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Targeted job creation : one federal response to long term unemployment Harper, Mary Jane 1987

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Targeted Job C r e a t i o n : One F e d e r a l  Response to Long Term Unemployment by MARY JANE HARPER  B.A. Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 B.S.W. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of S o c i a l Work)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August  1987  (§) Mary Jane Harper, 1987  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department publication  this or of  thesis for by  his  or  that the  her  representatives.  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  DE-6(3/81)  requirements  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  be allowed without  head of copying  my or  my written  Targeted Job One  Federal  Creation:  R e s p o n s e t o L o n g Term  Unemployment  ABSTRACT  Since  1985,  the d i r e c t job creation e f f o r t s of the federal  government have been t a r g e t e d the  J o b D e v e l o p m e n t Program,  incidence research  of long was  initiative  to provide  subsidized  targeted  t e r m unemployed,  i n response t o the  t e r m unemployment  initiated  individually  on t h e l o n g  jobs,  under  increased  since the recession.  This  e a r l y f e e d b a c k on a p r o g r a m o f  as a demand-side  on i n d i v i d u a l s who  employment  had been unemployed f o r  a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x months. The r e s e a r c h  was  a d e s c r i p t i v e analysis of the experience of  64 p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n an a r e a ethnic  population  unemployment. design  was  input,  as w e l l  and  labour  where t h e r e  o f Vancouver w i t h a  is traditionally  An e x p e r i m e n t a l , u n c o n t r o l l e d ,  u s e d t o compare  client  high s i n g l e group  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as program  as program i n t e r v e n t i o n , agency  market c o n d i t i o n s ,  t o program  administration  outcomes.  The v a r i a b l e t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e s t r o n g e s t w i t h outcome was labour also  demand f o r l a b o u r  association i n the  market i n which t h e j o b had been s u b s i d i z e d .  evidence  subsidized  from t h e r e s e a r c h  j o b s e t t i n g may  re-adaptation force.  the r e l a t i v e  of long  supervision  that  f o r career  on-the-job that  factors within  local  T h e r e was the  influence the successful  t e r m unemployed  The o p p o r t u n i t y  high  i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o t h e work  advancement  i s supportive -  i i -  as w e l l  as  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l who  is  re-adapting  t o a work e n v i r o n m e n t , was  each p o s i t i v e l y -  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p r o g r a m outcome. W h i l e t h e r e s u l t s were i n c o n c l u s i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s measured i n t h e study, t o be p o o r p r e d i c t o r s o f p r o g r a m  f o r some o f t h e others  J o b program, respond n o t o n l y  unemployment  but address issues  to  conditions, may  as w e l l  cyclical  o f s t r u c t u r a l unemployment initiatives  Although only  j u d g e m e n t s c a n be drawn f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h , program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  as t o c o n d i t i o n s  i t suggests  within  i m p r o v e t h e outcome o f p u b l i c employment  i i i-  on  tentative  which i s s e n s i t i v e t o labour  -  found  the Individually  t h r o u g h t h e t a r g e t i n g o f t h e s e employment employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s .  were c l e a r l y  success.  Targeted job creation strategies l i k e Subsidized  client  that  market  the job s i t e initiatives.  itself,  TABLE OF CONTENTS page Title  Page  .  i  Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents List  of Tables  List  of Figures  iv v i i ix  A b b r e v i a t i o n s Used i n Text  x  Acknowledgement Chapter  I:  xi  BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM AREA  Introduction  1  E c o n o m i c C o n t e x t o f L o n g Term Unemployment D e f i n i t i o n o f L o n g Term Unemployment I n c i d e n c e o f L o n g Term Unemployment O v e r v i e w o f Unemployment S t a t i s t i c s C a u s e s o f L o n g Term Unemployment  2 2 3 6 10  C o n s e q u e n c e s o f L o n g Term Unemployment Impact o f L o n g Term Unemployment D i s t r i b u t i o n Among P o p u l a t i o n G r o u p s Economic and S o c i a l Impact  23 23 25 28  Unemployment a s a S o c i a l I s s u e The M e a n i n g o f Work S o c i a l Welfare L e g i s l a t i o n  29 30 32  Chapter  II:  THE RESPONSE  F e d e r a l R e s p o n s e s t o Unemployment  39  H i s t o r y o f Job Creation  40  C u r r e n t Employment  41  The  S u b s i d i z e d J o b Program  42  I m p a c t o f M a r g i n a l Employment S u b s i d i e s  45  Chapter  Individually  Initiatives  III:  INTERACTION  OF PRACTICE AND  The  Field  Practice Setting  The  Field  P r a c t i c e as a Context -  RESEARCH 50  iv -  f o r Research  52  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Cont'd. page  Chapter I I I Cont'd. U t i l i z a t i o n - f o c u s e d R e s e a r c h Model  54  Stages o f t h e C o n s u l t a t i o n Process  56  Policy  58  a n d Programming I m p l i c a t i o n s  Appraisal Chapter IV:  of the Collaborative Process  THE RESEARCH  Issues Selected  58  PROBLEM  f o r Research  62  C o n c e p t u a l Model o f t h e R e s e a r c h  67  Knowledge-building Function o f the Research  70  Previous Research Trends i n the L i t e r a t u r e Client Characteristics Program I n t e r v e n t i o n Agency A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Labour Market C o n d i t i o n s Outcome V a r i a b l e s Summary a n d I m p l i c a t i o n s o f P r e v i o u s R e s e a r c h  72 74 76 78 79 80 81 84  C h a p t e r V:  .  RESEARCH DESIGN  C o n t r o l o v e r Phenomena t o be S t u d i e d  86  Sampling Design Domains  87 88  S i z e and H e t e r o g e n e i t y  89  Timing o f Data C o l l e c t i o n  91  Methodological Orientation  91  Data C o l l e c t i o n  92  Validity  95  and R e l i a b i l i t y o f Data  Data A n a l y s i s  97  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study  99  Ethical  Issues i n the Research  - v -  104  TABLE OF CONTENTS C o n t ' d . page Chapter VI:  FINDINGS  Univariate Analysis Client Characteristics Program I n t e r v e n t i o n Program A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Labour Market C o n d i t i o n s Outcomes Summary a n d D i s c u s s i o n  105 105 109 118 120 122 124  ...;  Bivariate Analysis Client Characteristics Opportunity Factors Income A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s Summary and D i s c u s s i o n Chapter V I I :  IMPLICATIONS AND  Implications  List  126 127 129 131 135  CONCLUSIONS  of the Findings  142  Future Research  145  of References  148  Appendices: A p p e n d i x A. A p p e n d i x B. A p p e n d i x C. A p p e n d i x D. Appendix E.  Fact Sheet I n d i v i d u a l l y S u b s i d i z e d Job Program Research Questionnaire R e q u e s t f o r CEIC A p p r o v a l of the Research P r o j e c t U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia E t h i c s Form Tables of Non-social Assistance R e c i p i e n t and S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t Sub-groups  - vi -  ..  154 156 159 160 162  L I S T OF TABLES  page 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Unemployment b y D u r a t i o n , Canada, 1979 t o 1985  4  P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Unemployment by D u r a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 t o 1985  5  H i d d e n Unemployment, B r i t i s h Columbia  9  Population, Population  Employment, a n d Employment R a t i o s , B r i t i s h Columbia  A n n u a l Employment A v e r a g e s , f o r Selected Industrial Sectors,British  Columbia  •  11  ........  A n n u a l Employment A v e r a g e s b y Occupation, B r i t i s h Columbia  18  Components o f A n n u a l P o p u l a t i o n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 t o 1985  Change, 21  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Women a n d Y o u t h Among t h e L o n g Term L o n g Term Unemployed, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d Yukon .... P r i n c i p a l Employment  10.  Education  11.  Labour Force  15  Disadvantage  27 106 107  Participation  i n t h e Twelve  Months Immediately P r i o r t o I S J 12.  Level o f Family  Responsibility  13.  Referring Counsellor's  : 108 109  Assessment o f  Client Motivation  110  14.  Subsidized  110  15.  S u b s i d i z e d Jobs by I n d u s t r y  16.  I n t e n d e d and A c t u a l D u r a t i o n  17.  D i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n I S J Wage R a t e a n d Wage R a t e Job Immediately P r i o r t o I S J S k i l l Level of ISJRelative t o Job Immediately P r i o r t o I S J  18.  Jobs by Occupation  I l l of ISJ  - v i i -  112  114 115  L I S T OF TABLES  Cont'd. page  19. 20. 21.  Career Path I d e n t i f i a b l e to ISJ Participant  116  Commitment Employment  117  o f Immediate s u p e r v i s o r t o S k i l l s Objectives of ISJ  Number o f I n t e r v i e w s Prior  with  Referring  Counsellor  to ISJ Participation  118  22.  Monitoring  visits  119  23.  Difficulty  o f Job Search  120  24.  B a l a n c e Between  Occupational  S u p p l y a n d Demand  121  25.  Employment  122  26.  Counsellor's  Outcome Assessment o f C l i e n t  - viii  -  Benefit  123  L I S T OF  FIGURES  page Figure  I.  Figure  II.  Figure  III.  Figure  IV.  Figure  V.  R e l a t i o n s h i p between V a r i a b l e s  65  Covariance  68  Age Range  Research Design o f Program P a r t i c i p a n t s  Intended Contract Actual  Contract  Duration  Duration  -  ix -  105 113 113  ABBREVIATIONS USED IN TEXT  AFDC  A i d t o Families with  Dependent  Children  CAP  Canada A s s i s t a n c e  CCDO  Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  CEC  C a n a d a Employment C e n t r e  CJS  Canadian Jobs  COPS  Canadian Occupational  EIC  Employment a n d I m m i g r a t i o n Canada  GAIN  G u a r a n t e e d A v a i l a b l e Income f o r Need A c t  ISJ  Individually Subsidized  ISJ/SAR  I n d i v i d u a l l y S u b s i d i z e d J o b program social assistance recipients  MSSH  Ministry of Social Services  SAR  Social Assistance  Plan and D i c t i o n a r y o f O c c u p a t i o n s  Strategy Projection  System  J o b program  Recipient  - x -  t a r g e t e d on  and Housing  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Many i n d i v i d u a l s made v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h i s I would l i k e Glen Drover  t o t h a n k my t h e s i s  study.  a d v i s o r s , Dr. J o h n Crane, Dr.  and Dr. C h r i s McNiven f o r t h e i r guidance and  constructive criticism  during the research project.  T h i s r e s e a r c h would n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e support  o f t h e Employment a n d I m m i g r a t i o n  particular,  I would l i k e  Commission.  In  t o t h a n k t h e employment team a t t h e  E a s t H a s t i n g s Canada Employment C e n t r e a n d t h e Manager, Shepherd,  for their  needs o f t h e i r Finally, family,  s u p p o r t and i n s i g h t  l o n g term  unemployed  Jean  i n t o t h e employment  clients.  I want t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t  o f my  p a r t i c u l a r l y my p a r e n t s who h a v e a l w a y s s u p p o r t e d a n d  encouraged  me, a n d S a r a h  understanding  a n d Matthew f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e a n d  over t h e past  year.  - x i-  CHAPTER I  BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM AREA  Introduction  The 1980  a n n u a l unemployment r a t e  t o 11.9% i n p o s t r e c e s s i o n  C a t a l o g u e No. 71-529, 1 9 8 4 ) . this  same p e r i o d  i n Canada r o s e f r o m 1983 ( S t a t i s t i c s  Declining  o f time, brought  Conference  reflections scourge Canadian  of Catholic  on t h e Canadian  Economic Union  Bishops  rates  over  i n their  ethical  economy i n 1983 t o r e f e r t o t h e  1983).  society  (Conference o f  T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e  a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P r o s p e c t s f o r Canada,  known a s t h e M a c D o n a l d c o m m i s s i o n , 1985,  inflation  The s i t u a t i o n prompted t h e  o f unemployment t h a t p l a g u e s C a t h o l i c Bishops,  Canada,  unemployment t o t h e f o r e f r o n t  o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s economic agenda. Canadian  7.5% i n  reiterated this  better  concern i n  when i t s t a t e d t h a t unemployment must b e r e g a r d e d a s t h e  most s e r i o u s e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m the Economic Union, dramatic r i s e reflection  o f growing  purpose  Canada  ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on  T h i s c o n c e r n was n o t j u s t  i n absolute levels  term unemployed The  1985).  facing  concern  f o r the  o f unemployment, b u t a  f o r t h e i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f l o n g  Canadians. of this  chapter i s t o outline problem,  long  term  unemployment a s a b r o a d  social  r e s e a r c h on one f e d e r a l  j o b c r e a t i o n program, d e s i g n e d t o  i n t e g r a t e t h e l o n g term unemployed  - 1 -  as background f o r  i n t o t h e l a b o u r market.  The  chapter  will  examine t h e economic c o n t e x t  unemployment b y f i r s t the phrase labour  of long  recognizing different  ' l o n g t e r m ' unemployment,  term  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  and t h e n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e  f o r c e t r e n d s i n c e t h e 1981/82 r e c e s s i o n , t o w a r d t h e  i n c r e a s e d d u r a t i o n o f unemployment. unemployment w i l l cyclical explore  t h e n be e x p l o r e d  unemployment  Various  causes of long  under c y c l i c a l  categories.  Finally,  individuals,  and n o n -  the chapter  t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f l o n g t e r m unemployment  p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l ,  contemporary,  social  o f L o n g Term  current  lasting  employment  as a  Unemployment  Unemployment  Much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e unemployment  as  issue.  The E c o n o m i c C o n t e x t o f Loner Term  Definition  will  on  b a c k g r o u n d t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f l o n g t e r m unemployment significant,  term  and r e s e a r c h  on t h e t o p i c  identifies  l o n g e r t h a n one y e a r a s l o n g t e r m .  initiatives  o f t h e f e d e r a l Employment  Immigration Commission under t h e Canadian Jobs identify  i n d i v i d u a l s who  previous  3 0 weeks a s t h e l o n g t e r m u n e m p l o y e d .  The and  Strategy,  h a v e b e e n u n e m p l o y e d 24 o u t o f t h e A similar six  month c r i t e r i a was u s e d b y t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e E c o n o m i c U n i o n and Development P r o s p e c t s  i n i t sdiscussion of long  term  unemployment. The s u b j e c t s least this  in this  r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t were a l l u n e m p l o y e d a t  24 o u t t h e 3 0 weeks i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n j o b c r e a t i o n program as p a r t o f t h e b a s i c  -  2 -  eligibility  criteria While  f o r the  p a r t i c u l a r employment i n i t i a t i v e  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h c l e a r unemployment  f o r purposes of data literature  cited  collection  in this  t w e l v e month d u r a t i o n s to contrast  one  purpose of the increased  Columbia. 1979  to  No  o f unemployment w i t h identify  o f unemployment as  1985,  chapter  will  to both s i x  another.  within  during,  and  post  made  The  a clear trend  a significant  of and  be  toward  shift  in  British  g e n e r a l l y examine s t a t i s t i c s  to cover a pre,  the  topic  attempt w i l l  o f unemployment, n a t i o n a l l y and The  criteria  as b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e  include references  discussion i s to  review.  program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  o f unemployment.  duration  durations  pattern  and  chapter  l o n g t e r m unemployment w i l l  the  under  from  recession  time  frame.  Incidence In  1984,  number o f year,  o f Loner Term Unemployment the  Economic C o u n c i l  i n d i v i d u a l s who  more t h a t t r i p l e d  unemployment r o s e The  Council  issue.  The  15.5%  (The  to  1983,  while  Economic C o u n c i l long  had  (Royal  W h i c h e v e r c r i t e r i a was t e r m unemployment,  than  the  one  total  t e r m unemployment was  1984). a  crucial  proportion  of  b e e n u n e m p l o y e d f o r s i x months o r more o v e r 1980  to  o f a l l unemployed  t o 28.4%  that  o f Canada,  Macdonald commission examined t h e  same t i m e p e r i o d ,  proportion  been unemployed l o n g e r  f r o m 1980  concluded that  i n d i v i d u a l s who the  69%  had  o f Canada i d e n t i f i e d  1983,  and  identified  i n d i v i d u a l s had  C o m m i s s i o n on  the  incidence  clear that a greater -  3  -  this  almost doubled  Economic Union,  used t o measure t h e  i t was  that  of  from  1985). long  proportion  of  unemployed  i n d i v i d u a l s were e x p e r i e n c i n g l o n g e r d u r a t i o n s o f  unemployment, Although regularly  i n t h e post r e c e s s i o n Canadian the S t a t i s t i c s  economy.  Canada L a b o u r F o r c e  Survey does n o t  r e p o r t unemployment d u r a t i o n s i n e x c e s s  of s i x or  twelve  months, i t c a n be u s e d t o c o n f i r m t h e s e  extend  the a n a l y s i s into the post recession, recovery  The  Statistics  Canada Labour F o r c e  c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d  unemployed p e r s o n looked and  i s without  f o r work i n t h e f o u r weeks e n d i n g  i s available  1985). those  as unemployed.  a s someone who  and t o period.  Survey measures t h e d u r a t i o n  o f unemployment a s t h e number o f c o n t i n u o u s person  trends  weeks d u r i n g w h i c h a The s u r v e y  d e f i n e s an  a j o b , has a c t i v e l y  with the survey  f o r work i n t h e r e f e r e n c e week  T h i s i n c l u d e s i n d i v i d u a l s on l a y o f f  week  (van C l e e f f ,  awaiting  recall,  who p l a n t o commence a new j o b w i t h i n f o u r weeks a n d new  entrants to the labour  f o r c e who Table  Percentage by  are seeking t h e i r 1  Distribution  Duration,  f i r s t job.  o f Unemployment,  Canada, 1979 t o 1985  Duration of Spell o f Unemployment  1979  1981  1983  1985  L e s s t h a n 1 month 1 t o 3 months G r e a t e r t h a n 3 months Other  31.9 30.0 34.6 3.5  33.2 29.5 33.9 3.4  22.9 25.9 49.0 .0  26.3 26.1 45.4 2.2  100.0  100. 0  100.0  100. 0  Note:  The O t h e r c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s p e r s o n s w i t h a j o b t o s t a r t w i t h i n 4 weeks o f t h e r e f e r e n c e week who h a d n o t a c t i v e l y l o o k e d f o r work i n t h e p a s t 4 weeks, b u t who were a v a i l a b l e f o r work i n t h e r e f e r e n c e week.  Source:  Statistics  Canada, C a t a l o g u e  - 4 -  No. 71-529 a n d 71-001.  Table  1 identifies  unemployment declined  lasting  that although the proportion  three  months o r l o n g e r  p e a k e d i n 1983 and  t o 45.4% o f a l l u n e m p l o y e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n 1985, i t  remained s u b s t a n t i a l l y above t h e p r e - r e c e s s i o n recession  (1981) l e v e l s d u r i n g  be n o t e d t h a t t h e d u r a t i o n  this  recovery  o f unemployment  Labour Force Survey r e f e r s t o the l e n g t h  (1979) and e a r l y period.  recorded  individual,  t h i s p e r i o d r e f e r s t o an i n c o m p l e t e  unemployment  that  o f unemployment.  i s likely  duration  spell  of duration  the t o t a l  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  The  o f unemployment i s ,  clear. Table  2  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of bv  F o r any one  t o be l e s s t h a n t h e t o t a l  experienced  t r e n d toward t h e i n c r e a s e d nevertheless,  i n the  These f i g u r e s t h e r e f o r e understate  o f unemployment  I t should  o f time a p e r s o n has  b e e n u n e m p l o y e d up t o t h e e n d o f t h e s u r v e y week.  duration  of  Duration,  British  Unemployment  Columbia,  1979 t o 1985  Duration of Spell o f Unemployment  1979  1981  1983  1985  L e s s t h a n 1 month 1 t o 3 months G r e a t e r t h a n 3 months Other  32.6 30.6 32.6 4.2  40.7 31.9 25.3 2.1  23.5 25.5 50.0 1.0  23.6 25.1 50.2 0.0  100.0  100. 0  100.0  100.0 Source:  Statistics  Long term  Canada, C a t a l o g u e No.  unemployment r o s e i n a l l  71-529  regions in the early  1980's; however, t h e most s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s , -  5 -  a n d 71-001.  i n percentage  terms, o c c u r r e d Table  i n the western provinces  2 identifies  that the trend  (van C l e e f f ,  in British  C o l u m b i a was  s i m i l a r t o t h e n a t i o n a l t r e n d y e t more p r o n o u n c e d , proportions  o f unemployed i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c e d  longer periods recession. province  o f unemployment d u r i n g  Notably,  this  as  longer  higher  a f t e r the i n this  as a whole, as t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f  i n d i v i d u a l s u n e m p l o y e d f o r t h r e e months o r l o n g e r  in British  C o l u m b i a r e m a i n e d o v e r 50% o f a l l u n e m p l o y e d i n d i v i d u a l s , into the recovery  o v e r t h e r e c e s s i o n and i n t o t h e r e c o v e r y  period  o f unemployment in British  i s t h e a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f unemployment,  from t h e monthly Labour Force duration  increased  steadily  o f 21.6 weeks r e c o r d e d  Survey.  also  f r o m 15.1 weeks  i n 1981, t o a  f o r e a c h o f 1984 a n d 1985.  i n 1979 t o 11.2 weeks  25.3 weeks  i n 1985.  i n 1981, t h e n i n c r e a s e d  O n l y i n 1986 h a s t h i s  i n c r e a s i n g average d u r a t i o n post-recession British  high  In B r i t i s h from  steadily to  t r e n d t o w a r d an  o f unemployment r e v e r s e d  C o l u m b i a economy  taken  I n Canada t h e average  C o l u m b i a , t h e a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f unemployment d e c l i n e d 14.3  well  p h a s e f o r 1985.  Another i n d i c a t o r of the increased duration  Columbia,  very-  relatively  and i m m e d i a t e l y  t r e n d has c o n t i n u e d  than i n the country  1985).  (Statistics  i n the Canada, C a t .  Nos. 71-001 a n d 7 1 - 5 2 9 ) .  An O v e r v i e w o f Unemployment Whatever t h e d u r a t i o n u n d e r s t a n d how  Statistics  o f unemployment,  unemployment  statistics  -  6 -  i t i s important  to  generally, are reported  and  t o a p p r e c i a t e j u s t what  included,  in official  i s i n c l u d e d and i n f a c t ,  m e a s u r e s o f unemployment.  The unemployment  r a t e i s a measure o f t h e number o f  unemployed, t e m p o r a r i l y l a i d r e l a t i v e t o t h e numbers interaction it  of supply  and  o f f or seeking  employed.  and demand f a c t o r s  employment,  i n t h e l a b o u r market,  r a t e can vary  as i n d i v i d u a l s change t h e i r  labour supply behaviour  people  As a measure o f t h e  i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e unemployment  significantly  not  individual  preferences  (Employment a n d I m m i g r a t i o n  Canada,  1981). T h e r e a r e two f a c t o r s w h i c h c a u s e o f f i c i a l m e a s u r e s o f unemployment, unemployment,  both  to understate  r e l a t e s t o how  t h e impact  unemployment  c o n s e q u e n c e o f what  overall  Statistics  and l o n g  term  o f unemployment.  i s measured and t h e o t h e r  therefore underestimates  the t o t a l  a f f e c t e d b y unemployment.  number o f  and i t  individuals  The r a t e o f unemployment,  f l u c t u a t e b e c a u s e o f c h a n g e s i n e i t h e r t h e number o f (turnover)  (duration).  North of  America,  being  persons  The a c t u a l r a t e o f unemployment i s  a s w e l l a s an i n a d e q u a t e  l o n g e r t e r m unemployment  can  or the average l e n g t h o f  t h e r e f o r e a l i m i t e d measure o f t h e impact generally,  is a  i s a s t a t i c measure o f t h e s t o c k o r  p o o l o f unemployed i n d i v i d u a l s a t a p o i n t i n time  unemployment  One  i s measured.  The r a t e o f unemployment  becoming unemployed  Canada  o f unemployment  measure o f t h e h a r d s h i p o f  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  the turnover  Traditionally in  or flow of i n d i v i d u a l s  e m p l o y e d , u n e m p l o y e d and o u t o f t h e l a b o u r  - 7 -  among s t a t e s f o r c e has  b e e n l a r g e and  continuous  (Labour Market Development,  1981)  unemployment a f f e c t i n g more p e o p l e f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s than i n European c o u n t r i e s  (Economic C o u n c i l  It  1981/82 r e c e s s i o n t h a t  has  o n l y been s i n c e the  focused  on  indicator This  the  duration  o f change w i t h i n t h e  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  unemployment h a s literature the  o f unemployment as labour  increased  o f Canada,  a  1984).  attention  (van of  has  impact of long d u r a t i o n s  C l e e f f , 1985).  long  l e a d t o renewed c o n c e r n i n t h e  over the  time  significant  market  incidence  of  with  term  social  work  o f unemployment  on  individual. Official  m e a s u r e s o f unemployment a l s o c o n t a i n  a  hidden  p s y c h o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t , b e c a u s e t h e y m e a s u r e unemployment a s percentage of the seeking  work.  labour  withdraw from the t o abandon t h e i r  o f Canada,  labour job  f o r work i n t i g h t  force.  search  Women and  t h a n a d u l t men,  therefore tend  among t h e  frequently  labour  markets  y o u t h a r e more and  and  likely  official  to underestimate  l o n g term unemployed  to  (Economic  their Council  1984).  While o f f i c i a l behaviour,  looking  statistics  representation  o f unemployed c o n t i n u e  i t i s acknowledged t h a t workers  become d i s c o u r a g e d  unemployment  force, i . e . those i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e l y  Although the m a j o r i t y  s e e k employment,  a  measures s t i l l  do  a t t e m p t s t o measure t h i s  o v e r a l l unemployment  increases,  compete f o r s c a r c e r j o b unemployment r i s e s 1985). T a b l e  account  - 8  of the  -  this  that  as  more u n e m p l o y e d i n d i v i d u a l s  C o m m i s s i o n on  estimates  for  factor confirm  opportunities, this  (Royal  3 contains  and  not  the  element of Economic  numbers o f  hidden  Union, discouraged  workers and c o n f i r m s  t h i s trend, f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia.  example, when t h e unemployment r a t e r o s e s h a r p l y f r o m  For 6.7% i n  1981 t o 12.1% i n 1982, t h e e s t i m a t e d number o f h i d d e n u n e m p l o y e d who became d i s c o u r a g e d increased  from  and w i t h d r e w f r o m  the labour  4,000 t o 11,00 i n d i v i d u a l s .  force,  The number o f  d i s c o u r a g e d workers has remained h i g h a l o n g w i t h t h e o v e r a l l r a t e o f unemployment, s i n c e t h e r e c e s s i o n . Table 3 H i d d e n Unemployment, B r i t i s h  Columbia  Year  Unemployment Rate  Discouraged Workers  1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984  7.7% 6.6% 6.7% 12.1 13.8 14.8  4,000 4,000 11,000 12,000 11,000  32.000 33,000 30,000 52,000 74,000 86,000  1985  14.2  10,000  83,000  Source:  Statistics  Another aspect  Canada, C a t a l o g u e o f hidden  Involuntary Part-time  No. 710001 a n d 71-529.  unemployment i s t h e number o f  i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g p a r t - t i m e on an i n v o l u n t a r y b a s i s b e c a u s e they  are not able t o find  have a l s o p r e d i c t a b l y  full  risen,  unemployment h a s i n c r e a s e d . this  aspect  individuals.  time  as t h e o v e r a l l Table  T h e s e numbers  level of  3 identifies  t h a t s i n c e 1984,  o f unemployment h a s a f f e c t e d w e l l o v e r T h e s e two e l e m e n t s o f h i d d e n  more p r e v a l e n t among t h e l o n g t e r m individuals  employment.  unemployment may  i n their job  the labour force or r e s o r t  - 9 -  be  unemployed, as t h e s e  a r e more a p t t o become d i s c o u r a g e d  s e a r c h and withdraw from  80,000  t o part-time  employment  a f t e r Unemployment  Insurance b e n e f i t s  and p e r s o n a l  s a v i n g s have been exhausted.  C a u s e s o f L o n g Term  Unemployment  E c o n o m i s t s d i s t i n g u i s h between unemployment a deficiency referred  arises  from  o f a g g r e g a t e demand i n t h e economy, w h i c h i s  t o as c y c l i c a l  unemployment.  unemployment,  The l a t t e r ,  frequently divided unemployment.  into  and  non-cyclical  n o n - c y c l i c a l unemployment,  frictional,  seasonal,  and  A l t h o u g h s t r u c t u r a l unemployment  i m p a c t o n t h e d u r a t i o n o f unemployment, type of  that  unemployment  i s essential  to the increased  structural  h a s more  direct  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f each  t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e dynamic  n a t u r e o f t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t and t o i d e n t i f y have c o n t r i b u t e d  i s most  those  factors  incidence of long  that  term  unemployment. Cyclical unemployment cycle, British  Unemployment;  C y c l i c a l unemployment i s  c a u s e d by normal f l u c t u a t i o n s  i n the business  t h e r e c u r r i n g boom and b u s t s e q u e n c e i d e n t i f i e d  by  e c o n o m i s t J o h n M a y n a r d K e y n e s i n h i s 1936 G e n e r a l  o f Employment,  Interest  period of dramatic i n nature,  increase  as a r e s u l t  and s e r v i c e s .  and Money.  The 1981/82 r e c e s s i o n was  i n unemployment,  primarily  a  cyclical  o f d e c r e a s e d a g g r e g a t e demand f o r g o o d s  A comprehensive a n a l y s i s o f t h e causes o f t h e  r e c e s s i o n a r e beyond t h e scope o f t h i s r e c e s s i o n has i n f l u e n c e d therefore  Theory  chapter.  However, t h e  t h e d u r a t i o n o f unemployment  and i t i s  important t o understand the extent o f the c y c l i c a l  unemployment w h i c h o c c u r r e d  in British  - 10 -  Columbia,  during  this  period.  Because o f the hidden p s y c h o l o g i c a l  element  included  in official  p r e v i o u s l y been i d e n t i f i e d , to the overall identify  population  m e a s u r e s o f unemployment, shifts  will  i n employment  be u s e d  in this  employment  relative  analysis to  r a t e , which measures  as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e whole p o p u l a t i o n  e i t h e r work o r l e i s u r e ,  declined steadily  f r o m 60.7% i n 1981 t o 54.5% i n 1984. reversed  ratio  levels  t h a t have  t h e impact o f t h e r e c e s s i o n .  T a b l e 4 i d e n t i f i e s t h a t t h e employment  trend  or behavioral  w i t h an i n c r e a s e  available for  in British  Columbia  O n l y i n 1985 h a s  i n t h e employment  this  population  t o 55.2%.  Table 4 Population, Population Year  1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985  Employment Ratios,  Population (000's)  and  Employment  British  Columbia  Employment (000')  1960 2028 2092 2132 2165 2204 2226  1144 1213 1270 1204 1197 1202 1228  Emp./Pop. R a t i o (%) 58.4 59.8 60.7 56.5 55.3 54.5 55.2  Note:  P o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e s t h o s e 15 y e a r s a n d o l d e r and e x c l u d e s n a t i v e s on r e s e r v e a s w e l l a s f u l l t i m e members o f t h e armed f o r c e s .  Source:  S t a t i s t i c s Canada, C a t a l o g u e No.  -  11 -  71-001 a n d 71-529.  by  Table  4 a l s o i d e n t i f i e s t h a t a v e r a g e employment  5.7%,  f r o m a p r e - r e c e s s i o n h i g h o f 1,270,000 j o b s  a low  o f 1,197,000 j o b s  employment h a s 1985  i n 1983.  grown e a c h y e a r  s i n c e 1983,  the  i n 1981.  unemployment a s a r e s u l t nature  and  cyclical  Most o f t h e  i n 1981  overall  to  level  of  a v e r a g e employment i n  overall  o f t h e r e c e s s i o n , was  f a c t o r s have c o n t i n u e d  employment d u r i n g t h e  recovery period.  increase i n cyclical  in  t o dampen t h e  growth  Internationally,  e c o n o m i c c l i m a t e c o o l e d down d u r i n g t h e r e c e s s i o n l e a v i n g capacity particularly industries. developing  Increased  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l competition  and  manufacturing  f a c t o r s have had  Frictional unemployment  and  Seasonal  and  as  country  Columbia,  Unemployment:  individuals  jobs t u r n over  unemployment h a s policies  these  labour  as a consequence.  specific and  Although  long  p.592) .  -  (Economic  job-search  labour  market  t o e a s e and  ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on E c o n o m i c U n i o n ,  12  a whole.  s e e k a l t e r n a t e employment  a t t e n t i o n on  -  capacity  as  o f a dynamic  t o r e d u c e employment i n s t a b i l i t y ,  speed j o b s e a r c h  the  (Emery, 1986) .  1984), r e c e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h i s  focused  excess  Frictional  f o r m o f unemployment d o e s n o t u s u a l l y l a s t  C o u n c i l o f Canada,  i n many o f  even g r e a t e r impact  i s a normal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  market which o c c u r s opportunities  an  British  the  producing  demand b e l o w t h e  sectors i n the  I n a r e s o u r c e b a s e d economy l i k e cyclical  goods  from abroad  c o u n t r i e s , a l s o suppressed  of resource  this  fell  r e m a i n e d 52,000 j o b s b e l o w t h e p r e - r e c e s s i o n p e a k  employment l e v e l  in  Although  i n B.C.  1985,  to  Seasonal in  unemployment  industries  are  o c c u r s b e c a u s e o f employment  such as a g r i c u l t u r e ,  s e n s i t i v e t o seasonal v a r i a t i o n  fishing  and f o r e s t r y , w h i c h  i n climatic conditions.  Consumption p a t t e r n s can i n f l u e n c e t h e s e a s o n a l l a b o u r and d r a m a t i c example s t u d e n t s academic year, Seasonal  increases i n the supply  demand f o r  of labour, f o r  e n t e r i n g t h e l a b o u r market a t t h e end o f t h e  a l s o contribute to seasonal  unemployment  i s not normally  l o n g d u r a t i o n s o f unemployment, for  patterns  S t r u c t u r a l Unemployment:  a factor  although  some w o r k e r s s u c h a s f i s h e r m e n  unemployment.  over  contributing to  t h e p a t t e r n may  persist  long p e r i o d s o f time.  W h i l e l o n g t e r m unemployment  definitely  a f f e c t e d by c y c l i c a l  recession,  e c o n o m i s t s i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e t h a t d e e p e r more  permanent s t r u c t u r a l will  continue  unemployment. the  unemployment  was  c h a n g e s i n t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t h a v e h a d and  t o have a s u b s t a n t i a l  i n f l u e n c e on t h e d u r a t i o n o f  I n 1984, t h e E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a  i n c r e a s e i n s t r u c t u r a l unemployment  Council  o f Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) .  Unemployment  Insurance,  f a c t o r s on o v e r a l l causes  The C o m m i s s i o n o f E n q u i r y  unemployment  and  cyclical  l e v e l s has d e c l i n e d r e l a t i v e t o  (Commission o f E n q u i r y ,  the non-cyclical  structural)  on  known a s t h e F o r g e t C o m m i s s i o n ,  1986).  T h e r e a r e no d i r e c t m e a s u r e s o f s t r u c t u r a l Instead,  labelled  d i s t u r b i n g (Economic  acknowledged t h a t t h e importance o f s e a s o n a l  structural  during the  forms ( f r i c t i o n a l ,  unemployment.  seasonal  and  a r e m e a s u r e d t o g e t h e r by i n f e r e n c e a s t h a t l e v e l o f  -  13 -  unemployment w h i c h o c c u r s a t t h e p e a k l e v e l s o f e c o n o m i c activity. that the  Another  i t represents short  t h e l o w e s t a t t a i n a b l e r a t e o f unemployment i n  r u n , from macroeconomic p o l i c y  therefore, run,  interpretation of t h i s non-cyclical rate i s  measures t h e concept o f f u l l  (EIC, 1980).  It,  employment  i n the short  a m e a s u r e w h i c h h a s d r i f t e d upward o v e r t i m e .  I n t h e peak  employment y e a r s , Canada s t o o d Statistics  1966, 1974 and 1980, t h i s unemployment r a t e i n  a t 3.4, 5.3 and 7.5, r e s p e c t i v e l y  Canada, C a t a l o g u e No.  ( E I C , 1980, a n d  71-529).  W h a t e v e r t h e m e a s u r e , s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s o f unemployment have been e v i d e n t attributed  over the previous  t o three  institutional,  general  two d e c a d e s a n d c a n be  factors; technological,  and b e h a v i o r a l  (Labour Market Development,  1981) .  M i s m a t c h e s i n t h e j o b m a r k e t and t h e e f f e c t s o f wage differentials, this  increase  t h a t have a l s o been o f f e r e d as e x p l a n a t i o n s i n s t r u c t u r a l unemployment  Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) , c a n be i n c l u d e d factors.  (Economic C o u n c i l o f  u n d e r t h e s e same t h r e e  Even though t h e impact o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l  accelerated  i n recent  years,  institutional  and  and  will  behavioral  The  the supply  with p a r t i c u l a r reference and demand f o r l a b o u r  impact o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l  pervasive  (Economic C o u n c i l  demand f o r l a b o u r to s p e c i f i c  patterns.  f a c t o r s warrants i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  be d i s c u s s e d  influenced  general  change has  f a c t o r s a p p e a r t o c o n t i n u e t o i n f l u e n c e employment Each o f t h e s e t h r e e  of  in British  o f Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) .  sectors.  -  Columbia.  c h a n g e on employment h a s b e e n  i s most d r a m a t i c a l l y  industrial  t o how e a c h h a s  I t s e f f e c t on t h e  illustrated  Table 5 reports  14 -  by  reference  annual  employment a v e r a g e s , industrial  sectors,  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, o v e r t h e y e a r s 1979 Table  Annual Selected  through  1985.  