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Problems faced by Canadian immigrants during their adjustment in the light of their observations : social… Oproescu, Elena Liliana 1987

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PROBLEMS FACED BY CANADIAN IMMIGRANTS DURING THEIR ADJUSTMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR OBSERVATIONS; SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS by Elena L i l i a n a Oproescu M.A., University "A. I. Cuza", I a s i , Romania, 1969 B.S.W., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Social Work We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF- BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1987 <c) Elena L i l i a n a Oproescu, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of SOCIAL WORK The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date JUNE, 3fTf 1987 DF.fin/ft-n A B S T R A C T PROBLEMS FACED BY CANADIAN IMMIGRANTS DURING THEIR ADJUSTMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR OBSERVATIONS; SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS. The p r o c e s s o f a d j u s t m e n t o f i m m i g r a n t s i n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i s a n i m p o r t a n t e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l i s s u e ; p o l i t i c i a n s , r e s e a r c h e r s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s a r e t r y i n g t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s i n t o m a k i n g t h i s p r o c e s s s m o o t h e r and e a s i e r f o r t h e i m m i g r a n t s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y w h i c h e m p l o y e d e x p l o r a t o r y , q u a l i t a t i v e m e thods s o l i c i t e d t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f i m m i g r a n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s and a l s o t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t w o r k e r s a s p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s . E i g h t e e n i m m i g r a n t s ( m a l e , f e m a l e ), f r o m d i v e r s e c o n t i n e n t s , c o u n t r i e s , a g e , s e x , p r o f e s s i o n s and e d u c a t i o n were i n t e r v i e w e d a n d a s k e d t o f i l l o u t 2 Hudson s c a l e s (GCS and I S E ) . Ten m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t w o r k e r s had a n s w e r e d a 23 i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e . M a j o r p s y c h o -s o c i a l a s p e c t s r e l a t e d t o a d j u s t m e n t a r e d e s c r i b e d a s e l i c i t e d f r o m t h e d a t a a n d l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e a r e o u t l i n e d . I t was f o u n d t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o a s y s t e m s f r a m e w o r k f o r v i e w i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l p r o b l e m s / i n t e r a c t i o n s i s i m p o r t a n t when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s ( w h i c h i s a d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s a s t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s d e s c r i b e d i t ) . The i n t e r v i e w e d p e o p l e m a n i f e s t e d g r a t e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t e f f o r t s t o w a r d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o n e w l y a r r i v e d i m m i g r a n t s i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . The i n t e r v i e w e d p e o p l e who had had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o have a h o s t e x p r e s s e d t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e H o s t P r o g r a m o f f e r e d t h r o u g h I m m i g r a n t S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n , i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o a n e t h n i c s e n s i t i v e a p p r o a c h a t t h e m i c r o a nd t h e macro l e v e l a r e p r e s e n t e d . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 11 TABLES V i FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i x MOTTO X CHAPTER I: THE IMMIGRANTS IN CANADIAN SOCIETY 1. The M i g r a t o r y I n f l u x to Canada 1 2. Government P o l i c i e s on Immigration a. P o l i c i e s 3 b. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Context o£ Immigration 8 c. Immigration P e r s p e c t i v e 8 3. The P o l i c y of M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m a. The P o l i c y of M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m 11 b. Does M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m Work? 13 4. E t h n i c i t y , Race and C u l t u r e a. E t h n i c i t y 17 b. The Immigrants and E t h n i c Change 21 c. Race 22 d. C u l t u r e 25 e. S o c i a l Work Knowledge of E t h n i c i t y , Race and C u l t u r e 27 CHAPTER I I : THE ADJUSTMENT PROCESS, A STRESSFUL STAGE IN IMMIGRANT'S LIFE 1. The C u l t u r a l l y Relocated Immigrant 29 2. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Adjustment 31 a. s e l f - i m a g e , r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s 32 b. e f f e c t i v e s e l f f u n c t i o n n i n g 34 c. defence mechanisms 35 3. E x t e r n a l Threats to Adjustment a. p r e j u d i c e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 40 b. l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 43 c. how widespread i s the p r e j u d i c e ? 45 d. demographic v a r i a t i o n i n p r e j u d i c e 46 i v CHAPTER I I I : THE RESEARCH PROBLEM : THE PROCESS OF ADJUSTMENT OF IMMIGRANTS 1. Issues To Be Studied 49 2. Knowledge B u i l d i n g F u nctions 51 3. The Dimensional Model 51 4. L i t e r a t u r e Review 54 5. F e a s i b i l i t y 62 CHAPTER IV: THE RESEARCH DESIGN 1. N a t u r a l i s t i c Study 64 2. S i z e and Composition of the Sample 64 3. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n 67 4. Sources of Data and Data C o l l e c t i o n 68 5. Data A n a l y s i s Technique 70 CHAPTER V: FINDINGS 1. P a r t I : The Immigrants A. A Demographic P r o f i l e 72 B. E n g l i s h Language L e a r n i n g 75 C. Employment 79 D. F i n a n c i a l D i f f i c u l t i e s 83 E. Education 85 F. Disagrements and D i s l i k e s i n 87 G. F e e l i n g s Toward L i v i n g i n a M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y 88 H. The Immigrant Fa m i l y 92 I. S a t i s f a c t i o n with L i f e i n Canada 94 2. P a r t II : The Workers 100 3. Summary of F i n d i n g s 115 4. Conclus i o n s 119 V CHAPTER VI : IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK 1. The Process of Adjustment - Conclusions ....122 2. Adjustment and A c c u l t u r a t i o n 124 3. Various Approaches i n S o c i a l Work With Immigrants 128 4. Values, P r i n c i p l e s i n Working with Immigrants 139 5. Need f o r More Research 145 APPENDICES 1. Footnotes 147 2. B i b l i o g r a p h y 152 3. Appendix A: Approach to Respondents 166 B: I n t e r v i e w Information and Consent Form 168 C: Face Sheet Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 170 D: Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 172 E: I n t e r v i e w Quide 180 F: General Contentment Scale 183 G: Index of S e l f Esteem Scale 184 H: Advertisment of Sale of Slaves..185 TABLES: v i CHAPTER I: PAGE Table 1 : Immigration by C l a s s , 1966-1983 7 Table 2 : The 1987 Immigration Level and i t s Component Planning Ranges 9 Table 3 : Government A s s i s t e d Refugee A l l o c a t i o n s , 1987.. 11 CHAPTER V: Table 1 : Sample Interviewed by Gender and Age. 73 Table 2 : Sample Interviewed by Region of O r i g i n 73 Table 3 : Sample Interviewed by Country of O r i g i n 74 Table 4 : Sample Interviewed by Educational Background and Region of O r i g i n 74 Table 5 : Occupation of Sample Interviewed i n Country of O r i g i n 7 5 Table 6 : Sample Interviewed by Employment i n Country O r i g i n and Canada 81. Table 7 : Generalized Contentment Scale and Index of Se l f Esteem Scores 98 Table 8 : Sample of Workers by Gender and Age 101 Table 9 : Sample of Workers by Work Experience 102 Table 10: Sample of Workers by Job T i t l e 102 Table 11: Sample of Workers by Education 103 Table 12: Workers F e e l i n g s Toward t h e i r Job 103 Table 13: Workers Job D e s c r i b t i o n 104 Table 14: Workers F e e l i n g s about Working with People from Other Countries 104 Table 15: Time Spent by Workers w i t h i n t h e i r Agency 105 Table 16: Opportunity f o r Workers to Get Informed about t h e i r C l i e n t s Background 105 Table 17: Workers S a t i s f a c t i o n with C l i e n t s by Behavioural Items - 106 Table 18: Workers S a t i s f a c t i o n by Items and Lev e l of S a t i s f a c t i o n 106 Table 19: Degree of Workers S a t i s f a c t i o n by Frequency of Items. 107 v i i Table 2 0 : workers F e e l i n g s toward Discussing with t h e i r C l i e n t s about t h e i r Background and C u l t u r e 107 Table 21: Workers Recommendations 108 Table 22: The Necessary S k i l l s i n D a i l y P r a c t i c e f o r the M u l t i c u l t u r a l / R e s e t t l e m e n t Worker, as Chosen by Workers i n a F i v e P o i n t R a t i n g s c a l e 109 Table 23: Frequency of Items i n t h e i r Importance Order...110 Table 24: Workers P e r c e p t i o n of Necessary Knowledge i n D a i l y P r a c t i c e , Presented by Item Number i n a F i v e P o i n t Scale I l l Table 25: Workers P e r c e p t i o n s of Necessary Knowledge by Frequency of Items 112 Table 26: Values as Promovated by Workers........ 112 Table 27: C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s i n Making Recommendations to the C l i e n t 113 Table 28: The Areas where Workers F e l t t h a t they Needed more Knowledge i n Order to be More E f f e c t i v e ; Frequency by Items and Workers 114 Table 29: P a r t i c i p a t i o n at Formal/Informal D i s c u s s i o n About C u l t u r a l Values or P a t t e r n of Behaviour of D i f f e r e n t E t h n i c Groups 114 Table 30: Workers F e e l i n g s about G e t t i n g Enough Information on C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s 115 v i l i FIGURES: CHAPTER I I : Figure I : Forms of D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 41 CHAPTER VI: Figure I : Four Modes of A c c u l t u r a t i o n Based Upon Responses to Two Questions 125 Figure I I : B i c u l t u r a l i s m 127 Figure I I I : The Dual System of A l l I n d i v i d u a l s 135 Figure IV : Three Stage Model 136 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The e x p l o r a t o r y research study reported here i s concerned with problems that immigrants are f a c i n g i n t h e i r process of adjustment, and with the r o l e of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t worker i n help i n g t h e i r s t r u g g l e . My i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t o p i c derived from the f a c t t h a t , as an immigrant myself, I have been f a c i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s of c u l t u r a l r e l o c a t i o n and the adjustment i n t o a new c u l t u r e . My own experience taught me that the process of adjustment i s a p a i n f u l stage i n one's l i f e , and along with one's d e s i r e and a b i l i t y to i n t e g r a t e , there are s o c i a l , economic, c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s that could make t h i s process e a s i e r or more d i f f i c u l t . I have a l s o experienced that the p r o f e s s i o n a l worker, whether he/she i s a teacher, s o c i a l worker, c o u n s e l l o r has an important r o l e i n he l p i n g the immigrant to adjust to a new s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e . This research i s a l s o part of my e f f o r t to understand how other immigrants perceive t h e i r own adjustment, how the m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t workers see themselves i n t h i s process, and consequently to develop a personal experience t h e o r e t i c a l m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d , u s e f u l f or those who are immigrants i n the adjustment or the p r o f e s s i o n a l s h e l p i n g out. The intended audience of t h i s work i n c l u d e s : the immigrants who are f a c i n g many adjustment r e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s ; the p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r s , be they s o c i a l workers m u l t i c u l t u r a l / resettlement workers, p s y c h o l o g i s t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , educators; my pr o f e s s o r s , and any others who share any i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s u b j e c t . The w r i t e r wishes to express g r a t i t u d e to professor John Crane and professor Roop Seebaran f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , guidance, and i n s i g h t f u l ideas i n the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s paper. The author acknowledges s p e c i a l thanks to Mrs. Joyce K y i , the Executive D i r e c t o r of Immigrant Services S o c i e t y , Mrs L e s l e y Anderson, the former Coordinator of Host Program, and Mr. Gordon P a r t o v i f o r t h e i r support and time. S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n to my husband G a b r i e l and my c h i l d r e n Ana and Bogdan f o r t h e i r encouragement, support and personal s a c r i f i c e s during the l a s t two years. S p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n i s due to my f r i e n d , Doris C o l l i n s , for her love, warmth, and advice. Thanks are a l s o extended to a l l the respondents i n the study for t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the subject matter, and help during the stages of data c o l l e c t i o n . My expectations are that the opinions and perceptions shared by the respondents of t h i s study w i l l r e v e a l the com p l e x i t i e s of problems, the i n t e r n a l t u r m o i l and the endeavors of immigrants to ad j u s t . I t w i l l , h o p e f u l l y , a s s i s t the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n working with immigrants to be aware of such f a c t o r s as: s k i l l s , knowledge and values necessary i n working with immigrants, e t h n i c s e n s i t i v e behaviour, and s e l f awareness aspects. S o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e e s s e n t i a l b e c a u s e o f t h e f r a i l i t i e s o f human g e n e t i c s a n d t h e a g i n g b o d y , b e c a u s e o f a b e r r a t i o n o f human b e h a v i o u r , b e c a u s e p l a n s go w r o n g a n d p e o p l e d i e , b e c a u s e a l l p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s p r o d u c e v i c t i m s a n d l a b e l d e v i a n t s , b e c a u s e p e o p l e s o m e t i m e s f i g h t w i t h and h u r t e a c h o t h e r ". M a r t i n Davies, 1985 1 CHAPTER I: THE IMMIGRANTS IN CANADIAN SOCIETY 1. The Migratory Influx to Canada For the purpose of t h i s study, an immigrant is considered a Canadian resident, who is not a Canadian c i t i z e n by b i r t h . Vikings were the f i r s t to come to Canada in the 1100s, but not much i s known about t h e i r influence on Canadian history. The f i r s t immigrants who established permanent settlement were colonists from France who in 1608 came to Nova Scotia and Quebec. The flow of immigrants from France decreased markedly since 1763 and u n t i l 1815 immigration was l i g h t . Between 1815 and 1867 the flow of immigrants increased with more than 1 m i l l i o n from Great B r i t a i n and other European countries. In 1871, when the f i r s t census was taken in Canada, ninety two percent of the three and one half m i l l i o n people who l i v e d in Canada were either of B r i t i s h (61%) or French (31%) o r i g i n . After Confederation (1867), u n t i l the turn of the century, most of immigrants came from B r i t i s h Isles and a s i g n i f i c a n t number from Germany and Norway. Referring to t h i s stage of the history of immigration in Canada, Berry, Kalin and Taylor (1977), defined three phases of immigration: i n i t i a l l y , the native arrived in the New World and occupied what is now Canada; secondly, beginning in the 16th and 17th centuries, a second wave of immigrants began from France and the B r i t i s h I s l e s ; and the t h i r d phase, marked by the immigration of people from many other countries (predominantly European), began in about 1880 and has continued up t i l l the present day. Between 1899-1914 nearly three m i l l i o n immigrants arrived. A record number of 400.870 came in 1913. While the migration from B r i t i s h Isles increased, there was also growth from Austria, Hungary, Russia, I t a l y , Scandinavia. For the present century, three phases of immigration could be defined: prior to 1914, when peasant families from Northern and Eastern Europe set t l e d on the P r a i r i e s ; between the two Wars, when settlement tended to be in the urban and i n d u s t r i a l areas; and following 1945, when immigration became more d i v e r s i f i e d and for the f i r s t time Southern Europeans, and people from A f r i c a , Asia, and Caribbean were welcomed (Berry, Kalin and Taylor, 1977). Between World War I and II immigration decreased. From 1913 to 1920 the annual average was 126.000. Between 1932-1945 the annual average was 20.000. Great B r i t a i n continued to be the major source. Under the 1923 Order-in-Council 183, B r i t i s h and Americans were the most favored; northern Europeans were well received, and other Europeans were accepted only i f the above were not available. Non-Whites were not welcomed and were a c t i v e l y barred from coming into Canada through various pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n . This p o l i c y was p a r t l y j u s t i f i e d by pointing out the lack of a b i l i t i e s of non-Whites to assimilate because of the i r c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s , language and c l i m a t i c backgrounds. This thesis was not supported by any known research; on the contrary, recent studies in the area of race and ethnic relations indicate that Whites from an Anglo-Saxon Protestant background have a low commitment to Canada compared with other ethnic groups (Richmond, A., 1974). After World War II, Canadian immigration p o l i c i e s were changed, even though they remained b a s i c a l l y discriminatory against non-White population. The quota system was introduced, l i m i t i n g the number of the people allowed into Canada from the Third World countries. Between 1945-1961 a t o t a l of two m i l l i o n immigrants were admitted. During the 1950s the annual average was 150.000 but f e l l to 72.000 in 1961. A peak of more than 200.000 was reached in 1974. The t o t a l between 1946-1981 was 5 m i l l i o n . Recent immigration from Southeast Asia, Central and South America has transformed the ethnic composition and the c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y of Canada. 3 2. Goverment P o l i c i e s on Immigration "Over the yea r s , Canada's immigration p o l i c i e s have done much to shape the nature of modern Canadian S o c i e t y : i t s c u l t u r a l t e x t u r e and e t h n i c composition, and the ever-expanding stock of i t s t r a d i t i o n s , a s p i r a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l antagonisms." 1 a. P o l i c i e s During the e a r l y p e r i o d s of c o l o n i z a t i o n , immigration was promoted as e s s e n t i a l to the w e l l being of the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n . The immigration p o l i c y e s t a b l i s h e d by the post C o n f e d e r a t i o n government s e t the tone f o r the f u t u r e : immigration was to be t i e d to the economic needs of Canada, and s t r o n g preference f o r European, p a r t i c u l a r l y B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s . Canada, l i k e the United S t a t e s , and A u s t r a l i a , has s u b s c r i b e d to a d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y of p r e f e r e n t i a l immigration f o r persons from Northwestern Europe, e s p e c i a l l y those o r i g i n a t i n g from the United Kingdom. In the e a r l y p a r t of the century, Canada's treatment f o r Asians was not u n l i k e t h a t of A u s t r a l i a ' s and the United S t a t e s ' . When the Chinese were admitted i n the l a t e 19th Century, i t was s t r i c t l y on the b a s i s of cheap, t r a n s i t o r y , temporary employment to c o n s t r u c t the P a c i f i c Railway. Canada a l s o drew the l i n e a t a d m i t t i n g Jewish refugees f l e e i n g from Nazism d u r i n g the 1930s because they were co n s i d e r e d u n a s s i m i l a b l e (Burnet, J . , 1984). During the 1930-1943 p e r i o d , immigration p o l i c y was a f f e c t e d by unfavorable p u b l i c o p i n i o n toward immigration. During the Depression, immigrants were no longer r e q u i r e d f o r i n d u s t r y . From the 1945 to 1961 immigration was seen as necessary to enlarge the pool of labour and to c r e a t e a l a r g e domestic market f o r new i n d u s t r i e s . Since World War I I , the overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n of perma-nent immigrant settlement has occured i n Canada as i n A u s t r a l i a and the United S t a t e s because these c o u n t r i e s were r i c h i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , l e s s d e n s e l y populated, and e s s e n t i a l l y b u i l t on immigrant labour. Perhaps t h i s accounts f o r some s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the immigration p o l i c i e s and trends of these c o u n t r i e s . The Immigration p o l i c y adopted by Canada f o l l o w i n g the second World War was a p o l i c y of a c t i v e l y promoting p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth. The tendency was a l s o to widen g e o g r a p h i c a l areas of a c c e p t a b i l i t y while i n v o k i n g e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Act of 1946 made allowances f o r war refugees, encouraging a l s o the a r r i v a l of farm workers and miners. The 1960s was a decade of major changes i n Canada's economic and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , and the need f o r h i g h l y s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n s and t r a d e s and l e s s s k i l l e d occupations i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and manufacture being high, immigration p o l i c y was l i n k e d stronger than ever, d i r e c t l y to the economic c o n d i t i o n s . In 1962, a l l r a c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were removed, s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s f o r B r i t i s h , French, and other Europeans were e l i m i n a t e d , and and e m p l o y a b i l i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d as the major a t t r i b u t e f o r s e l e c t i o n . In 1967 the " p o i n t system" was i n t r o d u c e d ; assessment u n i t s were awarded under nine headings: "1. Education and T r a i n i n g up to 20 u n i t s ; one f o r each year of education or o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 2. P e r s o n a l assessment: up to 15 u n i t s , based on the immigration o f f i c e r ' s judgment about the a p p l i c a n t ' s a d a p t a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n , i n i t i a t i v e . 3. O c c u p a t i o n a l demand: up to 15 u n i t s i f demand f o r the a p p l i c a n t , s k i l l e d or u n s k i l l e d , was high i n Canada. 4. O c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l : from 10 u n i t s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s to 1 u n i t f o r u n s k i l l e d labour. 5. Age: 10 u n i t s f o r a p p l i c a n t s under 35, with one u n i t d e duction f o r each year above 35. 6. Arranged employment: 10 u n i t s i f the a p p l i c a n t had a d e f i n i t e job pre-arranged. 7. Knowledge of French or E n g l i s h : up to 10 u n i t s depending on the degree of f l u e n c y . 8. R e l a t i v e : up to 15 u n i t s i f the a p p l i c a n t had a r e l a t i v e i n Canada able to help i n becoming e s t a b l i s h e d . 5 9. Employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n area of d e s t i n a t i o n : up to 15 u n i t s i f the a p p l i c a n t intended to go to an area where a st r o n g demand f o r labor e x i s t e d . " 2 The score of 60 u n i t s was co n s i d e r e d the p a s s i n g l i n e , while the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e score was 100. The p o i n t system favored w e l l educated p r o f e s s i o n a l people and i t i s probably the reason why sometimes Canada has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r d r a i n i n g of e d u c a t i o n a l and s k i l l e d people from d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , where t h e i r e x p e r t i s e was s t r o n g l y needed. In 1975, the Canadian government is s u e d the Green Paper and e s t a b l i s h e d a P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee to make recommendations f o r changing the Canadian Immigration Act . In the Green Paper, Blacks and Asians were seen as agents of s o c i a l s t r e s s and Canadians were c o n g r a t u l a t e d f o r " t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y i n adopting to such novel and d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s " (Elwood, 1975). Vario u s e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s submitted b r i e f s to the committee which made i t s recommendations to the government. The Immigration Act of 1976 was based on the b a s i s of these recommendations. Today, Canada i s e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d s o c i a l change consequent upon s h i f t s i n the s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the economy, s h i f t s i n the demographic balance, i n c r e a s e d c h a l l e n g e s f o r higher e d u c a t i o n , and a l a r g e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i t s people i n t o the d e c i s i o n making pro c e s s . A v a r i o u s number of interdependent changes occured i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , automation, communications, computers, and so on. Those changes w i l l modify the demand f o r u n s k i l l e d and s k i l l e d l a b o r : u n s k i l l e d labor w i l l d e c l i n e and the need f o r w e l l educated and h i g h l y t r a i n e d people w i l l i n c r e a s e (Richmond A., 1974). Richmond argues t h a t a t the present time Canada i s s t i l l capable of meeting i t s own needs f o r h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d personnel, but s i n c e t h i s c a t e g o r y i s ve r y mobile, there w i l l be a multi-way exchange of p r o f e s s i o n a l , managerial and t e c h n i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d people, between the major urban c e n t r e s i n the world. Consequently, the need f o r a moderate flow of more permanent s e t t l e r s and the need f o r h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d immigrants 6 from abroad, to r e p l a c e t e m p o r a r i l y or permanently Canadians who go elsewhere, w i l l be p r e s e n t . In t h i s c o n t e x t : "A s u c c e s s f u l immigration p o l i c y f o r Canada i n the next few years should r e c o g n i z e t h a t not a l l immigrants intend to s e t t l e permanently... there w i l l be a need f o r g r e a t e r e f f o r t s by f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l goverments, as w e l l as by v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , to a s s i s t such immigrants i n the t r a n s i t i o n between t h e i r own s o c i e t y and f u l l e r i n t e g r a t i o n Into Canada." 3 A new Immigration Act i n 1978, r e v i s e d the p o i n t system and placed l e s s emphasis on e d u c a t i o n and • more on o c c u p a t i o n a l experience and demand. P a r t i c u l a r l y encouraged to immigrate were entrepreneurs who c o u l d c r e a t e employment i n Canada. The new Act s p e c i f i e s 3 c l a s s e s s of immigrants: the f a m i l y c l a s s , which c o n s i s t s of c l o s e r e l a t i v e s of permanent r e s i d e n t s of Canada; refuge e s , persons who f e a r p e r s e c u t i o n , i f they r e t u r n to t h e i r former c o u n t r i e s of r e s i d e n c e ; and independent and other Immigrants, i n d i v i d u a l s who have to meet a l l the c r i t e r i a f o r admission. T h i s l a s t c l a s s i n c l u d e s a s s i s t e d r e l a t i v e s who have to pass a l a b o r market o c c u p a t i o n a l demand t e s t . The s i z e and the c h a r a c t e r of the Immigrant flow i s bound to have profound i n f l u e n c e on the f u t u r e of Canadian s o c i e t y . The Report of the Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects f o r Canada, 1985, suggested t h a t : " I t seems l i k e l y t h a t i n f u t u r e years a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of newcomers w i l l be a t t r a c t e d from non-European n a t i o n s , and these new Canadians w i l l continue to expand the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of our c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c mix." 4 Table 1 presents the immigration by c l a s s between 1966-1983: Table 1: Immigration by C l a s s , 1966-1983 7 Year Family C l a s s % A s s i s t e d r e l a t i v e s % Independent % Refugees and Designated C l a s s % T o t a l Number of Immigrants 1966 34.2 65.8 194 743 1970 21.8 23.8 54.4 - 147 713 1971 27.4 24.1 48.5 - 121 900 1972 27.1 25.2 43.5 4.2 122 006 1973 22.6 24.0 52.1 1.3 184 200 1974 24.8 24.3 50.1 0.8 218 465 1975 34.1 24.3 38.6 3.0 187 881 1976 40.7 21.8 29.6 7.9 149 429 1977 44.7 22.7 26.2 6.4 114 914 1978 52.8 19.9 22.4 4.9 86 313 1979 41.7 10.2 23.2 24.9 112 196 1980 35.7 9.4 26.7 28.2 143 117 1982 41.3 37 .7 14.0 121 147 1983 54.6 29 .7 15.7 89 157 Sources: Canada, Employment and Immigration Canada, Annual Report To Parliament on Immigration L e v e l s , Ottawa, 1981, Table 11,p 42; Background Paper on Future Immigration L e v e l s , Ottawa, 1984, p.4 . 8 b. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Context of Immigration I t i s c u r r e n t l y estimated t h a t between 70 and 80 m i l l i o n people worldwide are on the move, and out of these, 10 to 15 m i l l i o n s are r e f u g e e s . For the past few y e a r s , Canada has been working w i t h i n the O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the United Nations High Commission f o r Refugees (UNHCR) to seek i n t e r n a t i o n a l approaches to world m i g r a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . In May 1985, a t a UNESCO Conference on the f u t u r e of m i g r a t i o n , Canada presented a framework f o r a more c o - o p e r a t i v e and a c t i v e p l a n n i n g and management of m i g r a t i o n movements by OECD c o u n t r i e s . Canada w i l l continue to give a c t i v e support to c u r r e n t e f f o r t s by the OECD to develop new responses to m i g r a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , and to develop and c a r r y out immigration p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s i n the context of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l environment. c. Immigration P e r s p e c t i v e Continued moderate and c o n t r o l l e d i n c r e a s e s to immigration l e v e l s are seen as d e s i r a b l e and necessary to promote demographic s t a b i l i t y . A three year Review of Demography and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Economic and S o c i a l P o l i c y w i l l r e p o r t to Cabinet by March 31, 1989, on p o s s i b l e changes i n the s i z e , s t r u c t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of Canada's p o p u l a t i o n to the year 2025, and how these changes c o u l d a f f e c t Canada's s o c i a l and economic l i f e . The f e d e r a l government's p o l i c y of moderate and c o n t r o l l e d growth i n immigration f o r the calendar year of 1987 i s to accept 115.000 to 125.000 immigrants. The reasons f o r moderate and c o n t r o l l e d growth i n immigration a r e : E c o n o m i c a l l y : there i s a growing awareness t h a t immigrants c o n t r i b u t e to economic growth and development by augmenting c a p i t a l formation, expanding consumers demands f o r goods and s e r v i c e s and by c r e a t i n g jobs f o r Canadian workers. S o c i a l l y : the 1987 p l a n of immigration l e v e l s i s c o n s i s t e n t with Canada's t r a d i t i o n s of e q u i t y , s o c i a l j u s t i c e , and humanitarian concern f o r the d i s p l a c e d and persecuted, and a l s o with the ongoing development and enrichment of Canada's m u l t i c u l t u r a l mosaic, which enhances the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a b r i c of a l l regions of our n a t i o n . Demographlcally: the components of the 1987 immigration p l a n n i n g range w i l l : "help to f o r e s t a l l a p r o j e c t e d decrease i n the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n , which c o u l d begin a t the t u r n of the century or s h o r t l y a f t e r . " 5 Table 2: 1987 Immigration L e v e l and i t s component P l a n n i n g Ranges Component Family C l a s s 45.000 Refugees and Designated C l a s s e s 17.000 Humanitarian ( S p e c i a l Measures) 5.000 - 8.000 S e l e c t e d Workers: P r i n c i p a l A p p l i c a n t s 17.000 - 20.000 Spouses and Dependants 17.000 - 21.000 Business Immigrants: P r i n c i p a l A p p l i c a n t s 4.000 Spouses and Dependants 8.000 R e t i r e e s 2 .000 TOTAL 115.000-125.000 Source: Annual Report to Parliament on Future Immigration L e v e l s , Employment and Immigration, Ottawa, 1986, p. 3 Regarding immigration c l a s s , the f o l l o w i n g should be noted: F i r s t l y , f a m i l y r e u n i f i c a t i o n continues to be the cornerstone of Canada's immigration program. Family c l a s s immigration has accounted f o r between 40% to 55% of the t o t a l annual l e v e l f i g u r e of the years 1981-1985. A Standing Committee Report, Oct. 1986, i n t r o d u c e d few improvement recommendations : f a s t e r and e a s i e r procedures f o r p r o s p e c t i v e sponsors at Canada Immigration Centres; d e t a i l s of approved sponsorship a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r spouses and dependent c h i l d r e n to be t r a n s m i t t e d by t e l e x to immigration posts abroad. Secondly, i n r e l a t i o n to economic c l a s s , the r e s t r i c t i o n on s e l e c t e d - workers without arranged employment was l i f t e d i n January 1986, and 100 o c c u p a t i o n a l groups were opened to w e l l q u a l i f i e d immigrants who would f o s t e r economic development and growth. A l s o the r e v i s i o n s i n t r o d u c e d to the immigrant s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i o n , responded to s o c i a l and demographic needs. The l i s t of open o c c u p a t i o n a l groups gained 32 occupations and 13 were d e l e t e d . There are 119 open groups, but the l i s t i s now s u b j e c t to c a r e f u l q u a r t e r l y review and adjustment. A l s o , comprehensive measures were introduced to expand and improve o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r business immigrants to c o n t r i b u t e to Canada's economic growth by expanding pools of investment c a p i t a l and by c r e a t i n g job openings f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s and permanent r e s i d e n t s of Canada. The need to see the i n v e s t o r c a t e g o r y more f l e x i b l y by p r o v i d i n g f o r c o n d i t i o n a l admission s i m i l a r to t h a t of entrepreneurs was i d e n t i f i e d . Consequently, "Immigration r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l be amended, to permit q u a l i f i e d I n v e s t o r s to come to Canada as immigrants on c o n d i t i o n t h a t , w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d time p e r i o d , they make an i r r e v o c a b l e Investment i n an a c c e p t a b l e p r o j e c t . " 6 A second r e g u l a t i o n change w i l l be to broaden the d e f i n i t i o n of "entrepreneurs", to i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e to an a p p l i c a n t ' s r e l e v a n t e xperience. T h i r d l y , d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y toward persons i n l e g i t i m a t e need of t h i r d c o u n t r y r e s e t t l e m e n t , Canada's Refugee Program maintains f o r 1987, a t 12,000, the l e v e l of 1986 government sponsored re f u g e e s . In November 1986, Canada was awarded the Nansen Medal i n r e c o g n i t i o n of o u t s t a n d i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e to r e f u g e e s . By s e c t o r s , the number of refugees from E a s t e r n Europe has been d e c r e a s i n g ( f o r example the planned admission f o r 1986 was 3.200 compared to 6.000 In 1982); from Southeast A s i a about 1.5 m i l l i o n have been r e s e t t l e d over the past decade i n Canada; Canada a l s o o f f e r s s t r o n g support f o r refugees from L a t i n America, A f r i c a , Middle East (see Table 3 below). Table 3: Government-Assisted Refugee A l l o c a t i o n s , 1987. E a s t e r n Europe 3,100 Southeast A s i a 3,200 L a t i n America 3,200 A f r i c a 1, 000 The Middle East 900 Other World areas 300 Funded Management Reserve 300 T o t a l 12,000 Source: Annual Report to Parliament on Future Immigration L e v e l s , Ottawa, 1986, p.13 3. The P o l i c y of M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m : Canadian Response to the E t h n i c D i v e r s i t y a. The P o l i c y of M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m The m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m movement c o i n c i d e d with a r a d i c a l s h i f t i n Canadian immigration p o l i c y when, i n 1962, b a r r i e r s such as c o u n t r y of o r i g i n and race as e n t r y r e g u l a t i o n s were removed and the emphasis was p l a c e d on e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and s k i l l s . Kalbach, W., 1979, mentioned: "The e a r l y 1960s were b l e s s e d with an improving economy and an E x p a n s i o n i s t mood th a t s u r f a c e d i n the government's 1966 White Paper on Immigration." 7 The new system l e d to the h i g h e s t annual immigration of the post-war p e r i o d , and changed the c h a r a c t e r of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n by i n t r o d u c i n g l a r g e numbers of v i s i b l e non-European m i n o r i t i e s . The main statement of the P o l i c y of M u l t i c u l t u r a l ism, which i s a p o s i t i v e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , was being promulgated i n the i n t e r e s t s of n a t i o n a l u n i t y . Announced by the Prime M i n i s t e r of 1971, the p o l i c y had the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : " F i r s t , r esources p e r m i t t i n g , the government w i l l seek to a s s i s t a l l Canadian c u l t u r a l groups t h a t have demonstrated a d e s i r e and e f f o r t to continue to develop a c a p a c i t y to grow and c o n t r i b u t e to Canada, a c l e a r need f o r a s s i s t a n c e , the s m a l l and weak groups, no l e s s than the s t r o n g , the h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d . " "Second, the government w i l l a s s i s t members of a l l c u l t u r a l groups to overcome the c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s to f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canadian s o c i e t y . " " T h i r d , the government w i l l promote c r e a t i v e encounters and interchange among a l l Canadian c u l t u r a l groups i n the i n t e r e s t of n a t i o n a l u n i t y . " "Fourth, the government w i l l continue to a s s i s t immigrants to a c q u i r e a t l e a s t one of Canada's o f f i c i a l languages i n order to become f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n C a n a d i a n . s o c i e t y . " (House of Commons, Debate: 1971, 10.08.) The M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m D i r e c t o r a t e under a M i n i s t e r of State fo r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m was to implement these o b j e c t i v e s . A M i n i s t e r of State Responsible f o r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m was appointed i n 1972 and i n 1973 the Canadian C o n s u l t a t i v e C o u n c i l on M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m was s e t up to advise him. The M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m D i r e c t o r a t e c a r r i e d on l i a i s o n a c t i v i t i e s with e t h n i c communities, e t h n i c p r e s s , sponsored r e s e a r c h , aided the development of the Canadian E t h n i c S t u d i e s A s s o c i a t i o n , supported a c t i v i t i e s i n the performing v i s u a l a r t s , a s s i s t e d programs of l i n g u i s t i c i n s t r u c t i o n . The s t r e s s has been on the p r e s e r v a t i o n of c u l t u r e w i t h i n the maintenance of a c o n f l i c t f r e e cohesive 13 s o c i e t y : " M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m seems to be the way to a v o i d the s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n s along e t h n i c l i n e s t h at some f e a r e d were emerging. At the same time i t recognized the v a l i d i t y of the claims of o p p r e s s i o n and disadvantage t h a t many e t h n i c communities had v o i c e d . " 8 At l e a s t f o r m a l l y , w i t h i n the a c t u a l p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , a p l u r a l i s m of e t h n i c backgrounds and communities i s encouraged. T h i s i s a c o n d i t i o n i n which d i v e r s e r a c i a l and e t h n i c groups maintain t h e i r own e t h n i c t r a d i t i o n s and i d e n t i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r own group, while l i v i n g with mutual understanding and acceptance w i t h i n a s i n g l e economy and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I d e a l l y , every i n d i v i d u a l has f r e e access to a l l the r i g h t s and share the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and d u t i e s of the broader s o c i e t y . Each person may e l e c t i n t e g r a t i o n and a s s i m i l a t i o n i f he/she chooses so; everyone i s f r e e to maintain or to r e l i n q u i s h h i s group or e t h n i c i d e n t i t y ; everyone i s f r e e to wear h i s / h e r t r a d i t i o n a l d r e s s ; r e t a i n h i s / h e r t r a d i t i o n s , dances, songs, and g l o r i f y h i s / h e r past, to l i v e w i t h i n or without h i s / h e r e t h n i c group. b. Does M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m Work? R e f e r r i n g to the m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , Prasad and Fernando mentioned t h a t : " A f t e r more than a decade of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Canada, there s t i l l remains a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of s c e p t i c i s m as to whether i t has provided any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n Canadian S o c i e t y . " 9 Lupul, M. (1982), c l a i m s t h a t " m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i s not taken s e r i o u s l y by anyone who i s anyone", arguing t h a t there i s l a c k of support f o r the p o l i c y and the h i g h e s t p o l i t i c a l c i r c l e s of the Trudeau regime never allowed m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m beyond the 14 l e v e l of p l a t i t u d e s . I t a c t u a l l y : " had no s t a t u s i n Cabinet, no l e g i s l a t i v e base...or sympathy i n the bureaucracy." The r e p o r t " E q u a l i t y Now" s t a t e s : "Most v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s are not p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y i n Canadian s o c i e t y . O p p o r t u n i t i e s are being denied because v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s are f r e q u e n t l y b e l i e v e d they w i l l not " f i t " the s t r u c t u r e s of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada." 10 F u r t h e r : "Inherent i n the n o t i o n of the d i v e r s i t y of Canadian s o c i e t y as a mosaic i s the equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p i e c e s making i t up, yet Canadian s o c i e t y i s i n r e a l i t y a " v e r t i c a l mosaic", with some pi e c e s r a i s e d above the o t h e r s ; the s u r f a c e i s uneven." 11 Seebaran and McNiven, (1979), remarked t h a t : "The Intent of the p o l i c y was laudable but i t s implementation has not been f r e e from dilemmas and problems." 12 R e f e r r i n g to the p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , B o l a r i a and L i , (1983), n o t i c e d t h a t i t : "Remains a f a i l u r e as f a r as i t s a b i l i t y to combat r a c i s m and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s i s concerned. In the guise of promoting c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e s , the Canadian s t a t e has used m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m to a s s i s t song and dance programs among m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s . " 13 Most e t h n i c groups i n Canada do not have the s t r u c t u r a l r e s o u r c e s to promote t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , and the p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m simply r e i n f o r c e s the concept of "symbolic e t h n i c i t y " , which pro v i d e s the appearance of p l u r a l i s m (Roberts and C l i f t o n , 1982). B o l a r i a and L i (1983), mentioned t h a t : 15 "The i r o n y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i s t h a t i t f u r n i s h e s Canadian s o c i e t y with a great hope without having to change the fundamental s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i s the f a i l u r e of an i l l u s i o n , not of a p o l i c y . " 14 M u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has been s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o v i d i n g l e g i t i m a c y to the accumulation f u n c t i o n of the s t a t e and i n t r a n s f o r m i n g c u l t u r a l antagonism i n t o c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m : "In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y l e g i t i m a t e s the s t a t e ' s r o l e i n the p r i v a t e accumulation of wealth which b e n e f i t s from r a c i s t p r a c t i c e s and employment. By o p e r a t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the labor market, r a t h e r than i n i t s o p p o s i t i o n , m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y does not c h a l l e n g e these p r a c t i c e s . On the other hand, i t assures the l o y a l i t y of the m i n o r i t i e s by s t r e n g t h e n i n g an o v e r a l l b e l i e f i n e q u a l i t y . " 15 At the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l a great d e a l of ambivalence e x i s t s , r e g a r d i n g the s t a t u s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . Almost a l l p r o v i n c e s , with the e x c e p t i o n of Quebec have moved i n the l i m i t e d and safe d i r e c t i o n of a s s i s t i n g c e l e b r a t i o n of c u l t u r e s . In the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, the government approved i n 1981 A d v i s o r y Committee on C u l t u r a l Heritage headed by Judge Norman Orek to c h a r t e r the course of formal p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y . The C u l t u r a l H eritage Advisor has l i t t l e a u t h o r i t y : he i s p ermitted to g i v e s m a l l grants to e t h n i c communities and b r i n g s out an i n f o r m a t i o n b u l l e t i n on e t h n o c u l t u r a l communities. One of the o b j e c t i v e s of the a c t u a l m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y -encouragement of e t h n o c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y - has been mostly p e r c e i v e d as : "Nothing more than the support f o r the type of e x p r e s s i v e aspects of c u l t u r e - t h a t one f i n d s i n the c a r n i v a l type atmosphere of e t h n i c f e s t i v a l s , h e a v i l y punctuated with t r a d i t i o n a l costumes and type smells of e x o t i c foods." 16 16 Ramcharan S., (1983), argues t h a t by g i v i n g the p u b l i c support to "other" c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , i t becomes e a s i e r to Ignore evidence of a s t r a t i f i e d economic system, dominated by members of the " c h a r t e r people". He f u r t h e r suggests t h a t u n t i l the system which d i c t a t e s upward m o b i l i t y becomes t r u l y open, based on achievement and not rac e , the options f o r non-White Canadians are l i m i t e d . O f f i c i a l m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y w i l l have meaning f o r those who are most a f f e c t e d by d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , when the e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y i s a r e a l i t y . So f a r , the Canadian s t a t e - both at the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s - has done l i t t l e to ensure employment e q u i t y among the d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r a l groups t h a t c o n s t i t u t e Canada. I n s t i t u t i o n a l i n d i f f e r e n c e and i n s e n s i t i v i t y enhance the s o c i a l and economic c o s t s to s o c i e t y . The Report " E q u a l i t y Now", with i t s e i g h t y recommendations proposed: a s t r a t e g y based on l e g i s l a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n s and implementation to move m i n o r i t i e s to f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y r e g a r d l e s s of gender, r e l i g i o n , or e t h n i c i t y . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m must be c r e d i t e d f o r e n a b l i n g many s i l e n t e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s to v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n s on p u b l i c p o l i c y which a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s , and the l i f e of t h e i r communities. In s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia r e c e i v e s the second h i g h e s t number of immigrants to Canada, the a l l o c a t i o n of resou r c e s to settlement s e r v i c e s i s one of the l e a s t i n Canada. I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e how the government of B r i t i s h Columbia i s r e c o g n i z i n g the m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n of our p r o v i n c e . We do have i n B r i t i s h Columbia the worst records of i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a cism, we do have one of the weakest human r i g h t s p r o t e c t i o n , we do have a C u l t u r a l Heritage Advisor with no c l e a r mandate, inadequate funds, and no a c c o u n t a b i l i t y to the p u b l i c . "does the reason l i e w h i t h i n the power s t r u c t u r e of our s o c i e t y ? M i n o r i t i e s have the most to gai n and mainstream c u l t u r e the most to l o s e i n terms of s h a r i n g power." Report and Recommendations of the NDP Task Force on Race R e l a t i o n and Human Ri g h t s , Vancouver, 1986. 17 4. E t h n i c i t y , Race and C u l t u r e a. E t h n i c i t y In a broad sense e t h n i c i t y i n c l u d e s d i f f e r e n c e s i n race, r e l i g i o n , language, c u l t u r a l , t r a d i t i o n s , and n a t i o n a l o r i g i n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , e t h n i c i t y i m p l i e s belonging to a p a r t i c u l a r group and l i n k e d to i t by common h e r e d i t a r y and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . E t h n i c i t y c o u l d a l s o be d e f i n e d as a s p e c i f i c group's p e r c e p t i o n of i t s e l f as unique on the b a s i s of c u l t u r a l symbols and v a l u e s . Common to the e t h n i c group i s a shared f e e l i n g of "peoplehood", and a common sense of past and f u t u r e . E t h n i c i t y may be d e f i n e d as a heterogenous p o p u l a t i o n who are of the same or d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s / r a c e s , but bound together by a common h i s t o r y , geography, customs, and way of l i f e . An e t h n i c t r a i t i s always l e a r n e d , u s u a l l y i n c h i l d h o o d and f i x e d throughout one's l i f e t i m e . Some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n f l u e n c e d by Freud, have developed the the o r y of " b a s i c p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e " , to account f o r e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s theory p l a c e s much emphasis upon the way i n which the young c h i l d l e a r n s to meet the b a s i c requirements of l i f e . The danger here l i e s i n o v e r e s t i m a t i n g the u n i v e r s a l i t y of a p a t t e r n w i t h i n a g i v e n group, and i n overemphasising i t s hold upon the c h i l d and throughout h i s l i f e t i m e . Many e t h n i c t r a i t s are i n r e a l i t y s u r p r i s i n g l y f l e x i b l e . For example, i n v i s i t i n g a f o r e i g n country one q u i c k l y l e a r n s the customs and v a r i e s h i s / h e r behaviour i n many r e s p e c t s to conform to new e t h n i c requirements. E t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s are so numerous and so e l u s i v e , t h a t some people have concluded t h a t there are no u n i f o r m i t i e s among c u l t u r e s of the world, a l l standards of conduct are a matter of h a b i t , and there i s " c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i t y " . Emphasis upon d i f f e r e n c e s d i v i d e s ; emphasis upon s i m i l a r i t i e s seems t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n to the common ground upon which c o o p e r a t i o n between the v a r i o u s branches of human f a m i l y may proceed. Keyes, c , (1976), mentioned t h a t e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s Implicate a p r i m o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between people. S i m i l a r l y , Geertz, C , (1963), re c o g n i z e s a p r i m o r d i a l attachment between people, and t h i s attachment i s one th a t stems from the "givens" of s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e . F u r t h e r , Keyes argues t h a t givens are assumed to be determined a t b i r t h : sex, l o c a l i t y and time of b i r t h , p h y s i o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s - a l l marks of b i o l o g i c a l i n h e r i t a n c e , and s u b j e c t to c u l t u r a l e l a b o r a t i o n . E t h n i c i t y then d e r i v e s from a c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of descent. For Van Den Berghe (1978), e t h n i c i t y and race are extensions of the k i n s h i p , and t h e r e f o r e , e t h n i c and race sentiments are to be understood as "an extended form of k i n s e l e c t i o n " . Man completes h i m s e l f through c u l t u r e t h a t he has c r e a t e d , through h i g h l y p a r t i c u l a r forms of i t . Thus, while e t h n i c i t y r e s t s on a u n i v e r s a l p r e d i l e c t i o n of humans to s e l e c t p o s i t i v e l y i n favour of t h e i r kinsmen, i t i s a l s o a v a r i a b l e because of the d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l meanings t h a t people i n d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l circumstances have drawn upon i n t e r p r e t i n g , a c t i n g upon t h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n . Since descent can be p o s i t e d with d i f f e r e n t a n c e s t o r s , through e i t h e r or both parents, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a person to belong to more than one descent - d e f i n e d k i n group or to no e t h n i c group. What c o n s t i t u t e s one's e t h n i c h e r i t a g e i s not g e n e t i c a l l y determined, but i t must be l e a r n e d . I t can be learn e d o n l y I f among the meanings to which one i s exposed are marked as being i n t r i n s i c elements of one's h e r i t a g e , some a c q u i r e d through p a r e n t s . One f e a t u r e of e t h n i c i t y i s language. but not a l l e t h n i c groups speak a d i s t i n c t i v e language (e.g. Acadians of New-Brunswick ) . " E t h n i c i t y i s r e l a t e d more to the symbol of a separate language than to i t s a c t u a l use by a l l members of a group"17 There are cases where people t h a t are e t h n i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d have no l i n g u i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s (eg. E n g l i s h s e t t l e r s i n A u s t r a l i a ) . A common language prov i d e s a p s y c h i c bond, a uniqueness t h a t s i g n i f i e s membership i n a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group as w e l l as a base f o r the c o o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s , both s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l . R e l i g i o n i s another c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e t h a t i s taken as being an e s s e n t i a l component of the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e of an e t h n i c group. I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r people who belong to one e t h n i c group to be f o l l o w e r s of d i f f e r e n t s y n c r e t i c r e l i g i o n s . The c o n v e r s i o n of a people to an h i s t o r i c r e l i g i o n such as Buddhism, C h r i s t i a n i t y or Islam o f t e n becomes mythologized and marked as a d e f i n i n g c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an e t h n i c I d e n t i t y . The m y t h i c a l and legendary c h a r a c t e r s of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y can be formed i n a v a r i e t y of ways : s t o r i e s , songs, a r t i s t i c d e p i c t i o n s , d r a m a t i z a t i o n , and r i t u a l s . However, those symbols must be i n t e r n a l i z e d by i n d i v i d u a l s before they can serve as the b a s i s f o r o r i e n t i n g people to s o c i a l a c t i o n . Concerned with the p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimension of e t h n i c i t y , De Vos, G. (1975), argued t h a t the communication of an e t h n i c group i s o f t e n c a r r i e d out i n r i t u a l s i n which people c o n f r o n t intense emotional c r i s e s : "A major source of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s found i n the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s r e l a t e d to c r i s e s i n the l i f e c y c l e such as marriage, d i v o r c e , i l l n e s s , death. I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r i t e s of passage t h a t one f i n d s h i g h l y emotional symbolic reinforcement of e t h n i c p a t t e r n s . " 18 An e t h n i c i d e n t i t y becomes a p e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y a f t e r an i n d i v i d u a l a p p r o p r i a t e s I t , from a c u l t u r a l source, t h a t i s from the p u b l i c d i s p l a y and t r a f f i c i n symbols. An i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d be faced with s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e v e r s i o n s of the same i d e n t i t y from which he/she must choose. The choice of an i d e n t i t y i n the context of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , shows that e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t o n l y i n s o f a r as i t serves to o r i e n t people i n the p u r s u i t of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s v i s - a - v i s other people, who are g i v e n as h o l d i n g c o n t r a s t i n g e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s . " E t h n i c i t y i s i n i t s narrowest sense a f e e l i n g of c o n t i n u i t y with the past, a f e e l i n g t h a t i t i s maintained as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of one's s e l f d e f i n i t i o n . E t h n i c i t y i s a l s o I n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l need f o r c o l l e c t i v e c o n t i n u i t y . E t h n i c i t y i n i t s deepest p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l i s a sense of s u r v i v a l . " 19 Keyes, C , (1981), has argued t h a t , while c u l t u r a l f o r m u l a t i o n s t h a t serve to d e f i n e the h e r i t a g e assumed to have been determined by an c e s t o r s or h i s t o r i c a l f o r e b e a r e r s are e s s e n t i a l to the establishment of e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s , they are not s u f f i c i e n t i n and of themselves, to make e t h n i c i t y a f a c t o r i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s must be a l s o seen as d e l i m i t i n g s p e c i f i c types of s o c i a l a c t i o n i n the context of i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s . F u r t h e r , i t can be argued t h a t e t h n i c i t y i s a v a r i a b l e i n s o c i a l a c t i o n o n l y i f access to the means of p r o d u c t i o n , means of e x p r o p r i a t i o n of the products of labour or means of exchange between groups are determined by membership i n a group d e f i n e d i n terms of non g e n e a l o g i c a l descent. Kadushin, A., (1972), d e f i n e d e t h n i c i t y as membership i n a group t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t on the b a s i s of a d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s , l i n g u i s t i c or r a c i a l . While s o c i a l i d e n t i t y i s d e r i v e d from an i n d i v i d u a l ' s group membership, pe r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i s an ongoing product of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r a c t i o n with h i s / h e r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment. E t h n i c i t y i s one of s e v e r a l ways i n which Canadians may choose to i d e n t i f y themselves. There are s e t s of circumstances when e t h n i c i t y may become an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n : "In a s i t u a t i o n i n which an e t h n i c group i s s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e and has a p p r e c i a b l e a c t u a l p o t e n t i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic power; when a person belongs to a sm a l l but h i g h l y v i s i b l e or w e l l organized m i n o r i t y ; and when a s o p h i s t i c a t e d group d i s c o v e r suddenly t h a t i t i s a m i n o r i t y and i s surrounded by a number of w e l l organized e t h n i c groups." 20 21 b. The Immigrants and E t h n i c Change E t h n i c change Is a d i a l e c t i c process and i n r a d i c a l l y changed circumstances, p r e - e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l a c t i o n o f t e n prove to be no longer v i a b l e . New p a t t e r n s are evolved and they s t i m u l a t e a reassessment of the ap p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the f u n c t i o n s of e t h n i c group i d e n t i t i e s . Concomitant with the necessary changes i n s o c i a l p a t t e r n s , those l i v i n g i n new circumstances have to adapt to new c u l t u r a l meanings and p r a c t i c e s . T h i s assessment i s c a r r i e d out In the context of p u b l i c engagement with c u l t u r a l meanings such as are presented i n formal s c h o o l i n g or i n such other a c t i v i t i e s as r i t u a l s , ceremonies, c l u b meetings, p o l i t i c a l r a l l i e s , p e r i o d i c a l and book p u b l i c a t i o n s , e t c . A f t e r a p e r i o d of time - a p e r i o d t h a t i s v a r i a b l e and r a r e l y , i f ever, l e s s than a s i n g l e g e n e r a t i o n - new e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s are formed or o l d i d e n t i t i e s are i n v e s t e d with new meanings. E v e n t u a l l y , e t h n i c groups achieve a high degree of e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h i n whichever type of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o b t a i n s i n s o c i e t y . L i g h t , I., (1972), had focused h i s a t t e n t i o n on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of immigration and e t h n i c change and had i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s of ada p t a t i o n s of immigrants to new s i t u a t i o n s : e t h n i c s u c c e s s i o n , l e a p f r o g , displacement, s i t u s enhancement, and s i t u s d e t e r i o r a t i o n . E t h n i c s u c c e s s i o n i s d e f i n e d as a s p e c i a l case t h a t a r i s e s when i n labour shortage, the i n t e r e s t of o l d e t h n i c labour, c a p i t a l and newcomer e t h n i c s b r i e f l y c o i n c i d e . Leapfrog i s the s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d when a new group l e a p f r o g s o l d e r groups and f i n d s higher occupations i n the economic system. Displacement happens when newcomers d i s p l a c e an ol d e r group without the l a t t e r assuming a higher p o s i t i o n i n the economy. S i t u s enhancement happens when new groups improve the work i n t h e i r new environment. S i t u s d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s the s i t u a t i o n i n which the group does not improve i t s c o n d i t i o n but r a t h e r the c o n d i t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e s . The c o m p e t i t i o n f o r economic b e n e f i t s i s an important f a c t o r i n s t i m u l a t i n g changes i n e t h n i c scope. The m i g r a t i o n of new groups to a s o c i e t y may lead to e t h n i c change not o n l y f o r the migrant groups who are c o n s t r a i n e d to adapt to an new s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , but a l s o to the e x i s t i n g groups whose s o c i a l context has been s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d by the a r r i v a l of immigrants. Besides the above mentioned, e t h n i c change may a l s o r e s u l t from the r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n brought about by f o r c e or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , i n the s t r u c t u r e of i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s i n the p o l i t i c a l economy of a s o c i a l system. In a welfare s t a t e , the bureaucracy i s a l s o o f t e n the major source of power and economic preferment, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l e s s developed areas of the s t a t e . In s i t u a t i o n s i n which a welfare s t a t e bureaucracy has i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t r u d e d i n t o the s o c i a l l i f e of people, c o n d i t i o n s may be c r e a t e d i n which e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m w i l l develop. The s e q u e n t i a l a r r i v a l of immigrants i s the t y p i c a l model of economic development under c a p i t a l i s m ; i t Is the process t h a t i n v o l v e s s o c i a l c o n f l i c t between b i g c a p i t a l and newcomer e t h n i c s on one s i d e , and high wage o l d e t h n i c s on the other. In t h i s s t r u g g l e , economic t h r e a t s are n e u t r a l i z e d by p o l i t i c a l countermoves and v i c e v e r s a . C a p i t a l , newcomers and o l d e t h n i c labour have access to p o l i t i c a l power. Intergroup c o m p e t i t i o n expands the scope of e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s and i n c r e a s e s t h e i r i n t e n s i t y . E n c a p s u l a t i o n i n p a r o c h i a l l o y a l i t i e s c o l l a p s e s because movement i n t o the mainstream i n i t i a t e s c o m p e t i t i o n with other e t h n i c s , thus n e c e s s i t a t i n g a broadened scope of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i n the i n t e r e s t of enhanced power. " E t h n i c i t y i s not s i m p l y a s e n t i m e n t a l s u r v i v a l i n the modern world. On the c o n t r a r y , the a b i l i t y to expand or c o n t r a c t e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s p r o v i d e s a b u f f e r f o r l a r g e and t h r e a t e n i n g changes i n the s o c i e t y . Because e t h n i c boundaries are f l e x i b l e , people can a d j u s t them to meet s i t u a t i o n a l needs"21 c. Race Sometimes c o n f u s i o n a r i s e s when to d i s t i n g u i s h between race and i d e n t i t y . Given the complexity of the concept of race i s important t h a t r a c i a l i s s u e s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from c u l t u r a l ones, although the l i t e r a t u r e does not always seem t o do so. .However, u n l i k e r a c i a l i s s u e s , c u l t u r a l i s s u e s , can be of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance f o r advancing an understanding of e t h n i c i t y . E s s e n t i a l l y , race i s conceived of as a b i o l o g i c a l term based on s p e c i f i c b i o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s as: s k i n c o l o u r , t e x t u r e of h a i r , shape of nose, or cheek bones. I t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t b i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s are independent of each o t h e r : mankind i s born with c e r t a i n b i o l o g i c a l endowments, whereas the c u l t u r e i s the product of l e a r n i n g w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r environment. Darwinism gave the p i c t u r e of a s p e c i e s d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t i n c t v a r i e t i e s of r a c e s . Expert o p i n i o n s hold t h a t v e r y few genes are i n v o l v e d i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n of pigmentation, and th a t while c o l o u r and a few other p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i n d i c a t o r s of r a c e , they do not i n d i c a t e the t o t a l i n h e r i t a n c e of any given i n d i v i d u a l . Colour i s l i n k e d to the ra c e , but there i s no evidence t h a t the genes determining s k i n c o l o u r are t i e d to genes determining mental c a p a c i t y or moral q u a l i t i e s . I f most people a t t r i b u t e d i f f e r e n c e s to h e r e d i t y i t i s because they do not know the d i f f e r e n c e between race and e t h n i c group, between race and s o c i a l c a s t , and because i t i s simpler to do t h a t , than to c o n s i d e r a l l the complex s o c i a l grounds f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s . When people confuse r a c i a l with e t h n i c t r a i t s , they are c o n f u s i n g what i s giv e n by nature and what i s a c q u i r e d through l e a r n i n g . The c o n f u s i o n has s e r i o u s consequences, because i t leads to an exaggerated b e l i e f i n the f i x i t y of human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . What i s given by h e r e d i t y can be changed o n l y g r a d u a l l y , what i s lear n e d can t h e o r e t i c a l l y , a t l e a s t , be a l t e r e d i n one g e n e r a t i o n . While p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n race may appear to be s o c i a l l y meaningful to those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n l n t e r c u l t u r a l encounter, race has no s t a n d i n g as a s c i e n t i f i c or a n a l y t i c a l category, i t serves no purpose other than to make and j u s t i f y I n v i d i o u s d i s t i n c t i o n s between groups of people. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have d i v i d e d humans i n t o b a s i c a l l y three d i s t i n c t i v e r a c i a l groupings: Caucasoid, (Europeans, White adapted to extreme temperatures); Negroid ( A f r i c a n s , Blacks adapted to l i v e i n extreme h o t ) ; Mongoloid (Asians, Yellow adapted to l i v e i n extreme c o l d ) . Caucasians are d e s c r i b e d as White Europeans, l i g h t complexioned i n d i v i d u a l s with s t r a i g h t h a i r ; Negroids are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a dark complexioned s k i n , with f l a t nose, wooly h a i r , and t h i c k l i p s ; Mongoloids are tan to dark i n complexion with s t r a i g h t black h a i r , s l a n t i n g eyes. In 1950, Coon, Garn, and B i r d s e l l , add three stocks to the above mentioned: A u s t r a l o i d , American Indian, and P o l y n e s i a n . They a l s o s p e c u l a t e d t h a t on the b a s i s of r e g i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n 30 races were c r e a t e d and possess p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s that are v i s i b l e d i s t i n c t i v e : A l p i n e , Mediteraneean, Hindu, North American Coloured, North Chinese, South A f r i c a n Coloured, T h i k e t o - Indonesian, Mongoloid, L a t i n o , e t c . From the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l work i n race two p o i n t s can be made, namely: except i n remote areas of the world, very few human beings belong to a purestock; and most human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s c r i b e d to race are undoubtedly due to c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and should t h e r e f o r e be regarded as e t h n i c , not r a c i a l ( A l l p o r t , G., 1979). Races e x i s t o n l y to the degree t h a t phenotypic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s , such as s k i n c o l o u r or h a i r form are gi v e n prominence as c r i t e r i a f o r a l l o c a t i n g or w i t h h o l d i n g s o c i a l and economic b e n e f i t s . In nature there are no r a c e s , o n l y p o p u l a t i o n s of organisms which can be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of such n a t u r a l f o r c e s as s e l e c t i o n , g e n e t i c change, and r e p r o d u c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . There i s no s p e c i a l psychology f o r the immigrant, there i s no s p e c i f i c a l l y white, b l a c k , or y e l l o w way of being poor or maladjusted, i n t e g r a t e d or i s o l a t e d , educated or i l l i t e r a t e , employed or unemployed. Every human c o n f l i c t i n v o l v e s a l a r g e core of b a s i c as w e l l as the i d i o s y n c r a t i c t r a i t s of the i n d i v i d u a l ( T e l f o r d and Sawrey, 1967). As two p s y c h i a t r i s t s , G r i e r and Cobbs, commented i n 1968: "There i s nothing i n the l i t e r a t u r e or i n the experience of any c l i n i c i a n known by the authors, t h a t suggest that Black people f u n c t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y from anyone e l s e . Black men's mental f u n c t i o n i n g i s governed by the same r u l e s as t h a t of any other group of men." 22 25 d. C u l t u r e The term c u l t u r e l a c k s c l e a r , s p e c i f i c , agreed upon meaning. There are l i t e r a l l y hundreds of d e f i n i t i o n s of c u l t u r e , most of which have been suggested by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . Some are c o g n i t i v e l y o r i e n t e d , s t r e s s i n g on what i s known and shared by the members of a group as t h e i r " c o l l e c t i v e map" of r e a l i t y . In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , c u l t u r e i s viewed as knowledge, and the study of c u l t u r e i s taken to mean the study of meaning (Spradley, 1972, 1979). Other d e f i n i t i o n s emphasize behavior and customs, and t h e i r t r a n s m i s s i o n from g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n . For some, c u l t u r e i s s a i d to be an e x p r e s s i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the way people use t h e i r m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s ( H a r r i s , 1968). C u l t u r e i s d e f i n e d by Renaud (1965) as: " C u l t u r e i s what each i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t human being has a q u i r e d through l e a r n i n g , from b i r t h on, and which makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r him not o n l y to s a t i s f y h i s needs, but to do so i n a s s o c i a t i o n and i n r e l a t i o n with other human beings who share the same idea s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . C u l t u r e i s a l s o the o r g a n i c sum of ideas, a t t i t u d e s s k i l l s t h a t are o p e r a t i v e i n the group or s o c i e t y as a whole. Each i n d i v i d u a l has h i s share p r e c i s e l y because he grew up i n t h i s s o c i e t y and has been brought up as a member of i t . " Renaud, A., 1965 - B r i e f to B i l i n g u a l i s m and B i c u l t u r a l i s m In c r o s s c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c u l t u r e can be thought of as those elements of a people's h i s t o r y , t r a d i t i o n s , values and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t become i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y meaningful to the p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g an encounter. The d e f i n i t i o n of c u l t u r e as being made-up of those t h i n g s which are r e l e v a n t to communication ac r o s s some kind of s o c i a l boundary, has the advantage of being more p r e c i s e than most other d e f i n i t i o n s ; i t a l s o suggests where one must look i n order to d i s c o v e r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Seebaran and McNiven (1979), r e f e r r e d to the c u l t u r e as a three f o l d d e f i n i t i o n : one which i n c l u d e the r e c r e a t i o n , l e i s u r e type a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g f o l k f e s t i v a l s ; another one as a way of l i f e , and the l a s t as "the common j o i n t products of human l e a r n i n g . 1 1 C u l t u r e has been d e f i n e d by Burgest, D., 1985 as a: "sum, t o t a l of people's way of l i f e , i n c l u d i n g b e l i e f s , a r t , morals> laws, customs, and r i t u a l t r a n s m i t t e d from one ge n e r a t i o n to another and b i n d i n g people together c o l l e c t i v e l y . " 23 In the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l world view, there i s consensus t h a t humans are d i v i d e d i n t o the Western p h i l o s o p h i c a l world view, and E a s t e r n p h i l o s o p h i c a l world view. There i s a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between world view and c u l t u r e i n the same way there i s a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and c u l t u r e . The c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between world view and c u l t u r e does not suggest, however, which i n f l u e n c e s the other, f o r e i t h e r may be the c a u s a l agent, both may be e f f e c t s of a common cause, or a mutual c a u s a l a c t i o n . What i s c l e a r i s th a t there i s a d e f i n i t e i n d i s p e n s a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n between world view and c u l t u r e . C u l t u r e r e f e r s to the f a c t t h a t human groups are d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e by the manner i n which they guide and s t r u c t u r e behaviour and the meaning a s c r i b e d . C u l t u r e s d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s on the rhythms and p a t t e r n of l i f e , and i n t h e i r concept of the e s s e n t i a l nature of the human c o n d i t i o n . These p e r s p e c t i v e s are conveyed i n a myriad of symbolic and d i r e c t ways v i a language, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , p r a c t i c e s , a b s t r a c t forms such as a r t , as w e l l as the mundane a r t i f a c t s used i n d a i l y l i v i n g . C u l t u r e c o u l d be d e f i n e d as a " v e h i c l e f o r the human emotions of human beings to come i n t o some kind of i n t e l l i g i b l e order", (Mead, M., 1978); or as the t o t a l ways of l i f e t h a t o r i e n t t h i n k i n g about the un i v e r s e and the proper nature of human to human, and human to God r e l a t i o n s h i p ( V a l e n t i n e , C , 1978). C u l t u r e i s not a s t a t i c e n t i t y , I t evolves and changes over time; c u l t u r e i s not simply the sum of the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group, but an i d e n t i t y base to which any i n d i v i d u a l can s u b s c r i b e . T r i a n d i s , 1977, introduced the concept of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e d e f i n e d as people's response to the man made pa r t of the environment, or to a group's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way of p e r c e i v i n g i t s s o c i a l environment. B r i s l i n , (1981), suggested t h a t c u l t u r e can be d e f i n e d i n two ways: f i r s t as the a c t u a l u n f a m i l i a r people with whom an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t s ; and second as a more a b s t r a c t , f o c u s i n g on people's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behaviour, ideas and v a l u e s . In s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g i v i n g p r e c i s e meaning to the term c u l t u r e , an understanding of the p h y s i c a l appearance, language, r e l i g i o n , behaviour, as elements making up an i n d i v i d u a l c u l t u r e i s important. For the s o c i a l worker i t i s important t h a t he/she has knowledge about h i s / h e r c l i e n t p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e : "There i s no doubt t h a t the c u l t u r e of a p a r t i c u l a r m i n o r i t y member i s of c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l work, and the other h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s f o r the c u l t u r e of a people determines i t s language, l i f e s t y l e , folkways, marriage, h a b i t s , customs, r e l i g i o n , a r t , how they view themselves, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to another's f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , and peer group i n t e r a c t i o n , as w e l l as how they view the n o t i o n of r e c e i v i n g help and t h e i r r o l e as c l i e n t s . " 24 e. S o c i a l Work Knowledge of E t h n i c i t y , Race, and C u l t u r e "The i n c r e a s e d number of immigrants i n the f u t u r e years i s l i k e l y to generate a c e r t a i n amount of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t , and f u t u r e generations of Canadians w i l l need to invent hew p o l i c i e s and techniques f o r coping with the s t r e s s of a v i b r a n t and dynamic m u l t i - c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . " 25 In a h i g h l y complex and impersonal s o c i e t y , Immigrants f i n d i d e n t i t y and meaning i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r own e t h n i c groups. The development of a more p o s i t i v e view toward e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l groups should be i n the context of a r e a l i s t i c understanding o£ the problems and p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y pose i n Canadian s o c i e t y . While the e t h n i c group f o s t e r s the deeply held values and t r a d i t i o n s , i t p r o v i d e s i n d i v i d u a l s with " p r e f e r r e d a s s o c i a t e s " , and a f f o r d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m o b i l i t y and success; i t a l s o poses problems of antagonism, e x c l u s i v e n e s s , d i s t r u s t or c o n f l i c t . The s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n could p l a y a unique r o l e i n p o i n t i n g to the p o s i t i v e elements i n e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , with p o t e n t i a l f o r development and c o n t r i b u t i o n . The s o c i a l worker needs to go beyond the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to look f o r problems, to a v o i d the tendency to s t r e s s i n d i v i d u a l adjustment to the n e g l e c t of environmental c o n d i t i o n s , and the need to i d e n t i f y v a l u e s , a s p i r a t i o n s , and l i f e s t y l e s of d i v e r s e groups i n s o c i e t y . The s o c i a l worker w i l l have to seek i s s u e s i n c o n f l i c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s , and a l s o to explore ways i n which e t h n i c consciousness could be c h a n e l l e d toward improved s o c i a l communication and s o c i a l reform and to address the s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s of e t h n i c groups, while encouraging those groups to move toward l a r g e r and p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i c i e s . The emphasis on a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e and a more p o s i t i v e approach to e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l groups, n e c e s s i t a t e s c e r t a i n changes i n s o c i a l work educat i o n , i n e d u c a t i o n a l approaches, admission p o l i c i e s , c u r r i c u l u m p r i o r i t i e s , and so on. The c u r r i c u l u m , needs to r e f l e c t a p o s i t i v e view toward e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and to be f r e e from t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s and b i a s e s . P r o v i s i o n s should be made f o r understanding the h i s t o r y , d i v e r s e t r a d i t i o n s , r o l e s , c u l t u r a l symbols, f a m i l y p a t t e r n s and r e l a t i o n s among e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l groups. The e d u c a t i o n a l experiences of the students should c h a l l e n g e them to the p o i n t of d e v e l o p i n g a commitment and equip them with adequate knowledge and s k i l l to d e a l with the s i t u a t i o n s of i n e q u a l i t i e s and i n j u s t i c e t h at e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s continue to f a c e . 29 CHAPTER I I : THE ADJUSTMENT PERIOD: A DISTRESSFUL STAGE IN THE IMMIGRANT'S LIFE 1. The C u l t u r a l l y Relocated Immigrant "No one w i l l l i v e h i s l i f e i n the world i n t o which he was born, and no one w i l l d i e i n the world i n which he had worked i n h i s m a t u r i t y . " E i n s t e i n M i l l i o n s of people migrate each year, manage to break away from t h e i r b a s i c support networks and t r a n s p l a n t t h e i r home and dreams to new p l a c e s . Each case i s a unique drama, which becomes p a r t of the t r e a s u r e d h e r i t a g e of each f a m i l y (Moss, R., 1986). During the p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n , every immigrant experiences a sense of c o n f l i c t and moral dichotomy; i t i s a p e r i o d of inner t u r m o i l and intense s e l f - c onsciousness. The process of adjustment to the new c u l t u r e takes time and e f f o r t and the c o n f l i c t s t h a t i t c r e a t e s l i e a t the r o o t s of many of the problems t h a t c o n f r o n t the p r a c t i t i o n e r . Immigration r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n people's l i f e , and beside the excitement of an adventure, immigration b r i n g s , i n v a r y i n g degrees, elements of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s and d i s c o m f o r t . Uprooting from the f a m i l i a r environment i s d i s t r e s s f u l and the i n d i v i d u a l e xperiences a n x i e t y , sense of l o s s , c o n f u s i o n , l o s s of r o l e i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r a l shock. I t would be convenient i f every i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d foresee and a n t i c i p a t e the p e r i o d s of l o n e l i n e s s and worthlessness t h a t he/she w i l l encounter. I t would be d e s i r a b l e i f every immigrant c o u l d l e a r n beforehand the language of the new country, or a c q u i r e p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n about p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of the new r e a l i t y , thus e n s u r i n g some l e v e l of c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e i r own p h y s i c a l environment. Most of the time t h i s does not happen. Moss, R., (1986) d e s c r i b e d the f o l l o w i n g stages of the m i g r a t i o n p r o c e s s : p r e p a r a t o r y , a c t of m i g r a t i o n , p e r i o d of overcompensation, p e r i o d of decompensation, and t r a n s g e n e r a t i o n a l phenomena. Each of these steps has i t s own s p e c i f i c types of c o n f l i c t s , and i t s own a v a i l a b l e coping m o d a l i t i e s . D e t a i l e d n a t u r a l i s t i c and i n t e r v i e w s t u d i e s of coping behaviour under extreme s t r e s s have shown t h a t people t r y to achieve some c o n t r o l over t h e i r f a t e even under the most h e l l i s h c o n d i t i o n s . Meyer, A., emphasised the importance of t r a n s i t i o n l i f e events and the r e l e v a n t c l u e s t h a t they provide f o r the development of symptoms and d i s e a s e s . He developed a " l i f e c h a r t " as a t o o l i n medical and p s y c h i a t r i c d i a g n o s i s , which Holmes and h i s c o l l e a q u e s have used. The S o c i a l Readjustment Ra t i n g S c a l e , (SRRS) t h a t they developed c o n s i s t s of d i f f e r e n t l i f e events s c a l e d a c c o r d i n g to the amount of readjustment they r e q u i r e . Using the SRRS, they found a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the magnitude of the l i f e c r i s e s and the r i s k of h e a l t h changes. The g r e a t e r the magnitude of l i f e change, the g r e a t e r the p r o b a b i l i t y of a s s o c i a t e d i l l n e s s or d i s e a s e . T h e i r p o s t u l a t e was t h a t l i f e changes events by evoking ada p t i v e e f f o r t s by the human organism, lowers b o d i l y r e s i s t a n c e and enhances the p r o b a b i l i t y of d i s e a s e occurence (Holmes, T., 1974). G e n e r a l l y , people operate i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s i n e q u i l i b r i u m with t h e i r environment, s o l v i n g problems with minimal d e l a y by h a b i t u a l mechanisms and r e a c t i o n s . When the usual problem s o l v i n g mechanisms do not work, t e n s i o n a r i s e s and f e e l i n g s of d i s c o m f o r t or s t r a i n occur: "The i n d i v i d u a l experiences a n x i e t y , f e a r , g u i l t , or shame, a f e e l i n g of h e l p l e s s n e s s , some d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n i n g and p o s s i b l y other symptoms." 1 Within the c r i s i s p e r i o d , the immigrant t r i e s to work out new ways of h a n d l i n g problems through sources of s t r e n g t h i n h i m s e l f and i n h i s environment, while being more s u s c e p t i b l e to be i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r s . There are s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of a person's adjustment. I f the environment o f f e r s , f o r example, p r a c t i c a l and emotional resources such as s o c i a l agencies and v a r i o u s forms of support, then the adjustment c o u l d be eased. The environment a l s o s e t s l i m i t s i n the form of c u l t u r a l norms and e x p e c t a t i o n s , w i t h i n which the i n d i v i d u a l must operate. Beside t h a t , the person's very own nature, h i s / h e r past experiences and a b i l i t i e s , have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the adjustment process. P a r t i c u l a r coping s t r a t e g i e s d i f f e r i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s a c c o r d i n g to the s p e c i f i c combination of s i t u a t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y i n v o l v e d . In the process of adjustment to new s i t u a t i o n s and environment, one has two d i s t i n c t , but r e l a t e d , t a s k s : on the one hand, to respond to the requirements of the e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n ; and on the other hand, to respond to one's own f e e l i n g s about t h a t s i t u a t i o n These two tasks are not n e c e s s a r i l y d e a l t with s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , but the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n tends to f a l l i n t o two phases: one acute phase i n which energy i s d i r e c t e d a t minimizing the impact of the s t r e s s , and a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n phase i n which the new r e a l i t y i s faced and accepted. In the acute p e r i o d , which i s the immediate p e r i o d a f t e r a r r i v a l , the immigrant may deny h i s / h e r f e e l i n g s while a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d a t p r a c t i c a l matters; i n the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n phase, a gradual r e t u r n to normal f u n c t i o n i n g and to the achievement of a new e q u i l i b r i u m with new f e e l i n g s are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e and s e l f - i m a g e . Adjustment to new environment i s d i f f i c u l t , and every s t e p of the way must be novel and c r e a t i v e , every s t e p demands s o l u t i o n s of problems. Adjustment r e q u i r e s a long p e r i o d of i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t and t u r m o i l . I f the r e a l i t y i s s e v e r e l y f r u s t r a t i n g , adjustment may be helped i f : " F u l l r e c o g n i t i o n of the b i t t e r t r u t h i s a long time postponed." 2 2. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Adjustment The adjustment of the immigrant to a new c u l t u r e , s o c i e t y , and environment assumes the adjustment to the e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n s , and a l s o the s e l f - a d j u s t m e n t . Adjustment of the s e l f i s no l e s s a c h a l l e n g e t h a t i t r e q u i r e s adjustment to the new s o c i e t y . P e r s o n a l needs t h a t we hold f r e q u e n t l y are i n c o n s i s t e n t with one another and lead to I n t e r n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t and s t r a i n . More important, we must a l s o a d j u s t to our imagined shortcomings or the f e e l i n g s we have. P o s i t i v e adjustment to s e l f means g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n l i v i n g and smoother f u n c t i o n i n g , i n which the immigrant's d i v e r s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s are more or l e s s i n harmony with one another. A l l p o r t and Maslow view the i n d i v i d u a l as always becoming something t h a t he/she had not been b e f o r e . The immigrant as any other i n d i v i d u a l seeks to maintain and enhance the s e l f , h i s / h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth, which i n t u r n can lead t o a more s a t i s f y i n g e x i s t e n c e , an e x i s t e n c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by harmony w i t h i n the s e l f and i n h i s / h e r r e l a t i o n s with o t h e r s . The concept of s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n s e t f o r t h by Maslow i s a p o s i t i v e view of humanity, an o p t i m i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y which b e l i e v e s i n the c a p a c i t y of people of becoming what they are capable, of l i v i n g l i f e to the f u l l e s t . That pro v i d e s the i n d i v i d u a l with good s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s , and improves h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l achievement. In t h i s view, the w e l l a d j u s t e d immigrant i s the immigrant who i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y comfortable, who experiences very l i t t l e d i s t r e s s , i s a c t i v e , r e l a t e s r e s p o n s i b l y to others and i s f u l f i l l i n g the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s with which he/she was born. a. S e l f Image, Role E x p e c t a t i o n s and Adjustment Each immigrant d u r i n g h i s / h e r development i n t e g r a t e s v a r i o u s r o l e s , and organizes h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f i n t o a "symbolic s e l f " : i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y p a r t s become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a f u n c t i o n a l whole. Under severe s t r e s s , the immigrant can experience r e g r e s s i o n of the v a r i o u s p a r t s and r o l e s , and a fragmented p e r s o n a l i t y may develop. The r e l a t i v e frequency and i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g s of triumph and d e j e c t i o n can provide support f o r adjustment or, by c o n t r a s t , s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . T h i s i s ve r y much c o r r e l a t e d with immigrant's r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . Role e x p e c t a t i o n s , which are v a l u e ^ l a d e n , can provide feedback i n the formation of the immigrant i d e a l s e l f , how he/she would l i k e to see hi m / h e r s e l f i n the new context. I f he/she f a i l s to l i v e up to the ex p e c t a t i o n s of h i s / h e r r o l e , then h i s / h e r process of growing i s l i m i t e d . When the environment changes a b r u p t l y , as i n the case of the c u l t u r a l l y r e l o c a t e d immigrant, h i s / h e r p u b l i c s e l f - i m a g e may become i n a p p r o p r i a t e , i n e f f e c t i v e , and i n s u f f i c i e n t i n regard to the ch a l l e n g e of new coping tasks (Poduska, B., 1980). Under t r a n s i e n t s i t u a t i o n s , when h a b i t u a l responses are d i s c a r d e d and new responses are experimented, the immigrant w i l l undergo some degree of pe r s o n a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n . In the new conte x t , the immigrant's r e f e r e n c e group should be ab l e to help him/her through comments, candor, or c r i t i c i s m to pie c e together a r e a l i s t i c image. I t should a l s o not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t the immigrant had a l r e a d y p e r s o n i f i e d and i n t e r n a l i z e d r o l e s and standards from another s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , and w i t h i n the new conte x t , the immigrant i s the s u b j e c t not o n l y of the e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s but a l s o i n t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s , h i s / h e r quest f o r new i d e n t i t y and r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to Cooley, C , (1902), an i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - i m a g e i s based on " l o o k i n g - g l a s s s e l f " , which means the way he/she i s p e r c e i v e d by o t h e r s . Mead, G., (1934), argued t h a t a person's s e l f - i m a g e a r i s e s from s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s when we g r a d u a l l y p e r c e i v e the world as others do, i n order to a n t i c i p a t e t h e i r r e a c t i o n s . In the new environment, one of the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e s the immigrant i s f a c i n g i s t h a t of r e d e f i n i n g h i s / h e r s e l f - i m a g e ; the immigrant has to s o l v e the b a t t l e between i d e a l s e l f and r e a l s e l f , between what he/she r e a l l y i s and how he/she would l i k e to be seen by o t h e r s . The me n t a l l y h e a l t h y immigrant w i l l attempt to d i r e c t h i s / her energy toward r e a l i z i n g the g r e a t e s t s e l f -p o t e n t i a l , a c h i e v i n g a high degree of resemblance between the s e l f - i m a g e , and i d e a l s e l f - i m a g e . The danger i s t h a t e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s w i l l not be f a v o r a b l e , so t h a t the constant b a t t l e f o r d e f i n i n g a sense of pe r s o n a l i d e n t i t y w i l l endanger h i s mental h e a l t h by de v e l o p i n g d e p r e s s i o n , n e u r o s i s , and so on. 34 b. The Immigrant and His/Her E f f e c t i v e S e l f - F u n c t i o n i n g In order to assure a e f f e c t i v e s e l f - f u n c t i o n i n g the immigrant has to complete three tasks : 1. M a i n t a i n an i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y by a c h i e v i n g a balance between c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s . In order to do t h a t the immigrant has to be f r e e from a n x i e t y , s e l f - d o u b t , and to f e e l s a f e from both i n t e r n a l as w e l l as e x t e r n a l sources of danger and t h r e a t . Such circumstances f o r immigrant are u n l i k e l y to be present, hence h i s / h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r g e t t i n g a sense of i n t e r - p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y . I f the r e s o l u t i o n s of i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s occur,then: "the peace i s a t t a i n e d and the energy which once e x i s t e d i n the form of a n x i e t y , and d e p r e s s i o n can be d i r e c t e d to s e l f r e a l i z a t i o n of growth. "3 Looking a t the e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s of immigrants, we can d e p i c t four b a s i c needs t h a t are s u b j e c t to e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s : the need f o r rootedeness, r e l a t e d e n e s s , transcendence, and i d e n t i t y . They re p r e s e n t the need to e s t a b l i s h p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with other people, the need to be c r e a t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e , the need f o r t i e s i n immediate surroundings, and with the past and the f u t u r e , need f o r r e c o g n i t i o n , r e s p e c t and s e l f - e s t e e m . 