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The politics and science of environmental protection : the case of forestry - ungulate management… Sturmanis, Karl Martins 1986

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THE POLITICS AND SCIENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - THE CASE OF FORESTRY - UNGULATE MANAGEMENT IN THE NIMPKISH WATERSHED ON VANCOUVER ISLAND, B.C. by KARL MARTINS STURMANIS B . S c , University of Brit ish Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1986 © Karl Martins St.urmanis, 1986 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f 6 W \ * ^ M * u / ^jBgi'wvA H * ^ ^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e £ ^ A > A j p ^ r i£ ,  r - i i -ABSTRACT W i l d l i f e management in B r i t i s h Columbia has experienced over the last two decades a situation where continued pressure from logging and other forest uses has forced wi ld l i fe into an ever shrinking island of surv iva l . What is needed from a resource planner's point of view is a means of elevating and sustaining public concern in the issue of f o r e s t r y - w i l d l i f e management and to ensure that an appropriate management program to protect c r i t i c a l ungulate habitat is designed and implemented by resource managers. Lord Eric Ashby has proposed a model that describes the components necessary for successful p o l i t i c a l act ion in protect ing environmental values, namely: an aroused public conscience, a feasible technology of protection, an objective and disinterested assessment of the hazard to the environment and an effective tool for administration. Ashby argues that each component is a step of a process and that each is necessary to act as a catalyst for the succeeding steps, resu l t ing u l t imate ly in the implementation of a po l i t i ca l decision. Ashby's model in a s l ight ly modified form is used to analyze the forestry-ungulate management program in the Nimpkish watershed on northern Vancouver Is land. The Nimpkish w a t e r s h e d was chosen as a c a s e s t u d y in t h a t i t has an emerging forestry-ungulate management program and also because of the considerable public interest that has been expressed in the area. The Tsit ika Integrated Resource Plan is also looked at to compare the approach taken there with the one taken in the Nimpkish watershed. Of special in terest i s the des ign of the publ ic consultat ion program and the melding of the sc ient i f i c data with the issues and asp irat ions of the d i f f e rent interested — i i i — publics and industry. The Nimpkish case study reveals that Ashby's f i r s t component of an arousal of publ ic conscience has occurred although i t has been somewhat fractured and e r r a t i c over t ime. However, there has been a convergence of some of the interests of the different groups that has created suff ic ient pressure for the government to analyze the s i tuat ion and to commit i t s e l f to make a pol icy decision on the issue of habitat reservation for ungulates. Ashby's second component of s c i e n t i f i c assessment and prescription of approp-riate management action is f u l f i l l e d , but only at the technica l l e v e l . There s t i l l remains some d i f f i cu l ty with regard to the assignment of monetary value to intangible resource values such as wi ld l i fe . The th i rd component, an effective tool for administration, has not been tota l ly sat isf ied in the case of the Nimpkish management proposal . While there is substantial co-operation and collaboration at the operational level between the m in i s t r i es of Forests and Environment, a serious inert ia remains at the senior policy decision-making leve l . Some possible approaches that could a l l e v i a t e the Nimpkish situation and others l ike i t include a strengthening of legislat ion to help f a c i l i t a t e inter-agency resource planning. The public could also be better informed regarding resource confl ict issues and thus be better prepared for the consultative stages of the planning process. There appears to be a strong public reaction against the use of benef i t -cost analysis in determining value for intangibles such as wi ld l i fe protection. F inal ly , there is a need to create situations where pol i t ic ians are - i v-comfortable in making po l i cy decis ions regarding resource use conf l ic ts . One approach would be the encouragement of incrementa l d e c i s i o n s that lead eventual ly to a broader po l i cy pos i t ion in favour of protection of wi ld l i fe habitat. Another approach is to blend s c i e n t i f i c and non-scientific views as occurred in the Tsit ika Integrated Plan. While the Tsit ika experience may not appear to a l te r present modes of decision-making s igni f icant ly , i t is possible that prolonged exposure to the process may indeed a l te r the manner in which resource c o n f l i c t s are resolved - hopeful ly in favour of a more balanced approach to resource use where conservation holds equal value with exploitation. -V-TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abs t rac t i i ' Table of Contents vv L i s t of Tables v i i i L i s t of F igures v i i i Acknowledgement i x Poem - Is land C learcu t x Chapter 1: A S to ry of Trees , Deer and Men. How Can We Bet te r Manage Ungulates in the Nimpkish Watershed 1.0 In t roduc t i on 1 1.1 Do Deer Need Trees? Who Rea l l y Cares? 