5  Employment  Industrial  for selected  Averages,  Sectors, B r i t i s h  Columbia  (000's) Sector 80  81  Year 82  83  84  85  1122  1191  1244  1174  1163  1168  1192  56 178  59 178  62 184  47 159  53 151  50 148  55 151  76  80  93  77  70  70  69  341  372  391  384  400  407  426  1144  1213  1270  1204  1197  1202  1228  79 P r i m a r y , Non Agricultural Other Primary Manufacturing  Occ  Construction Service ALL  Sectors  S t a t i s t i c si Canada, C a t a l o g u e No.  Source:  W i t h i n each  of these sectors,  despite the recovery period, recession  levels  employment  i n 1985  f o r a l l but the s e r v i c e  below, c o n s t r u c t i o n  a r e a o f g r o w t h i n t h e B.C.  25.8%  below).  sector below, The  sector  referring  illustrate  most  substantial  i n 1985  levels.  structural  Employment w i t h i n  - 15  -  been  were  8.9%  1981.  t o T a b l e 5, e v e n t s w i t h i n t h e  the e x t e n t t o which  i n f l u e n c e employment  manufacturing  economy s i n c e t h e r e c e s s i o n h a s  o f t h e p r e v i o u s employment p e a k i n  Again,  1981 and  below t h e p r e -  i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r , where employment l e v e l s ahead  and 71-529.  peaked i n  remained  ( n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n 4.2% 17.9%  71-•001  manufacturing  changes the  can  manufacturing sector continued recession  f r o m a 1981  148,000 i n 1984. still  17.9  sector.  the  1985,  t h e r e was  modest r e c o v e r y  w i t h i n the  high  for this  Although production  recovered  summer o f  1986,  i n the  and  surpassed  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new  a 40%  reduction  i n labour  protectionism  e x p r e s s e d as d u t i e s  s o f t wood l u m b e r i m p o r t s , term r e d u c t i o n Within capital  the  on  e f f e c t has  Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) .  significant  forest  m a n u f a c t u r i n g h a v e i n f l u e n c e d and levels  are  and  in  a wide range o f  already will  evident  continue  dislocation  can  be  expected.  16  -  long  of  semiconductor  (Economic C o u n c i l  of  computer-aided  dramatic  intensive  to The  cost competitive The  processes  e x i s t i n g machinery.  Long t e r m unemployment -  on  automation  economically  t o w a r d more c a p i t a l  as m a n u f a c t u r e r s r e p l a c e  US  industry.  i n d u s t r i a l manufacturing a p p l i c a t i o n s .  shifts  output  s h i n g l e s and  i n the manufacturing s e c t o r .  h a v e made m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s  which  1986).  expected to continue  m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n o f c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y and reductions,  levels  technology  increased  changes  Computer-aided design  i n f l u e n c e employment  1981  combined w i t h  e q u i p m e n t b a s e d on m i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and led to  on  been a s i g n i f i c a n t  manufacturing sector, the  t e c h n o l o g y has  have  produced t h i s  s h a k e s and  i n employment w i t h i n t h e  the  i s a good  (CEIC, E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , are  151,000,  forest  pre-recession  When t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l employment s h i f t s  of  industrial  forestry industry  improved p r o d u c t i v i t y i n lumber p r o c e s s i n g , with  to  impact which t e c h n o l o g i c a l change can  o f employment.  the  184,000 i n d i v i d u a l s , t o a low  pre-recession  Wood p r o c e s s i n g  i n d u s t r y had by  In  % below the  example o f t h e levels  peak o f  to d e c l i n e throughout  Job  i s often  the  outcome o f t h e s e  as t h e  structural  shifts  i n d i v i d u a l s d i s p l a c e d when j o b s  n e c e s s a r i l y those  h i r e d i n the  i n employment  patterns,  disappear  not  are  growing s e r v i c e s e c t o r  industries. R e l a t i v e wage s t r u c t u r e s o r wage r i g i d i t i e s w h i c h employers  from l o w e r i n g  their  cost of production  o f d e c l i n i n g demand, h a v e a l s o b e e n s u g g e s t e d a s contributing to  increased  C o u n c i l o f Canada,  1984).  argument, p r e s e n t e d  with  period  may  be  employment, t h e  noncompetitive  discouraging  change a r e  for British  and  will  high  Economic C o u n c i l c o n c l u d e d  e l e m e n t s i n wage s e t t i n g  shifts  i n employment due  recovery  from t h e  been even slower.  that  that  there  are  to technological areas.  occupational  continue  area,  areas,  b e e n modest,  such as  t o dampen t h e demand f o r c l e r i c a l  shift  i n 1985  r e c e s s i o n has  the  clerical  A u t o m a t i o n i n t h e work p l a c e  t o more e f f i c i e n t  a n a l y s i s of information.  employed  recession  Columbia.  more o f f i c e s and  cautious  f o r wage m o d e r a t i o n i n e x c h a n g e f o r  within c e r t a i n occupational  has  (Economic  from t h e p o s t  a n n u a l employment a v e r a g e s b y  While o v e r a l l  field,  a factor  also evident within c e r t a i n occupational  6 records  recovery  a  periods  a d d i t i o n a l employment.  Major s t r u c t u r a l  Table  some e v i d e n c e  of worker p r e f e r e n c e  continued  during  s t r u c t u r a l unemployment A l t h o u g h t h i s was  discourage  The  r e m a i n s 8.5%  o f 222,000 i n d i v i d u a l s .  computer-aided  203,000 c l e r i c a l  as  processing workers  below t h e p r e - r e c e s s i o n  employment  T h e s e same f a c t o r s h a v e  reduced  t h e number o f m i d d l e managers n e e d e d t o s y n t h e s i z e  -  workers  has  17  -  and  analyze  information  for higher  organizations  which adapted to the  m i d d l e management and may  l e v e l s o f management.  adopting  n e v e r n e e d t o r e - h i r e due  occupational  technology  information  r e c e s s i o n by  flatter  laying  organizational  been c a l l e d  processing  (Economic C o u n c i l  the  and  informatics or  the  1984).  6  A n n u a l Employment A v e r a g e s by British  i n these  telecommunications  o f Canada, Table  off structures  t o computer d i s p l a c e m e n t  c a t e g o r i e s ; what has  marriage of  Many o f  Occupation  Columbia  (000's)  Occupations 79  80  81  M a n a g e r i a l and P r o f e s s i o n a l Clerical Sales Services Primary Occupations  264 190 134 163 57  278 202 139 183 61  298 222 141 187 62  Processing  157  161  Construction  80  Transportation Material All  Handling  Occupations  Source:  Statistics  This shifts  the  84  85  290 213 136 182 58  294 204 141 187 68  323 201 134 178 68  334 203 135 183 72  163  148  135  134  140  85  96  82  71  69  74  51  54  55  51  53  53  50  48  50  46  44  44  42  37  1144  1213  1270  1204  1197  1202  1228  a n a l y s i s suggests that there  economy s i n c e t h e with  83  Canada, C a t a l o g u e  i n employment p a t t e r n s  national trend  which s t a t e d t h a t the  This  71-•001  by  British  the  18  -  71 -529.  structural  Columbia  appears  Forget  jobs which are b e i n g -  and  i  have been major  conclusion  identified  new  No .  w i t h i n the  recession.  Year 82  consistent  Commission  created  are  not  the  same j o b s  during  the  lost  t h r o u g h t e c h n o l o g i c a l change o r t h o s e  recession  (Commission o f E n q u i r y ,  Although technological structural  c h a n g e has  unemployment  i n recent  demographic f a c t o r s have a l s o and  hence c o n t r i b u t e d  had  to the  the  years,  p.  greatest  51).  impact  institutional  influenced incidence  1986  lost  on  and  s t r u c t u r a l unemployment  of  long  term  unemployment. A  1974  Economic C o u n c i l  o f Canada s t u d y o f  between j o b v a c a n c i e s  and  whatever worsening of  s t r u c t u r a l unemployment p a t t e r n s  occurred supply  up  until  side of the  Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) .  that point, labour  required  At t o be  the  market  Revisions  income r e p l a c e d  eligible  the  and  the  number o f  f o r U l was  1971  1984).  A  Ul  c h a n g e s on  federal task  legislation  labour  duration  insurable  patterns  labour  1971  i n terms of  weeks  reduced.  a f t e r 1971,  f o r c e which reviewed the  concluded that the  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of  force  partly offset to the  impact  of  -  19  -  Ul  the  force participation, increased and  impact  (Strandberg,  changes i n c r e a s e d  at which people tend to q u i t e x i s t i n g jobs  low  Unemployment  benefits  as  of  1970's  demand i n  significantly  regulations  i n the  to the  impact of t h e s e changes, debate c o n t i n u e s  of the  the  ( C i t e d i n Economic C o u n c i l  changes implemented  same t i m e , t h e  that  had  m a i n l y t o c h a n g e s on  substantially increased  A l t h o u g h amendments t o t h e the  due  occupations.  i n 1971  percentage of  benefits.  i n d i v i d u a l s , concluded  minimum wages, r e s t r i c t e d  wage, e n t r a n c e l e v e l  of the  was  Institutional  through increased  Insurance Act  unemployed  mismatches  the  lengthened  rate  the  duration  o f t i m e p e o p l e r e m a i n unemployed  Development, In  1981).  summary, t h e e c o n o m i c l i t e r a t u r e  institutional  factors evident  have r e s t r i c t e d the  supply.  (CEIC, L a b o u r Market  suggests  long before  t h e demand f o r l a b o u r  t h e 1981/82  w h i l e t h e y have  The i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e l a b o u r  s h i f t s has contributed unemployment a s w e l l  supply  t o an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e  as t h e duration  that recession, increased  a n d demand  i n the level of  o f unemployment.  D e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s h a v e a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e 15.5% i n c r e a s e i n the labour largest  force of British  s i n g l e demographic t r e n d  increase  i n the labour  women i n t h e l a b o u r  Commission o f E n q u i r y has continued  f o r women i n B r i t i s h in  1985 ( S t a t i s t i c s Increasing  supply,is  force.  o f women h a s i n c r e a s e d  trend  Columbia  this  participationof  on Unemployment I n s u r a n c e ,  into this  (Royal 1986), and t h i s  decade w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e  Columbia r i s i n g  f r o m 4 9 . 0 % i n 1979 t o 53.7%  Canada, C a t a l o g u e 71-001 a n d 7 1 - 2 5 9 ) .  numbers o f y o u t h who e n t e r e d  create  sufficient  the labour  the capacity  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s  W h i l e t h e upward p r e s s u r e  it  the increased  s t e a d i l y s i n c e t h e 1950's  t h e 1970's a l s o c h a l l e n g e d  and  which has i n f l u e n c e d  Nationally, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate  during  tapered  f r o m 1979 t o 1985. T h e  on t h e s u p p l y  o f t h e economy t o  f o r new  of labour  entrants. from youth has  o f f i n t h e 1980's a s t h e b a b y boom g e n e r a t i o n  moved i n t o t h e p r i m e age w o r k i n g c a t e g o r y has been suggested t h a t  this population  h a v e a s t r u c t u r a l i m p a c t on unemployment. demographic group competing  i n the labour -  20 -  force  h a s aged  (25 t o 44 y e a r s ) ,  g r o u p may c o n t i n u e t o As a r e l a t i v e l y market,  their  large  unemployment may  remain high t o the extent t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n f o r  j o b s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n c e n t r a t e d among s i m i l a r similar  skills  and  experience  age  groups  (Commission o f E n q u i r y ,  1986).  O v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n growth w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia has had  some e f f e c t  period.  The  every year, 1985  on t h e s u p p l y o f l a b o u r , d u r i n g t h i s  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e has from  2,584 t h o u s a n d  i n 1979  ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, C a t a l o g u e Table  No.  with  also  time  increased  t o 2,893 t h o u s a n d  in  91-210).  7 e x a m i n e s t h e components o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n c h a n g e . Table  7  Components o f A n n u a l P o p u l a t i o n Change British  Columbia,  1979  to  1985  (000's) Births  Deaths  Immigration  Emigration  Net I n t e r provincial Migration  Annual Net Change  1979/80 1980/81 1981/82  38.9 40.7 42.6  19.2 19.7 20.2  21.1 23.4 22.2  5.5 5.3 6.3  40.2 37.9 8.7  75.5 77.0 47.2  1982/83 1983/84 1984/85  42 .4 43.6 45.0  20.3 19.7 20.6  16.0 14.3 12.0  7.1 6.8 6.8  -1.5 13.1 -2.3  29,5 45.5 27.3  Source:  Statistics  Births, steady  deaths  Canada, C a t a l o g u e and  91-210  (1986).  e m i g r a t i o n have each remained  fairly  over the pre t o post r e c e s s i o n p e r i o d , with the g r e a t e s t  change o c c u r r i n g t h r o u g h migration.  Immigration  inter-provincial  immigration has  net  inter-provincial  generally declined while  m i g r a t i o n has  of p o p u l a t i o n change,  and  been t h e most u n s t a b l e  fluctuating  widely  net component  since the recession.  These f i g u r e s alone of t h i s population  do  not  g r o w t h on  g i v e an  the  i n d i c a t i o n of the  supply  of  labour.  b r e a k d o w n s w o u l d be  needed t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e  years  were p o t e n t i a l l a b o u r  and  o l d e r who  Labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s t h e n be the  needed t o e s t i m a t e  supply  of  labour.  the  Age  i n d i v i d u a l s 15  force participants.  for various  age  groups would  i m p a c t o f t h e s e new  Even w i t h o u t t h i s  residents  i n d i v i d u a l s moving i n t o  Columbia  and  countries  c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d particularly  i n the  In c o n c l u s i o n , has  identified  last  pre-recession this  f o r the  decade.  an  which i s a s s o c i a t e d with  certain  t o be  unemployment Cyclical continued to the the  p e r i o d and  supply  significant  rise  sectors  and  durations  of  occupational  a result  supply  Columbia  and  increase  i n the  economy  over  demographic  unemployment.  evident  long  duration  - 22 -  has  term  p r o v i n c i a l economy.  of the  1980's.  within  categories,  recession,  t o compound t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s and  dramatic  1983/84.  s t r u c t u r a l unemployment,  post-recession,  unemployment as  provinces,  i n unemployment  a major f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  i n the  British  demand f a c t o r s h a v e  institutional  i m p a c t on longer  and  other  during  British  change which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  industrial  continued  labour  a n a l y s i s of the  Technological,  f a c t o r s have each had  Technological  particularly  increased  that both labour  been r e s p o n s i b l e the  to the  on  detailed analysis,  however, i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t from o t h e r  impact  has contributed  o f unemployment  during  The  The  Impact The  unequal  Consequences  of long term  effect  o f Long  Term Unemployment  unemployment  o f l o n g t e r m unemployment on  individuals, i t s  d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n and  i t s ultimate  i m p a c t u p o n s o c i e t y , make i t a n i s s u e o f c o n c e r n t o impact o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l  change,  social  scientists.  The  which  a n a l y s i s has  shown i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o l o n g e r t e r m d u r a t i o n s  o f unemployment,  i s e x p e c t e d t o a c c e l e r a t e and w i l l  continued  on employment p a t t e r n s . The  impact  the p r o v i n c i a l  i n t h e 13% mean t h a t be an is,  growth  range  (Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia  unemployment a t a l l l e v e l s w i t h i n  effects  Budget,  psychological  effects  continue to  of long  term  psychological  few h a v e s p e c i f i c a l l y  looked at the  o f l o n g t e r m unemployment.  The  immediate  i m p a c t o f unemployment on t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d d e c r e a s e d money, l o w e r a c t i v i t y s u r r o u n d i n g and a c t i v i t i e s , social  c o n t a c t s (Young,  manifest themselves self-blame, satisfaction  anger,  levels,  less variety  l e s s temporal s t r u c t u r e s  1985).  Psychologically,  i n lower s e l f  esteem,  anxiety,  The  - 23  -  as  of and  these  l o w e r m o t i v a t i o n t o work, l o w e r  and h e l p l e s s n e s s .  It  society.  s t u d i e s have examined t h e  o f unemployment,  1987)  o f t h e decade.  important t o understand the impact  several  of  o v e r t h e n e x t few y e a r s w i t h unemployment  i s s u e of concern through the remainder  While  a forecast  l o n g t e r m unemployment c o u l d p r e d i c t a b l y  therefore,  have  slow r e c o v e r y o f  economy f r o m t h e r e c e s s i o n and  modest e c o n o m i c  this  fewer  factors  anomie, life  individual's ability  to  fulfill  h i s or her  Maslow's h i e r a r c h y  needs tends t o  shift  of needs.  psychological  The  accompany t h i s downward s h i f t in  a p p e a r t o be  reactions  particularly  s i t u a t i o n s where unemployment r e s u l t s f r o m f o r c e s  control by  downward i n r e l a t i o n  of the  cyclical  Herzberg's theory (motivators)  and  job  t h a t work i s a v e r y  are  a l l strongly  dramatically  dissatisfiers significant  according  life  event.  w i t h work.  these patterns.  Job  non-work-related  f r i e n d s h i p networks i n the  dynamics w i t h i n  These e f f e c t s are  not  much v a l u e  m e a n i n g o f p a i d work and  institutions  British  C o l u m b i a on  hypothesis that  by  are  followed  loss.  I t was  with the failure out.  by  the  The  satisfiers  individual's and  loss  self identity can  workplace,  f a m i l i e s and wider  where our  Amundson a t t h e  sets o f f a s e r i e s of  stages i d e n t i f i e d  depression  before  anticipated that  i n the  and  gradual  University  Kubler-Ross  -  bargaining  24  -  job  associated success  s i m i l a r to those of  r e s u l t s c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h i s model was  the  emotional  would depend upon t h e  m i g h t be  of  examined  acceptance of the  emotional r e a c t i o n s  search,  search  so  social  U n d e r t h i s m o d e l , d e n i a l , a n g e r and  job  within  community.  e x p e r i e n c e o f unemployment,  l o s i n g a job  subsequent job of the  job  meaning.  B o r g e n and  responses s i m i l a r to the model o f g r i e f .  caused  s u r p r i s i n g i n a s o c i e t y which places  reinforce that  Recent r e s e a r c h  An  Outside the  change t h e  the  the  (hygiene f a c t o r s ) , suggests  unemployment c a n  on  to  sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n  associated  alter  strong  economic f a c t o r s .  of motivation  involvement with others,  which  outside  i n d i v i d u a l , f o r example i n unemployment  s t r u c t u r a l and  to  or  burn  representative  of  the experience of approximately While one  a l l participants  found  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d r a m a t i c  s u p p o r t and important immigrants  40%  of the study  t h e e x p e r i e n c e t o be shifts  self-esteem, the r e s u l t s  to differentiate and  unemployment Although  youth,  (Borgen  participants. a traumatic  i n e c o n o m i c power, p e r s o n a l suggested  among g r o u p s ,  that  i t is  p a r t i c u l a r l y women,  when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e and  Amundson,  1984).  B o r g e n and Amundson r e f e r r e d  to time  employment, t h e y d i d n o t a s s o c i a t e l o n g t e r m p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t on t h e e m o t i o n a l  of  spectrum  d e s c r i b e t h e unemployment e x p e r i e n c e . however, c o n c l u d e w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n  lines  for re-  unemployment w i t h  which they used  The  to  researchers did  of the  individual  who  e x p e r i e n c e s p r o l o n g e d unemployment a s someone c h a r a c t e r i z e d p e r i o d s of apathy optimism, meaningful  few  habits of regular structured  p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s and  victimization, e t a l , 1984, emotional  a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h anger,  p.  67).  stress  unemployment,  Another  on t h e  has  sadness  low  r e s e a r c h e r has  i n drinking,  (Borrero,  1980).  w i f e and  child  few  of  s e l f worth identified  i n d i v i d u a l which i s brought  by  sporadic  activities,  a l s o been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  increases  and  dominant f e e l i n g s  l a c k o f p e r s o n a l power and  on  (Borgen that  the  by  subsequent  abuse, crime  and  suicide  D i s t r i b u t i o n Among P o p u l a t i o n G r o u p s The  Royal  A b e l l a was  an  within society  C o m m i s s i o n on E q u a l i t y  i n Employment u n d e r J u d g e  a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t t h a t c e r t a i n members and  groups  compete u n e q u a l l y w i t h i n t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t f o r - 25  -  a  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  I t has s i m i l a r l y  been  recognized  that  c e r t a i n members o f s o c i e t y b e a r a g r e a t e r b u r d e n o f l o n g  term  unemployment. A recent  British  study  examined a range o f p e r s o n a l  which have o f t e n been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  so-called personal  phenomenon.  long term  unemployment;  disadvantage explanation  I t found t h a t i n absolute  of this  terms v e r y  proportions  o f t h e l o n g term unemployed r e p o r t e d  educational  qualifications  occupational  level,  factors  large lack of  and p o o r h e a l t h ; however,  work h i s t o r y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l  level  d i d not  g e n e r a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h t h e l o n g term unemployed from t h e working population  (White,  1983).  There i s evidence unemployment  from a r e c e n t  i nBritish  groups w i t h i n  Insurance data  a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e burden o f long  (Power, 1 9 8 6 ) .  This  study  identifies force  rose  i n 1983, t h e y  represented unemployment identifying  o f long  f r o m 1983 t o 1985 b y 19.4%.  that although  unemployment  used  Unemployment  o f i n d i v i d u a l s who h a d b e e n o n c l a i m  weeks, t o i d e n t i f y t h a t t h e f e m a l e s h a r e unemployment  term  Columbia, t h a t c e r t a i n demographic  s o c i e t y share  t e r m unemployment  report of long  term  Table  experienced  42.5% o f t h e l a b o u r  44.3% o f a l l l o n g i n duration.  i t i s evident  term  I n 1985, t h e y  force, experienced  a n d 4 8 . 9 % o f l o n g t e r m unemployment.  42.3% o f a l l Without  t h a t women a r e more l i k e l y t o  be a f f e c t e d b y l o n g t e r m unemployment tendency i n c r e a s e d  8  women a c c o u n t e d f o r 4 1 . 5 % o f t h e l a b o u r  g r e a t e r t h a n one y e a r  cause,  f o r 50  t h a n men, a n d t h a t  from t h e r e c e s s i o n t o t h e r e c o v e r y  this  period.  Similarly,  although  term unemployed  have n o t been r e p r e s e n t e d  i n the long  i n t h e same p r o p o r t i o n a s i n t h e o v e r a l l  unemployed, t h e i r increased  youth  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e long term  unemployed  f r o m 12.6% i n 1983 t o 15.7% i n 1985.  Table 8 Representation  o f Women a n d Y o u t h  Among Long Term Unemployed British  C o l u m b i a a n d Yukon (Percentage)  1983 Labour All  Force  Unemployed  L o n g Term U n e m p l o y e d  Women 1985  Youth  42.5  22.8  21.3  38.5  42.3  38.5  32.0  44. 3  48.9  12.6  15.7  Youth c o n s i s t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s  Source:  An A n a l y s i s o f t h e Long-term Unemployed R e g i o n , C. Powers, CEIC, 1986.  15 t o 24 y e a r s .  In a d d i t i o n t o demographic groups, t h i s that certain  among t h e l o n g t e r m u n e m p l o y e d .  occupations  together  accounted  i n 1985 w h i l e  16.5%  o f a l l employment.  years  earlier.  these  Similarly,  i n t h e BC/Yukon  same r e p o r t b y  occupational groups a r e over  represented  unemployed  1985  41.5  Note:  Powers i d e n t i f i e d  1983  Clerical  f o r 22.4% o f t h e l o n g occupations  term  represented  only  T h i s was a n i n c r e a s e f r o m 21.8% two service occupations - 27 -  accounted f o r  17.2%  of a l l long  14.9%  o f a l l employment.  E c o n o m i c and The cited  Social  earlier  However, t h e  in this  to a f f e c t the  likely  e c o n o m i c and  Although the  assess,  the  the  high  the  consumers o f  state level  benefits paid  there  Direct costs out,  are  above t h e  amount w h i c h e m p l o y e e s  services to  f a m i l i e s a f f e c t e d by  & Sinfield,  1985).  a r e s u l t of  as  the  indirectly  foregone consumption  (Borerro,  the  with  and social  unemployment  provincial  revenue d i r e c t l y  through l o s t  to  Insurance  increased  B o t h f e d e r a l and  governments e x p e r i e n c e a l o s s of t a x l o w e r i n c o m e s and  to  Unemployment  as w e l l  (Fraser  as  a  foregone  associated  employers have c o n t r i b u t e d , i n d i v i d u a l s and  c o u n t r y as  1981).  certain costs  include the  of  society,  s e r v i c e s which i s  (Borrero,  sum  is difficult  l o s s t o s o c i e t y as w e l l  a r e w i t h o u t work  services.  beyond the  of the  were  term  social  lost production  o f g o o d s and  a significant  unemployment.  of  long  groups w i t h i n  s o c i a l well being  extent  production  i n d i v i d u a l s who At  t o be  suggest t h a t  i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and  whole.  represents  chapter,  individuals, that  i m p a c t o f unemployment g o e s w e l l  e f f e c t on  only  Impact  c o n s e q u e n c e s o f unemployment on  unemployed a r e  its  t e r m unemployment w h i l e r e p r e s e n t i n g  sales tax 1981).  due  to  revenues  as  Reduced  consumer s p e n d i n g means l o w e r demand f o r c o n s u m e r g o o d s w h i c h eventually reverse  creates  a further reduction  m u l t i p l i e r effect within  continues,  as  lost  o u t p u t can  the  i n output through  economy.  The  a  cycle  l e a d t o r e d u c e d r e v e n u e s and  -  28  -  lower  investment  on  the p a r t of business  productive  c a p a c i t y w i t h i n the  economy.  l o n g t e r m unemployment a c c e n t u a t e consume s a v i n g s ,  these  stream w i t h i n the provincial  this  funds are taken  economy and  Increased cycle. out  As  of the  these  government  able bodied  are then  social  services, while  faced with  consequence o f t h i s  t o share  unemployed  50%  reduced  provincial  same unemployment,  discussion in this  affect  a l s o as  recognized  a social  by  t h e i r very  c o n s t r u c t i o n s of r e a l i t y  cost  under  of  the  restrict  the  a  capacity  of  unemployed.  Issue  chapter,  i t i s clear long  Long  that  term  term  not  o n l y as  a macro  t o be  time,  p l a c e and  economic  problem.  S o c i a l problems are recognized b o u n d and  of the  revenues as  s o c i e t y a t many l e v e l s .  unemployment n e e d s t o be  are  Governments a t a l l  c o n s e q u e n c e s o f unemployment, p a r t i c u l a r l y  unemployment,  are  t h e dilemma o f i n c r e a s e d demand f o r  Unemployment as a S o c i a l  From e a r l i e r  savings  individuals,  t h e government t o r e s p o n d t o the needs o f t h e  i s s u e but  investment  level.  Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n .  levels  unemployed  c o s t s o f l o n g t e r m unemployment  f e d e r a l government c o n t i n u e s  p r o v i s i o n s of the  the  the  of  as more i n d i v i d u a l s r e s o r t t o  t r a n s f e r r e d to the p r o v i n c i a l  maintaining  reduces levels  income a s s i s t a n c e a f t e r U l b e n e f i t s and  e x h a u s t e d , more d i r e c t  The  which e v e n t u a l l y  definition,  are p a r t i c u l a r  t h a t are widely  shared  and  context  social eventually  become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d w i t h i n a s o c i e t y (Seidman & R a p p a p o r t , -  29  -  1986).  As s u b j e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e r e a l w o r l d ,  definitions the  kinds  limit  t h e range o f p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s and  of strategies appropriate  (Cartwright,  problem  prescribe  t o implement t h o s e s o l u t i o n s  1973).  I f t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e economy t o g e n e r a t e j o b s i s insufficient cyclical  t o a b s o r b t h e numbers o f i n d i v i d u a l s d i s p l a c e d by  economic  f a c t o r s o r a f f e c t e d by s t r u c t u r a l  employment p a t t e r n s , failed the  have a t t i t u d e s toward t h e  t o a d j u s t t o t h i s new  social  Zeitgeist locked  why  scientist  economic r e a l i t y ?  i s t o re-examine our  shifts in unemployed  The c h a l l e n g e  political-social  o f work t o i d e n t i f y w h e t h e r a s a s o c i e t y ,  we  i n a p a r t i c u l a r work c u l t u r e w h i c h i s no l o n g e r  by our economic The v a l u e  programs  attached  t o work w i t h i n o u r  An e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s  a s a response  job creation  t o l o n g term unemployment.  o f Work  Work h a s a l w a y s b e e n a means o f p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , t h e r e have been s o c i e t i e s demeaning  and d e g r a d i n g  p o r t i o n of the product  i n w h i c h work was  (Macarov, 1980) . of one s 1  labour  r e v o l u t i o n transformed  labour  The  I t was  although drudgery,  feudal society a  on t h e l a n d was  i n t o a commodity  input of production.  f a i r e conception  considered  Under  f o r t h e s a f e t y o f f e r e d by t h e f e u d a l l o r d .  s o l d a s one  supported  social-political  o f work i s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g  The M e a n i n g  are  reality.  Zeitgeist i s part o f our s o c i a l r e a l i t y . Zeitgeist  to  exchanged  industrial t o be b o u g h t  Adam S m i t h ' s  and  laissez-  o f t h e economy w h i c h a s s o c i a t e d an i n d i v i d u a l ' s - 30 -  pursuit  of s e l f - i n t e r e s t with a healthy  mercantilism  subsequently associated  wealth of a nation  continue t o i d e n t i f y  are evident  the well being  influenced  the  (GNP) r a t h e r  than  work  o f what one p r o d u c e d  and e a r l y C a t h o l i c i s m  r e l i g i o u s or intellectual  kind.  dignified  with  labour  of  However, one o f t h e most  r e l i g i o u s i m p a c t s b e g a n i n 1517 w i t h t h e work o f  Luther.  earlier  economic  Primitive Christianity positively reinforced  one's needy b r o t h e r s  Martin  t o d a y as governments  a t t i t u d e s toward  work a t t i t u d e s t h r o u g h t h e s h a r i n g  significant  of the individual.  condition.  R e l i g i o n has a l s o (Macarov, 1 9 8 0 ) .  economy w i t h t h e  of a country with  such as gross n a t i o n a l product  measures o f s o c i a l  the  a healthy  rather than the welfare  These i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s  indicators  economy a n d  Initially,  the notion  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n that  one's needy b r o t h e r s .  o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n weakened  one must work h a r d t o h e l p  However, L u t h e r ' s v i e w t h a t work o f any  k i n d was a s e r v i c e t o God, endowed work w i t h r e l i g i o u s d i g n i t y . Work became a v o c a t i o n , work t o t h e e x t e n t reinforced this and  that  value the  notion  s u c c e s s was  that  itself  period  of the i n d u s t r i a l  continued  (Shostak,  1982).  Calvinism  t o s u c c e e d a t work was a d i v i n e proof  of salvation.  o f work w h i c h emerged f r o m t h e r e f o r m a t i o n  immigration  the  commanded b y God a n d t o n o t  o f o n e ' s a b i l i t y was t o s i n .  In North America,  work  a calling  This  duty  dominant  carried into  revolution.  the pattern  o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and  to influence the value  associated  with  M a s s i v e waves o f E u r o p e a n i m m i g r a n t s i n  l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e 1800's c r e a t e d  -  31 -  l a r g e numbers o f u r b a n  poor anxious  t o work d e s p i t e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h h a d  a c c o r d i n g t o Shostak, demeaning t h a n The  m e a n i n g o f work. 30's  through  more o p p r e s s i v e , more d e m a n d i n g and  ever before  experience  (Shostak,  Power b e g a n t o s h i f t  i n v i s i b l e h a n d o f t h e m a r k e t p l a c e was rewarded.  consensus i n favour o f unprecedented the beginning  i n f l u e n c e d the  to the workers i n the  f a c t o r y wide i n d u s t r i a l unionism.  myth t h a t h a r d work w o u l d be  Faith  i n the  shattered along with What emerged was  o f a whole range  (Shostak,  1982).  o f f e r e d by J o h n Maynard Keynes, l e g i t i m i z e d intervention,  a s a way  depression.  I t was  The  not u n t i l  the  new  infavour of t h i s  i n t e r v e n t i o n b e g a n t o wean u n d e r  neo-conservative  governments guided  supply  theory  government  occurred during  by  security  demand and  1980's t h a t t h e  in  of  economic  this  t o s t i m u l a t e aggregate  t h e m a s s i v e unemployment w h i c h had  a  the  government i n t e r v e n t i o n  government mechanisms t o p r o v i d e a s a f e t y n e t o f s o c i a l f o r the ordinary c i t i z e n  more  1982).  of the depression profoundly  t h e m a r k e t p l a c e and  become  prevent  the consensus  s i d e economic  theories.  S o c i a l Welfare Prevailing  Legislation a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d work h a v e h a d  significant  i n f l u e n c e on t h e p o l i c i e s w h i c h h a v e e v o l v e d t o d e a l w i t h members o f s o c i e t y w i t h o u t  work.  these p o l i c i e s presents another social  Zeitgeist  A brief  review  o f some o f  reflection  of the  political-  o f work.  -  those  32  -  In  Canada,  dealing with founding  a t the time of confederation,  practices for  t h e p o o r were a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n t h e  provinces  b a s e d on t r a d i t i o n s  b r o u g h t by  responses t o c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the c o l o n i e s . the  B r i t i s h E l i z a b e t h a n P o o r Law  (1601) was  t o w a r d t h e p o o r i n Nova S c o t i a and New and a l s o e v i d e n t British  immigrants  The  (Clague,  Dill,  Seebaran  i n attitudes  (Guest,  i n the Anglo-European t r a d i t i o n s  Columbia  and  influence of  evident  Brunswick  four  1980),  brought t o  & Warf,  1984).  F i n a n c i n g a n d p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e p o o r u n d e r t h e P o o r Laws was responsibility  o f t h e l o c a l government.  e m p l o y a b l e and unemployable former c o n s i d e r e d deserving was  due  rejected  Guest,  Upper  Canada t h i s  Within  the  Assistance  P o o r Law  tradition  f o r the poor s h i f t e d  Lower Canada,  f o r health, education  which  was  to the (Splane,  the church  and w e l f a r e  earn  cited  assumed  under  the  Catholic tradition.  generally reflected result  with  with  t h e l a t t e r were  t h e f a m i l y and p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y 1980) .  between  t h a t which a worker might  A t t i t u d e s toward the poor d u r i n g t h i s  These  central,  sickness or d i s a b i l i t y .  m i n i m a l and b e l o w  Within  responsibility French  c a t e g o r i e s was  distinction  of assistance while  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  individual, in  t o age,  o f f e r e d was  elsewhere.  unworthy  The  the  of personal  the underlying b e l i e f failing  or  individualism  liberal  of poverty  ideological  a n d t h e supremacy  (Guest,  - 33  -  was  the  1980).  are consistent  p e r s p e c t i v e based  o f the f r e e market  system.  period,  that poverty  character flaw  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c explanations a traditional  colonial  on  capitalist  The  u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s toward  prevailed  a t the time  work and  poverty  of confederation influenced  that  the  s e c u r i t y p r o g r a m s w h i c h emerged i n Canada t o s u p p o r t unable  t o p r o v i d e f o r themselves  work.  Minimal  relief  W o r l d War  I  pattern of r e l i e f  their  families  c o n t i n u e d t o be p r o v i d e d on  basis at the municipal l e v e l until  and  (Guest,  and  through  1980) .  delivered  The  private  first  interruption  concern  break  from  This  this through  early  toward  a c c i d e n t s a t work.  m o t h e r s who  in British  at that  d e l i b e r a t e attempt  the b l i n d .  t o minimize  financial  Columbia)  The  time,  an  first public  were more  (Mothers'  as w e l l  as  pensions  The  pension concept  the stigma  associated with  a i d f o r t h e s e worthy,  up  experienced  considered outside the labour f o r c e  d i s a b l e d v e t e r a n s and  receiving  emergency  a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s were i m p l e m e n t e d o u t o f  P e n s i o n A c t o f 192 0 for  i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e who  f o r the worthy poor;  frequently  an  however, d i r e c t e d  of earnings through  modern p u b l i c  through  a s a s s i s t a n c e i n k i n d , came  l e g i s l a t i o n was,  successful participants  individuals  charities  t h e O n t a r i o Workman's C o m p e n s a t i o n A c t o f 1914. income s e c u r i t y  social  was  unemployed  individuals. The first  Employment and  legislative  redefined  from  socio-economic legislation term  Social  evidence  Insurance  A c t o f 1935  t h a t unemployment was  a p e r s o n a l problem  of l o c a l  issue of national  importance.  i n response  interruptions  those t r a d i t i o n a l l y  to p u b l i c concern  was  the  being  concern,  to  a  This pattern of  for relatively  i n earnings of the working  population  considered outside the labour  force,  short and  a  c o n t i n u e d throughout World theory  legitimized  social  War  II.  