2. M a i n t a i n h i s / h e r s e l f - e s t e e m : t h i s i s one of the most important f u n c t i o n s of the s e l f . By c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g and s o r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ' c o n t r o l l i n g awareness', the immigrant may d i s t o r t h i s / h e r s e l f concept as to r e f l e c t the best of a l l p o s s i b l e images. T h i s i s not o n l y a d e f e n s i v e process, but a l s o i n c l u d e s the need f o r growth and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . This i s what A l l p o r t d e f i n e d as " p r o p r i a t e s t r i v i n g " , and i n other words: "The t o t a l d e d i c a t i o n of the s e l f to the attainment of g o a l s ; to the m o t i v a t i o n to s e l e c t i v e l y i n c r e a s e t e n s i o n r a t h e r than decrease i t . " 4 35 3. M a i n t a i n the c o n t a c t with r e a l i t y . A sense of c o n t i n u i t y to e x p e r i e n c e s , thoughts and p e r c e p t i o n s seems to be a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l to the maintenance of good mental h e a l t h . Without c o n t i n u i t y , the immigrants' world becomes fragmented, the immigrant tends to become d i s s o c i a t e d from h i s / h e r behavior, and events q u i c k l y become d i s o r g a n i z e d and u n r e l a t e d . In the new c o n t e x t , the a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , the experience of time may be a l t e r e d . The immigrant p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f as being 1 b e h i n d 1 o t h e r s , h o p e l e s s l y depressed and overwhelming f e e l i n g s of g u i l t or f a i l u r e , f e e l i n g s of inadequacy and worthlessness are present. In the new context, i n order to reduce a n x i e t y , the immigrant w i l l have to make r e s p o n s i b l e c h o i c e s , or to be helped to make those c h o i c e s . The q u e s t i o n i s what are the a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t are o f f e r e d him i n the new context t h a t would c o n t r i b u t e to h i s growth and s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n . c. Coping with S t r e s s : Defense Mechanisms The process of adjustment of the immigrant i s not always smooth. F r u s t r a t i o n - the sense of disappointment, t h a t i s the r e s u l t of being blocked - i s encountered i n myriad forms by the immigrant, ranging from p e t t y annoyances to the thwarthing of l i f e g o a l s . B a r r i e r s are imposed by s k i n c o l o r , s o c i a l c l a s s , l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l means. F r u s t r a t i o n and c o n f l i c t s a r i s e as a r e s u l t of s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n , i m p o s s i b i l i t y to reach c e r t a i n g o a l s . F r u s t r a t i o n and c o n f l i c t induce s t r e s s i n the immigrants' l i f e and a l t e r h i s / h e r m o t i v a t i o n ; p s y c h o l o g i c a l symptoms of a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , even p s y c h o s i s would appear. In b o d i l y terms, p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s may g i v e a r i s e to emotional changes, muscular tenseness, hand tremors, stomach p a i n , heart race, c h r o n i c f a t i g u e . Selye, H., (1964), l a b e l s t h i s b o d i l y f u n c t i o n "the general a d a p t a t i o n syndrome", which c o n t a i n s three s t a g e s : alarm r e a c t i o n , r e s i s t a n c e , exhaustion. Defense mechanisms are used by everyone to some extent, because they have p o s i t i v e values and s o f t e n the f a c t s of l i f e , but they p a r t i c u l a r l y help the immigrant to p r o t e c t h i s / h e r w e l l being i n the c o n d i t i o n s o£ extreme s t r e s s e s c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t of c u l t u r a l r e l o c a t i o n . The immigrant, f i n d i n g h i s / h e r d e s i r e f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g and growth threatened by evidences of inadequacy, r e s o l v e s the c o n f l i c t by e x p l a i n i n g away the f a c t ( r a t i o n a l i z i n g ) or by a s c r i b i n g the inadequacy to someone e l s e ( p r o j e c t i n g ) . T h i s does help the immigrant to handle the immediate s i t u a t i o n and make i t p o s s i b l e f o r him/her to attend to other problems. A f a i l u r e to r e s o l v e t h i s i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t i n some way may r e s u l t i n continued t e n s i o n , and a f a i l u r e to use h i s / h e r resources to de a l with more i m p e l l i n g demands. The defense mechanisms have p o s i t i v e values f o r the i n d i v i d u a l : they d i m i n i s h h i s / h e r f e e l i n g s of g u i l t and shame, and help him/her to maintain a more adequate s e l f - c o n c e p t . With w e l l f u n c t i o n i n g defenses, the immigrant may f e e l l e s s threatened, more secure, l e s s i n f e r i o r and more adequate, more s e l f c o n f i d e n t and l e s s conscience s t r i c k e n . The frame of r e f e r e n c e from which the immigrant e v a l u a t e s the outcome of the defense mechanisms, i s l a r g e l y c u l t u r a l l y determined. I t i s t i e d up with what we c o n s i d e r to be 'the good l i f e ' . His/her e v a l u a t i o n of behavior p a t t e r n s i s from a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l and p e r s o n a l frame of r e f e r e n c e and w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y hold f o r a l l s o c i e t y and i n d i v i d u a l s . There are ways i n which d e f e n s i v e behavior may become handicapping. Defensive mechanisms are not the most e f f e c t i v e means of s o l v i n g problems; they are r a t h e r an ev a s i o n than a r e a l meeting with the s i t u a t i o n . They always c o n t a i n an a u t i s t i c element and t r a n s f o r m problems i n t o more a c c e p t a b l e form. Defense mechanisms a l s o i n v o l v e a d e n i a l or d i s t o r t i o n of r e a l i t y : the immigrant e i t h e r r e p r e s s e s or d i s t o r t s h i s / h e r p e r c e p t i o n s , thoughts, wishes, d e s i r e s and motives. In doing so, he/she develops defense mechanisms t h a t become h i s / h e r h a b i t u a l ways of meeting inner c o n f l i c t s and s t r e s s e s and a l s o p a r t of h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l i t y . The c o n s t a n t l y d e f e n s i v e immigrant becomes a v i c t i m of h i s / h e r own defenses and l o s e s f l e x i b i l i t y . A l s o , the defense mechanisms preclude o b j e c t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n : 37 "The person who h a b i t u a l l y r a t i o n a l i z e s , p r o j e c t s and i d e n t i f i e s with o t h e r s , when faced with e g o - d e f l a t i n g f a c t s d e p r i v e s h i m s e l f of o p p o r t u n i t i e s for and i n c e n t i v e to s e l f improvement." 5 The immigrant who i s u n c e r t a i n about the f u t u r e , and f e a r f u l i n the new environment i s more l i k e l y to have a high l e v e l of a n x i e t y and to e x h i b i t f r u s t r a t i o n . For example, an immigrant may want to get a job,- to become a member of a p a r t i c u l a r c l u b or s o c i e t y , and he/she i s prevented from doing so by r a c e , r e l i g i o n or h i s / h e r economic s t a t u s . T h i s i s an example of f r u s t r a t i o n by  i n t e r f e r e n c e ( t h w a r t i n g ) . Beside t h i s k i nd of f r u s t r a t i o n , other sources of producing f r u s t r a t i o n are d e l a y and c o n f l i c t . Most people adapt q u i t e r e a d i l y to f r u s t r a t i o n by d e l a y . F r u s t r a t i o n  by c o n f l i c t i s one of the means by which f r u s t r a t i o n i s produced because the motivated behavior i s p r o h i b i t e d . In c o n f l i c t , the d e l a y or thwarting i s caused by the i n t e r f e r i n g response t e n d e n c i e s of the organism. The b a s i c c o n f l i c t u a l s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v e s the presence of simultaneous s t i m u l i f o r two incompatible responses i n a s i t u a t i o n , when, i f presented alone, each would y i e l d a response (Verplank, 1957). However, c o n f l i c t i s an i n e v i t a b l e consequence of l i f e : i t cannot be completely avoided, even i n the best organized and r e g u l a t e d of c u l t u r e s . C o n f l i c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s are found i n great number i n the l i v e s of immigrants, and when those c o n f l i c t s are between values or are e s s e n t i a l l y moral i n nature, they are d e f i n e d as Inner c o n f l i c t s . Research has suggested t h a t c h r o n i c c o n f l i c t and f r u s t r a t i o n are d e l e t e r i o u s to p h y s i c a l h e a l t h : o r g a n i c changes t h a t are the r e s u l t of p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y induced f r u s t r a t i o n and c o n f l i c t can be observed i n the form of: high blood p r e s s u r e , asthma, s k i n e r u p t i o n s , u l c e r s , e t c . Chronic c o n f l i c t s and f r u s t r a t i o n s may lead to s e r i o u s problems of adjustment. There are a number of f a c t o r s which can be c o n sidered determinants of the nature of behavior f o l l o w i n g f r u s t r a t i o n : c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s t r e s s t o l e r a n c e , s t r e n g t h of motive, e x p e r i e n t i a l background and the s p e c i f i c f r u s t r a t i n g circumstances. Tolerance of f r u s t r a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n of a l l of these f a c t o r s , and changes i n f r u s t r a t i o n t o l e r a n c e can be produced by t r a i n i n g . The e v o l u t i o n i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t the s u p e r i o r i t y of the human race i s our c a p a c i t y to s u c c e s s f u l l y cope with s t r e s s , changes and dangers i n our environment. However, when such changes t h r e a t e n to overwhelm our a d a p t a t i v e r e s o u r c e s , our emotional s t a b i l i t y i s j e o p a r d i z e d . According to Seligman and Meyer (1967, 1968), coping s u c c e s s f u l l y with s t r e s s i s . a matter of l e a r n i n g and those who have not l e a r n e d s u c c e s s f u l coping methods w i l l develop a t t i t u d e s of h e l p l e s s n e s s , hopelessness and apathy. F u r t h e r , Beck, A.,(1967, 1969), proposes t h a t d e p r e s s i o n i s the b e h a v i o r a l response to hopelessness. I f the d e p r e s s i o n i s the r e s u l t of exposure to e x t e r n a l s t r e s s , an exogenous d e p r e s s i o n ( r e a c t i v e ) i s developed with the f o l l o w i n g symptoms: tendency to overeat, o v e r s l e e p , emotional detachment, apathy and a sense of r e j e c t i o n (Keloh and Garcide, 1963). I f d e p r e s s i o n i s the r e s u l t of i n t e r n a l sources p s y c h o t i c or endogenous d e p r e s s i o n with the f o l l o w i n g symptoms may be p r e s e n t : l o s s of a p p e t i t e , low s e l f - e s t e e m , apathy. For the helper who i s working with the c u l t u r a l l y r e l o c a t e d immigrant i t i s important to be aware and understand the enormous s t r e s s h i s / h e r c l i e n t i s f a c i n g , r a t h e r than having to p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e the problem i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h i a t r i c terms. He/she has to help the immigrant to understand where the s t r e s s i s coming from and what can be done to e l i m i n a t e or at l e a s t a l l e v i a t e i t . ' To resume i s to say t h a t i f defense mechanisms are unconscious a d j u s t i v e r e a c t i o n to a p o s s i b l e l o s s of s e l f - e s t e e m , a c o g n i t i v e r e a c t i o n to the dissonance between innocence and g u i l t , and a p r o t e c t i v e e f f o r t to reduce a n x i e t y , those mechanisms are not p e r f e c t . They are l e a r n e d and the degree of s k i l l i n t h e i r use v a r i e s from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l . I t was found t h a t t h e i r use i n c r e a s e d the l e v e l of a n x i e t y and energy i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r maintenance. Consequently, the more one i s u s i n g them, the l e s s energy w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r other endeavours such as d e v e l o p i n g p o t e n t i a l or coping with r e a l problems (Sawrey and T e l d f o r d , 1971). The most common forms of defense mechanisms i n coping with s t r e s s t h a t are l i k e l y to be found i n working with immigrants a r e : apathy, displacement, f a n t a s y , d e n i a l , or nomadism. Apathy i s the emotional withdrawal from the p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t s , and i s accompanied by l o s s of a p p e t i t e , l e t h a r g y , emotional b l u n t i n g , lack of enthusiasm, a t t i t u d e of not c a r i n g . Displacement i s the mechanism by which emotions are r e l e a s e d i n a source other than the o r i g i n a l source of emotion. Fantasy i s running from the r e a l world to reduce a n x i e t y ; d e n i a l i s the r e f u s a l to process i n f o r m a t i o n or to i n v a l i d a t e the t h r e a t e n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; nomadism i s the attempt to p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y escape a t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n to reduce a n x i e t y and s t r e s s . The s o c i a l worker has to be a b l e to r e c o g n i z e h i s / h e r c l i e n t mental h e a l t h s t a t e and to f i n d a v a i l a b l e s o l u t i o n s f o r h i s / h e r acute problems; she/he has to be able to reduce or minimize the s t r e s s of h i s / h e r c l i e n t . The s o c i a l worker a l s o has to work with h i s / h e r c l i e n t f o r a c h i e v i n g r e a l goals not t h e i r s u b s t i t u t e s which co u l d lead to f r u s t r a t i o n . I t i s a l s o important t h a t they w i l l d i s c u s s together the i s s u e s of meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p , f r i e n d s h i p , t r y i n g to o f f e r the very needed- -^support. In such a s i t u a t i o n , v e r b a l and non v e r b a l communication w i l l be e q u a l l y h e l p f u l . 3. E x t e r n a l Threats to Adjustment: P r e j u d i c e , Racism, D i s c r i m i n a t i o n "There i s something p e c u l i a r l y Canadian about the way a good d e a l of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n - perhaps most of the d i r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n - i s p r a c t i s e d here. I f one can a s c r i b e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to n a t i o n a l groups, one would probably c a l l Canadians ' n i c e ' people, c o n s e r v a t i v e people who do most t h i n g s q u i e t l y and d i s l i k e making a f u s s . We l i k e our diplomacy q u i e t ; we l i k e our economic and p o l i t i c a l l i f e c o m p a r a t i v e l y q u i e t ; we c e r t a i n l y l i k e our d i s c r i m i n a t i o n q u i e t . Consequently, much of i t i s p r a c t i s e d s u b t l y , q u i e t l y , by people who do not c o n s i d e r themselves b i g o t s but who d i s c r i m i n a t e i n order to a v o i d d i s t u r b i n g what they see as the e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l o r d e r . " 6 40 a. P r e j u d i c e and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n I n i t i a l l y , the word p r e j u d i c e meant a precedent - a judgement based on previous d e c i s i o n s and exp e r i e n c e s . L a t e r the term a c q u i r e d the meaning of a judgement formed before due examination and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f a c t , and f i n a l l y the term a c q u i r e d i t s present emotional f l a v o u r of fa v o r a b l e n e s s or unfavorableness t h a t accompanies a p r i o r and unsupported judgement. A b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be t h a t of t h i n k i n g i l l of others without s u f f i c i e n t warrant. The New E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s i t as: "a f e e l i n g , f a v o r a b l e or un f a v o r a b l e , toward a person or t h i n g , p r i o r to or not based on a c t u a l experience". While b i a s e s may be pro and con, i t i s nonetheless true t h a t e t h n i c p r e j u d i c e i s mostly n e g a t i v e . P r e j u d i c e c o u l d be manifested toward a group or an i n d i v i d u a l s imply because he/she belongs to t h a t group, and i t i s presumed to have the o b j e c t i o n a b l e q u a l i t i e s a s c r i b e d to the group. Sometimes, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e whether you are d e a l i n g with a case of p r e j u d i c e or non-prejudice because there are some i n s t a n c e s where o v e r c a t e r g o r i z a t i o n s or misconceptions c o u l d pass as p r e j u d i c e . Not every overblown g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s a p r e j u d i c e ; some are misconceptions, wherein wrong i n f o r m a t i o n are or g a n i z e d . " E t h n i c p r e j u d i c e i s an a n t i p a t h y based upon a f a u l t y and i n f l e x i b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . I t may be f e l t or expressed. I t may be d i r e c t e d toward a group as a whole, or toward an i n d i v i d u a l because he i s member of t h a t group." 7 F u r t h e r , l o o k i n g a t i t s f u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , p r e j u d i c e c o u l d be d e f i n e d as a p a t t e r n of h o s t i l i t y i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t a group or i t s i n d i v i d u a l members and f u l f i l l a s p e c i f i c i r r a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n f o r i t s bearer. Campfens, H., 1982, d e f i n e s p r e j u d i c e as an 'opinion t h a t l a c k s any f a c t u a l b a s i s knowledge, or reason.' An adequate d e f i n i t i o n of p r e j u d i c e c o n t a i n s two e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s : an a t t i t u d e of favor or d i s f a v o r and an o v e r g e n e r a l i z e d and erroneous b e l i e f . While p r e j u d i c e d statements sometimes express the a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r , sometimes the b e l i e f f a c t o r , i t i s u s e f u l to d i s t i n g u i s h a t t i t u d e from b e l i e f . B e l i e f s to some extent can be r a t i o n a l l y a t t a c k e d and a l t e r e d . P r e j u d i c e i s heightened under the f o l l o w i n g circumstances: when the co n t a c t s i t u a t i o n produces co m p e t i t i o n between groups; when the co n t a c t is- unpleasant, i n v o l u n t a r y and t e n s i o n laden; when the p r e s t i g e or s t a t u s of a group are lowered as a r e s u l t of c o n t a c t ; when members or a whole group are i n a s t a t e of f r u s t r a t i o n ; when groups have moral or e t h i c standards o b j e c t i o n a b l e to each other; and when the members of m i n o r i t y groups are of lower s t a t u s or higher i n i r r e l e v a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than members of the m a j o r i t y goup (Amir, 1969). When we a c t on our p r e j u d i c e s , then we are d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s any a c t i o n which d e p r i v e s an i n d i v i d u a l or group of t h e i r r i g h t s . I f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n gets the support of the group i n power, t h a t leads to r a c i s m as w e l l as other forms of op p r e s s i o n . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n perpetuates s t e r e o t y p e s , encourages p r e j u d i c e and condones a c t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The f i g u r e below r e p r e s e n t s forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n d e f i n e d by Campfens: F i g u r e I: R A C I S M :INSTITOTION PR£JUP|CE STEREOTYPE ^L. +^ IPEEO B A C I C Campfens.H.,1982, p.231 8 As an a c t i n g out p r e j u d i c e , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n has more immediate and s e r i o u s consequences f o r the immigrant than the p r e j u d i c e . I t i n c l u d e s the e x c l u s i o n of immigrants from c e r t a i n types of employment, r e s i d e n t i a l housing, p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s , e d u c a t i o n a l / r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , churches, h o s p i t a l s or from some other s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e s . Gordon A., 1979, d i s t i n g u i s h e s c e r t a i n degrees of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from the l e a s t e n e r g e t i c to the most: a n t i l o c u t i o n , avoidance, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , p h y s i c a l a t t a c k , e x t e r m i n a t i o n . T h i s s c a l e c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to the enormous range of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t may issue from p r e j u d i c e d a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s . R a c i a l p r e j u d i c e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l s and groups on r a c i a l and e t h n i c grounds are by no means novel phenomena i n human h i s t o r y , but the r a c i a l t e n s i o n manifested i n rece n t years i n many c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d i n g Canada, i s a matter of concern i n n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l arenas. There i s , of course, a long way from the time when Canadian newspapers had ads f o r s e l l i n g s l a v e s to our days when, a t l e a s t f o r m a l l y , a l l e t h n i c groups are admitted as equal p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Canadian s o c i e t y (See Appendix H). In 1978, a D e c l a r a t i o n on Race and R a c i a l P r e j u d i c e s t a t e d : " A l l people of the world possess equal f a c u l t i e s f o r a t t a i n i n g the h i g h e s t l e v e l i n i n t e l l e c t u a l , t e c h n i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l development. The d i f f e r e n c e s betweeen the achievements of the d i f f e r e n t people are e n t i r e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to g e o g r a p h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . Such d i f f e r e n c e s can i n no case serve as a p r e t e x t f o r any rank ordered c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of na t i o n s or people." 9 The D e c l a r a t i o n c o n t a i n s a number of important statements which d i s p e l the popular misconceptions of race and racism, while makes i t c l e a r t h a t there i s no s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . Many Canadians do not c o n s i d e r race as an important aspect of Canadian s o c i e t y , assuming t h a t the s o c i e t y i s r a c i a l l y homogenous and e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s i f i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and the p r i n c i p l e of democracy seem to o f f e r p r o t e c t i o n to a l l c u l t u r a l groups. However, i n a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of Canadian s o c i e t y , i t can be shown t h a t : "There i s a gap between the myths and r e a l i t y of what c o n s t i t u t e race and r a c i s m i n Canada and what appear to be haphazard r a c i a l i n s t a n c e s are i n f a c t a coherent p a r t of the s o c i a l system." 10 Racism i n Canada has been p r a c t i c e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y by the Canadian government and people i n g e n e r a l from the v e r y beginning of Canadian h i s t o r y : " I t has been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d throughout our h i s t o r y . " ( B o l a r i a and L i , 1983). There are v a r i o u s examples of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r a c i s m i n Canada: head tax of $50 on Chinese i n 1885 which i n c r e a s e d to $500 i n 1903; O r i e n t a l s had no v o t i n g r i g h t s u n t i l World War I I , they were not allowed to p r a c t i c e c e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n s i n B.C.; a n t i Chinese-Japanese r i o t s i n B.C. i n 1887 and 1907 i n which O r i e n t a l s were a t t a c k e d and t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s d e s t r o y e d ; i n 1918, 400 E a st Indians were not allowed to land i n Vancouver; i n 1930, s e c t i o n 38 of the Immigration Act p r o h i b i t e d the l a n d i n g i n Canada of immigrants of any A s i a t i c r a c e ; r e l o c a t i o n camps f o r Japanese i n 1946 e t c . Racism i s not a random, unique behavior on the p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l s but a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y developed a t t i t u d e to meet the needs and i n t e r e s t s of c e r t a i n groups i n Canadian s o c i e t y ; i t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the system of p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n t r o l of economic r e s o u r c e s . b. L e g i s l a t i o n Against D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Canada. In 1793, the f i r s t L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada passed an a c t p r o h i b i t i n g the f u r t h e r importing of s l a v e s i n t o the c o l o n y and r e q u i r i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n of s l a v e s to be f r e e d when they reached the age of 25. In 1833, the B r i t i s h P arliament passed the Emancipatory Act, outlawing s l a v e r y throughout the empire. For almost one cen t u r y t h e r e a f t e r , there was no p o s i t i v e e n f o r c e a b l e l e g i s l a t i o n u n t i l i n 1932, when the Ont a r i o government ammended i t s Insurance Act to p r o h i b i t r a c i a l and r e l i g i o u s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the p r o v i s i o n of coverage. In 1934, Manitoba ammended i t s L i b e l Act; i t enabled i n d i v i d u a l s to sue f o r i n j u n c t i o n s a g a i n s t the p u b l i c a t i o n of r a c i a l or r e l i g i o u s l i b e l i f i t was l i k e l y to expose persons or a group to hatred or r i d i c u l e : "tending to r a i s e unrest or d i s o r d e r among the people." Aside from these two ammendments, there was no l e g i s l a t i o n i n support of human r i g h t s i n Canada from 1833 to the mid 1940s. In f a c t , i n the f i r s t h a l f - c e n t u r y a f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g the r i g h t s of Bla c k s , Asians and n a t i v e people was l a r g e l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . Second World War was a d i s t i n c t t u r n i n g p o i n t : "Post-war Canada was c l e a r l y o r i e n t e d toward an era of p u b l i c p o l i c y and a c t i o n i n the human r i g h t s f i e l d t h a t was i n s t a r k c o n t r a s t to i t s pre-war p u b l i c s t a n c e . " 11 The major f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n on the s u b j e c t of non-d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was the Canadian B i l l of Righ t s enacted by the Parliament of Canada i n 1960. S e c t i o n I d e c l a r e s the e x i s t e n c e of "human r i g h t s and fundamentals i n Canada, which s h a l l continue to e x i s t without d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by reason of race n a t i o n a l o r i g i n , c o l o r , r e l i g i o n or sex." The r i g h t s and freedoms are l a r g e l y equated with the t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s : freedom of speech, press and assembly. In 1973, the United Nations proclaimed the s t a r t of what i s c a l l e d the Decade f o r A c t i o n to Combat Racism and R a c i a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The f e d e r a l government e s t a b l i s h e d the Human Rights Commission i n 1978, and some p r o v i n c e s a l s o passed l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and s e t up r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c i a l Commissions. These Commissions do not have i n i t i a t o r y power, the power to a c t i n the absence of a formal complaint and t h i s reduces t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The problem f o r many Commissions i s to balance the d e l i c a t e r o l e s of advocating and r e g u l a t i n g r a c i a l harmony. These Commissions spend much of t h e i r time h a n d l i n g grievances a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; most of t h e i r e f f o r t s expand i n t o long b u r e a u c r a t i c processes t h a t r e s u l t i n token compensation to v i c t i m s of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Since the r o l e of the Commissions i s to mediate between the v i c t i m and the o f f e n d e r , they i n e v i t a b l y tend to i n d i v i d u a l i z e the problem of racism, l e a v i n g the s t r u c t u r a l aspect of r a c i a l p r a c t i c e s l a r g e l y untouched. Because the Commissions have to d e a l with so much r e a c t i v e work, t h e i r e f f o r t s i n the area of race r e l a t i o n s are o f t e n postponed or abandoned. Race r e l a t i o n s have r e c e i v e d secondary treatment i n a number of p r o v i n c e s i n t h i s c o u n t r y . .'.'It i s simply not l o g i c a l t h a t an advocacy r o l e i n the area of race r e l a t i o n s be put together i n o n l y one agency, such as the Human Right s Commission, when the agency's major r o l e i s a r e g u l a t o r y one i n a l l areas covered by the code." 12 Race r e l a t i o n s i s s u e s are l i k e l y to dominate n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n s i n the coming decade because of the emergence of a second g e n e r a t i o n of m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n i n Europe as w e l l as i n North America. T h e r e f o r e , an adequate approach must be provided to e f f e c t i v e l y and c r e a t i v e l y d e a l with the p r e v e n t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n of v i o l a t i o n s a g a i n s t human r i g h t s . The s t a t e d purpose of the p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m adopted by the f e d e r a l government s i n c e 1971: "to break down d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a t t i t u d e s and c u l t u r a l j e a l o u s i e s . . . a n d form the base of a s o c i e t y which i s based on f a i r p l a y f o r a l l " i s s t i l l a g o a l . "The p o l i c y remains a f a i l u r e as f a r as i t s a b i l i t y to combat r a c i s m and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s i s concerned." 13 c. How Widespread i s P r e j u d i c e ? S t u d i e s have shown t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y treatment i s minimized when ch a l l e n g e d i n a d i r e c t face to face s i t u a t i o n . Where c l e a r c o n f l i c t e x i s t s , with law and conscience on the one s i d e , and with custom and p r e j u d i c e on the other, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s p r a c t i c e d i n i n d i r e c t way, c o v e r t l y and not p r i m a r i l y i n face to face r e l a t i o n s where embarassment would r e s u l t . The Report " E q u a l i t y Now" s t a t e d : "There i s evidence of an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . . . There i s evidence of r a c i a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y mechanisms t h a t provide d i f f e r e n t i a l advantage and p r i v i l e g e to people of d i f f e r e n t r a c e s . There i s a l s o evidence of c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , norms, and behaviour of v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s which lead them to be d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . " 14 F u r t h e r , the Report has recommendations l i k e : " J u s t i c e Canada should prepare ammendments to the C r i m i n a l Code so t h a t i t i s c l e a r t h a t the burden of r a i s i n g s p e c i a l defenses i s on the accused (Recommendation 37); J u s t i c e Canada should prepare ammendments to the Canadian Human Rights Act to a l l o w the Canadian Human Rights Commissions to d e a l with hate propaganda (Recommendation 38). 15 The " A b e l l a Report" s t a t e d t h a t : "Strong measures are needed to remedy the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a t t i t u d e s and behavior f l o w i n g problem." 16 d. Demographic V a r i a t i o n i n P r e j u d i c e A v e r y l a r g e number of s t u d i e s b e a r i n g on t h i s matter tend to c o n t r a d i c t each other. One a s s e r t s that women are more p r e j u d i c e d than men; another the o p p o s i t e . One d i s c o v e r s t h a t C a t h o l i c s are more p r e j u d i c e d than P r o t e s t a n t s ; another the o p p o s i t e , and so on. I t seems unsafe to estimate the r e l a t i o n of r e l i g i o n , age, sex, r e g i o n , or economic s t a t u s to p r e j u d i c e . H i s t o r i a n s , a t h r o p o l o g i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s are i n t e r e s t e d i n the o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s t h a t shape the a t t i t u d e s of the i n d i v i d u a l . On the b a s i s of what i s known, we can see t h a t the p r e j u d i c e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s w i l l be more numerous i n times and p l a c e s where the impact of from t h i s f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l : where h e t e r o g e n e i t y In s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y , r a p i d s o c i a l change i s i n progress; where there are ignorance and b a r r i e r s to communication; where the s i z e of a m i n o r i t y group i s l a r g e or i n c r e a s i n g ; where d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n and r e a l i s t i c t h r e a t s e x i s t ; where e x p l o i t a t i o n s u s t a i n s important i n t e r e s t s i n the community; where customs r e g u l a t i n g a g g r e s s i o n are f a v o r a b l e to b i g o t r y ; where t r a d i t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r n e i t h e r ethno-centrism nor c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m i s favored ( A l l p o r t , G., 1979). When men are viewed as p o t e n t i a l l y equal, and equal r i g h t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s are guaranteed, d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t : numbers of the lowest group are encouraged to demand t h e i r r i g h t s and a ' c i r c u l a t i o n of the e l i t e ' s e t s i n . V e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y b r i n g s i n c e n t i v e and alarm to members of a s o c i e t y . I t i s not a person's present s t a t u s i n s o c i e t y t h a t i s important i n r e g u l a t i n g h i s / h e r p r e j u d i c e but the s h i f t i n g of h i s / h e r s t a t u s (Bettelheim, Janowitz, 1950). Hete r o g e n e i t y and the urge toward upward m o b i l i t y make the ferment i n s o c i e t y and are l i k e l y to b r i n g e t h n i c p r e j u d i c e i n t h e i r wake. But the process seems : "To be speeded up i n times of c r i s i s . In times of c a l a m i t i e s a l l manners of s u p e r s t i t i o n s and dread f l o u r i s h , among them legends t h a t m i n o r i t y groups are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s a s t e r . "17 Whenever a n x i e t y i n c r e a s e s , accompanied by a l o s s of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , people tend to d e f i n e t h e i r d e t e r i o r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n terms of scapegoats. C e r t a i n types of c r i s i s w i t h i n a n a t i o n may c o n c e i v a b l y have the e f f e c t of l e s s e n i n g i n t e r g r o u p h o s t i l i t y : when a n a t i o n i s i n jeopardy, a n t a g o n i s t s may f o r g e t t h e i r h o s t i l i t i e s and cooperate to d e f e a t a common enemy. Another v a r i a b l e a s s o c i a t e d with p r e j u d i c e i s knowledge. Knowledge of other groups d e r i v e d from f r e e communication i s , as a r u l e , c o r r e l a t e d with lessened h o s t i l i t y and p r e j u d i c e . S c i e n t i f i c evidence on t h i s matter suggests t h a t those who know most about other races and people tend to have f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward them. The law of the i n v e r s e c o r r e l a t i o n between knowledge and h o s t i l i t y f a i l s to hold a t the extreme degree of h o s t i l i t y (Murphy, G., Murphy, L., Newcomb, T., 1937). R e f e r r i n g to the s i z e of m i n o r i t y group and i t s r e l a t i o n with the c o n f l i c t u a l . s i t u a t i o n , W i l l i a m s , R., 1947, s t a t e d the f o l l o w i n g s o c i o - c u l t u r a l law: " M i g r a t i o n of a v i s i b l e d i f f e r e n t group i n t o a given area i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d of c o n f l i c t : the p r o b a b i l i t y of c o n f l i c t i s the g r e a t e r , the l a r g e r the r a t i o of the incoming m i n o r i t y to the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , and the more r a p i d the i n f l u x . " 18 To o f f s e t the o p e r a t i o n of t h i s law, i t has been argued t h a t i f m i n o r i t y groups would d i s p e r s e themselves as i n d i v i d u a l s , they would encounter l e s s h o s t i l i t y . However, d i s p e r s i o n f o r many m i n o r i t i e s i s not e a s i l y a c h ieved; f o r reasons of economy and s o c i a b i l i t y immigrants from a given c o u n t r y tend to s t i c k t o g e t h e r . To conclude, there are v a r i o u s themes which tend to confuse the understanding of race r e l a t i o n s : one i s blaming the v i c t i m t h e s i s by which members of the subordinate groups are c o n s i d e r e d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r misfortune because of c e r t a i n r a c i a l l y based i n a p t i t u d e s . Another one r e l a t e s to numeric d i f f e r e n t i a l s between the dominant and the subordinate group to t h e i r unequal access to power; and the t h i r d one views r a c i a l disharmony as a r i s i n g from c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t , when members of the dominant group develop b a r r i e r s to p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and p r i v e l e g e s . What i s not to be f o r g o t t e n i s t h a t the immigrant i s the s u b j e c t of the i n e q u a l i t i e s based on f a c t o r s of race, n a t i o n a l i t y , s o c i a l c l a s s and these add unde s i r e d s t r e s s and p r e s s u r e s which the immigrant encounters i n many way i n the new c o n t e x t . The above d i s c u s s i o n was Intended to provide a broader con c e p t u a l framework w i t h i n which t h i s study i s l o c a t e d . I t i s an essay on immigrants' s t r u g g l e f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l . 49 CHAPTER I I I : THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 1.Issues to Be Studied The r a t i o n a l e to embark upon t h i s study came from my b e l i e f , p a r t l y d e r i v e d from my pers o n a l experience. I found t h a t , d u r i n g the c r u c i a l p e r i o d of a d a p t a t i o n to a new c u l t u r e , immigrants face many problems, some other than b a s i c , some n e g l e c t e d and some to be s t u d i e d by the adoptive country. The e x p l o r a t i o n of t h i s s u b j e c t was u s e f u l to my understanding of some c r u c i a l i s s u e s and of the moral and p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n of s o c i a l workers o b l i g a t i o n s i n h e l p i n g m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s . M i g r a t i o n and adjustment M i g r a t i o n i s a p a r t of man's h i s t o r y , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of man. The movements of man were important i n t r a n s m i s s i o n and d i f f u s i o n of p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The d i f f u s i o n of c u l t u r e r e s u l t i n g from m i g r a t i o n was necessary f o r s o c i e t a l development. S i l v a , J . (1983), views people as having a common humanity, while having unique d i f f e r e n c e s based on i n h e r i t e d endowment, learned values and c u l t u r e , developmental h i s t o r i e s , s p e c i f i e d p a t t e r n s of problems and p e r s o n a l i z e d s t y l e s of coping. They are products of t h e i r c u l t u r e and geographic environments, f a m i l y group, l o c a l s e t t i n g , r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y , n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , experience and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . Canada i s a country of immigrants: g e n e r a t i o n s and generations of e t h n i c groups and f a m i l i e s have been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y ; yet those e t h n i c groups have maintained t h e i r e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , customs, language and v a l u e s . Since Canada i s a coun t r y of immigrants, the process of a d a p t a t i o n and the i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the Canadian s o c i e t y i s an important s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l i s s u e . A l l those who uproot themselves from t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r i e s and attempt to s e t t l e i n a strange land experience problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s d u r i n g t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d . Those problems add a sense of moral dichotomy and c o n f l i c t "when o l d h a b i t s are being d i s c a r d e d and new ones are not yet formed", I t i s i n e v i t a b l y an inner t u r m o i l and intense s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s p e r i o d (Rack, P., 1982). The process of adjustment takes time and e f f o r t and the c o n f l i c t t h a t i t c r e a t e s i s a d i s t r e s s f u l one. Immigrant people o f t e n become disadvantaged i n our s o c i e t y . , Being an immigrant means th a t new s o c i e t a l norms and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e have to be learned i n order to f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e , to be aware of.and to take advantage of o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d by the s o c i e t y . "Immigration i s change, i s the t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n of o l d r o o t s and a search to f i n d new r o o t s i n change i t s e l f " (Nann, R., 1982). As they seek housing, employment, b e t t e r s o c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r themselves or s c h o o l s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , immigrants encounter a myriad of s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s and c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s i n s o c i e t y . Without the knowledge and power to overcome these c o n s t r a i n t s and b a r r i e r s , many immigrants w i l l be r e l e g a t e d to a s i t u a t i o n of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and low economic s t a t u s , and w i l l be e f f e c t i v e l y excluded from g a i n i n g proper access to our s o c i e t y ' s r e s o u r c e s , from p a r t i c i p a t i n g as f u l l c i t i z e n s . The process of adjustment has been found to be a d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s , a p e r i o d when immigrants face d i f f i c u l t i e s , s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , lack of proper language, inadequate housing c o n d i t i o n s , l o s s of f a m i l i a r support, changes i n f a m i l y and economic s t a t u s , c u l t u r a l shock, f r u s t r a t i o n , and a l s o the misunderstanding and i n t o l e r a n c e of a new environment. The understanding of the process of adjustment i s important to immigrants not o n l y because i t determines t h e i r a c t i o n s under normal circumstances of l i v i n g , but a l s o because when i t f a i l s to understand unusual demanding c o n d i t i o n s our welfare i s endangered. The present study was concerned with the process of adjustment of immigrants to a new country, knowing t h a t the process of adjustment i s a complex and a c o n t r a d i c t o r y one, and the process of r e s e t t l e m e n t of immigrants i n v o l v e s v a r i a b l e s a t s o c i e t a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , f a m i l y and i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l s . As a p r o f e s s i o n concerned with s o c i a l enhancement and the empowerment of disadvantaged groups, s o c i a l work must concern i t s e l f with the s e t t l e m e n t problems of immigrants. In regard to adjustment, the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s were looked a t : problems r e l a t e d adjustment as seen by immigrants themselves; t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment: t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , s e l f - e s t e e m , a c c u l t u r a t i o n ; and a l s o the necessary s k i l l s , knowledge, and values necessary i n working with immigrants, as p e r c e i v e d by the m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t workers i n t h e i r d a i l y p r a c t i c e . 2. The study aimed to c o n t r i b u t e to the knowledge b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n s i n two a r e a s : e x p l o r a t o r y f o r m u l a t i v e , and d e s c r i p t i v e . According to Reid & Smith (1981), "r e s e a r c h takes on a e x p l o r a t o r y f u n c t i o n when i t i s used to g a i n p r e l i m i n a r y understanding of phenomena, or to s t i m u l a t e the development of concepts, hypotheses, and t h e o r i e s " . 1 The o b j e c t i v e s were to e x p l o r e : the problems encountered by immigrants i n the process of adjustment; the d i f f e r e n c e s , i f any, i n t h i s process; to provide e m p i r i c a l background f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n r e s p e c t to p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment; and to provide i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t to knowledge, q u a l i t i e s , and s k i l l s n e c essary i n working with immigrants. Those o b j e c t i v e s were accomplished through the two f u n c t i o n s of the study; e x p l o r a t o r y -f o r m u l a t i v e and d e s c r i p t i v e , as mentioned above. 