3 1.2 How Do We Solve the Deer -Fores t ry Problem? 11 1.3 Ashby's Theory of Issue Advancement as a 11 D iagnos t i c Tool f o r S t r a t e g i z i n g the Be t t e r Management of Nimpkish Ungulate Hab i ta t 1.4 Assumptions 17 1.5 L i m i t a t i o n s 18 1.6 Research Plan and Methodology 18 Chapter 2: W i l d l i f e and F o r e s t r y . i n the Nimpkish Watershed: H i s t o r i c a l Use Pat terns and B i ophys i ca l Background 2.1 In t roduc t i on 20 2.2 H i s t o r y of the Resource Use in the 21 Nimpkish Watershed 2.3 Geography and Physiography 27 2.4 C l imate 28 2.5 Vegetat ion 30 - v i -TABLE OF CONTENTS P a g e 2 . 6 W i l d l i f e i n t h e N i m p k i s h W a t e r s h e d 31 2 . 6 . 1 P a s t U t i l i z a t i o n o f W i l d l i f e and 3 3 W i l d l i f e H a b i t a t 2 . 6 . 2 P r e s e n t U t i l i z a t i o n o f W i l d l i f e 36 2 . 7 C o n c l u s i o n s 4 0 C h a p t e r 3 : An A r o u s a l o f P u b l i c C o n s c i e n c e 3 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 2 3 . 2 E n v i r o n m e n t a l A w a r e n e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 4 5 3 . 4 P u b l i c C o n c e r n f o r N i m p k i s h W a t e r s h e d 58 3 . 5 C o n c l u s i o n 6 0 C h a p t e r 4 : S c i e n t i f i c A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e F o r e s t r y - U n g u l a t e P r o b l e m a n d F i n d i n g an A p p r o p r i a t e S o l u t i o n 4 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 6 2 4 . 2 T h e E v o l u t i o n o f F o r e s t r y - U n g u l a t e R e s e a r c h i n 6 2 t h e N i m p k i s h W a t e r s h e d 4 . 3 P o p u l a t i o n E s t i m a t e o f U n g u l a t e s i n t h e 6 5 N i m p k i s h W a t e r s h e d 4 . 4 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s R e g u l a t i n g U n g u l a t e s 67 i n t h e N i m p k i s h W a t e r s h e d 4 . 4 . 1 H a b i t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f u n g u l a t e s 6 8 4 . 4 . 2 U n g u l a t e p r e d a t o r s 73 4 . 4 . 3 H u n t i n g o f u n g u l a t e s 75 4 . 4 . 4 Summary o f R e g u l a t o r y F a c t o r s 76 4 . 5 M a n a g e m e n t o f U n g u l a t e s a n d H a b i t a t W i t h i n t h e 77 N i m p k i s h W a t e r s h e d 4 . 6 C o n c l u s i o n 78 - v i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 5: The E f f e c t i v ene s s of the Present Adm in i s t r a t i v e S t ru c tu re in Ma in ta in ing Old Growth Forest f o r Ungulates Wi th in the Nimpkish Watershed 5.1 In t roduc t i on 83 5.2 S ta tu tes and P o l i c y 83 5.3 Dec is ion-Making 90 5.4 The Reservat ion of Old Growth f o r the P r o t e c t i o n of 95 W i l d l i f e Hab i ta t on Northern Vancouver Is land 5.5 React ion to the Report 107 5.6 Fate of the 1983 Report on Old Growth and W i l d l i f e 109 Hab i ta t 5 . 7 ' T s i t i k a Watershed Integrated Resource P lan 110 5.8 Conc lus ions 116 Chapter 6: Conc lus ions and Recommendations 6.1 Arousal of Pub l i c Conscience 120 6.2 S c i e n t i f i c Assessment of the Problem and 121 I t s So l u t i o n 6.3 The E f f e c t i v ene s s of the Present Adm in i s t r a t i v e 123 S t ru c tu re in Ma in ta in ing Old Growth Forest f o r Ungulates Wi th in the Nimpkish Watershed 6.4 Recommendations 127 B i b l i og r aphy 134 Appendix 1: Persons Interv iewed 139 -vn i -TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES: F i r e H i s t o r y of the Nimpkish Va l l e y Hunter Success in the Nimpkish Watershed LIST OF FIGURES: The Nimpkish Watershed Po t en t i a l 20 Year Average Deer Popu la t ion f o r Each Winter Range Option in TFL 37. S t r a t e g i c Level Resource Management In t eg ra t i on - ix-Acknowledgement I would l i k e to thank the many people who at various times gave assistance and encouragement to complete this work. I would l i k e to give a special thanks to my supervisor, Norman Dale, who accepted the challenge of working with me, often long distance and under less than ideal cond i t ions . Norman provided the necessary balance of c r i t i c i s m , praise and dry humor to keep me going through the long Yellowknife days and nights. I would also l ike to give my thanks to Al Chambers who provided insight and insp i ra t i on in finding a framework to analyze the topic I chose and who was gracious enough to find time to s i t at the f i n a l oral