Keynesian  e x p e n d i t u r e s such as f a m i l y  and Unemployment I n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , b e c a u s e impact  on employment and  effect  (Courchene,  established  a fiscal  environment  war  conducive t o t h e development  c h a r a c t e r i z e s most  of  industrialized  prevailing  t h e a b l e b o d i e d , l o n g e r term unemployed  t o have changed v e r y l i t t l e .  The  1980's a p p e a r British  t o have c r e a t e d Poor  Columbia  Available  re-established  f o r t h e worthy  f o r the employable  a two  employable  one  dependent  dependent  child  children  tiered  shift.  (GAIN)  income s u p p o r t  was  and  imposing  (Harper & H u r s t ,  increased 1983).  a l s o expanded t o i n c l u d e mothers w i t h  o v e r s i x months o f age  and m o t h e r s w i t h  o v e r t w e l v e y e a r s o f age.  p r o p o r t i o n o f mothers o f young c h i l d r e n participating  ideological  Income f o r Need  category of r e c i p i e n t s  group  security  and u n w o r t h y p o o r , b y r e d u c i n g b e n e f i t s  j o b s e a r c h r e q u i r e m e n t s on t h i s g r o u p The  income  provide evidence of t h i s  the Guaranteed  Act e s s e n t i a l l y  of  Law.  i n 1982,  Changes u n d e r  i n the  a resurgence of the p r i n c i p l e s  Amendments t o t h e B r i t i s h legislation  appear  neo-conservative ideological  o f g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h e 1970's and t h e r e c e s s i o n  system  with  today.  a t t i t u d e s toward  the  multiplier  T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g combined  Despite the e v o l u t i o n of the welfare s t a t e ,  shift  overall  during the twenty-five years a f t e r the  the w e l f a r e s t a t e which nations  allowances  of t h e i r  economic s e c u r i t y t h r o u g h a  1987).  relative prosperity  macroeconomic  i n the labour force,  With  a greater  voluntarily  welfare authorities  are  two  discouraging children,  more  from  mothers w i t h  to  I n summary, t h e  with  the  social  family  s e c u r i t y l e g i s l a t i o n which has  the  a job  (Forget  increased  recognized establish  h i s t o r y o f work evolved  work, h a v e e a c h h e l p e d To  to  Commission,  1986).  quote the  This  recent  'Zeitgeist  Forget  identified  initiatives  o f work,  1  its  issue of  of the  i n C h a p t e r Two  acknowledge s t r u c t u r a l  clearly major  f e d e r a l government  of t h i s  thesis,  c a u s e s o f unemployment by  appear  addressing  i s s u e s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e , l o n g t e r m unemployment and particular society.  employment n e e d s o f d i s a d v a n t a g e s g r o u p s A  recent  long term w e l f a r e provided  a great  contained The  federal/provincial initiative r e c i p i e n t s i n t o the  deal  in this  timing  of the  thesis,  of t h i s  joint  unemployment r e m a i n h i g h , the value forecast decade  is  1980's.  c u r r e n t employment be  the  of l i f e  i n c i d e n c e o f l o n g t e r m unemployment and  a social  deal  to maintain  a x i s along which the p a t t e r n  l o n g t e r m unemployment a s  which w i l l to  being  c o n s e q u e n c e s a t many l e v e l s w i t h i n s o c i e t y ,  concern i n the The  i s the  aged  responsibilities.  p r e e m i n e n c e o f work w i t h i n s o c i e t y .  organized  school  a n a l y s i s suggests t h a t our  i n d i v i d u a l s without  Commission,  and  c o l l e c t i n g b e n e f i t s by v i r t u e o f  u n e m p l o y a b l e due  and  pre-school  impetus b e h i n d  will  be  reviewed  the  of B r i t i s h  to  integrate that  research  i n Chapter  i s f u r t h e r evidence  t h a t unemployment w i l l  within  force,  i n i t i a t i v e when o v e r a l l  o f work w i t h i n s o c i e t y .  (Province  labour  Three.  levels  of the  Columbia,  throughout  1987), t h e r e  of  strength  Even though economic  remain h i g h  the  of  analysts the  appears to  be  is  very  little  consensus f o r a r e s t r u c t u r i n g  employment p a t t e r n s in  i t s values,  o f work  toward a s o c i e t y which i s l e s s  structure  and  systems.  and  job-fixated  Proponents of  community  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t s u g g e s t t h a t more m e a n i n g f u l s o l u t i o n s unemployment c a n and  that  today's  be  r e a l i z e d through grass roots  t h e s e community  initiatives  economic r e a l i t y  a point  (Ross and  i n t i m e , when t h e r e w i l l  employment s o c i e t y l i n c h p i n of  be  of  a person's l i f e  the  opportunities, eventually  Usher,  conomy t o the  long  1986).  o f f of  (Handy, 1 9 8 4 ) . I f o u r w i t h an  of  be  this social  work Z e i t g e i s t  apparent  generate s u f f i c i e n t  with  T h e r e may  f i n a n c i a l and  employment i n i t i a t i v e s  h e l p the  organization  more c o n s i s t e n t  a tapering  i n w h i c h work i s t h e  evolves i n a d i r e c t i o n consistent capacity  are  to  limited  employment government  term unemployed a d a p t t o  may  their  unemployment. Meanwhile, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f these trends,  t r a d i t i o n a l d i r e c t job  thrust  under the  ment.  The  employment  targeting  of  job  i n d i v i d u a l s most d i s a d v a n t a g e d market acknowledges the  This  respond to  research  feedback,  i n one  a federal  job  unemployed.  as  the  the  -  the  -  of  long the  unemployment.  on  early the  long  outcome  term  Individually Subsidized 37  to  capacity  to provide  on  labour  contributing  limited fiscal  program t a r g e t e d  govern-  those  post-recession  geographic area of Vancouver,  program i s the  federal  p r o g r a m s on  initiated  for  remains a major  o v e r a l l high l e v e l s of  p r o j e c t was  creation The  i n the  of  structural factors  t e r m unemployment a s w e l l government t o  creation  initiatives creation  growing support  Job  of  program t h a t w i l l  be  reviewed  employment i n i t i a t i v e introduced  by  Three w i l l  identify  i n which the focus  t h e n be  of the  the  i n the  specific  covariance,  under the  Conservative  research  implicit  review the  will  the  research  identified  design.  issues  the  model.  from t h e  The  The  final  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the and  identified  i t concludes with  implications  was  Chapter  review the  The  that  academic  contexts  utilization  fourth chapter  research  i n Chapter F i v e , before  f o r program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s unemployment  federal  will  i s s u e s t h a t were c h o s e n f o r s t u d y , u n d e r  conceptual  discuss  a g e n c y and  u n d e r t a k e n , and  research  one  g o v e r n m e n t i n 1985.  particular  was  as  Canadian Jobs S t r a t e g y  f i n d i n g s i n Chapter Six.  Seven, w i l l  before  i n C h a p t e r Two,  the  chapter, research  then r e t u r n t o the in this  methodology presentation Chapter findings  broad  introductory  chapter,  a d i s c u s s i o n of p o s s i b l e p u b l i c  s t u d y and  -  suggestions  38  -  a  for future  policy  research.  CHAPTER I I  THE  PROGRAM RESPONSE  F e d e r a l R e s p o n s e s t o Unemployment  The r e s p o n s e s i n t o two g e n e r a l employment, indirectly Regional  o f t h e f e d e r a l government categories: initiatives  either directly through  Expansion  j o b c r e a t i o n programs,  and i n i t i a t i v e s  o f t h e l a b o u r market.  These l a t t e r  t o improve t h e  labour  market  j o b c r e a t i o n programs a r e  primarily  t h e programs o f t h e  and  Immigration  through  j o b c r e a t i o n programs.  e x p l o r e the l a b o u r economic t h e o r y It will  e x p l a i n how  p r o g r a m s work a s w e l l a s t h e i m p a c t  One.  on t h e unemployment  This theory  demand-side  focuses  employment  to the study,  Employment  Commission.  This chapter w i l l  strategies  or  of  a d j u s t m e n t p r o g r a m s and d i r e c t administered  fall  to stimulate  economic programs o f t h e Department  and I n d u s t r i a l  functioning  through  t o unemployment  job creation  of targeted job creation  patterns i d e n t i f i e d  on j o b c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s  initiatives  in  Chapter  as  and i s i n c l u d e d a s b a c k g r o u n d  even though subsequent c h a p t e r s  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t focused  will  identify  on s u p p l y - s i d e r e s e a r c h  r e l a t e d t o p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s and p r o g r a m  - 39 -  behind  activity.  that  issues  History  Job c r e a t i o n programs responses o f the f e d e r a l d e p r e s s i o n and r e c u r r e d s e a s o n a l unemployment  Initiatives  i n Canada b e g a n a s e c o n o m i c government  t o unemployment  Cyclical  based i n i t i a t i v e s  a n d L o c a l Employment  T h e s e were d e s i g n e d t o complement  fluctuations  unemployment  Assistance  was  programs.  K e y n e s i a n economic  i n the business cycle.  c r e a t i o n programs have been s e l e c t i v e l y regional  during the  o f t h e 1970's u n d e r t h e  w h i c h were t h e p r i m a r y t o o l u s e d b y g o v e r n m e n t regular  policy  as w i n t e r works p r o j e c t s t o a l l e v i a t e  i n t h e 1950's.  t h e f o c u s o f community Local  of Job Creation  initiatives  t o counter the  A t times j o b  implemented t o address  disparities.  D u r i n g t h e 1970's, many OECD c o u n t r i e s a n d Canada experimented with u s i n g t h e t a x a t i o n f o r employers t o c r e a t e jobs. encouraged p r o f i t a b l e shifted  Tax-based-incentive  corporations t o participate  t h e emphasis from p u b l i c  participation.  employment  o u t c o m e s , were j o b - b a s e d w i t h t r a i n i n g  related  t o a n employment  1974 a n d H u d g i n s , 1 9 8 6 ) .  f o r government participation  employment  (WIN) p r o g r a m and l a t e r w o r k f a r e p r o g r a m s ,  t h a t t h e more s u c c e s s f u l p r o g r a m s  Miller,  sector  particularly the  identified  directly  and t h i s  o f r e s e a r c h on  i n the United States,  incentive  programs  sector to corporate  Meanwhile t h e r e s u l t s  and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s Work I n c e n t i v e  system t o p r o v i d e  situation  i n terms o f components  (Oetting,  These f a c t o r s p r o v i d e d  t o p l a c e g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on p r i v a t e i n both t r a i n i n g  Cole &  and employment  - 40 -  impetus  sector  programs.  C u r r e n t Employment  In  1985,  the  Minister  Initiatives  o f Employment and  MacDonald, announced a r e d e s i g n market programs under the  of the  Immigration,  government's  Canadian Jobs S t r a t e g y  A l t h o u g h t h e s e i n i t i a t i v e s were h e r a l d e d  as  basic  reorientation,  patterns  w h i c h had  predictable, government.  become e v i d e n t  private The  in recognition  sector  of the  and  (CJS). redesign  i d e n t i f y them as  a  s t r u c t u r a l employment  t o w a r d an i d e o l o g i c a l l y  o r i e n t a t i o n of the  Minister herself,  labour  a complete  o f g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y , i t i s more a c c u r a t e t o  Flora  stated  Conservative  that:  Instead of short-term, c y c l i c a l problems, i t addresses t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s t r u c t u r a l i s s u e s o f t h e economy and l a b o u r m a r k e t d e v e l o p m e n t . Job t r a i n i n g , j o b c r e a t i o n and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a r e l i n k e d t o p r o v i d e C a n a d i a n s w i t h v a l u a b l e s k i l l s , p r a c t i c a l work e x p e r i e n c e and m e a n i n g f u l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s (Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n Canada, 1 9 8 5 a ) . The  Canadian Jobs Strategy  consultation sector and  i s characterized  w i t h p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s and  than recent  flexibility  f e d e r a l employment  a p p e a r t o be  closer  with the  initiatives.  recognized  as  key  employment p o l i c y d e s i g n e d t o r e s p o n d t o r a p i d c h a n g e , s h i f t i n g w o r l d m a r k e t s and  by  new  skill  private  Cooperation  ingredients  development.  t h e s e employment i n i t i a t i v e s  toward the  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e  1984)  on  visible  i n the  A b e l l a Report  employment e q u i t y  orientation  i s consistent  i s a strong  the  w i t h an -  41  long  orientation  disabled  persons  term unemployed.  a p p a r e n t d e c i s i o n by -  target  ( E q u a l i t y i n Employment,  (women, n a t i v e s ,  m i n o r i t i e s ) , y o u t h and  an  technological  Overriding  groups i d e n t i f i e d  in  the  and  This  M i n i s t e r t h a t t h e most n e e d y o f t h e u n e m p l o y e d  should  priority,  that  i n a climate  practically  limit  o f government  program access  restraint  (Hayles,  Development  the  Development  program.  i s a j o b c r e a t i o n program d e s i g n e d  r e - i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e l o n g t e r m unemployed, training  specific  on i n d i v i d u a l s who  and  I t i s targeted  have been j o b l e s s b u t w i l l i n g  previous social  30 weeks, and who  or c u l t u r a l  f o r t h e program  identify  objectives  the  Employment  the  due t o  procedures  overall  and I m m i g r a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n .  1  Part  I , September  (EIC, Job Development 20,  employer-based  subsidy  market  Operational  (ISJ) o p t i o n  o f the Job  at the l o c a l  Canada  The p r o g r a m i s d e s i g n e d  paid directly - 42 -  and  t o meet  1985).  Program i s a d m i n i s t e r e d Centre l e v e l .  These  prospects  b a s e o f Canada's human r e s o u r c e s  The I n d i v i d u a l l y S u b s i d i z e d J o b Development  Operational  i t as c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  needs o f t h e l a b o u r market  Procedures,  disadvantaged  t h e i n d i v i d u a l s l o n g t e r m employment  t o augment t h e s k i l l  in a  a r e unemployed  a r e t o improve t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e l a b o u r  by i m p r o v i n g  labour  t o work, 24 o u t o f t h e  barriers.  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Employment  assist  a n d work e x p e r i e n c e  a r e employment  employment  to  into the  market t h r o u g h a mix o f s k i l l s job.  components  and t h e I n d i v i d u a l l y S u b s i d i z e d  p r o g r a m i s one o p t i o n u n d e r t h a t Job  Program  i s one o f t h e s i x m a j o r p r o g r a m  under t h e Canadian Jobs Strategy Job  would  1986).  The I n d i v i d u a l l y S u b s i d i z e d J o b  Job  receive  a s an  t o t h e employer as a  percentage  o f t h e wage o f r e c r u i t e d w o r k e r s .  non-profit  and m u n i c i p a l e m p l o y e r s  Private  are e l i g i b l e  U n d e r t h e p r o g r a m , g r o s s wages a r e r e i m b u r s e d commence a t 80%,  d e c l i n e t o 50%  s u b s i d i z a t i o n and time.  Employers  training  course costs.  In  Appendix A i s a f a c t  b e h a v i o r a l terms,  environment  through the a c q u i s i t i o n  initiated  unsubsidized  As the Job for  sheet which  t h e work  t o t h e work  o f employment s k i l l s  as  well  S i m i l a r t o s u p p o r t e d work p r o g r a m s  a r e employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d ,  employment  a t a j o b and  impact  1980).  a r e d e s i g n e d t o have a  on t h e c l i e n t  an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o move e v e n t u a l l y  ( M a s t e r s and M a y n a r d ,  s u p p o r t e d work e n v i r o n m e n t s  through  into These  positive  some c o m b i n a t i o n  of:  improved  work h a b i t s  °  improved  occupation s p e c i f i c  °  a b e t t e r , more r e c e n t work r e c o r d t o p r e s e n t t o p r o s p e c t i v e employers  °  placement e f f e c t s o f program s p o n s o r s , c a s e t h e Canada Employment C e n t r e  0  or  i n the United States, i t i s designed to g i v e the long  h o l d a job, succeed  employment  instructional  t o a l l o w t h e employee t i m e t o a d a p t  t e r m u n e m p l o y e d who to  of  financial  the ISJ i s designed t o modify  and  skills.  of  detail.  environment  as j o b s p e c i f i c  direct  which  period  to receive direct  c o s t s and  d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o g r a m i n more  at levels  f o r the l a t t e r  are also e l i g i b l e capital  participate.  f o r the g r e a t e r p e r i o d  t a p e r o f f t o 25%  c o n t r i b u t i o n s toward  to  sector,  individual  skills  j o b s which are s u b s i d i z e d ,  in this  the ISJ option of  Development Program does n o t o f f e r p e e r group  participants.  The  program concept - 43  -  relies  support  on t h e s u p p o r t  of  empathetic  supervisors  particularly  i n the  on-the-job to a s s i s t  more c r i t i c a l  the  client,  e a r l y weeks o f t h e  client's  r e t u r n t o a work e n v i r o n m e n t . What i s t h e  i n c e n t i v e f o r employers t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  program?  Employment  of  relative  the  labour  to other  s u b s t i t u t i o n of  demand f o r l a b o u r . reduced labour costs,  increased  a job  of production,  i s p a s s e d on  This  t o the  may  c r e a t i o n program, t h e  the  due  to lower  will  then lead  g e n e r a t e more  to  jobs.  Individually Subsidized flow  of  or general  wage s u b s i d i e s w h i c h a r e p a i d  i n c r e a s e d wage c o s t s .  subsidy  This  paid  as  contrasts with in relation  numbers o f e m p l o y e e s above a b a s e l e v e l  Job  a stock  to total  of  identified  m a r g i n a l employment recession  counter-cyclical  employment.  t h a t the macro-economic o b j e c t i v e  subsidies  i s to protect  (Haveman, 1 9 8 0 ) .  As  aggregate  such, t h e s e s u b s i d i e s  employment m e a s u r e s .  The  other  improvement o f t h e  operation  market adjustment o b j e c t i v e s . altered  toward i n c r e a s e d  employ c a t e g o r i e s  of  of the  The  objective  market, or  of  low  skill  p r o m o t i n g more e q u a l  on  labour  or hard  access  are of  s t r u c t u r e o f employment  participation  labour,  labour  of  employment  m a r g i n a l employment p r o g r a m s i s t h e i r m i c r o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t the  or  1985).  Haveman h a s  during  cost  consumer t h r o u g h  p r o d u c t demand may  proportion  (Rajan,  increases  p r e d i c t s t h a t p r o d u c t demand  which i t s e l f  the  encouraging  lower c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n  p r o g r a m i s a m a r g i n a l employment o r  increased  lowering  I f the  increased  production  by  for capital.  costs,  This  inputs  jobs  labour  economic t h e o r y  increase.  As  subsidies create  the  to  is to  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d structural  employment  group o f marginal subsidy.  function i s particularly  subsidy  targeted flow  addition t o lowering  both the s t r u c t u r a l identified  t o non-target  This  g r o u p members, i n relative  t o other  As such, t h e I S J t h e r e f o r e  and c y c l i c a l  addresses  c a t e g o r i e s o f unemployment  i n C h a p t e r One.  Impact o f M a r g i n a l  effect  subsidies  marginal  reduces t h e c o s t o f employing  the cost of labour  factors of production.  on i n f l a t i o n  Employment  of targeted,  Subsidies  marginal  i s minimal as long as t h e t a r g e t e d  s u b s t a n t i a l unemployment o r t h e s u p p l y g r o u p member e x c e e d s demand.  With r e l a t i v e l y  employment  groups  of labour  power, employment c a n be i n c r e a s e d w i t h o u t  the  employment  on t h e l o n g t e r m u n e m p l o y e d .  subsidy  t a r g e t group r e l a t i v e  wages.  t r u e o f one s u b -  employment s u b s i d i e s , t h e t a r g e t e d  kind of a targeted  The  This  The I n d i v i d u a l l y S u b s i d i z e d J o b program i s a  recruitment  the  groups.  have  among t a r g e t  little  bargaining  upward p r e s s u r e  on  T a r g e t i n g wage s u b s i d i e s on t h e l o n g t e r m u n e m p l o y e d h a s  a d d e d a d v a n t a g e o f p l a c i n g wages i n t h e h a n d s o f a  population  group w i t h  which w i l l  theoretically  possibly  a r e l a t i v e l y high propensity  i n c r e a s e demand, i n f l u e n c e o u t p u t  and  g e n e r a t e a d d i t i o n a l employment.  E c o n o m i s t s s u c h a s Haveman and P a l m e r Pratten  t o spend  (1982) a n d B u r d e t t  impact which m a r g i n a l  & Hool  ( 1 9 8 0 ) , Deaken &  (1980) h a v e a n a l y z e d t h e  employment s u b s i d i e s h a v e u n d e r - 45 -  various  economic c o n d i t i o n s .  I t i s clear that  t h e impact o f a subsidy  depends, q u a l i t a t i v e l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , on a s p e c t s o f t h e e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t b e y o n d j u s t t h e unemployment l e v e l target  group  The the  (Haveman, 1980) .  employment  i m p a c t on t h e t a r g e t  p r o d u c t market  i s tight  case the long  markets a r e s l a c k available  labour  both the target slack,  group i s g r e a t e s t  t e r m unemployed,  a n d when b o t h t h e t a r g e t , i n and n o n - t a r g e t g r o u p  ( i . e . when t h e s u p p l y o f l a b o u r demand).  labour  exceeds t h e  When t h e p r o d u c t m a r k e t  and non t a r g e t  B u r d e t t and Hool  when  ( i . e . when p r o d u c t demand i s h i g h  r e l a t i v e t o the a v a i l a b l e supply), this  of the  i s s l a c k and  g r o u p employment m a r k e t s a r e  (1980) f o u n d t h a t  a subsidy  would  b e n e f i t t h e t a r g e t market a t t h e expense o f t h e p r i m a r y , non target this  group.  latter  The p r i c e i n c e n t i v e  economic c l i m a t e ,  This  g r o u p employment  expense o f n o n - t a r g e t groups.  carry  marginal  the  such as t h e I S J , p a i d as  level. f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r employment  t h e economic c o n d i t i o n s  effect  which  a higher s u b s t i t u t i o n r i s k than subsidies  implication  true  subsidies  i n c r e m e n t s on employment a b o v e a n o v e r a l l b a s e  employment The  i s promoted a t t h e  Recruitment  a s u b s i d y t o p a r t i c u l a r employees,  already  that  i n the overall level of  i s known a s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n e f f e c t o f a  s u b s i d y , whereby t a r g e t  attach  to participate i n  r e s u l t s from t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  employment, n o t f r o m a n i n c r e a s e employment.  f o r firms  initiative i s  i n p r o d u c t m a r k e t s , may  job creation e f f e c t of the ISJ.  i s t h e n e t i n c r e m e n t a l employment -  46 -  This  true  influence job creation  impact, measured as t h e  increase  i n employment o f t h e t a r g e t g r o u p l e s s any s u b s t i t u t i o n  effect.  A l t h o u g h e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s may  the  therefore  influence  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f I S J as a c o u n t e r c y c l i c a l j o b c r e a t i o n  program, still  the targeted  nature of the subsidy  means t h a t  i t will  h a v e an i m p a c t on t h e s t r u c t u r a l n a t u r e o f unemployment  e i t h e r b y c r e a t i n g new  jobs  o r by o p e n i n g up e x i s t i n g j o b s f o r  t a r g e t g r o u p members. I n summary, t h e l i t e r a t u r e  clearly  f a c t o r s h a v e an i m p a c t on p r o g r a m s a p p e a r , however,  like  (job creation)  program need n o t be t r a d e d c e r t a i n economic  identified  the extent  m a r g i n a l employment  structural  subsidy,  under  on c o n t r o l l i n g  of the s t r u c t u r a l  recovering  Columbia  from t h e impact  unemployment.  A  targeted  l i k e t h e I S J program, would  program c h o i c e  f o r a government  inflation,  inequities operating  c a u t i o n w o u l d be t o r e c o g n i z e the  adjustment)  objectives of the  within the B r i t i s h  o f t h e 1981/82 r e c e s s i o n on c y c l i c a l  priority  I t would  circumstances.  economy, a p r o v i n c i a l economy s t i l l  high  economic  o f f , b u t c a n be complementary  unemployment w h i c h i s e v i d e n t  t o be a l o g i c a l  the ISJ.  t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r a l (labour market  and t h e c o u n t e r c y c l i c a l  C h a p t e r One  suggests that  appear  w h i c h has  yet recognizes  within the labour  placed  the  market.  from a program p o l i c y  The  perspective,  l i m i t a t i o n s o f m a r g i n a l employment s u b s i d i e s a s j o b c r e a t i o n  strategies, program This  like  within  c e r t a i n economic c o n d i t i o n s  and t o m o n i t o r a  the ISJ accordingly.  research  p r o j e c t was  an a t t e m p t t o do j u s t  monitor the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a f e d e r a l job c r e a t i o n - 47  -  that;  to  program  which i s administered targeted  on  identified  the the  as  context  to  i n w h i c h i t was  not  operations  clients.  supply-side and  It will  cyclical  and  supply-side  within the  chapter.  chapter  has  structural the  Instead,  have been used h i s t o r i c a l l y  ISJ.  employment  a l s o through the  participants  focus  on  the  i t focused  job  The  on activity  economic the  identifying i t  labour market.  which  The  objectives of t h i s  to intent job  complementary t o the creation strategies.  - 48  -  nature  train  relevant to the  job  expand upon  initiatives  requirement t h a t sponsors  of  economic  only through i t s targeted  on-the-job i n s k i l l s  employment a r e  committed  t o a s s i s t unemployed groups  not  but  employment n e e d s  I S J program by  supply-side  c r e a t i o n program, a c h i e v e d  traditional  research  agency  Chapter Four w i l l  compete more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n t h e  but  organizational  been i n c l u d e d t o r e c o g n i z e  o r i e n t a t i o n of the  t h a t the  this  employment i m p a c t o f t a r g e t e d  range of s u p p l y - s i d e  to recognize  labour  become c l e a r t h a t  i n an  such the p r o j e c t d i d not  of t h i s  has  from a program p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e ,  research perspective  c r e a t i o n programs l i k e  is  the  i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o program i n p u t , program  perspective  the  and  employment o u t c o m e s f o r t h e t a r g e t g r o u p .  dual  chapter  i d e n t i f y how  which took p l a c e under t h i s  in this  and  program from a  f e d e r a l p r o g r a m s t o meet t h e  As  issues explored  initiated  conducted.  initiated  implementing  its  Chapter Three w i l l  p r o j e c t was  the program m o n i t o r i n g  f r o m an  While t h i s  I n d i v i d u a l l y S u b s i d i z e d Job  research  p r o j e c t was  employment s u b s i d y  l o n g t e r m unemployed.  economics p e r s p e c t i v e , particular  a marginal  subsidized  demand-side o b j e c t i v e  of  The o p e r a t i o n s the  research  research orientation of the project,  activity  on s u p p l y - s i d e  issues, i n the interest  m a x i m i z i n g p r o g r a m r e t u r n on t h e i n t e n d e d client  population.  following chapter, research design  and  long term  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t  r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was  initiated,  while  focused  unemployed  i n which  this  i s the substance of the  chapters  f o u r and f i v e  methodology.  - 49  -  of  e x p l i c a t e the  CHAPTER I I I  INTERACTION OF PRACTICE AND  The  Field Practice  RESEARCH  Setting  I n May 1986, t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i g n e d a federal/provincial social  assistance  employment Ministry  agreement t o enhance t h e e m p l o y a b i l i t y recipients.  initiative,  of Social  The a g r e e m e n t i s a f o u r  uniting  of cornered  the e f f o r t s of the p r o v i n c i a l  S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g a n d t h e M i n i s t r y  of  L a b o u r w i t h H e a l t h a n d W e l f a r e Canada a n d t h e Employment a n d Immigration Commission  (Hegen, 1986) .  Under t h e agreement, each l e v e l o f government a g r e e d t o divert  $15 m i l l i o n p e r y e a r f o r t h r e e y e a r s ,  Assistance Plan Need  (CAP) a n d t h e G u a r a n t e e d A v a i l a b l e  (GAIN) A c t , t o c r e a t e j o b s f o r s o c i a l  recipients.  f r o m t h e Canada Income f o r  assistance  W i t h i n Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n C a n a d a , t h e f u n d s  were t o be d i r e c t e d  t h r o u g h t h e programs o f t h e C a n a d i a n  Jobs  Strategy. Responsibility Individually the  f o r the expenditure o f funds under the  S u b s i d i z e d Job (ISJ) program i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d  l o c a l Canada Employment C e n t r e l e v e l .  Canada Employment C e n t r e s this  federal/provincial  substantial specifically  increases  September,  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were a d v i s e d o f  agreement and g i v e n a c c e s s t o  i n I S J program funds,  on w e l f a r e  In early  to  recipients.  -  50 -  targeted  Social Assistance recipients provincial and  government through  Housing.  Centre  federal/provincial  coordination  t o implement.  Services  joint client  in that  sphere.  E a s t V a n c o u v e r and  North  Burnaby a r e a s  s e r v e d by  the  C a n a d a Employment C e n t r e h a v e a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f  social  assistance recipients.  Social  S e r v i c e s and  Housing  assistance recipients in this  CEC  F i f t y - f o u r percent  employment  I n J u n e o f 1986,  identified  registered  area  (CEIC,  of these  n i n e months o r l o n g e r and  initiative.  of client-oriented  motivated  CEC  the M i n i s t r y  4,658 e m p l o y a b l e  i n the nine M i n i s t r y  r e c i p i e n t s had  This fact  of  income  offices  Memorandum S e p t e m b e r 19,  1986).  b e e n on a s s i s t a n c e  were h i g h p r i o r i t y  tradition  candidates  combined w i t h  for this  a  service to i t s target population  management t o r e - a l l o c a t e  staff  resources to  this  initiative. While  e x p l o r i n g a range of f i e l d  s t u d e n t was full  the  Inter-agency  i s always c h a l l e n g i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y  East Hastings  new  that  of  Employment  program i n i t i a t i v e s w i t h a s h a r e d  inter-governmental  joint  of Social  previous experience,  population are d i f f i c u l t  located  the M i n i s t r y  clients  Management w i t h i n t h e E a s t H a s t i n g s  r e c o g n i z e d from  The  are i n i t i a l l y  time  asked  to consider joining  s t a f f who  project presented  had  placement a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e t e a m o f two  the  permanent,  been a s s i g n e d t o t h i s p r o j e c t .  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a l l e n g e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an  administrative practice S o c i a l Work p r o g r a m .  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the Masters  The  employment c o u n s e l l o r and  of  a s s i g n e d s t a f f members w e r e a s e n i o r experienced  program a d m i n i s t r a t o r .  The  management team was  have the  student j o i n  appeared t o have the p l a c e m e n t and  On  two  the  field  Field  major focus  P r a c t i c e as  a Context  CEC  to  explore  problem areas w i t h i n  of the  1986/87 MSW the  initiative  administrative  issues  program t o t h e  t a r g e t group.  w i t h l i n e w o r k e r s and Services  One and  of  line  and an  social  assistance  intent  was  not  able  t o do  field  the  the to  which would  be  a l l long  supervisory  issues  Individually  practical  m e e t i n g s were  staff  of the  i d e n t i f y how  office  Recipients  e a r l y d e l i v e r y of  Several  Housing to  at the  that  r e l a t e d t o the  o f f i c e by  earliest staff  task  p r o g r a m and  for Social Assistance  beginning to struggle with  i m p l e m e n t e d on  parameters of  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team f o r t h e  ( I S J / S A R ) , was  Social  student's  research.  Meanwhile, the Job  field  f o r Research  i d e n t i f y the  option  Subsidized  opportunity  for a productive  of the  research/practice  for  The  to  i n September, m e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d w i t h  management team o f t h e  appropriate  agreed  practice.  occasions  practical  p r o j e c t and  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team.  right ingredients  became t h e  administrative  The  committed t o the  Ministry  the  program would  the  s e l e c t i o n of  assistance  The  to the  counsellors  program.  52  -  The  employers,  r e c i p i e n t s would  Individually Subsidized  -  be  appropriate  c l i e n t s would market t h e m s e l v e s t o term s o c i a l  of  basis.  recipients for referral  successfully.  initiated  o f c o n c e r n t o employment  MSSH was  the  Job  be (ISJ)  a  program  i s a work e x p e r i e n c e program,  u n s u p p o r t e d work e n v i r o n m e n t . of t r a i n i n g  levels  impose  productivity  interim  relatively  steps  integration  into the labour  I t became c l e a r ,  the s e l e c t i o n  of Social  successful  S e r v i c e s and H o u s i n g  t h e I S J program  assistance recipients participants,  of  clients  (MSSH) t o t h e initiative.  participants?  of a l l previous  Because  of national  since the i n i t i a l  t h e I S J p r o g r a m was or regional  I S J program  new,  f o l l o w up a n d p r o g r a m  I t t h e r e f o r e appeared l o g i c a l  -  program  o f 1985  the  evaluation were n o t  t o t h e s t u d e n t , agency  management a n d t h e members o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team t o  - 53  More  employment  relatively  implementation i n the f a l l  more  social  m i g h t h e l p t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team i m p r o v e  o u t c o m e s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s u n d e r t h e ISJ/SAR initiative.  i n the ISJ  experience of long term  as a sub-group  core,  greater  f a c t o r s t h a t m i g h t be u s e d t o p r e d i c t  employment outcomes f o r p r o g r a m  specifically,  available.  a  and r e f e r r a l  employment c e n t r e a s c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e I S J / S A R Were t h e r e c e r t a i n  as  force.  during e a r l y meetings, t h a t  facilitate  from t h e M i n i s t r y  structured  o f many h a r d  of the experience of previous p a r t i c i p a n t s  program might  results  employable  O t h e r more s u p p o r t i v e ,  i n the successful  employer  and p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s , i t  e n v i r o n m e n t s m i g h t be more e f f e c t i v e  l o n g term unemployed  knowledge  f o r the  f o r a l l long term,  assistance recipients.  work and t r a i n i n g  element  are designed t o provide time f o r the  obviously not appropriate  social  c o n t a i n an  t o r e - a d a p t t o a work e n v i r o n m e n t a n d  to gradually is  While i t does  and e m p l o y e r s u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e  generous s u b s i d y employee  o n - t h e - j o b , i n an  select  previous The  ISJ  program p a r t i c i p a n t s as t h e p o p u l a t i o n  purpose of the  previous  r e s e a r c h w o u l d be  participants,  t h a t c o u l d be  p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t and  improvement,  to c o l l e c t  for  study.  information  on  used p r i m a r i l y f o r ISJ i n a formative  evaluation  style.  U t i l i s a t i o n - F o c u s e d Research Model  The  r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was  of u t i l i z a t i o n - f o c u s e d out  of the  the Great as  h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by  evaluation.  1960's c r i t i c i s m  of the American e d u c a t i o n  a mechanism f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g While s c i e n t i f i c  advance over  earlier  funders,  d e d i c a t i o n of s t a f f  the  programs, t h e findings The  record of the  remained  e v a l u a t i o n was  a  system  and  program  significant  sincerity  or the p o l i t i c a l  r e s e a r c h model o f nature  conceptualization, design  questions  emerged  of  efficacy of  the of  research  poor.  utilization-focused  casts the  the  model  Opportunity,  around  a c t u a l implementation  through to ultimate u t i l i z a t i o n It  of Equal  decisionmaking  e v a l u a t i o n s b a s e d on  acknowledges the p o l i t i c a l initial  Evaluation research  S o c i e t y programs of the O f f i c e  expenditures.  Patton's  researcher  of the and  Patton,  evaluation process  implementation  of the  stages  f i n d i n g s (Patton,  i n a r o l e committed t o answering  of decisionmakers  who  are themselves, through  own  interest,  committed t o u s i n g the  The  model b u i l d s i n a h i g h p o t e n t i a l  - 54  -  evaluation  1978). the their  information.  for utilization  from  of  the  research users  f i n d i n g s , through c o n s u l t a t i o n with  at a l l stages  The  of the  model i s w e l l  From t h e  earliest  research  opportunity  option  of the  identified  MSW  as  i n d i v i d u a l s who  Patton  and  represented  the  a s s o c i a t i n g the  are of  leadership,  a l l identified evaluation  as  f a c t o r i n the  as  Patton  enthusiasm,  model,  determination,  c a r i n g of agency s t a f f  therefore,  administrators  began a t t h e  struggled with  e x p a n d e d m a r g i n a l employment s u b s i d y  recipients,  uncertainty  with  research.  evaluation process, level  program  Together these i n d i v i d u a l s  interest, and  ideas  O t h e r members o f management  s o - c a l l e d personal  utilization-focused  o f an  interchange  feedback which might reduce d e c i s i o n  commitment, a g g r e s s i v e n e s s  centre  anxious t o  p o t e n t i a l users  improve program outcomes.  a job  c r e a t i o n program.  