r i a n Parker, " I s There a Canadian Drama?" The Canadian Imagination, ed. David S t a i n e s , (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977) 152-187.) Ross G. Woodman o n l y once mentions Jung when he acknowledges t h a t any m y t h o l o g i c a l b a s i s i n Reaney's work i s d e r i v e d from Jung's th e o r y t h a t the source of myth i s t o be found i n the psyche. (Ross G. Woodman, James Reaney. (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1972.)) J . Stewart Reaney, Reaney's son, does not even mention Jung. He c o n c e n t r a t e s i n s t e a d on h i s f a t h e r ' s s p i r i t u a l and mental growth. J . Stewart Reaney, James Reaney. ( H a l i f a x : Gage, 1977) • 1 8 Lee, 141. 1 9 Lee, 157. 2 0 Lee, 105. 2 1 Lee, 159. 2 2 Lee, 159. 10 JUNGIAN ARCHETYPES In many o f h i s e a r l y p l a y s f o r a d u l t s which d e a l w i t h the s o u l ' s s t r u g g l e f o r m a t u r i t y , Reaney has used Jungian archetypes as c h a r a c t e r s . In an a r t i c l e he wrote f o r Canadian L i t e r a t u r e i n 1962, he mentions t h a t he used Jung's schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the human s o u l as the fo u n d a t i o n f o r h i s opera, Night-blooming Cereus. at t h i s time one of the few sentences o f l i t e r a r y symbolism t h a t had sunk through t o me was C a r l Jung's d i v i s i o n o f t h e human s o u l i n t o f o u r p a r t s r e p r e s e n t e d by an o l d woman, an o l d man, a young man and a young g i r l . The o l d woman i s shadowy and t e r r i f y i n g , the o l d man i s wise and h e l p f u l ; the young man seeks the young woman but cannot f i n d her u n t i l he has come t o terms w i t h the o l d e r p a i r . In h i s book James Reaney, c r i t i c A l v i n Lee says, " I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o see t h a t , although Reaney*s comment was made about Night-blooming Cereus . . . , i t u n d e r l i e s the p a t t e r n i n g o f c h a r a c t e r i n h i s oth e r f i c t i o n s . " 2 These p l a y s u s u a l l y f e a t u r e a young male p r o t a g o n i s t who i s s t r u g g l i n g t o become an a d u l t . Some major o b s t a c l e c o n f r o n t s him which i s impeding h i s p r o g r e s s : Owen i s p h y s i c a l l y i l l i n L i s t e n t o the Wind and Kenneth s u f f e r s from a mental d i s t u r b a n c e i n The E a s t e r Egg. The young man i s a l s o p i t t e d a g a i n s t the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n o f paren t s , aunts, u n c l e s , grandparents, neighbours. Members of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n who are good and k i n d are u s u a l l y weak, i n e f f e c t u a l and unable t o h e l p themselves, much l e s s the 11 young man. Most of the a d u l t s however, are s e l f - s e r v i n g and wicked, and determined, u s u a l l y f o r m a t e r i a l reasons, t o prevent the p r o t a g o n i s t from growing up. The boy i s h e l d c a p t i v e i n c h i l d h o o d , and the p l a y c h r o n i c l e s h i s s t r u g g l e t o l e a v e i t and reach adulthood. Other c h a r a c t e r s appear c o n s i s t e n t l y i n these e a r l y p l a y s . A sympathetic g i r l o r young woman f r e q u e n t l y t r i e s t o h e l p the boy. Another woman, u s u a l l y o l d e r and e v i l , attempts t o d e s t r o y the boy or r e t a r d h i s p r o g r e s s i n some way. She i s sometimes a i d e d by a man who does not u s u a l l y have her b r a i n s or cunning but who i s e q u a l l y as wicked. A k i n d l y o l d e r man sometimes makes an appearance, g i v e n t o p i t h y i n s i g h t f u l statements on the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s s i t u a t i o n . These c h a r a c t e r s , d e r i v e d from the Jungian archetypes which form the human s o u l , a l l o w Reaney t o p o r t r a y on stage the i n n e r journey o f the s o u l . A c c o r d i n g t o Jung, the s o u l meets these archetypes on i t s journey t o s e l f h o o d . As c h a r a c t e r s , they match the c h a r a c t e r s d e s c r i b e d by Frye as e s s e n t i a l t o the p l o t s t r u c t u r e o f New Comedy but they have not l o s t t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g a r c h e t y p a l q u a l i t y . Jung developed the th e o r y t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s o u l meets the s e archetypes d u r i n g a process he c a l l e d i n d i v i d u a t i o n . He d e s c r i b e s t h i s p r o c e s s as f o l l o w s : I use the term " i n d i v i d u a t i o n " t o denote the proc e s s by which a person becomes a p s y c h o l o g i c a l " i n - d i v i d u a l , " t h a t i s , a separate, i n d i v i s i b l e u n i t y o r "whole." 3 I n d i v i d u a t i o n i s the process by which the i n d i v i d u a l s t r u g g l e s t o become h i m s e l f . 12 I n d i v i d u a t i o n means becoming a s i n g l e , homogenous being, and, i n so f a r as " i n d i v i d u a l i t y " embraces our innermost, l a s t , and incomparable uniqueness, i t a l s o i m p l i e s becoming one's own s e l f . We c o u l d t h e r e f o r e t r a n s l a t e i n d i v i d u a t i o n as "coming t o s e l f h o o d " or " s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n " . 4 The i n d i v i d u a l s t r u g g l e s t o r e a l i z e h i s own unique s e l f as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e . The p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n takes p l a c e a c r o s s the span of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , and i s not f i n i s h e d u n t i l death. The i n i t i a l s t e p i n t h i s p r o c e s s , which g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d Jung, was the development of the c h i l d i n t o an a d u l t . He b e l i e v e d the s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n from c h i l d t o a d u l t was c r u c i a l t o the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n d i v i d u a t i o n i s not a con s c i o u s p r o c e s s , t h a t i s , i t i s not something which an i n d i v i d u a l d e c i d e s t o do. Instead, i t s impetus i s unconscious and i t s m o t i v a t i o n deeply r o o t e d i n the human psyche. I t s power i s undiminished by the a t t i t u d e s or concerns o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s c i o u s mind. I t i s an impulse as deep as l i f e i t s e l f . J u s t as the m o t i v a t i o n f o r the process i s deep i n the psyche, so, a c c o r d i n g t o Jung, are the p r o c e s s ' s modus ope r a n d i . These modus operandi are i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o the archetypes, which Jung d e f i n e s as " a r c h a i c o r . . . p r i m o r d i a l types, . . . u n i v e r s a l images t h a t have e x i s t e d s i n c e the remotest t i m e s . " 5 Archetypes r e s i d e i n the depths of t he human mind a t the l e v e l o f the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious, a l e v e l d i s t i n c t from the p e r s o n a l unconscious. 13 Whereas the p e r s o n a l unconscious c o n s i s t s f o r the most p a r t o f complexes, the content o f the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious i s made up e s s e n t i a l l y o f archetypes. The c o l l e c t i v e unconscious, u n l i k e the p e r s o n a l unconscious, i s not a c q u i r e d through p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . 7 Instead, i t i s a second p s y c h i c system o f a c o l l e c t i v e , u n i v e r s a l , and impersonal nature which i s i d e n t i c a l i n a l l i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s c o l l e c t i v e unconscious does not develop i n d i v i d u a l l y but i s i n h e r i t e d . 8 Jung c a l l s t h i s l e v e l o f the unconscious " c o l l e c t i v e " , because i t e x i s t s i n a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n a l l c u l t u r e s a t a l l times. I t i s not i n d i v i d u a l but u n i v e r s a l . U n l i k e the p e r s o n a l psyche, i t has contents and modes of behaviour t h a t a re more or l e s s the same everywhere and i n a l l i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s , i n o t h e r words, i d e n t i c a l i n a l l men and thus c o n s t i t u t e s a common p s y c h i c s u b s t r a t e o f a sup r a p e r s o n a l nature which i s prese n t i n every one of us. I f the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious i s common t o a l l humanity, then i t s forms, the archetypes, are a l s o u n i v e r s a l . A c c o r d i n g t o Jung, the pro c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n v o l v e s d i s c o v e r i n g o n e s e l f , p r i m a r i l y by e x p l o r i n g and ab s o r b i n g the contents of one's own psyche. These contents i n c l u d e the archetypes. Because the archetypes are u n i v e r s a l , the same ones are encountered by a l l i n d i v i d u a l s d u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s . A d i s c u s s i o n o f these archetypes f o l l o w s . Because a l l the p l a y s analyzed i n t h i s t h e s i s f e a t u r e a male p r o t a g o n i s t , o n l y the archetypes a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e male psyche w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . 14 The f i r s t archetype one encounters i s the shadow. Jung d e s c r i b e s the shadow as the ne g a t i v e s i d e o f one's p e r s o n a l i t y . I f one has a p o s i t i v e c o n s c i o u s o p i n i o n of o n e s e l f and does not l i k e t o face unpleasant or d i s t u r b i n g f a c t s about o n e s e l f , one i g n o r e s or d i s c o u n t s anything n e g a t i v e , which i s then absorbed i n the unconscious by the shadow a r c h e t y p e . 1 0 The shadow c o n s i s t s o f the "dark a s p e c t s of the p e r s o n a l i t y . " 1 1 The archetypes of the unconscious are d i f f i c u l t t o face and so are u s u a l l y p r o j e c t e d onto the people i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s environment. T h i s i s not a co n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ; i n s t e a d i t i s a common d e v i c e of the p s y c h e . 1 2 The shadow i s u s u a l l y p r o j e c t e d onto the c l o s e s t male f i g u r e . In the case of a young man j u s t b e g i n n i n g on the path of i n d i v i d u a t i o n , the shadow i s f r e q u e n t l y p r o j e c t e d onto h i s f a t h e r . The shadow archetype must be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of the s e l f , f o r "the shadow i s a l i v i n g p a r t of the p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e wants t o l i v e w i t h i t i n some form. I t cannot be argued out of e x i s t e n c e or r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t o h a r m l e s s n e s s . " 1 3 For i n d i v i d u a t i o n t o be s u c c e s s f u l , the shadow must be f a c e d and accepted. A c c e p t i n g the shadow i s the f i r s t and e a s i e s t step i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the unconscious. The second s t e p i n v o l v e s a much more d i f f i c u l t archetype, the anima. Jung d e s c r i b e s the appearance of the anima: Whoever loo k s i n t o the water [ i . e . the unconscious] sees h i s own image [ i . e . h i s shadow], but behind i t 15 l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s soon loom up; f i s h e s , presumably, harmless d w e l l e r s o f the deep — harmless, i f o n l y the l a k e were not haunted. They are water-beings o f a p e c u l i a r s o r t . 1 4 The c r e a t u r e s a re r e l a t e d t o ". . . a magical feminine being whom I c a l l the a n i m a . " 1 5 The anima i s always a feminine f i g u r e , and she i s amoral, d i s t u r b i n g , " u n c o n d i t i o n a l , dangerous, taboo, m a g i c a l . " 1 6 She l u r e s i n t o l i f e the i n e r t n e s s o f matter t h a t does not want t o l i v e . She makes us b e l i e v e i n c r e d i b l e t h i n g s , t h a t l i f e may be l i v e d . She i s f u l l o f snares and t r a p s , i n order t h a t man should f a l l , s h o u l d reach the e a r t h , entangle h i m s e l f t h e r e , and s t a y caught so t h a t l i f e s h ould be l i v e d . 1 7 Such snares and t r a p s can cause much d i s r u p t i o n i n a man's l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y i f the anima i s p r o j e c t e d onto an a l l u r i n g young woman t o whom the man i s not m a r r i e d . 1 8 But the end r e s u l t can be good, because i f the anima i s s u c c e s s f u l l y absorbed i n t o the psyche, an unexpected and most s a t i s f y i n g reward appears: Although she [the anima] may be the c h a o t i c urge t o l i f e , something s t r a n g e l y meaningful c l i n g s t o her, a s e c r e t knowledge o r hidden wisdom, which c o n t r a s t s most c u r i o u s l y w i t h her i r r a t i o n a l e l f i n n a t u r e . . . . behind a l l her c r u e l s p o r t i n g w i t h human f a t e t h e r e l i e s something l i k e a hidden purpose which seems t o r e f l e c t a s u p e r i o r knowledge o f l i f e ' s l a w s . 1 9 The archetype t h a t p r e s e n t s i t s e l f a f t e r the anima has been c o n f r o n t e d and absorbed i s t h a t o f the wise o l d man. " T h i s i s the archetype o f meaning, j u s t as the anima i s the archetype o f l i f e i t s e l f . " 2 0 T h i s archetype appears o n l y a f t e r t he anima has been w r e s t l e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l l y . Only when a l l props and c r u t c h e s a re broken, and no cover from the r e a r o f f e r s even the s l i g h t e s t hope o f s e c u r i t y , does i t become p o s s i b l e f o r us t o experience 16 an archetype t h a t up t i l l then had l a i n hidden behind the meaningful nonsense p l a y e d out by the a n i m a . 2 1 The wise o l d man archetype i s ". . . the s u p e r i o r master and te a c h e r , the archetype o f the s p i r i t , who symbolizes the p r e - e x i s t e n t meaning hidden i n the chaos o f l i f e . " 2 2 When one reaches t h i s archetype, one has p r o p e r l y t a c k l e d the c h a l l e n g e o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n . The wise o l d man bestows understanding and c l a r i t y , i s both the symbol and the h a r b i n g e r o f peace and acceptance, and s i g n i f i e s the success of the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s . The wise o l d man a l s o has another f u n c t i o n . He completes Jung's f o u r - f e a t u r e d schema of the s o u l which appeals t o Reaney. Jung d e s c r i b e s t h i s schema: The i n t e g r a t i o n o f the shadow. . . marks the f i r s t s tage [of the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s ] . . . . The r e c o g n i t i o n of the anima g i v e s r i s e , i n a man, t o a t r i a d . . . the masculine s u b j e c t , the opposing feminine s u b j e c t , and the transcendent anima. . . . The m i s s i n g f o u r t h element t h a t would make the t r i a d a g u a t e r n i t y i s , i n a man, the archetype o f the Wise Old Man. . . . 