examination. I would also l i k e to thank Fred Bunnell, who continually helped with information and a wi l l ing ear and to Doug Janz who provided lots of insight as well as valuable w i l d l i f e informat ion. A f i n a l thanks go to my co-workers who to lerated my behavior while I was completing my work and to Loreen, my typ is t , who relentlessly churned out draft after draft of the thesis; always on time. Island Clearcut miles of clearcut l ike shaved heads lined up along the once shaggy wild island the wind clears a view south to the Olympic peninsula 'that's progress' says Byron sweeping a hand over land that had lost al l reason for being just so many numbers of days of sweat of paycheques and deer hunts of cold rain and fog and hot coffee at the end of a cattrack and the big boys who once but only once visited the island operation because the weather and market were exceptionally good but they didn't climb the side h i l l s or scramble thru the blowdown where bears are black as burnt slash and big bucks gorge themselves on late August fireweed and they111 never see the icy horizon of Olympus where a lone tree traces a thousand years of wind in a single branch -1-CHAPTER ONE A Story of Trees, Deer and Men. How Can We Better Manage Ungulates in the Nimpkish Watershed. 1.0 Introduction This thes is looks at the process of c o - o p e r a t i v e ungulate- forestry management in B r i t i s h Columbia and appraises the steps involved from ra i s ing of the issue of ungulate habitat needs through the subsequent stages of s c i e n t i f i c assessment of the issue, f e a s i b i l i t y of management a c t i o n and f i n a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e implementat ion of management p r e s c r i p t i o n s . A theory of issue advancement and subsequent program implementation has been proposed by E r i c Ashby (1975) and i t wil l be his model by which the ungulate-forestry program wi l l be evaluated. The Nimpkish watershed on northern Vancouver Island has been chosen as a case study in that i t has an emerging ungulate-forestry management program and also because of the considerable public interest that has been expressed in the area. The f i r s t chapter presents background on the land use confl ict that ex ists between fo res t ry and ungulate management in the Nimpkish watershed and argues that a need exists for i ts resolution. The chapter wil l look at the nature of the forest and how changes wrought by commercial logging have affected the resident populations of deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelt i) . The second chapter elaborates on the b i o l o g i c a l and r e s o u r c e use f a c t o r s t h a t are c e n t r a l to the forestry-ungulate situation. -3-Chapter 3 looks at the f i r s t component of Ashby's model, namely the presence of "an aroused public conscience." In the case of the Nimpkish watershed the focus wi l l be on the arousal of publ ic in teres t in the preservation of w i ld l i fe hab i ta t , p a r t i c u l a r l y for ungulates. Chapter 4 w i l l address the second and th i rd components of Ashby's model which includes the need for an objective sc ient i f i c assessment of the problem and a f e a s i b l e management pract ice to ensure resolution of the problem. In Chapter 5 the f inal component of Ashby's chain reaction of events is the presence of an adequate and effective administrative structure to allow for implementation of management prescriptions. The f i n a l chapter evaluates the Nimpkish situation using Ashby's model and also evaluates Ashby's model in l i gh t of lessons learned from the chain of events that occurred in the Nimpkish watershed. F inal ly , recommendations are made regarding resolution of forestry-ungulate conf l i c ts s p e c i f i c a l l y and "wilderness" and land use confl icts in general. 1 .1 Do deer need trees? Who r e a l l y cares? The late 1960s witnessed the emergence of an "environmental consciousness" that swept across North America and much of the developed countries of the world. Although i n i t i a l a t t e n t i o n was focused on i s sues such as over-population, pol lut ion and over -exp lo i ta t ion of natural resources, there was a general trend to view the environment ho i i s t i ca l l y , rather than an array of independent raw resources to be exploited by society. This new environmental ethic found particularly f e r t i l e ground in Brit ish Columbia where a strong grass roots environmental lobby, consisting of a variety of advocacy groups, was formed during the 1970s. -4-It was during th i s time of environmental act iv ism that people in the general pub l i c , government, schools and the private sector were sounding warnings on the state of the province's forests which supported the number one industry both in employment and government revenue. It was becoming evident that in many cases