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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A floristic and phytogeographic study of Glacial Mountain and vicinity, northwestern British Columbia Donovan, Laurance S. 1987

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A FLORISTIC AND PHYTOGEOGRAPHIC STUDY OF GLACIAL MOUNTAIN AND VICINITY: NORTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA By LAURANCE S.DONOVAN B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Botany We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l Q L a u r a n c e S. BRITISH COLUMBIA 1987 Donovan, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D E - 6 ( 3 / 8 1 ) ABSTRACT B o t a n i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n in northern B r i t i s h Columbia has lagged behind that of adjacent Alaska and the Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of a l p i n e and sub-alpine areas. For the most p a r t , l i m i t e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y has r e s t r i c t e d p l a n t c o l l e c t i n g to w i t h i n a short d i s t a n c e of the few a v a i l a b l e roadways. During the course of the present study, b o t a n i c a l f i e l d work was conducted i n an a l p i n e , sub-alpine area in the Three S i s t e r s Range of the C a s s i a r Mountains (northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia). Over 1000 v a s c u l a r p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s were i d e n i f i e d from the study area. A t o t a l of 239 Taxa were recognized r e p r e s e n t i n g 116 genera and 44 f a m i l i e s . Taxonomic keys to the l o c a l f l o r a and an annotated s p e c i e s l i s t are p r o v i d e d . The annotated s p e c i e s l i s t i n c l u d e s : h a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r each taxon, a l i s t of a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s and, where a p p l i c a b l e , a d i s c u s s i o n of noteworthy f e a t u r e s of the taxon i n q u e s t i o n . Approximately 13% of the f l o r a examined i s l i s t e d as r a r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia in S t r a l e y e t a l . (1985). V i r t u a l l y a l l of northern B r i t i s h Columbia was o v e r r i d d e n by the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet during the l a s t major Wisconsin advance (approximately 22,000-15,000 y r s . b.p.). P o t e n t i a l Refugia from which taxa now present i n the study area may have migrated p o s t - g l a c i a l l y are d i s c u s s e d . Worldwide d i s t r i b u t i o n s of each taxon were examined and seven phytogeographic elements are recognized i n the f l o r a . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES 1 CHAPTER 1: HISTORY OF BOTANICAL INVESTIGATION IN AREAS ADJACENT TO AND INCLUDING THE STUDY AREA 3 D e t a i l e d H i s t o r i c a l References 3 H i s t o r i c a l O u t l i n e 4 Recent Major C o n t r i b u t i o n s 7 Mi s c e l l a n e o u s B o t a n i c a l Work Conducted i n the V i c i n i t y of the study area 11 CHAPTER 2: GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 14 L o c a t i o n 14 Physiography 15 Geology 16 H i s t o r i c a l 16 Bedrock Geology 16 G l a c i a t i o n 21 Recent Features 23 S o i l s 26 i i i Climate 28 General Climate of the Region 28 L o c a l Climate 30 Ve g e t a t i o n 3 4 The Spruce-Willow-Birch Subalpine Zone 34 A l p i n e Tundra Zone 36 CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS 46 Preparatory S t u d i e s 46 F i e l d Work 46 Herbarium Study 48 CHAPTER 4: FLORISTICS 50 The V a s c u l a r P l a n t F l o r a of G l a c i a l Mountain and V i c i n i t y : Northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia 50 Keys to the L o c a l F l o r a 52 Annotated Species L i s t 104 CHAPTER 5: PHYTOGEOGRAPHY 229 I n t r o d u c t i o n 229 G l a c i a l Refugia 231 B e r i n g i a 231 The C o r d i l l e r a n Region and the "Ice-Free C o r r i d o r " . 236 South of the Wisconsin Ice Sheets 240 A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o 243 C o a s t a l Refugia 245 Phytogeographic Elements of the G l a c i a l Mountain F l o r a 251 Circumpolar A r c t i c - A l p i n e Element 252 Circumpolar Boreal Element 255 i v Amphiberingian Element 256 North American C o r d i l l e r a n Element 257 North American B o r e a l Element 258 Western North American Element 259 North Amercan A r c t i c - A l p i n e Element 260 Summary 261 CONCLUSIONS 262 LITERATURE CITED 266 APPENDIX I: Taxa a s s i g n e d to each Phytogeographic element 282 APPENDIX I I : S e l e c t e d D i s t r i b u t i o n Maps I l l u s t r a t i n g Ranges of each Phytogeographic Element 294 APPENDIX I I I : Rare V a s c u l a r P l a n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia found i n the Study Area 301 v LIST OF TABLES Table I: Temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n data from two Environment Canada weather s t a t i o n s i n the Dease R i v e r Watershed 32 Table I I : A comparison of s e l e c t e d c l i m a t i c data obtained i n the f i e l d through J u l y and August with s i m i l a r data c o l l e c t e d over the same time p e r i o d a t the Dease Lake Environment Canada weather s t a t i o n 33 v i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Study area l o c a t i o n 14 Figure 2: Bedrock geology of the study area 19 Figure 3: S u r f i c i a l landforms of the study area 24 F i g u r e 4: G e n e r a l i z e d v e g e t a t i o n of the study area 40 Figure 5: General views of the study area 42 Figure 6: S e l e c t e d h a b i t a t s of the study area 44 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o express my s i n c e r e thanks to my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , W.B. S c h o f i e l d , f o r h i s a d v i c e , encouragement and e n d l e s s p a t i e n c e . I would a l s o l i k e to thank my committee members, G. Rouse and G. S t r a l e y , f o r t h e i r valued a s s i s t a n c e . I am g r e a t l y indebted to H. G a b r i e l s e and the team of "Operation Dease" of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada f o r p r o v i d i n g a d v i c e , much needed equipment, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and companionship during the f i e l d season. A s s i s t a n c e i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r l y troublesome taxa was f r e e l y given by G. Argus, A. Ceska, G.A. M u l l i g a n and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , K.I. Beamish. A d d i t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement was g i v e n by C y n t h i a Durance and O l i v i a Lee of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Herbarium. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h i s study was p r o v i d e d , i n p a r t , by N.S.E.R.C. gr a n t s to W.B. S c h o f i e l d and a Summer Research F e l l o w s h i p from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. S p e c i a l thanks must go to C h r i s S i e n e s . I c o u l d not have asked f o r a more capable f i e l d a s s i s t a n t and, most importantly, a b e t t e r f r i e n d . To my parents, John and Evelyne Donovan, I extend my g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r encouragement and support, and f i n a l l y , I wish to thank Dale Mar t i n who typed the manuscript and, above a l l , whose f a i t h i n me was a constant i n s p i r a t i o n . v i i i INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES B o t a n i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n s have been conducted i n northwestern Canada and adjacent Alaska f o r over a century. The body of p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s accumulated over t h i s time i s such that few a d d i t i o n s to the f l o r a are expected. Even expert taxonomists, however, d i f f e r widely i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the l i m i t s of taxa i n t h i s r e g i o n . M u l t i p l e advances and r e c e s s i o n s of P l e i s t o c e n e i c e sheets have "...transformed once c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t e r b r e e d i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i n t o r a c i a l i s o l a t e s of v a r y i n g morphological e x p r e s s i o n and a r e a l e x t ent" ( J o r d a l , 1951). In a d d i t i o n , v ast areas remain v i r t u a l l y unexplored b o t a n i c a l l y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of a l p i n e and subalpine h a b i t a t s . Consequently, l a r g e gaps e x i s t i n our knowledge of the t o t a l geographic range and the extent of morphological v a r i a b i l i t y of many taxa. D e t a i l e d phytogeographic and f l o r i s t i c s t u d i e s conducted on a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s c a l e i n Alaska and the Yukon ( G j a e r v o l l , 1958, 1963, 1967; Johnson and Packer, 1965; J o r d a l , 1951; Raup, 1947; S c o t t , 1974) have proved to be of great value i n f i l l i n g i n some of these gaps. S i m i l a r s t u d i e s i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia, however, have been v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . Before a s a t i s f a c t o r y taxonomic treatment of the northern f l o r a can be r e a l i z e d , f u r t h e r d e t a i l e d f l o r i s t i c s t u d i e s are r e q u i r e d . Furthermore, as the r e s u l t s of such s t u d i e s become a v a i l a b l e a more complete phytogeographical a n a l y s i s of t h i s 1 i m p o r t a n t a r e a w i l l be p o s s i b l e . A sense o f u r g e n c y a c c o m p a n i e s t h i s work i n view o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n c r e a s i n g human demands upon n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e b r i n g i n g a b o u t the d e s t r u c t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e h a b i t a t s a t an u n p r e c e d e n t e d r a t e . The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e : A) To c o l l e c t and r e c o r d v a s c u l a r p l a n t t a x a p r e s e n t i n a remote a l p i n e - s u b a l p i n e a r e a o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B) t o p r e p a r e k e y s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s , g e n e r a and s p e c i e s o f p l a n t s c o l l e c t e d C) t o p r o v i d e b r i e f h a b i t a t d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r e a c h t a x o n D) t o b r i e f l y d i s c u s s the o r i g i n o f the f l o r a s i n c e the l a s t r e c e s s i o n o f the P l e i s t o c e n e i c e s h e e t s . I d e a l l y , t h i s work w i l l b o t h s t i m u l a t e and f a c i l i t a t e f u t u r e b o t a n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l a r e a s . 2 CHAPTER 1 HISTORY OF BOTANICAL INVESTIGATION IN AREAS ADJACENT TO AND INCLUDING THE STUDY AREA D e t a i l e d H i s t o r i c a l References In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s " F l o r a of Alaska and Yukon", Hulten (1940) p u b l i s h e d a d e t a i l e d account of the h i s t o r y of b o t a n i c a l work conducted i n Alaska and adjacent t e r r i t o r i e s from the time of Bering's e x p e d i t i o n of d i s c o v e r y i n 1741, up to 1940. With the p u b l i c a t i o n -of the f i n a l volume of t h i s f l o r a , Hulten (1950) i n c l u d e d p e r t i n e n t r e s e a r c h that had been done s i n c e h i s 1940 p u b l i c a t i o n as w e l l as a comprehensive b i b l i o g r a p h y of the most s i g n i f i c a n t taxonomic and f l o r i s t i c works, of a l l p e r i o d s , p e r t i n e n t to the f l o r a with which he d e a l t . A synopsis of major events of b o t a n i c a l i n t e r e s t as w e l l as an updated b i b l i o g r a p h y appear i n the " F l o r a of Alaska and Neighbouring T e r r i t o r i e s " (Hulten, 1968). Raup (1934) f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t e d the h i s t o r y of e x p l o r a t i o n of r e g i o n s a djacent to the study area with c o l o u r f u l accounts of e a r l y b o t a n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the Peace and L i a r d R i v e r r e g i o n s and l a t e r (Raup, 1947), i n the southwestern Mackenzie. A b r i e f h i s t o r y of b o t a n i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n the Yukon was presented by P o r s i l d (1951). Included i n t h i s account was a c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i s t of noteworthy p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s from h i s s p e c i f i c area of i n t e r e s t . A s i m i l a r c h r o n i c l e of e x p l o r a t i o n 3 and c o l l e c t i o n appears i n P o r s i l d and Cody, (1980), updated and expanded to i n c l u d e works of relevance to the e n t i r e c o n t i n e n t a l Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . Although the areas with which the p r e v i o u s authors are p r i m a r i l y concerned are p e r i p h e r a l to the present study area, t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e s to work c a r r i e d out i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia. A d d i t i o n a l u s e f u l r e f e r e n c e s , both h i s t o r i c a l and recent, can be found i n "A F l o r i s t i c B i b l i o g r a p h y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia" (Douglas e t a l . , 1983). General t e x t s and f l o r a s , as w e l l as papers d e a l i n g with taxonomy, f l o r i s t i c s and v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d to be of use to the student of the f l o r a of B r i t i s h Columbia, are l i s t e d i n t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l O u t l i n e The rugged i n t e r i o r of northern B r i t i s h Columbia, the Yukon and Alaska remained v i r t u a l l y unknown, b o t a n i c a l l y , u n t i l the mid-ninteenth c e n t u r y . P r i o r to t h i s time there was l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e to penetrate the formidable b a r r i e r s presented by the Coast Mountains on the west and the Rockies on the e a s t . As a r u l e , those few who d i d venture i n t o the i n t e r i o r d i d so i n the winter when t r a v e l was e a s i e r and i n s e c t s were few, an a p p r o p r i a t e time f o r c o l l e c t i n g p e l t s , not p l a n t s . With the s a l e of the Russian i n t e r e s t i n Alaska to the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1867, a c t i v i t y i n the i n t e r i o r of that t e r r i t o r y i n c r e a s e d and i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the f l o r a slowly began to emerge. Part of t h i s a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d the Western 4 Union Telegraph Company which s e t out to c o n s t r u c t a t e l e g r a p h l i n e from western America to Europe v i a the Bering S t r a i t . Although the o r i g i n a l scheme was never r e a l i z e d , the s c i e n t i f i c community owes much to the e f f o r t . During the course of t h i s p r o j e c t c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l s of the company made s c i e n t i f i c c o l l e c t i o n s . Two notable examples, W i l l i a m D a l l and Robert K e n n i c o t t , are c r e d i t e d with making the f i r s t b o t a n i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s i n the Yukon and i n t e r i o r A l a s k a . Most of the specimens they c o l l e c t e d are housed i n the N a t i o n a l Herbarium i n Wa shington (US). Towards the end of the n i n t e e n t h century, the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d p r e c i p i t a t e d the next f l u r r y of a c t i v i t y i n the n o r t h . Although b o t a n i c a l s t u d i e s were not foremost i n the minds of the new immigrants, a c c o r d i n g to Hulten, "Prospectors who found no g o l d t r i e d to cover the expenses of the t r i p , at l e a s t i n p a r t , by c o l l e c t i n g p l a n t s f o r s a l e . Others were f a s c i n a t e d by the b e a u t i f u l f l o r a of t h i s country and s t a r t e d p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s " (Hulten,1940). In a d d i t i o n to those seeking t h e i r f o r t u n e s , the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d a l s o a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada and e x p e d i t i o n s were soon mounted to the most remote re g i o n s of the i n t e r i o r . F o r t u n a t e l y , these e x p e d i t i o n s p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on the f l o r a of the areas under i n v e s t i g a t i o n and many va l u a b l e p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s were made. These c o l l e c t i o n s were d e p o s i t e d i n the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada Herbarium, adding c o n s i d e r a b l y to the resource bank of what was to become the N a t i o n a l Herbarium of Canada (CAN). 5 From the standpoint of the present study, the most important e a r l y b o t a n i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s made under the a u s p i c e s of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, were those of George Mercer Dawson. In 1887, he conducted a p a r t y from the mouth of the S t i k i n e R i v e r to Telegraph Creek, then overland to Dease Lake, some 25 km from the present study area. From Dease Lake the e x p e d i t i o n continued n o r t h to the Yukon. During the course of h i s journey, Dawson made ex t e n s i v e p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t , f o r many years, were the only specimens a v a i l a b l e from the r e g i o n . A l i s t of p l a n t s c o l l e c t e d by Dawson was p u b l i s h e d by John Macoun (1888), who a t that time h e l d the t i t l e of N a t u r a l i s t to the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada. In a d d i t i o n to c o l l e c t i n g p l a n t s , Dawson p u b l i s h e d a map of the p r i n c i p a l v e g e t a t i o n boundaries, encountered along with u s e f u l notes on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r e e s and shrubs (Dawson, 1888). G e o l o g i c a l Survey e x p e d i t i o n s s i n c e Dawson's time have continued to y i e l d v a l u a b l e p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s . R e g r e t t a b l y , few of the r e s u l t s of these have been p u b l i s h e d . Use of a i r c r a f t to gain access to remote areas of the i n t e r i o r was the next major development that opened a whole new chapter i n northern b o t a n i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n . Regions once impossible to reach were f i n a l l y a c c e s s i b l e . The f i r s t p u b l i s h e d account of a e r i a l reconnaissance i n the v i c i n i t y of the study area was that of Dr. C h a r l e s Camsell (1936). He flew from Wrangell Alaska to Dease Lake and from there eastward over the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u , photographing and d e s c r i b i n g much p r e v i o u s l y uncharted w i l d e r n e s s . 6 S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , the s t r a t e g i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of A l a s k a , from a m i l i t a r y s t a n d p o i n t , prompted the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an overland l i n k from Dawson Creek to F a i r b a n k s . In 1942 t h i s route, now c a l l e d the Alaska Highway, was opened to the p u b l i c . Soon, numerous other roads were c o n s t r u c t e d opening up supply l i n e s and connecting p r e v i o u s l y i s o l a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s . R e l a t i v e l y easy access was now a v a i l a b l e to amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l b o t a n i s t s and the number of important p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s i n c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g l y . S u f f i c i e n t herbarium specimens and d e s c r i p t i v e papers were soon a v a i l a b l e to provide a foundation upon which major f l o r i s t i c works c o u l d be b u i l t . Recent Major C o n t r i b u t i o n s U n t i l as r e c e n t l y as the l a t e 1930's, l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to the f l o r a of the r e g i o n of i n t e r e s t was s c a t t e r e d w i d e l y . One of the f i r s t i n d i v i d u a l s to s y n t h e s i z e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and combine i t with h i s own wealth of experience i n a major f l o r i s t i c work was Jacob Peter Anderson. R e s i d i n g i n Alaska from 1914 u n t i l 1940, he t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y throughout the country c o l l e c t i n g p l a n t s a t every a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y . Although h i s c o l l e c t i o n of some 3300 numbers was destroyed by f i r e i n 1924, he began again, and by 1940 had amassed the l a r g e s t c o l l e c t i o n of Alaskan p l a n t s then i n e x i s t e n c e . A f t e r moving to Iowa i n 1941, he r e t u r n e d on four separate occasions (1941, 1944, 1946 and 1948) to c o l l e c t along the newly c o n s t r u c t e d highways i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia, the Yukon and A l a s k a . The f i n a l r e s u l t of h i s d e d i c a t e d work was the 7 p u b l i c a t i o n , i n nine p a r t s , of a p r e l i m i n a r y f l o r a of Alaska and adjacent p a r t s of Canada (Anderson 1943-1952). The J.P. Anderson Herbarium of A r c t i c and Boreal P l a n t s now forms a permanent p a r t of the Iowa State U n i v e r s i t y Herbarium ( I A ) . Like Anderson, E r i c Hulten devoted a major p o r t i o n of h i s l i f e to the study of the a r c t i c and b o r e a l f l o r a . H i s work i n Kamchatka i n the 1920's, aroused an i n t e r e s t i n the phytogeographical r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the northern f l o r a which l e d to the p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s "Outline of the h i s t o r y of a r c t i c and b o r e a l b i o t a during the Quaternary p e r i o d " (Hulten, 1937). Hulten then focused h i s a t t e n t i o n on the Alaskan and Yukon f l o r a s r e c o g n i z i n g , as d i d Anderson, the need to s y n t h e s i z e the s c a t t e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n e x i s t e n c e a t that time. H i s ten volume " F l o r a of Alaska and Yukon" (1941-1950) r e p r e s e n t s the c u l m i n a t i o n of t h i s e f f o r t . T h i s work d i f f e r s from that of Anderson's i n that i t does not provide keys to the f a m i l i e s and genera represented i n the f l o r a nor does i t i n c l u d e s p e c i e s d e s c r i p t i o n s or i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Rather, i t was intended to r e s o l v e the taxonomic i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of p r e v i o u s authors and to d e t a i l , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l taxa. F u r t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s , d e a l i n g p r i m a r i l y with p l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Hulten, 1958; 1962), followed e x t e n s i v e f i e l d work. Working with a c o n s i d e r a b l y expanded resource base, Hulten (1968) produced the " F l o r a of Alaska and Neighbouring T e r r i t o r i e s " . An i n d i s p e n s i b l e manual f o r both amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l b o t a n i s t ; i t c o n t a i n s keys, s p e c i e s d e s c r i p t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s as w e l l as l o c a l and worldwide d i s t r i b u t i o n 8 maps f o r each accepted taxon. Reference m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s work c o n s i s t e d mainly of c o l l e c t i o n s housed at the State Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y at Stockholm (S), the N a t i o n a l Herbarium at Washington, D.C. (US), the Gray Herbarium at Harvard (GH), the N a t i o n a l Herbarium of Canada at Ottawa (CAN), the Herbarium of the U n i v e r s i t y of Alaska at Fairbanks (ALA) and the Herbarium of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC) . C o l l e c t i o n s made by Hulten during h i s work i n Alaska and the Yukon were d e p o s i t i e d at the State Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y at Stockholm (S) and the Herbarium of the U n i v e r s i t y of Alaska (ALA). F u r t h e r major c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the knowledge of the b o r e a l and a r c t i c f l o r a of North America were made by A.E. P o r s i l d . He p u b l i s h e d some work on the Alaskan f l o r a ( P o r s i l d , 1939, 1966a), however, h i s major e f f o r t s were concentrated i n the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . T r a v e l l i n g e x t e n s i v e l y throughout t h i s v a s t r e g i o n , he made numerous important p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s , adding s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the l i s t of p l a n t s known to occur t h e r e . In 1944 he conducted a d e t a i l e d b o t a n i c a l study i n the southeastern Yukon along the newly c o n s t r u c t e d Canol Road. P o r s i l d ' s r e p o r t (1951) p r o v i d e s a complete catalogue of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s r e p o r t e d from the e n t i r e Yukon t e r r i t o r y , d e s c r i p t i o n s of p l a n t communities encountered during h i s study and a phytogeographic a n a l y s i s of the f l o r a of the southeastern Yukon. He l a t e r c a r r i e d h i s study to the southwestern Yukon, c o l l e c t i n g p l a n t s along the Haines Road and Alaska Highway. 9 I n c o r p o r a t i n g h i s f i n d i n g s with those of other b o t a n i s t s (Raup, 1944, 1945; Crum and S c h o f i e l d , 1957NP) he p u b l i s h e d an annotated l i s t of noteworthy a d d i t i o n s and range e x t e n s i o n s to the f l o r a of the southwestern Yukon i n c l u d i n g maps of t h e i r North American d i s t r i b u t i o n s ( P o r s i l d , 1966b). The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Dempster Highway allowed P o r s i l d to f i l l a larg e gap i n h i s Yukon c o l l e c t i o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of " M a t e r i a l s f o r a f l o r a of C e n t r a l Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s " ( P o r s i l d , 1974) . P o r s i l d ' s treatments of the f l o r a of the NWT (1943; 1945), and l a t e r work i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with W i l l i a m Cody (Cody and P o r s i l d , 1968; P o r s i l d and Cody, 1968) l a i d the groundwork f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of "Vascular P l a n t s of the C o n t i n e n t a l Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Canada" ( P o r s i l d and Cody, 1980). T h i s important work p r o v i d e s keys, s p e c i e s d e s c r i p t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s and North American range maps ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s range maps) f o r most of the taxa known to occur i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . In a d d i t i o n to the s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y enumerated, P o r s i l d ' s papers on the Canadian A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o (1955, 1957) and h i s "Geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of some elements i n the f l o r a of Canada" (1958) provide v a l u a b l e maps of the Canadian d i s t r i b u t i o n s of c e r t a i n a r c t i c and b o r e a l p l a n t s . Most of the e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n s made by P o r s i l d , throughout some f o r t y - f i v e years of a c t i v i t y i n the Canadian north, are to be found i n the N a t i o n a l Herbarium of Canada (CAN). 10 Considerable f l o r i s t i c and phytogeographic work was conducted i n northern Canada by H.M. Raup. Taking p a r t i n an e x p e d i t i o n launched by the A r n o l d Arboretum i n 1932, Raup spent 3 1/2 months studying the f l o r a of the Peace and L i a r d R i v e r r e g i o n s . H i s account of the t r i p (Raup, 1934) i n c l u d e s the f i r s t comprehensive annotated l i s t of s p e c i e s from the area as w e l l as the f i r s t e f f o r t a t a phytogeographic a n a l y s i s of the f l o r a . L a t e r phytogeographic s t u d i e s i n the s o u t h - c e n t r a l Mackenzie (Raup, 1935, 1936, 1942) enabled a much more accurate d e p i c t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the b o r e a l f l o r a . Perhaps Raup's most important work with r e s p e c t to the present study, was h i s "Botany of the southwestern Mackenzie" (Raup, 1947). In t h i s work he p r o v i d e d a d i s c u s s i o n of l o c a l p l a n t communities, an annotated l i s t of a l l p l a n t s c o l l e c t e d from the southwest Mackenzie, a phytogeographical treatment of the Mackenzie Mountain f l o r a i n l i g h t of hypotheses r e c e n t l y advanced by F e r n a l d (1925) and Hulten (1939) and maps of the Canadian d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s p e c i e s he encountered a t B r i t n e l l Lake . Most of the specimens c o l l e c t e d during Raup's v i s i t s to northern Canada are now housed at the A r n o l d Arboretum a t Harvard (A), the Gray Herbarium a t Harvard (GH) and the N a t i o n a l Herbarium of Canada (CAN). M i s c e l l a n e o u s B o t a n i c a l Work Conducted i n the V i c i n i t y of the  Study Area Welsh and Rigby spent the summer of 1969 c o l l e c t i n g p l a n t s 11 throughout a p o r t i o n of North C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia which encompassed the p r e s e n t study area. T h e i r p u b l i s h e d f i n d i n g s i n c l u d e b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of p l a n t communities encountered and an annotated l i s t of 205 s p e c i e s of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s (Welsh and Rigby, 1971). B u t t r i c k (1977), p u b l i s h e d a study of the a l p i n e f l o r a of Teresa I s l a n d , A t l i n Lake, l o c a t e d approximately 250 km northwest of the study area. Based on r e s e a r c h conducted f o r h i s D o c t o r a l t h e s i s (1978), t h i s paper c o n t a i n s a comprehensive l i s t of a l p i n e v a s c u l a r p l a n t s encountered dur i n g the course of h i s r e s e a r c h , h a b i t a t types i n which they were found, and a d i s c u s s i o n of those taxa with noteworthy d i s t r i b u t i o n s . F i e l d surveys i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia, conducted as p a r t of the E c o l o g i c a l Reserves Program, r e s u l t e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of a number of new records and range e x t e n s i o n s of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s (Pojar e t a l . , 1975). Much of the p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n was done w i t h i n the general v i c i n i t y of the study area. P o j a r (1986), l a t e r prepared a v e g e t a t i o n r e p o r t f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s , concerning the Gladys Lake E c o l o g i c a l Reserve, l o c a t e d approximately 75 km southwest of the study area. The E c o l o g i c a l Reserves Program encourages r e s e a r c h work w i t h i n the boundaries of e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s . A l i s t of r e p o r t s and p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s i s p u b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t r y of Environment and Parks (1986). C o l l e c t i o n s of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s from a l p i n e and subalpine l o c a l i t i e s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the study area were made by: S z c z a w i n s k i , 1960; Beamish e t a l . , 1973; K r a j i n a e t a l . , 1973; 12 K r a j i n a , 1975 and P o j a r , 1975. Although the r e s u l t s of these c o l l e c t i o n s were not p u b l i s h e d , s p e c i e s l i s t s and herbarium specimens were d e p o s i t e d i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Herbarium (UBC). In a d d i t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n s taken by Demarchi (19 80), i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the "Cry Lake B i o p h y s i c a l Inventory" (Fenger, 1982) are de p o s i t e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum Herbarium (V). These c o l l e c t i o n s are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s i n c e some were taken w i t h i n the boundaries of the study area. 13 CHAPTER 2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA L o c a t i o n The most prominent . f e a t u r e of the study area l i s t e d i n the G a z e t t e e r of Canada (1966) i s G l a c i a l Mountain, f i x e d a t a p o s i t i o n of 58° 129° SE ( q u a d r i l a t e r a l indexing system). R i s i n g to an e l e v a t i o n of 2306 m a . s . l . i t i s the h i g h e s t peak i n the Three S i s t e r s Range of the C a s s i a r Mountains. The settlement n e a r e s t the study area i s the town of Dease Lake, s i t u a t e d F i g u r e 1: Study Area L o c a t i o n approximately 35 km to the NW on the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Highway. C o l l e c t i o n s were taken throughout an area of roughly 100 square k i l o m e t e r s bordered on the n o r t h by a l a r g e , d r i f t f i l l e d v a l l e y , through which flows the McBride R i v e r ; on the west by a steep, v o l c a n i c r i d g e extending to the northern f l a n k of Horn Mountain; on the south by p o r t i o n s of the H o t a i l u h B a t h o l i t h and 14 on the e a s t by a s e r i e s of unnamed l a k e s connected by a r i v e r that flows u l t i m a t e l y i n t o the McBride R i v e r . Physiography The study area l i e s w i t h i n the S t i k i n e Ranges of the I n t e r i o r P h y s i o g r a p h i c System of Holland (1976). These ranges are g e o l o g i c a l l y complex, c o n s i s t i n g of f o l d e d sedimentary and v o l c a n i c rocks of the McLeod S e r i e s (Hanson and McNaughton, 1936) i n t r u d e d by g r a n i t i c rocks of the C a s s i a r and H o t a i l u h B a t h o l i t h s (Holland, 1976; Anderson, 1978, 1979; G a b r i e l s e , 1979; Ryder, 1985). E l e v a t i o n s w i t h i n the study area range from 1540 m on the v a l l e y f l o o r s to 2306 m a t the summit of G l a c i a l Mountain. The t e r r a i n i n the south i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the rugged mountains of the Three S i s t e r s Range. Ci r q u e s are common and s m a l l , remnant g l a c i e r s can be seen on the no r t h face of both G l a c i a l and Horn Mountains. V a l l e y s i n t h i s p o r t i o n of the study area are steep and narrow. In sharp c o n t r a s t to t h i s i s the wide, d r i f t - f i l l e d v a l l e y to the n o r t h . Here r e l i e f i s gentle and the few h i l l s are rounded. G l a c i a l Mountain marks the headwaters of the McBride R i v e r (Gazeteer of Canada, 1966), which d r a i n s the study area. The McBride i s a major t r i b u t a r y of the S t i k i n e R i v e r and, as such, forms p a r t of the P a c i f i c drainage system (Fenger, 1982). A topographic o v e r l a y of the study area, as d e p i c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g maps ( f i g u r e s 2, 3, 4), i s i n c l u d e d i n a pocket at the back of t h i s paper. The contour l i n e s r e p r e s e n t i n t e r v a l s of 15 approximately 150 m (modified a f t e r NTS map sheet 104 I ) . Geology Hi s t o r i c a l : The C e n t r a l P l a t e a u and Mountain Area, which i n c l u d e s the C a s s i a r Mountains, was profoundly a f f e c t e d by the Coast Mountain orogeny. L a s t i n g from e a r l y J u r a s s i c through the Cretaceous, the e n t i r e r e g i o n was s u b j e c t e d to c o n s i d e r a b l e f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g of sedimentary and v o l c a n i c rocks and the i n t r u s i o n of g r a n i t i c b a t h o l i t h s ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Holland, 1976). Ex t e n s i v e metamorphism accompanied these events i n the area of i n t e r e s t ( F a r l e y , 1979; Hanson and McNaughton, 1936). Regional u p l i f t , which occurred once i n the e a r l y T e r t i a r y and again i n the l a t e T e r t i a r y , was f o l l o w e d on each o c c a s i o n by intense stream e r o s i o n . These e r o s i o n a l sequences removed much of the sedimentary and v o l c a n i c cover from the more r e s i s t a n t g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i o n s , l e a v i n g numerous l a r g e outcrops exposed, such as those of the H o t a i l u h B a t h o l i t h (Anderson, 1978; Fenger, 1982; Hanson and McNaughton, 1936; Holland, 1976). Thus, the g e n e r a l r e l i e f of the area was e s t a b l i s h e d by the l a t e T e r t i a r y . Subsequent m o d i f i c a t i o n has been e f f e c t e d by advances and r e t r e a t s of the P l e i s t o c e n e Ice Sheets and r e c e n t e r o s i o n a l p r o c e s s e s (Fenger, 1982; Holland, 1976). Bedrock Geology: The f i r s t e x t e n s i v e g e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n s to i n c l u d e the r e g i o n of i n t e r e s t were c a r r i e d out by Hanson and McNaughton who 16 d e s c r i b e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n G e o l o g i c a l Survey Memoir 194 (1936). According to these authors, the sedimentary and v o l c a n i c rocks found i n the study area form p a r t of the McLeod S e r i e s . T h i s s e r i e s i s d e s c r i b e d as "...a r a t h e r complex interbedded assemblage of v o l c a n i c fragmental rocks and flows, and minor amounts of sandstone, greywacke, c h e r t y q u a r t z i t e and conglomerate" (Hanson and McNaughton, 1936). I n t r u d i n g t h i s country rock, and adding f u r t h e r complexity, are v a r i o u s phases of the H o t a i l u h B a t h o l i t h (Anderson, 1979, 1980; G a b r i e l s e , 1979; G a b r i e l s e , 1980; Hanson and McNaughton, 1936; Ryder, 1985; Welsh and Rigby, 1971. F i g u r e 2 m o d i f i e d a f t e r G a b r i e l s e (1979) i l l u s t r a t e s the g e n e r a l l o c a t i o n of these v a r i o u s g e o l o g i c formations w i t h i n the study area. D e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n and emplacement h i s t o r y of p l u t o n s w i t h i n the H o t a i l u h B a t h o l i t h are p r o v i d e d by Anderson (1978, 1979, 1980). Younger phases of the H o t a i l l u h B a t h o l i t h r epresented by l a r g e outcrops of the Snowdrift Creek s a t e l l i t i c stock appear i n the n o r t h - c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the study area ( l a b e l l e d mJgd i n f i g u r e 2). These c o n s i s t mainly of b i o t i t e - h o r n b l e n d e quartz monzodiorite. These i n t r u d e , i n c l u d e and metamorphose aug i t e porphyry and p o s s i b l y a r k o s i c sediments. The age of t h i s stock i s given as 147 +/- 5 Ma. (Anderson, 1980). O l d e r phases of the H o t a i l u h B a t h o l i t h , notably outcrops of the Cake H i l l P l u t o n s , are exposed in the southern p o r t i o n of the study area ( l a b e l l e d UTgd). These c o n s i s t mainly of hornblende s y e n o d i o r i t e , hornblende g r a n o d i o r i t e and hornblende monzonite and are a s s i g n e d r a d i o m e t r i c ages of roughly 215 Ma. 17 (Anderson, 1979; G a b r i e l s e , 1979). The remaining formations i n the study area are made up of v o l c a n i c and sedimentary r o c k s . The v o l c a n i c s to the e a s t and west of the la r g e lake on f i g u r e 2 ( l a b e l l e d TJv) e x i s t as massive flows of predominantly f i n e g rained, p o r p h y r i t i c a n d e s i t e s i n t e r c a l a t e d with t u f f s and agglomerates. In a d d i t i o n , zones of maroon-weathering v o l c a n i c s are a l s o found w i t h i n t h i s area (Anderson, 1980; G a b r i e l s e , 1979; Hanson and McNaughton, 1936). Although no p r e c i s e age i s given, these rocks are thought to be of e a r l y J u r a s s i c and l a t e T r i a s s i c age on the b a s i s of r e g i o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s (Anderson, 1980; G a b r i e l s e , 1979). The S t u h i n i Formation (UTST) i s made up of a combination of v o l c a n i c and sedimentary rocks of Upper T r i a s s i c age. The v o l c a n i c s c o n s i s t of aug i t e and coarse-bladed p l a g i o c l a s e porphyry b r e c c i a and flows. L o c a l b a s a l conglomerates, s i l t s t o n e and greywacke c o n s t i t u t e the sedimentary component. The Takwahoni Formation ( i J t ) i n the nor t h e a s t c o r n e r of the study area c o n s i s t s of middle J u r a s s i c sedimentary rocks which i n c l u d e l o c a l b a s a l conglomerates, s i l t s t o n e and greywacke ( G a b r i e l s e , 1979). 18 Figure 2 : Bedrock geology of the study area (modified a f t e r G a b r i e l s e e t a l . , 1978) Legend mJgd - G r a n o d i o r i t e , d i o r i t e ; i n c l u d e s younger phases of H o t a i l u h B a t h o l i t h , hornblende-b i o t i t e s y e n i t e , g r a n i t e and monzonite, hornblende d i o r i t e and Middle s y e n o d i o r i t e . J u r a s s i c Me s o z o i c i J t - Takwahoni formation: greywacke, shale , minor conglomerate. Upper T r i a s s i c & Lower J u r a s s i c TJv - F e l d s p a r porphyry; agglomerate, b r e c c i a , t u f f , p art maroon weathering. i n UTST - S t u h i n i Formation: augite and coarse-bladed p l a g i o c l a s e porphyry b r e c c i a and flows; l o c a l b a s a l conglomerate, s i l t s t o n e , greywacke. Upper T r i a s s i c UTgd - H o t a i l u h B a t h o l i t h , Older Phases: hornblende s y e n o d i o r i t e to g r a n o d i o r i t e . 19 G l a c i a t i o n : V i r t u a l l y a l l of the land s u r f a c e of B r i t i s h Columbia was m o d i f i e d by c y c l i c advances and r e c e s s i o n s of g l a c i a l i c e - s h e e t s throughout the P l e i s t o c e n e epoch. The C a s s i a r Ranges, which include the study area, are b e l i e v e d to have been one of the c e n t e r s of i c e accumulation during t h i s time (Holland, 1976). The l a s t advance to have had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the study area was contemporary with that of the F r a s e r G l a c i a t i o n ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Armstrong e t a l . , 1968). P r e c i s e l y when t h i s episode of g l a c i a t i o n began i n the r e g i o n i s u n c e r t a i n , however, evidence from other p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia suggests a probable time of 20-22,000 years b.p. ( A l l e y and Young, 1978). At i t s maximum ex t e n t (approximately 15,000 years b.p.) s u f f i c i e n t i c e had accumulated to e r a d i c a t e , or at l e a s t l a r g e l y obscure, the e f f e c t s of p r e v i o u s g l a c i a t i o n s ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Holland, 1976). The o r i e n t a t i o n of drumlins and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e r r a t i c s along l o c a l r i v e r v a l l e y s i n d i c a t e t h a t the l a s t movement of i c e i n the study area was to the n o r t h (Fenger, 1982; Hanson and McNaughton, 1936). G r a n i t i c and v o l c a n i c boulders from mountains i n the study area are found on a l l but the h i g h e s t peaks b o r d e r i n g nearby r i v e r v a l l e y s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t l o c a l v a l l e y g l a c i e r s a t t a i n e d a minimum t h i c k n e s s of 610 m (Hanson and McNaughton, 1936). Although t h i s i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e estimate compared with f i g u r e s of up to 2100 m. g i v e n by Fenger (1982), i t i s of i n t e r e s t that Hanson and McNaughton observed hanging v a l l e y s nearby which "... l i e t r a n s v e r s e to the 21 d i r e c t i o n of movement of the P l e i s t o c e n e i c e - s h e e t and do not appear to have been g l a c i a t e d " (Hanson and McNaughton, 1936). D e g l a c i a t i o n f e a t u r e s such as the occurrence of meltwater channels and s p i l l w a y s c r o s s i n g between c o l s high i n the r e l i e f or between c r i q u e s ; the l o c a t i o n of kame t e r r a c e s , eskers and outwash fans and the absence of r e c e s s i o n a l moraines i n d i c a t e that the end of the l a s t episode of g l a c i a t i o n i n t h i s area was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the r a p i d , ir\ s i t u down wasting of i c e ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Fenger, 1982). A c c o r d i n g l y , the h i g h e r peaks and r i d g e s became i c e - f r e e e a r l i e r than the v a l l e y s where i c e stagnated. T h i s stagnant i c e e v e n t u a l l y separated i n t o d i s c o n t i n u o u s b l o c k s , before melting a l t o g e t h e r (Fenger, 1982). The p r e c i s e time of d e g l a c i a t i o n i s u n c l e a r but i t seems probable t h a t v a l l e y s i n the study area were free of g l a c i e r s approximately 10,000 years ago (Rouse, p e r s . comm.). The disappearance of g l a c i e r s from most major v a l l e y s i n the southern p o r t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia at t h i s time ( F u l t o n , 1971) supports t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . F u r t h e r evidence i s p r o v i d e d by a minimum ra d i o c a r b o n date of 10,100 +/- 90 years b.p. (G.S.C.-2036) f o r d e g l a c i a t i o n of the Omineca R i v e r V a l l e y ( A l l e y and Young, 1978) s i t u a t e d approximately 360 km SSW of the study area. According to H o l l a n d (1976), the growth of g l a c i e r s i n t o a r e g i o n a l i c e - s h e e t f o l l o w s a more or l e s s p r e d i c t a b l e p a t t e r n i n mountainous ar e a s . Small c i r q u e g l a c i e r s g r a d u a l l y expand i n t o mountain and v a l l e y g l a c i e r s . These, i n t u r n , grow to form mountain i c e - c a p s , the movement of which i s c o n t r o l l e d by the 22 u n d e r l y i n g topography. U l t i m a t e l y , these mountain i c e - c a p s c o a l e s c e to form a r e g i o n a l i c e - s h e e t that moves l a r g e l y i n response to c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s , more or l e s s independent of the u n d e r l y i n g t e r r a i n . These v a r i o u s stages of g l a c i a t i o n produce many of the prominent s u r f i c i a l landforms observed i n the study area. Large c i r q u e s , such as those i n evidence on the n o r t h - f a c i n g peaks of Horn and G l a c i a l Mountains are produced by expanding mountain g l a c i e r s (Holland, 1976; S t r a h l e r , 1975). Broad, U-shaped v a l l e y s such as the one l o c a t e d i n the northern p o r t i o n of the study area r e s u l t from the growth of v a l l e y g l a c i e r s ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Holland, 1976). D e p o s i t i o n a l landforms observed from a e r i a l photographs of the study area (Figure '3) i n c l u d e a medial moraine (Mm) which i s formed where two i c e streams j o i n ; t i l l (T) and t i l l p l a i n s (TP) which are d e p o s i t e d d i r e c t l y from the i c e without water t r a n s p o r t ( S t r a h l e r , 1975); and outwash t e r r a c e s (OT) and kame-esker complexes (KE) which r e s u l t from the down wasting of i c e ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Fenger, 1982). Recent F e a t u r e s : A number of geomorphic processes have been at work to f u r t h e r modify the study area s i n c e the P l e i s t o c e n e (Figure 3). The most dramatic of these are brought about as a r e s u l t of the p e r i g l a c i a l a c t i v i t y and i n c l u d e v a r i o u s forms of mass wasting, in p a r t i c u l a r the formation of c o l l u v i a l fans (CF) and t a l u s s l o p e s ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Fenger, 1982; Ryder, 1985). Minor g l a c i a l advances o c c u r r i n g approximately 5000 years b.p., 23 Figure 3 : S u r f i c i a l land forms of the study area Legend AF - A l l u v i a l Fan CF - C o l l u v i a l Fan FP - Flood P l a i n KE - Kame-Esker Complex Mm - Medial Moraine OT - Outwash Terrace R & R/T - Rock and T i l l over Rock; C o l l u v i a l Fans Common T - G l a c i a l T i l l TP - T i l l P l a i n T/R - T i l l over Rock 3000 years b.p. and again w i t h i n the l a s t 1000 years ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; H o l l a n d , 1976) accentuated these p r o c e s s e s . S o i l s S o i l s throughout the study area were at best, weakly developed. In a l p i n e environments, mechanical r a t h e r than chemical weathering p l a y s the dominant r o l e i n s o i l f ormation. As a r e s u l t , s o i l s are g e n e r a l l y medium to coarse t e x t u r e d and t h e r e f o r e r a p i d l y d r a i n e d . Steep t e r r a i n i n c o n j u n c t i o n with r e g u l a r freeze-thaw c y c l e s render the landscape prone to mass wasting as evidenced by c o l l u v i a l fans, t a l u s s l o p e s , n i v a t i o n hollows and s o l i f l u c t i o n l o b e s . Furthermore, the severe c l i m a t e r e s u l t s i n widespread c r y o t u r b a t i o n r e f l e c t e d by the presence of f r o s t hummocks, mud b o i l s and s o r t e d c i r c l e s i n the v a l l e y s and s o r t e d s t r i p e s on rocky s l o p e s of higher e l e v a t i o n s . Under such c o n d i t i o n s the development of a mature, s t a b l e s o i l p r o f i l e , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o r e c o g n i z a b l e h o r i z o n s i s r a r e l y , i f ever, achieved (French, 1976; R i t c h i e , 1984; Tedrow and Cantlan, 1958). The study area was i n c l u d e d i n the "Cry Lake B i o p h y s i c a l Inventory" ( N a t i o n a l Topographic S e r i e s , map 1041) conducted by Fenger (1982). In t h i s study, two g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s regarding l o c a l s o i l development were made: 1) There i s a trend towards i n c r e a s i n g depth of organic l a y e r s with i n c r e a s i n g s o i l moisture. Rapidly d r a i n e d s o i l s e x h i b i t l i t t l e or no o r g a n i c accumulation i n or above the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n . Moderately w e l l to p o o r l y d r a i n e d s o i l s on the 26 other hand, tend towards i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s of organic matter both in and above the surface h o r i z o n . 2) S o i l depth tends to increase as e l e v a t i o n decreases. L i t t l e or no p r o f i l e development i s observed above t r e e l i n e while subalpine areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l l e y s , e x h i b i t at l e a s t p a r t i a l p r o f i l e development. S p e c i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s based on f i e l d data gathered by Fenger showed that w e l l to p o o r l y d r a i n e d B r u n i s o l s and G l e y s o l s t y p i f i e d the broad, d r i f t - f i l l e d v a l l e y i n the n o r t h of the study area. S o i l s of the steep, rocky t e r r a i n i n the west, south and p o r t i o n s of the e a s t were predominantly coarse t e x t u r e d , Podzols and p o o r l y weathered, t h i n c o l d Regosols. The v a l l e y which f l a n k s G l a c i a l Mountain on the west, n o r t h and e a s t (roughly c o i n c i d i n g with the 1676 m. contour l i n e ) was not sampled. E x t r a p o l a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from s i m i l a r s i t e s , however, l e d Fenger to conclude that the area would most l i k e l y be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by weakly developed Podzols, B r u n i s o l s and G l e y s o l s (Fenger, 1982; Fenger p e r s . comm., 1986). In a d d i t i o n to the s o i l types r e p o r t e d by Fenger, l o c a l i z e d F i b r i s o l s were observed a t the n o r t h end of the l a r g e lake a t the f o o t of G l a c i a l Mountain and immediately to the west of the lake on the e a s t e r n boundary of the study area. ( A l l s o i l types quoted conform to the taxonomy o u t l i n e d i n "The Canadian System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " (Canada S o i l Survey Committee, 1978)). 