2 3 The shadow, an opposing feminine f i g u r e , the anima, and the wise o l d man form another archetype. "These f o u r c o n s t i t u t e a h a l f immanent and h a l f transcendent g u a t e r n i t y , an archetype which I have c a l l e d the marriage g u a t e r n i o . " 2 4 Together they form the s t r u c t u r e o f the completed s e l f , which i s , o f course, the g o a l o f the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s . "The marriage q u a t e r n i o p r o v i d e s a schema . . . f o r the s e l f . " 2 5 S u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n v o l v e s c o n f r o n t i n g and ab s o r b i n g the archetypes, and r e s u l t s i n the archetypes 17 r e s o l v i n g themselves i n t o a symbol of a complete and whole i n d i v i d u a l . Jung d e s c r i b e s o t h e r archetypes which a l s o symbolize a complete s e l f . Reaney makes use o f s e v e r a l of them. He uses the c h i l d archetype i n The E a s t e r Egg. T h i s archetype r e p r e s e n t s the s t r o n g e s t , the most i n e l u c t a b l e urge i n every being, namely the urge t o r e a l i z e i t s e l f . 6 The c h i l d m o t i f m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f most c l e a r l y i n the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s . 2 7 Jung t h e o r i z e d t h a t the appearance of a c h i l d i n mythology, dreamc or the contents o f the unconscious i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a t i o n was o c c u r r i n g . The c h i l d archetype not onl y i n d i c a t e s i n d i v i d u a t i o n , but a l s o a complete s e l f . The c h i l d archetype i s a symbol which u n i t e s the o p p o s i t e s ; a mediator, b r i n g e r o f h e a l i n g , t h a t i s , one who makes whole. Because i t has t h i s meaning, the c h i l d m o t i f i s capable of the numerous t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . . . i t can be expressed by roundness, the c i r c l e or sphere, o r e l s e by the q u a t e r n i t y as another form of w h o l e n e s s . 2 8 Reaney has used the c h i l d archetype i n both i t s r e c o g n i z a b l e form and i n s e v e r a l o f i t s mutations. Another archetype which appears i n Reaney's e a r l y p l a y s i s the c i r c l e . Again, t h i s archetype i s a symbol o f a whole s e l f . The c i r c l e [ i s ] a symbol of the S e l f . I t expresses the t o t a l i t y of the psyche i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s . . . . I t always p o i n t s t o the s i n g l e most v i t a l a spect of l i f e -- i t s u l t i m a t e w h o l e n e s s . 2 9 The c i r c l e i s the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f Co l o u r s i n the Dark and i s used by Reaney i n o t h e r p l a y s . The Jungian model appeals t o Reaney f o r s e v e r a l reasons. F i r s t , Reaney and Jung are both i n t e r e s t e d i n the 18 same problem: the journey of the human s o u l through l i f e . Reaney has g i v e n dramatic r e a l i z a t i o n t o what Jung has merely p h i l o s o p h i z e d about. Secondly, Jung's schema o f the human s o u l i s a schema, and simply f o r t h a t reason f i n d s a response i n Reaney. Someone who f i n d s Frye's e a r f u l a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a t u r e ' s u n d e r l y i n g myths a t t r a c t i v e i s v e r y l i k e l y t o f i n d Jung's attempt t o c r e a t e o r d e r i n the human psyche a l s o a t t r a c t i v e . Both are systems attempting t o c r e a t e order out of apparent chaos. Both stand o u t s i d e the realm of s c i e n t i f i c study. N e i t h e r of them a l l o w s f o r e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r t h e o r i e s . Both r e l y h e a v i l y on mythology and symbolism. Both assume t h a t the u n i v e r s e i s not meaningless, and t h a t o rder and s t r u c t u r e can be found. T h i r d l y , Reaney f i n d s Jung compatible because Jung does not d e a l w i t h the everyday concerns and obvious problems of l i f e ; he i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n s p i r i t u a l problems. L i f e ' s day-to-day concerns are w e l l - s u i t e d t o r e a l i s t i c o r n a t u r a l i s t i c drama, but t h i s s t y l e of drama does not s u i t Reaney's purpose. As a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , Reaney wants to p o r t r a y the journey of the s o u l , a theme which i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h n a t u r a l i s m . H i s p l a y s are not n a t u r a l i s t i c or k i t c h e n - s i n k drama. They do not r e f l e c t the o u t e r world of m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y , but an i n n e r , macabre, m a g i c a l , m y s t i c a l world. T h i s i n n e r world i s not a c h a o t i c landscape o f barrenness or f u t i l i t y , but one w i t h order and 19 r i c h n e s s . The s o u l on i t s journey f i n d s t h i s landscape peopled w i t h the archetypes d e s c r i b e d by Jung. The t y p i c a l p l o t and c h a r a c t e r s o f Reaney's e a r l y p l a y s f o r a d u l t s a re the s t u f f o f f a i r y t a l e s . C i n d e r e l l a i s pe r s e c u t e d by her wicked step-mother and i s saved from her wretched l i f e by the handsome p r i n c e . The same s t r u c t u r e i s seen i n S l e e p i n g Beauty and Snow White. (The sex of the p r o t a g o n i s t i s the o p p o s i t e i n Reaney's p l a y s . ) He has d e l i b e r a t e l y chosen f a i r y t a l e s f o r h i s p l a y s , because he i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n the s t o r i e s and concerns which l e n d themselves t o n a t u r a l i s m . In t h i s c h o i c e , he f i n d s another common bond w i t h Jung. A c c o r d i n g t o Jung, f a i r y t a l e s speak t o a deeper, more profound l e v e l i n the human psyche than i s u s u a l l y touched by common experience and everyday r e a l i t y . Myths and f a i r y t a l e s g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o unconscious p r o c e s s e s , and t h e i r r e t e l l i n g causes these p r o c e s s e s t o come a l i v e a g a i n and be r e c o l l e c t e d , thereby r e -e s t a b l i s h i n g the c o n n e c t i o n between co n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s . 3 0 Because f a i r y t a l e s reach so deeply i n t o the human psyche, they a re the i d e a l v e h i c l e f o r d e s c r i b i n g the journey o f the s o u l . With t h e i r unworldly c h a r a c t e r s and melodramatic p l o t s , f a i r y t a l e s s u i t Reaney's purpose and h i s a n t i -r e a l i s m s t a nce. F o u r t h l y , J u n g i a n archetypes, because they are u n i v e r s a l , a l l o w Reaney t o a t t a i n a u n i v e r s a l i t y i n h i s work. A l s o , because they are forms of the unconscious, the appeal t o the audience's unconscious, a l e v e l which might 2 0 not otherwise be touched. As an a r t i s t and a p l a y w r i g h t , Reaney f i n d s the archetypes a p p e a l i n g . F i f t h l y , Reaney's a f f i n i t y f o r Jung stems from the f a c t t h a t the archetypes are, a c c o r d i n g t o Jung, the source of a l l m y t h o l g i c a l s t o r i e s and c h a r a c t e r s . 3 1 (Frye shares t h i s view of the archetypes, though he i s more concerned w i t h myths as the source of both the s t o r i e s and s t r u c t u r e of the genres of l i t e r a t u r e . 3 2 ) I f Lee i s r i g h t t h a t "Reaney has been busy a t work c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t i n g h i s own p e c u l i a r myth of the r e b i r t h of the human s o u l " , 3 3 then Reaney has been c o n s c i e n t i o u s i n going back t o the u l t i m a t e source of mythology. The myth he i s t r y i n g t o c r e a t e i s a s p e c i f i c a l l y Canadian one. He i s not content t o use Greek or B r i t i s h models, and f o r t h i s George Bowering i n h i s a r t i c l e "Why James Reaney i s a B e t t e r Poet (1) than any Northrop Frye poet (2) than he used t o be", p r a i s e s h i m . 3 4 The archetypes a l l o w Reaney the freedom t o c r e a t e h i s own mythology, because they are, a c c o r d i n g t o Jung, j u s t form w i t h no i n h e r e n t content. Archetypes are not determined as regards t h e i r content, but o n l y as regards t h e i r form. . . . The archetype i n i t s e l f i s empty and p u r e l y formal, n o t h i n g but a f a c u l t a s praeformandi, a p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . . . . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s themselves are not i n h e r i t e d , o n l y the f o r m s . 3 5 T h i s f l u i d i t y and f e a t u r e l e s s n e s s o f the archetypes a l l o w s Reaney t o use them f o r h i s own ends. T h e i r i n h e r e n t l a c k of c o n t e n t l e t s him impose h i s own content on them. They are 21 empty v e s s e l s i n t o which he pours the p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s of h i s l o c a l Canadian environment. And l a s t l y , as a l r e a d y mentioned, the archetypes l e n d themselves t o the stage and t o dramatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . They are looming and one-dimensional, w i t h a l a r g e r - t h a n -l i f e q u a l i t y t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y stageworthy. They are without minute human d e t a i l i n t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y and l a c k of s u b t l e t y , and they can a t t a i n a majesty which i s w e l l - s u i t e d t o t h e stage. Reaney has choso.n w e l l i n u s i n g the Jungian archetypes i n h i s p l a y s . 22 NOTES 1 James Reaney, "An Evening w i t h Babble and Doodle: P r e s e n t a t i o n s o f Poetry", Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . XII (Spring 1962) 39. 2 A l v i n A. Lee, James Reaney. (New York: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1968) 156. 3 C.G. Jung, "Conscious, Unconscious and I n d i v i d u a t i o n " , The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung, 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l . 9: 275. 4 C.G. Jung, "The R e l a t i o n s between the Ego and the Unconscious", The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung, 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l . 7: 173. 5 C.G. Jung, "Archetypes of the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious", The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung, 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l . 9: 5. 6 C.G. Jung, "The Concept of the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious", The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l . 9: 42. 7 Jung, "Concept" 42. 8 Jung, "Concept" 43. 9 Jung, "Archetypes" 4. 1 0 Jung, "Archetypes" 20. 1 1 C.G. Jung, "The Shadow", The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G.  Jung. 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l . 9, i i : 8. 1 2 Jung, "Shadow" 10. 1 3 Jung, "Archetypes" 20. 1 4 Jung, "Archetypes" 24. 1 5 Jung, "Archetypes" 25. 1 6 Jung, "Archetypes" 28. 1 7 Jung, "Archetypes" 26. 23 18 19 Jung, "Archetypes" 29-30. Jung, "Archetypes" 30-31. Jung, "Archetypes" 32. Jung, "Archetypes" 32. Jung, "Archetypes" 35. 22 2 3 C.G. Jung, "The Syzygy: Anima and Animus", The  C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l . 9, i i : 22. 2 4 Jung, "Syzygy" 22. 2 5 Jung, "Syzygy" 22. 2 6 C.G. Jung, "The Psychology of the C h i l d Archetype", The C o l l e c t e d Works of C. G. Jung, 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l 9: 170. 2 7 Jung, " C h i l d " 159. 2 8 Jung, " C h i l d " 160. 2 9 A n i e l a J a f f e , "Symbolism i n the V i s u a l A r t s " , Man and  H i s symbols, ed. C.G Jung and a f t e r h i s death, M.L. von Franz (New York: Aldous, 1964) 240. 3 0 C.G.Jung, "Background t o the Psychology of C h r i s t i a n A l c h e m i c a l Symbolism", The C o l l e c t e d Works of C. G. Jung, 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l 9, i i : 180. 3 1 Jung, "Archetypes" 5, 67. 3 2 Northrop Frye, Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m , ( P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n UP, 1957) 134-5. 3 3 Lee, Reaney 155. 3 4 George Bowering, "Why James Reaney i s a B e t t e r Poet (1) than any Northrop Frye poet (2) than he used t o be". Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 36 (1968): 40-49. 3 5 C.G.Jung, " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Aspects o f the Mother Archetype", The C o l l e c t e d Works o f C. G. Jung, 2nd ed., 2 0 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l 9: 79. 24 THE EASTER EGG AND THE CHILD ARCHETYPE The E a s t e r Egg i s o s t e n s i b l y a n a t u r a l i s t i c p l a y w i t h a s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d p l o t o u t l i n e ; however, some o f the c h a r a c t e r s speak i n blank v e r s e and the p l a y w r i g h t ' s i n t e r e s t i n symbolism and the f a n t a s t i c soon becomes e v i d e n t . Reaney has used Frye's comedic mode as the f o u n d a t i o n , and has b u i l t upon t h i s elements of the s o u l ' s J u n g i a n journey t o m a t u r i t y . The archetypes are d i s c e r n i b l e i n the main c h a r a c t e r s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these c h a r a c t e r s and the p r o t a g o n i s t p o r t r a y s h i s maturing p r o c e s s . By the end of the p l a y , the p r o t a g o n i s t h i m s e l f has become an archetype i n h i s own r i g h t , s y m b o l i z i n g the s t r u g g l e f o r m a t u r i t y t h a t the p l a y has p o r t r a y e d . T h i s p l a y dramatizes the u n i v e r s a l a g e l e s s f a i r y t a l e o f the c h i l d b a t t l i n g e v i l and attempting t o overcome o b s t a c l e s which h o l d him back from maturing. The p r o t a g o n i s t , Kenneth, i s impeded by h i s wicked stepmother B e t h e l , and by h i s own p o s s i b l e mental i l l n e s s as w e l l . B e t h e l i s an o p p o r t u n i s t i c matron who gets ahead by marrying men who then c o n v e n i e n t l y d i e . Her f i r s t husband was Kenneth's f a t h e r , who shot h i m s e l f i n f r o n t of Kenneth when the boy was s i x . He l e f t Kenneth and h i s i n h e r i t a n c e i n B e t h e l ' s keeping u n t i l such time as the boy m a r r i e s ; n a t u r a l l y B e t h e l has no i n t e r e s t i n encouraging Kenneth t o become an independent a d u l t . She seems t o have l i t t l e cause 25 f o r worry because h i s f a t h e r ' s s u i c i d e has l e f t Kenneth e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a r r e s t e d a t age s i x . He has been unable t o l e a r n or p r o g r e s s i n any way s i n c e w i t n e s s i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s s u i c i d e . H i s behaviour i s so abnormal t h a t most o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y b e l i e v e he i s c r a z y . Kenneth i s a i d e d by P o l l y , B e t h e l ' s stepdaughter from her second marriage t o the Bishop of M o n t r e a l . P o l l y t r i e s t o t e a c h Kenneth p r a c t i c a l and u s e f u l t h i n g s but she i s not n o t i c e a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n her attempt. She p e r s i s t s because she i s convinced he i s not c r a z y , but merely a r r e s t e d and capable of overcoming h i s handicap. On one l e v e l the p l a y can be seen as a s t r u g g l e between a new and o l d s o c i e t y as i n Frye's d e s c r i p t i o n of comedy, or between good and e v i l . These dichotomies are p e r s o n i f i e d by P o l l y and B e t h e l as they s t r u g g l e f o r Kenneth's s o u l . T h e i r b a t t l e a t one p o i n t a l s o c e n t r e s on George, a cowardly t h e o l o g y student who has been d a t i n g P o l l y . P o l