the  implementation  targeted  An  employment  on  welfare  assessment of  the  employment o u t c o m e s o f p r e v i o u s  program p a r t i c i p a n t s under  ISJ,  information  the  l o g i c a l l y would c o n t r i b u t e  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team t o more e f f e c t i v e l y  p r o g r a m on the  social  purpose of the  the  clearly  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team were a l s o c o n c e r n e d a b o u t  evaluation  The  manager was  model.  of  research/practice  These q u a l i t i e s  are high  i n the  CEC  setting.  employment c e n t r e  w i t h i n the  and  student/researcher.  information,  and  presented  open, c o n f i d e n t  with  the  suited to this p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d  program, the  the  information  process.  d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n the  with  and  evaluation  key  assistance recipients. e v a l u a t i o n was  u s e d t o make j u d g m e n t s a b o u t t h e  - 55  which might t a r g e t the  In Patton's  to gather data  -  allow ISJ  terms,  t h a t would  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  the  ISJ  be  program.  The  consultant impressions relevant  student,  as  w i t h i n the  researcher,  field  was  cast  i n the  environment t o tap  o f employment c o u n s e l l o r s and  the  role  of  clinical  administrators  f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e employment o u t c o m e s o f  for program  participants.  Stages of the  Consultation  T h e r e were s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t process  which occurred  program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s can  be  s u m m a r i z e d as  Research Stage Conceptualization  at the and  stages  Process  to the  consultation  employment c e n t r e  management, and  the  level, student.  between These  follows:  Consultation  Activity  - E x p l o r a t i o n and c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e a r e a f o r r e s e a r c h as w e l l as t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the g u i d i n g questions behind the r e s e a r c h . (September)  Methodology  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e methodology i n c l u d i n g r a n g e o f v a r i a b l e s and t h e a v a i l a b l e and s u p p l e m e n t a r y d a t a sources. ( O c t o b e r & November)  F i n a l Design Consultations  The s t u d e n t c o n c l u d e d c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h CEC and T h e s i s Committee on p o p u l a t i o n f o r s t u d y and r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . (December)  Data C o l l e c t i o n  Data  Analysis  P r e t e s t of questionnaire, data c o l l e c t i o n and i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n a t CEC o f how f i n d i n g s m i g h t be c o m m u n i c a t e d t o i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . ( J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y )  Review o f e a r l y r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team and CEC employment u n i t as w e l l as i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . (March)  - 56  -  Review o f F i n d i n g s  Policy  I m p l i c a t i o n s - The s t u d e n t w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f management, i n i t i a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h program a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n consultants a t r e g i o n a l headquarters t o explore the broader p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s t u d y . (May a n d J u n e )  The  c o n s u l t a t i o n process  personnel  i n v o l v e d employment  a t a l l stages of the research p r o j e c t ,  involvement  term  of the f i r s t  when f i n d i n g s  Throughout t h e p r o j e c t ,  term from  t h e r e was a c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t  The  i n t e n t was t o i n v o l v e CEC p e r s o n n e l  all  s t a g e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h a n d e v e n when t h e i r  not  critical,  t o k e e p t h e CEC i n f o r m e d  problem s o l v i n g  activities  Smith have i d e n t i f i e d ,  essential  a s much a s p o s s i b l e a t involvement  t h i s knowledge o f t h e n a t u r e  i f the products  a n d how t h e y  was  the series  involved a t that stage.  research a c t i v i t i e s  comprehended a n d a s s e s s e d  made b y  of the research progress.  f o r the student/researcher t o i d e n t i f y  problem s o l v i n g , is  their  t h e s t u d y became a v a i l a b l e .  student  and  although  and t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e  the  of  centre  was h e a v i e s t a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n a n d p r o j e c t  design stages second  - P r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s t o CEC management and employment s t a f f r e s u l t i n g i n d e c i s i o n t o a d j u s t some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s , b a s e d on f i n d i n g s . ( A p r i l )  As R e i d of the  are organized  o f r e s e a r c h a r e t o be p r o p e r l y  (Reid & Smith,  integral  understanding  informed  r e s e a r c h consumership, a phrase  1981).  I t i s this  o f the research process which leads t o used  by R e i d and Smith,  which i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e P a t t o n e v a l u a t i o n model.  - 57 -  Policy  Because o f the  and  Programming  consultation  preliminary  stages of the  programming  implications  consultations  Implications  process which occurred  research  project,  in  potential  were o b v i o u s f r o m t h e  start.  The  approaches ensures t h a t  evaluator  burden f o r making c h o i c e s  does not  nature, purpose,  carry  the  c o n t e n t and  method o f t h e  program s u p e r v i s o r ,  the  employment s u p e r v i s o r  ISJ/SAR i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team w h i c h i n c l u d e d these decisions.  Variables  the  impressions of the  student.  anticipated duration  The  and  of  the  the  counselling  project  Appraisal  The and  as  among t h e  placement agency. not  and  the  staff  the  the  Instead CEC  members o f  student,  and  the  the  shared the  CEC  search c a r r i e d were CEC  out  eagerly throughout  the  placement.  Collaborative  research  Process  process generated  project  at the  commitment  management  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team members i n t h e  W i t h o u t t h i s commitment, t h e  h a v e b e e n a p p r o v e d by  instance  the  research  s u p p o r t e d by  of the  f o r the  and  literature  collaborative consultation  enthusiasm  as w e l l  the  r e s u l t s of the  field  about  were c h o s e n f o r s t u d y b a s e d on  management team, r e i n f o r c e d by by  the  evaluation.  informed group of decisionmakers which i n c l u d e d  clinical  early  which d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n - f o c u s e d , Patton  model, from o t h e r e v a l u a t i o n  an  the  i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d the  -  58  might  first  policy implications  -  field  project  s e n i o r management i n t h e  level  of  the  f i n d i n g s w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n f i n e d t o t h e CEC i f i t h a d n o t b e e n for  the direction  a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t w h i c h t h e manager g a v e t o  the student t o pursue the implications  o f t h e study  with  r e g i o n a l program c o n s u l t a n t s . The o t h e r v e r y p o s i t i v e  outcome  o f t h e commitment t o t h e  r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w h i c h was g e n e r a t e d  by t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e  r e s e a r c h m o d e l , was t h e i n h e r e n t s u p p o r t balancing administrative f i e l d itself.  f o r the student  work w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t  The s t u d e n t v i e w e d t h i s b a l a n c e t o be c r i t i c a l t o  fulfilling  MSW  program requirements  courses chosen a t r e g i s t r a t i o n . maintained  between  within the f i e l d  A relatively  t h e r e s e a r c h and f i e l d  equal balance  practice  of the collaborative process  activities  l i e s with the  r i s k o f a d o p t i n g a n a r r o w e r r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e when  the research p r o j e c t placement.  i s integrally  associated with the f i e l d  Enmeshed i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i s s u e s o f p r o g r a m  implementation,  and t h e i n e v i t a b l e e x p e n d i t u r e o f program  w i t h i n t h e time  constraint  appropriate, measurement employment  f o r example,  of the f i s c a l  counsellors'  funds  y e a r , was i t  f o r the research t o confine i t s  o f p r o g r a m s u c c e s s t o employment  study would c e r t a i n l y  outcomes  and t h e  assessment o f program b e n e f i t ?  The  h a v e b e e n e n h a n c e d b y measurement  c l i e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f program b e n e f i t . limitation  was  setting.  The l i m i t a t i o n increased  w i t h i n the context of those  In r e a l i t y ,  of the  this  o f t h e s t u d y was imposed n o t s o much b y t h e  c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s o r t h e r e s e a r c h / p r a c t i c e MSW program o p t i o n , b u t by t h e time  constraint ultimately  - 59 -  imposed by  t h e t e n month d u r a t i o n o f t h e o v e r a l l MSW remains,  that this  adaptability utilization  program.  The  r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g has n o t t e s t e d t h e  of Patton's  model t o c l i e n t  framework has been l i m i t e d  consumers, as t h e  to federal  program  managers a n d employment c o u n s e l l o r s a s p a r t i c i p a n t s research process  fact  and p o t e n t i a l  i n the  consumers o f t h e r e s e a r c h  findings. As  a product  utilized  o f t h e combined r e s e a r c h / p r a c t i c e o p t i o n w h i c h  t h e P a t t o n e v a l u a t i o n model, t h i s  approached t h e s e r v i c e - c o n t r o l l e d  r e s e a r c h has  r e s e a r c h model i d e n t i f i e d  by  Crane i n which t h e r e s e a r c h i s a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e p r a c t i c e (Crane,  Colling  & Bezonsky,  1983).  The m o d e l e m b o d i e s two  developments which Crane a s s o c i a t e s w i t h emerging t r e n d s i n s o c i a l work r e s e a r c h ; s u b s t a n t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n utilization.  The f o r m e r  i n v o l v e s an e f f o r t  systematically the findings, behavioral  s c i e n c e and r e l a t e d  a p p l i c a t i o n t o such (Crane  areas  e t a l . , 1983).  methodological  levels  The l a t t e r  of and p o l i c y  implies the use o f  e t a l . , 1983).  the direct  Ultimately,  practice  gather,  and p o l i c y  P a t t o n ' s model i s e v i d e n c e  t r e n d and t h i s p r o j e c t  s u b s t a n t i v e and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  success  f o r purposes  research s t r a t e g i e s which  data a t both  substantive u t i l i z a t i o n both  and t h e o r i e s o f  contributions of the behavioral sciences i n  and a n a l y z e (Crane  fields  methodological  to utilize  a s s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e  s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h process  hypotheses  and  of a  i s a n example o f  utilization.  t h e P a t t o n model i s a t r a d e o f f i n w h i c h t h e  o f t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o c e s s , measured i n terms o f t h e  - 60 -  utilization  of research  limitations  inherent  findings, i s traded  i n a s i n g l e agency o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e  research t o p i c which can evolve process.  out of thec o l l a b o r a t i v e  T h i s r i s k may i n c r e a s e f o r t h e s t u d e n t ,  c h o s e n r e s e a r c h / p r a c t i c e o p t i o n o f t h e MSW student research  o f f against the  program,  i n program d e l i v e r y which i s d i r e c t l y area.  What i s i m p o r t a n t ,  consultant recognize a challenge  this  ethical  when t h e places the  related  to the  i s that the student/research dilemma  appropriate to the research  work p r o f e s s i o n g e n e r a l l y .  - 61 -  and g r a p p l e  field  with  i t as  and t h e s o c i a l  CHAPTER IV  THE RESEARCH PROBLEM  Issues Selected  The r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t at the  t h e employment  evolved  through the I n d i v i d u a l l y assistance recipients.  identified  t h e r e was  effectively  and  r e s o u r c e s which had been S u b s i d i z e d Job  As a r e l a t i v e l y no documented  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i n d i v i d u a l s who  f r o m t h e d e s i r e o f management  centre to u t i l i z e  expanded j o b c r e a t i o n  initiative,  f o r Research  targeted  (ISJ) program, new  on  social  employment  body o f i n f o r m a t i o n  of the long term  had p a r t i c i p a t e d  efficiently  that  unemployed  i n t h e program o r t h e  specific  program o p p o r t u n i t i e s which had been c r e a t e d u n d e r p r e v i o u s I S J contracts.  No  a t t e m p t h a d b e e n made t o a s s o c i a t e  l a b o u r market  c o n d i t i o n s o r o t h e r economic f a c t o r s w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c  jobs  which had been c r e a t e d .  from  regional  or national  A g g r e g a t e employment  f o l l o w - u p were n o t a v a i l a b l e  immediate o r l o n g e r term I S J program It  to  either  outcomes.  referral  i n t h e m a r k e t i n g o f t h e program  and e m p l o y e r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s .  of c l i e n t s  a  o f t h e I S J e x p e r i e n c e t o d a t e would  t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n team  b o t h employee  Selection  from t h e p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y  S e r v i c e s a n d H o u s i n g m i g h t , f o r example, client  on  became c l e a r t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r and CEC management t h a t  more c o m p r e h e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e assist  outcomes  take  of  into  and  Social a c c o u n t any  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o o r p r o g r a m  -  62  -  performance. client  The  under the  finding  ISJ,  and  at the  counsellors  focus  on  the  to adapt f u t u r e  on  client  ISJ  i f client  I S J was  contracts  follow-up  associated  more o f t h e by  receptive within  routine this  the  CEC  program i n t e r v e n t i o n .  was,  had  originally  issues  was  of  first  the  I S J program.  designed to  client  end  of October of  1986.  The  which c l i e n t s b r o u g h t as  focus  on  also  issues  program and  been i n i t i a t e d issues  input  t h a t was  and  selected the  to the  created  T h r e e f a c t o r s were assumed t o h a v e the  within  certain  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as m e a s u r e s o f  employment o p p o r t u n i t y :  to  outcomes,  of c l i e n t s  w h i c h had  employment o p p o r t u n i t y  the  administration  t h i r t e e n months o f referral  by  outcomes.  ISJ contracts  were c l i e n t  For  handled  evidence that  64  for research  willing  Management was  contract  empirical  r e l a t e d t o the  capacity  outcomes.  r e f e r r e d the  counsellor.  therefore,  the  p r o g r a m and  Employment  through monitoring v i s i t s  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d program  c o m p l e t e d by  individual  the  successful  w i t h more p o s i t i v e employment  i f there  management o f t h e  created  i f program i n t e r v e n t i o n f a c t o r s i n  same r e f e r r i n g  research  experience,  this  a more  that  t o be  c o n t r a c t m o n i t o r i n g m i g h t be  which a r o s e from the  the  cautious  groups l i k e l y  to modifying t h i s kind  administrative The  welfare  ISJ/SAR i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t e a m w e r e v e r y  employment c o u n s e l l o r who  CEC  of  market r e q u i r e d  s i t e were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l  example,  the  labour  same t i m e , t o be  employment w i t h o u t t h e  job  referral  a n d / o r s t r u c t u r e d work e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n t h o s e  program d i d not  the  t o avoid, t h e  whose r e - o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e  supportive  the  i n t e n t was  ISJ  through  affected  I S J program i n t e r v e n t i o n ,  CEC  administration local  labour  of the i n d i v i d u a l contract,  market  The r e s e a r c h  i n w h i c h t h e j o b was  a s s u m p t i o n was  and employment o p p o r t u n i t y long the  term unemployed  assumption  research  i n the  subsidized.  that both c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  factors a f f e c t the integration of  i n d i v i d u a l s into the labour  I S J program a d m i n i s t e r e d  The g u i d i n g  and c o n d i t i o n s  market, through  a s a m a r g i n a l employment  questions  w h i c h emerged  from  subsidy.  this  were:  1.  To what d e g r e e a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l i e n t , w i t h I S J p r o g r a m outcomes?  2.  To what d e g r e e a r e p r o g r a m i n t e r v e n t i o n f a c t o r s , a s s p e c i f i c j o b o r c o n t r a c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h I S J program outcomes?  3.  To what d e g r e e a r e CEC a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h I S J p r o g r a m outcomes?  4.  To what d e g r e e a r e l o c a l l a b o u r m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s p e c i f i c occupational area of the job which i s s u b s i d i z e d , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h I S J p r o g r a m outcomes? Figure  I identifies  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  ( i n d i c a t e d b y l e t t e r s A,B,C address these guiding  Client education,  and D)  research  v a r i a b l e s chosen as measures identified  factors  included  questions.  associated  associated  the factors  i n the study, The  which  specific  of these f a c t o r s are a l s o  i n figure I. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (A) were m e a s u r e d labour  by sex,  age,  f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e t w e l v e months  immediately p r i o r t o the ISJ, the l e v e l  of family r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  as  a n d t h e number o f  a combined measure  of marital  status  d e p e n d e n t s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t , t h e p r i n c i p a l employment disadvantage of the c l i e n t ,  and t h e m o t i v a t i o n  work a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o g r a m .  - 64  -  These  of the c l i e n t client  to  Figure I. R e l a t i o n s h i p between V a r i a b l e s  Individually  Subsidized Job  Research INPUT  II.  Project  OPPORTUNITY  I I I . OUTPUT  Client Characteristics  B. P r o g r a m I n t e r v e n t i o n  E . Outcome  Sex Age Education Labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n Family r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Employment d i s a d v a n t a g e M o t i v a t i o n t o work  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  1. Employment outcome 2. O v e r a l l c l i e n t b e n e f i t  Occupational c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Industrial sector Intended d u r a t i o n Actual duration Wage r a t e Skill level Social interaction Career path Commitment o f s u p e r v i s o r  C. P r o g r a m  Administration  1. C o u n s e l l o r i n t e r v e n t i o n 2. M o n i t o r i n g 3. F o l l o w - u p b y r e f e r r i n g counsellor D. L a b o u r M a r k e t  Conditions  1. D i f f i c u l t y o f j o b s e a r c h 2. O c c u p a t i o n a l s u p p l y a n d demand b a l a n c e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were e s s e n t i a l l y treated  as  The  independent v a r i a b l e s i n the  opportunity  factors included  intervention variables characteristics industrial intended level by  level path  and  of  from t h e  supervisor  the  duration  subsidized  job  subsidized  of the  wage r a t e and  within  on  job  the  and  underlying  job  the  job,  the  and  subsidization,  r e l a t i v e to the  interaction  to the  program  classification  as t h e  Consultations  social  nine ISJ  occupational  a c t u a l , as w e l l  client.  study.  (B), which measured s p e c i f i c  s u c h as  sector,  of the  the  a n t e c e d e n t v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were  both  the  skill  most r e c e n t  CEC  also  a  the  career  commitment o f t h e of the  held  identified  evidence of  objectives  job  immediate  p r o g r a m as  key  program i n t e r v e n t i o n v a r i a b l e s . Three measures o f CEC  ISJ contract  were c h o s e n f o r s t u d y ,  again  administration  b a s e d on  i m p r e s s i o n s o f employment c o u n s e l l o r s , literature  review of the  intervention prior  to the  employment c o u n s e l l i n g referral the  job  t o the  interviews  specific  contract  variables:  m o n i t o r i n g and  counsellors  who  had  e m p l o y e r were i n c l u d e d Local  labour  factors within  the  by  CEC  of  the counsellor  the  number  client  before  Monitoring  management a s  therefore,  both the  visits  originally i n the  r e f e r r e d the  of  to  key  extent  of  s p e c i f i c m o n i t o r i n g w h i c h was client  to  overall done the  study.  market c o n d i t i o n s  the  extent  measured by  job.  the  clinical  held with the  subsidized  within  r e i n f o r c e d by The  p r o g r a m , was  s i t e were i d e n t i f i e d  administration  by  researcher.  the  (C)  (D)  were c o n s i d e r e d  employment o p p o r t u n i t y  -  66  -  created  as  under the  ISJ.  Two  measures o f l o c a l  The  first  in  the  was  the  local  l a b o u r m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s were s e l e c t e d .  competition  l a b o u r m a r k e t and  balance  between o c c u p a t i o n a l  the  o f t h e wage  end  T h e r e were two  overall  an  included  in this  identified p r o g r a m s by  supply  study  client  ( E ) , as  the  and  output  first  three  (1984).  These  of  stages  classification  a n a l y s i s of evaluation s t u d i e s .  study  G l a s s e r and  a d a p t e d by  I I and  covariates, be  are  and  Crane  (Crane,  which are  contexts,  training  -  67  four  years  stage  r e s e a r c h m o d e l , o u t l i n e d by 1986;  Glaser,  identified  model.  -  program  Research  T h e s e s i x C's  research  to  in a five  1978).  This  diagrammatically  c o n d i t i o n s , causes,  contingencies.  used t o d e s c r i b e t h i s  stages  Model o f t h e  followed a covariance  model r e f e r s t o s i x C's figure  five  researchers  i m p a c t m e a s u r e d f r o m two two  in  stages  as t h e  Conceptual  the  program  i m p a c t m e a s u r e d e i g h t months a f t e r  final  the  c o u n s e l l o r , of  after termination,  The  at  employment  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f manpower  long-term  and  measured  r e c e i v e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g  represent  Lawther & Gromelski  include short-term  relative  demand, b o t h  the r e f e r r i n g  input, opportunity,  i n a recent  t e r m i n a t i o n and  and  the  immediate, p o s t program  a s s e s s m e n t by  The  s e c o n d was  m e a s u r e s o f p r o g r a m outcome  b e n e f i t which the  the program.  the  subsidy.  dependent v a r i a b l e s : the outcome and  which program p a r t i c i p a n t s f a c e d  consequences,  can  conveniently  in  The  'context'  f o r t h e r e s e a r c h was  c r e a t i o n program a d m i n i s t e r e d under the Canadian Job Canada.  The  participants  t h e p r o g r a m by  as a m a r g i n a l  f u r t h e r d e f i n e d as t h e  the East Hastings  October  employment  S t r a t e g y o f Employment and  c o n t e x t was from  t h e I S J program, a  31,  CEC  subsidy  Immigration  64  a r e a who  job  program  had  completed  1986.  Figure I I . Covariance  Research  Model  Contexts (64  ISJ  Contracts)  -t Conditions (within the  CEC)  (within the job s i t e )  V Causes  t  (A, B, D)  Covariates  A  Consequences  T  (E)  (C)  1 Contingencies Note. The  Adapted  from  'causes'  consultation  (1986) and  were t h o s e  with  of t h e i r suspected These causes  Crane  CEC  (1978).  factors identified  personnel  impact  Glaser  and  selected  through  f o r study  on p r o g r a m o u t c o m e s o r  i n c l u d e d the range of c l i e n t -  68  -  because  'consequences'.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (A)  as  well  as t h e  conditions  program i n t e r v e n t i o n (D)  as  the  (B)  opportunity  and  labour  market  factors identified  in  Figure  I. The  administrative variables  opportunity study.  f a c t o r s , c o u l d be  W h i l e e a c h was  extent  the  p r o g r a m , may  of counsellor  at the beginning  the  original  o f t h e program.  of the  i n the  sixty  been s u b s i d i z e d . events,  appeared not  overall  t o h a v e b e e n any  'conditions' w i t h i n the  of done  by  the  employment  CEC  under review, the  dramatic  over the  thirteen  s t u d y made  no  t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s which might have a l t e r e d four  i n d i v i d u a l work s i t e s where t h e  S i m i l a r l y , 'contingencies'  have a f f e c t e d e i t h e r the  CEC,  extent  have i n c r e a s e d  to the  i n the  program p a r t i c i p a n t s or socio-economic  variables.  t o work  program.  which might have o c c u r r e d  accounted  example,  s p e c i f i c monitoring  c o u n s e l l o r , may  months o f p r o g r a m o p e r a t i o n attempt t o assess  For  to p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  S i m i l a r l y , the the  the  administrative  client's motivation  immediate s u p e r v i s o r s  Although there  w i t h i n the  and  in  as  employment  causes.  intervention prior  have a f f e c t e d the  referring  commitment o f  alteration  influence the  each of t h e s e t h r e e  contract monitoring  objectives  'covariates'  c o u l d h a v e a f f e c t e d some o f t h e  the  overall  v i e w e d as  thought to  outcomes o r consequences, variables  (C) w h i c h were i d e n t i f i e d  f o r i n the Although  c o u n s e l l i n g and  as  fiscal  personal  lives  f a c t o r s and  management p e r s o n n e l  evident had  of  which might  i n c l u s i o n of  r e s t r a i n t was  had  fortuitous  c a u s e s o r consequences, were  study through the  jobs  not  dummy  within  been s t a b l e  the over  the  t h i r t e e n months u n d e r r e v i e w , and  appear t o have a f f e c t e d covariates  i n the  the  unplanned events d i d  administrative  variables  w i t h most r e s e a r c h  more t h a n one  as  study.  Knowledge-Building Function of the  Consistent  not  projects,  knowledge-building function  Research  this  (Reid  study and  performed  Smith,  1981) . As  a descriptive  participants,  experience of  research  was  designed to  s c a n t b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e on  the  I S J p r o g r a m as  targeted  job  through the definite  creation ISJ  the  that  outcomes.  study,  categories  factors)  and  of  an  research  understanding of  the  successful  were t o  not  the  new  be  primary  explanatory  strength  of  such, the  the  (input  an  m o d e l meant  and  The  project  between  the  opportunity  dependant v a r i a b l e s was  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of long  p r o g r a m , as  function.  associations  research  a d a p t a t i o n of the  to  project.  covariance research  employment outcomes as As  the  accomplished  how,  i t was  independent v a r i a b l e s  program o u t p u t s .  the  the  a l s o had  attempted t o measure t h e two  Although  to  a relatively  been  f o r whom and  outcome o f t h e  research  contribute  hypotheses concerning the  conceptual design,  the  What had  previous  t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n would i n e v i t a b l y l e a d  j u d g m e n t s and  accountability By  program.  intervention,  research  purpose of tentative  the  study of the  to  contribute  factors  to  an  influencing  term unemployed  l a b o u r m a r k e t , t h r o u g h work b a s e d employment  or  programs.  into  the  The  f u n c t i o n of t h i s  description  and  four d i f f e r e n t  r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t went b e y o n d  explanation,  however.  1980).  operations  d e s c r i p t i o n and  outcomes o f t h e were d e f i n i t e primary  first  field  differential i n Rothman,  action research.  f u n c t i o n s a r e more e x c l u s i v e  The  i n t e g r a t i o n of the  p r a c t i c e o f t h e MSW  While  social  C h e r n s , who  were  the  f e d e r a l funds  research  not  timing  assistance recipients,  also a clear operations  these  research  p r o g r a m and  a substantial infusion of  Rothman d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s  citing  and  basic  forms o f b a s i c r e s e a r c h .  I S J p r o g r a m on  t h a t t h e r e was project.  two  between  outcomes o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , t h e y  research with  target the  research,  explanation  orientation.  project with  again  their  These f o u r forms a r e pure b a s i c r e s e a r c h ,  The  the  and  the problem of a p p l i c a t i o n ( c i t e d  objective research,  its  identified  f o r m s o f r e s e a r c h b a s e d on d i s t i n c t i o n s  d i f f e r e n t modalities of research interface with  Cherns has  to  meant  function to  the  form o f a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h  defines operations  of  r e s e a r c h as  by  research  aimed a t s o l v i n g o n g o i n g problems w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s (Rothman, 1980, The the  p.  16).  adaptation  r e s e a r c h , was  of the  individual  b r o u g h t t o t h e p r o g r a m and  c a p a c i t y which  whether the  been c r e a t e d under the  specific  f i n d i n g s of  research project.  utilization-focused  I t was  Patton s 1  opportunities employment  a primary  (1978) m o d e l  e v a l u a t i o n which guided  the  study.  clients  ISJ influenced the  o u t c o m e s , were t o l e a d t o p r o g r a m c h a n g e a s of the  the  t h e more i m m e d i a t e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e  F e e d b a c k on w h e t h e r t h e  w h i c h had  I S J p r o g r a m b a s e d on  function of  research  process  from s t a r t  to finish  research techniques in  operations  and w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l y  transformed  into the applied research p r a c t i c e s  basic embodied  research.  Previous Research  The e v a l u a t i o n extensive. programs (WIN)  literature  on employment  A large proportion of the research  i n the United  e s t a b l i s h e d b y amendments t o t h e S o c i a l  F a m i l i e s w i t h Dependent p r o g r a m s u n d e r WIN relatively  Children  i n 1973  E x p e r i e n c e Program,  interventions  under the C a l i f o r n i a  Community Work  were s t a t e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e Omnibus B u d g e t  g r e a t l y under both  initiatives,  groups, program s e t t i n g s ,  Program d e s i g n s  varied  w i t h a wide range o f t a r g e t  p r o g r a m components  and t h e  obligation  to participate.  Canada,  the history  o f employment  initiatives  r e c i p i e n t s h a s b e e n much s h o r t e r and more s p o r a d i c Associates,  with  t h e more r e c e n t n a t i o n a l w o r k f a r e  (OBRA) o f 1981.  In  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e  Although American workfare  Reconciliation Act  clients  of Aid to  few i n t e g r a t e d w i t h l a b o u r m a r k e t s t r a t e g i e s t o  programs began  of  Program  Security Act i n  for recipients  (AFDC).  were s u p p l y s i d e  t h e demand f o r l a b o u r .  initiatives  i s b a s e d on  S t a t e s u n d e r t h e Work I n c e n t i v e  1967, w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e d programming  affect  programs i s  1982).  f o r welfare (Jonhar  A l b e r t a h a s e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h t e m p o r a r y work  experience f o r hard t o p l a c e welfare r e c i p i e n t s under the Employment  Skills  Demonstration Project. - 72  -  Under t h e program,  clerical  work was  o f f e r e d f o r s i x months i n p u b l i c  settings with welfare  payments t o p p e d up  as  sector  incentive  to  participate. The  Ontario  u n l i k e the as  an  Work I n c e n t i v e  Program  American program of the  integrated  (WIN)  introduced  same name, was  employment s u p p o r t  intervention.  r e c i p i e n t s were o f f e r e d e a r n i n g s d i s r e g a r d s , p h a s e - o u t b e n e f i t s t o c o v e r some o f t h e w i t h r e t u r n i n g t o work, and to Family Benefits an  i f the  identified  as  employment  initiative  r e a s o n i t has The for  only  welfare  evaluation  not  been i n c l u d e d  As  such,  (Gracy,  1977).  month i n n o n - p r o f i t  not  For  as  agencies.  initiatives  student  Program f o r  the  initiatives  Wherever p o s s i b l e ,  The  very  part  programs t h a t Subsidized ° ° ° °  Job  are  i n the  literature  s i m i l a r i n design  (ISJ)  program.  literature  the  work-based  review.  review concentrated  to the  50  time  i t s incentive structure within  included the  $50,  i n c e n t i v e t o work  system, a l s o e x c l u d e d t h i s program from t h o s e  employment  this  review.  employment a  been  an  Participants received  transportation costs  associated  i t has  1982).  C o l u m b i a was  Opportunity Incentive  benefits,  reinstatement  literature  o f an  ready  costs  p r o g r a m and  in this  evaluation  n a t u r e o f t h i s p r o g r a m and welfare  failed.  recipients in British  and  initial  (Jonhar A s s o c i a t e s ,  identified  Vancouver area  hours per  job  health  1980,  designed  Job  promise of quick  earnings disregard  of the  babysitting  the  not  in  on  Individually  These programs f o c u s e d  on:  t h e l o n g t e r m u n e m p l o y e d &/or w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s work s i t e s as p r o g r a m s e t t i n g s s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h work, n o t t r a i n i n g voluntary, full-time p a r t i c i p a t i o n  Unlike the being  I S J which a f f e c t s both the  targeted  unemployed,  on  and  a distinct  the  demand f o r l a b o u r  employment  term unemployed work s i t e s t o placement  i n supportive  directly  to the  Because t h i s immediate, p o s t on  previous  creation  the  and  job  skills  prior  to  j o b s w h i c h o f f e r e d some p o t e n t i a l f o r program i n t e r v e n t i o n s which  as m a r g i n a l  employer, research  like  the  employment  were  not  subsidies  paid  t o measure  only  ISJ.  p r o j e c t was  p r o g r a m outcomes, t h e  designed  literature  review  focused  r e s e a r c h which a l s o used immediate o r s h o r t  i n d i c a t o r s o f program  long  work e n v i r o n m e n t s o r p u b l i c s e c t o r  Even those  administered  term  r e v i e w were p u r e  i n c e n t i v e f o r employers t o p a r t i c i p a t e ,  necessarily  by  long  through i t s job  literature  i m p r o v e work p a t t e r n s  i n unsubsidized  offer  labour  i n i t i a t i v e s which worked w i t h  c o n t i n u i n g employment. did  of  group o f unemployed, t h e  i m p a c t , many o f t h e p r o g r a m s i n t h e supply-side  supply  term  success.  Trends i n the L i t e r a t u r e The the  literature  clearly  identifies  1970's t o l o c a t e t r a i n i n g  and  work o r i e n t e d  p r o g r a m s c l o s e r t o t h e work s i t e . industrial very  a programming t r e n d  often black minority  that dealt with  hard-core  groups, began w i t h  b o t h employment and  job  had  been s e n s i t i z e d t o the  a b s e n t e e i s m and  skills.  t a r d i n e s s w h i c h so o f t e n a r o s e -  unemployed, training  Trainees  under  employment s k i l l s  - 74  States,  classroom  then i n t e g r a t e d i n t o assembly l i n e p r o d u c t i o n who  employment  In the U n i t e d  employment p r o g r a m s f o r t h e  from  were  supervisors  i s s u e s such  with  this  as  client  group to  (Johnson,  improve t h e  that  1969).  work a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e  within  the  program i s not situation, Miller, This  well-integrated  p  p r o g r a m s on  individual  WIN  an  clearly  realities  of the  at a l l (Oetting,  articulated in a  take  work  Cole  &  later  Training Act  i n North C a r o l i n a .  employee a t t h e  60's  The  (CETA)  evaluation  and  e a r l y 70's,  the  late  and  o f t r a i n i n g so experienced  same o r g a n i z a t i o n  acceptable,  s u s p i c i o n of  jobs  start  work u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s  t o h a v e s h i f t e d by  make s h i f t  with the  most e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were t o  While s o c i a l l y  The  concluded  most e f f e c t i v e when t h e y  successful  employees i n the  of the  1985).  be  clients  could  entry-level  disadvantaged,  C o m p r e h e n s i v e Employment and  t r a i n e e as  interventions  67).  s t a t e d t h a t the  p.19).  not  same t r e n d was of  be  on  a c t u a l employment s e t t i n g ; h o w e v e r i f t h e  i t will  1974,  evaluation  goal  survey of research  i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s may  place  the  One  70's  the to  hire  the  by  (Hudgins,  1986,  t e m p o r a r y employment was program emphasis  appeared  'placement i n j o b s '  some r e s e a r c h e r s ,  community s e r v i c e may  was  that  (Ashby,  temporary  have a c t u a l l y promoted  welfare  (Patino,  1986).  The  National  S u p p o r t e d Work D e m o n s t r a t i o n w h i c h o p e r a t e d  the  United  States  f o r f i v e years beginning  i n 1975,  program response c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s t r e n d . the  ISJ  i n i t s e m p h a s i s on  beneficiaries,  ex-addicts,  I t was  t r a n s i t i o n a l work t o ex-offenders  and  voluntary.  Evaluation  - 75  -  has  was  assist  labour  in  a  s i m i l a r to  young s c h o o l  o u t s t o make a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n i n t o t h e P a r t i c i p a t i o n was  a  AFDC drop  market.  