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Development of pigeon feed for commercial squab production in British Columbia Waldie, Gwenith A. 1986

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DEVELOPMENT OF PIGEON FEED FOR COMMERCIAL SQUAB PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BY GWENITH A. WALDIE B . S c . ( A g r . ) , Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Animal Science) We accept, t h i s thes i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY 1986 (g^ GWENITH A. WALDIE, 1986 3 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f ftwiMAk S c i£Nc£ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted t o e v a l u a t e the p r o t e i n and energy requirements of squabbing pigeons. The f i r B t experiment was c a r r i e d out a t a commercial farm, with b i r d s housed i n pens, each c o n t a i n i n g 10-12 p a i r s . Two p e l l e t e d f e e d s of d i f f e r e n t p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (low p r o t e i n (LP) with l&V. CP and 2937 k c a l ME/kg, and high p r o t e i n (HP) with 22% CP and 2783 k c a l ME/kg) were fe d , with and without whole y e l l o v corn, c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e . A low p r o t e i n i n t a k e was observed with LP + corn, which a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d squab growth and l i v a b i l i t y , without a f f e c t i n g egg p r o d u c t i o n t r a i t s or a d u l t body weight. HP without corn r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h p r o t e i n i n t a k e with no e f f e c t on squab p r o d u c t i o n . The o t h e r two treatments (HP + c o r n and LP) had i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o t e i n i n t a k e w h i l e squab p r o d u c t i o n was u n a f f e c t e d . I t was concluded t h a t the c a f e t e r i a f e e d i n g program (HP + corn) may be r e p l a c e d by a s i n g l e p e l l e t e d r a t i o n , such as LP, without a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g squab p r o d u c t i o n . The second experiment was c a r r i e d out a t t h e new UBC Pigeon N u t r i t i o n U n i t , t o determine the requirement f o r , and u t i l i z a t i o n of, d i f f e r e n t f a t sources by pigeons. B i r d s were housed i n p a i r - c a g e s and f e d one of 5 p e l l e t e d r a t i o n s , with 35 p a i r s per treatment. The treatments c o n s i s t e d of a b a s a l d i e t (with no added f a t , 15% crude p r o t e i n and 2650 k c a l ME/kg) t o which was added e i t h e r sunflower o i l <SFO) or animal t a l l o w (AT) at l e v e l s o f 3V. or &'/.. B i r d s f e d the b a s a l d i e t produced no squabs, vhereas those on oth e r treatments produced a t l e a s t & squabs. Intake data from the f i r s t seven weeks o f the t r i a l i n d i c a t e d t h a t pigeons eat t o meet an energy requirement o f approximately 235 k c a l HE per p a i r per week when not producing squabs. Energy i n t a k e o f those a d u l t s r a i s i n g squabs vas h i g h l y v a r i a b l e and d i d not appear t o c o r r e l a t e with squab p r o d u c t i o n . The source of f a t d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a f f e c t squab p r o d u c t i o n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v L I S T OF TABLES v i L I S T OF FIGURES v i i L I S T OF APPENDICES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x I INTRODUCTION 1 I I LITERATURE REVIEW 4 REPRODUCTION AND BREEDER MANAGEMENT IN PIGEONS 4 NUTRITION OF PIGEONS 9 A) I n t r o d u c t i o n 9 B) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g F e e d I n t a k e By P i g e o n s 11 C) P r o t e i n s 14 D) E n e r g y 17 i ) C a r b o h y d r a t e s i i J F a t s E) V i t a m i n s and M i n e r a l s 19 I I I EXPERIMENT ONE: EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON THE SQUAB PRODUCTION OF A PIGEON FLOCK IN A FLOOR PEN HOUSE, FED PELLETS WITH OR WITHOUT CORN, CAFETERIA-STYLE 28 I n t r o d u c t i o n 28 M a t e r i a l s and Methods 30 R e s u l t s 36 D i s c u s s i o n 40 i v page IV EXPERIMENT TWO: EFFECT OF SOURCE AND CONCENTRATION OF DIETARY ENERGY ON THE SQUAB PRODUCTION OF A PIGEON FLOCK IN PAIR-CAGES 47 I n t r o d u c t i o n 47 M a t e r i a l s and Methods 49 R e s u l t s 55 D i s c u s s i o n 70 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 77 VI LITERATURE CITED 80 V I I APPENDIX aa v LIST OF TABLES Table page 1. Composition of D i e t s f e d i n Experiment One 31 2. E f f e c t of d i e t a r y treatment on feed and n u t r i e n t i n t a k e s , Experiment One 37 3. Treatment e f f e c t s on body weights of growing squabs, Experiment One 38 4. P r o d u c t i o n t r a i t s of pigeons f e d p e l l e t s of d i f f e r e n t p r o t e i n l e v e l s , f e d with or without corn, c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e , Experiment One 41 5. E f f e c t of d i e t a r y treatment on i n i t i a l and f i n a l a d u l t body weights, Experiment One 42 6. Composition of D i e t s f e d i n Experiment Two 51 7. E f f e c t of d i e t a r y energy source and c o n c e n t r a t i o n on f e e d and n u t r i e n t i n t a k e , Experiment Two 59 8. E f f e c t of d i e t a r y f a t source and Concen-t r a t i o n on i n i t i a l and f i n a l a d u l t body weights, Experiment Two £1 9. Weekly body weights of growing squabs i n Experiment Two 63 10. Comparison of body weights of squabs r a i s e d as one- versus two-squab nests, Experiment Two 65 11. E f f e c t of d i e t a r y energy source and c o n c e n t r a t i o n on pigeon p r o d u c t i o n t r a i t s , Experiment Two 69 12. E f f e c t of mode of i n c u b a t i o n ( n a t u r a l or a r t i f i c i a l ) on squab p r o d u c t i o n , Experiment Two 71 v i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page> 1. E f f e c t o f d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t s on body w e i g h t s o f g r o w i n g squabs, E x p e r i m e n t One 39 2. F e e d i n t a k e o f p i g e o n s on E x p e r i m e n t Two 56 3. M e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r y i n t a k e o f p i g e o n s on E x p e r i m e n t Two 57 4. C r u d e P r o t e i n i n t a k e o f p i g e o n s on E x p e r i m e n t Two 58 5. Egg P r o d u c t i o n , E x p e r i m e n t Two 68 v i i L I S T OF APPENDICES A p p e n d i x page 1. Squab m o r t a l i t y i n E x p e r i m e n t One 88 2. Number o f Squabs H a t c h e d o v e r Time, E x p e r i m e n t Two 89 3. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s q u a b s p r o d u c e d i n E x p e r i m e n t Two 90 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am i n d e b t e d t o my t h e s i s a d v i s o r . Dr. J . S. Sim, f o r p r o v i d i n g v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e and a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f my g r a d u a t e program. S i n c e r e t h a n k s a r e a l s o due t o t h e o t h e r members o f my a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e : Dr. K. M. Cheng, Dr. R. C. F i t z s i m m o n s , and P r o f e s s o r B. E. March, f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t o f t h i s t h e s i s and f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e a d v i c e d u r i n g my program. My g r a t i t u d e i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o t h e many who have h e l p e d me, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e management o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d M o u n t a i n Squab Farm, Andrew R. Hickman, Mark Newcombe, Dr. R. I. McKay, and t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s and l a b o r a t o r y c o m m u n i t i e s o f b o t h A n i m a l S c i e n c e and P o u l t r y S c i e n c e . I am g r a t e f u l t o t h e B.C. S c i e n c e C o u n c i l f o r s u p p o r t i n g my r e s e a r c h w i t h a G.R.E.A.T. award, and t o t h e J a c o b B i e l y M e m o r i a l S c h o l a r s h i p Committee f o r c h o o s i n g me as t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h i s award i n 1985. i x INTRODUCTION: The p i g e o n h a s been u s e d as a m e a t - p r o d u c i n g s p e c i e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d f o r c e n t u r i e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , p i g e o n p r o d u c e r s and b r e e d e r s have f e d t h e i r b i r d s a m i x t u r e o f a v a i l a b l e l o c a l g r a i n s and a h e a l t h g r i t ( s e e page 2 6 ) . As i n any l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y , b a l a n c e d f e e d i s a b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t f o r e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , thex-e i s o n l y l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on t h e d i e t a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s p e c i f i c n u t r i e n t s o r on e x p e r i m e n t a l l y - p r o v e n b a l a n c e d f e e d f o r m u l a s f o r p i g e o n s . Much r e s e a r c h has been d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s d e f i n i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s a w e l l - b a l a n c e d r a t i o n u n d e r v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f c h i c k e n s and t u r k e y s . I t i s o n l y r e c e n t l y t h a t r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s have been d i r e c t e d t o o t h e r game b i r d s s u c h a s q u a i l , d u c k s , geese, p h e a s a n t and g u i n e a f o w l , and s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t y e t a v a i l a b l e f o r s q u a b b i n g p i g e o n s . P i g e o n s d i f f e r f r o m o t h e r p o u l t r y i n t h a t t h e i r m a t i n g and b r o o d i n g s y s t e m ( p a i r - b o n d f o r m a t i o n and t h e d e p e n d e n c e o f young on t h e p a r e n t s ) r e q u i r e s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a p a r e n t f l o c k ( r e f e r r e d t o a s " b r e e d e r s " ) . The b r e e d e r f l o c k c o n s i s t s o f p a i r s , e a c h o f w h i c h p r o d u c e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12-15 s q u a b s p e r y e a r . A s q u a b i s a young p i g e o n , m a r k e t e d a t 28-35 d a y s o f age, w e i g h i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 550-600 grams. 1 For the f i r s t 5 t o 7 days of l i f e , the a l t r i c i a l squabs are f e d e x c l u s i v e l y on a s e c r e t i o n s of the crop of the a d u l t s c a l l e d "crop milk". A squab-producing i n d u s t r y has e x i s t e d i n North America s i n c e the e a r l y 1900's ( L e v i , 1974). In the United S t a t e s , annual p r o d u c t i o n i s over one m i l l i o n squab (Cheng, 1986). T h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s 1% of the world p r o d u c t i o n of squab. In Europe, annual consumption i s i n the m i l l i o n s , with France and I t a l y c o m p r i s i n g the major market. Southeast Asian c o u n t r i e s are heavy consumers of pigeons. In Hong Kong, annual consumption i s approximately 5.5 m i l l i o n , (an average of one per c a p i t a >. The p r o j e c t e d demand f o r squabs i n Canada i s estimated t o be 500,000 per year (Marketing Research, Vancouver I s l a n d Mountain Squab Farm, 1983). The e t h n i c communities of Chinese, French and I t a l i a n s comprise the p r o j e c t e d market. The Chinese community i n Vancouver, numbering around 200,000, c u r r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t 80% of the Vancouver market and i t i s estimated t h a t t h i s community w i l l consume 200,000 squabs (an average of one squab per c a p i t a . ) Hence a h e a l t h y l o c a l market i s assured. The l o c a l product has a marketing advantage over the imported product, as i t can be prepared "New York 3 dressed", which the Chinese p r e f e r . Vancouver I s l a n d Mountain Squab Farm (V.I.M.) and another c o n t r a c t d i s t r i b u t o r i n Quebec have been i m p o r t i n g about 120,000 squabs per year from the U.S.A. s i n c e 1982 (Cheng, 1986). T h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e of a h e a l t h y nation-wide market. V.I.M., l o c a t e d i n L a n t z v i l l e , B.C., has a c a p a c i t y f o r 10,000 p a i r s of pigeons, which t r a n s l a t e s i n t o a p o s s i b l e annual p r o d u c t i o n o f 120,000 t o 150,000 squabs f o r the l o c a l market. V.I.M has been c o l l a b o r a t i n g with the U.B.C. Department of P o u l t r y S c i e n c e s i n c e 1982 to develop a f e e d i n g program f o r i t s breeding f l o c k . The f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s of t h i s p r o j e c t , aimed at advancing the knowledge of n u t r i t i o n of commercial squabbing pigeons i n B.C., so t h a t the r e s u l t s can be d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d t o the i n d u s t r y . T h i s study was s p e c i f i c a l l y i ntended t o examine the p r o t e i n and energy requirements of squabbing pigeons, i n i t i a l l y by comparing two feeds and two f e e d i n g systems; and then, by examining the r o l e of supplemental f a t i n r a t i o n s of squabbing pigeons. LITERATURE REVIEW 4 Reproduction and Breeder Management i n Pigeons Pigeons are unique i n s e v e r a l ways when compared to o t h e r domestic b i r d s such as chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks. F i r s t l y , u n l i k e the domestic fowl mentioned above, whose young can be hatched i n i n c u b a t o r s and, at hatch, are r e l a t i v e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ( p r e c o c i a l ) , young pigeons are t o t a l l y h e l p l e s s ( a l t r i c i a l ) and must be r a i s e d by the parents. Secondly, a d u l t pigeons pai r - b o n d f o r l i f e , with both parents i n c u b a t i n g the eggs and brooding the young. F i n a l l y , the most important--and confounding--c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t s e t s pigeons apart from other domestic fowl i s t h a t the parents produce "crop milk" f o r t h e i r young and t h i s crop milk i s produced i n equal q u a n t i t i e s by male and female (Dumont, 1965). In b i r d s , t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s unique to pigeons and doves ( C l a s s Aves, order columbiforme) (Dumont, 1965) and the cock pigeon or dove i s the o n l y male v e r t e b r a t e t h a t produces a "milk" f o r i t s young (Levi,1974). Crop milk i s an o i l y , y e l l o w i s h , c h e e s e - l i k e substance. I t c o n s i s t s of l i p i d - l a d e n c e l l s t h a t are e x f o l i a t e d from the e p i t h e l i a l l i n i n g of the l a t e r a l l o b e s o f the crop (Dumont, 1965). C r o p m i l k i s e x c l u s i v e l y u t i l i z e d f o r t h e n o u r i s h m e n t o f t h e p r o g e n y , and i t s p r o d u c t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e a n t e r i o r p i t u i t a r y hormone, p r o l a c t i n ( R i d d l e and B r a u c h e r , 1931; c i t e d i n Dumont, 1965). Much work h a s been done on c r o p m i l k , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r m s o f i t s p r o d u c t i o n , i t s c o m p o s i t i o n and i t s r e s p o n s e t o p r o l a c t i n ( P a t e l , 1936; Beams and Meyer, 1939; D a v i e s , 1939; L e a s h e t a l . , 1971; Hegde, 1972a; Hegde, 1972b; deLima, 1978; Desmeth, 1980; Desmeth and Vandeputte-Poma, 1980; Vandeputte-Poma, 1980; and S i l v e r , 1984). T h e s e t h r e e f a c t o r s c ombine t o c o m p l i c a t e t h e f e e d management o f s q u a b b i n g p i g e o n s . On a p a i r s c a l e , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s one o f f e e d i n g two b i r d s (one o f w h i c h i s p r o d u c i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 e g g s p e r month) w h i c h b o t h p r o d u c e , on o c c a s i o n , f o o d f o r t h e young. On a f l o c k s c a l e , a l l o f t h i s i s h a p p e n i n g a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s and r a t e s , u n i q u e f o r e v e r y p a i r . A p i g e o n i s s e x u a l l y m a t u r e a t 6 months o f age ( L e v i , 1968). No s e x u a l d i m o r p h i s m o c c u r s i n p i g e o n s . A c l u t c h c o n s i s t s o f two eggs, w h i c h b o t h p a r e n t s i n c u b a t e . The male u s u a l l y t e n d s t h e n e s t f r o m a b o u t 10:00 a.m. t o 4:00 p.m., and t h e f e m a l e t a k e s o v e r t h e r e s t o f t h e t i m e ( N o h l g r e n and Wagner, 1977; C l a r k s o n 6 e t a l . , 1963). I f t h e s e t t e r i s removed f r o m t h e n e s t , i t s mate w i l l t a k e o v e r t h e h o v e r i n g ( N o h l g r e n and Wagner, 1977). S h o u l d one mate d i e o r be removed b e f o r e t h e e g g s h a t c h , i t s mate w i l l i n c u b a t e f o r a day o r l o n g e r b e f o r e a b a n d o n i n g t h e e g g s ( L e v i , 1974). I f s q u a b s a r e i n t h e n e s t , t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r e n t w i l l c a r e f o r i t s i n g l y ( L i e b m a n e t a l . , 1970). B i r d s w i l l i n c u b a t e i n a p p r o p r i a t e o b j e c t s s u c h a s a lump o f manure. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e n e s t s h o u l d be c h e c k e d r e g u l a r l y , b o t h f o r s o u n d n e s s and a c t u a l p r e s e n c e o f eggs. I f t h e eggs a r e removed f r o m t h e n e s t o r i f t h e p a i r abandons them, t h e f e m a l e w i l l l a y a n o t h e r c l u t c h , i n a s e a r l y a s 15 d a y s ( W a l d i e , u n p u b l i s h e d o b s e r v a t i o n s ) . T h i s i s t h e b a s i s o f "pumping", t h e p r a c t i s e o f t a k i n g e g g s f r o m c e r t a i n p a i r s and a d d i n g them t o c l u t c h e s o f o t h e r p a i r s a t t h e same s t a g e o f i n c u b a t i o n . T h i s way, f e m a l e s o f p a i r s whose eggs have been t a k e n w i l l commence t o l a y a n o t h e r c l u t c h much f a s t e r t h a n i f t h e y were a l l o w e d t o i n c u b a t e t h e eggs and r a i s e t h e young. "Pumping" c a n more t h a n d o u b l e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f eggs, by h a l v i n g t h e l a y i n g i n t e r v a l . H a t c h a b i l i t y i s n o t a f f e c t e d ( W a l d i e , u n p u b l i s h e d d a t a ) . A f t e r 17-18 d a y s o f i n c u b a t i o n , t h e s q u a b s h a t c h . They a r e i m m e d i a t e l y f e d c r o p m i l k r e g u r g i t a t e d by t h e p a r e n t s . C r o p m i l k i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e m a r k a b l e g r o w t h r a t e o f s q u a b s . A n e w l y - h a t c h e d p i g e o n w e i g hs 15 grams. A d a y - o l d p i g e o n w e i g h s t w i c e t h a t ; t h r e e d a y s a f t e r h a t c h i n g , t h e s q u a b i s a d d i n g 39,'/. o f i t s w e i g h t d a i l y and a t 11 d a y s , t h e r a t e i s s t i l l 14% ( R i d d l e e t a l , 1932). Y a n n i (1969) o b s e r v e d t h a t a t t h e end o f t h e b r o o d i n g p e r i o d t h e body w e i g h t o f g r o w i n g p i g e o n was on a v e r a g e 35 t i m e s i t s h a t c h i n g w e i g h t . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e body w e i g h t o f a c h i c k e n a t 4 weeks o l d was on a v e r a g e 6.97 t i m e s i t s h a t c h i n g w e i g h t . C r o p m i l k i s a b o u t 15% c r u d e p r o t e i n on a wet b a s i s ( 5 0 % on a d r y b a s i s ) . I t s f a t c o n t e n t i s a l s o h i g h , b e i n g a b o u t 10-12% (wet w e i g h t b a s i s ) and 25-29% ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s ) . I n c o n t r a s t , a c h i c k s t a r t e r d i e t c o n t a i n s 20% c r u d e p r o t e i n and 5-6% f a t . I n t h e i r f i r s t few d a y s o f l i f e , s quab a r e f e d e n t i r e l y on c r o p m i l k r e g u r g i t a t e d by t h e a d u l t s . A f t e r t h i s t i m e , t h e c r o p m i l k i s i n c r e a s i n g l y mixed w i t h g r a i n s o r p e l l e t s s o a k e d i n t h e c r o p s o f t h e p a r e n t s u n t i l a b o u t 7-9 d a y s a f t e r h a t c h ( L e a s h e t a l . , 1971), when c r o p m i l k p r o d u c t i o n c e a s e s . Vandeputte-Poma ( I 9 6 0 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t a l l p i g e o n p a r e n t s p r o d u c e c r o p m i l k u n t i l Day 12, and t h a t 16% o f h i s f l o c k p r o d u c e d a i t u n t i l Day 25. The amount o f f e e d a c t u a l l y i n g e s t e d by t h e squab ( r e g u r g i t a t e d by t h e p a r e n t ) i s h a r d t o d e t e r m i n e , however t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e wastage. The s q u a b s ' e y e s open a t 3-4 d a y s o f age. A f t e r s e v e n t o t e n days, t h e a d u l t s no l o n g e r s i t d i r e c t l y on t h e squab, b u t r e m a i n i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y u n l e s s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i s low ( R i d d l e e t a l . , 1932; L e v i , 1974; W o r t i s , 1969). When t h e s q u a b s i n one n e s t a r e a b o u t 2-3 weeks o l d ( L e e and Haynes, 1942), t h e a d u l t s b e g i n t h e c o u r t s h i p and n e s t - b u i l d i n g r o u t i n e a g a i n , and t h e f e m a l e w i l l l a y two more eggs. Once t h i s new c l u t c h i s l a i d , t h e p a r e n t s d i v i d e t h e i r t i m e between i n c u b a t i n g t h e new e g g s and f e e d i n g t h e squab. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , p i g e o n h o u s i n g r e q u i r e s two n e s t - b o x e s p e r p a i r , u s u a l l y s i d e -b y - s i d e w i t h an a t t a c h e d p e r c h . P i g e o n s a r e t e r r i t o r i a l ( N o h l g r e n and Wagner, 1977) and o n c e t h e y ' v e c h o s e n a n e s t s i t e , w i l l r a r e l y move u n l e s s f o r c e d o u t by a n o t h e r p a i r . The l i f e s p a n o f p i g e o n s c a n be o v e r 20 y e a r s ( L e v i , 1974), however, t h e p r o d u c t i v e l i f e i s much s h o r t e r t h a n t h i s . Most o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e recommends c u l l i n g a t 5-6 y e a r s . M a l e s t e n d t o l i v e l o n g e r t h a n 9 f e m a l e s ( L e v i , 1968; B u r l e y and Moran, 1979). P i g e o n s a r e c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g 22 s q u a b p e r y e a r i n t h e c a s e o f t h e White C a r n e a u b r e e d ( C l a r k s o n e t a l . , 1963). However, 15 s q u a b p e r p a i r p e r y e a r i s "good" and a n y t h i n g above t h a t , " e x c e l l e n t " . Most s q u a b p r o d u c e r s c u l l a t 12 s q u a b s p e r p a i r p e r y e a r ( L e v i , 1 968.). Peak p r o d u c t i o n o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e l a t e s p r i n g t o e a r l y f a l l . The b i r d s u s u a l l y m o u l t i n S e p t e mber and O c t o b e r , and p a i r s t h a t c o n t i n u e t o p r o d u c e t h r o u g h t h e m o u l t and f e e d t h e i r s q u a b s u c c e s s f u l l y s h o u l d be e a r m a r k e d a s r e p l a c e m e n t b r e e d e r s , as s q u a b f e t c h t h e h i g h e s t p r i c e a t t h i s t i m e when squab s u p p l y i s r e d u c e d . N u t r i t i o n o f P i g e o n s  A) I n t r o d u c t i o n D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t p i g e o n s a r e e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d a s e x p e r i m e n t a l m o d e ls i n s t u d i e s o f a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s ( N o h l g r e n and Wagner, 1977; Cramer and S m i t h , 1976; C l a r k s o n e t a l . , 1963), v i t a m i n s ( C l a r k s o n e t a l . , 1963), r e p r o d u c t i v e p h y s i o l o g y ( R i d d l e , 1947), p s y c h o l o g y ( S k i n n e r , 1950, 1951; c i t e d i n H o l l a n d e r , 1954), and g e n e t i c s ( H o l l a n d e r , 1954), v e r y l i t t l e i s known a b o u t t h e i r n u t r i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . 10 P i g e o n s a r e g r a n i v o r o u s (Abs, 1983) and p i g e o n p r o d u c e r s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e d t h e i r f l o c k s a m i x t u r e o f l o c a l l y - a v a i l a b l e g r a i n s p l u s a h e a l t h g r i t . E a c h p r o d u c e r has a m i x t u r e t h a t he i s c o n v i n c e d i s t h e b e s t ( L e v i , 1968), b u t no s c i e n t i f i c a l l y - p r o v e n f e e d f o r m u l a s o r d i e t a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s p e c i f i c n u t r i e n t s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . P e r h a p s t h i s has t o do w i t h t h e c o m p l i c a t e d a n i m a l model t h a t p i g e o n s p r e s e n t , i n h e r e n t w i t h t h e i r c r o p - m i l k and p a i r - b o n d m a t i n g s y s t e m . The s c i e n c e o f n u t r i t i o n i n t e g r a t e s k nowledge o f b i o c h e m i s t r y and p h y s i o l o g y o f an o r g a n i s m , e n c o m p a s s i n g t h e i n g e s t i o n , d i g e s t i o n , a b s o r p t i o n , and u t i l i z a t i o n o f c h e m i c a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h s e r v e as i t s f o o d . S p e c i f i c n u t r i e n t s ( e n e r g y , amino a c i d s , v i t a m i n s , m i n e r a l s and w a t e r ) a r e n e e ded i n o r d e r t o meet t h e a n i m a l s ' r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r : 1. Body m a i n t e n a n c e - - k e e p i n g a l l o r g a n s and t i s s u e s f u n c t i o n i n g ; 2. G r o w t h — b u i l d i n g and d e p o s i t i n g m u s c l e , f e a t h e r s , bone and o t h e r t i s s u e ; 3. R e p r o d u c t i o n — e g g p r o d u c t i o n and c a r e o f t h e young; and 4. F l i g h t - - m u s c l e use. 11 T h e s e n u t r i e n t s must be o p t i m a l l y b a l a n c e d b o t h w i t h i n and between n u t r i e n t c l a s s e s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n p e r f o r m a n c e . I n c o m m e r c i a l p i g e o n p r o d u c t i o n , b e s i d e s m e e t i n g t h e n u t r i t i o n a l n e e d s o f t h e b i r d s and consumer demands f o r a d e s i r a b l e p r o d u c t ( i n t h i s g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , a w h i t e - s k i n n e d , t e n d e r , y e l l o w - f a t t e d s q u a b i s p r e f e r r e d ) , t h e p r o d u c e r h a s a few c r i t e r i a o f h i s own, d i r e c t e d a t t h e p a r e n t f l o c k and t h e i r m a i n t e n a n c e . T h e s e i n c l u d e : 1. L e a s t - c o s t f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e d i e t ; 2. P r e v e n t i o n o f e x c e s s f a t d e p o s i t i o n i n t h e a d u l t b i r d s ; 3. E n s u r i n g t h e p a l a t a b i l i t y o f t h e f e e d , t o m i n i m i z e wastage. F e e d c o s t s a r e e s t i m a t e d t o be 60% o f a f a r m e r ' s c o s t s . M a x i m i z i n g e f f i c i e n c y o f f e e d u s a g e w i l l c u t t h e s e c o s t s . B) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g F e e d I n t a k e by P i g e o n s P i g e o n s a r e g r a n i v o r o u s , a l t h o u g h f e r a l p i g e o n s and w i l d Rock Doves have been r e p o r t e d t o e a t a n i m a l m a t t e r , i n t h e f o r m o f s m a l l s n a i l s and e arthworm c o c o o n s ( M u r t o n and Westwood, 1966). T h e s e a u t h o r s 12 n o t e t h a t t h e s e a n i m a l m a t e r i a l s a p p e a r t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r i n t h e d i e t s o f t h o s e b i r d s s t u d i e d . H o l l a n d e r (1954) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s n a i l s a r e e a t e n a s a s o u r c e o f l i m e . P i g e o n s do n o t r e q u i r e g r e e n f o o d . Ward and C r y e r (1981) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f r e s h v e g e t a b l e m a t e r i a l was d i s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r a p e r i o d o f 2 months when i t became o b v i o u s t h a t t h e p i g e o n s d i d n o t e a t any o f i t . F o r some r e a s o n , f r e s h l y h a r v e s t e d g r a i n w h i c h has n o t been aged and d r i e d c a n make p i g e o n s v i o l e n t l y i l l . The s q u a b s succumb w i t h i n one day, f o l l o w e d s e v e r a l d a y s l a t e r by t h e a d u l t s , b o t h o l d and young d e v e l o p i n g s e v e r e w a t e r y d i a r r h e a ( G i a m m e t t e i , 1976). P i g e o n s w i l l n o t e a t a mash d i e t . They r e q u i r e e i t h e r a whole g r a i n m i x t u r e o r p e l l e t s ( J u l l , 1947; H o l l a n d e r , 1954). No s t u d i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e e x a m i n i n g t h e p r e f e r r e d s i z e o f f e e d . The c e c a o f p i g e o n s a r e s o s m a l l t h a t t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have no u s e ( L e v i , 1974; Abs, 1983). A h i g h f i b e r d i e t i s n o t t o l e r a t e d w e l l by p i g e o n s . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s ( J u l l , 1947; H e u s e r , 1955; L e v i , 1974; G i a m m e t t e i , 1976) recommend a d i e t a r y c r u d e f i b e r l e v e l o f l e s s t h a n 5%. P i g e o n s do l i t t l e o r no f e e d i n g a t n i g h t ( N o r m i l e 13 and B a r r a c o , 1971; Z e i g l e r e t a l . , 1971; P i e t r a s and Wenzel, 1974). Food p r e f e r e n c e s o f w i l d and d o m e s t i c a t e d p i g e o n s a r e s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by a v a i l a b i l i t y ( L e v i , 1974; Abs, 1983). A l t h o u g h p i g e o n s seem t o be a b l e t o l i v e and r a i s e s q u a b on v e r y l i m i t e d f o o d r e s o u r c e s (Abs, 1983), some p r o d u c t i o n p a r a m e t e r s a r e a f f e c t e d ( P i a t t , 1939). L a b o r a t o r y p i g e o n s e x h i b i t s t a b l e i d i o s y n c r a t i c f e e d i n g b e h a v i o u r s . Moon and Z e i g l e r (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t p i g e o n s o f f e r e d a c h o i c e among s e v e r a l t y p e s o f s e e d p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n s u b s t a n t i a l q u a n t i t i e s , show i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n s o f s e e d s e l e c t i o n b e h a v i o u r w h i c h p e r s i s t o v e r p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t s i n c e f o o d s e l e c t i o n i s u n d e r c o n t r o l o f i t s n u t r i t i v e and m e t a b o l i c c o n s e q u e n c e s , b o t h s h o r t and l o n g t e r m r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r o c e s s e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g f e e d i n g b e h a v i o u r on s p e c i f i c f o o d s . H o l l a n d e r (1954) i m p l i e s t h a t b r e e d i n g p i g e o n s w i l l c h o o s e a h i g h e r p r o t e i n r a t i o n t h a n n o n - b r e e d i n g b i r d s . Moon and Z e i g l e r (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t p i g e o n s s h i f t e d t h e i r i d i o s y n c r a t i c s e e d s e l e c t i o n p a t t e r n s t o m a i n t a i n body w e i g h t a f t e r s u r g i c a l t r i g e m i n a l n e r v e 14 d e a f f e r e n t a t i o n . T h i s s u r g e r y d i s r u p t s t h e s e n s o r y c o n t r o l o f t h e f e e d i n g r e s p o n s e s u c h t h a t p i g e o n s h a ve d i f f i c u l t y i n g r a s p i n g o r m a n d i b u l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l g r a i n s . E a t i n g s m a l l s e e d was l e s s e f f i c i e n t t h a n e a t i n g l a r g e r g r a i n s , and t h e b i r d s ' f e e d i n g p a t t e r n s c o n s i s t e n t l y s h i f t e d t o t h e l a r g e r s e e d s and g r a i n s . C) P r o t e i n The r e q u i r e m e n t f o r p r o t e i n s i s more p r e c i s e l y a n e e d f o r amino a c i d s . H u s b a n d r y b o o k s on p i g e o n p r o d u c t i o n ( L e e and Haynes, 1942; J u l l , 1947, Heuser, 1955; Ewing, 1963; G i a m m e t t e i , 1976) recommend 13-15'/. c r u d e p r o t e i n , w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e f e r e n c e s c i t i n g r a t i o n s b a s e d on c o r n , wheat, m i l o , and p e a s . Ewing (1963) p r o v i d e s a p e l l e t e d p i g e o n r e f e r e n c e r a t i o n However, he d o e s n o t p r o v i d e d e t a i l s o f p r o d u c t i o n o f b i r d s m a i n t a i n e d on t h i s d i e t . In t h e r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g p i g e o n s i n a r e a s o t h e r t h a n n u t r i t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g h a s been n o t e d r e g a r d i n g p r o t e i n n u t r i t u r e . L i t t l e and A n g e l l (1977), l o o k i n g a t an i n t e r a c t i o n between d i e t a r y p r o t e i n l e