l y and George become engaged, but o n l y because P o l l y i n s i s t s on i t , George b e i n g much too f e a r f u l t o ever i n i t i a t e such a b o l d s t e p . She wants t o be m a r ried and no b e t t e r p r o s p e c t s have appeared. During the course of the p l a y , however, B e t h e l persuades George t o marry her. At t h i s p o i n t i t seems t h a t t h i s e v i l woman w i l l triumph over a l l t h r e e o f them. Then Kenneth r e g a i n s h i m s e l f , B e t h e l ' s power i s broken, and George a g a i n becomes engaged t o P o l l y . The s o u l has matured, the usurper i s overthrown, and the new s o c i e t y i s born. 26 In Kenneth's journey towards m a t u r i t y , he encounters the J u n g i a n archetypes of shadow, anima and wise o l d man. Reaney has allowed each archetype t o be absorbed by more than one c h a r a c t e r : f o r example, the anima has been d i v i d e d between B e t h e l and P o l l y . Kenneth's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h each c h a r a c t e r i n the p l a y p o r t r a y s h i s encounter w i t h and r e s o l u t i o n of each archetype. The shadow i s embodied most o b v i o u s l y i n George. The stage d i r e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e George on h i s f i r s t appearance as ". . . a plump, young, t h e o l o g i c a l graduate. Somehow he i s not c ompletely human but a s p e c i a l combination of weakness and shyness and boldness, even c r u e l t y . " 1 The weak and cowardly s i d e of Kenneth, h i s seeming i n a b i l i t y t o grow t o m a t u r i t y , h i s f e a r s of l i f e and people, h i s a l l o w i n g h i m s e l f t o be dominated by B e t h e l , are a l l g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n i n the c h a r a c t e r o f George. George has none of Kenneth's redeeming q u a l i t i e s : h i s o t h e r w o r l d l i n e s s , h i s b a s i c kindness, h i s v i s i o n a r y and p o e t i c s o u l . He i s Kenneth's dark s i d e , and o n l y h i s dark s i d e . Kenneth conquers and absorbs t h i s Georgian shadow. He a l r e a d y vanquished George once when they were c h i l d r e n . Both George and B e t h e l d e s c r i b e the i n c i d e n t , and i n n e i t h e r v e r s i o n does George a c t g r a c i o u s l y . George d e s c r i b e s i t as f o l l o w s : times have sure changed s i n c e t h a t time a t the p i c n i c when you won the race because I t r i p p e d over the t r e e r o o t and you won the f i r s t p r i z e which was the y e l l o w b a l l and you wouldn't l e t me p l a y w i t h i t afterwards, but then your papa s a i d you were t o g i v e i t t o me and 27 oh you so sweetly d i d — so when I took i t they a l l s a i d how u n s e l f i s h you were and what a p i g I was. As B e t h e l says when she d e s c r i b e s the i n c i d e n t : "He [Kenneth] showed up so n i c e o p p o s i t e t o y o u . " 3 Kenneth's sweet and generous nature overcame George i n the p a s t . During the p l a y , Kenneth and George are l e f t a l one t o g e t h e r . George b e l i t t l e s and mocks Kenneth, t h i n k i n g t h a t Kenneth cannot p o s s i b l y understand him. 4 Kenneth a l l o w s t h i s f o r some minutes, then f i n a l l y l e a p s a t George: Kenneth n e a t l y puts George f l a t on the f l o o r , then r a i s e s the top h a l f o f him up and makes George punish h i m s e l f by t a k i n g George's hands and h i t t i n g George's f a c e w i t h them. George i s astounded, h u m i l i a t e d and suddenly much more r e s p e c t f u l of Kenneth. Kenneth has agai n succeeded i n dominating and subduing the shadow archetype i n h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , dramatized i n t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h George. And, a t the end of the p l a y when he f i n a l l y does r e c o v e r h i m s e l f , he permanently overcomes h i s own weakness and immaturity. Another c h a r a c t e r i n the p l a y who has assumed the r o l e of the shadow i s Kenneth's f a t h e r . H i s main f u n c t i o n i s as a f o r c e of pure e v i l , though he does not a c t u a l l y appear i n the p l a y . He shot h i m s e l f a p p a r e n t l y because he f e l t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Kenneth's mother's death i n a mix-up over her medicine; however, B e t h e l accused him of p u r p o s e l y k i l l i n g her, a c o n v e r s a t i o n Kenneth overheard. But why blow o f f h i s head i n f r o n t of the c h i l d ? As B e t h e l says: "His f a t h e r hated them both. The c r u e l e s t t h i n g t h a t man ever 2 8 d i d was t o l e a v e the boy a l i v e . I t would have been a kindness t o take the boy w i t h him and he knew i t . " 6 T h i s f a t h e r was no normal f a t h e r or f r i e n d t o h i s c h i l d . There i s no e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why he hated the c h i l d or the mother so much, but i n k i l l i n g h i m s e l f the way he d i d , he a l i g n e d h i m s e l f f i r m l y w i t h the c h i l d ' s enemies. He i s a wicked e l d e r and one of the t h r e a t s t h a t the c h i l d must overcome. Not o n l y has the f a t h e r done t e r r i b l e p s y c h i c damage t o h i s c h i l d , but he has a l s o d e l i v e r e d the c h i l d d i r e c t l y i n t o the hands of the enemy: B e t h e l . Under normal circumstances B e t h e l would not be a wise c h o i c e as a guardian, but Kenneth's f a t h e r has g i v e n her an added i n c e n t i v e t o t r e a t Kenneth b a d l y by g i v i n g her c o n t r o l of Kenneth's i n h e r i t a n c e u n t i l Kenneth m a r r i e s . By k i l l i n g h i m s e l f i n f r o n t of the c h i l d and l e a v i n g him i n B e t h e l ' s hands, the f a t h e r has done e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o ensure t h a t Kenneth w i l l remain c h i l d l i k e , d i s t u r b e d and unable t o p r o g r e s s t o m a t u r i t y . Being dead, the f a t h e r i s no l o n g e r a p h y s i c a l t h r e a t . But he has done immense damage t o the c h i l d , and p s y c h i c a l l y the c h i l d must overcome the f a t h e r t o become f r e e and a d u l t . The u n i v e r s a l s t o r y of the f a t h e r d y i n g t o f r e e the c h i l d t o grow up i s u s u a l l y t o l d i n some symbolic way. Kenneth's f a t h e r , however, has o b l i g i n g l y done the job i n r e a l i t y . Now Kenneth must undo the damage the death has done t o him. The f a t h e r has become absorbed i n t o Kenneth's psyche, and t h e r e f o r e can be seen as a shadow f i g u r e . Kenneth conquers the father/shadow by the end of the p l a y when he overcomes 29 the d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s of h i s f a t h e r ' s s u i c i d e on h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . The anima f i g u r e i n t h i s p l a y i s a l s o d i v i d e d between two c h a r a c t e r s : B e t h e l and P o l l y . B e t h e l embodies the snares, the t r a p s and the c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f l i f e i n t o which the anima t r i e s t o draw the man. But she i s not l e a d i n g Kenneth t o h i m s e l f ; t h e r e f o r e , she i s l e s s an anima f i g u r e than, l i k e Kenneth's f a t h e r , a f i g u r e o f e v i l , t he enemy h o l d i n g Kenneth back from h i s d e s t i n y . She has wick e d l y stopped a t nothin g t o t r y t o h o l d him back f o r her own s e l f i s h ends. When Kenneth's f a t h e r d i e d , Kenneth was l e f t w i t h n o t h i n g but a white k i t t e n and a g l a s s e a s t e r egg: I had t o have something i f I was going t o keep my head above water. No f a t h e r , t h e r e was the k i t t e n ; no k i t t e n , t h e r e was t h i s [the e a s t e r egg]. 1 B e t h e l got r i d of the k i t t e n by k i l l i n g i t , and the e a s t e r egg by b u r y i n g i t i n the garden. L o s i n g k i t t e n and egg l e f t Kenneth completely i n her power: "No t h i s [the e a s t e r egg], t h e r e was immediately a s k i n over e v e r y t h i n g . B e t h e l ' s s k i n . " 8 No a c t was too c r u e l f o r her t o contemplate t o make Kenneth completely subjugated t o her. B e t h e l can be c o n s i d e r e d an anima f i g u r e because the anima i s not, a c c o r d i n g t o Jung, n e c e s s a r i l y a m o r a l l y good f i g u r e . B e t h e l has absorbed the e v i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n h e r e n t i n the anima, w h i l e P o l l y , the o t h e r anima f i g u r e , i s u n r e m i t t i n g l y good. P o l l y e x h i b i t s none of the 30 t r e a c h e r o u s and dangerous aspects o f the t r u e anima f i g u r e ; t hese a s p e c t s have been absorbed by B e t h e l ' s c h a r a c t e r . T h i s s p l i t o f the anima f i g u r e i n t o such d i s t i n c t good and e v i l personas has r e s u l t e d i n P o l l y b e i n g a powerful f o r c e f o r the good. As such, she b e l i e v e s t h a t " . . . e v i l i s a c c i d e n t a l , l o v e i s permanent." 9 She i s no weakling, and though not as s t r e e t - w i s e nor as experie n c e d as B e t h e l , i s a worthy opponent t o her. She knows t h a t the dynamics between B e t h e l and her i n v o l v e a power s t r u g g l e and she admits as much when she f e e l s she has l o s t both George and Kenneth t o B e t h e l ' s machinations: "I have no power. Even Kenneth b e t r a y s me. And G e o r g e . " 1 0 The s t r u g g l e t u r n s i n P o l l y ' s f avour when Kenneth appears, summoned by P o l l y p l a y i n g a cadenza on the piano. P o l l y then t h r e a t e n s t o marry Kenneth, which would r e s u l t i n B e t h e l ' s l o s i n g c o n t r o l o f h i s e s t a t e , so B e t h e l renounces George and r e t u r n s him t o P o l l y . P o l l y has won: she has got George back, Kenneth i s f r e e , and she has not had t o concede a n y t h i n g t o B e t h e l . Good has triumphed. P o l l y f u l f i l l s the t r u e anima f u n c t i o n o f t r y i n g t o f r e e t h e s o u l and l e a d i t t o l i f e . She t r i e s t o do i t by e d u c a t i n g Kenneth, t r y i n g t o te a c h him language, manners and dancing. She t e l l s him s t o r i e s , and teaches him how t o have p o l i t e c o n v e r s a t i o n s , t o read and t o r e c i t e rhymes. Kenneth seems t o l e a r n o n l y by r o t e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f what she teaches him escapes him u n t i l she t e l l s him the s t o r y of Anna Karenina. When he r e a l i z e s t h a t Anna i s going t o k i l l 31 h e r s e l f , he i n t e r r u p t s P o l l y and r e f u s e s t o l e t her co n t i n u e . He wants t o change the end of the s t o r y , as he w i l l change the end of h i s own s t o r y and not l e t h i s own s o u l d e s t r o y i t s e l f . He does understand and i s ab s o r b i n g on some l e v e l what she i s t e a c h i n g him. P o l l y can be seen as the l i b e r a t i n g female f o r George as w e l l as Kenneth. She i s l u r i n g him i n t o entanglements; f o r example, i n t o marrying her, something he i s too cowardly t o i n i t i a t e f o r h i m s e l f , but not something a g a i n s t which he wants t o b e s t i r h i m s e l f t o f i g h t . She a l s o f r e e s him from B e t h e l ' s c l u t c h e s , though he i s too weak even t o know t h a t he ought t o want escape from her. She w i l l l e a d him onward t o m a t u r i t y and l i f e , immature b l o b t h a t he i s , and w i l l awaken him i n s p i t e o f h i m s e l f . Another anima f i g u r e i s the l i t t l e g i r l whom Kenneth sees t i e d t o the fence. She can be seen as a r e v e r s e anima f i g u r e . She does not f r e e Kenneth; i n s t e a d , i t i s he who f r e e s her, when he climbs out the window t o u n t i e her. She symbolizes h i s s o u l , which he does f i n a l l y l i b e r a t e . The t h i r d archetype, t h a t o f the wise o l d man, i s not a s t r o n g f o r c e i n the p l a y , but as p e c t s o f i t appear i n I r a , the l o c a l d o c t o r . I r a f u l f i l l s some o f i t s f u n c t i o n s o f making sense o f l i f e and g i v i n g order t o the chaos which the anima, i n t h i s case B e t h e l , c r e a t e s . To t h i s end, he i s i n s i g h t f u l and v e r y a s t u t e a t a n a l y z i n g the s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e . He i s aware of B e t h e l ' s motives and her t r u e c h a r a c t e r and i s not d i f f i d e n t about v o i c i n g h i s o p i n i o n . 32 L i k e a l l c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s p l a y , I r a i s not allowed t o remain n e u t r a l ; he i s d e f i n i t e l y on the s i d e of good. He was a t one time v e r y a t t r a c t e d t o B e t h e l and t h e r e i s a h i n t t h a t he w i l l be her next husband; B e t h e l sees a wedding r i n g i n her teacup and immediately, he appears a t her door. He s t i l l wants B e t h e l , but i s w i l l i n g t o f o r g o her charms i n o r d e r t o save Kenneth from her. He b e l i e v e s Kenneth i s not c r a z y and can be helped. He has s e t h i m s e l f up i n o p p o s i t i o n t o B e t h e l and her e v i l i n t e n t i o n s , and has a l i g n e d h i m s e l f w i t h P o l l y as a f o r c e f o r good. L i k e the shadow and the animus, the wise o l d man archetype i s d i v i d e d between two c h a r a c t e r s . The c h a r a c t e r of I r a d i s p l a y s some of the wise o l d man a t t r i b u t e s . But, even more than I r a , Kenneth at the end of the p l a y can be seen as t h i s archetype. I t i s Kenneth h i m s e l f who f i n a l l y makes sense of h i s l i f e and what has happened t o him; he has absorbed the f u n c t i o n s of the wise o l d man archetype i n t o h i m s e l f . A r e v e r s e type of r e l a t i o n s h i p has come i n t o p l a y between I r a and Kenneth. One might assume t h a t I r a as the wise o l d man h e l p s l e a d Kenneth t o i n d i v i d u a t i o n , but i n f a c t , I r a d e s c r i b e s how Kenneth has p l a y e d t h a t r o l e f o r him: When my b r o t h e r was s t i l l a l i v e , we as students Went w i t h b u t t e r f l y nets t o the woods Around the B i g Pond. Kenneth, Kenneth, I looked up t o see what my b r o t h e r saw: I t was you. At f i v e y e a r s o l d . S t a r k naked. . . . You saw us. You stopped. A naked c h i l d With a l l green l i g h t and sun streams about you. You t u r n e d and vanished. . . . And t h a t naked innocent who gave me God . . . {my e m p h a s i s } 1 1 33 Kenneth has performed a f u n c t i o n f o r I r a which seems more l i k e l y t h a t I r a would have performed f o r him. I r a , however, w i l l r e c i p r o c a t e . He c o n t i n u e s : And t h a t naked innocent who gave me God I s s t i l l l o s t i n the f o r e s t and I s h a l l b r i n g him Back t o powerful f r i e n d s who l o v e h i m . 1 2 Kenneth a l s o p l a y s t h i s r o l e f o r P o l l y . She i s r e a c h i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a t i o n and m a t u r i t y . She wants t o marry George and have c h i l d r e n ; she does not want t o remain i n c h i l d h o o d and forgo becoming an, a d u l t . B e t h e l i s her shadow and a l s o her enemy. She i s the wicked stepmother t o P o l l y as w e l l as t o Kenneth; i n f a c t , B e t h e l even c a l l s P o l l y " C i n d e r e l l a 1 1 . 