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A study of the extent and nature of the need for child care Grace, Lorna Louise 1987

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A STUDY OF THE EXTENT AND NATURE OF THE NEED FOR CHILD CARE By LORNA LOUISE GRACE A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l Work We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITI S H COLUMBIA J u n e 1987 @ L o r n a L o u i s e G r a c e , 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of o , Q 7 ^ M / Qi The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 r\ DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o c o m b i n e p r a c t i c e a n d r e s e a r c h i n a c o m m u n i t y a g e n c y . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e i n R i c h m o n d , B.C. f o r p a r e n t s who a r e e m p l o y e d o r a t t e n d i n g o n e o f t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s , l o c a t e d w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f e a c h o t h e r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s were a n a l y z e d : a g e o f c h i l d , t y p e o f c a r e , h o u r s o f c a r e a n d p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f 237 f a m i l i e s were c o m p i l e d . Out o f 237 f a m i l i e s t h e r e was an i n d i c a t e d need f o r 217 c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n aged 0 - 1 3 y e a r s . The m a j o r t y p e s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d were g r o u p c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n 0 - 5 y e a r s o f age and o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n . P r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n f o r c a r e r a n g e d f r o m t h e v i c i n i t y o f home a n d s c h o o l t o t h e p a r e n t s ' p l a c e o f e m p l o y m e n t . E v e n t h o u g h few p r e f e r r e d a c e n t r a l i z e d l o c a t i o n , r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y were w i l l i n g t o r e l o c a t e a n d a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c e n t r a l i z e d f a c i l i t y . i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS An o l d p h i l o s o p h e r s t a t e d "no man i s an i s l a n d " and t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h i s s t u d y . A number o f p e o p l e have p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h i s s t u d y . I am i n d e b t e d t o my t h e s i s a d v i s o r s - Dr. C h r i s M c N i v e n and D r . J o h n C r a n e . They have g i v e n me e x c e l l e n t and i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e . T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e i f i t w e r e w i t h o u t t h e c o o p e r a t i o n a n d s u p p o r t o f t h e M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f Richmond, B.C. I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o V a l e r i e Ahwee, who s p e n t s o much o f h e r t i m e e d i t i n g a n d p r o o f - r e a d i n g t h e d r a f t s . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o my c h i l d r e n , my s i s t e r and M i c h a e l , who t o l e r a t e d my many moods and gave me t h e i r u n r e s e r v e d s u p p o r t . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i L I S T OF TABLES v i CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM AREA 1 1.1 D e f i n i n g t h e P r o b l e m 1 1.2 S o c i a l Changes 4 1.3 E x t e n t and N a t u r e o f Need 8 1.4 Who B e n e f i t s 14 1.5 S o c i a l Work and C h i l d C a r e 20 2. INTERACTION OF PRACTICE AND RESEARCH 24 3. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 3 5 3.1 S t a t e m e n t o f I s s u e s 35 3.2 R a t i o n a l e f o r S e l e c t i o n o f I s s u e s 36 3.3 P u r p o s e o f R e s e a r c h 36 3.4 K n o w l e d g e - B u i l d i n g F u n c t i o n 37 3.5 M a j o r C o n c e p t s 38 3.6 R e l e v a n t R e s e a r c h 39 3.7 L i m i t a t i o n s o f R e s e a r c h 46 4. RESEARCH DESIGN 48 4.1 C o n t r o l o v e r Phenomena S t u d i e d 48 4.2 S a m p l i n g D e s i g n 48 4.3 T i m i n g o f D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 49 4.4 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n 50 4.5 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 50 4.6 D a t a A n a l y s i s 56 4.7 E t h i c a l I s s u e s 59 5. RESULTS 60 5.1 O v e r a l l F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Needs f o r C h i l d C a r e 60 5.2 F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Needs by I n s t i t u t i o n 82 V 6. DISCUSSION 115 6.1 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l I s s u e s 115 6.2 O v e r a l l F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Needs 119 6.3 Needs o f I n d i v i d u a l I n s t i t u t i o n s 125 6.4 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n 130 BIBLIOGRAPHY 133 PERSONAL REFERENCES 137 NOTES 138 APPENDIX I - COVERING LETTER 147 APPENDIX I I - QUESTIONNAIRE 149 v i LIST OF TABLES Page 1. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a m i l i e s i n A r e a s o f : Have C h i l d r e n ; Need C a r e ; Emergency C a r e ; S u b s i d y ; R e l o c a t i o n ; and Development 61 2. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a m i l i e s ' S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r e s e n t C h i l d C a r e A r r a n g e m e n t s 62 3. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a m i l i e s ' A b i l i t y t o Pay . 64 4. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a m i l i e s ' P r e f e r r e d L o c a t i o n f o r C h i l d C a r e 65 5. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Ages o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by Breakdown i n C h i l d C a r e 67 6. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Ages o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by A l t e r n a t i v e C h i l d C a r e A v a i l a b l e 68 7. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Ages o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by Emergency C a r e S e r v i c e s 69 8. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Ages o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by P r e f e r r e d L o c a t i o n o f C h i l d C a r e 70 9. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A g e o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s 72 10. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d r e n N e e d i n g C a r e .... 73 11. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Type o f C a r e N e eded f o r C h i l d r e n 74 12. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H o u r s o f C a r e Needed f o r C h i l d r e n 75 13. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C h i l d C a r e Needed by Age o f C h i l d r e n 76 14. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e Needed by H o u r s o f C a r e Needed f o r C h i l d r e n 78 15. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e Needed by P r e f e r r e d L o c a t i o n o f C a r e f o r C h i l d r e n 79 16. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e Needed by A b i l i t y t o Pay f o r C h i l d r e n 80 v i i 17. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e Needed by P a r e n t s ' W i l l i n g n e s s t o H e l p D e v e l o p S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n .. 81 18. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Age o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by Breakdown i n C a r e f o r W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d .. 84 19. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Age o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by A l t e r n a t e C a r e A v a i l a b l e f o r W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d 85 20. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Ages o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by E m e r g e n c y C a r e O f f e r e d f o r W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d 86 21. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d r e n N e e d i n g C a r e f o r W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d 88 22. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e by H o u r s o f C a r e f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d 89 23. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e Needed by P r e f e r r e d L o c a t i o n o f C a r e f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d 90 24. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e Needed by A b i l i t y t o P a y f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d 91 25. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f T y p e o f C a r e N e e d e d by H e l p D e v e l o p a C e n t r e f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d 93 26. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Ages o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by Breakdown i n C a r e f o r Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l .... 95 27. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Ages o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by A l t e r n a t e C a r e A v a i l a b l e f o r R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 96 28. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Ages o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by E m e r g e n c y C a r e i n C e n t r e s f o r R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 97 29. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d r e n N e e d i n g C a r e f o r R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 99 30. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e by H o u r s o f C a r e f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 100 v i i i 3 1 . C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f T y p e o f C a r e b y P r e f e r r e d L o c a t i o n o f C a r e f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 101 32. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e by A b i l i t y t o Pay f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 103 33. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f T y p e o f C a r e by H e l p D e v e l o p C e n t r e f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l . 104 34. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Age o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by Breakdown i n C h i l d C a r e f o r K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e 106 35. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Age o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by A l t e r n a t e C a r e f o r K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e 107 36. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Age o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l i e s by Emergency C a r e i n C e n t r e s f o r K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e 108 37. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C a r e Needed f o r C h i l d r e n f o r K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e 109 38. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e by H o u r s o f C a r e f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e I l l 39. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f T y p e o f C a r e b y P r e f e r r e d L o c a t i o n o f C a r e f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e 112 40. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e by A b i l i t y t o Pay f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e 113 41. C r o s s - T a b u l a t i o n o f Type o f C a r e by H e l p D e v e l o p a C e n t r e f o r C h i l d r e n f r o m K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e 114 1 CHAPTER ONE; BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM AREA OF THESIS 1.1 D e f i n i n g the Problem A s t u d y o f t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e r e q u i r e s a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what ' c h i l d c a r e ' i s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y c h i l d c a r e i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e 'a s e r v i c e t o c h i l d r e n who c a n n o t be c a r e d f o r by t h e i r own p a r e n t s d u r i n g a p o r t i o n o r s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f t h e d a y ' . T h i s s e r v i c e f o r c h i l d r e n s h o u l d b e o f h i g h q u a l i t y , a c c e s s i b l e and a f f o r d a b l e f o r a l l p a r e n t s . C h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e t h o s e whose p a r e n t s work f u l l -o r p a r t - t i m e o r a t t e n d e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d t h o s e whose p a r e n t s r e m a i n i n t h e home and need p e r i o d i c b r e a k s f r o m t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r b u s i n e s s o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . The e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f need c a n b e s t be d e f i n e d a s t h e d e g r e e (how much o f a n e e d t h e r e i s ) and when t h e n e e d i s r e q u i r e d ( o v e r n i g h t , e v e n i n g s , e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s ) . The S t a t u s o f Women C a n a d a h a s s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e o v e r 7 m i l l i o n p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and 14 m i l l i o n s c h o o l - a g e d c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s a r e em p l o y e d i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . [ 1 ] T h e s e f i g u r e s do n o t i n c l u d e t h o s e c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s r e m a i n a t home and need p e r i o d i c c h i l d c a r e a s s i s t a n c e f o r b u s i n e s s o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . The t y p e a n d amount o f c a r e r e q u i r e d f o r c h i l d r e n v a r i e s n o t o n l y w i t h p a r e n t s ' s c h e d u l e s , b u t a l s o w i t h t h e age o f t h e c h i l d and t h e p a r e n t s ' p r e f e r r e d p r o g r a m . The t y p e s o f c h i l d c a r e s e l e c t e d by p a r e n t s v a r y f r o m i n -2 home care by b a b y s i t t e r s , r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , to unlicensed f a m i l y c h i l d care to l i c e n s e d group and f a m i l y care. This study w i l l only cover l i c e n s e d group centre care and l i c e n s e d f a m i l y c h i l d care because they can be e a s i l y documented and are regulated. This i s not to suggest that the various other forms of care are inadequate or u n q u a l i f i e d , but i t i s not p o s s i b l e to document or regulate what cannot be assessed or counted. In the p a s t , c h i l d r e n were taken c a r e of by t h e i r mothers; or i n the event that the mother was incapable of looking a f t e r her c h i l d r e n because she had to work outside the home, some member of the immediate or extended family f i l l e d the need. Sometimes f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y of middle c l a s s income, had housekeepers or nannies who came i n t o the home to care f o r the c h i l d r e n . Due to the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , which c r e a t e d a major m i g r a t i o n from the r u r a l to urban c i t i e s , a need f o r c h i l d c a r e o u t s i d e the c h i l d ' s home evolved. Family patterns changed; women found i t necessary to work outside the home, and a need to look beyond the extended family for support i n caring for the young. [2] With the onslaught of World War I I , women were encouraged to l e a v e home and take over the jobs t h e i r husbands l e f t behind. "Government subsidies were given to set up c h i l d care centres for c h i l d r e n from ages 2 to 14." [3] However, at the end of the War, the men returned to t h e i r jobs and s o c i e t y once again f e l t a woman's place was i n the 3 home c a r i n g f o r h e r c h i l d r e n . T h e r e was s t r o n g s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l f o r w o r k i n g m o t h e r s . I t h a s b e e n s a i d t h a t a c h i l d o f a w o r k i n g m o t h e r w o u l d s u f f e r f r o m i n f e r i o r i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t , e m o t i o n a l u p s e t a n d p o o r p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . "The f a c t t h e s e c h i l d r e n l a c k e d c o n t i n u o u s a f f e c t i o n f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n was h e l d as t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y i m p a i r m e n t . " [ 4 ] Due t o t h i s i d e o l o g y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s were s h u t down b e c a u s e i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e need f o r s u c h c e n t r e s w o u l d d r a s t i c a l l y d e c r e a s e . As t h e y e a r s p r o g r e s s e d , more and more women began t a k i n g t h e i r p l a c e s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . T h e r e a r e a number o f r e a s o n s f o r t h i s t r e n d . One s t u d y i n d i c a t e d " t h a t m o s t m o t h e r s w o r k e d b e c a u s e t h e y d e s p e r a t e l y needed t h e money." [ 5 ] The S o c i a l S e r v i c e s D e p a r t m e n t o f C a l g a r y ' s ( 1 9 7 8 ) s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d c a r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t q u i c k e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n may l e a d t o i n c r e a s i n g s h o r t a g e o f manpower i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m a l e a r e a s o f employment. [6] "As wages i n c r e a s e r e f l e c t i n g t h e s e v e r e s t r a i n on t h e s u p p l y o f l a b o u r , t h e e n h a n c e d a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f m a r k e t r e l a t i v e t o n o n - m a r k e t h o u s e h o l d a c t i v i t i e s s e r v e s as an i r r e s i s t i b l e i n d u c e m e n t t o m o t h e r s t o become e m p l o y e d r e g a r d l e s s o f e c o n o m i c n e e d . The f a c t t h a t most m o t h e r s work p r i m a r i l y e i t h e r b e c a u s e o f e c o n o m i c need o r f a v o u r a b l e c y c l i c a l e c o n o m i c p r o s p e r i t y s h o u l d n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t i f m o t h e r s a r e f i n a n c i a l l y a d e q u a t e l y p r o v i d e d f o r , t h e y w o u l d s t a y a t home a n d c a r e f o r t h e i r 4 c h i l d r e n . " [ 7 ] T o d a y , t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e i s e v e n more p r e v a l e n t t h a n e v e r b e f o r e due t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e a n d t h e g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n . P a r e n t s a r e f i n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n s i t u a t i o n s w h ere t h e y a r e n o t s u r e o f t h e q u a l i t y o f c a r e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e r e c e i v i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , many p a r e n t s have had t o m i s s work o r p a s s up p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s p r o b l e m h a s t u r n e d i n t o a c r i s i s n o t o n l y f o r u r b a n c i t i e s b u t n a t i o n a l l y . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e p o r t , t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f c h i l d c a r e needs were s t u d i e d i n t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s t h a t a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f e a c h o t h e r and t o t h e 'town c e n t r e ' o f Richmond, B.C. The r e p o r t w i l l o n l y l o o k a t t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e need a n d n o t t h e f i n a n c i a l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d w i t h c h i l d c a r e . T h e r e a r e g a p s i n t h e r e p o r t c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e n e e d , b u t t h e s e g a p s w e r e f i l l e d i n b y i n t e r v i e w s a n d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h k e y p e r s o n n e l , p a r e n t s , and o t h e r c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s . 1.2 S o c i a l Change U n t i l r e c e n t l y t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e was r e c o g n i z e d o n l y f o r t h o s e p a r e n t s who w e r e " e n g a g e d i n e m p l o y m e n t o r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h e n a b l e p a r e n t s t o o v e r c o m e o r a l l e v i a t e t h e c a u s e s o r e f f e c t s o f p o v e r t y . " [ 8 ] A s e c o n d 5 need for care i s "evident on the basis of s o c i a l needs, which j u s t i f y the cost of c h i l d care as a means of s o c i a l s e r v i c e i n t e r v e n t i o n to prevent, overcome or a l l e v i a t e c o n d i t i o n s believed to be s e r i o u s l y detrimental to the development of the c h i l d . " [9] Today, the need for c h i l d care has changed due to a number of s o c i a l changes that have a f f e c t e d family l i f e and the need for c h i l d care. Clarke-Stewart (1981) describes four changes which have contributed to the increased need for c h i l d care. [10] The f i r s t s o c i a l change i s the increasing number of women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the labour f o r c e . A c c o r d i n g to C l a r k e -Stewart, the primary reason for t h i s increase i s economic: "the d e s i r e to maintain or improve the fa m i l y ' s standard of l i v i n g , coupled with r i s i n g costs and high i n f l a t i o n , has l e d to the need f o r i n c r e a s e d income i n most f a m i l i e s . " [11] Economics, however, i s no longer the only reason why women work: they work to have careers, meet new people, have new experiences and become independent. " I n d i v i d u a l s b e l i e v i n g i n the socio-economic e q u a l i t y of the sexes may seek employment ou t s i d e the home so as to obtain greater s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the community or s o c i a l c i r c l e , as w e l l as greater economic independence from t h e i r male counterparts i n the home." [12] A second s o c i a l change mentioned by Clarke-Stewart (1982) i s the increased divorce r a t e . [13] In 1981, s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s accounted f o r 11% of a l l Canadian f a m i l i e s , as 6 compared with 9% i n 1971. [14] Also i n 1981, "57 percent of lone parents were separated or divor c e d ; another 10 percent had never married and the remaining 33 percent were widows and widowers." [15] The chances of many of these i n d i v i d u a l s remarrying i s very s l i g h t . Consequently, a mother who becomes a s i n g l e p a r e n t w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of r a i s i n g young c h i l d r e n i s l i m i t e d i n choices concerning her f u t u r e . [16] She can e i t h e r approach the State f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e (welfare) or work f u l l - t i m e i n the labour force. The t h i r d s o c i a l change i s i n the s i z e of f a m i l i e s . Up to the 1930's f a m i l i e s consisted of s i x to ten c h i l d r e n , then from the 30's to the 50's the number of c h i l d r e n per fami l y decreased. During the 1950's, there was another 'baby boom' and the number of c h i l d r e n increased but not to the extent of the e a r l y 1900's. A f t e r the 1950's, the number of c h i l d r e n per family decreased, u n t i l today many f a m i l i e s only have one or two c h i l d r e n . [17] No longer do three generations dwell under one roof. Before urbanization and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , i f the extended family d i d not l i v e together at l e a s t they l i v e d i n c lose proximity, thus enabling the mother to work while the c h i l d r e n were c a r e d f o r by g r a n d p a r e n t s , a u n t s and c o u s i n s . [18] " G e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y has d e c r e a s e d the l i k e l i h o o d that these r e l a t i o n s l i v e nearby." [19] The trend t o d a y i s not o n l y f o r n u c l e u s f a m i l i e s , but a l s o f o r grandparents and other r e l a t i v e s to p a r t i c i p a t e longer i n the labour f o r c e and to have i n t e r e s t s o u t s i d e t h e i r extended 7 f a m i l i e s . [ 2 0] L a s t l y , as s o c i e t y c h a n g e s , so t o o do v a l u e s , and t h e s e a r e r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . " T h e r e h a s b e e n a m a r k e d move away f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d d e v o t e t h e i r l i v e s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n , m a k i n g s a c r i f i c e s i n t h e i r own c o m f o r t a n d p e r s o n a l l i v e s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n have i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e y d i d . " [21] A l o n g w i t h t h i s new o u t l o o k , many p a r e n t s a r e becoming c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e n e t e f f e c t s on t h e c h i l d r e n . " P a r e n t s t o d a y a r e w o r r i e d and u n c e r t a i n a b o u t how t o b r i n g up t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h e y f e e l u n c l e a r a b o u t t h e p r o p e r b a l a n c e b e t w e e n p e r m i s s i v e n e s s and f i r m n e s s . They f e a r t h e y a r e n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , y e t t h e y s o m e t i m e s r e s e n t t h e demands t h e i r c h i l d r e n make. They w o n d e r w h e t h e r t h e y ' r e d o i n g a g o o d j o b a s p a r e n t s , y e t a r e u n a b l e t o d e f i n e j u s t what a g o o d j o b i s .... W h a t i s new ... i s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e m a l a i s e , t h e s e n s e o f h a v i n g no g u i d e l i n e s o r s u p p o r t s f o r r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , t h e f e e l i n g s o f n o t b e i n g i n c o n t r o l a s p a r e n t s , and t h e w i d e s p r e a d s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l g u i l t f o r what seems t o be g o i n g awry." [22] I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e s o c i a l c h a n g e s o u t l i n e d by C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , t h e S t a t u s o f Women's Task F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e ( 1 9 8 6 ) n o t e d t h a t more and more p a r e n t s a r e " d e f i n i n g t h e i r l i v e s o u t s i d e t h e i r r o l e s a s p a r e n t s and w o r k e r s ; t h e y a r e b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s ; u p g r a d i n g t h e i r k n o w l e d g e , d e v e l o p i n g a s p e c i a l t a l e n t , m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o r v o l u n t e e r i n g f o r a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . " [23] I n a r e c e n t s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e Task 8 F o r c e , i t was n o t e d t h a t o u t o f 336 r e s p o n d e n t s , 53% s t a t e d t h a t t h e y r e g u l a r l y s p e n t t i m e o u t s i d e t h e home i n v o l v e d i n a t l e a s t one v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t y . [ 2 4 ] 1.3 Extent and Nature of Need E x t e n t and n a t u r e o f need f o r t h i s s t u d y w i l l be d e f i n e d a s t h e d e g r e e o f need (how much o f a need t h e r e i s ) and when t h e need i s r e q u i r e d ( e v e n i n g s , o v e r n i g h t , e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f need a r e t h e t y p e s o f p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e d t o meet t h o s e n e e d s . 1.3.1 Need Based on Parents' P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Labour Force or Ed u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada ( 1 9 8 6 ) , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r women and men i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e b e tween t h e a g e s o f 15 a n d 24 w e r e 6 5 . 6 % a n d 7 1 . 5 % , and f o r t h e a g e s 24 - 54, 6 9 . 8 % a n d 9 3 . 9 % r e s p e c t i v e l y . [ 2 5 ] T h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y " 425,000 women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e w i t h a t l e a s t one c h i l d u n d e r 3 y e a r s o f a g e , 3 0 7 , 0 0 0 women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n u n d e r 3, b u t w i t h one c h i l d 3 - 5 y e a r s o f a g e , a nd 938,000 women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e w i t h o u t p r e - s c h o o l a g e d c h i l d r e n , b u t w i t h a t l e a s t o n e c h i l d 6 - 1 5 y e a r s o l d . " [ 2 6 ] T h e s e f i g u r e s a l s o i n c l u d e women e n r o l l e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h e r e a r e more t h a n 4.7 m i l l i o n C a n a d i a n c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e age o f 13 a n d o f t h i s number, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 m i l l i o n h a v e p a r e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the w o r k f o r c e o r a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . [27] I n 1983, t h e r e were o n l y 9 1 3 9 , 0 7 0 l i c e n s e d g r o u p a n d f a m i l y home c a r e s p a c e s i n Can a d a . [ 2 8] The d a t a o u t l i n e d above e x p l a i n s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e need b u t f a i l s t o a s c e r t a i n t h e n a t u r e o f p a r e n t s ' e m p l o y m e n t a n d / o r e d u c a t i o n a l s c h e d u l e s . Employment s c h e d u l e s c a n be s u m m a r i z e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : - t h o s e p a r e n t s w o r k i n g ' r e g u l a r ' d a y t i m e h o u r s , Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y ; - t h o s e p a r e n t s w o r k i n g s h i f t s o r r e g u l a r l y r o t a t i n g c y c l e s , s u c h as n u r s e s , p o l i c e , h o t e l / r e s t a u r a n t , e t c . ; - t h o s e p a r e n t s w o r k i n g p a r t - t i m e o r ' o n - c a l l ' ; - t h o s e p a r e n t s l o o k i n g f o r work. P a r e n t s a t t e n d i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n may have c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h e d a y , b u t many may a l s o have t o a t t e n d c l a s s e s i n t h e e v e n i n g s . P a r e n t s who w o r k o r a t t e n d e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s d u r i n g ' r e g u l a r ' h o u r s w i l l r e q u i r e c h i l d c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e s e h o u r s . The t y p e o f p r o g r a m s t h a t a r e needed w i l l depend upon t h e age o f t h e c h i l d and t h e p a r e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e s . Most l i c e n s e d g r o u p c h i l d c a r e c e n t r e s o p e r a t e d u r i n g t h e h o u r s o f 7:00 a.m. t o 6:00 p.m.; h o w e v e r , c h i l d r e n a r e a l l o w e d a maximum o f 10 h o u r s o f c a r e p e r d a y . L i c e n s e d f a m i l y c h i l d c a r e s c a n o p e r a t e a t w h a t e v e r h o u r s t h e y c h o o s e , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y o n l y o p e r a t e d u r i n g ' r e g u l a r ' h o u r s . C h i l d r e n i n t h i s t y p e o f s e t t i n g c a n be i n c a r e up t o 12 h o u r s p e r d a y . [ 2 9 ] The m a j o r i t y o f l i c e n s e d s e t t i n g s a c c e p t c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 3 t o 5, v e r y few c e n t r e s h a v e 10 c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n under 3 o r o v e r 6. [30] P a r e n t s who work s h i f t s w h i c h i n c l u d e e v e n i n g s , o v e r n i g h t a n d w e e k e n d s a n d t h o s e p a r e n t s who a t t e n d c l a s s e s n e e d " f l e x i b l e c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a t w i l l a c c o m m o d a t e t h e i r n e e d . " [31] S e t t i n g s t h a t accommodate t h e s e v a r i o u s n eeds a r e n o t w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e a c r o s s C a n a d a . A 29 y e a r o l d C a l g a r y m o t h e r who w o r k s s h i f t s s t a t e d t h a t " p e o p l e who work s h i f t s s h o u l d be e n t i t l e d t o t h e same r i g h t s a s someone who w o r k s 9 t o 5". [32] Some p a r e n t s a r e u n e m p l o y e d a n d s e e k i n g w o r k . T h e s e p a r e n t s need t o be a b l e t o a c q u i r e some t y p e o f ' d r o p - i n ' c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Once a g a i n , t h i s t y p e o f c a r e i s n o t c ommon e x c e p t i n c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e s w h e r e p a r e n t s a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some a c t i v i t y . [33] Thus f a r t h e p a r e n t s who have been i d e n t i f i e d a r e t h o s e l i v i n g a n d / o r w o r k i n g i n u r b a n a r e a s . Farm f a m i l i e s a r e a l s o i n n e e d o f c h i l d c a r e b e c a u s e many f a r m women work i n t h e f i e l d s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g peak p e r i o d s s u c h as s e e d i n g , h a y i n g and h a r v e s t i n g . O f t e n t h e o n l y a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a t c a n be made a r e w i t h r e l a t i v e s o r c l o s e n e i g h b o u r s and t h i s i s " o f t e n n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u s e d u r i n g t h e p r e s s u r e t i m e s on t h e f a r m e v e r y o n e i s b u s y . " [ 3 4 ] I f t h e s e women a r e t o h e l p t h e i r h u s b a n d s , c a r e i s needed f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e i t i s t o o d a n g e r o u s f o r s m a l l c h i l d r e n t o be a r o u n d m a c h i n e r y o r t o be l e f t on t h e i r own. The t y p e o f s e r v i c e n e e d e d f o r t h e s e p a r e n t s i s a f a c i l i t y c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e f a r m i n g 11 c o mmunity. [35] 1.3.2 S p e c i a l Circumstances T h e r e a r e a number o f s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t r e q u i r e c h i l d c a r e . S c h o o l age c h i l d r e n have P r o f e s s i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t d a y s , s p r i n g b r e a k , E a s t e r and C h r i s t m a s h o l i d a y s and summer v a c a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e d a y s c o i n c i d e w i t h p a r e n t s ' r e g u l a r work s c h e d u l e s , s o a l t e r n a t e a r r a n g e m e n t s must be made f o r c a r e . C h i l d r e n become i l l a t a n y age and o n c e a g a i n , a l t e r n a t e c a r e must be f o u n d . T h e r e a r e a l s o s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h c a r e g i v e r s a r e u n a b l e t o f u l f i l l t h e i r d u t i e s f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , s o p a r e n t s must f i n d o t h e r s t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . F i n a l l y , p a r e n t s may have t o work o v e r t i m e , a r e c a u g h t i n t r a f f i c , have an a c c i d e n t , e t c . , and a r e u n a b l e t o p i c k up t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t a s p e c i f i e d t i m e . Someone must be f o u n d i n t h e i n t e r i m t o t a k e o v e r t h e c a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n . [ 36] C i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r a l t e r n a t e t y p e s o f c a r e c a n go on e n d l e s s l y . What i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t t h e need f o r e m e r g e n c y / t e m p o r a r y c a r e e x i s t s , y e t t h e r e a r e no f a c i l i t i e s f i l l i n g t h i s n e e d . [37] E m e r g e n c y / t e m p o r a r y c a r e i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t y p e o f c a r e where l i t t l e o r no n o t i f i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . I t e x i s t s f o r t h e s o l e p u r p o s e o f f u l f i l l i n g a n e e d w h i c h i s u n e x p e c t e d o r ' u n u s u a l ' . T h e r e a r e v e r y few s u c h c e n t r e s b e c a u s e o f t h e t r e mendous f l u c t u a t i o n s i n n e e d . I n B.C., t h e ones w h i c h d i d e x i s t have f o r e c l o s e d b e c a u s e o f 12 economic reasons. However, some group centres reserve s e v e r a l spaces for emergency/temporary care. [38] A l t e r n a t i v e forms of care f o r school-age c h i l d r e n are u s u a l l y sponsored by community centres, YWCA or Boys and G i r l s Clubs. [39] However, the demand f a r exceeds the supply. "At the present time, formal school-aged c h i l d care programs are i n serious short supply throughout Canada." [40] P a r e n t s who need emergency/temporary car e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n have few choices. Some r e l y on neighbours, f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s , but the vast m a j o r i t y are forced to take time o f f work to care for t h e i r c h i l d r e n . [41] 1.3.3 C a r e Needed t o E n a b l e P a r e n t s t o P a r t i c i p a t e i n Community A c t i v i t i e s and t o A t t e n d t o F a m i l y and P ersonal Needs Mothers who remain at home to look a f t e r the c h i l d r e n instead of going out to work, are a l s o i n need of c h i l d care. "In most cases, the reasons for requesting c h i l d care have been extreme f a t i g u e , e x h a u s t i o n , or the simple need f o r r e s t . " [42] Other reasons, such as m e d i c a l or b u s i n e s s appointments, short-term h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n or f a m i l y problems are periods when the need for c h i l d care i s important. [43] I n c r e a s i n g l y , people are attempting to define t h e i r l i v e s beyond t h e i r r o l e s as parents and workers by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community a f f a i r s to "express or develop a t a l e n t , upgrade t h e i r knowledge, maintain p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , or simply spend time w i t h f r i e n d s or i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . " [44] Some of 13 these a c t i v i t i e s occur during the day, but the majority occur i n the evening. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , many parents have r e l i e d on spouses, f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s and neighbours to care for t h e i r c h i l d r e n . "These types of care arrangements are g e n e r a l l y not a concern of p r o v i n c i a l c h i l d care a u t h o r i t i e s , yet concern about the q u a l i t y of these evening arrangements were voiced by p a r e n t s . " [45] For these p a r e n t s , d r o p - i n c e n t r e s and/or b a b y s i t t i n g s e r v i c e s could f i l l the need. 1.3.4 Need f o r Care f o r 'Special* C h i l d r e n Children s u f f e r from a wide range of d i s a b i l i t i e s . Some of these d i s a b i l i t i e s are permanent, some can be overcome. Whether parents work i n the labour f o r c e or remain i n the home, t h e r e i s a need f o r c h i l d care f o r these c h i l d r e n . C h i l d care s e t t i n g s with f l e x i b l e hours and programs geared toward the development of the c h i l d are yet another r a r i t y i n our s o c i e t y . "The needs of these c h i l d r e n are not being met by e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s , " [46] nor do p a r e n t s have in-home support to help them cope with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Another group of c h i l d r e n who have s p e c i a l needs are immigrant c h i l d r e n . Requirements i n t h i s case i n c l u d e f l e x i b l e centre hours and programs i n which some s t a f f are f l u e n t i n the c h i l d ' s language and "are s e n s i t i v e to the norms of that c u l t u r e . " [47] Canada's native c h i l d r e n are al s o i n need of c h i l d care on t h e i r r e s ervations. In a l l of Canada, there are only 1,432 14 c h i l d c a r e s p a c e s on r e s e r v e s . The need f o r t h e s e c e n t r e s i s t o e n a b l e p a r e n t s t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n c l o s e t o t h e i r homes a n d i n a n e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . Many p a r e n t s b o t h l i v e and work on r e s e r v e s w h i c h a r e i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e n e a r e s t u r b a n c e n t r e . T h e s e p a r e n t s s h o u l d h a v e e q u a l a c c e s s t o q u a l i t y c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . [ 4 8 ] I n summary, c h i l d c a r e o p t i o n s w i l l h a v e t o e x p a n d t o k e e p p a c e w i t h s o c i a l c h a n g e s : women i n t h e w o r k f o r c e , p a r e n t s ' u s e o f l e i s u r e t i m e o u t s i d e work a n d p a r e n t i n g , i n c r e a s e i n i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i n c r e a s e d n e e d f o r s p e c i a l i z e d and emergency c a r e . 1.4 Who B e n e f i t s " E c o l o g i s t s h a v e l e a r n e d t h a t r a p i d c h a n g e c a n b e d e s t r u c t i v e when e n v i r o n m e n t a l b a l a n c e i s d i s t u r b e d . So, t o o , i t i s a s s u m e d , t h e r e may be r i s k s t o human a n d c u l t u r a l e c o l o g y i n r a p i d c h a n g e , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e b a s i c u n i t o f c u l t u r e , t h e f a m i l y , i s m o d i f i e d . " [ 4 9] The f a m i l y a s a u n i t has c h a n g e d , b u t t h e s t r u c t u r e s i n s o c i e t y have n o t c h a n g e d t o h e l p t h e f a m i l y c o p e w i t h m o d e r n s o c i e t y . C h i l d c a r e , h o w e v e r , i s one s t r u c t u r e t h a t c a n b e n e f i t n o t o n l y t h e p a r e n t and c h i l d b u t s o c i e t y as a w h o l e . 1.4.1 The C h i l d T r a d i t i o n a l l y , s o c i e t y h a s a p p r o a c h e d t h e n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n f r o m a d e f i c i t m o d e l , t h a t i s , "as s i g n s o f a b n o r m a l b e h a v i o u r m a n i f e s t e d t h e m s e l v e s , t r e a t m e n t has been i n i t i a t e d 15 when a v a i l a b l e . " [50] I t i s a f a c t that many problems can be avoided by e a r l y a t t e n t i o n . "Our l a c k of commitment i s a n a t i o n a l tragedy. We know already that i t i s more f r u i t f u l to prevent damage to our young c h i l d r e n than to attempt to patch and heal the wounds. We know that much of the damage can be avoided i n the f i r s t three years of l i f e . We know that the b a s i s f o r mental development and competence i s e s t a b l i s h e d l a r g e l y by the age of s i x . " [51] Society i s now beginning to r e c o g n i z e the need t o p r o v i d e p r e v e n t a t i v e and support s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s during a c h i l d ' s developing years. C h i l d care s e r v i c e s can be one of the most e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e s i n the prevention of developmental d e f i c i e n c i e s i n young c h i l d r e n , no matter what type of family they come from. Numerous studies during the past f i f t e e n years have been conducted regarding the p o s i t i v e aspects of c h i l d care on the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l and i n t e 1 1 e c t u a 1 - c o g n i t i v e development. As e a r l y as 1970, there i s evidence i n d i c a t i n g t h a t there are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between c h i l d r e n remaining i n the home and those i n care i n such v a r i a b l e s as n u r t u r a n c e , dependency, h o s t i l i t y and e m o t i o n a l i t y . C h i l d care does not prevent c h i l d r e n from forming normal attachments with t h e i r mother. [52] Blanchard and Main (1979) found that c h i l d r e n who spent longer periods of time i n s u b s t i t u t e care had lower scores for avoidance and higher scores for s o c i a l -e m o t i o n a l adjustment. [53] Clarke-Stewart (1982) s t u d i e d c h i l d r e n i n a range of d i f f e r e n t types of care s e t t i n g s , 16 i n c l u d i n g s i t u a t i o n s o f o n l y c h i l d r e n a t home. She c o n c l u d e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n c a r e h a v e more a d v a n c e d s o c i a l s k i l l s , a r e l e s s t i m i d a n d f e a r f u l , more h e l p f u l a n d c o o p e r a t i v e t h a n c h i l d r e n who a r e b e i n g r a i s e d a t home. [ 5 4 ] B e l s k y a n d S t e i n b e r g ( 1 9 7 8 ) c o m p l e t e d v a r i o u s s u r v e y s on t h e r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d on t h e s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n c a r e and c o n c l u d e d t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h a c h i l d c a r e e x p e r i e n c e d e m o n s t r a t e a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f i n t e r a c t i o n and p e e r o r i e n t a t i o n . [ 5 5 ] The i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n h a s been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s o f memory, l a n g u a g e , s y m b o l i c , p i c t o r i a l a n d g e n e r a l s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e . R u b e n s t e i n e t . a l (1981) f o u n d t h a t a t t e n d a n c e i n i n f a n t c a r e c e n t r e s d o e s n o t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t o v e r a l l e m o t i o n a l o r l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . [ 5 6] O t h e r s t u d i e s , s u c h a s t h o s e by D o y l e ( 1 9 7 5 ) , F o w l e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) , B e l s k y and S t e i n b e r g (1978) and Kagan e t . a l (1976) a l l s u p p o r t t h e p r e m i s e t h a t a c h i l d c a r e e x p e r i e n c e n e i t h e r d e t e r i o r a t e s n o r b e n e f i t s t h e c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n . [57] I n t e s t s c o m p l e t e d on c h i l d r e n f r o m a d v a n t a g e d f a m i l i e s , r e s e a r c h does n o t i n d i c a t e any l o n g - t e r m g a i n i n i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . [ 5 8 ] However, when l o o k i n g a t t h e a d v a n t a g e s f o r c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r e c o n o m i c g r o u p s a n d f a m i l i e s a t r i s k , q u a l i t y c h i l d c a r e p r o g r a m s h a v e been shown t o be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r e v e n t i n g a d e c l i n e i n i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . [59] L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s c o m p l e t e d on c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r 17 e x p e r i e n c e s i n c a r e h a v e shown t h a t t h e r e t e n d t o be some l a s t i n g e f f e c t s / i n f l u e n c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h i l d ' s l a t e r y e a r s . B e r r u e t o - C l e m e n t e t . a l ( 1 9 8 4 ) a n d o t h e r s s t a t e t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f c h i l d c a r e t e n d t o h a v e l a s t i n g b e n e f i t s i n i m p r o v i n g t h e s c h o l a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t s d u r i n g s c h o o l y e a r s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h o s e c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d e d c a r e i n p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s had l e s s d e l i n q u e n c y , c r i m e , p r e g n a n c y and d r o p - o u t r a t e s t h a n c h i l d r e n who d i d n o t a t t e n d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s and f a m i l i e s a t r i s k . [ 6 0 ] A l l o f t h e s e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f c a r e on c h i l d r e n a r e o n l y p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , i f t h e c a r e t h e y a r e g i v e n i s q u a l i t y c a r e . The r e v e r s e i s a l s o p o s s i b l e : c h i l d r e n c a n s u f f e r i n s u r m o u n t a b l e e f f e c t s i f t h e c a r e t h e y a r e g i v e n i s n o t a d e q u a t e and m e e t i n g t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a l n e e d s . 1.4.2 The Parents Work i s o n l y one o f many r e a s o n s why p a r e n t s need c h i l d c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . A d e q u a t e , q u a l i t y c h i l d c a r e s e t t i n g s e a s e some o f t h e g u i l t a n d s t r e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e a v i n g a c h i l d and g o i n g t o work. " P a r e n t s w o r r y a b o u t where t h e c h i l d r e n a r e , i f t h e y a r e s a f e and how t h e y a r e d o i n g a s compared t o t h e i r p e e r s . " [61] C h i l d c a r e i s o n e way t o e n a b l e women t o h a v e e q u a l a c c e s s t o e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . " I n b a l a n c i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f f a m i l y and c a r e e r , women more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n men m u s t make d e c i s i o n s o f c o n s e q u e n c e t o t h e i r 18 c a r e e r . " [ 6 2 ] T h e k i n d s o f j o b s women h a v e a r e a l s o a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e t y p e o f a v a i l a b l e c h i l d c a r e . Women a r e o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n p a r t - t i m e j o b s b e c a u s e t h e y o f t e n c a n n o t f i n d a d e q u a t e c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . "Lack o f c h i l d c a r e o r i n a d e q u a t e c h i l d c a r e k e e p s women i n j o b s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e o v e r - q u a l i f i e d a n d p r e v e n t s them f r o m s e e k i n g o r t a k i n g j o b p r o m o t i o n s o r t h e t r a i n i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r a d v a n c e m e n t . " [ 6 3 ] S i n g l e p a r e n t s h a v e a d u a l b u r d e n o f t o t a l f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r a i s i n g t h e c h i l d r e n . The s i n g l e p a r e n t must c o p e a l o n e i n b a l a n c i n g f a m i l y a n d c a r e e r . W h a t e v e r t h e c h i l d ' s needs - p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l o r e d u c a t i o n a l - t h e p a r e n t s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o meet t h e s e n e e d s . Added t o t h i s i s t h e f e e l i n g o f i s o l a t i o n , l o n e l i n e s s a n d d e s p e r a t i o n . The p a r e n t i s l i a b l e t o s u f f e r an e m o t i o n a l o v e r l o a d a n d e n d up n o t b e i n g c a p a b l e o f m e e t i n g a n y o f h e r / h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . [ 6 4 ] Much o f t h i s a l s o a p p l i e s t o m a r r i e d w o r k i n g women, f o r e v e n t h o u g h some s p o u s e s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o ' l e n d a h a n d ' w i t h h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s a n d w i t h r a i s i n g t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s s t i l l t h e m o t h e r ' s . "The w o r k i n g m a r r i e d m o t h e r has t o cope n o t o n l y w i t h p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e b u t w i t h c o n f l i c t b e t w een h e r work and h e r h u s b a n d ' s ; c o n c e r n a b o u t b a l a n c i n g h e r m a t e r n a l , w i f e l y a n d e m p l o y e e r o l e s and g u i l t a b o u t t h e harm she must be d o i n g h e r c h i l d r e n . " [ 6 5 ] A d e q u a t e q u a l i t y c h i l d c a r e c a n do much t o e a s e t h i s b u r d e n . C h i l d c a r e i s a r e s o u r c e and s u p p o r t n o t o n l y f o r w o r k i n g 19 m o t h e r s , b u t a l s o f o r t h o s e p a r e n t s who w i s h t o r e m a i n i n t h e home a n d t a k e c a r e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . E v en t h o u g h p a r e n t s r e m a i n i n t h e home, t h e y s t i l l r e q u i r e t i m e f o r b u s i n e s s o r p e r s o n a l a p p o i n t m e n t s and t i m e f o r t h e m s e l v e s . W i t h o u t c h i l d c a r e i n some f o r m , t h e s e p a r e n t s must have t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h them a l l d a y . T h i s c a n c r e a t e a tremendous s t r a i n and p a r e n t s may b e g i n t o f e e l t r a p p e d , f r u s t r a t e d a n d i s o l a t e d . Many women c a u g h t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n have t u r n e d t o a l c o h o l , d r u g s and c h i l d a b u s e o r n e g l e c t as ways o f a l l e v i a t i n g o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r p r o b l e m s . [66] Some o f t h e n e g l e c t and a b u s e f e l t by b o t h p a r e n t a n d c h i l d c o u l d be a l l e v i a t e d i f t h e r e a r e s o u r c e s o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e p a r e n t s i n t h e f o r m o f c h i l d c a r e . 1.4.3 Employer The m a j o r a d v a n t a g e o f q u a l i t y c h i l d c a r e f o r e m p l o y e r s i s e m p l o y e e p r o d u c t i v i t y . E m p l o y e e s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o w o r r y a b o u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n i f t h e y known t h e c h i l d r e n a r e w e l l t a k e n c a r e o f . L e s s w o r r y means t h e employee c a n c o n c e n t r a t e more on t h e j o b she/he i s b e i n g p a i d t o do. L e s s a b s e n t e e i s m w i l l r e s u l t f r o m q u a l i t y c a r e and p r e v e n t many p a r e n t s f r o m b o o k i n g o f f s i c k o r u s i n g t h e i r h o l i d a y t i m e i n o r d e r t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I f t h e r e i s a c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t y on t h e w o r k - s i t e , p a r e n t s c a n v i s i t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n d u r i n g l u n c h a n d c o f f e e b r e a k s , a n d m o t h e r s c a n b r e a s t f e e d t h e i r y o u n g . A n o t h e r a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t l e s s t i m e i s s p e n t by p a r e n t s i n t r a n s p o r t i n g c h i l d r e n t o an o f f - s i t e c a r e f a c i l i t y . A l l t h i s 20 r e d u c e s a b s e n t e e i s m , t a r d i n e s s a n d s t a f f t u r n o v e r f o r t h e e m p l o y e r . [ 6 7] 1.4.4 S o c i e t y The w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e c h i l d and f a m i l y , i n t u r n , a f f e c t s s o c i e t y . I f t h e r e i s a d e q u a t e q u a l i t y c h i l d c a r e , s i n g l e p a r e n t s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e w i l l be a b l e t o m a i n t a i n j o b s a n d f e e l more s e c u r e a nd l e s s s t i g m a t i z e d b e c a u s e t h e y w i l l no l o n g e r be on ' t h e d o l e 1 . I f i t i s t r u e t h a t c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r e c o n o m i c g r o u p s who a t t e n d p r e - s c h o o l c a r e e x h i b i t l e s s d e l i n q u e n c y , c r i m e a nd t e e n a g e p r e g n a n c y , t h e n s o c i e t y d o e s n o t h a v e t o p a y enormous p r i c e s f o r more d e t e n t i o n c e n t r e s , f o s t e r homes, p o l i c e , c o u r t s , e t c . Q u a l i t y c a r e e n h a n c e s a c h i l d ' s l i f e a n d e n a b l e s t h a t c h i l d t o become a p r o d u c t i v e human b e i n g f o r h i m s e l f and f o r s o c i e t y . 1.5 S o c i a l Work and C h i l d Care C h i l d c a r e , i n t h e l a t e 1 9 t h a n d e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r i e s , was a " c h a r i t a b l e p r o v i s i o n e x t e n d e d t o f a m i l i e s d e m o n s t r a t i n g a n u r g e n t n e e d . " [ 6 8 ] T h e r e was c o n s e n s u s among s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s t h a t t h e s o c i a l i l l s s u f f e r e d by c h i l d r e n were due t o women w o r k i n g . "When t h e mother i s a b s e n t f r o m t h e home, t h e c h i l d r e n a r e s a d l y n e g l e c t e d . The y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n s u f f e r p h y s i c a l l y ; t h e o l d e r ones t h r o u g h l a c k o f d i s c i p l i n e become u t t e r l y unmanageable and t h u s q u a l i f y f o r a l i f e o f c r i m e . I t o u g h t t o be a f i x e d r u l e w i t h s o c i a l w o r k e r s t h a t s u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s s h o u l d be made as w o u l d l e a v e t h e m o t h e r f r e e t o 21 c a r e f o r h e r home and c h i l d r e n . " [69] T h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s c h i l d c a r e resumed i t s c h a r i t a b l e f o c u s , p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s o n l y f o r women w i t h a d e m o n s t r a t e d n e e d t o w o r k . E v e n i n t h e 6 0 ' s t h e s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n v i e w e d c h i l d c a r e "as a c u s t o d i a l s e r v i c e n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e m i n i m a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f m a r g i n a l f a m i l i e s a n d p r o p e r l y a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h a p r o g r a m o f f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g . " [70] Two m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t s c h a l l e n g e d t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w o r k w i t h r e g a r d t o c h i l d c a r e . The f i r s t was t h e i n c r e a s e o f women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e and t h e s e c o n d was t h e g r o w i n g number o f r e s e a r c h e r s armed w i t h e v i d e n c e p r o v i n g t h a t q u a l i t y c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s were n o t d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e w e l l -b e i n g o f t h e c h i l d , b u t were i n many ways b e n e f i c i a l . C h i l d c a r e a t t h i s p o i n t t o o k on a new r o l e : i t became one p r o g r a m i n a h o s t o f many t h a t was o r d e r e d f o r r e l i e v i n g s p e c i f i c s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . C h i l d c a r e was a u s e f u l t o o l f o r d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e s t o " d i s o r g a n i z e d f a m i l i e s , f a m i l i e s b e l i e v e d i n f l u e n t i a l i n p r o l o n g i n g a c u l t u r e o f p o v e r t y g e n e r a t i o n a 1 l y . " [ 7 1 ] C h i l d c a r e was a l s o a n i m p o r t a n t s e r v i c e t o t h o s e c h i l d r e n who were e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d and p h y s i c a l l y o r m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d . The u p s u r g e o f i n t e r e s t and demand f o r c h i l d c a r e meant t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s n e e d e d t o become more i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e need f o r c a r e and t h e b e n e f i t s g a i n e d by b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . S o c i a l w o r k e r s have a l o n g h i s t o r y o f w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e human, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l 22 c o m p l e x i t i e s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e f a m i l y . [ 7 2 ] I n t h e a r e a o f c h i l d c a r e , s o c i a l work has n o t been a s t h o r o u g h a s i t c o u l d be. S o c i a l w o r k e r s t o d a y do n o t p l a y as a c t i v e a r o l e a s t h e y s h o u l d . " I d e a l l y , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d be a g e n e r a l i s t , c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g some o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s s u c h a s c a s e w o r k a nd l i a i s o n t o o t h e r community i n s t i t u t i o n s , b u t a l s o c a p a b l e o f r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e n e e d f o r w h a t m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d 'new work', s u c h as c l i e n t a d v o c a c y and i n v o l v e m e n t i n p a r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n g r o u p s . " [73] I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s t o t a k e a s t a n d when t h e p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y o f t h e c o u n t r y p e r c e i v e s c h i l d c a r e a s a f a m i l y p r o b l e m a n d n o t a s a s o c i e t a l one. S o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e i n v o l v e d i n two ma i n a r e a s o f c h i l d c a r e : d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b s i d y f u n d s f o r c a r e o f q u a l i f y i n g p a r e n t s and i n s p e c t i o n o f new l i c e n s e d f a m i l y c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . C h i l d c a r e , w h i c h h a s a l w a y s been a p r o b l e m a r e a f o r f a m i l i e s , was n o t a m a j o r i s s u e f o r t h e s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n b e c a u s e t h e p r o f e s s i o n d i d n o t c h o o s e t o s e e i t a s a m a j o r p r o b l e m u n t i l r e c e n t l y , when c h i l d c a r e became an u r g e n t p r o b l e m , n o t o n l y f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d b u t f o r a l l g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y . T h e r e i s a g r e a t n e e d f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s t o p l a y a more a c t i v e r o l e i n e n s u r i n g t h a t c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e p r o v i d i n g q u a l i t y c a r e a n d i n a d v o c a t i n g f o r an i n c r e a s e i n s u p p l y t o meet t h e demand. They s h o u l d n o t w a i t u n t i l t h e p r o b l e m s a r e b r o u g h t b e f o r e them, b u t s h o u l d become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i c i e s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g c h i l d c a r e . I f t h e y do n o t , many o f t h e needs o f 23 b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n may go unmet. S o c i a l w o r k e r s have an o b l i g a t i o n t o h e l p o t h e r s , n o t t o b u r y t h e i r h e a d s i n t h e s a n d a n d w a i t f o r p r o b l e m s t o a r i s e . I t i s t h e t i m e f o r p r e v e n t a t i v e s e r v i c e s , n o t r e m e d i a l . 24 CHAPTER TWO; INTERACTION OF PRACTICE AND RESEARCH The g o a l o f c h o o s i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e m e n t was t o be a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h w i t h i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . S i n c e t h i s i s a r e l a t i v e l y new a r e a f o r r e s e a r c h , t h e p r a c t i c e r e s e a r c h w o u l d e n a b l e t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o become f a m i l i a r n o t o n l y w i t h r e s e a r c h , b u t a l s o w i t h p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s , and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e when i m p l e m e n t i n g r e s e a r c h . The s e t t i n g f o r f i e l d p r a c t i c e was c h o s e n w i t h r e s e a r c h i n m i n d . The r e s e a r c h e r made t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e M u n i c i p a l H a l l i n R i c h m o n d , B.C. T h e r e s e a r c h e r w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y c o n t a c t e d by t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t and g i v e n a c h o i c e o f s e v e r a l a r e a s on w h i c h r e s e a r c h c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d . The most f e a s i b l e a r e a f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s t u d y was c h i l d c a r e b e c a u s e t h i s a r e a w o u l d b e s t s a t i s f y t h e c r i t e r i a a n d g o a l s s e t o u t by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . A c u r r e n t s t u d y h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d b y t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t c o n c e r n i n g l i c e n s e d c e n t r e s a n d c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , b u t no s t u d y h a d b e e n c o n d u c t e d on t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e s i n c e 1981. The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t a g r e e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h a t c h i l d c a r e w o u l d be a f e a s i b l e a r e a t o s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e r e had b e e n numerous o t h e r s t u d i e s c o m p l e t e d w h i c h i n d i c a t e d a need y e t t h e r e were no f o l l o w up r e s u l t s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , v a r i o u s s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s had r e p o r t e d t o t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t t h a t many p e o p l e i n t h e community 25 were r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . A f t e r t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y o n L i c e n s e d C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s a n d F a c i l i t i e s ( 1 9 8 6 ) , t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t d e c i d e d t h a t i n o r d e r f o r them t o be a b l e t o a s s i s t s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and t h e community a t l a r g e i n d e v e l o p i n g a s e r v i c e , t h e r e was a need t o h a v e some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e a nd e x t e n t o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e . The f i r s t i s s u e f a c e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r was t o a s s e s s t h e p r e v i o u s " s t u d y o n c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a n d l o c a t e t h e a r e a o f g r e a t e s t n e e d . The s u p e r v i s o r a nd r e s e a r c h e r d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h t h e o p t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h on t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e . A l s o a t t h i s t i m e , t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t was c o n t a c t e d by a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t e r e s t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t y . I t was d e c i d e d a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t a r e a s o f c a r e w h i c h were p r e s e n t l y n o t o f f e r e d i n Richmond a s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t u d y on L i c e n s e d C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s and F a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . A r e a s s u c h a s 24-hour c h i l d c a r e a nd e m e r g e n c y / t e m p o r a r y c a r e were i n d i c a t e d i n t h e 1986 s t u d y , b u t a l s o s o c i a l a g e n c i e s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y had r e p o r t e d t h e need f o r b o t h o f t h e s e t y p e s o f c a r e . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a d u a l p u r p o s e i n m i n d - t o f a c i l i t a t e o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s / o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g a s e r v i c e and t o a s s i s t t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e e x a c t e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f t h e n e e d , s o t h a t t h e y c o u l d p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o o t h e r g r o u p s w i s h i n g t o i m p l e m e n t c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s . 26 A f t e r much r e s e a r c h and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h v a r i o u s g r o u p s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t and t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d t h a t t h e r e were no 24-hour f a c i l i t i e s b u t t h e r e was a n e e d f o r t h i s t y p e o f s e t t i n g . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e s c o p e o f t h e r e s e a r c h c h a n g e d t o e m e r g e n c y / t e m p o r a r y c a r e b e c a u s e t h e r e w e r e no 2 4 - h o u r c a r e f a c i l i t i e s t o i n v e s t i g a t e . Terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e s t u d y were drawn up by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o a s s e s s t h e need f o r e m e r g e n c y / t e m -p o r a r y c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a n d t o s u g g e s t m e t h o d s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g s u c h s e r v i c e s . The r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d k e y p e o p l e i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d f o r t h e i r k n o w l e d g e a n d a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e d e g r e e o f n e e d a n d s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r emergency c h i l d c a r e . A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e was c o n d u c t e d i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s . When t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g was c o m p l e t e d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r p r e p a r e d a p a p e r d e t a i l i n g t h e m a j o r i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g e m e r g e n c y / t e m p o r a r y c a r e . I t was a g r e e d a t t h i s t i m e t h a t i t w o u l d n o t be e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e t o c r e a t e a f a c i l i t y t h a t c a t e r e d o n l y t o t e m p o r a r y c a r e b e c a u s e many o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d who had e s t a b l i s h e d emergency c a r e , f o u n d i t was n o t e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e i t was a g r e e d t h a t e m e r g e n c y c a r e c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g c a r e c e n t r e s . The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t met w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e n o n - p r o f i t a g e n c y and t h e H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t . A t t h i s m e e t i n g , t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f an emergency c e n t r e , a c e n t r e f o r c h i l d r e n 27 u n d e r t h r e e a n d a 2 4 - h o u r c a r e c e n t r e w e r e d i s c u s s e d . A p r o p o s e d m e t h o d o l o g y f o r a n e e d s s u r v e y i n t h e a r e a o f e mergency c a r e was t a b l e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n . I t was a g r e e d t h a t t h e p a p e r c o m p l e t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h o s e p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d t h e m e e t i n g and t o o t h e r s w i s h i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g emergency c a r e . A t t h i s s t a g e , t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t and t h e r e s e a r c h e r had a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f some o f t h e a r e a s i n w h i c h n e e d s w e r e n o t b e i n g met, b u t s t i l l d i d n o t h a v e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e o f t h e t r u e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e i n o t h e r a r e a s . The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t had an i n q u i r y f r o m s t a f f a t t h e W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d r e g a r d i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t y t o s e r v e t h e needs o f t h e i r e m p l o y e e s . The W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d , t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t and t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i s c u s s e d t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n w o r k - r e l a t e d c h i l d c a r e . The r e s e a r c h e r c o m p l e t e d a r e v i e w on t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f w o r k - r e l a t e d c a r e a n d p r e s e n t e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e E m p l o y e e S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n o f t h e R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l was e x p l o r i n g ways t o meet t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e among t h e i r e m p l o y e e s . S i n c e b o t h i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f e a c h o t h e r i n an a r e a w i t h no c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t and t h e r e s e a r c h e r l o o k e d a t what o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h a t a r e a m i g h t n e e d c h i l d c a r e . K w a n t l e n 28 C o l l e g e was i d e n t i f i e d a s a n o t h e r m a j o r i n s t i t u t i o n w h o s e s t u d e n t s w o u l d need c h i l d c a r e . P l a n n i n g s t a f f met w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d , R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e and H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t s t a f f t o d i s c u s s t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f a c o m b i n e d i n i t i a t i v e . K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e r e g a r d e d c h i l d c a r e a s a l o w e r p r i o r i t y c o m p a r e d w i t h i t s f a c i l i t y s p a c e i s s u e , b u t was w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e . A l l p a r t i e s w e r e r e c e p t i v e t o a c o m b i n e d i n i t i a t i v e , a s i t a p p e a r e d f r o m p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on o t h e r c e n t r e s t h a t one o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o n e c o u l d n o t s u s t a i n a f a c i l i t y . To b e g i n , a l l t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s a g r e e d t o u n d e r t a k e a s u r v e y o f e m p l o y e e s and s t u d e n t s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s u r v e y was t o a s s e s s t h e c h i l d c a r e n e e d s f o r t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . The p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i e d by t h e g r o u p was t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f need f o r c h i l d c a r e w i t h i n e a c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f f e r e d t o a s s i s t w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h a n d d a t a a n a l y s i s . The r e s e a r c h e r was t o d e v e l o p a d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w o u l d d i s t r i b u t e . T h e C o l l e g e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d a t r e g i s t r a t i o n a n d t h e h o s p i t a l w o u l d d i s t r i b u t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on a s e l e c t e d p a y p e r i o d . The h o s p i t a l a l s o o f f e r e d t o l o o k a f t e r t h e p r i n t i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d s t a f f r e q u i r e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n f r o m t h e i r s e n i o r management t o p r o c e e d . M u n i c i p a l H a l l s t a f f had t o d i s c u s s t h e s u r v e y w i t h t h e P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t m e n t and w i t h 29 t h e U n i o n . The g r o u p s e t a t a r g e t d a t e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e t u r n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y and t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s , a c l o s e r p i c t u r e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e n e e d w o u l d e m e r g e , s o t h a t t h e f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d a n d p o t e n t i a l s i t e s i d e n t i f i e d . P l a n n i n g s t a f f w o u l d f o l l o w up t o f i n a l i z e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and d i s t r i b u t e t h e s e t o t h e g r o u p s i n v o l v e d . I n o r d e r t o h e l p t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , v a r i o u s o t h e r s u r v e y s c o m p l e t e d i n t h e a r e a o f c h i l d c a r e were r e v i e w e d . S e v e r a l i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e need f o r c a r e were i d e n t i f i e d ; t h e s e were t y p e s o f c a r e , h o u r s o f c a r e , c o s t , p r e s e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n . B e c a u s e emergency c a r e was a c u r r e n t i s s u e , i t was f e l t t h a t a q u e s t i o n s h o u l d a s k what t h e s a m p l e ' s a t t i t u d e was t o w a r d i n c l u d i n g emergency c a r e i n an e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y . An i n i t i a l d r a f t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d r a w n up by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T h e P l a n n i n g s t a f f a n d t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e v i e w e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o d e t e r m i n e i f i t w o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e a r e a s o f n e e d . A s e c o n d d r a f t was d r a w n up and d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e t h r e e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d t o t h e H e a t h D e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e i r a n a l y s i s and i n p u t . Changes were made t o t h e s e c o n d d r a f t and o n c e more d i s t r i b u t e d f o r a f i n a l c r i t i q u e . T h i s was t h e o n l y p r e - t e s t i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The f i n a l d r a f t was t h e n g i v e n t o t h e h o s p i t a l f o r p r i n t i n g . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e M u n i c i p a l s t a f f a n d t h e U n i o n 30 d i s c u s s e d t h e s u r v e y . I t was n o t e d t h a t s e v e r a l y e a r s a g o , t h e U n i o n c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y and t h a t p r e s e n t l y t h e r e were no p l a n s t o do a n o t h e r . The P l a n n i n g s t a f f and t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d t o p o s t p o n e s u r v e y i n g M u n i c i p a l H a l l u n t i l a l a t e r d a t e and t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e o t h e r t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s . The r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d t h e p r i n t e d s u r v e y s f r o m t h e h o s p i t a l and d i s t r i b u t e d them t o K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e . D i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e C o l l e g e c o n c e r n i n g t h e m o s t f e a s i b l e m e t h o d o f d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e s u r v e y f o l l o w e d . T h e C o l l e g e a n d t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e c i d e d t h a t a s i g n s t a t i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h w o u l d be p o s t e d a b o v e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a t r e g i s t r a t i o n . The R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l d e c i d e d t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on a mid-month pay p e r i o d . The W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d a t t h i s p o i n t h a d s t i l l n o t r e c e i v e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n f r o m t h e i r s e n i o r management t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e s u r v e y . W h i l e t h e r e s e a r c h e r was a w a i t i n g t h e r e t u r n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o t h e r a r e a s w h e r e c h i l d c a r e c o u l d b e i m p l e m e n t e d were r e s e a r c h e d . I n c o r p o r a t i n g c h i l d c a r e w i t h i n e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s was o n e o f t h e a r e a s . C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h s c h o o l b o a r d m e m b e r s a n d c h i l d c a r e s u p e r v i s o r s o p e r a t i n g c e n t r e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i d e a was e c o n o m i c a l l y and o p e r a t i o n a l l y f e a s i b l e . Two w e e k s a f t e r t h e s u r v e y s had been d i s t r i b u t e d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n t a c t e d b o t h t h e R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l and 31 K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e t o c o l l e c t t h e r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I t was n o t e d t h a t t h e r e t u r n r a t e f o r t h e h o s p i t a l was v e r y l o w , s o t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n d h o s p i t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d i s c u s s e d m e t h o d s o f g e t t i n g m o r e e m p l o y e e s t o r e t u r n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The method f i n a l l y d e c i d e d on was t o p o s t a s i g n w h e r e e m p l o y e e s c o l l e c t t h e i r p a y c h e q u e s , s t a t i n g t h e u r g e n c y o f r e t u r n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A f t e r t h i s n o t i c e h a d b e e n p o s t e d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r w a i t e d a n o t h e r t w o w e e k s b e f o r e c o n t a c t i n g t h e h o s p i t a l . When t h e two weeks were up, t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d a n o t h e r m e e t i n g w i t h t h e h o s p i t a l a n d d i s c o v e r e d t h a t no more q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h a d b e e n r e t u r n e d . They d i s c u s s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e s u r v e y i n g a n d / o r e n l i s t i n g t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f k e y p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e h o s p i t a l , s u c h a s h e a d n u r s e s , t o r e q u e s t t h e i r c o - w o r k e r s t o r e t u r n t h e s u r v e y s . T hey a l s o d i s c u s s e d p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h e l o w r e t u r n r a t e . The r e s u l t s o f a t h i r d m e e t i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e s u r v e y i n g was n o t p o s s i b l e a t t h i s t i m e a n d t h a t o n e p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e low r e t u r n r a t e was t h a t t h e h o s p i t a l e m p l o y e e s were ' s u r v e y e d o u t ' . K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e a l s o had p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y ; no one c o m p l e t e d a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t r e g i s t r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , a member o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e team h a d t h r e e i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e C o n t i n u o u s E n t e r i n g P r o g r a m d i s t r i b u t e t h e s u r v e y s i n c l a s s . The r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d t h e s u r v e y r e s u l t s a n d met w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f a n d a s t u d e n t b o d y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o work o u t a b e t t e r m e t h o d o f 32 s u r v e y i n g t h e C o l l e g e . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t d u e t o t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s a n d l a c k o f i n t e r e s t , an a d d i t i o n a l s u r v e y w o u l d n o t be c a r r i e d o u t . W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e s u r v e y . They u t i l i z e d t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e b u t d i d t h e i r own p r i n t i n g . A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r w r i t t e n by t h e C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d was a t t a c h e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g . The W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d c o n t a c t e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r when t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d . The r e s e a r c h e r i n f o r m e d a l l t h r e e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a m e e t i n g w o u l d be c o n v e n e d t o j o i n t l y d i s c u s s t h e s u r v e y r e s u l t s . The r e s e a r c h e r w o u l d a n a l y z e t h e d a t a f o r t h e t h r e e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n two ways. F i r s t , t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d be g i v e n f o r e a c h o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e n an o v e r v i e w o f a l l t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d be g i v e n . A b r i e f summary i d e n t i f y i n g t h e n e e d a n d e x t e n t o f t h e need w o u l d be g i v e n as w e l l a s s u c c e s s e s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s u r v e y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s u r v e y s h o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e t y p e o f c a r e n e e d e d , h o u r s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d , p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f c a r e a n d a m o u n t o f m o n i e s s p e n t on c h i l d c a r e . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s w i l l g u i d e t h o s e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a f a c i l i t y w i t h i n t h e town c e n t r e a s t o what t y p e o f s e t t i n g w i l l b e s t meet t h e n e e d s o f t h o s e w i l l i n g t o u t i l i z e t h e s e r v i c e . The s u r v e y r e s u l t s w i l l a l s o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r i t i s 33 p o s s i b l e t o i m p l e m e n t w o r k - r e l a t e d c h i l d c a r e i n e i t h e r W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d o r Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l work s i t e s . T h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l a l s o f i l l a g a p i n e x i s t i n g k n o w l e d g e f o r t h e P l a n n i n g s t a f f . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s l i m i t e d i n s c o p e t o o n e s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a r e a b e c a u s e t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d w a n t e d t o l i m i t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d t o t h e i r e m p l o y e e s , t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t i n g g e n e r a l d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ( a g e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , i n c o m e ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s u l t s c a n o n l y be g e n e r a l i z e d t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f R i c h m o n d . To e n s u r e t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s r o l e w i l l be t o d i s c u s s t h e p r o ' s and c o n ' s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s t o i n t e r e s t e d community g r o u p s and t o a s s i s t them i n m a k i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . T h i s c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o c e s s o f p r a c t i c e a n d r e s e a r c h c a r r i e s w i t h i t b o t h a d v a n t a g e s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s . T h e l i m i t a t i o n s were few, b u t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e was n o t enough t i m e t o f u l f i l l b o t h p r a c t i c e and r e s e a r c h c r i t e r i a . Much o f t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e was 'crammed' i n t o a v e r y s h o r t t i m e p e r i o d b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s s c h e d u l e . On t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e , p r a c t i c e and r e s e a r c h c o i n c i d e d t o a i d t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s t u d y . T h i s t y p e o f p r o c e s s g a v e a t r u e p i c t u r e o f what a c t u a l l y o c c u r s i n t h e r e a l w o r l d and one must be p r e p a r e d t o a l t e r n a t e s c h e d u l e s , r e v i s e work and e v e n c o n s i d e r a c o m p l e t e change o f s t r a t e g y . The p r o c e s s i s a l s o a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n s t r e n g t h e n i n g r e s e a r c h , a n a l y t i c a l 34 s k i l l s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s i n w o r k i n g w i t h v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f c o m m u n i t y a g e n c y s t a f f , i n a s s e m b l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and i n j o i n t p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . I t a l s o h e l p s one t o l e a r n how t o b a l a n c e p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l commitments i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a m a n a g e a b l e w o r k l o a d . 35 CHAPTER THREE: THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 3.1 Issues S e l e c t e d f o r Research S e v e r a l i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d c a r e w e re s e l e c t e d f o r r e s e a r c h ; h o w e v e r , t h e mai n c o n c e r n was t o c l a r i f y t h e need i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t y a n d p o t e n t i a l s i t e s w i t h i n t h e 'town c e n t r e ' . I s s u e s t h a t w o u l d e l i c i t a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e were p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n f o r c h i l d c a r e , t h e a g e r a n g e o f t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e h o u r s o f o p e r a t i o n and t y p e s o f p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e d . The t y p e s o f c a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t were: (a) G r o u p day c a r e - p r o v i d e s c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n 3 months t o 18 months f o r up t o 10 h o u r s p e r d a y ; (b) G r o u p d a y c a r e - p r o v i d e s c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n 18 months t o 36 months f o r up t o 10 h o u r s p e r d a y ; ( c ) G r o u p day c a r e - p r o v i d e s c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n 3 y e a r s t o s c h o o l age f o r up t o 10 h o u r s p e r d a y ; (d) N u r s e r y s c h o o l - p r o v i d e s c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n 32 months t o s c h o o l age f o r a maximum o f 3 h o u r s p e r day; (e) O u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e - p r o v i d e s c a r e f o r s c h o o l - a g e d c h i l d r e n b e f o r e and a f t e r n o r m a l s c h o o l h o u r s - a l s o p r o v i d e s f u l l - d a y c a r e d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f s c h o o l c l o s u r e ( i . e . , P r o f e s s i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t d a y s and s c h o o l v a c a t i o n ) ; ( f ) S p e c i a l i z e d d a y c a r e - p r o v i d e s a l l - d a y c a r e f o r maximum o f 10 h o u r s f o r s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n f r o m b i r t h t o s c h o o l age; (g) O v e r n i g h t c a r e - p r o v i d e s c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n o f a l l a g e s f o r p e r i o d s up t o 10 h o u r s . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e i s s u e s was t h e c o n c e r n f o r e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s s u e was 36 s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e a t p r e s e n t no s u c h s e r v i c e s e x i s t i n R i c h m o n d and o n l y a few s p a c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . 3.2 R a t i o n a l e f o r S e l e c t i o n of Issues T h e r a t i o n a l e f o r s e l e c t i n g c h i l d c a r e i s s u e s was p a r t i a l l y due t o a r e c e n t s t u d y c o m p l e t e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t on t h e number o f l i c e n s e d c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s s t u d y c o v e r e d t h e s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e b u t d i d n o t d e f i n e t h e d e g r e e o f n e e d . The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t and t h e r e s e a r c h e r a g r e e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o c h i l d c a r e , a n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t was r e q u i r e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ' s c o n c e r n , t h e R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l a n d t h e W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d w e re e x p l o r i n g ways t o meet t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e among t h e i r e m p l o y e e s . Armed w i t h t h e s e c o n c e r n s and t h e f a c t t h a t no f a c i l i t y p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e 'town c e n t r e ' , i t was d e c i d e d t o p l a n a s t u d y t h a t w o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e a n a s s e s s m e n t o f needs f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s a s w e l l a s f o r t h e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a . 3.3 Purpose of Research The p u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h was t o a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e o f n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e w i t h i n e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n a n d w i t h i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g a f a c i l i t y w i t h i n t h e 'town c e n t r e * . I n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e n e e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o m e asure 37 t h e d e g r e e o f need , d e t e r m i n e t h e age r a n g e o f t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e t y p e and h o u r s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d and w h e t h e r o r n o t p a r e n t s w o u l d u t i l i z e a f a c i l i t y i n t h e a r e a . Q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e a b o v e a n d c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s . 3.4 Knowledge-Building Functions The k n o w l e d g e - b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n s u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e e x p l o r a t o r y a n d m a p p i n g . The e x p l o r a t o r y f u n c t i o n " i s n o t t e r r i t o r y , a s i n g e o g r a p h y , b u t t h e raw d a t a and o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e , human p r o b l e m s , o r t h e w o r k i n g s o f s o c i a l p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m . " [ 7 4 ] The p u r p o s e o f t h i s f u n c t i o n i s t o g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a and t o s t i m u l a t e i d e a s i n s o l v i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s . The mapping f u n c t i o n a i d s i n b u i l d i n g " c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e s t h a t h e l p o r d e r t h e raw d a t a a n d g e n e r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d e x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m s t u d i e d . " [ 7 5] The v a r i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o u n d i n t h e raw d a t a w i l l e n a b l e t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e n e e d , n o t o n l y f o r t h e sample as a w h o l e , b u t a l s o f o r e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n . These v a r i a b l e s w i l l h e l p d e t e r m i n e t h e t y p e o f c e n t r e r e q u i r e d by t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s . 38 3.5 Major Concepts The c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l c h o s e n was t h e D i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l . T h i s i s t h e o n l y f e a s i b l e m o d e l when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e u s e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e - b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n s . The c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l i s p r i m a r i l y u s e d t o s o r t o u t n e e d s - who n e e d s what t y p e o f c h i l d c a r e a n d when. The r e s e a r c h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e as t h e method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n b o t h f a l l i n t o t h e D i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s t h e m e t h o d o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s f o r a l a r g e number o f s u b j e c t s . M a j o r c u r r e n t i s s u e s were t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when f o r m u l a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h e s e i s s u e s v a r i e d f r o m s p e c i f i c d e m o g r a p h i c s , s u c h as e c o n o m i c i n c o m e , t o p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f a c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t y . However, i n t h e c a s e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e m a j o r i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d c a r e were n a r r o w e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s a n d v i e w s o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . D e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c a r e were r e s e a r c h e d and e x p l a i n e d as p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . H a v i n g d e c i d e d o n t h e v a r i o u s c o n c e r n s , a l l r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d and d e v e l o p e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e d a t a w o u l d p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n e e d s . T h e r e does n o t e x i s t any t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n g u i d i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a n u n d e r l y i n g m a j o r c o n c e p t - c o n s u m e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c y m a k i n g . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have consumer p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y and i n t h e f u t u r e p r o j e c t b e c a u s e t h e s e r v i c e c r e a t e d w i l l be t o meet 39 t h e c o n s u m e r s ' n e e d s a n d w i t h o u t t h e i r i n p u t , t h e p r o j e c t c a n n o t be u n d e r t a k e n . 3.6 Relevant Research T h e p r o b l e m o f c h i l d c a r e i s n o t r e s e r v e d t o o n e c o m m u n i t y b u t t o C a n a d a a t l a r g e . Due t o t h e i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d c a r e , r e c e n t s t u d i e s have a d d r e s s e d n o t o n l y t h e r e a s o n why c a r e i s needed b u t a l s o t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f t h e nee d . A S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on C h i l d C a r e (1987) n o t e d t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e had i n c r e a s e d f r o m 45% i n 1976 t o 55% i n 1986. When t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s b r o k e n down t o t h o s e women who h a v e c h i l d r e n , t h e C o m m i t t e e f o u n d t h a t i n 1986, 56% had c h i l d r e n under t h e age o f 3 y e a r s , 61.6% h a d c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 3 - 5 y e a r s a n d 6 8 . 3 % h a d c h i l d r e n b e t ween t h e ages o f 6 - 15 y e a r s . The C o m m i t t e e a l s o f o u n d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 3 % o f C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s a r e b e l o w t h e p o v e r t y l e v e l a n d o f t h i s 1 3 % , 64% a r e s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s w i t h p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . [76] The S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e (1987) c a r r i e d o u t s u r v e y s a c r o s s C a n a d a t o a s s e s s t h e n u m b e r o f s p a c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s e t t i n g s . I n 1986, t h e l i c e n s e d c e n t r e s t h a t s e r v e c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 3 - 6 y e a r s h a d 197,802 l i c e n s e d c e n t r e s p a c e s ; 91,115 i n n o n - p r o f i t s e t t i n g s , 79,754 i n c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s and 26,933 u n d e r g o v e r n m e n t a u s p i c e s . F a m i l y c h i l d c a r e c e n t r e s , e x c e p t i n N e w f o u n d l a n d , 40 had 22,715 s p a c e s i n 1986. I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e C o m m i t t e e f o u n d t h a t t h e r e w e r e no p u b l i c c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s b u t t h e r e w e r e 11,415 s p a c e s i n n o n - p r o f i t a n d 4,299 s p a c e s i n c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were 4,086 s p a c e s i n f a m i l y c h i l d c a r e s e t t i n g s . [ 7 7 ] The c o m m i t t e e ( 1 9 8 7 ) , b r o k e down t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s i n t o age c a t e g o r i e s . T h e r e were 202,498 c h i l d r e n a g e s b i r t h t o 17 m o n t h s u s i n g 13,969 s p a c e s o r 6.9% o f c h i l d r e n i n t h i s a ge g r o u p s w e r e s e r v e d ; 1 9 8 , 0 0 8 c h i l d r e n f r o m 18 - 35 m o n t h s u t i l i z e d 27,605 s p a c e s o r 13.9% o f c h i l d r e n were s e r v e d ; a nd 397,311 c h i l d r e n a ged 3 - 5 y e a r s o f age u s e d 134,826 s p a c e s o r 33.9% were s e r v e d . [ 7 8] These f i g u r e s do n o t i n c l u d e o l d e r c h i l d r e n . L a t c h k e y c h i l d r e n a r e t h o s e who a t t e n d s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e day a nd t h e r e f o r e need c a r e b e f o r e a n d / o r a f t e r s c h o o l . The S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e d i d n o t h a v e s p e c i f i c n u m b e r s o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n n e e d i n g c a r e b u t d i d do a p r o j e c t e d a n a l y s i s b a s e d on 1 9 8 1 f i n d i n g s o f c h i l d r e n n e e d i n g c a r e . I n 1 9 8 1 , a c r o s s C a n a d a , t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 234,000 l a t c h k e y c h i l d r e n ; i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 9 8 6 , t h e r e w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 6 , 0 0 0 c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e o f 6 - 12 y e a r s who n e e d c a r e . H o w e v e r , t h e C o m m i t t e e n o t e d t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s may be l o w b e c a u s e p a r e n t s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o r e p o r t t h a t t h e y l e a v e t h e i r c h i l d u n a t t e n d e d . [ 79] The S t a t u s o f Women ( 1 9 8 5 ) , under K a t i e Cook, c o m p l e t e d a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s on c h i l d c a r e . T h e i r f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g 41 t h e number o f women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e and t h e number o f a v a i l a b l e s p a c e s f o r c h i l d c a r e f a l l i n l i n e w i t h t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e ' s r e p o r t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e Cook r e p o r t a l s o l o o k e d a t p r o b l e m s and i s s u e s o f v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s . They f o u n d t h a t i m m i g r a n t s , a s a w h o l e , do n o t show a p r e f e r e n c e f o r one p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f c h i l d c a r e . They p r e f e r " a c c e s s t o c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d c e n t r e s a n d f a m i l y c a r e w h i c h a c c o m m o d a t e s t h e i r w o r k i n g h o u r s , r e s p o n d s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h s e n s i t i v i t y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a n d p r o v i d e s t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h a n e n v i r o n m e n t w h e r e a c c u l t u r a t i o n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y c a n t a k e p l a c e . " [ 8 0 ] The C o o k T a s k F o r c e ( 1 9 8 5 ) n o t e d t h a t p r o b l e m s w h i c h a f f e c t C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s - t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a v a i l a b i l i t y , a n d a f f o r d a b i l i t y o f c h i l d c a r e - a l s o a f f e c t s m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . H o w e v e r , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s , m i n o r i t y g r o u p s a l s o f a c e a l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m . The m a j o r i t y o f e t h n i c f a m i l i e s do n o t want t h e i r c h i l d r e n c a r e d f o r i n ' e t h n i c ' c e n t r e s , b u t want t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n C a n a d a ' s l a n g u a g e and c u s t o m s . [81] M e r r i e l ( 1 9 8 5 ) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y on t h e e x p e r i e n c e s and n e e d s o f i m m i g r a n t women i n t h e H a l i f a x - D a r t m o u t h a r e a t o d e t e r m i n e some o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y p e r c e i v e i n a d a p t i n g t o l i f e i n C a n a d a . Among i m m i g r a n t women's c o n c e r n s was t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and a f f o r d a b i l i t y o f c h i l d c a r e . T h e i r c o n c e r n s were s i m i l a r t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f i m m i g r a n t s s t u d i e d i n t h e Cook T a s k F o r c e ; t h e m a j o r i t y s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a need f o r more 42 a c c e s s i b l e and a f f o r d a b l e c h i l d c a r e w h i c h w o u l d m a i n s t r e a m t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . [ 82] A s t u d y c o m p l e t e d on " C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s f o r S t a t u s I n d i a n s R e s i d i n g on R e s e r v e s " , c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n a l l o f Canada t h e r e were o n l y 1,432 s p a c e s i n n a t i v e c h i l d c a r e c e n t r e s on r e s e r v e s . O u t o f t h e s e s p a c e s O n t a r i o a n d A l b e r t a h a d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 , 3 0 0 , w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o v i n c e s c o n t r i b u t i n g v e r y l i t t l e . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e r e were no known f i g u r e s , b u t i n 1984/85 t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t a l l o c a t e d m o n i e s t o a s s i s t t h r e e b ands w i t h o p e r a t i n g c h i l d c a r e c e n t r e s . The c e n t r e s t h a t do e x i s t o f f e r o n l y t h e b a s i c s e r v i c e s and do n o t have t h e money f o r t o y s o r e q u i p m e n t " t h a t w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a d e q u a t e f o r a day c a r e c e n t r e i n a m i d d l e c l a s s a r e a o f C anada". [ 8 3 ] The Cook T a s k F o r c e (1985) s u r v e y e d 336 f a m i l i e s a c r o s s Canada t o i d e n t i f y t h e n a t u r e o f c h i l d c a r e needs o f v a r i o u s f a m i l i e s . T h e f a m i l i e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y u t i l i z e d c h i l d c a r e b e c a u s e t h e y n eeded: - s u p e r v i s i o n o f c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s w e r e e m p l o y e d o u t s i d e t h e home o r who were a t t e n d i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l o r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m ; - s u p p o r t and c a r e o f c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l n e e d s ; - a i d i n d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n 's s o c i a l s k i l l s ; - s h o r t - t e r m emergency c a r e ; - t i m e t o e n a b l e p a r e n t s t o t a k e p a r t i n v o l u n t e e r o r community a c t i v i t i e s . [84] They f o u n d t h a t f o r t h o s e p a r e n t s who r e q u i r e f u l l - t i m e c h i l d 43 c a r e , 4 1 . 2 % h a d c h i l d r e n u n d e r 2 y e a r s o f a g e , 5 0 . 9 % h a d p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a g e d 2 - 5 y e a r s and 5 7 . 3 % had c h i l d r e n a g e d 6 - 1 2 y e a r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e c a r e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 % o f f a m i l i e s r e q u i r e d c a r e o n r e g u l a r e v e n i n g s a n d / o r weekends f o r w o r k - r e l a t e d r e a s o n s . [ 8 5 ] The Task F o r c e a l s o e x a m i n e d t h e need f o r c a r e a s b a c k - u p a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t d a y s , summer h o l i d a y s , when t h e c h i l d was i l l o r when t h e r e g u l a r c a r e g i v e r a r r a n g e m e n t s b r o k e down. " U n r e l i a b l e c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s were shown t o d i r e c t l y a f f e c t a b s e n t e e i s m f r o m work o r c l a s s e s i n 30 f a m i l i e s ( 1 0 % o f s a m p l e g r o u p ) . " [86] The Task F o r c e f o u n d t h a t t h e r e were v e r y few s h o r t - t e r m emergency c e n t r e s i n u r b a n a r e a s a n d one i n r u r a l a r e a s ; t h e r e were o n l y a few c e n t r e s f o r s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e summer mo n t h s , and t h e r e was a n i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f c e n t r e s w h i c h s e r v e d m i n o r i t y g r o u p s and s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n . [87] S t e v e n s (1984) c o m p l e t e d a s t u d y o f c h i l d c a r e n eeds i n W i n n i p e g t o a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e o f s u p p l y a n d demand. T h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5,700 a d d i t i o n a l p r e - s c h o o l a n d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e s p a c e s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o meet t h e c u r r e n t demand. T h i s i n c r e a s e i n s u p p l y r e p r e s e n t s 6 2 % o f e x i s t i n g l i c e n s e d c h i l d c a r e s p a c e s . S t e v e n s n o t e s t h a t i f "one c o n s i d e r s i n t h i s t h e i n a d e q u a t e q u a l i t y o f e x i s t i n g c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s , t h e gap between s u p p l y and demand w o u l d i n c r e a s e " . [88] T h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o 44 (1984) s u r v e y e d 321 l i c e n s e d g r o u p c a r e and p r i v a t e home c a r e p r o g r a m s s e r v i n g p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . T h e s e c e n t r e s a c c o m m o d a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 17,750 c h i l d r e n , b u t t h e w a i t i n g l i s t was o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h i s number. However, t h e s e f i g u r e s c a n n o t be c a s t i n s t o n e and some c e n t r e s do n o t k e e p w a i t i n g l i s t s and some p a r e n t s p u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s names on more t h a n one l i s t . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e number o f c h i l d r e n ' s names p l a c e d on w a i t i n g l i s t s , t h e number o f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g c a r e f a r e x c e e d s t h e s u p p l y . T h i s s t u d y a l s o s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s a r e n o t c l e a r b e c a u s e o n l y l i c e n s e d c e n t r e s were s u r v e y e d a nd d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h o s e p a r e n t s u t i l i z i n g u n l i c e n s e d c a r e o r no c a r e a t a l l f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . [89] The t r e n d t o w a r d s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s c o n t i n u e s . The m a j o r i t y o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s a r e i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e o u t o f e c o n o m i c n e c e s s i t y . T h e r e was an i n c r e a s e o f 44% i n s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s b e t ween 1941 and 1981 i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . I n 1981 i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 3 % o f d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n were l i v i n g i n a s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a c c o r d i n g t o 1981 s t a t i s t i c s , t h e r e were 3 d i v o r c e s f o r e v e r y 8 m a r r i a g e s . [ 9 0 ] T h a t same y e a r i n R i c h m o n d , 10% o f a l l f a m i l i e s were headed by s i n g l e p a r e n t s and t h e t r e n d s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e number o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s w i l l i n c r e a s e . [ 9 1 ] S e v e r a l s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d i n R i c h m o n d c o n c e r n i n g t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e a n d t h e f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e . I n 1981 t h e Richmond P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t c o m p l e t e d a n i n - d e p t h s t u d y o n t h e n e e d s a n d r e s o u r c e s o f 45 c h i l d c a r e . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y 1,134 c h i l d r e n w e r e b e i n g t a k e n c a r e o f i n 47 l i c e n s e d f a c i l i t i e s , a n d t h a t 3 5 . 3 % o f f a m i l i e s h a v e c h i l d r e n t a k e n c a r e o f i n t h e i r own homes. T h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150 t o 300 c h i l d r e n t u r n e d away e a c h month f r o m l i c e n s e d f a c i l i t i e s due t o l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e s p a c e . [92] A c o m m u n i t y n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t c o m p l e t e d i n E a s t R i c h m o n d i n F e b r u a r y 1986, s t a t e d t h a t o u t o f 69 r e s p o n d e n t s 27% were i n n eed o f some t y p e o f c h i l d c a r e . W i t h i n t h e E a s t R i c h m o n d a r e a , t h e r e were o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f p r e - s c h o o l s and one o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e p r o g r a m . " A p a r t f r o m t h e s e o r a n y b a b y s i t t i n g s e r v i c e s a p a r e n t m i g h t be a b l e t o a r r a n g e , t h e r e a r e no g r o u p o f f a m i l y day c a r e s i n t h e a r e a . " [93] T h e l a t e s t s u r v e y c o m p l e t e d by t h e R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ( 1 9 8 6 ) c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d c a r e d e a l t w i t h t h e l i c e n s e d c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s s u r v e y a l s o e m p h a s i z e s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e n e e d f o r a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c h i l d c a r e . T h e r e e x i s t 64 l i c e n s e d c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s o p e r a t i n g o u t o f 61 c e n t r e s w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f 1,147 s p a c e s and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,600 a r e s e r v e d . A l l b u t 1% o f t h e e n r o l l e d c h i l d r e n come f r o m o u t s i d e t h e c o m m u n i t y . " B a s e d on t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s , t h e c u r r e n t d e m a n d f a r e x c e e d s t h e s u p p l y i n e a c h o f t h e l i c e n s e d f a c i l i t i e s . " [ 9 4 ] I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e s p a c e s i n e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , t h e s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were n o s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e a g e o f t h r e e , n o 46 e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m s e r v i c e s , no t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r c a r e , o r no w o r k - r e l a t e d c h i l d c a r e . [95] When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e x t e n t o f t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s , o n e m u s t a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e t r e n d s . A s o c i a l i m p a c t s t u d y c o m p l e t e d by t h e R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t i n A p r i l o f 1985, p r e d i c t e d an i n c r e a s e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20,000 p e o p l e o r 23.8% o r 31.5% l i v i n g i n t h e Ric h m o n d a r e a by t h e y e a r 2001. The number o f c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e age o f 15 w i l l g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e n e x t 20 y e a r s . W i t h t h i s s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e b i r t h t o 9 y e a r s o f a g e , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e g r o w i n g number o f women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , t h e demand f o r q u a l i t y c h i l d c a r e w i l l c o n t i n u e . [96] 3.7 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Research T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h w h i c h must be n o t e d . T h e r e c a n be no a s s u r a n c e o f t h e r e t u r n r a t e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h i s r e s e a r c h was no e x c e p t i o n . The r e t u r n r a t e was d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e b e c a u s e i t i s n o t known what p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e r e l e v a n t p o p u l a t i o n was r e a c h e d . I t c a n be r e a s o n a b l y assumed t h a t t h e s t u d y r e a c h e d a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t i n t i m e , h o w e v e r , due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t u d y was a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d e s i g n , i t i s l i m i t e d i n t h a t i t i s o n l y r e l e v a n t a t a p a r t i c u l a r f i x e d p o i n t i n t i m e a n d o n e d o e s n o t h a v e a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e r a t i o o f c h a n g e . 47 T h e r e a r e a l s o l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . F i r s t t h e r e were v e r y few d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , age and income. W i t h o u t t h e s e v a r i a b l e s o n l y b a s i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a c o u l d be c o m p i l e d . On s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s where o n l y one r e s p o n s e was i n d i c a t e d , s e v e r a l were g i v e n , t h u s c o n f o u n d i n g t h e d a t a . S e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s d i d n o t e m p h a s i z e w h a t was b e i n g r e q u e s t e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f c h i l d c a r e was n o t e m p h a s i z e d , a n d t h e r e f o r e r e s p o n d e n t s o f t e n s e l e c t e d more t h a n one l o c a t i o n . A l s o , t h i s q u e s t i o n p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m s ; f o r e x a m p l e , i f a r e s p o n d e n t had c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s , t h e l o c a t i o n f o r c a r e c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t f o r e a c h c h i l d (one c h i l d i n g r o u p c a r e and one i n o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e ) . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n p r e - t e s t e d on r e s p o n d e n t s and t h e 'key' p e o p l e t o e l i m i n a t e any a m b i g u i t y . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n g e n e r a l have s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h a l s o a p p l y t o t h i s r e s e a r c h . R e s p o n d e n t s c a n n o t e x p a n d upon i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s t u d y b e c a u s e a l l i n f o r m a t i o n i s w r i t t e n . T h e r e i s much t o be g a i n e d f r o m n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t o n e o f s p e e c h . The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o h a s no c o n t r o l o v e r how o r by whom t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a n s w e r e d a n d t h i s c a n be a c a u s e o f b i a s w h i c h c a n c o n t a m i n a t e t h e r e s u l t s . [97] 48 CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH DESIGN 4.1 Researcher's C o n t r o l Over Phenomena Studied T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s by w h i c h a r e s e a r c h e r c a n i n v e s t i g a t e a phenomenon. One m e t h o d , e x p e r i m e n t a l , i s by a t t e m p t i n g t o a l t e r t h a t phenomenon t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s . The o t h e r s t r a t e g y , n a t u r a l i s t i c , i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e e v e n t s a s t h e y a r e w i t h o u t t r y i n g t o a l t e r them. [98] The r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s p a p e r i s n a t u r a l i s t i c b e c a u s e i t i s n o t a t t e m p t i n g t o a l t e r a n y e v e n t , b e h a v i o u r o r o c c u r r e n c e , b u t t o a c c e s s t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n one g e o -g r a p h i c a r e a ; t h e 'town c e n t r e 1 o f Ric h m o n d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A needs a s s e s s m e n t s u r v e y was u s e d t o a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p e o p l e ' s i d e a s , p r e f e r e n c e s , a t t i t u d e s a n d n e e d s c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d c a r e . Reed and S m i t h s t a t e t h a t t h i s t y p e o f s t u d y " s e r v e s t h e p r a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n o f g r o u p i n g t o g e t h e r a s e t o f a p p r o a c h e s a l l c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s t u d y o f what p e o p l e may r e q u i r e [99] 4.2 Sampling Design The s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y w e r e s e l f - s e l e c t e d i n t h a t t h e y showed a p r i o r i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d c a r e n e e d s f o r t h e i r e m p l o y e e s and s t u d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e one c o u l d s t a t e t h a t a n o n -p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l i n g d e s i g n was u s e d . The s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e was m u l t i - g r o u p b e c a u s e t h e s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a r e a . The r e s u l t s w i l l i n d i c a t e a n o v e r a l l n eed f o r t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a 49 a n d t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n . S i n c e t h e s t u d y o n l y s u r v e y e d s e v e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a s m a l l g e o g r a p h i c a r e a a n d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e l a c k e d d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , t h e s t u d y c a n n o t make any s t a t i s t i c a l i n f e r e n c e s t o t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . One c a n o n l y a s s u m e t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were t h e most n e e d f u l b e c a u s e t h e y were w i l l i n g t o t a k e t h e t i m e t o r e s p o n d . The t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e s u r v e y a r e t h e W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d , R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l a n d K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e . E a c h o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s d i f f e r s i n t h e h o u r s o f w o r k a n d t h e amount o f t a k e - h o m e p a y . By u t i l i z i n g t h e s e t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e w i l l be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . T h i s e n a b l e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e needs f o r t h e s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , and t o g e n e r a l i z e f r o m t h e s a m p l e t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f R i c h m o n d . 4.3 Timing of Data C o l l e c t i o n T h e r e was no measurement b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ; t h e s t u d y a l s o l a c k s a n e x p l a n a t o r y p u r p o s e . I t i s d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y t o d e s c r i b e t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n a g e s 0 - 1 3 y e a r s o f a g e , i n one s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . T h e r e i s a l s o no d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t a n d d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e t i m i n g o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n c a n b e s t be t e r m e d ' u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ' . [ 1 0 0 ] 50 4.4 Methodological O r i e n t a t i o n B e c a u s e t h e s a m p l e s i z e i s f a i r l y l a r g e , t h e s i z e o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d w i l l a l s o be l a r g e ; q u a n t i t a t i v e m e t h o d o l o g y w i l l b e t t e r a i d t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n k e e p i n g t r a c k o f a l a r g e number o f v a r i a b l e s . F r e q u e n c y c o u n t s and r e p e t i t i o n s w i t h i n one v a r i a b l e a s i d e n t i f i e d by a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e c a n be a s s e s s e d a f t e r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f numbers by need t o s i z e and t y p e o f p r o g r a m . 4.5 Data C o l l e c t i o n 4.5.1 Method of C o l l e c t i o n The m e t h o d u s e d f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g o f 11 q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e , a s w e l l as p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n . Due t o t h e l a r g e s a m p l e s i z e , l i m i t e d t i m e f r a m e a n d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i t was f e l t t h a t a w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u l d y i e l d t h e most a c c u r a t e d a t a and be t h e m o s t s t a n d a r d i z e d m e t h o d a s t h e q u e s t i o n s w o u l d r e m a i n c o n s t a n t w i t h i n t h e t h r e e s e p a r a t e g r o u p s . T h e r e a r e a d v a n t a g e s i n u s i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s p o n d e n t s r e m a i n anonymous and t h e r e f o r e a r e more l i k e l y t o c o m p l e t e e v e n p e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t f e a r o f b e i n g e x p o s e d . T h e y a r e a l s o n o t o b l i g e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t a s p e c i f i c t i m e b u t c a n do i t a t t h e i r l e i s u r e . I n t h i s s t u d y , most r e s p o n d e n t s were g i v e n two weeks t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . L a s t l y , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as a 51 r u l e t e n d t o be m o r e c o s t e f f e c t i v e a n d l e s s t i m e c o n -s u m i n g . [ 1 0 1 ] E v e n t h o u g h t h e r e a r e m a ny b e n e f i t s i n u s i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o s t u d y a p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon, t h e r e a r e a l s o l i m i t a t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a r r y t h e b u r d e n o f i n t e r v i e w e r b i a s a s t h e r e i s no v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n r e s p o n d e n t a n d r e s e a r c h e r . T h e r e i s no f l e x i b i l i t y i n q u e s t i o n f o r m a t w h i c h p r e v e n t s r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m e l a b o r a t i n g on t h e i r a n s w e r s . M a n y c l u e s a n d i n s i g h t s c a n be g a i n e d f r o m n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , b u t none o f t h e s e a r e a p p a r e n t f r o m w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s . A l s o , t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a s no c o n t r o l o v e r who c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r how i t i s c o m p l e t e d . Some q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e r e t u r n e d w i t h m i s s i n g d a t a , a n d t h e r e s e a r c h e r c a n o n l y s u r m i s e a s t o t h e r e a s o n s why t h i s o c c u r r e d . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s y i e l d a l o w r e t u r n r a t e ; t h i s may be due t o some r e s p o n d e n t s ' l a c k o f i n t e r e s t o r f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s , b u t t h e r e s e a r c h e r c a n n e v e r be c e r t a i n a s t o why t h i s o c c u r r e d . T h e r e i s a l s o t h e r i s k o f b i a s e d s a m p l e s b e c a u s e p e o p l e who a r e c u r i o u s o r m o t i v a t e d may be t h e o n l y o n e s who r e s p o n d . The m a i n l i m i t a t i o n o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t h e l a c k o f human i n t e r a c t i o n a n d , a s a r e s u l t , t h e l a c k o f a d d i t i o n a l n o n - v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n . [ 1 0 2 ] 4.5.2 Methods to Check and V e r i f y Data One method u s e d t o c h e c k and v e r i f y d a t a c o l l e c t e d i s t o r e v i e w t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t h e n c o m p a r e t h e d a t a t o i t . 52 When r e v i e w i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t was n o t e d t h a t i t was n o t l e n g t h y , t h u s e n a b l i n g r e s p o n d e n t s t o c o m p l e t e i t i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e w h i c h s h o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e r a t e o f r e t u r n . T h e q u e s t i o n s w e r e a l l e i t h e r c l o s e d - e n d e d o r c o n t i n g e n c y w i t h open-ended r e q u e s t s s u c h a s 'why' o r ' o t h e r ' . T h e s e t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s were c h o s e n t o e n a b l e t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n a s l i t t l e t i m e and w i t h a s l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y as p o s s i b l e . The open-ended q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d t o a l l o w t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o add a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d h e l p t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o p r o b e f u r t h e r i n t o some o f t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s s t a t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . [ 1 0 3 ] The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o c o m p a r e d q u e s t i o n s t o s e e i f o n e q u e s t i o n o r v a r i a b l e w o u l d p r e d i c t a n o t h e r . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t she/he had an 18 month - 3 y e a r o l d c h i l d , t h e n she/he w o u l d c h e c k o f f t h a t t h e c h i l d r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e . The d a t a was c o r r e c t i f b o t h c a t e g o r i e s w e r e s e l e c t e d . T h i s t y p e o f v e r i f i c a t i o n was n o t o n l y c o m p l e t e d on t w o q u e s t i o n s b u t f o r a l l q u e s t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s was p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e e a c h q u e s t i o n f o l l o w e d o r f l o w e d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s one (age o f c h i l d -»• t y p e o f c a r e -*• h o u r s o f c a r e •+ p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n ) . T h i s f o r m o f q u e s t i o n i n g a l l o w s f o r c o n s i s t e n c y a n d p r e d i c t a b i l i t y a n d e n s u r e s an a c c u r a t e needs a s s e s s m e n t . 4.5.3 A p p r a i s a l of Stages of Development The q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d a f t e r 53 a t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f o t h e r c h i l d c a r e n eeds s u r v e y s and W i t h i n p u t f r o m t h e t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s . A f t e r t h e phenomenon t o be s t u d i e d h a d b e e n d e f i n e d , s t u d i e s c o m p l e t e d and o r g a n i z e d by o t h e r g r o u p s were a n a l y z e d f o r q u e s t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d p r e d i c t a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s , w h i c h f o r m e d a f i r s t d r a f t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , were d i s t r i b u t e d f o r a p p r a i s a l t o t h e 'key' p e o p l e f o r m t h e t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o two p e o p l e f r o m t h e H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t , a n d t o o n e p e r s o n f r o m t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e R i c h m o n d M u n i c i p a l H a l l . A n y c h a n g e s r e q u e s t e d by t h i s g r o u p w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d a n d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a g a i n d i s t r i b u t e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n t o w a r d s a f i n a l d r a f t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s was t h e o n l y p r e -t e s t i n g c a r r i e d o u t by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t i n a n y r e s e a r c h i s t h e d e g r e e o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n " r e f e r s t o u n i f o r m i t y o f p r o c e d u r e s when s c o r i n g a n d a d m i n i s t e r i n g a t e s t " . [ 1 0 4 ] T h e r e was u n i f o r m i t y i n t h a t t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l r e s p o n d e n t s , and i n t h a t a l l d a t a c o l l e c t e d were s c o r e d e q u a l l y i n t h e same manner. The r e s e a r c h e r d i d n o t d i s t r i b u t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; t h i s was c a r r i e d o u t by t h e ' k e y ' i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n . A l l t h r e e d i s t r i b u t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n a s i m i l a r manner. The R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l a n d K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e p l a c e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n a d e s i g n a t e d p l a c e where a n y i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n c o u l d p i c k one u p , f i l l i t o u t a n d 54 r e t u r n i t . A n o t i c e was p o s t e d a b o v e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t a t i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s u r v e y and t h e r e t u r n d a t e . The W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d a t t a c h e d t h e i r own c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s t a t i n g t h e p u r p o s e and r e t u r n d a t e ; t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d by t h e ' k e y ' i n d i v i d u a l t o t h e d i f f e r e n t o f f i c e s w i t h i n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g t o be p i c k e d up by any i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s and c o m p l e t e d . T h e r e was some d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h e method o f d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t w e r e i n i t i a l l y p o s t e d f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n d i d n o t r e c e i v e a n y a t t e n t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e , t h r e e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t o r s d i s t r i b u t e d them i n t h r e e c l a s s e s and had e a c h s t u d e n t c o m p l e t e o ne. T h i s s e c o n d m e t h o d o f d i s t r i b u t i o n was a s r e l e v a n t a s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n methods u s e d by t h e o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n t h a t i t r e a c h e d t h e t a r g e t g r o u p . A c c o r d i n g t o a c o l l e g e s p o k e s p e r s o n , t h e s e c l a s s e s w e re t h e o n e s w h i c h h ad a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s who had c h i l d r e n . [ 1 0 5 ] A s e c o n d p r i n c i p l e o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n t h e t y p e a n d a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e a b o u t a c e r t a i n i n s t r u m e n t . [ 106] B e f o r e t h e i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s t r u c t e d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s s e s s e d n u m e r o u s o t h e r s t u d i e s o f t h e same p h e n o m e n o n . Q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e t h o s e c h o s e n by t h e d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e r e s e a r c h e r , w h i c h w o u l d e l i c i t t h e most a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e . I n a d d i t i o n a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r was a t t a c h e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t a t i n g t h e p u r p o s e 55 o f t h e s t u d y a n d d e f i n i n g t h e c h i l d c a r e o p t i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i x ) . I f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n t o o t h e r g r o u p s t h e r e w o u l d be n o d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g how t h e i n s t r u m e n t was t o be u s e d . 4.5.4 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y R e l i a b i l i t y i s t h a t e l e m e n t o f r e s e a r c h t h a t a f f e c t s t h e c o n s i s t e n c y a n d s t a b i l i t y o f t h e m e a s u r e s b e i n g u s e d . A r e l i a b l e m e a s u r e w i l l y i e l d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s when u s e d u n d e r s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s , s u c h a s g i v i n g t h e same t e s t t o t w o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e o r g i v e n t h e same t e s t more t h a n o n c e t o t h e same p e o p l e . [107] The measurement u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s r e l a t i v e l y r e l i a b l e i n t h a t i f g i v e n a g a i n i n s i x m o n t h s , t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d be s i m i l a r . A l s o , t h i s same measurement c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a l a r g e g r o u p o f p e o p l e r e s u l t i n g i n o n l y s m a l l d i s c r e p a n c i e s . T h i s i s b e c a u s e a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n h a v e c h i l d r e n and need c h i l d c a r e . T h i s measurement w o u l d n o t be r e l i a b l e i f , f o r i n s t a n c e , i t was a p p l i e d t o a r e s p o n d e n t who h a s a c h i l d u n d e r 13 y e a r s o f age and s t i l l i n n e e d o f c a r e ; t h e measurement may n o t be r e l i a b l e two y e a r s f r o m now when t h e same c h i l d i s o v e r 13 y e a r s o f age and no l o n g e r i n n e e d o f c a r e . T h e r e f o r e much o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s measurement depends on w h e t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s have c h i l d r e n u n d e r 13 y e a r s o f age and w h e t h e r t h e y need o r use c h i l d c a r e . I f a n i n s t r u m e n t i s r e l i a b l e , i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y 56 v a l i d , b u t i f i t i s v a l i d , t h e n i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s i t w i l l b e r e l i a b l e . V a l i d i t y i s t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s ; i t i s m e a s u r i n g what i t i s s u p p o s e d t o . [ 1 0 8 ] I n t h e i n s t r u m e n t u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , a l l v a r i a b l e s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e . T h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s v a l i d i t y b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s d i r e c t e v i d e n c e o f t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e needs and t h e r e f o r e f a c e v a l i d i t y c a n b e e s t a b l i s h e d . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f c o n c u r r e n t o r p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . The s t a t i s t i c a l i n f e r e n c e s a c q u i r e d f r o m t h e i n s t r u m e n t c a n o n l y a p p l y t o a s m a l l g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , b u t i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n c a n be drawn f r o m i t . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e was t o i d e n t i f y a n d c l a s s i f y t h e c h i l d c a r e needs o f a g r o u p o f p e o p l e e m p l o y e d i n t h e ' t o w n c e n t r e ' t o s e e w h e t h e r o r n o t a f a c i l i t y was w a r r a n t e d . Any a d d i t i o n a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y c a n o n l y be f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f c h i l d c a r e . 4.6 Data A n a l y s i s 4.6.1 Type and Amount of Res u l t s The t y p e a n d amount o f r e s u l t s w e r e a s s e s s e d t h r o u g h f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s a n d s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r a l l c l o s e d -e n d e d q u e s t i o n s . O p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s w e r e t a b u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o f r e q u e n c y a n d t h e most common r e s p o n s e s w e r e n o t e d . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i v i d e d i n t o t w o s e p a r a t e p a r t s - f a m i l y need w h i c h i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 57 9, 10, and 1 1 , and c h i l d r e n ' s needs w h i c h i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s 2, 3, and 4. F o r f a m i l y n e e d s , t h e r e s p o n s e s were c a l c u l a t e d a s one q u e s t i o n n a i r e p e r r e s p o n d e n t , b u t f o r c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s , t h e d a t a was c a l c u l a t e d a s p e r c h i l d i n d i c a t e d i n e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ( N o t e : some q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n d i c a t e d a need f o r more t h a n one c h i l d . ) I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d i v i s i o n i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s were c o m p a r e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r , i . e . , age o f c h i l d w i t h p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n . T h e s e were a l s o a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s a n d s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a n a l y z e d f o r e a c h s e p a r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a n d t h e n c o m b i n e d t o g i v e a n o v e r a l l p i c t u r e . 