shown t h a t  results  m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f employment and t h e AFDC g r o u p , program l o n g e r The  i n p a r t because these p a r t i c i p a n t s (Masters  & Maynard,  other consistent  greatest  impact  on  interpreted  1978),  these  (Gueron,  The  1986).  employable  (Garvin,  l o n g term  welfare  However t h e s e  are  disadvantaged  and  record of earnings  start  from  a  better  ( G a r v i n e t a l , 1978)  (Masters  & Maynard,  or  1981).  Characteristics  While  employment c e n t r e c o u n s e l l o r s w e r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t  characteristics  clinical  on  concluded  s h o r t term  Gromelski,  1984).  Experience  (WIN)  characteristics  U.S.  (cited  literature.  have had  no  i n Lawther &  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e Work I n c e n t i v e  p r o g r a m s i n g e n e r a l shows t h a t the contributions of  from program elements  Auerbach has  these  i n the  t h a t demographic t r a i t s  earnings indicators  The  possible to identify  contrast,  i n f l u e n c e d program outcomes,  i m p r e s s i o n s are not always supported  Sawhiney has impact  recent  Some r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e  (Patino,1986).  more r e c e n t employment e x p e r i e n c e  client  or l e a s t  groups  g r e a t e s t a b s o l u t e b e n e f i t s have o f t e n been  are l e a s t  employment b a s e and  Client  the  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t w e l f a r e s a v i n g s when  t h e y become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g  t o t h o s e who  i s that  i . e . those with l i m i t e d  f i n d i n g s t o mean t h a t  r e c i p i e n t s produce  relative gains.  stayed i n the  employment i s c o n c e n t r a t e d among t h o s e  employment, t h e most d i s a d v a n t a g e d & Reid,  for  1981).  theme i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e  c o n s i d e r e d h a r d e r t o employ,  Smith  e a r n i n g s were l a r g e s t  concluded  - 76  that  -  i t i s not  participant  ( G a r v i n , e t a l , 1978). f o r hard  core  WIN  In  p a r t i c i p a n t s e n t r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were t h e m a i n d e t e r m i n a n t s success  (cited  i n G a r v i n e t a l , 1978).  r e v i e w i n g t h e e x t e n s i v e WIN that  socio-demographic  several  The 1975  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may  was  i n an  characteristics d e c i s i o n was  and  e m p h a s i s on d i r e c t  determined  of  universal  (Jonhar A s s o c i a t e s , 1982).  i n 1971  improved e m p l o y a b i l i t y through  concluded  h a v e b e e n one  f o r the almost  a failure  T a l m a d g e Amendments t o WIN resulted  researchers  e v a l u a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e have  f a c t o r s which accounted  d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t WIN  Canadian  of  f u r t h e r amendments i n  job placement r a t h e r than  training.  If  program s u c c e s s ,  t o de-emphasize t r a i n i n g  and  client a logical  concentrate  program on  placement i n j o b s . Some s t u d i e s h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t age work e x p e r i e n c e  p r o g r a m outcomes, a l t h o u g h  t o have p o s i t i v e l y classroom 1984).  and  i n f l u e n c e d wage g a i n s  on-the-job  However, when age  high school graduates earnings gains over programs Sex earning  (Lawther has  had  & Gromelski,  (Lawther  workers i n &  education,  Gromelski, younger  increases i n  i n work  experience  1984).  as a d e t e r m i n i n g females  factor with  i n s h o r t term  wage r a t e s a s w e l l a s  compared t o f e m a l e s  a s w e l l as  males  follow-up (PEP)  higher  ( G a r v i n e t a l 1978).  have experienced h i g h e r e a r n i n g s g a i n s  participation  in  been r e p o r t e d  M a l e s i n t h e P u b l i c Employment P r o g r a m  program e a r n i n g s  PEP  older participants  higher pre-enrollment  However f e m a l e s  settings  h a v e shown s u b s t a n t i a l  been i d e n t i f i e d  1983).  i t has  a factor  f o r younger  i s combined w i t h  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t h a n  (Siikman, o f WIN  training  i s not  i n o t h e r programs  through  (Garvin et a l ,  1978),  (Lawther  & Gromelski,  1984).  e a r n i n g s g a i n s f o r o l d e r females significantly  higher than  have been r e p o r t e d t o remain  f o r other c l i e n t  o f work e x p e r i e n c e p r o g r a m s h i g h s c h o o l drop  When c o m b i n e d w i t h age,  Lawther & G r o m e l s k i ,  as a  result  1984).  Female  o u t s h a v e a l s o shown h i g h e r e a r n i n g s g a i n s  male c o u n t e r p a r t s  (Lawther  & Gromelski,  E d u c a t i o n has a l s o been i d e n t i f i e d  as a f a c t o r  exceeded e a r n i n g s  male h i g h s c h o o l drop  o u t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d  (Lawther  & Gromelski,  than  1984).  high school graduates  programs  groups,  i n t h a t male  i n c r e a s e s compared t o i n work  experience  1984).  Program I n t e r v e n t i o n The  l i t e r a t u r e makes i n f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e t o p r o g r a m  durations. by  Only  i n the case  t h e U.S. Manpower  positive groups,  effect partly  participation Entry  o f the Supported  Demonstration  Research  on AFDC p a r t i c i p a n t s  Work P r o g r a m r u n  C o r p o r a t i o n was t h e  compared t o o t h e r t a r g e t  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e l e n g t h o f program (Masters  level  & Maynard,  j o b s w i t h a minimum o f s k i l l  been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p o s i t i v e Smith and K l a u s n e r classifications  1980).  concluded  outcomes t h a t WIN  of participants  (cited  development  (Gueron,1986).  have  While  upgraded t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l i n G a r v i n e t a l , 1978),  P e r r y has q u e s t i o n e d whether t h e changes i n o c c u p a t i o n a l classification  represented  improvements i n advancement  potential,  as t h e o c c u p a t i o n s  secondary,  low-wage m a r k e t w i t h p o o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  advancement  (cited  e n t e r e d were c o n c e n t r a t e d  i n G a r v i n e t a l , 1978).  - 78 -  i n the  Michie  and  strongly that of  support  L a w r i e as w e l l social  i n the  1974).  One  (Johnson, suggestion  of the  was  i n job  researcher  1969).  & Greenberg  settings  (cited  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  i s the  key  s u p p o r t e d by  employment c e n t r e  as w e l l  the  et  the  successful  recent  clinical  employment  stated that  f a c t o r i n the  i s not  level  i n Oetting,  h a r d - c o r e u n e m p l o y e d i n t o work Although t h i s  feel  work s e t t i n g , o r t h e  work e n v i r o n m e n t , a f f e c t s u c c e s s f u l  immediate s u p e r v i s o r integration  Friedlander  f a c t o r s i n the  outcomes f o r t h o s e p l a c e d al,  as  settings  evidence,  the  impressions within  as p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l  the  services  personnel.  Agency  Administration  Although the  management team a t t h e  program f o l l o w - u p  through monitoring v i s i t s  i n f l u e n c e d p r o g r a m outcome, r e f e r e n c e s issues  are  infrequent  i n the  f o r o v e r a l l program d e s i g n supportive initiatives A  1979  CEC  literature.  to r e f l e c t  program environments are designed evaluation  f o r the of the  to  long  the  o v e r a l l WIN  strongly  to the  such  work  that  site  administrative  I t i s more philosophy  critical  term  felt  frequent that  i n employment  unemployed. p r o g r a m by  the  Urban  I n s t i t u t e d i d s t u d y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l and  service  delivery  local  sites.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f WIN I t concluded that  important procedural Associates,  s t a t e p r o g r a m s and  frequent  and  intensive monitoring  v a r i a b l e s which i n f l u e n c e d  1982).  -  79  -  project  outcomes  were  (Johnar  Labour Market  Conditions  While e v a l u a t i o n research frequently  appears t o have  t o suggest that these  evaluation  there  f a c t o r s should  S m i t h and R e i d  (1978) p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y  s u c c e s s f u l WIN  placement created  i n a r e v o l v i n g door e f f e c t . substitution effect  low wage, l o w s k i l l national  was  welfare  Garvin,  each  i s to a  enrollee  potentially  o f employment p r o g r a m s t a r g e t e d Garvin  on t h e  e t a l recommended a  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t WIN  l a b o u r market c o n d i t i o n s p l a y  a s a manpower  T h e i r assessment a crucial  employment and t h a t e c o n o m i c variables i n determining  role in  factors far program  ( G a r v i n e t a l , 1978).  The U r b a n I n s t i t u t e identified local  suggest that  The r e f e r e n c e  in their  outweigh program d e s i g n outcomes  included i n  experience,  n o t a s o l u t i o n t o unemployment.  that local  determining  be  a n o t h e r p o t e n t i a l WIN  l a b o u r market.  jobs p o l i c y  p r o g r a m was  i s sufficient  research.  I n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e WIN  high  less  on o v e r r i d i n g e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a s v a r i a b l e s w h i c h  i n f l u e n c e employment p r o g r a m outcomes, evidence  focused  study  cited  earlier,  similarly  t h e overwhelming importance of l a b o u r market  and  demographic v a r i a b l e s i n e x p l a i n i n g i n t e r s t a t e v a r i a t i o n s  i n WIN  performance  (Jonhar  Associates,  1982).  Five  environmental v a r i a b l e s are reported  t o have been  correlated with  (Jonhar,  p a r t i c i p a n t outcomes  positively  1982).  These  were: 0  ° 0  °  t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f low-wage i n d u s t r y average s i z e o f l o c a l employers the s i z e of the l o c a l poverty population t h e e x t e n t o f male r e g i s t r a n t s i n t h e WIN - 80  -  program  °  rate of  O t h e r US  local  research  r a t e s were r i s i n g ,  employment from the  has  growth.  e a r l y 70's,  expressed l i t t l e  employment p r o g r a m s f a i l e d  to provide  surprise that  solutions to  problems t h a t would s u r v i v e the v a g a r i e s (Oetting,  e t a l , 1974).  literature and  on  opportunities  concluded t h a t the seems t o be  (Jonhar A s s o c i a t e s , C h a p t e r Two,  which focuses  these supply-side limitations  The on  job  market  evaluation States  labour  program  failure  economic t h e o r y  cited  in  conclusions  of  job c r e a t i o n programs supports the  program e v a l u a t i o n s ,  by  job  as  recognizing  the  o f e m p l o y e r - b a s e d work i n c e n t i v e p r o g r a m s u n d e r i n both the  p r o d u c t market  and  market.  Within that  unemployment  absence of a p p r o p r i a t e  initiatives,  c e r t a i n economic c o n d i t i o n s labour  work-based  i n both the United  associated with  1982).  d e m a n d - s i d e employment  of the  Another study of the  employment i n i t i a t i v e s  Canada h a s  when unemployment  a w o r k f a r e program c o n t e x t ,  e m p l o y e r s who  h a v e had  the  one  researcher  noted  capacity to eventually hire  promote p a r t i c i p a n t s from e n t r y  level  influenced  on-the-job programs  outcomes i n t r a i n i n g  has  jobs,  have  and  positively (Hudgins,  1986).  Outcome V a r i a b l e s T h e r e i s a w i d e r a n g e o f employment o u t c o m e s r e p o r t e d literature.  Ginsberg  has  manpower p r o g r a m s s h o u l d  suggested t h a t the be  judged a g a i n s t  - 81  -  in  effectiveness  the  extent  to  the  of  which  t h e y h a v e i m p r o v e d t h e employment, of the disadvantaged I n t h e U.S.,  (cited  to  G u e r o n and  participation  failures  (cited  a r e r e p o r t e d t o have had  Nathan r e p o r t e d t h a t programs which r a t e s of welfare r e c i p i e n t s  rates,  staff  r e s i s t a n c e and  i n Gueron, 1986).  literature  on t h e A m e r i c a n WIN  identified  t h a t many r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e c o n c l u d e d  (Jonhar A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 8 2 ) .  On  participants  participants The  of  Auerbach r e p o r t e d o n l y  i n Garvin,  closer  core  Demonstration  i n f i v e year  Research  experiments  Corporation.  w i t h programs which v a r i e d w i d e l y obligation of c l i e n t s oriented, collect The  in  of 22%  WIN  (OBRA) o f 1981  states the opportunity to r e s t r u c t u r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p welfare  failed  1978).  Omnibus B u d g e t R e c o n c i l i a t i o n A c t  work and  the  specific  I S J , r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e o u t c o m e s f o r 75%  (cited  in  has  w h i c h was  employment a t t e r m i n a t i o n i n a s t u d y o f h a r d  sought  t h a t WIN  t h e o t h e r h a n d , one  ( G a r v i n , 1978).  mixed  implementation  experience,  P u b l i c S e r v i c e Employment P r o g r a m u n d e r WIN  of  resulted  A Canadian review  evaluation  design to the  prospects  e f f o r t s t o i m p r o v e t h e work p a r t i c i p a t i o n  improve p a r t i c i p a t i o n  lower  career  i n O e t t i n g e t a l , 1974).  w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s p r i o r t o 1981 success.  income and  states  in objectives, Many were  i n w h i c h w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s had  between  u n d e r t h e Manpower  Eleven  to participate.  offered  responded  content  and  the  workfare  t o work t o c o n t i n u e  to  aide. M a i n e and  New  Jersey demonstration  p r o j e c t s were  the  most s i m i l a r t o t h e I S J p r o g r a m , w i t h v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n on-the-job  t r a i n i n g programs funded - 82  -  through  the diversion  of  in  AFDC f u n d s .  I n M a i n e , where employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s  limited,  the  p r o j e c t worked c l o s e l y w i t h  agencies  to place  clients  results  suggest t h a t  Wilcox,  1986).  The  70%  i n newly c r e a t e d  that  achieved  appear t o c o n f i r m  the  jobs.  Preliminary  full  (Petit  Development P r o j e c t  i n s i x month f o l l o w - u p ,  p a r t i c i p a n t s had  development  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s f o u n d work  A l b e r t a Employment S k i l l s  reported  economic  are  approximately  t i m e employment.  t r e n d noted i n American  has  one  The  &  third  results  program  e v a l u a t i o n s , t h a t t h e more s u c c e s s f u l o u t c o m e s h a v e a c c r u e d the  l e s s disadvantaged,  welfare  less that  In the United results  at the  Kingdom i t has  had  difficult  been s u g g e s t e d t h a t  (Ashby, 1 9 8 5 ) .  The  increased  likelihood  employment outcome a t t h e  end  of the  program.  increased  likelihood  employment r a n g e f r o m two  (Holland,  1982)  This observation  unemployed t o  o p i n i o n o f one i t found  that  o n l y be  by  of  found the poor w i l l i n g  researcher,  workfare d i d not  i t ! (Gueron,  1986).  - 83  -  to  a more  measures  of  obtaining times  f o r the  evidence  a  United  to three  about the d i f f i c u l t y  f i n d work i s s u p p o r t e d  workfare experience  ethic,  poor  been s u g g e s t e d as  of t h i s  1985).  on  of  m e a n i n g f u l m e a s u r e o f p r o g r a m outcome t h a n a b s o l u t e  Kingdom e s t i m a t e s  been  i t i s f o r a l l l o n g term unemployed  p a r t i c i p a n t s t o o b t a i n employment h a s  the  to  participation.  c o n c l u s i o n o f employment p r o g r a m s may  m e a s u r e o f how f i n d work  i n t h i s c a s e r e c i p i e n t s who  s i x months p r i o r t o  of  long  from the t o work.  create the  (Ashby, term U.S. In  work  the  Summary and  Implications of the Previous  There are very A m e r i c a n and c o u l d be focus on  few  employment i n i t i a t i v e s  more l i m i t e d  directly  of t h i s  Canadian r e s e a r c h  compared t o t h e  research project.  the  whereas t h e  from the  extensive  literature  that  I S J p r o g r a m , w h i c h was Most o f t h e  employment p r o g r a m s t a r g e t e d on  evaluated  Research  the  research  the  literature  l o n g t e r m unemployed,  has  impact o f s u p p l y - s i d e program i n t e r v e n t i o n s ,  I S J p r o g r a m s h o u l d be  i n i t i a t i v e which has  an  recognized  i m p a c t on b o t h  the  as  an  supply  employment and  demand f o r  labour. Nevertheless,  as  a w o r k - b a s e d employment  initiative,  p r o g r a m i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h programming t r e n d s literature.  Since  t h e mid  70's,  employment  b e e n l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o t h e work s i t e w i t h skill on  acquisition  on-the-job.  t h e more d i s a d v a n t a g e d  assistance recipients, r e s e a r c h which has employment who  are  impact  may  The  of the be  harder  to  these  and  employment  identifying  supported  ISJ  social  evaluation greatest  participant  groups  designs  i s not  somewhat s i m i l a r t o from t h e  evaluation  the of  always c o n s i s t e n t i n  f a c t o r s t h a t p r e d i c t more s u c c e s s f u l o u t c o m e s .  Nevertheless, impressions  among t h o s e  research evidence  initiatives  that the  on  employ.  Outcomes f o r p r o g r a m s w i t h ISJ vary widely  have  g r e a t e r emphasis  l o n g term unemployed,  frequently identified  considered  initiatives  response t o  the  literature  generally confirmed  o f employment c o u n s e l l o r s and  the  ISJ  in this  recent t a r g e t i n g of the  a policy  i s concentrated  evident  the  CEC  four guiding research questions. - 84  -  the  clinical  management, Client  and  characteristics,  program i n t e r v e n t i o n ,  a g e n c y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  l a b o u r market c o n d i t i o n s have a l l been i d e n t i f i e d that predict  success  i n at least  some o f t h e  as  factors  literature  on  previous evaluation research. The  clinical  emerged f r o m  impressions  of experienced  the c o n s u l t a t i o n process  under the Patton u t i l i z a t i o n - f o c u s e d evidence supported  from both  CEC  personnel  d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter  initiatives,  t h e c o n c e p t u a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and this  ISJ research  - 85  -  Three  r e s e a r c h model, as w e l l  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on employment  assumptions behind  which  project.  the  as  CHAPTER V  RESEARCH DESIGN  Control  The  research  examined t h e program, as  was  employment  participants.  Smith,  design  impact o f the an  would l a b e l  o v e r Phenomena t o be  Further  i t an  1981)  i n t e r v e n t i o n , on  uncontrolled,  intervention  as  however, a c k n o w l e d g e t h e particularly relatively (13  (Crane,  development of  t a r g e t i n g of t h i s  particularly  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the key  d e s i r e on r e f i n e the  the  part  relevant  assessing critics, design The program  and  the  more  a specific  sub  group  makes t h e  i m p a c t on  e x p l o r a t i o n of  -  clearly  the with  indicated a  counselling staff social  of  uncontrolled  Research c o n s u l t a t i o n s  o f b o t h management and  - 86  the  ISJ  initiated)  f o r an  &  work, i t h a s  T h e s e same  employment c e n t r e  program f o r g r e a t e r  is  function of t h i s  i n t e r v e n t i o n on  intervention.  decisionmakers at the  (Reid  1986).  implementation of the  s t u d y was  program  design  i n t e r v e n t i o n models.  l o n g term unemployed p o p u l a t i o n ,  group d e s i g n  research  for  1981).  exploratory  time the  (ISJ)  sample o f  in social  strategy  & Smith,  e a r l y stage of the  months a t t h e  recent the  i n the  Job  s i n g l e group experiment  a questionable  e f f e c t s (Reid  study  s i n g l e group experiment  environment  uncontrolled  the  of the  most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n been i d e n t i f i e d  i n t h a t the  Individually Subsidized  identification  in a field  Although the  experimental  Studied  assistance  to  recipients, employment The an  the  target  group f o r the  f a c t o r which minimized the  uncontrolled The  specific  design  i s the  outcome o f t h e  i n t e r v e n t i o n was the  the  benefit  referring counsellors' from the  program.  The  unemployment o f p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r 24 the  i n t e r v e n t i o n , minimizes the  outcomes o c c u r r i n g the  population  eligibility for  without the  criteria  f o r the  employment o u t c o m e s . controls  suggests that  independent v a r i a b l e s possible  from the  on  f r o m one was  Reid  v i r t u e of  the  In the  to  o t h e r words, basic  intervention absence of  potential on design the  impact  of  were  Design  a r e a was  a nonprobability  of  1981).  sample,  Statistical  -  87  ISJ program  chosen f o r the  convenience or a v a i l a b i l i t y  & Smith,  the  employment  d e p e n d e n t outcome v a r i a b l e s  population  employment c e n t r e  accidental,  overall  study.  sample o f t h e  therefore  of p o s i t i v e  program, m i n i m i z e s t h e  Sampling  100%  also  nature of  t e n t a t i v e judgments o f  the  employment  p r o g r a m and  intervention.  Nevertheless,  for  in relation  participant's  assessment of  impact of the  only  chosen  assessed  continuing  using  weeks i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r  risk  c h o s e n f o r s t u d y by  overstatement of the  A  w h i c h was  i m m e d i a t e l y upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e  m e a s u r e d by client  disadvantage of  population  employment o u t c o m e s , m e a s u r e d by  status  expanded  initiative.  other  study. to  as  study.  further classified sample  inference  -  participants  was  (Monette, used to  This as  an  1986; measure  the  s t r e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s  (Input  and O p p o r t u n i t y  (Output)  identified  f a c t o r s ) and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s  i n Figure I of Chapter Four.  was known o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s participants  little  o f t h e sample o f  compared t o a l l I S J p a r t i c i p a n t s i n g r e a t e r  Vancouver, t h e lower mainland o r even B r i t i s h sampling  Very  design  therefore limited  c o u l d b e made t o o t h e r  Columbia.  The  t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which  employment c e n t r e a r e a s ,  from t h e  findings of the research.  Domains The  u n i t s were t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who h a d b e e n s u b s i d i z e d i n  the  specific  The  p o p u l a t i o n c h o s e n f o r s t u d y was a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who h a d  participated 1985, one  j o b s which had been c r e a t e d under t h e I S J program.  i n and completed t h e I S J program between  when t h e p r o g r a m was f i r s t  geographic  responsibility Centre.  area. area  This area  introduced,  The g e o g r a p h i c  area  of the East Hastings  a n d O c t o b e r 1986 i n  corresponded Canada  with the  Employment  i s g e n e r a l l y known a s E a s t V a n c o u v e r a n d  N o r t h Burnaby, bounded by B u r r a r d  Inlet  on t h e n o r t h  Avenue a n d t h e L o u g h e e d Highway on t h e s o u t h , to  September  and F i r s t  from Main S t r e e t  Burnaby Mountain. The  treatment  intervention.  w h i c h was s t u d i e d was t h e I S J p r o g r a m  The v a r i a b l e s chosen f o r s t u d y  t h r e e main groups i d e n t i f i e d Four; Input, client  Opportunity  characteristics  fell  i n Figure I presented  and Output c a t e g o r i e s .  into the i n Chapter  The c h o i c e o f  (A) a s m e a s u r e s o f i n p u t , a n d t h e -  88 -  p a r t i c u l a r measures administration  o f program  overall  which measured  local  labour  were s e l e c t e d  CEC  strongly centre.  market c o n d i t i o n s  as t h e  opportunities  i n consultation with the  e c o n o m i s t f r o m Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n Canada  specializes Two  a t t h e employment  employment c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e j o b  had been c r e a t e d , regional  (B) a n d  (C) f a c t o r s a s t h e t r e a t m e n t , was  i n f l u e n c e d b y d e c i s i o n makers Variables  intervention  i n t h e metro Vancouver l a b o u r  modes o f o b s e r v a t i o n  who  market.  were u s e d i n t h e s t u d y .  Existing  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d a t a which had been c o l l e c t e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y p u r p o s e s were s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h self-administered  questionnaire.  The s e t t i n g was  work s i t e s where j o b s h a d b e e n s u b s i d i z e d  a the i n d i v i d u a l  under t h e I S J program.  A l t h o u g h t h e work s i t e s v a r i e d by e m p l o y e r , e a c h was  an  o n - t h e - j o b work s e t t i n g .  S i z e and  Heterogeneity  The s a m p l e ISJ  64  i n d i v i d u a l s , the t o t a l  p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s who  O c t o b e r 31, program the  s i z e was  1986.  (unemployed  unemployment therefore, shorter  status  had c o m p l e t e d t h e program  The b a s i c e l i g i b i l i t y  criteria  24 o u t o f t h e p r e v i o u s  sample as a r e l a t i v e l y  population  of the individuals.  by  f o r the  3 0 weeks)  homogeneous s a m p l e  identified  i n terms o f the  A l lparticipants,  by v i r t u e o f t h e i r b a s i c program e l i g i b i l i t y ,  t e r m s i x month c r i t e r i a  as l o n g  i n C h a p t e r One.  of  term  unemployed  individuals,  identified  Because o f  this  homogeneity,  t h e s t u d y made no a t t e m p t t o g e n e r a l i z e i t s  met  the  findings t o the total was  p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e unemployed.  The s t u d y  c a u t i o u s about t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s t o I S J  participants  i n o t h e r employment c e n t r e a r e a s  o f Vancouver  b e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s i m i l a r i t y  of other  term unemployed p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h t h e E a s t H a s t i n g s  CEC c l i e n t  group.  Although  i t i s generally recognized that other  s e r v e h i g h e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s and c l i e n t s w i t h income a n d l o w e d u c a t i o n office, are  t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e  I S J program u s e r s  areas.  levels  general  East Hastings  area  o t h e r CEC a r e a s . ethnic category  o r o t h e r CEC  population i n the  In fact,  generalization within t h i s very  The s t u d y was t h e r e f o r e c a u t i o u s  one employment c e n t r e  over  characteristics  provide  client  as w e l l as t h e i n d i v i d u a l measures o f t h e factors  In d e s i g n i n g t h e study  base.  participants  t o be heterogeneous i n i t s  t h e range o f other socio-demographic  employment o p p o r t u n i t y  research,  about  area.  s a m p l e was, however, e x p e c t e d  variation  broad  may a l s o b e m i s l e a d i n g due t o t h e d i v e r s i t y o f  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a n d c o n f i n e d them t o f u t u r e p r o g r a m  The  groups  c o u l d n o t b e made t o o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s i n  the o r i e n t a l population.  in this  Hastings  client  i n either the East Hastings  G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from t h e h i g h o r i e n t a l  CEC's  r e l a t i v e l y low  similar t o the East  that these  long  identified  i n Figure I.  to f i t the limited  time  a t r a d e - o f f was made b e t w e e n s a m p l e s i z e  available for and t h e data  B e c a u s e t h e u n d e r l y i n g p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e c i s i o n makers i n one p a r t i c u l a r  employment c e n t r e , a n e x i s t i n g d a t a b a s e e n h a n c e d b y o r i g i n a l data c o l l e c t e d  through  a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was c h o s e n o v e r a  -  90 -  population  expanded t o  employment c e n t r e the  i n c l u d e program p a r t i c i p a n t s from  areas.  l o n g term unemployed  compares f a v o r a b l y w i t h the of  s a m p l e be long term  O n l y i n so i n other  research  client prior  ex  post  was  to the The  variables  as w e l l  area,  could  population  Collection Intervention  facto.  The  input  extracted  from data  p r o g r a m i n t e r v e n t i o n and as  the  recorded  c o d e d by  client  CEC  of  counsellors  referral  administration  l a b o u r market c o n d i t i o n s were a l l  ex p o s t  o f measurements.  i n that  collection  f a c t o r s were measures  facto.  The  design  provided  for  This c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l nature of  measurement o f v a r i a b l e s i s a c k n o w l e d g e d a s study,  of  areas  of a l a r g e r  i n t e r v e n t i o n , as p a r t o f t h e  process.  repetition  Hastings  retrospective i n that data  characteristics,  m e a s u r e d and  composition  unemployed.  i n R e l a t i o n t o Program  occurred  East  representative  T i m i n g o f Data  The  the  employment c e n t r e  those i n the  considered  f a r as  other  employment outcomes a r e  a limitation  optimally  of  no  the the  measured  longitudinally.  Methodological  The  methodological  o r what h a s (Patton,  o r i e n t a t i o n of the  been c a l l e d  1978).  The  Orientation  the  s t u d y was  dominant m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  v a r i a b l e s c h o s e n f o r s t u d y were - 91  -  quantitative paradigm identified  during the  consultation with  employment c e n t r e .  program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s Their c l i n i c a l  these v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e the individual participants. knowing t h e called the  strength  causal  outcome o f t h e  were  o f any  for and  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n them o r t h e  important  o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s  congruent with  feature  research  i n the  the  The  phenomenon  utilization  (Patton,  so-  implement  for future participants.  methodology i s t h e r e f o r e an  at  that  I S J program  l i n k a g e s , would enable d e c i s i o n m a k e r s t o  chosen f o r study, focused  impressions  managers  These v a r i a b l e s were q u a n t i f i a b l e  p r o g r a m more e f f e c t i v e l y  research  and  -  1978).  Data C o l l e c t i o n  Almost a l l the  client  p r o g r a m i n t e r v e n t i o n and extracted  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and CEC  which had  been  employment c o u n s e l l o r s a t t i m e c l i e n t s  were  documented f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e routinely out in  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n v a r i a b l e s were  from e x i s t i n g c o n t r a c t r e c o r d s ,  p r e - c o d e d by  most o f  entered  and  s t o r e d on  of s e l e c t e d information  was  program.  These data  are  c o m p u t e r i n M o n t r e a l and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e when  a  print  requested  November. Another secondary data  s o u r c e was  used t o  v a r i a b l e s which measured economic c o n d i t i o n s market.  The  p r o d u c e d by  i n the  Regional  specified  Economic S e r v i c e s  o f Employment  i d e n t i f i e s v a r i o u s measures o f by  seven d i g i t  - 92  occupational  -  the  local  monthly Labour Market Survey f o r g r e a t e r  I m m i g r a t i o n Canada, activity  identify  two labour  Vancouver, and  labour  codes from  market the  Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n two  and D i c t i o n a r y O c c u p a t i o n s  e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s were e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h i s  (CCDO).  The  information  source. The  r e s e a r c h e r was c h a l l e n g e d ,  administrative existing  data  field sources  in a field  experiment.  client  c o m p u t e r were e a s i l y  i n existing  a n d I S J c o n t r a c t d a t a b a s e s t o r e d on  e x t r a c t e d on one p r i n t - o u t t o k e e p t h e  data  sources  when t h e d a t a were i n i t i a l l y little and  M i s s i n g d a t a w h i c h c a n be a  appeared n o t t o be an i s s u e  reviewed.  There had been  c h a n g e i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f who i n i t i a l l y  coded c l i e n t  under review.  and program data  Similarly,  method o f r e c o r d i n g d a t a , that the high maintained  quality  during the thirteen  i n this  relatively  throughout t h e review  new p r o g r a m , s o  identified  as a data  source f o r  labour  market  a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e Employment a n d  disadvantages  either contained  the use of the  Other e x i s t i n g  I m m i g r a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n were e x p l o r e d ; distinct  months  period.  l a b o u r market v a r i a b l e s .  information sources  documented  o f t h e d a t a was j u d g e d t o h a v e b e e n  L a b o u r M a r k e t S u r v e y f o r t h e Lower M a i n l a n d local  very  t h e r e h a d b e e n no c h a n g e s i n t h e  M i s s i n g d a t a were, however, a p r o b l e m w i t h  the  factor i n  Project relevant sections  amount o f r e s e a r c h d a t a m a n a g e a b l e . problem  o f these  The r e l a t i v e  t i m e was a g u i d i n g  t h e modes o f o b s e r v a t i o n .  from t h e e x t e n s i v e  of her  work, t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e u t i l i t y  economy o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s choosing  within the context  less  t o these specific  o n l y by f o u r d i g i t  however, t h e r e w e r e two  a l t e r n a t e data occupational  93 -  They  information  CCDO c o d e s v e r s u s -  sources.  t h e complete  seven d i g i t  occupational  Market Survey, o r they l a b o u r market  codes a c c e s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e  i d e n t i f i e d more a g g r e g a t e  being  that  l a b o u r market c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the  occupational with  t e s t e d under r e s e a r c h  area  sources  data  in this  area  and  a n a l y s i s t o account f o r i t .  were s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h  q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o m p l e t e d by had  question  originally  questionnaire  a brief,  the  r e f e r r e d the  study  coped  a d j u s t e d methods  These secondary  identified  client  self-administered  c l i e n t s t o the program.  characteristics  available in existing  data  B.  and  employment  at  sources  and  considered  u s i n g t h e e m p l o y e r s who  as they  c o n t r a c t s and/or the p r e v i o u s data the  sources.  but had  c l i e n t s to the  best  single  subsidized jobs  monitored the  original  and  originally who  source.  f o r example, a s s e s s  i m m e d i a t e s u p e r v i s o r s and  had  o f t e n been  These the  the  commitment  o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c a r e e r advancement i n  -  the  referring of  comment on w h e t h e r t h e r e h a d  - 94  study,  r e f e r r e d the  I S J c o n t r a c t s , were c o n s i d e r e d  supplementary data  counsellors could,  evidence  The  However, g i v e n t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e had  not  sponsored  program p a r t i c i p a n t s as  employment c o u n s e l l o r s , who  o f f i c e r s who  had  the  opportunity  been documented d u r i n g r o u t i n e c o n t r a c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . researcher  who  This  f a c t o r s w h i c h were t h o u g h t t o i n f l u e n c e p r o g r a m outcome, were n o t  of  data  same employment c o u n s e l l o r s  i s i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x  was  specific  Very e a r l y i n the p r o j e c t , the c o n s u l t a t i o n process CEC  The  number f o u r ,  a f f e c t e d outcomes, t h e r e f o r e t h e  extensive missing  statistical  provincial  i n f o r m a t i o n i n s t e a d of lower mainland data.  hypothesis local  Labour  the  been  subsidized personal this  work s e t t i n g w h i l e s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e d a t a  knowledge o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t  information  reports  was documented i n n a r r a t i v e  contained  i n contract  f o r t h e study again referring  from b i a s e d not  issues  associated  on t h e The  c o d a b i l i t y o f the data  collection.  w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y low response  i n the use of the questionnaire. were r e t u r n e d ,  required  Validity  The  to rely  respondents o r a poor o v e r a l l r a t e o f r e t u r n  the researcher  The  and h i g h  t h i s method o f d a t a  of the questionnaires by  form i n m o n i t o r i n g  measurement o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s .  advantages o f u n i f o r m i t y  Difficulties  W h i l e some o f  the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e  forced the researcher  counsellor's  facilitated  files,  case.  with  t o obtain  rates were  One h u n d r e d  percent  with very  little  t h i s high  rate of return.  and R e l i a b i l i t y  follow-up  o f Data  d e g r e e o f a b s t r a c t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d was l o w .  logic  a n d common  sense o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r  assessed the v a l i d i t y  which s u b j e c t i v e l y  o f t h e measures chosen f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s ,  was e n h a n c e d b y t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s a t t h e CEC. E x p e r i e n c e d employment c o u n s e l l o r s valuable  and program managers  provided  f e e d b a c k on w h e t h e r t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s  appeared t o be l o g i c a l  measures o f t h e v a r i a b l e s .  