1 3 P o l l y ' s animus i s George, who i s her v e h i c l e t o marriage and m a t u r i t y . But most i m p o r t a n t l y , Kenneth i s her animus and her l i b e r a t o r . I t i s thanks t o Kenneth t h a t she p r i e s George from B e t h e l ' s c l u t c h e s . As he does f o r I r a , Kenneth performs f o r P o l l y a f u n c t i o n which P o l l y has performed f o r him. Kenneth i s the c e n t r a l s o u l i n the p l a y s t r i v i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a t i o n ; he a l s o h e l p s o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y P o l l y , i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e s . T h e r e f o r e he can be seen as a f o r c e f o r i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , even a symbol of the p r o c e s s i t s e l f . In f a c t , he can be seen as the archetype o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n , an archetype which Jung c a l l s the " c h i l d " . T h i s archetype r e p r e s e n t s the s t r o n g e s t , the most i n e l u c t a b l e urge i n every being, namely the urge t o r e a l i z e i t s e l f . 1 4 Kenneth i s a powerful embodiment of t h i s archetype which Reaney has used because of i t s power on the human mind: 34 "the symbol of the ' c h i l d ' f a s c i n a t e s and g r i p s the co n s c i o u s m i n d " . 1 5 I t appeals d i r e c t l y t o the unconscious, and speaks t o the depths of the psyche. Jung c o n s i d e r s the c h i l d m o t i f t o m a n i f e s t i t s e l f most c l e a r l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the process o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n . 0 Reaney underscores h i s use of t h i s archetype i n a myriad o f ways; f o r example, by the image of a c h i l d caught i n t h e fence. I t i s an a p p a r i t i o n which o n l y Kenneth and P o l l y see, and i s a moving image of the s o u l s t r u g g l i n g t o be f r e e . The c h i l d has been t i e d t o the fence by a grouchy neighbour f o r s t e a l i n g b e r r i e s . T h i s wicked o l d man i s s i m i l a r t o Kenneth's f a t h e r , and l i k e the f a t h e r , i s the enemy. T h i s image of the l i t t l e g i r l r e v e r b e r a t e s w i t h the power of the c h i l d archetype. The whole p l a y i s embodied i n t h i s image: she i s caught, s t r u g g l e s t o get f r e e , and a t the end o f the p l a y , does. Kenneth sees her get away, but then she g e t s entangled again. I t i s o n l y when Kenneth climbs out the window t o c u t her f r e e t h a t she i s permanently r e l e a s e d . She r e p r e s e n t s h i s s o u l , which he h i m s e l f f i n a l l y l i b e r a t e s . Another way i n which Reaney r e i n f o r c e s the c h i l d a r chetype i s by emphasizing Kenneth's c h i l d i s h n e s s . The a d u l t s t a l k about him as a c h i l d . B e t h e l and George use baby t a l k t o him. H i s c h i l d l i k e q u a l i t y i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by another image which r e c u r s d u r i n g the p l a y : t h a t o f the l i t t l e naked c h i l d running i n the woods one sunny a f t e r n o o n c l o t h e d o n l y i n a turban made from a s i l k 35 scarf. This image emphasizes Kenneth's present childish state, but also hints at his potential to be free again. Reaney has created in Kenneth a character who exemplifies features described by Jung in his discussion of the child archetype: the "child" i s on the one hand delivered helpless into the power of terrible enemies and in continual danger of extinction, while on the other he possesses powers far exceeding those of ordinary humanity. 1 7 Kenneth certainly i s in the power of enemies, Bethel and George, thanks to his father. On the other hand, he seems to have strange visionary powers: he sees the house backwards, he sees the s p i r i t of the l i t t l e g i r l , he goes back and forth in time. He has enough strength for Ira to recognize him as a formidable enemy for Bethel, and he helps both Ira and Polly. He is powerful and godlike enough himself to bring Ira to God. Reaney exploits the child archetype further in the play when he introduces the easter egg. The egg was given to Kenneth by his godmother and was buried in a locked box by Bethel in the garden when Kenneth was s t i l l a child. Polly dug i t out of the place in the garden where Kenneth was digging when Bethel stopped him. The egg i s significant because i t i s one of the forms which the child archetype can assume. The child archetype i s a symbol which unites the opposites; a mediator, bringer of healing, that i s , one who makes whole. Because i t has this meaning, the child motif is capable of the numerous transformations . . . i t can be expressed by roundness, the c i r c l e or sphere, or else by the quaternity as another form of wholeness. 1 8 36 The egg as c i r c l e or sphere i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the c h i l d archetype. I t i s a symbol of i n d i v i d u a t i o n and of the u l t i m a t e g o a l of wholeness. The symbolic q u a l i t y o f the egg i s g i v e n a p r a c t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n i n the p l a y i n h e l p i n g Kenneth l e a v e h i s c h i l d h o o d . He escapes from h i s room where B e t h e l has l o c k e d him, amidst the e e r i e , unworldly sound o f smashed g l a s s , "a f o r m i d a b l e , magic sound t h a t should f i l l t he whole t h e a t r e . " 1 9 He comes down t o the p a r l o u r where B e t h e l and P o l l y are l o c k e d i n combat over George. The b a t t l e c o n t i n u e s . P o l l y g i v e s Kenneth the e a s t e r egg. The sound of b r e a k i n g g l a s s again f i l l s the t h e a t r e and Kenneth has a s e i z u r e . He l a t e r d e s c r i b e s the e f f e c t s e e i n g the egg had on him: i t was b e i n g c i r c u m c i s e d of a t i g h t f o l d of s k i n t h a t h e l d you back from ever q u i t e t o u c h i n g a n y t h i n g or b e i n g a f a t h e r or s e e i n g - oh God, i t h u r t when she gave i t t o me, . . . i t h u r t l i k e a r a b b i w i t h a sharp b r i g h t s i l v e r k n i f e , i t c u t away B e t h e l ' s s k i n over my eyes and I saw. 2 0 Seeing the egg has f r e e d him. The sound of smashing g l a s s i s an a u d i t o r y symbol of Kenneth's l i b e r a t i o n . Kenneth breaks the g l a s s window of h i s room and the hotbed windows when he escapes from h i s room. The same sound occurs when he sees the e a s t e r egg. P o l l y e a r l i e r d e s c r i b e d her f r u s t r a t i o n i n t r y i n g t o t e a c h Kenneth: Sometimes he reaches up t o me and I Reach down t o him. But our hands touch the g l a s s Of i m p o s s i b i l i t y and you s i n k back t o s l e e p . 2 1 37 G l a s s i s t r a n s p a r e n t , but i s a b a r r i e r . The smashing of g l a s s i s an a c t of freedom, which al l o w s human c o n t a c t . He i s f i n a l l y f r e e and ready t o be an a d u l t . P o l l y t r i e s t o persuade B e t h e l t o al l o w him t o go t o her p a r t y , t h a t i s , be accepted by her as an a d u l t . F i n a l l y B e t h e l c a p i t u l a t e s . She acknowledges t h a t Kenneth i s not c r a z y and re q u e s t s another p l a c e be s e t a t the t a b l e f o r him. He has f i n a l l y overcome a l l o b s t a c l e s i n c l u d i n g B e t h e l , and even B e t h e l has t o admit i t . Kenneth's r e c o v e r y has enabled P o l l y t o become r e -engaged t o George. A marriage between B e t h e l and I r a i s a p o s s i b i l i t y ; a t the end of the p l a y B e t h e l mentions the r i n g a g a i n . Of these two p o s s i b l e marriages, one member of each p a i r i s somewhat dubious and the oth e r good. These marriages w i l l indeed be a union o f o p p o s i t e s : the goodness of P o l l y and I r a w i t h the wickedness o f B e t h e l and George. Reaney has g i v e n dramatic r e a l i z a t i o n t o the i d e a t h a t the c h i l d archetype can u n i t e the o p p o s i t e s , i s indeed "a symbol o f the c r e a t i v e union o f o p p o s i t e s ' " 2 2 Kenneth's development has allowed the o p p o s i t e s t o be u n i t e d , w i t h e v i l subdued and c o n t r o l l e d i n a balance w i t h good. These two marriages r e s u l t i n the q u a t e r n i t y , the symbol o f wholeness and the scheme of the s o u l . Jung c o n s i d e r e d a s u c c e s s f u l marriage t o be an e x c e l l e n t i n d i c a t i o n o f m a t u r i t y , o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n p r o g r e s s . 2 3 T h i s process has been s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s p l a y . But Kenneth, w h i l e he does achieve m a t u r i t y , i s not the one 3 8 P o l l y chooses t o marry. She opts i n s t e a d f o r George, a mean-minded, m e a n - s p i r i t e d weakling. Kenneth seems t o remain somewhat o u t s i d e the human sphere, a l i t t l e o t h e r w o r l d l y and detached, and so does not seem capable o f be i n g married. T h i s s l i g h t l y inhuman q u a l i t y o f Kenneth's i s heightened by the f a c t t h a t he i s not o n l y the p r o t a g o n i s t but a l s o the archetype s y m b o l i z i n g the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s . Even a f t e r h i s recovery, Kenneth's s p e c i a l n e s s i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s going back and f o r t h i n time. A c c o r d i n g t o the stage d i r e c t i o n s , Kenneth " d i r e c t l y addresses [the audience] as i f we had l e a p t ahead about two o r t h r e e y e a r s . . . . t h e r e should be o v e r l a p p i n g o f speeches t o suggest s e v e r a l l a y e r s of t i m e . " 2 4 He suddenly becomes an o l d e r , more mature person i n the f u t u r e d e s c r i b i n g the scene t h a t i s b e i n g enacted i n the p l a y . He i s i n two times a t once, and because he i s n a r r a t i n g , the p l a y seems t o i n v e r t and become h i s v i s i o n , h i s t e l l i n g o f the s t o r y . He supersedes a l l boundaries and p r e v i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s o f the p l a y and becomes a g o d l i k e , c o n t r o l l i n g f o r c e , which emphasizes h i s u n e a r t h l i n e s s and a r c h e t y p a l q u a l i t i e s . A t t h e v e r y end, he changes c l o t h e s i n the p a r l o u r . "How was I t o know you a r e n ' t supposed t o change your c l o t h e s i n f r o n t o f everybody i n the p a r l o u r ? " 2 5 When he i s changed and ready t o g r e e t B e t h e l ' s guests, h i s f e e t a re s t i l l bare. He i s almost w i t h i n the realm o f the o r d i n a r y , everyday world, but not q u i t e . He remains a ve r y s p e c i a l 3 9 person, e l e v a t e d s t i l l above the merely human, the powerful embodiment of a l l t h a t the c h i l d archetype r e p r e s e n t s . NOTES 1 James Reaney, "The E a s t e r Egg", The Masks of  Childhood. (Toronto: new p r e s s , 1972) 40. 2 Reaney, 42. 3 Reaney, 57. 4 Reaney, 42. 5 Reaney, 42. 6 Reaney, 89. 7 Reaney, 82 . 8 Reaney, 82. 9 Reaney, 59. 10 Reaney, 66. 11 Reaney, 16. 12 Reaney, 16. 13 Reaney, 37. 14 C.G. Jung, The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung, 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l . 9: 170. 1 5 Jung, 168. 1 6 Jung, 159. 1 7 Jung, 170. 1 8 Jung, 164. 1 9 Reaney, 67. 2 0 Reaney, 82. 2 1 Reaney, 14. 2 2 Jung, 174. 41 2 3 Joseph L. Henderson, "Ancient Myths and Modern Man", Man and H i s Symbols, ed. C.G. Jung and a f t e r h i s death, M.L. yon Franz, (New York: Aldous, 1964) 134-136. 2 4 Reaney, 81. 2 5 Reaney, 82. 42 LISTEN TO THE WIND AND THE MARRIAGE QUARTERNIO ARCHETYPE Compared t o The E a s t e r Egg. Reaney has p a i d l e s s a t t e n t i o n i n L i s t e n t o the Wind t o Frye's comedic s t r u c t u r e and c o n c e n t r a t e d i n s t e a d on the archetypes. The shadow, anima and wise o l d man archetypes are pre s e n t , though the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s meeting and conquering them i s l e s s w e l l d e f i n e d than i n The E a s t e r Egg. A n a l y z i n g these archetypes i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t L i s t e n t o the Wind i n v o l v e s a p l a y w i t h i n a p l a y , and each c h a r a c t e r i s not o n l y h i m s e l f or h e r s e l f , but a p l a y e r i n the i n n e r p l a y . T h i s d o u b l i n g a l l o w s Reaney t o e x p l o r e and p l a y w i t h Jung's f o u r - s i d e d schema of the human s o u l and t o c r e a t e m u l t i p l e images of i t . The p l a y t h a t r e s u l t s i s not as s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d as The E a s t e r Egg but i t allo w s Reaney t o c r e a t e w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s themselves an archetype o f the s o u l t h a t Jung c a l l s the Marriage Quaternio. By the end of the p l a y , the anima, shadow and wise o l d man have been superceded by t h i s archetype. The b a s i c s t o r y i n L i s t e n t o the Wind i s the same as i n The E a s t e r Egg. A young boy, Owen, i s growing t o m a t u r i t y but, l i k e Kenneth, f a c e s o b s t a c l e s which impede h i s p r o g r e s s . Owen i s s i c k from a p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s and might d i e . U n l i k e Kenneth, he i s not f i g h t i n g a wicked e l d e r l i k e B e t h e l who i s t r y i n g t o r e s t r a i n him. But l i k e Kenneth w i t n e s s i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s s u i c i d e , Owen has s u f f e r e d p s y c h i c 43 damage because h i s h e a r t l e s s mother has l e f t him and her husband and run o f f wit h another man. L i s t e n t o the Wind takes p l a c e i n the summer h o l i d a y s of Owen's t w e l f t h year. H i s c o u s i n s , Jenny, Ann and H a r r i e t , have come t o v i s i t him. They d e c i d e t o put on a p l a y i n an attempt t o e n t i c e Owen's mother home, and choose t o a c t out a V i c t o r i a n n o v e l c a l l e d The Saga of C a r e s f o o t Court. T h i s novel i s a s o r d i d t a l e o f l o v e , b e t r a y a l and i n t r i g u e , which the c h i l d r e n "dream out". Ann d e s c r i b e s t h e i r a c t i n g as: Dreaming i t out. Imagining. My c o u s i n and I used t o c a l l i t "the world below" which we can e n t e r whenever we are alone or . . . L i s t e n i n g t o the wind. . . . . Each of the c h i l d r e n takes a p a r t i n the p l a y , and the a d u l t s i n the everyday world a l s o become c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y c o n s t i t u t e s the m a j o r i t y o f the a c t i o n t h a t i s seen on the stage, though the a c t i o n s h i f t s back and f o r t h between the pr e s e n t world o f the summer h o l i d a y s w i t h Owen s i c k and h i s co u s i n s keeping him company, and the world of the p l a y they a c t out. There are a l s o o c c a s i o n a l f l a s h f o r w a r d s t o moments which occur some t e n or twenty ye a r s l a t e r , when Ann as a grown-up s c h o o l t e a c h e r t e l l s her c l a s s about the dreaming out she d i d as a c h i l d w i t h her playmates. The Saga o f C a r e s f o o t Court i s a melodrama f i l l e d w i t h wicked and c o n n i v i n g people who are out o n l y t o s a t i s f y t h e i r greed o r l u s t s ; they t h i n k n o t h i n g o f d e s t r o y i n g the l i v e s o r happiness of o