27 Climate General Climate of the Region: S i t u a t e d w e l l away from the a m e l i o r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e of the P a c i f i c Ocean, the c l i m a t e of the study area i s d i s t i n c t l y c o n t i n e n t a l . Winters are long and c o l d while summers are short and c o o l . The major c l i m a t i c c o n t r o l i s brought about by the movement of pressure systems w i t h i n the zone of p r e v a i l i n g W e s t e r l i e s while f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e i s e x e r t e d by c o o l , dry a r c t i c a i r moving i n from the n o r t h and n o r t h e a s t (Fenger, 19 82 ) . The c o a s t a l mountains i n t e r c e p t moisture-laden c l o u d s moving i n l a n d from the P a c i f i c Ocean and, as a r e s u l t , most of the moisture i s p r e c i p i t a t e d before reaching the C e n t r a l P l a t e a u and Mountain Area (Holland, 1976). The S t i k i n e P l a t e a u , which i s s i t u a t e d between the Coast Mountains and the C a s s i a r Mountains, i s r e l a t i v e l y dry as a r e s u l t of t h i s "rainshadow" e f f e c t . P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n c r e a s e s once again, though not to the same degree, as the a i r masses r i s e over the S t i k i n e Ranges of the C a s s i a r Mountains wherein l i e s the study area (Fenger, 1982; Holland, 1976; F a r l e y , 1979). Long term c l i m a t i c data have been recorded i n the general v i c i n i t y of the study area at two Environment Canada weather s t a t i o n s ; one a t the town of Dease Lake (3 5 km northwest) and the other a t C a s s i a r (79 km n o r t h ) . S e l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n from these s t a t i o n s i s presented i n t a b l e I. These data t y p i f y c l i m a t i c v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n the r e g i o n . Dease Lake (816 m a . s . l . ) i s s i t u a t e d on the T a n z i l l a P l a t e a u and, as such, i s 28 s t i l l w i t h i n the "rainshadow" e f f e c t of the Coast Mountains. C a s s i a r (1077 m a . s . l . ) , on the other hand, i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the S t i k i n e Ranges and i s s u b j e c t to the i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of p r e c i p i t a t i o n and lower mean annual temperatures a s s o c i a t e d with i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n throughout the area (Holland, 1976; F a r l e y , 1978; Fenger, 1982). S n o w f a l l normally accounts f o r approximately 40 to 50 percent of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n at lower e l e v a t i o n s and up to 60% a t higher e l e v a t i o n s (Environment Canada, 1981). T h i s f a r n o r t h , l a t e s p r i n g and e a r l y summer days are long. Temperatures during t h i s time can r i s e r e l a t i v e l y high (temperatures i n excess of 24°C were not uncommon i n the study area during the months of J u l y and August). The combination of high l a t i t u d e and high e l e v a t i o n , however, r e s u l t s i n r a p i d c o o l i n g and sub-zero temperatures can occur a t any time ( S t r a h l e r , 1978; Fenger, 1982). The annual f r o s t - f r e e p e r i o d , and consequently the growing season, i s a c c o r d i n g l y s h o r t . Mean annual a i r temperatures at both Dease Lake and C a s s i a r f a l l w i t h i n the -1°C to -4°C range r e c o g n i z e d by Brown (1967) and French (1976) as d e f i n i n g the zone of d i s c o n t i n u o u s permafrost. P e r i g l a c i a l processes such as g e l i f r a c t i o n , c r y o t u r b a t i o n , s o l i f l u c t i o n , n i v a t i o n and g e n e r a l mass movements are common w i t h i n t h i s zone ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; French, 19 76) and were observed r e g u l a r l y throughout the study area. These are processes which f i g u r e prominently i n i n f l u e n c i n g the v e g e t a t i o n , p r i m a r i l y through i n f l u e n c i n g s o i l development and h a b i t a t s t a b i l i t y . 29 L o c a l C l i m a t e : Temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n were monitored at two l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the study area f o r the d u r a t i o n of the f i e l d season. Data obtained were c o n s i s t e n t with l o c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of i n c r e a s i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n and dec r e a s i n g temperatures with i n c r e a s i n g a l t i t u d e (Holland, 1976; Fenger, 1982) as can be seen in t a b l e I I . R i t c h i e observes that "Many of the important e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of northern c l i m a t e s are not r e g i s t e r e d i n r e g i o n a l , macroscale m e t e o r o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ..." ( R i t c h i e , 1984). The topographic d i v e r s i t y of the study area p r o v i d e s f o r a v a r i e t y of m i c r o c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s that may d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from the r e g i o n a l c l i m a t e . In a l p i n e environments even s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n slope and aspect can r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l and a i r temperatures, s o i l moisture and snow accumulation and d u r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , thermal i n v e r s i o n s are l o c a l l y common and c o o l a i r o f t e n c o l l e c t s i n v a l l e y bottoms and low l y i n g d e p r e s s i o n s ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Fenger, 1982; F a r l e y , 1979). These f a c t o r s are among many which i n f l u e n c e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n (Barry and Van Wie, 1974). V e g e t a t i o n , i n t u r n , i n f l u e n c e s m i c r o c l i m a t e by a m e l i o r a t i n g c l i m a t i c extremes w i t h i n i t s cover and by a f f e c t i n g f a c t o r s such as wind p a t t e r n s , r e l a t i v e humidity and snow d i s t r i b u t i o n (Barry and Van Wie, 1974; French, 1976). S o i l t e x t u r e a l s o i n f l u e n c e s m i c r o c l i m a t e inasmuch as the low water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y coarse 30 t e x t u r e d a l p i n e s o i l s r e s u l t s i n r a p i d drainage, thus c r e a t i n g a d r i e r environment than p r e c i p i t a t i o n measurements would imply. These and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , many of which are unique to northern and a l p i n e environments, combine to produce a wide range of m i c r o c l i m a t e s w i t h i n which i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s or groups of p l a n t s can grow. 31 Table I : Temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n d a t a from two Environment Canada weather s t a t i o n s i n the Dease R i v e r Watershed C a s s i a r P o s i t i o n : 5 9 ° 1 2 9 ° SW E l e v a t i o n : 1077 m Temperature ( ° C ) J F H A M J J A s 0 N D t y e a r s r e c o r d e d D a i l y max. temp. -14 .1 - 8 . 5 - 3 . 8 2.5 7.1 15.2 17.0 15.4 9 .7 2.4 -6 .1 -11 .6 5-19 D a i l y m i n . temp. -24 .4 - 20.4 - 1 7 . 0 - 9 . 2 -•2.1 2.4 5.1 4.1 0.1 - 5 . 9 -15.2 -21 .2 5-19 Mean d a i l y temp. -19 .2 - 14.5 - 1 0 . 6 - 3 . 3 3.5 8.8 11.2 9.8 5.0 - 1 . 7 -10 .5 -16 .6 5-19 Average number o £ f r o s t - f r e e days p e r y e a r over the pa s t 17 y e a r s = 31 Temperature extremes over the pa s t 23 y e a r s minimum: -47 .2 maximum: 29.4 P r e c i p i t a t i o n : r a i n (mm), snow (cm), t o t a l (mm) J F H A H J J A S 0 N D Year 1 y e a r s r e c o r d e d r a i n f a l l 2.4 0 .4 0.8 2.2 25.2 45.8 61.4 60.2 65.1 36.8 3.6 1.3 305.2 25-29 s n o w f a l l 61.5 60 .3 46.9 23.4 8.8 1.5 0.0 0.2 6.4 47.4 61.2 77.4 395.0 25-29 t o t a l 62 .9 60.4 47.7 25.7 34.1 47.7 61.4 60.4 71.8 84.2 64.8 78.7 699.5 25-29 CN Dease Lake P o s i t i o n : 5 8 ° 1 3 0 ° SE E l e v a t i o n : 816 m Temperature ( ° C ) J F M A M J J A s 0 N D 1 y e a r s r e c o r d e d D a i l y max. temp. - 1 5 . 0 - 7 . 1 - 0 . 8 6.5 12.9 17.5 19.4 18.2 13.0 5.8 -4 .1 -11 .6 30 D a i l y m i n . temp. - 2 4 . 4 - 1 8 . 6 - 1 4 . 0 - 6 . 0 - 0 . 9 3.3 5.7 5.0 1.3 - 3 . 3 -12 .8 -20 .4 30 Hean d a i l y temp. - 1 9 . 7 - 1 2 . 9 - 7 . 4 0.3 6.1 10.4 12.5 11.6 7.1 1.3 -8 .5 - 1 6 . 0 30 Average number f r o s t - f r e e days p e r y e a r over 25 year s = 44 Temperature extremes o v e r the p a s t 35 y e a r s minimum: -51 .1 maximum: 33.9 P r e c i p i t a t i o n : r a i n (mm), snow (cm), t o t a l (mm) J F M A M J J A s 0 N D Year t y e a r s r e c o r d e d r a i n f a l l 0.9 0.1 0.4 2.0 18.5 43.2 54.5 52.5 44.8 18.6 2.6 0.5 238.6 30 s n o w f a l l 33.9 30 .9 26.6 12.0 4.6 0.4 1.0 0.0 1.4 17.6 34.7 41.5 204.6 30 t o t a l 27.8 24.6 22.3 12.3 23.1 43.6 55.5 52.5 46.2 35.2 29.3 33.5 405.9 30 T a b l e i i : A comparison of s e l e c t e d c l i m a t i c data obtained in the f i e l d through J u l y and August with s i m i l a r data c o l l e c t e d over the same time p e r i o d a t the Dease Lake Environment Canada weather s t a t i o n Dease Lake P o s i t i o n : 58° 130° SE E l e v a t i o n : 816 m Average d a i l y temperature ( C) J u l y August maximum 20.0 21.2 minimum 6.0 4.5 mean 13.0 12.8 Average d a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n (mm) 1.0 no snow 0.2 G l a c i a l Mountain P o s i t i o n : 58° 129° SE E l e v a t i o n : 1540 m Average d a i l y temperature ( C) J u l y August maximum 17.0 17.8 minimum 3.9 3.2 mean 10.4 10.5 Average d a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n (mm) * @ 5.0 cm of snow in J u l y 0.7 1.3 33 V e g e t a t i o n Geographic l o c a t i o n , p h y s i o g r a p h y , g e o l o g y , s o i l s and c l i m a t e a re prominent f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the v e g e t a t i o n . The v e g e t a t i o n of the study a r e a f a l l s w i t h i n two b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones as de v e l o p e d and e l a b o r a t e d f o r B r i t i s h Columbia by K r a j i n a (1959, 1965, 1969, 1973, 1975, 1987 ( p e r s . comm)). The S p r u c e - W i l l o w - B i r c h s u b a l p i n e zone e x t e n d s from the v a l l e y bottoms t o the l i m i t of e r e c t c o n i f e r growth ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1600 m e l e v a t i o n , l o c a l l y ) . Beyond t h i s zone, e x t e n d i n g t o the summits of a l l but the h i g h e s t peaks i n the stu d y a r e a (up t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2200 m e l e v a t i o n ) , i s the A l p i n e Tundra zone. S p r u c e - W i l l o w - B i r c h S u b a l p i n e Zone: The absence of Engelmann spruce ( P i c e a e n g e l m a n n i i ) n o r t h of 58° N l a t i t u d e l e d H a l l i d a y (1937) and l a t e r , Rowe (1972) t o omit a d i s t i n c t s u b a l p i n e zone from the v i c i n i t y of the study a r e a . Presumably t h i s r e s u l t e d because the main t h r u s t of t h e i r work was d i r e c t e d toward e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r e s t e d r e g i o n s of Canada. K r a j i n a (1973, 1975, 1987 ( p e r s . comm.)), however, o b s e r v e s t h a t a l t h o u g h Engelmann spruce i s m i s s i n g l o c a l l y , a l e g i t i m a t e s u b a l p i n e zone o c c u r s i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. D i a g n o s t i c c o n i f e r s i n c l u d e w h i t e spruce ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) i n t e r m i x e d w i t h some b l a c k spruce ( P ^ mariana) a t lo w e r e l e v a t i o n s . At h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s these a re r e p l a c e d by s u b a l p i n e f i r ( A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a ) ( K r a j i n a , 1973, 1975, 1987 ( p e r s . comm.)). T h i s zone was o r i g i n a l l y t r e a t e d as a n o r t h e r n subzone of 34 the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone ( K r a j i n a , 1959, 1965). D i f f e r e n c e s i n c l i m a t e (most nota b l y warmer night-ti m e temperatures i n summer) and accompanying d i f f e r e n c e s i n v e g e t a t i o n , however, l e d K r a j i n a to r e c o g n i z e i t as d i s t i n c t ( K r a j i n a , 1973) and l a t e r d e s c r i b e i t as a new b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone, the Spruce-Willow-Birch Subalpine zone ( K r a j i n a , 1975). In B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s zone occurs n o r t h of 57°10' Nl l a t i t u d e a t e l e v a t i o n s ranging from 950-1750 m i n the p o r t i o n of i t s range r e l e v a n t to the present study ( B e i l e t a l . , 1976; K r a j i n a e t a l . , 1982; K r a j i n a , 1987 (pers. comm.)). The v e g e t a t i o n a t lower e l e v a t i o n s i n the study area a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s K r a j i n a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the upper shrub sub-zone of the Spruce-Willow-Birch subalpine zone with S a l i x g l auca, S. p l a n i f o l i a and p a r t i c u l a r l y B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a r e p r e s e n t i n g the dominant shrubs ( K r a j i n a , 1975). The white and black spruce c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the lower f o r e s t subzone are a l l but absent. In a d d i t i o n to those shrubs i n d i c a t e d by K r a j i n a as d i a g n o s t i c of the zone, S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a and S^ a l a x e n s i s a l s o form a s i g n i f i c a n t component of the shrub cover, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n those areas designated as willow t h i c k e t s (C) i n f i g u r e 4. Areas with impeded drainage (E) are dominated by Eriophorum  a n g u s t i f o l i u m , E. s c h e u c h z e r i , Carex a q u a t i l i s and C.  s i t c h e n s i s . Sphagnum hummocks have developed on l o c a l i z e d patches of these wetland areas and here the v a s c u l a r p l a n t cover i s r e p r e s e n t e d predominantly by those p l a n t s t h a t can o b t a i n t h e i r n i t r o g e n from ammonium, i e . , E r i c a c e a e , i n c l u d i n g 35 Andromeda p o l i f o l i a , Ledum decumbens, Vaccinium oxycoccus and V.  ul i g i n o s u m . F o r e s t cover (B) i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s , apparently r e s t r i c t e d to p r o t e c t e d s i t e s where seepage water from snow melt i s a v a i l a b l e throughout the growing season. Abies l a s i o c a r p a , which a t t a i n s a maximum h e i g h t of approximately 8 m, i s v i r t u a l l y the only c o n i f e r r e p r e s e n t e d . P i c e a glauca and Pinus c o n t o r t a occur, but are r a r e . Meadows (F) are dominated by Calamagrostis canadensis, Festuca a l t a i c a and Poa a r c t i c a . B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a i s common i n meadows as w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y along r u n - o f f channels and i n seepage s i t e s where i t occurs with the willows noted e a r l i e r , A n g e l i c a l u c i d a , Heracleum sphondylium and C a s t i l l e ja  u n a l a s c h c e n s i s . Important components of lakeshore and streambank v e g e t a t i o n i n c l u d e Aeonitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , Delphinium glaucum, Mertensia  p a n i c u l a t a , Polemonium caeruleum and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s i n shaded s i t e s , and Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a , A. p a r v i f l o r a , A.  r i c h a r d s o n i i , C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a , Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a , M i t e l l a pentandra, P a r n a s s i a f i m b r i a t a , P. kotzebue i , P e t a s i t e s  f r i g i d u s and P^ n i v a l i s i n open s i t e s . The l a t t e r group, however, i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the subalpine zone. A l p i n e Tundra Zone: Ve g e t a t i o n beyond the l i m i t of e r e c t c o n i f e r growth i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the I n t e r i o r Subzone of the A l p i n e Tundra b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone ( K r a j i n a , 1959, 1965, 1969; K r a j i n a e t a l . , 36 1982; B e i l e t a l . , 1976). L i g h t e r cover and s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n of snow d i s t i n g u i s h the I n t e r i o r subzone from the C o a s t a l Subzone ( K r a j i n a , 1965, 1987 (pers. comm.)), and may account f o r the g r e a t e r e x t e n t of a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n i n the i n t e r i o r (Spence, 1986). Subalpine f i r (Abies l a s i o c a r p a ) occurs i n the a l p i n e zone i n s c a t t e r e d l o c a l i t i e s but only i n krummholz form. The z o n a l combination of p l a n t i n d i c a t o r s i n c l u d e Cassiope  mertensiana, C. tetragona, Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , P.  g l a n d u l i f l o r a and Empetrum nigrum ( K r a j i n a , 1965), a l l of which occur i n abundance throughout the a l p i n e p o r t i o n of the study area. The v e g e t a t i o n cover of the lower l i m i t of the A l p i n e Tundra zone i s e s s e n t i a l l y continuous. The aforementioned zonal i n d i c a t o r s o f t e n form dense cover over r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e areas, in some cases, to the v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n of other taxa (Figure 4, D). Other important components of these rocky heathlands i n c l u d e Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s , Huperz i a selago, Luetkea  p e c t i n a t a , Lycopodium alpinum and Vacc in ium caespitosum. The w illows that occur i n abundance i n the subalpine zone ( S a l i x  glauca, S. p l a n i f o l i a , S. b a r r a t t i a n a and S_^  a l a x e n s i s ) are r e p l a c e d i n the a l p i n e zone by those with p r o s t r a t e growth forms; S a l i x p o l a r i s , S. a r c t i c a and e s p e c i a l l y jS^ r e t i c u l a t a . D r y o p t e r i s f r a g r a n s , Epilobium l a t i f o l i u m , H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a and Sax i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a are common i n areas f r e q u e n t l y d i s t u r b e d by v a r i o u s forms of mass wasting and c r y o t u r b a t i o n . V e g e t a t i o n cover becomes l e s s continuous a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s as a r e s u l t of f a c t o r s such as harsher c l i m a t e and 37 l e s s a v a i l a b l e water. Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a and A r c t o s t a p h y l o s  rubra assume prominent r o l e s i n the rocky heathlands above 1700 m. Most common i n the v i c i n i t y of, but not r e s t r i c t e d to, l a t e remaining snow, are herbaceous taxa such as A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s , P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a , P. h y p a r c t i c a , P. u n i f l o r a , Luzula  a r c t i c a and L^ confusa. The uppermost reaches of the a l p i n e zone are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l i c h e n dominated f e l l f i e l d s . Here, c o n d i t i o n s are windy and, because of the e a r l y disappearance of snow, q u i t e dry. Important v a s c u l a r p l a n t taxa i n c l u d e Antennaria a l p i n a , A.  monocephala, H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a , P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a , P.  h y p a r c t i c a , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a and S i l e n e a c a u l i s . These taxa match very c l o s e l y those rep o r t e d by Welsh and Rigby (1971) as dominant i n high a l p i n e s i t e s approximately 100 km south of the present study area. Important a d d i t i o n a l h a b i t a t s , l a r g e l y independent of b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones, i n c l u d e rock faces (Figure 4, A) and aqu a t i c environments. Although v a s c u l a r taxa are scarce i n both of these h a b i t a t s , they are nonetheless of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . Damp c r e v i c e s and ledges on rock faces harbour r a r e l y c o l l e c t e d p l a n t s such as Draba f l a d n i z e n s i s , D. l a c t e a , D.  macounii, L l o y d i a s e r o t i n a , Luzula a r c t i c a and L^ confusa. A d d i t i o n a l s p e c i e s o c c u r r i n g i n these h a b i t a t s i n c l u d e ; Carex  na r d i n a , C. s c i r p o i d e a , S a x i f r a g a c a e s p i t o s a , S. n i v a l i s and S.  o p p o s i t i f o l i a . Most la k e s i n the study area occupy a b a s i n that f a l l s away st e e p l y from the s h o r e l i n e and are o l i g o t r o p h i c r e s u l t i n g i n few 38 s u i t a b l e h a b i t a t s f o r v a s c u l a r a q u a t i c s . Shallow seepage ponds, slow moving streams and areas where s u f f i c i e n t s i l t has been d e p o s i t e d a t r i v e r mouths, however, support p o p u l a t i o n s of C a l l i t r i c h e anceps, Lysimachia t h y r s i f l o r a and, most commonly, Ranunculus a q u a t i l i s . Not r e s t r i c t e d to a q u a t i c h a b i t a t s , but o f t e n p a r t i a l l y submerged a r e : C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a , Carex  a q u a t i l i s , C• canescens, C. s i t c h e n s i s , Eriophorum a n g u s t i f o l i u m and E. s c h e u c h z e r i . 39 Figure A : Generalized vegetation of the study area Legend A - Steep rock faces; boulders and talus common B - Sub-Alpine F i r C - Willow thickets D - Rocky heathlands; Scrub Glandular Birch common E - Wetlands; predominantly Sphagnum, Sedge and Cotton-Grass F - Open meadows Where more than one general vegetation type i s indicated, the order of appearance of l e t t e r s r e f l e c t s the r e l a t i v e dominance of that type. 40 F i g u r e 5: General views of the study area. A. - A e r i a l view of the study area l o o k i n g south as seen from a h e l i c o p t e r a t approximately 2800 m a l t i t u d e . The western f l a n k of G l a c i a l Mountain i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e on the l e f t side of the photograph. B. - D r i f t f i l l e d v a l l e y i n the northern p o r t i o n of the study area. 42 43 Figure 6: S e l e c t e d h a b i t a t s of the study area. A. - Betula glandulosa t h i c k e t s t y p i c a l of the upper shrub subzone of the Spruce-Willow-Birch subalpine zone. B. - Upper reaches of the A l p i n e Tundra Zone with P o t e n t i l l a  u n i f l o r a and S i l e n e a c a u l i s i n the foreground. 44 CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS Prepa r a t o r y S t u d i e s P r i o r to commencement of the f i e l d season, a e r i a l photographs ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of the Environment r e f e r e n c e numbers 127, 128, 129, 237, 238 and 239), topographic ( N a t i o n a l Topographic S e r i e s , map 1041) and g e o l o g i c ( G a b r i e l s e , 1979) maps were s t u d i e d i n order to become acquainted with the general landforms and h a b i t a t s l i k e l y to be encountered i n the study a r e a . In a d d i t i o n , p e r t i n e n t v a s c u l a r p l a n t f l o r a s and s p e c i e s l i s t s (K.I. Beamish , 1973a NP, 1973b NP; T.C. Brayshaw, 1971 NP; B u t t r i c k , 1978;D. Galloway, 1974 NP; G j a e r v o l l , 1958, 1963, 1967; Hulten, 1941-1950, 1968; V . J . K r a j i n a , 1975 NP, 1973a NP, 1973b NP; J . P o j a r , 1975 NP; P o r s i l d and Cody, 1980; Raup, 1947;A. S z c z a w i n s k i , 1960 NP; T a y l o r and MacBryde, 1977; Welsh, 1974) were researched and a l i s t of taxa that c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be found i n the study area was compiled to a i d i n a p r e l i m i n a r y study of the a n t i c i p a t e d f l o r a . F i e l d Work Ice on l a k e s i n the study area had melted s u f f i c i e n t l y to allow a s m a l l f l o a t plane safe l a n d i n g by the l a s t week of June. Equipment and s u p p l i e s were flown i n a t t h i s time and a permanent camp was e s t a b l i s h e d at the southwest f o o t of G l a c i a l Mountain. 46 Two Steveston screens equipped with R. Fuess r e c o r d i n g hydrothermographs and "Tru-Check" r a i n gauges were s e t up to r e c o r d o n - s i t e c l i m a t i c data. Mean valu e s of the data obtained from these s t a t i o n s were l a t e r compared with s i m i l a r data gathered over the same time i n t e r v a l at the Dease Lake Environment Canada weather s t a t i o n . (A comparative summary of data obtained i s given i n t a b l e I ) . D a i l y c o l l e c t i n g t r i p s were made throughout the growing season. During t h i s time as many h a b i t a t s as p o s s i b l e were sampled. For the most p a r t , t r a v e l on f o o t was r e l a t i v e l y unhampered, however, a canoe proved u s e f u l i n g a i n i n g access to c o l l e c t i n g l o c a l i t i e s o b s t r u c t e d by waterways and a l s o i n the c o l l e c t i o n of a q u a t i c s . I n i t i a l l y , specimens were c o l l e c t e d i n p l a s t i c bags. With the onset of warmer temperatures, however, t h i s method proved to be i n a p p r o p r i a t e as many p l a n t s were prone to w i l t i n g . Returning to camp throughout the day would have proven too r e s t r i c t i v e i n terms of the area that c o u l d be covered; t h e r e f o r e , a f i e l d p r e s s was employed. At the time each c o l l e c t i o n was made a number was assigned and f i e l d notes i n c l u d i n g date, e l e v a t i o n , h a b i t a t , d e s c r i p t i o n , h a b i t , r e l a t i v e abundance, s i z e and flower c o l o u r (where a p p l i c a b l e ) were recorded. In the evening, c o l l e c t i o n s were removed from the f i e l d p r ess and, wherever p o s s i b l e , t e n t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were made. The p l a n t s were then t r a n s f e r r e d to a l a r g e r press f o r d r y i n g . The " f i e l d d r y e r " c o n s i s t e d of a waterproof t a r p a u l i n 47 c o v e r i n g an improvised wooden frame. The l a r g e p l a n t p r e s s was suspended from t h i s frame and beneath i t , a t a d i s t a n c e of approximately 1 meter, was a propane f i r e d c a t a l y t i c h eater. Once dry, the specimens were packed i n boxes and p l a c e d i n a waterproof storage l o c k e r . Herbarium Study General r e f e r e n c e s f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d i n keying c o l l e c t i o n s from the study area i n c l u d e d the works of C a l d e r and T a y l o r , 1968; Henry, 1915; Hitchcock e t a l . , 1955, 1959, 1961, 1964, 1969; Hitchcock and Cr o n q u i s t , 1973; Hulten, 1968; Looman and Best, 1979; Moss, 1959; P o r s i l d and Cody, 1980; Scoggan, 1978a, 1978b, 1978c, 1979 and Welsh, 1974. S e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s s p e c i f i c to a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y , genus or s p e c i e s a l s o proved i n v a l u a b l e ; these are c i t e d i n the annotated s p e c i e s l i s t under the a p p r o p r i a t e f a m i l y . In many i n s t a n c e s , f i n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e d d i r e c t comparison with herbarium c o l l e c t i o n s . Specimens housed a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Herbarium (UBC) i n Vancouver and the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum Herbarium (V) i n V i c t o r i a were r e f e r r e d to e x t e n s i v e l y f o r t h i s purpose. P a r t i c u l a r l y troublesome taxa were sent to a u t h o r i t i e s f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Where such was the case, the a u t h o r i t i e s are acknowlegdged i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n of the annotated s p e c i e s l i s t . Over 1000 c o l l e c t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d from the study area. A t o t a l of 239 taxa were recog n i z e d r e p r e s e n t i n g 116 genera and 44 f a m i l i e s . A complete s e t of voucher specimens has been 48 d e p o s i t e d i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia herbarium, d u p l i c a t e m a t e r i a l of the genus S a l i x i s housed i n the herbarium of the N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada (CAN) i n Ottawa and d u p l i c a t e m a t e r i a l of the genus Carex i s housed i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a (V). 49 CHAPTER 4 FLORISTICS The V a s c u l a r P l a n t F l o r a of G l a c i a l Mountain and V i c i n i t y : North  Western B r i t i s h Columbia Taxonomic treatment of much of the f l o r a of Northern B r i t i s h Columbia and adj a c e n t t e r r i t o r i e s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l p h i losophy of a given author. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t at the s u b s p e c i f i c l e v e l . For example, Hulten makes l i b e r a l use of the rank of subspecies to d i s t i n g u i s h " . ..taxonomically separate but c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p o p u l a t i o n s i n which a l l or some of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n each p o p u l a t i o n [of a given s p e c i e s ] d i f f e r i n minor morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from those of the other, the two p o p u l a t i o n s occupying l a r g e and p a r t i a l l y or completely i s o l a t e d geographic areas, and being p o t e n t i a l l y capable of i n t e r b r e e d i n g without s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n of f e r t i l i t y " (Hulten, 1968). Welsh, on the otherhand, adopts a more c o n s e r v a t i v e approach. He f r e q u e n t l y acknowledges Hulten's subspecies but i s a t times r e l u c t a n t to a f f o r d them separate taxonomic s t a t u s , suggesting e c o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than g e n e t i c c o n t r o l of morphological v a r i a b i l i t y (Welsh, 1974). The s c a t t e r e d nature of c o l l e c t i o n l o c a l i t i e s i n n o r t h e r n B.C., the Yukon and p a r t s of A l a s k a , together with the p a u c i t y of some m a t e r i a l are among the f a c t o r s rendering r e s o l u t i o n of these d i f f e r e n c e s i n approach d i f f i c u l t i f not i m p o s s i b l e . 50 I t i s not w i t h i n the aims of the present paper to attempt to r e s o l v e q u e s t i o n s of taxonomy. For the sake of c o n s i s t e n c y , t h e r e f o r e , i t was decided to adhere to one r e f e r e n c e f o r both systematic placement and nomenclature. T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977) provide the most re c e n t and complete catalogue of the v a s c u l a r p l a n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia and i t i s from t h e i r work that the order of p r e s e n t a t i o n and names of taxa i n the f o l l o w i n g keys and s p e c i e s l i s t s are d e r i v e d . 51 Keys to the L o c a l F l o r a l a . P l a n t s producing spores PTERIDOPHYTA l b . P l a n t s producing p o l l e n 2 2a. Ovules naked, not e n c l o s e d i n an ovary PINOPHYTA 2b. Ovules e n c l o s e d i n an ovary MAGNOLIOPHYTA PTERIDOPHYTA l a . Sporangia aggregated i n t o s o r i , borne on the lower surface of a frond ASPLENIACEAE l b . Sporangia aggregated i n t o t e r m i n a l s t r o b i l i , on a s p i k e - l i k e segment of a frond or s o l i t a r y i n the a x i l s of s p o r o p h y l l s 2 2a. Stems j o i n t e d ; l e a v e s whorled; sporangia borne beneath p e l t a t e sporangiophores i n a t e r m i n a l s t r o b i l u s EQUISITACEAE 2b. Stems not j o i n t e d ; l e a v e s compound and 1-2 per stem or simple, numerous and s p i r a l l y arranged ( l e s s commonly o p p o s i t e ) ; sporangia aggregated on s p i k e - l i k e segment of a frond or s o l i t a r y i n the a x i l s of s p o r o p h y l l s 3 3a. Spores of 2 types (heterosporous), sporangia producing numerous microspores and 1-4 megaspores SELAGINELLACEAE 3b. Spores a l l a l i k e (homosporous) 4 52 4a. Sporangia borne on s p i k e - l i k e segment of a frond OPHIOGLOSSACEAE 4b. Sporangia s o l i t a r y i n the a x i l s of s p o r o p h y l l s LYCOPODIACEAE PINOPHYTA l a . Leaves n e e d l e - l i k e o r subulate 0.3-1.0 cm long, appearing in whorls; o v u l a t e cones blue to purple and f l e s h y at maturity CUPRESSACEAE l b . Leaves n e e d l e - l i k e mostly g r e a t e r than 1.0 cm long, borne s i n g l y and arranged s p i r a l l y or borne i n c l u s t e r s , s p i r a l l y arranged on spur branches; ovulate cones woody... PINACEAE MAGNOLIOPHYTA l a . Leaves net-veined; flower p a r t s u s u a l l y i n 4's or 5's; v a s c u l a r bundles arranged i n a c i r c l e or fused to form a t u b u l a r v a s c u l a r c y l i n d e r ; embryo producing 2 c o t y l e d o n s . . l b . Leaves p a r a l l e l - v e i n e d ; flower p a r t s u s u a l l y i n 3's; v a s c u l a r bundles s c a t t e r e d throughout stem; embryo DICOTYLEDONEAE producing a s i n g l e c o t y l e d o n MONOCOTYLEDONEAE DICOTYLEDONEAE l a . C o r o l l a absent ( s e p a l s i n 2 whorls, the inn e r whorl appearing as p e t a l s i n Empetraceae) 2 l b . C o r o l l a p r e s e n t 10 53 2a. Woody t r e e s o r shrubs; flowers borne i n c a t k i n s 3 2b. Herbs or shrubs; flowers not borne i n c a t k i n s 4 3a. P l a n t s d i o e c i o u s ; flowers s o l i t a r y i n the a x i l s of s c a l e -l i k e b r a c t s ; f r u i t a 2-4 va l v e d capsule SALICACEAE 3b. P l a n t s monoecious; flowers 3-6 subtended by each s c a l e - l i k e b r a c t ; f r u i t a 1-seeded n u t l e t or samara BETULACEAE 4a. Low, spreading shrub; l e a v e s n e e d l e - l i k e , evergreen, a l t e r n a t e or whorled EMPETRACEAE 4b. P l a n t s herbaceous; l e a v e s not n e e d l e - l i k e , leaves o p p o s i t e , a l t e r n a t e and/or b a s a l 5 5a. Sepals and stamens borne on hypanthium 6 5b. Hypanthium l a c k i n g 7 6a. Leaves p i n n a t e l y compound; flowers numerous i n dense s p i k e s ; hypanthium saucer shaped, not winged ROSACEAE 6b. Leaves simple; f l o w e r s s o l i t a r y or few flowered i n br a c t e a t e cymes; hypanthium sub-globose, narrowly winged.. SAXIFRAGACEAE 7a. Leaves with sheathing s t i p u l e s (ocreae) POLYGONACEAE 7b. Leaves l a c k i n g sheathing s t i p u l e s (sometimes with s t i p u l e -l i k e p e t i o l a r b a s a l sheaths i n Ranunculaceae) 8 54 8a. Leaves a l t e r n a t e , whorled or b a s a l , or a combination of these; p i s t i l s 2-numerous; f r u i t an achene or f o l l i c l e . . . . RANUNCULACEAE 8b. Leaves o p p o s i t e ; p i s t i l s 1; f r u i t a s c h i z o c a r p or a capsule 9 9a. P l a n t s a q u a t i c ; flowers monoecious, l a c k i n g both c a l y x and c o r o l l a ; f r u i t a s c h i z o c a r p CALLITRICHACEAE 9b. P l a n t s t e r r e s t r i a l ; f l o w e r s p e r f e c t , c a l y x c o n s i s t i n g of 4-5 separate or u n i t e d s e p a l s ; f r u i t a capsule CARYOPHYLLACEAE 10a. P e t a l s (some or a l l ) u n i t e d , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y 11 10b. P e t a l s d i s t i n c t (sometimes connate d i s t a l l y ) 25 l l a . Flowers i n i n v o l u c r a t e heads; c o r o l l a s of two types ( l i g u l a t e and t u b u l a r ) , or merely one type ( e i t h e r l i g u l a t e or t u b u l a r ) ASTERACEAE l i b . Flowers not i n i n v o l u c r a t e heads 12 12a. C o r o l l a zygomorphic 13 12b. C o r o l l a actinomorphic (nearly so i n Veronica) .....16 13a. Ovary i n f e r i o r ; r o o t s t o c k s t r o n g l y scented VALERIANACEAE 13b. Ovary s u p e r i o r ; r o o t s t o c k not s t r o n g l y scented 14 55 14a. C o r o l l a with one p e t a l spurred a t the base, i n n e r p e t a l s connate at the apex; stamens 6, diadelphous, i n 2 groups Of 3 FUMARIACEAE 14b. C o r o l l a p a p i l i o n a c e o u s or b i l a b i a t e (merely lobed with the top lobe the l a r g e s t i n V e r o n i c a ) ; stamens 2, 4 or 10...15 15a. C o r o l l a p a p i l i o n a c e o u s , the upper p e t a l l a r g e (banner) e n c l o s i n g the l a t e r a l p a i r (wings) and the lower u s u a l l y connate p a i r ( k e e l ) ; stamens 10... FABACEAE 15b. C o r o l l a s t r o n g l y b i l a b i a t e ; stamens 4, i n 2 p a i r s ( c o r o l l a merely lobed, the upper lobe l a r g e s t ; stamens 2 i n Veronica) SCROPHULARIACEAE 16a. P l a n t s woody 17 16b. P l a n t s herbaceous 18 17a. Anthers opening by way of t e r m i n a l pores or s l i t s , ( d e h i s c i n g f u l l l e n g t h i n Kalmia); stamens u s u a l l y 10 (8-12) ERICACEAE 17b. Anthers d e h i s c i n g lengthwise; stamens 4-5 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 18a. Ovary i n f e r i o r 19 18b. Ovary s u p e r i o r 21 19a. C a u l i n e l e a v e s a l t e r n a t e ; f r u i t a capsule....CAMPANULACEAE 56 19b. C a u l i n e l e a v e s opposite o r whorled; f r u i t a s c h i z o c a r p or dry berry 2 0 20a. Basal l e a v e s l a c k i n g ; c a u l i n e leaves opposite or whorled, simple, e n t i r e ; stamens 4-5; f r u i t a s c h i z o c a r p RUBIACEAE 20b. Basal l e a v e s long p e t i o l a t e , t e r n a t e l y compound; c a u l i n e leaves o p p o s i t e , palmately lobed; stamens 8-10; f r u i t a dry berry ADOXACEAE 21a. Stamens 2 SCROPHULARIACEAE 21b. Stamens 4-5 22 22a. Stamens opposite the c o r o l l a lobes PRIMULACEAE 22b. Stamens a l t e r n a t i n g with the c o r o l l a lobes 23 23a. Leaves p i n n a t e l y compound; ovary simple. POLEMONIACEAE 23b. Leaves simple; ovary 2 - c a r p e l l a t e 24 24a. C a u l i n e l e a v e s o p p o s i t e ; f r u i t a capsule GENTIANACEAE 24b. C a u l i n e l e a v e s a l t e r n a t e ; f r u i t 4 n u t l e t s BORAGINACEAE 25a. Calyx and/or c o r o l l a zygomorphic 26 25b. Calyx and c o r o l l a actinomorphic 29 26a. Sepals 5, p e t a l o i d , showy, b l u i s h purple RANUNCULACEAE 26b. Sepals 2-5, not p e t a l o i d , not showy, green 27 57 27a. Sepals u n i t e d forming a t u b u l a r c a l y x ; stamens 10 FABACEAE 27b. Sepals d i s t i n c t ; stamens 5 or 6 28 28a. Sepals 2, b r a c t - l i k e ; p e t a l s 4, 2 connate d i s t a l l y ; stamens 6 FUMARIACEAE 28b. Sepals 5; p e t a l s 5, d i s t i n c t d i s t a l y ; stamens 5 VIOLACEAE 29a. Flowers with 5 p e c t i n a t e , g l a n d u l a r t i p p e d staminodia a l t e r n a t i n g with the stamens PARNASSIACEAE 29b. P e c t i n a t e , g l a n d u l a r - t i p p e d staminodia l a c k i n g 30 30a. P i s t i l s 3-numerous 31 30b. P i s t i l s 1 33 31a. Leaves s u c c u l e n t ; p l a n t s d i o e c i o u s CRASSULACEAE 31b. Leaves not s u c c u l e n t ; flowers p e r f e c t 32 32a. Sepals and p e t a l s borne on the rim of a hypanthium ROSACEAE 32b. Sepals and p e t a l s borne on r e c e p t a c l e , hypanthium l a c k i n g RANUNCULACEAE 33a. P l a n t s woody 34 33b. P l a n t s herbaceous 35 58 34a. P e t a l s and stamens borne near the top of a f r e e hypanthium; l e a v e s deciduous, lobed GROSSULARIACEAE 34b. Hypanthium l a c k i n g ; l e a v e s evergreen, l e a t h e r y , not lobed ERICACEAE 35a. P i s t i l compound, 2 ( r a r e l y 3-5) c a r p e l l a t e , 1 - l o c u l e d SAXIFRAGACEAE 35b. P i s t i l simple, 1-5 l o c u l e d 36 36a. Ovary s u p e r i o r 37 36b. Ovary i n f e r i o r 40 37a. Sepals 4-5; p e t a l s 4-5; stamens 5-10 38 37b. S epals 2 or 4; p e t a l s 4 or 5; stamens 5 or 6 39 38a. Leaves mainly b a s a l , evergreen, l e a t h e r y ; anthers opening by way of t e r m i n a l pores PYROLACEAE 38b. Leaves mainly c a u l i n e , o p p o s i t e , not l e a t h e r y ; anthers d e h i s c i n g l o n g i t u d i n a l l y CARYOPHYLLACEAE 39a. Sepals 2; p e t a l s 5; stamens 5; f r u i t a capsule PORTULACACEAE 39b. S epals 4; p e t a l s 4; stamens 6; f r u i t a s i l i q u e or s i l i c l e BRASSICACEAE 40a. Calyx 4-lobed; p e t a l s 4; stamens 4 or 8; flowers arranged 59 i n cymes or racemes 41 40b. Calyx 5-lobed; p e t a l s 5; stamens 5; flowers arranged i n compound umbels APIACEAE 41a. I n f l o r e s c e n c e a s o l i t a r y umbellate cyme subtended by u s u a l l y 4, cream to pink, p e t a l o i d b r a c t s ; stamens 4 CORNACEAE 41b. Flowers arranged i n racemes; p e t a l o i d b r a c t s l a c k i n g ; stamens 8 ONAGRACEAE MONOCOTYLEDONEAE l a . P e r i a n t h c o n s i s t i n g of 6 segments i n 2 s e r i e s ; f r u i t a capsule 2 l b . P e r i a n t h reduced to 2 f l e s h y l o d i c u l e s , b r i s t l e s , or l a c k i n g ; f r u i t an achene or c a r y o p s i s 3 2a. Sepals and p e t a l s s c a l e - l i k e , s c a r i o u s JUNCACEAE 2b. Sepals and p e t a l s herbaceous, c o l o u r e d , o f t e n showy LILIACEAE 3a. Stems u s u a l l y hollow; l e a v e s 2-ranked; p e r i a n t h reduced to 2 f l e s h y l o d i c u l e s ; f r u i t a c a r y o p s i s POACEAE 3b. Stems u s u a l l y s o l i d and t r i a n g u l a r ; l e a v e s 3-ranked; p e r i a n t h composed of b r i s t l e s or absent; f r u i t an achene.. CYPERACEAE 60 PTERIDOPHYTA ASPLENIACEAE l a . Fronds evergreen; p e t i o l e s with 3 or more v a s c u l a r bundles; indusium r e n i f o r m , attached at the s i n u s D r y o p t e r i s ( f r a g r a n s ) l b . Fronds deciduous; p e t i o l e s with 2 v a s c u l a r bundles (at l e a s t near the base); indusium lobed or l a c k i n g 2 2a. Indusium l a c k i n g , even when young Gymnocarpium ( d r y o p t e r i s v a r . disjunctum) 2b. Indusium present, a t l e a s t when young 3 3a. Indusium e n c l o s i n g the sorus with h a i r l i k e l o bes; p e t i o l e s j o i n t e d near the base (except i n W. s c o p u l i n a ) ; v e i n s of pinnae not r e a c h i n g the margin Woodsia ( g l a b e l l a ) 3b. Indusium h o o d - l i k e , w i t h e r i n g with age; p e t i o l e s not j o i n t e d ; v e i n s of pinnae reaching the m a r g i n . . . C y s t o p t e r i s C y s t o p t e r i s l a . Leaf blade somewhat d e l t o i d i n o u t l i n e , lower p a i r of pinnae much l a r g e r than those immediately above them C y s t o p t e r i s montana l b . Leaf blade l a n c e o l a t e to l a n c e o l a t e oblong i n o u t l i n e ; lower p a i r of pinnae approximately the same s i z e as those immediately above them Cy s t o p t e r i s f r a g i l i s 61 EQUISITACEAE Equisetum l a . P l a n t densely tufted? stems s o l i d 0.5-1 mm t h i c k Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s l b . P l a n t rhizomatous; stems hollow, dimorphic 2 2a. S p r i n g phase ( s t r o b i l u s b e a r i n g stems) l a c k i n g c h l o r o p h y l l , u s u a l l y unbranched; summer phase ( v e g e t a t i v e stems) green, with whorls of simple, ascending branches Equ isetum arvense 2b. S p r i n g phase ( s t r o b i l u s bearing stems) l a c k i n g c h l o r o p h y l l and whorls of forke d branches; summer phase ( v e g e t a t i v e stems) green, with whorls of forked, r e c u r v i n g branches... Equ isetum s y l v a t i c u m v a r . s y l v a t i c u m LYCOPODIACEAE l a . Sporangia borne i n the a x i l s of otherwise u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d l e a v e s ( s p o r o p h y l l s ) ; p l a n t s t u f t e d Huperz i a (selago v a r . selago) l b . Sporangia borne i n t e r m i n a l s t r o b i l i ; p l a n t rhizomatous... Lycopodium Lycopodium l a . Leaves 4-ranked ( o c c a s i o n a l l y 6-ranked on some stems); stems c r e e p i n g s l i g h t l y below surface 2 l b . Leaves 8-many-ranked; stems c r e e p i n g mostly above ground.. 3 62 2a. S t r o b i l i pedunculate; branches s t r o n g l y f l a t t e n e d Lycopodium complanatum 2b. S t r o b i l i e s s e n t i a l l y s e s s i l e ; s t e r i l e branches only s l i g h t l y f l a t t e n e d Lycopodium alpinum 3a. S t r o b i l i pedunculate; l e a v e s t i p p e d with a long, h a i r - l i k e b r i s t l e Lycopodium clavatum 3b. S t r o b i l i s e s s i l e ; l e a v e s t i p p e d with a sharp spine Lycopodium annotinum subsp. annotinum OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Botrychium l u n a r i a subsp. l u n a r i a SELAGINELLACEAE S e l a g i n e l l a s e l a g i n o i d e s CUPRESSACEAE PINOPHYTA ...Juniperus communis subsp. a l p i n a PINACEAE l a . Leaves borne i n f a s c i c l e s of 2 on short branches Pinus c o n t o r t a var. l a t i f o l i a l b . Leaves borne s i n g l y on the branches 2 2a. Leaves p o i n t e d , roughly square i n c r o s s s e c t i o n , l a c k i n g p e t i o l e s , deciduous above the base l e a v i n g p e r s i s t e n t peg-l i k e l e a f bases; ovulate cones turned downward, not f a l l i n g apart at maturity P i c e a (glauca) 2b. Leaves b l u n t , f l a t , p e t i o l a t e ; f u l l y deciduous l e a v i n g c i r c u l a r l e a f s car; o vulate cones e r e c t , shedding s c a l e s l e a v i n g a p e r s i s t e n t a x i s Abies ( l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a ) 64 ADOXACEAE MAGNOLIOPHYTA (DICOTYLEDONAE) Adoxa m o s c h a t e l l i n a l a . Leaves twice to three times t e r n a t e l y compound; t a p r o o t s with i n t e r n a l t r a n s v e r s e p a r t i t i o n s at the apex of the crown A n g e l i c a ( l u c i d a ) l b . Leaves once t e r n a t e l y compound; t a p r o o t s l a c k i n g i n t e r n a l t r a n s v e r s e p a r t i t i o n s at the apex of the crown Heracleum (sphondylium subsp. montanum) APIACEAE ASTERACEAE l a . Both ray and d i s k f l o r e t s p r e s e n t (sometimes v e s t i g i a l i n P e t a s i t e s ) 2 l b . Heads l a c k i n g e i t h e r ray or d i s k f l o r e t s 8 2a. Pappus l a c k i n g A c h i l l e a ( m i l l e f o l i u m var b o r e a l i s ) 2b. Pappus pr e s e n t , c o n s i s t i n g of c a p i l l a r y b r i s t l e s 3 3a. Ray f l o r e t s y ellow to yellow-orange 4 3b. Ray f l o r e t s white, pink or purple (sometimes v e s t i g i a l i n P e t a s i t e s ) 6 4a. C a u l i n e l e a v e s opposite A r n i c a 4b. C a u l i n e l e a v e s a l t e r n a t e 5 5a. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s i n 1-2 s e r i e s Senecio 65 5b. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s i n s e v e r a l s e r i e s S o l i d a g o ( m u l t i r a d i a t a v a r . m u l t i r a d i a t a ) 6a. Basal l e a v e s long p e t i o l a t e , broad; c a u l i n e leaves much reduced Peta s i t e s 6b. Basal l e a v e s not long p e t i o l a t e , narrow; c a u l i n e l e a v e s , when present, of v a r i o u s shapes and s i z e s 7 7a. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s i n 3 or more rows A s t e r (modestus) 7b. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s i n 1-2 rows E r i g e r o n 8a. Ray f l o r e t s l a c k i n g 9 8b. Disk f l o r e t s l a c k i n g 11 9a. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s i n 1 s e r i e s ; d i s k f l o r e t s orange Senecio ( p a u c i f l o r u s ) 9b. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s i n s e v e r a l s e r i e s ; d i s k f l o r e t s white to gr e e n i s h - y e l l o w 10 10a. P l a n t s d i o e c i o u s ; heads s o l i t a r y or i n corymbose cymes; pappus of c a p i l l a r y b r i s t l e s Antennaria 10b. Flowers mostly p e r f e c t ; heads i n s p i c a t e racemes or p a n i c u l a t e c l u s t e r s ; pappus l a c k i n g or i n a shor t crown... .Artemisia l l a . C a u l i n e l e a v e s present; heads s e v e r a l , borne i n corymbose cyme s Hierac ium 66 l i b . C a u l i n e l e a v e s l a c k i n g ; heads s o l i t a r y 12 12a. Disk f l o r e t s yellow; achenes 12b. Disk f l o r e t s brownish-orange smooth A g o s e r i s spiny Taraxacum (lyratum) (drying p u r p l i s h ) ; achenes ( a u r a n t i a c a v a r . a u r a n t i a c a ) Antennaria l a . P l a n t s u s u a l l y l e s s than 10 cm t a l l ; heads s o l i t a r y A ntennaria monocephala l b . P l a n t s u s u a l l y g r e a t e r than 15 cm t a l l ; heads 2 - s e v e r a l per peduncle 2 2a. S c a r i o u s p o r t i o n of i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s b r i g h t pink to white Antennaria m i c r o p h y l l a 2b. S c a r i o u s p o r t i o n of i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s b l a c k i s h green to tawny c o l o u r e d 3 3a. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s mostly rounded a p i c a l l y , the s c a r i o u s p o r t i o n tawny c o l o u r e d Antennaria u m b r i n e l l a 3b. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s mostly acuminate a p i c a l l y , the s c a r i o u s p o r t i o n b l a c k i s h green Antennaria a l p i n a var. media A r n i c a l a . Heads s o l i t a r y ( r a r e l y more i n A r n i c a l o u i s e a n a ) , nodding 2 l b . Heads more than 1, not nodding 3 67 2a. 2b. Anthers p u r p l e ; pappus brownish A r n i c a l e s s i n g i i Anthers yellow; pappus white A r n i c a l o u i s e a n a subsp. f r i g i d a 3a. Lower c a u l i n e l e a v e s mostly cordate, p e t i o l e s 25 mm -40 mm long; ray f l o r e t s t a p e r i n g s l i g h t l y before t e r m i n a t i n g i n long ( u s u a l l y g r e a t e r than 1.5 mm long) s l e n d e r a p i c a l t e e t h ; achenes h i r s u t e throughout or a t l e a s t on the d i s t a l t w o - t h i r d s A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a 3b. Lower c a u l i n e l e a v e s cuneate to subcordate, s e s s i l e or with winged p e t i o l e s up to 10 mm long; ray f l o r e t s t r uncate with s h o r t ( u s u a l l y l e s s than 1.0 mm l o n g ) , b l u n t a p i c a l t e e t h ; achenes glabrous or h i r s u t e on the d i s t a l t h i r d A r n i c a l a t i f o l i a v a r . l a t i f o l i a A r t e m i s i a l a . Basal and lower c a u l i n e l e a v e s b i p i n n a t e l y d i s s e c t e d A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a l b . Basal and lower c a u l i n e l e a v e s merely lobed, the lobes broadly or narrowly l a n c e o l a t e 2 2a. I n f l o r e s c e n c e branched A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i subsp. u n a l a s c h c e n s i s 2b. I n f l o r e s c e n c e s p i k e - l i k e , unbranched A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i subsp. t i l e s i i 68 E r i g e r o n l a . Stems branched; heads s e v e r a l E r i g e r o n a c r i s subsp. d e b i 1 i s l b . Stems s i m p l e ; heads s o l i t a r y 2 2a. P l a n t low g r o w i n g , u s u a l l y l e s s than 12 cm t a l l ; i n v o l u c r u m d e n s e l y wooly, a p p e a r i n g p u r p l e as a r e s u l t of the dark p u r p l e c r o s s w a l l s o c c u r r i n g i n each of the i n v o l u c r a l h a i r s E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s 2b. P l a n t t a l l e r , u s u a l l y g r e a t e r than 20 cm t a l l ; i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s g l a n d u l a r , l a c k i n g p u r p l e tomentum E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s H i e r a c i u m l a . Upper p o r t i o n of stem and i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s c o n s p i c u o u s l y s t i p i t a t e g l a n d u l a r , g r e y - b l a c k v i l l o u s , h a i r s u s u a l l y l e s s than 1.5 mm l o n g H i e r a c i u m g r a c i l e l b . Upper p o r t i o n of stem and i n v o l u c r u m not s t i p i t a t e g l a n d u l a r , g r e y - b l a c k v i l l o u s , h a i r s u s u a l l y g r e a t e r than 2.0 mm l o n g H i e r a c i u m t r i s t e P e t a s i t e s l a . Leaves d e e p l y l o b e d , the s i n u s e s e x t e n d i n g n e a r l y h a l f - w a y to the m i d r i b , the l o b e s s e c o n d a r i l y t o o t h e d P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s l b . Leaves not d e e p l y l o b e d ; the margins c o a r s e l y t o o t h e d P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s 69 Senec i o l a . Basal l e a v e s l a c k i n g ; c a u l i n e leaves s e v e r a l , l a r g e t r i a n g u l a r , t r i a n g u l a r - h a s t a t e , or t r i a n g u l a r cordate Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s l b . B asal l e a v e s present; c a u l i n e l e a v e s reduced upwards 2 2a. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s i n 2 s e r i e s , c o n s p i c u o u s l y b l a c k - t i p p e d ; ray f l o r e t s y e l l o w , 7-12 mm long Senecio lugens 2b. I n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s i n 1 s e r i e s , l a c k i n g b lack t i p s ; ray f l o r e t s (when present) y e l l o w to yellow-orange, 5-7 mm long Senec i o p a u c i f l o r u s BETULACEAE Be t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . gla n d u l o s a BORAGINACEAE l a . B asal l e a v e s l a r g e , up to 15 cm long; flowers l a r g e , 10-19 mm long expanded p o r t i o n of c o r o l l a (limb) l o n g e r than the tube, campanulate; flowers with l e a f y b r a c t s Mertensia ( p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a ) l b . Basal l e a v e s s m a l l e r , up to 10 cm long; flowers s m a l l e r , 2-5 mm long, expanded p o r t i o n of c o r o l l a (limb) spreading; flowers l a c k i n g l e a f y b r a c t s Myosot i s ( a s i a t i c a ) BRASSICACEAE l a . P l a n t s h i r s u t e (at l e a s t the leaves) with simple, forked, s t e l l a t e or c r u c i f o r m h a i r s (or a combination of t h e s e ) ; f r u i t a s i l i c l e o r short s i l i q u e , l e s s than 10 times 70 l o n g e r than broad, more or l e s s e l l i p t i c Draba l b . P l a n t s glabrous, or with a few simple or forked h a i r s ; f r u i t a s i l i q u e ; g r e a t e r than 10 times l o n g e r than broad, l i n e a r 2 2a. Cauline l e a v e s s e s s i l e , o c c a s i o n a l l y appearing broadly p e t i o l a t e i n A r a b i s drummondii; v a l v e s of s i l i q u e s 1-nerved A r a b i s 2b. Cauline l e a v e s p e t i o l a t e ; v a l v e s of s i l i q u e s n e r v e l e s s . . . . Cardamine A r a b i s l a . Basal l e a v e s u s u a l l y l y r a t e - p i n n a t i f i e d ; s e p a l s 2-3 mm long; p e t a l s 4.5-7 mm long; c a u l i n e l e a v e s t a p e r i n g to a broad p e t i o l e , not a u r i c u l a t e ; seeds i n 1 row, not winged A r a b i s l y r a t a subsp. kamchatica l b . Basal l e a v e s e n t i r e ( r a r e l y d e n t i c u l a t e ) ; s e p a l s 3-4.5 mm long; p e t a l s 7-10 mm long; c a u l i n e l e a v e s s e s s i l e , a u r i c u l a t e ; seeds i n 2 rows, broadly winged A r a b i s drummondii Cardamine l a . Leaves a l l simple; s t y l e 1-3 mm long Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a subsp. b e l l i d i f o l i a v a r . b e l l i d i f o l i a l b . Leaves compound; l e a f l e t s o v a l to ovate or lobed; s t y l e 0.4-1 mm long Cardamine umbellata 71 Draba l a . P l a n t s scapose 2 l b . C a u l i n e l e a v e s p r e s e n t 5 2a. Stems s p a r s e l y pubescent; p e t a l s yellow Draba macounii 2b. Stems glabrous; p e t a l s white 3 3a. Upper and lower l e a f s u r f a c e s densely covered with s t e l l a t e h a i r s Draba n i v a l i s 3b. Leaf s u r f a c e s glabrous to s p a r s e l y pubescent/ h a i r s mostly simple to few-forked (some s t e l l a t e h a i r s appearing c o n c e n t r a t e d towards the apex i n Draba l a c t e a ) 4 4a. S t y l e s l e s s than 0.3 mm long; l e a v e s l a c k i n g s t e l l a t e h a i r s Draba f l a d n i z e n s i s 4b. S t y l e s g r e a t e r than 0.4 mm long; l e a v e s sometimes with s t e l l a t e h a i r s c o n c e n t r a t e d towards the apex Draba l a c t e a 5a. C a u l i n e l e a v e s 4-16; s i l i q u e s covered with simple to few forked h a i r s Draba b o r e a l i s 5b. C a u l i n e l e a v e s 1-3; s i l i q u e s glabrous or r a r e l y with simple h a i r s along suture l i n e s 6 6a. Upper l e a f s u r f a c e s e x h i b i t i n g mainly t r i f i d and c r u c i f o r m h a i r s , r a r e l y glabrous; stems with mostly c r u c i f o r m h a i r s Draba stenoloba 72 6b. Upper l e a f s u r f a c e s e x h i b i t i n g mainly simple and b i f i d h a i r s ; stem h a i r s mostly simple Draba a l b e r t i n a CALLITRICHACEAE. C a l l i t r i c h e anceps CAMPANULACEAE Campanula l a s i o c a r p a subsp. l a s i o c a r p a CAPRIFOLIACEAE Linnaea b o r e a l i s subsp. americana CARYOPHYLLACEAE l a . Sepals u n i t e d , forming a tube S i l e n e l b . Sepals d i s t i n c t or n e a r l y so 2 2a. P e t a l s (when present) b i l o b e d ; stamens i n s e r t e d a t the base of the ovary 3 2b. P e t a l s (when present) e n t i r e to s l i g h t l y emarginate, not b i l o b e d ; stamens i n s e r t e d at the base of a g l a n d u l a r d i s k 4 3a. S t y l e s 3 ( r a r e l y 4-5);capsules ovoid or oblong, d e h i s c i n g by way of 6 ( r a r e l y 8 or 10) t e e t h S t e l l a r i a 3b. S t y l e s 4-5; c a p s u l e s c y l i n d r i c a l , d e h i s c i n g by way of 10 te e t h Cerastium (beeringianum subsp. beeringianum) 4a. S t y l e s u s u a l l y 3, opposite e x t e r i o r s e p a l s ; c a p s u l e s d e h i s c i n g by way of 6 v a l v e s . . . A r e n a r i a (longipedunculata) 4b. S t y l e s 4-5, a l t e r n a t i n g with the s e p a l s , c a p s u l e s 73 d e h i s c i n g by way of 4-5 v a l v e s Sagina (intermedia) S i l e n e l a . Densely matted cushion forming p l a n t s ; p e d i c e l s glabrous; p e t a l s 8-12 mm long, pink, almost e n t i r e to emarginate.... S i l e n e a c a u l i s subsp. a c a u l i s l b . P l a n t s t u f t e d but not forming dense cushions; p e d i c e l s c i l i a t e ; p e t a l s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n o r b a r e l y e x s e r t e d from the c a l y x , white to pink, b i l o b e d S i l e n e u r a l e n s i s subsp. attenuata S t e l l a r i a l a . Leaves shiny, somewhat glaucous, d i s t i n c t l y keeled 2 l b . Leaves d u l l , not glaucous, l a c k i n g a k e e l 3 2a. Sepals c i l i a t e on margin S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s v a r . l a e t a 2b. Sepals l a c k i n g c i l i a on margin S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s v a r . a l t o c a u l i s 3a. Leaf margins f l a t , minutely s e r r u l a t e S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a v a r . c a l y c a n t h a 3b. Leaf margins d i s t i n c t l y wavy, e n t i r e . . . S t e l l a r i a umbellata CORNACEAE Cornus canadensis CRASSULACEAE Sedum i n t e g r i f o l i u m subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i u m 74 EMPETRACEAE Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum ERICACEAE l a . Ovary i n f e r i o r ; stamens 8-10 Vaccinium l b . Ovary s u p e r i o r ; stamens 5-10 2 2a. Leaves n e e d l e - l i k e , evergreen 3 2b. Leaves not n e e d l e - l i k e , evergreen or deciduous 4 3a. Leaves c l o s e l y appressed, u s u a l l y 4-ranked Cassiope 3b. Leaves spreading, a l t e r n a t e , not 4-ranked .Phyllodoce 4a. Anthers opening by way of t e r m i n a l pores 5 4b. Anthers d e h i s c i n g f u l l l e n g t h Kalmia ( m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a ) 5a. C o r o l l a r o t a t e , the segments almost d i s t i n c t ; l e a v e s brown-orange tomentose beneath Ledum 5b. C o r o l l a u r c e o l a t e ; l e a v e s glabrous beneath 6 6a. Flowers i n t e r m i n a l umbels; l e a v e s narrowly e l l i p t i c , r e v o l u t e ; f r u i t a capsule Andromeda ( p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a ) 6b. Flowers i n t e r m i n a l racemes; l e a v e s obovate, not r e v o l u t e ; 75 Cassiope l a . Leaves with conspicuous l o n g i t u d i n a l groove on convex lower s u r f a c e Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona l b . Leaves l a c k i n g l o n g i t u d i n a l groove on convex lower surface Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana Ledum l a . Leaves l i n e a r , u s u a l l y 1-3 cm long; stems 1-5 dm long; stamens u s u a l l y 10 Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens l b . Leaves oblong to l i n e a r oblong, u s u a l l y 2-4.5 cm long; stems 3-15 dm long; stamens u s u a l l y 8 Ledum groenlandicum Phyllodoce l a . C o r o l l a g r e e n i s h - y e l l o w , u r c e o l a t e , s t i p i t a t e g l a n d u l a r . . . Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a l b . C o r o l l a pale to deep pink, s p a r s e l y s t i p i t a t e g l a n d u l a r to glabrous, narrowly to broadly campanulate 2 2a. C o r o l l a pale pink, s p a r s e l y s t i p i t a t e g l a n d u l a r , narrowly campanulate Phyllodoce X intermedia 2b. C o r o l l a deep pink, glabrous, broadly campanulate Phyllodoce empetriformis Vaccinium l a . Leaves evergreen, l e a t h e r y 2 l b . Leaves deciduous 3 76 2a. C o r o l l a campanulate; stems ascending, not r o o t i n g Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a subsp. minus 2b. P e t a l s d i s t i n c t , r e f l e x e d ; stems p r o s t r a t e , r o o t i n g Vaccinium microcarpum 3a. B r a n c h l e t s angled; c a l y x s h a l l o w l y lobed 4 3b. B r a n c h l e t s round i n c r o s s s e c t i o n ; c a l y x deeply lobed Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. alpinum 4a. Stems u s u a l l y 1-3 dm t a l l ; b r a n c h l e t s u s u a l l y puberulent; leaves acute b a s a l l y , the margins s e r r u l a t e throughout.... Vaccinium caespitosum v a r . caespitosum 4b. Stems u s u a l l y 4-10 dm t a l l ; b r a n c h l e t s u s u a l l y glabrous; l e a v e s rounded to subcordate b a s a l l y , the margins e n t i r e to f i n e l y s e r r u l a t e mainly i n the lower h a l f Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m FABACEAE l a . Leaves palmately compound Lupinus ( a r c t i c u s subsp. a r c t i c u s ) l b . Leaves p i n n a t e l y compound 2 2a. Keel beaked O x y t r o p i s ( s e r i c e a var. s p i c a t a ) 2b. Keel l a c k i n g a beak 3 3a. Wings as long as or u s u a l l y l o n g e r than the k e e l ; f r u i t a legume A s t r a g a l u s ( a l p i n u s subsp. a l p i n u s ) 77 3b. Wings s h o r t e r than the k e e l ; f r u i t a loment Hedysarum (alpinum subsp. americanum) FUMARIACEAE C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a GENTIANACEAE l a . P l a n t s p e r e n n i a l ; c o r o l l a with p l e a t s i n the s i n u s e s of the lobes Gentiana (glauca) l b . P l a n t s annual; c o r o l l a l a c k i n g p l e a t s i n the s i n u s e s of the lobes G e n t i a n e l l a (propinqua) GROSSULARIACEAE Ribes glandulosum ONAGRACEAE Epilobi u m l a . Calyx tube l a c k i n g ; p e t a l s e n t i r e 2 l b . Calyx tube present; p e t a l s emarginate 3 2a. I n f l o r e s c e n c e compact; s t y l e s h o r t e r than stamens, glabrous; l e a v e s glaucous Epilobium l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m 2b. I n f l o r e s c e n c e elongate; s t y l e l o n g e r than stamens, h i r s u t e b a s a l l y ; l e a v e s not glaucous .Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l i u m subsp. a n g u s t i f o l i u m 3a. P e t a l s mostly dark to l i g h t pink; stems mostly under 15 cm t a l l , o f t e n r e d d i s h t i n g e d , o f t e n producing l e a f y b a s a l 78 shoots E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m 3b. P e t a l s mostly g r e e n i s h white to white; stems mostly over 20 cm t a l l , green, not producing l e a f y b a s a l shoots Epi l o b i u m l a c t i f l o r u m PARNASSIACEAE P a r n a s s i a l a . Flowers showy; p e t a l s approximately twice as long as the se p a l s , f i m b r i a t e along the lower margins; l e a v e s long p e t i o l a t e P a r n a s s i a f i m b r i a t a v a r . f i m b r i a t a l b . Flowers inconspicuous; p e t a l s approximately equal i n s i z e to the s e p a l s , e n t i r e ; l e a v e s s h o r t p e t i o l a t e to almost s e s s i l e P a r n a s s i a k o t z b u e i v a r . kotzbu e i POLEMONIACEAE Polemonium caeruleum subsp. v i l l o s u m POLYGONACEAE l a . Inconspicuous annual herbs; stems mostly 2-5 cm long; p e r i a n t h c o n s i s t i n g of 3 segments Koenigia ( i s l a n d i c a ) l b . Conspicuous, e r e c t , annual, b i e n n i a l or p e r e n n i a l herbs; stems mostly g r e a t e r than 10 cm long; p e r i a n t h c o n s i s t i n g of 3 segments 2 2a. Flowers borne i n t e r m i n a l s p i k e - l i k e racemes, the lower flowers r e p l a c e d by b u l b i l s B i s t o r t a ( v i v i p a r a ) 2b. Flowers borne i n p a n i c l e s ; b u l b i l s l a c k i n g 3 79 3a. P e r i a n t h c o n s i s t i n g of 4 segments; l e a v e s reniform; stems u s u a l l y 10-60 cm t a l l O x y r i a (digyna) 3b. P e r i a n t h c o n s i s t i n g of 6 segments ( r a r e l y 4); l e a v e s mostly s a g i t t a t e ; stems u s u a l l y 30-100 cm t a l l Rumex (acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s ) PORTULACACEAE C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa PRIMULACEAE l a . Leaves a l l b a s a l , long p etiolate....Dodecatheon (frigidum) l b . Leaves c a u l i n e , s e s s i l e (or n e a r l y so) 2 2a. Leaves o p p o s i t e , d o t t e d with black glands; flowers borne in a x i l l a r y racemes near the middle of the stem Lysimachia ( t h y r s i f l o r a ) 2b. Leaves a l t e r n a t e and reduced below, whorled above; flowers s o l i t a r y on s l e n d e r , a x i l l a r y p e d i c e l s T r i e n t a l i s (europaea subsp. a r c t ica ) PYROLACEAE l a . Flowers s o l i t a r y Moneses ( u n i f l o r a v a r . u n i f l o r a ) l b . Flowers many, borne i n t e r m i n a l racemes 2 2a. Flowers secund; p e t a l s g r e e n i s h white O r t h i l i a (secunda subsp. secunda) 2b. Flowers not secund; p e t a l s white to deep pink P y r o l a 80 P y r o l a l a . Anthers opening by way of s e s s i l e pores (not l o c a t e d at the end of short t u b e s ) ; s t y l e s t r a i g h t , i n c l u d e d to b a r e l y e x s e r t e d from c o r o l l a P y r o l a minor l b . Anthers opening by way of pores a t the end of short tubes; s t y l e curved, c o n s p i c u o u s l y e x s e r t e d from c o r o l l a 2 2a. Flowers f r a g r a n t ; p e t a l s creamy white, sometimes s u f f u s e d with pink; anthers yellow P y r o l a g r a n d i f l o r a 2b. Flowers s c e n t l e s s ; p e t a l s pink to crimson; anthers p i n k . . . P y r o l a a s a r i f o l i a var.purpurea RANUNCULACEAE l a . Flowers zygomorphic; s e p a l s 5, p e t a l o i d , blue to p u r p l e . . . 2 l b . Flowers actinomorphic; s e p a l s 3-12, green or p e t a l o i d ; p e t a l o i d s e p a l s yellow or cream c o l o u r e d and o f t e n t i n g e d with blue 3 2a. Upper sepal h i g h l y m o d i f i e d , forming a l a r g e h e l m e t - l i k e s t r u c t u r e ; p e t a l s 2, en c l o s e d w i t h i n the helmet Aconitum ( d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m ) 2b. Upper sepal c o n s p i c u o u s l y spurred; p e t a l s 4 Delphinium (glaucum) 3a. P e t a l s p r e s e n t , u s u a l l y 5-16; se p a l s u s u a l l y caducous Ranunculus 81 3b. P e t a l s l a c k i n g ; s e p a l s u s u a l l y p e t a l o i d 4 4a. Leaf blades simple, r e n i f o r m to cordate with crenate margins; f r u i t a f o l l i c l e C a l t h a ( l e p t o s e p a l a v a r . l e p t o s e p a l a ) 4b. Leaf b l a d e s t e r n a t e l y compound or, i f simple, palmately lobed; f r u i t an achene 5 5a. P e r i a n t h conspicuous, borne 1 per peduncle Anemone 5b. P e r i a n t h inconspicuous, borne i n racemes or p a n i c l e s T h a i i c t r u m Anemone l a . Sepals yellow Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i l b . Sepals creamy white, t i n g e d with blue e x t e r n a l l y 2 2a. Achenes woolly Anemone p a r v i f l o r a 2b. Achenes gl a b r o u s Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r Ranunculus l a . P l a n t s e i t h e r a q u a t i c o r amphibious; stems a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y p r o s t r a t e and r o o t i n g a t the nodes 2 l b . P l a n t s t e r r e s t r i a l ; stems e r e c t , not r o o t i n g at the nodes 3 2a. P l a n t s a q u a t i c ; submerged l e a v e s f i n e l y d i s s e c t e d ; p e t a l s white Ranunculus a q u a t i l i s 82 2b. P l a n t s amphibious; l e a v e s 3-5 lobed, lobes e n t i r e ; p e t a l s yellow Ranunculus hyperboreus subsp. hyperboreus 3a. P l a n t s dwarf, 3-10 cm t a l l ; flowers r e l a t i v e l y inconspicuous, p e t a l s 1.5-4 mm long, u s u a l l y s h o r t e r than the s e p a l s Ranunculus pygmaeus 3b. P l a n t s u s u a l l y t a l l e r ; f l o w e r s conspicuous, p e t a l s 6-12 mm long, l o n g e r than s e p a l s 4 4a. P e d i c e l s orange-brown h i r s u t e ; s e p a l s brown h i r s u t e , not r e f l e x e d Ranunculus sulphureus v a r . sulphureus 4b. P e d i c e l s glabrous, s e p a l s pubescent, r e f l e x e d when flowers open Ranunculus occ i d e n t a l i s subsp. o c c i d e n t a l i s T h a l i c t r u m l a . Flowers p e r f e c t ; b a s a l l e a v e s dark green and g l o s s y T h a l i c t r u m alpinum v a r . alpinum l b . Flowers u n i s e x u a l , p l a n t s d i o e c i o u s ; b a s a l leaves much l i g h t e r green, not g l o s s y T h a l i c t r u m venulosum var. venulosum ROSACEAE l a . Flowers borne i n dense s p i k e s ; s e p a l s 4, p e t a l o i d ; p e t a l s l a c k i n g • .Sanguisorba (canadensis subsp. l a t i f o l i a ) l b . Flowers s o l i t a r y or borne i n cymes or racemes; s e p a l s 5-10; p e t a l s 5-10 2 83 2a. Sepals 5, a l t e r n a t i n g with 5 s e p a l o i d b r a c t l e t s ; p e t a l s 5 3 2b. Sepals 5-10, s e p a l o i d b r a c t l e t s l a c k i n g ; p e t a l s 5-10 6 3a. Flowers inconspicuous; p e t a l s l i n e a r oblong, s h o r t e r than se p a l s ; stamens 5 S i b b a l d i a (procumbens) 3b. Flowers showy; p e t a l s not l i n e a r oblong, lo n g e r than se p a l s ; stamens 10-numerous 4 4a. P e t a l s creamy white; p l a n t producing s l e n d e r t r a i l i n g s t o l o n s , r o o t i n g a t the nodes; le a v e s b a s a l ; r e c e p t a c l e r i p e n i n g to produce an e d i b l e accessory f r u i t F r a g a r i a ( v i r g i n i a n a subsp. glauca) 4b. P e t a l s mostly yellow; p l a n t not producing n o d a l l y r o o t i n g s t o l o n s ; l e a v e s c a u l i n e or b a s a l and c a u l i n e ; r e c e p t a c l e not r i p e n i n g to produce an accessory f r u i t 5 5a. Hypanthium l i n e d with a g l a n d u l a r d i s k ; s t y l e s inconspicuous, j o i n t e d to the achene, u s u a l l y deciduous... Potent i l i a 5b. Hypanthium not l i n e d with a g l a n d u l a r d i s k ; s t y l e s e l o n g a t e , p e r s i s t e n t Geum (macrophyllum v a r . macrophyllum) 6a. Flowers s o l i t a r y on long scapose peduncles; p e t a l s 8-10; l e a v e s simple, l e a t h e r y ; f r u i t an achene with a long plumose s t y l e Dryas ( i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a ) 84 6b. Flowers s o l i t a r y o r few to many; s e p a l s u s u a l l y 5-7; p e t a l s u s u a l l y 5-7; l e a v e s a l t e r n a t e , v a r i o u s l y compound or simple and lobed, not l e a t h e r y ; f r u i t a s e v e r a l seeded f o l l i c l e or an aggregate 7 7a. Leaves b i t e r n a t e l y d i s s e c t e d ; flowers borne i n dense, s p i k e - l i k e racemes; f r u i t a s e v e r a l seeded f o l l i c l e Luetkea ( p e c t i n a t a ) 7b. Leaves p i n n a t e l y or palmately compound, or simple and palmately lobed; flowers s o l i t a r y or few i n cymes; f r u i t an aggregate Rubus Potent i l i a l a . P l a n t s shrubby P o t e n t i l l a f r u t i c o s a subsp. f l o r i b u n d a l b . P l a n t s herbaceous 2 2a. Leaves c o n s i s t i n g of 5-7 l e a f l e t s ; flowers few-several i n cymes P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a 2b. Leaves palmately 3 - f o l i o l a t e ( r a r e l y 5, the lower p a i r reduced i n P o t e n t i l l a u n i f l o r a ) ; f l owers 1-few 3 3a. L e a f l e t s white tomentose beneath P o t e n t i l l a u n i f l o r a 3b. L e a f l e t s glabrous to s i l k y p i l o s e beneath P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a Rubus l a . P l a n t s d i o e c i o u s ; l e a v e s simple, the blades palmately 85 l o b e d R u b u s c h a m a e m o r u s l b . F l o w e r s p e r f e c t ; l e a v e s p a l m a t e l y 3 - f o l i o l a t e ( s o m e t i m e s a p p e a r i n g 5 - f o l i o l a t e i n R u b u s p e d a t u s ) 2 2 a . P e t a l s p i n k ; l e a v e s d i s t i n c t l y 3 - f o l i a t e R u b u s a r c t i c u s s u b s p . a c a u l i s 2 b . P e t a l s w h i t e ; l e a v e s a p p e a r i n g 5 - f o l i o l a t e a s a r e s u l t o f l o b i n g o f t h e l a t e r a l l e a f l e t s R u b u s p e d a t u s R U B I A C E A E G a l i u m b o r e a l e S A L I C A C E A E S a l i x ( K e y r e v i s e d f r o m A r g u s , 1 9 7 3 ) l a . D w a r f o r p r o s t r a t e , t r a i l i n g s h r u b s u n d e r 2 d m t a l l 2 l b . E r e c t s h r u b s , e x c e e d i n g 2 d m t a l l , o r t r e e s 4 2 a . L e a v e s p r o m i n e n t l y r e t i c u l a t e ; p i s t i l l a t e a n d s t a m i n a t e f l o w e r s w i t h 2 n e c t a r i e s , o n e o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e s t i p e ; a m e n t s b o r n e o n p r o m i n e n t , s u b t e r m i n a l f l o r i f e r o u s b r a n c h l e t s S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a s u b s p . r e t i c u l a t a 2 b . L e a v e s n o t r e t i c u l a t e ; p i s t i l l a t e f l o w e r s w i t h o n e n e c t a r y b e t w e e n t h e s t i p e a n d t h e a m e n t a x i s ; a m e n t s b o r n e o n l a t e r a l f l o r i f e r o u s b r a n c h l e t s 3 3 a . L e a v e s g r e e n o r p a l e g r e e n b e n e a t h , n o t g l a u c o u s S a l i x p o l a r i s 3 b . L e a v e s g l a u c o u s b e n e a t h S a l i x a r c t i c a 86 4a. Flowering coetaneous or s e r o t i n o u s S a l i x glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a 4b. Flowering p r e c o c i o u s 5 5a. Leaves densely white l a n a t e beneath, b r i g h t green above; s t i p e s 0-0.4 mm long S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s 5b. Leaves s e r i c e o u s or densely v i l l o u s to s p a r s e l y pubescent or g l a b r e s c e n t beneath; s t i p e s 0.2-2 mm long 6 6a. Buds and s t i p u l e s o i l y ; s t i p u l e s b roadly ovate, margins prominently g l a n d u l a r ; l e a v e s white or grey s e r i c e o u s -l a n a t e beneath S a l ix b a r r a t t i a n a 6b. Buds and s t i p u l e s not o i l y ; s t i p u l e s l i n e a r ; l e a v e s glabrous, g l a b r a t e or s e r i c e o u s beneath S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a SAXIFRAGACEAE l a . Sepals 4; p e t a l s l a c k i n g Chrysosplenium (tetrandrum) l b . Sepals 5; p e t a l s 5 2 2a. P e t a l s f r i n g e d ( l a c i n i a t e l y l o b e d ) ; stamens 5 M i t e l l a (pentandra) 2b. P e t a l s e n t i r e ; stamens 10 3 3a. Leaves 3-8 cm long, obovate, c r e n a t e - s e r r a t e , l e a t h e r y , dark green and g l o s s y above; c a r p e l s u n i t e d only at the 87 base Leptarrhena ( p y r o l i f o l i a ) 3b. Leaves v a r i o u s i n s i z e and shape; not l e a t h e r y ( l e a v e s s t i f f i n S a x i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a but much s m a l l e r (0.6-1.9 cm long) and not dark green); c a r p e l s u n i t e d beyond the base S a x i f r a g a Sax i fraga l a . C a u l i n e l e a v e s 1-several 2 l b . C a u l i n e l e a v e s l a c k i n g 7 2a. Leaves o p p o s i t e , densely i m b r i c a t e S a x i f r a g a o p p o s i t i f o l i a 2b. Leaves a l t e r n a t e 3 3a. Terminal f l o w e r ( o c c a s i o n a l l y 2 flowers) of the i n f l o r e s c e n c e d e v e l o p i n g , the r e s t r e p l a c e d by b u l b i l s i n the a x i l s of the upper l e a v e s S a x i f r a g a cernua 3b. B u l b i l s l a c k i n g i n the a x i l s of upper l e a v e s ( o f t e n observed i n the a x i l s of b a s a l l e a v e s of S a x i f r a g a r i v u l a r i s ) 4 4a. Basal l e a v e s mostly long p e t i o l a t e ; o f t e n b e a r ing a x i l l a r y b u l b i l s ; p l a n t a r i s i n g from f i b r o u s r o o t s - S a x i f r a g a r i v u l a r i s v a r . f l e x u o s a 4b. B a s a l l e a v e s not long p e t i o l a t e ; a x i l l a r y b u l b i l s l a c k i n g ; p l a n t a r i s i n g from a t a p r o o t or a caudex with a taproot..5 88 5a. Leaves r i g i d , s h a r p l y t r i c u s p i d a t e , s p i n u l o s e t i p p e d S a x i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a 5b. Leaves not r i g i d , 3-7 toothed or lobed, not s p i n u l o s e t i p p e d 6 6a. Basal l e a v e s reddish-green, 3 ( o c c a s i o n a l l y 5)-toothed; c a p s u l e s 3-5 mm long S a x i f r a g a adscendens subsp. oregonensis 6b. Basal l e a v e s green, 3-5 lobed; c a p s u l e s 6-10 mm long S a x i f r a g a c a e s p i t o s a subsp. s i l e n e f l o r a 7a. Anther f i l a m e n t s subulate S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s 7b. Anther f i l a m e n t s c l a v a t e 8 8a. Lower l e a f s u r f a c e s with r e d d i s h , g l a n d u l a r tomentum S a x i f r a g a occ i d e n t a l i s 8b. Lower s u r f a c e of l e a v e s l a c k i n g r e d d i s h , g l a n d u l a r tomentum 9 9a. Leaf blades o r b i c u l a r to r e n i f o r m , u s u a l l y cordate b a s a l l y ; branches of the i n f l o r e s c e n c e g l a n d u l a r v i l l o u s S a x i f r a g a n e l s o n i a n a subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a 9b. Leaf b l a d e s o b l a n c e o l a t e of fan-shaped, cuneate b a s a l l y ; branches of the i n f l o r e s c e n c e not g l a n d u l a r - v i l l o u s S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i subsp. h u l t e n i i 89 SCROPHULARIACEAE l a . Flowers n e a r l y actinomorphic; l e a v e s (at l e a s t the lower ones) o p p o s i t e ; stamens 2 Veronica (wormskjoldii v a r . wor m s k j o l d i i ) l b . Flowers d i s t i n c t l y zygomorphic; l e a v e s a l t e r n a t e or whorled; stamens 4 2 2a. Flowers subtended by b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d b r a c t s ; c o r o l l a almost completely e n c l o s e d w i t h i n the c a l y x C a s t i l l e ja ( u n a l a s c h c e n s i s ) 2b. Flowers subtended by green b r a c t s ; c o r o l l a extending w e l l beyond the c a l y x P e d i c u l a r i s P e d i c u l a r i s l a . Galea l a c k i n g d i s t i n c t t e e t h a t or near the apex ( o c c a s i o n a l l y with obscure t e e t h i n P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a ) 4 l b . Galea with d i s t i n c t t e e t h a t or near the apex 2 2a. Calyx 2-3 lobed; c o r o l l a with long s l e n d e r t e e t h near the apex; stems u s u a l l y branched P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a 2b. Calyx d i s t i n c t l y 5-lobed; c o r o l l a with s h o r t roughly t r i a n g u l a r t e e t h a t or near the apex; stems simple 3 3a. Flowers s p i r a l l y arranged; b a s a l l e a v e s p i n n a t e l y lobed, the l o b e s i n c i s e d and these d i v i s i o n s again toothed; stems mostly with 0-3 l e a v e s ; c a l y x t e e t h 3-5 mm long; staminal 90 f i l a m e n t s g l a b r o u s . . . . P e d i c u l a r i s s u d e t i c a subsp. i n t e r i o r 3b. Flowers not o b v i o u s l y s p i r a l l y arranged; b a s a l leaves p i n n a t e l y lobed, the lobes merely c r e n a t e ; stems with numerous l e a v e s ; c a l y x t e e t h 2-3 mm long; staminal f i l a m e n t s pubescent . P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i subsp. a r c t i c a 4a. C a u l i n e l e a v e s arranged i n whorls; i n f l o r e s c e n c e with s e v e r a l f l o w e r s ; c o r o l l a pink, 11-16 mm l o n g . . . . . . . . . P e d i c u l a r i s v e r t i c i l l a t a 4b. C a u l i n e l e a v e s a l t e r n a t e , or more commonly l a c k i n g ; i n f l o r e s c e n c e few flowered; c o r o l l a cream c o l o u r e d , u s u a l l y s u f f u s e d with red or pink, 25-40 mm long P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a VALERIANACEAE V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s VIOLACEAE l a . P l a n t s with thickened rhizomes; s t o l o n s l a c k i n g , a e r i a l stems s h o r t V i o l a l a n g s d o r f i i l b . P l a n t s with t h i n rhizomes; s l e n d e r c r e e p i n g s t o l o n s p r e s e n t a e r i a l stems l a c k i n g V i o l a e p i p s i l a subsp. repens 91 MAGNOLIOPHYTA (MONOCOTYLEDONAE) CYPERACEAE l a . Flowers p e r f e c t ; p e r i a n t h r e p r e s e n t e d by numerous s i l k y b r i s t l e s Eriophorum l b . Flowers imperfect; p e r i a n t h l a c k i n g 2 2a. P l a n t s rhizomatous o r c a e s p i t o s e ; ovary surrounded by a fl a s k - s h a p e d perigynium Carex 2b. P l a n t s c a e s p i t o s e ; ovary surrounded by a glume, the ends of which meet but do not fuse K o b r e s i a (myosuroides) Carex - Key to Subgenera l a . S o l i t a r y , t e r m i n a l spike Primocarex l b . S p ikes two or more 2 2a. Spikes s e s s i l e ; u s u a l l y b i s e x u a l Vignea 2b. S p i k e s peduncled; u s u a l l y u n i s e x u a l Eucarex Primocarex l a . P l a n t s rhizomatous; d i o e c i o u s ( r a r e l y monoecious) 2 l b . P l a n t s c a e s p i t o s e ; monoecious (androgynous) 3 2a. Stigmas 2; p e r i g y n i a glabrous Carex d i o i c a subsp. gynocrates 2b. Stigmas 3; p e r i g y n i a pubescent ....Carex s c i r p o i d e a v a r . stenochlaena 92 3a. 3b. Stigmas 2; p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s p e r s i s t e n t Carex nardina Stigmas 3; p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s deciduous Carex p y r e n a i c a subsp. micropoda Vignea l a . P e r i g y n i a with conspicuous wing on margin Carex macloviana subsp. pachystachya l b . P e r i g y n i a l a c k i n g wing on margin 2 2a. Spikes 2-3 ( o c c a s i o n a l l y 4), congested; culms s t i f f 3 2b. Spikes 3-9, l o o s e l y aggregated ( e s p e c i a l l y the lower ones); culms s l e n d e r 4 3a. Culms very scabrous above; lowest b r a c t 0.3-0.6 cm l o n g . . . Carex heleonastes subsp. heleonastes 3b. Culms smooth; lowest b r a c t s c a l e - l i k e Carex b i p a r t i t a 4a. P e r i g y n i a appressed-ascending, t a p e r i n g g r a d u a l l y i n t o a short beak, l a c k i n g d i s t i n c t d o r s a l suture; l e a v e s glaucous 5 4b. P e r i g y n i a spreading; a b r u p t l y c o n t r a c t e d i n t o a d i s t i n c t , minutely b i d e n t a t e beak; d i s t i n c t , hyaline-margined d o r s a l suture on p e r i g y n i a ; l e a v e s not glaucous Carex brunnescens subsp. alaskana 5a. S c a l e s not e n v e l o p i n g p e r i g y n i a ; p e r i g y n i a conspicuous on s p i k e s ; lower s p i k e s remote 93 Carex canescens subsp. canescens 5b. S c a l e s p a r t i a l l y e nveloping p e r i g y n i a p a r t i c u l a r l y near the base; p e r i g y n i a inconspicuous i n s p i k e s ; s p i k e s more c l o s e l y aggregated. ....Carex canescens subsp. a r c t a e f o r m i s Eucarex l a . Stigmas mostly 2 ( r a r e l y 3 i n Carex s a x a t i l i s and Carex enanderi ); achenes l e n t i c u l a r 2 l b . Stigmas mostly 3; achenes t r i g o n o u s 6 2a. Achenes continuous with the s t y l e ; p e r i g y n i a l u s t r o u s Carex s a x a t i l i s subsp. laxa 2b. Achenes j o i n t e d with the s t y l e ; p e r i g y n i a not l u s t r o u s . . . 3 3a. Terminal spike b i s e x u a l , gynaecandrous Carex enanderi 3b. Terminal spike staminate 4 4a. P l a n t s s t r o n g l y s t o l o n i f e r o u s , the culms a r i s i n g one to few together; lowest b r a c t s h o r t e r than the i n f l o r e s c e n c e ; p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s with o b s o l e t e or s l e n d e r midvein Carex b i g e l o w i i 4b. Culms a r i s i n g i n l a r g e r clumps; lowest b r a c t e q u a l l i n g or exceeding the i n f l o r e s c e n c e ; p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s with conspicuous midvein 5 5a. Lower most p i s t i l l a t e s p i k e s o f t e n nodding on long peduncles, p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s whitened at t i p ( e s p e c i a l l y 94 i n age); long h o r i z o n t a l s t o l o n s absent; culms roughly t r i a n g u l a r i n c r o s s s e c t i o n ; lowest b r a c t u s u a l l y 20-50 cm long Carex s i t c h e n s i s 5b. Spikes a l l e r e c t , peduncles s h o r t e r , p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s not whitened at t i p ; long h o r i z o n t a l rhizomes present; culms round i n c r o s s s e c t i o n ; lowest b r a c t u s u a l l y 7-25 cm long Carex a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s 6a. Achenes continuous with s t y l e ; p e r i g y n i a l u s t r o u s Carex r o s t r a t a 6b. Achenes j o i n t e d with s t y l e ; p e r i g y n i a not l u s t r o u s 7 7a. P e r i g y n i a pubescent Carex r o s s i i 7b. P e r i g y n i a glabrous 8 8a. Lower b r a c t s long sheathing Carex c a p i l l a r i s subsp. c a p i l l a r i s 8b. Lower b r a c t s s h e a t h l e s s or n e a r l y so 9 9a. Roots covered with yellow f e l t Carex macrochaeta 9b. Roots not c l o t h e d with yellow f e l t 10 10a. Terminal spike gynaecandrous; p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s u s u a l l y much s h o r t e r than the p e r i g y n i a 11 10b. Terminal spike staminate; p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s equal to or l o n g e r than the p e r i g y n i a 12 95 11a. S c a l e s purplish-brown to p u r p l i s h - b l a c k , with conspicuous w h i t e - h y a l i n e margins Carex media subsp. media l i b . S c a l e s b l a c k , l a c k i n g conspicuous w h i t e - h y a l i n e margins... Carex atrosquama 12a. Culms p h y l l o p o d i c , c l o t h e d at base with d r i e d l e a v e s of the p r e v i o u s year, not p u r p l i s h t i n g e d a t base Carex microchaeta 12b. Culms s t r o n g l y a p h y l l o p d d i c ; l e a v e s of p r e v i o u s year l a c k i n g or g r e a t l y withered a t f l o w e r i n g time, p u r p l i s h t i n g e d a t base 13 13a. Staminate and p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s with o b s o l e t e or inconspicuous midvein; achenes long s t i p i t a t e Carex podocarpa 13b. Staminate and p i s t i l l a t e s c a l e s with conspicuous midvein; achenes s h o r t s t i p i t a t e Carex s p e c t a b i l i s Eriophorum l a . S p ikes 2-10, a t l e a s t some pendulous Eriphorum a n g u s t i f o l i u m subsp. t r i s t e l b . S p ikes s o l i t a r y , e r e c t 2 2a. P l a n t s mostly rhizomatous; s t e r i l e s c a l e s u s u a l l y l e s s than 7 Eriophorum scheuchzeri 2b. P l a n t s c a e s p i t o s e ; s t e r i l e s c a l e s u s u a l l y more than 7....3 96 3a. Sheath c o n s p i c u o u s l y expanded upwards; a t l e a s t the lower s c a l e s r e f l e x e d Eriophorum vaginatum subsp. vaginatum 3b. Sheath not expanded or only s l i g h t l y expanded upwards; s c a l e s not r e f l e x e d 4 4a. C a u l i n e l e a v e s u s u a l l y 2 or more, at l e a s t 1 s i t u a t e d above the middle of the culm; b r i s t l e s creamy white Eriophorum brachyantherum 4b. C a u l i n e l e a v e s u s u a l l y s o l i t a r y (or l a c k i n g ) s i t u a t e d below the middle of the culm; b r i s t l e s shiny white Eriophorum c a l l i t r i x JUNCACEAE l a . Leaf sheaths open; l e a v e s glabrous; c a p s u l e s with numerous (more than 3) seeds Juncus l b . Leaf sheaths c l o s e d ; l e a v e s u s u a l l y pubescent; capsule with 3 seeds L u z u l a Juncus l a . Culms a r i s i n g s i n g l y along rhizome 2 l b . Culms densely t u f t e d 3 2a. Culms a r i s i n g along rhizome l i k e " t e e t h i n a comb"; l e a v e s a l l b a s a l ; i n f l o r e s c e n c e l o c a t e d a t the base of a t e r e t e b r a c t which makes i t appear l a t e r a l Juncus a r c t i c u s subsp. alaskanus 2b. Culms s o l i t a r y but not appearing as above; l e a v e s c a u l i n e 97 and b a s a l ; i n f l o r e s c e n c e t e r m i n a l Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus 3a. I n f l o r e s c e n c e l o c a t e d a t the base of a t e r e t e b r a c t which makes i t appear l a t e r a l ; anthers equal to or l o n g e r than the f i l a m e n t s Juncus drummondii 3b. I n f l o r e s c e n c e t e r m i n a l ; anthers s h o r t e r than the f i l a m e n t s 4 4a. Leaves b a s a l and c a u l i n e , the blades h a l f - r o u n d Juncus mertensianus subsp. mertensianus var. mertensianus 4b. Leaves 1-4 per culm, a l l b a s a l or n e a r l y so, the blades te re te 5 5a. I n f l o r e s c e n c e u s u a l l y 2-flowered, u s u a l l y surpassed by the i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t ; capsule retuse a p i c a l l y Juncus b i g l u m i s 5b. I n f l o r e s c e n c e u s u a l l y 3-flowered, not surpassed by the i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t ; capsule acute a p i c a l l y Juncus t r i g l u m i s L u z u l a l a . Flowers borne s i n g l y ( o c c a s i o n a l l y 2-3) a t the ends of long, nodding p e d i c e l s 2 l b . Flowers c l u s t e r e d i n s p i k e s or glomerules 3 2a. P l a n t s up to 6 dm t a l l ; b a s a l leaves t h i n and shiny; 98 p e r i a n t h pale green; c a p s u l e s pale green Luzula p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a 2b. P l a n t s 2-4 dm t a l l ; b a s a l l e a v e s t h i c k and d u l l ; p e r i a n t h dark brown; c a p s u l e s dark brown Luz u l a p i p e r i 3a. I n f l o r e s c e n c e e r e c t : flowers c l u s t e r s s e s s i l e or borne on ascending branches 4 3b. I n f l o r e s c e n c e nodding 6 4a. Basal l e a f sheaths s u f f u s e d with p u r p l e ; l e a f b l ades channeled throughout ( o c c a s i o n a l l y only a p i c a l l y ) L u z u l a confusa 4b. Basal l e a f sheaths brown to straw c o l o u r e d ; l e a f b l ades f l a t (sometimes s l i g h t l y channeled a p i c a l l y ) 5 5a. Leaf b l a d e s s p a r i n g l y c i l i a t e to gla b r o u s i n margin; i n f l o r e s c e n c e c o n s i s t i n g of 1 ( r a r e l y 2) s e s s i l e , c a p i t a t e flower c l u s t e r s L u z u l a a r c t i c a subsp. l a t i f o l i a 5b. Leaf blades with conspicuous s o f t , white c i l i a m a r g i n a l l y ; i n f l o r e s c e n c e c o n s i s t i n g of 1-5 congested, c a p i t a t e flower c l u s t e r s , the l a t e r a l ones, when present, u s u a l l y on s t r a i g h t , s t i f f branches....Luzula m u l t i f l o r a v a r . f r i g i d a 6a. I n f l o r e s c e n c e c o n s i s t i n g of 3 - s e v e r a l c a p i t a t e or s p i c a t e flower c l u s t e r s borne on s l e n d e r nodding branches; b r a c t s of f l o w e r s s h o r t e r than the flowers Luzula a r c u a t a subsp. u n a l a s c h c e n s i s 99 6b. I n f l o r e s c e n c e c o n s i s t i n g of 1 ( o c c a s i o n a l l y 2-3) s p i c a t e , s e s s i l e flower c l u s t e r ( s ) ; b r a c t s of fl o w e r s conspicuous, o f t e n l o n g e r than the flowers L u z u l a s p i c a t a LILIACEAE l a . Flowers u s u a l l y s o l i t a r y ; s t y l e s 1 L l o y d i a ( s e r o t i n a subsp. s e r o t i n a ) l b . Flowers numerous; s t y l e s 3 2 2a. P l a n t s h o r t (0.5-2.5 dm t a l l ) ; l e a v e s b a s a l , e q u i t a n t , bases not sheathing T o f i e l d i a ( p u s i l l a ) 2b. P l a n t t a l l e r (10-25 dm); l e a v e s c a u l i n e , bases s h e a t h i n g . . Veratrum ( v i r i d e subsp. e s c h s c h o l t z i i ) POACEAE l a . S p i k e l e t s 1-flowered 2 l b . S p i k e l e t s 2 - s e v e r a l flowered 5 2a. S p i k e l e t s borne i n c y l i n d r i c a l , s p i k e - l i k e p a n i c l e s 3 2b. S p i k e l e t s borne i n open to c o n t r a c t e d p a n i c l e s 4 3a. A r t i c u l a t i o n below the glumes; p a l e a , r a c h i l l a and l o d i c u l e s absent Alopecurus ( a e q u a l i s subsp. a e q u a l i s ) 3b. A r t i c u l a t i o n above the glumes; p a l e a , r a c h i l l a and l o d i c u l e s p r e s e n t Phleum (alpinum v a r . commutatum) 100 4a. Base of lemma surrounded by a t u f t of s t i f f h a i r s C alamagrostis 4b. Base of lemma l a c k i n g t u f t of s t i f f h a i r s A g r o s t i a (scabra) 5a. S p i k e l e t s borne i n s p i k e - l i k e p a n i c l e s Trisetum (spicatum v a r . spicatum) 5b. S p i k e l e t s borne i n open to c o n t r a c t e d p a n i c l e s 6 6a. S p i k e l e t s 3-flowered, the lower 2 fl o w e r s staminate, the upper p e r f e c t (aromatic, s m e l l i n g l i k e v a n i l l a ) H i e r o c h l o e ( a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a ) 6b. S p i k e l e t s 2-10 flowered, f l o w e r s p e r f e c t or imperfect (not s m e l l i n g l i k e v a n i l l a ) 7 7a. Lemmas awned d o r s a l l y ; glumes as long as or longer than the lowest f l o r e t Vahlodea (atropurpurea subsp. paramushirensis) 7b. Lemmas l a c k i n g awns or awned from or near the t i p of a b i f i d apex 8 8a. Lemmas awnless, erose a t the apex; t i p s of l e a f b l ades p r o w - l i k e ; l e a f sheaths u s u a l l y p a r t i a l l y c l o s e d Poa 8b. Lemmas awned or acuminate; t i p s of l e a f b l ades not prow-l i k e ; l e a f sheaths open Festuca 101 Calamagrostis l a . P l a n t densely t u f t e d ; awn t w i s t e d and g e n i c u l a t e ; anthers 2-3 mm long Calamagrostis purpurascens subsp. purpurascens l b . P l a n t l o o s e l y t u f t e d to s t r o n g l y rhizomatous; awn s t r a i g h t to s l i g h t l y curved; anthers 1-1.8 mm long 2 2a. P a n i c l e spreading; c a l l u s h a i r s numerous, a l l roughly the same le n g t h , u s u a l l y as long or longer than the lemma Calamagrostis canadensis subsp. canadensis v a r . canadensis 2b. .Panicle c o n t r a c t e d ; c a l l u s h a i r s sparse, unequal i n lengt h , u s u a l l y much s h o r t e r than the lemma Calamagrostis s t r i c t a v a r . s t r i c t a Festuca l a . P l a n t s t a l l (2-10 dm); p a n i c l e open, 7-15 cm long; anthers 3-4 mm long Festuca a l t a i c a l b . P l a n t s u s u a l l y much s h o r t e r (0.7-3.5 dm t a l l ) ; p a n i c l e c o n t r a c t e d , 1.5-9 cm long; anthers 0.5-1.5 mm long or l a c k i n g 2 2a. S p i k e l e t s mainly to s o l e l y v i v i p a r o u s (pseudoviviparous, P a v l i c k , 1984) Festuca v i v i p a r a s . l . 2b. S p i k e l e t s p e r f e c t 3 3a. Anthers 0.5-1.0 (1.2) mm long; young l e a f sheaths u s u a l l y u n i t e d t h e i r f u l l l e n g t h ; l e a f blades smooth 102 Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a 3b. Anthers 1.0-1.5 mm long; young l e a f sheaths u s u a l l y u n i t e d 1/3 to 1/2 t h e i r l e n g t h ; l e a f b l a des u s u a l l y scabrous..... Festuca saximontana Poa l a . P l a n t s producing rhizomes 2 l b . P l a n t s t u f t e d , not producing rhizomes........ 3 2a. Culms exceeding 35 cm i n l e n g t h ; lower p a n i c l e branches mostly 4-6 t o g e t h e r Poa a r c t i c a subsp. l o n g i c u l m i s 2b. Culms l e s s than 30 cm i n l e n g t h ; lower p a n i c l e branches mostly i n p a i r s Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a 3a. S p i k e l e t s l e s s than twice as long as broad; l e a f b l a des g r e a t e r than 2 mm wide, f l a t Poa a l p i n a 3b. S p i k e l e t s g r e a t e r than twice as long as broad; l e a f b l a d e s u s u a l l y f o l d e d and l e s s than 2 mm wide Poa glauca 103 Annotated S p e c i e s L i s t Information i n c l u d e d with each taxon c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g : Synonyms - Where a given taxon i s r e c o g n i z e d by Hulten (1968), P o r s i l d and Cody (1980), or Welsh (1974) under a name other than t h a t used i n T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977), the synonym i s p r o v i d e d . The l i s t a l s o i n c l u d e s , where a p p l i c a b l e , any a d d i t i o n a l synonyms found i n the index of T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977). C o l l e c t i o n numbers - These r e p r e s e n t my p e r s o n a l c o l l e c t i o n numbers. In the event that any specimens are t r a n s f e r r e d from the herbarium a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia these numbers w i l l remain c o n s t a n t . H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n - T h i s category p r o v i d e s o n - s i t e abundance of the taxon i n q u e s t i o n , as w e l l as a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the s i t e or s i t e s from which c o l l e c t i o n s were made. The abundance c a t e g o r i e s are, of n e c e s s i t y , broad and r a t h e r s u b j e c t i v e . They are d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : Rare - One to few p o p u l a t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g of one to few i n d i v i d u a l s . Sparse - S c a t t e r e d p o p u l a t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g of few to many i n d i v i d u a l s . Common - Many p o p u l a t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g of many i n d i v i d u a l s . Abundant - Forming a major component of the v e g e t a t i o n throughout the area i n q u e s t i o n . 104 O v e r a l l abundance - R e l a t i v e abundance of the taxon i n q u e s t i o n throughout the study area. Abundance c l a s s e s and d e f i n i t i o n s are c o n s i s t e n t with those of the preceding c a t egory. O c c u r r i n g with - A b r i e f l i s t of commonly a s s o c i a t e d p l a n t s . These are p r o v i d e d to augment the h a b i t a t d e s c r i p t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l notes - In some i n s t a n c e s c o l l e c t i o n s taken from the study area e i t h e r d i d not key r e a d i l y i n the standard r e f e r e n c e s or e x h i b i t e d a t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Where such was the case, a d i s c u s s i o n of problems encountered or d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Where r e f e r e n c e s other than those a l r e a d y c i t e d i n the " M a t e r i a l s and Methods" s e c t i o n s were used to c l a r i f y a p a r t i c u l a r problem, they are l i s t e d under the a p p r o p r i a t e f a m i l y . 105 PTERIDOPHYTA (Club Mosses, Q u i l l w o r t s , H o r s e t a i l s or Scouring Rushes and Fe rn s) Aspleniaceae (Spleenwort Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : T a y l o r , 1956. C y s t o p t e r i s Bernh. (Bladder Fern) C y s t o p t e r i s f r a g i l i s (L.) Bernh. i n Schrad. ( F r a g i l e Fern) Synonyms: C y s t o p t e r i s f r a g i l i s subsp. d i c k i e a n a (Sim.) H y l . ; C.  f r a g i l i s subsp. f r a g i l i s ; C. f r a g i l i s v a r . f r a g i l i s C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 271, 323, 718, 733 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp, shady l o c a t i o n s ; growing from f o o t h o l d s i n g r a n o d i o r i t e c l i f f f a c e s and i n t h i n organic mats c o v e r i n g g r a n i t i c b o u l d e r s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : P a r n a s s i a f i m b r i a t a v a r . f i m b r i a t a , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , P y r o l a g r a n d i f l o r a and S a l i x p o l a r i s . C y s t o p t e r i s montana (Lam.) Desv. (Mountain Bladder Fern) C o l l e c t i o n number: 399 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : L o c a l l y r a r e . A s i n g l e c o l l e c t i o n was taken from a t h i n o r g a n i c mat i n a wet, g r a v e l l y r u n - o f f g u l l e y . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Hedysarum alpinum subsp. americanum and A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s subsp. a l p i n u s . 106 D r y o p t e r i s Adans. ( S h i e l d Fern) D r y o p t e r i s f r a g r a n s (L.) Schott (Fragrant S h i e l d Fern) Synonyms: D r y o p t e r i s f r a g r a n s var. r e m o t i u s c u l a Kom.; D.  fra g r a n s var. f r a g r a n s C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 314, 529 Hab i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse; almost e x c l u s i v e l y on open boulder s l o p e s where accumulated s o i l was s u f f i c i e n t to accomodate the sto u t rhizome. Frequent throughout the study area but always l o c a l l y s p a r s e . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a , Huperzia selago subsp. selago, P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a and S a l i x g l a u c a . Gymnocarpium Newm. (Oak Fern) Gymnocarpium d r y o p t e r i s (L.) Newm. v a r . disjunctum (Rupr.) Ching. (Oak Fern) Synonyms: D r y o p t e r i s d i s j u n c t a (Ledeb.) Morton C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 373, 537 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp, mossy s i t e s beneath an ove r s t o r y of stunte d Abies l a s i o c a r p a var. l a s i o c a r p a . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : S a x i f r a g a n e l s o n i a n a subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a , C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a and Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana. Woodsia R. Br. (Woodsia) Woodsia a l p i n a (Bolton) S. F. Gray (Northern Woodsia) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 557, 682a 107 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse; growing from exposed rock c r e v i c e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g with: Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana, Hi e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a and Phllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s . E q u i s i t a c e a e ( H o r s e t a i l Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : T a y l o r , 1956. Equisetum L. ( H o r s e t a i l , Scouring-Rush) Equisetum arvense L. (Common H o r s e t a i l ) Synonyms: Equisetum arvense var. boreale (Bong.) Ledeb.; E.  arvense var. campestre S c h u l t z ; E ^ arvense var. decumbens B. Meye r C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 116, 121, 164, 242, 696 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp, open heathlands, p a r t i c u l a r l y near r u n - o f f channels; along mossy la k e s h o r e s and open to p a r t l y shaded stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A ntennaria monocephala, Epil o b i u m anaga11 i d i f o l i u m , E r i g e r o n  h u m i l i s , P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , Phleum alpinum v a r . commutatum, Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s , S.  p o l a r i s and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s . A d d i t i o n a l notes: C o l l e c t i o n number 649 i s t y p i c a l Equisetum  arvense except f o r the presence of s t r o b i l i a t the apex of c h l o r o p h y l l o s e stems. T h i s morphotype i s e r r a t i c i n i t s appearance l a t e r i n the season w e l l a f t e r normal s t r o b i l u s 108 p r o d u c t i o n has o c c u r r e d . Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s Michx. (Dwarf Scouring-Rush) C o l l e c t i o n number: 132 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n open, u s u a l l y w e l l - d r a i n e d heaths. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Cassiope  tetragona v a r . te t r a g o n a , Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , Lycopodium clavatum and Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s . Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m L. v a r . s y l v a t i c u m (Wood H o r s e t a i l ) C o l l e c t i o n number: 247 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp, p a r t i a l l y open meadow adjacent to l a k e s h o r e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m , Festuca v ' ' —————— saximontana, Phleum alpinum v a r . commutatum, Triseturn spicatum var. spicatum, S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a and S a l i x g l a u c a v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . Lycopodiaceae (Club-Moss Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : T a y l o r , 1956. Huperzia Bernh. (Club-Moss) Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart. v a r . selago ( F i r Club-Moss) 109 Synonyms: Lycopodium selago L.; selago subsp. selago; L.  selago v a r . selago; L. selago v a r . appressum Desv.; L_^  selago subsp. appressum (Desv.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 152, 228, 316 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n open heaths and meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i , Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , Festuca a l t a i c a and Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: T a y l o r and MacBryde (19 77) recognize three v a r i e t i e s of Huperzia selago, namely Uj_ selago v a r . c h i n e n s i s , H.  selago v a r . patens and H^ selago var. s e l a g o . In t h e i r treatment Huperz i a selago v a r . selago i n c l u d e s both Lycopodium selago L. subsp. appressum (Desv.) H u l t . and Lycopodium selago L. subsp. selago which appear i n Hulten (1968). Welsh (1974) notes the r e c o g n i t i o n of i n f r a s p e c i f i c taxa but maintains t h a t " a l l are connected by a continuous s e r i e s of i n t e r m e d i a t e s and the c o n t r o l appears to be e c o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than g e n e t i c " (Welsh, 1974). C o l l e c t i o n #152 and some samples from c o l l e c t i o n #316 d i f f e r from the other c o l l e c t i o n s i n having spreading, darker green l e a v e s . Lycopodium L. (Club-Moss) Lycopodium alpinum L. (Alpine Club-Moss) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 125, 376, 882 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n open heaths a d j a c e n t to lakeshore and on steep g r a v e l s l o p e s near p e r s i s t e n t snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. 