forests were being over-cut and not being replanted s u f f i c i e n t l y to ensure a continuous supply of timber. Also biologists were concerned that wi ld l i fe dependent on old growth were being threatened, in some cases with local extinction. The forest industry was facing a dilemma that would resurface regular ly from the 1960s through the 1980s - namely that an ever increasing demand was being p laced on a steadily shrinking resource. To understand why trees are important to deer and elk - commonly referred to as ungulates - i t is important to have some understanding of the biological relationship that exists between the animals and the fo res t of the Nimpkish watershed. For sake of convenience and economy the following discussion wil l focus on black-tailed deer, real izing that some differences exist between the habitat requirements of deer and Roosevelt elk. The following account of black-tai led deer biology is very much simplified and is intended to give only a general understanding to the lay person. In the Nimpkish watershed there are three broad vegetation zones u t i l i z e d by deer: Alpine tundra - 1400 m+; Mountain hemlock 900 - 1200 m, and Western hemlock 0 - 900 m (see Chapt. 2, Sec. 2 .5) . The discussion wil l centre on the Western hemlock zone, which generally speaking is the habitat type most frequented by deer. -5-Fred Bunnell (1979) has summarized the results of over a decade of research on the re la t ionsh ip between b lack - ta i l ed deer and forests on northern Vancouver Is land. According to Bunnell some key factors affecting deer abundance include deer movement (da i l y and seasonal) , deer forage, snow depth, predation, bedrock and forestry practices. Studies have shown that deer move to areas or 'ranges' where food is most abundant during the different seasons of the year. General ly deer winter ranges (November to mid-April) are located at the lowest e levat ions where preferred food is p l e n t i f u l and e a s i l y accessible. As the snow pack melts the deer move to higher elevations in spring and summer; retreating again to the valleys as winter snows accumulate in the higher summer ranges. Bes ides these v e r t i c a l movements some deer have been observed to make horizontal migrations while others sh i f t the i r i n tens i ty of use of mature forest and logging slash (recently logged area). B lack - ta i l ed deer have been observed to consume a v a r i e t y of f o o d ; inc luding young f i r t rees , shrubs and arboreal l i c h e n . Of particular interest to b i o l o g i s t s is the heavy dependence of b lack- ta i l ed deer in winter on arboreal l ichen which is blown down to the ground. Winter l i t t e r f a l l which includes twigs, needles and lichen is in certain stands equal or greater in importance, as a food source, than al l other rooted forage. Most commonly the arboreal l ichen is found in mature stands of trees - 200 years of age and greater . There is also some evidence that shrub productivity in deer winter and spring ranges acts to control deer numbers in some forest types. -6-Snow depth is a very important factor in controll ing deer mobility and food ava i lab i l i ty (Jones, 1974). It has been found that snow depths greater than 60 cm w i l l ser iously curtai l deer movement. A mature tree canopy is therefore of c r i t i ca l importance during winter in the Nimpkish watershed where some areas can receive over 750 cm of snowfall annually. On deer winter ranges snow packs can reach 200 cm in open areas, 110 cm in areas with 30 percent canopy, or crown closure, and only 30 cm in areas where the crown closure is 70 percent. Another important factor c o n t r o l l i n g deer abundance is the presence of predators including wolves, cougars, black bears and golden eagles; the latter known to take fawns. Man is also a predator and his act iv i t ies wil l be discussed in greater detail in subsequent chapters. It is enough to say that sports hunting in the Nimpkish was very popular in the late 1960s and early 70s; gaining a province- wide reputation as a deer "hot spot". Deer hunting success has decl ined s tead i l y since the mid-1970s to the point where parts of the watershed have now become deer "deserts". At the same time there has been a steady increase in wolf numbers and there is strong evidence that suggests wolves are k i l l i n g large numbers of deer to the point where deer numbers are on the verge of local extinction in specif ic sections of the watershed. There is also some evidence that logging roads are frequently ut i l ized by wolves while hunting for deer and that deer are more v u l n e r a b l e dur ing winter in h e a v i l y logged areas where they concentrate in " is lands" of mature trees containing adequate food and cover. The Fish and Wildl i fe Branch has responded by undertaking more wolf research as well as implementing a wolf