4.6.2 Plan of P r e s e n t a t i o n of Re s u l t s T h e r e s u l t s w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d o n s u m m a r y t a b l e s a c c o m p a n i e d by a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f w h i c h i n s t i t u t i o n t h e y were c o l l e c t e d f r o m and w h i c h q u e s t i o n t h e y were d e r i v e d f r o m . T h e r e w i l l a l s o be s e v e r a l m a t r i x t a b l e s c o m p a r i n g o n e v a r i a b l e w i t h a n o t h e r ; t h e s e w i l l a l s o be a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h a s h o r t e x p l a n a t i o n . 4.6.3 A n a l y s i s Methods A l l t h e d a t a was a n a l y z e d by f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s a n d 1 s t l e v e l c o d i n g . Q u e s t i o n s were numbered a c c o r d i n g t o how t h e y w e r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i . e . , q u e s t i o n s 1 ( a ) ( b ) , 2 - 1 1 . Yes was e n t e r e d as 1 and no a s 0, and m i s s i n g 58 d a t a was c o d e d as 99. When q u e s t i o n s h a d s e v e r a l a n s w e r s , t h e y w e r e numbered 0 and up, i . e . , t h e q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n h a d f i v e b o x e s w h i c h c o u l d be c h e c k e d . T h e s e were numbered 0 t o 4. S i n c e t h i s was a needs a s s e s s m e n t s t u d y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r l o o k e d f o r raw d a t a w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e o r i d e n t i f y t h e a r e a s and e x t e n t o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e . I t i s e s t i m a t i n g need b a s e d on t h e sa m p l e by c o u n t i n g how many p e o p l e want a t y p e o f s e r v i c e and t h e n p r o j e c t i n g t h i s t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n and t o Richmond's town c e n t r e . T h r o u g h t h e use o f a f r e q u e n c y c o u n t , t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i l l be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e age r a n g e o f c h i l d r e n who a r e most i n n e e d o f c a r e , a s w e l l a s t h e t y p e o f c a r e a n d t h e h o u r s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f c a r e w i l l be i n d i c a t e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l a i d e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n i n a s s e s s i n g i t s own s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o c h i l d c a r e a s w e l l a s t h o s e g r o u p s / o r g a n i z a t i o n s who w i s h t o e s t a b l i s h a f a c i l i t y w i t h i n t h e town c e n t r e . 4.6.4 Inferences From the Data The t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n drawn f r o m t h e d a t a s h o u l d g i v e a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e . The p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n and t h e amount o f m o n i e s r e s p o n d e n t s a r e w i l l i n g t o s p e n d on c a r e w o u l d a l s o be i n d i c a t e d . A l l o f t h e s e r e s u l t s w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e n e e d s o f t h e s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a r e a a n d o f e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y . 59 B e y o n d t h e s p e c i f i e d g e o g r a p h i c s e t t i n g , o n l y g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s c a n be made w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . H o w e v e r , t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s may be v e r y s i m i l a r b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e f a m i l i e s w i t h young c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e community. I f t h e s e f a m i l i e s have c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e s p e c i f i e d age r a n g e s , t h e y w i l l a l s o n e e d o r u s e c h i l d c a r e . 4.7 E t h i c a l Issues E t h i c a l i s s u e s w e r e l i m i t e d b e c a u s e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i d s o by c h o i c e and i n c h o o s i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i m p l i e d c o n s e n t . A l l r e s p o n d e n t s were k e p t a nonymous; o n l y t h e s o u r c e s ( i n s t i t u t i o n s ) were known. Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l e i t h e r be r e t u r n e d t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s on r e q u e s t o r d e s t r o y e d . 60 CHAPTER FIVE; RESULTS M o s t o f t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d h a d some m i s s i n g c a s e s a n d t h i s i s n o t e d b e l o w t h e v a r i a b l e i n q u e s t i o n . F o r t h e s a k e o f c o m p u t e r a n a l y s i s t h e m i s s i n g c a s e s were n o t i n c l u d e d , s o i n a number o f i n s t a n c e s t h e 100% f i g u r e does n o t i n f a c t r e a c h t h e t o t a l n o f 237 . A l s o , some o f t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d h a d more t h a n one p o s s i b l e answer and t h e r e f o r e t h e 100% f i g u r e w i l l be more t h a n t h e t o t a l n o f 237. 5.1 O v e r a l l Family and C h i l d r e n ' s Needs f o r C h i l d Care O u t o f a t o t a l o f 237 r e s p o n d e n t s , 143 ( 6 0 . 3 % ) h a d c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e age o f 13 and 130 (56.8%) s t a t e d t h e y were p r e s e n t l y u s i n g o r were i n need o f c h i l d c a r e ( T a b l e 1 ) . T h e r e were 83 (61.5%) p a r e n t s who e x p e r i e n c e d a b r e a k d o w n i n r e g u l a r c h i l d c a r e and 84 (62.2%) r e s p o n d e n t s had a l t e r n a t e a r r a n g e m e n t s t h e y c o u l d u s e i n e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m s i t u a t i o n s ( T a b l e 1 ) . The most f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d a l t e r n a t e f o r m s o f c a r e were r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . One h u n d r e d a nd t h i r t e e n ( 8 8 . 3 % ) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s / s e r v i c e s s h o u l d o f f e r e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c a r e ( T a b l e 1 ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o how s a t i s f i e d p a r e n t s w e r e w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s , 52 ( 4 1 . 9 % ) w e r e v e r y s a t i s f i e d , a n d 7 ( 3 % ) w e r e v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d ( T a b l e 2 ) . R e a s o n s g i v e n f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c l u d e d h i g h q u a l i t y o f c a r e , r e l i a b i l i t y , p r o x i m i t y t o home and r e a s o n a b l e c o s t . R e a s o n s f o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c l u d e d u n r e l i a b i l i t y , h i g h c o s t , l a c k o f 61 TABLE 1 W o r k e r s ' Richmond Compensa- G e n e r a l K w a n t l e n O v e r a l l t i o n B o a r d H o s p i t a l C o l l e g e T o t a l F r e q % F r e q Q. "O F r e q o. "o F r e q a "o 1 ( a ) Have c h i l d r e n 98 77 .8 23 82 .1 22 26 .5 143 60. 3 (b) Need c a r e 95 75 .4 21 75 .0 14 18 .7 130 56. 8 5 (a) Have a b r e a k d o w n 62 63 .9 18 81 .8 3 18 .8 83 61 . 5 (b) Have a l t e r n a t e c a r e 59 61 .5 15 68 .2 10 58 .8 84 62. 2 ( c ) Emergency c a r e i n c e n t r e 80 86 .0 22 100 .0 11 84 .6 113 88. 3 8 Know a b o u t s u b s i d y 52 54 .2 12 54 .5 4 26 .7 68 51. 1 10 W i l l r e l o c a t e 58 63 .7 16 76 .2 7 46 .7 81 63. 8 11 W i l l h e l p t o d e v e l o p 51 56 .7 12 57 .1 8 53 .8 71 563 M i s s i n g C a s e s W.C.B. R. G. H. K.C. T o t a l 1 ( a ) 0 0 0 0 (b) 0 0 8 8 5 ( a ) 29 6 67 102 (b) 30 6 66 102 ( c ) 33 6 70 109 8 30 6 68 104 10 35 7 68 110 11 36 7 68 111 62 TABLE 2 SATISFACTION WITH PRESENT CARE ARRANGEMENTS W o r k e r s 1 Richmond Compensa- G e n e r a l K w a n t l e n O v e r a l l t i o n B o a r d H o s p i t a l C o l l e g e T o t a l F r e q % F r e q % F r e q % F r e q o, x> V e r y S a t i s f i e d 37 43.0 7 30.4 8 53 .3 52 41. 9 S a t i s f i e d 32 37.2 9 39.1 4 26.7 45 36. 3 D i s s a t i s f i e d 12 14.0 3 13.0 3 20.0 18 14. 5 V e r y D i s s a t i s f i e d 1 1.2 1 4.3 — 2 1. 6 O t h e r 4 4.7 3 13.0 — — 7 5. 6 T o t a l M i s s i n g C a s e s 113 63 s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r c h i l d and i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f c a r e . The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s (38.7%) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t a f f o r d p a y i n g more t h a n $250 p e r month f o r c h i l d c a r e . Some p a r e n t s ( 5.0%) were a b l e o r w i l l i n g t o pay a s much a s $500 o r more p e r m onth p e r c h i l d f o r c a r e . The l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c y i n t h e s e amounts may be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t some r e s p o n d e n t s a r e p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e s a n d s t u d e n t s who o n l y r e q u i r e p a r t - t i m e c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ( T a b l e 3 ) . T h e r e were 68 (51.1%) r e s p o n d e n t s who were aware o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g s u b s i d y f o r c h i l d c a r e ( T a b l e 1 ) . When r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d a b o u t t h e i r p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n f o r c h i l d c a r e , 61 (45.2%) i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a f a c i l i t y w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f home, 59 ( 4 3 . 7 % ) p r e f e r r e d a f a c i l i t y on work p r e m i s e s and 31 (23.0%) p r e f e r r e d a f a c i l i t y n e a r t h e c h i l d ' s s c h o o l . Some r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d more t h a n one p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n f o r c h i l d c a r e , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y had c h i l d r e n i n d i f f e r e n t age c a t e g o r i e s s u c h as 3 - 5 y e a r s and o l d e r ( T a b l e 4 ) . E i g h t y - o n e (63.8%) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d c h a n g e t h e i r c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s i f a f a c i l i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n o r n e a r t h e t o w n c e n t r e a n d i f f e e s w e r e a f f o r d a b l e ( T a b l e 1 ) . S e v e n t y - o n e ( 5 6 . 3 % ) r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a f a c i l i t y ( T a b l e 1 ) . R e a s o n s g i v e n f o r c h a n g i n g p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s w e r e c o n v e n i e n c e , s t a b i l i t y , 64 TABLE 3  PARENTS' ABILITY TO PAY W o r k e r s ' Richmond Compensa- G e n e r a l K w a n t l e n O v e r a l l P e r Month t i o n B o a r d H o s p i t a l C o l l e g e T o t a l P e r C h i l d F r e q % F r e q % F r e q % F r e q o, "5 L e s s t h a n $250 23 25.6 14 82.4 9 75.0 46 38 .7 $200 - $300 34 37.8 3 17.6 2 16.7 39 32 .8 #300 - $400 26 28.9 — 1 8.3 27 22 .7 Ove r $500 6 6.7 — — 6 5 .0 O t h e r 1 1.1 1 .8 T o t a l M i s s i n g C a s e s 118 65 TABLE 4 PREFERRED LOCATION FOR CHILD CARE W o r k e r s ' Richmond Compensa- G e n e r a l K w a n t l e n O v e r a l l t i o n F r e q B o a r d % H o s p i t a l F r e q % C o l l e g e F r e q % T o t a l F r e q % V i c i n i t y o f House 40 41.7 10 43.5 11 68. 8 61 45.2 V i c i n i t y o f Work 29 30.2 4 17.4 — — 33 24.4 P r e m i s e s o f Work 48 50.0 8 34.8 3 18. 8 59 43.7 Nea r C h i l d ' s S c h o o l 16 16.7 9 39.1 6 37. 5 31 23.0 C e n t r a l i z e d 6 6.3 1 4.3 2 12. 5 9 6.7 O t h e r 1 1.0 1 4.3 — — 2 1.5 T o t a l M i s s i n g C a s e s 102 66 a c c e p t a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o c h i l d c a r e s t a n d a r d s , a n d more t i m e w i t h t h e c h i l d . R e a s o n s f o r n o t c h a n g i n g p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t w e r e i n c o n v e n i e n c e , a p r e f e r e n c e f o r i n - h o m e c a r e , a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a f a c i l i t y n e a r a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s . When c o m p a r i n g t h e ages o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l i e s w i t h t h e b r e a k d o w n i n n o r m a l c a r e , t h e r e w a s v e r y l i t t l e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e age r a n g e s ; 2 3 . 5 % o f f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n 18 months - 3 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e t h e g r e a t e s t number o f b r e a k d o w n s , and 19.7% o f f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n 0 - 1 7 months e x p e r i e n c e d t h e l e a s t number o f breakdowns ( T a b l e 5 ) . When c o m p a r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s age g r o u p s w i t h a l t e r n a t e c h i l d c a r e , 32 ( 2 4 . 2 % ) f a m i l i e s (who have c h i l d r e n 0 - 1 7 mont h s ) a n d 32 ( 2 4 . 2 % ) f a m i l i e s (who h a v e c h i l d r e n 18 m o n t h s - 3 y e a r s ) h a v e a l t e r n a t e c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s ( T a b l e 6 ) . T h e m a j o r i t y o f f a m i l i e s ( 3 4 . 6 % ) , who i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r emergency c a r e i n e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s , have c h i l d r e n 18 months -3 y e a r s ( T a b l e 7 ) . When c r o s s - t a b u l a t i n g t h e a g e s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n f o r c h i l d c a r e 59 f a m i l i e s p r e f e r r e d c h i l d c a r e o n work p r e m i s e s . Out o f t h e s e 59 f a m l i e s , 5 5 . 9 % h a d c h i l d r e n 18 m o n t h s - 3 y e a r s . Of t h e 31 f a m i l i e s who p r e f e r r e d c a r e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e c h i l d ' s s c h o o l , 7 1.0% h a d c h i l d r e n 5 y e a r s o r o l d e r ; o f t h e 59 f a m i l i e s who p r e f e r r e d c a r e i n v i c i n i t y o f home, 4 5 . 8 % h a d c h i l d r e n 18 months - 3 y e a r s ( T a b l e 8 ) . TABLE 5 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGES OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY BREAKDOWN IN CHILD CARE CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of children in family BY BREAK Have had a breakdown in c h i l d care BREAK COUNT No Yes ROW PCT ROW COL PCT TOTAL TAB PCT o ILDAGE AGE 17 22 26 48 Ages 0 -- 17 months 45 .8 54 .2 36.4 44 .0 31 .7 16.7 19 . 7 AGE36 18 31 49 Ages 18 months to 3 36.7 63.3 37 . 1 36 .0 37 .8 13.6 23.5 + + AGE60 18 28 46 Ages 3 -• 5 years 39 . 1 60.9 34 .8 36.0 34 . 1 13.6 21.2 + ' 1 - + AGEOLD 9 30 39 Ages more than 5 yea 23 . 1 76 .9 29.5 18.0 36 .6 6.8 22 . 7 + + + COLUMN 50 82 132 TOTAL 37.9 62.1 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 132 VALID CASES 105 MISSING CASES TABLE 6 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGES OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY ALTERNATIVE CHILD CARE AVAILABLE CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of chil d r e n In family BY ALTERNAT Have alternate daycare a v a i l a b l e ALTERNAT COUNT No Yes ROW PCT ROW COL PCT TOTAL TAB PCT 0 1 ILDAGE - + - - - + -+ AGE 17 16 32 48 Ages 0 -- 17 months 33.3 66.7 36.4 32.7 38 .6 12. 1 24.2 AGE36 17 32 49 Ages 18 months to 3 34.7 65.3 37 . 1 34.7 38 .6 12.9 24.2 • i — - + AGE60 15 31 46 Ages 3 - 5 years 32.6 67.4 34 .8 30.6 37 . 3 11.4 23.5 AGEOLD 17 23 40 Ages more than 5 yea 42 . 5 57 .5 30.3 34.7 27.7 12.9 17.4 COLUMN 49 83 132 TOTAL 37. 1 62.9 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 132 VALID CASES 105 MISSING CASES TABLE 7 CROSS-TABOLATION OF AGES OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY EMERGENCY CARE SERVICES CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Age6 of chil d r e n in family BY EMERGENC Emergency care should be offered COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT EMERGENC No Yes CHILDAGE Ages 0 AGE 17 17 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 Ages 3 AGE 60 5 years AGEOLD Ages more than 5 yea COLUMN TOTAL 1 I + ROW TOTAL 7 39 15.2 84 .8 50.0 34 .5 5.5 30.7 4 44 8.3 91.7 28.6 38.9 3. 1 34.6 4 42 8.7 91.3 28.6 37 . 2 3. 1 33 . 1 3 33 8.3 91 .7 21.4 29.2 2.4 26 .0 14 113 1 1 .O 89.0 46 36.2 48 37 .8 46 36.2 36 28.3 127 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 127 VALID CASES 110 MISSING CASES 70 TABLE 8 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGES OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY PREFERRED LOCATION OF CHILD CARE CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of ch i l d r e n In family BY LOCATION (TABULATING 1) Preferred location of childcare LOCATION COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CHILDAGE Ages 0 Prefer v Prefer v Prefer o Prefer v Prefer c i c l n l t y i c l n l t y n work p i c l n l t y entral 1 of h of w rent of s ocat LOCHOME JLOCWORK |LOCPREM |LOSCHOOL|LOCCENT | Prefer o ther loc atto L0C0THER| + AGE 17 17 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 AGE60 Ages 3 - 5 years AGEOLD Ages more than 5 yea COLUMN TOTAL 20 15 23 3 2 2 41.7 31.3 47.9 6.3 4 2 4 2 33.9 45.5 39.0 9.7 22 2 100 0 15.0 11.3 17.3 2.3 1 5 1 5 27 12 33 3 4 0 55. 1 24.5 67.3 6. 1 8 2 0 0 45.8 36.4 55.9 9.7 44 4 0 0 20.3 9.0 24.8 2.3 3 0 0 0 14 12 20 13 2 2 29.2 25.0 41.7 27. 1 4 2 4 2 23.7 36.4 33.9 41.9 22 2 10O 0 10.5 9.0 15.0 9.8 1 5 1 5 17 4 10 22 3 1 42.5 10.0 25.0 55.0 7 5 2 5 28.8 12. 1 16.9 71.0 33 3 50 0 12.8 3.0 7.5 16.5 2 3 0 8 59 33 59 31 9 2 44 . 4 24.8 44 .4 23.3 6 8 1 5 ROW TOTAL 48 36. 1 49 36.8 48 36. 1 40 30. 1 133 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 133 VALID CASES 104 MISSING CASES 71 C h i l d r e n ' s Needs T h e n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n who n e e d e d o r u s e d c a r e , a s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s u r v e y , was 217. S i x t y ( 28.3%) c h i l d r e n were 5 y e a r s o r o l d e r , 54 ( 25.5%) were 3 - 5 y e a r s a nd t h e r e were 49 ( 2 3 . 1 % ) i n e a c h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s 0 - 1 7 months a n d 18 months - 3 y e a r s ( T a b l e 9 ) . Out o f a t o t a l o f 217 c h i l d r e n , 206 ( 9 4 . 9 % ) r e q u i r e d c a r e ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . Of t h o s e r e q u i r i n g o r u s i n g c a r e 120 ( 5 9 . 1 % ) were i n n eed o f o r u s i n g g r o u p c a r e , and 66 ( 3 2 . 5 % ) were i n need o f o r u s i n g o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . H o u r s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d f o r c h i l d r e n f o l l o w e d t h e t y p e o f c a r e u s e d o r n e e d e d : 131 (64.5%) c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d c a r e on weekdays and 60 ( 2 9 . 6 % ) r e q u i r e d p a r t - t i m e c a r e ( T a b l e 1 2 ) . P a r e n t s who work s h i f t s o r p a r t - t i m e n e e d a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d t h e r e f o r e o f t e n i n d i c a t e d p r e f e r r e d t i m e b l o c k s . The t y p e o f c a r e r e q u i r e d f o r c h i l d r e n a l s o c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e a g e o f t h e c h i l d . T h e r e w ere 118 c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s c h o s e g r o u p c a r e . Of t h e s e 148 c h i l d r e n , 36.4% were 0 - 1 7 months o f a g e , 34.7% were 18 months - 3 y e a r s and 28.8% were 3 - 5 y e a r s o f age. T h e r e were 63 c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s c h o s e o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e . Of t h e s e 63 c h i l d r e n , 85.7% were more t h a n 5 y e a r s o f age ( T a b l e 1 3 ) . When c o m p a r i n g t h e t y p e o f c h i l d c a r e n e e d e d w i t h t h e h o u r s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d , 129 c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d weekday c a r e . Of t h e s e 129 c h i l d r e n , 88.4% a l s o r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e . Of t h e 58 c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e d p a r t - t i m e c a r e , a l l a l s o r e q u i r e d 72 TABLE 9 AGES OF CHILDREN W o r k e r s ' Compensa-t i o n B o a r d F r e q % Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l F r e q % K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e F r e q % O v e r a l l T o t a l F r e q % 0 - 17 months 39 27. 1 7 15. 9 3 12.5 49 23. 1 18 months - 3 y e a r s 38 26. 4 8 17. 4 3 12.5 49 23. 1 3 y e a r s - 5 y e a r s 37 25. 7 14 31. 8 3 12.5 54 25. 5 O l d e r 30 20. 8 15 32. 6 15 62.5 60 28. 3 T o t a l M i s s i n g C a s e s 5 73 TABLE 10  FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN NEEDING CARE 30 APR 87 CHILD CARE NEEDS ASSESSMENT: Children 10:48:14 University of B r i t i s h Columbia NEEDCARE VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT No O 11 5.1 5.1 5.1 Yes 1 206 94.9 94.9 100.0 TOTAL 217 100.0 100.0 I O - + NO II 11 - + I ! + Yes I 206 I + I I I I I I I O 80 160 240 320 400 FREQUENCY MEAN .949 STD DEV .220 MINIMUM . 000 MAXIMUM 1.000 VALID CASES 217 MISSING CASES 0 74 TABLE 11 TYPE OF CARE NEEDED FOR CHILDREN W o r k e r s ' Compensa-Richmond G e n e r a l t i o n F r e q B o a r d 0 "6 H o s p i t a l F r e q % G r o u p C a r e 93 67.9 18 40.9 P r e - s c h o o l C a r e 7 5.1 5 11.4 B e f o r e / A f t e r Out o f S c h o o l C a r e 36 26.3 17 38.6 S p e c i a l i z e d C a r e 2 1.5 1 2.3 O t h e r C a r e 7 5.1 3 6.8 K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e F r e q % 9 40.9 13 59.1 O v e r a l l T o t a l F r e q % 120 59.1 12 5.9 66 32.5 3 1.5 10 4.9 T o t a l M i s s i n g C a s e s 14 75 TABLE 12 HOORS OF CARE NEEDED FOR CHILDREN W o r k e r s ' Richmond Compensa- G e n e r a l K w a n t l e n O v e r a l l t i o n B o a r d H o s p i t a l C o l l e g e T o t a l F r e q % F r e q % F r e q % F r e q o. X> Week Days 95 69.9 28 62.2 8 36.4 131 64. 5 Week N i g h t s 3 2.2 19 42.2 — 22 10 . 8 Weekend Days 2 1.5 8 17.8 — 10 4 . 9 Weekend N i g h t s 3 2.2 5 11.1 1 4.5 9 4. 4 P a r t Time 35 25.7 12 26.7 13 59.1 7 3. 4 O t h e r T i m e s 7 5.1 — — 7 3. 4 T o t a l M i s s i n g C a s e s 14 76 TABLE 13 CROSS-TABULATION OP TYPE OF CHILD CARE NEEDED BY AGE OF CHILDREN CHILDAGE Age of chi1d BY CARETYPE (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed CARETYPE COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CHILDAGE Group ca Pre-scho Before/a re ol care fter/out of GROUPCAR|PRESCHOO|OUTOF Special< Other ca sed care re JSPECIAL |OTHERCAR| ROW TOTAL 1 17 months 18 months 3 years 5 years More than 5 years COLUMN TOTAL 43 2 0 0 3 46 93.5 4 . 3 0 0 0 0 6 .5 23.2 36.4 16 . 7 0 0 0 0 30 .0 21.7 1 .0 0 0 0 0 1 .5 41 7 0 0 1 47 87.2 14 .9 0 .0 0 0 2 . 1 23.7 34.7 58 .3 0 .0 0 0 10 .0 20. 7 3 .5 0 0 0 0 0 .5 34 3 9 2 4 49 69.4 6 . 1 18 .4 4 1 B .2 24.7 28.8 25 .0 14 3 66 7 40 0 17.2 1 . 5 4 5 1 0 2 0 0 0 54 1 2 56 0.0 0 .0 96 4 1 8 3 6 28.3 0.0 0 .0 85 7 33 3 20 0 0.0 O .O 27 . 3 0 5 1 .0 1 18 12 63 3 i o 198 59.6 6 . 1 31 8 1 5 5 . 1 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 198 VALID CASES 19 MISSING CASES 77 o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e . T h e r e was o n l y one c h i l d who r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l i z e d c a r e on weekdays, p a r t - t i m e and o t h e r ( T a b l e 1 4 ) . A s t o t h e t y p e s o f c a r e c o m p a r e d t o t h e p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n , 93 c h i l d r e n were i n need o f c a r e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e i r homes; o f t h o s e 93 c h i l d r e n , 5 9.1% a l s o r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e a n d 37.6% r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e . Of t h e c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e d c a r e on p a r e n t s ' w o r k p r e m i s e s , 7 6 . 7 % a l s o r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e . Of t h e c h i l d r e n who needed c a r e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f s c h o o l , 6 9 . 2 % a l s o r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e ( T a b l e 1 5 ) . When c r o s s - t a b u l a t i n g t h e t y p e o f c a r e n e e d e d w i t h t h e p a r e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o p a y , 43.2% o f c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e a n d 5 4 . 1 % o f c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e w e r e f r o m f a m i l i e s who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d more t h a n $250 p e r month p e r c h i l d . These f i g u r e s f a l l i n l i n e w i t h t h e number o f p a r e n t s who n e e d e d o r u s e d p a r t - t i m e c h i l d c a r e and w i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s . However, o f t h e 39 c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e , 8 2 . 1 % were f r o m f a m i l i e s who w e r e w i l l i n g o r a b l e t o pay between $300 - $400 p e r c h i l d p e r month ( T a b l e 16) . When c o m p a r i n g t h e t y p e o f c h i l d c a r e n e e d e d w i t h t h e p a r e n t s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f a c i -l i t y , 35.5% o f c h i l d r e n who needed g r o u p c a r e had p a r e n t s who were w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t . What i s i n t e r e s t i n g , i s t h a t 1 8 .3% o f c h i l d r e n who n e e d e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e a l s o h a d p a r e n t s w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s u c h a d e v e l o p m e n t ( T a b l e 1 7 ) . 78 TABLE 14 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE NEEDED BY HOURS OF CARE NEEDED FOR CHILDREN CARETYPE (TABULATING BY CARETIME (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed 1) Hours of daycare needed CARETIME COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT Weekdays Weeknigh Weekend Weekend ts days nights Part tlm Other t l e mes CARETYPE WEEKDAYS|WEEKNIGH|ENDDAYS |ENDNIGHT|PARTTIME|OTHERTIM| GROUPCAR Group care PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Before/after/out of SPECIAL Spec t a l i sed care OTHERCAR Other care COLUMN TOTAL 1 14 10 7 4 1 4 95.0 8 .3 5 8 3 3 0 8 3 3 88 . 4 45 . 5 70 0 50 0 1 7 57 1 57 .0 5 .0 3 5 2 0 0 5 2 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 1 91.7 25 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 3 8.5 13 .6 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 3 5.5 1 .5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 9 3 5 58 1 4 . 5 13 .6 4 5 7 6 87 9 1 5 2.3 40 .9 30 0 62 5 100 0 14 3 1 . 5 4 . 5 1 5 2 5 29 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 1 1 33 . 3 0 .0 0 0 0 0 33 3 33 3 0.8 O .0 0 o 0 0 1 7 14 3 0.5 O .0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 5 6 0 0 0 0 1 85.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 3 4 . 7 0 .0 0 0 0 o 0 0 14 3 3.0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 5 129 22 10 8 58 7 64.5 1 1 .O 5 0 4 0 29 0 3 5 ROW TOTAL 120 60.0 12 6.0 66 33.0 3 1 . 5 7 3.5 200 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 200 VALID CASES 17 MISSING CASES 79 TABLE 15 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE NEEDED BY PREFERRED LOCATION OF CARE FOR CHILDREN CARETYPE (TABULATING BY LOCATION (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed 1) Preferred location of chlldcare LOCATION COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT Prefer v i c l n l t y of h LOCHOME I Prefer v 1dn1 ty of w LOCWORK I Prefer o n work p reml LOCPREM I Prefer v i c l n l t y of s LOSCHOOLl Prefer c antral 1 ocat LOCCENT I Prefer o ther loc at io LOCOTHER| ROW TOTAL GROUPCAR 55 34 66 12 7 0 120 Group care . 45 .8 28 3 55 .0 10 .0 5 .8 0 0 60.0 59 . 1 75 6 76 .7 23 . 1 53 .8 0 0 27 .5 17 0 33 .0 6 .0 3 .5 0 0 PRESCHOO 4 6 7 2 0 0 12 Pre-school care 33 .3 50 0 58 .3 16 .7 0 .0 0 0 6.0 4 .3 13 3 8 . 1 3 .8 0 .0 0 0 2 .O 3 0 3 .5 1 .0 0 .0 0 0 OUTOF 35 7 14 36 5 o 66 Before/after/out of 53 .0 10 6 21 . 2 54 .5 7 .6 0 0 33.0 37 .6 15 6 16 .3 69 .2 38 . 5 0 0 17 .5 3 5 7 .0 18 .0 2 . 5 0 0 SPECIAL 2 0 1 1 0 0 3 Spec i a 1ised care 66 . 7 0 .0 33 .3 33 . 3 0 .0 0 0 1 .5 2 . 2 0 0 1 .2 1 .9 0 .0 0 0 1 .0 0 0 0 .5 0 .5 O .0 0 0 OTHERCAR 1 1 3 3 1 2 7 Other care 14 . 3 14 3 42 .9 42 .9 ' 14 .3 28 6 3.5 1 . 1 2 2 3 .5 5 .8 7 .7 100 0 0 . 5 0 5 1 .5 1 .5 0 .5 1 0 COLUMN 93 45 86 52 13 2 200 TOTAL 46 . 5 22 5 43 .0 26 .0 6 5 1 0 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 200 VALID CASES 17 MISSING CASES TABLE 16 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE NEEDED BY ABILITY TO PAY FOR CHILDREN 80 CARE TY-i BY PAY (TABULATING Ab11i ty to pay 1 ) Type of daycare needed PAY COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CARETYPE GROUPCAR Group car e PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Before/after/out of SPECIAL S p e c i a l i s e d care OTHERCAR Other care COLUMN TOTAL Less tha $200 - 3 $300 - 4 Over $50 Other n $250/m 00/month 00/month 0/month ROW onth TOTAL 0 2 3 4 32 42 32 5 1 112 28 .6 37 .5 28 .6 4 5 0 9 63.6 43 .2 75 .0 82 . 1 83 3 100 0 18 .2 23 .9 18 . 2 2 8 0 6 2 3 3 2 0 • 10 20 .0 30 .0 30 .0 20 0 0 0 5.7 2 . 7 5 .4 7 . 7 33 3 0 0 1 . 1 1 . 7 1 .7 1 1 0 0 40 8 6 1 0 55 72 . 7 14 . 5 10 .9 1 8 0 O 31.3 54 . 1 14 . 3 15 .4 16 7 0 0 22 . 7 4 . 5 3 . 4 O 6 O o 1 1 1 0 o 3 33 .3 33 . 3 33 . 3 0 0 0 0 1 .7 1 .4 1 .8 2 .6 0 0 0 0 0 .6 0 .6 O .6 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 o 4 25 .0 50 .0 0 .0 25 0 0 0 2.3 1 . 4 3 6 0 .0 16 7 0 0 0 .6 1 . 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 74 56 39 6 1 176 42 .0 31 8 22 2 3 4 0 6 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 176 VALID CASES 41 MISSING CASES TABLE 17 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE NEEDED BY PARENTS' WILLINGNESS TO HELP DEVELOP SERVICES FOR CHILDREN CARETYPE (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed BY TAKEPART Would help develop service COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT TAKEPART No Yes 1 CARETYPE Group care ROW TOTAL GROUPCAR 44 40.0 55.0 23.7 66 60.0 62.3 35 . 5 PRESCHOO 5 7 Pre-school care 41.7 58 . 3 6.3 6.6 2.7 3.8 OUTOF 30 34 Before/after/out of 46.9 53 . 1 37.5 32. 1 16. 1 18.3 SPECIAL Specia l i s e d care 2 66 . 7 2.5 1 . 1 1 33.3 0.9 0.5 OTHERCAR Other care 4 80.0 5.0 2.2 1 20.0 0.9 0.5 COLUMN TOTAL 80 43.0 106 57.0 1 10 59. 1 12 6.5 64 34.4 3 1.6 5 2.7 186 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 186 VALID CASES 31 MISSING CASES 82 5.2 Family and C h i l d r e n ' s Needs by I n s t i t u t i o n A. W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d  F a m i l y Needs Out o f 126 r e t u r n e d s u r v e y s , 98 ( 7 7 . 8 % ) h a d c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e age o f 13 and 95 (75.4%) were u s i n g o r needed c h i l d c a r e ( T a b l e 1 ) . T h e r e w e r e 62 ( 6 3 . 9 % ) f a m i l i e s who e x p e r i e n c e d a b r e a k d o w n i n c h i l d c a r e a n d 59 ( 6 1 . 5 % ) r e s p o n d e n t s who h a d a l t e r n a t e c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ( T a b l e 1 ) . A l s o 80 ( 8 6 . 0 % ) f e l t t h a t e m e r g e n c y s h o r t - t e r m c a r e s h o u l d be o f f e r e d i n e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s / s e r v i c e s ( T a b l e 1 ) . When a s k e d how s a t i s f i e d p a r e n t s were w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s , 37 ( 4 3 . 0 % ) w ere v e r y s a t i s f i e d a n d o n l y 1 ( 1 . 2 % ) was v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d . The 4 (4 . 7 % ) r e s p o n d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d " o t h e r " a r r a n g e m e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r l e f t on t h e i r own o r a s p o u s e was t a k i n g c a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n ( T a b l e 2 ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e amount o f mo n i e s r e s p o n d e n t s were a b l e t o p a y f o r c h i l d c a r e e a c h month, 34 (37.8%) were w i l l i n g t o pay b e t w e e n $200 - $300 p e r month p e r c h i l d and 6 ( 6 . 7 % ) were a b l e o r w i l l i n g t o p a y more t h a n $500 p e r month p e r c h i l d ( T a b l e 3 ) . F i f t y - t w o ( 5 4 . 2 % ) p a r e n t s w e re a w a r e o f t h e c h i l d c a r e s u b s i d y a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s a n d H o u s i n g ( T a b l e 1 ) . 83 The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s (50.0%) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y p r e f e r r e d c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d on wo r k p r e m i s e s ( T a b l e 4 ) . Of t h e 126 r e s p o n d e n t s , 58 (63. 7 % ) i n d i c a t e d t h e y w o u l d change c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s i f a c e n t r e was d e v e l o p e d i n t h e town c e n t r e a n d i f c o s t s w e re a f f o r d a b l e . F i f t y - o n e ( 5 6 . 7 % ) p a r e n t s o f f e r e d t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a c e n t r e ( T a b l e 1 ) . When c o m p a r i n g a g e s o f c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l i e s w i t h b r e a k d o w n i n r e g u l a r c h i l d c a r e , f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n 18 mont h s - 3 y e a r s ( 2 6 . 3 % ) e x p e r i e n c e d t h e g r e a t e s t number o f b r e a k d o w n s . H o w e v e r , t h e o t h e r t h r e e a g e c a t e g o r i e s a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h d e g r e e o f b r e a k d o w n s ( T a b l e 1 8 ) . When c o m p a r i n g a g e s o f c h i l d r e n t o a l t e r n a t i v e t y p e s o f c a r e , f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n 18 months - 3 y e a r s o f age ( 2 5 . 5 % ) a nd c h i l d r e n 3 - 5 y e a r s (25.5%) c a r e t h e most ( T a b l e 1 9 ) . I n a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f c h i l d r e n a n d t h e n e e d f o r e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c a r e i n e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s , 80 f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e d a need f o r t h i s t y p e o f c a r e . Of t h e 80 f a m i l i e s , 35.9% had c h i l d r e n a g e s 18 months - 3 y e a r s ( T a b l e 2 0 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s Needs The 126 r e t u r n e d s u r v e y s r e p r e s e n t e d 147 c h i l d r e n . The number o f c h i l d r e n i n e a c h a g e c a t e g o r y was s i m i l a r : 39 ( 2 7 . 1 % ) w e r e 0 - 1 7 m o n t h s , 38 ( 2 6 . 4 % ) w e r e 18 months - 3 y e a r s , 37 ( 2 5 . 7 % ) were 3 - 5 y e a r s and 30 (20. 8 % ) were more t h a n 5 y e a r s o f age ( T a b l e 9 ) . The number o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n TABLE 18 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGE OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY BREAKDOWN IN CARE FOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION BOARD CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of children In family BY BREAK Have had a breakdown in c h i l d care BREAK COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CHILDAGE AGE 17 Ages 0 - 17 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 AGE60 Ages 3 - 5 years AGEOLD Ages more than 5 yea COLUMN TOTAL No Yes 0 1 16 42 . 