110 O c c u r r i n g with: Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and S i b b a l d i a procumbens. Lycopodium annotinum L. subsp. annotinum ( S t i f f Club-Moss) Synonyms: Lycopodium annotinum L. var. annotinum C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 133, 229, 950 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on mossy rocks along lakeshore and in moist meadows. Forming s o l i d mats 1-2 m i n diameter under dense stands of stunt e d Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex macrochaeta, Ribes glandulosum, Rubus pedatus and S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a . Lycopodium clavatum L. (Running Club-Moss) Synonyms: Lycopodium clavatum var. monostachyon Grev. & Hook.; L. clavatum subsp. monostachyon (Grev. & Hook.) S e i . ; L_;_ clavatum subsp. clavatum; L. clavatum v a r . clavatum; L. clavatum v a r . integerrimum S p r i n g C o l l e c t i o n number: 330 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on w e l l - d r a i n e d , open heaths. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope tetragona subsp. tetragona, Lupinus  a r c t i c u s subsp. a r c t i c u s , Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a . I l l Lycopodium complanatum L. (Ground-Cedar) Synonyms: Lycopodium complanatum L. var. canadense V i c t . ; L•  complanatum v a r . complanatum C o l l e c t i o n number: 802 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on exposed, w e l l - d r a i n e d g r a v e l s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spa r s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cornus canadensis, Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Linnaea b o r e a l i s subsp. americana and S a l i x  p o l a r i s . Ophioglossaceae (Adders 1-Tongue Family) Botrychium Sw. (Grape Fern) Botrychium l u n a r i a (L.) Sw. i n Schrad. subsp. l u n a r i a (Moonwort) Synonyms: Botrychium l u n a r i a (L.) Sw. i n Schrad. v a r . l u n a r i a C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 913, 971 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare i n moist meadows and mossy seepage areas. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , P a r n a s s i a kotzebuei v a r . ko t z e b u e i , Poa a l p i n a and S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s . 112 S e l a g i n e l l a c e a e ( S e l a g i n e l l a Family) S e l a g i n e l l a Beauv. ( S e l a g i n e l l a ) S e l a g i n e l l a s e l a g i n o i d e s (L.) Link (Mountain-Moss) C o l l e c t i o n number: 658 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Apparently sparse but e a s i l y overlooked. P a r t i a l l y b u r i e d i n mosses on moist open s l o p e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and P o t e n t i l i a d i v e r s i f o l i a v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a . 113 PINOPHYTA ( C o n i f e r s ) Cupressaceae (Cypress Family) J u n i p e r u s L. (Juniper) J u n i p e r u s communis L. subsp. a l p i n a ( N e i l r e i c h ) Celakovsky Synonyms: J u n i p e r u s communis L. subsp. nana ( W i l l d . ) Syme; J .  communis v a r . s a x a t i l i s P a l l . ; J_^ communis v a r . montana A i t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 124, 279 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare on open, w e l l - d r a i n e d g r a v e l s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Lycopodium alpinum, O x y t r o p i s s e r i c e a var. s p i c a t a , Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , S a l i x p o l a r i s and S a l i x  r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . Pinaceae (Pine Family) Abies M i l l . ( F i r ) Abies l a s i o c a r p a (Hook.) Nutt. v a r . l a s i o c a r p a (Sub-Alpine F i r ) Synonyms: Abies balsamea (L.) M i l l , subsp. l a s i o c a r p a (Hook.) Boiv. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 195, 949, 984 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n moderately damp seepage s i t e s a t e l e v a t i o n s of 1540 to 1600 m. Maximum s i z e of approximately 5 m t a l l , 20 cm d.b.h. was a t t a i n e d i n s h e l t e r e d l o c a t i o n s such as on the leeward si d e of h i l l s and i n p r o t e c t e d v a l l e y s . Specimens from more open l o c a t i o n s and a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s were sporadic i n occurrence and s e v e r e l y stunted (krummholz). Few specimens grew above e l e v a t i o n s of 1650 m. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. 114 O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Adoxa m o s c h a t e l l i n a , A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a , C a l a m agrostis canadensis subsp. canadensis var. canadensis, Lycopodium alpinum and Rubus pedatus. A d d i t i o n a l notes: The a e c i a l stage of the p a r a s i t i c r u s t P u c c i n i a s t r u m goeppertianum (Kuehn.) Kleb. i s e v i d e n t on the needles of c o l l e c t i o n numbers 949 and 984. T h i s i n f e c t i o n of Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a was common i n damp s h e l t e r e d l o c a l i t i e s . P i c e a D i e t r . (Spruce) P i c e a glauca (Moench) Voss (White Spruce) Synonyms: P i c e a glauca (Moench) Voss var. a l b e r t i a n a (S. Brown) Sarg.; glauca v a r . p o r s i l d i i Raup; P_^  g l a u c a v a r . glauca C o l l e c t i o n number: 629 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Only one stunted specimen, 1.3 m t a l l , was found i n the study area. Growing adjacent to the lakeshore on rocky substratum o v e r l a i n by t h i n t u r f . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g with: Carex brunnescens subsp. alaskana, Carex  p y r e n a i c a subsp. micropoda and S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s . Pinus L. (Pine) Pinus c o n t o r t a Dougl. ex Loud. v a r . l a t i f o l i a Engelm. i n S. Wats. (Lodgepole Pine) Synonyms: Pinus c o n t o r t a subsp. l a t i f o l i a (Engelm.) C r i t c h f i e l d C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 205, 788 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare and extremely stunted (1 to 1.5 m 115 t a l l ) , i n wet, boggy are a s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Kalmia  m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, Luzu l a a r c u a t a subsp. u n a l a s c h k e n s i s , S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a and P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a . 116 MAGNOLIOPHYTA: DICOTYLEDONEAE (Flowering P l a n t s ) Adoxaceae (Moschatel Family) Adoxa L. (Moschatel) Adoxa m o s c h a t e l l i n a L. (Moschatel) C o l l e c t i o n number: 414 Hab i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse i n damp, shady areas around lakeshores and along r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g with: Abies l a s i o c a r p a var. l a s i o c a r p a , A g o s e r i s  a u r a n t i a c a var. a u r a n t i a c a , Draba a l b e r t i n a , Veronica  w o r m s k j o l d i i var. w o r m s k j o l d i i var. w o r m s k j o l d i i and S a l i x  glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a . Apiaceae A n g e l i c a L. (Angelica) A n g e l i c a l u c i d a L. (Seacoast A n g e l i c a ) Synonyms: Coelopleurum g m e l i n i i (D C.) Ledeb. C o l l e c t i o n number: 232 Habita t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common a t lower e l e v a t i o n s i n the study area (1540 to 1600 m). In damp, open meadows c l o s e to lakeshores and along stream banks where s o i l i s r e l a t i v e l y deep. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum, P e d i c u l a r i s v e r t i c i l l a t a , P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a and Veratrum v i r i d e subsp. e s c h s c h o l t z i i . 117 Heracleum L. (Cow-Parsnip) Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. montanum (Gaud.) B r i g , i n Schinz & K e l l e r (Common Cow-Parsnip) Synonyms: Heracleum lanatum Michx. C o l l e c t i o n number: 705 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp open meadows c l o s e to lakeshores and along stream banks where s o i l i s r e l a t i v e l y deep. (As with A n g e l i c a l u c i d a ) . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: A n g e l i c a l u c i d a , P e d i c u l a r i s v e r t i c i l l a t a , P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a and Veratrum  v i r i d e subsp. e s c h s c h o l t z i i . Asteraceae (Aster Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s : Douglas, 1982; S t r a l e y , 1980; Guppy, 1975. A c h i l l e a L. (Yarrow) A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m L. v a r . b o r e a l i s (Bong.) Far. (Northern Yarrow) Synonyms: A c h i l l e a b o r e a l i s Bong.; A_^  m i l l e f o l i u m subsp. b o r e a l i s (Bong.) B r e i t u n g , A. n i g r e s c e n s (E. Mey.) Rydb. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 514, 903 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along open g r a v e l l y lakeshore and damp, p a r t i a l l y shaded, sandy streambank. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Carex brunnescens, Carex s a x a t i l i s subsp. l a x a , Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum and Epilob i u m l a t i f o l i u m 118 subsp. l a t i f o l i u m . A g o s e r i s Raf. (False Dandelion) A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a (Hook.) Greene var. a u r a n t i a c a (Orange Fa l s e Dandelion) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 309, 411, 493, 511, 879, 880 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp open meadows, adjacent to la k e s h o r e s and along stream banks. P a r t i a l l y shaded by B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a and S a l i x a l a x e n e s i s var. a l a x e n s i s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , Draba a l b e r t i n a , E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s , Rumex  acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . A n tennaria Gaertn. (Pussytoes) Antennaria a l p i n a (L.) Gaertn. var. media (Greene) Jepson (Alpine Pussytoes) Synonyms: Antennaria media Greene; A_^  s t o l o n i f e r a P o r s i l d ; A.  a l p i n a v a r . s t o l o n i f e r a ( P o r s i l d ) Welsh. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 237, 421, 444, 779 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on open, rocky lakeshores, open g r a v e l s l o p e s and exposed, w e l l - d r a i n e d heath s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria monocephala, Cassiope e m p e t r i f o r m i s , Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. 119 i n t e g r i f o l i a , E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m v a r . a n g u s t i f o l i u m and P o t e n t i l l a f r u t i c o s a subsp. f l o r i b u n d a . Antennaria m i c r o p h y l l a Rydb. (Rosy Pussytoes) Synonyms: Antennaria rosea Greene; A_^  n i t i d a Greene; A^ rosea var. n i t i d a (Greene) B r e i t u n g ; A^ rosea v a r . rosea; A. a l b o r o s e a A.E. & M.P. Pors.; A_^_ o x y p h y l l a Greene; A^ i n c a r n a t a P o r s i l d ; A.  elegans P o r s i l d C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 562, 884 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : O c c u r r i n g on w e l l - d r a i n e d g r a v e l s l o p e s and open heaths. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , E r i g e r o n a c r i s subsp. d e b i 1 i s , Poa a l p i n a and S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a v a r . m u l t i r a d i a t a . A ntennaria monocephala DC. (One-Headed Pussytoes) Synonyms: Antennaria angustata Greene; A^ p h i l o n i p h a Pors.; A.  monocephala subsp. angustata (Greene) H u l t . ; A^ monocephala subsp. p h i l o n i p h a (Pors.) H u l t . ; A^ monocephala subsp. p h i l o n i p h a var. p h i l o n i p h a ; A. monocephala subsp. monocephala; A.  monocephala subsp. monocephala var. monocephala; A. monocephala subsp. monocephala v a r . e x i l i s (Greene) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 112, 238, 239, 240, 384, 403, 420, 423, 443, 445, 640, 660, 6 83, 751, 963, 1003, 1004 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along mossy, rocky l a k e s h o r e s , open heaths and g r a v e l l y areas p a r t i c u l a r l y near p e r s i s t e n t snow. 120 O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria a l p i n a , Draba a l b e r t i n a , Draba  n i v a l i s , Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana, E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Festuca v i v i p a r a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a . Antennaria u m b r i n e l l a Rydb. (Dusky Brown Pussytoes) Synonyms: Antennaria i s o l e p i s Greene; p a l l i d a E. N e l s . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 179, 380, 1005 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on damp, open heaths and from t h i n organic mats c o v e r i n g b o u l d e r s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana, Festuca  a l t a i c a , Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a and P y r o l a g r a n d i f l o r a . A r n i c a L. (Arnica) A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a Hook. (Heart-Leaved A r n i c a ) Synonyms: A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a v a r . c o r d i f o l i a ; A. c o r d i f o l i a v a r . pumila (Rydb.) Maguire C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 483, 539, 616 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp, open to semi-open meadows, along l a k e s h o r e s and r u n - o f f streams. Often found growing under p a r t i a l shade of Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a and S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a var. a u r a n t i a c a , A r a b i s  drummondi i , A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i subsp. t i l e s i i , Festuca a l t a i c a , P e d i c u l a r i s s u d e t i c a subsp. i n t e r i o r and Trisetum spicatum v a r . 121 spicatum. A r n i c a l a t i f o l i a Bong. v a r . l a t i f o l i a (Broad-Leaved A r n i c a ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 416, 422, 494, 535, 892, 893 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp, open meadows and open heaths. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g with: Antennaria a l p i n a v a r . media, Antennaria  monocephala, Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana, Carex  macrochaeta, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s , S a l i x  g lauca var. a c u t i f o l i a and Senec i o lugens. A r n i c a l e s s i n g i i Greene ( L e s s i n g ' s A r n i c a ) Synonyms: Am i c a l e s s i n g i i Greene subsp. l e s s i n g i i C o l l e c t i o n number: 607 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on open heaths and mossy areas surrounding s o r t e d stone c i r c l e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex  c a p i l l a r i s subsp. c a p i l l a r i s , Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, S a l i x glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a and Senec i o p a u c i f l o r u s . 122 A r n i c a l o u i s e a n a F a r r . subsp. f r i g i d a (C.A. Mey. ex I l g i n ) Maguire (Lake Louise A r n i c a ) Synonyms: A r n i c a f r i g i d a C.A. Mey.; A_^  l o u i s e a n a v a r . f r i g i d a (C.A. Mey.) Welsh; A_^  l o u i s e a n a v a r . p i l o s a Maguire C o l l e c t i o n number: 642 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare i n rocky heathlands and exposed c l i f f ledge s. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g with: Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Dryas  i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a and Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s . A r t e m i s i a L. (Sagebrush, Wormwood, Mugwort) A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a Less, subsp. a r c t i c a (Boreal Mugwort) Synonyms: A r t e m i s i a n o r v e g i c a F r i e s ; A^ n o r v e g i c a v a r . s a x a t i l i s (Bess.) Jepson C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 154, 156, 561, 708 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on w e l l - d r a i n e d rocky s l o p e s and boggy areas near lake margins. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Ledum  p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens and P a r n a s s i a f i m b r i a t a v a r . f i m b r i a t a . A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i Ledeb. subsp. t i l e s i i ( A l e u t i a n Mugwort) Synonyms: A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i v a r . t i l e s i i C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 571, 707, 709, 710, 933, 993 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse t o common on rocky s l o p e s and open me adows. 123 O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . b o r e a l i s , A g r o s t i s scabra, A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s and S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a . A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i Ledeb. subsp. u n a l a s c h c e n s i s (Bess.) H u l t . ( A l e u t i a n Mugwort) Synonyms: A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i Ledeb. var. u n a l a s c h c e n s i s Bess. C o l l e c t i o n number: 954 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n a moist, hummocky, p a r t i a l l y open meadow adjacent to a sm a l l seepage pond. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A s t e r modestus, Geum macrophyllum v a r . macrophyllum, Mertensia pan i c u l a t a v a r . pan i c u l a t a and P e t a s i t e s  n i v a l i s . A s t e r L. (Aster) A s t e r modestus L i n d l . i n Hook. (Great Northern As t e r ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 955, 1025 Hab i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common a t one s i t e along sandy shore of small seepage pond. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . 124 E r i g e r o n L. (Fleabane) E r i g e r o n a c r i s L. subsp. d e b i 1 i s (Gray) P i p e r ( B i t t e r Fleabane) Synonyms: E r i g e r o n a c r i s v a r . d e b i l i s Gray C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 564, 989 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse, on open, w e l l - d r a i n e d g r a v e l s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare t o spar s e . O c c u r r i n g with: A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . b o r e a l i s , Antennaria  m i c r o p h y l l a , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s and S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a v a r . m u l t i r a d i a t a . E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s Grah. ( A r c t i c Fleabane) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 118, 233, 287, 389, 570, 649, 992 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common, although never i n gre a t abundance, along mossy l a k e s h o r e s and open rocky s l o p e s near l a t e remaining snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r a s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Antennaria  a l p i n a , A r c t o s t a p h y l o s rubra, Draba a l b e r t i n a , Hedysarum alpinum subsp. americanum, Lu z u l a p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a and Vaccinium caespitosum. E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s (Pursh.) Greene subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s (Greene) Cronq. (Subalpine Fleabane) Synonyms: E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s v a r . scaposus ( T o r r . & Gray) Cronq.; E ^ p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s var. euca l l i a n t h e m u s Conq. 125 C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 473, 510, 531 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common along damp, shady stream banks and moist, semi-open meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , Delphinium glaucum, Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , Rumex  acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a var. p u l c h r a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . Hieracium L. (Hawkweed) Hieracium g r a c i l e Hook. (Slender Hawkweed) Synonyms: Hieracium t r i s t e subsp. g r a c i l e (Hook.) C a l d e r & T a y l o r ; H_^  g r a c i l e v a r . alaskanum Zahn.; H^ g r a c i l e v a r . g r a c i l e C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 534, 679, 889, 932 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n h a b i t a t s ranging from open grassy heaths to open rocky s l o p e s near l a t e remaining snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: A r n i c a l a t i f o l i a v a r . l a t i f o l i a , Carex  c a p i l l a r i s subsp. c a p i l l a r i s , Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, H i e r a c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , L u z u l a a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and S a l i x p o l a r i s . A d d i t i o n a l notes: P o r s i l d and Cody (1980) employ achene c o l o u r as one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s e p a r a t i n g t h i s s p e c i e s from H.  t r i s t e . Achenes of H_^  g r a c i l e are r e p o r t e d to be red while those of KL_ t r i s t e are supposed to be b l a c k . No mention of t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s made by Guppy (19 75), however, and examination of herbarium m a t e r i a l c a s t doubt on the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s 126 c h a r a c t e r . M a t e r i a l from the study area was separated by the more widely employed c h a r a c t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to the presence or absence of s t i p i t a t e glands and the l e n g t h of grey-black h a i r s on the upper p o r t i o n of the stem and i n v o l u c r a l b r a c t s . Hieracium t r i s t e W i l l d . ex Spreng. (Woolly Hawkweed) Synonyms: Hieracium t r i s t e subsp. t r i s t e ; H. t r i s t e v a r . t r i s t i f o r m e Zahn. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 931, 936 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse along open, sandy stream bank and on steep rocky g u l l e y near p e r s i s t e n t snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r n i c a l a t i f o l i a v a r . l a t i f o l i a , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a subsp. g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a , M i t e l l a pentandra and S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i . P e t a s i t e s M i l l . ( C o l t ' s - F o o t ) P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s (L.) E.M. F r i e s ( A r c t i c C o l t ' s - F o o t ) Synonyms: C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 605, 946 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n open, muddy areas and, in one l o c a t i o n , along the margin of a stagnant seepage pond. Often p a r t i a l l y shaded by dwarf b i r c h and will o w . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A s t e r modestus, B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . gl a n d u l o s a , Carex s i t c h e n s i s , Eriophorum brachyantherum, Juncus 127 castaneus subsp. castaneus and Lycopodium annotinum subsp. annotinum. A d d i t i o n a l notes: R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the genus P e t a s i t e s M i l l , o c c u r r i n g i n the study area form p a r t of a complex w i t h i n which three taxa are g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . C a l d e r and T a y l o r (1968), Hulten (1968), T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977) and P o r s i l d and Cody (1980) separate these taxa a t the s p e c i e s l e v e l , whereas, Hitchcock e t a l . (1955, 1973), Welsh (1974) and Douglas (1982) regard them as v a r i e t i e s w i t h i n P^ f r i g i d u s . Leaf morphology, the presence or absence of lobes and the degree of l o b a t i o n when present, separate these taxa. Specimens c o l l e c t e d from the study area e x h i b i t e d almost continuous v a r i a t i o n i n l e a f l o b a t i o n from lobes absent to s i n u s e s of lobes extending more than h a l f way to the base. Examination of herbarium c o l l e c t i o n s r e v e a l e d a s i m i l a r degree of l e a f v a r i a t i o n , thus f a i l i n g to provide enlightenment. Although h y b r i d i z a t i o n i s c i t e d as the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s v a r i a t i o n (Hulten, 1973; Welsh, 1974), i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t f u r t h e r taxonomic work i s i n o r d e r . C o l l e c t i o n numbers 605 and 946 are a s c r i b e d to P e t a s i t e s  f r i g i d u s p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of l e a f diagrams p r o v i d e d i n Hulten (1950). The remainder of the c o l l e c t i o n s are assigned to P. n i v a l i s . Separate s p e c i e s are i n d i c a t e d i n order to remain c o n s i s t e n t with T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977), however, l i m i t e d p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s would suggest a more c o n s e r v a t i v e treatment. 128 P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s Greene (Greene's C o l t ' s - F o o t ) Synonyms: P e t a s i t e s hyperboreus Rydb.; P_^  f r i g i d u s (L.) E.M. F r i e s v a r . n i v a l i s (Greene) Cronq. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 119, 153, 243, 375, 447, 471, 479, 620, 951, 1002 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n wet, open to p a r t l y shaded areas along stream banks, lak e s h o r e s , meadows and seepage areas where snow remains l a t e . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a v a r . l e p t o s e p a l a , C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a , Eguiseturn arvense, Gentiana g l a u c a , Juncus b i g l u m i s , Luzula  p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a , M e r tensia p a n i c u l a t a , S a l i x  p o l a r i s , S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s . A d d i t i o n a l notes: See P_^  f r i g i d u s . Senecio L. (Ragwort) Senecio lugens R i c h a r d i n F r a n k l i n (Black-Tipped Ragwort) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 406, 530 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp open meadows and open boggy areas near lake outflow. F r e q u e n t l y p a r t i a l l y shaded by dwarf f i r , b i r c h and wi l l o w . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Carex a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , E r i g e r o n  p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s , Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i , Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a and T h a l i c t r u m alpinum. 129 Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s Pursh (Rayless A l p i n e Ragwort) Synonyms: Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s var. f a l l a x Greenm. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 308, 608 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on open, damp moss carpet e d areas where seepage water i s e v i d e n t . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a , Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i , C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a var. l e p t o s e p a l a , Carex c a p i l l a r i s subsp. c a p i l l a r i s , C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a , Juncus b i g l u m i s and S a l i x  p o l a r i s . Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s Hook. (Arrow-Leaved Ragwort) Synonyms: Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s v a r . t r i a n g u l a r i s ; S.  t r i a n g u l a r i s v a r . a n g u s t i f o l i u s G.N. Jones C o l l e c t i o n number: 486 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along damp, shady stream the s o i l i s r e l a t i v e l y deep. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: C a s t i l l e j a u n a l a s h c e n s i s , Delphinium  Draba b o r e a l i s , Festuca a l t a i c a , Polemonium caeruleum  v i l l o s u m and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . S o l i d a g o L. (Goldenrod) S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a A i t . v a r . m u l t i r a d i a t a (Northern Goldenrod) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 563, 753, 782 banks where glaucum, subsp. 130 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on exposed, w e l l - d r a i n e d areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a v e l s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Antennaria m i c r o p h y l l a , A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , E r i g e r o n a c r i s subsp. de b i 1 i s and Potent i l i a f r u t i c o s a subsp. f l o r i b u n d a . Taraxacum Wig. (Dandelion) Taraxacum lyratum (Ledeb.) DC. (Lyrate-Leaved Dandelion) Synonyms: Taraxacum scopulorum (Gray) Rydb.; T\ alaskanum Rydb.; T. kamtschaticum D a h l s t e d t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 294, 336, 558, 643 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare i n damp, open meadows, around mossy la k e s h o r e s and along open, grassy stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B i s t o r t a  v i v i p a r a , C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a v a r . l e p t o s e p a l a , Cardamine  umbellata, Draba stenoloba, E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Festuca  a l t a i c a , Myosotis a s i a t i c a and Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a . Be tulaceae B e t u l a L. (Bi r c h ) B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a Michx. v a r . gl a n d u l o s a (Scrub G l a n d u l a r B i r c h ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 137, 204, 886 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Abundant throughout the study area forming a major component of the o v e r s t o r y along with the w i l l o w s . Found i n g r e a t e s t abundance around la k e s h o r e s , along open stream banks, 131 heathlands, meadow per i m e t e r s and g r a v e l l y s i t e s where l a t e snow r u n - o f f was e v i d e n t . O v e r a l l abundance: Abundant. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Because B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a was found to occur i n such a wide v a r i e t y of h a b i t a t s throughout the study area the taxa with which i t occurred, f o r the most p a r t , v a r i e d w i d e l y . Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana, Phyllodoce  e m p e t r i f o r m i s , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s , S. b a r r a t t i a n a , S.  glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a , S. p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a , however, were u s u a l l y found i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n . Boraginaceae (Borage Family) Mertensia Roth. (Mertensia) Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a ( A i t . ) G. Don va r . p a n i c u l a t a (Hairy P a n i c l e d Mertensia) Synonyms: Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a subsp. p a n i c u l a t a C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 191, 199, 482, 496, 952 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp meadows and along stream banks where the s o i l was found to be r e l a t i v e l y deep. Found i n open to p a r t i a l l y shaded s i t e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. delph i n i f o l i u m , Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A. p a r v i f l o r a v a r . g r a n d i f l o r a , Carex canescens subsp. canescens, C. s i t c h e n s i s , Draba b o r e a l i s , Myosotis a s i a t i c a , S. gla u c a v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . 132 Myosotis L. (Forget-Me-Not) Myosotis a s i a t i c a ( V e s t e r g r . ) Schischk. & Serg. i n K r y l . (Mountain Forget-Me-Not) Synonyms: Myosotis a l p e s t r i s F.W. Schmidt, subsp. a s i a t i c a V e s t e r g r . ; ML s y l v a t i c a Hoffm. v a r . a l p e s t r i s (F.W. Schmidt) Koch; ( i n c l u d e d w i t h i n M_^  s y l v a t i c a by Welsh, 1974) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 188, 285, 339, 492, 653 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common around damp, rocky l a k e s h o r e s , along open stream banks and on open, w e l l - d r a i n e d rocky s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. Oc c u r r i n g with: Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , C l a y t o n i a  sarmentosa, Draba b o r e a l i s , E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m , M e r t e n s i a p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , S a l i x  p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a , S. r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s . A d d i t i o n a l notes: For the most p a r t the fl o w e r s of Myosotis  a s i a t i c a were c o b a l t blue i n c o l o u r . Rare occurrences of specimens with white flowers were observed and one c o l l e c t i o n (#653) was taken from a p o p u l a t i o n of p i n k - f l o w e r e d specimens found growing on a w e l l - d r a i n e d open, rocky s l o p e . As i s the case f o r some members of t h i s f a m i l y , flower c o l o u r may change as the open flowers become o l d e r . 133 B r a s s i c a c e a e (Mustard Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s : M u l l i g a n , 1970, 1974, 1974a, 1976. A r a b i s L. (Rock Cress) A r a b i s drummondii Gray (Drummond's Rock Cress) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 488, 978 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp, shaded areas near r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , C a l a m a g r o s t i s canadensis subsp. canadensis v a r . canadensis, Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Draba b o r e a l i s , Festuca a l t a i c a , S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a , S. glauca subsp. a c u t i f o l i a and S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a v a r . c a l y c a n t h a . A r a b i s l y r a t a L. subsp. kamchatica ( F i s c h . ) H u l t . (Lyre-Leaved Rock Cress) Synonyms: A r a b i s l y r a t a v a r . kamchatica F i s c h . C o l l e c t i o n number: 665 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare. Found only once i n a damp, grassy heath mat a t the fo o t of a steep g r a n o d i o r i t e c l i f f f a c e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Carex s c i r p o i d e a v a r . stenochlaena, Cassiope  mertensiana v a r . mertensiana and Phyllodoce empetrifomis. Cardamine L. ( B i t t e r Cress) Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a L. subsp. b e l l i d i f o l i a v a r . b e l l i d i f o l i a ( A l p i n e B i t t e r - C r e s s ) 134 C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 146, 317, 434 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common, growing i n p r o t e c t e d areas on r o c k s l i d e s and i n mossy, rocky areas near l a t e remaining snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona, Epilobium  a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , L u z u l a p i p e r i , S a l i x p o l a r i s and S i l e n e a c a u l i s subsp. a c a u l i s . Cardamine umbellata Greene Synonym: Cardamine oligosperma Nutt. ex T o r r . & Gray v a r . kamtschatica (Regel) D e t l i n g C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 186, 295, 346, 687, 731, 905 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common around damp, rocky lake margins, moist d e p r e s s i o n s i n meadows and wet, p a r t i a l l y shaded stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , B i s t o r t a  v i v p a r a , Draba b o r e a l i s , E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , L u z u l a  p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a and S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a var. p u l c h r a . Draba L. (Whitlow Grass) Draba a l b e r t i n a Greene (Slender Whitlow-Grass) Synonyms: Draba n i t ida Greene; ( i n c l u d e d w i t h i n D_^  stenoloba Ledeb. by Hulten, 1968 and D^ stenoloba v a r . nana (O.E. S c h u l t z ) C L . H i t c h c . by Welsh, 1974) 135 C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 413, 574, 686, 752 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common. P r i m a r i l y i n exposed, rocky areas near r u n - o f f streams and damp seepage s i t e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l i d i f o l i u m , S a l i x glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a , S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a var. c a l y c a n t h a and T r i e n t a l i s  europaea subsp. a r c t i c a . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n : T h i s s p e c i e s was d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h from Draba s t e n o l o b a . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s given by M u l l i g a n (1974, 1976) which d i f f e r e n t i a t e the two, focus on the morphology of stem and l e a f h a i r s . Draba a l b e r t i n a i s d e s c r i b e d as having mostly simple h a i r s on the stem and mostly simple or b i f i d h a i r s on the upper l e a f s u r f a c e s . Draba stenoloba, on the other hand, i s d e s c r i b e d as having a preponderance of c r u c i f o r m h a i r s on the stem and t r i f i d o r c r u c i f o r m h a i r s on the upper l e a f s u r f a c e s ( r a r e l y g l a b r o u s ) . C o l l e c t i o n s taken from the study area and i d e n t i f i e d by M u l l i g a n as Draba a l b e r t i n a , however, were found to have c r u c i f o r m h a i r s on both the stems and upper l e a f s u r f a c e s . In some cases, p a r t i c u l a r l y c o l l e c t i o n #413, i t was not immediately obvious which type of h a i r was i n g r e a t e s t abundance. Draba b o r e a l i s DC. (Northern Whitlow-Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 189, 196, 340, 489, 761, 977 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Ranging i n abundance from sparse to common in open, damp, grassy areas, e s p e c i a l l y near streams and along lake margins. 136 O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , A n g e l i c a l u c i d a , C a s t i l l e j a u n a l a s c h c e n s i s and Heracleum  sphondylium subsp. montanum. Draba f l a d n i z e n s i s Wulfen i n Jacq . ( A u s t r i a n Whitlow-Grass) C o l l e c t i o n number: 659 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse; i n a damp, rocky s i t e shaded by dwarf b i r c h and wi l l o w . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria monocephala, B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . gla n d u l o s a , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: Often confused with Draba l a c t e a ( P o r s i l d & Cody, 1980; M u l l i g a n , 1974). M a t e r i a l from the study area was d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s s h o r t e r s t y l e s ( l e s s than 0.3 mm long compared with g r e a t e r than 0.4 mm long f o r Draba l a c t e a ) and the absence of s t e l l a t e l e a f h a i r s . Draba l a c t e a Adams (Milky Whitlow-Grass) C o l l e c t i o n number: 670 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : L o c a l l y r a r e ; the s i n g l e c o l l e c t i o n taken was from a damp, mossy n o r t h - f a c i n g c l i f f ledge. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Draba macounii, Luzula a r c t i c a subsp. l a t i f o l i a and S a x i f r a g a adscendens subsp. ore g o n e n s i s . 137 Draba macounii O.E. S c h u l t z i n E n g l e r (Macoun's Whitlow-Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 645, 675 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare on damp boulder s l o p e s and c l i f f l e d g e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g with: Draba stenoloba, L u z u l a a r c t i c a subsp. l a t i f o l i a and S a x i f r a g a o p p o s i t i f o l i a . Draba n i v a l i s L i l j e b l . (Snow Whitlow-Grass) Synonym: Draba n i v a l i s v a r . n i v a l i s C o l l e c t i o n number: 639 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse; from f o o t h o l d s on damp we s t - f a c i n g g r a n o d i o r i t e c l i f f f a c e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria monocephala and Carex n a r d i n a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to both Draba f l a d n i z e n s i s and D. l a c t e a ( M u l l i g a n , 1974). D^ n i v a l i s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the dense c o v e r i n g of s t e l l a t e h a i r s on both upper and lower l e a f s u r f a c e s . Keys to the genus Draba ( M u l l i g a n , 1974, 1976) d e s c r i b e Draba n i v a l i s as having s t e l l a t e h a i r s on stem and p e d i c e l s i n a d d i t i o n to those on the l e a v e s . Specimens c o l l e c t e d from the study area ( i d e n t i f i c a t i o n v e r i f i e d by M u l l i g a n ) , however, had glab r o u s stems and p e d i c e l s . Draba stenoloba Ledeb. (Alaska Whitlow-Grass) Synonyms: Draba a l b e r t i n a Greene (of some authors a c c o r d i n g to P o r s i l d & Cody, 1980); stenoloba v a r . stenoloba 138 C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 182, 337, 573, 663, 677, 787 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp, open, g r a v e l l y s i t e s and among mossy rocks along l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r e n a r i a l o n g i p e d u n c u l a t a , Carex s c i r p o i d e a , Draba a l b e r t i n a , D. l a c t e a , Eriophorum c a l l i t r i x , S a l i x  p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a , S a x i f r a g a n e l s o n i a n a subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a , S t e l l a r i a umbellata and Taraxacum lyratum. A d d i t i o n a l notes: The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g Draba  stenoloba from D_^  a l b e r t i n a have been d i s c u s s e d under the l a t t e r . C o l l e c t i o n #787 i s noteworthy i n that i t was the only c o l l e c t i o n of Draba stenoloba with e s s e n t i a l l y g l a b r o u s l e a f s u r f a c e s taken from the study s i t e , a p p a r e n t l y a r a r i t y f o r t h i s s p e c i e s ( M u l l i g a n , 1975). C a l l i t r i c h a c e a e (Water Starwort Family) C a l l i t r i c h e L. (Water Starwort) C a l l i t r i c h e anceps Fe r n . (Two-Edged Water Starwort) Synonym: C a l l i t r i c h e h e t e r o p h y l l a Pursh (of some authors a c c o r d i n g to T a y l o r & MacBryde, 1977) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 939, 1019 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n s i l t y bottomed, shallow seepage pond; u s u a l l y submersed. L a t e r i n the season, however, some specimens were observed growing j u s t on pond margins as the water l e v e l subsided. Only one s i t e i n the study area o f f e r e d t h i s combination of shallow, s t i l l water and s i l t y bottom. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. 139 O c c u r r i n g w i t h : a q u a t i l i s . Lysimachia t h y r s i f l o r a and Ranunculus Campanulaceae ( H a r e b e l l Family) Campanula L. ( H a r e b e l l ) Campanula l a s i o c a r p a Cham, subsp. l a s i o c a r p a (Mountain H a r e b e l l ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 507, 553 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse i n damp moss hummocks along rocky l a k e s h o r e s and on damp, mossy c l i f f l e d g e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, L u z u l a  m u l t i f l o r a v a r . f r i g i d a , P a r n a s s i a kotzebuei var. kotzebuei and P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a . C a p r i f o l i a c e a e (Honeysuckle Family) Linnaea L. (Twinflower) Linnaea b o r e a l i s L. subsp. americana (Forbes) H u l t . (Northern Twinflowe r) Synonyms: Linnaea b o r e a l i s v a r . americana C o l l e c t i o n number: 800 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on p a r t i a l l y shaded, w e l l - d r a i n e d , g r a v e l s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , Cornus  canadensis, Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphoditum, Lycopodium  camplanatum and S a l i x p o l a r i s . 140 Caryophyllaceae (Pink Family) A r e n a r i a L. (Sandwort) A r e n a r i a l o n g i p e d u n c u l a t a H u l t . (Low Sandwort) Synonym: A r e n a r i a humifusa Wahlenb. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 551, 572 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on b a s a l t i c rock s h e l v e s i n spray of w a t e r f a l l and on open w e l l - d r a i n e d g r a v e l slope near snow r u n - o f f stream. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i subsp. t i l e s i i , Draba  a l b e r t i n a , D. stenoloba, E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s and S a l i x p o l a r i s . Cerastium L. (Chickweed) Cerastium beeringianum Cham. & S c h l e c t . subsp. beeringianum (Bering Chickweed) Synonyms: Cerastium beeringianum var. g r a n d i f l o r u m H u l t . , C.  beeringianum v a r . b e e r i n g ianum C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 325, 632, 795, 973 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp meadows; bare, s i l t y areas near game t r a i l s , rock s l o p e s and mossy seepage s i te s. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , A r c t o s t a p h y l o s rubra, Delphinium glaucum, Festuca v i v i p a r a , Koenigia i s l a n d i c a , Polemonium caerulium subsp. v i l l o s u m , S a l i x  r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a , S i l e n e u r a l e n s i s subsp. attenuata 141 and S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s v a r . l a e t a . Sagina L. (Pearlwort) Sagina intermedia F e n z l i n Ledeb. (Snow Pearlwort) C o l l e c t i o n number: 612 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp, open s i t e s on exposed s o i l patches. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Festuca v i v i p a r a , G e n t i a n e l l a propinqua and Koenigia i s l a n d i c a . S i l e n e L. (Campion, C a t c h f l y ) S i l e n e a c a u l i s (L.) Jacq . subsp. a c a u l i s (Moss Campion) Synonyms: S i l e n e a c a u l i s v a r . exscapa ( A l l . ) DC. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 208, 436 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on exposed, w e l l - d r a i n e d rocky s l o p e s and r i d g e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Luzula p i p e r i , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , P o t e n t i l l a u n i f l o r a and S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . S i l e n e u r a l e n s i s (Rupr.) Bocquet subsp. at t e n u a t a (Farr) M c N e i l l (Apetalous Campion) Synonyms: L y c h n i s a p e t a l a L.; L^ a p e t a l a v a r . attenuata F a r r ; Melandrium attenuatum (Farr) Hara; M_^  apetalum (L.) F e n z l . ; M.  apetalum subsp. a r c t i c u m (E. F r i e s ) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n number: 324 142 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse on open, e a s t - f a c i n g boulder slope near l a t e snow r u n - o f f . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Festuca a l t a i c a , P o t e n t i l i a f r u t i c o s a subsp. f l o r i b u n d a and S a l i x p o l a r i s . S t e l l a r i a L. (Starwort) S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a (Ledeb.) Bong. v a r . c a l y c a n t h a (Northern Starwort) Synonym: S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a (Ledeb.) Bong, subsp. c a l y c a n t h a C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 583, 749, 985 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common, growing i n damp moss c a r p e t s along shady stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: A g r o s t i s scabra, Carex brunnescens subsp. alaskana, C. canescens subsp. canescens, Epil o b i u m  a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Equisetum arvense, Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i , Polemonium caeruleum subsp. v i l l o s u m and S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a . S t e l l a r i a long ipe s G o l d i e var. a l t o c a u l i s (Hult.) C L . H i t c h c . in H i t c h c . e t a l . (Long-Stalked Starwort) Synonym: S t e l l a r i a monantha H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n number: 178 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp, mossy herbmats adjacent to lak e s h o r e s and along open r u n - o f f streams. 143 O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i , Antennaria u m b r i n e l l a , C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa, Draba stenoloba, P a r n a s s i a kotzebuei var. k o t z e b u e i , P o t e n t i l i a d i v e r s i f o l i a v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a and S a x i f r a g a r i v u l a r i s v a r . f l e x u o s a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s G o l d i e s . l . e x h i b i t s a high degree of morphological v a r i a b i l i t y throughout i t s range. Numerous segregates from the complex have been proposed on the b a s i s of pubescence p o s i t i o n , b r a c t type and flower number. Hulten (1968) and P o r s i l d and Cody (1980) go so f a r as to recognize separate s p e c i e s based on these c h a r a c t e r s . A f t e r examining numerous specimens w i t h i n the complex from Alaska and adjacent t e r r i t o r i e s , however, Welsh (1974) concluded that i t was "... p o s s i b l e to designate taxa w i t h i n the complex only a r b i t r a r i l y and a c o n s e r v a t i v e treatment i s i n d i c a t e d " . S t u d i e s by Chinappa and Morton (1976, 1984) support t h i s view. The authors found that c l o n a l m a t e r i a l grown under a v a r i e t y of environmental c o n d i t i o n s e x h i b i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e morphological v a r i a b i l i t y . C h a r a c t e r s most a f f e c t e d were l e a f shape, i n f l o r e s c e n c e development, growth h a b i t and development of s c a r i o u s b r a c t s . These c h a r a c t e r s , commonly used in keys to separate taxa, were t h e r e f o r e concluded to be merely m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of phenotypic p l a s t i c i t y . Furthermore, breeding programs r e v e a l e d t h a t pubescence p o s i t i o n and capsule c o l o u r were examples of i n h e r i t e d v a r i a t i o n , and a v a r i e t y of phenotypes were observed i n both w i l d p o p u l a t i o n s and i n c u l t i v a t i o n (Chinappa and Morton, 1984; Chinappa, 1986 pers. 144 comm.). In l i g h t of these o b s e r v a t i o n s i t seems most a p p r o p r i a t e to regard S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s as a s i n g l e , h i g h l y v a r i a b l e s p e c i e s . S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s G o l d i e var. l a e t a (Richards.) S. Wats, i n Gray (Long-Stalked Starwort) Synonym: S t e l l a r i a l a e t a R i c h a r d s . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 147a, 756, 794, 796, 970 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp moss c a r p e t s o v e r l y i n g rocks on lakeshore, open seepage areas and i n damp s o i l patches among rocks on boulder s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, G e n t i a n e l l a propinqua, Polemonium caeruleum subsp. v i l l o s u m , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a , S a x i f r a g a  r i v u l a r i s v a r . f l e x u o s a and Vero n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i . A d d i t i o n a l notes: See S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s var. a l t o c a u l i s . S t e l l a r i a umbellata T u r c z . ex K a r e l . & K i r i l . (Umbellate Starwort) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 567, 667, 693 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse along damp, mossy stream banks, s i l t y areas along r u n - o f f channels and i n moist open heath-meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Juncus drummondii, 145 P a r n a s s i a f i m b r i a t a v a r . £ imbriata and V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i var. w o r m s k j o l d i i . Cornaceae Cornus L. (Dogwood, Bunchberry) Cornus canadensis L. (Canadian Bunchberry) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 578, 801 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on open g r a v e l l y heaths and damp grassy s i t e s near p e r s i s t e n t snow patches. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Linnaea  b o r e a l i s subsp. americana, Lycopodium complanatum, S a l i x  p o l a r i s , V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s and Veratrum  v i r i d e subsp. e s c h s c h o l t z i i . C r a ssulaceae Sedum L. (Stonecrop) Sedum i n t e g r i f o l i u m (Raf.) A. Nelson i n C o u l t e r & Nelson subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i u m (Roseroot) Synonyms: Rhodiola i n t e g r i f o l i a Raf.? Sedum rosea (L.) Scop, subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i u m (Raf.) H u l t . ; S^ rosea v a r . i n t e g r i f o l i u m (Raf.) Berger; S_^  rosea subsp. rosea; S. rosea v a r . rosea C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 174, 737, 1018 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along open, g r a v e l l y l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Chrysosplenium tetrandrum, E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s and S a x i f r a g a n e l s o n i a n a subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a . 146 Empetraceae (Crowberry Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : Love and Love, 1959. Empetrum L. (Crowberry) Empetrum nigrum L. subsp. hermaphroditum (Hagerup) Bocher (Black Crowberry) Synonym: Empetrum nigrum L. v a r . hermaphroditum (Lange) Sorens. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 517, 519 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common; a dense mat-forming s p e c i e s on exposed, f a i r l y w e l l - d r a i n e d , g r a v e l l y heaths and i n wet, boggy s i t e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Calamagrostis purpurascens subsp. purpurascens, Cornus canadensis, Festuca saximontana, H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , Ledum groenlandicum, Lycopodium complanatum, Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and S a l i x p o l a r i s . E r i c a c e a e (Heath Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : S z c z a w i n s k i , 1962. Andromeda L. (Bog Rosemary) Andromeda p o l i f o l i a L. subsp. p o l i f o l i a (Bog Rosemary) C o l l e c t i o n number: 162 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common, growing almost e x c u s i v e l y i n damp sphagnum hummocks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Ledum  groenlandicum, P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a , Rubus chamaemorus and 147 Vaccinium microcarpum. A r c t o s t a p h y l o s Adans. (Manzanita) A r c t o s t a p h y l o s rubra (Rehd. & Wils.) Fern. (Red Manzanita) Synonyms: A r c t o s t a p h y l o s a l p i n a (L.) Spreng. var. rubra (Rehd. & Wils.) Bean; a l p i n a subsp. rubra (Rehd. & Wils.) H u l t . ; Arctous a l p i n a (L.) v a r . ruber Rehd. & W i l s . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 635, 651, 719 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse on w e l l - d r a i n e d , rocky s l o p e s and open heaths. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a glandulosa var. g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope  mertensiana var. mertensiana, Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Festuca v i v i p a r a , Hedysarum alpinum subsp. americanum, Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and S_^  r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . Cassiope Cassiope mertensiana (Bong.) D. Don va r . mertensiana (Merten's Ca ssiope ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 440, 536, 673 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant throughout the study area forming dense mats on open, moderately moist heathlands. A major component of the ground cover. O v e r a l l abundance: Common to abundant. O c c u r r i n g with: Antennaria a l p i n a , A. monocephala, Cassiope  tetragona v a r . tetragona, Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , P. 148 g l a n d u l i f l o r a and X inte r m e d i a . Cassiope tetragona (L.) D. Don var. tetragona (Four-Angled Ca ssiope ) Synonym: Cassiope tetragona subsp. tetragona C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 135, 147, 368, 555, 575 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Abundant throughout the study area. Frequently forming dense mats, almost to the e x c l u s i o n of the other taxa, on open g r a v e l l y s l o p e s and around sandy, rocky l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Abundant. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria monocephala, Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana, H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , Phyllodoce  e m p e t r i f o r m i s , P. g l a n d u l i f l o r a , P. X intermedia and S a l i x  p o l a r i s . Kalmia L. (Kalmia) Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a (Hook.) H e l l e r subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a (Western Swamp Kalmia) Synonyms: Kalmia p o l i f o l i a Wang, subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a (Hook.) C a l d e r & T a y l o r ; K_^  p o l i f o l i a v a r . m i c r o p h y l l a (Hook.) Rehd. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 113, 159, 468 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n wet, open meadows, e s p e c i a l l y along mossy r u n - o f f channels and on sphagnum hummocks in boggy ar e a s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , Anemone 149 n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A. p a r v i f l o r a , A. r i c h a r d s o n i i , Equisetum arvense, P e d i c u l a r i s l o n g s d o r f i i , S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a , T o f i e l d i a p u s i l l a , Vaccinium caespitosum and V_^  microcarpum. Ledum L. (Labrador Tea) Ledum groenlandicum Oeder. (Common Labrador Tea) Synonym: Ledum p a l u s t r e L. subsp• groenlandicum (Oeder) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 304, 518 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse growing from sphagnum hummocks a d j a c e n t t o lakeshore and i n damp seepage s i t e a t the base of a b a s a l t i c c l i f f f a c e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , Empetrum  nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Rubus chamaemorus and Vaccinium microcarpum. Ledum p a l u s t r e L. subsp. decumbens ( A i t . ) H u l t . (Northern Labrador Tea) Synonym: Ledum decumbens ( A i t . ) Lodd. ex Steud. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 157, 409, 439, 591 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant i n and around sphagnum hummocks, i n g r a v e l l y heathlands and on moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d , open, rocky s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , A r t e m i s i a  a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Phyllodoce empetriformis, 150 Rubus chamaemorus and S a x i f r a g a o p p o s i t i f o l i a . Phyllodoce S a l i s b . (Mountain Heather) Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s (Sm.) D. Don (Red Mountain Heather) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 272, 540 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : A common component of the ground cover on damp open meadows and moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d , g r a v e l l y heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope  mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Lycopodium annotinum subsp. annotinum, P e d i c u l a r i s s u d e t i c a , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s , S. r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and Vaccinium caespitosum v a r . caespitosum. Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a (Hook.) Cov. (Cream Mountain Heather) Synonym: Phyllodoce a l e u t i c a (Spreng.) H e l l e r subsp. g l a n d u l i f l o r a (Hook.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 127, 167, 441 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Growing i n abundance over rocks around l a k e s h o r e s , along open stream banks, on damp, open g r a v e l l y s l o p e s and i n dense patches i n meadows. Forming a major component of the heathlands which c h a r a c t e r i z e the study area. O v e r a l l abundance: Common to abundant. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Antennaria monocephala, Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, C. tetragona v a r . tetragona, Phyllodoce X intermedia and 151 Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a subsp. minus. Phyllodoce X intermedia (Hook.) Camp (Hybrid Mountain Heather) C o l l e c t i o n number: 442 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on damp open heaths; p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant a d j a c e n t to lakeshore and along r u n - o f f streams where, at times, i t forms a major component of the ground cover. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A.  r i c h a r d s o n i i , Antennaria monocephala, Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, C. tetragona var. tetragona, Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s , Lycopodium alpinum and Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a . Vaccinium L. (Blueberry, Huckleberry, Cranberry) Vaccinium caespitosum Michx. v a r . caespitosum (Dwarf Blueberry) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 160, 250, 289, 533 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on sphagnum hummocks, damp, mossy c a r p e t s along stream banks, open meadows and heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance-: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , Anemone  n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana, C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa, E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a , Myosotis a s i a t i c a , P hyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l i x  r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and Vaccinium microcarpum. Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m Sm. i n Rees (Oval-Leaved Blueberry) 152 C o l l e c t i o n number: 668 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp, grassy s i t e shaded by krummholz Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a , Cassiope  tetragona v a r . tetragona, P a r n a s s i a f i m b r i a t a v a r . f i m b r i a t a and Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a . Vaccinium microcarpum [Turcz. ex Rupr.] Schmalhausen (Dwarf Bog Cranberry) Synonyms: Oxycoccos microcarpus T u r c z . ex Rupr. ( i n Welsh, 1974); 0_^  microcarpus v a r . microcarpus ( i n Welsh, 1974) C o l l e c t i o n number: 158 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on sphagnum hummocks and along damp, mossy streambank i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to bog. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , Kalmia  m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens and Rubus chamaemorus. Vaccinium ul i g i n o s u m L. subsp. alpinum ( B i g e l . ) H u l t . (Bog Blueberry) Synonyms: Vaccinium ul i g i n o s u m v a r . uliginosum; V. uliginosum var. alpinum B i g e l . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 579, 599, 684 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on steep open scree s l o p e s , sphagnum hummocks and l e s s commonly, i n damp, moss c a r p e t s 153 o v e r l y i n g rocks along open r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , E pilobium  a n g u s t i f o l i u m v a r . a n g u s t i f o l i u m , Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, Luetkea p e c t i n a t a , Luzula s p i c a t a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and Sax i f r a g a c a e s p i t o s a subsp. s i l e n e f l o r a . Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a L. subsp. minus (Lodd.) H u l t . (Mountain Cranberry) Synonym: Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a v a r . minus Lodd. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 120, 165, 265, 320 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n boggy area, mossy seepage s i t e s and open, g r a v e l l y heathlands near p e r s i s t e n t snow patche s. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone p a r v i f l o r a , Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , Equisetum  arvense, Festuca a l t a i c a , Gentiana glauca, Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a and glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . Fabaceae (Pea Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s : T a y l o r , 1974; Dunn and G i l l e t , 1966. A s t r a g a l u s L. (Milk-Vetch) A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s L. subsp. a l p i n u s (Alpine Milk-Vetch) Synonyms: A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s var. a l p i n u s ; A. a l p i n u s subsp. alaskanus H u l t . 154 C o l l e c t i o n number: 398b H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp herb mat at the base of a t a l u s s l o p e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Carex n a r d i n a , C y s t o p t e r i s montana and Hedysarum alpinum subsp. americanum. Hedysarum L. (Hedysarum) Hedysarum alpinum L. subsp. americanum (Michx. ex Pursh) Fedtch. (Alpine Hedysarum) Synonym: Hedysarum alpinum var. americanum Michx. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 398b, 636, 652, 723, 789 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on damp, open rocky s l o p e s and open, mossy s i t e s along r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aeon itum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A r c t o s t a p h y l o s rubra, Betula g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Myosotis  a s i a t i c a , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a , S. glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and S a x i f r a g a n e l s o n i a n a subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a . Lupinus L. (Lupine) Lupinus a r c t i c u s S. Wats, subsp. a r c t i c u s ( A r c t i c Lupine) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 203, 331, 776 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp, open meadows and along stream banks i n b i r c h - w i l l o w t h i c k e t s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. 155 O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e tula  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa, Dryas  i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a and S.  glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . O x y t r o p i s DC. (Locoweed) O x y t r o p i s s e r i c e a Nutt. i n T o r r . & Gray var. s p i c a t a (Hook.) Barneby ( E a r l y Yellow Locoweed) Synonym: O x y t r o p i s s p i c a t a (Hook.) S t a n d i . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 274, 393 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse; on exposed, sandy, g r a v e l l y s l o p e s and growing from open herb mats on rocky r i d g e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , J u n i p e r u s communis subsp. a l p i n a , Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , S a l i x a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and S^ p o l a r i s . Fumariaceae (Fumitory Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : Ownbey, 1947. C o r y d a l i s Vent. ( C o r y d a l i s ) C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a (Steph.) P e r s . (Few-Flowered C o r y d a l i s ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 194, 303, 374 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common. Found almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n damp moss c a r p e t s adjacent to l a k e s h o r e s and along r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , C a s t i l l e ja u n a l a c h e n s i s , 156 C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a v a r . l e p t o s e p a l a , P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i subsp. a r c t i c a , P. s u d e t i c a subsp. i n t e r i o r , S a l i x p o l a r i s and Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s . A d d i t i o n a l notes: Flower c o l o u r of C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a ranged, f o r the most p a r t , from v i o l e t - b l u e to sky b l u e . In a d d i t i o n , a s i n g l e p o p u l a t i o n of white flowered i n d i v i d u a l s , from which c o l l e c t i o n # 374 was made, was found. A. E. P o r s i l d i n "Botany of Southeaastern Yukon Adjacent to the Canol Road" (1951) noted a white-flowered colony and accorded i t separate v a r i e t a l s t a t u s , naming i t C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a (Steph.) Pers. v a r . a l b i f l o r a P o r s . T h i s v a r i e t y i s r e c o g n i z e d by Hulten, (1968), Welsh (19 74) and P o r s i l d and Cody (19 80) but T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977), although acknowledging the e x i s t e n c e of white-flowered i n d i v i d u a l s , make no mention of a d i s t i n c t taxon. Gentianaceae (Gentian Family) Gentiana L. (Gentian) Gentiana glauca P a l l . (Glaucous Gentian, Pale Gentian) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 166, 377, 426, 449 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common around l a k e s h o r e s and along stream banks, i n damp, open meadows and heathlands and o c c a s i o n a l l y on exposed rocky s l o p e s near p e r s i s t e n t snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Cassiope  tetragona v a r . t e t r a g o n a , H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i subsp. a r c t i c a , Phyllodoce  g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l i x b a r r a t i a n a , S. p o l a r i s and Ve r o n i c a 157 w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i . A d d i t i o n a l notes: T y p i c a l Gentiana glauca has dark blue f l o w e r s . While t h i s was the case . throughout most of the study area, i n d i v i d u a l s were observed with flowers ranging i n c o l o u r from v i o l e t blue to pale green. G e n t i a n e l l a Moench (Gentian) G e n t i a n e l l a propinqua (Richards, i n F r a n k l i n ) G i l l e t t (Four-Parted Gentian) Synonyms: Gentiana a r c t o p h i l a G r i s e b . ; G^ propinqua Richards.; G. propinqua subsp. propinqua; G. propinqua var. propinqua; G.  propinqua subsp. a r c t o p h i l a (Griseb.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 613, 647, 755 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on damp, open s i t e s where s o i l was exposed, open heathlands and from moist, moss c a r p e t s a d j a c e n t to l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Cassiope  tetragona var. tetragona, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Koenigia i s l a n d i c a , Kobresia  myosuroides, Sag ina intermedia, S a l i x glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a and S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s v a r . a l t o c a u l i s . G r o s s u l a r i a c e a e (Currant or Gooseberry Family) Ribes L. (Currant, Gooseberry) Ribes glandulosum Grauer (Skunk Currant) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 138, 201 158 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse i n damp, shady areas around lakeshores and along stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a var. l a s i o c a r p a , Antennaria  monocephala, B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Mertensia  p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , S a l i x b a r r a t i a n a , S. glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . Onagraceae (Evening Primrose Family) E p i l o b i u m L. (Willowherb) E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m Lam. (Alpine Willowherb) Synonym: Ep i l o b i u m alpinum L. v a r . alpinum C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 297, 345, 499, 550, 569, 697, 748 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n wet meadows, mossy stream banks and adj a c e n t to l a k e s h o r e s . S i t e s range i n exposure from open to moderately shaded. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B i s t o r t a  v i v i p a r a , Carex b i p a r t i t a , C. podocarpa, E p i l o b i u m l a c t i f l o r u m , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Festuca a l t a i c a , Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , Myosotis a s i a t i c a , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i . E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m L. subsp. a n g u s t i f o l i u m (Fireweed) Synonyms: Ep i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m var. a n g u s t i f o l i u m C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 145, 780 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : L o c a l l y sparse. Found growing on exposed 159 rocky s i t e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g with: Antennaria a l p i n a v a r . media, Cardamine  b e l l i d i f o l i a subsp. b e l l i d i f o l i a v a r . b e l l i d i f o l i a , H i e r o c h l o e  a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , P o t e n t i l i a f r u t i c o s a subsp. f l o r i b u n d a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a v a r . m u l t i r a d i a t a . E p i l o b i u m l a c t i f l o r u m Haussk. (Alpine Willowherb) Synonyms: Ep i l o b i u m alpinum L. v a r . l a c t i f l o r u m (Hausskn.) C L . Hi t c h c . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 549, 614, 891, 990 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse. The h a b i t a t s i n which Epil o b i u m  l a c t i f l o r u m was found were s i m i l a r to those i n which E.  a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m o c c u r r e d . P r i m a r i l y found i n open to shady areas along stream banks and la k e s h o r e s growing from damp moss c a r p e t s . A few specimens, however, were from g r a v e l l y areas near l a t e - r e m a i n i n g snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a , Adoxa  m o s c h a t e l l i n a , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a var. p a n i c u l a t a , Myosotis a s i a t i c a , S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . A d d i t i o n a l n otes: One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s employed to d i s t i n g u i s h E p i l o b i u m l a c t i f l o r u m from E ^ a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m i s p e t a l c o l o u r ; those of the former being white while those of the l a t t e r are r e d d i s h - v i o l e t to pink (Hulten, 1968; P o r s i l d and Cody, 1980). C o l l e c t i o n # 891, while f i t t i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n of 160 E. l a c t i f l o r u m as otherwise d e s c r i b e d , had some white flowers and some dark pink f l o w e r s on the same p l a n t s . Welsh, (1974), i n h i s f l o r a , t r e a t s both e n t i t i e s as v a r i e t i e s of one s p e c i e s , E. alpinum L. Epilobi u m l a t i f o l i u m L. subsp. l a t i f o l i u m (Broad-Leaved Willowherb) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 255, 516, 654 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on t a l u s s l o p e s , rocky lakeshores and o c c a s i o n a l l y found i n damp, open meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . b o r e a l i s , Empetrum  nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a , P e d i c u l a r i s  l a n g s d o r f i i subsp. a r c t i c a , Polemonium caeruleum subsp. v i l l o s u m , S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , S a x i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a and Trisetum spicatum v a r . spicatum. Parnassiaceae (Grass-of-Parnassus Family) P a r n a s s i a L. (Grass-of-Parnassus) P a r n a s s i a f i m b r i a t a Konig. v a r . f i m b r i a t a ( F r i n g e d Grass-of-Parnassus) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 714, 734, 1022 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on moss-carpeted rocks around l a k e s h o r e s and i n damp meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a , M i t e l l a pentandra, P a r n a s i a kotzebuei 161 v a r . kotzebue i , S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i subsp. h u l t e n i i , and T o f i e l d i a  p u s i l l a . P a r n a s s i a kotzebuei Cham, i n Spreng. v a r . kotzebuei (Kotzebue*s Grass-of-Parnassus) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 396, 455, 466, 503, 526, 735, 911 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n moss c a r p e t s a djacent to lake s h o r e s and r u n - o f f streams and seepage areas i n mossy heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B i s t o r t a  v i v i p a r a , Carex media subsp. media, Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a , L u z u l a m u l t i f l o r a subsp. m u l t i f l o r a v a r . f r i g i d a , M i t e l l a pentandra, P a r n a s s i a f i m b r i a t a var. f i m b r i a t a , P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i subsp. i n t e r i o r , S a l i x  a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s , S. p o l a r i s and T o f i e l d i a p u s i l l a . Polemoniacea'e (Phlox f a m i l y ) Polemonium L. (Jacob's-Ladder) Polemonium caeruleum L. subsp. v i l l o s u m (Rudolf ex Georgi) Brand ( S t i c k y T a l l Jacob's-Ladder) Synonyms: Polemonium a c u t i f l o r u m W i l l d . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 252, 400, 485, 515 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse t o common i n damp, open meadows, open to p a r t l y shaded stream banks and o c c a s i o n a l l y growing on damp, rocky l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse,. 162 O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , C a s t i l l e j a  u n a l a s c h e n s i s , E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m , S a l i x  glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a , Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s and T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e v a r. o c c i d e n t a l e . Polygonaceae (Buckwheat Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : Smith, 1968. B i s t o r t a M i l l . ( B i s t o r t ) B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a (L.) Gray (A l p i n e B i s t o r t ) Synonyms: Polygonum viviparum L.; P_^  viviparum var. viviparum C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 291, 298, 305, 353, 394, 402, 754, 912, 958, 1006 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along stream banks, around lake margins, i n damp meadows and heathlands, and on g r a v e l l y s l o p e s and rocky ledges where seepage water was e v i d e n t . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a var. l e p t o s e p a l a , Carex b i p a r t i t a , Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona, Equisetum  arvense, L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a , S a l i x p o l a r i s , Sanguisorba canadensis subsp. l a t i f o l i a and S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s v a r . l a e t a . K oenigia L. (Koenigia) Koenigia i s l a n d i c a L. ( I s l a n d Koenigia) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 633, 742, 968 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n open to p a r t l y shaded s i t e s on 163 damp, bare s o i l . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Carex brunnescens subsp. alaskana, C. r o s t r a t a , Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, E p i l o b i u m  a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Juncus b i g l u m i s , S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a subsp. c a l y c a n t h a and Ranunculus hyperboreus subsp. hyperboreus. O x y r i a H i l l (Mountain S o r r e l ) Q x y r i a digyna (L.) H i l l (Mountain S o r r e l ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 140, 329, 333, 379, 390, 671 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on damp rocky areas near l a t e remaining snow, wet meadows, la k e s h o r e s and stream banks. Open to p a r t l y shaded s i t e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a v a r . a u r a n t i a c a , Anemone  n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Carex n a r d i n a , Cassiope  mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Delphinium glaucum, E r i g e r o n  h u m i l i s , P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a , Sanguisorba canadensis subsp. l a t i f o l i a and V a l e r i a n a  s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . Rumex L. (Dock, S o r r e l ) Rumex acetosa L. subsp. a r i f o l i u s ( A l l . ) B l y t t & Dahl (Common S o r r e l ) Synonym: Rumex acetosa subsp. a l p e s t r i s (Scop.) Love C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 192, 246, 475, 512, 765 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along moist, open to w e l l shaded 164 stream banks, r u n - o f f streams and wet meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a var. a u r a n t i a c a , Anemone  n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a v a r . l e p t o s e p a l a . Delphinium glaucum, P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , S a l i x  p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a , Sanguisorba canadensis subsp. l a t i f o l i a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . P o r tulacaceae (Puslane Family) C l a y t o n i a L. (Spring Beauty) C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa C A . Mey. (Alaska Spring Beauty) Synonym: Montia sarmentosa ( C A . Mey.) Robins C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 177, 288, 332 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n grassy tussocks and moss c a r p e t s along l a k e s h o r e s and p a r t i a l l y shaded r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Lupinus a r c t i c u s subsp. a r c t i c u s , S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s var. a l t o c a u l i s . Primulaceae Dodecatheon  Dodecatheon f r i g i d u m Cham. & C o l l e c t i o n number: 556 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare, study area, growing i n a wet (Primrose Family) L. ( S h o o t i n g s t a r ) S c h l e c t . (Northern S h o o t i n g s t a r ) Found i n only one l o c a t i o n i n the seepage s i t e i n an open meadow. 165 O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g with: A r e n a r i a l o n g i p e d u n c u l a t a , E p i l o b i u m  a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum, Poa  a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x glauca subsp. a c u t i f o l i a and Veratrum v i r i d e subsp. e s c h s c h o l t z i i . Lysimachia L. ( L o o s e s t r i f e ) Lysimachia t h y r s i f l o r a L. ( T u f t e d L o o s e s t r i f e ) C o l l e c t i o n number: 941 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare i n shallow, s i l t y - b o t t o m e d seepage pond. P a r t l y submerged i n approximately 12 cm of water. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : C a l l i t r i c h e anceps and Ranunculus a q u a t i l i s . T r i e n t a l i s L. ( S t a r f l o w e r ) T r i e n t a l i s europaea L. subsp. a r c t i c a ( F i s c h . ex Hook.) H u l t . Synonyms: T r i e n t a l i s a r c t i c a F i s c h . ex Hook. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 415, 738 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse i n open to p a r t i a l l y shaded, mesic, grassy s i t e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sp a r s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a , A g o s e r i s  a u r a n t i a c a , A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i subsp. t i l e s i i , Draba a l b e r t i n a , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a and V e r o n i c a  w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i . 166 Pyrolaceae (Wintergreen Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s : Haber and C r u i s e , 1974; Haber, 1983; Knaben, 1965. Moneses S a l i s b . ex S.F. Gray (One-Flowered Wintergreen) Moneses u n i f l o r a (L.) Gray var. u n i f l o r a (One-Flowered Wintergreen) C o l l e c t i o n number: 987 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse, growing from damp moss c a r p e t shaded by a dense o v e r s t o r y of stunted Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a var. l a s i o c a r p a , Mertensia  p a n i c u l a t a and V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i var. w o r m s k j o l d i i . O r t h i l i a Raf. (One-Sided Wintergreen) O r t h i l i a secunda (L.) House subsp. secunda (Few-Flowered One-Sided Wintergreen) Synonyms: P y r o l a secunda L.; P^ secunda subsp. secunda; P.  secunda v a r . secunda C o l l e c t i o n number: 883 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n shady, w e l l - d r a i n e d s i t e growing from a c a r p e t of Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria m i c r o p h y l l a , B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a and Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditurn. 167 P y r o l a L. (Pyrola) P y r o l a a s a r i f o l i a Michx. v a r . purpurea (Bunge) Fern. (Common Pink P y r o l a ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 117a, 770 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp moss c a r p e t s adjacent to lake s h o r e s and i n moist shady s i t e s a t the edge of meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria monocephala, Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Calamagrostis canadensis subsp. canadensis var. canadensis, E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Equisetum arvense, Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , Phleum alpinum var. commutatum and S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s . A d d i t i o n a l notes: See d i s c u s s i o n of P y r o l a minor. P y r o l a g r a n d i f l o r a Radius ( A r c t i c P y r o l a ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 326, 381, 528 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to l o c a l l y common on rocky s i t e s where seepage water was e v i d e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y near l a t e snow run-of f . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone p a r v i f l o r a , A ntennaria u m b r i n e l l a , Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Festuca a l t a i c a , P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and S i l e n e u r a l e n s i s subsp. a t t e n u a t a . 168 P y r o l a minor L. (Lesser P y r o l a ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 565, 713, 775 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on damp, shaded stream banks, l a k e s h o r e s and damp p r o t e c t e d areas on rocky s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria m i c r o p h y l l a , E p i l o b i u m  a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, S a l i x  g lauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , S t e l l a r i a u m b r i n e l l a and Vero n i c a  w o r m s k j o l d i i var. w o r m s k j o l d i i . A d d i t i o n a l notes: The most c r i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g P y r o l a minor from P_j_ a s a r i f o l i a p e r t a i n to anther and s t y l e form (Haber, 1983 ). Anthers of P_^  minor are pale y e l l o w to yell o w , t r u n c a t e with no tubes and the pores are l a r g e ; the s t y l e i s s t r a i g h t and i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the p e r i a n t h . Anthers of P.  a s a r i f o l i a , on the oth e r hand, are white to deep pink, oblong with d i s t i n c t tubes and the pores are comparatively s m a l l ; the s t y l e i s curved and d i s t i n c t l y e x s e r t e d . Anther and s t y l e d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r c o l l e c t i o n number 565 are compatible with those given f o r P^ minor. P e t a l c o l o u r , however, i s deep pink which i s suggestive of P^ a s a r i f o l i a . Haber (1983) p r e s e n t s evidence of h y b r i d s o c c u r r i n g between these two s p e c i e s i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. These suggested h y b r i d s are m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to P. minor. In view of the f a c t t h a t both P. minor and P^ a s a r i f o l i a occur i n the study area, the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c o l l e c t i o n number 565 i s of h y b r i d o r i g i n should not be overlooked. 169 Ranunculaceae (Buttercup Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : M o r r i s , 1973. Aconitum L. (Monkshood) Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m DC. subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m (Mountain Monkshood) Synonyms: Aeon itum ubsp. chamissonianum (Reichb.) Boiv.; Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m var. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 474, 974 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common along damp, shady stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Delphinium glaucum, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s , Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , P e t a s i t e s  n i v a l i s , Rumex acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a and Veratrum v i r i d e subsp. e s c h s c h o l t z i i . Anemone L. (Anemone, Windflower) Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a L. subsp. i n t e r i o r H u l t . ( N a r c i s s u s Anemone) Synonyms: Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a v a r . monantha S c h l e c t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 114, 115, 150, 168, 286, 495, 778 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Abundant i n damp, open heathlands and meadows. P a r t i c u l a r l y along r u n - o f f streams and near l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Common to abundant. O c c u r r i n g with: Anemone p a r v i f l o r a , A. r i c h a r d s o n i i , Antennaria 170 monocephala, Carex podocarpa, Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Equisetum arvense, Festuca a l t a i c a , Myosotis a s i a t i c a , P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , P hyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and Veron i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i . Anemone p a r v i f l o r a Michx. (Northern Anemone) Synonyms: Anemone p a r v i f l o r a var. g r a n d i f l o r a U l b r . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 122, 206, 327, 469 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along grassy stream banks, lak e s h o r e s , meadows and damp heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g with: Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A.  r i c h a r d s o n i i , Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Cerastium  beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Equisetum arvense, E r i g e r o n  h u m i l i s , P e d i c u l a r i s s u d e t i c a subsp. i n t e r i o r , P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s and S a l i x p o l a r i s . Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i Hook. (Yellow Anemone) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 175, 227, 470 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on damp, open seepage s i t e s , along mossy la k e s h o r e s and near snow r u n - o f f channels i n open heathlands and meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A.  p a r v i f l o r a , Antennaria monocephala, Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana, Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, 171 C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa. P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , P o t e n t i l i a d i v e r s i f o l i a var. d i v e r s i f o l i a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and S a x i f r a g a r i v u l a r i s v ar. f l e x u o s a . C a l t h a L. (Marsh-Marigold) C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a DC. v a r . l e p t o s e p a l a (Alpine White Marsh-Marigold) Synonyms: C a l t h a b i f l o r a DC. v a r. r o t u n d i f o l i a (Huth.) H i t c h c . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 193, 302, 509, 559, 586, 805 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n open, marshy h a b i t a t s along stream banks, la k e s h o r e s and around seepage ponds. At times p a r t i a l l y submerged. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a , E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Heracleum  sphondylium subsp. montanum, P e t a s i t e s s a g i t a t t u s , Rumex acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s , S a l i x p o l a r i s and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . Delphinium L. (Delphinium) Delphinium glaucum S. Wats. (Glaucous Delphinium) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 476, 975 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common along damp, shaded stream banks, la k e s h o r e s and meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , A n g e l i c a l u c i d a , A r a b i s drummondii, Calamagrostis canadensis 172 subsp. canadensis v a r . canadensis, Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Draba b o r e a l i s , Festuca a l t a i c a , P e t a s i t e s  n i v a l i s , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . Ranunculus L. (Buttercup, Crowfoot) Ranunculus a q u a t i l i s L. (Common Water Crowfoot) Synonyms: Ranunculus a q u a t i l i s v a r . h i s p i d u l u s E.R. Drew; R.  t r i c h o p h y l l u s Chaix. v a r . h i s p i d u l u s (E.R. Drew) W.B. Drew C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 930, 938, 940 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n slow moving water near i n f l o w to lake and i n a l a r g e (approximately 30 m long by 10 m wide) seepage pond formed by a l a t e r a l moraine. Completely submerged i n approximately 0.75 - 2.0 m of water and rooted i n s i l t y substratum. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to- sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : C a l l i t r i c h e anceps and Lysimachia t h y r s i f l o r a . Ranunculus hyperboreus Rottb. subsp. hyperboreus (Far-Northern Buttercup) Synonym: Ranunculus natans v a r . i n t e r t e x t u s C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 729, 743a H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common along margins and at times p a r t i a l l y submerged i n seepage ponds and slow moving streams, r o o t e d i n muddy substratum. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spa r s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Carex a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , C. canescens 173 subsp. canescens, C. heleonastes subsp. h e l e o n a s t e s , C. media subsp. media, C. r o s t r a t a , E p i l o b i u m anaga11 i d i f o l i u m , Juncus  castaneus subsp. castaneus and S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a v a r . c a l y c a n t h a . Ranunculus o c c i d e n t a l i s Nutt. i n T. & G. subsp. o c c i d e n t a l i s (Western Buttercup) Synonyms: Ranunculus o c c i d e n t a l i s Nutt. subsp. o c c i d e n t a l i s v a r . b r e v i s t y l i s Greene; R^ o c c i d e n t a l i s v a r . b r e v i s t y l i s Greene; R_^  occ i d e n t a l i s v a r . o c c i d e n t a l i s C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 172, 184, 290, 491 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp, open to somewhat shaded meadows, heathlands, and a d j a c e n t to l a k e s h o r e s and r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Cardamine  umbellata, Draba b o r e a l i s , M e r t ensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , Myosotis a s i a t i c a , Polemonium caeruleum subsp. v i l l o s u m , S a l i x  p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . Ranunculus pygmaeus Wahlenb. (Pygmy Buttercup)_ Synonyms: Ranuculus pygmaeus Wahlenb. subsp. pygmaeus C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 151, 397, 592, 669 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse. Found e x c l u s i v e l y i n mossy seepage areas on boulder s l o p e s . 174 O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r a b i s l y r a t a , Chrysosplenium tetrandrum, Draba  l a c t e a , D. stenoloba, Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a and S t e l l a r i a umbellata. Ranunculus sulphureus Soland. ex Phipps v a r . sulphureus (Sulphur Buttercup) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 432, 728 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp meadows and open, moss covered rocky areas near p e r s i s t e n t snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cardamine umbellata, L u z u l a p i p e r i , P a r n a s s i a  f i m b r i a t a v a r . f i m b r i a t a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and T h a l i c t r u m alpinum var. alpinum. T h a l i c t r u m L. (Meadow-Rue) T h a l i c t r u m alpinum L. v ar. alpinum (Alpine Meadow-Rue) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 532, 957 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp, open meadows, bogs and along grassy stream banks and l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i subsp. t i l e s i i , A s t e r  modestus, B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Carex s i t c h e n s i s , E r i g e r o n  p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s , Hieracium g r a c i l e , S a l i x  p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a , Senecio lugens and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . 175 T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e Gray v a r . o c c i d e n t a l e (Western Meadow-Rue) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 484, 759 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp meadows and along shaded stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: A r a b i s drummondii, Delphinium glaucum, Draba  b o r e a l i s , E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a t h e m u s , Mertensia  p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , Polemonium caeruleum subsp. v i l l o s u m , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a and Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s . Rosaceae (Rose Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : T a y l o r , 1973. Dryas L. (Mountain-Avens) Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a M. Vahl subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a ( E n t i r e - L e a v e d White Mountain-Avens) Synonym: Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a v a r . i n t e g r i f o l i a C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 266, 391, 777 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n open, rocky heathlands, o f t e n near p e r s i s t e n t snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Lupinus a r c t i c u s subsp. a r c t i c u s , Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l ix a r c t i c a subsp. a j r c t i c a , S_^  glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , S.  r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and Vaccinium v i t e s - i d a e a subsp. 176 minus. F r a g a r i a L. (Strawberry) F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a Duchesne subsp. glauca (S. Wats.) Staudt (Blue-Leaved W i l d Strawberry) Synonyms: F r a g a r i a glauca (S. Wats.) Rydb.; F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a var. glauca S. Wats. C o l l e c t i o n number: 699 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp meadow, p a r t i a l l y shaded by dwarf b i r c h and wil l o w . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a , Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Geum macrophyllum var. macrophyllum, Heracleum  sphondylium subsp. montanum, S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s , S.  b a r r a t t i a n a and Sanguisorba canadensis subsp. l a t i f o l i a . Geum L. (Avens) Geum macrophyllum W i l l d . v a r . macrophyllum (Large-Leaved Avens) Synonym: Geum macrophyllum subsp. macrophyllum; Geum  macrophyllum subsp. macrophyllum var. macrophyllum C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 700, 953 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp meadows, o f t e n p a r t i a l l y shaded. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a , A s t e r  modestus, E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Festuca a l t a i c a , Heracleum  sphondylium subsp. montanum, Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x 177 a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s , S. b a r r a t t i a n a and Sanguisorba  canadensis subsp. l a t i f o l i a . Luetkea Bong. (Luetkea) Luetkea p e c t i n a t a (Pursh) Ktze. (Luetkea) C o l l e c t i o n number: 580 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant on rocky s l o p e s near p e r s i s t e n t snow and g r a v e l l y heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Calamagrostis canadensis subsp. canadensis v a r . canadensis, Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetra g o n a , Dryas  i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m subsp. a n g u s t i f o l i u m , Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a , Vaccinium uliginosum and Veronica w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i . P o t e n t i l l a L. ( C i n q u e f o i l ) P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a Lehm. var. d i v e r s i f o l i a (Blue-Leaved C i n q u e f o i l ) Synonym: P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a subsp. g l a u c o p h y l l a Lehm. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 176, 463, 508, 762 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp meadows and along mossy, rocky l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A.  r i c h a r d s o n i i , Campanula l a s i o c a r p a subsp. l a s i o c a r p a , Carex  atrosquamma, C. podocarpa, C a s t i l l e j a u n a l a s c h e n s i s , Eriophorum 178 s c h e u c h z e r i , Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s and Sanguisorba canadensis subsp. l a t i f o l i a . P o t e n t i l l a f r u t i c o s a L. subsp. f l o r i b u n d a (Pursh) E l k i n g t o n (Shrubby C i n q u e f o i l ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 197, 209, 322, 453, 781 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n meadows, along l a k e s h o r e s , rocky heathlands and boul d e r s l o p e s . H a b i t a t s ranging from damp to moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Cassiope  tetragona v a r . tetragona, Draba b o r e a l i s , E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m , M e r tensia p a n i c u l a t a var. p a n i c u l a t a , P o t e n t i l l a u n i f l o r a , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s , S.  p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a , S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a var. m u l t i r a d i a t a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a Malte ( A r c t i c C i n q u e f o i l ) Synonym: P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a Malte v a r . e l a t i o r (Abrom.) Fe r n . C o l l e c t i o n number: 312 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp, mossy areas between rocks at the base of a boulder s l o p e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a , S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s and S^ r i v u l a r i s v a r . f l e x u o s a . 179 P o t e n t i l i a u n i f l o r a Ledeb. (One-Flowered C i n q u e f o i l ) Synonym: P o t e n t i l i a l e d e b o u r i a n a Pors. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 226, 435, 783, 784 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n open rocky s i t e s , o c c a s i o n a l l y growing from c l e f t s i n la r g e b o u l d e r s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , P o t e n i l l a f r u t i c o s a subsp. f l o r i b u n d a , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a , S a x i f r a g a  r i v u l a r i s v a r . f l e x u o s a , S i l e n e a c a u l i s subsp. a c a u l i s and So l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a var. m u l t i r a d i a t a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: C o l l e c t i o n numbers 783 and 784 have lo n g e r darker c a u d i c e s than the o t h e r specimens of P_^  u n i f l o r a gathered from the study a r e a . In "The F l o r a of Alaska and Neighbouring T e r r i t o r i e s " (Hulten, 1968) t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n would suggest P.  v a h l i a n a Lehm. Welsh, (1974), however, regards P^ v a h l i a n a as a synonym of P_^  u n i f l o r a . Rubus L. (Bramble, B l a c k b e r r y , Raspberry) Rubus a r c t i c u s L. subsp. a c a u l i s (Michx.) Focke (Dwarf Nagoon Be r r y ) Synonym: Rubus a c a u l i s Michx. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 173, 293, 407 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp, seepage s i t e s near l a k e s h o r e s and p a r t i a l l y shaded boggy areas. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a , Anemone  n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . 180 g l a n d u l o s a , B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa, E p i l o b i u m  a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Myosotis a s i a t i c a , P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a var. p u l c h r a and S^ r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . Rubus chamaemorus L. (Cloudberry) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 163, 438 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on open to p a r t i a l l y shaded sphagnum hummocks. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Sedum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens and Vaccinium  microcarpum. Rubus pedatus Sm. (Five-Leaved Creeping Raspberry) C o l l e c t i o n number: 948 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common a t one l o c a t i o n , growing i n patches up to 2 m. i n diameter from a damp moss c a r p e t beneath a dense t h i c k e t of Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a , Lycopodium  annotinum, Me r t e n s i a p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a and P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s . 181 Sanguisorba L. (Burnet) Sanguisorba canadensis L. subsp. l a t i f o l i a (Hook.) C a l d e r and T a y l o r ( S i t k a Burnet) Synonyms: Sanguisorba s t i p u l a t a Raf.; C_ s i t c h e n s i s C A . Mey C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 712, 766 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp, open to somewhat shady meadows, e s p e c i a l l y near r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , Carex atrosquamma, C podocarpa, C a s t i l l e j a u n a l a s c h e n s i s , Geum  macrophyllum v a r . macrophyllum, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum, S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s , Senecio lugens and Rumex acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s . S i b b a l d i a L. ( S i b b a l d i a ) S i b b a l d i a procumbens L. (Creeping S i b b a l d i a ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 171, 253, 338, 450, 881 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n open rocky heathlands, o f t e n near l a t e remaining snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona, Draba  stenoloba, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , Empetrum  nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Epil o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m , Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a , Lycopodium alpinum, S a l i x  a r c t i c a , S. b a r r a t t i a n a , S a x i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a and Trisetum  spicatum v a r . spicatum. 182 Rubiaceae (Madder Family) Galium L. (Bedstraw, C l e a v e r s ) Galium bo r e a l e L. (Northern Bedstraw) C o l l e c t i o n number: 804 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp, p r o t e c t e d grassy s i t e a d j a c e n t to seepage pond. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a var. l a s i o c a r p a , A c h i l l e a  m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . b o r e a l i s , C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a v a r . l e p t o s e p a l a , E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum and Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a . S a l i c a c e a e (Willow Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s : Brayshaw, 1976; Argus, 1973. S a l i x L. (Willow) S a l i x a l a x e n s i s (Anderss.) Cov. v a r . a l a x e n s i s (Alaska Willow) Synonym: S a l i x a l a x e n s i s (Anderss.) Cov. subsp. a l a x e n s i s C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 211, 541, 544, 545, 638, 909 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Abundant i n damp meadows and along stream banks where i t a t t a i n s h e i g h t s of up to 6 m. t a l l . Rare i n d i v i d u a l s were a l s o found on open bou l d e r s l o p e s where the h a b i t was more t h a t of a spreading shrub, u s u a l l y under 0.5 m. t a l l . O v e r a l l abundance: Common to abundant. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B i s t o r t a  v i v i p a r a , B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , C a s t i l l e ja u n a l a s c h e n s i s , Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum, 183 L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a , Poa a l p i n a , P. a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a , S• glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a and S. p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a var. p u l c h r a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: Leaves of c o l l e c t i o n number 909 e x h i b i t g a l l s caused by the willow apple g a l l sawfly Pontania pomum Walsh. S a l i x a r c t i c a P a l l . ( A r c t i c Willow) Synonyms: S a l i x a r c t i c a P a l l , subsp. a r c t i c a ; S. a r c t i c a subsp. c r a s s i s u l i s (Trautv.) S k v o r t z . ; S^ a r c t i c a subsp. t o r u l o s a (Trautv.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 264, 273, 275, 365, 547 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n moist meadows and heathlands p a r t i c u l a r l y along stream banks and adja c e n t to l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, E p i l o b i u m  a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , E. l a c t i f l o r u m , Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a , M i t e l l a pentandra, O x y t r o p i s s e r i c e a v a r . s p i c a t a , Poa a r c t i c a and S a l i x g lauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a Hook. ( B a r r a t t ' s Willow) Synonyms: S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a Hook. v a r . a n g u s t i f o l i a Anderss.; S. b a r r a t t i a n a v a r . marcescens Raup C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 136, 202, 215, 216, 261, 270, 378, 467, 542, 543, 991 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant along rocky r u n - o f f channels, wet meadows and heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. 184 O c c u r r i n g with: Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , E p i l o b i u m l a c t i f l o r u m , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Festuca a l t a i c a , Myosotis a s i a t i c a , P a r n a s s i a  f i m b r i a t a v a r . f i m b r i a t a , Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , Poa a r c t i c a , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s , S. glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and S.  p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a var. p u l c h r a . S a l i x glauca L. v a r . a c u t i f o l i a (Hook.) Schneid. (Diamond Willow) Synonym: S a l i x glauca L. subsp. a c u t i f o l i a (Hook.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 129, 200, 210, 217, 259, 260, 262, 263, 269, 318, 364, 418, 650, 657, 720, 721 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant i n damp meadows, e s p e c i a l l y near creek edges, g r a v e l l y heathlands, rocky r u n - o f f channels and along the base of boulder s l o p e s . C o l l e c t i o n s taken from boulder s l o p e s were p r o s t r a t e t r a i l i n g shrubs whereas those taken from damp meadows were e r e c t i n h a b i t and 1.0 - 2.0 m t a l l . O v e r a l l abundance: Common to abundant. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a var. l a s i o c a r p a , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a var. p a n i c u l a t a , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a , S. p o l a r i s , S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . 185 S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a Pursh subsp. p u l c h r a (Cham.) Argus v a r . p u l c h r a (Tea-Leaved Willow) Synonym: S a l i x p h y l i c i f o l i a L. subsp. p l a n i f o l i a (Pursh) Hi itonen C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 139, 190, 212, 213, 214, 218, 231, 335, 451, 478 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant throughout damp meadows, along l a k e s h o r e s and stream margins and on wet, rocky heathlands near snow r u n - o f f channels. O v e r a l l abundance: Common to abundant. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i , A n g e l i c a l u c i d a , B etula  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Carex p y r e n a i c a subsp. micropoda, C. s p e c t a b i l i s , L u z u l a  p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a , P a r n a s s i a kotzebuei v a r . kot z e b u e i , P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a , S. glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . S a l i x p o l a r i s Wahlenb. ( P o l a r Willow) Synonym: S a l i x p o l a r i s Wahlenb. subsp. p s e u d o p o l a r i s (Flod.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 123, 143, 282, 301, 328, 367, 371, 392, 395, 427, 429, 430, 431, 472, 552, 6 82, 732, 799, 1015 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : O c c u r r i n g commonly throughout the study area on moss covered rocks along lake margins, rock ledges where seepage was e v i d e n t , and on t a l u s s l o p e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y near l a t e remaining snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. 186 O c c u r r i n g w i t h : b o r e a l i s subsp. P a r n a s s i a kotzebuei var. k o t z e b u e i , americana and Gentiana g l a u c a . Linnaea S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a L. subsp. r e t i c u l a t a (Net-Leaved Dwarf Willow) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 126, 284, 437 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant on open heath s l o p e s , around lake shores and on g r a v e l l y s l o p e s where snow remains l a t e . O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f e r a , Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Lycopodium alpinum and E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s . S a x i f r a g a c e a e ( S a x i f r a g e Family) Chrysosplenium L. (Golden S a x i f r a g e ) Chrysosplenium tetrandrum (Lund.) F r i e s (Northern Golden S a x i f r a g e ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 183, 595, 674, 736 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse on rocky l a k e s h o r e s , p r o t e c t e d areas on boul d e r s l o p e s and damp, shady herb mats. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spars e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, L l o y d i a  s e r a t i n a , Poa gla u c a , Ranunculus pygmaeus, S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s , S. p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a and Sedum  i n t e g r i f o l i u m subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i u m . 187 Leptarrhena R. Br. ( L e a t h e r l e a f S a x i f r a g e ) Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a (D. Don) R. Br. ex Ser. i n DC. ( L e a t h e r l e a f S a x i f r a g e ) Synonym: Leptarrhena a m p l e x i f o l i a (Sternb.) R. BR. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 548, 621, 934 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant along open, damp, mossy stream banks and seepage s i t e s i n open heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope tetragona v a r . t e t r a g o n a , E p i l o b i u m  a n a g a 1 1 i d i f o l i u m , E. l a c t i f l o r u m , M i t e l l a pentandra, P e t a s i t e s  n i v a l i s and S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i subsp. h u l t e n i i . M i t e l l a L. (Mitrewort) M i t e l l a pentandra Hook. (Five-Stamened Mitrewort) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 525, 546, 937, 1023 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp, open seepage s i t e s along g r a v e l l y stream banks and l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope tetragona v a r . t e t r a g o n a , E p i l o b i u m  anagal1 i d i f o l i u m , E. l a c t i f l o r u m , H i e r a c l i u m t r i s t e , Leptarrhena  p y r o l i f o l i a , P a r n a s s i a f i m b r i a t a var. f i m b r i a t a , P. kotzebuei var. k o t z e b u e i , S a l i x p o l a r i s and S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i subsp. h u l t e n i i . Sax i f r a g a L. ( S a x i f r a g e ) S a x i f r a g a adscendens L. subsp. oregonensis (Raf.) B a c i g a l u p i i n Abrams (Wedge-Leaved S a x i f r a g e ) 188 Synonym: S a x i f r a g a adscendens var. oregonensis (Raf.) B r e i t u n g C o l l e c t i o n number: 676 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n damp c r e v i c e s on boulder s l o p e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Draba macounii and st e n o l o b a . S a x i f r a g a c a e s p i t o s a L. subsp. s i l e n e f l o r a (Sternb. ex Cham.) H u l t . (Tufted S a x i f r a g e ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 554, 685 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse on rock s h e l v e s and on damp boulder s l o p e s near p e r s i s t e n t snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r e n a r i a l o n g i p e d u n c u l a t a , Draba a l b e r t i n a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. alpinum. S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i E n g l e r subsp. h u l t e n i i (Calder & S a v i l e ) C a l d e r & T a y l o r . Synonym: S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i E n g l e r v a r . h u l t e n i i C a l d e r & S a v i l e . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 241, 619, 791, 803,935. H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on mossy rocks along l a k e s h o r e s and stream banks, wet heathlands and seepage areas near l a t e remaining snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria monocepahala, A. a l p i n a var. media, Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Leparrhena p y r o l i f o l i a , M i t e l l a pentandra, P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , S a x i f r a g a n e l s o n i a n a 189 subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a and S_j_ n i v a l i s . S a x i f r a g a n e l s o n i a n a D. Don. subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a (Calder & S a v i l e ) H u l t . ( P o r s i l d ' s Cordate-Leaved S a x i f r a g e ) Synonyms: S a x i f r a g a punctata L. v a r . p o r s i l d i a n a (Calder & S a v i l e ) B. B o i . ; S^ punctata subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a C a l d e r and S a v i l e C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 148, 181, 342, 369, 790 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common along rocky l a k e s h o r e s and stream banks, damp, mossy ledges on rock outcrops and mossy, p r o t e c t e d areas on boulder s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cardamine umbellata, Draba stenoloba, E p i l o b i u m  a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Hedysarum alpinum subsp. americanum, Hi e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a , S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i subsp. h u l t e n i i and S_^  n i v a l i s . S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s L. ( A r c t i c S a x i f r a g e ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 141, 311, 606, 628, 630, 634, 655, 792 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on ledges and c l e f t s of rock outcrops, i n damp p r o t e c t e d areas on boul d e r s l o p e s and o c c a s i o n a l l y on open, g r a v e l l y heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r c t o s t a p h y l o s rubra, A r n i c a l e s s i n g i i , Carex  c a p i l l a r i s subsp. c a p i l l a r i s , Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona, Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a , F. v i v i p a r a , S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i subsp. h u l t e n i i and 190 S. r i v u l a r i s v a r . f l e x u o s a . S a x i f r a g a o c c i d e n t a l i s S. Wats. (Western S a x i f r a g e ) C o l l e c t i o n number: 258 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse. A s i n g l e p o p u l a t i o n was found on a steep rocky slope near l a t e remaining snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m , Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a , F. saximontana, S a x i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a and Trisetum spicatum v a r . spicatum. S a x i f r a g a o p p o s i t i f o l i a L. (Purple Mountain S a x i f r a g e ) Synonyms: S a x i f r a g a o p p o s i t i f o l i a subsp. o p p o s i t i f o l i a ; S a x i f r a g a o p p o s i t i f o l i a subsp. s m a l l i a n a (Engler & Irmsch.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 590, 644 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to spar s e . Found growing on damp, open g r a v e l s l o p e s and on ledges on exposed rock outcrops. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Draba macounii, Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens and Poa g l a u c a . S a x i f r a g a r i v u l a r i s L. v a r . f l e x u o s a (Sternb.) E n g l e r & Irmsch. (Brook S a x i f r a g e ) Synonym: S a x i f r a g a r i v u l a r i s v a r . r i v u l a r i s C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 144, 180, 225, 310, 344, 387, 798 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on rocky l a k e s h o r e s , 191 along damp, mossy r u n - o f f streams i n c r e v i c e s of rock outcrops and on moss-carpeted boulder f i e l d s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cardamine umbellata, Carex b i p a r t i t a , Cerastium  b e e r i n g ianum subsp. beeringianum, Draba stenoloba, Epilobium  anaga11 i d i f o l i u m , E. a n g u s t i f o l i u m subsp. a n g u s t i f o l i u m , Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and S a x i f r a g a n e l s o n i a n a subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a . S a x i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a Rottb. (Three-Toothed S a x i f r a g e ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 117, 128, 254, 452 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on open, w e l l - d r a i n e d , g r a v e l l y heaths, rocky l a k e s h o r e s and c r e v i c e s i n exposed rock f a c e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a , S a l i x glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a and S a x i f r a g a  o c c i d e n t a l i s . S c r o p h u l a r i a c e a e (Figwort Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : T a y l o r , 1974. C a s t i l l e j a Mutis ex L . f i l . (Indian Paintbrush) C a s t i l l e j a u n a l a s c h c e n s i s (Cham. & S c h l e c h t . ) Malte (Alaska Indian Paintbrush) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 193b, 249, 251, 490, 758, 767 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp meadows, o f t e n shaded by dwarf b i r c h and wi l l o w . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. 192 O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex  podocarpa, Equisetum s y l v a t i c u m , Festuca a l t a i c a , F.  b r a c h y p h y l l a , P e d i c u l a r i s v e r t i c i l l a t a , Phleum alpinum v a r . commutatum, Poa a l p i n a , P. a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , Rumex acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s , S. b a r r a t t i a n a and Sanguisorba canadensis var. l a t i f o l i a . P e d i c u l a r i s L. (Lousewort) P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a Adams ( C a p i t a t e Lousewort) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 169, 296, 417, 424, 785 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on open, w e l l - d r a i n e d g r a v e l l y heathlands. Rare to sparse along damp, open la k e s h o r e s and r i v e r banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A n tennaria monocephala, B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Cassiope tetragona v a r . t e t r a g o n a , Draba stenoloba, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a , Myosotis  a s i a t i c a , S a l i x glauca v a r . acut i f o l i a and S_^  r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a W i r s i n g (Labrador Lousewort) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 161, 408, 527, 596 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse along damp, sandy r i v e r b a n k s ; open, boggy areas and moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , B e t u l a 193 g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona, Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, Luzula a r c u a t a subsp. u n a l a s c h k e n s i s , P y r o l a g r a n d i f l o r a and Vaccinium caespitosum. P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i F i s c h . ex Steven subsp. a r c t i c a (R.Br.) P e n n e l l ( L a n g s d o r f ! s Lousewort) Synonym: P e d i c u l a r i s a r c t i c a R.Br. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 306a, 425, 464, 656, 786 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n d i v e r s e h a b i t a t s . C o l l e c t i o n s were taken from mossy lak e s h o r e s , w e l l - d r a i n e d , rocky s l o p e s and open heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone p a r v i f l o r a , Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Draba st e n o l o b a , Gentiana glauca, H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a , P. s u d e t i c a subsp. i n t e r i o r , P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a , S a l i x  p o l a r i s , S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s and Vaccinium caespitosum v a r . caespitosum. P e d i c u l a r i s s u d e t i c a W i l l d . subsp. i n t e r i o r (Hult.) H u l t . (Sudeten Lousewort) Synonym: P e d i c u l a r i s s u d e t i c a var. gymnocephala C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 207, 306a, 538, 637 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on damp, mossy stream banks and lakeshor e s ; moist, open meadows and heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone p a r v i f l o r a , B i s t o r a v i v i p a r a , Cassiope 194 tetragona var. t e t r a g o n a , C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a , Festuca a l t a i c a , Ledum groenlandicum, P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i subsp. a r c t i c a , P.  v e r t i c i l l a t a and S a l i x p o l a r i s . P e d i c u l a r i s v e r t i c i l l a t a L. (Whorled Lousewort) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 230, 307, 585, 757 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to l o c a l l y common i n open, damp to moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d meadows and along mossy lake margins. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A n g e l i c a l u c i d a , B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , C a l t h a  l e p t o s e p a l a v a r . l e p t o s e p a l a , C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a , E r i g e r o n  h u m i l i s , Festuca a l t a i c a , Ledum groenlandicum, P e d i c u l a r i s  l a b r a d o r i c a , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a var. p u l c h r a and S.  p o l a r i s . V e r o n i c a L. (Speedwell) Vernonica w o r m s k j o l d i i Roem. & S c h u l t v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i ( A l p i n e Speedwell) Synonyms: V e r o n i c a a l p i n a L.; V_^  a l p i n a v a r . a l t e r n i f l o r a Fern.; V_;_ s t e l l e r i P a l l . ; V_^  wormsk j o l d i i subsp. a l t e r n i f l o r a ; V. w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . s t e l l e r i ( P a l l . ) Welsh; V^ w o r m s k j o l d i i subsp. w o r m s k j o l d i i C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 412, 448, 497, 568, 797 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common along open, grassy l a k e s h o r e s and along g r a v e l l y r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Adoxa m o s c h a t e l l i n a , B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . 195 g l a n d u l o s a , Carex podocarpa, Cerastium beeringianum subsp. bee r i n g ianum, Draba a l b e r t i n a , Festuca a l t a i c a , L u z u l a  p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a , Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , Phleum alpinum v a r . commutatum and S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a . V a l e r i a n a c e a e ( V a l e r i a n Family) V a l e r i a n a L. ( V a l e r i a n ) V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s Bong, subsp. s i t c h e n s i s ( S i t k a V a l e r i a n ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 187, 198, 244, 477, 513 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp meadows and along shaded stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a v a r . a u r a n t i a c a , Delphinium glaucum, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum, S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , S. p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a and Rumex  acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s . V i o l a c e a e ( V i o l e t Family) V i o l a L. ( V i o l e t ) V i o l a e p i p s i l a Ledeb. subsp. repens (Turcz.) Becker (Dwarf Marsh V i o l e t ) Synonym: V i o l a p a l u s t r i s L. ( i n Welsh, 1974) C o l l e c t i o n number: 185 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse i n damp, shaded meadows adj a c e n t to r u n - o f f streams. 196 O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cardamine umbellata, C a s t i l l e j a u n a l a s c h e n s i s , Chrysosplenium tetrandrum, Draba b o r e a l i s , Festuca a l t a i c a , Myosotis a s i a t i c a , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s , S. p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a and Rumex acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s . V i o l a l a n g s d o r f i i (Regel) F i s c h . i n DC. (Alaska V i o l e t ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 248, 410, 584 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to l o c a l l y common i n damp, open meadows and seepage s i t e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a var. a u r a n t i a c a , C a s t i l l e ja  u n a l a s c h e n s i s , Draba a l b e r t i n a , E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s , P e d i c u l a r i s v e r t i c i l l a t a , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x g lauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , S. p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a and V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s . 197 MAGNOLIOPHYTA: MONOCOTYLEDONEAE (Flowering P l a n t s ) Cyperaceae (Sedge Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s : T a y l o r , 1983; Hudson, 1977; Murray, 1969; Ceska, 1976 i n M.S.; Eastham (N.D.) i n M.S. Carex L. (Sedge) Carex a q u a t i l i s Wahlenb. var. a q u a t i l i s (Water Sedge) Synonym: Carex a q u a t i l i s Wahlenb. subsp. a q u a t i l i s C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 405, 725, 744 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant i n marshy s i t e s along slow moving streams and i n sphagnum bogs. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex brunnescens, C. canescens subsp. canescens, C. heleon a s t e s , Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i , E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens and Ranunculus hyperboreus subsp. hyperboreus. Carex atrosquama Mack. ( B l a c k - S c a l e d Sedge) Synonyms: Carex a t r a t a L. ( i n Welsh, 1974); C_^  a t r a t a subsp. atrosquama (Mack.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 691, 726, 763, 768 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n wet, open meadows and moss hummocks ad j a c e n t t o r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , Carex d i o i c a subsp. gynocrates, C. media subsp. media, 198 C a s t i l l e j a u n a l a s c h e n s i s , Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum, Juncus drummondii, P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a , Rumex acetosa subsp. a r i f o l i u s , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a var. p u l c h r a and Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s . Carex b i g e l o w i i T o r r . i n Schwein (Bigelow's Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 1010, 1011 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Found growing along a muddy r i v e r b a n k . Common at t h i s l o c a t i o n but otherwise r a r e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g with: B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Eriophorum  brachyantherum, E. vaginatum subsp. vaginatum, Gentiana glauca, Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a and P e t a s i t e s s a g i t a t t u s . Carex b i p a r t i t a B e l l a r d i ex A l l . (Two-Parted Sedge) Synonym: Carex l a c h e n a l i i Schkuhr C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 347, 363 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along damp, mossy streambanks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Cardamine umbellata, E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i , Juncus  drummondii, L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a , Phleum alpinum v a r . commutatum, Poa a l p i n a and S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s . 199 Carex brunnescens (Pers.) P o i r . i n Lam. subsp. alaskana K a l e l a (Brownish Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 627, 741, 901, 1009 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n wet meadows, mossy stream banks and sphagnum bogs. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , C.  canescens subsp. canescens, Epil o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i , Equisetum arvense, Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, Ranunculus hyperboreus subsp. hyperboreus and S a l i x  a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s . Carex canescens L. subsp. a r c t a e f o r m i s (Mack.) C a l d e r & T a y l o r (Hoary Sedge) Synonyms: Carex a r c t a e f o r m i s Mack. C o l l e c t i o n number: 895 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Open, marshy s i t e . Common a t t h i s one l o c a t i o n but otherwise r a r e . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Carex a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , Eriophorum  s c h e u c h z e r i and Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens. Carex canescens L. subsp. canescens (Hoary Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 745, 945 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant along muddy, slow moving streambanks and i n p r o t e c t e d seepage s i t e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y 200 forming tussocks i n shallow water. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g with: Carex a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , C. s a x a t i l i s subsp. la_xa_/ C^ s i t c h e n s i s , E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Equisetum arvense, Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i , Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, Ranunculus hyperboreus subsp. hyperboreus and S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a v a r . c a l y c a n t h a . Carex c a p i l l a r i s L. subsp. c a p i l l a r i s ( H a i r l i k e Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 610, 680 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp, open grassy and mossy s i t e s a d j a c e n t to l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r n i c a l o u i s e a n a subsp. f r i g i d a , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , Juncus a r c t i c u s subsp. alaskanus, J . b i g l u m i s , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s . Carex d i o i c a L. subsp. gymnocrates (Wormsk.) H u l t . (Yellow Bog Sedge ) Synonym: Carex gynocrates Wormsk. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 690, 994 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp moss c a r p e t s and meadows adj a c e n t to l a k e s h o r e s and streambanks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A g r o s t i s scabra, B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . 201 g l a n d u l o s a , Carex e n a n d e r i , C. media subsp. media, C. microchaeta subsp. microchaeta, S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a . Carex enanderi H u l t . (Enander's Sedge) Synonym: Carex e l e u s i n o i d e s T u r c z . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 702, 703, 996 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp, open, mossy s i t e s along la k e s h o r e s and r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A g r o s t i s scabra, B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Carex  microchaeta subsp. microchaeta, C. podocarpa, Eriophorum  vaginatum subsp. vaginatum, S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and T o f i e l d i a p u s i l l a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: Ceska (1985, p e r s . comm.) suggested t h a t c o l l e c t i o n number 703 be regarded as Carex e l e u s i n o i d e s T u r c z . on the b a s i s of i t s densely c a e s p i t o s e h a b i t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers 702 and 996, by way of c o n t r a s t , e x h i b i t l o o s e l y c a e s p i t o s e growth forms. Overlap of c h a r a c t e r s i n keys p r o v i d e d by Hulten (1968) and Welsh (1974), however, p r e c l u d e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of c o l l e c t i o n s from the study area on any oth e r grounds. T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977) t r e a t C_^  e l e u s i n o i d e s as a synonym of (C e n a n d e r i . In view of the f a c t t h a t the name Carex  e l e u s i n o i d e s was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d by Turczaninow i n 1837 while the name Carex enanderi was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d by Hulten i n 1952, the former name should be adopted i f these are to be regarded as 202 a s i n g l e taxon. Carex heleonastes Ehrh. i n L. f i l . subsp. heleonastes (Hudson Bay Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n number: 747 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along a muddy, slow-moving streambank i n a s h e l t e r e d v a l l e y . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A g r o s t i s scabra, Carex brunnescens subsp. brunnescens, C. canescens subsp. canescens, C. media subsp. media, E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, K o e n i g i a i s l a n d i c a , Ranunculus hyperboreus subsp. hyperboreus and S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a subsp. c a l y c a n t h a . Carex macloviana d'Urv. subsp. pachystachya (Cham, ex Steud.) H u l t . (Thick-Headed Sedge) Synonym: Carex pachystachya Cham. C o l l e c t i o n number: 625 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on open, w e l l - d r a i n e d rocky he a t h - s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex  n a r d i n a , C. p y r e n a i c a , Cassiope tetragona subsp. tetragona, Lupinus a r c t i c u s subsp. a r c t i c u s , Luzula a r c u a t a subsp. u n a l a s c h k e n s i s and S a l i x p o l a r i s . 203 Carex macrochaeta C A . Mey. (Large-Awned Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 130, 134, 419 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant i n wet, open seepage s i t e s and along r u n - o f f channels. A few p o p u l a t i o n s were a l s o found i n open, rocky heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Cassiope  tetragona v a r . t e t r a g o n a , H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a , Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a and S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . Carex media R.Br, i n R i c h a r d s , subsp. media (Scandinavian Sedge ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 454, 689, 746 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp, mossy s i t e s around lakeshores and along stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B i s t o r t a  v i v i p a r a , Carex a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , C. brunnescens subsp. alaskana, E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Equisetum arvense, Juncus  drummondii, Koenigia i s l a n d i c a , P a r n a s s i a k o t z b u e i v a r . ko t z b u e i , S a l i x glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a , S. r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a v a r . c a l y c a n t h a . Carex microchaeta Holm subsp. microchaeta (Small-Awned Sedge) Synonym: Carex podocarpa R.Br, i n R i c h a r d s , ( i n Welsh, 1974) 204 C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 997, 999 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n wet, mossy areas along l a k e s h o r e s and r u n - o f f streams. Culms o c c a s i o n a l l y p a r t l y submerged. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B i s t o r t a  v i v i p a r a , Carex e n a n d e r i , C. podocarpa, Eriophorum scheuchzeri', Juncus b i g l u m i s , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and T o f i e l d i a p u s i l l a . Carex n a r d i n a E . F r i e s (Spikenard Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 388, 624, 641 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n abundance; occupying c l i f f ledges, rock c r e v i c e s and open, rocky heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g with: A r n i c a l o u i s e a n a subsp. f r i g i d a , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex macrochaeta subsp. pachystachya, Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Dryas  i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Lupinus  a r c t i c u s subsp. a r c t i c u s , L u z u l a a r c t i c a subsp. u n a l a s c h k e n s i s , O x y r i a digyna and S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . Carex podocarpa R.Br, i n R i c h a r d s . ( S h o r t - S t a l k e d Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 502, 769, 998 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp meadows, along mossy streambanks and l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. 205 O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Abies l a s i o c a r p a v a r . l a s i o c a r p a , Carex  microchaeta subsp. microchaeta, E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Festuca a l t a i c a , L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a , Mertensia  p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , Phleum alpinum v a r . commutatum, S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s and V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . wormskjoldi i . Carex p y r e n a i c a Wahlenb. subsp. micropoda ( C A . Mey.) H u l t . (Pyrenean Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 457, 626, 962, 966 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n open, rocky heathlands and me s i c meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex macloviana subsp. pachystachya, C. n a r d i n a , Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , Festuca a l t a i c a , Juncus  drummondii, Lupinus a r c t i c u s subsp. a r c t i c u s , L u z u l a a r c t i c a subsp. l a t i f o l i a and S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . Carex r o s s i i Boott i n Hook. (Ross* Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n number: 617 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n open, g r a v e l l y heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g with: B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope  tetragona v a r . t e t r a g o n a , Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and Trisetum spicatum v a r . spicatum. 206 Carex r o s t r a t a Stokes i n With. (Beaked Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 743, 946 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along s h e l t e r e d , muddy streambanks and around seepage ponds. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Carex a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , C. canescens subsp. canescens, E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Equisetum arvense, Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i , Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, P e t a s i t e s s a g i t a t t u s , Ranunculus hyperboreus subsp. hyperboreus and S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a v a r . c a l y c a n t h a . Carex s a x a t i l i s L. subsp. l a x a (Trautv.) K a l e l a (Russet Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 897, 943 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant i n marshy areas; o f t e n forming dense tussocks i n shallow seepage ponds. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : A g r o s t i s scabra, Carex canescens subsp. canescens, C. s i t c h e n s i s and Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i . Carex s c i r p o i d e a Michx. v a r . stenochlaena Holm. (Northern S i n g l e - S p i k e d Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 666 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common on heath covered b o u l d e r s l o p e s and damp c l i f f l e dges. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r a b i s l y r a t a subsp. kamchatica, Cassiope 207 tetragona v a r. t e t r a g o n a , Draba stenoloba and S t e l l a r i a umbellata. Carex s i t c h e n s i s P r e s c o t t i n Bong. ( S i t k a Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 944, 956 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant on sphagnum hummocks and forming tussocks i n and around shallow seepage ponds. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , B i s t o r t a  v i v i p a r a , Carex s a x a t i l i s subsp. l a x a , Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i , Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, Sanguisorba canadensis subsp. l a t i f o l i a and T h a l i c t r u m alpinum v a r . alpinum. Carex s p e c t a b i l i s Dew. (Showy Sedge) C o l l e c t i o n number: 222 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : A r n i c a l a t i f o l i a v a r . l a t i f o l i a , Cassiope  mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, E r i g e r o n p e r i g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s , Festuca a l t a i c a , Hieracium g r a c i l e , Phleum  alpinum v a r . commutatum, Poa a r c t i c a , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s and T h a i i c t r u m alpinum v a r . alpinum. Eriophorum L. (Cotton-Grass) Eriophorum a n g u s t i f o l i u m Honck. subsp. t r i s t e ( T . F r i e s ) H u l t . (Narrow-Leaved Cotton-Grass) Synonym: Eriophorum t r i s t e (T. F r i e s ) Hadac & Love 208 C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 598, 600, 1012, 1013 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant on sphagnum hummocks and around muddy seepage ponds. F r e q u e n t l y submerged to approximately o n e - t h i r d culm l e n g t h i n water. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a , Carex  a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens and Vaccinium microcarpum. Eriophorum brachyantherum T r a u t v . & Mey. (Short-Anthered Cotton-Grass) C o l l e c t i o n number: 602 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp meadows and muddy s i t e s near ponds and r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Eriophorum  vaginatum subsp. vaginatum, Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, P e t a s i t e s s a g i t a t t u s and S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . Eriophorum c a l l i t r i x Cham. ( A r c t i c Cotton-Grass) C o l l e c t i o n number: 793 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse i n rocky, grassy heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona , Dryas  i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a and S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . 209 Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i Hoppe (Scheuchzer's Cotton-Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 360, 404, 462, 739, 942 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant i n bogs, along damp lake s h o r e s , muddy streambanks and shallow seepage ponds. Fre q u e n t l y growing i n up to 10 cm of water. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g with: Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Carex  a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , C. r o s t r a t a , Draba a l b e r t i n a , E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Equisetum arvense, Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, J . drummondii, Koenigia i s l a n d i c a , P a r n a s s i a  kotzebuei v a r . k o t z e b u e i , P o t e n t i l i a d i v e r s i f o l i a v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a and S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a . Eriophorum vaginatum L. subsp. vaginatum (Sheathed Cotton-Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 604, 701, 1014 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n muddy seepage s i t e s , wet heathlands and along mossy la k e s h o r e s and r u n - o f f streams. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope  tetragona v a r . t e t r a g o n a , Eriophorum brachyantherum, Juncus  a r c t i c u s subsp. alaskanus, P e t a s i t e s sag i t a t t u s , S a l i x p o l a r i s , Triseturn spicatum v a r . spicatum and Vahlodea atropurpurea subsp. pa r a m u s h i r e n s i s . 210 Kobresia W i l l d . (Kobresia) Kobresia myosuroides ( V i l l . ) F i o r i & P a o l . ( B e l l a r d ' s Kobresia) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 646 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse on open, rocky heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Dryas  i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , G e n t i a n e l l a propinqua, Poa  a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , P o t e n t i l l a f r u t i c o s a subsp. f l o r i b u n d a and S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . Juncaceae (Rush Family) Juncus L. (Rush) Juncus a r c t i c u s W i l l d . subsp. alaskanus H u l t . ( A r c t i c Rush) Synonym: Juncus a r c t i c u s v a r . alaskanus (Hult.) Welsh C o l l e c t i o n number: 609 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n open, to p a r t l y shaded, mossy s i t e s near l a t e snow r u n - o f f . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to sp a r s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r n i c a l e s s i n g i i subsp. l e s s i n g i i , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex c a p i l l a r i s subsp. c a p i l l a r i s , Juncus b i g l u m i s , S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s and Senec i o p a u c i f l o r u s . Juncus b i g l u m i s L. (Two-Flowered Rush) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 611, 969, 1001 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n sphagnum hummocks, on damp, exposed s o i l and along mossy l a k e s h o r e s . 211 O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r n i c a l e s s i n g i i subsp. l e s s i n g i i , B e tula  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex c a p i l l a r i s subsp. c a p i l l a r i s , Juncus a r c t i c u s subsp. alaskanus, Koenigia i s l a n d i c a , S a l i x  glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s , Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s and T o f i e l d i a p u s i l l a . Juncus castaneus Sm. subsp. castaneus (Chestnut Rush) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 505, 603, 672, 740, 774 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common around damp la k e s h o r e s , mossy r u n - o f f channels and muddy stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , Carex  a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s , Cassiope mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Equisetum arvense, E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Eriophorum  s c h e u c h z e r i , Koenig i a i s l a n d i c a , L u z u l a m u l t i f l o r a subsp. m u l t i f l o r a v a r . f r i g i d a , P e t a s i t e s s a g i t a t t u s , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s , S. p o l a r i s and S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a subsp. c a l y c a n t h a . Juncus drummondii E. Mey. i n Ledeb. (Drummond's Rush) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 362, 456, 692, 887 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along mossy la k e s h o r e s , wet meadows and seepage s i t e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Carex  b i p a r t i t a , C• p y r e n a i c a subsp. micropoda, Cassiope tetragona 212 v a r . tetragona, C a s t i l l e ja u n a l a s c h e n s i s , Eriophorum  s c h e u c h z e r i , Festuca a l t a i c a , Hieracium g r a c i l e , H i e r o c h l o e  a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , L u z u l a p i p e r i , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s . Juncus mertensianus Bong, subsp. mertensianus v a r . mertensianus (Merten's Rush) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 722, 1021 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common around muddy seepage ponds, mossy la k e s h o r e s and i n wet meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : A r e n a r i a long i p e d u n c u l a t a, Draba stenoloba, Equisetum arvense, Hedyarum alpinum subsp. americanum, P a r n a s s i a  f i m b r i a t a v a r . f i m b r i a t a , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and S a l i x  glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . Juncus t r i g l u m i s L. (Three-Flowered Rush) Synonyms: Juncus t r i g l u m i s L. v a r . t r i g l u m i s ; J . t r i g l u m i s subsp. t r i g l u m i s ; J . t r i g l u m i s v a r . albescens Lange: J .  t r i g l u m i s subsp. albescens (Lange) H u l t . ; Jj_ albescens (Lange) Fe r n . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 601 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n boggy areas and along mossy l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , Eriophorum  brachyantherum, Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus, Ledum 213 p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a v a r . Vaccinium u l i g i n o s u m subsp. alpinum. Lu z u l a DC. (Wood-Rush) Luzula a r c t i c a B l y t t subsp. l a t i f o l i a ( Kjellm.) Pors. ( A r c t i c Wood-Rush) Synonyms: Luz u l a t u n d r i c o l a Gorodk.; L_^  n i v a l i s (Laest.) B e u r l . v a r . l a t i f o l i a ( Kjellm.) Sam. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 678, 964 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse. Occupying damp c l i f f ledges and t a l u s s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i subsp. t i l e s i i , Draba  macounii, D. stenoloba, Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a and S a x i f r a g a adscendens subsp. oregonensis. L u z u l a a r c u a t a (Wahlenb.) Sw. subsp. u n a l a s c h k e n s i s (Buchenau) H u l t . (Curved A l p i n e Wood-Rush) Synonym: Luzula a r c u a t a (Wahlenb.) Sw. v a r . u n a l a s c h k e n s i s Buchenau C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 385, 597, 623, 898, 900 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common i n damp rock c r e v i c e s , around s o r t e d stone c i r c l e s and on rocky heath s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex  n a r d i n a , Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana, Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditurn, Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, Lupinus 214 a r c t i c u s subsp. a r c t i c u s , L u z u l a a r c t i c a subsp. l a t i f o l i a , Poa  a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . L u z u l a confusa Lindeb. (Northern Wood-Rush) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 704, 960 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on damp c l i f f ledges and rocky heath s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , C a l a m a g r o s t i s canadensis subsp. canadensis v a r . canadensis, Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a and S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . L u z u l a mult i f l o r a (Retz.) L e j . subsp. mult i f l o r a v a r . f r i g i d a (Buchenau) Sam. i n H u l t . (Many-Flowered Wood-Rush) Synonyms: Luz u l a campestris (L.) DC. ex DC. & Lam. v a r . f r i g ida Buch.; L^ m u l t i f l o r a (Retz.) L e j . subsp. f r i g i d a (Buch.) Krecz. v a r . f r i g i d a C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 506, 622, 1007, 1008 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along damp, mossy l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Campanula  l a s i o c a r p a , Carex brunnescens subsp. alaskana, Phyllodoce  g l a n d u l i f l o r a , P o t e n t i l i a d i v e r s i f o l i a v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a , S a l i x  g l auca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and T o f i e l d i a p u s i l l a . 