control program in 1982 which cal ls for the reduction of wolves by 75 percent over the next f ive years over 50 -7-percent of the watershed. A more ind i rec t control on deer numbers is the nature of local soi ls and bedrock. Deer abundance c o r r e l a t e s well with anadesit ic t i l l s o i l s underlain by Bonanza Group rocks. Anadesitic so i ls are generally higher in nutrients, particularly in nitrogen - which has been shown to be essent ia l for ungulate surv iva l - than are t i l l s overlaying other types of bedrock. This kind of co r re la t i on has obvious impl icat ions in managing logging practices and deer. Simply there are some areas which have l i t t l e inherent c a p a b i l i t y to sustain deer numbers and can thus be withdrawn from consideration for deer ranges from the outset. Present f o res t ry practices on Northern Vancouver Island include a contin-uation of large-scale c l e a r - c u t s , where a l l trees are cut within a given area. The cumulative effect of clear-cuts has been the reduction of mature forest to approximately 25 percent or less of the o r ig ina l forest in the lower mid-elevations in the Nimpkish watershed. This reduction has in turn reduced the quantity and qua l i t y of black-tai led deer winter and spring ranges and has created s p e c i f i c problems mentioned previous ly such as restr ict ing deer movement both to obtain forage and to escape wolves; and reduc ing shrub and arboreal l ichen production which are of c r i t i c a l importance during the winter. Aside from a few special in terest groups there has been l i t t l e sustained publ ic in terest in the p l ight of the deer in the Nimpkish watershed. Sports hunters c e r t a i n l y have expressed concern over the decline in deer since the mid 1970s and have more recent ly shown support for both deer -8-habitat protect ion and a wolf c o n t r o l program. Conserva t ion and environmental groups have reacted negatively to the wolf control program and have suggested that w i l d l i f e managers improve their management of the forest habitat for the use of al l wi ld l i fe ; not just ungulates. There has a lso been a campaign by na tu ra l i s t s and conservat ion is ts to save an exceptional stand of Douglas f i r in the Nimpkish watershed. The latter group's efforts have been widely publicized through t e l e v i s i o n , magazines and newspapers over the last three years - making the Nimpkish watershed much more vis ib le to the public at large. Daryl Hebert (1979), the regional biologist for Vancouver Island, describes the logging - wi ld l i fe situation in the late 1970s: ". . . logging can produce a d e f i n i t e NET LOSS (Hebert 1 s emphasis) to black-tailed deer populations which could reach 80 - 90% i f the dec l ine is measured between winter ranges in second growth versus mature forest. . . . b l a c k - t a i l e d deer populations in snowbelt areas may be a NON-RENEWABLE resource i f timber harvest proceeds in its present form." (P.6) On the forest industry side we are witnessing a real concern for the depletion of trees both in quantity and quality and the further constraints t h i s p l aces on managing forests for other resource uses, inc luding ungulates. The forestry industry has admitted - not always unanimously -that timber shortages are occurring in specific regions and that a general c r i s i s is imminent. Speaking at a 1980 forestry conference in Toronto, B i l l Young, the Ch ie f F o r e s t e r f o r B . C . , d e l i v e r e d some s t a r t l i n g statements regarding the condit ion of the fo res t ry i n d u s t r y . Young -9-challenged the prevai l ing view that the forest industry could continue to grow and said that any expansion "wi l l be very selective in nature and in many parts of this country will simply not exist ." (The Province, 1980). A report published by the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s in 1980 prov ided a comprehensive examination of the state of the forestry industry and its relationship to other resources in the province. The two volume report entitled Forest and Range Resource Analysis Technical Report predicts that i f logging were to be maintained at i ts current levels, shortages relative to sawmill demands would occur within 5 to 20 years in some areas of Brit ish Columbia. It also states that approximately 25 percent of the province 's forest land wil l be lost in the next 20 years. The other uses would include such t h i n g s as p a r k s , w i l d l i f e a r e a s , urban growth, hydro-electric dams, agr i cu l ture and t ransportat ion c o r r i d o r s . While wi ld l i fe areas are figured into the Ministry's equation the total amount of f o r e s t reserved f o r w i l d l i f e is i n s u f f i c i e n t to maintain leve ls of wi ld l i fe , including ungulates, that have been ident i f ied by the Fish and Wildl ife Branch's