1 47 . 1 16.8 22 57.9 36. 1 23.2 13 34 .2 38.2 13.7 25 65.8 41.0 26.3 15 44 . 1 44 . 1 15.8 19 55.9 31.1 20.0 3 14.3 8.8 3.2 18 85.7 29.5 18.9 34 61 35.8 64.2 ROW TOTAL 38 40.0 38 40.0 34 35.8 21 22 . 1 95 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 95 VALID CASES 31 MISSING CASES TABLE 19 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGE OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY ALTERNATE CARE AVAILABLE FOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION BOARD CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of children 1n family BY ALTERNAT Have alternate daycare a v a i l a b l e COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT ALTERNAT No Yes CHILDAGE Ages 0 AGE 17 17 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 AGE60 Ages 3 - 5 years AGEOLD Ages more than 5 yea COLUMN TOTAL ROW TOTAL 38 40.4 38 40.4 33 35. 1 21 22.3 94 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 94 VALID CASES 32 MISSING CASES TABLE 20 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGES OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY EMERGENCY CARE OFFERED FOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION BOARD CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of children in family BY EMERGENC Emergency care should be offered COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT EMERGENC No Yes CHILDAGE Ages O AGE 17 17 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 AGE60 Ages 3 - 5 years AGEOLD Ages more than 5 yea COLUMN TOTAL ROW TOTAL 6 30 16.7 83.3 50.0 37 . 5 6.5 32.6 4 33 10.8 89.2 33.3 41.3 4.3 35.9 4 29 12. 1 87 .9 33.3 36.3 4.3 31 .5 2 18 10.0 90.0 16.7 22. 5 2.2 19.6 12 80 13.0 87 .0 36 39. 1 37 40.2 33 35 .9 20 21.7 92 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 92 VALID CASES 34 MISSING CASES 87 u s i n g o r n e e d i n g c a r e was 147 (98.0%) T a b l e 2 1 ) . N i n e t y - t h r e e ( 6 7 . 9 % ) c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e , 2 ( 1 . 5 % ) r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l i z e d c a r e and 36 ( 2 6 . 3 % ) r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . The h o u r s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d were b r o k e n down i n t o s i x c h o i c e s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t 95 ( 6 9 . 9 % ) c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d c a r e on weekdays ( T a b l e 1 2 ) . When c o m p a r i n g t y p e s o f c a r e needed w i t h h o u r s o f c a r e , 93 c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d w e e k d a y c a r e ; o f t h e s e , 9 5 . 7 % a l s o r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e . T h i r t y - f o u r r e q u i r e d p a r t - t i m e c a r e ; o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n , 100.0% a l s o r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e ( T a b l e 22) . When c r o s s - t a b u l a t i n g t h e t y p e o f c a r e n e e d e d w i t h p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n , 68 c h i l d r e n had p a r e n t s t h a t i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r c h i l d c a r e o n w o r k p r e m i s e s ; o f t h e s e 68 ( 7 9 . 4 % ) r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e . Of t h e 58 c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s p r e f e r r e d c h i l d c a r e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f home, 6 7 . 2 % a l s o r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e a n d 3 1 . 0 % r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e ( T a b l e 2 3 ) . I n a c o m p a r i s o n between t h e t y p e o f c a r e needed and t h e p a r e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o p a y , 49 c h i l d r e n had p a r e n t s who were a b l e t o pay $200 - $300 p e r month p e r c h i l d . Of t h e s e 49 c h i l d r e n , 7 9 . 6 % r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e and 1 4 . 3 % r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e . Most o f t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n (56.3%) were f r o m f a m i l i e s who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d more t h a n $250 p e r month p e r c h i l d ( T a b l e 2 4 ) . T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e when t h e c h i l d o n l y r e q u i r e s c a r e s e v e r a l h o u r s a day b e f o r e and a f t e r s c h o o l . TABLE 21 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN NEEDING CARE  FOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION BOARD VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT NO 0 3 2.0 2.0 2.0 Yes 1 144 98.0 98.0 100.0 TOTAL 147 100.0 100.0 I o -+ No II 3 - + I , + Yes I 144 I + I I I I I I I 0 40 80 120 160 200 FREQUENCY MEAN .980 STO DEV .142 MINIMUM .000 MAXIMUM I.OOO VALID CASES 147 MISSING CASES 0 89 TABLE 22 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE BY HOURS OF CARE FOR CHILDREN FROM WORKERS' COMPENSATION BOARD CARETYPE (TABULATING BY CARETIME (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed 1) Hours of daycare needed CARETIME COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CARETYPE Group care Weekdays Weeknlgh Weekend Weekend ts days nights Part tlm Other t l e mes WEEKDAYS|WEEKNIGH|ENDOAYS |ENDNIGHT|PARTTIME|OTHERTIM| ROW TOTAL GROUPCAR PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Before/after/out of SPECIAL S p e c i a l i s e d care OTHERCAR Other care COLUMN TOTAL 89 2 2 2 1 4 95.7 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 . 1 4.3 95.7 66 7 100 0 100 0 2.9 57 . 1 66.4 1 5 1 5 1 5 0.7 3.0 6 0 0 0 0 1 85.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 14.3 6.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 14.3 4.S O 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.7 1 1 0 1 34 1 2.8 2 8 0 0 2 a 94.4 2.8 1 . 1 33 3 0 0 50 o 100.0 14 . 3 0.7 0 7 0 0 0 7 25.4 0.7 0 0 0 0 1 1 0.0 0 O 0 0 0 0 50. O 50.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.9 14.3 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 0.7 3 0 0 0 0 1 75.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 25.0 3.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 14.3 2.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.7 93 3 2 2 34 7 69.4 2 2 1 5 1 5 25.4 5.2 93 69.4 7 5.2 36 26.9 2 1 .5 4 3.0 134 10O.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 134 VALID CASES 13 MISSING CASES 90 TABLE 23 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE NEEDED BY PREFERRED LOCATION OF CARE FOR CHILDREN FROM WORKERS' COMPENSATION BOARD CARETYPE (TABULATING BY LOCATION (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed 1) Preferred location of chlldcare LOCATION COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CARETYPE GROUPCAR Group care PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Before/after/out of SPECIAL Sp e c i a l i s e d care OTHERCAR Other care COLUMN TOTAL Prefer v Prefer v Prefer o Prefer v Prefer c l d n l ty i d n l t y n work p i c i n i t y entral 1 of h of w rem 1 of s ocat LOCHOME LOCWORK LOCPREM LOSCHOOL LOCCENT 39 32 54 6 5 41.9 34 4 58. 1 6 .5 5.4 67.2 80 0 79.4 24 .0 62.5 29 . 1 23 9 40.3 4 .5 3.7 2 4 6 1 0 2B.6 57 1 85.7 14 .3 0.0 3.4 10 0 8.8 4 .0 0.0 1 . 5 3 0 4.5 0 .7 0.0 18 7 10 18 2 50.0 19 4 27 .8 50 .0 5.6 31.0 17 5 14.7 72 .0 25.0 13.4 5 2 7.5 13 .4 1 .5 2 0 1 0 0 lOO.O O O 50.0 O .0 0.0 3.4 O 0 1 .5 0 0 0.0 1.5 0 0 0.7 0 0 0.0 1 O 2 2 1 25.0 0 0 50.0 50 0 25.0 1.7 0 0 2.9 8 0 12.5 0.7 O 0 1 .5 1 5 0.7-58 40 68 25 8 43.3 29. 9 50.7 18 7 6.0 ROW TOTAL 93 69.4 7 5.2 36 26 .9 4 .0 134 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 134 VALID CASES 13 MISSING CASES 91 TABLE 24 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE NEEDED BY ABILITY TO PAY FOR CHILDREN FROM WORKERS' COMPENSATION BOARD CARETYPE (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed BY PAY Abl H t y to pay PAY COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT Less tha n $250/m onth $200 - 3 OO/month $300 - 4 OO/month Over $50 Other O/month CARETYPE Group care GROUPCAR PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Before/after/out of ROW TOTAL 0 1 1 2 3 4 15 39 31 5 1 91 16.5 42 .9 34 . 1 5 5 1 1 71.7 45.5 79 .6 81 .6 83 3 100 0 11.8 30 . 7 24 .4 3 9 0 8 0 1 3 2 0 6 0.0 16 .7 50 .0 33 3 0 0 4 . 7 O.O 2 .O 7 .9 33 3 0 0 0.0 0 .8 2 .4 1 6 0 0 18 7 6 1 0 32 56.3 21 .9 18 .8 3 1 0 0 25.2 54.5 14 .3 15 .8 16 7 0 0 14.2 5 .5 4 .7 0 a 0 0 SPECIAL 1 0 1 0 0 Spe c i a l i s e d care 50.0 0.0 50.0 0 0 0 0 3.0 0.0 2.6 0 0 0 0 0.8 0.0 0.8 0 0 0 0 OTHERCAR 1 2 0 1 0 Other care 25.0 50.0 O.O 25 0 0 0 3.0 4 . 1 0.0 16 7 0 0 0.8 1 .6 0.0 0 8 0 0 COLUMN 33 49 38 6 1 TOTAL 26.0 38.6 29.9 4 7 0 8 2 1.6 4 3 . 1 127 1OO.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 127 VALID CASES 20 MISSING CASES 92 When c r o s s - t a b u l a t i n g t h e t y p e o f c h i l d c a r e w i t h p a r e n t s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g a s e r v i c e i n o r n e a r t h e t o w n c e n t r e , t h e c h i l d r e n h a d p a r e n t s who w e r e w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t . Of t h e s e 74 c h i l d r e n , 39.7% r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e ( T a b l e 2 5 ) . B. R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l  F a m i l y Needs Of t h e 28 r e t u r n e d s u r v e y s , 23 ( 8 2 . 1 % ) f a m i l i e s h a d c h i l d r e n u n d e r 13 y e a r s o f age and 21 (75.0%) f a m i l i e s n e e d e d o r u s e d c h i l d c a r e ( T a b l e 1 ) . E i g h t e e n ( 8 1 . 8 9 % ) p a r e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d a breakdown i n r e g u l a r c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s and 15 ( 6 3 . 2 % ) have a l t e r n a t i v e c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s . T w e n t y -two ( 1 0 0 . 0 % ) p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d a need f o r emergency s h o r t -t e r m c a r e i n e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s ( T a b l e 1 ) . The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s were e i t h e r v e r y s a t i s f i e d ( 3 0 . 4 % ) o r s a t i s f i e d ( 3 9 . 1 % ) w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s ( T a b l e 2 ) . T h e r e were o n l y two c a t e g o r i e s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e amount o f m o n i e s p a r e n t s were w i l l i n g t o s p e n d f o r c h i l d c a r e : l e s s t h a n $250 p e r month (82.4%) and between $200 - $300 p e r month ( 1 7 . 6 % ) ( T a b l e 3 ) . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t many p a r e n t s work a v a r i e t y o f s h i f t s o r p a r t - t i m e and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e l e s s p a i d c a r e . T w e l v e r e s p o n d e n t s were aware o f t h e c h i l d c a r e s u b s i d y TABLE 25 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE NEEDED BY HELP DEVELOP A CENTRE FOR CHILDREN FROM WORKERS' COMPENSATION BOARD CARETYPE (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed BY TAKEPART Would help develop service COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT TAKEPART No CARETYPE GROUPCAR Group care PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Before/after/out of SPECIAL Sp e c i a l i s e d care OTHERCAR Other care COLUMN TOTAL Yes ROW TOTAL o 1 1 37 50 87 42.5 57 5 69.0 71.2 67 6 29.4 39 7 3 4 7 42.9 57 1 5.6 5.8 5 4 2.4 3 2 14 22 36 38.9 61 1 28 .6 26.9 29 7 11.1 17 5 2 0 100.0 0 0 1 .6 3.8 0 0 1 .6 0 0 1 1 2 50.0 50 .0 1 .6 1 .9 1 4 0.8 o .8 52 74 126 41.3 58 . 7 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 126 VALID CASES 21 MISSING CASES 94 p r o v i d e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g ( T a b l e 1) . Of t h e p a r e n t s e m p l o y e d a t t h e h o s p i t a l , 10 ( 4 3 . 5 % ) p r e f e r r e d c h i l d c a r e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e i r home; 9 ( 3 9 . 1 % ) p r e f e r r e d c h i l d c a r e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f s c h o o l and 8 ( 2 4 . 2 % ) p r e f e r r e d c h i l d c a r e on t h e i r work p r e m i s e ( T a b l e 4 ) . Of t h e 28 r e s p o n d e n t s , 16 ( 7 6 . 2 % ) s t a t e d t h e y w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o c h a n g e c h i l d c a r e s e t t i n g s p r o v i d e d i t was a f f o r d a b l e a n d i n o r n e a r t h e town c e n t r e . T w e l v e ( 5 7 . 1 % ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a c e n t r e ( T a b l e 1 ) . When c o m p a r i n g emergency c a r e s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e a g e s o f c h i l d r e n , 18 f a m i l i e s e x p e r i e n c e d a b r e a k d o w n i n c a r e ; o f t h e s e 18 f a m i l i e s , 4 0.9% had c h i l d r e n a g e s 3 - 5 y e a r s a n d o l d e r t h a n 5 y e a r s ( T a b l e 2 6 ) . F o l l o w i n g f r o m t h i s , t h e r e w e r e 1 5 f a m i l i e s who h a d t o s e e k a l t e r n a t i v e c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s ; o f them 15 f a m i l i e s ( 27.3%) had c h i l d r e n i n age c a t e g o r i e s 0 - 1 7 m o n t h s , 2 7 . 3 % had c h i l d r e n 18 months - 3 y e a r s a n d 2 7 . 3 % had c h i l d r e n 3 - 5 y e a r s o f a g e . A l s o , o f t h e s e 15 f a m i l i e s , 3 1 . 8 % h a d c h i l d r e n o l d e r t h a n 5 y e a r s ( T a b l e 2 7 ) . A l l f a m i l i e s (22) who c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n on w h e t h e r e m e r g e n c y c a r e s h o u l d be o f f e r e d , a f f i r m e d t h e n e e d . When c o m p a r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a g e s w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n , 4 5.5% o f t h e 22 r e s p o n s e s h a d c h i l d r e n a g e s 3 - 5 a n d 4 5 . 5 % h a d c h i l d r e n o l d e r t h a n 5 y e a r s ( T a b l e 2 8 ) . TABLE 26 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGES OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY BREAKDOWN IN CARE FOR RICHMOND GENERAL HOSPITAL CHILOAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of children m family BY BREAK Have had a breakdown in c h i l d care COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT BREAK No CHILDAGE Ages O AGE 17 17 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 Ages 3 AGE60 5 years AGEOLD Ages more than 5 yea COLUMN TOTAL Yes ROW TOTAL o 1 3 4 7 42 9 57 1 31.8 75 0 22 2 13 6 18 2 2 6 a 25 0 75 O 36.4 50 0 33 3 9 1 27 3 1 9 10 10 0 90 0 45.5 25 0 50 .0 4 5 40 .9 1 9 10 10 0 90 .0 45.5 25 0 50 .O 4 .5 40 .9 4 18 22 18 .2 81 .8 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 22 VALID CASES 6 MISSING CASES TABLE 27 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGES OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY ALTERNATE CARE AVAILABLE FOR RICHMOND GENERAL HOSPITAL CHILOAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of children In family BY ALTERNAT Have alternate daycare a v a i l a b l e COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CHILDAGE AGE 17 Ages 0 - 17 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 ALTERNAT No Yes Ages 3 AGE60 5 years AGEOLD Ages more than 5 yea COLUMN TOTAL o 1 1 6 14 3 85.7 14 3 40.0 4 5 27 . 3 2 6 25 0 75 .O 28 6 40.0 9 1 27 .3 4 6 40 0 60.0 57 1 40.0 18 2 27 . 3 3 7 30 0 70.0 42 9 46 . 7 13 6 31 .8 7 15 31 8 68 . 2 ROW TOTAL 7 31.8 8 36.4 10 45.5 10 45.5 22 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 22 VALID CASES 6 MISSING CASES TABLE 28 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGES OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY  EMERGENCY CARE IN CENTRES FOR RICHMOND GENERAL HOSPITAL CHILDAGL' (TABULATING 1) Ages of children in family BY EMERGENC Emergency care should oe offered COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT EMERGENC Yes ROW TOTAL CHILDAGE AGE 17 Ages 0 - 17 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 AGE60 Ages 3 - 5 years AGEOLD Ages more than 5 yea COLUMN TOTAL + 1_ I 7 7 10O.0 31.8 31.8 31.8 + + 8 a 10O.0 36.4 36.4 36.4 + +. 10 10 100.0 45.5 45.5 45.5 •f + 10 10 lOO.O 45.5 45.5 45.5 h + 22 22 100.0 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 22 VALID CASES 6 MISSING CASES 98 C h i l d r e n ' s Needs F o r t y - s i x c h i l d r e n w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n 28 r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Of t h e s e 46 c h i l d r e n , 15 ( 3 2 . 6 % ) were o l d e r t h a n 5 y e a r s and 14 (31.8%) were 3 - 5 y e a r s o f age ( T a b l e 9 ) . F o r t y - o n e ( 8 9 . 1 % ) o f t h e 46 c h i l d r e n were u s i n g o r w ere i n need o f c h i l d c a r e ( T a b l e 2 9 ) . T h e r e were 18 ( 4 0 . 9 % ) c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g o r u s i n g g r o u p c a r e a n d 17 ( 3 8 . 6 % ) c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g o r u s i n g o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . T w e n t y -e i g h t ( 6 2 . 2 % ) c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d c a r e o n w e e k d a y s a n d 19 ( 4 2 . 2 % ) r e q u i r e d c a r e on w e e k n i g h t s ( T a b l e 1 2 ) . When c o m p a r i n g t h e t y p e s and h o u r s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d , 28 c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d w e e k d a y s ; o f t h e s e 28 c h i l d r e n , 6 0 . 7 % r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e and 17.9% r e q u i r e d p r e - s c h o o l c a r e . T h e r e were 19 c h i l d r e n who needed c a r e on w e e k n i g h t s ; o f t h e s e 19, 4 2 . 1 % r e q u i r e d c a r e i n b o t h g r o u p c a r e s e t t i n g s and o u t - o f -s c h o o l p r o g r a m s ( T a b l e 3 0 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n between p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f c a r e and t y p e o f c a r e r e q u i r e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t 20 c h i l d r e n had p a r e n t s who p r e f e r r e d c a r e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e i r home. Of t h e s e 20 c h i l d r e n , 50.0% r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e and 40.0% r e q u i r e d o u t - o f -s c h o o l c a r e ( T a b l e 3 1 ) . The r e s u l t s o f c r o s s - t a b u l a t i n g t h e t y p e o f c a r e n eeded and t h e a b i l i t y t o pay i n d i c a t e t h a t 26 c h i l d r e n have p a r e n t s who c a n n o t a f f o r d more t h a n $250 p e r month p e r c h i l d . Out o f t h e s e 26 c h i l d r e n , 50.0% needed o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e and 42.3% r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e . None o f t h e p a r e n t s c o u l d a f f o r d p a y i n g 99 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN NEEDING CARE TABLE 29 FOR RICHMOND GENERAL HOSPITAL VALID CUM VALUE LABEL VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT No 0 5 10.9 10.9 10.9 Yes 1 41 89.1 89.1 100.0 TOTAL 46 100.0 100.0 O + No I 5 1 + 1 + Yes I 41 I + I I I I I I O 10 20 30 40 50 FREQUENCY MEAN .891 STD DEV .315 MINIMUM .OOO MAXIMUM 1.000 VALID CASES 46 MISSING CASES O 100 TABLE 30 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE BY HOURS OF CARE FOR CHILDREN FROM RICHMOND GENERAL HOSPITAL CARETYPE (TABULATING BY CARETIME (TABULATING t) Type of daycare needed 1) Hours of daycare needed COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CARETIME Weekdays Weeknigh Weekend Weekend Part tlm ts days nights e CARETYPE Group care GROUPCAR PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Before/after/out of SPECIAL Spe c i a l i s e d care OTHERCAR Other care COLUMN TOTAL WEEKDAYS WEEKNIGH ENDDAYS ENDNIGHT PARTTIME 17 8 5 1 0 94 .4 44 .4 27 8 5 6 0.0 60 .7 42 . 1 62 5 20 0 0.0 38 .6 18 .2 1 1 4 2 3 0.0 5 3 0 0 0 1CO .0 60 .0 0 0 0 0 0.0 17 .9 15 .8 0 0 0 0 0.0 1 1 .4 6 8 0 0 0 0 O.O 2 8 3 4 1 1 1 1 .8 47 1 17 6 23 5 64 . 7 7 . 1 42 . 1 37 5 80 0 10O.0 4 .5 18 .2 6 8 9 1 25.0 1 0 0 0 0 100 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 3 .6 0 0 0 0 0 0 O.O 2 .3 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0.0 3 0 0 0 0 100 .0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0.0 10 . 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 6 .8 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0.0 28 19 8 5 11 63 .6 43 .2 18 2 11 4 25.0 ROW TOTAL 18 40.9 5 11.4 38 17 .6 44 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 44 VALID CASES 2 MISSING CASES 101 TABLE 31 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE BY PREFERRED LOCATION OF CARE FOR CHILDREN FROM RICHMOND GENERAL HOSPITAL CARETYPE (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed BY LOCATION (TABULATING 1) Preferred location of childcare LOCATION COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CARETYPE Prefer v Prefer v Prefer o Prefer v Prefer c Prefer o i c i n i t y i c i n i t y n work p i c i n i t y entral 1 ther loc ROW of h of w rem! of s ocat a t i o TOTAL LOCHOME |LOCWORK |LOCPREM |LOSCHOOLILOCCENT |LOCOTHER| GROUPCAR Group care PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Before/after/out of SPECIAL S p e c i a l i s e d care OTHERCAR Other care COLUMN TOTAL 10 2 10 6 0 0 55.6 1 1 1 55 .6 33 . 3 0 0 0 0 50.0 40 0 71 .4 35 .3 0 0 0 0 22.7 4 5 22 . 7 13 .6 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 1 0 0 40.0 40 0 20 .0 20 0 0 0 0 0 10.0 40 0 7 . 1 5 .9 0 0 0 0 4.5 4 S 2 .3 2 .3 0 0 0 0 8 o 2 8 2 0 47. 1 0 0 1 1 .8 47 . 1 1 1 a 0 0 40.0 0 0 14 .3 47 . 1 100 0 0 0 18.2 0 0 4 .5 18 .2 4 5 0 0 0 0 O 1 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 .0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 o 0 .o 5 .9 o 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 .0 2 .3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 o.o 33 3 33 . 3 33 3 o 0 66 7 0.0 20 0 7 . 1 5 .9 0 0 100 0 0.0 2 3 2 . 3 2 .3 0 0 4 5 20 5 14 17 2 2 45.5 1 1 4 31 .8 38 6 4 5 4 5 18 40. 9 1 1 38 17 .6 44 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 44 VALID CASES 2 MISSING CASES 102 more t h a n $300 p e r month p e r c h i l d ( T a b l e 3 2 ) . When t a b u l a t i n g c a r e t y p e w i t h w i l l i n g n e s s t o a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g a s e r v i c e i n t h e t o w n c e n t r e , 23 c h i l d r e n h a d p a r e n t s who were w i l l i n g t o c o o p e r a t e . Of t h e s e 23 c h i l d r e n , 2 9.3% needed g r o u p c a r e ( T a b l e 3 3 ) . C. K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e  F a m i l y Needs T h e r e were 83 r e t u r n e d s u r v e y s f o r t h e C o l l e g e . Of t h e s e 8 3 , 22 ( 2 6 . 5 % ) s t a t e d t h e y had c h i l d r e n under 13 y e a r s o f age a n d 14 ( 1 8 . 7 % ) n e e d e d o r r e q u i r e d c h i l d c a r e ( T a b l e 1 ) . Of t h o s e p a r e n t s , 3 ( 1 8 . 8 % ) i n d i c a t e d t h e y h a d e x p e r i e n c e d a b r e a k d o w n i n r e g u l a r c h i l d c a r e . Ten (58.8%) s t a t e d t h e y had a l t e r n a t i v e c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s , and 11 ( 8 4 . 6 % ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c a r e s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s ( T a b l e 1 ) . E i g h t ( 5 3 . 3 % ) p a r e n t s w e r e v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s a n d 3 ( 2 0 . 0 % ) w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d ( T a b l e 2 ) . P a r e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o p a y f o r c h i l d c a r e f e l l i n t o t h e f i r s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . N i n e ( 7 5 . 0 % ) f a m i l i e s c o u l d n o t a f f o r d more t h a n $250 p e r month, 2 ( 1 6 . 7 % ) c o u l d pay $200 -$300 p e r month, and 1 ( 8 . 3 % ) was a b l e t o pay $300 - $400 p e r month ( T a b l e 3 ) . O n l y 4 ( 2 6 . 7 % ) p a r e n t s w e r e a w a r e o f t h e c h i l d c a r e s u b s i d y o f f e r e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g TABLE 32 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE BY HELP DEVELOP CENTRE FOR CHILDREN FROM RICHMOND GENERAL HOSPITAL CARETYPE (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed BY PAY Ac 1 1 1ty to pay PAY COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CARETYPE Less tha $200 - 3 n $250/m OO/month ROW onth TOTAL 0 | 1 | + + GROUPCAR Group care PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Before/after/out of SPECIAL S p e c i a l i s e d care COLUMN TOTAL 11 1 12 91.7 8 3 38 . 7 42 . 3 20 0 35.5 3 2 2 2 4 50.0 50 0 12.9 7 . 7 40 0 6.5 6 5 13 1 14 92 .9 7 1 45.2 50.0 20 0 41.9 3 2 0 1 1 0.0 100 0 3.2 0.0 20 0 0.0 3 2 26 5 31 83.9 16 1 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 31 VALID CASES 15 MISSING CASES TABLE 33 CROSS-TABOLATION OF AGE OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY BREAKDOWN IN CHILD CARE FOR KWANTLEN COLLEGE CARETYPE (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed BY TAKEPART Would help develop service COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT TAKEPART No Yes CARETYPE 0 I 1 I + ROW TOTAL GROUPCAR Group care PRESCHOO Pre-school care OUTOF Befo^e/after/out of SPECIAL S p e c i a l i s e d care OTHERCAR Other care COLUMN TOTAL 5 29.4 27 .8 12.2 12 70.6 52.2 29.3 2 40.0 11.1 4.9 3 60.0 13.0 7 .3 8 53.3 44 . 4 19.5 7 46.7 30. 4 17 . 1 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 100.0 4 . 3 2.4 3 100.0 16.7 7.3 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 18 43.9 23 56. 1 17 41.5 5 12.2 15 36.6 1 2.4 3 7 . 3 41 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 41 VALID CASES 5 MISSING CASES 105 ( T a b l e 1 ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f c h i l d c a r e , 11 ( 6 8 . 8 % ) r e s p o n d e n t s p r e f e r r e d a f a c i l i t y w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f home a n d 6 ( 3 7 . 5 % ) p r e f e r r e d one w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f s c h o o l ( T a b l e 4 ) . Of t h e number o f p a r e n t s who were w i l l i n g t o cha n g e t h e i r p r e s e n t c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s and h e l p d e v e l o p a f a c i l i t y i n t h e t own c e n t r e , 7 ( 4 6 . 7 % ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d r e l o c a t e and 8 ( 5 3 . 3 % ) i n d i c a t e d t h e y w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t ( T a b l e 1 ) . When c o m p a r i n g emergency c a r e w i t h t h e ages o f c h i l d r e n , 3 f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n o l d e r t h a n 5 ( 2 0 . 0 % ) e x p e r i e n c e d a br e a k d o w n i n c a r e ( T a b l e 3 4 ) . Ten f a m i l i e s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had a l t e r n a t i v e c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s ; o f t h e s e 10 f a m i l i e s , 3 1 .3% h a d c h i l d r e n o v e r 5 a n d 1 8 . 8 % h a d c h i l d r e n 0 - 1 7 m o n t h s ( T a b l e 3 5 ) . E l e v e n f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t e x i s t i n g c a r e c e n t r e s s h o u l d o f f e r e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c a r e . Of t h e s e 1 1 , 38.5% had c h i l d r e n o v e r t r i e age o f 5 ( T a b l e 3 6 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s Needs T h e r e were a t o t a l o f 83 r e t u r n e d s u r v e y s f r o m K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d 24 c h i l d r e n . Of t h e s e 24 c h i l d r e n , 15 ( 6 2 . 5 % ) w e r e o l d e r t h a n 5 y e a r s . T h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n ( 12.5%) was t h e same f o r a l l t h e o t h e r t h r e e age c a t e g o r i e s ( T a b l e 9 ) . T h e r e were 21 o u t o f 24 c h i l d r e n who n e e d e d o r u s e d c a r e ( T a b l e 3 7 ) . T h i r t e e n ( 5 9 . 1 % ) c h i l d r e n TABLE 34 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGE OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY BREAKDOWN IN CHILD CARE FOR KWANTLEN COLLEGE CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of chil d r e n in family BY BREAK Have had a breakdown in c h i l d care CHILDAGE Ages O COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT BREAK No AGE 17 17 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 AGE60 Ages 3 - 5 years AGEOLD Ages more than 5 yea COLUMN •TOTAL Yes 3 0 100 O 0 0 25 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 3 O 100 0 0 0 25 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 2 0 100 O 0 0 16 7 0 0 13 3 0 0 5 3 62 5 37 5 4 1 7 too 0 33 3 20 0 3 •SO 0 20 O ROW TOTAL 3 20.0 3 20.0 2 13.3 S S3. 3 •IE. 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTAUSABASED ON RESPONDENTS 15 VALID CASES 68 MISSING CASES TABLE 35 CROSS-TABULATION OF AGE OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY ALTERNATE CARE FOR KWANTLEN COLLEGE CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of children in family BY ALTERNAT Have alternate daycare a v a i l a b l e COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT ALTERNAT No Yes 1 CHILDAGE Ages O AGE 17 17 months 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 AGE60 Ages 3 - 5 years 1 33.3 16 . 7 6 . 3 2 66.7 33.3 12.5 3 100.0 30.0 18.8 2 66 . 7 20.0 12.5 1 33 .3 10.0 6 . 3 ROW TOTAL 3 18.8 3 18.8 3 18.8 AGEOLD 4 5 9 than 5 yea 44 4 55.6 56 . 3 66 7 50.0 25 0 31.3 - + COLUMN 6 10 16 TOTAL 37 5 62.5 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 16 VALID CASES 67 MISSING CASES TABLE 36 CROSS-TABOLATIQN OF AGE OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES BY EMERGENCY CARE IN CENTRES FOR KWANTLEN COLLEGE CHILDAGE (TABULATING 1) Ages of children in family BY EMERGENC Emergency care should be offered COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CHILDAGE AGE 17 Ages 0 - 1 7 months AGE36 Ages 18 months to 3 AGE60 Ages 3 - 5 years EMERGENC No Yes 0 I 1 I 1 33 . 3 50.0 7 . 7 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 66 . 7 18.2 15.4 3 100.0 27 . 3 23. 1 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 100.0 27 .3 23 . 1 + + ROW TOTAL 3 23 . 1 3 23 . 1 3 23 . 1 AGEOLD 1 5 6 than 5 yea 16 7 83 . 3 46 . 2 50 0 45 . 5 7 7 38 . 5 - + COLUMN 2 1 1 13 TOTAL 15 4 84 . 6 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 13 VALID CASES 70 MISSING CASES 109 TABLE 37 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF CARE NEEDED FOR CHILDREN IN KWANTLEN COLLEGE GROUP CARETYPE Type of daycare needed (VALUE TABULATED = 1) DICHOTOMY LABEL NAME COUNT PCT OF RESPONSES PCT OF CASES Group care GROUPCAR 9 40.9 40.9 Before/after/out of school care OUTOF 13 59 . 1 59 . 1 TOTAL RESPONSES 22 100.0 100.0 2 MISSING CASES 22 VALID CASES 110 r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e and 9 (40.9%) r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . The m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n 13 ( 5 9 . 1 % ) r e q u i r e d p a r t - t i m e c a r e and 8 (36.4%) r e q u i r e d weekdays ( T a b l e 1 2 ) . When c o m p a r i n g t h e t y p e o f c a r e r e q u i r e d w i t h t h e h o u r s o f c a r e n e e d e d , 13 c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d p a r t - t i m e c a r e ; o f t h e s e 1 3 , a l l r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e ( T a b l e 3 8 ) . When t a b u l a t i n g t h e t y p e o f c a r e w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f c a r e , 15 c h i l d r e n h a d p a r e n t s who p r e f e r r e d a f a c i l i t y w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e i r home. Of t h e s e 15 c h i l d r e n , 6 0 . 0 % r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e a n d t h e o t h e r 40.0% r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e . Ten c h i l d r e n a l s o had p a r e n t s who p r e f e r r e d a s e t t i n g w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e c h i l d ' s s c h o o l ; o f t h e s e 10, a l l r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e ( T a b l e 3 9 ) . When c r o s s - t a b u l a t i n g t y p e o f c a r e w i t h a b i l i t y t o pay," 15 c h i l d r e n h a d p a r e n t s who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d more t h a n $250 p e r m o n t h ; o f t h e s e 15 c h i l d r e n 60.0% r e q u i r e d o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e and 40.0% r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e ( T a b l e 4 0 ) . I n c o m p a r i n g t y p e o f c a r e w i t h p a r e n t s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f a c i l i t y i n t h e town c e n t r e , 9 c h i l d r e n had p a r e n t s who were w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t . Out o f t h e s e 9 c h i l d r e n , 2 6 .3% needed o u t - o f - s c h o o l c a r e and 21.4% ne e d e d g r o u p c a r e ( T a b l e 4 1 ) . TABLE 38 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE BY HOURS OF CARE FOR CHILDREN FROM KWANTLEN COLLEGE CARETYPE (TABULATING BY CARETIME (TABULATING 1 ) Type of daycare needed 1) Hours of daycare needed CARETIME COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT CARETYPE Weekdays Weekend Part tim nights e WEEKDAYS|ENDNIGHT|PARTTIME| GROUPCAR 8 1 0 Group care 88 9 1 1 1 0.0 100 0 100 0 0.0 36 4 4 5 0.0 OUTOF 0 0 13 Before/after/out of 0 0 0 0 too.o 0 0 0 0 100.0 0 0 0 0 59. 1 COLUMN 8 1 13 TOTAL 36 4 4 5 59. 1 ROW TOTAL 9 40.9 13 59. 1 22 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 22 VALID CASES 2 MISSING CASES 112 TABLE 39 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE BY PREFERRED LOCATION OF CARE FOR CHILDREN FROM KWANTLEN COLLEGE CARETYPE (TABULATING BY LOCATION (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed 1) Preferred location of childcare LOCATION CARETYPE COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT Prefer v Prefer o Prefer v Prefer c i c i n i t y n work p i c i n i t y entral 1 of h remi of s ocat LOCHOME |LOCPREM |LOSCHOOL|LOCCENT I + + + + GROUPCAR Group care OUTOF Before/after/out of COLUMN TOTAL 6 2 0 2 66.7 22 2 0.0 22 2 40.0 50 0 0.0 66 7 27.3 9 1 0.0 9 1 9 2 10 1 69.2 15 4 76.9 7 7 60. O 50 O 100.0 33 3 40.9 9 1 45.5 4 5 15 4 10 3 68.2 18 2 45.5 13 6 ROW TOTAL 9 40.9 13 59. 1 22 100.0 PERCENTS ANO TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 22 VALID CASES 2 MISSING CASES TABLE 40 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE BY ABILITY TO PAY FOR CHILDREN FROM KWANTLEN COLLEGE CARETYPE (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed BY PAY A b l I i t y to pay PAY COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT Less tha $200 - 3 $300 - 4 n $250/m OO/month OO/month onth 0 I 1 I 2 CARETYPE Group care GROUPCAR OUTOF Before/after/out of COLUMN TOTAL 6 2 1 66.7 22 2 1 1 1 40.0 100 0 100 0 33.3 1 1 1 5 6 9 O 0 100.0 0 0 0 0 60.0 0 0 0 0 50.0 O 0 0 0 15 2 1 83.3 1 1 1 5 6 ROW TOTAL 9 50.0 9 50.0 18 100.0 PERCENTS AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 18 VALID CASES 6 MISSING CASES 114 TABLE 41 CROSS-TABULATION OF TYPE OF CARE BY HELP DEVELOP A CENTRE FOR CHILDREN FROM KWANTLEN COLLEGE CARETYPE (TABULATING 1) Type of daycare needed BY TAKEPART Wo-'j Id. help develop service COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TAB PCT TAKEPART No Yes CARETYPE GROUPCAR 2 4 Group care 33 .3 66 7 20 0 44 4 10 .5 2t 1 OUTOF 8 5 Before/after/out of 61 .5 38 5 80 .0 55 6 42 . 