215 L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a (Ehrh.) Desv. subsp. p a r v i f l o r a (Small-Flowered Wood-Rush) Synonym: Luzula p a r v i f l o r a v a r . melanocarpa (Michx.) Buch. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 234, 352, 501, 711, 907, 908 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp meadows and along open to p a r t l y shaded l a k e s h o r e s and stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse to common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , Antennaria a l p i n a v a r . media, B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Cardamine  umbellata, Carex b i p a r t i t a , E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Festuca  a l t a i c a , M e r t ensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , Poa a l p i n a , P.  a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x a l a x e n s i s var. a l a x e n s i s and Vahlodea atropurpurea subsp. paramushirensis. Luzula p i p e r i (Cov.) M.E. Jones ( P i p e r ' s Wood-Rush) Synonyms: Luz u l a w a h l e n b e r g i i Rupr. subsp. p i p e r i (Cov.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 433, 458, 459 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along r u n - o f f streams near l a t e remaining snow and i n damp meadows. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A.  r i c h a r d s o n i i , Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a subsp. b e l l i d i f o l i a v a r . b e l l i d i f o l i a , Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona and Festuca  a l t a i c a . L u z u l a s p i c a t a (L.) DC. i n Lam. & DC. (Spiked Wood-Rush) C o l l e c t i o n number: 581 216 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on exposed t a l u s s l o p e s near p e r s i s t e n t snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Luetkea p e c t i n a t a , Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. alpinum and Ve r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i . L i l i a c e a e ( L i l y Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e : T a y l o r , 1974. L l o y d i a S a l i s b . ( L l o y d i a , A lp L i l y ) L l o y d i a s e r o t i n a (L.) Rchb. subsp. s e r o t i n a (Alp L i l y ) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 386, 594 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on open, rocky heathlands., damp c l i f f ledges and damp, moss-covered boulder s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g with: Cassiope tetragona v a r . t e t r a g o n a , Chrysosplenium tetrandrum, Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens, Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x p o l a r i s , S a x i f r a g a o p p o s i t i f o l i a and S^ r i v u l a r i s v a r . f l e x u o s a . T o f i e l d i a Huds. (False Asphodel) T o f i e l d i a p u s i l l a (Michx.) Pers. (Common F a l s e Asphodel) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 170, 465, 1000 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on damp moss hummocks adj a c e n t to lake s h o r e s and stream banks and i n damp, open heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , Carex 217 microchaeta subsp. microchaeta, Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona, Juncus b i g l u m i s , Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , P a r n a s s i a kotzebuei var. k o t z e b u e i , S a l i x  b a r r a t t i a n a and S^ p o l a r i s . Veratrum L. (False H e l l e b o r e ) Veratrum v i r i d e A i t . subsp. e s c h s c h o l t z i i (Gray) Love & Love (Green F a l s e H e l l e b o r e ) Synonym: Veratrum e s c h s c h o l t z i i Gray C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 481, 706 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp open meadows and along stream banks where s o i l i s r e l a t i v e l y deep. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A n g e l i c a l u c i d a , A r a b i s drummondii, Draba  b o r e a l i s , M e r tensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , P e t a s i t e s  n i v a l i s , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a and Veratrum v i r i d e subsp. e s c h s c h o l t z i i . Poaceae (Grass Family) A d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s : Hubbard, 1969; A.S. Hitchcock, 1950; P a v l i c k , 1984; Marsh, 1950; P a v l i c k and Looman, 1984. A g r o s t i s L. (Bent Grass) A g r o s t i s scabra W i l l d . (Hair Bent Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 576, 750, 896, 995 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common along muddy stream banks, i n exposed s i l t of d r i e d up seepage pond d e p r e s s i o n s , damp heathlands and rock s l o p e s near l a t e - r e m a i n i n g snow. 218 O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r , A n t ennaria monocephala, Ca l a m a g r o s t i s canadensis subsp. canadensis v a r . canadensis, Carex brunnescens subsp. alaskana, C. s a x a t i l i s subsp. l a x a , Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetr a g o n a , Draba stenoloba, Equisetum arvense, Eriophorum s c h e u c h z e r i , Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus and S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a . Alopecurus L. (Meadow F o x t a i l ) Alopecurus a e q u a l i s Sobol. subsp. a e q u a l i s ( L i t t l e Meadow F o x t a i l ) C o l l e c t i o n number: 972 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse i n damp meadows near l a k e s h o r e s and along stream banks. O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aeoniturn d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , A r a b i s drummondii, Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Draba b o r e a l i s , Festuca a l t a i c a , Phleum alpinum v a r . commutatum, Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a and S^ glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . C a l a m a g r o s t i s Adans. (Small Reed Grass) C a l a m a g r o s t i s canadensis (Michx.) Beaux, subsp. canadensis v a r . canadensis ( B l u e j o i n t Small Reed Grass) Synonyms: C a l m a g r o s t i s canadensis (Michx.) Beaux, subsp. canadensis; C. canadensis v a r . canadensis; C. canadensis v a r . macouniana (Vasey) S t e b b i n s 219 C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 577, 582, 771, 959, 979, 981, 988 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant i n damp open to p a r t l y shaded meadows. Sparse to common on open, rocky heathlands p a r t i c u l a r l y near p e r s i s t e n t snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , A g r o s t i s scabra, B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope  tetragona v a r . t e t r a g o n a , Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Draba b o r e a l i s , D. stenoloba, Festuca a l t a i c a , Phleum alpinum v a r . commutatum, Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a and S^ r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a . C a l a m agrostis purpurascens R.Br, i n R i c h a r d s , subsp. purpurascens (Purple Small Reed Grass) C o l l e c t i o n number: 524 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare i n open, w e l l - d r a i n e d , g r a v e l s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Festuca  saximontana, H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , Linnaea b o r e a l i s subsp. americana, Lycopodium complanatum, Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and Trisetum spicatum var. spicatum. C a l a m a g r o s t i s s t r i c t a (Timm) K o e l e r var. s t r i c t a (Slimstem Small Reed Grass) Synonyms: Calamagrostis n e g l e c t a (Ehrh.) Gaertn. Mey. & Schreb.; C. n e g l e c t a v a r . n e g l e c t a 220 C o l l e c t i o n number: 446 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare to sparse i n damp, rocky heathlands a d j a c e n t t o lak e s h o r e s ; a l s o found growing from c l e f t s i n bo u l d e r s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare to spar s e . O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Antennaria monocephala, Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s , E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s , Phyllodoce  g l a n d u l i f l o r a , S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a and S a x i f r a g a  t r i c u s p i d a t a . Festuca L. (Fescue) Festuca a l t a i c a T r i n . ( A l t a i Fescue) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 221, 299, 321, 382, 460, 487, 500, 503, 976 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant i n moist meadows, open heathlands, boulder s l o p e s and rock o u t c r o p s . O v e r a l l abundance: Common. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aeoniturn d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, C a s t i l l e ja u n a l a s c h e n s i s , Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum, Draba  b o r e a l i s , M e r t e n s i a p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , P e d i c u l a r i s  l a n g s d o r f i i subsp. a r c t i c a , P. s u d e t i c a subsp. i n t e r i o r , Phleum  alpinum v a r . commutatum, Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and S a l i x  g l auca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a S c h u l t . ( A l p i n e Fescue) Synonym: Festuca ovina L. v a r . b r e v i f o l i a (R.Br.) S. Wats. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 257, 313, 461 221 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on rock outcrops, boulder f i e l d s and t a l u s s l o p e s ; o f t e n near l a t e remaining snow. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m , Festuca  saximontana, Potent i l i a h y p a r c t i c a , S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s , S.  o p p o s i t i f o l i a , S. r i v u l a t i s v a r . f l e x u o s a , S. t r i c u s p i d t a and Trisetum spicatum v a r . spicatum. Festuca saximontana Rydb. (Rocky Mountain Fescue) Synonym: Festuca ovina L. v a r . r y d b e r g i i St.-Yves C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 257, 520 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on exposed, rocky s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Calamagrostis purpurascens subsp. purpurascens, Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Epilobium l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m , Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a , H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a x i f r a g a  t r i c u s p i d a t a and Trisetum spicatum v a r . spicatum. A d d i t i o n a l notes: P a v l i c k (1984) r e c o g n i z e s three v a r i e t i e s of Festuca saximontana Rydb. Acco r d i n g to h i s c r i t e r i a f o r seg r e g a t i n g these taxa, c o l l e c t i o n number 520 should be regarded as F^ saximontana v a r . purpusiana (Saint-Yves) F r e d e r i k s e n and P a v l i c k , and c o l l e c t i o n number 257 should be regarded as a mixture of F_^  b r a c h y p h y l l a S c h u l t . and F_^  saximontana v a r . r o b e r t s i a n a P a v l i c k . 222 Festuca v i v i p a r a (L.) Sm., s . l . C o l l e c t i o n number: 631 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Rare. A s i n g l e p o p u l a t i o n was found i n an open s i t e on damp, bare s o i l . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r c t o s t a p h y l o s rubra, B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . gl a n d u l o s a , Cerastium beeringianum subsp. beeringianum and Koenigia i s l a n d i c a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: In a treatment of Festuca v i v i p a r a (L.) Sm. s . l . , F r e d e r i k s e n (1981) d e s c r i b e d three d i s t i n c t s u b s p ecies. He named the ci r c u m p o l a r taxon t h a t extends southward i n the North American C o r d i l l e r a Festuca v i v i p a r a (L.) Sm. subsp. g l a b r a F r e d e r i k s e n . P a v l i c k (1984) proposed that t h i s taxon be e l e v a t e d to the rank of s p e c i e s , Festuca v i v i p a r o i d e a K r a j i n a ex P a v l i c k , on the b a s i s of l e a f sclerenchyma p a t t e r n and chromosome number. Furthermore, he regards the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a n m a t e r i a l as a d i s t i n c t subspecies, F^ v i v i p a r o i d e a subsp. k r a j i n a e P a v l i c k . H i e r o c h l o e R.Br. (Sweet Grass) H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a (Sw.) Roem. & S c h u l t . subsp. a l p i n a (Alpine Sweet Grass, Holy Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 131, 149, 361, 372, 428, 523, 681, 902, 961 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along open to shaded stream banks and i n t h i n t u r f on rocky l a k e s h o r e s . Sparse on rocky heathlands, c l i f f ledges and exposed g r a v e l s l o p e s ( s o r t e d s t r i p e s ) . 223 O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g with: B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex  brunnescens subsp. alaskana, Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Festuca saximontana, Gentiana g l a u c a , P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i subsp. a r c t i c a , Poa  a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a and S a l i x  p o l a r i s . Phleum L. (Timothy) Phleum alpinum L. var. commutatum (Gaud.) G r i s e b . (Alpine Timothy) Synonyms: Phleum commutatum Gandoger; P_j_ commutatum v a r . americanum (Fourn.) H u l t . C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 224, 245, 348, 498, 772, 983 Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n damp meadows, along open to shaded stream banks and l a k e s h o r e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Common. Oc c u r r i n g w i t h : Aeon itum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. delph i n i f o l i u m , A r a b i s drummondii, B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Carex  b i p a r t i t a , Draba b o r e a l i s , E p i l o b i u m a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , Equisetum  arvense, Festuca a l t a i c a , M e r t ensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , P e t a s i t e s n i v a l i s , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and S a l i x glauca var. a c u t i f o l i a . Poa L. (Blue Grass) Poa a l p i n a L. (Alp i n e Blue Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 358, 760, 773, 885, 906, 910, 986 224 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common along damp, open to p a r t l y shaded stream banks, meadows and open heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Common. O c c u r r i n g with: A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . b o r e a l i s , Aconitum  d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . gla n d u l o s a , B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , C a l a m a g r o s t i s canadensis subsp. canadensis v a r . canadensis, Draba b o r e a l i s , Equisetum arvense, Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . p a n i c u l a t a , P a r n a s s i a kotzebuei v a r . kot z e b u e i , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a and S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . Poa a r c t i c a R.Br, subsp. a r c t i c a ( A r c t i c Blue Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 223, 235, 236, 319, 350, 383, 398, 521, 588, 593, 648, 661, 717, 899. Ha b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common to abundant i n damp meadows, mossy lake s h o r e s , stream banks, open heathlands and rocky s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Common to abundant. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope tetragona v a r . tetragona, Draba b o r e a l i s , Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a , Festuca a l t a i c a , F. saximontana, Phleum alpinum v a r . commutatum, P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a and S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of Poa a r c t i c a s . l . should be regarded as t e n t a t i v e s i n c e v i r t u a l l y a l l of the c h a r a c t e r s employed i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g taxa of s u b s p e c i f i c rank o v e r l a p . In some cases, r e p r o d u c t i o n by asexual means (apomyxis and 225 v i v i p a r y ) and the occurrence of a n e u p l o i d and p o l y p l o i d s e r i e s , throughout the genus, obscure even s p e c i e s d i s t i n c t i o n s ( P o r s i l d and Cody, 1980; Welsh, 1974). Hulten (1941) suggests that at l e a s t three races of P_^  a r c t i c a s u r v i v e d the P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s where they developed i n t o m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t p o p u l a t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g the r e t r e a t of the g l a c i e r s , areas of these once i s o l a t e d p o p u l a t i o n s merged, r e s u l t i n g i n the p r o d u c t i o n of intermediate forms, thus r e n d e r i n g i t ". . . i m p o s s i b l e to draw any sharp l i n e s of demarcation between the d i f f e r e n t r a c e s " (Hulten, 1941). Welsh (1974) observes t h a t the high degree of v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n Poa  a r c t i c a s . l . appears to be independent of geographic o r h a b i t a t d i f f e r e n c e s . He f u r t h e r notes t h a t " . . .P^ a r c t i c a seems to share c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s not only with P^ a l p i n a and P_^  g l a u c a , but with P^ p r a t e n s i s as w e l l " (Welsh, 1974) and recommends t r e a t i n g the complex as a s i n g l e polymorphic e n t i t y . T y p i c a l m a t e r i a l from the study area, i d e n t i f i e d as P.  a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , i s glaucous with lower l e a f b l a d e s 1.0-2.2 mm wide. C o l l e c t i o n number 349, however, i s green with lower l e a f b l a des up to 3.2 mm wide. In a d d i t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n number 593 has predominantly green s p i k e l e t s and c o n t r a c t e d p a n i c l e s i n c o n t r a s t to the predominantly purple s p i k e l e t s and open p a n i c l e s observed on the o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n s . Poa a r c t i c a R.Br, subsp. l o n g i c u l m i s ( A r c t i c Blue Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 904, 908. H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common along damp, shaded 226 streambanks. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m , A r a b i s drummondii, Draba b o r e a l i s , Festuca a l t a i c a and S a l i x  g lauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a . A d d i t i o n a l notes: C o l l e c t i o n number 904 d e s c r i p t i o n of t y p i c a l a r c t i c a subsp. Hulten (1941) i n having b a s a l l e a v e s 2-3 f i 1 i f o rm. Poa glauca M.Vahl. (Glaucous Blue Grass) C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 715, 716 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse on steep boulder s l o p e s . O v e r a l l abundance: Rare. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : A r c t o s t a p h y l o s rubra, C y s t o p t e r i s f r a g i l i s and Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a . T risetum Pers. (Trisetum) Trisetum spicatum (L.) R i c h t e r var. spicatum (Spike Trisetum) Synonyms: Trisetum spicatum (L.) R i c h t e r subsp. spicatum C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 256, 522, 618, 1016 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Sparse to common on exposed, rocky s l o p e s ( o f t e n near p e r s i s t e n t snow) and open heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , C a l a m a g r o s t i s purpurascens subsp. purpurascens, Carex r o s s i i , Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum, Epilo b i u m l a t i f o l i u m d i f f e r s from the l o n g i c u l m i s given by mm broad r a t h e r than 227 subsp. l a t i f o l i u m , Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a , H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a subsp. a l p i n a , S a l i x glauca v a r . a c u t i f o l i a , S. p o l a r i s , S a x i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a and Vahlodea atropurpurea subsp. p a r m u s h i r e n s i s . Vahlodea E . F r i e s (Vahlodea) Vahlodea atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) E . F r i e s i n Hartm. subsp. paramushirensis (Kudo) H u l t . (Mountain Vahlodea) Synonyms: Deschampsia atropupurea (Wahlenb.) Scheele; D.  atropurpurea v a r . l a t i f o l i a (Hook.) S c r i b n . ex Macoun; Vahlodea  atropurpurea (Wahlenb.) E . F r i e s subsp. l a t i f o l i a (Hook.) Pors. C o l l e c t i o n numbers: 587, 1017 H a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n : Common i n meadows, along mossy l a k e s h o r e s and i n damp, open to p a r t l y shaded, heathlands. O v e r a l l abundance: Sparse. O c c u r r i n g w i t h : B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a v a r . g l a n d u l o s a , Cassiope  mertensiana v a r . mertensiana, Eriophorum vaginatum subsp. vaginatum, Kalmia m i c r o p h y l l a subsp. m i c r o p h y l l a , Poa a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a , S a l i x p o l a r i s and Trisetum spicatum v a r . spicatum. 228 CHAPTER 5 PHYTOGEOGRAPHY I n t r o d u c t i o n In the words of Hulten, "The g e o g r a p h i c a l areas of d i f f e r e n t b i o t a n a t u r a l l y e x h i b i t the most profuse d i v e r s i t y . P r a c t i c a l l y speaking the areas of two d i f f e r e n t forms hardly ever cover one another completely. D i f f e r e n t h i s t o r y , d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i c p r o p e r t i e s , causing d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s to the e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and other circumstances account f o r t h i s ample v a r i a t i o n which i s met with i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i v i n g t h i n g s . " "The v a r i a t i o n i s , however, by no means an i r r e g u l a r one; r a t h e r the c o n t r a r y . The g e o g r a p h i c a l areas of the b i o t a can be d i v i d e d up i n t o more or l e s s d i s t i n c t l y d e l i m i t e d groups, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and study of which w i l l d o u b t l e s s c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o our knowledge and conception of the o r i g i n and development of l i f e on e a r t h " (Hulten, 1937). The e l u c i d a t i o n of these groups, or phytogeographic elements, and the e x p l a n a t i o n of them i n terms of e c o l o g i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l causes are the p r i n c i p l e aims of phytogeography. E x t e n s i v e treatments of the su b j e c t are presented by Cain (1944), S t o t t (1981), Seddon (1971 (biogeography)) and Wulff (1943). A d i s c u s s i o n of the widespread geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of 229 i n d i v i d u a l taxa t r e a t e d i n a f l o r i s t i c or systematic work i s an important, y e t o f t e n omitted, component. When d e a l i n g with a l o c a l i z e d f l o r a , such an omission can e a s i l y obscure important h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the taxa under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Drawing upon the present study area f o r an example, a student of the f l o r a of e a s t e r n Canada might be i n c l i n e d to regard P y r o l a g r a n d i f l o r a as a lowland, temperate s p e c i e s s i n c e i t occurs i n the area around the G u l f of S t . Lawrence. Examination of i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the Northern Hemisphere, however, r e v e a l s that i t belongs to the circumpolar a r c t i c - a l p i n e phytogeographic element. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s and s e v e r a l other p l a n t s of s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s ( F e r n a l d , 1925; Given and Soper, 1981) has l e d to a more complete knowledge of the l i m i t s of the P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n s and where and how some p l a n t s were able to s u r v i v e i n response to the d r a s t i c changes brought about by these g l a c i a t i o n s . H i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s f i g u r e prominently i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s e x h i b i t e d by the f l o r a of the study area. Most notable of these were the widespread g l a c i a t i o n s that r e p e a t e d l y scoured much of the land s u r f a c e of the northern hemisphere throughout the P l e i s t o c e n e epoch. I t i s the aim of the present chapter to examine how the v a s c u l a r f l o r a of the study area responded to the l a s t major i c e advance i n North America (Wisconsin G l a c i a t i o n ) by examining probable r e f u g i a where elements of the f l o r a may have s u r v i v e d and c o r r e l a t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s e x h i b i t e d by i n d i v i d u a l components of the 230 f l o r a to these r e f u g i a . G l a c i a l Refugia Abundant evidence i n the form of c i r q u e s , kame-esker complexes, medial moraines, t i l l p l a i n s and high e l e v a t i o n g l a c i a l s c o u r i n g c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s that the study area was thoroughly inundated by the C o r d i l l e r a n i c e sheet. At i t s maximum ex t e n t , approximately 15,000 Y.B.P. ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Holland, 1976; Nasmith, 1980), the i c e had a t t a i n e d a t h i c k n e s s of up to 2100 m i n the C a s s i a r Mountains (Fenger, 1982). As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , d e g l a c i a t i o n of the area was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the r a p i d iri s i t u downwasting of i c e ( A l l e y , 1978; A l l e y and Young, 1978; Fenger, 1982) and was e s s e n t i a l l y complete by approximately 10,000 Y.B.P. ( A l l e y and Young, 1978; Rouse, p e r s . comm., 1986). The f l o r a now present i n the study area, t h e r e f o r e , has a r r i v e d from areas o u t s i d e the l i m i t s of Wisconsin i c e at some time w i t h i n the l a s t 15,000-10,000 y e a r s . These c e n t e r s of p o s t - g l a c i a l d i s p e r s a l are termed r e f u g i a (Cain, 1944). B e r i n g i a : The l e a s t d i s p u t e d P l e i s t o c e n e refugium f o r the circumpolar b i o t a i s B e r i n g i a . The term was o r i g i n a l l y c o i n e d by Hulten (1937) to r e f e r to the vast lowland p l a i n that p e r i o d i c a l l y j o i n e d northwestern North America and n o r t h e a s t e r n A s i a during the P l e i s t o c e n e epoch. In modern usage, the term B e r i n g i a i s g e n e r a l l y accepted as i n c l u d i n g u n g l a c i a t e d r e g i o n s of Canada 231 and Alaska (east B e r i n g i a ) , u n g l a c i a t e d regions of S i b e r i a e a s t of the Kolyma R i v e r (west S i b e r i a ) and the land bridge i t s e l f . Evidence f o r the past e x i s t e n c e of t h i s combination land-bridge-refugium began to accumulate i n the l a t e 1800's with the d i s c o v e r y of f o s s i l mammoth remains on Unalaska and P r i b i l o f I s l a n d s ( D a l l and H a r r i s , 1892). Soon a f t e r , George Mercer Dawson (1894) observed that the f l o o r s of the n o r t h e a s t e r n h a l f of the Bering Sea, the Bering S t r a i t and the Chukchi Sea represented a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the c o n t i n e n t a l p l a t e a u and, as such, were p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from the adjacent ocean b a s i n s . Furthermore, he noted the absence of evidence f o r widespread g l a c i a t i o n s both beneath these shallow seas and i n large areas of the Alaskan mainland. From t h i s he hypothesized that the area may have f u n c t i o n e d as an i c e - f r e e c o r r i d o r between North America and A s i a more than once i n the r e c e n t g e o l o g i c past (Dawson, 1894). Daly (1934) proposed that a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n sea l e v e l , brought about by the vast amount of water s t o r e d i n the c o n t i n e n t a l i c e sheets, was the most p l a u s i b l e mechanism to account f o r a t l e a s t the more rec e n t episodes of emergence of t h i s c o r r i d o r . The phytogeographic s i g n i f i c a n c e of the region was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d when Hulten (1937) observed the e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y l a r g e number of a r c t i c p l a n t s with ranges r a d i a t i n g from c e n t e r s i n t h i s v i c i n i t y of the Bering Sea. The occurrence of c l o s e l y a l l i e d p l a n t s p e c i e s on adjacent shores of two c o n t i n e n t a l land masses, i n i t s e l f , p r o v i d e s strong evidence t h a t these areas were j o i n e d at some time i n 232 recent g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y (Seddon, 1971). Hulten (1962) observes that the f l o r a s e a s t of the Lena R i v e r and west of the Mackenzie R i v e r are e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l . Yurtsev (1972) acknowledges that extreme n o r t h e a s t e r n A s i a and extreme northwestern North America share numerous s p e c i e s i n common, some of which are found nowhere e l s e . Nonetheless, he maintains t h a t the Bering S t r a i t c o n s t i t u t e s a boundary between two f l o r i s t i c p r o v i n c e s . Hulten (1973) r e j e c t s t h i s view s t a t i n g t h a t , although the f o r e s t s of S i b e r i a and America should be r e f e r r e d to separate f l o r i s t i c p r o v i n c e s , the once continuous broad, f o r e s t l e s s area s e p a r a t i n g them i s s u f f i c i e n t l y uniform i n f l o r i s t i c composition that d i v i d i n g i t i n t o d i s c r e t e f l o r i s t i c u n i t s i s u n j u s t i f i a b l e . E x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n the Bering Sea region has now e s t a b l i s h e d , beyond any reasonable doubt, that the area f u n c t i o n e d as an important b i o t i c refugium throughout the Quaternary p e r i o d . Furthermore, recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are y i e l d i n g a more p r e c i s e chronology of P l e i s t o c e n e events, such as the emergence of the land b r i d g e , and e n a b l i n g more r e f i n e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of B e r i n g i a n palaeoecology. The most r e c e n t episode of emergence of the Bering Land Bridge o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the Duvanny Yar i n t e r v a l (Hopkins, 1983 ). T h i s was the p e r i o d of l o c a l maximum Wisconsin g l a c i a t i o n , beginning approximately 30,000 years B.P. and ending approximately 13,000 years B.P. (Hopkins, 1973; Hopkins e t a l . , 1983). Sea l e v e l s d e c l i n e d to t h e i r lowest l e v e l (-90 to -100 m) by about 18,000 years B.P., exposing an e s s e n t i a l l y g l a c i e r - f r e e land bridge over 1000 km wide, no r t h to south, 233 between northwestern North America and n o r t h e a s t e r n A s i a (Hopkins, 1983; P o r t e r , 1983 ). By 14,000 years B.P. sea l e v e l s had r i s e n s u f f i c i e n t l y (-48 m) to sever land connections between c o n t i n e n t s f o r the most recent time. During the Duvanny Yar i n t e r v a l , f a c t o r s such as reduced ocean temperatures, seasonal i c e cover on the Bering Sea and i n t e r c e p t i o n of moisture-bearing c l o u d s by the g l a c i e r covered southern mountain c h a i n s r e s u l t e d i n a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n c e n t r a l and northern B e r i n g i a . Modern p r e c i p i t a t i o n v a l u e s of from 100 to 400 mm a n n u a l l y were probably reduced by h a l f (Hopkins, 1983). The dramatic changes in environment brought about by both reduced a i r temperatures and i n c r e a s e d a r i d i t y had a pronounced e f f e c t on the t e r r e s t r i a l ecosystems of B e r i n g i a . P a l a e o e c o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of B e r i n g i a throughout the Duvanny Yar i n t e r v a l have r e l i e d l a r g e l y upon p a l y n o l o g i c a l , e n t o m o l o g i c a l and mammalian m a c r o f o s s i l s t u d i e s . P l a n t m a c r o f o s s i l accumulations d a t i n g from t h i s time are sparse (Hopkins, 1983). According to Hopkins e t a l . (1981) P i c e a  glauca and P^ mariana probably became e x t i n c t i n B e r i n g i a about 30,000 years B.P. These authors provide evidence suggests that widely s c a t t e r e d p o p u l a t i o n s of two s p e c i e s of Populus and p o s s i b l y L a r i x and Alnus may have been the only a r b o r e a l taxa occupying B e r i n g i a throughout the maximum Wisconsin g l a c i a t i o n . P a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of Late Wisconsin sediments i n u n g l a c i a t e d Alaska and northwestern Canada e x h i b i t a much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of A r t e m i s i a and grass p o l l e n than that found i n the modern 234 p o l l e n r a i n (Matthews, 1979). Late Wisconsin i n s e c t faunas i n both e a s t e r n and western B e r i n g i a i n c l u d e d taxa t y p i c a l of modern tundra s i t e s as w e l l as an abundance of taxa that, today, are a s s o c i a t e d with open, dry g r a s s l a n d h a b i t a t s (Matthews, 1979, 1983; Hopkins, 1983). In a d d i t i o n , v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l s t u d i e s (Matthews, 1979, 1983) i n d i c a t e t hat B e r i n g i a supported a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y of g r a z i n g mammals during the Duvanny Yar i n t e r v a l than can p r e s e n t l y be found i n any tundra ecosystem. Among these were mammoth, b i s o n , horse, c a r i b o u , mountain sheep, saiga antelope and p o s s i b l y two s p e c i e s of musk ox. A l s o found among v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l s of t h i s time were remains of f e r r e t and badger, two s p e c i e s absent from any modern tundra r e g i o n (Matthews 1979, 1983 ) . C o l l e c t i v e l y , the evidence suggests that the Late Wisconsin environment of B e r i n g i a i s without a modern c o u n t e r p a r t , thus r e i n f o r c i n g the concept of the past e x i s t e n c e of a "tundra-steppe" biome (Giterman e t a l . , 1983) extending from northwestern Canada w e l l i n t o S i b e r i a . Although f o r e s t s were absent from B e r i n g i a during t h i s l a s t episode of emergence of the l a n d - b r i d g e , i t i s c e r t a i n that refuge was pro v i d e d f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of both tundra and g r a s s l a n d taxa. An e x t e n s i v e treatment of the Quaternary h i s t o r y of B e r i n g i a i s presented i n "The Bering Land Bridge" (D.M. Hopkins (ed.), 1967) and an e x c e l l e n t compendium of p a l a e o e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n B e r i n g i a i s pro v i d e d by Hopkins, Matthews, Schweger and Young (eds.) (1983) i n "Palaeoecology of B e r i n g i a " . 235 The C o r d i l l e r a n Region and the "Ice-Free C o r r i d o r " : P o r s i l d (1958) suggested that the r e l a t i v e l y high degree of b o t a n i c a l endemism i n the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a p r o v i d e d strong evidence f o r the e x i s t e n c e of l a r g e r e f u g i a l areas during P l e i s t o c e n e time. Recent g e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of Quaternary g l a c i a t i o n s i n western Canada, i n i t i a t e d by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e o l o g i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n Program p r o j e c t 24, have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y towards the v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h i s s uggestion. The C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet was a complex system of intermontane, piedmont and v a l l e y g l a c i e r s that c o a l e s c e d to form an i n t e g r a t e d i c e mass during one or more Wisconsin maxima (Pr e s t , 1984). The l a s t major episode of advance of t h i s system began approximately 25,000 years B.P., b r i n g i n g an end to a c l i m a t e s i m i l a r to t h a t of modern day ( F u l t o n , 1984). Expansion of the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet was under the i n f l u e n c e of both the c l i m a t i c regime of the n o r t h e a s t e r n P a c i f i c Ocean and the h i g h l y d i v e r s e topography over which i t spread (Clague, 1978). At i t s maximum ex t e n t , a t t a i n e d some time a f t e r 17,500 years B.P. ( F u l t o n e t a l . , 1984; F u l t o n e t a l . , 1986) i t i s thought to have covered a l l but the h i g h e s t peaks and r i d g e s of the n o r thern Rocky Mountains (Matthews, 1980). Sporadic nunataks may a l s o have e x i s t e d i n other mountain chains of the C o r d i l l e r a such as those a l l u d e d to by Hanson and McNaughton (1936) i n the C a s s i a r Mountains, but access to many areas i s d i f f i c u l t and much of the t e r r a i n i s u n s u i t e d to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of n o n - g l a c i a l sediments ( F u l t o n , 1984; P r e s t , 1976). D e t a i l s p e r t a i n i n g to the presence of p o t e n t i a l minor 236 r e f u g i a are, t h e r e f o r e , s c a n t . In c o n t r a s t to the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet, expansion of the Laurentide Ice sheet was governed by a i r masses o r i g i n a t i n g over the A r c t i c and A t l a n t i c Oceans and from the C o n t i n e n t a l United S t a t e s (Clague, 1978). Furthermore, the i n f l u e n c e of topography was s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i m i n i s h e d . In response to these d i f f e r e n t c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s , Laurentide Ice advanced to i t s maximum p o s i t i o n approximately 20,000 years B.P. (F u l t o n e t a l . , 1984; Fu l t o n e t a l . , 1986), some 2,500 years e a r l i e r than the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet. Between the western margin of the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet and the e a s t e r n margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet e x i s t e d a c o n t r o v e r s i a l area f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to as the "Ice-Free C o r r i d o r " . R u t t e r (1984) d e f i n e d t h i s zone as "... a b e l t of land that was l a r g e l y i c e - f r e e during maximum P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n s and that extended northward from about the Canada-United S t a t e s border, e a s t of the Rocky, Mackenzie and Richardson Mountains between C o r d i l l e r a n and Laurentide g l a c i e r s . " . Long suggested as a p o s s i b l e m i g r a t i o n route f o r e a r l y man from the Bering Sea re g i o n to the c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s (Morlan and Cinq-Mars, 1983), the area holds great s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r phytogeographers as w e l l . Such an area would have p r o v i d e d an important refugium and c e n t e r of p o s t - g l a c i a l d i s p e r s a l f o r p l a n t s . Recent e s t i m a t e s as to the exte n t of t h i s " i c e - f r e e c o r r i d o r " , proposed by R u t t e r (1984) i n d i c a t e an area roughly 80 km wide extending along the e a s t e r n s l o p e s of the Rocky 237 Mountains from the southern l i m i t s of Wisconsin i c e to, a t l e a s t , the Jasper-Hinton area. Northwards, the c o r r i d o r i s presumed to have been c l o s e d by l o c a l coalescence of the two i c e sheets to a p o i n t j u s t n o r t h of the j u n c t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia-Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s - N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s b o r d e r s . Beyond t h i s , a zone of l i m i t e d g l a c i e r a c t i v i t y approximately 150 km wide, i s thought to have e x i s t e d between the Mackenzie and Selwyn Mountains extending northwest to the u n g l a c i a t e d western s l o p e s of the Richardson Mountains (Rutter, 1984). T h i s p a r t i a l l y g l a c i a t e d r e g i o n l i e s w i t h i n 170 km of the presen t study area. In h i s c o n c l u d i n g remarks, R u t t e r (1984) s t a t e s t h a t , " . . . d u r i n g the e n t i r e Wisconsinan, although we know very l i t t l e about the e a r l y Wisconsinan, i c e - f r e e c o n d i t i o n s i n the area of the c o r r i d o r were the r u l e r a t h e r than the e x c e p t i o n . " P a l y n o l o g i c a l evidence p e r t a i n i n g to the palaeoecology of the " i c e - f r e e c o r r i d o r " i s examined by R i t c h i e (1980). The e a r l i e s t f o s s i l p o l l e n assemblages obtained from the southern p o r t i o n of the c o r r i d o r y i e l d e d radiocarbon dates of approximately 13,000 years B.P. These suggest a g e n e r a l l y f o r e s t e d landscape dominated by spruce, with p o p l a r preceding spruce a t some l o c a l i t i e s . At roughly the same time, the northern p o r t i o n of the c o r r i d o r i s d e p i c t e d as having been an e s s e n t i a l l y t r e e l e s s herb community with high p o l l e n f r e q u e n c i e s of g r a s s , sedge and A r t e m i s i a or grass, sedge and S a l i x . In the lower Mackenzie r e g i o n , t h i s community was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by one with high p o l l e n f r e q u e n c i e s of Be t u l a some time a f t e r 12,000 years B.P. ( R i t c h i e , 1980). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , data 238 a v a i l a b l e a t the time of p u b l i c a t i o n of R i t c h i e ' s a r t i c l e p e r mitted only a very g e n e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f u l l and l a t e - g l a c i a l environments i n t h i s important a r e a . S e v e r a l s i t e s m e r i t i n g f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n are d i s c u s s e d ( R i t c h i e , 1980). 239 South of the Wisconsin Ice Sheets: The most important g l a c i a l refugium f o r the b o r e a l f l o r a of Canada was undoubtedly the l a r g e area of North America that l a y south of the C o r d i l l e r a n and Laurentide Ice Sheets. Except f o r l o c a l u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g where these two i c e masses co a l e s c e d , the southern l i m i t s of Wisconsin advances are w e l l documented (Mickelson e t a l . , 1983; P o r t e r e t a l . , 1983; P r e s t , 1969, 1976; Rutter, 1985; S i b r a v a e t a l . , 1986; Waitt e t a l . , 19 83 ) . S t u d i e s of the type and d i s t r i b u t i o n s of r e l i c t u a l p e r i g l a c i a l phenomena (Pewe, 1973 ) have a s s i s t e d g r e a t l y i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p a l e o c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s south of the g l a c i a l boundary. In a d d i t i o n , the P l e i s t o c e n e v e g e t a t i o n a l h i s t o r y of t h i s important area i s becoming c l e a r e r as a r e s u l t of e x t e n s i v e p a l y n o l o g i c a l and m a c r o f o s s i l research ( B i r k s , 1976; Davis, 1976; Heusser, 1965, 1972, 1973, 1977; R i t c h i e , 1976; Wright, 1970, 1976 ). In c o n t r a s t to the tundra or p o l a r d e s e r t c o n d i t i o n s that c h a r a c t e r i z e d Europe, no r t h of the A l p s , a t the height of the Wiirm G l a c i a t i o n s , the s i t u a t i o n south of the Wisconsin Ice Sheets was c o n s i d e r a b l y more complex (Matthews, 1979). I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Late Wisconsin f o s s i l assemblages west of the Cascade Range i n Washington i n d i c a t e that a zone of t u n d r a - l i k e v e g e t a t i o n e x i s t e d along the C o r d i l l e r a n i c e f r o n t . West of the Cascades a s i m i l a r zone of i c e - m a r g i n a l tundra graded i n t o parkland and e v e n t u a l l y , c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t along a l a t i t u d i n a l 240 g r a d i e n t (Heussser, 1983). C o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t , s i m i l a r to that now occupying the r e g i o n , began to invade the parkland and tundra zones approximately 15,000-10,000 years B.P. (Heusser, 1977, 1983 ). R i t c h i e (1976) r e p o r t s that i n Late Wisconsin time the c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r of the c o n t i n e n t was occupied by a spruce f o r e s t extending from the ice-margin i n Manitoba, Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a south to Kansas and e a s t to the e a s t e r n Great Lakes r e g i o n . U n l i k e modern spruce f o r e s t s , however, s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s of herb p o l l e n i n d i c a t e t hat these Wisconsin f o r e s t s were more open, thus resembling parkland v e g e t a t i o n . The presence of deciduous t r e e s ; black ash, elm and oak, f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d them from modern b o r e a l f o r e s t s (Matthews, 1979). From c e n t r a l Minnesota e a s t to the New England s t a t e s there i s p l e n t i f u l evidence that a d i s c o n t i n u o u s zone of t u n d r a - l i k e v e g e t a t i o n occupied an area of v a r y i n g extent between the i c e - f r o n t and the spruce f o r e s t ( B i r k s , 1976; Given and Soper, 1981; Matthews, 1979; R i t c h i e , 1976; Scudder, 1979; Watts, 1983). T h i s zone, although p h y s i o g n o m i c a l l y s i m i l a r to modern tundra, was f l o r i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t i n that both p a l y n o l o g i c a l and m a c r o f o s s i l evidence i n d i c a t e the simultaneous occupation by a r c t i c , b o r e a l and sub-boreal taxa ( B i r k s , 1976; Given and Soper, 1981; Matthews, 1979; R i t c h i e , 1976; Watts, 1983). Thus, v e g e t a t i o n of the s o - c a l l e d "open refugium" ( L i n d r o t h , 1963) south of the g l a c i a l boundary, although without modern co u n t e r p a r t , harbored many taxa that now occupy b o r e a l and a r c t i c a r e a s . D e t a i l e d treatments of the southern Wisconsin g l a c i a l 241 l i m i t s are presented i n "Quaternary G l a c i a t i o n s i n the Northern Hemisphere" ( S i b r a v a , e t al.,1986). E x c e l l e n t summaries of Quaternary v e g e t a t i o n a l h i s t o r y south of the Wisconsin i c e sheets i n North America are presented by Heusser, 1983; Matthews, 1979; R i t c h i e , 1976; Watts, 1983 and Wright, 1981. 