3. The Dimensional Model was used, ( G l a s e r , B., S t r a u s s , A., 1967; G l a s e r , B., 1978) the o b j e c t being to d e p i c t v a r i o u s aspects of adjustment process of immigrants. "The dimension f a m i l y d i v i d e s the n o t i o n of a whole i n t o a p a r t s . The more one l e a r n s of a category, the more he begins to see i t s dimensions; i t breaks down i n t o "pieces o f " . " 2 The adjustment process t h a t f o l l o w s the c u l t u r a l r e l o c a t i o n i s a s t r e s s f u l stage, and immigrants from a l l c u l t u r e s share many common a d a p t a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s , as w e l l as unique ones as they attempt to e s t a b l i s h r o o t s i n Canada. The i n d i v i d u a l or f a m i l y i n t r a n s i t i o n i s c o n f r o n t i n g changes i n a l l b a s i c e t h n i c areas such as: language, e d u c a t i o n , p a r e n t i n g , employment, housing, f i n a n c i a l , as w e l l as p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes i n : behaviour, a t t i t u d e s , r o l e i d e n t i t y , r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , e t c . ( Nann, B., 1986). The attempt was to o b t a i n a f a i r l y l a r g e amount of data from the 18 immigrant people who were c l i e n t s of Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y , through p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s conducted with each c l i e n t . The same idea of a c q u i r i n g as much data as p o s s i b l e from the 10 workers of the same s o c i e t y , a p p l i e d f o r the second p a r t of the study, where a 23 item q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used. From the l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h i t was found t h a t there are b a s i c areas where immigrants, i n t h e i r process of adjustment, need support, help and understanding. Those areas, once d e f i n e d by the r e s e a r c h e r were followed through the q u e s t i o n s t h a t were a r t i c u l a t e d i n t o a s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d type of i n t e r v i e w . Both instruments were designed to develop a d e t a i l e d map of the domains of adjustment. U n l i k e the c l a s s i c dimensional model, i n the present study there were no p r e l i m i n a r y assumptions or hypotheses. The aim was to b r i n g i n more i n f o r m a t i o n of how immigrants themselves p e r c e i v e the problems and the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t they encounter i n the r e s e t t l e m e n t process, and what are the suggestions t h a t they have i n order to make t h i s process smoother and e a s i e r . The concepts t h a t were employed through the process of r e s e a r c h i n g and a n a l y z i n g the adjustment of immigrants were: 1. C u l t u r e : the c a t e g o r i e s , p l a n s , and r u l e s people use to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r world, and to a c t p u r p o s e f u l l y w i t h i n i t ; the grammar used to c o n s t r u c t and i n t e r p r e t behaviour (Mc Curdy and Spradley, 1975). 2. C u l t u r a l Shock: a malady, a kind a mental i l l n e s s which i s an o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s e a s e of l i v i n g abroad. I t s t r i k e s when the p s y c h o l o g i c a l cues t h a t helps an i n d i v i d u a l to f u n c t i o n i n s o c i e t y are withdrawn and r e p l a c e d by new ones (Oberg, 1954; F o s t e r , 1973). 3. E t h n i c i t y : a group or cat e g o r y of persons who have common a n c e s t r a l o r i g i n and the same c u l t u r a l t r a i t s , who have a sense a peoplehood ( I s a j i w , W., 1985). 4. M a r q i n a l i t v S t a t e ; p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s caught i n a s t a t u s dilemma: r e j e c t e d by those with whom they a s p i r e to a l i g n , and thrown back upon the e t h n i c c o l l e c t i v i t y t h a t they have r e j e c t e d themselves. 5. A l i e n a t i o n / D u a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n : r e f e r s to a process of detachment of an i n d i v i d u a l from the b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , h a b i t s and, indeed, the i d e n t i t y t h a t has been formed as a r e s u l t of growing up i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y , or being exposed to the ways of a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group. 6. S o c i a l i z a t i o n : the process through which i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n how to l i v e harmoniously with each other as members of s o c i e t y ( K e l v i n , P., 1970). 7. O b j e c t i v e I n t e g r a t i o n : an o b j e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d person i s the person who looks to be p a r t of h i s new environment, eg. a c q u i r i n g E n g l i s h f r i e n d s and E n g l i s h language. 8. S u b j e c t i v e I n t e g r a t i o n : a s u b j e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d person i s the person who values h i s new n a t i o n a l i t y , who r e f e r s to himself as Canadian, who t h i n k s Canada i s h i s home. 9. S e l f Concept: i s a c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e and concerns what an i n d i v i d u a l r e c o g n i z e s about h i m s e l f as s a l i e n t or r e l e v a n t . 10. Self-Esteem: i s an a f f e c t i v e or e v a l u a t i v e dimension measuring how the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s about h i m s e l f r e l a t i v e to o t h e r s . 11. M u l t i c u l t u r a l ism: a model f o r r e l a t i o n s among m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e , and a p o l i c y that encourages each e t h n i c group to maintain i t s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e while i n t e r a c t i n g with other groups i n a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s i f i e d s o c i e t y . 12. Cross C u l t u r a l S o c i a l Work: a u t i l i z a t i o n of ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g , d e l i v e r y and e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r m i n o r i t y and e t h n i c group c l i e n t s . 13. E t h n i c Competence: to be e t h n i c a l l y competent means to be able to conduct one's p r o f e s s i o n a l work i n a way that i s congruent with the behaviour and e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t members of a d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e r e c o g n i z e s as a p p r o p r i a t e among themselves. 14. A c c u l t u r a t i o n : r e f e r s to the process of l e a r n i n g those c u l t u r a l ways of an e t h n i c c o l l e c t i v i t y to which one does not belong. 15. E n c u l t u r a t l o n : r e f e r s to the process of l e a r n i n g the c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s of the e t h n i c c o l l e c t i v i t y to which one does belong. Besides the above mentioned, some other concepts were d e f i n e d d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h process. These c a t e g o r i e s were u s e f u l i n the r e s e a r c h process as to understand the g e n e r a l context of the process of adjustment; as a conceptual cadre of r e f e r e n c e f o r the s o c i a l worker who helps the immigrant to a d j u s t , to understand the p e r s p e c t i v e of the author of the present study, and a l s o to help the reader to understand the complexity of the problem. 4. L i t e r a t u r e Review A search i n t o the l i t e r a t u r e i n r e s p e c t to the process of adjustment of immigrants i n t o a new s o c i e t y , r e v e a l s t h a t there are v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s of l o o k i n g a t i t . a. There are t h e o r i e s attempting to e x p l a i n how people a c t and r e a c t to major changes i n t h e i r l i v e s . For example T a l l e n t , N. (1972), d i s t i n g u i s h e s d i f f e r e n t kinds of adjustment: p s y c h o l o g i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , adjustment to s o c i a l environment, and adjustment to s e l f . The l a t t e r i s seen as more d i f f i c u l t : "our g r e a t e s t b a t t l e s are commonly with o u r s e l v e s " . D i s c u s s i n g the c r i t e r i a of good adjustment, T a l l e n t f u r t h e r mentions: good s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s , p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l achievement as opposed to p a s s i v i t y . He a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s f r u s t r a t i o n , c o n f l i c t , danger and s t r e s s as being t h r e a t s to adjustment. R e f e r r i n g to s t r e s s as t h r e a t to adjustment Selye, H., (1976), makes s t r e s s synonymous with what he c a l l s "the a d a p t a t i o n syndrome", an organized s e t of b i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s to noxious s t i m u l a t i o n s . He d i s t i n g u i s h e s three stages i n the process of adjustment: the alarm or shock phase, when r e s i s t a n c e i s lower; the countershock phase when i n d i v i d u a l a d j u s t as w e l l as he can to the s t r e s s ; and, i f s t r e s s c o n t i n u e s , the stage of e x h a u s t i o n . b. The process of adjustment i s seen as a t r a n s i t i o n , a t u r n i n g p o i n t , p r e s e n t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l , both with an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l i t y growth, and with the danger of i n creased v u l n e r a b i l i t y : Linderman, E. (1944); Caplan, G. (1974); S t e i n e r , J . (1967). Caplan has i d e n t i f i e d seven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e f f e c t i v e coping behaviour t h a t cut a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t types of l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s and c r i s i s . They a r e : a c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n of r e a l i t y i s s u e s and s e arch f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , f r e e e x p r e s s i o n of p o s i t i v e and negative f e e l i n g s , a c t i v e invoke of help from o t h e r s , breaking problems down i n t o manageable b i t s , awareness of f a t i g u e and maintenance of c o n t r o l , a c t i v e mastery of f e e l i n g s , b a s i c t r u s t i n o u r s e l f and optimism about outcome. Moss, R. (1986), i d e n t i f i e d f i v e major s e t s of t asks i n managing a l i f e t r a n s i t i o n i n c r i s i s : e s t a b l i s h i n g the meaning and understanding the p e r s o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s i t u a t i o n ; c o n f r o n t i n g the r e a l i t y and responding to the requirements of the e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n ; s u s t a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s , as w e l l as with other i n d i v i d u a l s who may be h e l p f u l i n s o l v i n g the c r i s i s ; m a i n t a i n i n g a resonable emotional balance by managing u p s e t t i n g f e e l i n g s aroused by the s i t u a t i o n ; p r e s e r v i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y s e l f - i m a g e ; and m a i n t a i n i n g a sense of competence and mastery. He a l s o i d e n t i f i e d the s k i l l s t h a t are e f f e c t i v e and b e n e f i c i a l i n c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s : "coping s k i l l s " . He o rganized those i n three domains: a p p r a i s a l focused; coping problem focused; coping and emotions focused. Those three domains reached nine c a t e g o r i e s of s k i l l s , which are seldom used s i n g l y or e x c l u s i v e l y . A l i f e c r i s i s t r a n s i t i o n t y p i c a l l y presents a s e t of r e l a t e d tasks and r e q u i r e s a combination or sequence of coping s k i l l s . F u r t h e r , Moss e x p l a i n s why the persons respond d i f f e r e n t l y to a l i f e c r i s i s or t r a n s i t i o n s . The r e l e v a n t determinants f a l l i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : demographic and p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s ; event r e l a t e d f a c t o r s ; and f e a t u r e s of the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environments ( Moss, R., 1986). c. Bronfenbrenner, U r i e , (1979), o f f e r s a new t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e : immigrant people are people who experience an " e c o l o g i c a l t r a n s i t i o n " . An e c o l o g i c a l t r a n s i t i o n occurs whenever a person's p o s i t i o n i n the e c o l o g i c a l environment i s a l t e r e d as a r e s u l t of a change i n the r o l e , s e t t i n g , or both. He o f f e r s a new t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e f o r r e s e a r c h i n human development; he sees the person i n a e v o l v i n g r e a c t i o n with h i s environment. His c o n c e p t i o n of the environment as a s e t of r e g i o n s each contained w i t h i n the next i s based on Kurt Lewin's th e o r y (1935). d. Adjustment i s viewed by some other t h e o r i s t s as being of permanent importance, because not o n l y systems must a d j u s t to t h e i r environment, but a l s o the environment must a d j u s t too. E q u a l l y important i n the process of adjustment of l i v i n g organisms are t h e i r a c t i v e e f f o r t s to i n f l u e n c e c o n d i t i o n s i n the environment. In t h i s permanent process, f o r c e s are balanced mu t u a l l y w i t h i n the systems, with f o r c e s o r i g i n a t e d from the environment. The continuous i n t e r a c t i o n s of the system with the environment assume t h a t t h i s e q u i l i b r u m i s not s t a t i c but dynamic. The outcome of the process of adjustment of the i n d i v i d u a l i s dependent on the c h a r a c t e r of the environment with which he i n t e r a c t s . T h i s environment c o u l d be p h y s i c a l environment, ( d e f i n e d by the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment wherein an i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s ) , m i c r o - s o c i a l ( d e f i n e d as the s o c i a l system with which the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t s d i r e c t l y ) , and m a c r o - s o c i a l environment d e f i n e d as the s o c i e t y with i t s s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e , i t s laws, customs, r e g u l a t i o n s , and so on. "The g e n e r a l system approach should provide s o c i a l work with a means of o r g a n i z i n g the human behaviour and the s o c i a l environment a s p e c t s . . . . i t c ould a l s o be used as the means of d e v e l o p i n g a fundamental c o n c e p t i o n of the s o c i a l work process i t s e l f . " 3 e. In the f i e l d of c r o s s c u l t u r a l psychology, one of the c u r r e n t areas of r e s e a r c h i s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l e xperience of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n achieved by the i n d i v i d u a l . Berry, J . (1980), made a d i s t i n c t i o n between s h i f t s and s t r e s s phenomena d u r i n g a c c u l t u r a t i o n . A c c u l t u r a t i o n s h i f t s are changes which occur i n p r e - e x i s t i n g customs, h a b i t s which take new a s p e c t s , f o r example language behaviour, r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s values and a b i l i t i e s . In c o n t r a s t , a c c u l t u r a t i o n s t r e s s i s a d i f f e r e n t phenomenon which i s generated d u r i n g a c c u l t u r a t i o n , f o r example mental h e a l t h problems, deviance, and s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . I t has to be mentioned t h a t these s t r e s s phenomena p r e e x i s t a c c u l t u r a t i o n , but u s u a l l y are "under c o n t r o l " , u n l i k e the novel s t r e s s p a t t e r n which occurs d u r i n g a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The n o t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n r e f e r s to the complex p a t t e r n of i n d i v i d u a l behaviours l i n k e d to a c c u l t u r a t i o n , experiences i n c l u d i n g both s h i f t s and s t r e s s . Berry, J . (1974), proposes four d i f f e r i n g modes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . They a r e : i n t e g r a t i o n , a s s i m i l a t i o n , r e j e c t i o n and m a r g i n a l i t y . R e f e r r i n g to the course of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , Berry mentioned three phases: c o n t a c t , c o n f l i c t and a d a p t a t i o n . The domains of a d a p t a t i o n are d e s c r i b e d as: environmental a d a p t a t i o n , which r e f e r s to a d a p t a t i o n to c l i m a t e , d r e s s , housing, food, h e a l t h ; s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n , which r e f e r s to s o c i a l norms, i n t e r p e r s o n a l and i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s s o c i a l c o n t a c t i n g e n e r a l ; and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n . f . The human c a p a c i t i e s to cope with changes and i t s s t r e s s r e l a t e d e f f e c t s . T o f f l e r , A., (1970), used the term " f u t u r e shock", to d e s c r i b e the s t r e s s and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n which r e s u l t when people are su b j e c t e d to many r a p i d changes. Those changes make us "s t r a n g e r s i n our own s o c i e t y " . New adapt i v e approaches, new p a t t e r n s of copi n g are needed. " S t r a t e g i e s of s u r v i v a l have to be developed fo r our s o c i e t y to continue to f u n c t i o n adequately". I f we co n s i d e r t h a t , beside the changes and the coping problems t h a t we a l l are confronted with, the immigrant faces e x t r a problems i n h i s c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n , then we w i l l have a b e t t e r understanding of h i s m u l t i p l i e d f a c t o r s of s t r e s s . T o f f l e r f u r t h e r mentioned: " i n the most r a p i d l y changing environment to which men has ever been exposed, we remain p i t i f u l l y ignorant i n how the human animal copes." 4 A w e l l known p s y c h o l o g i s t , Adolph Meyer, developed a c h a r t c a l l e d " l i f e c h a r t " , as a t o o l i n medical and p s y c h i a t r i c d i a g n o s i s . He b e l i e v e d t h a t r e g u l a r l i f e events and t r a n s i t i o n s p r ovided r e l e v a n t c l u e s to the development of symptoms and d i s e a s e s . Holmes, T. (1974), and h i s c o l l e a g u e s , used the Meyerian l i f e c h a r t to study l i f e events e m p i r i c a l l y observed to c l u s t e r at the time of d i s e a s e s onset. They developed the S o c i a l Readjustment Ratin g Scale (SRRS), which c o n s i s t e d of d i f f e r e n t l i f e events s c a l e d a c c o r d i n g to the amount of "readjustment" they were judged to r e q u i r e . Trovato, F. (1986), i n h i s study " S u i c i d e and E t h n i c F a c t o r s i n Canada1?, i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c f a c t o r s and s u i c i d e m o r t a l i t y . The study p r o v i d e s a m u l t i - v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u i c i d e and three e t h n i c f a c t o r s : s o c i a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , community i n t e g r a t i o n , and s o c i o -economic p o s i t i o n . I t was hypothesized t h a t : a s s i m i l a t i o n would i n c r e a s e the chances of committing s u i c i d e , e t h n i c community i n t e g r a t i o n would decrease s u i c i d e , while socio-economic p o s i t i o n would show an i n v e r s e l i n k with s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . The e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s provided s t r o n g support f o r the a s s i m i l a t i o n and community i n t e g r a t i o n hypotheses, but no support f o r the s o c i o -economic e f f e c t . In a m u l t i - e t h n i c s o c i e t y i n which immigration and e t h n i c i t y are important dimensions of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , the e x i s t e n c e of a m u l t i c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y does not n e c e s s a r i l y prevent e t h n i c groups from a s s i m i l a t i n g , along such dimensions such language t r a n s f e r , a c c u l t u r a t i o n , amalgamation, and s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n (Gordon, M., 1964). Often the a s s i m i l a t i o n experience c a s t s e t h n i c members i n m a r g i n a l i t y p o s i t i o n s , c a t c h i n g them between two worlds with c o n t r a s t i n g value systems. In a Durkheimian sense, t h i s s i t u a t i o n may be d e s c r i b e d as a s t a t e of "anomie". For the i n d i v i d u a l a s s i m i l a t i o n may i n v o l v e the abandonment of the e t h n i c s u b c u l t u r e with i t s t r a d i t i o n s and v a l u e s and the concomitant adoption of the value system of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , without however, being f u l l y accepted by the r e c e i v i n g group. For a c e r t a i n number of people, the end r e s u l t of t h i s process may heighten l e v e l s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s , and p o s s i b l e s u i c i d e . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m p r o v i d e s an i n d i r e c t e d b u f f e r to t h i s tendency, by promoting the importance of e t h n i c i t y . Groups are able to e s t a b l i s h and maintain cohesive e t h n i c communities, which serve to s h e l t e r the i n d i v i d u a l from severe s t a t e s of anomie. What we have then i s : on one hand, the mechanisms t h a t promote a s s i m i l a t i o n , and t h i s i n c r e a s e s the p r o p e n s i t y to s u i c i d e ; and on the other hand, we have the e t h n i c community which play s a dominant r o l e i n the s o c i a l experience of s o c i o c u l t u r a l groups p r e v e n t i n g to some degree p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s and s u i c i d e (Trovato, S., 1986). g. Looking a t the modes of i n t e g r a t i o n Richmond, A., (1974), noted t h a t there are three f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the a b s o r p t i o n of immigrants, and t h e i r modes of a d a p t a t i o n : the s i t u a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s i n Canada, which may vary to time and p l a c e ; the p r e - m i g r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the circumstances of the immigrants themselves; and the l e n g t h of res i d e n c e i n Canada c o r r e l a t e d with the e f f e c t s of i n t e r a c t i o n with people born i n Canada and with e a r l i e r groups of immigrants. Richmond d e s c r i b e s the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s of adjustment to l i f e i n Canada: urban v i l l a g e r s , Anglo-Canadian c o n f o r m i s t s , p l u r a l i s t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , and t r a n s i l i e n t a l i e n a t e d . He admits t h a t these c a t e g o r i e s o v e r s i m p l i f y the d i f f e r e n t ways i n which people may a d j u s t i n t o our r a p i d l y changing s o c i e t y . Richmond does speak about a mutual a d a p t a t i o n t h a t has taken place between the dominant B r i t i s h m a j o r i t y and the d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s . T h i s enabled a l a r g e number of immigrants to be absorbed with a minimum of ov e r t c o n f l i c t . Waves of immigrants have g r e a t l y e n r i c h e d the Canadian way of l i f e , s i n c e they brought t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m combined with the o p p o r t u n i t i e s to i n t e r a c t with f a m i l y and f r i e n d s from t h e i r own community have c o n t r i b u t e d i n a p o s i t i v e way to s a t i s f a c t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and commitment to Canada. In the " E t h n i c Canadians - C u l t u r e and Educ a t i o n " , Cropley, A. (1973), a n a l i z e s the concept of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , s t r e s s i n g adjustment problems of e t h n i c immigrants, and concludes with some ways o£ a v o i d i n g the negative consequences o£ a l i e n a t i o n . C r o p l e y mentioned t h a t most of immigrants w i l l s u f f e r a c u l t u r e shock, s i n c e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l cues t h a t help them to f u n c t i o n i n the o l d s o c i e t y were withdrawn. In extreme cases, the e f f e c t s of such a shock may add up i n severe pathology, such as: mental i l l n e s s , c r i m i n a l behaviour, a l c o h o l i s m and other d e s t r u c t i v e r e a c t i o n s i n c l u d i n g s u i c i d e . Many immigrants are u n l i k e l y to be f u l l y accepted i n the new group, so t h a t they c o u l d experience a dual d e s o c i a l i z a t i o n or a l i e n a t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e g i v e s the i n d i v i d u a l a sense of l o s s of purpose and s e l f - e s t e e m , a f e e l i n g of not belonging, g u i l t i n t e r r u p t i o n s , and f r u s t r a t i o n s of l i f e e x p e c t a c t i o n s . C r o p l e y i d e n t i f i e s three types of a l i e n a t i o n : o c c u p a t i o n a l , r e s i d e n t i a l , and l e g a l . O c c u p a t i o n a l a l i e n a t i o n r e f e r s to the kinds of jobs immigrants are expected to do, namely the lowest p a i d jobs, and the most unpleasant. R e s i d e n t i a l a l i e n a t i o n r e f e r s to the kinds of housing t h a t immigrants are f o r c e d by v a r i o u s pressures to l i v e i n , mostly u n d e s i r a b l e or unconvenient l o c a t i o n s . Legal a l i e n a t i o n r e f e r s to the fewer r i g h t s and law p r o t e c t i o n t h a t immigrants get, through d e l i b e r a t e or u n i n t e n t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . F u r t h e r , he argues t h a t w i t h i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l s m , adjustment problems i n e t h n i c immigrants groups can be d e a l t with i n a h e l p f u l and humane manner by measures t h a t attempt to counter e f f e c t t h e i r simultaneous a l i e n a t i o n from both o l d and new s o c i e t i e s . Within m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , attachment to the m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y ' s ways does not imply detachment and a l i e n a t i o n from the e t h n i c group as a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r acceptance i n t o the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . h. Another way to look a t the problem i s to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the most common problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t immigrants encounter. A M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Survey i n 1970, and a l s o C a l g a r y and Edmonton Surveys i n 1971, r e p o r t e d t h a t the most frequent d i f f i c u l t y f o r immigrants was being able to l e a r n the E n g l i s h language. A f t e r language the most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s were: employment, housing and l o n e l i n e s s . In 1975, Richmond, A., noted t h a t many immigrants experienced some i n i t i a l c u l t u r e shock and r e p o r t e d adjustment problems d u r i n g the f i r s t two or three years i n Canada. The most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d problems were a l l the above mentioned, and besides i t was s t r e s s e d t h a t employment problems were aggravated by e t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and the n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n of v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Looking a t the same v a r i a b l e , employment e q u i t y , Fernando, T., and Prasad, K., i n a 1986 study: " M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and Employment E q u i t y - Problems F a c i n g F o r e i g n T r a i n e d P r o f e s s i o n a l s and Trades People i n B r i t i s h Columbia", concluded: "there i s vast d i s c r e p a n c y between immigrant e x p e c t a t i o n s and the harsh r e a l i t y of l i f e i n Canada. I t i s not reasonable to j u s t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n by c l a i m i n g t h a t l i f e i s j u s t as bad for other Canadians." 5 R e f e r r i n g to the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by immigrants, Nann, B., 1980, mentioned the f o l l o w i n g as common settlement experiences : u p r o o t i n g , r u r a l - u r b a n adjustment, c u l t u r e shock, l o s s of f a m i l i a r and s o c i a l supports, change i n economic s t a t u s , n e g a t i v e s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . For the f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n some a d d i t i o n a l problems c o u l d occur, such as: p a r e n t i n g dilemmas, r o l e r e v e r s a l s , a d o l e s c e n t i d e n t i t y c r i s i s , adjustment to the e d u c a t i o n a l system, e t c . Nann, R., 1982, i d e n t i f i e s i n h i s survey r e s e a r c h study, the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g a d a p t i v e p a t t e r n s : p r e v i o u s l i f e e xperience, age, sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n , and v o c a t i o n a l background. Another d i f f i c u l t y t h a t immigrants encounter i s the misconception of immigrants: immigrants are seen as poor, s t a r v e d , p a t h e t i c c r e a t u r e s , g r a t e f u l f o r the chance merely to enter Canada. The lack of c o r r e c t , f i r s t hand i n f o r m a t i o n helps e x p l a i n why p u b l i c images of immigrants have changed very l i t t l e , d e s p i t e s u b s t a n t i a l s h i f t s i n the c h a r a c t e r of immigration, Davis, M., (1978). By c o n t r a s t , many Canadians tend to b e l i e v e that a l l immigrants are doing extremely w e l l i n the new country, and t h a t they are v e r y f o r t u n a t e to be here. Another misconception about immigrants i s t h a t they are o f t e n blamed f o r the problems of the c i t i e s : t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g numbers are h e l d to exacerbate housing shortages, e l e v a t e crime r a t e s , b r i n g In i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s , overwhelm welfare and cause unemployment among Canadians. The "Report to Parliament by The S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee on Immigration P o l i c y " , mentioned t h a t : "Canadians worried about the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n our c i t i e s , should look elsewhere, than s h a r p l y reduce immigration f o r a s o l u t i o n to the problems of c i t y l i v i n g . " 6 Furthermore, the same document mentioned t h a t a study prepared f o r the S o l i c i t o r General i n 1974, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c r i m i n a l r a t e of immigrants was approximately h a l f t h a t of n a t i v e born Canadians. The above mentioned v a r i o u s approaches are d e s c r i b e d to help the reader, be he/she s o c i a l worker, immigrant, c o u n s e l l o r , t e a c h e r , to understand the complexity of the adjustment of the immigrant i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y , and a l s o to acknowledge t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to look at t h i s process from v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s . However, the present study was meant to d e s c r i b e the problems t h a t immigrants are f a c i n g i n t h e i r process of s e t t l e m e n t i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y to d e s c r i b e how the immigrants themselves p e r c e i v e t h i s process, what needs they had w i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d of t h e i r l i f e , and a l s o t h e i r suggestions to government o f f i c i a l s , p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r s and other immigrants. 5. F e a s i b i l i t y Looking at the time and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to accomplish the p r o j e c t the f o l l o w i n g should be noted: a. time * the p o p u l a t i o n which was the focus of the r e s e a r c h was c l i e n t e l e of the Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y , and the r e s e a r c h e r had the c o o p e r a t i o n of the c o o r d i n a t o r of the Host Program and the e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r of the S o c i e t y to have access to the c l i e n t s . * the c o l l e c t i o n of data (measurement), was done on a s i n g l e o c c a s i o n , but a p r e t e s t was performed f o r both p a r t s of the study. * the necessary time f o r a n a l y z i n g the data was c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n c o r r e l a t i o n with the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n needed and i t s s t r u c t u r e . b. f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : * the c o o p e r a t i o n of the people f o r the study d i d not r e q u i r e any f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s from the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p a r t . * there was no use of high c o s t equipment, the r e s e a r c h e r conducted the i n t e r v i e w s and handed out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to the workers. * there were no s a l a r i e s to be paid and the data a n a l y s i s was done by the r e s e a r c h e r a l o n e . c. d i f f i c u l t y : s i n c e the p o p u l a t i o n f o r the f i r s t p a r t of the study was formed by immigrants who had j u s t a r r i v e d i n Canada, few d i f f i c u l t i e s were a n t i c i p a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to having an i n t e r p r e t e r / v o l u n t e e r when the i n t e r v i e w s were conducted. However, onl y i n one s i n g l e o c c a s i o n an o f f i c i a l i n t e r p r e t e r was c a l l e d i n , and i n another o c c a s i o n the spouse of a s u b j e c t helped out. 64 CHAPTER IV: THE RESEARCH DESIGN 1. A N a t u r a l i s t i c Research The present e x p l o r a t o r y study employed " Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h methods" (Patton, M.,1980). "The task f o r the q u a l i t a t i v e methodologist i s to provide a framework w i t h i n which people can respond i n a way t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a c c u r a t e l y and t h r o u g h l y t h e i r p o i n t s of view about t h e i r world, or t h a t p a r t of t h e i r world about which they are t a l k i n g . " 1 The r e s e a r c h e r d i d not a l t e r the phenomena under study, there was no s y s t e m a t i c manipulation performed p u r p o s e f u l l y by the r e s e a r c h e r , consequently i t was a n a t u r a l i s t i c r e s e a r c h . The study was formed from two p a r t s : f i r s t p a r t was l o o k i n g a t the process of adjustment as a whole to see i f there were any d i f f e r e n c e s , s i m i l a r i t i e s or p a t t e r n s w i t h i n i t ; and the second p a r t was l o o k i n g a t the p e r c e p t i o n s of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t workers as they p e r c e i v e themselves as h e l p e r s i n working with immigrants. 2. S i z e and Composition of the Sample "There are l i m i t s of how much one can a p p l y l o g i c d eduction i n making sampling d e c i s i o n s . The t h i n g i s to keep to coming back to the c r i t e r i o n of u s e f u l n e s s . " 2 The sample of immigrants was obtained from Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y and c o n s i s t e d of 18 people, each of whom a r r i v e d i n Vancouver and Canada, at l e a s t 6 months p r i o r to the i n t e r v i e w . The Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i s a non-p r o f i t , non - p o l i t i c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n which co-operates with other agencies and government departments i n promoting the w e l f a r e of immigrants and refugees. I t r e c e i v e s funding support from government gr a n t s , f u n d - r a i s i n g , p r i v a t e s o c i e t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l donations. The Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y o f f e r s a range of s e r v i c e s v i t a l to immigrants and refu g e e s . As example of s e r v i c e s : c o u n s e l l i n g , o r i e n t a t i o n , e s c o r t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , employment o r i e n t a t i o n , resume p r e p a r a t i o n , completing government documents, s u r v i v a l E n g l i s h , c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g and p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . As i n f o r m a t i o n r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s : housing, shopping, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n , consumer a f f a i r s , ICBC c l a i m s , medical insurance, f a m i l y allowances, s o c i a l insurance, income tax, l e g a l a i d , e d u c a t i o n , e t h n i c s o c i e t i e s , unemployment insurance, M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Housing A s s i s t a n c e . Some of the s p e c i a l programs o f f e r e d by the s o c i e t y a r e : i n d u s t r i a l housekeeping, (a four months course designed f o r immigrant women to o b t a i n t r a i n i n g to enable them to work i n h o t e l s and h o s p i t a l s ) ; making changes and immigrant women's s e r v i c e s c e n t r e (to help immigrant women to gai n confidence and f i n d t h e i r place i n s o c i e t y - a n d work); t r a i n i n g program f o r language community workers; youth programs (the Vietnamese and Spanish youth programs) which provide guidance, c o u n s e l l i n g , r e c r e a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l programs to prevent t h e i r involvement i n crime. Host Program f o r Refugee Settlement i s a s p e c i a l program which matches r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d government sponsored refugees with Canadian hosts to ease t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e i r new country. T h i s program i s funded by C.E.I.C. The sample was drawn from the p o p u l a t i o n u s i n g the c r i t e r i a of no n p r o b a b i 1 i t y sampling, namely purposive sampling, the s e l e c t i o n being p u r e l y judgmental, based on the r e s e a r c h e r ' s judgment of what best s u i t s the study. The disadvantage f o r t h i s k i nd of sample i s th a t i t p r o v i d e s no b a s i s on which to make estimates of sampling e r r o r s . The advantage i s th a t n o n p r o b a b i l i t i e s samples are s u i t e d to e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s where i n v e s t i g a t o r s are merely i n t e r e s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g as much as p o s s i b l e unique data on the re s e a r c h q u e s t i o n ( G r i n n e l l , R., 1981). According to t h i s s t r a t e g y , the r e s e a r c h e r who wanted to assure maximum v a r i a t i o n i n her sampling, was c a r e f u l l y choosing the cases t h a t represented a wide v a r i e t y of immigrants who d i f f e r as age, sex, m a r r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n , l e v e l of E n g l i s h , e t h n i c i t y , p o l i t i c a l background, p a r t i c i p a t i o n or non - p a r t i c i p a t i o n on Host Program. A l s o the non - random s e l e c t i v e sa-nipling i s adequate to q u a l i t a t i v e and smal l s c a l e s t u d i e s , guided by a t h e o r e t i c a l concept, as i n the present study, the concept of adjustment. Knowing the f a c t t h a t i n non-random sampling, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s i s a weak p o i n t , the r e s e a r c h e r wanted to make sure t h a t the sample i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r the p o p u l a t i o n . While the re s e a r c h e r was not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n making wide g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , the p o s s i b i l i t y to make some was, however, not excluded. "Purposive sampling i s a s t r a t e g y to be used to help manage the t r a d e - o f f between the d e s i r e f o r in-depth d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the cases and the d e s i r e to be able to g e n e r a l i z e about a program" (Patton, M., 1980). The immigrant sample as a heterogenous group of 18 people, was composed of cases with a high degree of v a r i a t i o n . That i s to say: t y p i c a l , c r i t i c a l , extreme cases, were h o p e f u l l y s e l e c t e d , a maximum v a r i a t i o n sampling s t r a t e g y being employed. For the m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t workers', due to a v a i l a b i l i t y , a c c i d e n t a l sampling was performed. The workers' sample, represented by 10 workers of Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y , was c o n s i d e r a t e d as being a homogenous group: they were a l l working with immigrants, to the best of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , knowledge and s k i l l s to help the newcomers to a d j u s t to a new c u l t u r e . To conclude: a u n i t of 18 immigrant people was the sample f o r the f i r s t p a r t , and a group of 10 workers f o r the second p a r t of the study. 67 3. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n The present study i s a q u a l i t a t i v e study. Q u a l i t a t i v e methodology r e s t s on the assmption t h a t v a l i d understanding can be gained through accumulated knowledge a q u i r e d f i r s t h a n d by a s i n g l e r e s e a r c h e r (Reid & Smith, 1981). Q u a l i t a t i v e methods permit the e v a l u a t o r to study s e l e c t e d i s s u e s i n depth, and d e t a i l ( Patton, M., 1980). Within t h i s methodological o r i e n t a t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r was attempting to ga i n a h o l i s t i c understanding of the process of adjustment, u s i n g s e m i s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s , and two s t a n d a r d i z e d Hudson s c a l e s : G e n e r a l i z e d Contentment Scale (G.C.S.), and Index of S e l f Esteem ( I . S . E . ) , f o r the immigrant sample, and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the workers' sample: " D i r e c t questions are a b a s i c source of raw data i n q u a l i t a t i v e measurement, r e v e a l i n g respondent's l e v e l of emotion, the way i n which they have organized t h e i r world, t h e i r thoughts, about what i s happening, t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e i r b a s i c p e r c e p t i o n s . " 3 S t r e s s was placed on understanding the process of adjustment from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n i t , r a t h e r than through i m p o s i t i o n of r e s e a r c h e r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l views. The data was c o l l e c t e d and analyzed as i t was aq u i r e d from the s u b j e c t s . Changes were made when necessary i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the da t a . For example, the p r e t e s t showed t h a t there were few d i f f e r e n c e s i n the process of adjustment, i n r e l a t i o n to the Host Program v a r i a b l e . The r e s e a r c h e r then pursued t h i s hypothesis through a d d i t i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n of data r e l a t e d to Host Program, from s u b j e c t s which were provided a host, through the i n t e r v i e w s t r u c t u r e . I t should a l s o be p i n p o i n t e d t h a t , beside the q u a l i t a t i v e data, i t was r e a l i s t i c to estimate some q u a n t i t a t i v e elements which came through q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and s t a n d a r d i z e d Hudson s c a l e s . However, t h i s d i d not change the general o r i e n t a t i o n of the study as a q u a l i t a t i v e one. Gl a s e r & Strauss (1967), have argued t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e methodology i s a s t r a t e g y concerned with the d i s c o v e r y of s u b s t a n t i v e theory, not with a q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h . A q u a l i t a t i v e study, l i k e the present, had some weaknesses: lack of c o n t r o l over- extraneous v a r i a b l e s , lack of s y s t e m a t i c measurement, and the absence of a l a r g e number of s u b j e c t s . The s t r e n g t h s of the study were: a q u i r i n g h o l i s t i c knowledge of the complex process of adjustment, and a gradual s y n t h e s i s of data from many sources, which gave the r e s e a r c h e r an extremely important grasp of r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s which co u l d not be obtained from fragmented q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . Reid & Smith, (1981), noted t h a t : " i n s i g h t f u l a n a l y s i s of one or few cases, may take precedence over an attempt to secure uniform measurement". 4. Sources of Data and Data C o l l e c t i o n Data f o r the present study was c o l l e c t e d from d i f f e r e n t s o urces: a. For the f i r s t p a r t of the r e s e a r c h study, face to face  i n t e r v i e w s with each immigrant s u b j e c t was per-f-o-rmed. The access to i n t e r v i e w e e s : they were c l i e n t s of Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes: g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , r e f e r r a l , c o u n s e l l i n g , language t r a i n i n g , r e t r a i n i n g courses, host p r o v i s i o n , e t c . A consent form and a e x p l a n a t o r y l e t t e r was prov i d e d to a l l s u b j e c t s : see Appendices A and B. The s e m i s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w format was used, to minimize i n t e r v i e w e r e f f e c t , and to provide a s y s t e m a t i c framework to a s s i s t data a n a l y s i s . "The s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w schedule may i n c l u d e some s p e c i f i c items, but c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e i s given to i n t e r v i e w e r s to explore i n t h e i r own way matters p e r t a i n i n g to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n being s t u d i e d " ( G r i n n e l l , R., 1981). This type of i n t e r v i e w was s u i t a b l e f o r respondents who have shared a common experience: t h a t i s i n the present case the process of adjustment to a new c u l t u r e . A l s o a f a v o r a b l e p o i n t was that the i n t e r v i e w e r experienced s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . R e f e r r i n g to t h i s a s p e c t , G r i n n e l l , R., (1981), mentioned t h a t i n t e r v i e w e r s must l e a r n as much as p o s s i b l e , purposive about the a t t r i b u t e s or experiences the respondents have shared. In r e s p e c t to the sequencing of questions the f u n n e l l i n g technique was used; the i n t e r v i e w s t a r t e d with broad g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , and then moved i n t o narrower, more s p e c i f i c , d i f f i c u l t , and s e n s i t i v e questions as the i n t e r v i e w progressed. In order to double check the r e l i a b i l i t y of p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g i c items f o r the e n t i r e sample, the i n t e r v i e w e r —asked r e l i a b i l i t y p a i r q u e s t i o n s a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n the i n t e r v i e w (For d e t a i l s about i n t e r v i e w see Appendix E ) . The advantages of i n t e r v i e w i n g as a data c o l l e c t i o n method, were p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d to n a t u r a l n e s s and s p o n t a n e i t y . Disadvantages or major sources of respondent e r r o r s and b i a s e s i n s e l f - r e p o r t data are present, and they c o u l d be: respondents may d e l i b e r a t e l y make mistakes because they don't know the answer, or give an i n a c c u r a t e answer because they misunderstand, or m i s i n t e r p r e t the questions ( B a i l e y , K., 1978). A l s o a f a c t o r of b i a s was i n t r o d u c e d as a r e s u l t of u s i n g an i n t e r p r e t e r i n performing the i n t e r v i e w s , and f i l l i n g i n the two Hudson s c a l e s . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s a p p l i e d o n l y to two cases. Notes were taken d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w , and s u b j e c t s were asked to f i l l the G.C.S. and I.S.E. at the end of i n t e r v i e w . Each i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d between one hour - one hour and a h a l f , and about 20 minutes to complete the s c a l e s . Appendices F and G r e p r e s e n t the two s c a l e s . b. For the second p a r t of the r e s e a r c h , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used i n order to e l i c i t worker's p e r c e p t i o n s of knowledge, s k i l l s , and q u a l i t i e s t h a t are r e q u i r e d i n d e a l i n g with immigrant people. A group a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e which contained open ended and c l o s e d ended questions was g i v e n out to the agency s t a f f members at the Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y . I t was estimated to take between 25-30 minutes to f i l l out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The p r e t e s t a c t u a l l y confirmed t h a t the e s t i m a t i o n was c l o s e . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s o p t i o n , i n s t e a d of i n t e r v i e w , was time c o n s t r a i n t s , and a l s o the f a c t t h a t the group administered q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s e f f i c i e n t , and p o t e n t i a l l y more e f f e c t i v e i n c a p t u r i n g respondent data. A e x p l a n a t o r y l e t t e r was provided (see Appendix C) at the time when q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d . For d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on q u e s t i o n n a i r e see Appendix D. 5. Data A n a l y s i s Technique In the present study data were analyzed i n d u c t i v e l y , as suggested by Glaser & Strauss (1967), and Glaser (1978). T h i s method was chosen f o r i t s c o n s i s t e n c y with an intended n o n - l i n e a r i n d u c t i v e approach, i n which concepts, and hypotheses emerge from the data, r a t h e r than preceding i t : " I n d u c t i v e a n a l y s i s means t h a t the p a t t e r n s , themes, and c a t e g o r i e s of a n a l y s i s come from the data; they emerge out of the data, r a t h e r than being imposed on them p r i o r to the data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . The a n a l y s t looks f o r n a t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i n the d a t a . " 4 A l s o , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s i n d u c t i v e approach, ideas were e x t r a c t e d from the l i t e r a t u r e to help give meaning to the o r i g i n a l data. The l i t e r a t u r e was t r e a t e d as a source of data to be analyzed i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to the a n a l y s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d from persons i n t e r v i e w e d . T r a n s c r i p t s of i n t e r v i e w s were examined, i n attempt to search f o r i n d i c a t o r s , i n c i d e n t s , on raw data; then they were coded, i n i t i a l l y u s i n g as many codes or c a t e g o r i e s as i t was found. Memos were noted as the coding proceeded; and f i n a l c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were developed allowed f o r a s y s t e m a t i c examination of the t o t a l d a ta. Those f i n a l c a t e g o r i e s were c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o a s i n g l e system, r e g a r d i n g the process of adjustment as a whole. T h e o r e t i c a l assumptions r e g a r d i n g the process of adjustment emerged through the c o n c l u s i o n s of the study. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r method allowed f o r a gradual s y n t h e s i s of the data, a l s o r e q u i r e d the re a s e r c h e r to use c o n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y i n t a i l o r i n g the approach to the present study. As the o b j e c t i v e of the study was to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the immigrants and t h e i r process of adjustment, the a t t e n t i o n was focused on content a n a l y s i s , on what s u b j e c t s were s a y i n g . T h i s i s not to say that the r e s e a r c h e r was not s e n s i t i v e a t c a t c h i the nuances of how t h i n g s were expressed. CHAPTER V: FINDINGS This s e c t i o n of the r e p o r t w i l l present the most i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t trends which became apparent d u r i n g the process of data a n a l y s i s , c l e a r cut themes, and emerged p a t t e r n s . The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l focus on the r e s u l t s of the study and w i l l present d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c a t e g o r i e s which have emerged. The a l l o c a t i o n of the themes to these c a t e g o r i e s i s a judgement on p a r t of the r e s e a r c h e r . As a consequence of the data the f o l l o w i n g two hypotheses have been p o s t u l a t e d : 1. The language knowledge i s a p r i m o r d i a l c o n d i t i o n f o r the adjustment of immigrants. The present study showed t h a t a l l the immigrant s u b j e c t s who came to Canada with no E n g l i s h knowledge at a l l , f e l t t h a t i t was most important f o r them to l e a r n the language of the adoptive country. The b e t t e r the language, the b e t t e r the chances to a d j u s t . Other s t u d i e s i n t h i s area suggest, based on t h e i r f i n d i n g s , s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s . 2. A f t e r the language knowledge, the second very important f a c t o r to a b e t t e r , q u i c k e r , and smoother adjustment, i s employment. E n g l i s h language knowledge i s a necessary, but not a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r a s s u r i n g a good adjustment. For the immigrant, having a job i s a corner stone i n h i s process of adjustment. By c o n t r a s t , the unemployment and under-employement, are f a c t o r s t h a t d e l a y the adjustment and c o n t r i b u t e to develop the a l i e n a t e d type of immigrant, the maladjusted, and marginal person. Part I: THE IMMIGRANTS A. A Demographic P r o f i l e The immigrant sample i n c l u d e d 18 s u b j e c t s . By sex, i t i n c l u d e d 10 female, and 8 male. Ages v a r i e d between 21 and 48, the mean age being 30.2. C o u n t r i e s of o r i g i n were 8: B u l g a r i a , Cambodia, E l S a l v a d o r , E t h i o p i a , I r a n , Nicaragua, Poland, Romania. The 18 people came from 4 c o n t i n e n t s : A s i a , A f r i c a , Europe, and C e n t r a l America. By c o n t i n e n t s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n was as f o l l o w s : 3 people from A s i a , 3 people from A f r i c a , 8 from Europe, and 4 people from C e n t r a l America. As e d u c a t i o n a l background, the sample i n c l u d e d 11 u n i v e r s i t y graduates, 6 c o l l e g e graduates, and 1 with 2 grades of ed u c a t i o n . Looking a t the p r o f e s s i o n s , the sample i n c l u d e d : 3 accountants, 4 engineers, 1 p h y s i c i a n , 2 e c o n o m i s t - s t a t i s t i a n s , 2 t e a c h e r s , 1 farmer, 4 c l e r k s , 1 mechanical t e c h n i c i a n . The t a b l e s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, which f o l l o w presents the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample: Table 1 : Sample Interviewed by Gender and Age Gender Under 25 years 25-35 years 35-45 years T o t a l Male - 2 3 3 8 Female 5 4 1 10 T o t a l 7 7 4 18 Table 2 : Sample Interviewed by Region of O r i g i n Region Number As i a 3 A f r i c a 3 Europe 8 C e n t r a l America 4 T o t a l = 18 Table 3: Sample Interviewees by Country of o r i g i n Country Number B u l g a r i a 1 Cambodia 1 E l S a l v a d o r 2 E t h i o p i a 3 Guatemala 1 Iran 2 Nicaragua 1 Poland 4 Romania 3 T o t a l = = 18 Table 4: Sample Interviewed by E d u c a t i o n a l Background and Region of O r i g i n C e n t r a l Education A s i a A f r i c a America Europe T o t a l U n i v e r s i t y 2 - 1 8 11 C o l l e g e 3 3 - 6 Diplomas 1* - 1 T o t a l 3 3 4 8 18 * The s u b j e c t f i n i s h e d grade 2 Table 5: Occupation o£ Sample Interviewed i n Country of O r i g i n Occupation Number Accountancy E n g i n e e r i n g 3 4 Medecine 1 Economics 2 Teaching 2 Others* 6 T o t a l = 18 * Include: 1 farmer, 4 c l e r k s , 1 mechanical t e c h n i c i a n . B. E n g l i s h Language L e a r n i n g Within the sample of 18 immigrants i n t e r v i e w e d , i n r e s p e c t to t h e i r E n g l i s h knowledge, the s i t u a t i o n was as f o l l o w s : At the time of t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Canada, 10 s u b j e c t s (55%) had E n g l i s h knowledge. Among ±hem, -8 s u b j e c t s (44%) were co n s i d e r e d as being able to make themselves understood, and consequently to look f o r a job; the other 2 (11%), knew ve r y l i t t l e , and they had to go to E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . At the time of i n t e r v i e w , 16 s u b j e c t s (89%) were able to communicate with the i n t e r v i e w e r , without d i f f i c u l t i e s , 1 ( 5 % ) , had an o f f i c i a l i n t e r p r e t e r , and 1 ( 5 % ) , had the spouse i n t e r p r e t i n g . The s u b j e c t s manifested a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward E n g l i s h language, and whether they were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r l e v e l of E n g l i s h (4 s u b j e c t s = 22%), or somewhat s a t i s f i e d and l o o k i n g f o r improvement, or d i s s a t i s f i e d (10 s u b j e c t s = 55%) they a l l agreed t h a t they l i k e the language, and were wishing to speak a b e t t e r E n g l i s h . The f a c t t h a t s u b j e c t s manifested a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward E n g l i s h language c o u l d have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r f u t u r e l e v e l of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . As a matter of f a c t , r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area showed t h a t there i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e toward a language, and the achievement i n l e a r n i n g i t . The s u b j e c t s were h i g h l y motivated to l e a r n E n g l i s h f o r a very fundamental reason: t h e i r s u r v i v a l , which was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o : to be able to communicate with Canadian people, to get a job, to understand the Canadian c u l t u r e . T h i s f a c t o r c a l l e d m o t i v a t i o n was a s t r o n g mobile f o r a c h i e v i n g the above mentioned p r o f i c i e n c y . As the study showed, m o t i v a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g r e l a t e d to employment, and f u r t h e r to s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , and a higher s o c i a l s t a t u s : " I t i s very important to me to express myself i n a way t h a t would not c r e a t e misunderstandings... what I am doing now, i s t r y i n g to get the necessary t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y f o r my p r o f e s s i o n . I d i d not have any chance to do t h a t i n s c h o o l . . . I wish I c o u l d .. maybe the next g e n e r a t i o n s of immigrants w i l l have b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h " . "I wanted to go to s c h o o l the f a s t e r I c o u l d , but I had to wait few months, and I was upset. I was upset because, I d i d not want to waste my time, and energy doing n o t h i n g . . . Now, a f t e r I f i n i s h the c l a s s e s , my E n g l i s h s t i l l i s not good enough...for me i s v e r y important not o n l y to speak E n g l i s h , but to speak as a p r o f e s s i o n a l . . . " Research i n the area of r e l a t i o n s between a t t i t u d e , m o t i v a t i o n , and second language achievement, showed t h a t those v a r i a b l e s are i n a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n with each other (Gardener & Smythe, 1975). The a n a l y s i s suggested that E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y reduced a n x i e t y and s t r e s s f o r the s u b j e c t s who were able to a t t a i n a b e t t e r understanding of what i s happening around them. Without the understanding of messages, the i n d i v i d u a l i s f r u s t r a t e d , anxious, nervous, e t c . F r u s t r a t i o n i t s e l f i s a source of danger. S o c i a l r e j e c t i o n caused by f a i l u r e to communicate and by misunderstandings, thwarts the immigrant from r e a c h i n g h i s g o a l s , a f f e c t s h i s s e l f - e s t e e m , c r e a t e s s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , i s o l a t e him, and impedes h i s s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . There are ever present dangers i n our h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e s o c i e t y , where immigrants have to compete, not o n l y f o r m a t e r i a l p o s s e s i o n s , but a l s o f o r r e c o g n i t i o n , acceptance and s t a t u s . Having to cope with a l l those demands, the immigrant i s i n a p o s i t i o n of a high r i s k ; and i n f a c t , r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on a s s o c i a t i o n between E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y and d e p r e s s i v e syndromes, showed t h a t there i s a high c o r r e l a t i o n between those two v a r i a b l e s . As an example, a r e s e a r c h study of 48 L a o t i a n s refugees l i v i n g i n Southern Alabama, evaluated a s t r e s s management coping s k i l l s model of adjustment i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r sample. S t r e s s f u l events and experiences d u r i n g e m i g r a t i o n and a lack of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y were a s s o c i a t e d with d e p r e s s i v e symptoms. The r e s u l t s suggested t h a t E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced the impact of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s o r s on d e p r e s s i o n , language s k i l l s acted as a s t r e s s b u f f e r i n the new c u l t u r a l environment. Coming back to the present study, based on people's m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n E n g l i s h , we can p r e d i c t t h a t s u b j e c t s from the a c t u a l sample w i l l not get depressed, because t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n w i l l a l l o w them to achieve a high l e v e l of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y and f u r t h e r access to s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . Another f a c t o r , t h a t was found r e l e v a n t , was the w i l l i n g n e s s to continue language study, the p e r s i s t e n c e i n . improving and d e v e l o p i n g the language s k i l l s : "I w i l l continue to study u n t i l I w i l l be proud of my English...When I w i l l be able to w r i t e some poems i n a r e f i n e d E n g l i s h , I w i l l f e e l b e t t e r " . From the t o t a l sample of 18 people, 8 (44%) were c o n s i s t e n t l y s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h on t h e i r own; 2 (11%) were doing t h a t o c c a s i o n a l y , due to time c o n s t r a i n t s ; 4 (22%) were s t i l l i n s c h o o l ; and 4 (22%) f i n i s h e d s c h o o l but were s t i l l s t u d y i n g on t h e i r own. Another p o i n t was about speaking E n g l i s h with an accent. 2 s u b j e c t s (11%) were d i s a p p o i n t e d with t h e i r accent; 2 (22%) were worried, 4 (22%) thought i s " n i c e " ; and f o r the m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s , 10 (55%) t h i s was not a problem. One concern expressed by respondents was the absence of employment o r i e n t e d programs w i t h i n the E n g l i s h t r a i n i n g ; job search t r a i n i n g , E n g l i s h f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and so on. There was unanimity of op i n i o n s about the n e c e s s i t y of having those programs o f f e r e d w i t h i n the f i r s t year of the immigrant a r r i v a l , when the immigrant has to prepare himsel f f o r the job market. The same concern was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d i n The Report on E n g l i s h as a Second Language f o r Ad u l t s i n B.C., prepared f o r the Department of S e c r e t a r y of State (1984). The Report i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g concerns: " l a c k of i n d u s t r i a l E.S.L. c l a s s e s , unstable and insecure funding, lack of standards, and c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n and between c l a s s e s " . The Report "Immigrant Women i n Canada", (1982), s t a t e d t h a t : "a complicated maze of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e g u l a t i o n s , as w e l l as programs t h a t do not meet t h e i r needs, prevent immigrant women from r e c e i v i n g good q u a l i t y language t r a i n i n g . " 1 The lack of i n d u s t r i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l ESL, as a major gap, was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d i n the same document. A 1981 Report of 104 respondents, throught the province of B.C., d e f i n e d two concerns: b e t t e r o r i e n t e d E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g programs, and job search t r a i n i n g . To conclude i s to say again that the concern of employment o r i e n t e d programs e x i s t s , i t was i d e n t i f i e d by the s u b j e c t s of t h i s study, i t was i d e n t i f i e d by other s t u d i e s , i t was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by the o f f i c i a l s : the qu e s t i o n t h a t remains to be answered i s : when w i l l a c t i o n take pl a c e ? For the respondents of the present study i t was very c l e a r t h a t to know and speak the E n g l i s h language w e l l i s an important key toward communication with o t h e r s , g e t t i n g a job, g e t t i n g more educati o n , u s i n g the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e through s o c i e t y , p a r t i c i p a t i n g to the Canadian l i f e . The Report " E q u a l i t y Now" s t a t e s t h a t : " giv e n the language i s the key to success f o r refugees and immigrants i n t h e i r new country, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t they are given adequate language t r a i n i n g upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Canada". A 1983 document s t a t e s t h a t : " E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g (ELT), i s a p r i o r i t y f o r a l l immigrants i n order f o r them to a d j u s t to l i f e and work i n Vancouver." 2 The Jewish Family S e r v i c e s Agency i n Vancouver conducted a study i n 1984 onf the r e s e t t l e m e n t experiences of Russian Jewish immigrants. From the 152 i n t e r v i e w e d who were asked to o f f e r s u ggestions f o r new immigrants, the most frequent advice was: l e a r n E n g l i s h ! C. Employment 1. For a l l 18 s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d , employment was a major concern. To have a job, to work on something, to have an o c c u p a t i o n , to do something was viewed as being more d e s i r a b l e than be on welfare or unemployed. "I am v e r y f o r t u n a t e to work, and content t h a t I am not a burden f o r the government, with another welfare check .. but not s a t i s f i e d , because I do not have a job t h a t w i l l g ive me p r o f e s s i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . " " I f I am working myself i t i s good not o n l y f o r me, but f o r the s o c i e t y too, I do not agree with people which are s a y i n g t h a t one can go on r e t i r e m e n t without -"-working a day i n Canada." "I have a demanding job, but i t i s good because i t g i v e s me e x t r a money, and I f e e l u s e f u l , too. My wife and my son w i l l f i n d a born a g a i n man when they w i l l come here." "I can h a r d l y wait to do something u s e f u l f o r t h i s country, to work, to c o n t r i b u t e . . . T h i s w i l l be my thanks to t h i s c o untry t h a t so n i c e l y adopted me." 80 "For both of us i s v e r y important to do something, so we go to S a i n t Paul's H o s p i t a l and do v o l u n t e e r jobs t h e r e . We f e e l pleased to help other people." "I am e n e r g e t i c , t r u s t f u l and o p t i m i s t i c because I got a j o b . " A l l the above q u o t a t i o n s are c o n f i r m i n g t h a t work i s a high v a l u e , and i s d e f i n e d i n concrete terms: i t i s a way to f i n a n c i a l success, i t i s a way to grow and develop with t h i s country, i t i s a way to c o n t r i b u t e , i t i s a n e c e s s i t y f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t . 2. What was a l s o found as a gap, was the d i s c r e p a n c y between the high e x p e c t a t i o n s of immigrants and the r e a l i t y of the Canadian job market which continues to exclude m i n o r i t i e s on the b a s i s of t h e i r lack of Canadian experience, accent, c o l o u r , and i n a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h Canadian equivalence i n t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e . The g r e a t e r the e x p e c t a t i o n s , the g r e a t e r are the f r u s t r a t i o n s . The p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s of g e t t i n g a job i n t h i s p r ovince m u l t i p l y the f r u s t r a t i o n s of newly a r r i v e d immigrants. "Maybe f o r the next g e n e r a t i o n s the t h i n g s w i l l change... Why can't we work i n our p r o f e s s i o n here i n Canada, as other Canadians go and work i n other c o u n t r i e s ? Why the s o c i e t y wants to l o s e ? Why should we get f r u s t r a t e d and angry? ... T h i s does not do anybody any good..." "Far r e a c h i n g and powerful l e g i s l a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d to address the r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n present i n Canadian s o c i e t y " (Henry & Ginsberg, 1985). 81 3. A major concern expressed by the s u b j e c t s was the e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r f o r e i g n c r e d e n t i a l s , i n order to work i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . The s i t u a t i o n , at the time of the study was as presented i n t a b l e 6. Table 6: Sample Interviewed by Employment In Country of O r i g i n and i n Canada Employment i n country of o r i g i n Employment i n Canada 1. teacher 1. unemployed 2. engineer 2. b u i l d i n g manager 3. naval engineer 3. s h i p superintendent 4. engineer 4 . v a l e t 5. accountant 5. p a r k i n g attendant 6. teacher 6. youth worker 7. economist 7. t y p e s e t t e r 8. accountant 8. unemployed 9. c l e r k 9. unemployed 10. c l e r k 10. unemployed 11. c l e r k 11. unemployed 12. farmer 12. unemployed 13. engineer 13. unemployed 14. engineer 14. unemployed 15. doctor 15. unemployed 16. economist 16. unemployed 17. c l e r k 17. unemployed 18 . mechanical t e c h n i c i a n 18. unemployed 4. Those who s t a r t e d jobs completely u n r e l a t e d with t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , while a c c e p t i n g t h a t as a p a r t of a s t a t u s passage, manifested a high l e v e l of a n x i e t y and d e s i r e to work i n t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n as soon as p o s s i b l e . "I am e x p e c t i n g an answer from the U n i v e r s i t y of Ottawa, where I a p p l i e d f o r a job. A l s o beside my job, I am t a k i n g a course i n s p e c i a l r e l a t i v i t y , by correspondence, with the U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo, which-I w i l l f i n i s h i n May. I enjoy being a c t i v e and busy t h a t i s why I don't mind f o r a while to be a v a l e t " . 5. The concern of g e t t i n g i n t o p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of engineers, d o c t o r s , accountants and teachers was expressed by a l l immigrants i n a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l sample. Besides w i t h i n t h i s sample the group of p r o f e s s i o n a l women (3 = 15%) were f e a r i n g major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t o g e t t i n g r e g i s t e r e d with t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n s , worried about unemployment or underemployment. The same concern of g e t t i n g e v a l u a t i o n s and c r e d e n t i a l s was expressed i n the Report " E q u a l i t y Now": " e v a l u a t i o n of f o r e i g n c r e d e n t i a l s i s such t h a t m i n o r i t y groups are prevented from being l i c e n c e d or from r e c e i v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h e i r c r e d e n t i a l s . " 3 The Report r e c o g n i z e s the need f o r f o r e i g n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to be examined, and of a compiled up to date l i s t of a c c r e d i t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s . To conclude: many immigrants on t h e i r a r r i v a l have accepted or are w i l l i n g to accept a lower p o s i t i o n as w e l l as the l e a s t favoured areas vacated by those who are s u c c e s s f u l l y pursuing t h e i r jobs. However, t h i s i s not to say th a t i t i s a permanent acceptance of a lower s t a t u s , and, i n f a c t , t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s and i n d u s t r y to endure some hardship i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to e s t a b l i s h themselves s o c i a l l y and econ o m i c a l l y , i s a p o t e n t i a l f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l degree of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . The p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s of scarce employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, leave the immigrant with very l i t t l e b a r g a i n i n g power, and a l s o i s c o n f r o n t i n g him/her with the b e l i e f s of some people t h a t immigrant should not share the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s r e c e i v e d by those "born i n Canada". The immigrant c o u l d then, be f i r m l y trapped i n a s i t u a t i o n from which i s hard to escape because he/she i s barred from s u p e r i o r employment, and has few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement. I n i t i a l l y , they come with high e x p e c t a t i o n s and then they have to r e a d j u s t t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The process of growing e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l come back agai n i n a few years a f t e r s ettlement i n t h i s country, when they w i l l l e a r n about t h e i r c i v i l r i g h t s , s o c i a l and economic b e n e f i t s , as w e l l as r e s p e c t f o r their-own t r a d i t i o n s , n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c u l t u r e : "equal o p p o r t u n i t y accompanied by c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i n a atmosphere of mutual t o l e r a n c e " . Economic growth and a r e d u c t i o n i n unemployment r a t e s w i l l c r e a t e a sense of c onfidence and optimism f o r the f u t u r e , together with a f i r m b e l i e f t h a t Canada prov i d e s e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l w i t h i n the framework of i t s b i l i n g u a l and m u l t i c u l t u r a l system. D. F i n a n c i a l D i f f i c u l t i e s The i n t e r v i e w e d s u b j e c t s i n the study d i d express t h e i r concern about f i n a n c i a l problems to the extent t h a t f i n a n c e s were needed f o r educat i o n , t h e i r own s e c u r i t y , even s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s abroad. The need f o r immediate c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r , food, s t r i c t l y necessary f u r n i t u r e was r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e d through government a s s i s t a n c e . Most of the immigrants inter v i e w e d expected some f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a t the beginning of t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t . The s u b j e c t s who were working manifested t h e i r concerns o f : being underpaid, paying too l a r g e sums f o r housing and a l s o the f a c t t h a t they need some savings f o r the f a r e s f o r some members of the f a m i l i e s l e f t behind (spouses, c h i l d r e n or other members of the extended f a m i l y ) . "We expect t h a t w i t h i n few months, our sons and daughter w i l l have t h e i r p a s s p o r t s , so we need about $3000, f o r t h e i r a i r f a r e . That i s why we are working so hard now... look at our hands ..." "I have a sugg e s t i o n f o r the o f f i c i a l s , and t h a t i s : the immigration o f f i c e to have h i s own stock of housing f o r the immigrants. I mean, to o f f e r a t good p r i c e s , a f f o r d a b l e housing c o n d i t i o n s , f o r the newly a r r i v e d immigrants, a t l e a s t f o r the f i r s t year a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l . That w i l l be a b i g f i n a n c i a l help, p a r t i c u l a r l y because when we are coming from o u t s i d e the country we don't know the p r i c e s , c o n t r a c t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . . . We pay now $450 j u s t bedroom, and we have 2 c h i l d r e n . " and f o r the one F i n a n c i a l help i s needed f o r order to get back i n t o h i s prof c r e d i t s from an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i r e g i s t e r with h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l c r e d e n t i a l s , e t c . the p r o f e s s i o n a l immigrant, i n e s s i o n , to get the necessary t u t i o n from the host country, to a s s o c i a t i o n , to get h i s o l d "I would l i k e to get back to study, and get r e c o g n i t i o n f o r my p r o f e s s i o n , but i s very d i f f i c u l t : I cannot a f f o r d to pay f o r the courses a t the u n i v e r s i t y , and I f e e l trapped because I don't know what to do." Most of the immigrants were anxious to save money to e s t a b l i s h themselves s e c u r e l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y those who do not have any r e l a t i v e s , or c l o s e f r i e n d s i n Canada. "Sometimes, I thin k t h a t i f something bad w i l l happen to me or to my wife, our c h i l d r e n ... We have nobody here, and t h a t i s hard and s c a r i n g . . . We were t h i n k i n g a t l e a s t to get a l i f e i n s u r a n c e . . . " Some people manifested the d e s i r e to e s t a b l i s h themselves as any other Canadian f a m i l y , which meant to them to have a house, to have a c a r , and the p o s s i b i l i t y to t r a v e l . "We are doing q u i t e w e l l f o r the beginning because I have a j o b . . . We are going to save some money so th a t we can have our c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g i n our own ya r d . . " While the working immigrants, from the present study, were working hard, i n the sense t h a t they were a c c e p t i n g long working hours, g e t t i n g low pay, doing jobs u n r e l a t e d with t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , they were a l s o aware t h a t there are some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r themselves and f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . For themselves, s i n c e they c o u l d be trapped In a no e x i t s i t u a t i o n , and because the communication p a t t e r n i n the f a m i l y Is broken, beside t h e i r own f r u s t r a t i o n of not being a b l e to help the c h i l d r e n with t h e i r homework or to p a r t i c i p a t e i n few other f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l immigrant caught up i n such a s i t u a t i o n i s s u s c e p t i b l e to even more p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s i f the s i t u a t i o n shows l i t t l e change, to any e x t e n t . "We d i d accept the idea t h a t a t the beginning we w i l l do a nything f o r money but i t i s hard on us and we keep hoping to go back to our p r o f e s s i o n s one day." "When I s t a r t e d to work as a v a l e t , I accepted, convinced that I w i l l not l e t t h a t to go on f o r a long time...but then you see the t h i n g s i n t h i s p rovince are not very encouraging.... I am w i l l i n g to move because I don't want to give up..." E. Edu c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n was d i f f e r e n t l y valued i n the immigrant sample. 1. In the European sample (8 s u b j e c t s = 44%), the value of, e d u c a t i o n was v e r y h i g h : e d u c a t i o n was-presented as a sure route to success, p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , f u l f i l l m e n t . " I t i s v e r y important f o r me to b e l i e v e t h a t , one day I w i l l be again what I was b e f o r e : a respected engineer." "I spent c o u n t l e s s but not worthless hours on my c h a i r t h i s year s t u d y i n g to a q u i r e my f i r s t c l a s s engineer r e c o g n i t i o n . " A l s o viewed as the process to i n s u r e work s e c u r i t y , a c o n f o r t a b l e standard of l i v i n g , a guarantee to s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , e d u c a t i o n i s very important f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n too. Great e x p e c t a t i o n s were expressed by the parents f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . While the parents were aware t h a t , f o r the beginning t h e i r c h i l d r e n need some time f o r the adjustment to the new s o c i e t y , most of them wanted t h e i r c h i l d r e n to pursue a p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r . To assure a higher education f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , great s a c r i f i c e s were admitted to be v o l u n t a r i l y made by the parents. Most of those parents were p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y ready to h e a v i l y i n v e s t i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n , whether i t w i l l be f i n a n c i a l , moral or emotional support. For the time being, they were h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n doing t h e i r homework, r e i n f o r c i n g f e e l i n g s of mastery i n a l l concerns. "I don't mind washing the f l o o r s , i f t h a t w i l l be the o n l y job I w i l l f i n d , so that my son can a f f o r d to go to u n i v e r s i t y . " "As long as she w i l l be s t u d y i n g , she w i l l always have a l l kinds of support from us." 2. The sample from A s i a and A f r i c a , manifested r e s p e c t and i n t e r e s t f o r higher e d u c a t i o n . For the ones t h a t a l r e a d y had obtained t h e i r degrees i n t h e i r c o u n t r i e s , the major problem was to o b t a i n t h e i r e q u i v a l e n c e s . The ideea of f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r s t u d i e s f o r g e t t i n g the necessary c r e d e n t i a l s was accepted as a necessary s t e p . "I cannot study now, because I have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the f a m i l y , but I am going to do that a t some time i n the f u t u r e . " "When I l e f t f o r Canada, I had i n mind t h a t I have to complete my education...I am very young, and there i s a l o t of time f o r doing t h a t . " "I am l o o k i n g toward going back to s c h o o l : I need more confi d e n c e i n myself." The d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n was v e r y much i n those immigrants' minds: whether t h a t meant high s c h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y , or p o s t - u n i v e r s i t y . 3. More present o r i e n t e d , and l e s s long terra commited to any p r e c i s e engagement f o r f u r t h e r education, were people from C e n t r a l America sample. Education was admitted as having i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , but the commitment, as mentioned, was v e r b a l l y not v e ry s t r o n g l y expressed. A l s o to be noted, i s th a t a l l s u b j e c t s agreed t h a t higher edu c a t i o n i s a guarantee f o r success and has to be p u b l i c l y aknowledged and p r a i s e d : " J . i s a h i g h l y educated person and she has to succeed." "I have to be s u c c e s s f u l . . . I have so many years of educati o n , somebody i s got to value t h a t . " "My e t h n i c community w i l l a l s o be proud of me, not onl y myself and my f a m i l y . " 4. Concerns were a l s o expressed by the s u b j e c t s f o r the very s p e c i a l problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , suplementary education, t r a n i n i n g or r e t r a i n i n g , or even r e - e d u c a t i o n (some reviewed i n paragraph C ). F. Disagreements and D i s l i k e s of Canadian S o c i e t y Respondents made comments on a range of matters r e l a t e d to the Canadian s o c i e t y i n c l u d i n g items such as ways of s o l v i n g problems, m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , manners and so on. The f o l l o w i n g i s a sample of the comments made: "I don't agree with the way of how Canada d e a l s with is s u e s such as: peace movement, m i s s i l e t e s t s . . . I b e l i e v e that people here have to be more c a r e f u l with i s s u e s l i k e these, and to put under r e a l s c r u t i n y "the good w i l l " of the So v i e t Union". "How I wish I could expressed myself and t e l l to t h a t person at the I.R.C. which gave me such a rough time, t h a t I f e l t 88 f r u s t r a t e d because she t r e a t e d me as an i m b e c i l e . . . " "My concern i s t h a t : i f t h i s s o c i e t y i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y and education has to r e f l e c t the m u l t i c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e , how can we see t h a t as being not o n l y a n i c e word but a r e a l i t y ? " "I wish the youngsters to be more p o l i t e and c u r t e o u s . . . I am a mother, and I am proud of my son when he o f f e r s a seat to an e l d e r l y i n the bus, or when he s a l u t e s p o l i t e l y ..." "I would l i k e t h a t my k i d s w i l l see more e d u c a t i o n a l s t a f f , and l e s s b e l i g e r a n t movies, cartoons, t o y s , e t c . . " "Before I came, I thought t h a t women have the same o p p o r t u n i t i e s l i k e men, but now I can t e l l t h a t they are d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n many cir c u m s t a n c e s . . " "I d i d not see i n the p o s i t i o n of power r e p r e s e n t a n t s of a l l the n a t i o n a l i t i e s and the groups t h a t l i v e i n Canada..." Rel a t e d to the l a s t paragraph, to be noted i s t h a t , Fernando and Prasad (1986), sugested t h a t : "Although the F e d e r a l Government i n 1981 had agreed i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t the e r a d i c a t i o n of r a c i s m was a p r i o r i t y i s s u e , the continued absence of the non-White m i n o r i t y groups, i n d e c i s i o n making p o s i t i o n s , i n both the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , seems to suggest an u p - h i l l b a t t l e on the q u e s t i o n of e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y . " 4 G. F e e l i n g s toward L i v i n g i n a M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y Through i n t e r v i e w s a g e n e r a l understanding was obtained about of how immigrants f e e l toward l i v i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y ; t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward other e t h n i c groups, and how they p e r c e i v e the a t t i t u d e s of dominant s o c i e t y toward them. 89 1. F e e l i n g s toward l i v i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y : Most of the respondents expressed a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward t h i s model of r e l a t i o n s between e t h n i c groups, and government p o l i c y . "I l i k e the f a c t t h a t I have the chance to see people from a l l around the world i n h e r e . . . i t i s tempting t o t e s t food from d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s , to have f r i e n d s from a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s , to see d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c c u l t u r a l events. I t i s n i c e t h a t we have the p o s s i b i l i t y to know the world, because the world i s here, i n Vancouver." " C e r t a i n l y sounds e x c i t i n g to l i v e i n a country with so many n a t i o n a l i t i e s and c o l o u r s , and I hope i t w i l l always be harmony here..." "I l i k e to b e l i e v e t h a t we a l l are t r e a t e d as equal....and s u r e l y l o o k i n g t r u s t f u l and hopeful to the f u t u r e of t h i s marvellous land with a l l the na t i o n s gathered t o g e t h e r . . . t h i s i s g r e a t . " "We l i k e the m u l t i c u l t u r a l context, we l i k e the d i v e r s i t y and have p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s toward t h i s c o u ntry." Few s u b j e c t s which represented the concern that they do not l a r g e r communities, or t h a t they s o c i e t y a t l a r g e and lo s e t h e i r language). smal l communities manifested have the same p r i v i l e g e s as the would be a s s i m i l a t e d by the h e r i t a g e (customs, t r a d i t i o n s , "As an e t h n i c group we do not have a community cen t e r , a church , and I am not sure about the f u t u r e . We need f i n a n c i a l support to s t a r t with something: a c u l t u r a l c e n t e r , a c l u b . . . " " I f we, as a small community cannot r i s e our v o i c e , i f we do not have any f r i e n d s , we have no power..." 90 "I f e e l t h a t the a c t u a l p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m o f f e r s a good working c l i m a t e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to be here. My concern i s what i s going to happen with the s m a l l communities? Are they going to be swallowed/ a n i h i l a t e d by the l a r g e ones? A l s o I have a disappointment and I w i l l e x p l a i n : because I chose Canada as my adoptive country, when I came here I wanted to i d e n t i f y with the " t y p i c a l Canadian", and f e e l Canadian as a way to express my attachment with the new country. My disappointment came from the f a c t t h a t I r e a l i z e d t h a t 'the t y p i c a l Canadian' wants to keep me at some d i s t a n c e ... i t i s f r u s t r a t i n g . . . " 2. Regarding how they p e r c e i v e the a t t i t u d e s of Canadians toward them, the s u b j e c t s expressed d i f f e r e n t views: (more p r e c i s e l y how do they f e e l themselves, i f they can r e p o r t any i n c i d e n t s of rac i s m or how do they p e r c e i v e the a t t i t u d e of Canadians toward other groups of immigrants). These views were: Part of the s u b j e c t s (8 = 44%), d i d not f e e l t h a t they were o v e r t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . Others expressed the r e a l i t y of a very busy l i f e f o r the beginning, e s p e c i a l l y with b a s i c needs, and they s a i d t h a t they d i d n ' t r e a l l y t h i n k about i t (10 = 55%). Few s u b j e c t s (5 = 26%) expressed t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of few i n c i d e n t s of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y elements, f o r example: a s u s p i c i o u s look of a s e c r e t a r y , an awkward treatment i n an o f f i c e , a r e f u s a l of b eing accepted to l i v e i n a b u i l d i n g . Some others mentioned that they, may be, d i d not yet understand enough the c u l t u r e and i t s s u b t l e t i e s adequately (9 = 49%). L a s t l y , few s u b j e c t s (2 = 11%) gave the re s e a r c h e r few i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t they thought r e p r e s e n t the r e a l i t y of Canadian a t t i t u d e toward immigrants. One remark: a l l the responses d i d not re p r e s e n t c a r e f u l l y chosen answers, but spontaneous t h i n k i n g . It was beyond the scope of t h i s study to evaluate i n any way the b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n of immigrants i n making Canadian - born f r i e n d s . What i s to be noted i s t h a t the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e of immigrants toward Canadians was f r i e n d l y , open, and t o l e r a n t of d i f f e r e n c e s . I t would be an i n t e r e s t i n g r e s e a r c h t o p i c , as w e l l as the one on the a t t i t u d e of Canadians i n making immigrants f r i e n d s . For example, f i n d i n g s by Jones & Lambert, (1965), and Berry et a l l (1977), showed t h a t , while Canadians p r e f e r r e d h i g h l y educated and s k i l l e d immigrants f o r admission to t h i s country, they are r e l u c t a n t to use t h e i r s e r v i c e s , once these immigrants a r r i v e d here. T h i s ambivalence among Canadians, may w e l l cause c o n s i d e r a b l e hardship f o r high s t a t u s immigrants. Comments: D i s c r i m i n a t i o n has proven c o s t l y to s o c i e t y , because i t k i l l s m o t i v a t i o n , i t c r e a t e s a l i e n a t i o n and apathy and i t breeds t e n s i o n and un r e s t . Canadians have the p o t e n t i a l to avoid t e n s i o n and c o n f l i c t and to cr e a t e a s o c i e t y i n which a l l e t h n i c groups can achieve much g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the country. What i s r e q u i r e d , i s a massive moral and p o l i t i c a l commitment on the pa r t of the government, labour, e d u c a t i o n a l system, b u s s i n e s s , j u s t i c e system, human r i g h t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , dominant or m i n o r i t a r y communities, i n order to have a s o c i e t y e q u i t a b l e f o r people of a l l r a c e s . "Canada i s f a r from an e q u a l i t a r i a n mosaic... The j u s t s o c i e t y remains a Canadian dream; however Canadian m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m can become the means by which the anomalies of t h i s s o c i e t y can be c o r r e c t e d " (Samuda, R., 1985). I n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m and s t e r e o t y p i n g e x i s t i n Canada, and i n r e l a t i o n to t h a t " E q u a l i t y Now " s t a t e s the f o l l o w i n g : "Research has shown t h a t as many as 15% of the p o p u l a t i o n e x i b i t b l a t a n t l y r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s , while another 20-25% have some r a c i s t t e n d e n c i e s . . . S i m i l a r l y i n s t i t u t i o n s can u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y r e s t r i c t the l i f e chances of non-White i n d i v i d u a l s through a v a r i e t y of seemingly n e u t r a l r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , and procedures." 5 Educators, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and d e c i s i o n makers have to recognize such f i n d i n g s before they can develop an e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l process to engender harmonious race r e l a t i o n s , f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r Canadians of a l l backgrounds. H. The Immigrant Family Within the s t u d i e d sample, out of 18 s u b j e c t s , 13 were members of f a m i l i e s ; and from the 13 s u b j e c t s , 10 were p a r t i c i p a t i n g as couples i n the study. The other 5 were s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s . Each f a m i l y represented f o r the res e a r c h e r a s m a l l c u l t u r e . Each f a m i l y had something unique, s p e c i f i c . F a m i l i e s d i f f e r e d i n the foods t h a t the members of f a m i l y were e a t i n g , i n p a t t e r n s of communication with the o u t s i d e r , p a t t e r n s of communication between members of the f a m i l y . Some were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by cl o s e n e s s among i t s members; i n others, members found t h e i r own ways. In some f a m i l i e s , a f f e c t i o n and emotions were shared to g e t h e r , i n ot h e r s , the atmosphere was c o o l . Each f a m i l y had i t s own v a l u e s , i t s own understanding about what i s r i g h t or wrong, and q u i t e o f t e n members of the same f a m i l y held s i m i l a r b e l i e f s and v a l u e s . For example, r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r b e l i e f s , w o r r i e s , concerns, were found i n a few f a m i l i e s : P o l i s h f a m i l y s h a r i n g s i m i l a r p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s , I r a n i a n f a m i l y concern about f i n a n c e s , a Romanian f a m i l y concerned about h e a l t h and educat i o n . The amazing f a c t was to f i n d out t h a t about a l l the f a m i l i e s i n the study, while q u i t e new i n the country, were a l r e a d y aware about the values t h a t are predominant i n the Canadian c u l t u r e : i n d i v i d u a l i s m , independence, autonomy, ownership of m a t e r i a l goods, achievememt, mastery, progress, f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n , e f f i c i e n c y and p l a n n i n g . C u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s of the f a m i l y which i n c l u d e c u l t u r a l l y determined b e l i e f systems, developmental norms and f a m i l y r o l e s and r u l e s were d i f f e r e n t , too. As a small example of d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n i n t e r a c t i o n between the f a m i l y and an o u t s i d e r , d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s t h a t a r e s e a r c h e r performed, the f o l l o w i n g was noted: i n an I r a n i a n f a m i l y , one c h i l d s a t on the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s l a p , and the couple was f r i e n d l y ; i n a P o l i s h f a m i l y , the g i r l was kept i n another room d u r i n g the time of i n t e r v i e w , and the couple was q u i t e formal; i n a S a l v a d o r i a n f a m i l y , the c h i l d w i l l wander around- and p l a y without being too c l o s e l y observed. These f a m i l i e s had d i f f e r e n t boundaries, some were q u i t e f l e x i b l e , some more r i g i d . For example, some accepted a b a b y s i t t e r q u i t e e a s i l y ; others were d i s t r u s t f u l of s t r a n g e r s and r e l u c t a n t to leave t h e i r c h i l d r e n with a s t r a n g e r ; they p r e f e r r e d a b a b y s i t t e r from w i t h i n t h e i r own e t h n i c group ( P o l i s h , Cambodian). What was s i m i l a r to those f a m i l i e s was c e r t a i n l y the c u l t u r a l r e l o c a t i o n . To come to an u n f a m i l i a r p l a c e i s probably hard f o r anyone, and f e e l i n g s of l o s s , f e a r , and i s o l a t i o n c o u l d become very acute. There was a great d e a l of u n c e r t a i n t y , ambiguity and f r u s t r a t i o n about the time when f a m i l y w i l l be r e u n i t e d . For example, most immigrants coming from Communist c o u n t r i e s were v e r y worried about the f a m i l y l e f t behind, knowing t h a t great p e r s e c u t i o n s and m i s e r i e s were done or c o u l d be done to t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r country of o r i g i n , as a r e s u l t of t h e i r a c t i o n to leave the country. A n x i e t y and worries were m u l t i p l i e d when c h i l d r e n were l e f t behind. "By now i s more than 2 years s i n c e I d i d n ' t see my c h i l d r e n . . . i t i s a nightmare... sometimes I lose any hope, sometimes I am more o p t i m i s t i c . Often I awake i n the middle of the n i g h t and c r y . . . i t i s a t e r r i b l e e xperience, i t i s c r u e l , dure..." In few f a m i l i e s there was p o t e n t i a l f o r r o l e i d e n t i t y changes as a r e s u l t of the f a c t t h a t i n those f a m i l i e s , women manifested the d e s i r e of being i n c l u d e d i n the labour f o r c e (one I r a n i a n , one Cambodian and one S a l v a d o r i a n ) . "In my c u l t u r e , the husband has a s t r o n g r o l e i n the f a m i l y . The wife's r o l e i s mostly to take care of the c h i l d r e n and of the house. Now I would l i k e to get a job, and I am a f r a i d t h a t i t c o u l d c r e a t e some problems...! d i s c u s s e d about g e t t i n g a 94 job with my husband, and he seems not to have anything a g a i n s t my d e s i r e , but I am a l i t t l e concerned about t h a t . " D y s f u n c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n s are i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s r e f l e c t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes t h a t i n i t i a l l y help to accomplish the immigrant's o b j e c t i v e s , but e v e n t u a l l y become r i g i d and hamper some aspects of the f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . Normal developmental s t r e s s e s can be i n t e n s i f i e d or developmental t r a n s i t i o n s can become more probl e m a t i c when the f a m i l y must be organized to adapt to a new environment. Knowledge of the c u l t u r a l i d e a l s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the f a m i l y ' s development, and o r g a n i z a t i o n and awareness about the changes intr o d u c e d by the process of immigration and a c c u l t u r a t i o n can provide c r u c i a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r a s s e s s i n g and i n t e r v e n i n g i n f a m i l y therapy. The task of b u i l d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l model of f a m i l y therapy t a k i n g i n t o account c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n can be f a c i l i t a t e d by s h a r i n g the e m p i r i c a l knowledge gathered by p r a c t i t i o n e r s . I. S a t i s f a c t i o n with L i f e i n Canada The r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s t h a t came under t h i s g e n e r a l heading r e f e r to f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o : 1. F e e l i n g s toward l i v i n g i n Canada 2. F e e l i n g s about having a host 3. And f e e l i n g s of s e l f - e s t e e m , (peace with themselves). 