1 26 3 COLUMN 10 9 TOTAL 52 .6 47 4 ROW TOTAL 6 31.6 13 68.4 19 1O0.0 PERCENT^ AND TOTALS BASED ON RESPONDENTS 19 VALID CASES 5 MISSING CASES 115 CHAPTER SIX: DISCUSSION 6.1 Methodological Issues 6.1.1 R e l i a b i l i t y of Information and Missing Data S t u d i e s t h a t r e l y o n l y on i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may h a v e p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ; t h i s s t u d y was no e x c e p t i o n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h o s e v a r i a b l e s t h a t r e f e r r e d t o t y p e o f c a r e n e e d e d a n d age o f c h i l d a r e t i m e - d a t e d a n d t h e r e f o r e i n o p e r a t i v e a t a l a t e r d a t e . The q u e s t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h ' p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n ' o f c h i l d c a r e may be m i s l e a d i n g b e c a u s e some o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s knew t h a t o t h e r s i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n were ' p u s h i n g ' f o r a f a c i l i t y on t h e work p r e m i s e and t h e y may o n l y have wanted t o ' a i d ' them i n t h e i r q u e s t i o n , b u t may h a v e a c t u a l l y p r e f e r r e d c a r e i n a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n . P r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n may n o t a c t u a l l y be ' t h e ' p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n , b e c a u s e t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a was a f r e q u e n c y c o u n t , a n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s s e l e c t e d s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s as ' p r e f e r r e d ' ; t h e r e f o r e t h e l o c a t i o n w i t h t h e h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y was documented as p r e f e r r e d e v e n t h o u g h t h i s may n o t be t h e c a s e o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t . T h e r e a r e a l s o r e l i a b i l i t y p r o b l e m s i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d / o r l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , w h i c h may c h a n g e o v e r t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e need f o r c a r e , p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n , and amount o f mo n i e s p a r e n t s a r e w i l l i n g t o pay c o u l d c h a n g e . H o w e v e r , t h e s e c h a n g e s c a n a l s o be e x p e c t e d i n a n y t y p e o f s t u d y and s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d b e f o r e h a n d . 116 The amount o f m i s s i n g d a t a f o u n d i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s d o e s have an e f f e c t on t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e . V a r i a b l e s , s u c h as t h e t y p e o f c a r e , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c a r e a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o c h a n g e l o c a t i o n ( w h i c h h a d m i s s i n g c a s e s ) , may h a v e r e p r e s e n t e d s u b j e c t s w i t h p o s i t i v e v a r i a b l e f r e q u e n c i e s , and hence t h e a v a i l a b l e c a s e s may have u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e t r u e v a l u e o f t h e v a r i a b l e . However, e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e was m i s s i n g d a t a , t h e r e was enough o f a demand t o w a r r a n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o s e l e c t i n g l o c a t i o n s and p r o g r a m s t o f u l f i l l t h e s p e c i f i e d n e e d s . T h e r e a r e some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : f i r s t l y , a s an a i d f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s , a n a d e q u a t e p r e - t e s t be done t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s o f i n t e r e s t c a n be r e l i a b l y d i s c o v e r e d f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; s e c o n d l y , t h a t no q u e s t i o n s be p l a c e d on t h e b a c k o f a p a g e , b u t on a s e p a r a t e p a g e i f n e c e s s a r y ; t h i r d l y , t h a t a l l q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t i n g s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n ( s u c h a s p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n ) be c l e a r a s t o what i s b e i n g r e q u e s t e d ; l a s t l y , t h a t more p r e c i s e f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a be c o o r d i n a t e d . 6.1.2 Nature of the Sample The e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e i n t h e ' t o w n c e n t r e ' o f R i c h m o n d , B.C. was n o t i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o n f i r m e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y and i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t s u c h a c o n f i r m a t i o n be a t t e m p t e d i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n p o s s e s s e d 117 s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t may have made i t no n -r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o t h e r g r o u p s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e s u b j e c t s f r o m two o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w e r e e m p l o y e d a n d t h e r e f o r e w o u l d n o t r e p r e s e n t u n e m p l o y e d g r o u p s who a l s o r e q u i r e c h i l d c a r e and may p r e f e r i t l o c a t e d i n t h e 'town c e n t r e ' . A l s o s u b j e c t s f r o m a w i d e r a n g e o f e c o n o m i c i n c o m e s w e r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d , w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e amount p a r e n t s w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o s p e n d and t h e t y p e s o f c h i l d c a r e t h e y c o u l d a f f o r d . T h e r e were some s u b j e c t s who w o r k e d s h i f t s and w e e k e n d s , b u t t h e s a m p l e u s e d d i d n o t g i v e a t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s h o u r s d u r i n g w h i c h p a r e n t s need c h i l d c a r e . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s s t u d y , p a r e n t s w ork a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s h i f t s a n d r e q u i r e " f l e x i b l e c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a t w i l l accommodate t h e i r n e e d s " . [109] F i n a l l y , t h e sample was n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s p e c i a l i z e d c a r e needed f o r " s p e c i a l " c h i l d r e n . 6.1.3 V a l i d i t y of Outcome Measures A s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4, t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e , b u t t h e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d f r o m t h e i n s t r u m e n t w o u l d o n l y a p p l y t o one s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a r e a . To b e g i n w i t h , t h e r e t u r n r a t e s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f r o m two o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s s u r v e y e d were b e l o w 10% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l e f o r t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n ; s o t h e r e s u l t s may n o t y i e l d a 118 t r u e p i c t u r e o f t h e d e g r e e o f n e e d . T h i s , i n e f f e c t , w i l l a l s o a f f e c t t h e i s s u e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a f a c i l i t y w i t h i n t h e t own c e n t r e . W i t h o u t a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e x t e n t a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e , no f a c i l i t y c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d . The p r e s e n t s t u d y l a c k e d c e r t a i n d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ( a g e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , income) w h i c h a f f e c t i t s v a l i d i t y ; i t t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be a p p l i e d b e y o n d t h e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a e x c e p t t o make some g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s i n c o r p o r a t e s e v e r a l d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s w h i c h w i l l a i d i n t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d y t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . 6.1.4 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between V a r i a b l e s The v a r i a b l e s u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y were n o t r e g a r d e d a s ' i n d e p e n d e n t ' a n d ' dependent'; h o w e v e r , i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e a g e o f c h i l d a n d p l a c e o f e m p l o y m e n t c o u l d b e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w h i c h w o u l d a f f e c t t h e r e s u l t s . By k n o w i n g t h e age o f t h e c h i l d , one c o u l d p r e d i c t t h e t y p e o f c a r e n e e d e d and p o s s i b l y a l s o t h e amount o f m o n i e s a v a i l a b l e a n d t h e p a r e n t s ' p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n f o r c a r e . The p l a c e o f o c c u p a t i o n c o u l d a l s o be a p r e d i c t o r f o r p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n a n d a m o u n t s o f m o n i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r c a r e ; t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s o c c u p a t i o n w o u l d a f f e c t h i s / h e r i ncome. 119 6.2 O v e r a l l F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s Needs The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f t h e need f o r c h i l d c a r e c l e a r l y c o r r o b o r a t e what has been documented by o t h e r s . The e x t e n t o f t h e n e e d , as s t a t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , d e a l s w i t h n u m bers, e.g., how many c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e c a r e . Out o f 237 s u r v e y s , 217 c h i l d r e n were r e p r e s e n t e d , and o u t o f t h e s e 217 c h i l d r e n , 206 r e q u i r e d c a r e . The n a t u r e o f t h e c a r e depended on t h e p a r e n t s ' work s c h e d u l e . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d c a r e on w e e k d a y s , b u t t h e r e were a l s o t h o s e who r e q u i r e d c a r e p a r t - t i m e . P a r t - t i m e , i n t h i s s t u d y , o n l y a p p l i e d t o b e f o r e a n d / o r a f t e r s c h o o l ; i t d i d n o t a p p l y t o t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h p a r e n t s w o r k e d h a l f - t i m e d u r i n g t h e day o r e v e n i n g s . T h ose p a r e n t s who worked p a r t - t i m e s e l e c t e d e i t h e r weekdays o r w e e k - e v e n i n g s and n o t e d t h e t i m e s t h e y r e q u i r e d c a r e . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g c a r e d u r i n g t h e d a y , may be due t o t h e p a r e n t s ' p l a c e o f e m p l o y m e n t a n d t h e r e t u r n r a t e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F o r e x a m p l e , e m p l o y e e s a t t h e W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d work s t r a i g h t d a y s h i f t s 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m., Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y , b u t t h e e m p l o y e e s a t t h e R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l work s h i f t s and t h e h o s p i t a l o p e r a t e s 24 h o u r s a d a y , 7 d a y s a week. I f t h e r e t u r n r a t e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was h i g h e r f o r t h e W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d t h a n f o r R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , t h e n t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y i n d i c a t e a need f o r weekday c a r e , and n o t g i v e a ' t r u e ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e 120 needs o f h o s p i t a l e m p l o y e e s . Of t h o s e c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e d p a r t - t i m e c a r e , a l l b u t s i x o f t h e c h i l d r e n o v e r 5 y e a r s o f age r e q u i r e d c a r e b e f o r e a n d a f t e r s c h o o l . The s i x who were n o t i n c l u d e d were c a r e d f o r by a p a r e n t o r p o s s i b l y l e f t on t h e i r own. I t i s n o t uncommon t o f i n d s c h o o l - a g e d c h i l d r e n on t h e i r own b e f o r e a n d / o r a f t e r s c h o o l . As K u i k e n f o u n d i n h i s s t u d y o f l a t c h k e y c h i l d r e n , t h e r e a r e a g r e a t many c h i l d r e n l e f t on t h e i r own t o f e n d f o r t h e m s e l v e s . [ 1 1 0 ] How many i s d i f f i c u l t t o a p p r o x i m a t e , as p a r e n t s a r e n o t w i l l i n g t o a d m i t t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e l e f t u n s u p e r v i s e d . The t y p e o f c h i l d c a r e r e q u i r e d n o t o n l y depends upon t h e p a r e n t s ' work s c h e d u l e s , b u t a l s o t h e c h i l d ' s a g e a n d t h e c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t y ' s o p e r a t i n g h o u r s . The s t u d y o n l y i n c l u d e d f o u r s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f c a r e . Of t h e s e f o u r , g r o u p c a r e was i n d i c a t e d a s t h e m o s t n e e d e d t y p e o f c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n a ged 0 - 5 y e a r s . F o r c h i l d r e n o v e r f i v e , b e f o r e and a f t e r s c h o o l c a r e was i n d i c a t e d a s t h e most n e e d e d . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e t y p e s o f c a r e was ' o t h e r ' . T h i s c a t e g o r y was i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e some p a r e n t s p r e f e r r e d t o h a v e a n a n n y o r someone e l s e come i n t o t h e home t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n o r p l a c e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l y c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . G r o u p c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s u s u a l l y o p e r a t e b e tween t h e h o u r s o f 7:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m. a n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s s e r v e c h i l d r e n 3 - 5 y e a r s o f age. As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t u d y by t h e R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ( 1 9 8 6 ) , t h e r e 121 were no g r o u p f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h e age o f t h r e e . [ I l l ] Due t o t h e l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s , p a r e n t s may have had t o p l a c e t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n l e s s p r e f e r r e d s e t t i n g s , b u t i f o t h e r o p t i o n s were made a v a i l a b l e , t h e s e p a r e n t s m i g h t s e l e c t g r o u p c a r e . T h i s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e h i g h n u m b e r s o f c h i l d r e n n e e d i n g g r o u p c a r e . P r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f c a r e a n d amount o f m o n i e s p a i d f o l l o w f r o m t h e t y p e o f c a r e r e q u i r e d . When s u r v e y i n g b o t h t h e f a m i l y n e e d s and c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t most p a r e n t s c o u l d n o t a f f o r d more t h a n $250 p e r month p e r c h i l d . T h i s amount a p p l i e d m a i n l y t o b e f o r e / a f t e r s c h o o l c a r e , f o l l o w e d by g r o u p c a r e . On t h e a v e r a g e , t h i s amount i s what c a r e f a c i l i t i e s c h a r g e p e r month f o r p a r t - t i m e c a r e . The a v e r a g e c a r e f a c i l i t y ' s f e e p e r month f o r g r o u p c a r e i s o v e r $300 p e r m o n t h . [ 1 1 2 ] H o w e v e r , when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e n e x t h i g h e s t amount p a r e n t s were w i l l i n g t o pay ($200 - $ 3 0 0 ) , t h e most p r e f e r r e d t y p e o f c a r e was g r o u p c a r e ; t h i s was c l o s e r t o c u r r e n t f e e s . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e l o w amount p a r e n t s a r e w i l l i n g t o s p e n d may be b e c a u s e t h o s e who work p a r t - t i m e do n o t r e q u i r e f u l l - t i m e g r o u p c a r e , o r b e c a u s e t h e i r s p o u s e may l o o k a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n f o r p a r t o f t h e d a y . T h i s w o u l d a p p l y p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h o s e p a r e n t s who work s h i f t s o r a t t e n d an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Many o f t h e p a r e n t s , who i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y r e q u i r e d g r o u p c a r e , may n o t h a v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h i s t y p e o f s e t t i n g , b u t i n s t e a d may have t h e m l o o k e d a f t e r by a r e l a t i v e , n e i g h b o u r o r f r i e n d . 122 T h e r e f o r e , t h e y m i g h t be p a y i n g l e s s t h a n what l i c e n s e d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w o u l d c h a r g e . A l s o when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e amount p a r e n t s a r e w i l l i n g t o pay f o r c a r e , i s t h e age o f t h e c h i l d . The y o u n g e r t h e c h i l d , t h e h i g h e r t h e c o s t s f o r c h i l d c a r e . T h o s e p a r e n t s who w o r k a r e w i l l i n g t o p a y m o r e , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e y have i n f a n t s and no o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h i s c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h o s e p a r e n t s who i n d i c a t e d t h e y w o u l d pay more t h a n $300 f o r c a r e . C h i l d c a r e i s e x p e n s i v e a n d many p a r e n t s , a l t h o u g h t h e y want t h e b e s t t y p e o f c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , may n o t be a b l e t o a f f o r d i t . P a r e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l may n o t p r e f e r a c a r e s e t t i n g l o c a t e d i n t h e town c e n t r e , u n l e s s t h e c h i l d ' s s c h o o l was n e a r b y . I t i s much e a s i e r and c o n v e n i e n t t o have a c a r e f a c i l i t y i n o r n e a r t h e c h i l d ' s home o r s c h o o l . F o r y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t s may a l s o p r e f e r a c a r e s e t t i n g n e a r home t o r e d u c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s and t h e y may be v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s . When c o m p a r i n g f a m i l y n e e d s t o c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s , b o t h s e t s o f r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a n e q u a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r c a r e t o be w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f home a n d / o r on work p r e m i s e s ( 4 4 % ) . The n e x t p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n was t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e c h i l d ' s s c h o o l . Many o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d more t h a n one l o c a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e ; t h i s was a c c e p t a b l e i f p a r e n t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had c h i l d r e n who were under 5 and o v e r 5. T h i s was n o t a l w a y s t h e c a s e ; t h e r e f o r e a ' t r u e ' p i c t u r e may n o t have been i n d i c a t e d c o n c e r n i n g p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n . 123 T h ose who p r e f e r r e d c a r e on o r n e a r t h e work p l a c e w o u l d a n s w e r p o s i t i v e l y t o r e l o c a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o a f a c i l i t y i n t h e town c e n t r e . T h i s may a c c o u n t f o r a p o r t i o n o f t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s w i l l i n g t o r e l o c a t e . The number o f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g g r o u p c a r e w e r e a l s o t h e o n e s w h o s e p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e l o c a t e a n d p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g a f a c i l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e age o f t h e c h i l d and t h e t y p e o f c a r e r e q u i r e d b o t h a f f e c t t h e p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n . The r e a s o n s r e s p o n d e n t s gave f o r n o t r e l o c a t i n g w e r e : - t h e y l i v e d t o o f a r away; - t h e c h i l d w o u l d n o t need s u c h a f a c i l i t y i n a y e a r ; - t h e y were s a t i s f i e d w i t h p r e s e n t c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s . T h e r e has been c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g t h e l o w q u a l i t y o f c a r e c h i l d r e n a r e r e c e i v i n g and p a r e n t s ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c a r e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s w e re e i t h e r v e r y s a t i s f i e d o r s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t a r r a n g e m e n t ; o n l y 1 6 . 1 % w e r e l e s s t h a n s a t i s f i e d . R e a s o n s f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n w e r e c o n v e n i e n c e , q u a l i t y , a f f o r d a b i l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , e t c . T h e r e i s no e r n e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c a r e f a c i l i t y i n R i c h m o n d . [11 3 ] A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s , 61.5% o f f a m i l i e s a n d 6 4 . 4 % o f c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d a breakdown i n c h i l d c a r e . The age r a n g e o f c h i l d r e n who e x p e r i e n c e d t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f b r e a k d o w n were t h o s e 18 months - 3 y e a r s . However, a l l age r a n g e s w e r e c l o s e i n v a l u e . One r e a s o n f o r t h i s d e g r e e o f b r e a k d o w n o f 18 m o n t h s - 3 y e a r s may be t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n 124 a c q u i r i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a g e g r o u p . A s s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e a r e no l i c e n s e d g r o u p c a r e f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n u n d e r 3 i n R i c h m o n d . T h i s means t h a t p a r e n t s h a v e t o s e e k a l t e r n a t e f o r m s o f c a r e , w h i c h may n o t be t h e most r e l i a b l e . W h a t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e i s t h a t t h e o v e r 5 a g e c a t e g o r y has t h e h i g h e s t number o f c h i l d r e n , y e t t h i s c a t e g o r y was o n l y s e c o n d t o f r e q u e n c y o f b r e a k d o w n . One e x p l a n a t i o n i s , a s s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h a t many o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e o f t e n l e f t o n t h e i r own. T h e 0 - 1 7 m o n t h s a g e g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e d t h e l e a s t amount o f b r eakdown. T h i s may be due t o m o t h e r s r e m a i n i n g i n t h e home u n t i l t h e c h i l d r e n were o l d e r b e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s o r b e c a u s e o f i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e . Of a t o t a l o f 135 v a l i d c a s e s , o n l y 84 r e s p o n d e n t s had a l t e r n a t e f o r m s o f c h i l d c a r e . T h e s e a l t e r n a t e f o r m s w e r e u s u a l l y r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , o r n e i g h b o u r s . The o t h e r 51 r e s p o n d e n t s , who d i d n o t have a l t e r n a t e c a r e p r e s u m a b l y e i t h e r had t o m i s s work o r ( i f t h e c h i l d was o f s c h o o l age) l e a v e t h e c h i l d u n s u p e r v i s e d . Due t o t h e v a s t number o f b r e a k d o w n s i n r e g u l a r c a r e and t h e need f o r a l t e r n a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s , i t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e was c o n s e n s u s t h a t e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d o f f e r e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c a r e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were aware o f t h e c h i l d c a r e s u b s i d y . H owever, t h i s number d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e how many w e r e r e c e i v i n g i t , w h i c h i s o f more s i g n i f i c a n c e . 125 O b t a i n i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g a f f o r d a b l e f e e s when p l a n n i n g a new f a c i l i t y . 6.3 Needs of I n d i v i d u a l I n s t i t u t i o n s When c o m p a r i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n , i t must be remembered t h a t t h e number o f r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f r o m e a c h w i l l a f f e c t t h e r e s u l t s on a l l q u e s t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e e x t e n t o f t h e n e e d w i l l n o t be e m p h a s i z e d a s much a s t h e n a t u r e a n d t h e t y p e o f n e e d . ( N o t e : W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d had t h e g r e a t e s t number o f r e t u r n s . ) Have C h i l d r e n T h e W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d a n d R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l b o t h h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f c h i l d r e n a s p e r r e t u r n r a t e ; h o w e v e r , K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e had o n l y 24 c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t e d i n a t o t a l o f 83 r e t u r n s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t h a v e c h i l d r e n . T h i s may be due t o o n l y t h r e e c l a s s r o o m s b e i n g s u r v e y e d and n o t t h e c o m p l e t e c o l l e g e . However, e v e n i f t h e ' c o m p l e t e ' c o l l e g e had been s u r v e y e d , i t w o u l d s t i l l n o t y i e l d a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f need b e c a u s e many p a r e n t s who w i s h t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e c a n n o t due t o a l a c k o f a d e q u a t e c h i l d c a r e [ 1 1 4 ] . Age, Type o f C a r e and H o u r s o f C a r e The age r a n g e o f c h i l d r e n v a r i e d w i t h e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n . W o r k e r ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d had more c h i l d r e n u n d e r 5 y e a r s o f a g e , w i t h 0 - 1 7 months r a n k i n g t h e h i g h e s t . The R i c h m o n d 126 G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l had more c h i l d r e n o v e r 5 y e a r s o f age and t h e s m a l l e s t number o f c h i l d r e n a g e d 0 - 1 7 m o n t h s . K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e had a v e r y d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e i n age c a t e g o r i e s ; t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n were o v e r 5. The age o f c h i l d r e n i s a d e f i n i t e f a c t o r i n t h e t y p e o f c a r e r e q u i r e d . Out o f 217 c h i l d r e n , o n l y 11 d i d n o t r e q u i r e c a r e . F o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e , o u t -o f - s c h o o l c a r e i s t h e most f r e q u e n t t y p e r e q u i r e d , f o l l o w e d by g r o u p c a r e . F o r W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d a n d R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l t h e r e s u l t s were t h e o p p o s i t e : g r o u p c a r e was t h e p r e d o m i n a n t t y p e o f c a r e n eeded. T h i s p a t t e r n o f age a n d t y p e o f c a r e f o l l o w s f o r b o t h K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e a n d W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d , b u t a t Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t age i n d i c a t e d was o v e r 5, y e t t h e c a r e r e q u i r e d was g r o u p c a r e . However, when l o o k i n g a t a l l t h e age r a n g e s , t h e r e were o n l y 15 o u t o f 44 c h i l d r e n i n t h e o v e r 5 c a t e g o r y . T h e r e were a t o t a l o f 29 c h i l d r e n i n t h e u n d e r 5 c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s w o u l d e x p l a i n why g r o u p c a r e was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y r e q u e s t e d t y p e o f c a r e . F o l l o w i n g f r o m t h e age o f c h i l d and t h e t y p e o f c a r e a r e t h e h o u r s o f c a r e . I f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e g r o u p c a r e , w h i c h i s o n l y i n o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e d a y , t h e n weekdays w i l l be t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y r e q u e s t e d c a t e g o r y . I f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e b e f o r e / a f t e r s c h o o l , t h e n p a r t - t i m e w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t . F o r W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d , weekdays were t h e most f r e q u e n t l y r e q u e s t e d , f o l l o w e d by p a r t - t i m e c a r e . K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e was 127 e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e . A t Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l t h e s h i f t w o r k e r s r e q u i r e d a v a r i e t y o f h o u r s t o meet t h e i r n e e d s : w e e k d a y s h a d t h e h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y , f o l l o w e d by w e e k n i g h t s , b u t a l l t h e o t h e r t i m e s were i n d i c a t e d as w e l l . What must be m e n t i o n e d , i s t h a t many o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m R i c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l i n d i c a t e d a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e c a t e g o r y , b u t a l s o w r o t e down t h e d i f f e r e n t s h i f t s t h e y w o r k e d . F o r e x a m p l e , o n e p a r e n t w r o t e t h a t s h e / h e w o r k e d t w o d a y s 7:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m., two e v e n i n g s 3:00 p.m. - 11:00 p.m. and two n i g h t s 11:00 p.m. - 7:00 a.m. I f t h e m a j o r i t y o f h o s p i t a l e m p l o y e e s work r o t a t i n g s h i f t s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o o n l y i n d i c a t e one t y p e o f need as a number o f d i f f e r e n t c a r e t i m e s a r e r e q u i r e d . C o s t o f C a r e What p a r e n t s c a n a f f o r d t o pay f o r c h i l d c a r e d e p e n d s on t h e t y p e o f c a r e , t h e number o f c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y and t h e f a m i l y i n c o m e . On a v e r a g e , r e s p o n d e n t s h a d two c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g c a r e . R e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e C o l l e g e as w e l l a s t h e h o s p i t a l most f r e q u e n t l y i n d i c a t e d l e s s t h a n $250 p e r month p e r c h i l d . R e s p o n d e n t s f r o m C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d s e l e c t e d $ 300 - $400 p e r m o n t h p e r c h i l d . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when a s s e s s i n g t h e s e f r e q u e n c i e s . R e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e C o l l e g e w o u l d g e n e r a l l y n o t be e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e and w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , have l e s s m o n i e s a v a i l a b l e t o s p e n d on c h i l d c a r e ; a l s o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s 128 h a d c h i l d r e n o v e r t h e age o f 5 and o n l y r e q u i r e d p a r t - t i m e c a r e . E m p l o y e e s f r o m t h e h o s p i t a l w o r k e d s h i f t s , a n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n were under f i v e . Some r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r s p o u s e l o o k e d a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n when t h e y w e r e r e q u i r e d t o w o r k e v e n i n g s o r n i g h t s h i f t s ; o t h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e l a t i v e s come i n t o t h e home. H a v i n g t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s o f c a r e r e d u c e s c o s t s . Some h o s p i t a l e m p l o y e e s m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e y w o r ked p a r t - t i m e b e c a u s e t h e r e w e r e no 24-hour c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . T h i s a g a i n w o u l d l e s s e n t h e amount t h e y were p r e p a r e d t o pay. E m p l o y e e s f r o m W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d a r e e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e a n d have y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n . I f t h e s e p a r e n t s w i s h t o work, t h e y w i l l h a ve t o pay more f o r c h i l d c a r e . P r e f e r r e d L o c a t i o n The p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f c h i l d c a r e v a r i e d w i t h i n t h e t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s . W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d p r e f e r r e d i n t h e work p l a c e f o l l o w e d by c a r e w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f home. Ri c h m o n d G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l e m p l o y e e s p r e f e r r e d c a r e w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f home, f o l l o w e d by v i c i n i t y o f s c h o o l and v i c i n i t y o f work p l a c e . K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e ' s p r e f e r e n c e was v i c i n i t y o f home f o l l o w e d by v i c i n i t y o f s c h o o l . When l o o k i n g a t o n l y c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s a nd t h e t y p e o f c a r e c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h p r e f e r r e d v i c i n i t y , g r o u p c a r e r a n k e d h i g h e s t f o r v i c i n i t y o f work p l a c e a n d b e f o r e / a f t e r s c h o o l f o r v i c i n i t y o f home and v i c i n i t y o f c h i l d ' s s c h o o l . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e i n l i n e w i t h 129 t h e a g e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e t y p e s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d . C h i l d r e n i n g r o u p c a r e a r e t r a n s p o r t e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s , s o i f a s e t t i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e work s i t e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s w o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . A s s t a t e d i n a p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e r e a r e b e n e f i t s t o b o t h p a r e n t s and e m p l o y e r s i n h a v i n g a w o r k - r e l a t e d c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t y . What i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e i s t h a t v e r y few r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m a n y o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s p r e f e r r e d a s e t t i n g t h a t was c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d y e t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s k e d i f r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o r e l o c a t e t o a c e n t r a l a r e a and a i d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a f a c i l i t y . The m a j o r i t y o f a l l r e s p o n s e s f r o m e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s were w i l l i n g t o r e l o c a t e and a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f a c i l i t y . D e g r e e o f S a t i s f a c t i o n T h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s f r o m K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e a n d W o r k e r s ' C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d w e re v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s ; t h e m a j o r i t y o f R i c h m o n d H o s p i t a l e m p l o y e e s w e r e s a t i s f i e d . H o s p i t a l e m p l o y e e s may n o t h a v e b e e n s a t i s f i e d b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n a c q u i r i n g c a r e t h a t was f l e x i b l e enough t o meet t h e i r work s c h e d u l e . Emergency C a r e The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d and R i c h m o n d H o s p i t a l had e x p e r i e n c e d a breakdown i n r e g u l a r c a r e . T h o s e f r o m K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e had n o t . P e r h a p s most r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e C o l l e g e d i d n o t e x p e r i e n c e a b r e a k d o w n i n c a r e 130 b e c a u s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n w e r e o v e r t h e a g e o f 5 a n d o n l y r e q u i r e d c a r e f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s , o r b e c a u s e t h e p a r e n t s s c h e d u l e d t h e i r c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l h o u r s and t h e r e f o r e d i d n o t r e q u i r e c a r e . A l l t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s h a d some r e s p o n d e n t s who h a d a l t e r n a t e f o r m s o f c a r e ; h o w e v e r , many f r o m t h e c o l l e g e d i d n o t . T h e s e p a r e n t s w r o t e t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were o f t e n l e f t u n s u p e r v i s e d . T h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e need f o r e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c a r e i n e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; a l l were p o s i t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d . 6.4 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h was t o a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e o f n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e w i t h i n e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n a n d w i t h i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g a f a c i l i t y w i t h i n t h e town c e n t e r . I n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e n e e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o m e a s u r e t h e d e g r e e o f need , d e t e r m i n e t h e age r a n g e o f c h i l d r e n , t y p e s and h o u r s o f c a r e r e q u i r e d a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t p a r e n t s w a n t e d t o u t i l i z e a f a c i l i t y i n t h e a r e a . A s i n d i c a t e d by t h e s u r v e y r e s u l t s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u i r e some t y p e o f c h i l d c a r e . The t y p e o f c a r e v a r i e s w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and t h e a g e o f t h e c h i l d , b u t t h e d e g r e e o f need i s r e l e v a n t . T h e r e i s a p a r t i c u l a r need f o r c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n u n d e r 3 and f o r s c h o o l - a g e d c h i l d r e n . T h e r e i s a l s o a need f o r f l e x i b l e 131 c a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s , s u c h a s 2 4 - c a r e c e n t r e s and c e n t r e s w h i c h o f f e r e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c a r e . The p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f c a r e depends on t h e age o f t h e c h i l d and t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s ' work p l a c e . The m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s a r e w i l l i n g t o r e l o c a t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t o a s s i s t w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f a c i l i t y w i t h i n t h e town c e n t r e . F o r t h o s e g r o u p s w i s h i n g t o r e l o c a t e , i m p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be i n d e c i d i n g w h e r e a p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n s h o u l d b e , t h e n b e i n g a b l e t o s e c u r e t h e l o c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y w i l l h a v e t o d e c i d e what t y p e o f p r o g r a m t o o f f e r , s u c h a s i n f a n t c a r e , c a r e f o r 3 - 5 y e a r o l d s , o l d e r c h i l d r e n o r p r o g r a m s t h a t w i l l meet t h e n e e d s o f a l l age g r o u p s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s , t h e y w i l l a l s o have t o d e c i d e on t h e h o u r s o f o p e r a t i o n . T h e y m u s t a l s o o b t a i n a p p r o v a l f r o m t h e l i c e n s i n g d e p a r t m e n t and be w i t h i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s o f c u r r e n t day c a r e s t a n d a r d s . I n c o n c l u s i o n t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s t o be made f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s . T h e r e i s a need f o r more s u p p o r t f r o m o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a g e n c i e s f o r need a s s e s s m e n t r e s e a r c h . The s t u d y was n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r ' s p e c i a l ' n e e d s c h i l d r e n , ( t h e r e were o n l y 3 i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s u r v e y ) . I t was a l s o n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h o s e p a r e n t s who a r e on l o w i n c o m e s o r who a r e u n e m p l o y e d . H o w e v e r , t h e s t u d y d o e s p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g " t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f n e e d f o r c h i l d c a r e t o w a r r a n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a p o s s i b l e s i t e a nd p r o g r a m s f o r 132 c h i l d c a r e . T h i s i s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o t h e r g r o u p s t o i n s t i t u t e t h e i r own s t u d i e s o r t o c o n s i d e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f a c i l i t y i n t h e town c e n t r e . 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" S p e c i a l N e e d s " C h i l d r e n a n d C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s " . P a p e r p r e p a r e d f o r t h e Task F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . December, 1984. B e l s k y , J . and S t e i n b e r g , L.D. "The E f f e c t s o f Day C a r e : A C r i t i c a l R e v i e w . " C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1978, 49. B e r r u e t o - C l e m e n t , J.R., e t a l . "Changed L i v e s : The E f f e c t s o f t h e P e n n y P r e s c h o o l P r o g r a m on Y o u t h T h r o u g h Age 1 9 . " Monograph 8. Y p s i l a n t i , M i c h i g a n : H i g h / S c o p e P l u s , 1984. B l a n c h a r d , M., a n d M a i n , M. " A v o i d a n c e , o f t h e a t t a c h m e n t f i g u r e a n d s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t i n d a y c a r e i n f a n t s . " D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1979, V o l . 15, No. 4. B l o o m , M a r t i n , a n d F i s c h e r , J o e l . 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" A s s e s s i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h h i g h r i s k i n f a n t s . " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 18, 1977. R e i d , W.J., and S m i t h , A.D. " R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l Work" O h i o : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . R i c h m o n d C h i l d C a r e S t u d y - Needs and R e s o u r c e s . September 1981. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . R i c h m o n d : A S t a t i s t i c a l  P r o f i l e . 1985. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . S o c i a l Impact Summary. A p r i l 1985. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . L i c e n s e d C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s and F a c i l i t i e s i n Richmond. December 1986. 136 R u b e n s t e i n , J u d i t h L. , e t a l . "A t w o y e a r f o l l o w - u p o f i n f a n t s i n c o m m u n i t y b a s e d d a y c a r e . " J o u r n a l o f C h i l d  P s y c h o l o g y and P s y c h i a t r y and A l l i e d D i s c i p l i n e s , 2 2 ( 3 ) , J u l y 1981. R u d e s m a n , F l o r e n c e A. C h i l d C a r e a n d W o r k i n g M o t h e r s : A  S t u d y o f A r r a n g e m e n t s Made f o r D a y t i m e C a r e o f C h i l d r e n . New Y o r k : C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f A m e r i c a , 1968. S h a r i n g t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on C h i l d C a r e . M a r c h 1987. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . " W o r k i n g F a m i l i e s P r o j e c t . " S o u r c e b o o k on W o r k - R e l a t e d Day C a r e i n  C a n a d a , 1985. S t a t i s t i c s C a nada, L a b o u r F o r c e S u r v e y , 1981. S t a t i s t i c s C anada, L a b o u r F o r c e S u r v e y , December 1986. S t a t u s o f Women Canada. R e p o r t o f Task F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . O t t a w a , 1986. S t a t u s o f Women Canada. R e p o r t o f Task F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . S e r i e s 5: C h i l d C a r e Needs o f P a r e n t s and F a m i l i e s , 1985. S t e v e n s , H a r v e y . " C h i l d C a r e Needs and R e a l i t i e s i n W i n n i p e g , 1 9 8 4 . A r e p o r t f o r t h e M a n i t o b a C h i l d C a r e A s s o c i a t i o n W i n n i p e g : The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l i n W i n n i p e g . 1984. T h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . " M e a s u r i n g Day C a r e Needs: t h e Numbers Game. S o c i a l I n f o p a c , 3 ( 3 ) , J u n e 1984. T homas, C a r o l . C u r r e n t I s s u e s i n Day C a r e : R e a d i n g s a n d  R e s o u r c e s . P h o e n i x , A r i z o n a : O r y x P r e s s , 1986. U n i t e d Way. The L o w e r M a i n l a n d i n t h e I 9 8 0 ' s . November, 1985. W e s t e r n P r o d u c e r . " F a m i l y Members F i l l t h e Gap." September 25, 1986. 137 PERSONAL REFERENCES Ashmore, P e t e r , I n f o r m a t i o n Day C a r e , V a n c o u v e r . B e a r d s l y , R u t h , C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e C o o r d i n a t o r , YWCA, V a n c o u v e r . B e c h o n , Ms., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , L a n g a r a C o l l e g e , V a n c o u v e r . B r a n d o l i n i , K a r e n , S u p e r v i s o r , R o y a l C o l u m b i a n Day C a r e , New W e s t m i n s t e r . Brown, I r e n e , Richmond F r i e n d s h i p Home S o c i e t y , R i c h m o n d . C h r i s t i e , S u s a n , C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s , YWCA, V a n c o u v e r . C o a t e s , Penny, Day C a r e A c t i o n C o a l i t i o n , B.C. F a l k , C l i f f , A d m i n i s t r a t o r , K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e , R i c h m o n d . Hamade, A r t , A s s i s t a n t C h i e f P u b l i c H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r , R i c h m o n d H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t . McCabe, K a t e , S u p e r v i s o r , C r e a t i v e M i n d s Day C a r e , V a n c o u v e r . P i c a r d , M a r g a r e t , S o c i a l and N e i g h b o u r h o o d P l a n n e r , R i c h m o n d , B.C. S m i t h , D o n , A s s i s t a n t E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r - M a n a g e m e n t S e r v i c e s , Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , R i chmond. S u p e r v i s o r , K i n g Edward Campus Day C a r e , V a n c o u v e r . S u p e r v i s o r , L a n g a r a C o l l e g e Day C a r e , V a n c o u v e r . S u p e r v i s o r , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y Day C a r e , B u r n a b y . S u p e r v i s o r , U.B.C. Day C a r e , V a n c o u v e r . S u p e r v i s o r , V a l l e y V i e w H o s p i t a l Day C a r e , C o q u i t l a m . S y k e s , P a t . P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e s D e p a r t m e n t , W o r k e r 1 C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d , Richmond. S y l v e s t e r , J e r r y , Dean o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , K i n g Edward C o l l e g e , V a n c o u v e r . 138 NOTES 1. S t a t u s o f Women C a n a d a . R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . O t t a w a , 1986. 2. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . R i c h m o n d C h i l d C a r e S t u d y - Needs and R e s o u r c e s . September 1981. 3. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . R i c h m o n d C h i l d C a r e S t u d y - Needs and R e s o u r c e s . September 1 9 8 1 , p. 4. 4. C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t . Day C a r e : R e p o r t o f a N a t i o n a l S t u d y . J a n u a r y 1972, p. 15. 5. H o l l i s , J o e . r P o l e m i c s on Day C a r e . T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m -W a l l a c e I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n c . , 1981, p. 8. 6. Community S e r v i c e s C o m m i t t e e o f C a l g a r y C i t y C o u n c i l . A R e v i e w o f S u b s i d i z e d Day C a r e P r o g r a m s W i t h A C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f A l t e r n a t i v e F a m i l y a n d Lo n g Term P l a n n i n g . C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a : C a l g a r y C i t y C o u n c i l , May 1974. 7. H o l l i s , p. 8. 8. S t a t u s o f Women C a n a d a . R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . S e r i e s 5: C h i l d C a r e Needs o f P a r e n t s and F a m i l i e s , 1985, p. 45. 9. S t a t u s o f Women C a n a d a . R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . S e r i e s 5: C h i l d C a r e Needs o f P a r e n t s and F a m i l i e s , 1985, p. 45. 10. C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , A l i s o n . Day C a r e . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. 11. C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , A l i s o n . Day C a r e . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982, p. 10. 12. H o l l i s , p. 9. 13. C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , A l i s o n . Day C a r e . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. 14. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. L a b o u r F o r c e S u r v e y , 1981. 15. S t a t u s o f Women C a n a d a . R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . O t t a w a , 1986: 12. 16. C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , A l i s o n . Day C a r e . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. 139 17. Thomas, C a r o l . C u r r e n t I s s u e s i n Day C a r e : R e a d i n g s and R e s o u r c e s , P h o e n i x , A r i z o n a , O r y x P r e s s , 1986. 18. C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , A l i s o n . Day C a r e . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. 19. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . R i c h m o n d C h i l d C a r e S t u d y - Needs and R e s o u r c e s . September 1 9 8 1. 20. C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , A l i s o n . Day C a r e . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982, p. 16. 21. C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , A l i s o n . Day C a r e . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982, p. 16. 22. K e n i s t o n , K., and t h e C a r n e g i e C o u n c i l on C h i l d r e n . " A l l O u r C h i l d r e n . " New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , J o v a n o v i c h , 1977, p. 12. 23. S t a t u s o f Women C a n a d a . R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . S e r i e s 5: C h i l d C a r e Needs o f P a r e n t s and F a m i l i e s , 1985, p. 15. 24. S t a t u s o f Women C a n a d a . R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . S e r i e s 5: C h i l d C a r e Needs o f P a r e n t s and F a m i l i e s , 1985, p. 45. 25. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. The L a b o u r F o r c e . December 1986. 26. S t a t u s o f Women C a n a d a . R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . S e r i e s 5: C h i l d C a r e Needs o f P a r e n t s and F a m i l i e s , 1985, p. 42. 27. P a p e r r e l e a s e d by t h e L e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on C h i l d C a r e - M i n i s t r y R e p o r t on C h i l d C a r e , L i b e r a l , M a r c h 1987. 28. P r i o r i t i e s . " Q u a l i t y and A f f o r d a b l e Day C a r e : a R i g h t , n o t a P r i v i l e g e . " A u g u s t 1986, p. 20. 29. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5. 30. B a g b y , C h r i s t o p h e r . Day C a r e i n A l b e r t a ; A R e v i e w w i t h N a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s . C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , 1985. 31. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s 5, p. 47. 32. MacLeans M a g a z i n e . " H i g h C o s t s f o r a C a r e e r . " November 10, 1986, p. 10. 140 33. C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h P e t e r Ashmore. I n f o r m a t i o n Day C a r e . V a n c o u v e r , December 1986. 34. W e s t e r n P r o d u c e r . " F a m i l y M e m b e r s F i l l t h e G a p . " September 25, 1986. 35. W e s t e r n P r o d u c e r . " F a m i l y M e m b e r s F i l l t h e G a p . " September 25, 1986. 36. C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h R u t h B e a r d s l y , C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t o r YWCA, V a n c o u v e r , November 1986. 37. C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h R u t h B e a r d s l y , C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t o r Y W C A , V a n c o u v e r , c o n c e r n i n g ' G r a n n y ' s Y'. T h i s c e n t r e up u n t i l 1987 was t h e o n l y e m e r g e n c y / s h o r t - t e r m c e n t r e i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d . I t i s s t i l l i n o p e r a t i o n , b u t i t no l o n g e r h a s e m e r g e n c y c a r e s p a c e s , o n l y ' r e g u l a r ' c a r e . December 1, 1986. 38. C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h R o y a l C o l u m b i a n Day C a r e S u p e r v i s o r , R o y a l C o l u m b i a n H o s p i t a l , New W e s t m i n s t e r , December 1986. 39. K u i k e n , J a k e . ' L a t c h k e y C h i l d r e n ' , C a l g a r y , A u g u s t 1986. R e p o r t t o : A S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e H o u s e o f Commons, The P a r l i a m e n t a r y Task F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . 40. K u i k e n , J a k e . ' L a t c h k e y C h i l d r e n ' , C a l g a r y , A u g u s t 1986. R e p o r t t o : A S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e H o u s e o f Commons, The P a r l i a m e n t a r y Task F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e , p. 90. 41. C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s w i t h r e g a r d t o what t h e y do i n s i t u a t i o n s when t h e y c a n n o t o r g a n i z e c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 42. H u e t , C a m i l l e . S t u d y o f Day C a r e Needs A l o n g F u l l - T i m e H o m e m a k e r s W i t h C h i l d r e n 0 - 6 y e a r s o f A g e . O c t o b e r 1984, p. 35. 43. H u e t , C a m i l l e . S t u d y o f Day C a r e Needs A l o n g F u l l - T i m e H o m e m a k e r s W i t h C h i l d r e n 0 - 6 y e a r s o f A g e . O c t o b e r 1984. 44. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5, p. 51. 45. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5, p. 52. 141 46. B a t e s , H e l e n e . " S p e c i a l Needs" C h i l d r e n and C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s . P a p e r P r e p a r e d f o r The T a s k F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e , December 1984, p. 1 47. Mock, K a r e n R. C h i l d C a r e Needs o f C u l t u r a l M i n o r i t i e s . R e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e H o u s e o f Commons S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on C h i l d C a r e , A u g u s t 1986, p. 1. 48. D a y C a r e S e r v i c e s F o r S t a t u s I n d i a n s R e s i d i n g o n R e s e r v e s . O t t a w a : Task F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e , 1985. A d e t a i l e d r e v i e w o f c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 49. S c h i l l e r , J u d i t h P. " C h i l d - C a r e A l t e r n a t i v e s a n d E m o t i o n a l W e l l - B e i n g . " New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1980, p. 1. 50. A u e r b a c h , S t e v a n n e , and R i v a l d o , James. " R a t i o n a l e f o r C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s : P r o g r a m s v s . 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" C o m p l e m e n t a r y S t r a t e g i e s f o r S t u d y i n g Day C a r e a nd S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t . " A d v a n c e s i n E a r l y E d u c a t i o n and Day C a r e , 1982, V o l . 2, 227-250. 55. B e l s k y , J . , a n d S t e i n b e r g , L.D. "The E f f e c t s o f Day C a r e : A C r i t i c a l R e v i e w . " C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1978, 49, 929-949. 56. R u b e n s t e i n , J u d i t h L., e t a l . "A Two-Year F o l l o w - u p Of I n f a n t s i n Community B a s e d Day C a r e . " J o u r n a l o f C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y a n d P s y c h i a t r y a n d A l l i e d D i s c i p l i n e s , 1984 ( J u l . ) , V o l . 2 2 ( 3 ) , 209-218. 57. D o y l e , A., a n d Sommes, K. "The E f f e c t s o f G r o u p a n d F a m i l y Day C a r e on I n f a n t A t t a c h m e n t B e h a v i o u r s . " 142 C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e , 1 9 7 8 ( J a n . ) / V o l . 1 ( 1 ) , 38-45. F o w l e r , W. " D e v e l o p m e n t a l L e a r n i n g A p p r o a c h . " M e r r i e l -P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 1972, 18, 145-175. B e l s k y , J . , a n d S t e i n b e r g , L.D. "The E f f e c t s o f Day C a r e : A C r i t i c a l R e v i e w . " C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1978, 49, 929-949. Kagan, J e r o m e , e t a l . "The E f f e c t s o f I n f a n t Day C a r e on P s y c h o l o g i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t . " E v a l u a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 1976, V o l . 1, No. 1, 109-142. 58. B e l s k y , J . , a n d S t e i n b e r g , L.D. "The E f f e c t s o f Day C a r e : A C r i t i c a l R e v i e w . " C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1978, 49, 929-949. 59. Ramsey, C.T., and S m i t h , B. " A s s e s s i n g t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l C o n s e q u e n c e s o f E a r l y I n t e r v e n t i o n W i t h H i g h R i s k I n f a n t s . " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , 1977, V o l . 18, 318-324. 60. B e r r u e t o - C l e m e n t , J . R . e t a l . " C h a n g e d L i v e s . The E f f e c t s o f t h e P e n n y P r e s c h o o l P r o g r a m on Y o u t h T h r o u g h Age 19." Monograph 8, Y p s i l a n t i , M i c h i g a n : H i g h / S c o p e P l u s , 1984. 61. B r o m m e l a n d , L o r a L e a . C h i l d C a r e Needs o f M o t h e r s A t Home F u l l T i m e C a r i n g F o r P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n . Edmonton, A l b e r t a , O c t o b e r 1984, p. 102. 62. A b e l l a , J u d g e R o s a l i e . R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n o n E q u a l i t y i n Em p l o y m e n t . O c t o b e r 1 9 8 4 , C h a p t e r 5-C h i l d C a r e , p. 185. 63. A b e l l a , J u d g e R o s a l i e . R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on E q u a l i t y i n Em p l o y m e n t . O c t o b e r 1 9 8 4 , C h a p t e r 5-C h i l d C a r e , p. 186. 64. B r o m m e l a n d , L o r a L e a . C h i l d C a r e Needs o f M o t h e r s A t Home F u l l T i m e C a r i n g F o r P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n . Edmonton, A l b e r t a , O c t o b e r 1984, 102. 65. C l a r k e - S t e w a r t , A l i s o n , Day C a r e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982, p. 18. 66. B r o m m e l a n d , L o r a L e a . C h i l d C a r e Needs o f M o t h e r s A t Home F u l l T i m e C a r i n g F o r P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n . Edmonton, A l b e r t a , O c t o b e r 1984. 143 67. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o : W o r k i n g F a m i l i e s P r o j e c t . " S o u r c e b o o k on W o r k - R e l a t e d Day C a r e i n Canada, 1985. 68. D o m i n a G r o u p . T o w a r d U n i v e r s a l i t y : An H i s t o r i c a l O v e r v i e w o f t h e E v o l u t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n , H e a l t h C a r e , Day C a r e a n d M a t e r n i t y L e a v e . N o v e m b e r 1 9 8 4 . B a c k g r o u n d P a p e r s u b m i t t e d t o t h e T a s k F o r c e o n C h i l d C a r e , p. 18. 69. Domina, p. 19. 70. Ruderman, F l o r e n c e A. C h i l d C a r e and W o r k i n g M o t h e r s : A S t u d y o f A r r a n g e m e n t s Made f o r Day T i m e C a r e o f C h i l d r e n . New Y o r k : C h i l d W e l f a r e L e a g u e o f A m e r i c a , 1968. 71. P a v e n s t e d t , E l e a n o r . T h e D r i f t e r s : C h i l d r e n o f D i s o r g a n i z e d L o w e r - c l a s s F a m i l i e s , B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1967, p. 42. 72. G r o t b e r g , E d i t h , E d i t o r . Day C a r e : R e s o u r c e s f o r D e c i s i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., 1971. 73. P r o v e n c e , S a l l y . "A T h r e e C o i n e d P r o j e c t . " C h i l d r e n , 1969 ( M a r c h - A p r i l ) , 16, 2, 53-5, p. 54. 74. C r a n e , D r . J o h n . " W e l l T e m p e r e d R e s e a r c h P r o p o s a l . " F a l l , 1986, p. 4. 75. C r a n e , D r . J o h n . " W e l l T e m p e r e d R e s e a r c h P r o p o s a l . " F a l l , 1986, p. 4. 76. S h a r i n g t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on C h i l d C a r e . M a r c h 1987. 77. S h a r i n g t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on C h i l d C a r e . M a r c h 1987, p. 35. 78. S h a r i n g t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on C h i l d C a r e . M a r c h 1987, p. 45. 79. S h a r i n g t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on C h i l d C a r e . M a r c h 1987, p. 46. 80. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5, p. 11. 81. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5, p. 7. 144 82. M e r r i l l , H e l e n . " I m m i g r a n t Women T h e i r E x p e r i e n c e s a n d N e e d s . C o a l i t i o n f o r I m m i g r a n t Women 1985. i n i n H a l i f a x - D a r t m o u t h : C o n d u c t e d f o r t h e Nova S c o t i a , J u n e , 83, 84. 85, 86. 87, 88, 89 90 D a y C a r e S e r v i c e s F o r S t a t u s I n d i a n s R e s i d i n g o n R e s e r v e s . O t t a w a : Task F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e , 1985, pp. 7 & 8. A d e t a i l e d r e v i e w o f c h i l d c a r e s e r v i c e s f o r : n a t i v e p e o p l e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5, P- 104. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5, P- 105. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5, P- 105. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5, P- 105. S t e v e n s , H a r v e y . C h i l d C a r e N e e d s a n d R e a l i t i e s i n W i n n i p e g , 1 9 8 4 . A R e p o r t f o r t h e M a n i t o b a C h i l d C a r e A s s o c i a t i o n . W i n n i p e g : The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l i n W i n n i p e g , 1984, p. 15. The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . " M e a s u r i n g Day C a r e N e e d s : The N u m b e r s Game." S o c i a l I n f o p a c , 1984 ( J u n e ) , V o l . 3, No. 3. U n i t e d Way, "The Lower M a i n l a n d i n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s . " November 1985. 91. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . Richmond: A S t a t i s t i c a l P r o f i l e , 1985, p. 24. 92. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . R i c h m o n d C h i l d C a r e S t u d y - Needs and R e s o u r c e s . September 1 9 8 1. 93. E a s t R i c h m o n d C o m m u n i t y N e e d s R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t : A Community Needs A s s e s s m e n t . 1986, p. 49. 94. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . L i c e n s e d C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s and F a c i l i t i e s i n Richmond. December 1986, p. 5. 95. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . L i c e n s e d C h i l d C a r e S e r v i c e s and F a c i l i t i e s i n Richmond. December 1986, p. 16. 145 96. R i c h m o n d P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . " S o c i a l I m p a c t Summary." A p r i l 1985, p. 18. 97. R e i d , W.J., and S m i t h , A.D. " R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l Work" C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981. 98. R e i d , W.J., and S m i t h , A.D. " R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l Work" C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981. 99. R e i d , W.J., and S m i t h , A.D. " R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l Work" C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981, p. 297. 100. R e i d , W.J., and S m i t h , A.D. " R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l Work" O h i o : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981. 101. C r a n e , D r . J o h n . "The P r i n c i p a l Modes o f O b s e r v a t i o n U s e f u l i n E x p e r i m e n t a l I n n o v a t i o n s i n S o c i a l Work". F a l l , 1986. 102. B l o om, M a r t i n , and F i s c h e r , J o e l . " E v a l u a t i n g P r a c t i c e : G u i d a n c e f o r t h e A c c o u n t a b l e P r o f e s s i o n a l . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1985. 103. Reed & S m i t h , 1981. 104. Bloom & F i s c h e r , p. 134. 105. D i s c u s s i o n w i t h a member o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e r e g a r d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n . From t h e r e g i s t r y i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n w e r e e n r o l l e d i n t h e C o n t i n u o u s E n t e r i n g c l a s s e s . ( F e b . , 1 9 8 7 ) . 106. Bloom & F i s c h e r , p. 135. 107. M a t h e s o n , D o u g l a s , e t a l . E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . R e s e a r c h D e s i g n a n d A n a l y s i s , New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1978. 108. M a t h e s o n , D o u g l a s , e t a l . E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . R e s e a r c h D e s i g n a n d A n a l y s i s , New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1978. 109. S t a t u s o f Women, S e r i e s #5, p. 44. 110. K u i k e n , J a k e . ' L a t c h k e y C h i l d r e n ' , C a l g a r y , A u g u s t 1986. R e p o r t t o : A S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e H o u s e o f Commons, The P a r l i a m e n t a r y Task F o r c e on C h i l d C a r e . 1 1 1 . Richmond P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . 1986. 146 112. C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h P e t e r A s h m o r e . N o v e m b e r 1 9 8 6 . C o n c e r n i n g Fees f o r C h i l d C a r e . 113. Richmond P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . 1986. 114. C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f a t K w a n t l e n C o l l e g e . F e b r u a r y 1987. 147 APPENDIX I 149 APPENDIX II CHILD CARE SURVEY 150 This is an exploratory survey to determine the extent and nature of childcare requirements among several groups with a view to establishing a childcare faci l i ty . The results from the survey will assist various groups in assessing the feas ib i l i t y in future planning for childcare services. All information will be confidential and only used for planning purposes by groups wishing to establish childcare faci l i t ies. DEFINITIONS: 1. Group Day Care (3 months to 18 months) provides care for children aged 3 months to 18 months for periods up to 10 hours per day. 2. Group Day Care (18 months to 36 months) provides all day care (maximum 10 hours) for children aged 18 months to 36 months. 3. Group Day Care (3 years to school age) provides care for children aged 3 years to school age for periods of up to 10 hours per day. 4. Nursery School provides care for children aged 32 months to school age for a maximum of 3 hours per day. 5. Out of School Care provides care for school-aged children before and after normal school hours. also provides full-day care during periods of school closure (eg. Professional Development Days and School Vacations). 6. Specialized Day Care provides all-day care (maximum 10 hours) for special needs children aged birth to school age. 7. Overnight Care provides care for children of all ages for periods up to 10 hours per day. CHILD CARE SURVEY 151 la) Do you have children between the ages of birth to 13 years of age? (_) Yes (_) No b) Are you presently using or in need of childcare? (_) Yes (_) No If you answered no to both questions thank-you for your input. If you answered yes to either question please answer the following. 2. What are the ages of your children ( ) 0 - 1 7 months ( ) 18 months to 3 years (__) 3 - 5 years 3a) What type of childcare do you require? Group Day Care Pre School Nursery Out of School Care Specialized Care Other 1 2 3 4 5 6 b) If you have special needs children indicate their age and type of care needed. Age Type of Care Child 1 2 4. For what hours do you require childcare services? Weekdays Week Evenings Weekends Part-time Other (7am - 6pm) (6pm - 11pm) Days Evenings (Before or (Please after school) specify) Child 1 2 3 4 5 6 152 5a) Have you ever experienced a break down in regular childcare? ( ) Yes O No b) Do you have alternate arrangements you could use in an emergency or for other situations requiring short-term childcare? ( ) Yes (please describe the arrangement) c) Do you feel that existing centres/services should offer emergency short-term care? (_) Yes • (__) No 6. How satisfied are you with your percent childcare arrangements? ( ) Very satisfied ( ) Satisfied ( ) Dissatisfied ( ) Very Dissatisfied (_) Other - Specify 7. How much are you able to pay for good care for each child? ( ) Less than $250 per month ( ) $200 - $300 per month (_) $300 - $400 per month ( ) Over $500 per month 8. Do you know about the Ministry of Social Services and Housing subsidy for childcare for qualifying families? ( ) No Why? Yes No 9. Where would your preferred location for childcare be? In the vicinity of your home In the vicinity of your place of work On the premises of your work place Near your child's school Centralized (between work and home) Other - Specify ... • .i 153 10. Would you be willing to change from your present childcare arrangements if a setting was established in or near the town centre and fees were affordable? ( ) Yes - please state why ( ) No - please state why not 11. If a service were developed in Richmond's town centre would you be interested in taking part in the development of such a service? ( ) Yes C~) No 

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