Direct  m e a s u r e s o f most o f t h e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a a n d many o f t h e p r o g r a m i n t e r v e n t i o n v a r i a b l e s were e v i d e n t data. being  Again, because t h e l e v e l  o f a b s t r a c t i o n o f t h e concepts  m e a s u r e d was low, t h e r e s e a r c h e r  -  i n the available  95 -  was c o n f i d e n t  that  face  validity  would not  entrenched  i n the  be  a p r o b l e m w h i c h had  existing  Supplementation of the that the  researcher  definitions  was  not  of v a r i a b l e s t o  Consequently, the m e a s u r e s had  The  of the  (Monette,  tempted t o m o d i f y f i t the  research  researcher  logical  was  was  pre-tested  The  of the  counsellor  an  (Monette,  1986).  chosen  theoretical  ISJ contracts  Counselling  f o r the  pre-test generally  questionnaire.  feedback,  and  One  two  t o more a d e q u a t e l y d i s t r i b u t e  Resource  T e n t h Avenue  which serves  e m p l o y e r b a s e somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e  H a s t i n g s CEC.  on  in  that the  at the  a n o t h e r m e t r o V a n c o u v e r employment c e n t r e  validity  operational  questions  confident  meant  variables.  Centre t h a t handles the  and  1986).  a v a i l a b l e data  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the  questionnaire  population  been  a v a i l a b l e data with a questionnaire  i n d u c t i v e approach t o the  definitions  data sources  already  confirmed the  question  was  a  client  East content  expanded  measurement s c a l e s w e r e responses f o r the  CEC,  ISJ  based  adjusted  target  group. The clients,  e x p e r i e n c e d employment c o u n s e l l o r s who both the  outreach project the  very  two  CEC  counsellors  counsellors  b a s i c nature of the  assured the  researcher  computer d a t a . inter-observer  of  T h e r e was  had  reliability.  client  and  few  cases  program d a t a  reliability  further test  of t h i s  of  computer p r i n t  out  reliability  p u n c h p e r s o n n e l who  was had  the  i n which  as w e l l  as  extracted, the  inter-coder  A comparison of o r i g i n a l  documents w i t h t h e o f key  the  documented c l i e n t s ,  inter-coder no  and  documented  a c h e c k on originally  or  contract the input  the  data.  A  random s e l e c t i o n o f 10%  errors  i n 104  design  r e q u i r e d no  consistency The  pieces  repetition  questionnaire  reliability  as  study.  employment b e n e f i t t o t h e  The  latter,  client  c o u n s e l l o r , was the  acquired  evident  f o u n d t o be  critical  value  not  of of  a  dependant v a r i a b l e s  intended  t o be  from program the  w h i c h were n o t  The  a measure  of  participation.  opinion of  could  the  have  correlation  at the  at the .01  measured  coefficient 1%  level  as  immediately  agreement i n r a n k  d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was  .40  issue.  o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l outcomes as w e l l  significant of  or  a more i n c l u s i v e m e a s u r e w h i c h  t h r o u g h employment. two  stability  was  i m m e d i a t e employment outcome b u t  Spearman's r a n k o r d e r was  two  client  employment s k i l l s  between t h e s e  The  b e n e f i t b a s e d on  encompassed b r o a d e r s o c i a l any  an  research  or homogeneity  a measurement i n s t r u m e n t  the  considered  consistency  i n t h a t e a c h was  overall  not  two  i n c l u d e d p r i m a r i l y s i n g l e measurements  i s s u e i n the  exception,  referring  Because the  o f measurement, t h e  so t h a t i n t e r n a l  questionnaire  were an  of information.  o f t h e m e a s u r e s o v e r t i m e was  characteristics the  of c o n t r a c t s , i d e n t i f i e d  (rho) (rho =  orders using and  in  .45,  fact,  with  a  level).  Data A n a l y s i s  W i t h 64 information by  u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s and collected  computer, u s i n g  on  26  v a r i a b l e s or  each u n i t , the  data  items  a n a l y s i s was  the Michigan I n t e r a c t i v e Data A n a l y s i s  - 97  -  of done System  (MIDAS) f r o m t h e University  of  Statistical  the  analysis  review period.  describe  and  The analysis  guiding of  the  The  Patton evaluation  implementation. factors or  local  related  identify  and  the  built  the  success,  of  d e s i g n and  administration, the  outcome f o r t h e  target  Scatter  CEC  to  of  of  the  design with research,  the  outcome  high  through  evidence of  could  bivariate  between  the  bivariate  program  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or  be  opportunity  CEC  administration,  identified  s e l e c t i o n procedures,  as contract  even program m a r k e t i n g might improve the  overall  be  employment  group.  p l o t s were g e n e r a t e d on  i d e n t i f y the  s h a p e , d i r e c t i o n and  early  data  i n the  some  the  dispersion  relationships  i n t o the  client  and  research required  program i n t e r v e n t i o n ,  correlates  adjusted within  or  d e p e n d e n t employment  l a b o u r market c o n d i t i o n s  and  were  o f measurement o f  potentially influence  If client to  participants  statistics.  m o d e l , meant t h a t  could  research,  A p p r o p r i a t e measures  variability  formative evaluation  utilization potential  relationships  level  questions behind the  independent v a r i a b l e s variables.  the  descriptive  data to  the  These r e s u l t s  each v a r i a b l e .  measures of the  d a t a were p r e s e n t e d as  ISJ  of  p a r a g r a p h s w i t h summary t a b l e s  t e n d e n c y , b a s e d on  variables,  function  used to describe  in descriptive  histograms, to central  descriptive  was  program over the  presented  the  Michigan.  Consistent with the univariate  Research Laboratory of  analysis.  the  strength  Appropriate -  98  computer t o  -  of  pictorially  associations,  statistical  measures  of  association of  were t h e n u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e  relationships  helpful  to  ensure that  statistical data  the  on  association,  principle  not  the  also  evident  f r o m non-SAR p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  in  in the  significance  s t u d y and  The  data  which c a t e g o r i c a l l y the  analysis  in  one  the  level  i d e n t i f i e d as over the  of  identified  client.  The  't  range of  input,  1  the test  assistance  a d i s t i n c t sub  test  non-probability  group  opportunity  results  sampling design,  c o u l d not  be  used to  draw  d e f i n e d p o p u l a t i o n group from which t h e  were drawn. convenient  the  program  factors.  Because of the  a well  ISJ  were u s e d t o t e s t w h e t h e r s o c i a l  (SAR's) c o u l d be  output  the  were i d e n t i f i a b l e a s  variable  Chi-Square t e s t s  of  a l l participants  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e o f  recipients  the  were  overlooked  recipients,  t h i s sub-sample o f  These i n d i v i d u a l s  measurement on  to  were n o t  more r e c e n t t a r g e t i n g  s o c i a l assistance  f o c u s e d on  study.  and  plots  strength  analysis.  specifically  and  Scatter  non-linear relationships,  measures of  Because of  also  between v a r i a b l e s .  magnitude or  The  significance  standards of the  could  Limitations  of  l i m i t a t i o n of  the  the  99  -  observations used  as in  chance  this alone.  Study  the  one  the  t i m e frame  year Masters  T h i s t i m e frame l i m i t e d t h e  -  inferences  sample  e x p e c t e d by  s t u d y was  a t i m e f r a m e imposed by  S o c i a l Work p r o g r a m .  o n l y be  comparison between t h e  r e s u l t s w h i c h w o u l d be  greatest  research;  tests  the  research  of of  design,  which i t s e l f  Operational resources  requirements  c o u l d be  S u p p o r t was the  complete the  t o the  Although  CEC  to support  the  study.  meant t h a t l i m i t e d the  research  staff  activity.  as w e l l as t h e t i m e f o r c o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f  and to  questionnaire. o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t meant t h a t  j u d g m e n t s c o u l d be made f r o m t h e the  opportunity  on  c o n s u l t a t i o n t i m e between s t a f f  u n c o n t r o l l e d nature  tentative  conceptual  d e s i g n was  only  research findings.  to i d e n t i f y which input  and  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d employment o u t c o m e s , n o t h i n g  known a b o u t t h e by  w i t h i n the  allocated  limited  researcher,  The  imposed major l i m i t a t i o n s  employment l e v e l s w h i c h w o u l d h a v e b e e n  comparable c l i e n t  groups not  exposed t o the  was  achieved  same p r o g r a m  intervention. Any in  t e n t a t i v e j u d g m e n t s w h i c h d i d emerge f r o m t h e  support  of the  research hypothesis  the n o n - p r o b a b i l i t y sampling clearly  identify  this  non-representative atypicalities  and  judgments a r r i v e s p,  design.  limitation,  s a m p l e , one  were f u r t h e r l i m i t e d Reid  stating  and  Smith  that with  by  very a  makes j u d g m e n t s a b o u t p o s s i b l e  biases of the at informed  research  sample and  speculation  on  the b a s i s of  ( R e i d and  Smith,  these 1081,  179). Very l i t t l e  between t h e  East Hastings  metropolitan that the  CEC  areas.  East Hastings  relatively area  i s known a b o u t t h e  served  low  CEC  client  Although CEC  education  shares  and  similarity  low  population  100  and  i t i s generally a client  -  other  recognized  b a s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  income l e v e l s  f r o m t h e West T e n t h Avenue CEC, -  or differences  and  similar to  the  that this  area  has  a high  serves  o r i e n t a l population, while  a high East  to g e n e r a l i z e the The  informed  Indian  client  area  served  research design  CEC.  r e s e a r c h was  not  areas.  The  limited  data  by  the  research  analysis itself  geographic  immediate  operations  CEC  limited  number o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s (26)  s a f e l y be inflated  i t was used,  the  study,  as t h e y  guidelines  the  f o r both  Therefore  and  Because of the  the  only b i v a r i a t e  r e s u l t s used t o generate f u r t h e r enquiry  b e n e f i t t o the  also departed  was  small  large  sample could  (64) not  w o u l d be v u l n e r a b l e t o s p u r i o u s l y  of the dependent v a r i a b l e s , the overall  have  i n that i t did  clear that multivariate analyses  findings.  examined, w i t h  areas,  this  design.  include multiple regression analysis.  available,  of  i n the  c o m p r o m i s e d by  t o o t h e r p r o g r a m managers i n o t h e r  definitely  the  The  possible  future population  p r o j e c t sponsors  the East Hastings  f u n c t i o n of the  to the  CEC  not  f e a t u r e , however, t h e w i d e r b e n e f i t w h i c h m i g h t  accrued  not  by  i t was  other geographic  limited  I S J p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s and  Fraser Street  population,  f i n d i n g s to these  s p e c u l a t i o n was  the  very widely  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were hypotheses  and  program p l a n n i n g .  Both  i m m e d i a t e employment outcome  client  from program  from n o r m a l i t y ,  n o n p a r a m e t r i c m e a s u r e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n as  and  participation,  r e q u i r i n g t h e use appropriate  of  statistical  procedures. I f t h e t i m e had experienced  n o t b e e n as  and  the  researcher  more  with m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis, m u l t i p l e regression  might have i d e n t i f i e d c o u l d be  limited  accounted  the proportion of the  f o r by  a l l the -  101  total  variance  which  independent v a r i a b l e s included -  i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program model. shown t o a c c o u n t  f o r e v e n 15%  I f t h e model c o u l d have been  o f t h e outcome v a r i a n c e ,  have been c o n s i d e r e d a w o r t h w h i l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e field, and  particularly  Smith,  1981).  c o n s u m i n g and earlier, The on t h e  at this  t h e r e s u l t s weak and  suspect  m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was  local  not  r e s e a r c h question, which addressed  the  l a b o u r m a r k e t on  In the  identified address  the net  creation impact be  i n Chapter  effect  Two,  of the  I S J program.  1 9 8 0 ) , and  impact  (Bishop,  impact  the o v e r a l l  area.  Nevertheless,  subsidized, in  the  study  terms not job  measures o f  the  Monson &  to conclude  almost  of the  sixty-four  that  c o u l d make no  negligible  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the  over whether t h e  or whether i t a f f e c t e d  by  t h e b u r d e n o f unemployment and individuals  the  I S J program  102  -  CEC  truly  employment  substituted group  debate  employment  structure of  f o r non-target  -  the  j o b s w h i c h were  number o f j o b s a s a c o u n t e r c y c l i c a l  term unemployed  did  as t h e t r u e  Franlas, Keeley,  initiative, shifting  local  l a b o u r market w i t h i n t h e E a s t H a s t i n g s  the economic l i t e r a t u r e  created t h i s  study  ISJ  l a b o u r m a r k e t , a r e known t o  s i x t y - f o u r j o b s w h i c h were s u b s i d i z e d h a d on  cited  fourth  l a b o u r economic  i t w o u l d seem r e a s o n a b l e  impact  of the  Meaningful  o f employment p r o g r a m s on t h e  d i f f i c u l t to identify  Robins,  employment  time  of the  from the  t h i s meant t h a t t h e  incremental  as  attempted.  This i s d i s t i n c t  I S J outcome.  (Reid  f o r the reasons  attempt t o measure t h e e f f e c t  l a b o u r market.  the  program  exploratory research stage.  However, w i t h t h e t a s k r e c o g n i z e d  s t u d y made no  i t could  long  workers.  Another  limitation  o f t h e s t u d y was t h e measurement o f  employment o u t c o m e s a t one p o i n t c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e program. least is  i n time,  Longitudinal  immediately client  upon  follow-up a t  s i x months a n d p r e f e r a b l y a f t e r one o r two y e a r s a s w e l l ,  a b e t t e r m e a s u r e o f p r o g r a m outcome. Some r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e  concluded that there i s very l i t t l e placement  (cited  i n Coffin,  employment outcomes m e a s u r e d i m m e d i a t e l y  c o m p l e t i o n may d e c a y investment  especially  i n human c a p i t a l  through  the worker a t t h e end o f t h e s u b s i d y Such l o n g i t u d i n a l  f o l l o w - u p might  which a l t e r n a t e between s h o r t term assistance.  immediate  upon  affects the oscillating  employment,  has been unable  t r a c k employment p a t t e r n s  employment a n d unemployment  T h i s evidence might  intervention  (Jonhar A s s o c i a t e s ,  I f t h e u n d e r l y i n g program assumption  that  a recent,  t i m e employment r e c o r d p r o v i d e d b y t h e I S J g e n e r a l l y t h e c o m p e t i t i v e l a b o u r market p o s i t i o n o f t h e l o n g  subsequent  one w o u l d e x p e c t t h i s t o program  t h e n be  employment p a t t e r n w h i c h i s f r e q u e n t l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l o n g term unemployed  unemployed,  to hire  period.  t o address whether t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program  1981).  1983).  r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e o n - t h e - j o b  i f t h e s p o n s o r i n g employer  insurance or s o c i a l  from  o v e r t i m e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e  t r a i n i n g may n o t b e r e a l i z e d  used  program  i s c o r r e l a t e d with long-run success r e s u l t i n g  employment a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s Positive  evidence that post  full  improves  term  employment p a t t e r n t o c h a n g e  participation.  - 103 -  Ethical  The  Issues  i n the  r e s e a r c h d i d not a f f e c t  p a r t i c i p a n t s who  the  Research  lives  of the  were t h e u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s  the research process  i n v o l v e d no d i r e c t  previous participants.  a u t h o r i z e s the use  of c l i e n t  and  Information  acknowledges t h a t t h e EIC undertakes and  i n the project,  contact with  A l l participants  complete p o r t i o n s o f a C l i e n t  I S J program  these  sponsors  sheet  as  routinely  which  follow-up surveys  and  which  program i n f o r m a t i o n f o r program  evaluation. The  ethical  i s s u e of c a r r y i n g out  w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e agency has c o n c l u s i o n of Chapter of t h i s  Three,  independent  research while  a l r e a d y been a d d r e s s e d i n the context of the  r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t with the  field  at  the  integration  placement of the  Masters  o f S o c i a l Work p r o g r a m . The  researcher requested  obtain approval included  f o r the project  r e s e a r c h was  conducted  i n accordance  course,  by  approved  on E t h i c s  a copy o f t h i s  was  obtained  Manager i n November  S o c i a l Work 553,  as an  The  UBC  104  -  D.  -  manager  request i s  from  individual  the  Metro  Columbia  t o August ethics  class project  in  g u i d e l i n e s f o r the  of B r i t i s h  f o r t h e p e r i o d A u g u s t 1986  CEC  1986.  with e t h i c a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  Committee G u i d e l i n e s , 1 9 8 6 ) . Appendix  and  a s A p p e n d i x C. A p p r o v a l  Vancouver D i s t r i c t The  that the East Hastings  1987  form  Committee  (Ethics  i s i n c l u d e d as  CHAPTER V I  FINDINGS  Univariate  Client  Characteristics  Fifty  eight  Analysis  (A)  percent  I S J p r o g r a m were m a l e .  o f t h e c l i e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d Figure I I I i s a histogram  i d e n t i f i e s t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s entered oldest percent  t h e program. was 60 y e a r s  i nthe  which  a t t h e time  they  The y o u n g e s t p a r t i c i p a n t was 16, t h e and t h e mean age was 29.3 y e a r s .  of a l l participants  were between  20 and 24 y e a r s  and 41% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  were aged 25 t o 34 y e a r s .  percent  fell  of participants  Fifty  i n t o what i s f r e q u e n t l y  as t h e p r i m e age w o r k i n g c a t e g o r y ,  Thirty o f age two  referred to  25 t o 44 y e a r s .  F I G U R E III Aa« R a n g * ©< Participants  20 1 11  n H  3 t  I  S E 1  1! 1. 13 12 11 10  7 « 9 4 3 2 1  0  FT^q F T T ^— F -I —'—*-i — T n 19—19  2 0 -24  29-2»  30-34  39-3»  40--4-4  A g * r a n g * in r « f »  - 105 -  40-49  90-94  90-90  «0-«4  The are  employment c o u n s e l l o r s  required  at the  time of  that  78%  client.  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  a l l participants  one  of  had  as  category of  immigrant or  adapting to the  slightly  (22%)  over several assistance  y e a r s had  and  were i d e n t i f i e d as  Table  identifies or  i d e n t i f i e d that  disadvantage  C a n a d i a n way  defined had  of  life.  lifestyles  recipients.  9  Employment D i s a d v a n t a g e Number  Percent  Hearing Impaired Learning Disabled C h r o n i c Unemployed Ex-alcoholic Language B a r r i e r M o b i l i t y Impaired Ex-inmate L o n g Term W e l f a r e R e c i p i e n t Cultural Barrier Other S o c i a l Disadvantage  1 1 2 2 2 3 3 14 15 21  1.6 1.6 3.1 3.1 3.1 4.7 4.7 21.9 23.4 32.8  ALL  64  (SAR's) who sub-group,  i n d i v i d u a l s were t h e  were compared t o l a t e r i n the  A  dependent upon s o c i a l  long term w e l f a r e  Characteristic  These f o u r t e e n  23%  their principal  were i n d i v i d u a l s whose  been h e a v i l y  Principal  and  r e f u g e e w o r k e r s who  experienced d i f f i c u l t y s m a l l e r group  the  three disadvantages  a c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r as This  program  principal  Table 9 l i s t s  Employment c o u n s e l l o r s  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e . these p a r t i c i p a n t s  had  the  i d e n t i f y the  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  employment b a r r i e r s . of  refer c l i e n t s to  r e f e r r a l to  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e principal  who  100.0  social assistance  recipients  o t h e r program p a r t i c i p a n t s  study.  -  The  106  largest  -  single  group  as of  a  participants  (33%)  specifically  under other c a t e g o r i e s but grouped t o g e t h e r  other  had  social barriers  The  education  a n t i c i p a t e d by  social  to  level  problems w h i c h were n o t  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s was  group.  level.  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s had  education,  h i g h e r t h a n had  employment c o u n s e l l o r s , f o r a l o n g  64%  o n l y 8%  had  as  employment.  unemployed c l i e n t While  identified  Table  achieved  10  identifies at l e a s t  grade e i g h t or  Table  the  been  term education  a grade  twelve  less.  10  Education  Completed Grade  Number  8 or l e s s 9 t o 11 12 13 o r more ALL  Percent  5 18 31 9  7.9 28.6 49.2 14.3  63  100.00  The  client  i n f o r m a t i o n sheet  records  labour  f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n patterns over  months i m m e d i a t e l y  prior  to the  completed  ISJ.  Table  on  11  a l l participants, the  twelve  summarizes  these  data. Seventy three percent during the twelve p a r t i c i p a n t s had twelve  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s had  months i m m e d i a t e l y n o t been a v a i l a b l e  month p e r i o d a s  v a r y i n g p e r i o d s of time  five up  prior  n o t had  any  t o t h e program.  f o r work d u r i n g t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l s had t o n i n e months.  attended  107  -  Some  whole  school for  Five individuals  a l s o b e e n u n a v a i l a b l e f o r work f o r u n s p e c i f i e d r e a s o n s -  work  for  had  Table  11  Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Immediately P r i o r t o Months  None - 3 - 6 - 9 - 12  ALL  periods of  t i m e l a s t i n g up  12 4 1 0  18.8 6.3 1.6 0.0  1 6 9 48  1.6 9.4 14.1 75.1  64  100. 0  64  100.0  t o n i n e months.  term,  unemployment, b u t satisfied the  the  the  e n t i r e t w e l v e months and  had  whole y e a r  immediately p r i o r t o the  ISJ.  p a r t i c i p a n t s not  a l m o s t two  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  d e p e n d e n t s and  w h e t h e r t h e y had  m e a s u r e d on level  term  of  generally  the  family low.  s i n g l e w i t h no  four  scale  This  clients  level  of  family  variable,  108  i d e n t i f i e d i n Table  4 i n d i v i d u a l s were -  had  could  which  number o f d e p e n d e n t s ,  only  in  unemployment.  Seventy three percent of p a r t i c i p a n t s  -  also  referred to  was  12.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of program p a r t i c i p a n t s  d e p e n d e n t s and  met  term  a p a r t n e r w i t h whom t h e y  w i t h the  point  generally  i n r e l a t i o n t o whether they  responsibility. status  the  frequently  long  responsibility  only  long  t h i r d s of  s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o measure t h e  combined m a r i t a l  shown had  l i t e r a t u r e on  share t h i s family  63%  s i x month d e f i n i t i o n o f that  Although not  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  t w e l v e month c r i t e r i a  professional The  i d e n t i f i e d that  r e s u l t showed t h a t  shorter  Percent 0.0  f o r work d u r i n g  This  Number 0  been a v a i l a b l e  f o r the  Percent 73.4  the  been unemployed  data  Unemployed  47  in this table,  the  ISJ  Worked Number  1 4 7 10  Twelve Months  The was  were single  Table Level  of Family  12 Responsibility  Level  Number  Percent  47  73.4  Married or equivalent w i t h no d e p e n d e n t s  2  3.1  Married or equivalent w i t h dependents  11  17.2  4  6.3  64  100.0  Single with no d e p e n d e n t s  Single with dependents ALL  w i t h dependents, the h i g h e s t assigned l e v e l  of family  responsibility. Finally, motivation 13  c o u n s e l l o r s were a s k e d t o a s s e s s t h e  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  identifies  counsellors,  at the beginning  that i n the opinion of these 87%  none o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s was  referring  of the  ISJ.  In  fact,  r e p o r t e d t o have been p o o r l y  14  identifies  t h e j o b s w h i c h were s u b s i d i z e d by according t o the Canadian  D i c t i o n a r y of Occupations.  subsidized  Table  or  (B)  occupational groupings and  ISJ.  motivated.  Program I n t e r v e n t i o n Table  of the  of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s demonstrated b e t t e r than  a v e r a g e m o t i v a t i o n t o work a t t h e s t a r t  very poorly  work  jobs  fell  Seventy-eight  Classification  percent  into three occupational areas:  -  109  -  major  of a l l processing  Table  13  R e f e r r i n g C o u n s e l l o r ' s Assessment o f Client  Motivation  Motivation  Number  Percent  Very High High Average Poor Very Poor  10 46 8 0 0  15. 6 71.9 12.5 0.0 0.0  ALL  64  100.0  Table  14  S u b s i d i z e d Jobs by O c c u p a t i o n  Number  Percent  M a n a g e r i a l and P r o f e s s i o n a l C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d Sales Service Primary Processing Construction Trades Transportation M a t e r i a l Handling  3 19 3 7 0 23 2 1 5  4.8 30.2 4.8 11.1 0.0 36.5 3.2 1.6 7.9  ALL  64  100.0  Occupation  (37%), these  clerical  (30%) and s e r v i c e  jobs by i n d u s t r i a l  j o b s were i n t h r e e (34%),  the trades  remaining  sector.  industrial  (11%).  Table  15  identifies  O v e r 90% o f a l l s u b s i d i z e d  sectors;  the service sector  (31%) and m a n u f a c t u r i n g  (25%) s e c t o r .  The s i x  j o b s were i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  sectors.  - no -  Table Subsidized  15  J o b s by  Industry  Percent  Number  Industry Service Sector Trade Manufacturing Construction Transportation and C o m m u n i c a t i o n  22 20 16 5 1  ALL  64  Recognizing  that these  34.4 31.3 25.0 7.8 1.6  100.0  categories are f a i r l y  broad,  employment c o u n s e l l o r s were n o t s u r p r i s e d a t t h e c l u s t e r i n g o f the  subsidized jobs  industrial labour  sectors, given  the composition  subsidy  16 i d e n t i f i e s  the intended  of the East  w h i c h was s p e c i f i e d  duration  i n the o r i g i n a l  as t h e a c t u a l program d u r a t i o n r e c o r d e d  program.  Figures  same d a t a  f o r comparison o f t h e intended  a c t u a l program The  Hastings  I S J c o n t r a c t , as a t t h e end o f t h e these  duration with the  duration.  original  contract duration  i s negotiated  T h e mean i n t e n d e d  with the  requirements o f the j o b ,  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e c l i e n t CEC.  o f t h e wage  I V and V a r e h i s t o g r a m s w h i c h p r e s e n t s  employer, based upon t h e s k i l l  the  categories or  market.  Table  well  either within occupational  the  and t h e p r o g r a m b u d g e t a t  d u r a t i o n was 26.3 weeks a n d t h e  a c t u a l mean d u r a t i o n d r o p p e d t o 17.0 weeks.  -  ill  -  A one s i d e d ' t '  Table Intended  & Actual  6 or less 7-12 13-18 19 - 24 25 - 30 31-36 37-42 43-52 ALL  5 5 15 24 7 6 2  7.8 7.8 23.4 37.5 10.9 9.4 3.1  64  100.0  i d e n t i f i e d t h a t t h i s was  (significant  at the  1%  Fourteen  percent  s i x weeks and  any  job turned  had  o r i g i n a l l y been n e g o t i a t e d study  out  t o be  d i d not  the  of the  first  durations  ISJ Actual Number Percent  participants  and  contributed to this  i n v e s t i g a t e why  high  in  the  expectations  length of  of the 38  was  within  original  on  contracts  program  employment the  part of  f a c t o r which might  an  program.  o v e r s e n s i t i v i t y on  the  employers,  one  i s often  employment c o u n s e l l o r r e p o r t e d  -  112  -  both  have  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s t o n o r m a l work demands made by experienced  the  week d u r a t i o n .  drop-out r a t e e a r l y i n the  Another p o s s i b l e explanation  the  subsidization for  t o exceed t h i s  one  100.0  contracts terminated  38 weeks w h e r e a s 8%  e m p l o y e r s as  64  intended  longest period of  unrealistic  14.1 21.9 16.3 20.3 25.0 3.1 1.6  = 5.71)  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d ; however,  counsellors cited  9 14 8 13 16 2 1  reduction  a t-value  compared t o t h e  the  The  of  a significant  l e v e l with  a c t u a l program d u r a t i o n s program.  Duration  Intended Number Percent  Weeks  test  16  part  which  evident  I n t e n d e d  D u r a t i o n  Actual Duration  1-4  5-8  9-12  13-1«17-2021-2*2a-282»-3233-3637—40 41-44 4S—484»-52 fhmber  of  naekm  - 113 -  in  long  positive  term unemployed c l i e n t s .  I t seems t h a t  response of the c l i e n t  t o having obtained  way f a i r l y the  quickly to the r e a l i t y  the i n i t i a l a job gives  o f how d i f f i c u l t  i t i s t o make  a d j u s t m e n t t o a work e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e n e c e s s a r y  adaptation  t o r o u t i n e work p a t t e r n s  in relatively  low p a i d  occupations. Employment c o u n s e l l o r s  were o f t h e o p i n i o n  wage r a t e was a l e s s i m p o r t a n t c l i e n t  that  motivation  the absolute  f a c t o r than the  r e l a t i v e wage, w h i c h compared t h e s u b s i d i z e d wage t o t h e wage rate  i n t h e most r e c e n t  was t h a t t h e g r e a t e r the  outcome.  job,  ISJ  therefore  wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s w o u l d be outcomes.  wage r a t e s were, t h e r e f o r e ,  i n the job held  i n the  t h e more s u c c e s s f u l t h e p r o g r a m  with less successful  Subsidized rates  would have been t o s u c c e e d  S i m i l a r l y , negative  associated  The s u s p i c i o n  t h e p o s i t i v e wage d i f f e r e n c e , t h e g r e a t e r  c l i e n t ' s motivation  subsidized  j o b h e l d by t h e c l i e n t .  c o m p a r e d t o wage  immediately p r i o r t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e  a n d m e a s u r e d on t h e f i v e p o i n t  scale  identified  i n T a b l e 17.  T a b l e 17 Difference and  ISJ  between I S J Wage R a t e  Wage R a t e i n J o b I m m e d i a t e l y P r i o r t o I S J  Difference  Number  G r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o $2. $1 t o $1.99 g r e a t e r L e s s t h a n $1 g r e a t e r V i r t u a l l y t h e same Less than previous j o b  10 4 8 8 19  ALL  49 -  114 -  Percent 20.4 8.2 16. 3 16.3 38.8 100.0  For  20% o f t h e 49 p a r t i c i p a n t s on whom t h i s  available,  t h e s u b s i d i z e d wage r a t e was a t l e a s t $2.00  t h a n t h e wage r e c e i v e d for  immediately p r i o r t o t h e I S J .  Referring  i n t h e i r most r e c e n t  counsellors  of the I S J r e l a t i v e  greater However,  participant.  motivation  t o t h e most r e c e n t  of the client  relative  of the subsidized  percent skill  held  skill  level,  counsellors  the greater the  t o l e a r n on-the-job and t h e r e f o r e t h e  jobs  Table  were a t a h i g h e r  18 i d e n t i f i e s skill  immediately p r i o r t o t h e I S J .  of the jobs,  level  employment e x p e r i e n c e o f  S i m i l a r t o t h e r e l a t i v e wage r a t e ,  more s u c c e s s f u l t h e p r o g r a m outcome.  those jobs  employment.  were a s k e d t o a s s e s s t h e s k i l l  suspected that the higher  52%  was  39% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e s u b s i d i z e d wage r a t e was b e l o w t h a t  which they had r e c e i v e d  the  information  counsellors  were n o t a b l e  level  that  than  For sixteen t o assess the  differential.  T a b l e 18 Skill  Level  of ISJ Relative t o Job  Immediately P r i o r t o I S J Level  Number  Substantially higher Somewhat h i g h e r No a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e Lower Unable t o Assess ALL  - 115  Percent  11 22 17 4 10  17.2 34.4 26.6 6.3 15. 6  64  100.0  Referring  c o u n s e l l o r s were a l s o a s k e d t o a s s e s s  whether  c a r e e r p a t h s would have been e v i d e n t t o t h e I S J p a r t i c i p a n t while  they  were  i n t h e program.  o f an o p p o r t u n i t y client for  and p r o d u c e more s u c c e s s f u l o u t c o m e s . not s u f f i c i e n t  be aware t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y participants' Table  that  evidence  f o r c a r e e r advancement w o u l d m o t i v a t e  advancement was  clear  The s u s p i c i o n was  motivation  19 i d e n t i f i e s  career paths.  by i t s e l f ;  The  the  opportunity  the c l i e n t  existed for i t to affect  and h e n c e h a v e a n i m p a c t on  had t o  the  outcome.  t h a t o n l y 28% o f t h e s u b s i d i z e d j o b s h a d  The m a j o r i t y  ofjobs  (55%) o f f e r e d o n l y  limited  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement, w h i l e  offered  no o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r advancement,  14% o f t h e j o b s  according  to  referring  counsellors. Table Career  19  Path I d e n t i f i a b l e t o ISJ P a r t i c i p a n t  Path  Number  Percent  Very Clear Clear Limited No O p p o r t u n i t y Unable t o Assess  1 17 35 9 2  1.6 2 6.6 54.7 14.1 3.1  ALL  64  100.0  One  o f the assumptions behind  s u b s i d i z e d employment  f o r t h e l o n g term unemployed i s t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s w i l l supportive and  of the individual  performance standards  and t h a t a t t e n d a n c e ,  will  programs  be  productivity  be g r a d u a l l y i m p o s e d a f t e r t h e  i n d i v i d u a l h a s s u c c e s s f u l l y made t h e a d j u s t m e n t t o a work  environment.  Referring  a s s e s s t h e commitment underlying  into  t o these The  t h e commitment o f  t h e more s u c c e s s f u l t h e t r a n s i t i o n  environment.  Table 2 0 i d e n t i f i e s  that  3 6% o f t h e i m m e d i a t e s u p e r v i s o r s  p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s showed h i g h  to very  high  employment o b j e c t i v e s  o f t h e program.  counsellors  20% o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s  commitment  were a s k e d t o  o f t h e I S J program.  t e s t e d was t h a t t h e h i g h e r  immediate s u p e r v i s o r , a work  therefore,  o f immediate I S J s u p e r v i s o r s  employment o b j e c t i v e s  assumption being the  counsellors,  felt  that  commitment  of  t o the  However, r e f e r r i n g exhibited  low  o r i n t h e c a s e o f two i n d i v i d u a l s , no commitment, t o  this underlying  program  concept.  Table 20 Commitment  o f Immediate S u p e r v i s o r  Employment O b j e c t i v e s  Level  of  Commitment  to  of ISJ  Number  Percent  Very High High Moderate Low No commitment  4 19 26 13 2  6, 3 29, 7 40, 6 20. 3 3 ,1  ALL  64  100. 0  Finally, interaction subsidized.  t h e s t u d y attempted t o measure t h e e x t e n t required  of social  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e j o b w h i c h  T h e s u s p i c i o n was t h e h i g h e r  was  levels of interaction  w o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h more p o s i t i v e employment outcomes.  While  3 3% o f t h e j o b s -  required  117 -  very  frequent  social  i n t e r a c t i o n through contact several this  t h e p u b l i c o r work  times each hour, the m a j o r i t y  level  percent  with  of  i n t e r a c t i o n only  of the  interaction  subsidized jobs  of jobs  colleagues  (59%)  required  s e v e r a l t i m e s a day.  Nine  required this  social  from p a r t i c i p a n t o n l y  kind  of  o c c a s i o n a l l y , a few  times  each  week.  Program A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The  (C)  study attempted to assess  intervention with  the  client  the  extent  of  counsellor  p r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  program, t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h i s  intervention positively  program outcomes.  i n t e r v e n t i o n was  Counsellor  number o f c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w s who  eventually Table  21  interviewed  r e f e r r e d them t o t h e  identifies by  the  of the  that  referring  were d o c u m e n t e d f o r t h e advised  c l i e n t s had  45%  counsellor prior  Prior to  the  counsellor  not  to the  time  non-counselling  Referring  Counsellor  ISJ P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Number  None One Two Three Four  29 10 7 10 7  ALL  64 118  they  services  21  with  Interviews  been  T h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s were e i t h e r  Table Interviews  with  the  program.  program through other,  Number o f  influenced  m e a s u r e d by  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s had  program.  the  -  Percent 45.3 15.6 10.9 15. 6 10.9 100.0  at  t h e CEC  or i d e n t i f i e d  wage s u b s i d y p r o g r a m . interviewed prior  at least  to the  Routine required  on  directly  However, 27%  done by  knew o f  the  been  the r e f e r r i n g c o u n s e l l o r  ISJ. monitoring,  through  a l l ISJ contracts.  visits  to the job s i t e ,  Management f e l t  b o t h t h e amount a n d  m i g h t a f f e c t p r o g r a m outcome.  is  strongly that who  did  the  M o n i t o r i n g must  be  an employment c o u n s e l l o r ; however, t h e r e i s no  requirement  f o r these  c o u n s e l l o r who Table  22  follow-up v i s i t s  r e f e r r e d the c l i e n t  monitored  a t a l l , and  percent  monitored  at least  who  had  had  one  referred  the  64  Three c o n t r a c t s had  not  been  activity  been m o n i t o r e d  monitoring v i s i t  done by  t o the  t w i c e and  the  were  of contracts  same c o u n s e l l o r  Visits M o n i t o r i n g by Referring Counsellor  Percent  Cases  None One Two Three Four  3 17 30 11 3  4.7 26.6 46.9 17.2 4.7  28 24 11 1  ALL  64  100.0  64  119  22%  ISJ.  Total Monitoring  -  Forty-  22  Monitoring  Cases  o n l y once.  F i f t y - s i x percent  Table  No. o f Visits  same  on  three times.  the c l i e n t  the  program.  o f a l l c o n t r a c t s were m o n i t o r e d  at least  had  27%  t o be made b y  to the  summarizes t h e m o n i t o r i n g  c o n t r a c t s w h i c h were s t u d i e d .  