provincial Proposed Wildl ife Management Plan (1979). The statements by Hebert and Young cannot be dismissed as the ravings of p u b l i c i t y seekers or p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l s . Their comments are backed by years of r igorous studies and ana lys is that have revealed a state of affairs frightening in its implications, yet understandable considering the exploitive frontier ethic that prevailed in Brit ish Columbia from the turn of the century unt i l the 1960s. It was an era when the forest was f i r s t viewed as an imposing obstacle and la ter as a l imitless resource (Taylor, 1975). In i t i a l l y the forests were not much affected by the e f fo r t s of -10-loggers who were, re lat ive ly speaking, working with ineff ic ient tools and at a small scale. The advent of more sophisticated and eff ic ient machinery and a quantum leap in the scale of logging operations beginning in the late 40s and h i t t i n g t h e i r peak in the 50s and 60s has , however, had a signif icant effect in altering the nature of the forest and the w i l d l i f e that dwell there. Perhaps the greatest problem fac ing w i l d l i f e managers in B.C. is the accelerating loss and de ter io ra t ion of ex i s t ing forest habitat. Much of th i s loss can be at t r ibuted to the nature of l e g i s l a t i v e mandates of p rov inc ia l resource agencies. The Ministry of Environment, speci f ica l ly the W i l d l i f e Branch (name changed from Fish and W i l d l i f e in 1984), is charged with responsibi l ity for managing wi ld l i fe . However, i t has d i rec t control or tenure on only 8,748 square kilometres or nine-tenths of one percent of the province's land base (Walker, pers. comm.). This is contrasted with the Ministry of Forests which has management control - in the form of harvest tenure - over 60 percent of the province. Unt i l recently the Ministry of Forests has had no mandate to take into account wi ld l i fe values when setting harvesting rates. Fred Bunnell (1982), a forestry-wi ldl i fe researcher from U.B .C , summarizes the problem as follows: "It is important to appreciate that our present problems l i e not in the fact that foresters produce changes in the habitat for most of our w i l d l i f e spec ies , but in the fact that these changes have not been effect ively understood or administered. Over most, i f not a l l , of North America we can observe i n d i v i d u a l s from one government agency -11-administrat ing changes in the habitat while ind iv idua ls in another attempt, largely independently, to administer the populations residing in that h a b i t a t . Fo res t w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n s s t r a d d l e both j u r i s d i c t i o n a l ( i n s t i t u t i o n a l ) and d i s c i p l i n a r y b o u n d a r i e s . The phenomenon generating the greatest confusion is the fact that nature is  not divided up the way government agencies and u n i v e r s i t i e s are." (emphasis Bunnel1). 1.2 How do we solve the deer - forestry problem? What we see in Brit ish Columbia is a s i tuat ion where continued pressure from logging and other forest users has forced w i l d l i f e into an ever shrinking island of s u r v i v a l . What is needed from a resource planner's point of view is a means of elevating and sustaining public concern in the issue of f o r e s t r y - w i l d l i f e management and to ensure that an appropriate management program to protect c r i t i c a l ungulate habitat is designed and implemented by resource managers responsible for ungulates and the habitat they require. 1.3 Ashby's Theory of Issue Advancement as a Diagnostic Tool for Strategizing the Better Management of Nimpkish Ungulate Habitat Lord Eric Ashby (1975) has proposed a model that describes the components necessary for successful p o l i t i c a l action in protect ing environmental values: i . An aroused public conscience. i i . A feasible technology of protection. -12-i i i . An objective and disinterested assessment of the hazard to the environment. iv. An effective tool for administration. In his model Ashby argues that each component is a step of a process and that each is necessary to act as a cata lyst for the succeeding steps, resulting ultimately in the implementation of a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n . This thes is w i l l use Ashby's model in a form sl ight ly modified to f i t the B.C. forestry- ungulate s i tuat ion to analyze the forestry-ungulate management program current ly in progress in the Nimpkish watershed on nor thern Vancouver Is land. The thesis chapters wil l be structured so that each of the steps will be looked at from arousal of the public conscience (Chapter 3) to sc ient i f i c assessment of the the issue and adoption of an appropriate management action (Chapter 4) to the f i n a l step of decision-making and