242 A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o : I t has long been t h e o r i z e d that p o r t i o n s of the A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o served as important r e f u g i a throughout P l e i s t o c e n e time ( F e r n a l d , 1925; Hulten, 1937; P o r s i l d , 1955). The d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s of many a r c t i c v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , the r e l a t i v e l y high degree of endemism (approximately 19% of the v a s c u l a r f l o r a ( P o r s i l d , 1955, 1958)) together with both b r y o l o g i c a l (Brassard, 1971; Schuster, 1959) and en t o m o l o g i c a l (Leech, 1966) evidence provide strong phytogeographic support f o r t h i s view. The extent to which these i s l a n d s l a y beyond the l i m i t s of Wisconsin i c e advances, however, i s a s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y . P r e s t (1969, 1976, 1983) i n d i c a t e s that a l a r g e p a r t of Banks I s l a n d remained u n g l a c i a t e d throughout the Wisconsin. An uncompressed peat d e p o s i t at Worth Po i n t (SW Banks Island) y i e l d e d a rad i o c a r b o n date of >49,000 years (GSC-367) (P r e s t , 1976). P o l l e n from t h i s peat i n d i c a t e s the past e x i s t e n c e of a f l o r a s i m i l a r t o that now occupying the area. In a d d i t i o n , P r e s t (1976) s t a t e s that some nunataks and p o r t i o n s of the e a s t e r n c o a s t a l lowlands on B a f f i n I s l a n d were free of g l a c i e r s during the l a s t g l a c i a l maximum. T h i s i s supported by the work of M i l l e r (1973). The remainder of the A r c h i p e l a g o , however, i s d e p i c t e d as having been thoroughly g l a c i a t e d a t some time during the Wisconsin i n t e r v a l ( P r e s t , 1969, 1976, 1983). In c o n t r a s t to t h i s view,' V i n c e n t (1984) s t a t e s , "Although l o c a l g l a c i e r s may have e x i s t e d on uplands of e a s t e r n and western M e l v i l l e I s l a n d and P r i n c e P a t r i c k I s l a n d , there i s no d i r e c t evidence 243 f o r complete Wisconsinan Stage i c e cover of the western Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s . G l a c i a l sediments are present i n these areas but are l i k e l y r e l a t e d to an e x t e n s i v e pre-Wisconsinan c o n t i n e n t a l g l a c i a t i o n . . . " . Furthermore, P r e s t (1984) acknowledges the work of England (1976, 1978a, 1978b) as i n d i c a t i n g a l e s s e x t e n s i v e Late Wisconsin i c e cover of the e a s t e r n A r c t i c I s l a n d s than p r e v i o u s l y supposed. A c c o r d i n g l y , more re c e n t Wisconsin g l a c i a l maps (P r e s t , 1983; R u t t e r , 1985) p o r t r a y both minimum and maximum proposed g l a c i a l l i m i t s . The nature of g l a c i a t i o n and the physiography of the i s l a n d s of the A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o d i f f e r g r e a t l y from one r e g i o n to another ( P r e s t , 1976). L i m i t e d f i e l d data have n e c e s s i t a t e d g e n e r a l i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the o v e r a l l extent of Wisconsin advances based on the e x t r a p o l a t i o n of e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I t now seems c e r t a i n t h a t l a r g e areas of the western A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o remained i c e - f r e e throughout the P l e i s t o c e n e (Vincent, 1984). I n c r e a s i n g evidence suggests t h a t p a r t s of the e a s t e r n A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o a l s o escaped at l e a s t Late Wisconsin g l a c i a t i o n s (England, 1976, 1978a, 1978b). C o n f i r m a t i o n or d i s m i s s a l of the e x i s t e n c e of a d d i t i o n a l Wisconsin r e f u g i a and the e x t e n t and s u i t a b i l i t y f o r the p e r s i s t e n c e of p l a n t s of those proposed, however, must await f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 2 4 4 C o a s t a l R e f u g i a : G e n e r a l i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the exte n t of Late Wisconsin g l a c i a t i o n s d e p i c t the west coa s t of B r i t i s h Columbia and southeastern Alaska as having been completely o v e r r i d d e n by the C o r d i l l e r a n g l a c i e r complex (Nasmith, 1970; P r e s t , 1969, 1976). A growing body of evidence, however, suggests t h i s may have been f a r from the case. Based l a r g e l y on p a l y n o l o g i c a l evidence, Heusser (1960) i d e n t i f i e d s i x areas of the North P a c i f i c as l i k e l y p l a n t r e f u g i a and c e n t e r s of post g l a c i a l d i s p e r s a l . These i n c l u d e d 1.) the Kenai P e n i n s u l a , 2.) P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound, 3.) the area from the mouth of the Copper R i v e r to Icy P o i n t , 4.) p o r t i o n s of the Alexander A r c h i p e l a g o , 5.) p o r t i o n s of the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and 6.) the h i g h e s t peaks of the north c e n t r a l p a r t of Vancouver I s l a n d . More rec e n t g e o l o g i c a l , b o t a n i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , lend support, with some m o d i f i c a t i o n s , to t h i s view. Ext e n s i v e study of the c o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet i n Alas k a , emphasizing the r e g i o n around the Copper R i v e r b a s i n and the Cook I n l e t - S u s i t n a lowland r e g i o n , was conducted by Hamilton and Thorson (1983). The authors support the pr o p o s a l of a Kodiak I s l a n d refugium put f o r t h by Karlstrom and B a l l (1969). In a d d i t i o n , t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that p a r t s of the western Kenai P e n i n s u l a and many s i t e s j u s t e a s t of the Talk e e t n a Mountains remained u n g l a c i a t e d throughout at l e a s t Late Wisconsin time. I t a l s o appears c e r t a i n t h a t the g l a c i a l i c e r e t r e a t e d beyond the head of Cook I n l e t by about 15,000 years B.P. (Hamilton and Thorson, 1983; P r e s t , 1984). Based on 245 evidence obtained from s e i s m i c r e f l e c t i o n p r o f i l e s , bottom morphology and sediment co r e s , Late Wisconsin g l a c i e r l i m i t s are presumed to have l a i n a t the edge of the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f throughout the remainder of the Gulf of A l a s k a . T h i s s u p p o s i t i o n i s s u b j e c t to f u t u r e m o d i f i c a t i o n , however, i n view of the complex r e g i o n a l dynamics of Late Wisconsin advances and r e c e s s i o n s (Hamilton and Thorson, 1983). F u r t h e r south, i n the Alexander A r c h i p e l a g o , the most ex t e n s i v e phase of g l a c i a t i o n i s r e p o r t e d to have taken plac e d u r i n g the Mid-Wisconsin i n t e r v a l (Swanston, 1969). At t h i s time, maximum i c e s u r f a c e s of up to 900 m were s u s t a i n e d i n the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the A r c h i p e l a g o . Fladmark (1975, 1979) maintains that t h i s would have been i n s u f f i c i e n t to r e s u l t i n a co a l e s c e d i c e mass on the out e r west c o a s t s and th a t headlands and r i d g e s on the western margins of Chichagof, Baranov and Pr i n c e of Wales I s l a n d s probably remained i c e - f r e e . These areas, he f e e l s , may have been s u f f i c i e n t to have p r o v i d e d the b i o t i c r e f u g i a proposed by Heusser (1960). A s u b s t a n t i a l body of b i o g e o g r a p h i c a l evidence i n d i c a t e s that the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s were a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y i c e - f r e e d u r i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e . Approximately 3.5% of the v a s c u l a r p l a n t taxa are endemic or near-endemic (Packer, 1971) and a number of mammals are c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t from t h e i r mainland c o u n t e r p a r t s (Heusser, 1960). According to C a l d e r and T a y l o r (1968), "The presence of p l a n t taxa that have widely d i s j u n c t p o p u l a t i o n s and the a n a l y s i s of d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s of the v a r i o u s taxa t h a t occur on the C h a r l o t t e s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t 246 there was a major b i o l o g i c a l refugium on the I s l a n d s during the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n " . T h i s view i s strengthened by S c h o f i e l d (1969) who has conc e n t r a t e d on the b r y o f l o r a of the a r c h i p e l a g o . Phytogeographic a f f i n i t i e s e x h i b i t e d by many of the I s l a n d s ' bryophytes i n d i c a t e t h a t they are p r e - P l e i s t o c e n e r e l i c t s ( S c h o f i e l d , 1969). In a d d i t i o n , some of these r e l i c t u a l bryophytes appear to be o b l i g a t e e p i p h y t e s . P r o v i d i n g t h e i r e c o l o g i c a l requirements have not a l t e r e d r a d i c a l l y i n a comparatively short p e r i o d of time, i t f o l l o w s that t h e i r hosts must a l s o have found refuge on the C h a r l o t t e s throughout the P l e i s t o c e n e ( S c h o f i e l d , p e r s . comm., 1987). A l s o of i n t e r e s t i s the suggestion put forward by Heusser (1960) that the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s may have been a c e n t e r of p o s t - g l a c i a l d i s p e r s a l f o r P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s and Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a based on the remarkably high d e n s i t y of these two t r e e s i n t h i s a r ea. The Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s were never ov e r r i d d e n by the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet. Rather, g l a c i e r s formed i n the i n s u l a r mountains of the a r c h i p e l a g o , extended out over lowland areas and abutted, at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , with mainland i c e (P r e s t , 1984). Brown and Nasmith (1962) and Brown (1968) c l a i m that as l i t t l e as 9 sq. km of the I s l a n d s ' land surface p r o j e c t e d above Wisconsin i c e . T h i s , however, would ha r d l y be s u f f i c i e n t to account f o r the refugium suggested p r e v i o u s l y . More rec e n t i n f o r m a t i o n gathered from both f i e l d s t u d i e s and radiocarbon d a t i n g suggests t h a t the Late Wisconsin i c e cover on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s was much l e s s e x t e n s i v e ( P r e s t , 1984). Heusser (1960) maintains that the physiography of the 247 a r c h i p e l a g o , t o g e t h e r with the great depth of the open P a c i f i c , would have prevented the formation of a c o a l e s c e d i c e sheet on the western si d e of Moresby and Graham I s l a n d s . T h i s , i n t u r n , would r e s u l t i n p o t e n t i a l r e f u g i a l s i t e s on s l o p e s between i c e - o c c u p i e d v a l l e y s . Perhaps of g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, i s the growing body of i n f o r m a t i o n regarding a p o s s i b l e refugium on the leeward si d e of the C h a r l o t t e s . Fladmark (1975a, 1975b, 1979) c i t e s s t r a t i g r a p h i c evidence i n d i c a t i n g t h at approximately 500 sq. km of n o r t h e a s t e r n Graham I s l a n d remained exposed during the l a s t r e c o g n i z a b l e Wisconsin i c e advance. A sample of wood from the uppermost t i l l south of t h i s proposed refugium y i e l d e d a f i n i t e r a d i o c a r b o n date of 32,000 years B.P. (Fladmark, 1975a, 1975b). Furthermore, r e l a t i v e sea l e v e l s of -20 to -33 m i n Hecate S t r a i g h t d u r i n g and immediately f o l l o w i n g the l a s t g l a c i a l episode c o u l d have t r i p l e d the area of t h i s proposed refugium, n e a r l y connecting Graham I s l a n d with i s l a n d s immediately a d j a c e n t to the mainland (Fladmark, 1979). In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l p l a n t refugium, such a s i t u a t i o n would g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the o r i g i n s of unique races of mammals that occupy, or have occupied, the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . Among these, R a n g i f e r dawsonii and Ursus americanus c a r l o t t a e are thought to have been of p r e - g l a c i a l or i n t e r g l a c i a l o r i g i n (McCabe and Cowan, 1945). Mountain peaks of n o r t h - c e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d were co n s i d e r e d by Heusser (1960) to have been the southernmost b i o t i c r e f u g i a w i t h i n the P l e i s t o c e n e i c e sheets. The occurrence of Marmota vancouverensis (Vancouver I s l a n d marmot) 248 and Lagopus l e u c u r u s subsp. s a x a t i l i s (Vancouver I s l a n d w h i t e - t a i l e d ptarmigan) on high a l p i n e s l o p e s of these mountains p r o v i d e d the p r i n c i p a l b i o l o g i c a l evidence i n support of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . Both of these taxa are s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n c t from t h e i r mainland r e l a t i v e s to have warranted s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t they s u r v i v e d i n i s o l a t i o n on the I s l a n d during the P l e i s t o c e n e (McCabe and Cowan, 1945). B o t a n i c a l evidence f o r the e x i s t e n c e of these proposed mountain r e f u g i a was p r o v i d e d by O g i l v i e and Ceska (1984). The authors r e p o r t e d on f o r t y - f o u r a l p i n e taxa of phytogeographic i n t e r e s t from c o l l e c t i o n s taken on seven northern Vancouver I s l a n d mountains. Among these, two were o r i g i n a l l y thought to be endemic to the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , two were p r e v i o u s l y regarded as Olympic P e n i n s u l a endemics, one r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t r e c o r d from North America and the remainder are mostly d i s j u n c t i v e taxa of circumpolar a r c t i c - a l p i n e , amphiberingian, n o r t h P a c i f i c c o a s t a l or C o r d i l l e r a n a f f i n i t y ( O g i l v i e and Ceska, 1984). S t u d i e s of the g l a c i a l h i s t o r y of Vancouver I s l a n d conducted by M u l l e r e t a l . (1974) and M u l l e r (1977) i n d i c a t e a t l e a s t s i x of these seven peaks protruded above P l e i s t o c e n e i c e and are c i t e d by O g i l v i e and Ceska (1984) as c o r r o b o r a t i v e evidence f o r the proposed r e f u g i a . In a d d i t i o n to the northern mountains, i t appears l i k e l y that p l a n t s p e r s i s t e d on the Brooks Penninsula during the P l e i s t o c e n e . The f l o r a of t h i s area i n c l u d e s s i x of the p r e v i o u s l y supposed Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d endemics as w e l l as taxa l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d to areas south of the Wisconsin maxima and numerous taxa e x h i b i t i n g widely d i s j u c t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s 249 P o j a r , 1981). In c o n t r a s t to the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , a r e l a t i v e l y e x t e n s i v e c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f extends from much of the west co a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d . Fladmark (1979) c i t e s sediment and bathymetric s t u d i e s conducted i n Barkley Sound and on the adjacent c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f by C a r t e r (1973) and T i f f i n (1976) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n to a f f e c t the area carved separate U-shaped v a l l e y s extending from the p r e s e n t c o a s t l i n e up to 35 km westward. T h i s i m p l i e s the advance of separate lobes of g l a c i a l i c e , r a t h e r than a c o a l e s c e d i c e sheet, out over the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f . Furthermore, Fladmark (1975b, 1979) p r e s e n t s evidence suggesting l o c a l sea l e v e l s of up to -130 m during and immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s g l a c i a l e p i s o d e . I f such was the case, e x t e n s i v e l o w - l y i n g areas would have been a v a i l a b l e f o r c o l o n i z a t i o n throughout t h i s time. The Brooks P e n i n s u l a i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l p l a c e d to have escaped g l a c i a t i o n i n t h a t i t extends w e l l west from an area where the a d j a c e n t mountains would have prevented the formation of a c o a l e s c e d i c e sheet (Pojar, 1981). D e t a i l e d examinations of p o t e n t i a l Wisconsin c o a s t a l r e f u g i a i n c l u d i n g p e r t i n e n t data on sea l e v e l f l u c t u a t i o n s are presented by Fladmark (1975a, 1975b, 1979, 1983). He advances the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t u n g l a c i a t e d areas along the west co a s t of North America were s u f f i c i e n t i n e x t e n t throughout much of Mid and Late Wisconsin time to have p r o v i d e d e a r l y human immigrants access to r e g i o n s south of the g l a c i a l maxima. T h i s route i s put forward as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to the widely d i s c u s s e d "Ice 250 Free C o r r i d o r " . L i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e s i n c e t h i s p r o p o s a l , c i t e d i n the preceding d i s c u s s i o n , strengthens Fladmarks 1 h y p o t h e s i s . Phytogeographic Elements of the G l a c i a l Mountain F l o r a The f l o r a of the study area i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o seven phytogeographic elements. In descending order of prominence, these a r e : Circumpolar A r c t i c - A l p i n e , Circumpolar B o r e a l , Amphiberingian, North American C o r d i l l e r a n , North American B o r e a l , Western North American and North American A r c t i c - A l p i n e . Complete l i s t s of taxa from the study area a s s i g n e d to each element are p r o v i d e d i n Appendix I. S e l e c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n maps i l l u s t r a t i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c range of each element are presented i n Appendix I I . Information p e r t a i n i n g to the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of taxa from the study area was obtained from: Argus (1973), Hulten (1937, 1958, 1962, 1968, 1971, 1973, 1976), L i t t l e (1971), Meusel e t a l . (1965, 1978), M u l l i g a n (1970, 1974a, 1974b), P a v l i c k (1984), P a v l i c k and Looman (1984), P o r s i l d (1957), P o r s i l d and Cody (1980), Raup (1947), S c h o f i e l d (1969), S c o t t (1974) and S t r a l e y (1980). The degree of c o n t i n u i t y of d i s t r i b u t i o n of a given p l a n t i s dependant upon i t s e c o l o g i c a l t o l e r a n c e s , i t s d i s p e r s a b i l i t y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u i t a b l e h a b i t a t s and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s ( i . e . g l a c i a t i o n s ) . The manner i n which these v a r i a b l e s i n t e r a c t i s unique to each taxon, consequently, some taxa are n e a r l y u b i q u i t o u s throughout t h e i r ranges ( i . e . Equisetum  arvense), while o t h e r s e x h i b i t g r e a t l y fragmented d i s t r i b u t i o n s 251 ( i e . S t e l l a r i a u m b e l l a t a ) . Circumpolar A r c t i c - A l p i n e Element: The Circumpolar A r c t i c - A l p i n e element i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d north of the t r e e - l i n e , extending i n t o b o r e a l regions p r i m a r i l y along mountain ranges. Members of t h i s group o c c a s i o n a l l y occur in b o r e a l f o r e s t r e g i o n s along streambanks emanating from mountains as w e l l as i n bogs and on c l i f f s and headlands ( S c h o f i e l d , 1969). The g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n of taxa from the study area (28.8%) belong to t h i s group. T h i s group i s presumed to have s u r v i v e d g l a c i a t i o n s over a p a r t i c u l a r l y wide f r o n t . Of the i n d i v i d u a l components of t h i s element represented i n the study area, a l l are present on e i t h e r side of the Bering S t r a i t , thus, underscoring the importance of B e r i n g i a as a r e f u g i a l s i t e f o r t h i s group. In a l l l i k e l i h o o d , most taxa belonging to t h i s element were s u f f i c i e n t l y hardy to have p e r s i s t e d i n a l l a v a i l a b l e northern r e f u g i a i n c l u d i n g northwestern Canada, the A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o and numerous s i t e s throughout E u r a s i a . An important subset of t h i s element c o n s i s t s of those taxa with d i s j u n c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s w e l l south of t h e i r p r i n c i p l e range in e a s t e r n North America. F e r n a l d (1925) f i r s t drew a t t e n t i o n to t h i s conspicuous group. I t was o r i g i n a l l y supposed that these southern o u t l i e r s of the A r c t i c - A l p i n e element s u r v i v e d c o n t i n e n t a l g l a c i a t i o n s on nunataks ( F e r n a l d , 1925) and that the i n t e r v e n i n g p o r t i o n of t h e i r p r e v i o u s l y continuous range was e l i m i n a t e d by the advancing i c e sheets. Evidence of e x t e n s i v e 252 g l a c i a t i o n s i n the r e g i o n where these taxa are presumed to have p e r s i s t e d , however, has r e s u l t e d i n strong o b j e c t i o n to t h i s h y p o t h e s i s (Given and Soper, 1981). A l t e r n a t e l y , these taxa may have migrated p o s t - g l a c i a l l y from r e f u g i a n o r t h of the i c e f r o n t and p e r s i s t e d i n e d a p h i c a l l y s u i t a b l e s i t e s or they may r e p r e s e n t r e l i c t u a l p o p u l a t i o n s of a more e x t e n s i v e p r e - P l e i s t o c e n e range t h a t escaped g l a c i a t i o n along the southern margins of the L a u r e n t i d e Ice Sheet (Given and Soper, 1981). The d i s c o n t i n u o u s " t u n d r a - l i k e " zone that e x i s t e d south of Wisconsin i c e has been d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . P o r s i l d (1958) i m p l i e d that a r c t i c - a l p i n e taxa may have migrated south i n advance of the expanding i c e - s h e e t s , n o t i n g the g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t y of t h i s o c c u r r i n g i n North America, where the p r i n c i p a l mountain ranges are o r i e n t e d n o r t h to south, than i n Europe, where the east-west o r i e n t e d mountain ranges would have ba r r e d such m i g r a t i o n s . Hulten (1937) ob j e c t e d to t h i s view, as advanced by p r e v i o u s authors, on the b a s i s that he d i d not b e l i e v e p l a n t s c o u l d migrate f a s t enough. Furthermore, he c i t e d the presence of f o r e s t communities at the f o o t of advancing g l a c i e r s i n Alaska and the o f t e n l u x u r i a n t v e g e t a t i o n a d j a c e n t to the c o n t i n e n t a l i c e cap of Greenland as examples d i s p r o v i n g t h i s p r o p o s a l . C o n d i t i o n s i n the i n t e r i o r of North America dur i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e i c e advances, however, c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d comparable to Hulten's examples. As Hulten h i m s e l f p o i n t s out, the v e g e t a t i o n a d j a c e n t to the Greenland i c e cap has, on i t s opposite f l a n k , the a m e l i o r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e of the ocean. In a d d i t i o n , advancing g l a c i e r s i n Alaska c o u l d not 253 be assumed to have had the f a r reaching c l i m a t i c a f f e c t that an event of the magnitude of an advancing c o n t i n e n t a l i c e sheet would have. According to Matthews (1979), v e g e t a t i o n was a l t e r e d thousands of k i l o m e t e r s south of the Late Wisconsin i c e margin. With regards to whether or not p l a n t s would have been capable of m i g r a t i n g a t a s u f f i c i e n t r a t e to "keep ahead" of the advancing i c e , Hopkins (1973) p o i n t s out that the r a t e of a l l Wisconsin advances was c o n s i d e r a b l y slower than the r e t r e a t s and there appears to be no o b j e c t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e to the pro p o s a l t h a t the ground l e f t bare by r e t r e a t i n g i c e sheets was r a p i d l y c o l o n i z e d . I t seems p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t at l e a s t some p l a n t s of northern d i s t r i b u t i o n may have been able to extend t h e i r ranges southward i n advance of the g l a c i e r s and now p e r s i s t i n e c o l o g i c a l l y s u i t a b l e s i t e s . One other p o s s i b i l i t y worth c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t l a r g e areas of c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f , exposed when sea l e v e l s were depressed, opened up p o t e n t i a l m i g r a t i o n r o u t e s f o r northern taxa. 254 Circumpolar B o r e a l Element: Many of the taxa a s s i g n e d to t h i s element occur i n a r c t i c and a l p i n e r e g i o n s . However, the p r i n c i p a l component of t h e i r ranges i s south of the t r e e - l i n e where they are widely d i s t r i b u t e d throughout North America and E u r a s i a . Approximately 17.5% of the taxa from the study area belong to t h i s group. Most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h i s element (eg. Carex r o s t r a t a ) have d i s j u n c t p o p u l a t i o n s south of the b o r e a l f o r e s t zone i n Japan, c e n t r a l China and Southeast A s i a . These d i s j u n c t p o p u l a t i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d to be remnants of formerly continuous d i s t r i b u t i o n s , d i s r u p t e d by Quaternary g l a c i a t i o n s (Lausi and Nimis, 1985). In a d d i t o n , t h i s group i s v i r t u a l l y absent from the A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o . These two p o i n t s suggest that most of the p l a n t s belonging to t h i s element s u r v i v e d g l a c i a t i o n s south of the c o n t i n e n t a l i c e margins, extending northwards p o s t - g l a c i a l l y . Some may have p e r s i s t e d a l s o i n B e r i n g i a and perhaps i n c o a s t a l r e f u g i a but these were c e r t a i n l y of secondary importance. 255 A m p h i b e r i n g i a n E l e m e n t : Taxa i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h i s e l e m e n t e x h i b i t a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l a r e a s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e B e r i n g S t r a i t . Some, s u c h a s A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a s u b s p . a r c t i c a have r a n g e s e x t e n d i n g w e l l i n t o n o r t h w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a on t h e e a s t and e a s t e r n A s i a on t h e west, w h i l e o t h e r s , s u c h a s A r n i c a l e s s i n g i i s u b s p . l e s s i n g i i have c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r r a n g e s . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t o f v a s c u l a r p l a n t t a x a w i t h r a n g e s r a d i a t i n g from t h e B e r i n g Sea r e g i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n H u l t e n ' s c l a s s i c work, " O u t l i n e o f t h e H i s t o r y o f A r c t i c and B o r e a l B i o t a d u r i n g the Q u a r t e r n a r y P e r i o d " ( H u l t e n , 1 9 3 7 ) . T h i s g r o u p a c c o u n t s f o r 15.9% o f the t a x a o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . U n d o u b t e d l y , t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e f u g i u m f o r t a x a o f t h i s e l e m e n t was B e r i n g i a . F o l l o w i n g g l a c i a t i o n s , t h e y were a b l e t o e x t e n d t h e i r r a n g e s , i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , westwards i n t o S i b e r i a and e a s t w a r d s i n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a . In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t a x a w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t c o a s t a l component t o t h e i r r a n g e s , s u c h a s C a r e x  m a c r o c h a e t a , C. s p e c t a b i l i s and A n g e l i c a l u c i d a , were a b l e t o p e r s i s t i n u n g l a c i a t e d c o a s t a l r e f u g i a a s w e l l . Some may e v e n have been a b s e n t from B e r i n g i a d u r i n g the W i s c o n s i n maxima, m i g r a t i n g n o r t h w a r d s f o l l o w i n g the g l a c i a l r e t r e a t s . 256 North American C o r d i l l e r a n Element: The North American C o r d i l l e r a n element c o n s i s t s of those taxa t h a t occur p r i m a r i l y or e x c l u s i v e l y on the north-south tending mountain c h a i n s of western North America. T h i s group c o n s t i t u t e s 12.9% of the f l o r a of the study area. The i n d i v i d u a l components of t h i s element must have p e r s i s t e d i n u n g l a c i a t e d p o r t i o n s of the C o r d i l l e r a south of Wisconsin i c e , the u n g l a c i a t e d western s l o p e s of the Richardson Mountains and p o r t i o n s of the "Ice-Free C o r r i d o r " . In a d d i t i o n , i s o l a t e d nunataks w i t h i n the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet may have served as minor r e f u g i a . D i s t r i b u t i o n maps pro v i d e d by M u l l i g a n (1975) and P o r s i l d and Cody (1980) i n d i c a t e a conspicuous north-south d i s j u n c t i o n i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of both Draba a l b e r t i n a and p_^ sten o l o b a . C o l l e c t i o n s from the study area r e p r e s e n t an intermediate l o c a l i t y . One member of the C o r d i l l e r a n element, A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a , has a d i s j u n c t p o p u l a t i o n i n e a s t e r n North America. T h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s presumed to be a fragment of a once continuous or n e a r l y continuous d i s t r i b u t i o n south of the g l a c i a l boundary. 257 North American B o r e a l Element: P l a n t s a s s i g n e d to t h i s element are those with the major component of t h e i r ranges w i t h i n b o r e a l r e g i o n s of North America. The m a j o r i t y of t h i s group i s r e s t r i c t e d to North America but some, such as Betula g l a n d u l o s a var. g l a n d u l o s a and Ledum groenlandicum, reach Greenland while o t h e r s , such as Cornus canadensis and Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanun, occur i n c o a s t a l areas of e a s t e r n A s i a . A l s o w i t h i n t h i s group are taxa with marked e a s t e r n North America-western North America d i s j u n c t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n s (eg. Geum macrophyllum subsp. macrophyllum). The North American B o r e a l element c o n s t i t u e s 10.8% of the f l o r a of the study area. T h i s group i s thought to have s u r v i v e d g l a c i a t i o n i n the e x t e n s i v e " b o r e a l - l i k e " zone south of the c o n t i n e n t a l i c e sheets, m i g r a t i n g northwards f o l l o w i n g d e g l a c i a t i o n . Hopkins e t a l . (1981) d i s c u s s p a l y n o l o g i c a l evidence i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the most probable d i s p e r s a l route taken by many f o r e s t s p e c i e s (most notably P i c e a glauca) that reinvaded e a s t e r n B e r i n g i a p o s t - g l a c i a l l y was along the "Ice-Free C o r r i d o r " . The v i r t u a l absence of t h i s element from western B e r i n g i a i m p l i e s that past land-bridge h a b i t a t s were u n s u i t a b l e . Those taxa with r e s t r i c t e d p o p u l a t i o n s i n e a s t e r n A s i a probably had much more e x t e n s i v e p r e - P l e i s t o c e n e ranges. 258 Western North American Element: Many of the taxa a s s i g n e d to t h i s element have a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of t h e i r ranges i n the C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n . U n l i k e the C o r d i l l e r a n element, however, taxa belonging to the Western North American element a l s o have a s i g n i f i c a n t c o a s t a l , and/or i n t e r i o r component to t h e i r ranges. For example, Anemone  n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r and Carex microchaeta subsp. microchaeta are e s s e n t i a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to Ala s k a and Northern B r i t i s h Columbia, A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i subsp. u n a l a s c h c e n s i s i s shown only i n southwestern Alaska (Hulten, 1968) while Carex  r o s s i i extends w e l l i n t o the i n t e r i o r of northern North America. T h i s group r e p r e s e n t s 8.3% of the t o t a l f l o r a of the study area. The absence of t h i s group from western B e r i n g i a i n d i c a t e s that land-bridge h a b i t a t s were u n s u i t a b l e during maximum Wisconsin g l a c i a t i o n s . Those taxa with a strong c o a s t a l a f f i n i t y were probably a f f o r d e d refuge i n c o a s t a l areas south of B e r i n g i a , m i g r a t i n g northwards f o l l o w i n g the r e t r e a t of the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet. Those taxa with a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r i o r d i s t r i b u t i o n may have s u r v i v e d g l a c i a t i o n s i n u n g l a c i a t e d r e g i o n s of the Yukon and Northwest t e r r i t o r i e s , p o r t i o n s of the "Ice-Free C o r r i d o r " and/or south of the Wisconsin maxima. 259 N o r t h A m e r i c a n A r c t i c - A l p i n e E l e m e n t : T h i s e l e m e n t i s w i d e s p r e a d n o r t h o f t h e t r e e - l i n e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d e x t e n d s s o u t h i n t o t h e b o r e a l z o n e p r i m a r i l y a l o n g m o u n t a i n c h a i n s . A s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e C i r c u m p o l a r A r c t i c - A l p i n e e l e m e n t , m e m b e r s o f t h i s g r o u p o c c u r i n b o r e a l f o r e s t r e g i o n s a l o n g s t r e a m b a n k s e m a n a t i n g f r o m m o u n t a i n s , i n b o g s a n d o n c l i f f s a n d h e a d l a n d s . A c c o u n t i n g f o r o n l y 5 .8% o f t h e f l o r a f r o m t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h i s i s t h e s m a l l e s t p h y t o g e o g r a p h i c e l e m e n t r e p r e s e n t e d . P l a n t s a s s i g n e d t o t h i s e l e m e n t p r o b a b l y p e r s i s t e d i n u n g l a c i a t e d a r e a s o f A l a s k a a n d n o r t h w e s t e r n C a n a d a a s w e l l a s i n r e f u g i a i n t h e A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o . T h o s e t a x a w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s i n S i b e r i a ( e g . A n e m o n e r i c h a r d s o n i i a n d C e r a s t i u m  b e e r i n g i a n u m s u b s p . b e e r i n g i a n u m ) w e r e p r o b a b l y a b l e t o p e r s i s t i n r e f u g i a l s i t e s i n n o r t h e r n B e r i n g i a a s w e l l . T w o m e m b e r s o f t h i s e l e m e n t , D r y a s i n t e g r i f o l i a s u b s p . i n t e g r i f o l i a a n d S a x i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a , a r e w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n G r e e n l a n d a n d h a v e d i s j u n c t p o p u l a t i o n s i n e a s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s d i s j u n c t i o n a r e t h e s a m e a s t h o s e p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e s i m i l a r d i s j u n c t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n s p a t t e r n e x h i b i t e d b y c e r t a i n m e m b e r s o f t h e C i r c u m p o l a r A r c t i c - A l p i n e e l e m e n t . 260 Summary: Examination of d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s e x h i b i t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l components of the study area f l o r a suggests that most taxa migrated p o s t - g l a c i a l l y from r e f u g i a i n e a s t e r n B e r i n g i a , south of the g l a c i a l boundary and s e c t i o n s of the "Ice-Free C o r r i d o r " . In a d d i t i o n , a s m a l l component of the f l o r a appears to have o r i g i n a t e d from r e f u g i a i n the A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o . I s o l a t e d C o r d i l l e r a n nunataks and c o a s t a l r e f u g i a may have c o n t r i b u t e d to the f l o r a of the study area but the r o l e of these was undoubtedly minor. 261 CONCLUSIONS B o t a n i c a l c o l l e c t i n g i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia has been c a r r i e d out p r i m a r i l y along the few roadways p e n e t r a t i n g t h i s vast w i l d e r n e s s . A few short h e l i c o p t e r and f l o a t plane f o r a y s i n t o remote r e g i o n s (eg. Welsh and Rigby, 1971) have a l s o been conducted but the success of these i s u l t i m a t e l y dependant upon c a p r i c e s of weather and t i m i n g . P r i o r to t h i s study, the re s e a r c h of B u t t r i c k (1977, 1978) represented the only e x t e n s i v e b o t a n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a comparatively s m a l l g e o g r a p h i c a l area c a r r i e d out over the e n t i r e growing season i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia. E x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s of t h i s nature allow the i n v e s t i g a t o r time to observe and c o l l e c t a much wider range of morphotypes than i s p o s s i b l e any other way. S i m i l a r l y , o f t e n overlooked s p e c i e s such as Koenigia i s l a n d i c a and S e l a g i n e l l a s e l a g i n o i d e s are l e s s l i k e l y to be missed. In a d d i t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t i o n on an area of l i m i t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l extent a l l o w s an o p p o r t u n i t y to become f a m i l i a r with the d i v e r s i t y of h a b i t a t s a given taxon i s able to occupy and observe what e f f e c t s , i f any, d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t s may produce on the morphology of t h a t taxon. Over 1000 v a s c u l a r p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d from the study area. A t o t a l of 239 taxa were reco g n i z e d r e p r e s e n t i n g 116 genera and 44 f a m i l i e s . Taxonomic keys to the l o c a l f l o r a were c o n s t r u c t e d based p r i m a r i l y on these c o l l e c t i o n s , thus e l i m i n a t i n g some of the a m b i g u i t i e s 262 unavoidable i n r e g i o n a l f l o r a s . The annotated s p e c i e s l i s t p r o v i d e s h a b i t a t i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as a b r i e f l i s t of a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s . In a d d i t i o n , taxa from the study area posing p a r t i c u l a r taxonomic problems are d i s c u s s e d . I d e a l l y , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the work of fut u r e r e s e a r c h e r s conducting s i m i l a r s t u d i e s . Among the 239 taxa recongized, 31 (approximately 13%) are l i s t e d as rare i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( S t r a l e y e t a l . 1985). A complete l i s t of these, the category of r a r i t y to which they are assigned and t h e i r r e l a t i v e abundance i n the study area i s prov i d e d i n Appendix I I I . Most of the taxa appearing on t h i s l i s t are p o o r l y represented i n the major h e r b a r i a of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC and V ) . An increase i n b o t a n i c a l f i e l d work i n a l p i n e and sub-alpine environments of northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia would help to e s t a b l i s h whether these taxa are t r u l y rare or, i n some i n s t a n c e s , only r a r e l y c o l l e c t e d . The p a u c i t y of c o l l e c t i o n s from a l p i n e and sub-alpine r e g i o n s of northern B r i t i s h Columbia i s r e f l e c t e d i n dot d i s t r i b u t i o n maps such as those p r o v i d e d by P o r s i l d and Cody (1980). Examination of these maps appears to i n d i c a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l gaps i n the v i c i n i t y of the study area f o r many taxa c o l l e c t e d there (eg. Draba a l b e r t i n a and p_. stenoloba ). Examination of i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s suggests t h a t p o s t - g l a c i a l m i g r a t i o n of taxa to the study area o c c u r r e d p r i m a r i l y from u n g l a c i a t e d areas of northwestern Canada and A l a s k a , south of the g l a c i a l boundary and from p o r t i o n s of the "Ice-Free C o r r i d o r " . Revegetation of the study area 263 f o l l o w i n g d e g l a c i a t i o n appears to have been g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by the physiography of North America. Summits of mountains i n the north-south tending ranges of the western C o r d i l l e r a were appa r e n t l y f r e e of i c e long before v a l l e y g l a c i e r s waned (Fenger, 1982), thus, opening a l p i n e r e g i o n s f o r r e c o l o n i z a t i o n from r e f u g i a l o c a t e d both n o r t h and south of the study area. Furthermore, between the C o r d i l l e r a n and Laurentide Ice Sheets there e x i s t e d an e x t e n s i v e , though not always continuous, i c e - f r e e route (Rutter, 1984) along which many taxa of b o r e a l a f f i n i t y appear to have migrated from south of the g l a c i a l boundary (Hopkins e t a l . , 1981). A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of phytogeograhic aspects concerning the f l o r a under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e value i n a s s e s s i n g taxonomic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Many taxa now o c c u r r i n g i n the study area appear to have s u r v i v e d P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n s i n a number of i s o l a t e d r e f u g i a . Once continuous ranges, t h e r e f o r e , were fragmented i n t o s e v e r a l remote p o p u l a t i o n s . Such a s i t u a t i o n i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to taxonomists. During i s o l a t i o n these remote p o p u l a t i o n s were bound to develop m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t forms. F o l l o w i n g the removal of b a r r i e r s once s e p a r a t i n g them ( i . e . r e t r e a t of the g l a c i e r s ) , these d i v e r g e n t p o p u l a t i o n s were able to merge once again, producing a number of intermediate forms. Hulten (1941) invoked such an e x p l a n a t i o n to account f o r the b e w i l d e r i n g v a r i a b i l i t y encountered w i t h i n Poa a r c t i c a s . l . . The mountains of northern B r i t i s h Columbia provide an unequalled o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p l o r e t h i s phenomenon, s i t u a t e d as they are, roughly e q u i d i s t a n t from a number of major 264 P l e i s t o c e n e r e f u g i a . An important f e a t u r e of the study area i s that i t remains v i r t u a l l y u n d i s t u r b e d by man's a c t i v i t i e s . At the time of p u b l i c a t i o n of "Vascular P l a n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia:A d e s c r i p t i v e resource i n v e n t o r y " ( T a y l o r and MacBryde,1977) an estimated 21.1% of the t o t a l f l o r a of B r i t i s h Columbia was con s i d e r e d to have been i n t r o d u c e d . In c o n t r a s t , none of the taxa found i n the study area c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to anthropogenic i n t r o d u c t i o n . The g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r p l a n t i n t r o d u c t i o n i s with the horses that c a r r y hunters, fishermen and guides i n t o the area from mid-summer on i n t o autumn. These horses, however, feed on indigenous g r a s s e s , as the expense i n v o l v e d i n t r a n s p o r t i n g e x o t i c f o o d s t u f f s f o r l i v e s t o c k t h i s f a r n o r t h i s p r o h i b i t i v e . 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Circumpolar A r c t i c - A l p i n e P l a n t s A r c t o s t a p h y l o s rubra A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s subsp. a l p i n u s B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a subsp. b e l l i d i f o l i a v a r . b e l l i d i f o l i a  Carex b i g e l o w i i  Carex b i p a r t i t a Carex brunnescens subsp. alaskana Carex c a p i l l a r i s subsp. c a p i l l a r i s Carex media subsp. media Carex s a x a t i l i s subsp. laxa Cassiope tetragona var. tetragona Chrysosplenium tetrandrum C y s t o p t e r i s montana Draba f l a d n i z e n s i s Draba l a c t e a Draba n i v a l i s D r y o p t e r i s f r a g r a n s Epilobium a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m subsp. l a t i f o l i u m Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s 282 Eriophorum angustifolium subsp. t r i s t e Eriophorum brachyantherum Eriophorum c a l l i t r i x Eriophorum scheuchzeri Festuca brachyphylla Festuca vivipara Hierochloe alpina subsp. alpina Huperz ia selago var. selago Juncus arct i c u s subsp. alaskanus Juncus biglumis Juncus castaneus subsp. castaneus  Juncus triglumis  Kobresia myosuroides  Koenigia is l a n d i c a  Luzula confusa Luzula p a r v i f l o r a subsp. p a r v i f l o r a Luzula spicata Lycopodium alpinum Myosotis a s i a t i c a Oxyria digyna Pedicularis capitata Pedicularis l a n g s d o r f i i subsp. a r c t i c a  Pedicularis v e r t i c i l l a t a  Phleum alpinum var. commutatum Poa alpina Poa a r c t i c a Poa glauca 283 P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a  P y r o l a g r a n d i f l o r a Ranunculus hyperboreus subsp. hyperboreus  Ranunculus pygmaeus Ranunculus s u l p h u r e u s v a r . s u l p h u r e u s  Rumex a c e t o s a subsp. a r i f o l i u s  S a g i n a i n t e r m e d i a  S a l i x a r c t i c a S a l i x g l a u c a v a r . a c u t i f o l i a S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a subsp. r e t i c u l a t a S a x i f r a g a c a e s p i t o s a subsp. s i l e n e f l o r a S a x i f r a g a n i v a l i s S a x i f r a g a o p p o s i t i f o l i a S i b b a l d i a procumbens S i l e n e a c a u l i s subsp. a c a u l i s S i l e n e u r a l e n s i s subsp. a t t e n u a t a S t e l l a r i a u m b e l l a t a T h a l i c t r u m a l p i n u m v a r . a l p i n u m T o f i e l d i a p u s i l l a Vahlodea a t r o p u r p u r e a s . l . Woodsia a l p i n a 284 b. Circumpolar Boreal P l a n t s Adoxa m o s c h a t e l l i n a Alopecurus a e q u a l i s subsp. a e q u a l i s  Andromeda p o l i f o l i a subsp. p o l i f o l i a  Botrychium l u n a r i a subsp. l u n a r i a  C a lamagrostis s t r i c t a var. s t r i c t a  Carex a q u a t i l i s v a r . a q u a t i l i s  Carex canescens subsp. a r c t a e f o r m i s  Carex canescens subsp. cane scens  Carex d i o i c a subsp. gynocrates  Carex heleonastes subsp. heleonastes  Carex r o s t r a t a  C y s t o p t e r i s f r a g i l i s Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum  Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l i u m subsp. a n g u s t i f o l i u m  Equisetum arvense Equiseturn s y l v a t i c u m v a r . s y l v a t i c u m  Eriophorum vaginatum subsp. vaginatum  Galium boreale Gymnocarpium d r y o p t e r i s v a r . disjunctum J u n i p e r u s communis subsp. a l p i n a  Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens  L l o y d i a s e r o t i n a subsp. s e r o t i n a Luzula m u l t i f l o r a subsp. m u l t i f l o r a v a r . f r i g i d a  Lycopodium annotinum subsp. annotinum  Lycopodium clavatum 285 Lycopodium complanatum  Lysimachia t h y r s i f l o r a  Moneses u n i f l o r a v a r . u n i f l o r a  O r t h i l i a secunda subsp. secunda  P e d i c u l a r i s l a b r a d o r i c a  P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s P o t e n t i l l a f r u t i c o s a subsp. f l o r i b u n d a  P y r o l a a s a r i f o l i a var. purpurea  P y r o l a minor Ranunculus a q u a t i l i s s . l . Rubus chamaemorus S e l a g i n e l l a s e l a g i n o i d e s S t e l l a r i a c a l y c a n t h a v a r . c a l y c a n t h a Trisetum spicatum var. spicatum Vaccinium microcarpum Vacc in ium u l i g inosum subsp. a l p inum Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a subsp. minus 286 c. Amphiberingian P l a n t s Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m subsp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m A n g e l i c a l u c i d a Antennaria monocephala A r a b i s l y r a t a subsp. kamchatica A r n i c a l e s s i n g i i A r n i c a l o u i s e a n a subsp. f r i g i d a A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a subsp. a r c t i c a Campanula l a s i o c a r p a subsp. l a s i o c a r p a Cardamine umbellata Carex enanderi Carex macrochaeta Carex podocarpa Carex p y r e n a i c a subsp. micropoda Carex s p e c t a b i l i s C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa C o r y d a l i s p a u c i f l o r a Dodecatheon f r i g i d u m Draba b o r e a l i s Festuca a l t a i c a Gentiana glauca Hieracium t r i s t e L u zula a r c t i c a subsp. l a t i f o l i a L u zula a r c u a t a subsp. u n a l a s c h k e n s i s Polemonium caeruleum subsp. v i l l o s u m P o t e n t i l l a u n i f l o r a 287 Rubus pedatus S a l i x a l a x e n s i s v a r . a l a x e n s i s S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a S a l i x p o l a r i s Sanguisorba canadensis subsp. l a t i f o l i a  S a x i f r a g a r i v u l a r i s v a r . f l e x u o s a  Sedum i n t e g r i f o l i u m subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i u m  Taraxacum lyratum T r i e n t a l i s europaea subsp. a r c t i c a  V i o l a e p i p s i l a subsp. repens  V i o l a l a n g s d o r f i i 288 d. North American Cor d i l l e r a n Plants Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa  Agoseris aurantiaca var. aurantiaca  Antennaria alpina var. media  Arnica c o r d i f o l i a  Arnica l a t i f o l i a var. l a t i f o l i a  Carex atrosquama Cassiope mertensiana var. mertensiana Delphinium glaucum Draba albertina Draba macounii Draba stenoloba Erigeron a c r i s subsp. debi 1is Hierac ium grac i l e Juncus drummondii Kalmia microphylla subsp. microphylla Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a Luetkea pectinata Oxytropis sericea var. spicata Parnassia fimbriata var. fimbriata Pedicularis sudetica subsp. i n t e r i o r Petasites n i v a l i s Phyllodoce X intermedia Phyllodoce empetriformis Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a var. d i v e r s i f o l i a 289 S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a S a x i f r a g a adscendens subsp. oregonensis  Sax i f r a g a l y a l l i i subsp. h u l t e n i i  Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s subsp. s i t c h e n s i s  Veratrum v i r i d e subsp. e s c h s c h o l t z i i 290 e. North American B o r e a l A g r o s t i s scabra  Antennaria m i c r o p h y l l a  A r a b i s drummondii  A s t e r modestus Bet u l a g l a n d u l o s a var. glandulosa Calamagrostis canadensis subsp. canadensis v a r . canadensis C a l l i t r i c h e anceps Carex s c i r p o i d e a v a r . stenochlaena Cornus canadensis Festuca saximontana Geum macrophyllum subsp. macrophyllum Hedysarum alpinum subsp. americanum Heracleum sphondylium subsp. montanum Ledum groenlandicum Linnaea b o r e a l i s subsp. americana Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a v a r . pan i c u l a t a P i c e a glauca Ribes glandulosum Rubus a r c t i c u s subsp. a c a u l i s Senec i o p a u c i f l o r u s S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a var. m u l t i r a d i a t a  S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s var. a l t o c a u l i s  S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s v a r . l a e t a  Vaccinium caespitosum v a r . caespitosum Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m 291 f . Western North American P l a n t s Anemone n a r c i s s i f l o r a subsp. i n t e r i o r A r t e m i s i a t i l e s i i subsp. u n a l a s c h c e n s i s C a l t h a l e p t o s e p a l a v a r . l e p t o s e p a l a Carex macloviana subsp. pachystachya Carex microchaeta subsp. microchaeta Carex r o s s i i Carex s i t c h e n s i s C a s t i l l e ja u n a l a s c h c e n s i s E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s subsp. c a l l i a n t h e m u s F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a subsp. glauca Juncus mertensianus subsp. mertensianus var. mertensianus Lupinus a r c t i c u s subsp. a r c t i c u s L uzula p i p e r i M i t e l l a pentandra Pinus c o n t o r t a var. l a t i f o l i a Poa a r c t i c a subsp. long i c u l m i s Ranunculus o c c i d e n t a l i s subsp. occ i d e n t a l i s S a x i f r a g a o c c i d e n t a l i s Senecio lugens T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e v a r . o c c i d e n t a l e 292 g. North American A r c t i c - a l p i n e A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m v a r . b o r e a l i s  Anemone p a r v i f l o r a  Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i  Antennaria u m b r i n e l l a  A r e n a r i a l o n g i p e d u n c u l a t a Calamagrostis purpurascens subsp. purpurascens  Carex nardina Cerastium b e e r i n g ianum subsp. be e r i n g ianum Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a E pilobium l a c t i f l o r u m G e n t i a n e l l a propinqua P a r n a s s i a kotzebuei v a r . kotzebuei S a x i f r a g a n e l s o n i a n a subsp. p o r s i l d i a n a S a x i f r a g a t r i c u s p i d a t a Vernonica w o r m s k j o l d i i v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i 293 APPENDIX II S e l e c t e d D i s t r i b u t i o n Maps I l l u s t r a t i n g Ranges of each Phytogeographic Element a. Circumpolar A r c t i c - A l p i n e D i s t r i b u t i o n example: Tof i e l d i a p u s i l l a (modified a f t e r Meusel e t a l . (1965) ) 294 b. C i r c u m p o l a r B o r e a l D i s t r i b u t i o n e x a m p l e : E q u i s e t u r n a r v e n s e ( m o d i f i e d a f t e r M e u s e l e t a l . (1965) ) 295 c. Amphiberingian D i s t r i b u t i o n example: T r i e n t a l i s europaea subsp. a r c t i c a (1971a) ) (from: Hulten, 296 d. North American C o r d i l l e r a n D i s t r i b u t i o n example: A r n i c a l a t i f o l i a (from: S t r a l e y , (1980)) 297 e. North American Boreal D i s t r i b u t i o n example: Picea glauca (from: L i t t l e , (1971)) 2 9 8 299 g. North American A r c t i c - A l p i n e D i s t r i b u t i o n example: Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a subsp. i n t e g r i f o l i a (from P o r s i l d , (1958)) 300 APPENDIX I I I Rare V a s c u l a r P l a n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia Found i n the Study Area The rare v a s c u l a r p l a n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, as t r e a t e d by S t r a l e y e_t a_l, (1985), are d i v i d e d i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s ; R l , R2, R3 and R4. These c a t e g o r i e s are d e f i n e d by the authors as f o l l o w s : Rl - S i n g l e or few p o p u l a t i o n s , composed of few p l a n t s . R2 - S e v e r a l p o p u l a t i o n s , l o c a l l y common. R3 - Widespread or s c a t t e r e d p o p u l a t i o n s with sm a l l numbers of p l a n t s . R4 - R e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n s , l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n c l u d e s a l i s t of p l a n t s c o l l e c t e d from the study area which appear i n one of the above c a t e g o r i e s , the category to which each i s assign e d and the l o c a l abundance of each. P l a n t s are l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . Spec i e s Category of R a r i t y Adoxa m o s c h a t e l l i n a R3 A r e n a r i a long ipedunculata Rl Calamagrostis s t r i c t a R3 var. s t r i c t a C a l l i t r i c h e anceps Rl Carex b i g e l o w i i R3 Carex enanderi R3 Carex heleonastes R2 L o c a l Abundance rare rare to sparse rare to sparse rare r a r e sparse to common sparse 301 Species C y s t o p t e r i s montana  Draba f l a d n i z e n s i s  Draba l a c t e a  Draba macounii  Eriophorum c a l l i t r i x  Juncus a r c t i c u s subsp. alaskanus  Juncus b i g l u m i s  Juncus t r i g l u m i s  Koenigia i s l a n d i c a  Ledum p a l u s t r e subsp. decumbens  L l o y d i a s e r o t i n a  Luzula a r c t i c a subsp. l a t i f o l i a  L u zula confusa  P e d i c u l a r i s v e r t i c i l l a t a  P o t e n t i l i a h y p a r c t i c a  P y r o l a g r a n d i f l o r a  Ranunculus pygmaeus  Ranunculus sulphureus var. sulphureus  Sagina intermedia  S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a subsp. p u l c h r a v a r . p u l c h r a Category L o c a l Abundance R3 rare Rl r a r e R3 rare R3 rare R2 sparse Rl r a r e to sparse Rl sparse R2 sparse R3 rare to sparse R4 common R4 rare to sparse R2 rare Rl sparse R3 sparse R3 rare R3 sparse R3 rare to sparse Rl rare to sparse Rl r a r e R2 common to abundant 302 Spec ie s S i l e n e u r a l e n s i s subsp. a t t e n u a t a S t e l l a r i a umbellata V i o l a e p i p s i l a subsp. repens Woodsia a l p i n a Category R3 R2 R3 Rl L o c a l Abundance rare rare to sparse rare rare T o t a l taxa -Taxa on l i s t -Rl - 9 s p e c i e s -R2 - 6 s p e c i e s -R3 - 14 s p e c i e s -R4 - 2 s p e c i e s -239 31 3.8% of t o t a l f l o r a 2.5% of t o t a l f l o r a 5.9% of t o t a l f l o r a 0.8% of t o t a l f l o r a 303 

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