t h e r s . Compared t o these c h a r a c t e r s , 44 B e t h e l i n The E a s t e r Egg appears r e s t r a i n e d and almost k i n d l y . In the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y , P i e r s , the son of D e v i l C a r e s f o o t of C a r e s f o o t Court, i s engaged t o be married t o M a r i a Lawry of nearby H a w k s c l i f f e H a l l . M a r ia i s sweet and p l a i n and does not i n s p i r e p a s s i o n i n P i e r s . He f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h her b e a u t i f u l companion C l a u d i a and s e c r e t l y m a r r i e s her w h i l e s t i l l p r e t e n d i n g t o be engaged t o Maria. C l a u d i a f i n a l l y t e l l s D e v i l C a r e s f o o t the t r u t h , then g i v e s b i r t h t o t h e i r daughter Angela and d i e s . Maria m a r r i e s a Mr. Brenzaida and g i v e s b i r t h t o A r t h u r . P i e r s ' c o u s i n Douglas, who a l s o l i v e s a t C a r e s f o o t Court, has had a long-term a f f a i r w i t h G e r a l d i n e , an ambitious young v i l l a g e g i r l . She k i l l s t h e i r i l l e g i t i m a t e baby because she does not want t o be h i n d e r e d i n her attempts t o b e t t e r her p o s i t i o n i n l i f e . She m a r r i e s Edward E l d r e d , the l o c a l a t t o r n e y . P i e r s and Douglas have been r i v a l s f o r D e v i l C a r e s f o o t ' s a f f e c t i o n s s i n c e they were c h i l d r e n , and when D e v i l f i n d s out t h a t P i e r s has married C l a u d i a , he changes h i s w i l l . He l e a v e s P i e r s the house on l y , and Douglas the r e s t o f the e s t a t e . P i e r s becomes obsessed w i t h g e t t i n g back h i s r i g h t f u l i n h e r i t a n c e and d e v i s e s many unscrupulous p l a n s t o make money t o buy i t back from Douglas. Angela and A r t h u r grow up and f a l l i n l o v e . But Douglas wants Angela f o r h i s w i f e and b l a c k m a i l s G e r a l d i n e i n t o h e l p i n g him. They persuade P i e r s t o send A r t h u r away f o r a y e a r by p r o m i s i n g t o get P i e r s ' i n h e r i t a n c e back f o r 45 him. While A r t h u r i s away, they fake h i s death and convince Angela t h a t he has d i e d . She mar r i e s Douglas and the next day, A r t h u r r e t u r n s . He i s h o r r i f i e d a t her marriage and b e l i e v e s t h a t she has succumbed t o a l u s t f u l d e s i r e f o r Douglas; he does not bother t o i n q u i r e f u r t h e r . Angela breaks down a t t h i s t u r n o f events. But j u s t i c e i s e v e n t u a l l y served: Douglas f a l l s down a w e l l , P i e r s i s t o r n a p a r t by h i s s t a r v i n g dogs, and G e r a l d i n e t r i e s t o commit s u i c i d e , but o n l y succeeds i n permanently p a r a l y z i n g h e r s e l f . A r t h u r redeems h i m s e l f a t the end, by f o r g i v i n g Angela and marrying her. The main p l a y and the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y are not s h a r p l y separated from one another. For example, Owen's mother a r r i v e s t o v i s i t Owen a f t e r the c h i l d r e n have begun t o a c t out The Saga of C a r e s f o o t Court, and Owen begs h i s mother t o take over the p a r t of G e r a l d i n e from Ann, which she does. In another example, the c h i l d r e n p u l l straws t o see i f Angela w i l l d i e . Owen dec i d e s l a t e r t o change the end o f the p l a y and l e t Angela l i v e . The c h i l d r e n i n f l u e n c e the p l o t o f the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y as they wish. T h i s f l u i d i t y o f p l o t o f the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y i s m i r r o r e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e c i s i o n i n the main p l a y , t h a t i s , Owen's i l l n e s s may or may not k i l l him. T h i s d e c i s i o n i s l e f t up t o the d i r e c t o r . There are many r e f e r e n c e s t o the f a c t t h a t Owen may indeed be dy i n g . MOTHER: [to her husband] . . . And i n s i d e , you're r o t t e n . The baby g i r l you gave me d i e d . Now the baby boy i s . I want no t h i n g more t o do w i t h you. 46 But t h e r e are a l s o many i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t Owen may p o s s i b l y r e c o v e r . FATHER: [My f a m i l y i s ] the f a m i l y t h a t a l l e i t h e r d i e s a t seventeen o r l i v e d t o s e v e n t y - f i v e . G e n e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n . I had what Owen has but I got over  i t . (my emphasis} 3 At no p o i n t i n the s c r i p t i s i t i n d i c a t e d t h a t Owen w i l l d e f i n i t e l y d i e . The q u e s t i o n i s asked d i r e c t l y t o Ann i n one o f the f l a s h f o r w a r d s when she i s a s c h o o l t e a c h e r . The answer must be f i l l e d i n by the d i r e c t o r ; Reaney has r e f u s e d t o answer i t h i m s e l f : ANN: I t was our c o u s i n who l e d us i n dreaming i t out. CHORUS: (an i n d i v i d u a l as i f i n a c l a s s a t a sch o o l ANN i s teaching) Did t h i s c o u s i n d i e , Miss? We do hear her answer as the thunder o f the storm  begins, (my emphasis) 4 Reaney does not g i v e an answer. At t h i s p o i n t , the d i r e c t o r must d e c i d e . There are enough i n d i c a t i o n s i n the p l a y both f o r o r a g a i n s t h i s death t h a t the d i r e c t o r can s a f e l y choose e i t h e r answer. L i s t e n t o the Wind i s more complicated than The E a s t e r Egg i n t h a t i t i n v o l v e s not o n l y more c h a r a c t e r s but a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f r o l e s . There are numerous f i g u r e s i n the p l a y which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d archetype f i g u r e s . Often, as i n The E a s t e r Egg, the archetypes are s p l i t and one c h a r a c t e r absorbs the n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f the f i g u r e and another the p o s i t i v e . T h i s schism i s so severe t h a t the p l a y w i t h i n a p l a y begins t o resemble a m o r a l i t y p l a y , w i t h e v i l s t r u g g l i n g w i t h good f o r one s o u l . The e v i l c h a r a c t e r s 47 are v e r y e v i l and the good c h a r a c t e r s are e i t h e r flawed or weak or alone. The anima archetype i s the most prominent i n the p l a y ; the shadow and the wise o l d man p l a y minor r o l e s by comparison. As H a r r i e t says about The Saga of C a r e s f o o t  Court. t h e r e are " l o t s of good p a r t s f o r g i r l s " . 5 The anima i s s p l i t i n t h i s p l a y a c r o s s more than two c h a r a c t e r s , and a s p e c t s of t h i s f i g u r e s u r f a c e f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g the p l a y i n the many female c h a r a c t e r s . Owen's mother has absorbed o n l y the n e g a t i v e f e a t u r e s of the anima. L i k e G e r a l d i n e , she has r e j e c t e d motherhood but i n a l e s s d r a s t i c way. She has not committed i n f a n t i c i d e , but she does d e s e r t her husband and Owen because i t was so p a i n f u l when her f i r s t c h i l d d i e d . M O T H E R : . . . And i n s i d e , you're r o t t e n . The baby g i r l you gave me d i e d . Now the baby boy i s . I want n o t h i n g more t o do w i t h you. She u t t e r l y ' r e j e c t s motherhood because d y i n g c h i l d r e n are too p a i n f u l t o cope wi t h : " I can't stand s i c k n e s s and death. You gave me two c h i l d r e n who d i e d . " 7 She i s , i n her own way, as h e a r t l e s s as G e r a l d i n e . I don't care about Owen. I don't care about my husband. I c a r e a b i t about my h o r s e s . . . . I don't c a r e about myself. In the f a l l , I'm going away wit h a f r i e n d and by t h a t time Owen '11 be dead. I f he i s n ' t , h e ' l l never see me a g a i n . . . . Not o n l y does she l e a v e husband and son, but "She rode o f f on Dad's b e s t horse t o o . " 9 She u l t i m a t e l y b e t r a y s Owen. She i s c e r t a i n l y n e g a t i v e , and embodies a l l the torments the anima can bestow. 48 G e r a l d i n e , the c h a r a c t e r t h a t Owen's mother a c t s i n the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y , i s s i m i l a r t o the mother but worse. She i s a b s o l u t e l y e v i l , a d e s t r o y e r , a murderer of her own baby. I f the anima i s "the 'Spinning Woman1 - Maya, who c r e a t e s i l l u s i o n . . . " 1 0 then G e r a l d i n e c e r t a i n l y q u a l i f i e s . U s i n g A r t h u r ' s r i n g and Rogue as a corpse, she persuades Angela t h a t A r t h u r i s dead. She s e t s t r a p s , but l i k e B e t h e l , she i s most o b v i o u s l y the enemy. She does not f u l f i l l any of the p o s i t i v e anima f u n c t i o n s . Owen's co u s i n s are k i n d , simple c h i l d r e n who are s u p p o r t i v e and good t o Owen. But they are too o r d i n a r y t o have the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the anima f i g u r e ; however, t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y d i s p l a y some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the anima. Maria, p l a y e d by Jenny, i s simple and t r u s t i n g . She i s b e t r a y e d by P i e r s and fades from the p l a y w i t h no f i n a l word a f t e r she d i s c o v e r s P i e r s has married C l a u d i a . She i s too i n e f f e c t u a l t o e x h i b i t any of the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of the anima. Though she might l e a d P i e r s t o m a t u r i t y through marriage, she i s not powerful enough t o do t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y . She does not l u r e or e n t i c e or c a p t i v a t e P i e r s ; i n s t e a d , she w a i t s dumbly and p a s s i v e l y f o r him t o make a l l d e c i s i o n s . C l a u d i a , p l a y e d by Ann, i s b e a u t i f u l and b r i g h t , but as t r u s t i n g as Maria. She puts her f a i t h i n P i e r s , though she sees him b e t r a y Maria. She p l a y s the anima more f u l l y i n t h a t she does i n v o l v e P i e r s i n marriage and fatherhood. And 49 she causes him t o face h i s own misdoings and c o n f r o n t the consequences of h i s a c t i o n s . Angela, p l a y e d by H a r r i e t , i s , l i k e P o l l y i n The E a s t e r Egg, a t r u e f o r c e f o r the good. She i s b e a u t i f u l , i n t e l l i g e n t , l o v i n g and l o y a l . GERALDINE: As t o her person, Angela C a r e s f o o t i s one of the most b e a u t i f u l women I have ever seen. As t o her c h a r a c t e r , she i s deep as the haunted w e l l a t her f a t h e r ' s house and i s as f i l l e d w i t h strange s p r i n g y f a n t a s i e s and musings combined w i t h a simple f o r g i v i n g i n n o c e n c e . 1 1 She i s k i n d i n t h a t she s p r i n g s open the t r a p s her f a t h e r has s e t and puts G e r a l d i n e ' s dead baby's s o u l t o r e s t by k i s s i n g the d o l l which c o n t a i n s i t s bones. She i s the epitome o f womanly p e r f e c t i o n . She p l a y s the anima t o Art h u r , and does indeed l e a d him t o m a t u r i t y . When they f i r s t meet as c h i l d r e n , she w r e s t l e s w i t h him and overcomes him. L a t e r , he i s overcome e m o t i o n a l l y by her when he f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h her. She lea d s him t o marriage and adulthood. Though he t e m p o r a r i l y l o s e s her when he l e a v e s f o r a year and she ma r r i e s Douglas, he f i n a l l y does f o r g i v e and marry her. The anima f i g u r e i n t h i s p l a y d i f f e r s from the anima i n The E a s t e r Egg. In L i s t e n t o the Wind, the anima s l i p s out of the neat l i m i t s which are so c l e a r i n The E a s t e r Egg. Sometimes i t i s completely a s s i m i l a t e d by the s i n i s t e r c h a r a c t e r s . Sometimes i t f u l f i l l s the p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n s , but when i t does, i t i s not focussed on one male c h a r a c t e r o n l y . I t i s f l u i d and e l u s i v e and more d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e than i n The E a s t e r Egg. 50 The anima's e f f e c t on the p r o t a g o n i s t i s pr o b l e m a t i c , because the p r o t a g o n i s t i s not always the focus of e i t h e r the p l a y o r the p l a y w i t h i n a p l a y . Though the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s Owen, h i s p a r t i s s m a l l i n the o v e r a l l a c t i o n of t h e p l a y . The p a r t o f A r t h u r , which he p l a y s i n the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y , i s smal l too, e s p e c i a l l y when compared t o Angela's. G e r a l d i n e d e s c r i b e s Angela as "a woman . . . immeasurably above the man on whom she has s e t her a f f e c t i o n s . " 1 2 He does not seem worthy of an anima's e f f o r t s . The p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y i s Owen's dream, " I can almost see them as I l i e h e r e " 1 3 , so i t i s hard t o d i s p u t e the f a c t t h a t he i s the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r . But h i s minor p a r t i n the a c t i o n o f e i t h e r p l a y means t h a t the f i g u r e of the anima dominates the a c t i o n without having a s t r o n g c e n t r a l male c h a r a c t e r on which t o focus . A l s o , because i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know i f Owen s u r v i v e s , i t cannot be d e f i n i t e l y s a i d t h a t the anima f i g u r e has f u l f i l l e d i t s proper f u n c t i o n s . The shadow f i g u r e i s e a s i e r t o d e s c r i b e , p a r t l y because i t i s a s i m p l e r archetype and p a r t l y because the male c h a r a c t e r s are l e s s dynamic and complicated than the female c h a r a c t e r s . The most obvious shadow f i g u r e i s Owen's f a t h e r . He i s b a s i c a l l y good, but s i c k l y and weak and unable t o h e l p h i s son. U n l i k e P o l l y i n The E a s t e r Egg, the f a t h e r cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a powerful f o r c e f o r the good. He has g i v e n h i s w i f e two c h i l d r e n , one of whom i s dead, and the o t h e r p o s s i b l y d y i n g . H i s w i f e d e s c r i b e s h i s weakness: 51 J u s t look a t you s i t t i n g t h e r e w i t h t h a t s i l l y l i t t l e g r i n and the c u r l s . Too weak t o r a i s e your arm. Well, r a i s e your arm. Ah, you see, you can't even r a i s e your a r m . 1 4 He l a c k s p a s s i o n and f o r c e , and i s much l e s s a b l e than A r t h u r t o make d e c i s i o n s and take a c t i o n . He cannot even b e s t i r h i m s e l f i n t o a rage over h i s w i f e ' s d e s e r t i o n : HARRIET: W e l l , i f I were your f a t h e r I'd go over t o him [the man w i t h whom the mother has run o f f ] and beat him up and drag her back. By the neck. OWEN: Father agrees w i t h you. But he says . . . he j u s t hasn't got the temperament f o r i t . He would l i k e t h e horse back though. 