1. Out of the 18 s u b j e c t s , 10 of them (55%) expressed a high degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r being i n Canada. "I f e e l b e t t e r here than at home; I f e e l b e t t e r because I am f r e e , I can f r e e l y pass from my experience to o t h e r s . . . I l i k e the smile of people... even here i s not the p a r a d i s e , at l e a s t you have freedom." "This i s my home now, and I am happy because my l i f e i s calm and p e a c e f u l ; I do not have to worry about g e t t i n g out of the house and th a t some f a n a t i c people or r e v o l u t i o n a r y guards c o u l d a r r e s t or t o r t u r e me...I can go to see downtown l a t e at nig h t i f I wish...you know, i n my country, my town was a ghosttown a f t e r 7 p.m. I am ve r y t h a n k f u l to a l l the people that I met here, s t a r t i n g with the f r i e n d l y people at the a i r p o r t , and then at the I.R.C. and I.S.S. I have a s p e c i a l thanks to Mr.Gordon P. f o r h i s help and guidance." " I t was a d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n f o r me to leave my country, but I do not r e g r e t i t . I f e e l b e t t e r here and more secure about the f u t u r e . I l i k e to know th a t i t i s saf e to walk on the s t r e e t and t h a t I can't be f o r c e d to do the m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . I a p p r e c i a t e t h a t Canadians are honest, r e s p c t f u l and p o l i t e . " "We thought t h a t Canada i s more humanistic than A u s t r a l i a or USA and we wanted to come here. We don't r e g r e t t h a t . We l i k e i t here very much." "Despite the f a c t t h a t I don't have anybody here, no r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d s , when I a r r i v e d , I f e l t t h a t t h i s i s home. I would l i k e to take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to express my thanks toward the country t h a t adopted me and gave me p o l i t i c a l freedom and s e c u r i t y . " "I came here because Canada's p o l i t i c a l and economic system looked to me c l o s e to n a t u r a l and normal, f i t s b e t t e r the human nature... I have a b e t t e r l i f e than I had i n my country." "We picked on Canada because we heard t h a t here are the best o p p o r t u n i t i e s i f you are working hard...we enjoy s e e i n g people happy around us...we s t i l l f e e l l i k e being i n a v a c a t i o n . " 96 2. F e e l i n g s about Having a Host What i s the Host Program? The Host Program i s a p i l o t p r o j e c t funded by the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission (CEIC), to give government sponsored refugees support and f r i e n d s h i p d u r i n g t h e i r s ettlement i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . In Vancouver the program i s implemented through Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y . Canadian hosts are i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , groups of f r i e n d s , churches, or c l u b members who are i n t e r e s t e d i n welcoming newcomers to our communities. Hosts f a c i l i t a t e the refugee's progress toward f u n c t i o n n i n g independently i n t h e i r new community. They provide guidance, support and o r i e n t a t i o n to newly a r r i v e d i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . S t a r t e d i n s p r i n g 1985, the Host Program i s enhancing the sett l e m e n t process of government sponsored r e f u g e e s . Within the sample of 18 s u b j e c t s , 8 s u b j e c t s = 44%, were provided a host. Most of the s u b j e c t s , (6 = 75%) expressed t h e i r g r a t i t u d e and a p r e c i a t i o n of having such o p p o r t u n i t y . "Our host i s a very h e l p f u l person." "Not only t h a t she gave us so much help, but the very d e l i c a t e way i n how she d i d e v e r y t h i n g was r e a l l y i m p r e s s i v e . " "I t h i n k of my host l i k e a brother; I even got my job because he helped me t o . I t i s a n i c e experience, and unexpected one. " "For us having a host was l i k e a connec t i o n to the new world. He made our l i f e e a s i e r , because he e x p l a i n e d to us many t h i n g s t h a t were s c a r i n g to us from the b e g i n i n g . " "I dont' know too much about my host, j u s t t h a t she has a b i g h e a r t . . . " Even i f the present study d i d not attempt to amply analyze the e f f e c t s of having a host on an immigrant f a m i l y l i f e , through the i n t e r v i e w s of immigrants who had a host, a few c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. As the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d , the most r e l e v a n t e f f e c t s of having a host were: the hosts were h e l p i n g the immigrannt with f i n d i n g accomodation, enhancing the process of l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , ( p a r t i c u l a r l y because the s u b j e c t s had the chance to apply the knowledge gained from the classroom to the r e a l w orld), h e l p i n g i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the job market, shopping, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , using community s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to a l l Canadians, higher l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the community. 3. F e e l i n g s of S e l f - e s t e e m S e l f - e s t e e m or s e l f - w o r t h , (how w e l l we t h i n k of o u r s e l v e s ) i s an important f e a t u r e of the s e l f immage. A l l of us have an i d e a l s e l f image, ideas and f e e l i n g s about the s o r t of person we would l i k e to be. In the present study, a t the end of i n t e r v i e w , s u b j e c t s were provided with 2 Hudson S c a l e s : G e n e r a l i z e d Contentment Scale (GCS), and Index of S e l f Esteem (ISE) . Data a n a l y s i s of the 2 s c a l e s , as presented i n Table 7 r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g : 2 s u b j e c t s had a good c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r l e v e l of g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r l i f e , and t h e i r l e v e l of s e l f esteem: s u b j e c t s number 4 & 7 marked with a s t a r i n the t a b l e . These s u b j e c t s had about the same l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r l i f e i n Canada, and with t h e i r own performances. 2 s u b j e c t s ( number 1 & 6 ) had the h i g h e s t d i s c r e p a n c y between the 2 s c a l e s : they were g e n e r a l l y content with t h e i r l i f e , but had a low f e e l i n g about t h e i r s e l f worth. In other words, they were more s a t i s f i e d with the c u l t u r a l r e l o c a t i o n than with t h e i r p e r s o n a l performances. In the score d i f f e r e n c e s column, they were marked with a minus. 6 s u b j e c t s ( 5, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17,) were content with t h e i r l i f e now, and had a high l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m , which means at peace with themselves. In the score d i f f e r e n c e s column, they were marked with a p l u s . 98 Table 7: G e n e r a l i s e d contentment Scale and Index of Self-esteem Scores C l i e n t sample GCS score ISE score Score d i f f e r e n c e 1 32 56 24 -2 32 40 8 3 46 61 15 4 38 38 0 * 5 19 34 15 + 6 22 53 31 -7 43 43 0 * 8 38 46 8 9 39 45 6 10 24 31 7 + 11 38 44 6 12 27 35 8 + 13 33 47 14 14 40 46 6 + 15 24 36 12 16 25 32 7 + 17 15 19 4 + 18 33 44 11 Out of the sample of 18 s u b j e c t s , 9 s u b j e c t s ( 3,4,7,8,9,11,13, 14, 18) were d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r l i f e now and had a low sense of s e l f worth. What does i t t e l l us? These people are having t r o u b l e with t h e i r g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Canada, and with t h e i r l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m , and t h i s c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e i r process of adjustment, s i n c e they are unhappy and f r u s t r a t e d . High l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m means t h a t we f e e l we are e s s e n t i a l l y the s o r t of person we b a s i c a l l y want to be, we are at peace with o u r s e l v e s . Low sense of s e l f - e s t e e m , means that we are not i n good terms with o u r s e l v e s , a f e e l i n g t h a t there i s too much d i s t a n c e between the self-image and i d e a l image. As a r e s u l t , we can f e e l g u i l t y and unworthy, l a c k i n g i n s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f c o n f i d e n c e . The higher the person's i d e a l image, the g r e a t e r Is the fear of f a l l i n g s h o r t of i t . I f a sense of optimism helps to overcome d i f f i c u l t i e s , n e i t h e r e x c e s s i v e optimism, nor pessimism prepare us to meet problems r e a l i s t i c a l l y and c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . To answer the q u e s t i o n of to what extent w i l l people from the present study be f r u s t r a t e d and d i s s a t i s f i e d i s d i f f i c u l t . Maslow's answer to th a t q u e s t i o n i s t h a t i t i s the extent to which they w i l l not f u l f i l l t h e i r developmental and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs. This general answer w i l l , however, be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the r e s e a r c h e r ' s terms as f o l l o w i n g : these people w i l l be more s a t i s f i e d when they have adequate jobs using a l l t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , when they are s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r l e v e l of E n g l i s h , when t h e i r f a m i l i e s are r e u n i t e d , when they have Canadian f r i e n d s , when they do not f e e l f r u s t r a t e d and i s o l a t e d by overt or systemic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , when they w i l l have access to f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t o the Canadian l i f e . To f r u s t r a t i n g circumstances people respond with a g g r e s s i o n , whether they w i l l have a e x t r o p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e (blame the outer c o n d i t i o n s ) , i n t r o p u n i t i v e (blaming themselves), or impunitive a t t i t u d e (blaming no one). While the process of responding to f r u s t r a t i o n with a g g r e s s i o n i s common, c e r t a i n l y i t i s not u n i v e r s a l , and whether a person adopts a g g r e s s i o n or not depends upon h i s / h e r own innate temperament, upon the h a b i t s he/she has b u i l t i n handl i n g f r u s t r a t i o n , and upon h i s / h e r c u l t u r e which encourages him/ her to blame or not to blame o t h e r s . The theory t e l l s nothing concerning the pers o n a l or s o c i a l f a c t o r s t h a t make fo r e x t r o p u n i t i v e versus i n t r o p u n i t i v e responses. Nor does i t t e l l under what circumstances the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be a g g r e s s i v e toward the r e a l source of f r u s t r a t i o n or not. As mentioned e a r l i e r , a g g r e s s i o n i s not always d i s p l a c e d ; and even i f d i s p l a c e d i t does not mean th a t f r u s t r a t i o n f e e l i n g s are r e l i e v e d . What could be r e a l l y overlooked here, Is the p o s s i b i l i t y of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t (Gordon ,A., 1979). To manage the c o n f l i c t , p r o v i s i o n s f o r s o c i a l and economic e q u a l i t y have to be made, amongst the groups, and by p r o v i d i n g a l e g a l framework f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of c o n f l i c t (Cheetham, J . , 1972). 100 Part I I : THE WORKERS For the second p a r t of the study, i n order to e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n on what the m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t workers p e r c e i v e as necessary s k i l l s , knowledge, and v a l u e s , i n working with immigrants, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e with an e x p l a n a t o r y l e t t e r was handed to workers a t Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y . To complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e took between 20-30 minutes. 10 workers f i l l e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S e c t i o n I of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was meant to get a demographic p r o f i l e of the worker. S t a r t i n g from q u e s t i o n 1 to 6, a s e t of v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d to the readers as f o l l o w s : 1. gender and age. 2. experience i n working with immigrants and work experience at I. S . S . 3. job t i t l e . 4. the edu c a t i o n of workers. S e c t i o n II was intended to e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n on how the workers p e r c e i v e t h e i r c l i e n t s , t h e i r job e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e i r f e e l i n g s toward working with immigrants. The v a r i a b l e s were: 5. worker's f e e l i n g s toward t h e i r job on a 5 p o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e . 6. worker's d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r job. 7. worker's f e e l i n g s about working with people from other c u l t u r e s , on a 5 p o i n t s c a l e . 8. workers view of how they spend most of t h e i r time i n the agency. 9. how workers saw t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s to get, Informed, on a 5 p o i n t s c a l e . 10. how workers view t h e i r c l i e n t s ' behavior, on a 3 p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e . 11. workers' f e e l i n g s i n d i s c u s s i n g with t h e i r c l i e n t s about t h e i r background and c u l t u r e s on a 5 p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e . 12. few recommendations t h a t workers made toward government and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 101 S e c t i o n III was p a r t i c u l a r l y s e t out to e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r c e p t i o n s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t workers on t h e i r necessary knowledge and s k i l l s i n performing f o r / w i t h immigrants. The v a r i a b l e s were: 13. the d i s t r i b u t i o n of necessary s k i l l s i n d a i l y p r a c t i c e ; by s k i l l item, grade of importance and frequency by s k i l l s , as chosen by workers. 14. the knowledge of workers i n d a i l y p r a c t i c e s e l e c t e d as knowledge items, t h e i r importance and frequency. 15. The v a l u e s . S e c t i o n IV was mostly concerned with c u l t u r a l awareness of workers. The v a r i a b l e s were: 16. the extent to which workers had to c o n s i d e r c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r c l i e n t i n making recommendations, i n a 5 p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e . 17. the area where workers f e l t they needed more knowledge and the frequency by items. 18. the worker's f e e l i n g s of l e a r n i n g more about c u l t u r a l values and p a t t e r n s of behavior of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups i n a 5 p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e . 19. f e e l i n g s about g e t t i n g enough i n f o r m a t i o n about c l i e n t s ' c u l -t u r a l background i n a 5 p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e . Table 8: Sample of.Workers by Gender and Age Gender 20-25 26-30 31-35 41-45 51-55 t o t a l Male 1 1 0 0 1 3 Female 0 2 3 1 1 7 T o t a l 1 3 3 1 2 10 Table 9: Sample of Workers by Work Experience Worker l e n g t h of time mean l e n g t h of time mean working with working f o r immigrants I.S.S. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 6 5 7 5 1 3 3 1 13 6 5 7 1 1 2 1.2 0.3 Table 10: Sample of Workers by Job T i t l e Workers' p o s i t i o n 1 e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r 2 program d i r e c t o r 3 program c o o r d i n a t o r 4 a s s i s t a n t c o o r d i n a t o r 5 language settlement worker 6 language worker 7 community worker 8 s e c r e t a r y , adm. a s s i s t a n t 9 youth worker 10 language worker Table 11: Sample of Workers by Education E d u c a t i o n number of workers 103 1. post u n i v e r s i t y 1 2. u n i v e r s i t y 6 3. c o l l e g e 2 4. other 1 t o t a l = 10 Table 12: Workers' F e e l i n g s toward T h e i r Job F e e l i n g s number of workers 1. very p o s i t i v e 4 2. p o s i t i v e 6 3. n e u t r a l 0 4. negative 0 5. very negative 0 R e s u l t s : 60% of workers answered t h a t they f e l t p o s i t i v e about t h e i r job; 40% answered that they f e l t v e r y p o s i t i v e about t h e i r job. 104 Table 13: Workers' Job D e s c r i p t i o n F e e l i n g s workers 1. p l e a s a n t 2. rewarding 3. comfortable 4. d i f f i c u l t 5. s t r e s s f u l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V V V v v v v v v v v V V V V R e s u l t s : rewarding was the most reco g n i z e d v a r i a b l e 80% of the sample; followed by s t r e s s f u l , 30% of the sample, and d i f f i c u l t and p l e a s a n t by the 20% of the sample. Table 14: Workers' F e e l i n g s about Working with People from Other C u l t u r e s F e e l i n g s numbers of workers 1. very p o s i t i v e 8 2. p o s i t i v e 2 3. n e u t r a l 0 4. negative 0 5. very negative 0 R e s u l t s : the most favored answer was v e r y p o s i t i v e : 80%; followed by p o s i t i v e 20% . 105 Table 15: Time Spent by Workers i n Agency Time spent by workers workers 1. s e r v i c e to c l i e n t s 2. r e c o r d i n g assesments 3. c l e r i c a l work 4. r e s e a r c h , pr. develop, 5. other ( s p e c i f y ) 1 v 2 v 3 v V 5 v 6 v adm. 7 v 8 v 9 v 10 v v V R e s u l t s : the most favoured answer was n r . l d i r e c t s e r v i c e to c l i e n t s , 80%, followed by nr.3,and 4, c l e r i c a l work and r e s e a r c h program development, 20%. Table 16: Opportunity f o r Workers to get Informed About T h e i r C l i e n t s Background Opportunity workers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. none of the time 2. a l i t t l e of the time v 3. sometimes v v v v v v 4. a good p a r t of the time v 5. most of the time v v R e s u l t s : sometimes was the most chosen answer with 60%; then, most or a l l the time with 20%; and a good p a r t of the time and a l i t t l e of the time with 10%. Table 17: Workers' S a t i s f a c t i o n with C l i e n t s by B e h a v i o u r a l Items B e h a v i o u r a l item workers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6. h h m h h h 1 m h h 5. 1 h - m m m m m 1 m 4. 1 m 1 m m 1 1 m 1 m 3. m h h h h h m h m h 2. 1 m m h h 1 m m m h 1. m h m h h m m m 1 h agenda: 1 = low s a t i s f a c t i o n m = medium s a t i s f a c t i o n h = high s a t i s f a c t i o n Table 18: Workers S a t i s f a c t i o n by Items and L e v e l of S a t i s f a c t i o n S a t i s f a c t i o n workers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 High 6 1,3, 3 1,2, 3,6. - - 3 6 1,2, 5,6. 3,6. 3,6. Medium 1,3. 2,4. 1,2, 4,5. 1,5. 1,3, 1,2, 107 Table 19: Degree of Workers' S a t i s f a c t i o n by Frequency of Items Be h a v i o u r a l items s a t i s f a c t i o n high medium low 1. 3 6 1 2. 2 5 3 3. 6 4 -4. - 5 5 5. 1 6 2 6. 6 3 1 R e s u l t s : high s a t i s f a c t i o n was gi v e n by items nr.3: m o t i v a t i o n f o r h e l p , ( 6 0 % ) . nr.6: c l i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n with s e r v i c e s , ( 6 0 % ) . medium s a t i s f a c t i o n was given by items n r . l : comfort i n Interview,(60%) nr.2: a b i l i t y to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y , ( 5 0 % ) . nr.4: a b i l i t y to seek out a d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , ( 5 0 % ) . nr.5: keeping up appointment time, (60%). low s a t i s f a c t i o n was given by item nr.4 : a b i l i t y to seek out a d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , ( 5 0 % ) . Table 20: Workers' F e e l i n g s Toward D i s c u s s i n g with T h e i r C l i e n t s about T h e i r Background and C u l t u r e Workers' f e e l i n g s workers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. v e r y comfortable v v 2. comfortable v v v v v v v 3. somewhat comfortable v 4. uncomfortable 5. v e r y uncomfortable 10 R e s u l t s : the general f e e l i n g s of workers i n d i s c u s s i n g with t h e i r c l i e n t s about t h e i r background were answer nr.2: comfortable, (70%). Table 21: Workers Recommendations: 1. Toward government: f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments to provide core funding to s o c i a l a gencies. 2. Toward agency: a c c e p t a b l e remuneration b e n e f i t s ; more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t a f f meetings; p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s ; the o r g a n i z a t i o n should be more c l i e n t o r i e n t e d ; and on going t r a i n i n g f o r s t a f f on r e l e v a n t i s s u e s . 3. Toward c l i e n t s : b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c l i e n t s to l e a r n E n g l i s h , more f i n a n c i a l help f o r a t t e n d i n g those c l a s s e s ( f o r example bus f a r e to be p r o v i d e d ) . 109 Table 22: The Necessary S k i l l s i n D a i l y P r a c t i c e f o r the M u l t i c u l t u r a l / S e t t l e m e n t Workers, as Chosen by Workers i n a 5 P o i n t S c a l e : S k i l l s workers 10 Very 1,2, 1,6. 1. 1,8. 1,11. 1,3. 1,2. 1,4, 1,4, 4, imp. 3,4, 11. 11. 5, 6,12. 11. Imp. 8,9, 2,4. 2,5, 2,3, 2. 2,5. 5,6, 5,6, 5,6. 3,6, 10, 6,11, 12. 11, 12. 7,9, 11. 12. 12. 10, 12. R e l . - - 3,4, 4,6, 6,10. 6. 3,4, 8,9, 3,7, imp. 8, 9,10. 9,10. 10. 8, 10 . Unimp. - - - - - - - 7. 2,9. -T o t a l l y - - - - 7,8 unimp. 110 Table 23: Frequency of Items i n T h e i r Importance Order Item v e r y r e l a t i v e l y t o t a l l y important important important unimportant unimportant 1. 10 - - - -2. 1 5 - 1 -3. 1 2 3 - -4. 4 1 3 - -5. 2 4 - - -6. 2 5 2 - -7. - 1 1 1 1 8. 2 1 2 - 2 9 . - 2 3 1 -10. - 2 5 - -11. 4 2 - - -12. 1 4 - - -R e s u l t s : • - v ery important s k i l l was r e c o g n i z e d as Item nr. 1 l i s t e n i n g to others with understanding and purpose (100%). - important s k i l l s were admitted as being : Item nr.2: e l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and assembling r e l e v a n t f a c t s to prepare a s o c i a l h i s t o r y , assessment and r e p o r t , ( 5 0 % ) . Item nr.6: d i s c u s s i n g s e n s i t i v e emotional s u b j e c t s , i n - a unthreatening, s u p p o r t i v e manner, (50%). r e l a t i v e l y important s k i l l was admitted as being Item nr.10: mediating and n e g o t i a t i n g between c o n f l i c t e d p a r t i e s , (50%). I l l Table 24: Workers P e r c e p t i o n of Necessary Knowledge i n D a i l y P r a c t i c e Presented by Item Number i n a 5 P o i n t Scale Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 number Very 1/2, - 2 4,6. 2,3. 3. 2,3. 2,3, 2,3. 2, u s e f u l 3,4, 6. 3, 5,10. 4. U s e f u l 6,7, 2 1,6. 2,3, 1,6, 2. 4,6. 4,5, 6,8. 2, 8. 7 . 8 . 7,8. 3, 4. R e l . - - 3,7. 5,9. 9. 8. 1,8, 9, 1,4, 8, u s e f u l 9. 10. 7. 9. Unuseful - - 5,7. - 5, - - -10. T o t a l l y u n u s e f u l 10. 1. 112 Table 25: workers P e r c e p t i o n s o£ Necessary Knowledge by Frequency of Items Items very u s e f u l u s e f u l r e l . u s e f u l u n u s e f u l t o t . u n u s e f u l 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 1 7 7 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 6 4 4 1 1 1 2 3 5 1 R e s u l t s : - very u s e f u l knoweldge were admited Items: nr.2: community resources and s e r v i c e s , (70%). nr.3: b a s i c f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and t h e i r purpose, (70%). - u s e f u l kmowledge was admitted item nr.6: r a c i a l , ethnic,and other c u l t u r a l groups i n s o c i e t y and t h e i r v a l u e s and l i f e s t y l e , ( 6 0 % ) . - r e l a t i v e l y u s e f u l knowledge was admitted as item nr.9: b e h a v i o u r a l dynamics, (50%). Table 26: Values as Promoted by Workers 1. Honesty 2. F a i r n e s s 3. Resonableness 4. Democratic a t t i t u d e 5. C l e a r v i s i o n 6. Respect of r i g h t s 7. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 113 Table 27: C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s i n Making Recommendations to the C l i e n t Frequency workers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. none of the time. - - - - - - - - - -2. a l i t t l e of the time. - -3. sometimes. - - - v v v v - v -4. a good p a r t of the time. - - - - - - v - - v 5. most or a l l the time. - - - - - - - v - -R e s u l t s : - the most favored answer was nr. 3: sometimes c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s have to be c o n s i d e r e d i n making recommendations to the c l i e n t s (50%). 114 Table 2 8 : Areas where Workers Felt- That- More Knowledge i s Needed to Become More E f f e c t i v e ; Frequency by Items and Workers Item: 1 2 -3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 item frequency 1 - _ _ _ v _ i 2 - v v - v v v - v v 7 3 v v - - - v v - v v 6 4 v v - - - - v - v - 4 5 - v v v v - v - v v 7 6 - v - - - - v - v v 4 7 - v - - - v - - v - 3 8 _ _ _ - - _ _ _ v - 1 9 - - - - - v - - v - 2 10 - - - - - - v - v - 2 11 - - - v v - v - v v 5 1 2 - v v - - - v - v - 4 13 - v v - - v v v v v 7 R e s u l t s : the h i g h e s t valued knowledge were chosen items: nr.2 : f a m i l y dynamics (70%). nr. 5 : a s s e s s i n g emotional needs (70%). nr.13: community awareness (70%). nr.3 : a t t i t u d e s toward beaurocracy (60%). Table 29: P a r t i c i p a t i o n a t Formal/Informal D i s c u s s i o n s about C u l t u r a l Values or P a t t e r n s of Behavior of D i f f e r e n t E t h n i c Groups Frequency workers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 none of the time _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 a l i t t l e of the time _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 sometimes - - v v v v - v - -4 a good p a r t of the t l m _ v - - - - v - v v 5 most or a l l the time v _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 115 R e s u l t s : -sometimes (item 3) was s e l e c t e d by 50% of the s u b j e c t s . -a good part of the time (item 4) was s e l e c t e d by 40% of the s u b j e c t s . -most or a l l the time (item 5) was s e l e c t e d by 10% of the s u b j e c t s . Table 30: Workers' F e e l i n g s about G e t t i n g Enough Information on C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s Frequency workers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 h a r d l y ever _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 o c c a s i o n a l l y - - - - v - - - v v 3 sometimes - - v v - - v v - -4 f r e q u e n t l y v - - - - v - - - -5 almost always - v - - - - - - - -R e s u l t s : -sometimes (item 3) was s e l e c t e d by 40% of the s u b j e c t s . - o c c a s i o n a l l y (item 2) was s e l e c t e d by 30% of the s u b j e c t s . - f r e q u e n t l y (item 4) was s e l e c t e d by 20% of the s u b j e c t s . -almost always (item 5) was s e l e c t e d by 10% of the s u b j e c t s . 3. Summary of f i n d i n g s a. P a r t I The d e c i s i o n to immigrate to Canada, was mostly based on what was known about Canada from o u t s i d e : Canada as a country of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a b i g and wealthy country whose people are not 116 r a c i s t . The g e n e r a l f e e l i n g s toward the c o u n t r y of adoption were p o s i t i v e while f r u s t r a t i o n e x i s t e d , s i n c e Canada d i d not o f f e r i n p r a c t i c e e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Despite t h a t , most of the s u b j e c t s expressed t h e i r g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r welcome here, f o r the f i n a n c i a l h elp r e c e i v e d from the government; while worries about employment d i f f i c u l t i e s were acknowledged. Those who had the host o f f e r e d through I.S.S.; d e s c r i b e d themselves as being " l u c k y " or "very f o r t u n a t e . " T h e i r e x periences with the host were g r e a t l y d e s c r i b e d , and p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s were expressed toward the hosts and the s o c i e t y which o f f e r e d t h i s s e r v i c e . G r a t i t u d e and a p p r e c i a t i o n toward s e r v i c e s and workers from Immigrant Reception Center, Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y , MOSAIC; f o r r e f e r r a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , t r a i n i n g , language c l a s s e s , was expressed. The g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s l i k e l y to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r d e c i s i o n to s e t t l e permanently. The s u b j e c t s who came to Canada as p o l i t i c a l refugees tend to show a s t r o n g commitment to Canada, while , a t the same time, being a c t i v e i n t h e i r own e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s (e.g. P o l i s h , Romanian, Guatemalan, E t h i o p i a n s u b j e c t s ) . The l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d with a s t r o n g commitment to a r e f i n e d E n g l i s h and a d e s i r e to p r o f e s s i o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , d e s p i t e the i n i t i a l s e t b a c k s . The major areas of concern, i d e n t i f i e d needs and recommendations, r e l a t e d to the process of adjustment of immigrants, as presented by them, a r e : 1. In r e l a t i o n t o the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n E n g l i s h , the respondents who attended E n g l i s h c l a s s e s f e l t t h a t : - I t would be more b e n e f i c i a l to have more E n g l i s h c l a s s e s because the g r e a t number of students i n a c l a s s does not a l l o w the teacher and the students to a t t a i n high performances. - The w a i t i n g p e r i o d f o r a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s i s extremely long (2 -5 months). T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d as a waste of time and s t r e s s f u l 117 f o r the immigrant, and a f i n a n c i a l waste f o r s o c i e t y (94%). - Within the w a i t i n g i n t e r v a l f o r the E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , some kind of job accomodation program, or any c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , r e t r a i n i n g , c o u n s e l i n g or v o l u n t e e r i n g might be h e l p f u l ( o f f e r e d i n a l l languages). - The c u r r i c u l a f o r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s should r e f l e c t v a r i o u s e t h n i c c u l t u r e s and customs (18%). - The woman student should be able to have day care o p p o r t u n i t i e s provided w i t h i n the s c h o o l . . - P r o v i s i o n f o r c o u n s e l l i n g i n the language of the immigrant d u r i n g the s c h o o l p e r i o d ; whether w i t h i n the s c h o o l campus, I.S.S., I.R.C. or anywhere e l s e . - A m u l t i c u l t u r a l worker to o f f e r ad hoc a s s i s t a n c e (mostly emergencies). 2. Many s u b j e c t s expressed t h e i r concerns about the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Canada. a. Within the p r o f e s s i o n a l sample, the i d e n t i f i e d needs were: - There should be a s e c t i o n w i t h i n I.R.C. or I.S.S. t h a t should provide employment i n f o r m a t i o n , should have mandate to d e a l with e d u c a t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n c e s f o r a l l f o r e i g n t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s (88% of the p r o f e s s i o n a l sample). "This c o u l d be expensive f o r the s o c i e t y a t the present, but i t i s worth i t i n the long run." (As an immigrant s t a t e d ) . - Through the same channel mentioned above, i t should be o f f e r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y to r e t r a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l people at the working p l a c e , i f t h e i r i n i t i a l p r o f e s s i o n i s not demanded i n the market. T h i s r e t r a i n i n g or t r a i n i n g p e r i o d accepted as a p a r t of l e a r n i n g , c o u l d have the s t a t u s of a p a i d or unpaid job. - To get the p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t o h i s area of e x p e r t i s e , i n cases t h a t h i s p r o f e s s i o n i s demanded by the market, p r o v i s i o n and f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n and i t s formal and l e g a l arrangements ( i n c l u d i n g loans f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n , e q u i v a l e n c e s ) need to be put i n p l a c e . - The need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l immigrant people to get acquainted with Canadians from the same area of e x p e r t i s e . b. General suggestions from both p r o f e s s i o n a l and non-p r o f e s s i o n a l : the n e c e s s i t y of a "employment awareness" to o f f e r i n f o r m a t i o n , a s s i s t a n c e , r e f e r r a l f o r employment; t e c h n i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l language which needs to be a q u i r e d , to be a v a i l a b l e through E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . 3. For those t h a t are i n charge of M.S.S.H., a s e r v i c e and personnel should be pro v i d e d "a m u l t i c u l t u r a l worker" which w i l l be aware ofthe p a r t i c u l a r needs, c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n s of the immigrant c l i e n t s . 4. The need f o r p a r t i c u l a r programs f o r women w i t h i n the e x i s t e n t s t r u c t u r e or new ones. 5. The need f o r an i n t e r p r e t e r f o r a l l languages a t the a i r p o r t , h o s p i t a l and s c h o o l s . A c t u a l l y an "emergency l i n e " o f f e r e d i n a l l languages was suggested. 6. The need f o r a in-depth i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e o f f e r e d f o r immigrants i n a l l the languages. b. P a r t II Ten workers a t the I.S.S. responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (7 females and 3 males). Mean len g t h of time as working with immigrants was 5.3 y e a r s , and the experience of working a t I.S.S. was 4.1 y e a r s . They held d i f f e r e n t job t i t l e s ( e xecutive d i r e c t o r , language worker, community worker, youth worker, language settlement worker, program d i r e c t o r , program c o o r d i n a t o r , e t c . ) and d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n degrees (1 master i n a r t s , 6 b a c h e l o r s , 2 c o l l e g e d e g r e e s ) . T h e i r f e e l i n g s toward t h e i r jobs were p o s i t i v e (60%) or v e r y p o s i t i v e (40%). In d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r jobs, rewarding was the predominant answer (80%). Very p o s i t i v e were t h e i r f e e l i n g s (80%) about working with people from other c u l t u r e s , and d i r e c t s e r v i c e to c l i e n t s was the answer t o how they employed t h e i r time (90%). The o p p o r t u n i t y to get informed about t h e i r c l i e n t s c u l t u r a l background was seen as an average v a r i a b l e "sometimes" (60%). They f e l t comfortable i n d i s c u s s i n g with t h e i r c l i e n t s about t h e i r background and c u l t u r e (70%). They presented themselves as being h i g h l y s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r c l i e n t s ' higher m o t i v a t i o n f o r h e l p (60%) and somewhat s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r c l i e n t s ' comfort d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w (60%), a b i l i t y to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y (50%), a b i l i t y to seek out a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s (50%), and keeping appointment time (60%). The important s k i l l s as p e r c e i v e d by the m u l t i c u l t u r a l and r e s e t t l e m e n t workers were: l i s t e n i n g to others with understanding and purpose (100%), e l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n (50%), p r e p a r i n g a s o c i a l h i s t o r y assessment and r e p o r t (50%), d i s c u s s i n g s e n s i t i v e emotional s u b j e c t s i n s u p p o r t i v e manner (50%). As necessary knowledge, the workers d e f i n e d : knowledge of community resources and s e r v i c e s (70%); of b a s i c f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s programs and t h e i r purpose (70%); of r a c i a l , e t h n i c and other c u l t u r a l groups i n s o c i e t y , t h e i r v a l u e s and l i f e s t y l e s (60%). Having knowledge i n b e h a v i o r a l dynamics was d e f i n e d as r e l a t i v e l y important (50%). The areas d e f i n e d by the workers as where more knowledge was needed were: f a m i l y dynamics, a s s e s s i n g emotional needs, community awareness, a l l (70%); and a t t i t u d e s toward b u r e a u c r a c i e s (60%). They a l s o f e l t t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t they are g e t t i n g about c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s was sometimes enough (40%), o c c a s i o n a l l y enough (30%), f r e q u e n t l y (20%), or almost always enough (10%). 4. C o n c l u s i o n s As people, we are o f t e n confronted with m a t e r i a l s t i m u l i which give us a c e r t a i n b a s i s f o r an assessment of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the type " s o c i a l a b i l i t y " i n o u r s e l v e s . Our s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s are a l s o important f o r the formation of our need s t r u c t u r e . I f a t t a i n e d , p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s may lead to g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n c o n t a c t a c t i v i t i e s . F r u s t r a t i o n s i n c o n t a c t s t r i g g e r i n t r i n s i c adjustment a c t i o n s , c a u s i n g the development of s u b s t i t u t e s f o r s o c i a l needs. V a r i a b l e s such as: sex, s o c i a l background, c u l t u r a l background, age, e d u c a t i o n , would b r i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n the process of adjustment. E x p e c t a t i o n s a l s o , v a r y i n g with s o c i a l background, may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n adjustment to the new c u l t u r e and l i f e s t y l e s . Beside, every i n d i v i d u a l , as w e l l as every c u l t u r e and s u b c u l t u r e , has a s e t of b a s i c assumptions, about human l i f e , which f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n a c t i o n . For the average c i t i z e n , these assumptions are not i n t e l l e c t u a l o p i n i o n s of which he i s aware, they are components of a l a r g e r s e t of supposedly s e l f - e v i d e n t p r e p o s i t i o n s about the un i v e r s e and the world, and c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t of the a p e r c e p t i v e framework of each person's image of h i m s e l f , of others and of the world. Having i n mind a l l of the above, i t seems j u s t i f i e d to s t a t e a warning not to draw g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s from a c r o s s s e c t i o n a l study, such as the present study, about the r e l e v a n t adjustment of immigrants i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y , s t i l l i t has to be mentioned t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s are s t i m u l a t e d or hindered by the s o c i e t y and environment. The environmental context has a major r o l e i n a c r e a t i v e or n o n - c r e a t i v e adjustment of i n d i v i d u a l s . The i n d i v i d u a l who b r i n g s with h i m s e l f v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , t r a d i t i o n s and customs from h i s cou n t r y c o u l d be seen as a system which i s i n a continuum of i n t e r a c t i o n s (dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n ) with the environment. E q u a l l y important f o r the immigrant i n the process of adjustment are h i s a c t i v e e f f o r t s to i n f l u e n c e c o n d i t i o n s i n the environment. Within the process of adjustment, the immigrant i s t o r n between two c u l t u r e s , the c u l t u r e of the m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y and t h a t of the m i n o r i t y group of which the immigrant belongs t o . L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was giv e n to the simultaneous process of t h e i r detachment from the ways of m i n o r i t y group, which r e q u i r e s a l i e n a t i o n and estrangement, and adoption of the valu e s of the dominant s o c i e t y . T h i s p e r i o d i s an inner t u r m o i l and intense s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s and many immigrants c o u l d experience a s t a t e of d u a l d e s s o c l a l i z a t i o n or a l i e n a t i o n ( C r o p l e y A., 1978). A l i e n a t i o n from the o l d values may r e s u l t i n a sense of l o s s of r o l e i d e n t i t y , l o s s of purpose and s e l f - e s t e e m , a f e e l i n g of not b e l o n g i n g , g u i l t , I n t e r r u p t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n of n a t u r a l l i f e e x p e c t a t i o n s and other negative e f f e c t s . Each I n d i v i d u a l immigrant manages h i s / h e r t r a n s i t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y : some with l o g i c a l d e c i s i o n s and c l e a r t h i n k i n g , some through compromises and s e l f - d o u b t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l defense mechanisms take over: f e e l i n g s of f e a r , anger, dependency can occur. M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i s a v i a b l e concept f o r r e l a t i o n s between m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s because i t does not demand abandonment and a l i e n a t i o n of the o l d e t h n i c group ways as a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r acceptance i n t o the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . The r e t e n t i o n of e t h n i c background a c t s as a " b u f f e r mechanism" mediating the immigrant's s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the dominant c u l t u r e . The immigrant has, w i t h i n t h i s model, the p o s s i b i l i t y to get assurance and a sense of s e c u r i t y , he doesn't have to abandon h i s c u l t u r e or to accept a n y t h i n g t h a t comes h i s / h e r way i n a desperate attempt to f i n d acceptance. The focus should be upon d e v e l o p i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s t h at w i l l enable people to l i v e i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y ; i n d i v i d u a l s who w i l l be capable of t r a n s c e n d i n g the boundaries of t h e i r own e t h n i c c u l t u r e . 122 CHAPTER VI: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK 1. The Process of Adjustment: Conclusions Having the opportunity to interview immigrants and their workers proved an invaluable and deeply enriching experience. We learned together about c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s , openess, about certain ideas of expected s o c i a l roles i n Canadian society, about their d i f f i c u l t i e s and hopes. I have a great respect for the strength of these people, for t h e i r courage and a b i l i t i e s to cope and adapt to new l i f e experiences, under tremendous s t r e s s . For the immigrant, l i f e in a new country i s a continuous process of adjustment: each day he/she i s making countless adjustments, most of them apparently i n s i g n i f i c a n t , c a r r i e d out more or less automatically, with no p a r t i c u l a r thought and often without awareness. a. The Host Society For the immigrant, as for many Canadians, the process of adjustment is a two way process: the person and society are r e c i p r o c a l l y related, they are in a mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p . This i s to say that individual e f f o r t s are important, and make a difference in the process of adjustment, but also the society has i t s r o l e . It can be a 'good' or a 'bad' society. A favorable host society, f i r s t of a l l i s the one that w i l l make i t possible for each immigrant's basic needs to be met; w i l l permit, encourage and reward the movement of i t s immigrants in the d i r e c t i o n of optimum adjustment in each dimension; w i l l provide a set of b u i l t - i n reinforcements for meritorious achievement, rather than for c l a s s , race, color, and irrelevant physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The 'good* society w i l l provide many acceptable educational, s o c i a l , and occupational options for a l l immigrants; w i l l provide prestigious roles for a l l immigrants, regardless of age, race, i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l and temperament. Such a society w i l l afford opportunities and stimulation; w i l l 123 provide f o r s o c i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and p e r s o n a l betterment. To d e f i n e the degree to which every immigrant i s a d j u s t e d i s not an easy task, and q u e s t i o n s such as the f o l l o w i n g should be asked: how much i s he/she bothered or d i s t r a c t e d by the new environment; to what degree Is he/she f i g h t i n g s o c i a l circumstances i n h i s / h e r new~ l i f e c o n d i t i o n s ; i s he/she a c c e p t i n g the new s o c i e t a l norms; to what degree i s he/she s a t i s f i e d by the experience as a immigrant; to what extent i s he/she r e a l i z i n g h i s / h e r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s ? b. Adjustment C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s F a v o r i n g Immigrants There are a few p e r s o n a l dimensions, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of immigrant's age, e d u c a t i o n , sex, c u l t u r a l background, c o u l d be d e f i n e d as important i n h i s / h e r process of adjustment. Those dimensions a r e : 1. Awareness: adequate adjustment r e q u i r e s a p p r o p r i a t e s e l e c t i v i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l on what i s r e l e v a n t / i r e l e v a n t , dangerous/non dangerous, i m p o r t a n t / t r i v i a , e t c . A p p r o p r i a t e s e l e c t i v i t y and p r o c e s s i n g of the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n have an important r o l e . An e f f i c i e n t p e r c e p t i o n of the r e a l i t y , a freedom to focus on main purposes i s a q u a l i t y dimension f o r the adjustment process, and i n v o l v e s a dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n of i d e a t i o n a l , emotional and p e r c e p t u a l . 