v e l and e x p e r i m e n t a l l y - i n d u c e d a o r t i c a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s i n White C a r n e a u x p i g e o n s , r e p o r t e d t h a t a 10% c r u d e p r o t e i n d i e t ( b a s e d on 15 p u r i f i e d i n g r e d i e n t s ) , w i t h 10% c o r n o i l , was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n p i g e o n s , b u t t h a t 20% and 40% c r u d e p r o t e i n d i e t s d i d n o t r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t body w e i g h t change, a l t h o u g h b o t h g r o u p s l o s t n e t w e i g h t (8.2 and 34.4 grams, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . I n t a k e d a t a was n o t r e c o r d e d and t h e e n e r g y c o n t e n t was f a i r l y h i g h ( 1 0 % c o r n o i l ) ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h e p i g e o n s were e a t i n g v e r y s m a l l amounts o f t h e 20% and 40% c r u d e p r o t e i n d i e t s . T h e s e b i r d s were n o t b e i n g m a i n t a i n e d f o r p r o d u c t i o n . S u g u i r a and B e n e d i c t (1923) s t u d i e d t h e a d e q u a c y o f c e r t a i n s y n t h e t i c d i e t s f o r t h e n u t r i t i o n o f p i g e o n s . They f o u n d t h a t d a i l y r a t i o n s o f 15-20 grams o f s y n t h e t i c d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g 22% c a s e i n , 10% c a n e s u g a r , 27% s t a r c h , 2% a g a r - a g a r , 3% s a l t m i x t u r e , 30% b u t t e r f a t , and 6% y e a s t o r o f 22% c a s e i n , 10% c a n e s u g a r , 37% s t a r c h , 2% a g a r - a g a r , 3% s a l t m i x t u r e , 6% y e a s t and 20% l a r d were a d e q u a t e f o r egg p r o d u c t i o n , g r o w t h and m a i n t e n a c e i n common p i g e o n s . McNabb e t a l . ( 1 9 7 2 ) , s t u d y i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f d i e t a r y p r o t e i n c o n t e n t on w a t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s and ammonia e x c r e t i o n i n p i g e o n s , f e d p i g e o n s d a i l y a r a t i o n o f e i t h e r wheat (Low P r o t e i n = l l % c r u d e p r o t e i n ) o r s o y b e a n meal ( H i g h P r o t e i n = 4 4 % c r u d e p r o t e i n ) . They r e p o r t e d l o w e r f i n a l body w e i g h t s f o r t h o s e b i r d s f e d t h e h i g h p r o t e i n d i e t s ( f o r a l l r e g i m e n s o f w a t e r i n t a k e ) and r e l a t e d t h a t l o w e r body w e i g h t o f p i g e o n s a d a p t e d t o h i g h p r o t e i n d i e t s may be b e n e f i c i a l i n r e d u c i n g t h e o v e r a l l m e t a b o l i s m o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . However, t h e y d i d n o t a d d r e s s f e e d i n t a k e and p a l a t a b i l i t y , n o r d i d t h e y n o t e t h a t r e s t r i c t i n g w a t e r i n t a k e would c a u s e a d e c r e a s e d f e e d i n t a k e , w h i c h i n t u r n w o u l d c a u s e a d e c r e a s e d body w e i g h t . C a r r and James (1931) l o o k e d a t t h e g r o w t h r a t e o f s q u a b s whose p a r e n t s were f e d d i f f e r e n t g r a i n s (hemp, k a f f i r , c o r n , wheat, s o y b e a n s , and h u l l e d o a t s ) . They n o t e d t h a t t h e g r o w t h r a t e o f s q u a b f e d on s i n g l e g r a i n s and m i n e r a l s was l e s s r a p i d t h a n t h a t o f t h o s e f e d a mixed g r a i n d i e t , a l t h o u g h t h e squab c o n t i n u e d t o i n c r e a s e w e i g h t c o n s t a n t l y i n t h e p r e - w e a n i n g p e r i o d . The f e e d i n g o f a s i n g l e g r a i n p l u s m i n e r a l s r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s i n s q u a b w e i g h t , w i t h one s q u a b i n a two-squab c l u t c h s o m e t i m e s w e i g h i n g t w i c e as much as t h e o t h e r a t t h e end o f 3 t o 4 weeks. In t h i s s t u d y , t h e s q u a b s whose p a r e n t s were f e d hemp s e e d made good g a i n s b e f o r e and a f t e r weaning, and t h e r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d i t a s b e i n g w e l l - b a l a n c e d . 17 The c o r n - f e d squab made s l o w p r o g r e c r o p - m i l k ; t h e y grew v e r y s l o w l y a i Abs (1983) n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s t h a t p i g e o n s do n o t r e q u i r e t h e san a c i d s a s do c h i c k e n s and t u r k e y s , e c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f 7 e i n p i g e o n m i l k i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t c r e q u i r e d f o r g r o w t h by c h i c k e n s . W o l t e r e t a l . (1970; c i t e d i n t h a t v o l u n t a r y i n t a k e o f f e e d p u t s p r o t e i n a t 12.5 t o 13% o f t h e d i e t . D) E n e r g y 1) C a r b o h y d r a t e s I t i s g e n e r a l l y recommended i n h u s b a n d r y books t h a t a p i g e o n d i e t s h o u l d c o n t a i n 60-70% c a r b o h y d r a t e . ( H e u s e r , 1955; G i a m m e t t e i , 1976). C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t p i g e o n s a r e g r a n i v o r o u s , w i t h g r a i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e i r n o r m a l d i e t , c a r b o h y d r a t e s a r e l i k e l y t h e i r main s o u r c e o f e n e r g y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , however, t h a t p u r e p i g e o n c r o p m i l k c o n t a i n s no c a r b o h y d r a t e e x c e p t by c o n t a m i n a t i o n w i t h t h e a d u l t ' s f o o d ( D a v i e s , 1939; L e a s h e t a l . , 1971). E w i n g ' s r e f e r e n c e p i g e o n r a t i o n (1963) c o n t a i n s 60% c a r b o h y d r a t e . s s w h i l e b e i n g f e d t e r weaning. no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e e e s s e n t i a l amino s p e c i a l l y s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s i f t h e amino a c i d s Abs, 1983) r e p o r t e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r la Many s t u d i e s o f c a r b o h y d r a t e m e t a b o l i s m i n t h e p i g e o n h a v e been c o n d u c t e d ( s e e L e v i , 1974). R i d d l e e t a l . (1932) f o u n d t h a t t h e young squab (3 d a y s a f t e r h a t c h i n g ) b u r n s l i t t l e o r no c a r b o h y d r a t e and h a s a m e t a b o l i s m n o t much h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f a f a s t i n g p i g e o n 89-146 d a y s a f t e r h a t c h i n g . i i ) F a t s and L i p i d s A l t h o u g h p i g e o n s g a i n most o f t h e i r e n e r g y f r o m t h e s t a r c h i n t h e g r a i n t h e y consume, f a t s and p r o t e i n s c a n and do s a t i s f y p a r t o f t h e e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t . R e c a l l t h a t f o r i t s f i r s t few d a y s o f l i f e , t h e squab i s f e d on h i g h - f a t c r o p m i l k (Abs, 1983). March e t a l . (1978) r e p o r t e l e v a t e d l e v e l s o f f r e e f a t t y a c i d s i n t h e b l o o d o f b a n d - t a i l e d p i g e o n s d u r i n g i n c u b a t i o n and c r o p m i l k p r o d u c t i o n , p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e i n c r e a s e d demand f o r e n e r g y d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . Goodman and G r i m i n g e r (1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t r a c i n g p i g e o n s f e d d i e t s s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h f a t o u t - p e r f o r m e d t h o s e b i r d s f e d d i e t s w i t h o u t s u p p l e m e n t a l f a t . The l o n g e r t h e r a c e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e improvement i n p e r f o r m a n c e , l e a d i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t f o r s u s t a i n e d f l i g h t , p i g e o n s may be a b l e t o u t i l i z e f a t b e t t e r t h a n d i e t a r y c a r b o h y d r a t e a s an e n e r g y s o u r c e . H e u s e r (1955), L e v i (1974), and G i a m m e t t e i (1976) a l l recommend a r a n g e o f 2-5% c r u d e f a t i n a s q u a b b i n g p i g e o n r a t i o n . However, t h e s e a u t h o r s a d v o c a t e whole g r a i n r a t i o n s w h i c h may p r e c l u d e t h e u s e o f s u p p l e m e n t a l f a t . Ewing (1 9 6 3 ) , i n h i s r e f e r e n c e p i g e o n r a t i o n , d i d n o t u s e s u p p l e m e n t a r y f a t . The l a b e l on P u r i n a P i g e o n Chow d o e s n o t l i s t added f a t . S u g u i r a and B e n e d i c t (1923) r e p o r t e d t h a t an a d e q u a t e f o o d f o r p i g e o n s would c o n t a i n a b o u t 70 c a l o r i e s g r o s s e n e r g y i n t h e d a i l y r a t i o n . E) V i t a m i n s and M i n e r a l s P i g e o n s have been u s e d i n r e s e a r c h s i n c e t h e f i r s t v i t a m i n s t u d i e s i n w h i c h , i n 1897, Dr. C.C. E i j k m a n , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he c o u l d s p e e d i l y c a u s e b e r i - b e r i ( p o l y n e u r i t i s ) i n p i g e o n s and c h i c k e n s by f e e d i n g them o n l y p o l i s h e d r i c e . L e v i (1974) r e v i e w e d e a r l y v i t a m i n work u s i n g p i g e o n s . V i t a m i n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s e i t h e r f a t - s o l u b l e ( V i t a m i n s A, D, E, and K) o r w a t e r s o l u b l e ( t h e v i t a m i n B c o m p l e x and V i t a m i n C ) . T h i r t e e n v i t a m i n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o p i g e o n s ( a l l b u t V i t a m i n C, w h i c h c a n a p p a r e n t l y be s y n t h e s i z e d by t h e b i r d ) . V i t a m i n A: T h i s v i t a m i n i s most a v a i l a b l e t o 20 p i g e o n s as i t s p r e c u r s o r , B - c a r o t e n e , i n y e l l o w c o r n , p e a s o f a l l k i n d s , and i n g r e e n l e a v e s and a l f a l f a m eal. A l t h o u g h t V i t a m i n A i s e s s e n t i a l i n n u t r i t i o n , t h e amount r e q u i r e d by p i g e o n s i s u n c e r t a i n , and s c i e n t i f i c o p i n i o n i s t h a t i t i s q u i t e s m a l l o r v e r y e f f i c i e n t l y s t o r e d i n t h e l i v e r ( L e v i , 1974). A l t h o u g h S u g u i r a and B e n e d i c t (1923) r e p o r t e d t h a t p i g e o n s r e q u i r e d no V i t a m i n A, t h i s has b een r e p e a t e d l y r e f u t e d . Emmett and P e a c o c k (1923) r e p o r t e d t h a t p i g e o n s a p p e a r e d t o r e q u i r e l e s s V i t a m i n A t h a n o t h e r b i r d s ; and A b d e r h a l d e n and W e r t h e i m e r (1923; c i t e d i n L e v i , 1974) r e p o r t e d symptoms o f x e r o p t h a l m i a and k e r a t i n i z a t i o n o f t h e k i d n e y i n p i g e o n s f e d V i t a m i n A-d e f i c i e n t d i e t s . W a t e r s (1952) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t p i g e o n s a p p a r e n t l y r e q u i r e l e s s V i t a m i n A t h a n r a b b i t s v i a an e x p e r i m e n t i n w h i c h he f e d t h r e e s q u a b s a d i e t t h a t had p r o d u c e d V i t a m i n A d e f i c i e n c y symptoms i n r a b b i t s w i t h i n 6 months. The p i g e o n s showed no symptoms u n t i l 17 months, a t w h i c h t i m e t h e y d i s p l a y e d w e i g h t l o s s , d r y n e s s and s c a l i n e s s o f t h e f a c e and "scum" i n t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e e y e s . Two b i r d s d i e d a t 18 months and t h e t h i r d r e c o v e r e d a f t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f V i t a m i n A. The a d d i t i o n o f c a r o t e n e - c o n t a i n i n g components 21 ( f o r example, p e a s and a l f a l f a meal) t o t h e d i e t o f p i g e o n s c o n f o u n d s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r V i t a m i n A, as r e p o r t e d by S h u l t z e t a l . ( 1 9 5 3 ) . They r e p o r t e d t h a t when t h e d i e t c o n t a i n e d g r e e n peas, t h e v i t a m i n s u p p l e m e n t c o n t a i n i n g v i t a m i n s A and D had no e f f e c t . A r e c e n t a r t i c l e c l a i m s t h a t V i t a m i n A d e f i c i e n c i e s f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r i n p i g e o n s and a r e i n f a c t more p r e v a l e n t t h a n e v e r s u s p e c t e d ( T u d o r , 1982). A l t h o u g h g i v i n g no i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e p i g e o n s , he r e p o r t e d t h e symptoms ( s m a l l w h i t e p u s t u l e s i n t h e l a r y n x and t o n s i l l a r a r e a o f t h e s o f t p a l a t e ) r e s p o n d e d f a v o u r a b l y t o a d d i t i o n o f 10,000 IU p e r pound o f f e e d o f s t a b i l i z e d V i t a m i n A f o r m u l a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t 1-2 weeks o f t r e a t m e n t , f o l l o w e d by 2,000 t o 4,000 IU p e r pound o f f e e d on a m a i n t e n a n c e b a s i s . V i t a m i n E: V i t a m i n E has two i m p o r t a n t m e t a b o l i c r o l e s , as an a n t i o x i d a n t and a s a c o f a c t o r i n s e l e n i u m m e t a b o l i s m . An a n i m a l ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f V i t a m i n E and, hence, i t s r e q u i r e m e n t f o r V i t a m i n E d e p e n d s on t h e f o l l o w i n g : a) t h e amount o f V i t a m i n E ( t o c o p h e r o l ) b e i n g consumed, b) t h e l e v e l o f p r o -o x i d a n t s and a n t i o x i d a n t s i n t h e d i e t , c ) t h e l e v e l o f o f s e l e n i u m i n t h e d i e t , and d) t h e d i e t a r y i n t a k e o f s u l f u r amino a c i d s ( M a r t i n e t a l . , 1983). A d e f i c i e n c y 22 o f V i t a m i n E c a n c a u s e d e c r e a s e d h a t c h a b i l i t y o f p i g e o n eggs, r e s u l t i n g i n l o w e r p r o d u c t i o n ( G i a m m e t t e i , 1976). V i t a m i n D 3 t T h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e p i g e o n f o r t h i s v i t a m i n . S h u l t z e t a l . (1953) r e p o r t e d t h a t a s u p p l e m e n t o f V i t a m i n s A and D 3 had no e f f e c t on s q u a b p r o d u c t i o n , b e c a u s e t h e b i r d s were e x p o s e d t o s u n l i g h t . H o l l a n d e r and R i d d l e (1945; c i t e d i n L e v i , 1974), o b s e r v e d t h a t a d e f i c i e n c y o f V i t a m i n D i n t h e d i e t and l a c k o f s u n l i g h t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r i c k e t s i n s q u a b s and s o f t e n i n g o f t h e b o n es i n t h e b r e e d i n g f e m a l e . V i t a m i n K: V i t a m i n K i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p r o t h r o m b i n and t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f s y n t h e s i s o f o t h e r c l o t t i n g f a c t o r s . I t i s s y n t h e s i z e d by b a c t e r i a i n t h e l a r g e i n t e s t i n e and i s w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n g r e e n l e a f y v e g e t a b l e s , a l f a l f a b e i n g one t h a t i s commonly i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p i g e o n d i e t s . T h e r e i s l i t t l e s t o r a g e o f t h i s v i t a m i n i n t h e body, o t h e r t h a n i n t h e l i v e r . F o w l a p p e a r t o be t h e d o m e s t i c a n i m a l most s u s c e p t i b l e t o V i t a m i n K d e f i c i e n c y , p o s s i b l y due t o s h o r t i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t ( L l o y d e t a l . , 1976). A b s e n c e o f a d i e t a r y s o u r c e o f t h i s v i t a m i n l e a d s t o s u b c u t a n e o u s and i n t r a m u s c u l a r hemmorhage i n b i r d s ( L l o y d e t a l . , 1976). 