5 He i s p a t h e t i c i n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o care much about h i s w i f e ' s d e s e r t i o n . As Owen's shadow, he embodies Owen's s i c k l i n e s s . Because the d e c i s i o n t o l e t Owen l i v e o r d i e i s l e f t up t o the d i r e c t o r , i t i s im p o s s i b l e t o say from the s c r i p t i f Owen succeeds i n conquering t h i s shadow f i g u r e . Depending on the d i r e c t o r ' s d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g Owen's f a t e , the f a t h e r i s e i t h e r the conquered o r the conqueror. The f a c t t h a t the f a t h e r i s s t i l l a l i v e i n d i c a t e s t h a t Owen may be a b l e t o overcome h i s h e r e d i t a r y s i c k n e s s . As a c h i l d , Owen's f a t h e r had what Owen has, but got over i t . He thus s l i p s out of the J u n g i a n d e f i n i t i o n of the shadow, and becomes a f i g u r e of hope t h a t Owen w i l l l i v e . The c h a r a c t e r s P i e r s and Douglas can be d i s c o u n t e d as the shadow archetype. They are p l a y e d by Mi t c h , the c a r e t a k e r o f the nearby church, and Tom, a neighbour's boy, who do not have l a r g e p a r t s i n the main p l a y . P i e r s and Douglas are d i s r e p u t a b l e c h a r a c t e r s , but are l e s s v i t a l and 52 c o m p e l l i n g than the women c h a r a c t e r s . T h e i r r i v a l r y i s important i n the p l a y not f o r i t s own sake, but as a v e h i c l e f o r a l l o w i n g the b a t t l e o f w i l l s between G e r a l d i n e and Angela t o occur. T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o the women are more important than t h e i r f u n c t i o n s as shadow f i g u r e s t o the p r o t a g o n i s t . The c h a r a c t e r who c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a shadow f i g u r e t o A r t h u r i s Rogue, who i s the son of Douglas and Brenzaida's younger s i s t e r . He looks l i k e A r t h u r , but i s s t u p i d , simple and e a s i l y l e d . He becomes an u n w i t t i n g pawn i n the G e r a l d i n e and Douglas p l o t and p l a y s A r t h u r ' s corpse. As the shadow of Ar t h u r , he embodies A r t h u r ' s weakness, h i s g u l l i b i l i t y and i n a b i l i t y t o see e v i l when i t l o o k s him i n the f a c e . At the end, A r t h u r ' s acceptance o f Angela i n d i c a t e s t h a t he has overcome t h i s n e g a t i v e s i d e of h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y . A r t h u r h i m s e l f can a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d a shadow f i g u r e t o Owen. He i s a weak and p a l e c h a r a c t e r , who i s s e l f -c e n t r e d and g u l l i b l e . When i t seems as though e v i l has f i n a l l y conquered Angela, A r t h u r i s w i l l i n g t o b e l i e v e i t . He s t u p i d l y g i v e s up the r i n g he promised Angela t o keep and so begins the c h a i n o f events t h a t l e a d s t o A n g e l a 1 s marriage t o Douglas. He then b e l i e v e s t h a t Angela has b e t r a y e d him. He i s s i m i l a r t o Owen's f a t h e r i n t h a t he i s b a s i c a l l y good, but completely i n e f f e c t u a l . Because Owen's f a t e i s unknown, A r t h u r a l s o remains e i t h e r conquered or unconquered. H i s f i n a l dance w i t h Angela can be seen as 53 e i t h e r the marriage dance, c e l e b r a t i n g i n d i v i d u a t i o n f i n a l l y accomplished, o r h i s f i r s t dance with the f i g u r e o f death. The wise o l d man archetype i n L i s t e n t o the Wind i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . N e i t h e r Owen nor A r t h u r a t the end of t h e p l a y comes c l o s e t o a t t a i n i n g the s t a t u r e t h a t Kenneth does i n The E a s t e r Egg. The f a t h e r i s too f e e b l e t o be c o n s i d e r e d . Of the remaining male c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y , even those who are not completely weak or completely e v i l are suspe c t . Dr. S p e t t i g u e , who loo k s a f t e r the s i c k Owen, 1 p l a y s D e v i l C a r e s f o o t . With such an i l l - f a v o u r e d name, he seems more l i k e a v i s i o n o f death, e s p e c i a l l y because he shaves h i s beard, which i s an omen of Owen's death. Mr. Gleneden, the V i c a r , i s an simple o l d f o o l , a d v i s i n g as he does t h a t the t e r r i f i e d Angela r e t u r n t o her c o n n i v i n g f a t h e r a t C a r e s f o o t C o u r t . 1 6 He i s h a r d l y the wise o l d man archetype, a f a c t f u r t h e r emphasized by the stage d i r e c t i o n : "He c o u l d be p l a y e d by the same a c t o r as p l a y e d D e v i l C a r e s f o o t , but without b e a r d . " 1 7 I t i s hard t o agree w i t h A l v i n Lee when he says: "Taken a l l t o g e t h e r , Mr. T a y l o r [Owen's f a t h e r ] , Dr. S p e t t i g u e , and Mr. Gleneden might c o n c e i v a b l y add up t o one wise o l d man." 1 8 Only one o l d man appears i n the p l a y : "a d i s r e p u t a b l e but vaguely g e n t l e m a n l y - l o o k i n g v i o l i n i s t " 1 9 who p l a y s music t o which Angela and A r t h u r dance j u s t a f t e r they have agreed t o the ye a r ' s s e p a r a t i o n . Given the v i o l i n i s t ' s appearance at t h i s 54 i n a u s p i c i o u s moment, he cannot be c o n s i d e r e d the wise o l d man archetype. L i k e S p e t t i g u e , he seems a p o r t e n t of doom. As f a r as the c h i l d archetype i s concerned, Owen does not b r i n g i t t o l i f e as does Kenneth. T h i s archetype i s not as s i g n i f i c a n t i n L i s t e n t o the Wind as i t i s i n The E a s t e r Egg. Another archetype, the g u a t e r n i t y , i s much more prominent than any of the above mentioned arch e t y p e s . The number " f o u r " f i g u r e s c o n s t a n t l y i n t h i s p l a y . There are f o u r c h i l d r e n who dream out the p l a y : CHORUS: L i s t e n t o the Wind! Once t h e r e were f o u r grownups who helped the f o u r c h i l d r e n l i s t e n t o the w i n d . 2 0 T h e i r most important props are " f o u r c h a i r s " which become C a r e s f o o t Court, H a w k s c l i f f e H a l l , e t c . Four g e n i i appear at C l a u d i a ' s death: Perhaps a l s o the f o u r g i a n t shadows of the f o u r g e n i i appear l o o k i n g down a t the dawn they have made. 2 1 They reappear a t the end of the p l a y when A r t h u r and Angela dance a t A r t h u r ' s b e t r o t h a l p a r t y : The dance conti n u e s and the g i a n t shadow? of the f o u r g e n i i l e a n over the dawn they have made.^ 2 And most i m p o r t a n t l y , the c h i l d r e n l i s t e n t o the f o u r winds as they dream out t h e i r p l a y . The number f o u r i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i n the numerous p a i r s of p a i r s i n t h i s p l a y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y . Douglas/Geraldine and P i e r s / M a r i a are p a i r e d t o g e t h e r a t the b e g i n n i n g ; G e r a l d i n e / E l f r e d and P i e r s / C l a u d i a e v e n t u a l l y get married; Douglas/Geraldine t r y 55 t o d e s t r o y A r t h u r / A n g e l a . These p a i r s become more com p l i c a t e d i n the main p l a y as each couple i n the main p l a y i s p h y s i c a l l y the same couple and a d i f f e r e n t couple i n the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y . These p a i r s of p a i r s or groups of f o u r are s i g n i f i c a n t as the Jungian schema f o r the s t r u c t u r e of the s o u l . The male/female groups form the marriage q u a t e r n i o archetype of the s o u l . As d i s c u s s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h The E a s t e r Egg, "the c i r c l e (or sphere) [ i s ] a symbol of the S e l f . I t expresses the t o t a l i t y of the psyche i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s . " 2 3 The c i r c l e and the square d i f f e r i n t h a t "roundness (the mandala motif) g e n e r a l l y symbolizes a n a t u r a l wholeness, whereas a quadrangular [square] f o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " 2 4 Reaney uses the number f o u r and c o n s t r u c t s the f o u r - p e r s o n s o u l s t r u c t u r e t o c r e a t e a symbol o f the conscious r e a l i z a t i o n o f the s e l f . The p l a y w i t h i n a p l a y p o r t r a y s a dream which Owen's s o u l i s dreaming — i n f a c t , not o n l y dreaming, but a l s o l i v i n g . T h i s dream or p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y p o r t r a y s one s o u l , and i t s fragmented p i e c e s t h a t break a p a r t , come to g e t h e r , reform and d i s i n t e g r a t e . I t p o r t r a y s the l i f e o f a s o u l i n motion through l i f e , w i t h the archetypes as l i v e l y and v i t a l and changeable as the s o u l i t s e l f . Thus, the c h a r a c t e r s take on many d i f f e r e n t r o l e s , s l i p i n and out of themselves, m i r r o r themselves and o t h e r s , form p a i r s and t r i p l e t s and q u a t e r n i t i e s w i t h f l u i d i t y l i k e a watery k a l e i d o s c o p e i n a m u l t i t u d e of d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s . 56 The s o u l p o r t r a y e d i s not s i m p l i s t i c a l l y good. I t c o n t a i n s a l l human emotion and experience. Lust, greed, b e t r a y a l and e v i l are present, as are p a s s i o n , l o v e , tenderness, f o r g i v e n e s s and f i d e l i t y . Reaney has s a i d t h a t the p l a y i s "a symbol of a m i n d . " 2 5 But i t i s more than t h a t ; i t i s a dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s o u l , and Reaney has p o r t r a y e d i t by s k i l l f u l l y u s i n g Jung's archetype of the marriage q u a r t e r n i o . 57 NOTES 1 James Reaney, L i s t e n t o the Wind. (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1972) 34. 2 Reaney, 78. 3 Reaney, 78 4 Reaney, 117. 5 Reaney, 16. 6 Reaney, 78. 7 Reaney, 13 3. 8 Reaney, 77. 9 Reaney, 13. 1 0 C.G. Jung, "The Syzygy", The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung, 2nd ed., 20 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959) v o l . 9, i i : 11. 11 Reaney, 100. 12 Reaney, 100. 13 Reaney, 16. 14 Reaney, 77. 15 Reaney, 14. 16 Reaney, 105 17 Reaney, 67. 18 A l v i n Lee, J P u b l i s h e r s , 1968) 157, 1 9 Reaney, 92. 2 0 Reaney, 25. 2 1 Reaney, 58. 2 2 Reaney, 140. 58 A n i e l a J a f f e , "Symbolism i n the V i s u a l A r t s " , Man  and H i s Symbols, ed. C.G. Jung and a f t e r h i s death, M.L. von Franz, (London: Aldous, 1964) 240. 2 4 M.L. von Franz, "The Process of I n d i v d u a t i o n " , Man  and H i s Symbols. 215. 5 Reaney, 142. 59 COLOURS IN THE DARK AND THE CIRCLE ARCHETYPE Compared t o L i s t e n t o the Wind and The E a s t e r Egg, C o l o u r s i n the Dark seems l i t t l e more than a confused jumble of d i s c o n n e c t e d scenes. Reaney does not o b v i o u s l y use F r y e ' s comedic s t r u c t u r e and the archetypes are not e a s i l y found. The c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s a p p a r e n t l y not an i n d i v i d u a l , t h r e a t e n e d boy s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t a wicked mother f i g u r e and h i s own i n h e r e n t weaknesses. He emerges o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y and i n numerous i n c a r n a t i o n s . No s p e c i f i c female f i g u r e or k i n d l y o l d e r man comes t o h i s a i d . But on c l o s e r examination, both the comedic s t r u c t u r e and the Jungian s t r u c t u r e do emerge, and a d e f i n i t e form c o n t r o l l i n g t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of seemingly u n r e l a t e d scenes emerges. T h i s form i s c i r c u l a r and a r c h e t y p a l . L i k e the c h i l d and the marriage g u a t e r n i o archetypes, the Jungian archetype of the c i r c l e symbolizes a complete psyche. I t i s t h i s archetype which f i n a l l y dominates the form of the p l a y . T h i s p l a y p r e s e n t s a m u l t i t u d e o f c h a r a c t e r s who each have d i f f e r e n t r o l e s . The s i x main c h a r a c t e r s , Pa, Ma, Gram, Gramp, Son, Niece, are known o n l y by the names of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n a f a m i l y . T h e i r r o l e s are not d i v i d e d between a main p l a y and a p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y as i n L i s t e n  t o the Wind; i n s t e a d , these c h a r a c t e r s assume any number of r o l e s . The c a s t l i s t b e g i n s : 60 PA plays the Father, the Hero, the Schoolmaster, the Executive e tc . MA plays the Mother, the Lawyer, the Announcer, the Wind Lady, the G i r l at the boarding house, the Rich Young Lady e t c . 1 There i s no consistency i n the ro le s they assume. For example, the father character does not always play an older man; he sometimes plays the c h i l d to the son's author i ty f i gure . This play lacks the obvious p l o t s tructure which i s evident i n both The Easter Egg and L i s t en to the Wind. There i s no r e a d i l y d i s t ingui shab le cause and e f fect sequence. Instead, a ser ie s of short , apparently disconnected scenes are presented with a bewildering array of d i f f e r e n t characters . Reaney presents a hodge-podge of scenes i n a conscious attempt to create a t h e a t r i c a l "play box". I happen to have a play box and i t ' s f i l l e d with not only toys and school r e l i c s , but a lso deedboxes, ances t ra l c o f f i n p la te s , i n short a whole l i f e . When you sort through the play box you eventual ly see your whole l i f e , as we l l as a l l of l i f e . . . . The t h e a t r i c a l experience i n front of you now i s designed to give you that mosaic-al l- things-happening-at-the-same-time-galaxy-higgledy-piggledy f e e l i n g that rummaging through a play box can give you. He has created an apparently disorganized s tructure for the play with t h i s goal i n mind. In h i s note from the o r i g i n a l product ion, he states that the play i s the s tory of a person growing up, leav ing home, going to b i g c i t i e s , ge t t ing rather mixed up and then not coming home again but making home and i d e n t i t y come to him wherever he i s . 3 Through the seemingly confused s tructure of the play, h i s purpose i s revealed. 61 And, e v e n t u a l l y , a s t r u c t u r e i n the p l a y s u r f a c e s which i s , i d e n t i c a l t o the s t r u c t u r e i n The E a s t e r Egg and L i s t e n  t o the Wind. The theme of a young boy s t r u g g l i n g t o reach adulthood, f a c i n g enemies and a d v e r s i t y , f i n a l l y emerges. Pa emerges as the p r o t a g o n i s t , but because the p l a y does not show him c o n s i s t e n t l y as the p r o t a g o n i s t , but as many d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s , any sense of him as an i n d i v i d u a l i s l o s t . He i s not a s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r , nor an embodiment of an archetype as i s Kenneth, nor the mind/soul which c o n t a i n s the p l a y as i s Owen. He i s an everyman f i g u r e who l a c k s p a r t i c u l a r s , embarking on the u n i v e r s a l journey t o m a t u r i t y . The r e s t o f the c h a r a c t e r s are a l s o g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r s . They are not one or two s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r s but many, and they are types, not t r u e i n d i v i d u a l s i n the sense t h a t B e t h e l , Mrs T a y l o r , G e r a l d i n e , e t c . are. These c h a r a c t e r s are i n t e r c h a n g e d amongst themselves: f o r example, the Gran and Gramp, and Ma and Pa c h a r a c t e r s p l a y c h i l d r e n and v i c e v e r s a . T h i s l a c k of s p e c i f i c i t y a l s o a p p l i e s t o the enemy f i g u r e s : the bear, the s c h o o l master, Dr. Button, the l a n d l a d y of the boarding house, Lady Death, e t c . Reaney i s t r y i n g t o p r e s e n t a g e n e r a l view of i n d i v i d u a t i o n as a u n i v e r s a l human experience i n s t e a d of a p r o c e s s c o n f i n e d t o o n l y one or two c h a r a c t e r s , as i n The E a s t e r Egg and L i s t e n  t o the Wind. To t h i s end, the c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y take on many d i f f e r e n t r o l e s : 62 Two night-shirted Ma and Pa figures appear and prepare for bed. They are played by GRANDMOTHER and GRANDFATHER.4 Another example i s "FATHER and SON here play young boys just about twelve." 