2. T o l e r a n c e : i s another dimension which i n v o l v e s the acceptance of one's s e l f and others as w e l l as acceptance of the world. The w e l l a d j u s t e d immigrant l i v e s c o m f o r t a b l y with h i m / h e r s e l f and with o t h e r s . He/she does not demand p e r f e c t i o n or m i r a c l e s , but c o n s i d e r s t h a t h i s / h e r world's s u b j e c t to adjustment. The high degree of acceptance of others and the r e a l i t i e s of human nature being i n a comfortable r e l a t i o n with the r e a l i t y . 3. Autonomy: i s another important dimension i n the process of adjustment. The non-conformity as w e l l as o v e r - c o n f o r m i t y are m a l a d j u s t i v e . Autonomy has to be tempered with s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y and s o c i a l p e r c e p t i v e n e s s ; h e a l t h y autonomy r e q u i r e s a s e l e c t i v e detachment from one's c u l t u r e . 4. P e r s o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n : the w e l l i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y 124 f u n c t i o n s as an a r t i c u l a t e d system with s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y t o i n t e r a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y with the changing demands of r e a l i t y . To ':•• be c r e a t i v e means to be f l e x i b l e , to have the c a p a c i t y to b r i n g e x i s t i n g elements from v a r y i n g contexts i n t o a new and unique r e l a t i o n s h i p with each other and to form new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . 5. S e l f - e s t e e m Dimension: a w e l l d e f i n e d , constant and s t a b l e s e l f - c o n c e p t i s an important dimension of adjustment. What a person b e l i e v e s about h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f c o n s t i t u t e s a i n t e r n a l i z e d map f o r l i v i n g (Sawrey, T e l f o r d , 1971). 6. S e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n dimension: the immigrant as any Canadian i s p e r p e t u a l l y s t r i v i n g f o r r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s / h e r p o t e n t i a l ; he/she i s a t any moment the r e s u l t of h i s / h e r new experiences and events together with h i s / h e r a q u i r e d t e n d e n c i e s . 2. Adjustment and A c c u l t u r a t i o n For the present study, from the data a c q u i r e d from the 10 workers of Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y , no c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn as to whether they were aware or not of any models of adjustment t h a t are a v a i l a b l e to the immigrants i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y ; and as to what extent they were making recommendations based on immigrants' c h o i c e s . The present study d i d not i n t e n d to analyze the modes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the w r i t e r f e l t t h a t i t was necessary to mention some of the modes t h a t might be a l t e r n a t i v e s to the immigrant i n h i s / h e r adjustment to the Canadian c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y ; with the assumption of the f a c t t h a t t h i s would be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l to the s o c i a l worker. The process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n - the process of l e a r n i n g the c u l t u r a l ways of an e t h n i c c o l l e c t i v i t y to which one does not belong - does not f o l l o w the same model f o r a l l e t h n i c groups or i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the same group. The mode of a c c u l t u r a t i o n depends on a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g the nature of the two groups i n c o n t a c t and the wishes of the i n d i v i d u a l members of the group. The host group c o u l d be t o l e r a t i n g d i v e r s i t y ( p l u r a l i s t i c ) or i n s i s t i n g on one c u l t u r a l norm ( m o n i s t i c ) . In Canada i t i s a p l u r a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n , and there i s l i t t l e p r e s sure to change. T h i s makes p o s s i b l e the c u l t u r a l maintenance 125 o£ a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c g r o u p / i n d i v i d u a l . There i s freedom of choice for the immigrant: he/she can adopt Canadian ways of l i f e or can maintain his/her own ways. Most of the interviewed immigrants fo r t h i s study expressed agreement with Canada's m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . Their p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s went beyond ethni c v a r i e t i e s of food or f o l k to the f a c t that t h e i r adjustment to the Canadian way of l i f e does not require a forced d e n i a l of t h e i r own c u l t u r e . In 1974, Berry proposed four d i f f e r i n g modes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , based upon responses to two questions: Is my c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y of value to be retained? and: Are p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s with the dominant s o c i e t y to be sought? Upon the responses, he de f i n e d : a s s i m i l a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , r e j e c t i o n , and d e c u l t u r a t i o n . Figure I below represents those modes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Figure I : Four Modes of A c c u l t u r a t i o n Based upon Responses to Two Questions Question 1 Is t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e and i d e n t i t y of value ? yes no Question 2 Are p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s with the l a r g e r s o c i e t y to be sought ? yes ^ i n t e g r a t i o n a s s i m i l a t i o n no ^ r e j e c t i o n (withdrawal ( d e c u l t u r a t i o n ) a c c u l t u r a t i o n or r e s i s t a n c e ) Source: Berry, J.1985 1 126 A s s i m i l a t i o n i m p l i e s r e l i n q u i s h i n g c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and moving i n t o the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . T h i s i s happening by a b s o r p t i o n of a non-dominant group i n t o mainstream, or by merging of many groups to form a new s o c i e t y ( m e l t i n g p o t ) . I n t e g r a t i o n i m p l i e s maintenance of c u l t u r a l i n t e g r i t y as w e l l as the movement to become an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a l a r g e r s o c i e t a l framework. The o p t i o n then i s to j o i n with the dominant s o c i e t y , but r e t a i n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y (mosaic). R e j e c t i o n r e f e r s to s e l f imposed withdrawal from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . D e c u l t u r a t i o n happens when groups are out of c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t a c t with t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , or the l a r g e r s o c i e t y ( m a r g i n a l i t y ) . Canadians are more t o l e r a n t than other n a t i o n s to the c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n . The adoption, i n 1971, of the p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m c r e a t e d , a t l e a s t f o r m a l l y , a more f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t e t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment of immigrants. However, immigrants belonging to s m a l l e t h n i c groups are disadvantaged and under great pressure to be absorbed by the dominant s o c i e t y s i n c e they are not backed up by a s t r o n g e t h n i c group. T h i s was a concern of some respondents of t h i s study (see chapter 5, s e c t i o n G and I ) . V a l e n t i n e , C , (1971), presented a " b i c u l t u r a l model", which p o s t u l a t e s a dual s o c i a l i z a t i o n process experienced by m i n o r i t y groups, which are p a s s i n g through e n c u l t u r a t i o n experiences w i t h i n t h e i r own c u l t u r a l group, along with s i g n i f i c a n t exposure to s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r c e s and agents w i t h i n the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . In other words, the immigrant experiences a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . "Members of a l l subgroups are t h r o u g h l y e n c u l t u r a t e d i n dominant c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s by mainstream i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g most of the content of the mass-media, most products and a d v e r t i s i n g f o r mass-marketing, the e n t i r e experience of p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g , constant exposure to n a t i o n a l f a s h i o n , 127 h o l i d a y s and heroes." 2 T h i s m o d e l w h i c h p r o v i d e s a n o v e r a l l f r a m e w o r k , h e l p s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t o f u n c t i o n i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e w i t h i n two s y s t e m s : t h e m a j o r i t y and t h e m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e . F i g u r e I I : B i c u l t u r a l i s m A = m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e B = m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e C = s h a r e d v a l u e s and norms T h e r e a r e f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h a member o f an e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p c a n become b i c u l t u r a l . T h ey a r e : t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e g r e e o f b i l i n g u a l i s m ; t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c u l t u r a l m e d i a t o r s , m o d e l s and t r a n s l a t o r s ; t h e d e g r e e o f a s s i m i l a r i t y i n p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e ; t h e d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p o r c o m m o n a l i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r e s w i t h r e g a r d t o n orms, v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , p e r c e p t i o n s ; t h e amount o f p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e c o r r e c t i v e f e e d b a c k p r o v i d e d by e a c h c u l t u r e r e g a r d i n g a t t e m p t s t o p r o d u c e n o r m a t i v e b e h a v i o u r ; and t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t y l e a n d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h o f t h e m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r mesh w i t h t h e p r e v a l e n t and v a l u e d s t y l e s o f t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . The v a r i a t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a c c o u n t s f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f b i c u l t u r a t i o n . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s s e r v e t o f a c i l i t a t e o r impede d u a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . When t h e s o c i e t y r e f u s e s t o g i v e t o a n y g r o u p t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o c c u p y a d e q u a t e r o l e s , i t i s o l a t e s a p o r t i o n o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m . T h i s i s o l a t i o n i s h a r m f u l and b r i n g s a d e e p s e n s e o f h o p e l e s s n e s s . M i n o r i t y p r o b l e m s s t a r t when r a c i a l o r e t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c l o s e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . D e p r i v e d o f s o c i a l r e w a r d s , money, r e c o g n i t i o n , s o c i a l s t a t u s , 128 r e s p e c t , c h a l l e n g e s , s e c u r i t y and o p p o r t u n i t y to grow, immigrants s u f f e r " s o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n " , " c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n " , and " s o c i o -c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n " (De Hoyos, and De Hoyos, 1980). S o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n happens when the m a j o r i t y group c l o s e s the o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e and d e p r i v e s the m i n o r i t y group from having acces to rewarding r o l e s ; c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n happens when persons among the m i n o r i t y group l o s e hope and t h e i r a b i l i t y to d e f e r g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; s o c i o - c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n happens when the m a j o r i t y group f i n a l l y opens up i t s o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e , but many persons among the m i n o r i t y group no longer f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the mainstream of the s o c i e t y . 3. V a r i o u s Approaches i n S o c i a l Work with Immigrants a. S o c i a l Worker's Role While the w r i t e r was ve r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n how s o c i a l workers u t i l i z e i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e v a r i o u s approaches when working with immigrants i n t h e i r process of adjustment, the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r kind of data was l i m i t e d . Through the l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h , the author assembled together the f o l l o w i n g pages r e g a r d i n g approaches In working with immigrants, hoping t h a t they w i l l be a u s e f u l r e f e r e n c e to s o c i a l workers who are engaged i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e with immigrants. A s o c i a l worker, whatever h i s / h e r d e s i g n a t i o n , sees each day many immigrants f a c i n g d i f f e r e n t problems of adjustment i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y , and con c e n t r a t e s h i s / h e r e f f o r t s on d e a l i n g with h i s / h e r c l i e n t ' s problems. In the process of adjustment of immigrants i n t o the new s o c i e t y the s o c i a l worker has an important and a c t i v e r o l e . As a p a r t of h i s / h e r r o l e Is to have knowledge >about the a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e t o h i s / h e r c l i e n t , to help them through the pr o c e s s . A s o c i a l worker must be aware of h i s / her own b e l i e f system and c u l t u r a l b i a s e s . The lack of self-awareness prevents the s o c i a l worker from b r i d g i n g the c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s between o n e s e l f and one's c l l e n t / s . Because c u l t u r e s d i f f e r i n norms and v a l u e s , the p a r t i c u l a r occurence, form, meaning of a s i t u a t i o n v a r y from one c u l t u r e to another. I t i s p o s s i b l e that the same behaviour, which i s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e f o r one c u l t u r e , i s non-acceptable to people from another c u l t u r e . The s o c i a l worker must keep i n mind t h a t each c l i e n t i s a unique person and cannot be viewed as a s t e r e o t y p e . C u l t u r a l uniqueness should be an a l t e r n a t i v e mode f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g m i n o r i t y groups' behaviour. The c u l t u r e of the c l i e n t has to be understood, and once understood and f r e e of p r e j u d i c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s , myths and assumptions, then the worker can adequately address the problems and concerns of the c l i e n t . The awareness and understanding of the c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c c l i e n t s , i s c r u c i a l f o r s u c c e s s . 60% of the s o c i a l workers' sample of t h i s study c o n s i d e r e d necessary g a i n i n g knowledge on immigrant e t h n i c groups, t h e i r values and l i f e s t y l e s . S o c i a l worker p r o f e s s i o n needs to c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e the r e a l i t y of p r a c t i c e i n a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e environment. The tendency to use one's own c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and economic val u e s and norms, poses a d d i t i o n a l dangers f o r the w e l l meaning p r a c t i t i o n e r . S o c i a l workers should u n i t e to a l l e v i a t e the problems of racism, o p p r e s s i o n , while they must a l s o independently work with the problems of i n d i v i d u a l immigrants. Grass r o o t s , community development workers and o r g a n i z e r s have a l r e a d y been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d with immigrant communities a c r o s s Canada, i n work which i s aimed at empowering immigrant people and a s s i s t i n g them i n the process of e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r r i g h t s t o access our s o c i e t a l r e s o u r c e s . T r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l programs should p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r to become more aware of immigrants' values and b e l i e f s . The f a c t t h a t o n l y 30% of the s o c i a l workers' sample of t h i s study f e l t t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n they are g e t t i n g about c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s f r e q u e n t l y or almost always enough, c l e a r l y shows t h a t more should be done i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The value s e t , t h a t the worker b r i n g s to h i s / h e r own p r a c t i c e , and h i s / h e r w i l l i g n e s s to accept d i f f e r e n c e s i s as important as i s h i s / h e r own knowledge of s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s , t r a d i t i o n s and v a l u e s , of each p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c group. 130 The s o c i a l worker has to grapple with q u e s t i o n s about i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s , and about the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n t standards of behaviour f o r d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c immigrant groups. Commonly, the p r o f e s s i o n a l approach t o problems of immigrants, formulates them as problems of " c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t " or " c u l t u r a l shock", and the problems are viewed as of adjustment. We, as s o c i a l workers, should keep i n mind t h a t the problems are a l s o p a r t of what organi z e s them as unsolv a b l e ( G r i f f i t h , A., 1978). A t t r i b u t i n g a person's d i f f i c u l t i e s to problems a s s o c i a t e d with h i s / h e r background d i s a t t e n d s the way i n which h i s / h e r l i f e i s organized i n Canadian s o c i e t y . b. Approaches t o P r a c t i c e In working with immigrants, the s o c i a l worker c o u l d a p p l y one of the f o l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n a l approaches, making sure t h a t they are adequate or adapted to t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t / g r o u p : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Approach f Is the view of the human being t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a p e r s p e c t i v e which emphasizes the need to maintain a dual focus on p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l man. Th i s approach which was emphasized by Richmond, M., emphasizes the d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e of s o c i a l casework, d e f i n e d as proc e s s e s : "which develop a p e r s o n a l i t y through adjustments c o n s c i o u s l y a f f e c t e d , i n d i v i d u a l by i n d i v i d u a l , between man and t h e i r s o c i a l environment" (Richmond, M., 1917). T h i s approach i s u s e f u l with immigrants i n some ci r c u m s t a n c e s . "The d e f i n i t i o n of the e t h n i c r e a l i t y c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to those as p e c t s of the e t h n i c experience which provide sources of p r i d e , a comfortable sense of belonging, v a r i o u s network of f a m i l y and community, e t c . At the same time i t h i g h l i g h t s the p e r s i s t e n t negation of value t r a d i t i o n s and the t u r m o i l experienced by e t h n i c groups as they encounter the m a j o r i t y 131 c u l t u r e . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to e f f e c t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n such spheres as jobs, housing, s c h o o l i n g , e t c . " 3 The Problem S o l v i n g Framework views t h a t a l l human l i f e i s a problem s o l v i n g process. The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n coping with problems are based on l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y , a b i l i t y or m o t i v a t i o n . To d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y with d i v e r s e problems, the immigrant needs to have a v a i l a b l e resources and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Confronted with e x c e s s i v e s t r e s s and inadequate r e s o u r c e s , the immigrant c o u l d perform and f u n c t i o n p o o r l y . In order to s t r e n g h t e n h i s / h e r e q u i l i b r i u m and r e s t o r e competence, a knowledge of the c u r r e n t l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n p r o v i d e s the necessary f a c t s f o r the s o l v i n g process to be a c t i v a t e d (Perlman, H., 1957). In working with immigrants, as with any other people, the goal i s to provide the necessary r e s o u r c e s , o r e s t o r e e q u i l i b r i u m and to assure a optimal f u n c t i o n i n g through a process t h a t p l a c e s emphasis upon contemporary r e a l i t y , with i t s problem -r i d d e n s i t u a t i o n s (Devore and S c h l e s i n g e r , 1981). There i s no c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h i s model and the concept of the e t h n i c r e a l i t y . There i s congruence between the n o t i o n t h a t e f f e c t i v e coping i s a v a r i a b l e of the adequate o p p o r t u n i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s , f o r the most p a r t t h a t the e t h n i c r e a l i t y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y serves as a source of s t r e s s and s t r e n g t h . Great emphasis i s placed on r e s t o r a t i o n of competence and p r o v i s i o n of r e s o u r c e s , while the d y s f u n c t i o n a l e f f e c t of p e r s o n a l i t y pathology i s not n e g l e c t e d . The Task-Centered approach, which was formulated f i r s t by Reid and E p s t e i n (1972), s t r e s s e s the importance of a t t e n t i o n to problems i n terms i d e n t i f i e d and d e f i n e d by c l i e n t s . C l i e n t and p r a c t i t i o n e r c e n t e r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on those problems that they are a b l e to change: the focus i s not i n remote h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s of a problem, but i n the c a u s a l f a c t o r s . I t i s important to r e c o g n i z e the c l i e n t s ' freedom to r e j e c t problems d e f i n i t i o n s which do not concur with t h e i r own views, and a l s o a t r u s t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e t h n i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e worker and the immigrant. Reid and E p s t e i n , while being k e e n l y aware of the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of poverty and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , emphasized the importance of awareness of value s and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s as these a r i s e from e t h n i c and s o c i a l c l a s s membership. They s t r e s s the f a c t t h a t problems occur i n context which r e l a t e s to s o c i o -economic and e t h n i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p o i n t i n g out that no " e f f e c t i v e system has been developed f o r mapping the context of p s y c h o s o c i a l problems" (Reid, 1977). T h i s approach r e q u i r e s a high degree of r a t i o n a l i t y , which may be incongruent with the world view of some c u l t u r a l groups and the emphasis on s t r u c t u r e and time l i m i t s may a f f e c t s e n s i v i t y to the "dual p e r s p e c t i v e " , (Norton, 1978). T h i s i n c r e a s e s awareness of the p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t between the immigrant c l i e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , and th a t of the dominant s o c i e t y . The S o c i a l P r o v i s i o n and S t r u c t u r a l Approach t h a t h i g h l i g h t s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l i n e q u i t y as a major source af d i f f i c u l t y have been an i n t e g r a l p a r t of s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e . Addams, (1910), Wald, (1951), Reynolds, (1938), Younghasband, (1964), Titmus (1968), e x e m p l i f i e d t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . There i s congruence between many of the assumptions of the s t r u c t u r a l approach and the e t h n i c r e a l i t y p e r s p e c t i v e , because a sense of c l a s s and e t h n i c i t y i s s t r o n g l y experienced i n every day l i f e , and many e t h n i c groups are h e l d In low esteem by v a r i o u s segments of the s o c i e t y . The r e a l i t y of being immigrant generates many problems, and those problems c a l l e x p l i c i t a t t e n t i o n to the p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e s , s t r e n g t h or coping c a p a c i t y which group i d e n t i f i c a t i o n generates (Middleman and Goldberg, 1974). The s o c i a l worker: broker, mediator or advocate, has an important r o l e i n examining why the immigrant people are s u f f e r i n g the e f f e c t s of d e p r i v a t i o n and racism. Germain's E c o l o g i c a l Approach (1979) and Meyer'3 Ecosystems, were e f f o r t s to e x p l i c a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s o c i a l 133 context and s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e , common to those approaches i s the view t h a t s o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l sources of s t r e s s p l a y a major p a r t i n g e n e r a t i n g problems. I n d i v i d u a l problems are a f u n c t i o n of s o c i e t a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and not i n d i v i d u a l pathology; and a l l s o c i a l workers r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r f i e l d of p r a c t i c e , have a moral o b l i g a t i o n t o pursue s o c i a l changes as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i r ongoing assignment. The System Approach as presented by Pincus and Minahan (1973), d e f i n e s s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e as "goal o r i e n t e d planned s o c i a l change". T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e which uses the two b a s i c concepts: resources and i n t e r a c t i o n between people and the s o c i a l environment, helps to I d e n t i f y f i v e areas of concern to s o c i a l work: the absence of needed r e s o u r c e s ; the absence of l i n k a g e s between people and resource systems or between resource systems; q u e s t i o n a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n between people w i t h i n the same resource system; prob l e m a t i c i n t e r a c t i o n between resource systems; and p r o b l e m a t i c i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n a l problem - s o l v i n g or coping r e s o u r c e s (Devore and S c h l e s i n g e r , 1981). A l l the above mentioned approaches to s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r assumptions are not i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n with an understanding of c u l t u r a l , c l a s s or e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y . A l l models share adherence to the... b a s i c s o c i a l work v a l u e s : the d i g n i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , the r i g h t to s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , the need f o r an adequate standard of l i v i n g , and s a t i s f y i n g growth and enhanced r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Relevant s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n working with newcomers has to i d e n t i f y the c l i e n t ' s own a d a p t i v e coping p a t t e r n s , to i d e n t i f y the s u p p o r t i v e r e s o u r c e s i n the community ( s c h o o l s , churches, e t h n i c communities), i n order to help the c l i e n t . R e s t o r i n g c l i e n t ' s s e l f image and f e e l i n g s of competence are a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l work goals t h a t complement the goal of e f f e c t i v e c o p i n g . To f a c i l i t a t e the immigrant's e f f o r t s of coping and a d j u s t i n g to the new country, immigrants need c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t h e a l t h , mental h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 134 Looking a t the immigrants p a r t i c u l a r circumstances, the Dual  P e r s p e c t i v e f as a c o g n i t i v e and a t t i t u d i n a l approach i s u n i q u e l y s u i t e d , because i t p r o v i d e s a "frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r making more e f f e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e c i s i o n s and i n c r e a s e s the awareness of p o s s i b l e p o i n t s of c o n f l i c t between the m i n o r i t y c l i e n t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e and t h a t of dominant s o c i e t y . I t enhances awareness of the s t r u c t u r a l - I n s t i t u t i o n a l sources t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to the i n e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a m i n o r i t y group. The dual p e r s p e c t i v e i s a l s o based upon f a m i l i a r s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s : empathy, nonjudgmental a t t i t u d e , self-awareness and provi d e s the s o c i a l worker with a framework f o r making them o p e r a t i o n a l with m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s . I t prevents s t e r e o t y p i n g , u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s n e cessary t o understand the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d disadvantages of m i n o r i t i e s because o f t e n the s t r u c t u r a l b a r r i e r s e r e c t e d a g a i n s t the i n d i v i d u a l are not r e a d i l y apparent. The r o l e of the s o c i a l worker i s to be aware of any s o c i e t a l b a r r i e r s , of any d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p and i n t e r a c t i o n between the n u r t u r i n g environment and the wider s o c i e t y and to s t r i v e f o r change of socio-economic and p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s t h a t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of l i f e of the group. The authors who supported the idea of d u a l i t y , as to mention few: Chestang (1976), from whom the idea of the d u a l i t y of Black ' s experience and the concept of ' n u r t u r i n g environment"; Mead (1934), from whom the idea of ' g e n e r a l i z e d other'; E r i k s o n (1968), with h i s idea of ' s i g n i f i c a n t other'; Norton (1976,1978), and the idea of combination of the m i n o r i t y and the m a j o r i t y g e n e r a l i z e d other and the e f f e c t s on i d e n t i t y (see f i g u r e I I I below) . The author of t h i s study c o n s i d e r s t h a t the dual p e r s p e c t i v e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d when working with immigrants. I t o f f e r s the p r o f e s s i o n a l the chance to look a t immigrants' problems i n the p a r t i c u l a r context of t h e i r c u l t u r e , while i n t e g r a t i n g the problem i n t o Canadian c o n t e x t . 135 Figure I I I : the Dual System o£ A l l I n d i v i d u a l s Economic resources E d u c a t i o n a l system Larger s o c i e t a l system Source: The Dual P e r s p e c t i v e , C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Work Education, New-York, 1978, p.5 In 1986, De Hoyos and De Hoyos, suggested a Three Stage Model to be used i n working with the m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s at three d i s t i n c t l e v e l s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y : as i n d i v i d u a l s ( i n d i v i d u a l approach); as i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n support systems ( i n t e r a c t i o n a l approach); and as i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n l a r g e r s o c i e t y , ( s o c i o - c u l t u r a l approach) (See F i g u r e IV below). The i n d i v i d u a l approach r e f l e c t s the medical model f o c u s i n g on immigrant adjustment: ego s t r e n g t h , p e r c e p t i o n s , s e l f - i m a g e . The i n t e r a c t i o n a l approach i s f o c u s i n g on immigrant and h i s / h e r f a m i l y s t r e n g t h s : and t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e b e h a v i o u r o f i m m i g r a n t s w i t h i n t h e i m p e r s o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s o c i e t y : economy, g o v e r n m e n t , r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and t h e i r r o l e a s p r o d u c e r s , c o n s u m e r s , and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . F i g u r e I V : T h r e e S t a g e M o d e l I n d i v i d u a l I n t e r a c t i o n a l S o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t e r v e n t i o n Neo F r e u d i a n , E c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s , S t r u c t u r a l C o g n i t i v e t h e o r y , G e n e r a l s y s t e m s , f u n c t i o n a l i s m P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , S t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l , S o c i o c u l t u r a l T r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y e c o l o g i c a l and t h e r a p y , c a s e w o r k , c o m m u n i c a t i o n E x i s t e n t i a l t h e r a p y t h e r a p i e s . S o u r c e : De Hoyos and De H o y o s : " S o c i o c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n " S o c i a l w o r k , v o l 3 1 , n r 1, 1986 p 63. The a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s o c i a l work p r a c t i t i o n e r s who work w i t h m i n o r i t i e s a r e i n t h e u n i q u e p o s i t i o n o f d e a l i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t s ' e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , a d j u s t m e n t t o s o c i e t a l s t r u c t u r e s , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . 137 "By adding t h i s t h i r d stage, the s o c l o c u l t u r a l a p p r o a c h , s o c i a l workers can interve n e knowingly with m i n o r i t y group members a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , the i n t e r a c t i o n a l l e v e l , and the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l . " 4 D e f i n i n g m i n o r i t y groups "as any groups whose members have l i m i t e d access to c o n d i t i o n a l l y r o l e s " , and as being t y p i c a l l y d e p r i v e d of money, r e s p e c t or s o c i a l s t a t u s these people can experience s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n . "At the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l l e v e l , a s o c i a l worker knows t h a t without c o n d i t i o n a l l y rewarding r o l e s , i n d i v i d u a l s can remain f o r e v e r unrewarded, marginal or a l i e n a t e d . " 5 R e f e r r i n g to the t r a d i t i o n a l approaches to s o c i a l work and the e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s , Lum, D., (1986), agrees t h a t they c o u l d be a p p l i c a b l e i n d i f f e r e n t c ircumstances. P s y c h o l o g i c a l casework i s r e l e v a n t when e x p l o r i n g past r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s i g n i f i c a n t f a m i l y events; ego psychology i s h e l p f u l when a m i n o r i t y i n d i v i d u a l i s under s t r e s s and c r i s i s and d i s c o v e r i n g of c u l t u r a l values i s a means of r e s t o r i n g coping mechanisms; e x i s t e n t i a l humanistic t h e o r i e s are u s e f u l f o r an immigrant who i s i n the middle of an i d e n t i t y c r i s i s ; c o g n i t i v e problem s o l v i n g with a task centered approach f i t s the need f o r s t r u c t u r e , l o g i c a l p l a n n i n g and concrete a c t i o n ; b e h a v i o u r a l casework a f f o r d s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s to i d e n t i f y and r e l a t e s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r a l i n d i c a t o r s to a s e t of l i f e i s s u e s . There are two e x p l a n a t o r y models t o account f o r e t h n i c i t y : c a t e g o r i c a l and t r a n s a c t i o n a l , (Green, J . , 1982). The C a t e g o r i c a l Approach e x p l a i n s c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a c c o r d i n g to the degree to which i n d i v i d u a l s manifest s p e c i f i c , d i s t i n c t i v e ' t r a i t s ' . C u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m i s based on c a t e g o r i c a l approach and shares the l i m i t a t i o n s of the model by s t r e s s i n g the 138 d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of e t h n i c group and the need f o r them to l i v e i n a k i n d of separate, but equal harmony (Green , 1982). In the T r a n s a c t i o n a l Approach, the d e f i n i t i o n of e t h n i c i t y concerns the way i n which people, when communicating, maintain t h e i r sense of c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , though the focus i s on s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e f i n i n g and p r e s e r v i n g c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . What i s viewed as important i s the boundaries t h a t groups d e f i n e around themselves u s i n g s e l e c t e d c u l t u r a l t r a i t s of e x c l u s i o n or i n c l u s i o n . T h i s approach Is a s s o c i a t e d with the work of a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Barth, F., (1969), who argued t h a t the ways i n which d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i s a s s e r t e d , preserved, defended or abandoned amount to the e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . The use of the t r a n s a c t i o n a l approach has few l i m i t s t h a t the worker has to be aware o f : f i r s t l y , t h a t the r e l a t i o n s a c r o s s the group boundaries, g e n e r a l l y tend to be r i g i d and s t e r e o t y p e d ; consequently, e f f e c t i v e c r o s s c u l t u r a l communication r e q u i r e s working through and beyond the e t i q u e t t e a s s o c i a t e d with these s t e r e o t y p e s . Secondly, the e t h n i c group formation i s an ongoing process and e t h n i c d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i s d e f i n e d , r e d e f i n e d and r e i n f o r c e d as a r e s u l t of continuous l n t e r g r o u p c o n t a c t . F i n a l l y , the model suggests t h a t one's e t h n i c i t y i s something t h a t can be manipulated, t h e r e f o r e the degree to which a person i s a c c u l t u r a t e d i s s i t u a t i o n a l and can be modified to s u i t the needs of d i f f e r e n t kinds of c r o s s c u l t u r a l encounters. Within t h i s context the r o l e of the s o c i a l worker c o u l d be seen as advocate, c o u n s e l l o r , broker, r e g u l a t o r , with the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the e t h n i c a l l y r e s p o n s i v e worker can s h i f t from one r o l e to the other, as the needs are d i f f e r e n t f o r each s i t u a t i o n . "Each s t y l e r e f l e c t s d i f f e r e n t value s t a n c e s , d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n , assumptions and has d i f f e r e n t consequences. V i r t u a l l y , any mode can be u s e f u l , or u s e l e s s , demeaning or l i b e r a t i n g , d e s t r u c t i v e or a m e l i o r a t i v e " 6 As advocate the s o c i a l worker working with immigrants, has to view h i s / h e r c l i e n t problems as a r e s u l t of an u n f a i r and i n j u s t 139 p r a c t i c e s and an i n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o£ r e s o u r c e s , schensul and schensul (1978), have suggested t h a t Advocacy as an approach to i n t e r v e n t i o n i n v o l v e s s k i l l s and techniques, knowledge of community i n s t i t u t i o n s , awareness of community valu e s and an a b i l i t y to promote l i n k a g e s between community i n s t i t u t i o n s . In the C o u n s e l l i n g Approach, the t y p i c a l s t y l e of c o u n s e l l o r i n t e r v e n t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l i s the t a r g e t of change. While c u l t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g i s not yet a w e l l developed ar e a , i t i s important to s t a t e that the workers have to possess openess and f l e x i b i l i t y i n adapting to and u t i l i z i n g the l e a r n i n g s t y l e s of o t h e r s . Most of the respondents of the present study expressed t h e i r d e s i r e to get in-depth c o u n s e l l i n g a f t e r t h e i r immediate a r r i v a l , s i n c e they were e x p e r i e n c i n g c e r t a i n degrees of s t r e s s , a n x i e t y and so on. As r e g u l a t o r , the s o c i a l worker has to help the immigrant to change h i s / h e r behaviour or a t t i t u d e ; the worker r e p r e s e n t s s o c i e t y ' s mandate. As broker, the s o c i a l . worker when performing with immigrants has to a c t as an i n t e r m e d i a r y between the immigrant and the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . He/she p r o v i d e s a mechanism of d i f f u s i o n of new i d e a s , while modifying the impact of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s and procedures on e t h n i c c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . 4. Values and P r i n c i p l e s i n Working with Immigrants. Chapter V of t h i s paper p r e s e n t s , from the survey data, the necessary s k i l l s , knowledge, values and p r i n c i p l e s as they were p e r c e i v e d by the m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t worker i n h i s / h e r d a i l y p r a c t i c e . To b r i e f l y review them: the important s k i l l s were presented as: e l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and assembling r e l e v a n t f a c t s to prepare assessment r e p o r t ; d i s c u s s i n g s e n s i t i v e emotional s u b j e c t s i n a u n t h r e a t e n i n g s u p p o r t i v e manner; mediating; n e g o t i a t i n g . The r e l e v a n t knowledge as d e s c r i b e d by workers: knowledge of community reso u r c e s and s e r v i c e s , knowledge of b a s i c f e d e r a l arid p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and t h e i r purpose, knowledge of r a c i a l , e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s i n s o c i e t y , and 140 knowledge of b e h a v i o u r a l dynamics. The values and p r i n c i p l e s as promoted by workers, were: honesty, f a i r n e s s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e s p e c t f o r r i g h t s , c l e a r v i s i o n , democratic a t t i t u d e . Comparing these v a l u e s , p r i n c i p l e s , knowledge and s k i l l s , with what i s a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e of c r o s s c u l t u r a l s o c i a l work and e t h n i c competence, the w r i t e r f e l t t h a t the review of some other values t h a t are e q u a l l y important f o r the s o c i a l worker engaged i n working with immigrants, could be h e l p f u l ; whether he/she i s aware or not of using them or of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r name. E t h n i c i t y must be re c o g n i z e d as of primary importance, f o r each p a r t i c u l a r immigrant. The d e n i a l of e t h n i c i t y may provide the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the s o c i a l worker to maintain negative myths, s t e r o t y p e s , and assumptions a s s o c i a t e d with e t h n i c i t y and p r o h i b i t the worker from r e c o g n i z i n g h i s / h e r own p r e j u d i c e s , as w e l l as p r e v e n t i n g him/her from d e v e l o p i n g an e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s / her c l i e n t s . Burgest, D., 1982, 1983, 1985, d e f i n e s the f o l l o w i n g casework p r i n c i p l e s i n working with m i n o r i t i e s : acceptance, non-judgmental a t t i t u d e , c l i e n t s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , p u r p o s e f u l e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s , i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , c o n t r o l l e d emotional involvement. Those p r i n c i p l e s are not new, but what i s new i s t h a t they can be a p p l i e d i n p r a c t i c e i n working with immigrants. Within i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , f a c t o r s as race and e t h i c i t y must be re c o g n i z e d of primary importance; w i t h i n acceptance the worker has to d e a l with the immigrant as he/she r e a l l y i s , i n c l u d i n g h i s / h e r q u a l i t i e s and d e f e c t s , s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, while m a i n t a i n i n g : "a sense of the c l i e n t ' s innate d i g n i t y and pe r s o n a l worth" ( B i e s t e k , F., 1967)." 