23 Among b i r d , d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s h a v e d i f f e r e n t n e e d s : c h i c k s , d u c k l i n g s and g o s l i n g s r e q u i r e V i t a m i n K, whereas p i g e o n s and c a n a r i e s a r e much l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o a V i t a m i n K d e f i c i e n c y ( L l o y d e t a l . , 1976). Dam e t a l , (1937; c i t e d i n L e v i , 1974) showed t h a t p i g e o n s do d e v e l o p hemmorrhages on V i t a m i n K d e f i c i e n t d i e t s . R a l s t o n - P u r i n a a d d s V i t a m i n K t o t h e i r c o m m e r c i a l p i g e o n chow and Ewing (1963) i n c l u d e d i t i n h i s p i g e o n r e f e r e n c e r a t i o n a t t h e l e v e l o f 2 grams menadione s o d u i m b i s u l f i t e complex (MSBC) p e r t o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o 400 mg MSBC p e r pound i n t h e p r e m i x . V i t a m i n B Complex: The members o f t h e B - v i t a m i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n p r i m a r i l y a s c o f a c t o r s i n enzyme s y s t e m s . P i g e o n s f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n e a r l y V i t a m i n B s t u d i e s : R.R. W i l l i a m s p r i v a t e l y s e a r c h e d f o r t h e a n t i n e u r i t i c f a c t o r by e x p e r i m e n t i n g a t home w i t h p i g e o n s h o u s e d i n h i s g a r a g e . He d i s c o v e r e d t h i a m i n e i n 1935 ( L l o y d e t a l . , 1976). I n 1939, McHenry and G a v i n s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t o f t h i a m i n e on t h e s y n t h e s i s o f body f a t i n p i g e o n s and r e p o r t e d t h a t 60 m i c r o g r a m s o f t h i a m i n e d a i l y i n a d d i t i o n t o ad. l i b i t u m r i c e d i e t p r e v e n t e d p o l y n e u r i t i s . C a r t e r and O ' B r i e n (1939a, 24 1939b) r e p o r t e d t h a t p i g e o n s r e q u i r e d a t l e a s t two a q u e o u s s o l u b l e f a c t o r s o f l i v e r and y e a s t i n a d d i t i o n t o a n e u r i n ( t h i a m i n e ) and r i b o f l a v i n . T h e s e two a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s t h e y c a l l e d V i t a m i n B5 and V i t a m i n B3, now known as n i a c i n and p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d . H a r r i s (1939) r e p o r t e d t h a t n i c o t i n i c a c i d i s r e q u i r e d by p i g e o n s . I n more r e c e n t y e a r s ( L o f l a n d e t a l . , 1963; Itokawa, 1975), p i g e o n s have c o n t i n u e d t o be u s e d i n t h i a m i n e - d e f i c i e n c y and - i n t e r a c t i o n s t u d i e s s i n c e p i g e o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f t h e most s e n s i t i v e s p e c i e s t o t h i a m i n e d e f i c i e n c y ( I t o k a w a , 1975). P i g e o n meat c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a r i c h s o u r c e o f t h a i m i n when compared w i t h c h i c k e n , b e e f , and r a b b i t ( E l - S a y e d , 1980). I t i s a l s o an e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e o f r i b o f l a v i n . S h u l t z e t a l . ( 1 9 5 3 ) , i n a s q u a b p r o d u c t i o n t r i a l r e p o r t e d t h a t s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n o f g r a i n and p e a - b a s e d d i e t w i t h r i b o f l a v i n i n c r e a s e d s q u a b number s i g n i f i c a n t l y . V i t a m i n B t a a p p e a r s t o have a b e n e f i c i e f f e c t on s q u a b number a l t h o u g h i t was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t . The g r o u p f e d s u p p l e m e n t e d r i b o f l a v i n an V i t a m i n B i a d i s p l a y e d i n c r e a s e d h a t c h a b i l i t y . The r i b o f l a v i n i n c r e a s e d l i v e a b i l i t y b u t t h e V i t a m i n B i a d i d n o t . 25 P i g e o n s p r a c t i s e c o p r o p h a g y , a p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f V i t a m i n B t a ( c y a n o c o b a l a m i n ) ( G i a m m e t t e i , 1976). P e e t e r s e t a l . (1977) r e p o r t e d an i n c i d e n c e o f p y r i d o x i n e ( V i t a m i n B s ) p o i s o n i n g i n homing p i g e o n s a f t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a human v i t a m i n p r e p a r a t i o n . The t o x i c compound was i d e n t i f i e d a s p y r i d o x i n e h y d r o c h l o r i d e , t h e l e t h a l d o s e b e i n g 90-100 mg ( e q u i v a l e n t t o a b o u t 200 mg p e r k i l o g r a m o f body w e i g h t ) . Up t o t h r e e t i m e s t h i s d o s e r a t e had no e f f e c t on c h i c k s . Hegde (1973) r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g v i t a m i n v a l u e s f o r c r o p m i l k : V i t a m i n A, t r a c e ; t h i a m i n e , none; r i b o f l a v i n , 181.26 ug/lOOg; a s c o r b i c a c i d , t r a c e . Reed e t a l . (1932) f e d c r o p m i l k t o r a t s a s a s u p p l e m e n t t o t o a V i t a m i n s A- and B - d e f i c i e n t d i e t s , and c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e l i b e r a l s u p p l i e s o f v i t a m i n s r e c e i v e d by t h e s q u a b t h r o u g h t h e d a i l y i n g e s t i o n o f c r o p m i l k l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e v e r y r a p i d g r o w t h e x h i b i t e d by t h e s e b i r d s . G u a r e s c h i (1936; c i t e d i n P a c e e t a l . , 1952) f e d s q u a b s an a r t i f i c i a l d i e t h i g h i n p r o t e i n , f a t and v i t a m i n B and f o u n d t h a t t h e y d i d p o o r l y on i t . V i t a m i n C: P i g e o n s do n o t r e q u i r e a s o u r c e o f d i e t a r y V i t a m i n C, a s t h e y a r e a p p a r e n t l y a b l e t o 26 s y n t h e s i z e t h i s v i t a m i n ( L e v i , 1974; G i a m m e t t e i , 1976; W h i t e a c r e , p e r s . comm.). M i n e r a l s : P i g e o n s , a s compared t o mammals and p o u l t r y , seem t o r e q u i r e f a r g r e a t e r amounts o f m i n e r a l s ( L e v i , 1974). M i n e r a l " h e a l t h g r i t s " a r e g e n e r a l l y made a v a i l a b l e t o p i g e o n s ; t h e s e g r i t s c o n t a i n s u c h components a s l i m e s t o n e o r g r a n i t e g r i t , o y s t e r s h e l l , c h a r c o a l , bonemeal, s a l t and what P i a t t (1951) r e f e r r e d t o a s t o n i c s : a n i s e s e e d , g e n t i a n s e e d , s u l f u r and V e n e t i a n r e d . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r e x a m i n e d t h e r e l a t i v e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e s e i t e m s t o p i g e o n s . A f t e r 18 months o f f e e d i n g p i g e o n s v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e s e compounds, he r e p o r t e d t h a t a m i x t u r e c o n t a i n i n g 85% o y s t e r s h e l l , 10% hardwood c h a r c o a l , and 5% s a l t was a d e q u a t e t o meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s q u a b b i n g p i g e o n s . P i g e o n s have a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r i o d i n e t o p r e v e n t g o i t e r ( H o l l a n d e r and R i d d l e , 1946; H o l l a n d e r , 1954; and Ewing, 1963), a c o n d i t i o n t h a t may be augmented by a h i g h f a t c o n t e n t i n t h e r a t i o n . P a t r i c k and S c h a i b l e (1980) i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e c r e t i o n o f p i g e o n m i l k and an i o d i n e r e q u i r e m e n t , however, t h e y do n o t e l a b o r a t e . C a l c i u m and p h o s p h o r u s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r egg 27 p r o d u c t i o n ( J u l l , 1947). C a l c i u m , p h o s p h o r u s , sodium, p o t a s s i u m , magnesium, c h l o r i n e , i o d i n e , i r o n , manganese, c o p p e r , molybdenum, z i n c , and s e l e n i u m a r e a l l r e q u i r e d by p i g e o n s ( W h i t e a c r e , p e r s . comm.) P u r i n a P i g e o n Chow c o n t a i n s t h e f o l l o w i n g l e v e l s o f m i n e r a l s ( e x p r e s s e d a s '/. o f d r y m a t t e r ) : P, . 64 - .84; Na, .126 - .139; C l , .134 - .145; K, .717 - .813; Mg, .191; Ca, 2.18 ( L e a s h e t a l . , 1971). EXPERIMENT ONE EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS ON THE SQUAB PRODUCTION OF A PIGEON FLOCK IN A FLOOR PEN HOUSE FED PELLETS WITH OR WITHOUT CORN, CAFETERIA-STYLE I n t r o d u c t i o n : I n 1983, a p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d i n a c o m m e r c i a l f a r m e n v i r o n m e n t t o e v a l u a t e e x i s t i n g f e e d and f e e d i n g p rograms. The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ( W a l d i e e t a l . , 1984) showed t h a t t h e p e l l e t e d c o m p l e t e d i e t s were s u p e r i o r t o t h e whole g r a i n d i e t i n s u p p o r t i n g c o m m e r c i a l s q u a b p r o d u c t i o n . The r e s u l t s a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l o c a l l y - m i l l e d d i e t s were as c o m p e t e n t a s t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o m p l e t e p e l l e t e d d i e t i n s u p p o r t i n g squab p r o d u c t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t b i r d s on t h e c o r n s u p p l e m e n t e d , h i g h p r o t e i n p e l l e t had b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . C a f e t e r i a f e e d i n g a l l o w s t h e b i r d s t o c h o o s e t h e i r own d i e t . However, due t o t h e h i g h c o s t o f c o r n i n W e s t e r n Canada and t h e manpower r e q u i r e d t o keep c o r n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e b i r d s , t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t was 28 29 i n i t i a t e d . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y were a) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o t e i n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s q u a b b i n g p i g e o n s i n a c o m m e r c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , and b) t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e f e e d i n g p r o g r a m had any a d v a n t a g e o v e r a c o m p l e t e p e l l e t e d d i e t . T h i s was p r o p o s e d t h r o u g h an e x p e r i m e n t i n w h i c h two p e l l e t e d r a t i o n s o f d i f f e r i n g p r o t e i n l e v e l s were f e d , b o t h w i t h and w i t h o u t c o r n , c a f e t e r i a s t y l e . 30 M a t e r i a l s and Methods: One h u n d r e d and t h i r t y - s i x p a i r s o f W h i t e K i n g and S i l v e r K i n g p i g e o n s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e b r e e d i n g f l o c k a t VIM. P a i r s were i d e n t i f i e d by c o l o r e d l e g bands. The m a l e s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 y e a r s o l d and t h e f e m a l e s were o f u n d e t e r m i n e d age. T h e s e b i r d s were r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d among 12 pens ( d i m e n s i o n s 1.7 x 1.8 x 2.5 m), 10 t o 12 p a i r s t o a pen. E a c h pen c o n t a i n e d 12 n e s t i n g u n i t s . Water was p r o v i d e d f r o m an a u t o m a t i c w a t e r i n g cup. F e e d was s u p p l i e d i n a wooden, s e l f - f e e d i n g t r o u g h . F e e d and w a t e r were s u p p l i e d ad  l i b i t u m , a s was a g r a n i t e g r i t . B i r d s were m a i n t a i n e d on a d i e t o f c o r n and h i g h p r o t e i n p e l l e t s p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , t h e p i g e o n s were a l l o w e d t o p r o d u c e squab. 14 h o u r s o f l i g h t <14L:10D) was m a i n t a i n e d . Two p e l l e t e d d i e t s were e v a l u a t e d . (See T a b l e 1 f o r f o r m u l a t i o n s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s . ) The Low P r o t e i n (LP) p e l l e t was f o r m u l a t e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and c o n t a i n e d !&'/. c r u d e p r o t e i n and 2937 k c a l ME/kg. I t c o n t a i n e d a u t o c l a v e d e g g s h e l l w a s t e as a s o u r c e o f c a l c i u m and v e g e t a b l e o i l a s a s o u r c e o f e n e r g y . The m i n e r a l and v i t a m i n p r e m i x e s were made up a t UBC, t r a n s p o r t e d t o Nanaimo a l o n g 31 T a b l e 1. C o m p o s i t i o n o f D i e t s f e d i n E x p e r i m e n t One I n g r e d i e n t s p e r c e n t a g e i n d i e t Low P r o t e i n P e l l e t G r o u n d C o r n 60. 0 Soyb e a n M e a l 16. 0 Wheat M i d d l i n g s 12. 0 A l f a l f a M e a l 3. 5 V e g e t a b l e O i l 3. 5 Bone Meal 2. 0 E g g s h e l l Waste 1. 5 V i t a m i n M i n e r a l P r e m i x #1° 1. 0 D i c a l c i u m P h o s p h a t e 0. 5 H i g h P r o t e i n P e l l e t G r o u n d C o r n 26. 5 Soyb e a n M e a l 24. 5 Wheat 20. 7 Gr o u n d B a r l e y 15. 0 C a n o l a M e a l 5. 0 Meat and Bone Mea l (50*/.) 2. 9 A l f a l f a Meal 1. 2 L i m e s t o n e 0. 6 T a l l o w 0. 5 V i t a m i n M i n e r a l P r e m i x #2 0. 5 S a l t 0. 1 C a l c u l a t e d a n a l y s i s : Low P r o t e i n P e l l e t : P r o t e i n 16.0, M.E. 2937 k c a l / k g , Ca 1.4%, P 73%. H i g h P r o t e i n P e l l e t : P r o t e i n 21.7%, M.E. 2783 k c a l / k g , Ca .63%, P .54%. " P r e m i x #1 c o n t a i n s p e r kil o g r a m * . V i t a m i n A 8810 IU, V i t a m i n D 3 881 ICU, V i t a m i n E 30 IU, V i t a m i n B i a 13.2 ug, R i b o f l a v i n 6.6 mg, C a l c i u m p a n t o t h e n a t e 8.8 mg, N i a c i n 22 mg, c h o l i n e c h l o r i d e 440 mg, m e t h i o n i n e 1.5 grams, 75% MnS0 4-xH 30 410mg, ZnO 45.6 mg, I o d i z e d s a l t , 5. Og. 32 w i t h t h e a u t o c l a v e d e g g s h e l l waste, and s t o r e d t h e r e u n t i l t h e d i e t was mixed and p e l l e t e d a t Nanaimo F a r m e r ' s Co-op. The H i g h P r o t e i n (HP) p e l l e t was a r a t i o n f o r m u l a t e d and mixed f o r V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d M o u n t a i n Squab by t h e Nanaimo F a r m e r ' s Co-op, and was VIM's b r e e d e r d i e t , f e d w i t h c o r n . The c r u d e p r o t e i n l e v e l was 22% and t h e ME l e v e l was 2783 k c a l / k g . I t c o n t a i n e d l i m e s t o n e a s a s o u r c e o f c a l c i u m and a n i m a l t a l l o w a s a s u p p l e m e n t a l f a t s o u r c e . T h r e e p e n s (a t o t a l o f 34 p a i r s p e r t r e a t m e n t ) were a s s i g n e d t o e a c h o f 4 e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t s , i n a 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n . The f o u r t r e a t m e n t s were as f o l l o w s : LP -- Low P r o t e i n P i g e o n p e l l e t s LPC -- Low P r o t e i n P i g e o n p e l l e t s p l u s c o r n HP -- H i g h P r o t e i n P i g e o n p e l l e t s HPC -- H i g h P r o t e i n P i g e o n p e l l e t s p l u s c o r n A l l d i e t s were a v a i l a b l e ad l i b i t u m . LPC and HPC were a f f o r d e d c o r n and p e l l e t s i n s i d e - b y - s i d e f e e d e r s , c a f e t e r i a s t y l e . Water and g r a n i t e g r i t were p r o v i d e d ad l i b i t u m . At t h e same t i m e e v e r y week, f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d by d i f f e r e n c e (by w e i g h i n g back t h e f e e d n o t 33 e a t e n ) . F e e d i n t a k e o f p e l l e t p l u s c o r n d i e t s was t h e sum o f t h e two components. M a l e and f e m a l e a d u l t body w e i g h t s were r e c o r d e d a t t h e s t a r t and end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . N e s t s were c h e c k e d d a i l y f o r p r o d u c t i o n o f eggs, egg b r e a k a g e , and p r e s e n c e o f s q u a b s . S i n c e p i g e o n s a r e t e r r i t o r i a l , e a c h n e s t - s i t e g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d one p a i r . From t h e d a i l y n e s t c h e c k s , t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a m e t e r s were c a l c u l a t e d : Egg P r o d u c t i o n = t o t a l number o f eggs l a i d . F e r t i l i t y o f Eggs = number o f f e r t i l e e g g s / number o f e g g s l a i d minus number o f eggs c r a c k e d and m i s s i n g . H a t c h a b i l i t y o f F e r t i l e E ggs = number h a t c h e d / number l a i d minus number c r a c k e d and m i s s i n g minus number i n f e r t i l e . Squab M o r t a l i t y = number o f s q u a b s t h a t d i e d b e f o r e 4 weeks o f age. Squab h a t c h d a t e s were r e c o r d e d , and a t 1-week i n t e r v a l s , t h e s q u a b s were w e i g h e d (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks o f a g e ) . K i l o g r a m s o f squab p r o d u c e d p e r pen was c a l c u l a t e d a s number o f s q u a b s h a t c h e d t i m e s a v e r a g e s q u a b w e i g h t . M o r t a l i t y o f a d u l t s was m o n i t o r e d . When an a d u l t d i e d , i t s mate was removed and a n o t h e r p r o d u c i n g p a i r a dded t o t h e pen. E x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d wa S t a t i s t i c s : Egg p r o d u f e r t i l i t y , and h a t c h a b i l i t y and p e r c e n t a d u l t m o r t a l i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s S ystem s q u a b s p e r t r e a t m e n t and k i t r e a t m e n t were s u b j e c t e d t o Body w e i g h t s o f s q u a b a t ea c y c l e were a n a l y z e d by one-SAS. I n i t i a l and f e m a l e p i g e o n s w SAS, w i t h s e x an S i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r m i n e d by Du 1955). F e e d i n t a k e t h e a n a l y s i s as t o t h e new f e e d p r e s e n c e o f s q u a was u s e d a s a c o f e e d i n t a k e , CP C o v a r i a n c e a n a l y 34 s n i n e weeks. c t i o n p a r a m e t e r ( p r o d u c t i o n , ), p e r c e n t s q u a b m o r t a l i t y , were s u b j e c t e d t o a r c s i n e Z a r (1984) and t h e n t o a e (PROC ANOVA), u s i n g (SAS, 1985). Number o f l o g r a m s o f s q u a b p e r a one-way ANOVA (SAS,1985). c h week o f t h e 28-day g r o w t h way ANOVA (PROC GLM) u s i n g f i n a l a d u l t body w e i g h t s o f male and e r e s u b j e c t e d t o a two-way ANOVA, u s i n g d t r e a t m e n t as main e f f e c t s . d i f f e r e n c e s among t r e a t m e n t s were n c a n ' s new m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t (Duncan, d a t a f r o m Week one was o m i t t e d f r o m i t was a p p a r e n t t h e b i r d s were a d a p t i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d . A l s o , s i n c e t h e b i n f l u e n c e s f e e d i n t a k e , s q u a b number v a r i a t e when s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f i n t a k e , and ME i n t a k e were p e r f o r m e d , s i s g r e a t l y i m p r o v e d t h e model. C r u d e 35 p r o t e i n was d e t e r m i n e d by M a c r o - K j e l d a h l a n a l y s i s o f f e e d s ; ME v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e p o u l t r y ME v a l u e s o f NRC (1984) f o r i n g r e d i e n t s . F e e d i n t a k e d a t a were a n a l y z e d a s a n e s t e d d e s i g n , w i t h r e p l i c a t e s n e s t e d w i t h i n d i e t s , u s i n g PROC GLM (SAS, 1985). S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among l e a s t s q u a r e s means (LSM) were d e t e r m i n e d by t e s t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s HO: L S M ( i ) = L S M ( j ) , a c c o r d i n g t o SAS ( 1 9 8 5 ) . 