implementation of a management prescription (Chapter 5). Chapter 2 wil l provide a b r i e f background on the b i o p h y s i c a l and admin i s t ra t i ve characteristics of the Nimpkish watershed so that we can understand the context for the exist ing forestry-ungulate conf l ict and the opportunities and constra ints that ex ist there . Chapter 6 w i l l assess the previous chapters and make conclusions on both the effectiveness of the management process in the Nimpkish based on Ashby's model and also on the val id i ty of Ashby's model as reflected by the experience in the Nimpkish watershed. In Ashby's model the f i r s t i n g r e d i e n t of i s s u e advancement is the excitation of the public conscience. Ashby argues that unfortunately i t is often necessary to dramatize events in order to arouse the p u b l i c ' s interest (Ashby, 1978, p. 22). -13-" . . . Is i t m o r a l l y d e f e n s i b l e to use shock t a c t i c s , to exaggerate, to d i s t o r t the f a c t s or c o l o u r them w i t h emot i ve words , or to s l an t the t e l e v i s i o n camera i n o r d e r to e x c i t e t h e p u b l i c c o n s c i e n c e ? My e x p e r i e n c e l e a d s me r e l u c t a n t l y to be l i e ve tha t i n the present s o c i a l  c l ima te some d ramat i za t i on i s necessary . " Ashby po in t s out tha t had Rachel C a r s o n ' s S i l e n t Spr ing or Dennis Meadows' L im i t s to Growth r e s t r i c t e d themselves t o d r y s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s t h e i r now f amous book s wou l d have gone r e l a t i v e l y u n n o t i c e d . I t was t h e i r embell ishment of the " f a c t s " w i th emotion and d ramat i za t i on tha t caught the media 's a t t e n t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t e n t i o n . Ashby (1978) goes on t o say tha t once the pub l i c consc ience i s s t i m u l a t e d t he momentum of i n t e r e s t must be kept up and o f ten r a i s ed to a " f l a s h po i n t " , or c r i s i s stage where the pub l i c i s compel led t o a c t i o n . Accord ing to Ashby the use of the mass med i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y t e l e v i s i o n , has g r e a t l y enhanced t h e chances of environmental i s sues being embraced by the p u b l i c . The second s t a ge i n i s s u e advancement c a l l s f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a f e a s i b l e techno logy of p r o t e c t i o n . Ashby argues tha t one must be con f i den t t h a t p r o c edu r e s or t e c h n o l o g i e s do indeed e x i s t t h a t can r e s o l v e t he environmental i s sue at hand. Without a means of t r e a t i n g t he p rob l em i t makes no sense t o p roceed t o the f i n a l stages of the process , namely the s c i e n t i f i c assessment of the problem and f i n a l l y a dm i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l . A very impo r tan t component i n t he ' p o l i t i c s of the env i r onmen t ' i s the t h i r d s tage - the s c i e n t i f i c assessment of t he e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m . W h i l e t he i n i t i a l s t age c a l l s f o r some degree of d r a m a t i z a t i o n , even -14-d i s t o r t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e r e t o b e a c o o l , u n b i a s e d a n d r a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l o f t h e p r o b l e m . A s h b y ( 1 9 7 5 ) c i t e s a c a s e i n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h e r e t h e r e w a s c o n c e r n f o r p o l l u t i o n o f w a t e r b y p h o s p h a t e s i n d e t e r g e n t s . W i t h o u t a " c o o l i n g d o w n " p e r i o d w h e r e s c i e n t i s t s c o u l d a s s e s s t h e a c t u a l d a n g e r a n d p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o p h o s p h a t e p o l l u t i o n t h e p u b l i c p r e s s u r e d p o l i t i c i a n s t o e n a c t h a s t y l e g i s l a t i o n , w h i c h b a n n e d p h o s p h a t e s i n s e v e r a l s t a t e s a n d d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d t h e i r u s e i n o t h e r s . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s a c t i o n was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an u n t e s t e d s u b s t i t u t e t o p h o s p h a t e - N T A - w h i c h w a s l a t e r p r o v e n b y s c i e n t i s t s t o b e p o t e n t i a l l y m o r e h a z a r d o u s t o human h e a l t h t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l p h o s p h a t e s . L e g i s l a t i o n was t h e n r e v e r s e d a n d p r o d u c t i o n o f N T A w a s h a l t e d . I t w a s a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e i n i t i a l e m o t i o n a l o u t c r y o f t h e p u b l i c was l e f t u n t a n p e r e d b y a m o r e r a t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t b y s c i e