7 Acceptance Implies r e c o g n i z i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g of one's own f e e l i n g s of e l i t i s m , p r e j u d i c e , or c u l t u r a l and r a c i a l b i a s , d e v e l o p i n g self-awareness, l o o k i n g a t the c u l t u r e and e t h n i c i t y as d i f f e r e n c e s not s u p e r i o r i t y / i n f e r i o r i t y . (Green, J.,1982). Non-judgemental a t t i t u d e s suppose t h a t e v a l u a t i o n judgments about the a t t i t u d e s , standards or c l i e n t ' s a c t i o n s are used i n r e f l e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s to help the c l i e n t reach the g o a l s ; but these judgements must not be r e f l e c t i v e of the moral or p h i l o s o p h i c a l values of " r i g h t or wrong" In the worker's c u l t u r e . Each immigrant has to be seen as s t r i v i n g to o b t a i n s e l f -f u l f i l m e n t r a t h e r than being good/bad, deviant/nondeviant, (Burgest, D., 1985). The p r i n c i p l e of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t : "The worker must reco g n i z e and accept the c l i e n t ' s r i g h t to make d e c i s i o n s and accept the consequences of those d e c i s i o n s . " 8 The worker must r e c o g n i z e where h i s / h e r c l i e n t ' s r i g h t to s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n begins and ends, and a l s o when h i s / h e r r i g h t to s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n begins or ends. In p u r p o s e f u l e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s , the worker must s t i m u l a t e and encourage e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s without condemnation, to encourage them as they are d i r e c t e d even toward the worker's race and e t h n i c i t y . Purposeful l i s t e n i n g and e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g s Is p a r t of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l understanding of the c l i e n t ' s c u l t u r a l world view. C o n t r o l l e d emotional Involvement i s d e f i n e d as the : "worker's s e n s i t i v i t y to the c l i e n t ' s f e e l i n g s and understanding of t h e i r meaning and a p u r p o s e f u l a p p r o p r i a t e response to the c l i e n t ' s f e e l i n g s . " 9 C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s an important p r i n c i p l e i n working with immigrants s i n c e e t h n i c c l i e n t s c o u l d be s u s p i c i o u s and r e l u c t a n t to r e v e a l c o n f i d e n t i a l m a t e r i a l . The worker has the e t h i c a l o b l i g a t i o n to preserve the s e c r e t f o r the p e r s o n a l w e l l being of the c l i e n t as w e l l as r e s p e c t f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y enhances t r u s t , confidence and communication between the worker and the c l i e n t . Kadushin, (1972), b e l i e v e s t h a t the worker has to be warm, competent and understanding; cheetham (1972), argues t h a t the warmth, acceptance and support are e s s e n t i a l ; King, P.,(1982), b e l i e v e s i n v i a b l e working r e l a t i o n s with m i n o r i t y c l i e n t s i f the workers are aware of t h e i r c l i e n t ' s c u l t u r e . Even i f most of the s o c i a l worker respondents of t h i s study f e l t comfortable i n d i s c u s s i n g with t h e i r c l i e n t s about t h e i r background and c u l t u r e , they a l s o expressed the need f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r knowledge on c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . M i z i o , (1972), argued t h a t an " i n v i s i b l e b a r r i e r " e x i s t s between the worker and the c l i e n t when they r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups. Problems of p r e j u d i c e , language d i f f i c u l t y , or i n s e n s i v i t y c o u l d occur as a r e s u l t of such lack of knowledge. Sometimes the c l i e n t may share p r e j u d i c e s , b i a s e s , r a c i s m and the worker may be s e n s i t i v e , understanding, and w e l l prepared through the o b s e r v a t i o n s and readings about a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e . D i f f i c u l t dilemmas f a c i n g s o c i a l workers are centered on c o n f l i c t between the v a l u e s and the customs of immigrants and those of the s o c i e t y i n which they come to l i v e . Of course, t h e r e are v a r i a t i o n s i n the e x p e c t a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l groups, as there are amongst Canadian people, to what the s o c i e t y can or should o f f e r them. The changes i n modern Canada have i n c l u d e d the m a j o r i t y of people, but the continued e x i s t e n c e of l a r g e groups i n marginal r o l e s r e p r e s e n t s a s e r i o u s i s s u e i n our s o c i e t y . Despite the i d e a l s of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , there i s a b a s i c s t r a i n toward c o n f o r m i t y , standard l i f e s t y l e s and v a l u e s . H e t e r o g e n i t y , changes and v a r i a b i l i t y are s t i l l underestimated. While s o c i a l workers are aware t h a t immigrant people should have more i n f l u e n c e i n determining t h e i r p o l i c i e s , they are ambivalent about t h e i r c r i t i c i s m of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s which can be i n v o l v e d . Working s u c c e s f u l y with immigrants i s not an easy task; what i s needed i s a s e t of t r a i n i n g experiences t h a t can be adapted to a v a r i e t y of c r o s s c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s r e l e v a n t that h a l f of the s o c i a l worker respondents of t h i s study f e l t t h a t they e i t h e r should improve t h e i r communication with the immigrants, or t h e y are unable to perform t o t a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r 143 the immigrants. E t h n i c competence c o u l d be a q u i r e d by moving beyond the one's job d e s c r i p t i o n f u n c t i o n s , through d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and an a t t i t u d e of openess toward e t h n i c encounters as p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . At the f i r s t l e v e l of l e a r n i n g c o g n i t i o n - the task of the e t h n i c a l l y competent p r a c t i t i o n e r i s to determine the o r d e r l i n e r s of b e l i e f s and behaviours as the members of the p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e p e r c e i v e i t . Second, at the a f f e c t i v e l e v e l , there i s an a f f e c t i v e tone a s s o c i a t e d with b e l i e f s and knowledge. T h i s tone i s sometimes i d e n t i f i a b l e i n the o v e r l y e x p r e s s i v e f e a t u r e of a c u l t u r e : dancing, e a t i n g , p l a y i n g , working, ar g u i n g , s i n g i n g , j o k i n g , face e x p r e s s i o n s , e t c . R e f e r r i n g to the e t h n i c competence, Green, J . , d e f i n e s i t as: "the c a p a b i l i t y of the worker, as a e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the worker who knows, a p p r e c i a t e s and u t i l i z e s the c u l t u r e of another i n a s s i s t i n g with the r e s o l u t i o n of a human problem... to be e t h n i c a l l y competent means to be able to conduct one's p r o f e s s i o n a l work i n a way t h a t i s congruent with the behaviour and e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t members of a d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e r e c o g n i z e as a p p r o p r i a t e among themselves." 10 In working with immigrants, s o c i a l workers have to be s e n s i t i v e to the e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each c l i e n t and to approach each c l i e n t as an i n d i v i d u a l i n the uniqueness of h i s / her s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r than r e p r e s e n t i n g a u n i v e r s a l c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e . A balanced p o s i t i o n i s needed between a d m i t t i n g t h a t there i s no d i f f e r e n c e , or t h a t there Is a t o t a l d i f f e r e n c e . Competence i n working with immigrants means: "The acceptance of e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n a open, genuine manner, without condescension and without p a t r o n i z i n g g e s t u r e s . " 11 I t i s not an easy task f o r the worker to be aware of h i s / h e r 144 l i m i t a t i o n s and the l i m i t a t i o n s of the valu e s t h a t he/she i s promoting as a p a r t of the mainstream s o c i e t y , but I t i s a must f o r the e t h n i c a l l y competent p r a c t i t i o n e r . The worker must c o n s i d e r t h a t a l l h i s / h e r c r o s s c u l t u r a l encounters are p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , they may d i s c o v e r or e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n which enhance the understanding of the worker. The m a j o r i t y of s o c i a l worker respondents of t h i s study f e l t t h a t working with people from other c u l t u r e s i s rewarding and e n r i c h i n g . l t would be ve r y h e l p f u l i f i n h i s / h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , the worker would have access to c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; n e v e r t h e l e s s the c r o s s c u l t u r a l encounters should be t r e a t e d as l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The e t h n i c a l l y competent worker has to have knowledge of c u l t u r a l resources a v a i l a b l e to the c l i e n t , and how to u t i l i z e those r e s o u r c e s . The resources being not o n l y the network of community agencies and r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s , but the i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l s , and customs t h a t help e t h n i c c l i e n t w i t h i n h i s / h e r own community. The s o c i a l worker should be the p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n about the problems f a c i n g m i n o r i t y groups and the adequacy or inadequacy of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s which e x i s t t o s o l v e them. The v e r y c h o i c e of s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n i s an i n d i c a t i o n of per s o n a l and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s which must a f f e c t the worker's own a t t i t u d e s towards the c l i e n t s . At the same time, the c l i e n t must not be i n f l u e n c e d by the worker's b i a s . In t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n , c l i e n t and worker, they have to be both aware of t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , but i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the worker to a p p r e c i a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s and the importance of l e a v i n g the c l i e n t f r e e to make the most a p p r o p r i a t e a d a p t a t i o n s (King. P., 1982). I t should be a l s o noted t h a t i f the e t h n i c i s s u e i s of c r u c i a l importance, the s o c i a l worker has to be aware of the immigrant s t r u c t u r a l p o s i t i o n i n the workforce and the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e , a t the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f e c t i n g h i s / h e r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . In the present economic s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where unemployment i s i n c r e a s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y among groups such as 145 immigrants, and with the l i k e l i h o o d of c o n t i n u i n g cuts i n government expenditure r e s u l t i n g i n a decrease i n s e r v i c e s such as w e l f a r e , h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l and community workers w i l l continue to have a major r o l e to p l a y i n l i n k i n g with other workers and groups i n the community to s t r u g g l e f o r human j u s t i c e and f o r r e s o l v i n g the problems of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . " A l l m i n o r i t i e s face a common c h a l l e n g e today, namely coping with and working to change the oppresive s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s that the s o c i e t y ' s d e c i s i o n makers have brought about." 12 The s o c i a l worker should be able to sympathize with the problems of the immigrant c l i e n t , while c o n t r i b u t i n g to knowledge and understanding f o r h i s / h e r c l i e n t of the Canadian s o c i e t y . 5. The Need f o r More Research I t i s r a t h e r p e c u l i a r t h a t In a n a t i o n made up from a v a r i e t y of e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l groups there i s l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h i n the area of e t h n i c i t y , the adjustment p a t t e r n s and d i f f i c u l t i e s of adjustment i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . The s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n i n the area of e t h n i c i t y has to make more use of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h i n i d e n t i f y i n g needs and d e s i g n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e p a t t e r n of s e r v i c e s f o r the immigrants; the s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n has to examine government p o l i c y of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , i n order to g a i n understanding of i t s b a s i c assumptions; the s o c i a l work has to perform r e s e a r c h on how to i n f l u e n c e s o c i a l change. To mention of few areas where r e s e a r c h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y needed: s o c i a l l i f e p a t t e r n s and r o l e s of e t h n i c groups; p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the process of adjustment; the e f f e c t s of s p e c i a l measures of p o s i t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; commonalities between the i n f o r m a l mutual support system of v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups, e t c . I t i s a l s o the b e l i e f of the author of t h i s study t h a t , v e r y l i t t l e i s known about the i m p l i c a t i o n s on the Immigrants' mental h e a l t h as a r e s u l t of t h e i r r e j e c t i o n by the host s o c i e t y . c h r o n i c r e j e c t i o n because o£ e t h n i c o r i g i n , s k i n colour or d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e i s a d e v a s t a t i n g experience with d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s and s o c i e t y ' s mental h e a l t h . And i f the government, the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e , and each member of the host s o c i e t y hold the o p i n i o n t h a t immigrants are a s s e t s and not burdens, the Canadian s o c i e t y and i t s i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be b e t t e r p r o g r e s s i n g . FOOTNOTES CHAPTER I 1. Canada, Report Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects f o r Canada, M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1985, p.659. 2. K r a u t e r , J . , and Davis, M., M i n o r i t y Canadians, Methuen P u b l i c a t i o n s , Toronto, 1978, p.5. 3. Richmond, Anthony, Aspects of the Ab s o r b t i o n and Adaptation of Immigrants, Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa, 1974, p.2. 4. Canada, R.R.C.E.D. op. c i t . p.660. 5. Canada, Annual Report to Parliament on Future Immigration L e v e l s , Employment and Immigration Department, Ottawa, 1986, p.2. 6. Canada, A.R.P.F.E.I.L. op. c i t . p. 7. 7. Kalbach, W., Immigration and P o p u l a t i o n Change, TESL -T a l k : Immigration and M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m - A Decade t o Review, 1979, p. 23. 8. J a k u b o v i t z , A., i n Community Work or S o c i a l Change, by Rosamund and P e t r u c h e n i a , Routledge and Kegan P a u l , London, 1985, p.35. 1980, p.3. 9. Fernando, T., and Prasad, K., M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and Employment E q u i t y , A.M.S.S.A., Vancouver, 1986, p. 3. 10. Canada, E q u a l i t y Now! Report of S p e c i a l Committee on P a r t i c i p a t i o n of V i s i b l e M i n o r i t i e s i n Canadian S o c i e t y , Ottawa, 19 84, p. 1. 11. Canada, E q u a l i t y Now !, op. c i t . p. 5. 12. Seebaran, R., and Mc Niven, C , E t h n i c i t y , M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and S o c i a l Work Education, Canadian J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Work Educ a t i o n , V o l . 5, Nr 2/3, 1979, p. 125. 13. B o l a r i a , S., and L i , P . , R a c i a l Oppression i n Canada, Garamond Pr e s s , Toronto, 1985, p. 30. 14. Ibidem. 15. B o l a r i a , S., and L i , P., op. c i t , p. 31. 16. Fernando, T., and Prasad, K., op. c i t . p. 5. 17. De Vos, G., and Rommanucci, R., E t h n i c I d e n t i t y - C u l t u r a l C o n t i n u i t i e s and Change, M a y f i e l d P u b l i s h i n g , Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a , 1975, p. 15. 18. De Vos, op. c i t . p. 26. 19. De Vos, op. c i t . p. 17. 20. Greeley, A., Making i t i n America, E t h n i c Groups and S o c i a l S t a t u s , S o c i a l P o l i c y , Sep/Oct. 1973, p.22. 21. L i g h t , Ivan, E t h n i c s u c c e s s i o n , i n E t h n i c Change by Keyes, C , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, S e a t t l e , 1981, p. 80. 22. Burgest, David, S o c i a l Casework I n t e r v e n t i o n with people of c o l o r , U n i v e r s i t y Press of America, Lanham, 1985, p.xv. 23. G r i e r , and Gobbs, Black Rage, B a s i c Books, New-York, 1968, p.129. 24. Burgest, David, S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e with M i n o r i t i e s , The Scarecrow Press Inc., 1982, p. 43. 25. Canada, Report Royal Commossion, op. c i t . p. 660. CHAPTER II 1. Moss, Rudolf, Human Ada p t a t i o n , D.C. Health and Company, Massachussets,1976, p. 13. 2. Moss, Rudolf, op. c i t . p. 20. 3. Poduska, Bernard, Understanding Psychology and Dimensions of Adjustment, Mc Graw H i l l Book Company, New-York, 1980, p. 78. 4. Poduska, Bernard, op. c i t . p.80. 5. Sawrey, J . , and T e l f o r d , C , Psychology of Adjustment, 149 A l l y n and Bacon Inc., Boston, 1971, p. 31. 6. H i l l , D a n i e l , Human Rights In Canada - a Focus on Racism, Canadian Labour Congress, 1977, p. 13. 7. A l l p o r t , Gordon, The Nature of P r e j u d i c e , Wesley, P u b l i s h i n g Company, Reading Massachussets, 1979, p. 9. 8. Campfens, Hubert, R e t h i n k i n g Community Development i n a Changing S o c i e t y , O n t a r i o Community Development S o c i e t y , 1982, p. 231. 9. UNESCO, D e c l a r a t i o n on Race and R a c i a l P r e j u d i c e , 1978, p. 4. 10. B o l a r i a , S., and L i , P., R a c i a l Oppression i n Canada, Garamond Press, Toronto, 1985, p.7. 11. H i l l , D a n i e l , op. c i t . p.17. 12. B o l a r i a , S., and L i , P., R a c i a l M i n o r i t i e s i n M u l t i c u l t u r a l Canada, Garamond Pr e s s , Toronto, 1983, p. 20. 13. B o l a r i a , S . , and L l , P., R a c i a l Oppression In Canada, Garamond Pr e s s , Toronto, 1985, p. 30. 14. Canada, E q u a l i t y Now! Report of S p e c i a l Committee on P a r t i c i p a t i o n of V i s i b l e M i n o r i t i e s i n Canadian S o c i e t y , Ottawa, 1984, p. 4. 15. Canada, E q u a l i t y Now !, op. c i t . p. 138. 16. Canada, Report of the Commission on E q u a l i t y i n Employment, ( A b e l l a , R e p o rt), Ottawa, 1985, p.51. 17. A l l p o r t , Gordon, op. c i t . p. 224. 18. W i l l i a m s , R., The Reduction of Intergroup Tensions, S o c i a l Science Research C o u n c i l , New-York, 1947 B u l l e t i n , p. 57. CHAPTER I I I 1. Reid and Smith, Research i n S o c i a l Work, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New-York, 1981, p. 67. 2. G l a s e r , Barney, T h e o r e t i c a l S e n s i t i v i t y , The S o c i o l o g y Press, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , San F r a n c i s c o , 1978, p.75. 3. Hern, Gordon, The General System Approach - C o n t r i b u t i o n s Toward an H o l i s t i c Conception of S o c i a l Work, C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Work Education, New - Work, 1969, p. 2. 4. T o f f l e r , A l v i n , Future Shock, Random House, New - York, 1970, p.4. 5. Fernando, T., and Prasad, K., M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and Employment E q u i t y - Problems F a c i n g F o r e i g n T r a i n e d P r o f e s s i o n a l s and Tradespeople i n B.C. Vancouver, AMMSA, 1986,p. 59. 5. Canada, Report to Parliament by the S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee on Immigration P o l i c y , Ottawa, 1975, p.8. CHAPTER IV 1. Reid and Smith, Research U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New - York, 2. Patton, Miquel, Q u a l i t a t y l v e P u b l i c a t i o n s , London, 1980, p. 3. Pa t t o n , Miquel, op. c i t . p.29. 4. Ibidem. i n S o c i a l Work, Columbia 1981, p. 67. E v a l u a t i o n Methods, Sage 28. CHAPTER V 1. Mc Gowan, Sharon, Immigrant Women i n Canada, Report - B.C. Task Force on Immigrant Women, Vancouver, 1982, p. 7. 2. Canada, Immigrant P e r c e p t i o n s of Screening Procedures f o r Employment, Vancouver, M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y , 1983, p.14. 3. Canada, E q u a l i t y Now ! op. c i t . p.40. 4. Fernando, T., and Prasad, K., op. c i t . p. 7. 5. Canada, E q u a l i t y Now ! op. c i t . p.3. CHAPTER VI 1. Berry, John, W., P s y c h o l o g i c a l A d a p t a t i o n of F o r e i g n Students, i n I n t e r c u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g and Assesment-Global P e r s p e c t i v e , C.I. Hogrefe Inc., 1985, p. 239. 2. V a l e n t i n e , C.A., D e f i c i t , D i f f e r e n c e and B i c u l t u r a l Models of A f r o - American Behaviour, Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, Nr 41, 1971, p. 143. 3. Devore, W., and S c h l e s i n g e r , E., E t h n i c - S e n s i t i v e S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e , The C.V. Mosby Company, S t . L o u i s , 1981, p. 104. 4. De Hoyos and De Hoyos, S o c i o c u l t u r a l D i s l o c a t i o n , Beyond the Dual P e r s p e c t i v e , S o c i a l Work, v o l . 31, n r . l , 1986, p. 63. 5. De Hoyos and De Hoyos, op. c i t . p.65. 6. Green, James, C u l t u r a l Awareness i n the Human S e r v i c e s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1982, p. 27 . 7. B i e s t e k , F., The Casework R e l a t i o n s h i p , U n i v e r s i t y Books, London, F o r t h Impression, 1967, p.72. 8. B i e s t e k , F e l i x , op. c i t . p. 103. 9. B i e s t e k , F e l i x , o p . c i t . p. 50. 10. Green, James, op. c i t . p. 52. 11. Green, James, op. c i t . p. 55. 12. 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Samuda, R. et a l . , Samuda, R., and Wolfgang, A.,: M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Canada: S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s , A l l y n and Bacon, Boston, 1984. I n t e r c u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g and Assessment G l o b a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , C.J. Hogrefe, Inc., Toronto, 1985. Sanders, D a n i e l , Dynamics of E t h n i c and C u l t u r a l P l u r a l i s m , I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l Work Education and C u r r i c u l u m Innovation, J o u r n a l of Ed u c a t i o n f o r S o c i a l Work, v o l . 11, N 3, 1975. Sawrey, J . , and T e l f o r d , C h a r l e s , : Schensul, Stephen, and Schensul, Jean,: Psychology of Adjustment, Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1971. A l l y n and Advocacy and A p p l i e d Antropology, i n George Weber and George, Mc C a l l s , ( e d s . ) , S o c i a l S c i e n t i s t s as Advocates, Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s , Ca., 1978. Seebaran, Roop, and Mc Niven, C h r i s , : E t h n i c i t y , M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and S o c i a l Work Education, Canadian J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Work Education, Vol.5, N 2/3, 1979. S e l y e , H.,: S i l v a , J . , : The S t r e s s York, 1964. of L i f e , B a s i c Books, New Cross C u l t u r a l and Cross E t h n i c Assessment, i n Our Kingdom Stands on B r i t t l e G l a s s , i n G. Gibson (ed): S i l v e r S p r i n g , Md., NASW., 19 83. S i p o r i n , Max, Skeoch, Alan and Smith, Tony,: I n t r o d u c t i o n to S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e , The Mc M i l l a n Company, New York 19 75. Canadians and t h e i r s o c i e t y , Mc c l l e l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , Toronto, 1973. Smith, H.W.,: S t r a t e g i e s of S o c i a l Research, P r e n t i c e 164 Hall inc., Englewood c l i f f s , New Jersey 1981. S t o n e q u l s t , E. V., The O r i g i n a l Man, S c r l b n e r s , New York, 1973 . T a l l e n t , Norman,: Tienhara, N., T o f f l e r , A l v i n , : Torpe, Rosamund,: T r i a n d i s , H.C.: Trovato, Frank, Trudeau, B.,: Psychology of Adjustment, D. Van Nostrand Company, New york, 1972. Canadians Views on Immigration and P o p u l a t i o n , i n M i n o r i t y Canadians, E t h n i c Groups, Krauter and Davies, Methuen, P u b l i c a t i o n s , Toronto, 1978. Future Shock, Random House, New York, 1970. Community Work or S o c i a l change, An A u s t r a l i a n P e r s p e c t i v e , Routledge and Kegan Pa u l , London, 1985. S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e and I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s Across C u l t u r e s , i n Loeb, Adler (Eds), Issues i n Cross C u l t u r a l Research, Annals of the New York Reading of S c i e n c e s , New York, 1977. S u i c i d e and E t h n i c F a c t o r s i n Canada, i n S o c i a l P s y c h i a t r y , vol.23, N 3, 1986. Report on E n g l i s h as a Second Language f o r A d u l t s i n B.C., Prepared f o r Department of S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , May, 1982. Vancouver M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y : V a l e n t i n e , C h a r l e s , : Immigrant p e r c e p t i o n s of Screening Procedures f o r Employment, 1983. D e f i c i t , D i f f e r e n c e , and B i c u l t u r a l Modes of A f r o American Behaviour, Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, N 41, May, 1977. V a l e n t i n e , C h a r l e s , : C u l t u r e and Poverty, C r i t i q u e and Counter P r o p o s a l , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1986. V i g i l a n t e , J.L.,: E t h n i c A f f i r m a t i o n or K i s s Me I am I t a l i a n , S o c i a l Work, vol.17, N 3, 1972. Warner, W. and S r o l e , L.,: The S o c i a l Systems of American E t h n i c Groups, New Haven Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, Conn., 1945. W i l l i a m s , R. M.,: The Reduction of Intergroup Tension, S o c i a l Science Research C o u n c i l , B u l l e t i n , 1947, New York. Y e l a j a , Shanhar,: Canadian S o c i a l P o l i c y , W i f r i e d L a u r i e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Waterloo, O n t a r i o , 1978 . Y e l a j a , Shanhar,: E t h i c a l Issues i n S o c i a l Work, C h a r l e s , C. Thomas P u b l i s h e r , S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , 1982. Younghusband, E i l e e n , : S o c i a l Work and S o c i a l Change, George A l l e n and Unwin, London, 1964. Young, P a u l i n e , : S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Survey and Research, P r e n t i c e H a l l Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , New Je r s e y , 1966. 166 Appendix A October 17, 1986 Dear P r o s p e c t i v e P a r t i c i p a n t , I am a Master's Degree Studentat the School of S o c i a l Wark at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Part of my course requirement i n v o l v e s conducting a r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the process of adjustment of immigrants i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . I have chosen f o r my p r o j e c t to focus on t h i s i s s u e because I am an immigrant myself, and I experienced the s t r e s s of c u l t u r a l r e l o c a t i o n and the process of adjustment i n t o a new c u l t u r e . The present r e s e a r c h which i s an e x p l o r a t o r y p r o j e c t i s ment to f i n d out about: the d i f f e r e n t aspects of the process of adjustment; the p e r c e p t i o n s of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l / s e t t l e m e n t workers i n regard to necessary s k i l l s , q u a l i t i e s and knowledge i n working with immigrants; and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the Host Program o f f e r e d through Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y on the process of adjustment. T h i s l e t t e r i s to request your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n my r e s e a r c h . To q u a l i f y each person must be a r r i v e d i n Vancouver i n the l a s t s i x months. Each person would be inter v i e w e d by myself at the Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y or i n t h e i r own home (wherever i s more convenient f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t ) . The i n t e r v i e w would l a s t about 60 - 90 minutes, and would center around q u e s t i o n s about the experience of c u l t u r a l r e l o c a t i o n and the process of adjustment. The i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be scheduled at your convenience i n February 1987. I wish to e m p h a t i c a l l y assure you t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n requested i n your i n t e r v i e w w i l l be t r e a t e d c o n f i d e n t i a l l y by myself. Your 168 Appendix B I n t e r v i e w Information and Consent Form The Process of Adjustment of Immigrants i n t o Canadian S o c i e t y P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the above study w i l l be r e q u i r e d to be a v a i l a b l e f o r a 60 - 90 minutes i n t e r v i e w with the w r i t e r . The purpose i s to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , i d e a s , thoughts about the adjustment from immigrants. T h i s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e b e t t e r understanding and responsiveness to need on the p a r t of the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . A l l responses w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . Your p a r t i p a t l o n i s e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y . You may withdraw from the study a t any time you may wish to d i s c o n t i n u e or you may d e c l i n e to answer any of the q u e s t i o n s . The i n t e r v i e w notes w i l l be destroyed a t the end of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t time (June, 1987). The w r i t e r w i l l be happy to answer f u r t h e r questions the p a r t i c i p a n t may have p r i o r to commencing the i n t e r v i e w . Your s i g n a t u r e below i n d i c a t e s t h a t you have read t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Thank you f o r the c o n t r i b u t i o n of your time and e f f o r t s i n t h i s endeavor. Elena L i l i a n a Oproescu M.S.W. Candidate. I, , understand the terms of . t h i s study as o u t l i n e d above, and consent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. I acknowledge r e c e i p t of a copy of t h i s consent form, Signature of Research P a r t i c i p a n t Date : 170 Appendix C (Face Sheet On Qu e s t i o n n a i r e ) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Survey The p e r c e p t i o n of r e s e t t l e m e n t workers of the necessary s k i l l s , knowledge, q u a l i t i e s and values i n working with c l i e n t s from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . The present study i s sponsored by the Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y , and i s conducted by a Master of S o c i a l Work Student a t U.B.C. The purpose of t h i s q u e s t i o i n n a i r e i s to g a i n an understanding of what m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t workers, p e r c e i v e as necessary s k i l l s , knowledge, values and q u a l i t i e s i n working with immigrants. The study has been designed so the questions are r e a d i l y answered, and we expect the average.time to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to be 25-30 minutes. Some of the questions might not be a p p l i c a b l e to your present p o s i t i o n . F e e l f r e e to use the l a s t page of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments you might have. A l l your comments w i l l be c a r e f u l l y read and taken i n t o account. No name i s requested, t h e r e f o r e the i n f o r m a t i o n you provide i s c o n f i d e n t i a l . The data as you provide i t w i l l be used by the re s e a r c h e r and r e s e a r c h e r a d v i s o r only. The r e t u r n s from you w i l l be destroyed a t the end of r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t time (june, 1987). Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y , and you may withdraw from the study a t any time you may wish to do so. To ensure t h a t the r e s u l t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s used or of b e n e f i t to you and other m u l t i c u l t u r a l / r e s e t t l e m e n t workers, the major f i n d i n g s 171 w i l l be presented to the Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y , and other s e r v i c e s concerned with c u l t u r a l awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y i n working with immigrants. Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . E l e n a L i l i a n a Oproescu, I n v e s t i g a t o r January 29, 1987 172 Appendix D. M u l t i c u l t u r a l / R e s e t t l e m e n t Worker: S k i l l s , Values and Knowledge necessary i n d a i l y p r a c t i c e . In our M u l t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y , e t h n i c and m i n o r i t y group c l i e n t s are e n t i t l e d to competent, p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s as are a l l other persons. S o c i a l S e r v i c e s can and should be provided to people i n ways which are c u l t u r a l l l y a c c e p t a b l e to them and which enhance t h e i r sense of e t h n i c group p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Your agency i s d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e s to d i f f e r e n t m i n o r i t i e s , and, you as a p a r t of your agency are o f t e n d e a l i n g with the most int i m a t e and p e r s o n a l kind of i n d i v i d u a l problems. I. T h i s s e c t i o n covers q u e s t i o n s about your background, and i s i n c l u d e d so we can i n t e r p r e t the r e s u l t s . 1. What i s your gender? Please c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e number. 1. male 2. female. 2. What i s your age group? Please c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e number. 1. 20-25 years 2. 26-30 years 3. 31-35 years 4. 36-40 years 5. 41-45 years 6. 46-50 years 7. 51-55 years 8. 56-60 years 3. What i s the l e n g t h of time you have worked with immigrants? Please £ 1 1 1 i n the blanks. ( ) years ( ) months How long have you worked f o r Immigrant S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y ? Please f i l l i n the blanks. ( ) years ( ) months Your job t i t l e i s : Which one of the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e s your edu c a t i o n as a r e s e t t l e m e n t worker? Please c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e number(s). 1. C o l l e g e l e v e l ( t e c h n i c a l or diploma programme) 2. Bachelor degree ( s p e c i f y f i e l d of study, e.g. Psychology, S o c i a l Work, e t c . ) . 3. Master Degree ( s p e c i f y f i e l d of s t u d y ) . 4. Other ( S p e c i f y ) . P a r t of t h i s study i s to l e a r n about your p e r c e p t i o n of your working environment, about your job s a t i s f a c t i o n . How do you f e e l about your job? Please c i r c l e one. 1. very p o s i t i v e 2. p o s i t i v e 3. n e u t r a l 4. negative 5. very negative Do you f i n d your job as being: number(s) Please c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e 174 1. p l e a s a n t 2. rewarding 3. comfortable 4. d i f f i c u l t 5. s t r e s s f u l 9. How do you f e e l about working with people from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s ? Please c i r c l e one. 1. v e r y p o s i t i v e 2. p o s i t i v e 3. n e u t r a l 4. negative 5. v e r y negative 10. In which one from the f o l l o w i n g have you spent most of the time i n the year of 1986? Please c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e number(s). 1. D i r e c t s e r v i c e to c l i e n t s 2. Recording, w r i t i n g assessments 3. C l e r i c a l work 4. Research, program development 5. Others ( s p e c i f y ) 11. Do you have a t your o f f i c e the o p p o r t u n i t y to get informed about the c u l t u r a l background of your c l i e n t s , i f you f e e l t h a t t h i s i s necessary? Please c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e number. 1. none of the time 2. a l i t t l e of the time 3. sometimes 4. a good p a r t of the time. 5. most of the time 12. Please r a t e your c l i e n t s on a three p o i n t s c a l e from "high" to "low" on the f o l l o w i n g items: Please check ( ) the a p p r o p r i a t e items: C l i e n t behavior. R a t i n g high medium low Comfort i n i n t e r v i e w . A b i l i t y to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y . M o t i v a t i o n f o r h e l p . A b i l i t y to seek out a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s on t h e i r own. Keeping up appointment time. S a t i s f a c t i o n with s e r v i c e s . 13 How do you f e e l about d i s c u s s i n g with your c l i e n t s t h e i r background and c u l t u r e ? Please c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e number. 1. Very comfortable. 2. Comfortable. 3. Somewhat comfortable. 4. Uncomfortable. 5. Very uncomfortable. 14 On the b a s i s of your experience at the present agency what changes would you recommend, i f any, i n order to g i v e more job s a t i s f a c t i o n ? Please e l a b o r a t e . I I I . Next, I would l i k e to ask you about your p e r c e p t i o n toward the necessary s k i l l s , knowledge and values i n working with immigrants. 15. Which one of the f o l l o w i n g s k i l l s would you c o n s i d e r the most important i n your d a i l y work? Please put a p p r o p r i a t e numbers i n each box. 176 J Very important -_-_________, Important I R e l a t i v e l y important [ Unimportant | ( T o t a l l y unimportant. S k i l l i n : 1. L i s t e n i n g to others with understanding and purpose. 2. E l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and i n assembling r e l e v a n t f a c t s to prepare a s o c i a l h i s t o r y , assessment and r e p o r t . 3. C r e a t i n g and monitoring p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and i n u s i n g o n e s e l f i n r e l a t i o n s h i p . 4. Observing and i n t e r p r e t i n g v e r b a l and nonverbal behaviour. 5. Engaging c l i e n t s i n e f f o r t s to r e s o l v e t h e i r own problems. 6. D i s c u s s i n g s e n s i t i v e emotional s u b j e c t s i n an u n t h r e a t e n i n g , s u p p o r t i v e manner. 7. Determining the need to end t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , and how to do so. 8 . C r e a t i n g i n n o v a t i v e s o l u t i o n s to c l i e n t s needs. 9. I n t e r p r e t i n g the f i n d i n g s of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . 10. Mediating and n e g o t i a t i n g between c o n f l i c t e d p a r t i e s . 11. I n t e r p r e t i n g or communicating. 12. P r o v i d i n g l n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . 13. Others ( S p e c i f y ) . 16. Which one of the f o l l o w i n g aread would you c o n s i d e r the most u s e f u l i n your p r a c t i c e ? Please put a p p r o p r i a t e numbers i n each box: Very u s e f u l ] U s e f u l R e l a t i v e l y u s e f u l Unuseful J T o t a l l y u n u s e f u l Knowledge o f : 177 1. Casework and group work theory and techiqwues. 2. Community resources and s e r v i c e s . 3. B a s i c f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s programs and t h e i r purpose. 4. S o c i a l and environmental f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g c l i e n t s to be served. 5. Sources of p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a p p r o p r i a t e to p r a c t i c e . 6. R a c i a l , e t h n i c or other c u l t u r a l groups i n s o c i e t y , t h e i r values and l i f e s t y l e s . 7. The t h e o r y of human growth and development and of f a m i l y and of f a m i l y and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . 8. C r i s e s i n t e r v e n t i o n t h e o r i e s and techniques. 9. B e h a v i o u r a l dynamics. 10. Teaching and i n s t r u c t i o n a l t h e o r i e s and t e c h n i q u e s . 11. Others ( s p e c i f y ) 17. In your d a i l y experience working with immigrants you might have found important values that you based on your judgements, a c t i o n s , d e c i s i o n s , and i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Can you please enumerate few of these? IV T h i s p a r t i s concerned with c u l t u r a l awareness. 18. How o f t e n d i d you f i n d i t necessary to c o n s i d e r any p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e i n order to have been more e f f e c t i v e ? Please c i r c l e the a p p r o p r i a t e number. 1. None of the time. 2. A l i t t l e of the time. 3. Sometimes. 4. A good p a r t of the time. 5. Most or a l l the time. 19. Were there any areas i n which you f e l t you needed more knowledge of any p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e i n order to hase been more e f f e c t i v e ? Please c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e numbers. 178 1. A d a p t a t i o n to s t r e s s . 2. F a m i l y dynamics. 3. A t t i t u d e s toward b u r e a u c r a c i e s . 4. Concepts of time. 5. A s s e s i n g emotional needs. 6. Marriage. 7. Health. 8. R e l i g i o n . 9. Sex r o l e s . 10. Sex s t a t u s . 11. C h i l d r e a r i n g . 12. Community involvement. 13. Community awareness. 14. Others ( s p e c i f y ) . 20. In your a c t u a l p o s i t i o n are you encouraged by your s u p e r v i s o r to p a r t i c i p a t e i n any kind of formal or i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n about c u l t u r a l values or p a t t e r n s of behaviour t h a t are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups? Pl e s e c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e number. 1. None o£ the time. 2. A l i t t l e of the time. 3. Sometimes. 4. A good p a r t of the time. 5. Most or a l l of the time. 21. Do you t h i n k you are g e t t i n g enough i n f o r m a t i o n about c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s of your c l i e n t s ? Please c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e numbers 1. Hardly ever. 2. O c c a s i o n a l l y . 3. Sometimes. 4. F r e q u e n t l y . 5. Almost always. 179 22. Do you have any p a r t i c u l a r recommendations t h a t you wish to make i n r e l a t i o n to the f o l l w i n g items? If you ,do, then: 1. C l i e n t s . 2. C o l l e a q u e s . 3. S u p e r v i s o r . 4. Agency. 5. Oters ( s p e c i f y ) . 23. Please w r i t e below any a d d i t i o n a l comments you may wish to make. Thank you ve r y much f o r your help and c o o p e r a t i o n . Your c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s study i s very g r a t e l y a p p r e c i a t e d . 180 APPENDIX E INTERVIEW GUIDE I. DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONS 1. age 2. m a r i t a l s t a t u s 3. number of c h i l d r e n 4. ed u c a t i o n 5. p r o f e s s i o n 6. country of o r i g i n 7. c i t i z e n s h i p 8. r e l i g i o n ( o p t i o n a l ) 9. date on a r r i v a l i n Canada. I I . RESEARCH QUESTIONS A l l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s w i l l be v e r b a l l y g i v e n to the p a r t i c i p a n t s . They attempt to e l i c i t thoughts, f e e l i n g s and op i n i o n s about t h e i r experiences as immigrants. 1. Would you pl e a s e , t e l l me about your l i f e experience i n the l a s t year before coming to Canada. ( d i d you come from a l a r g e family;, d i d you l i v e i n a c i t y or v i l l a g e ; how was i t l i k e to l i v e t h e r e ; d i d you have to s t a y i n a refugee camp?). How would you b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e t h i s p e r i o d of your l i f e ? 2. Now I would l i k e to ask you about you d e c i s i o n to emmigrate (di d you take t h i s d e c i s i o n alone; was there anybody t h a t i n f l u e n c e d you; was Canada the o n l y choice you had, or d i d you have some other c h o i c e s ; what d i d you know about Canada; why d i d you choose Canada?) 3. Would you please d e s c r i b e your f e e l i n g s about l i v i n g i n 181 Canada? 4. Next, I would l i k e you to t e l l me about your l i f e now (where do you l i v e ; how i s your neighborhood l i k e ; would l i k e to remain i n Vancouver or would you l i k e to move?) 5. Next, I would l i k e to d i s c u s s with you about your job s i t u a t i o n . (what i s your p r o f e s s i o n , are you working or l o o k i n g f o r work; how s a t i s f i e d are you with the o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e l a t e d to your p r o f e s s i o n ; what are your plans f o r the f u t u r e i n r e l a t i o n to your p r o f e s s i o n ) . 6. Can you make a few comments about your E n g l i s h Language knowledge, ( d i d you speak any E n g l i s h p r i o r to your a r r i v a l i n Canada; where d i d you l e a r n E n g l i s h ; how do you f e e l about your E n g l i s h now; how important i s i t to you to speak a r e f i n e d E n g l i s h , does the accent bother you? 7. What kind of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are you i n v o l v e d i n a t the present? (do you have r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d s to v i s i t ; are you i n touch with your own e t h n i c community; what i s d i f f e r e n t from what you d i d i n your country as r e c r e a t i o n and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ) . 8. How do you p e r c e i v e the a t t i t u d e s of Canadian people towards immigrants l i k e you (how do you p e r c e i v e the a t t i t u d e of the average Canadian toward you; how do you p e r c e i v e the a t t i t u d e of government employees t h a t you have been i n touch with; how s a t i s f i e d are you with the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s t h a t you have r e c e i v e d ; do you have any suggestions f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h a t are working with immigrants). 9. Now, I would l i k e you to d e s c r i b e how the changes of the process of r e l o c a t i o n a f f e c t e d you and your f a m i l y (how d i d t h a t a f f e c t your f a m i l y ; are there any changes i n the r o l e s of the household; are there any changes i n your h a b i t s , l i f e s t y l e s ; how would you b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e i n a s h o r t sentence your experience as an immigrant?) 182 10. T h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l ask you to take a few moments and express your f e e l i n g s , o p i n i o n s and thoughts about your experience as an immigrant i n Canada (how do you f e e l about your experience as an immigrant, what are your f e e l i n g s toward the country t h a t adopted you; what do you a p p r e c i a t e the most i n Canadian s o c i e t y ; how do you f e e l about l i v i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y ; how do you f e e l about other people, customs, t r a d i t i o n s and values; how i n t e r e s t e d are you i n l e a r n i n g about new c u l t u r e s , t r a d i t i o n s and customs; how do you see the f u t u r e of Canada as a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . ) 11. Did you have a host; i f you had one or are having one, can you please t e l l me what that meant to you? 12. Are there any recommendations, s u g g e s t i o n s , comments t h a t you would l i k e to make? Is there anything e l s e you wish to add? APPENDIX F GENERALIZED CONTENTMENT SCALE (GCS) Name: Today's Date: This questionnaire is designed to measure the degree of content-ment that you feel about your life and surroundings. It is not a test, so there arc no right or wrong answers. Answer each item as carefully and accurately as you can by placing a number beside each one as follows: 1 Rarely or none of the time 2 A little of the time 3 Some of the time 4 Good part of the time 5 Most or all of the time Please begin: 1. I feel powerless to do anything about my life. 2. I feel blue. 3. I am restless and can't keep still. 4. I have crying spells. 5. It is easy for me to relax. 6. I have a hard time getting started on things that I need to do. 7. I do not sleep well at night. 8. When things get tough, I feci there is always someone I can turn to. 9. I feel that the future looks bright for mc. 10. I feel downhearted. 11. I feel that I am needed. 12. I feel that I am appreciated by others. 13. I enjoy being active and busy. 14. I feel that others would be better off without me. 15. I enjoy being with other people. 16. I feel it is easy for me to make decisions. 17. I feel downtrodden. 18. I am irritable. 19. I get upset easily. 20. I feel that I don't deserve to have a good time. 21. I have a full life. 22. I feel that people really care about mc. 23. I have a great deal of fun. 24. I feel great in the morning. 25. I feel that my situation is hopeless. Reverse score item numbers: 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 21, 22, 23, and 24. Copyright © Walter W. Hudson, 1974. INDEX O F S E L F - E S T E E M (ISE) Name: Today's Date: This questionnaire is designed to measure how you see yourself. It is not a test, so there are no right or wrong answers. Please answer each item as carefully and accurately as you can by placing a number by each one as follows: 1 Rarely or none of the time 2 A little of the time 3 Some of the time 4 Good part of the time 5 Most or all of the time Please begin: 1. I feel that people would not like me if they really knew me well. 2. I feel that others gei along much better than 1 do. 3. I feel that I am a beautiful person. 4. When 1 am with other people I feel they are glad I am with them. 5. I feel that people really like to talk with me. 6. I feel that I am a very competent person. 7. I think I make a good impression on others. 8. I feel that I need more self-confidence. 9. When I am with strangers 1 am very nervous. 10. I think that I am a dull person. 11. 1 feel ugly. 12. I feel that others have more fun than 1 do. 13. I feel that I bore people. 14. I think my friends find me interesting. 15. I think I have a good sense of humor. 16. I feel very self-conscious when I am with strangers. 17. I feel that if I could be more like other people I would have it made. 18. I feel that people have a good time when they are with me. 19. I feel like a wallflower when 1 go out. 20. 1 feel 1 get pushed around more than others. 21. I think I am a rather nice person. 22. 1 feel that people really like mc very much. 23. I feel that I am a likeable person. 24. I am afraid I will appear foolish to others. 25. My friends think very highly of me. Reverse score item numbers: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 18, 21, 22, 23, and 25. Copyright © Walter W. Hudson, 1974. APPENDIX H 185 T O BE S O L D , A B L A C K W O M A N , named PEGGY, aged about forty years ; and a Black boy her fon, named JUPITER, a^ ed about fifteen yean, both of them the property of the. Subfcriher. The Woman, is a tolerable Cook and wafhrt woman and perfectly underftands making Soap and Candles. The Boy is tail and ftrong of his age, and has been employed in Country bunnefs, but brought up prin-cipally »s a Houfe Servant—They are ear.h o( them Servants fox life. The Price for the Wow^nisone hundred and fifty Dollars — for the Boy two hundred Dollars, payable in three years with Intereft from the day of Sale and to be properly fecurcd by Bond &c.— But one fourth left will be taken in ready Money. PETER RUSSELL. York, Feb. xotii 1806. Advertisement <>[ Sale of Slave* (Toronto), i'el'. '10, 7W6. Courtesy of Baldwin Room, Toronto Publie l.ihaiy. Source: Human Righ t s i n Canada- A Focus on Racism, by D a n i e l G. H i l l . , p u b l i s h e d by the Canadian Labor Congress, 1977. 

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