36 R e s u l t s : F e e d i n t a k e ( a d j u s t e d f o r p r e s e n c e o f squab) showed a s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t ( T a b l e 2 ) . B i r d s on HPC t r e a t m e n t had h i g h e r I n t a k e t h a n t h o s e on LPC and HP. B i r d s f e d LP had i n t a k e t h a t was i n t e r m e d i a t e and n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p>.05) d i f f e r e n t f r o m any o t h e r t r e a t m e n t . C r u d e p r o t e i n (CP) i n t a k e showed a s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t , w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : B i r d s on t h e HP t r e a t m e n t a t e more t h a n t h o s e on b o t h t h e HPC and LP t r e a t m e n t s , w h i c h a t e more t h a n t h o s e on t h e LPC t r e a t m e n t ( T a b l e 2 ) . M e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y (ME) i n t a k e showed a s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t , w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : B i r d s on HPC t r e a t m e n t consumed more ME t h a n t h o s e on b o t h t h e LP and LPC t r e a t m e n t s , w h i c h consumed more t h a n t h o s e on t h e HP t r e a t m e n t ( T a b l e 2 ) . Squab w e i g h t a t 4 weeks o f age e x h i b i t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t ( T a b l e 3 and F i g u r e 1 ) . The s q u a b p r o d u c e d by a d u l t s on LPC t r e a t m e n t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.05) l i g h t e r t h a n t h o s e on o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t (p>.05) t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s on s q u a b w e i g h t s were e x h i b i t e d a t 1, 2, and 3 weeks o f age. 37 TABLE 2. E f f e c t o f D i e t a r y T r e a t m e n t on F e e d and N u t r i e n t I n t a k e , E x p e r i m e n t One TREATMENT LP LPC HP HPC" ( p e r p a i r p e r week) F e e d I n t a k e ( g ) 810.43"" 741.35 h 739.08 b 881.24" i . SEM 32.7 31.9 32.6 32.4 CP I n t a k e (g) 132.16" 91. 21* 163.66* 121.99" +. SEM 5. 2 5. 1 5. 2 5. 2 ME I n t a k e ( k c a l ) 2381" 2359" 2058° 2787" + SEM 101 98 101 100 CP I n t a k e / F e e d I n t a k e 16.3 12.3 22.1 13.8 ME I n t a k e / F e e d I n t a k e 2938 3182 2785 3163 ' • " • c Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s w i t h i n rows a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.05) CP=Crude P r o t e i n ; v a l u e s d e r i v e d f r o m K j e l d a h l a n a l y s i s o f f e e d s M E = M e t a b o l i z a b l e E n e r g y ; v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d f r o m NRC (1984) v a l u e s f o r i n g r e d i e n t s SEM=Standard E r r o r o f t h e Mean TABLE 3. T r e a t m e n t E f f e c t s on Body Weight o f G r o w i n g Squabs, E x p e r i m e n t One Weight a t TREATMENT Age LP LPC HP HPC* (grams) One Week 237.63" 250.48" 238.31" 245.19" +. SEM 7. 1 12. 3 6. 4 8. 3 Two Weeks 478.70" 461.12" 469.62" 473.87" + SEM 9. 8 11. 5 7. 7 8. 3 T h r e e Weeks 592. 79° 562. 03" 583. 62" 588. 24" +_ SEM 7.1 9. 7 8. 6 8. 7 F o u r Weeks 602.94" 560.08" 595.92" 592.88" + SEM 10. 4 12. 5 9. 1 8. 7 "• b Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s w i t h i n rows a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.05) SEM = S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f t h e Mean FIGURE 1. EFFECT OF DIETARY TREATMENTS ON BODY WEIGHTS OF GROWING SQUABS EXPERIMENT ONE 700-1 WEEK OF AGE 40 M o r t a l i t y o f s q u a b s e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t ( T a b l e 4 ) . The d i l u t i o n o f p r o t e i n by c o r n i n t h e LPC t r e a t m e n t a p p a r e n t l y a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d s q u a b l i v a b i l i t y , a s t h i s t r e a t m e n t had t h e h i g h e s t (p<.05) squab m o r t a l i t y . C a f e t e r i a - s t y l e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o r n a f f e c t e d a d u l t body w e i g h t ( T a b l e 5 ) . B i r d s a l l o w e d f r e e a c c e s s t o c o r n d i d n o t g a i n w e i g h t , whereas t h o s e f e d o n l y p e l l e t s d i d g a i n w e i g h t . F emale p i g e o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.05) l i g h t e r t h a n males. P r o d u c t i o n t r a i t s ( e gg p r o d u c t i o n , f e r t i l i t y o f eggs, h a t c h a b i l i t y o f f e r t i l e eggs, w e i g h t o f s q u a b s p r o d u c e d and number o f s q u a b s p r o d u c e d ) were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p>.05) a f f e c t e d by e i t h e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o r n o r p r o t e i n l e v e l i n t h e d i e t ( T a b l e 4 ) . A d u l t m o r t a l i t y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p>.05) a f f e c t e d by t r e a t m e n t ( T a b l e 4 ) . D i s c u s s i o n : The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t were a) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o t e i n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p i g e o n s and b) t o s e e i f t h e f e e d i n g p r o g r a m o f a h i g h p r o t e i n p e l l e t f e d w i t h c o r n , c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e , c o u l d be r e p l a c e d by f e e d i n g a s i n g l e , l o w e r p r o t e i n p e l l e t . The two t r e a t m e n t s , HPC and LP, were e x p e c t e d t o 41 TABLE 4. P r o d u c t i o n T r a i t s o f P i g e o n s F e d p e l l e t s o f D i f f e r e n t P r o t e i n L e v e l s , f e d w i t h o r w i t h o u t c o r n , C a f e t e r i a - S t y l e , E x p e r i m e n t One TREATMENTS LP LPC HP HPC Egg P r o d u c t i o n / p a i r / 9 weeks 1.76" 2.18" 1.67" 1.74" Egg F e r t i l i t y % 93.2* 96.4* 91. 5* 86.3" Egg H a t c h a b i l i t y % 62.1" 63.4* 57.4" 58. 8" Egg B r e a k a g e % 11.1 11.3 9. 6 10. 2 Squab M o r t a l i t y # d i e d / # h a t c h e d 2/38* 5/44" 1/38° 0/40° Squab P r o d u c t i o n k g / t r t 21.7" 21. 8* 21.6" 23.7" # / t r t 38* 44* 38" 40* Mean 4-week squab w e i g h t (g) 602.9" 560.1" 595.9" 592.9* +. SEM 60.6 79.4 54.7 58.9 A d u l t M o r t a l i t y 1 •# 1* 4° 3* 4* *• b Mea ns w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s w i t h i n rows a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.05) SEM = S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f t h e Mean 'Out o f 68 b i r d s 42 TABLE 5. E f f e c t o f d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t on i n i t i a l and f i n a l a d u l t body w e i g h t s , E x p e r i m e n t One TREATMENT Body Weight LP LPC HP HPC < grams) I N I T I A L M a l e s 630.5" 628.1" 606.9" 622.7" + SEM 9. 9 7.9 8. 5 8. 4 F e m a l e s 523.2" 552.2" 535.3" 541.9" + SEM 11.7 13.0 9.4 11.0 FINAL M a l e s 670.2" 628.2" 630.2" 623.5" + SEM 11.7 8. 7 9. 4 11. 0 F e m a l e s 568. 0° 549.7" 561.2" 53S. 4rt + SEM 11.7 12.5 9.7 13.8 CHANGE M a l e s +39.7" +0.1" +23.3" + 0. 8 e F e m a l e s +44.8" -2.5° +25.9" -3.5" * , » , c , d M e a n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s w i t h i n rows a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.05) (-) means l o s s o f w e i g h t , (+) means g a i n o f w e i g h t SEM = S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f t h e Mean 43 g i v e t h e b e s t r e s u l t s , HPC b e c a u s e t h e b i r d s c o u l d b a l a n c e t h e i r r a t i o n t h r o u g h f r e e c h o i c e a c c e s s t o c o r n , and LP b e c a u s e t h e p e l l e t was f o r m u l a t e d t o be c o m p l e t e ( u s i n g a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s q u a b s o f t h e b i r d s f e d a low p r o t e i n p e l l e t w i t h c o r n , c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e ( L P C ) , were u n d e r c o n s u m i n g p r o t e i n . T h i s i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e i r l o w e r 4-week body w e i g h t . A l t h o u g h t h e b r e e d e r f l o c k i t s e l f was n o t a f f e c t e d ( p r o d u c t i o n t r a i t s and body w e i g h t s were m a i n t a i n e d ) , t h e s q u a b s p r o d u c e d on t h i s t r e a t m e n t were. They were s m a l l e r a t h a r v e s t age and t h e y a l s o had t h e h i g h e s t s q u a b m o r t a l i t y r a t e . When t h e m o r t a l i t y i s e x a m i n e d more c l o s e l y ( A p p e n d i x 1 ) , t h i s t r e a t m e n t was t h e o n l y one t o show any a c t u a l p o o r h e a l t h o f s q u a b s - - m o r t a l i t y i n t h e o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o a c c i d e n t . The 2 s i c k l y s q u a b s i n t h i s t r e a t m e n t d e v e l o p e d p o o r h e a l t h l a t e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t ; i t w o u l d have been i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n t i n u e t h e e x p e r i m e n t t o s e e i f t h i s was t h e t r e n d t o w a r d s s i c k l y s q u a b s i n LPC t r e a t m e n t . W h i l e t h e s q u a b s o f LPC t r e a t m e n t were b e i n g f e d c r o p m i l k (Week 1) , t h e y had t h e f a s t e s t ( t h o u g h non-s i g n i f i c a n t ) g r o w t h r a t e . Once t h e d i e t o f t h e s e s q u a b s v/as c h a n g e d t o t h a t o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , t h e i r 44 p e r f o r m a n c e ( r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s ) s u f f e r e d , and by 4 weeks o f age, t h i s e f f e c t on p e r f o r m a n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05). I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t b i r d s f e d ad l i b i t u m w i l l e a t t o s a t i s f y an e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t (NRC,1984). The b i r d s on LPC d i e t had t h e o p t i o n o f e a t i n g o n l y t h e LP ( 1 6 % c r u d e p r o t e i n ) p e l l e t s and i g n o r i n g t h e c o r n ( 9 . 6 % c r u d e p r o t e i n ) , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g more p r o t e i n t o t h e i r s q u a b s . However, t h e y d i d n o t do t h i s , p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e t h e c o r n had g r e a t e r e n e r g y c o n c e n t r a t i o n t h a n LP p e l l e t (3350 and 2937 k c a l s ME p e r k i l o g r a m , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The f a c t t h a t a d u l t b i r d s i n b o t h t r e a t m e n t s t h a t were p r o v i d e d w i t h c o r n c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e (LPC and HPC) d i d n o t g a i n w e i g h t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e b i r d s were b e t t e r a b l e t o meet t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r body w e i g h t m a i n t e n a n c e t h a n t h o s e n o t a f f o r d e d c o r n , c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e . The f e e d i n g o f a h i g h p r o t e i n p e l l e t w i t h o u t s u p p l e m e n t a l c o r n l i k e l y c a u s e d t h e b i r d s on HP t o o v e r c o n s u m e p r o t e i n . Even t h o u g h t h e y had t h e l o w e s t f e e d i n t a k e ( s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o n l y HPC) and l o w e s t ME i n t a k e ( s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m a l l o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s ) , t h e i r CP i n t a k e was h i g h e s t o f a l l t h e t r e a t m e n t s . S i n c e t h e e x t r a p r o t e i n i n t h e HP d i e t , f e d a l o n e , d i d n o t i m p r o v e p r o d u c t i o n ( T a b l e 2 ) , i t seems u n n e c e s s a r y and w a s t e f u l t o p r o v i d e s u c h a h i g h p r o t e i n d i e t t o s q u a b b i n g p i g e o n s . The a d u l t s on HP g a i n e d w e i g h t , even a t s u c h low ME i n t a k e s . No e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s o b v i o u s . The p r o t e i n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s q u a b b i n g p i g e o n s a p p e a r t o be a r o u n d 17.4 t o 18.9 grams CP p e r p a i r p e r day ( e n e r g y i n t a k e a r o u n d 335 t o 345 k c a l s ME p e r p a i r p e r d a y ) . A s s u m i n g f e e d i n t a k e o f 105 t o 125 grams p e r p a i r p e r day, a d i e t s h o u l d c o n t a i n 13.9 t o 18. 0 % c r u d e p r o t e i n . The c a f e t e r i a f e e d i n g p r o g r a m s o f HPC and LPC gave v a r i a b l e r e s u l t s . The low p r o t e i n p e l l e t p l u s c o r n r a t i o n d i d n o t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e p r o t e i n t o t h e g r o w i n g s q u a b s , t h e r e f o r e t h e s q u a b s were s m a l l e r a t market age t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s on o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s . T h e r e was a l s o an i n c r e a s e d s q u a b m o r t a l i t y n o t e d on t h i s t r e a t m e n t . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e HPC t r e a t m e n t gave f a v o u r a b l e r e s u l t s , and i n f a c t , t h e y had no s q u a b m o r t a l i t y ( a l t h o u g h t h i s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p>.05) d i f f e r e n t f r o m any t r e a t m e n t e x c e p t L P C ) . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i f t h e f e e d i n g o f c o r n w i t h p e l l e t s i s t o be p r a c t i c e d , t h e p e l l e t must be o f s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h p r o t e i n t o meet t h e demands f o r s q u a b g r o w t h . Under t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s t r i a l , t h e optimum p r o t e i n l e v e l f o r a c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e f e e d i n g 46 p r o g r a m c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d , however t h e 2.1V. p e l l e t p e r f o r m e d w e l l . O v e r a l l , t h e b i r d s on LP t r e a t m e n t p e r f o r m e d w e l l , and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c a f e t e r i a f e e d i n g p r o g r a m (HPC) c a n be r e p l a c e d by a s i n g l e p e l l e t e d r a t i o n s u c h a s LP, w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g s q u a b p r o d u c t i o n . The LP p e l l e t a p p e a r s t o be t h e b e t t e r c h o i c e o f t h e two p e l l e t s a s t h e b i r d s on HP t r e a t m e n t were a p p a r e n t l y o v e r c o n s u m i n g p r o t e i n (and p o s s i b l y u n d e r c o n s u m i n g e n e r g y ) . S i n c e p r o t e i n i s an e x p e n s i v e i n g r e d i e n t i n r a t i o n s , i t i s w a s t e f u l t o i n c l u d e i t a t l e v e l s n o t o p t i m a l l y u t i l i z e d by t h e b i r d s . EXPERIMENT TWO EFFECT OF SOURCE AND CONCENTRATION OF DIETARY ENERGY ON THE SQUAB PRODUCTION OF A PIGEON FLOCK IN PAIR-CAGES I n t r o d u c t i o n : The r e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t One showed t h a t t h e c a f e t e r i a f e e d i n g p r o g r a m (a h i g h p r o t e i n p e l l e t f e d w i t h c o r n , ad. l i b i t u m ) c o u l d be r e p l a c e d by a s i n g l e p e l l e t e d d i e t , s u c h a s LP i n E x p e r i m e n t One. I n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e a c c u r a t e f e e d i n t a k e d a t a , a c a g e s y s t e m was needed i n w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t i o n and i n t a k e d a t a o f s i n g l e p a i r s o f b i r d s c o u l d be m o n i t o r e d . Hence, t h e U.B.C. P i g e o n N u t r i t i o n U n i t was e s t a b l i s h e d . I n t h i s s y s t e m , e a c h p a i r o f b i r d s ( p l u s any squab b e i n g r a i s e d ) c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e an e x p e r i m e n t a l u n i t . W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s u n i t , o t h e r q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o p i g e o n n u t r i t i o n c o u l d be examined. F o r example, s i n c e p i g e o n s a r e g r a n i v o r o u s , t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s a s t o w h e t h e r t h e r e would be a d i f f e r e n t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n o f a n i m a l t a l l o w and v e g e t a b l e o i l , o r i f , i n f a c t , a s u p p l e m e n t a l f a t s o u r c e i s r e q u i r e d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e e f f e c t o f f a t s o u r c e on a n i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e h a s been documented i n o t h e r a v i a n s p e c i e s . I n g e n e r a l , o i l s o f p l a n t o r i g i n w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f u n s a t u r a t e d 47 48 f a t t y a c i d s a r e more c o m p l e t e l y d i g e s t e d by b i r d s t h a n a n i m a l f a t s , s u c h as l a r d and t a l l o w , w h i c h c o n t a i n h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s (Carew e t a l . , 1964; V e r m e e r s c h and V a n s c h o u b r o e k , 1968; B r a g g e t a l . , 1973; and W h i t e h e a d and F i s h e r , 1975). A d d i t i o n o f f a t t o a l o w - f a t b a s a l d i e t s t i m u l a t e s w e i g h t g a i n i n c h i c k e n s ( B i e l y and March, 1954; D o n a l d s o n e t a l . , 1957; Rand e t a l . , 1958; Dam e t a l . , 1961; S e l l and Hodgson, 1962; V e r s m e e r s c h and V a n s c h o u b r o e k , 1968; B r a g g e t a l . , 1973; and H o r a n i and S e l l , 1977) and t u r k e y s ( J o s h i and S e l l , 1964). C r o p m i l k i s a s u b s t a n c e r i c h i n f a t , c o n s i s t i n g o f l i p i d - l a d e n d e s q u a m a t e d c r o p c e l l s , h e n c e t h e r e may be a need f o r a d d i t i o n a l f a t d u r i n g c r o p m i l k s y n t h e s i s . I n a d d i t i o n t o m o n i t o r i n g f e e d i n t a k e more a c c u r a t e l y , t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t r i a l was t o s t u d y t h e e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s q u a b b i n g p i g e o n s h o u s e d i n p a i r -c a g e s . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by s u p p l e m e n t i n g a b a s a l d i e t w i t h f a t o f p l a n t o r a n i m a l o r i g i n , and r e c o r d i n g t h e e f f e c t o f s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n on squab p r o d u c t i o n o f p i g e o n s . 49 M a t e r i a l s and Methods: One h u n d r e d and f o r t y - f o u r p a i r s o f a d u l t W h i t e and S i l v e r K i n g s q u a b b l n g p i g e o n s were o b t a i n e d f r o m VIM. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e were t h e same b i r d s u s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t . A p p r o x i m a t e age o f t h e p i g e o n s was t h r e e y e a r s o l d f o r m a l e s and unknown f o r f e m a l e s . M a l e s and f e m a l e s were a s s i g n e d t o p a i r - c a g e s a t random. I n e a c h o f t h r e e rooms (Room 6, 7 and 8 ) , t h e r e were t h r e e c a g e - u n i t s . E a c h c a g e - u n i t c o n s i s t e d o f 16 p a i r - c a g e s i n 2 t i e r s o f 4 c a g e s , f r o n t and back, f o r a t o t a l o f 48 p a i r - c a g e s p e r room. P a i r - c a g e s measured 60 x 60 x 45cm» and e a c h was e q u i p p e d w i t h a f e e d i n g t r o u g h , an a u t o m a t i c d r i n k i n g cup ( H a r t - t y p e ) and two n e s t i n g s i t e s . P a p e r p u l p n e s t i n g b o w l s and b u r l a p were p r o v i d e d f o r n e s t i n g . F o r f i f t e e n weeks b e f o r e t h e t r i a l , t h e b i r d s were f e d a c o m m e r c i a l p i g e o n p e l l e t ( O t t e r Co-op, 1985) and t h e i r r a t e s o f egg p r o d u c t i o n and f e e d i n t a k e were m o n i t o r e d . A l l e g g s were c o l l e c t e d a s t h e y were l a i d , t h e r e b y p r e v e n t i n g t h e b i r d s f r o m r a i s i n g squab. O n l y t h o s e p a i r s t h a t l a i d e g gs o f good q u a l i t y on a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s were u s e d f o r t h e t r i a l , s o t h a t u n p r o d u c t i v e b i r d s would n o t be us e d . B i r d s were 50 m e d i c a t e d i n t h e a d a p t a t i o n p e r i o d , w i t h a u r e o m y c i n (100 mg p e r t o n n e ) v i a f e e d and p i p e r a z i n e v i a w a t e r e r s ( a c c o r d i n g t o d i r e c t i o n s on l a b e l ) . B i r d s were m a i n t a i n e d on a 14-hour l i g h t r e g i m e (14L:10D). F e e d and w a t e r were p r o v i d e d ad_ l i b i t u m . B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t One, t h e f o l l o w i n g d i e t s were f o r m u l a t e d ( T a b l e 6 ) . The f i v e t r e a t m e n t s c o n s i s t e d o f a b a s a l d i e t ( c o n t a i n i n g no a d d i t i o n a l f a t ) , t o w h i c h 2 l e v e l s ( 3 % o r 6%) o f two d i f f e r e n t f a t s o u r c e s ( s u n f l o w e r o i l (SFQ) o r a n i m a l t a l l o w ( A T ) ) were added. C o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d i e t s was m a n i p u l a t e d t o p r o v i d e 15.0% c r u d e p r o t e i n ( b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f K j e l d a h l a n a l y s i s o f i n g r e d i e n t s ) and ME l e v e l s o f 2650, 2900, and 3150 k c a l / k g f e e d ( c a l c u l a t e d f r o m N.R.C., 1984). The f e e d was s t e a m - p e l l e t e d . The 3% SF0 d i e t c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h e d i e t (LP) u s e d i n E x p e r i m e n t One. One h u n d r e d and f i v e p a i r s o f p i g e o n s were u s e d i n t h i s t r i a l and were d i s t r i b u t e d i n a b a l a n c e d f a s h i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h r e e rooms on t h e b a s i s o f body w e i g h t , b r e e d , egg p r o d u c t i o n , and f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n , t o m i n i m i z e t h e between-room v a r i a t i o n . In a c o m p l e t e l y r a n d o m i z e d b l o c k d e s i g n , p a i r s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d , w i t h i n rooms, t o one o f f i v e t r e a t m e n t s , 7 p a i r s p e r t r e a t m e n t p e r room. F i v e 51 TABLE 6. C o m p o s i t i o n o f D i e t s f e d i n E x p e r i m e n t Two TREATMENT I n g r e d i e n t B a s a l 3V.SF0 6%SF0 3%AT 6%AT (*/. i n d i e t ) A l f a l f a M e a l 3. 5 3. 5 3. 5 3. 5 3. 5 Gr o u n d C o r n 60. 4a 62. 44 63. 80 62. 39 65. 28 S o y b e a n M e a l 10. 35 12. 60 14. 33 11. 39 13. 99 Wheat M i d d l i n g s 18. 67 11. 46 6. 00 14. 73 6. 0 D i c a l . Phos. 0. 5 0. 5 0. 5 0. 5 0. 5 V i t - M i n P r e m i x 1 1. 0 1. 0 1. 0 1. 0 1.0 Bone M e a l 2. 0 2. 0 2. 0 2. 0 2. 0 E g g s h e l l Waste 1. 5 1. 5 1. 5 1. 5 1. 5 C o r n s t a r c h --•- --•- -- - . 24 C e l l u l o s e 2. 0 2. 0 1. 4 -S u n f l o w e r O i l 3. 0 6. 0 --•-A n i m a l T a l l o w 3. 0 6. 0 C a l c u l a t e d A n a l y s i s : P r o t e i n */.a 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 ME k c a l / k g 3 2650 2900 3150 2900 3150 Ca % 1.389 1.387 1.386 1.388 1.385 T o t a l P */. 0.754 0.710 0.676 0.731 0.678 1 V i t a m i n - M i n e r a l P r e m i x a s i n E x p e r i m e n t One. a A c c o r d i n g t o K j e l d a h l a n a l y s i s done on i n g r e d i e n t s 3 A c c o r d i n g t o v a l u e s f o r i n g r e d i e n t s (NRC, 1984) 52 a d d i t i o n a l p a l r e were p u t on e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s , i n c a s e o f m o r t a l i t y i n e x p e r i m e n t a l b i r d s . S e v e n p a i r s o f b i r d s r e p r e s e n t e d a r e p l i c a t e . The d u r a t i o n o f t h e t r i a l was 21 weeks ( O c t o b e r 1985 t o March 1986), d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a m e t e r s were r e c o r d e d : w e e k l y f e e d i n t a k e o f p a i r s ; egg p r o d u c t i o n p e r p a i r ; f e r t i l i t y o f e g g s ( e x c l u d i n g c r a c k e d and b r o k e n e g g s ) ; h a t c h a b i l i t y o f f e r t i l e e g g s ; m o r t a l i t y o f h a t c h e d s q uab; s quab g r o w t h t h r o u g h t h e 4 week g r o w t h c y c l e ; and m o r t a l i t y o f a d u l t s . Body w e i g h t s o f a d u l t s were r e c o r d e d a t t h e s t a r t and end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . The p a r a m e t e r s were c a l c u l a t e d a s i n E x p e r i m e n t One, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f f e e d i n t a k e . F o r e a c h p a i r , t h e r e was a p l a s t i c bag, i n t o w h i c h was w e i g h e d s u f f i c i e n t f e e d f o r one week. F e e d e r s were t o p p e d up d a i l y f r o m t h i s bag. F e e d s p i l l a g e was m i n i m a l , E v e r y week, f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d by d i f f e r e n c e , S t a t i s t i c a l M ethods: F e r t i l i t y and h a t c h a b i l i t y o f e g g s were s u b j e c t e d t o a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o 2 a r (1984) and t h e n t o a two-way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e (PROC ANOVA), w i t h t r e a t m e n t and b l o c k b e i n g t h e main e f f e c t s , u s i n g S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s S ystem (SAS,1985). Egg p r o d u c t i o n was a l s o s u b j e c t e d t o two-way ANOVA 53 u s i n g SAS <1985>. I n i t i a l and f i n a l a d u l t body w e i g h t s were s u b j e c t e d t o 3-way ANOVA ( w i t h sex, t r e a t m e n t and b l o c b e i n g t h e main e f f e c t s ) . Body w e i g h t s o f s q u a b s t h r o u g h t h e g r o w t h c y c l e (Weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4) were a n a l y s e d by 2-way ANOVA (PROC GLM; SAS, 1985), w i t h b l o c k and t r e a t m e n t a s main e f f e c t s . D i f f e r e n c e s between means were d e t e r m i n e d by Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t (Duncan, 1955). S i n c e s q u a b number and w e i g h t o f squab was p o o l e d a c r o s s rooms, t h e d a t a were n o t a n a l y z e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y F e e d i n t a k e d i s p l a y e d e f f e c t s due t o b o t h t e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s e n c e o f s q u a b s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s were u s e d a s c o v a r i a t e s i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f f e e d i n t a k e , ME i n t a k e , and CP i n t a k e d a t a . ( C o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s g r e a t l y i m p r o v e d t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e model.) The d a t a was s u b d i v i d e d i n t t h r e e 7-week " s q u a b b i n g p e r i o d s " , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d by t h e UBC r e s e a r c h e r s i n 1983 ( W a l d i e e t a l 1984) t o d e n o t e t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e i n w h i c h a p a i r o f p r o d u c i n g p i g e o n s s h o u l d be a b l e t o p r o d u c e a c l u t c h o f s q u a b s . F e e d i n t a k e d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s , (SAS, 1985), w i t h number o f s q u a b s and t e m p e r a t u r e as c o v a r i a t e s . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among l e a s t s q u a r e s means (LSM) were d e t e r m i n e d by t e s t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s HO: L S M ( i ) L S M ( j ) . 55 R e s u l t s : A s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e e - w a y i n t e r a c t i o n was o b s e r v e d f o r f e e d i n t a k e , c r u d e p r o t e i n (CP) i n t a k e , and m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y (ME) i n t a k e d a t a o f E x p e r i m e n t 2 ( F i g u r e s 2, 3, and 4 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s p r e c l u d e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e a c h main e f f e c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e o t h e r two, t h e f o l l o w i n g has been o b s e r v e d . B i r d s f e d t h e b a s a l d i e t g e n e r a l l y had t h e h i g h e s t i n t a k e o f f e e d . B i r d s f e d t h e d i e t c o n t a i n i n g 6% a n i m a l t a l l o w (AT) had l o w e s t c o n s u m p t i o n i n a l l c a s e s , e x c e p t i n Rooms 7 and 8, i n P e r i o d 3. A s s u m i n g P e r i o d 1 (Weeks 1 t o 7) r e p r e s e n t s i n t a k e o f a d u l t s w i t h no s q u a b s ( a s v e r y few s q u a b s h a t c h e d i n P e r i o d 1 -- 0, 3, 0, 3 and 2 f o r B a s a l , 3% SFQ, &'/. SFO, 3V. AT, and 6% AT, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , a f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n a r i s e s ( T a b l e 7 ) . F e e d i n t a k e and CP i n t a k e show t h e f o l l o w i n g t r e n d : B a s a l > 3*/. SFO and 3% AT > 6% SFO and 6% AT (p<.05). I t would t h e r e f o r e a p p e a r t h a t t h e b i r d s f e d t h e l o w e s t e n e r g y d i e t ( B a s a l ) w i l l e a t more t h a n t h o s e f e d d i e t s o f i n t e r m e d i a t e e n e r g y ( 3 % added f a t ) , w h i c h w i l l e a t more t h a n t h o s e on t h e h i g h e s t e n e r g y d i e t s ( 6 % added f a t ) . C r u d e p r o t e i n i n t a k e i n P e r i o d 1 p a r a l l e l e d t h e p a t t e r n o f f e e d i n t a k e , a s t h e d i e t s were f o r m u l a t e d t o 56 FIGURE 2. FEED INTAKE OF PIGEONS ON EXPERIMENT TWO ROOM 6 2 3 PERIOD ROOM 7 1 2 3 PERIOD 1 ROOM S ' 2 3 PERIOD Lagend o W S T O • « * T a tau 57 FIGURE 3. METABOLIZABLE ENERGY INTAKE OF PIGEONS ON EXPERIMENT TWO I R O O M 6 1 2 3 PERIOD i ROOM 7 ROOM 8 \ 2 3 PDHOO Legend « W W O WSTO • KAT • ran 58 FIGURE 4. CRUDE PROTEIN INTAKE OF PIGEONS ON EXPERIMENT TWO V 3 3 5 0 ROOM 6 2 PERIOD ROOM 7 2 3 KMX) 5 MO ROOM 8 2 3 •EPJOO Lagand * • **" » « »' TABLE 7. Effect of dietary energy lourot and concentration on feed and nutrient intake* TREATMENT Nutrient Intake basal 3X SPO GX SFO 3X AT GX AT (per 7 paira per week) Feed intake (grama) 4351* 4024* 3740* 3944* 3589" •. SEN 43.4 42.6 43.4 42.8 42.7 CP intake <grama) 619* 548" 903* 349* 496* • SEN S.98 3.87 3.98 5.90 5.89 HE intake (koal) 11550*• 11670* 11780* 11440*- 11310" • SEM 129 127 129 128 127 'Represents data from Period One (Weeks 1 to 7) adjusted for squabs and temperature. ••"••Means within rows with different superscripts are significantly different (p<.05> SEN - Standard Error of the Mean TABLE 8. Effect of dietary energy sourot and level on i n i t i a l and f i n a l adult body weights. Experiment Two TREATMENT Body Waight Basal 3X SPO 6X SPO 3X AT 6X AT (grams)_ INITIAL -- Hales 638.4* 649.1* 631.3* 934.2* 615.0* • , SEN 13.2 11.7 13.3 10.3 11.0 -- Females 633.2* 617.4* 607.4* 614.2* 599.5* • SEN 17.2 17.6 12.0 17.8 12.6 PINAL -- Halee 646.0* 653.4* 648.6* 636.3* 625.1* SEN 12.7 12.8 15.0 8.9 10.4 Pemales 633.2" 623.2" 607.1* 615.0* 595.1* • SEN 16.8 16.6 10.4 21.0 13.4 CHANGE -- Halas 7.5* 4.3* 17.3* 2.0* 10.0* -- Pemales 0 5.8* -0.3* 0.8* -4.4* *•*Means vithln rova with different auparacrlpta ara significantly different (p<.05) SEN • Standard Error of the Mean 61 15% c r u d e p r o t e i n , w h i l e v a r y i n g d i e t a r y e n e r g y c o n c e n t r a t i o n The ME i n t a k e s i n P e r i o d 1 o f b i r d s f e d d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g 6% AT were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.05) l o w e r t h a n b i r d s f e d d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r 3% o r 6% SFO ( T a b l e 7 ) . B i r d s on t h e o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s ( B a s a l and 3% AT) had ME i n t a k e s t h a t were i n t e r m e d i a t e and n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p>.05) d i f f e r e n t f r o m e i t h e r o f t h e ab o v e g r o u p s . No t r e n d i s a p p a r e n t f r o m t h i s d a t a . E x a m i n i n g t h e i n t a k e o f b i r d s f e d t h e B a s a l d i e t ( w h i c h p r o d u c e d no s q u a b s ) o v e r t h e 21-week e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d ( T a b l e 2 ) , a f a i r l y c o n s t a n t p a t t e r n i s e v i d e n t ( e x c e p t i n Room 7, w h i c h may have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e l i g h t i n g ) . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t (p>.05) e f f e c t o f d i e t a r y f a t s o u r c e and l e v e l on i n i t i a l o r f i n a l a d u l t body w e i g h t s i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ( T a b l e S ) . As i n E x p e r i m e n t 1, m a l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.05) h e a v i e r t h a n f e m a l e s , b o t h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . A d u l t b i r d s on t h i s e x p e r i m e n t d i d n o t g a i n w e i g h t o v e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . A t o t a l o f t h i r t y - o n e s q u a b s were p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e 21-week e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d (0, 9, 6, 6 and 10 f o r B a s a l , 3% SFO, 6% SFO, 3% AT, and 6% AT, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Two o f t h e s e s q u a b s d i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r h a t c h i n g (one 62 e a c h i n 3*/. SFO and &'/. AT. T h i s m o r t a l i t y h a s n o t been a t t r i b u t e d t o t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t ) . E i g h t e e n s q u a b s r e a c h e d 4 weeks o f age by t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t (0, 6, 1, 5 and 6 i n B a s a l , 3% SFO, 6% SFO, 3% AT, and 6% AT, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Due t o t h e s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e , s t a t i s t i c s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . B i r d s f e d t h e B a s a l d i e t p r o d u c e d no s q u a b s . B i r d s f e d 6% SFO had o n l y one s q u a b r e a c h 4 weeks o f age. S i n c e i t was much h e a v i e r t h a n a l l o t h e r s q u a b s p r o d u c e d (686.4 gra m s ) , and s i n c e i t s l a r g e s i z e was n o t b e l i e v e d t o be a t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t , i t s d a t a h a v e been d e l e t e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . Not a l l rooms had a c o m p l e t e complement o f d a t a f o r e a c h t r e a t m e n t , t h e r e f o r e , s q u a b d a t a have been p o o l e d a c r o s s rooms. A l l s q u a b w e i g h t s were assumed e q u a l a t h a t c h . A l t h o u g h e v i d e n c e f o r c h i c k e n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t c h i c k h a t c h w e i g h t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o egg s i z e ( N o r t h , 1978), s q u ab h a t c h w e i g h t s a r e n o t e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e d a s s q u a b s a r e f e d c r o p m i l k s h o r t l y a f t e r h a t c h i n g . T a b l e 9 shows t h e body w e i g h t s o f g r o w i n g s q u a b s o v e r t h e 4 week g r o w i n g c y c l e . A t 1 week o f age, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t on s q u a b body w e i g h t , w i t h s q u a b s i n t h e &"/. AT t r e a t m e n t b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h e a v i e r t h a n t h o s e i n o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s . A t 2 weeks o f age, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t (p<,05) TABLE 9. Mean Weekly Body Weights of Growing Squabs in Experiment Tvo TREATMENT Age of Squab Basal 3X SPO 6X SFO 3X AT 6X AT (grams) 1 Week Mean — 172.56- 148.17* 143.98* 224.71* n- 7 5 6 7 SEM 7.3 18.7 15.1 13.6 2 Weeks Mean 391.94*• 362.50* 323.74* 439.78* n- 6 4 5 7 SEM 19.1 48.6 13.5 12.3 3 Weeks Mean 539.45* 457.25* 486. 18* 543.89* n- 6 4 5 6 SEN 33.3 51.3 31.2 16.8 4 Weeks Mean 554.31* 518.46* 553.27* n*> 6 0 5 6 SEM 20.4 39.6 13.5 •••Means within rows with different superscripts are significantly different (p<.05) Basal Diet produced no squabs; 6X SFO had no squab attain 4 weeks of age SEM • Standard Error of the Mean; n« number of values used in analysis 64 t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t a s w e l l , i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n , b u t a t 3 and 4 weeks o f age, body w e i g h t s o f s q u a b were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p>.05) d i f f e r e n t among t r e a t m e n t s . T h e r e i s t h e a d d i t i o n a l c o m p l i c a t i o n o f one- v e r s u s t wo-squab c l u t c h e s . Squabs f r o m o n e - s q u a b c l u t c h e s a r e g e n e r a l l y h e a v i e r t h a n t h o s e f r o m two-squab n e s t s ( T a b l e 10). W i t h i n t r e a t m e n t s , t h e r e were e q u a l numbers o f one- and two-squab c l u t c h e s ( s e e A p p e n d i x 3 ) , however, n o t a l l s q u a b s a t t a i n e d h a r v e s t age by t h e end o f t h e t r i a l . O v e r a l l , o f t h o s e s q u a b s t h a t r e a c h e d h a r v e s t age, 4-week o l d s q u a b s f r o m o n e - s q u a b c l u t c h e s (n=6) were 29.9 grams h e a v i e r t h a n t h o s e f r o m two-squab c l u t c h e s <n=12), a l t h o u g h n o t a l l t r e a t m e n t s e x h i b i t e d t h i s t r e n d ( n o t e e s p e c i a l l y 3% AT t r e a t m e n t ) . T h i s v a r i a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y due t o s m a l l sample s i z e s . T a b l e 11 shows t h e p r o d u c t i o n t r a i t s o f p i g e o n s f e d d i f f e r e n t d i e t a r y e n e r g y s o u r c e s and l e v e l s . F e r t i l i t y and h a t c h a b i l i t y o f eggs i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t showed no s i g n i f i c a n t (p>.05) d i f f e r e n c e s among t r e a t m e n t s ( e x c e p t t h e b a s a l d i e t , i n w h i c h b i r d s p r o d u c e d no s q u a b s ) . Egg p r o d u c t i o n showed no s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t , however, t h i s t r a i t d i d d i s p l a y a room e f f e c t , w i t h Room 7 p r o d u c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.05) f e w e r eggs t h a n t h e o t h e r rooms (17.6, 11.3 and 16.1 e g g s p e r 7 p a i r s p e r week i n Room 6, 7 and 8, TABLE 10. Comparison of maan body vaights of squabs raised aa one- versus two-squab nests. Experiment Tvo TREATMENT Age of Squabs Type of Nest 3X SPO 6X SPO 3X AT 6X AT Overall (grams) 1 Week One-squab • SEN 163.7 2.6 161.8 41.6 99.6 0 217.4 15.0 169.4 19.3 Tvo-squab • SEN 176. 1 9. S 159. 5 16.7 155. 1 11. 5 230.2 18. 5 178. 3 10.0 2 Weeks One-squab •. SEN 450.6 46.0 386. 1 83. 1 336.3 0 448.9 9. 7 408.0 28. 3 Tvo-squab • SEN 372.4 12.5 409.5 15.2 315.8 13.2 433.0 17.8 386.9 13.0 3 Weeks One squab • SEN 611.4 50.0 635.0 0 485.8 0 578. 1 32. O 572.9 78.5 Two-squab SEN 503. 5 22.0 542.5 44.5 486.2 34.8 526.8 7. 5 493. 5 16. 5 4 Weeks One-squab •. SEN 585.7 19. 3 686. 4 0 490.0 0 581. 7 15. 1 564. 5 19. 4 Two-squab • SEN 523.7 22. 4 525.6 43.4 539.6 12. 1 534. 6 16.9 SEN - Standard Error of the Hean TABLE 11. Ef fec t of d ie tary energy aourc* and concentrat ion on pigeon production t r a i t s . Experiment Tvo TREATMENT Production T r a i t s Basal 3X SPO 6X SPO 3X AT 6X AT Egg Production* # of eggs/21 weeks 218* 151-(per 35 200-p a i r s ) 189« 187" Egg F e r t i l i t y X 92.3- 68.2* 79.4- 90. 6* 88.6* Egg Hatchab i l i t y X 0.0 64.3 21.0 21.4 66.7 Squab Morta l i ty #died/# hatched 0/0 1/9 0/6 0/6 1/10 Squab Production' #hatched/trt 0 9 6 6 10 kg produced/trt 0 4. 18 2.71 2.70 3.77 Mean 28-day weight 334.31* 518.46* 553.27-Adult Morta l i t y #/70 b irds 1 0 0 0 0 •Means within rows with d i f f eren t superscr ipt s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.05) 'Egg production showed a s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) room e f f ec t "Basal d ie t produced no squabs; one 6X SPO squab omitted from a n a l y s i s 67 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ( F i g u r e 5 ) . T h i s , no doubt, r e l a t e s t o t h e f a c t t h a t f o r t h e f i r s t 8 weeks o f t h e t r i a l (and f o r an unknown q u a n t i t y o f t i m e b e f o r e t h e e x p e r i m e n t b e g a n ) , t h e l i g h t s i n Room 7 were n o t p r o p e r l y s y n c h r o n i z e d , h e n c e t h e bix-ds were u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y e x p o s e d t o a 2 4 - h o u r l i g h t r e g i m e (24L:0D). By Week 10, however, 2 weeks a f t e r a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e l i g h t r e g i m e , egg p r o d u c t i o n i n Room 7 had i n c r e a s e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h a t o f o t h e r rooms. A d u l t m o r t a l i t y was n o t a t t r i b u t e d t o t r e a t m e n t . One a d u l t on t h e b a s a l d i e t d i e d . B i r d s f e d 37. SFO p r o d u c e d t h e g r e a t e s t w e i g h t i n k i l o g r a m s o f squab meat. T h i s f i g u r e was c a l c u l a t e d by summing 4-week squab w e i g h t s o f t h o s e s q u a b s t h a t a t t a i n e d 4 weeks o f age and t h e w e i g h t o f s q u a b s l e f t i n t h e n e s t a t t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . K i l o g r a m s o f s q u a b p r o d u c e d were 4.18, 2.71, 2.70, and 3. 77 f o r 3'/. SFO, 67. SFO, 37. AT and GY. AT, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Number o f s q u a b s p r o d u c e d were 0, 9, 6, 6 and 10 f o r B a s a l , 37. SFO, 67. SFO, 37. AT, and 67. AT, r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i n c e d a t a were p o o l e d a c r o s s rooms, no s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d . A r t i f i c i a l i n c u b a t i o n was i m p l e m e n t e d a t Week 16 o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T a b l e 12 shows p r o d u c t i o n d a t a f r o m b e f o r e and a f t e r i n c u b a t i o n was i n i t i a t e d . F I G U R E 5 . E G G P R O D U C T I O N E X P E R I M E N T T W O 69 TABLE 12. E f f e c t o f mode o f i n c u b a t i o n ( n a t u r a l o r a r t i f i c i a l ) on squab p r o d u c t i o n P r o d u c t i o n N a t u r a l A r t i f i c i a l T r a i t B r o o d i n g 1 I n c u b a t i o n 1 Eggs p r o d u c e d p e r week 43.5 48. 7 Squab h a t c h e d p e r week 1.2 2. 2 F e r t i l i t y o f E g g s e 98.4 83.1 H a t c h a b i l i t y o f E g g s 3 9.5 11.0 Egg B r e a k a g e 4 64.9 56.0 Eg g s M i s s i n g 3 17.0 8.2 ' N a t u r a l b r o o d i n g o c c u r r e d f o r 16 week; a r t i f i c i a l i n c u b a t i o n was i m p l e m e n t e d f o r 5 weeks a / . f e r t i l i t y o f eggs = # l a i d - # i n f e r t i l e / # l a i d -#broken - # m i s s i n g X 100'/. 3 % H a t c h a b i l i t y = [ # h a t c h e d / ( # l a i d - #broken -# m i s s i n g ) 3 X 100% 4 '/.Breakage = #broken / # l a i d - # m i s s i n g X 100% '•/.Missing = # m i s s i n g / # l a i d X 100% 70 D i s c u s s i o n ; B i r d s on B a s a l d i e t (no s u p p l e m e n t a l f a t ) p r o d u c e no s q u a b s , whereas a l l o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s p r o d u c e d a t l e a s t 6 s q u a b s . T h i s c o u l d n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o egg p r o d u c t i o n o r f e r t i l i t y , a s t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p>.05) d i f f e r e n t among t r e a t m e n t s . D e s p i t e t h e low p r o d u c t i o n o f s q u a b s i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , i t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e B a s a l d i e t d o e s n o t c o n t a i n enough f a t t o s u p p o r t s q u a b p r o d u c t i o n . P i g e o n s f e d d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s an l e v e l s o f d i e t a r y f a t had d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f f e e d i n t a k e . T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) t h r e e - w a y i n t e r a c t i o n on f e e d , CP and ME i n t a k e s i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ; however, i n g e n e r a l , t h e s e f o l l o w e d e x p e c t e d t r e n d s . P i g e o n s a p p a r e n t l y e a t t o meet an e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t when n o t p r o d u c i n g s q u a b s , as do o t h e r a v i a n s p e c i e s (NRC,1984). T h i s i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t , i n P e r i o d One, a l t h o u g h t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among ME i n t a k e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s , t h e r e were no o b s e r v a b l e t r e n d s . A l s o , t h e f e e d i n t a k e d a t a show s u c h c l e a r - c u t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f f a t i n c l u s i o n (0, 3 and GX) t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e j e c t t h e i d e a t h a t e n e r g y i n t a k e i s n o t t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r ( T a b l 7 ) . T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 235 k c a l ME p e r p a i r o f p i g e o n s p e r day. 71 In c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t One ( i n w h i c h t h o s e b i r d s f e d a s i n g l e r a t i o n g a i n e d w e i g h t o v e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d ) , t h e b i r d s i n E x p e r i m e n t Two d i d n o t g a i n w e i g h t , a l t h o u g h t h e y were a l l f e d a s i n g l e r a t i o n ( a s o p p o s e d t o c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e ) . P o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s c o u l d be d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o d u c t i o n p r e s s u r e , h o u s i n g a n d / o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l t e m p e r a t u r e . B i r d s i n E x p e r i m e n t Two were u n d e r v e r y l i t t l e p r o d u c t i o n p r e s s u r e , and t h e e x p e r i m e n t was c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e f a l l and w i n t e r months. E x p e r i m e n t One was c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e summer months and t h e b i r d s were u n d e r much g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n p r e s s u r e t h a n t h o s e o f E x p e r i m e n t Two. B i r d s i n E x p e r i m e n t One were m a i n t a i n e d i n a pen s i t u a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h i n a s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y . T h o s e i n E x p e r i m e n t 2 were i n a p a i r s i t u a t i o n and, p r e s u m a b l y , u n d e r no b e t w e e n - p a i r s o c i a l p r e s s u r e . The q u e s t i o n t h e r e f o r e a r i s e s a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r ( c o m p e t i t i o n ) a f f e c t s f e e d i n t a k e o f p i g e o n s . P a i r - c a g e s have been r e p o r t e d t o a f f e c t c o u r t s h i p b e h a v i o u r ( H o l l a n d e r , 1 9 4 5 ) - -p e r h a p s f e e d i n g b e h a v i o u r i s a f f e c t e d a s w e l l . Squab p r o d u c t i o n i n t h i s t r i a l c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o 13 p a i r s o f b i r d s (3,3,3 and 4 i n 3V. SFO, &'/. SFO, 3% AT and 6% AT, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A l t h o u g h t h e b i r d s were r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e t r e a t m e n t s a t t h e s t a r t 72 o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , p a i r p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d o n l y be d e s c r i b e d a s m i n i m a l ( s e e h o u s i n g d i s c u s s i o n , page 7 3 ) . As a r e s u l t , v a r i a t i o n s among t h e p a i r s would t a k e on g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . I f , by c h a n c e , t h e 4 p a i r s i n t h e 6% AT g r o u p t h a t p r o d u c e d s q u a b s were b e t t e r f e e d e r s t h a n t h e p a i r s p r o d u c i n g s q u a b s on o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s , t h e y c o u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t body w e i g h t o f t h e squab. T h i s a g r e e s w i t h t h e d a t a o f Cheng (1985), who r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p a r e n t s ' b r o o d i n g a b i l i t y had g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e i n i n f l u e n c i n g s q u a b body w e i g h t when t h e s q u a b s were young, b e c o m i n g l e s s i m p o r t a n t a s t h e s q u a b s grew o l d e r . T h i s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e s u l t s o f body w e i g h t s o f g r o w i n g s q u a b s ( T a b l e 9 ) . At 1 week o f age, t h e r e was a t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t , b u t by week 3, i t had d i s a p p e a r e d . C o n v e r s e l y , i f a d u l t s i n t h e o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s were p o o r b r o o d e r s , t h e i r s q u a b s would be a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e f o r t h e f i r s t 2 week o f l i f e . The e r r a t i c f e e d i n t a k e d a t a r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n as t o how s e n s i t i v e p i g e o n s a r e t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i r s q u a b s . I t may be t h a t as l o n g a s t h e d i e t i s a d e q u a t e , t h e b i r d s w i l l a t t e m p t t o r a i s e s q u a b s . The l i t e r a t u r e c i t e s i n c i d e n c e s o f p i g e o n s s u r v i v i n g and r a i s i n g s q u a b s on l i t t l e more t h a n c o r n , g r i t and w a t e r ( C a r r and James, 1932). Once t h e s q u a b s h a t c h , i s f e e d 73 and n u t r i e n t i n t a k e r e l a t e d t o t h e a c t u a l v a l u e o f t h e d i e t o r i s i t s i m p l y a r e s p o n s e t o f e e d t h e s q u a b s a s much as t h e y w i l l e a t ? The l a t t e r would p e r h a p s e x p l a i n why c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s c o u l d n o t e x p l a i n more o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e f e e d and n u t r i e n t i n t a k e s . A l s o , r e f e r r i n g b a c k t o E x p e r i m e n t One, t h e a d u l t s on t h e low p r o t e i n d i e t w i t h c o r n ( L P C ) , whose s q u a b s were a f f e c t e d by a low p r o t e i n i n t a k e , s t i l l a t e t h e c o r n , e v e n t h o u g h i t was n o t m e e t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e i r s q u a b s ' growth. I n E x p e r i m e n t Two, t h o s e b i r d s n o t p r o d u c t i n g s q u a b s ( b a s a l d i e t ) show f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t i n t a k e p a t t e r n s , a s do a l l t r e a t m e n t s i n P e r i o d 1 ( w i t h no s q u a b ) . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h o s e b i r d s n o t p r o d u c i n g s q u a b s a r e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e i r own n u t r i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . I t i s d u r i n g t h e b r o o d i n g o f s q u a b s t h a t t h e f e e d i n t a k e p a t t e r n s f a l l a p a r t . Under c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s t r i a l , f a t s o u r c e and c o n c e n t r a t i o n a p p e a r t o have no i n f l u e n c e on squab p r o d u c t i o n , e x c e p t t h a t t h e B a s a l d i e t (Q'A added f a t ) d i d n o t s u p p o r t squab p r o d u c t i o n . The c a g e s y s t e m d e v i s e d f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t was n o t s a t i f a c t o r y f o r squab p r o d u c t i o n u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . A p r o t o t y p e o f t h i s c a g e s y s t e m ha s been u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y a t UBC (Cheng, p e r s . comm.). However, i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f 74 c r a c k e d and b r o k e n e g g s (62% o f t o t a l ) r e s u l t e d i n few s q u a b s b e i n g p r o d u c e d . P o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l squab p r o d u c t i o n between t h i s f l o c k and t h a t o f t h e o t h e r UBC p r o j e c t a r e : a) t h i s f l o c k was o l d e r , was u s e d t o a pen s y s t e m , and may n o t have a d a p t e d r e a d i l y t o c a g e s ; and b) p e r h a p s o u r own m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e n e s t d e s i g n s r e n d e r e d t h e c a g e s l e s s d e s i r a b l e t o n e s t i n g p i g e o n s . I n o r d e r n o t t o c o m p l i c a t e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and b i a s any t r e a t m e n t , t h e c a g e d e s i g n was n o t m o d i f i e d f u r t h e r . I n s t e a d , a r t i f i c i a l i n c u b a t i o n was i m p l e m e n t e d a t Week 16 o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . A l l e g g s were g a t h e r e d f r o m t h e c a g e s and t e s t e d f o r s o u n d n e s s ; u n c r a c k e d e g g s were p l a c e d i n an i n c u b a t o r . From t h i s p o i n t u n t i l t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , eggs were c o l l e c t e d d a i l y , and t h e number o f c r a c k e d a n d / o r b r o k e n e g g s e x h i b i t e d a marked d e c r e a s e ( 6 4 . 9 % and 56.0% p r e - and p o s t - i n c u b a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ( T a b l e 12). Wooden e g g s were p l a c e d u n d e r t h e n e s t i n g a d u l t s , a t e c h n i q u e t h a t has p r o v e d s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t h e o t h e r U.B.C. p i g e o n f l o c k (Cheng, p e r s . comm.). The u s e o f wooden eggs w i t h t h i s f l o c k was, however, l e s s s u c c e s s f u l , w i t h some e g g s r o l l i n g f r o m t h e n e s t s i t e o r b e i n g abandoned b e f o r e t h e a r t i f i c i a l l y - i n c u b a t e d s q u a b s c o u l d be r e p l a c e d t o t h e p a r e n t s . To c o u n t e r a c t t h i s p r o b l e m , t h e f e r t i l e e g gs 75 were t h e n r e t u r n e d t o t h e a d u l t s a f t e r 16 d a y s o f a r t i f i c i a l i n c u b a t i o n and a l l o w e d t o p i p and h a t c h i n t h e n e s t . R e g r e t t a b l y , by t h e t i m e t h i s s u c c e s s f u l c o l l e c t i o n and i n c u b a t i o n t e c h n i q u e had been d e v e l o p e d , t h e e x p e r i m e n t was n e a r c o m p l e t i o n , and t h o s e s q u a b s t h a t had been a r t i f i c i a l l y i n c u b a t e d were n o t o f m a r k e t age (4 weeks o l d ) . As shown i n T a b l e 12, egg p r o d u c t i o n a p p a r e n t l y i n c r e a s e d o n c e a r t i f i c i a l i n c u b a t i o n was s t a r t e d , however, t h i s was p r o b a b l y n o t due t o t h e i n c u b a t i o n p r o c e d u r e b u t r a t h e r due t o an i n c r e a s e i n egg p r o d u c t i o n i n Room 7. The o v e r a l l p r o d u c t i o n o f s q u a b was g r e a t l y i m p r o v e d by t h e i n c u b a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , i n c r e a s i n g f r o m 1.2 s q u a b s p e r week t o 2.2 s q u a b s p e r week ( f o r a l l t r e a t m e n t s ) . F e r t i l i t y o f e g g s a p p a r e n t l y d e c l i n e d due t o t h i s p r o c e d u r e , p o s s i b l y due t o t h e b e t t e r o b s e r v a t i o n ( a n d s u r v i v a l ) o f t h e e g g s o n c e t h e i n c u b a t o r was b e i n g u t i l i z e d . A t o t a l o f o n l y 3 e g g s ( o u t o f 653 l a i d ) were r e c o r d e d a s b e i n g i n f e r t i l e i n t h e f i r s t 15 weeks, whereas 20 ( o u t o f 292 l a i d ) were r e c o r d e d t h u s i n t h e l a s t 6 weeks. Number o f e g g s b r o k e n and m i s s i n g d e c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y o n c e d a i l y egg c o l l e c t i o n commenced ( f r o m 70.9% b e f o r e t o 59.6% a f t e r commencement). F e e d and n u t r i e n t i n t a k e i n Room 7 showed a c o n -76 s i s t e n t peak i n P e r i o d 2, i n a l l t r e a t m e n t s b u t &'/. AT. T h i s peak a p p e a r s t o c a u s e g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y i n Room 7 t h a n i n Rooms 6 and 8. T h i s may be a r e s u l t o f t h e i n c o n s i s t e n t l i g h t i n g i n Room 7 d u r i n g weeks 1 t o 8. 77 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A d e v e l o p i n g s q u a b - p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r y i n B.C. has s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n p r o v i d i n g a sound, b a l a n c e d , p e l l e t e d f e e d f o r t h i s i n d u s t r y . C o m m e r c i a l p i g e o n p r o d u c e r s h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e d t h e i r b i r d s a m i x t u r e o f whole g r a i n s p l u s a h e a l t h g r i t . F e e d i n g a h i g h p r o t e i n p e l l e t w i t h c o r n , f r e e c h o i c e , h as been g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y ( L e g g e and E n g l i s h , p e r s . comm.). The h i g h c o s t o f c o r n i n B.C., p l u s t h e e x t r a manpower r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o r n t o t h e p i g e o n s , l e d t o t h i s r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f e e d f o r t h e B.C. s q u a b i n d u s t r y . Two e x p e r i m e n t s , b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f W a l d i e e t a l . ( 1 9 8 4 ) , were c a r r i e d o u t . I n E x p e r i m e n t One, t h e p r o t e i n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s q u a b b i n g p i g e o n s were e v a l u a t e d . Two p e l l e t s o f d i f f e r i n g p r o t e i n l e v e l s ( 2 2 % and 16% c r u d e p r o t e i n ) , were f e d , w i t h and w i t h o u t c o r n . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t was c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n o f VIM i n L a n t z v i l l e , B.C. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t a low p r o t e i n d i e t (low p r o t e i n p e l l e t p l u s c o r n ) a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s squab growth, w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g egg p r o d u c t i o n p a r a m e t e r s o r body w e i g h t o f t h e a d u l t s . A h i g h p r o t e i n d i e t ( h i g h p r o t e i n p e l l e t 7a f e d w i t h o u t c o r n ) d i d n o t a f f e c t s q u a b p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s t r i a l . The Low P r o t e i n (LP) p e l l e t , f e d w i t h o u t c o r n , r e s u l t e d i n good s q u a b p r o d u c t i o n . In E x p e r i m e n t Two, t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r and u t i l i z a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t f a t s o u r c e s , i n c l u d e d a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n t o t h e d i e t , was e v a l u a t e d . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t was c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e new P i g e o n N u t r i t i o n U n i t a t U.B.C., where t h e p i g e o n s were h o u s e d i n p a i r c a g e s . The 5 t r e a t m e n t s i n t h i s t r i a l were a s f o l l o w s : A B a s a l d i e t w i t h 16% p r o t e i n and no added f a t , t o wh i c h was added 3% o r 6% s u n f l o w e r o i l (SFO) and 3% o r 6% a n i m a l t a l l o w ( A T ) . B i r d s f e d on a b a s a l d i e t w i t h o u t any added f a t , p r o d u c e d no sq u a b s , whereas a l l o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s p r o d u c e d a t l e a s t 6 s q u a b s . T h i s c o u l d n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o l o w e r egg p r o d u c t i o n o r f e r t i l i t y , b u t t o l o w e r h a t c h a b i l i t y . P i g e o n s a p p a r e n t l y e a t t o meet t h e i r e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t when u n d e r no p r o d u c t i o n s t r e s s . F o r example, t h e p i g e o n s i n E x p e r i m e n t Two d i d n o t g a i n w e i g h t . T h i s c o n t r a s t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f E x p e r i m e n t One, where t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o r n seemed t o i n f l u e n c e w e i g h t g a i n . T h i s may r e l a t e t o t h e l a c k o f p r o d u c t i o n p r e s s u r e f o r b i r d s i n E x p e r i m e n t Two, o r i t may be a 79 r e s u l t o f a change i n h o u s i n g . B i r d s i n E x p e r i m e n t One were m a i n t a i n e d i n a pen s i t u a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h i n a s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , w h e r e a s t h o s e i n E x p e r i m e n t 2 were i n a p a i r s i t u a t i o n , and p r e s u m a b l y u n d e r no s o c i a l p r e s s u r e . The q u e s t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , a r i s e s a s t o how much s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r a f f e c t s f e e d i n t a k e . S i n c e t h e b i r d s i n E x p e r i m e n t 2 p r o d u c e d few squ a b s , t h i s r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how s e n s i t i v e t h e s e b i r d s a r e t o n u t r i e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s when t h e y have s q u a b s . T h o s e b i r d s w i t h o u t s q u a b s have t h e " l e i s u r e " o f b e i n g a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e i r r a t i o n t o meet t h e i r own r e q u i r e m e n t s , , whereas t h o s e w i t h s q u a b s may be s i m p l y e a t i n g t o f i l l t h e " b o t t o m l e s s " c r o p o f t h e squa b s . O v e r a l l , i n E x p e r i m e n t 2, t h e r e was no e f f e c t on s q u a b p r o d u c t i o n due t o d i e t a r y f a t s o u r c e o r c o n c e n t a t i o n , e x c e p t t h a t 07. s u p p l e m e n t a l f a t seemed t o be d e t r i m e n t a l t o squab p r o d u c t i o n . ao LITERATURE CITED A h d e r h a l d e n E., and E. W e r t h e i u e r , 1932. Uber das v e r h a l t e n d e s g l y k o g e n s im o r g a n i s m u s b e i a b w e s e n h e i t d e s v i t a m i n - B - k o m p l e x e s < i n s b e s o n d e r e des v i t a m i n s B 4 > i n d e r Nahrung. P f l u g e r s A r c h i v ges. P h y s i o l . 230:601-613. Abs, M . 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P o u l t . S c i . 48:1536-1542. Z a r , J.H. 1984. B i o s t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s , 2nd E d i t i o n . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Engelwood, C l i f f s , N.J. 07632. Z e i g l e r , H.P., H.L. Green, and R. L e h r e r . 1971. P a t t e r n s o f f e e d i n g b e h a v i o r i n t h e p i g e o n . J . Comp. P h y s i o l . P s y c h o l . 76:468-477. a a APPENDIX 1. Squab m o r t a l i t y i n E x p e r i m e n t One D a t e D i e d T r t . Age D i e d C a u s e o f D e a t h S e p t . 1 1 LP 6-7 d a y s C r o p M i l k Sample Aug. 20 LP 4 d a y s E y e l e s s , t o r t i c o l l i s J u l y 16 LPC 5 d a y s D i s a p p e a r e d S e p t . 11 LPC 2 a d a y s S i c k l y , c o m p a c t e d c r o p A u g . 2 9 LPC 13 d a y s S i c k l y , c o m p a c t e d c r o p Aug.16 LPC 7 d a y s K i l l e d by a d u l t s , f l o o r s q u a b Aug. 7 LPC 1 day C r u s h e d Aug. 13 HP 1 day C r u s h e d APPENDIX 2. NUMBER OF SQUABS HATCHED OVER TIME, EXPERIMENT TWO 6-1 5-< o in 4-o or L J CO 3 -3 2 1-1. Vs. I 10 r 15 WEEKS N * Legend • 6% AT S 3 3% AT m 6% SFO EZ2 3% SFO 20 25 90 APPENDIX 3. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s q u a b s p r o d u c e d i n E x p e r i m e n t Two T r e a t m e n t P a r e n t H a t c h D a t e # / C l u t c h A t t a i n e d I. D. 4 weeks? 3% SFO 7B1 21/01/86 1 y e s 8C11 01/01/86 2 y e s 8A8 01/12/85 1 y e s 8C11 27/02/86 2 y e s 8C11 13/11/85 2 y e s 8A8 10/01/86 1 d i e d 6% SFO 6A3 03/03/86 2 no 7B1 07/01/86 1 y e s 7B1 24/02/86 2 no 7A1 06/03/86 1 no 3% AT 6C11 30/11/85 2 y e s 6A13 12/03/86 1 no 8B6 22/11/85 1 y e s 8B6 11/02/86 2 y e s £>Y. AT 6A12 19/01/86 1 y e s 8C13 12/11/85 1 y e s 8A4 27/12/85 2 y e s 8C13 02/02/86 2 y e s SA15 02/03/86 1 no 8A4 16/03/86 2 no 8A15 05/12/85 1 d i e d 

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