5 Reaney explains in a stage direction why he has chosen to allow his characters this multiplicity: These two parts are played by the MOTHER who brought out the birthday cake and the BOY whose hand proclaimed him a Poet some day — actually the scene took place years ago between the GRANDMOTHER and the FATHER when he was sick with the measles at about ten years of age. The whole play i s going to be like this — six actors playing many different roles — suggesting how we are many more people than just ourselves. Our ancestors are we, our descendants are us, and so on like a sea. 6 He explains again in another stage direction: dimly we remember that a man i s both his father and his son; everyone i s a multiple character. Allowing his characters to s l i p in and out of roles and generations creates confusion in the audience as to who is who and when they are who, but Reaney i s trying to create a sense of the individuation process occurring constantly in a l l people. Like the characters, the incidents in the play are also unspecific. Cause and effect between scenes i s minimal; continuity at f i r s t glance seems non-existent. The play is divided into two acts of 21 scenes each. It i s further divided into seven segments, each segment describing one experience or specific stage or aspect of individuation. Each segment includes from two to nine scenes. The f i r s t four scenes of the play identify the thrust of the play, that i s , that a l i f e i s to be described. The 63 p l a y begins w i t h a b i r t h d a y p a r t y , a c e l e b r a t i o n of the b e g i n n i n g of the f a t h e r ' s l i f e . The f a t h e r i s b l i n d f o l d e d and t r i e s t o guess the c o l o u r s of o b j e c t s by touch. He says he w i l l t e l l how he became p r o f i c i e n t a t g u e s s i n g c o l o u r s i n the dark: he then d e s c r i b e s a scene which took p l a c e between the grandmother and him years ago. T h i s scene i s enacted by the mother and boy. L i k e Owen, t h i s boy i s s i c k . He must s t a y i n a darkened room u n t i l he r e c o v e r s . Because he w i l l go b l i n d i f he sees the l i g h t , he d e c i d e s t o c o l o u r i n h i s c o l o u r i n g book i n the dark. He begins h i s c o l o u r i n g i n the dark and a dream or the.. s t o r y of a l i f e b e g i n s . I t i s the boy's dream of h i s own l i f e , h i s v i s i o n of the f u t u r e . I t i s a l s o the s t o r y of the f a t h e r ' s l i f e as he t e l l s i t t o the c h i l d r e n gathered around him a t h i s p a r t y . Reaney reminds us i n a stage d i r e c t i o n l a t e r i n the p l a y , " . . . t h i s s t a r t e d w i t h a Man remembering h i s l i f e , b e i n g i n i t i a t e d i n t o f i n d i n g some pathway through i t . " 8 The archetypes u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a t i o n are minimal i n t h i s p l a y . The anima can be seen i n B i b l e S a l , who has a f a i t h which the son does not. He asks S a l t o t e a c h him t o b e l i e v e l i k e she does. She i s unable t o , and i n f a c t l a c k s most of the power and drama of the anima f i g u r e . She i s not a l l u r i n g nor does she entangle the p r o t a g o n i s t , marry him or p r o v i d e him w i t h i n s i g h t s . As an anima, she i s weak and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . None of the other female c h a r a c t e r s can be c o n s i d e r e d an anima, though some 64 can be c o n s i d e r e d an enemy f i g u r e — f o r example, the Boarding House Lady. The wise o l d man archetype can be seen i n the Mr. Winemeyer/Hermit c h a r a c t e r . T h i s c h a r a c t e r bequeaths t o the Son h i s a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e by g i v i n g him a p i e c e o f a f a l l i n g s t a r . But though t h i s c h a r a c t e r does h e l p the boy, he i s not a s t r o n g or dominant f o r c e i n the p l a y . The shadow archetype i s the most obvious and appears i n the bear, the School Master and Dr. Button, who can a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d enemy f i g u r e s . Each of these f i g u r e s i s conquered, but they seem t o r e p r e s e n t a s p e c t s o f the e x t e r n a l world w i t h which the c h i l d must come t o g r i p s r a t h e r than f a c e t s o f h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y which he must subdue and absorb. The archetypes are much l e s s w e l l - d e f i n e d than i n e i t h e r The E a s t e r Egg or L i s t e n t o the Wind, and i n keeping w i t h the t h r u s t of the p l a y , are g e n e r a l i z e d , n o n - s p e c i f i c and c o n s t a n t l y changing. They do not focus on one i n d i v i d u a l and are not i n d i v i d u a l s themselves. In t h i s way, they emphasize the m u l t i - l e v e l l e d g e n e r a t i o n a l theme. Not content w i t h d r a m a t i z i n g the p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n f o r human beings, Reaney has attempted t o d e s c r i b e an all-encompassing process i n which many oth e r animate and inanimate e n t i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t e . Each segment i n the p l a y p o r t r a y s aspects o f the human pro c e s s and i n c l u d e s o t h e r i n d i v i d u a t i n g beings. In a s h o r t speech a t the b e g i n n i n g o f each segment, the mother r e c i t e s a l i s t of 6 5 t h i n g s which are i n c l u d e d i n the segment: f o r example, the p l a n e t s , the names of fl o w e r s and b u t t e r f l i e s , the days of the week, the l e t t e r s o f the alphabet, songs and hymns. The days, the l e t t e r s and the p l a n e t s p r o g r e s s through the segments i n ord e r : f o r example, Sunday, Alpha and the sun are i n c l u d e d i n segment one, Monday, BCDE and Mercury i n segment two, e t c . The p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n i s a l s o a p p l i e d t o the B i b l e , which B i b l e S a l works or copying throughout the p l a y . At the b e g i n n i n g of the p l a y , she has c o p i e d the book of Genesis and says t h a t she w i l l go on t o do the r e s t . As the p l a y p r o g r e s s e s , so does she. The p l a y i s l i k e the B i b l e ; S a l i s l i k e the au t h o r / p l a y w r i g h t . The pro c e s s of i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n each i s m i r r o r e d by the ot h e r . T h i s s i m i l a r i t y of B i b l e and p l a y i s emphasized by the f a c t t h a t both are d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . The b e g i n n i n g o f Ac t I I r e l a t e s the s t o r y o f the Hermit who d i e d F r i d a y , then r o s e a g a i n Saturday. "Can't q u i t e make i t t o Sunday." 9 In t h i s way, A c t I I m i r r o r s the New Testament, but i t does admit i t s l e s s e r p o s i t i o n . L i k e the Old Testament, the f i r s t h a l f o f p l a y i s more u n i v e r s a l , m y s t i c and a n c i e n t . The second h a l f o f the p l a y d e a l s w i t h more immediate concerns. The s t o r y o f mankind i s t o l d i n the B i b l e and i s be i n g r e t o l d i n the p l a y . Mankind's mother and f a t h e r appear i n the p l a y i n the scene where Gram and Gramp f i n d the snake i n t h e i r bed wh i l e Durer's p i c t u r e o f Adam and Eve i s p r o j e c t e d onto the screen 66 behind. The i n d i v i d u a t i o n o f the human race begins i n t h i s scene d r a m a t i z i n g mankind's l o s s of innocence and the b e g i n n i n g o f t r o u b l e i n p a r a d i s e . The i n d i v i d u a t i o n of mankind i s i n d i c a t e d a g a i n by Tecumseh, who takes the c h i l d r e n t o meet t h e i r own a n c e s t o r s . He i s an an c e s t o r i n s p i r i t t o these c h i l d r e n o f European h e r i t a g e and he invokes t h e i r a n c e s t o r s by c h a n t i n g the names of the European boats of the immigrants. From the a n c e s t o r s of a l l of mankind t o the a n c e s t o r s of Canadians, Reaney then proceeds t o the a n c e s t o r s of i n d i v i d u a l s . S e v e r a l times i n the p l a y , a v e r b a l and p h y s i c a l pyramid i s c o n s t r u c t e d d e s c r i b i n g the number of pa r e n t s and grandparents t h a t one c h i l d has. "And i t takes a l o t o f people t o produce one c h i l d . " 1 0 He then proceeds t o the h i s t o r y o f the immediate f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y the t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s which c r o s s and r e c r o s s each o t h e r i n the p l a y . Reaney i r o n i c a l l y d e s c r i b e s what he i s doing i n the p l a y i n the f o l l o w i n g speech SON: I'm not so fond o f Chicken P i e . . . . i t has h a r d b o i l e d eggs cooked i n i t . I t h i n k t h a t ' s going too f a r . S o r t o f cooking the c h i l d w i t h the mother you  know." (mv emphasis) The sense o f the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f people, o f the m u l t i p l e l a y e r s o f g e n e r a t i o n s w i t h i n one i n d i v i d u a l i s g i v e n added s t r e n g t h by t h i s p o r t r a y a l o f the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s through g e n e r a t i o n s . As w e l l as mankind i n g e n e r a l and the g e n e r a t i o n s , Reaney a l s o p o r t r a y s the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s o f the countr y . 67 Dimly we r e a l i z e t h a t not onl y are we going through the hero's l i f e and s t o r i e s he heard as a c h i l d , but we are goi n g through Canada's s t o r y — g l a c i e r and f o r e s t , a l s o the world's s t o r y . 2 He begins Canada's s t o r y w i t h the Gram's d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i c e age. She remembers when our world was underneath a g l a c i e r , then i t melted and c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s were the f i r s t t o come back. Then came the deciduous hardwoods and t h e y ' r e s t i l l pushing the f i r t r e e s f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r n o r t h . 1 3 The b a t t l e between the c o n i f e r o u s and deciduous t r e e s i s enacted by two teams of c h i l d r e n who b a t t l e each o t h e r u s i n g branches as swords. The human h i s t o r y o f the country i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d . Tecumseh appears, r e p r e s e n t i n g the n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s ; the h i s t o r y o f the c o n f l i c t between Indians and Europeans i s mentioned. The European h e r i t a g e i s evoked by the c h a n t i n g of the names of the boats which brought over the European s e t t l e r s . The Hermit's cement s c u l p t u r e s are of famous f i g u r e s i n Canadian h i s t o r y : f o r example, John A. Macdonald, L o u i s R i e l , Mackenzie King. The modern e r a i s r e c o g n i z e d by the mention o f the Walt Disney f i l m Snow White and the Seven  Dwarfs. A c o n n e c t i o n between p a s t and p r e s e n t i s made i n the scene showing Gramp and Gram as an I n d i a n and B r i t a n n i c a on the Toronto c o a t o f arms. A " s e r i e s o f p h i l o s o p h e r s , t e a c h e r s such as Frye and McLuhan" 1 4 i s shown on the screen. The i n d i v i d u a t i o n o f the country c o n t i n u e s up t o the present day. 6 8 By the end of the p l a y e v e r y t h i n g t h a t Reaney can p o s s i b l y i n c l u d e i n the p l a y has gone through the pro c e s s of i n d i v i d u a t i o n . The scene r e t u r n s t o the b i r t h d a y p a r t y and the s t o r y o f the c h i l d c o l o u r i n g i n the dark f o r 40 days. As i n L i s t e n t o the Wind, t h e r e i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the p l a y has been o n l y a c h i l d ' s dream. In t h i s f i n a l segment, which i n c l u d e s someday, Omega, and the E a r t h , the c h i l d i s allowed t o take h i s bandages o f f . "MOTHER: The S p r i n g has come." 1 5 The year, the c h i l d ' s l i f e , the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s b e g i n again. The ending of the p l a y l e a d s back t o the b e g i n n i n g . T h i s c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e can be seen i n Jungian terms as the archetype o f wholeness and completeness. The " c i r c l e (or sphere) [ i s ] a symbol of the S e l f . I t expresses the t o t a l i t y o f the psyche i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s . " 1 6 The p l a y i t s e l f i s complete, as i s the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s . The s o u l o f the c h i l d has become whole and the c h i l d i s a b l e t o go forward t o l i v e h i s l i f e . T h i s l i f e which has j u s t been pr e s e n t e d on stage, has been w e l l l i v e d and the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n has been completed. The purpose o f both p l a y and p r o t a g o n i s t has been f u l f i l l e d . The f i n a l scene enumerates the number of an c e s t o r s i t takes t o make one c h i l d and the c y c l e begins again. While Reaney has not co n c e n t r a t e d on the archetypes which normally a re most important t o the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s , he has made good use of the archetype which both symbolizes the purpose of h i s p l a y and p r o v i d e s i t s u l t i m a t e form. 69 NOTES 1 James Reaney, Colours i n the Dark, (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1969) i i . 2 Reaney, i . 3 Reaney, i . 4 Reaney, 21. 5 Reaney, 39. 6 Reaney, 12. 7 Reaney, 52-53. 8 Reaney, 61. 9 Reaney, 52. 1 0 Reaney, 24. 1 1 Reaney, 79-80. 1 2 Reaney, 21. 1 3 Reaney, 18. 1 4 Reaney, 66. 1 5 Reaney, 92. 1 6 A n i e l a J a f f e , "Symbolism i n the V i s u a l A r t s " , Man  and H i s Symbols, ed. G.C. Jung and a f t e r h i s death, M.L. von Franz, (London: Aldous, 1964) 240. 7 0 CONCLUSION Reaney has found the Jungian t h e o r y of the archetypes h e l p f u l i n h i s attempts t o dramatize the human s o u l ' s journey t o m a t u r i t y . He has used Jung's f o u r persona scheme of the s o u l , as w e l l as the c h i l d archetype, shadow, anima, wise o l d man, marriage q u a t e r n i o and c i r c l e a r c h e t y p e s . The c h a r a c t e r s he p r e s e n t s on stage d i s p l a y the a t t r i b u t e s of s e v e r a l of these archetypes and the p l a y s themselves take on an a r c h e t y p a l form. In The E a s t e r Egg the Jungian s t r u c t u r e of the s o u l i s p r e s e n t e d i n n e a r l y p e r f e c t form. The anima, shadow and wise o l d man archetypes can be seen i n the c h a r a c t e r s of B e t h e l , P o l l y , George, Kenneth's f a t h e r and I r a . Kenneth at the end of the p l a y becomes the c h i l d archetype which symbolizes both the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n and i t s s u c c e s s f u l completion. I t a l s o r e c o n c i l e s o p p o s i t e s , p o r t r a y e d i n the p l a y by the marriages of the good and e v i l c h a r a c t e r s . In L i s t e n t o the Wind, the archetypes are l e s s important than they are i n The E a s t e r Egg, and have become b l u r r e d and harder t o d i s t i n g u i s h . The s t r u c t u r e i s l o o s e r than i n The E a s t e r Egg, but i s s t i l l e v i d e n t . The main d i f f e r e n c e i s the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y which a l l o w s Reaney t o c r e a t e a d o u b l i n g e f f e c t as each c h a r a c t e r i s not o n l y a c h a r a c t e r i n the main p l a y but a l s o i n the i n n e r p l a y . 