seven  e m p l o y e r s who  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s had  t h r e e t i m e s by  the p a t t e r n of monitoring, monitoring,  by  -  Percent 43 .8 37.5 17.2 1.6  100.0  Labour Market C o n d i t i o n s Two  (D)  l a b o u r m a r k e t v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d a s m e a s u r e s  economic a c t i v i t y .  B o t h v a r i a b l e s were e x t r a c t e d f r o m  of  the  monthly Labour Market Survey of Greater Vancouver produced E c o n o m i c S e r v i c e s o f Employment and variables  represented  w i t h i n the  specific  first  m e a s u r e d by  favorableness of the  occupational area  measured a t t h e time The  the  v a r i a b l e was  sources.  These j o b sources  V a n c o u v e r Sun,  the d i f f i c u l t y  were t h e  B o t h CEC i n the  more c o m p e t i t i o n  cases.  program.  o f j o b s e a r c h and  and  provincial  management and lower  i n the  local  23  through  of  federal  r e c o r d s t h a t f o r 57%  Difficulty Number o f U l C l a i m a n t s Per A d v e r t i s e d Job Vacancy  Number o f  120  who  suspected  associated  available  of these  that  for  subsidized  Search Cases  Percent  17 5 3 5  56.7 16.7 10.0 16.7  30  100.0  ALL -  job  23  of Job  30  through  government  t h e CEIC e c o n o m i s t  T h i s m e a s u r e was  the  private  l a b o u r m a r k e t m i g h t be  Table  0-10 11 - 20 21 - 30 More t h a n  four  edition  mainland l a b o u r market,  program outcomes. Table  and  was  claimants  j o b o r d e r s w h i c h were r e p o r t e d u n f i l l e d  employment a g e n c i e s  30  subsidized job,  Saturday  vacancies  The  market  job vacancy a d v e r t i s e d through  t h e Canada Employment C e n t r e s ,  with poorer  labour  t h e number o f Unemployment I n s u r a n c e  f o r work p e r  specializes  of the  Canada.  p a r t i c i p a n t s completed the  available  postings.  Immigration  by  -  j o b s , t h e r e were t e n o r l e s s Unemployment I n s u r a n c e per a d v e r t i s e d job vacancy.  F o r 27%  o f t h e j o b s t h e r e were  t w e n t y - o n e o r more c l a i m a n t s p e r a d v e r t i s e d The by  second  l a b o u r m a r k e t v a r i a b l e was  Employment and  Immigration  specific ISJ  ISJ occupation,  contract finished.  employment e s t i m a t e s system  then  to the  year  of the  T h i s f o r e c a s t was  from  based  on  local  by  l a b o u r market.  specific  The  o c c u p a t i o n a l area, the b e t t e r the  jobs.  m e a s u r e was Table  24  data  and  demand f o r l a b o u r employment  program.  available  identifies  f o r o n l y 28  t h a t f o r 70%  Table Balance  and  anticipated  i n the s p e c i f i c  of the  Projection  Employment  with occupation  the  provincial  the Canadian O c c u p a t i o n a l  t h a t the higher the r e l a t i v e  The  relative  demand f o r t h e  a s s o c i a t i o n was  outcome a t t h e end  projection  r e p o r t e d d u r i n g t h e month i n w h i c h  Canada, b l e n d e d  adapted  a two  industrial  (COPS), a f o r e c a s t i n g model u s e d  Immigration  vacancy.  Canada e c o n o m i s t s  b a l a n c e b e t w e e n l a b o u r s u p p l y and  claimants  Between  Supply  and  of the  of these  a  Occupational Demand Number  Extreme S u r p l u s Moderate Surplus Light Surplus R e l a t i v e Balance L i g h t Requirement Moderate Requirement Extreme Requirement  0 10 10 0 8 0 0  ALL  28 121  jobs,  24  Balance  -  64 s u b s i d i z e d  -  Percent 0.0 35.7 35.7 0.0 28.6 0.0 0.0 100.0  moderate o r l i g h t over the next  s u r p l u s o f s u p p l y o v e r demand -was p r o j e c t e d  two y e a r s , b u t f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g  l a b o u r demand e x c e e d e d t h e a v a i l a b l e  supply,  between  as a l i g h t  Outcomes  s u p p l y and demand i d e n t i f i e d  28% o f t h e j o b s  with the  requirement.  (D)  T h e r e were two m e a s u r e s o f t h e p r o g r a m outcome, treated the  balance  as a dependent v a r i a b l e  i n the study.  i m m e d i a t e , p o s t p r o g r a m employment  Fifty-nine percent  Table  outcome  with 25  each records  for participants.  o f a l l p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s were e m p l o y e d a t  t h e end o f t h e I S J c o n t r a c t p e r i o d .  Of t h e t o t a l  participants,  f o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t were employed w i t h t h e same e m p l o y e r w i t h three of these Sixteen percent another Two  i n d i v i d u a l s promoted  from t h e s u b s i d i z e d j o b .  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s had found  employer, w i t h h a l f  of these  p a r t i c i p a n t s became s e l f  employment  i n jobs related  with  t o the ISJ.  employed.  Table Employment  25 Outcome  Outcome  Number  Percent  E m p l o y e d w i t h same e m p l o y e r , p r o m o t e d E m p l o y e d w i t h same e m p l o y e r , i d e n t i c a l j o b E m p l o y e d w i t h same e m p l o y e r , u n r e l a t e d j o b Employed w i t h d i f f e r e n t employer, r e l a t e d j o b Employed w i t h d i f f e r e n t employer, u n r e l a t e d j o b S e l f employed Unemployed, c o l l e c t i n g U l Unemployed, on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Unemployed, n o t r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c income a s s i s t a n c e Employment s t a t u s n o t known Moved o u t o f a r e a  3 23 0 5 5 2 2 3 1 18 2  4.7 35.9 0.0 7.8 7.8 3.1 3.1 4.7 1.6 28.1 3.1  ALL  64  100.0  - 122  -  O n l y 9% o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were known t o h a v e b e e n unemployed counsellors  immediately  following  t h e p r o g r a m , however r e f e r r i n g  d i d n o t know t h e employment  large proportion  status  of a  relatively  (31%) o f p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s , i m m e d i a t e l y  upon  completion o f the I S J . Referring benefitted as  counsellors  were a s k e d w h e t h e r c l i e n t s h a d  i n a n o v e r a l l way f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o g r a m ,  a s e c o n d measure  o f t h e p r o g r a m outcome.  This  outcome was a b r o a d e r i n d i c a t o r o f t h e o v e r a l l b e n e f i t t h a n t h e i m m e d i a t e employment  outcome  measure o f  employment reported  I t may h a v e b e e n a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e i n c r e a s e  earlier.  i n human c a p i t a l  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , a s a n i n v e s t m e n t w h i c h w o u l d become e v i d e n t i n l o n g e r term measures o f program Table 2 6 i d e n t i f i e s  that  benefit.  referring counsellors  23% o f p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d b e n e f i t t e d overall,  that  s u b s t a n t i a l l y and t h a t  80% o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a d b e n e f i t t e d  participation  assessed  i n some way f r o m  i n t h e I S J program.  T a b l e 26 Counsellor's Client  Assessment o f Benefit  Benefit Substantial benefit D e f i n i t e l y some b e n e f i t Very l i t t l e b e n e f i t No known b e n e f i t Unable t o assess ALL  -  123 -  Number 15 29 7 10 3  Percent 23.4 45.3 10.9 15.6 4.7  64  100.0  Summary and As  Discussion  a descriptive  t e r m unemployed The  client  group c o n s i s t e d  participants years.  of  a w i d e age  fell  i n t o the  or  socially  research had  program.  of  the  working category of were  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d  or  25  to  either long  low.  m o t i v a t e d t o work and As  a group, the  participated  program.  i n the  participants  immediately p r i o r to a l l participants This  t o be the  had  the  program.  the  s i x month c r i t e r i a  unemployed, but frequently  referred  surprising  term  worked a t  l o n g e r one  i n the  sectors.  of  The  actual  -  them as  -  of  not  to only  term  more  literature.  that  t r a d e and  quarter  met  long  year c r i t e r i a  duration  124  3 0 weeks  year p r i o r  therefore  professional  service,  parents  the  was  j o b s w h i c h were s u b s i d i z e d  i n the  family  eligibility  a l l i n the  employment c o u n s e l l o r s  the  of  half  participants  single  out  over  i n f a c t almost three  p r o c e s s i n g o c c u p a t i o n s and  j o b s were c r e a t e d industrial  to to  two-thirds of and  unemployed 24  which i d e n t i f i e d  the  few  Although program  program, not  very  group of p a r t i c i p a n t s  also  level  Almost t h r e e q u a r t e r s of  d e p e n d e n t s and  clerical  long  t h a n women.  range, j u s t over h a l f  were s i n g l e w i t h no  that  the  i n the  s l i g h t l y more men  appeared w e l l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was  Not  participated  p r i m e age  were h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s .  of  identified  recipients.  Participants  required  Analysis  Over t h r e e q u a r t e r s of p a r t i c i p a n t s  culturally welfare  study, the  i n d i v i d u a l s who  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was  44  of U n i v a r i a t e  the  finding  were  o v e r 90%  in of  manufacturing contracts  was  these  significantly to high  shorter than o r i g i n a l l y  attrition  Generally, favorable. with  e a r l y i n the  conditions  skill  level  employment.  evidence of opportunity quarter the  of the  t h a n t h e i r most r e c e n t increase  Within  subsidized jobs,  employment s k i l l s  p r o g r a m by  employers,  the  CEC  self-marketed  referring  and  three  program. the  but  labour  directly  c o u n s e l l o r s were o f t e n n o t  f i n d i n g s suggested  had  c l i e n t s who  had  t o employers. involved  counsellor.  seekers  two-thirds  of the  which labour year  m a r k e t showed a w i d e r a n g e o f c o m p e t i t i o n  i n those occupations subsidized  supply  was  w h i c h were s u b s i d i z e d .  j o b s were i n o c c u p a t i o n a l  projected  in  in project  employment  job  for  Although  twice  labour  been  exchange a c t i v i t i e s  o f a l l p r o j e c t s were m o n i t o r e d a t  The  that  been i d e n t i f i e d  two-thirds  an  of  the  monitoring, by  some  approximately one-third  CEC,  direct  their  was  advancement i n o v e r  a counsellor's caseload,  o r had  s e t t i n g , there  p a r t i c i p a n t s were n o t  the  jobs  i n wage r a t e s o v e r  job  o b j e c t i v e of the  c l o s e to h a l f of the  in  quite  employment,  were h i g h l y c o m m i t t e d t o  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y w i t h i n the  c a r r i e d on  the  for career  immediate s u p e r v i s o r s  due  program.  c l i e n t s were s u b s i d i z e d  e v e n t h o u g h h a l f r e c e i v e d no most r e c e n t  primarily  i n t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t a p p e a r e d  Over h a l f o f t h e  a higher  negotiated,  least  among Over  areas  t o e x c e e d demand o v e r a  two  period. The  program impact appeared f a i r l y  measures o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s had  employment outcome.  p o s i t i v e b a s e d on  Over t w o - t h i r d s  d e f i n i t e l y b e n e f i t t e d from t h e -  125  -  of  program  two  in  according to the  period  r e f e r r i n g counsellors  of  employer.  subsidization,  The  absence of  d e s i g n , meant t h a t totally  and  59%  although not  a control  were e m p l o y e d  beyond  always w i t h the  same  group i n the  t h e s e employment g a i n s c o u l d  attributed to  the  program.  research not,  N o t h i n g was  known o f  employment l e v e l s w h i c h m i g h t h a v e b e e n a c h i e v e d of  the  program  s t u d y was  Analysis  information  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  independent v a r i a b l e s  and  on  the  the  the  level  These s t a t i s t i c a l nominal l e v e l  tests  Kruskal-Wallis  scale A  and  B o r g a t t a and  selected,  particular variables.  Mann-Whitney U t e s t o f measurement,  the  f o r nominal  Spearman's r a n k m e a s u r e d on  for  data  order an  ordinal  1956).  convincing  c a s e has  been put  f o r t h i n the  B o h r n s t e d t , t h a t most o f t h e  i n the  continuous data, such t h a t  categories,  as  variables.  t e s t s were  of variance  coefficient for variables  (Siegel,  constructs  the  the  categories  one-way a n a l y s i s  w i t h more t h a n two correlation  included  d a t a w i t h two  factors  d e p e n d e n t , outcome  o f measurement o f  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  program o p p o r t u n i t y  Non-parametric, b i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l b a s e d on  the absence  designed to provide decisionmakers at  employment c e n t r e w i t h client  i n the  be  intervention.  Bivariate  The  however,  s o c i a l sciences and  analysis  that  using  the  are  latent  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  126  -  unobserved  conceptualized  parametric s t a t i s t i c s -  l i t e r a t u r e by  as  these variables will  not  is  seriously bias  the  estimates  (Borgatta  & Bohrnstedt,  1981).  B a s e d on  t h i s argument, p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s m i g h t h a v e b e e n  selected  t o measure t h e  immediately f a c t the used. the  non-parametric s t a t i s t i c a l  W i t h o u t r e j e c t i n g B o r g a t t a ' s and  more c o n s e r v a t i v e  the  were n o t  thirteen point  overall  more  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h o r d i n a l measurement s c a l e s ,  more c o n s e r v a t i v e  associations on  c o r r e l a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s  client  c h o i c e was  Bohrnstedt's  made t o  over stated,  and  ensure  benefit,  as  the  two  tests  were  position,  that  because the  employment outcome s c a l e  when i n  distribution  as w e l l  as  dependent v a r i a b l e s  the  did  not  approximate normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s .  Client  Characteristics  The  data analysis  b e t w e e n any  of the  four  i d e n t i f i e d no  client  independent v a r i a b l e s The  (A)  and  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  of the  seven c l i e n t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as e i t h e r of the  cases over the  p o o r and  For  example, t w e l v e months t u r n e d o u t  doubt a f f e c t e d  time frame.  the  t o be  i d e n t i f i e d the  unemployment w h i c h i s s t i l l economy, s i n c e  the  evident  1981/82 r e c e s s i o n .  t e r m u n e m p l o y e d who  127  -  i n the  short  a  had  the  factors  any  i n the  stage.  patterns  work i n t h i s cyclical  British  so  study  time  participation  Structural  participated  -  too  measure  at t h i s  extent of  within  unemployment h a v e compounded c y c l i c a l long  not  variables.  used to  data analysis  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s had  C h a p t e r One  outcome  scales  o v e r w h i c h t o measure l a b o u r f o r c e  when, i n f a c t , 73%  the  two  antecedent,  characteristics included  was  period  no  significant correlations  Columbia  aspects that  many  program  of of  exceeded the unemployed  minimum l a b o u r  24  out  of the  force e l i g i b i l i t y  criteria  of  30 weeks i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o  being  the  program. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a s e s on  education poor.  and  The  the  motivation  r e a s o n why  c l i e n t s were h i g h e r client the  g r o u p may  were t h e r e f o r e ,  program.  I t may  be  program t o  not  identified  that this CEC  45%,  client  by  of jobs, CEC  long  c o n c l u d e from the  staff  as  own  job  fact  possibly  search,  not  The  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e w o u l d a p p e a r t o  -  128  labour  force t o work  not  are  associated  f i n d i n g s f o r sex,  age  support that p o r t i o n  concluded that  -  better  clients.  i t i s therefore  are  about  more  the  or  that  the  to  e i t h e r are,  the  the  were  at l e a s t i n part  study t h a t  l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h has  for  found out  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or motivation  characteristics that  research  program,  through  term unemployed  w i t h employment p r o g r a m outcomes.  the  and  entered  no  v i r t u e of the  the  group under study,  family  of  unemployed  more h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d t o work t h a n o t h e r  participation, client  term  to counselling  t h e m s e l v e s and  F o r measurement r e a s o n s , due  possible to  motivation  i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n search  self-marketed  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d ,  particular  and  also  clients p r i o r to consideration  employers through t h e i r  e d u c a t e d and  t o work was  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s had  exchange a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n  program, o r  level  measure  r e f e r r i n g c o u n s e l l o r p r i o r to the  t h e y e i t h e r came t o t h e labour  client  education  r e l a t e t o t h e way  with the  s c a l e s used to  than a n t i c i p a t e d f o r a long  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d  the  of the  program. F o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t  interviews and  the  the  client  and of  characteristics  a r e not f a c t o r s which p r e d i c t program  A t t h e same t i m e , clinical  these  impressions  characteristics  Opportunity  f i n d i n g s appear not t o support  o f employment c o u n s e l l o r s t h a t  i n f l u e n c e program  Factors  identify  three  program  (B) v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between  v a l u e o f 0.40  c o r r e l a t i o n between  identified  a  t h e a c t u a l p r o g r a m d u r a t i o n and t h e  i m m e d i a t e employment outcome a t a 1% l e v e l with a c r i t i c a l  correlated  outcome.  Spearman's r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t  positive  client  outcome.  w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e , p o s t p r o g r a m employment  = 0.44,  the  (B,C,D)  The a n a l y s i s d i d , however, intervention  success.  of significance  a t t h e .01 l e v e l ) .  program d u r a t i o n and  (rho This  employment  outcome i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t 14% o f t h e contracts terminated prematurely t h e program.  unable,  s i x weeks o f  These e a r l y t e r m i n a t i o n s would v e r y o f t e n have  been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h was  within the f i r s t  less  s u c c e s s f u l outcomes  f o r whatever reasons,  where t h e  client  t o make t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o a  work e n v i r o n m e n t . Two  program  intervention variables  e n v i r o n m e n t were a l s o p o s i t i v e l y employment outcome. c o e f f i c i e n t was significant  correlation  subsidized  j o b (rho =  statistic  of a career path  which i d e n t i f i e d  from t h e  .32, w i t h a c r i t i c a l  -  immediate  correlation  a t t h e 5% l e v e l b e t w e e n  - 129  t o t h e work  associated with the  Spearman's r a n k o r d e r  again the test  outcome and e v i d e n c e  specific  a  t h e employment immediate,  v a l u e o f 0.3 0 a t  the  .05% l e v e l ) .  The commitment o f t h e i m m e d i a t e  t h e employment s k i l l s positively critical  o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p r o g r a m was  and s i g n i f i c a n t l y  correlated  (rho =  also  .32, w i t h  v a l u e o f 0.3 0 a t t h e .05% l e v e l ) w i t h t h e  employment Two  supervisor to  a  immediate  outcome.  of these  same p r o g r a m  intervention variables also  a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e o t h e r dependent v a r i a b l e , overall  benefit t o the c l i e n t  from p a r t i c i p a t i o n  showed the  i n t h e program.  B o t h t h e a c t u a l p r o g r a m d u r a t i o n ( r h o = 0.58)  a n d t h e commitment  of  significantly  t h e immediate  correlated  s u p e r v i s o r ( r h o = 0.50)  a t t h e 1% l e v e l w i t h c r i t i c a l  The e x t e n t o f t h e o v e r a l l  were  values of  0.33.  c o n t r a c t m o n i t o r i n g was  the only  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a r i a b l e w h i c h showed a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o g r a m outcome a n d t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  comparison with the o v e r a l l dependent v a r i a b l e the  .01 l e v e l ) .  (rho =  I t may  client  benefit  better able to identify  program  on t h e c l i e n t ,  strongly  the  even though t h i s  at  contained  referring  any p o s i t i v e  overall  f a c t o r was  not  the  outcome.  i n d e p e n d e n t l a b o u r market v a r i a b l e w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o have  t h e s t r o n g e s t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h program outcomes balance  v a l u e o f 0.33  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e other dependent v a r i a b l e ,  i m m e d i a t e employment An  as t h e second  be t h a t where c o n t r a c t f i l e s  c o u n s e l l o r was impact  evident only i n  .34, w i t h a c r i t i c a l  w r i t t e n r e p o r t s o f more m o n i t o r i n g v i s i t s ,  with  between  s u p p l y and demand f o r l a b o u r i n t h e  o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h was variables.  was  Again,  s u b s i d i z e d , one o f t h e two  -  relative  specific  labour  Spearman's r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n - 130  the  market  coefficient  was  the  test  s t a t i s t i c which i d e n t i f i e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e supply  and  =  with  .74,  higher  demand, and  the  a critical  r e l a t i v e balance  the  value  o f 0.59  (rho =  the  .57,  The  overall  with  data  client  a critical  at the  This  .01  of job  search,  same  occupational  level).  of  .51  other and  no  The  immediate  second  b e n e f i t from program value  (rho  independent  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the difficulty  between  r e l a t i v e demand, t h e more p o s i t i v e t h e  a l s o showed a s t r o n g  variable,  strong  i m m e d i a t e employment outcome  employment outcome a p p e a r e d t o be. variable  a very  at the  dependent  participation  .01  level).  significant  l a b o u r market v a r i a b l e , e i t h e r of the  two  the  dependent  outcome v a r i a b l e s .  Income A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s  The  recent  recipients  t a r g e t i n g of the  (SAR's) a s  i n the  a sub-group o f the  study,  studied, as  Out  In general, two  sub-groups.  c a s e s ) and  t h e r e were v e r y The  unemployed, non-SAR  d e c i s i o n makers  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e .  (14  the  assistance  with  64 p a r t i c i p a n t s  long term w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s  i n c l u d e d a s A p p e n d i x E summarize t h e s u b - g r o u p s , SAR  social  long term  of the  f o u r t e e n were c a t e g o r i z e d  their principal  Sub-crroup  group w i t h  might provide  v a l u a b l e program i n f o r m a t i o n .  a  I S J p r o g r a m on  suggested t h a t a comparison of t h i s population  as  Non  data  SAR  few  (50  Tables collected  A - l to f o r the  -  two  cases).  d i f f e r e n c e s between  these  means f o r e a c h s u b - g r o u p were compared  - 131  A-25,  for  t h o s e v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d on  o r d i n a l and  interval  i d e n t i f y those f a c t o r s which warranted t e s t s of M a n n - w h i t n e y U t e s t s were t h e n u s e d t o o b t a i n the  two  s u b - g r o u p s on  wage r a t e , t h e of  follow-up  proportion  the  of the  skill  level,  referring counsellor.  t i m e a d i f f e r e n c e as  the  o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  the  two  g r o u p s were drawn f r o m t h e  The  fourteen  distinct variable,  SAR  population out  career  path,  great  two same  only  one  as  i n the  contracts  from t h e  For  example, w h i l e a r e l a t i v e l y  counsellor, referring .02,  71%  of  not SAR  counsellor  meaning t h a t  c o u n s e l l o r w o u l d be  the  i f the  time,  population. were two follow-up  I t was,  distinct by  T h e r e was two  two  the an  study.  pattern  t h i s great  therefore,  populations  The  monitoring  of  of  group.  non-SAR  P-value  was  of  follow-up  by  or greater  only  c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e two  i n terms o f the  the  The  g r o u p s were i n f a c t drawn f r o m t h e  extent  of  2%  the of  same groups client  r e f e r r i n g counsellor. i n d i c a t i o n o f a p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e between  sub-groups i n terms of the  r e l a t i v e to the  a  were n e v e r m o n i t o r e d by  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  than  the r e f e r r i n g  ( r e f e r to Table A-21).  referring  as  non-welfare  proportion  b e e n m o n i t o r e d by contracts  the  administrative  SAR  had  extent  population.  2 6 variables included  small  the  or greater  i n follow-up  (30%)  and  relative  groups would happen i f  v a r i a b l e , an  differed significantly  the  for  P-value i s  involvement of r e f e r r i n g counsellors  contracts  P-value  p a r t i c i p a n t s were i d e n t i f i a b l e on  of the  the  The  to  association.  v a r i a b l e s w h i c h m e a s u r e d age,  relative  by  scales  most r e c e n t  skill  level  j o b h e l d by -  132  -  the  of the  subsidized  participant.  For  the job  example, a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n (71%) jobs at s k i l l  o f SAR's w e r e  l e v e l s w h i c h were r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r t h a n  most r e c e n t j o b , p r i o r t o t h e program. population, increase The  o n l y 52%  in this  of the  skill  (refer to Table  were s l i g h t ,  groups.  Although  they  are  Whereas 54% m a l e , 71%  of the  were m a l e .  the remaining  included for their  o f t h e non  social  social  in client  a s s i s t a n c e group  assistance recipient  years  f o r t h e non-SAR g r o u p .  for  non-SAR's.  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n from  was  slightly  A-4  s m a l l e r f o r t h e SAR  months o u t  sub-group  a mean age  of  27.2  also  smaller on  average  c o m p a r e d t o 11.1  years  t h e mean f o r  age,  group.  and  not unexpected  immediately  non-SAR p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p .  non-welfare  11.5  SAR's were unemployed  p r o p o r t i o n of the year  11.8  (SAR)  i n labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n patterns f o r  g r o u p s were s l i g h t  to A-7).  characteristics.  E d u c a t i o n a l l y , SAR's h a d  of education,  t h e two  value.  (non-SAR) were  f o r t h e SAR's was  s l i g h t l y more y e a r s  differences  two  f o r t h e non-SAR p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p .  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f age  The  Non-SAR  variables  descriptive  SAR's w e r e s l i g h t l y y o u n g e r w i t h  compared t o 29.9  and  no  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  T h e r e were o n l y minor d i f f e r e n c e s  The  relative  A-15).  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e SAR  s u b - g r o u p s m e a s u r e d on t h e s e t h r e e and  than  total  subsidized jobs involved a  differential  of s i g n i f i c a n t  participant  The  For the  their  o t h e r t h r e e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were t e s t e d p r o v i d e d  evidence  years  subsidized in  On  for a slightly p r i o r to the  average,  of the previous year,  g r o u p who  had  they had  133  -  11.4  Table  greater  ISJ, than been  compared t o  been unemployed -  (refer to  the  unemployed  the  months.  They  had  on  average worked l e s s ,  attended  f e w e r months o f s c h o o l a n d h a d  been i n v o l v e d i n fewer u n s p e c i f i e d a c t i v i t i e s which had a f f e c t e d their  labour  The not  level  differ  slightly  force  participation.  of family responsibility  significantly  f o r t h e SAR s u b - g r o u p d i d  from t h e non-welfare  h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r g r o u p were s i n g l e  dependents  (refer t o Table A-8).  Similarly,  SAR p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s was a s s e s s e d v e r y non-welfare The  group  A-ll).  with  s i m i l a r t o the  (refer t o Table A-9).  o f SAR j o b s d i f f e r e d  b y t h e non-SAR While  a  the motivation of  o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l  distribution occupied  group, although  only s l i g h t l y  sub-group  14% o f non-SAR  sector  from t h e j o b s  ( r e f e r t o t a b l e s A-10 a n d  j o b s were i n s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s ,  t h e r e were no SAR's s u b s i d i z e d i n t h e s e  occupations.  A  higher  p r o p o r t i o n o f I S J c o n t r a c t s f o r SAR's were w i t h i n t h e construction  industry  (28%) t h a n  for a l l participants  While the intended p e r i o d of s u b s i d i z a t i o n by  SAR's was v e r y  T a b l e s A-12  s i m i l a r t o the non-welfare  (7.8%).  of jobs  sub-group  (refer to  a n d A - 1 3 ) , t h e a c t u a l a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f SAR  c o n t r a c t s was participants.  slightly  longer than  f o r the  non-welfare  T h i s was p r i m a r i l y due t o a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f  Non-SAR c o n t r a c t s  (42%) w h i c h l a s t e d t w e l v e  c o m p a r i s o n t o SAR j o b s w h i c h f e l l subsidization period T h e r e was v e r y  into this  weeks o r l e s s , i n relatively  short  (21%).  little  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two p o p u l a t i o n  groups measured a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r j o b r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s to  occupied  T a b l e s A-14, A-16 t o A - 1 8 ) . -  134 -  (refer  Administratively, contracts differed Table  A-2 0 ) .  only  slightly  While a higher  monitored twice, three  the p a t t e r n of t o t a l  o r more  relatively  monitoring  from a l l c o n t r a c t s  p r o p o r t i o n o f SAR f e w e r SAR  f o u r SAR  cases  two  made f o r t h e s e v a r i a b l e s .  s u b - g r o u p s was  t h e r e f o r e , no  program outcomes f o r t h e  SAR  of the  of the  employed.  A  p r o g r a m , and  similarly  57%  end  of the  Outcomes on  c l o s e as  f o r the  d i f f e r e n c e s were not  proportion referring  of the  SAR  the  and  similar  A-25).  upon  SAR's were  o f e a c h g r o u p were known the  known f o r o v e r 25%  s e c o n d d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e were  of not  i m m e d i a t e employment outcome, however significant.  sub-group  (79%)  A  slightly  had,  i n the  higher opinion  of  some b e n e f i t f r o m  p r o g r a m compared t o n o n - w e l f a r e p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s  The  to  Sixty  immediately  fourteen  not  counsellors, derived at l e a s t  Summary and  the  s u b s i d i z a t i o n p e r i o d and  employment s t a t u s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s was  the  A-24  of the  small proportion  unemployed a t t h e  q u i t e as  were  comparison of  n o n - w e l f a r e g r o u p were e m p l o y e d  completion  each group.  to  market  group were v e r y  Non-SAR p a r t i c i p a n t s ( r e f e r t o T a b l e s  t o be  contracts  f o r which labour  identified;  percent  (Refer  c o n t r a c t s were m o n i t o r e d  v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be  the  SAR  times.  T h e r e were o n l y  The  of  the  (66%).  D i s c u s s i o n of B i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s  research  a s s u m p t i o n was  employment o p p o r t u n i t y term unemployed  that client  factors affect  i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o the  I S J program, a j o b  the  characteristics  i n t e g r a t i o n of  -  135  -  long  labour market through  c r e a t i o n program a d m i n i s t e r e d  as  a  and  the  targeted,  m a r g i n a l employment s u b s i d y . project  appear to  While c l i e n t these variables influence of the  d i d not,  support only  1978).  this  age,  disadvantage of the predictors  analysis,  and  client  the  portion  factors  program as  i n t o the  noted  input,  theory scales  under  in part  were, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  of the  which  measures  cases over the  may  value,  account  f o u n d t o be  These f i n d i n g s  employment p r o g r a m  appear  poor  to  research  literature that  i d e n t i f i e s these p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  factors that  do  not  variables  on  w h i c h i t was  findings  also  employment The that are  influence  failed  to  p r o g r a m outcome.  valid  For  the  few  t o make t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s ,  confirm the  clinical  impressions  as  the  of  counsellors.  research  opportunity subsidized,  e v i d e n c e d o e s , however, s u p p o r t t h e factors associated do  a f f e c t the  identified variables (B,C,D) i n c l u d e d  with the  successful  term unemployed c l i e n t s i n t o the  associated  for  p r i n c i p a l employment  o f program s u c c e s s .  support that  descriptive  s t u d y as  of these v a r i a b l e s ,  univariate  Sex,  research  C l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as  Poor d i s t r i b u t i o n of  the  finding.  were o f  t e r m s , e a r n t h e i r way  used t o measure s e v e r a l of  (A)  this  hypothesis.  which c l i e n t s brought to the  i n Glaser's  discussion  of  of t h i s  emerge f r o m t h e  p r o g r a m outcome.  (Glasser,  findings  part  characteristics d i d not  capacity  The  i n the  w i t h program  research  136  integration The  of  -  which  long  study  three opportunity  design, which appear t o  outcome.  -  s p e c i f i c jobs  labour market.  under each of the  hypothesis  factors be  L a b o u r m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s , m e a s u r e d by the  supply  and  demand f o r l a b o u r  i n the  the balance  local  labour  market,  a p p e a r e d t o be  t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l  predicting  employment outcome f o r p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the  opportunity  between  f i n d i n g s a l s o appear to confirm the employment c o u n s e l l o r s and centre,  re-adaptation  administrators at the  of the  as w e l l as t h e  support  o f an  for career  a d a p t s t o t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t , a p p e a r t o  positively  i n f l u e n c e the  Although  the  extent  t o t h e work s i t e  of c l i e n t d i d not  benefit  t h a t CEC  follow-up  through  appear t o i n f l u e n c e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can  from t h e program.  whether t h i s m o n i t o r i n g  I t i s not  has  clear  a direct  to the c l i e n t . c a p i t a l may  of these  might  overall  T h i s o v e r a l l b e n e f i t a s an  o n l y become e v i d e n t  the  the  a core v a r i a b l e  from the  i m p a c t on  i n f l u e n c e the  through longer term c l i e n t Given  monitoring  client  study  t h i s measure increase  immediate s u p e r v i s o r toward t h e program  therefore indirectly  the  each  influence overall  t h e p r o g r a m outcome o r w h e t h e r m o n i t o r i n g commitment o f t h e  Within  outcome.  i m m e d i a t e employment outcome, i t d i d emerge a s suggesting  the  advancement  individual  and  into  empathetic s u p e r v i s o r , while  employment  of  i n f l u e n c e the  l o n g term unemployed  the perceived opportunity  The  employment  f o r c e through t h i s t a r g e t e d j o b c r e a t i o n program.  the job s i t e ,  visits  in  impressions  t h a t program i n t e r v e n t i o n f a c t o r s can  successful labour  clinical  factor  of  the goals  program b e n e f i t  investment  i n t e r m s o f employment  i n human outcome  follow-up.  n o n - p r o b a b i l i t y sampling  f i n d i n g s are t h e o r e t i c a l l y -  137  -  design,  limited  to  the i m p l i c a t i o n s future ISJ  program p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c a r e a Vancouver.  The  also  the proportion  limits  a s c r i b e d to the study, that  u n c o n t r o l l e d nature of the  sensitivity  As  an  which can  be  exploratory  administrators  t o l a b o u r m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s and influence the  experiment  certain  success  of  j o b c r e a t i o n programs. study  fourteen those  employment g a i n s  f i n d i n g s suggest t o program  c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e work s i t e may  The  research  program i n t e r v e n t i o n i t s e l f .  however, t h e  targeted  of the  of  provides  social  who  little  evidence  that distinguished  a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s as  were n o t  identified  as  individual  clients  of view.  The  f o r t h i s may  o f t h i s v a r i a b l e and  sub-group  long term w e l f a r e  e i t h e r as  reason  a small  the from  recipients,  o r from a program e x p e r i e n c e  point  r e l a t e to the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by  employment  counsellors. Although only term w e l f a r e all  recipients,  l i k e l i h o o d welfare  estimate study  ranged as h i g h  c l i e n t s with  One  employment  as n i n e t y p e r c e n t .  no  as  client other  c o d e was  counsellor's  Discussion  after  r e c i p i e n t who  to  disadvantage.  a l s o had  a  cultural barrier to  employment w o u l d h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d  the  b a r r i e r as t h e p r i n c i p a l  cultural  the  u s e d most f r e q u e n t l y  o b v i o u s employment  example, a l o n g t e r m w e l f a r e  latter  long  i n f a c t many more p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e i n  recipients.  revealed that this  identify For  f o u r t e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s were i d e n t i f i e d  with  employment  disadvantage. Programs under t h e fall  of  1985,  were t h e  Canadian Jobs Strategy, first  employment -  138  -  introduced  initiatives  which  in  the  i d e n t i f i e d welfare recipients disadvantaged its  program p a r t i c i p a n t s .  proactive client  more l i b e r a l l y to  use  client  than  o t h e r CEC's.  fourteen social  responsibility dependents. i n the  financial  account  c o u l d n o t be  The  recipient  client  between t h e  f o l l o w - u p by  73%  low  could very well other  SAR's  groups.  level  This  of family  low wage r a t e s s u b s i d i z e d u n d e r may  provide  no the  inadequate  o f income a s s i s t a n c e due  who  are  to family  size,  program.  interpretation  c a t e g o r y may  the r e f e r r i n g  of the l o n g term  a l s o account  f o r the  the remaining  counsellor, cited  welfare distinction fifty  t h e r e f o r e more l i k e l y  follow-up through  traditional  (Non-SAR's), were more l i k e l y  e s t a b l i s h e d c o u n s e l l i n g caseloads  and  139  -  the  t o have  referring  t o have been i n v o l v e d i n  contract monitoring. -  of  earlier.  w e r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d u n d e r t h e more  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e s  c o u n s e l l o r was  the  traditional  on t h e v a r i a b l e w h i c h m e a s u r e d t h e e x t e n t  P a r t i c i p a n t s who  of  o f whom were s i n g l e w i t h  f o u r t e e n i n d i v i d u a l s and  participants,  with  T h i s means  f o r t h o s e w i t h dependents and  i n the  This particular  client  sub-group, w i t h  $4.00 t o $5.00 r a n g e ,  participate  b e e n on  identified.  f o r the r e l a t i v e l y  relatively  incentive  CEC  category  o n l y i f a more  assistance recipients  of participants,  receiving higher levels to  this  i n w i t h t h e o t h e r employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d  o b s e r v a t i o n may  ISJ,  East Hastings  f o r t h e employment d i s a d v a n t a g e  n o t h a v e b e e n an e x c l u s i v e SAR blended  employment  However, c o u n s e l l o r s c o n t i n u e d  hence program e l i g i b i l i t y ,  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e that the  The  group o f  o r i e n t a t i o n probably used  i t as a r a t i o n a l e and  as a d i s t i n c t  This speculation  on  the  p a r t o f employment c o u n s e l l o r s c o u l d  w i t h i n the  study,  as  i n t e r v e n t i o n d i d not significantly  not  be  the v a r i a b l e which measured support  the  fewer i n t e r v i e w s  confirmed  counsellor  p o s i t i o n t h a t SAR's  with  had  counsellors p r i o r to  program  participation. M e a n w h i l e , d e c i s i o n makers a t t h e this  stage,  experience social  have t o c o n t i n u e as  p a r t i c i p a n t s may  recipients. eventually  group over the  the  agreement f o c u s e s  increased  r e c i p i e n t s as  Future  overall  identify  SAR's as  study,  as t h e  and 1986  a t t e n t i o n and  will,  ISJ  program  s t u d i e s on  range of c l i e n t  v a r i a b l e s measured i n t h i s  welfare  on  a guide to t h e i r targeting of the  assistance  population  to r e l y  employment c e n t r e  a  at  program on  ISJ distinct  opportunity federal/provincial  program r e s o u r c e s  on  a l a r g e group of p o t e n t i a l program  participants. It  should  be  remembered, however, t h a t  counsellors recognize, that the  and  I S J program i s not  for a l l social  training  support,  may  mean t h a t  continue  t o be  education  an  noted e a r l i e r  appropriate  assistance recipients.  unstructured  initiative.  i t was  can  l e v e l s may  Its  employment  future harder core  to the  initiative  SAR  group  participants will  o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r employment  speculate  that c l i e n t  motivation  and  e v e n t u a l l y d r o p f o r SAR's c o m p a r e d  of S o c i a l Services  population  study,  relatively  o v e r a l l p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s , as m a r k e t i n g by Ministry  in this  environment, on-the-job w i t h o u t peer  screened out  One  employment  and  CEC  and  Housing exposes a l a r g e r  program or i f s a n c t i o n s -  the  140  -  are  applied  to  to  the SAR  reluctant the  program p a r t i c i p a n t s .  were t o  p r o g r a m on s i n g l e w e l f a r e m o t h e r s c o n s i s t e n t  programming  trends  expect the l e v e l rise  I f the M i n i s t r y  i n t h e 1980's  of family  substantially.  itself,  may  with  e l s e w h e r e i n Canada,  one  responsibility of participants  mean t h a t  have p a r t i c i p a t e d  employment p r o g r a m s identified  would to  However, t h e n a t u r e o f t h e I S J p r o g r a m SAR  participants  w i l l never  distinguish  themselves as a sub-group, comparable t o t h o s e p o p u l a t i o n who  target  i n t h e wide range o f  targeted  groups  supply-side  on w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s , w h i c h were  i n Chapter Four.  - 141  -  CHAPTER  VII  IMPLICATIONS AND  Implications  Members o f t h e the  of the  Findings  employment team a t t h e  immediate consumers o f t h i s  research  o r i e n t a t i o n of the  research  model i m p l i c i t  finish,  CONCLUSIONS  s t u d y and  i n the  suggest t h a t the  research.  The  Hastings  CEC  are  operations  the u t i l i z a t i o n - f o c u s e d  research  process  f i n d i n g s should  program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  East  Realistically,  from s t a r t  to  h a v e some i m p a c t what c o u l d  this  on  impact  be? The  research  f i n d i n g s do  not  o f f e r program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  e m p i r i c a l b a s i s upon which t o s c r e e n program.  Client  clients  for referral  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as m e a s u r e d i n t h e  poor p r e d i c t o r s of the  immediate, p o s t  program  employment  as p o o r p r e d i c t o r s o f b r o a d e r o v e r a l l  benefit  program.  more d i v e r s e  client  of these v a r i a b l e s , the The  f i n d i n g s do  r e s u l t s may  a c c r u e t o p a r t i c i p a n t s who areas with  Although the  research  evidence of t h i s CEC,  could  different be  are  different.  subsidized  r e l a t i v e l y higher  realistically  program b e n e f i t s i n jobs  occupational  offers only  be  t a r g e t t e d on  -  142  -  higher  may  in demand.  cautionary  a s s o c i a t i o n , future marketing of the  reasonably  a  operational definitions  suggest that greater  occupational  client  In another program s e t t i n g w i t h  g r o u p and  the  s t u d y were  outcomes as w e l l from the  to  an  I S J by  the  growth i n d u s t r i e s ,  in  occupational  areas with  m a r k e t demand r e l a t i v e  more f a v o u r a b l e  to the  projections of  a v a i l a b l e supply  of  labour.  E a r l i e r knowledge o f program budgets would f a c i l i t a t e s t r a t e g i c m a r k e t i n g and information The be may  would of course,  s e n s i t i v e to those  facilitate  for career  market  t h i s planning  process.  advised  on  the  client's  the  long term  of the  the  the  support  employers might  administrators  contract negotiations  i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n o f advancement identifying  p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t . The at the  CEC  immediate I S J s u p e r v i s o r s  any  should  take the  w i t h i n the  t o e x p l a i n the  of the  job  job  f o r a p o t e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e i m p a c t on  as  routine  findings of t h i s  administrative perspective,  Patton  has,  that evaluation -  143  -  the  with contracts  objectives  These u n d e r l y i n g  monitoring  A realistic  path to  employment  reinforced during  i n the  opportunities  s e t t i n g when  could  suggested  with  program  objectives  o u t c o m e s , as  should  factors  t i m e t o meet  underlying  c r e a t i o n program.  t h e n be  such c a r e e r  study suggests t h a t  are negotiated, targeted  to  o f l o n g term unemployed i n d i v i d u a l s  Initial  importance of  of  unemployed  p o t e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e impact o f t h e s e  work f o r c e .  recognizes  that  awareness of  i m p a c t on p r o g r a m outcome. P r o g r a m s p o n s o r s  successful adaptation  i n t o the  should  i s r e - a d j u s t i n g t o t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t a p p e a r  e a c h h a v e an be  The  advancement o n - t h e - j o b and  immediate s u p e r v i s o r w h i l e  the  labour  f a c t o r s w i t h i n t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t  i n f l u e n c e p r o g r a m outcome.  individual  and  local  this  f i n d i n g s a l s o suggest t h a t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  opportunity the  more e x t e n s i v e  labour  program  contract  program research.  however,  research  also  i s just  one  i n p u t i n t o t h e complex functioning  (Patton,  s y s t e m o f p r o g r a m m a t i c and 1978).  It i s this  organizatonal  r e a l i t y which  confronts  p r o g r a m managers a t t h e employment c e n t r e a s c o n s u m e r s research.  In s p i t e of t h i s  the c o l l a b o r a t i v e be m e a s u r e d specific  findings  (Patton,  s t u d y has n o t examined employment  c r e a t i o n program. implications initiative  of the success of  research process underlying t h i s project  d e c i s i o n s and program a c t i v i t i e s  counter-cyclical  The  1978,  resulting  f i n d i n g s do, however,  R e s u l t s suggest t h a t program  l e v e l which i s s e n s i t i v e t o l o c a l  i m p r o v e i m m e d i a t e employment outcomes  essentially  client  groups.  i n t o employment  on b o t h c y c l i c a l  suggest  structural implementation at  labour  should  include longitudinal  s t u d i e s m i g h t complement factors that  and s t r u c t u r a l o f wage  client  follow-up.  the findings of t h i s  initiatives  be a b l e t o  factors  subsidization.  impact would  -  group  and  Longitudinal s t u d y and s u g g e s t  employment  beyond t h e immediate - 144  may  unemployment,  incorporates a control  sustain the counter-cyclical  t h e s e employment  may  market  to these  t h e exact program  require a research design that  employment  impact o f t a r g e t t e d j o b  impacts beyond t h e p e r i o d  a t t e m p t t o measure  as a j o b  f o r employment  Sensitivity  t r a n s l a t e t h e immediate  c r e a t i o n programs  directly  impact o f t h e I S J program,  designed t o respond t o issues of  disadvantaged  on  and t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t j u d g e , t h e  c o n d i t i o n s a n d f a c t o r s w i t h i n t h e work s i t e ,  Any  must  p . 24) .  f o r t h e program as a s u p p l y - s i d e  unemployment. t h e CEC  the t e s t  b y t h e i m m e d i a t e , c o n c r e t e and o b s e r v a b l e e f f e c t  from t h e r e s e a r c h The  realty,  of  impact o f  program  outcome, and objectives  ensure that  of  longer term  targetted  i m p a c t on  the job  the  complementary s t r u c t u r a l creation  employment  p r o g r a m s h a v e maximum  employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d  target  groups. Even though the one  CEC  area,  opportunity  the  implications  very well on  the  r e c e n t e m p h a s i s on  initiatives 1986  immediate on  public job  f o r m o t h e r s on  United States, welfare  federal/provincial  b e t w e e n work and  1980)  R e i n & Marwick, Social  or  do  consequence of  the  population  future  distinct,  Ontario  work and  Is  w e l f a r e go  i t an  and  Columbia,  renewed i n v e s t i g a t i o n  recipients,  whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l  funds under the  and  into  unholy  together  the alliance  (Levitan,  1972)?  assistance  for  in Alberta  welfare.  evident  employment  agreement i n B r i t i s h  relationship (Macarov,  Research  work f o r w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s ,  t h e r e s h o u l d be  and  return  to  program  l o n g term unemployed t h r o u g h  suggest that  ISJ  confined  strategies.  i n w o r k f a r e programs i n the  the  are  raising certain  improve the  Future  The  findings  w i t h p r o g r a m s p o n s o r s and  expenditures targeted creation  the  study suggests that  factors  s u p e r v i s o r s may  of  who  likely  federal/provincial research.  federal  provincial  Job  ISJ  have p a r t i c i p a t e d  The  i n c r e a s e as  -  a  natural  simultaneous d i v e r s i o n the  comparable,  T r a c Program p r o v i d e s a r i c h  145  the  a  agreement, a r e  p r o g r a m and  -  in  of  yet  source  of  program d a t a  for future  t h e s e programs has powerful  study.  instruments of  creation  social policy.  a resurgence of  employment p r o g r a m s on  the  debate over f a c t o r s t h a t  long  research  the  success,  As  well  factors  i n the  i m p a c t on  this  as  lead  success, u l t i m a t e l y provincial  the  Such r e s e a r c h to  be  are  improving the job  sampling designs  may  and  experimental designs  of  research  return  suggest  program i n t e r v e n t i o n ,  i n the use  groups.  146  labour,  economic  -  job  findings  on  scarce  of predict  federal  and  programs. could  and any  use  focus  on  probability  research groups i n  (Jonhar  should attempt t o  -  factors  employment  demand f o r  research  documented  through the  economic  as  Two  that  factors that  creation  future  which would have o c c u r r e d  renewed  of  selecting control  i s well  of  warranted.  v e r i f y the  f o r wider a p p l i c a t i o n of  difficulty  impact  employment outcome o f  l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s o f program p a r t i c i p a n t s  benefits  the  included  enhanced t h e o r i e s  From a d e s i g n p e r s p e c t i v e ,  1982), f u t u r e  on  r e l a t i v e s u p p l y and  funds a l l o c a t e d t o  Although the  this  outcomes o f p u b l i c  product markets c o u l d  programs.  s t u d y and  r e s u l t s of  i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter  f a c t o r s p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c i n g the creation  into  of t h i s research  the  of  strategies  should e x p l o r e a wider range of  for their potential programs.  targetting  term unemployed  predict  findings  The  research  l a b o u r economics p e r s p e c t i v e  o f t h i s s t u d y and future  increased  transformed job  study suggest that  The  The  findings. such  Associates,  i s o l a t e program absence of  of v a l i d  any  comparison  such  T h i s r e s e a r c h has existing  client,  original  data.  p r o g r a m and  i f the  questionaire.  the value of  l a b o u r market d a t a  Administrative factors  work e n v i r o n m e n t s variables  demonstrated  i n both  enhancing sources  with  t h e agency  w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e emerged a s s t u d y had  not supplemented e x i s t i n g  F u t u r e s t u d i e s may  wish  to similarly  and  core  data with enhance  e x i s t i n g data sources unless r o u t i n e c o n t r a c t documentation m o d i f i e d t o i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n on a r a n g e  of opportunity  f a c t o r s which t h i s  may  outcomes.  A t t h e same t i m e ,  e x p l o r e t h e use s t u d y has  s t u d y has  demonstrated,  influence  is  program  future studies should continue  of extensive, e x i s t i n g  d a t a s o u r c e s as  to  this  done.  From a p u b l i c p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s c l e a r study t h a t  improved  completion  o f t h e program, as w e l l  w o u l d e n h a n c e any  f o l l o w - u p on p a r t i c i p a n t s  such  research  effort.  - 147  -  from  this  immediately  as l o n g i t u d i n a l  a  upon  follow-up,  REFERENCES A k a b a s , S., & Kursman, P. (1982). Work, W o r k e r s and Organizations: A V i e w f r o m S o c i a l Work, E n g l e w o o d P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc. A s h b y , P. (1985) . The F o r g o t t e n M i l l i o n U n e m p l o y e d . P o l i c y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l 19, No. 3, 191-198. Atkins,  Cliffs:  Social  C. M. 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T a k i n g Aim a t C a n a d a ' s J o b l e s s , P e r c e p t i o n , V o l . 9 No. 1. S i e g e l , Sidney. (1956). Nonparametric S t a t i s t a i c s f o r the B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - h i l l Book Company. S i l k m a n , R., o f Two No. 4,  K e l l y , J.M., & W o l f , W.C. (1983). An E v a l u a t i o n Preemployment S e r v i c e s , E v a l u a t i o n Review, V o l . 7 pp. 467-496.  Sklar,  M. H. (1986). Workfare: I s t h e Honeymoon O v e r - o r y e t t o come?, P u b l i c W e l f a r e , V o l . 44, No. 1, pp. 30-32.  Social  Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto. (1982) A R e s p o n s e t o "Un" Employment P o l i c i e s i n C a n a d a , T o r o n t o .  Social  P o l i c y R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s / The E v a l u a t i o n G r o u p Incorporated. (1982). An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e O n t a r i o Work I n c e n t i v e P r o g r a m (WIN), T o r o n t o : A u t h o r .  S t a t i s t i c s Canada, ( J a n u a r y 1985,1986,1987). The L a b o u r F o r c e , C a t a l o g u e 71-001, V o l s . 40,41 and 42, No. 12, Ottawa: S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Labour F o r c e Annual Averages, C a t a l o g u e 71-529, O t t a w a : S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s C a n a d a . S t a t i s t i c s Canada, (1986). P o s t c e n s a l Annual Estimates of P o p u l a t i o n b y M a r i t i a l S t a t u s , Age, Sex, and Components o f G r o w t h f o r Canada, P r o v i n c e s and T e r r i t o r i e s . C a t . No. 91210, V o l . 3. T h i r d I s s u e , O t t a w a : S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada. Swoap, D. B. (1986). B r o a d S u p p o r t Buoys C a l i f o r n i a ' s P u b l i c W e l f a r e . V o l 44, No. 1, pp. 24-27. Van  Gain,  C l e e f f , D. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A N o t e on L o n g Term Unemployment, The L a b o u r F o r c e S u r v e y , S t a t i s t i c s Canada C a t a l o g u e No. 71-001, O c t o b e r , O t t a w a : S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s C a n a d a .  White,  M. (1983). L o n g Term Unemployment and London: Policy Studies Institute.  Labour  Markets,  Young, R. (1985). An E c o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h t o Unemployment: I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r H e l p i n g , Natcon, Ottawa: Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n Canada.  - 153  -  Appendix A.  Employment and Immigration Canada  I*  Emploi et Immigration Canada  Job Development . . . part of the Canadian J o b s Strategy The Job Development program is designed to assist long-term unemployed individuals to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n the l a b o u r m a r k e t . Employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s c r e a t e d must p r o v i d e f o r a mix o f s k i l l s t r a i n i n g and work experience.  INDIVIDUALLY SUBSIDIZED JOBS  T h i s component p r o v i d e s wage s u b s i d i e s to employers to h i r e employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n d i v i d u a l s to f i l l e i t h e r newly c r e a t e d p o s i t i o n s or c u r r e n t j o b v a c a n c i e s . Jobs s h o u l d p r o v i d e both t r a i n i n g and work e x p e r i e n c e for c l i e n t s , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e i r c u r r e n t l e v e l of s k i l l s or s p e c i f i c d i s a d v a n t a g e ( s ) .  Eligible Sponsors:  Businesses, boards and proposals.  Eligible Clients:  I n d i v i d u a l s who have been unemployed f o r at l e a s t 24 of the l a s t 30 weeks AND are employment d i s a d v a n t a g e d .  organizations, municipalities  i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, are a l l e l i g i b l e to  school submit  Employment disadvantaged i n d i v i d u a l s are d e f i n e d as those who f a c e problems i n f i n d i n g j o b s because of s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s , p h y s i c a l or mental h a n d i c a p s . Employment providing persons, recipients  P r o p o s a l s should show the type of t r a i n i n g and work experience o f f e r e d . They must be n e g o t i a t e d w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the l o c a l Canada Employment C e n t r e (CEC) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and most o f t e n w i t h a d e f i n i t e r e f e r r a l in mind. In t h i s way the proposal can b e s t be o r g a n i z e d to match the needs of both the i n d i v i d u a l , and the employer. I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t to keep i n mind that the b a s i c d e s i r e i s to h e l p the c l i e n t l e a r n the skills needed to m a i n t a i n employment a f t e r the s u b s i d y p e r i o d is over.  Proposals:  Public Affairs  Equity receives special a t t e n t i o n . Proposals jobs for women, native people, disabled visible minorities, and social assistance will receive p r i o r i t y funding.  B.C. & Yukon Territory Reaion  -154-  11*1  Training and Work Experience:  B e f o r e meeting with y o u r l o c a l CEC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n should be p r e p a r e d :  the  o  A s h o r t job d e s c r i p t i o n o u t l i n i n g the work d u t i e s .  o  A b r i e f t r a i n i n g p l a n o u t l i n i n g the provided,  instruction  to  be  From 10 to 40" of the c o n t r a c t p e r i o d s h o u l d be spent i n t r a i n i n g , which c o u l d i n c l u d e b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n to the job and use of tools, or specific skill training available from l o c a l educational institutions. The r e m a i n i n g time w i l l be d i r e c t e d to o n - t h e - j o b training under c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . P l a n s f o r work experience s h o u l d b u i l d on the c l i e n t ' s c u r r e n t s k i l l s , and shoul d a s s i s t the worker reach a p o i n t of f u l l competence to do the j o b a l o n e . Limitations:  Employers may hi re up to a maximum 2 0 % of t h e i r r e g u l a r w o r k f o r c e , or i n the case of small b u s i n e s s e s of under 10 e m p l o y e e s , a maximum of two workers may be h i r e d . P r o p o s a l s are n o r m a l l y funded from 16 to 52 weeks. The d u r a t i o n of the agreement wi 11 be determined by the l e n g t h of time re qui red f o r the c l i e n t to 1 earn the n e c e s s a r y j o b s k i 11s. Such time w i l l v a r y from c l i e n t to client.  Financial Assistance:  A wage s u b s i d y of up to $350 per c l i e n t week may be paya b l e i n three phases over the p o t e n t i a l 52 week p e r i o d : -  up to 8 0 * of gross wages d u r i n g the f i r s t 13 weeks; up to 50% d u r i n g the subsequent 26 weeks; up to 2 5 % f o r the r e m a i n i n g 13 weeks of t r a i n i n g .  The percentage of s u b s i d y and the 1ength of time i n each of the above phases i s dependent on the pi an as i t r e l a t e s to the c l i e n t ' s n e e d s .  involved training  A d d i t i o n a l expenses r e l a t i n g to d i r e c t t r a i n i n g c o s t s , and specific changes to facilities required to accommodate d i s a b l e d c l i e n t s , may be c o v e r e d . If the employer i s a n o n - p r o f i t organization some a d d i t i o n a l o p e r a t i n g c o s t s may be r e i m b u r s e d .  Application Procedures:  A p p l i c a t i o n s are r e c e i v e d y e a r - r o u n d s u b j e c t to a v a i l a b l e funds. I n t e r e s t e d employers s h o u l d c o n t a c t t h e i r l o c a l CEC. Employers must not assume approval u n t i l so a d v i s e d by the CEC. Expenditures i n c u r r e d p r i o r to the approved s t a r t date w i l l not be r e i m b u r s e d . - 155-  PUB-014  (02-87)  ( a u s s i d i s p o n i b l e en  frangais)  APPENDIX B  I n d i v i d u a l l y S u b s i d i z e d Job Quest i o n a i re To be completed by r e f e r r i n g  counsellor  P l e a s e mark an X i n t h e b r a c k e t s , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e response. Each q u e s t i o n s h o u l d h a v e o n l y one r e s p o n s e .  C l i ent Name Social  1.  How many t i m e s was t h i s contract monitored? ( ( ( ( (  2.  Insurance Number  ) ) ) ) )  Individually  S u b s i d i z e d Job ( I S J )  Once Twice Three times Four t i m e s Not known  Ilowmany t i m e s ISJ c o n t r a c t ?  d i d the r e f e r r i n g  counsellor  monitor  this  ( ) Once ( ) Twi c e ( ) Three times ( ) Four t i m e s ( ) Other, (  3.  ) None, a l l m o n i t o r i n g done by a n o t h e r  What was t h e e x t e n t prior to client, S u b s i d i z e d Job?  of c o u n s e l l o r participation  ) Four or more i n t e r v i e w s ) T h r e e i n t e r v i ews ) Two i n t e r v i e w s ) One i n t e r v i e w V i r t u a l l y none; employer ) Unknown  intervention with this in the Individually  identified  - 156 -  counsellor  or s e 1 f - m a r k e t e d  client  How w o u l d relative the ISJ? ( ( ( ( (  ) ) ) ) )  you a s s e s s t h e s k i l l l e v e l of the s u b s i d i z e d job t o t h e j o b h e l d by the c l i e n t i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r to  S u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r than the p r e v i o u s j o b Somewhat h i g h e r than the p r e v i o u s j o b Mo a p p r e c i a b l e change Lower than the p r e v i o u s j o b U n a b l e to a s s e s s  If the I S J l e v e l was lower any p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n ?  than  the p r e v i o u s  j o b , was  How much i n t e r a c t i o n d i d t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t h a v e w i t h c o l l e g u e s and/or the p u b l i c , i n t h i s s u b s i d i z e d job? ( ( ( ( (  ) ) ) ) )  there  work  V e r y f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t ; s e v e r a l t i m e s each h o u r . F r e q u e n t c o n t a c t ; s e v e r a l times each d a y . O c c a s i o n a l c o n t a c t , a few times each day L i t t l e c o n t a c t , a few times each week Not known  Was t h e r e a c a r e e r p a t h or o p p o r t u n i t y f o r j o b advancement from t h i s s u b s i d i z e d job,which w a s i d e n t i f i a b l e t o t h e c l i e n t . () ( ( ( (  Very c l e a r path w i t h d e f i n i t e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement ) C l e a r p a t h w i t h some o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement ) L i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement ) No o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement ) U n a b l e to a s s e s s  How w o u l d you r a t e the commitment of the immediate s u p e r v i s o r t o the employment s k i l l s o b j e c t i v e o f t h e I S J program ( ( ( ( ( (  ) ) ) ) ) )  Very High High Moderate Low Mo commi tment Commitment not known - 157 -  8.  How w o u l d y o u h a v e a s s e s s e d this work, a t the b e g i n n i n g of the ISJ? ( ( ( ( (  ) ) ) ) )  client's  motivation  to  Very high High Average Poor Very Poor  outcome Vf h a t w a s the employment completion of t h i s I S J c o n t r a c t ?  for  this  client,  upon  Employed Employed Employed  v/i t h same e m p l o y e r , p r o m o t e d f r o m p r e v i o u s I S J w i t h same e m p l o y e r i n i d e n t i c a l j o b t o I S J w i t h same e m p l o y e r i n j o b u n r e l a t e d t o I S J  Employed Employed  with with  In  formal  another another  training  employer employer  in in  job r e l a t e d to ISJ job u n r e l a t e d to ISJ  program  U n e m p l o y e d a n d on U n e m p l o y m e n t I n s u r a n c e U n e m p l o y e d a n d on S o c i a l Assistance U n e m p l o y e d w i t h no k n o w n p u b l i c i n c o m e s o u r c e Withdrawn from the labour f o r c e E m p l o y m e n t s t a t u s n o t known ( 10.  In your o p i n i o n , d i d t h i s c l i e n t b e n e f i t this Individually S u b s i d i z e d Job? ( ( ( ( (  10.  ) Other  ) ) ) ) )  from  participation  in  Yes, substantial benefit Y e s , d e f i n i t e l y some b e n e f i t Very l i t t l e benef i t No k n o w n b e n e f i t Unable to assess  B r i e f l y , i n y o u r own w o r d s , d e s c r i b e how benefited or d i d not b e n e f i t from t h i s Subsidized Job.  -  158  -  this c l i e n t Individually  i2 Summary o' netnoaology and procedures  The r e s e a r c h group d e s i g n  design will be a n e x p e r i m e n t a l , uncontro11ed single a s i d e n t i f i e d by r e s e a r c h e r s R e i d a n d S m i t h i n 1981.  The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the study w i l l be q u a n t i t a t i v e , using a c o v a r i a n c e r e s e a r c h model. The o t h e r m o d e l g u i d i n g the project will be M i c h a e l Q. Pat t o n s rnoael o f ut I 1 I z a t l o n - f o c u s e d research identified i n 1378. T h i s model b u i l d s i n the commitment of program decision-makers at a l l s t a g e s o f the research, to the u t i l i z a t i o n of the research f i n d i n g s . ft p r o b a b i l i t y sampling design will be u s e d t o i d e n t i f y relationships and measure the strength of relationships between antecedent v a r i a b l e s and independent program v a r i a b l e s compared to employment outcomes. The v a r i a b l e s c h o s e n f o r s t u d y h a v e been identified during e x t e n s i v e c o n s u l t a t i o n with program managers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t t h e Employment Centre. Two modes of observation will be u s e d . Client extracted from a computer p r i n t out and this supplemented with a brief, se1f-admInIstered completed by t h e e m p l o y m e n t c o u n s e l l o r who origin the c l i e n t to the program. This data c o l l e c t i o n w i f a c t o as t h e sample w i l l be d r a w n f r o m c l i e n t s who the program.  data data que ally ll be have  will be will be stionalre referred ex post completed  ;SC3!PTI0N QF POPULATION 13 How How ••i Who  many subjects w i l l be used?  ^  subjects  many In the contra 1 group?  None  13 being r e c r u i t e d and what are the c r i t e r i a for their selection?  The p o p u l a t i o n c h o s e n f o r s t u d y w i l l be a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who have participated i n t h e I n d i v i d u a l l y S u b s i d i z e d Job program between September 1985 and October 1986 i n one geographic area of V a n c o u v e r and who h a v e c o m p l e t e d t h e program. The s a m p l e w i l l be a 100% sample o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  - 161  -  APPENDIX E Tables  of Non-Social  Assistance Recipients and  S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t Sub G r o u p s  Client  Characteristics  Table A - l . Sex  Sex  Number Non-SAR  Male Female ALL  Percent  SAR  Non-SAR  SAR  27 23  10 4  54.0 46.0  71.4 28.6  50  14  100.0  100.0  T a b l e A-2. Age  Years  16 20 25 35 45 55  All  Number  19 24 34 44 54 64  Percent  Non-SAR  SAR  Non-SAR  5 15 18 6 4 2  1 4 8 1 0 0  10. 0 30.0 36.0 12 . 0 8.0 4.0  50  14  - 162 -  100. 0  SAR 7.1 28.6 57.2 7.1 0.0 0.0 100.0  T a b l e A-3. Education Completed  Grade  Number Non-SAR  8 or less 9 t o 11 12 13 ALL  SAR  Percent Non-SAR  SAR  4  1  8.2  7.1  15 25 5  3 6 4  30.6 51.0 10.2  21.4 42.9 28.6  49  14  100.00  100.0  T a b l e A-4. Number o f Months Worked i n Y e a r Immediately  Months  Prior  toISJ  Number Non-SAR  SAR  None One Two Three Four Five  37 2 5 1 4 1  10 2 1 1 0 0  ALL  50  14  -  163 -  Percent Non-SAR 74.0 4.0 10.0 2.0 8.0 2.0 100.0  SAR 71.4 14.3 7.1 7.1 0.0 0.0 100.0  T a b l e A-5. Number o f Months Unemployed i n Y e a r Immediately  Months  1 4 7 10  3 6 9 - 12  ALL  Prior  toISJ  Number  Percent  Non-SAR  SAR  1 4 9 36  0 2 0 12  50  14  Non-SAR  SAR  2.0 8.0 18. 0 72 . 0  0.0 14.3 0.0 85.7  100.0  100. 0  T a b l e A-6. Number o f Months S p e n t During Year Immediately  Months  None 1 - 3 4 - 6 7 - 9 10 - 12 ALL  Number  i n School Prior  toISJ  Percent  Non-SAR  SAR  46 1 1 2 0  13 0 1 0 0  92.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 0.0  50  14  100.0  - 164 -  Non-SAR  SAR 92.9 0.0 7.1 0.0 0.0 100. 0  T a b l e A-7. Number o f Months S p e n t  i n Other  Durino: Y e a r I m m e d i a t e l y  Months  Activities  Prior toISJ  Number  Percent  Non-SAR  SAR  Non-SAR  SAR  None 1 - 3 4 - 6 7 - 9  46 1 2 1  13 1 0 0  92.0 2.0 4.0 2.0  92.9 7.1 0.0 0.0  ALL  50  14  100.0  100.0  T a b l e A-8. Level o f Family Level  Number Non-SAR  Single  Responsibility Percent SAR  Non-SAR  SAR  with  no d e p e n d e n t s  37  10  74.0  71.4  2  0  4.0  0.0  10  1  20.0  7.1  1  3  2.0  21.4  50  14  100.0  100.0  Married or equivalent w i t h no d e p e n d e n t s Married or equivalent w i t h dependents Single  with  dependents ALL  - 165 -  T a b l e A-9. Referring  C o u n s e l l o r ' s Assessment o f Client  Motivation  Motivation  Number  Percent  Non-SAR  SAR  8 37 5 0 0  2 9 3 0 0  Very High High Average Poor Very Poor  50  ALL  Job  Non-SAR  14.3 64.3 21.4 0.0 0.0  16.0 74.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 100.0  14  Specific  SAR  100.0  Variables  T a b l e A-10. S u b s i d i z e d Jobs by O c c u p a t i o n Occupation  Number Non-SAR  M a n a g e r i a l and P r o f e s s i o n a l C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d Sales Service Primary Processing Construction Trades Transportation Material Handling  3 14 2 7 0 20 1 0 3  ALL  50  -  Percent  SAR 0 5 1 0 0 3 1 1 2 13  166 -  Non-SAR 6.0 28.0 4.0 14.0 0.0 40.0 2.0 0.0 6.0 100.0  SAR 0.0 38.5 7.7 0.0 0.0 23.1 7.7 7.7 15.4 100.0  Table  A-ll. S u b s i d i z e d Jobs by I n d u s t r y  Industry  Percent  Number Non-SAR  SAR  Service Sector Trade Manufacturing Construction Transportation and C o m m u n i c a t i o n  19 17 13 1 0  3 3 3 4 1  ALL  50  14  Non-SAR 38.0 34.0 26.0 2.0 0.0  100.0  SAR 21.4 21.4 21.4 28.6 7.1  100.0  T a b l e A-12. Intended Duration o f I S J Weeks  Number Non-SAR  12 13 19 25 31 37 43 ALL  or less - 18 - 24 - 30 - 36 - 42 - 52  4 3 13 20 4 5 1 50  Percent  SAR 1 2 2 4 3 1 1 14  Non-SAR 8.0 6.0 26.0 40.0 8.0 10.0 2.0 100.0  SAR 7.1 14.3 14.3 28.6 21.4 7.1 7.1 100.0  T a b l e A-13 Actual  Duration of I S J  Weeks  Number Non-SAR  Percent  SAR  Non-SAR  SAR  12 o r l e s s  21  3  42.0  21.4  13 19 25 31 37 43  5 9 13 1 1 0  3 4 3 1 0 0  10.0 18.0 26.0 2.0 2. 0 0.0  21.4 28.6 21.4 7.1 0.0 0.0  -  18 24 30 36 42 52  50  ALL  100.0  14  100.0  T a b l e A-14. D i f f e r e n c e between I S J Wage R a t e and  ISJ  Wage R a t e i n J o b I m m e d i a t e l y P r i o r  Difference  Number Non-SAR SAR  G r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a l t o $2. $1 t o $1.99 g r e a t e r L e s s t h a n $1 g r e a t e r V i r t u a l l y t h e same Less than previous j o b  7 3 7 4 15  ALL  36  -  3 1 1 4 4 13  168 -  to ISJ  Percent Non-SAR SAR 19.4 8.3 19.4 11.1 41.7 100.0  23.1 7.7 7.7 30.8 30.8 100.0  T a b l e A-15. Skill  Level  of ISJ Relative t o Job  Immediately  Level  Prior toISJ  Number Non-SAR  Percent  SAR  Non-SAR  SAR  Substantially higher Somewhat h i g h e r No a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e Lower Unable t o Assess  7 16 14 4 9  4 6 3 0 1  14.0 32.0 28.0 8.0 18.0  28.6 42.9 21.4 0.0 7.1  ALL  50  14  100.0  100. 0  T a b l e A-16. Extent of Social in  C o n t a c t w i t h work c o l l e a g u e s &/or p u b l i c  Interraction  the ISJ  Number Non-SAR  Percent SAR  Non-SAR  17  4  34.0  28.6  27  10  54.0  71.4  Occasional: A few t i m e s e a c h d a y  6  0  12.0  L i t t l e contact: A few t i m e s e a c h  0  0  0.0  50  14  Very frequent: S e v e r a l times each  hour  Frequent: S e v e r a l t i m e s each day  ALL  SAR  0.0 0.0  week  - 169 -  100.0  100.0  T a b l e A-17 Career  Path  Identifiable to  ISJ  Part  Participant  Path  Number Non-SAR  Percent  SAR  Non-SAR  SAR  Very C l e a r Clear Limited No O p p o r t u n i t y Unable t o Assess  1 13 26 8 2  0 4 9 1 0  2.0 26.0 52.0 16.0 4.0  0.0 28.6 64.3 7.1 0.0  ALL  50  14  100.0  100.0  T a b l e A-18. Commitment o f Immediate S u p e r v i s o r t o Employment O b j e c t i v e s o f I S J L e v e l o f Commitment  Number  Percent  Non-SAR  SAR  Very High High Moderate Low No commitment  4 14 21 10 1  0 5 5 3 1  ALL  50  14  -  170 -  Non-SAR 8.0 28.0 42.0 20.0 2.0 100. 0  SAR 0.0 35.7 35.7 21.4 7.1 100.0  Administrative Variables T a b l e A-19. Number o f I n t e r v i e w s w i t h R e f e r r i n g C o u n s e l l o r Prior to ISJ Participation  Number o f I n t e r v i e w s  Number Non-SAR  None One Two Three Four Not Known  Percent SAR  24 6 6 7 7 0  ALL  50  Non-SAR  5 4 1 3 0 1  48. 0 12.0 12.0 14.0 14.0 0.0  14  100. 0  SAR 35.7 28.6 7.1 21.4 0.0 7.1 100.0  T a b l e A-20. T o t a l Number o f M o n i t o r i n g Monitoring V i s i t s  Visits  Number Non-SAR  Percent SAR  None One Two Three Four  3 15 20 10 2  0 2 10 1 1  ALL  50  14  Non-SAR 6.0 30.0 40.0 20.0 4.0 100.0  SAR 0.0 14.3 71.4 7.1 7.1 100.0  T a b l e A-21. M o n i t o r i n g Done Bv R e f e r r i n g C o u n s e l l o r Monitoring  Visits  Number Non-SAR  Percent SAR  None One Two Three  18 21 10 1  10 3 1 0  ALL  50  14  -  171 -  Non-SAR 36.0 42.0 20.0 2. 0 100.0  SAR 71.4 21.4 7.1 0.0 100.0  Labour Market  Variables  T a b l e A-22. Difficulty Number o f U l C l a i m a n t s Per A d v e r t i s e d Job Vacancy  o f Job Search Number  Non-SAR 0-1 11 21 More  0 20 30 than  30  ALL  SAR  Percent Non-SAR  SAR  16 4 2 4  1 1 1 1  61.5 15.4 7.7 15.4  25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0  24  4  100.0  100.0  T a b l e A-23. B a l a n c e Between  Occupational  S u p p l y and Demand  Balance  Number Non-SAR  Percent SAR  Non-SAR  Extreme S u r p l u s Moderate S u r p l u s Light Surplus R e l a t i v e Balance L i g h t Requirement Moderate Requirement Extreme Requirement  0 10 7 0 7 0 0  0 0 3 0 1 0 0  0.0 41.7 29.2 0.0 29.2 0.0 0.0  ALL  24  4  100. 0  - 172 -  SAR 0.0 0.0 75.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 100.0  Outcome  Variables  T a b l e A-23. Immediate Employment Outcome  Outcome  Number  Percent  Non-SAR  SAR  Non- SAR  SAR  P r o m o t e d , w i t h same e m p l o y e r I d e n t i c a l j o b , same e m p l o y e r U n r e l a t e d j o b , same e m p l o y e r R e l a t e d j o b , d i f f e r e n t employer U n r e l a t e d j o b , d i f f e r e n t employer S e l f employed Unemployed, c o l l e c t i n g U l Unemployed, on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Unemployed, n o t r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c income a s s i s t a n c e S t a t u s n o t known Moved o u t o f a r e a  2 19 0 4 3 2 2 2 1  1 4 0 1 2 0 0 1 0  4. 0 38. 0 0. 0 8. 0 6. 0 4. 0 4. 0 4. 0 2. 0  7.1 28.6 0.0 7.1 14.3 0.0 0.0 7.1 0.0  13 2  5 0  26. 0 4. 0  35.7 0.0  ALL  50  14  100. 0  100.0  T a b l e A-23. Counsellors' Client  Assessment o f Benefit  Benefit  Number Non-SAR  Percent SAR  Non-SAR  SAR  Substantial benefit D e f i n i t e l y some b e n e f i t Very l i t t l e b e n e f i t No known b e n e f i t Unable t o assess  13 20 7 7 3  2 9 0 3 1  26.0 40.0 14.0 14. 0 6.0  14.3 64.3 0.0 14.3 7.1  ALL  50  14  100.0  100.0  - 173 -  

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