71 Reaney has taken the Jungian s t r u c t u r e o f the s o u l and, u s i n g the m u l t i t u d e o f c h a r a c t e r s , p l a y e d w i t h i t t o c r e a t e numerous m u l t i p l e images of the o r i g i n a l . These c h a r a c t e r s as a group a l s o become the marriage g u a t e r n i o archetype which i s i n p a r t the s t r u c t u r e o f the p l a y . T h i s i s the archetype o f the s o u l which i s c r e a t e d by Owen's dream. T h i s dream i s the p l a y w i t h i n the p l a y , and a d r a m a t i z a t i o n of Owen's s o u l . The focus i n t h i s p l a y i s l a r g e r and more encompassing than one c h a r a c t e r as i n The E a s t e r Egg. In C o l o u r s i n the Dark the archetypes are o n l y m i n i m a l l y e v i d e n t i n the c h a r a c t e r s . Instead, the s t r u c t u r e of the p l a y i t s e l f assumes importance. I t i s c i r c u l a r . The end l e a d s t o the beg i n n i n g ; the l i f e t h a t has j u s t been t o l d as a s t o r y i s about t o begin. The p l a y ' s s t r u c t u r e c r e a t e s the archetype o f the sphere, which symbolizes wholeness and the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process completed. The f i n a l archetypes i n a l l the p l a y s symbolize wholeness and the complete s o u l , but a p r o g r e s s i o n i s e v i d e n t i n Reaney's use of them. In The E a s t e r Egg, the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r has become t h i s archetype, t h a t i s , Kenneth has become the c h i l d archetype. In L i s t e n t o the Wind, a group o f c h a r a c t e r s has become the marriage q u a r t e r n i o archetype. In C o l o u r s i n the Dark, the p l a y i t s e l f has become the sphere archetype. The archetypes have become l a r g e r , l e s s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and more encompassing. Reaney wrote The E a s t e r Egg i n 1962, L i s t e n t o the Wind i n 1966 and Col o u r s i n the Dark i n 1967. He then took a 72 l o n g h i a t u s from p l a y w r i g h t i n g because he became obsessed w i t h the s t o r y of the Donnellys, a f a m i l y i n Biddulph, O n t a r i o , who had been murdered by t h e i r neighbours. When he r e t u r n e d t o w r i t i n g p l a y s , i t was t o dramatize the D o n n e l l y s ' s t o r y . He was no l o n g e r i n t e r e s t e d i n the journey o f the s o u l . These c h a r a c t e r s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d the archetypes encountered by the s o u l as i t p r o g r e s s e s through the inward landscape, and a l l the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r s as these archetypes are l o s t . They don't make mi r a c u l o u s r e c o v e r i e s , dream dreams of t h e i r s o u l s , or l i v e out t h e i r whole l i v e s i n f a n t a s y and on stage a t the same time. They are much more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , d e t a i l e d and human. Reaney has become more i n t e r e s t e d i n the c h a r a c t e r s f o r t h e i r own sakes and not f o r t h e i r symbolic q u a l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the s o u l ' s journey t o m a t u r i t y . He now wants t o p o r t r a y l i v i n g people, a " r e a l " s t o r y , so r e a l i n f a c t t h a t i t a c t u a l l y d i d happen. He i s no l o n g e r i n t e r e s t e d i n f a i r y t a l e s o r c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s . The i n d i v i d u a l s t o r y of the incomplete s o u l has l o s t i t s appeal. The s o u l s i n The Donnellys are a l r e a d y i n t a c t . They have an u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h which i s completely formed and unmalleable, though i t i s c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g t e s t e d . The f a n t a s t i c and o t h e r w o r l d l y have become much l e s s important, though the m y t h o l o g i c a l l e v e l remains. Reaney i s s t i l l t r y i n g t o c r e a t e h i s own myth, but i n The Donnellys, the myth i s now p a r t i c u l a r l y Canadian, based as i t i s on an 73 a c t u a l i n c i d e n t i n Canadian h i s t o r y . I t l a c k s the f a i r y -t a l e q u a l i t y of the e a r l y p l a y . Instead of imposing a f a i r y t a l e on a Canadian l o c a l e , Reaney has allowed the l o c a l e t o p r e s e n t him w i t h the s t o r y . He i s seeking t o c r e a t e a Canadian hero of m y t h o l o g i c a l p r o p o r t i o n by u s i n g f a c t s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a t are immediately a v a i l a b l e t o him as a Canadian. L i k e C o l o u r s i n the Dark, The D o n n e l l y s i s i n the form of s h o r t v i g n e t t e s . The v i g n e t t e s i n The Donnellys p o r t r a y . s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s which a c t u a l l y happened t o a c t u a l people, u n l i k e i n C o l o u r s i n the Dark, where the i n c i d e n t s are g e n e r a l i z e d e x p e r i e n c e s of the young person growing up. In both p l a y s , the a c t o r s p l a y a v a r i e t y of c h a r a c t e r s . In The  D o n n e l l y s . however, most of the main c h a r a c t e r s have a c t u a l names, and are not the vague, n o n - s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r s t h a t appear i n Colours i n the Dark. T h i s new involvement i n the e x t e r n a l world makes The  Donnellys p l a y not o n l y much more r e a l i s t i c , but a l s o more t h e a t r i c a l . Reaney's l e a s t Jungian p l a y i s l e s s f a n t a s t i c a l but a l s o more stageworthy. P o s s i b l y the s e d u c t i v e world of the archetypes and the p r o d u c t i o n o f w e l l - c r a f t e d p l a y s are an i n c o m p a t i b l e combination f o r Reaney. A p r o g r e s s i o n can be seen i n Reaney's development as a p l a y w r i g h t . As h i s focus and purpose has changed, so has h i s use o f dramatic d e v i c e s . As h i s p l a y s become more stageworthy, he l e a v e s behind the i n n e r world of mysterious c h a r a c t e r s and t r e a d s more ear t h y ground where the people of everyday l i f e a r e t o be found. As a r e s u l t , h i s p l a y s have become more a c c e s s i b l e t o the t h e a t r e - g o i n g p u b l i c . Ronald Huebert p r a i s e s Reaney f o r making t h i s l e a p from the a r c h e t y p a l world t o the r e a l i s t i c world as evidence of h i s maturing as a p l a y w r i g h t , though he sees the schism t o be between the l y r i c a l world of the poet and the more hard-headed world of the d r a m a t i s t . 1 Though Reaney may w r i t e more s u c c e s s f u l p l a y s w i t h i n the r e a l i s t i c mode, h i s use of the archetypes allowed him t o p o r t r a y on stage the d i f f i c u l t combination of the inward journey o f a s o u l and the happy r e s o l u t i o n o f the comedic s t r u c t u r e . The t a s k he s e t h i m s e l f was d i f f i c u l t and the r e s u l t s may have been flawed, but he i n g e n i o u s l y used the archetypes as an i m a g i n a t i v e s o l u t i o n t o a perhaps i m p o s s i b l e problem. NOTES 1 Ronald Huebert, "James Reaney: Poet and Dramatist" Canadian Theatre Review 13 (1977): 127. 76 WORKS CITED Bowering, George. "Why James Reaney i s a B e t t e r Poet (1) than any Northrop Frye poet (2) than he used t o be." Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 36 (1968): 40-49. Dragland, Stan, ed. Approaches t o the Work of James Reaney. Downsview: ECW Press, 1983. Dragland, Stan. "Afterword: Reaney's Relevance". Dragland 211-235. Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1957. Huebert, Ronald. "James Reaney: Poet and Dramatist." Canadian Theatre Review 13 (1977): 125-28. J a f f e , A n i e l a . "Symbolism i n the V i s u a l A r t s . " Man and His  Symbols. Ed. G.C. Jung and a f t e r h i s death, M.L. von Franz. London: Aldous, 1964. 230-271 Jung, C.G. "Archetypes of the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious." The  C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed. 20 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959. V o l . 9. 3-41. "Background t o the Psychology of C h r i s t i a n A l c h e m i c a l Symbolism". The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed. 20 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959. V o l . 9, i i . 173-183. "The Concept of the C o l l e c t i v e Unconscious." The  C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed. 20 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959. V o l . 9. 42-53. "Conscious, Unconscious and I n d i v i d u a t i o n . " The  C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed. 20 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959. V o l . 9. 275-289. " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Aspects o f the Mother Archetype." The  C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed. 20 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959. V o l . 9. 75-110. "The Psychology o f the C h i l d Archetype." The  C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed. 20 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959. V o l . 9. 151-181. 77 "The F u n c t i o n o f the Unconscious." The C o l l e c t e d Works  of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed. 20 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959. V o l . 7. 173-187. "The Shadow." The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. 2nd ed. 20 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959. V o l . 9, i i . 8-10. "The Syzygy: Anima and Animus." The C o l l e c t e d Works of  C.G. Jung. 2nd ed. 20 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1959. V o l . 9, i i . 11-22. Henderson, Joseph L. "Ancient Myths and Modern Man." Man  and H i s Symbols. Ed. C.G. Jung and a f t e r h i s death, M.L. von Franz. New York: Aldous, 1964. 104-157. Lee, A l v i n A. James Reaney. New York: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. MacPherson, Jay. "Educated Doodle: Some Notes on One-Man Masque", Dragland 93 94. " L i s t e n t o the Wind." Canadian Forum 46 (1966) 136-137. New, W i l l i a m H., ed. Dramatists i n Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1972. Parker, B r a i n . " Is There a Canadian Drama?" The Canadian  Imagination. Ed. David S t a i n e s . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977. 152-187. Reaney, J . Stewart. James Reanev, H a l i f a x : Gage, 1977. Reaney, James. C o l o u r s i n the Dark. Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1969. "The E a s t e r Egg." The Masks of Childhood. Toronto: new p r e s s , 1972. "An Evening w i t h Babble and Doodle: P r e s e n t a t i o n s of P o e t r y . " Canadian L i t e r a t u r e XII ( S p r i n g 1962): 37-43. L i s t e n t o the Wind. Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1975. Schneider, J u l i a . "Negative and P o s i t i v e Elements i n James Reaney's P l a y s . " Canadian Drama 2 1 (1976): 98-114. S t i n g l e , R i c h a r d , " ' a l l t he o l d l e v e l s ' : Reaney and Frye". Dragland 32-62. T a i t , M i c h a e l . " E v e r y t h i n g i s Something: James Reaney's C o l o u r s i n the Dark." New 140-44. 78 von Franz, M.L. "The Process of I n d i v i d u a t i o n . " Man and  H i s Symbols. Ed. C.G. Jung and a f t e r h i s death, M.L. von Franz. London: Aldous, 1964. 158-229. Woodman, Ross G. James Reaney. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1972. WORKS CONSULTED Books Anthony, G e r a l d i n e , ed. Stage V o i c e s : Twelve Canadian P l a y w r i g h t s T a l k about T h e i r L i v e s and Work. Toronto: Doubleday, 1978. Atwood, Margaret. S u r v i v a l : A Thematic Guide t o Canadian  L i t e r a t u r e . Toronto: Anansi, 1972. Frye, Northrop. The Bush Garden. N.p.: Anansi, 1971. Jung, C.G. Memories, Dreams, R e j e c t i o n s . Trans. R i c h a r d and C l a r a Winston. New York: V i n t a g e , 1965. Lee, A l v i n . "A Turn t o The Stage: Reaney's Dramatic Verse. New 114-133. Moore, Mavor. Four Canadian P l a y w r i g h t s : Davies, G e l i n a s ,  Reaney, Ryga. Toronto: H o l t , R i e n h a r t & Winston, 1973 New, W i l l i a m H., ed. Dramatists i n Canada.- Vancouver: UBC Press, 1972. Reaney, James. The Do n n e l l y s . V i c t o r i a : Press P o r c e p i c , 1983. "The K i l l d e e r . " Masks of Childhood. Toronto: New Press, 1972. "Three Desks." Masks of Childhood. Ed. B r a i n Parker Toronto: New Press, 1972. "Night-blooming Cereus." The K i l l d e e r and Other  P l a y s . Toronto: MacMillan, 1962. "Ten Years a t P l a y . " New 70-78. R i p l e y , John. "Drama and T h e a t r e . " L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of  Canada. Ed. C a r l F. K l i n c k . 2nd ed. 3 v o l s . Toronto: U o f T P, 1976. 3:212-32. Rubin, Don and A l i s o n Cranmer-Byng, eds. Canadian P l a y w r i g h t s : A B i o g r a p h i c a l Guide. Toronto: Canadian Theatre Review P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1980. T a i t , M i c h a e l . "The L i m i t s of Innocence: James Reaney's Th e a t r e . " New 135-39. Wallace, Robert and Cy n t h i a Zimmerman, eds. The Work;  Con v e r s a t i o n s w i t h E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n P l a y w r i g h t s . Toronto: Coach House, 1982. Watson, W i l f r e d . "On R a d i c a l A b s u r d i t y : A P r e f a c e . " New 79-87. 81 A r t i c l e s Dudek, L o u i s . "A Problem of Meaning." Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 59 (1974): 16-39. Graham, Hugh. "The Biddulph Feud." Canadian Theatre  Review. 2nd s e r . 8 (1975): 88-89. L i s t e r , Rota. "Recent Canadian Drama: P a s s i o n i n The G a r r i s o n . " E n g l i s h S t u d i e s i n Canada 1 ( F a l l 1976): 353-62. MacLean, G e r a l d M. " S t i c k s and Stones - The Donnelleys -P a r t One." Canadian Drama 2 1 (1976): 125-27. MacPherson, Jay. " L i s t e n t o the Wind." Canadian Forum 46 (1966): 136-37. M i l l e r , Mary Jane. "Colours i n the Dark." Canadian Drama 2 1 (1976): 90-97. Reaney, James. " C y c l e . " Canadian Drama 2 1 (1976): 73-77. "Kids and C r o s s o v e r s . " Canadian Theatre Review 2nd s e r . 10 (1976): 28-31. Rubin Don. "Creeping Toward a C u l t u r e : The Theatre i n E n g l i s h Canada s i n c e 1945." Canadian Theatre Review 1 (1974): 6-21. Souchette, Sandra. " A s s e s s i n g the D o n n e l l y s . " Canadian  Theatre Review 7 (1975) 131-5. Warkentin, G e r a l d i n e . "The A r t i s t i n Labour: James Reaney's P l a y s . " J o u r n a l of Canadian F i c t i o n . 2nd s e r . 1 (1973): 88-91. Waters, E s t h e r . "Crime and No Punishment." Canadian  L i t e r a t u r e 49 (1971): 55-60. 

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