n t i s t s c a u s i n g u l t i m a t e l y b a d d e c i s i o n s t o be m a d e . T h e f o u r t h c o m p o n e n t o f t h e p r o c e s s i s a n e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r a d m i n -i s t r a t i o n . O n c e a n i s s u e i s r a i s e d a n d a d v a n c e d t h r o u g h p u b l i c c o n c e r n , an a p p r o p r i a t e m a n a g e m e n t a c t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d a n d a t e c h n i c a l a s s e s s m e n t m a d e b y s c i e n t i s t s , t h e r e r e m a i n s t h e f i n a l s t a g e o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r e s t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s a r e c a r r i e d o u t . M o s t c o m m o n l y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s p r e c e d e d b y e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s w h i c h r e s u l t i n 1 e g i s 1 a t i o n a n d / o r r e g u l a t i o n s . A s h b y ( 1 9 7 8 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h o s e e n t r u s t e d w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n o f t e n h a v e t o w e i g h s e v e r a l f a c t o r s - i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d e t h i c a l - i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i r d u t i e s a n d a r e i n e f f e c t c a l l e d u p o n t o m a k e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . -15-A real concern for Ashby is the use of economists' cost-benefit analysis in c o n t r i b u t i n g to the decision-making process where d i f f e ren t natural resource uses are given monetary value. Ashby maintains that while the cost-benefit technique may be appropriate in treating quant i f i ab le values i t is inappropriate i f used to weigh f rag i le , unquantifiable values such as the q u a l i t y of the environment. Ashby (1978) goes on to state that cost-benefit analysis " . . . embodies an unacceptable premise, namely that the question to be answered is 'What is eff ic ient for society? 1 rather than 'What is good for society?' For some enterprises - industry, for instance, where the aim is to maximize efficiency - this premise may be acceptable. For the protect ion of the environment th is premise is not acceptable because i t warps the perspective of the policymaker. By al l means use the most c o s t - e f f e c t i v e way to achieve the end, once the end has been determined; but do not used cost-benefit analysis to determine the end." (p. 56). While Ashby is concerned pr imar i ly with l a rger , more dramatic examples of environmental disruption, his framework for an "issue advancement process" may be useful when applied to less global and life-threatening situations of environmental change. Although concerns such as the destruction of ungulate habitat may not have as great and immediate an impact, as say nuclear t e s t i n g , i t can have an insidious cumulative impact, which in the long run may be just as harmful as other more glamorous environmental issues. -16-Anthony Downs (1972) has proposed another view of the phenomenon of issue ra i s ing and advancement in the public domain. He has put forward a model of an "issue-attention cycle" that breaks down into f ive stages: 1. The pre-problem stage. 2. Alarmed discovery and euphoric enthusiasm. 3. Realizing the cost of signif icant progress. 4. Gradual decline of intense public interest. 5. The post problem stage. Unlike Ashby, this model suggests that the public - spec i f ica l ly American -is rather naive in i ts i n i t i a l enthusiasm to tackle an environmental issue and that as i t d iscerns the real costs and even s a c r i f i c e s that are required to resolve the issue motivation wanes to be replaced by newborn interest in another more appealing issue. Downs draws exc lus ive ly from American experience in describing how the public is eager to achieve quick technological solut ions. He also points out that an American t r a d i t i o n exists where obstacles to social progress are viewed as being external to the structure of society i t se l f . Once a problem reveals i t se l f to require some fundamental reordering of soc iety there ar ises a more pess imist ic view within the public domain and Downs argues that many lose heart and go on to seek other more in terest ing issues. However, Downs does concede that in the post problem stage some general improvements are poss ib le ; that new ins t i tu t ions , programs and policies may have been created to help solve a particular problem and that -17-they may pers i s t and be e f f e c t i v e af ter publ ic attent ion has sh i f ted elsewhere. Downs' model places considerable emphasis on the f a l l i b i l i t y of human behaviour, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to the p u b l i c ' s a b i l i t y to sustain interest in a given environmental i ssue . Unlike Ashby, Downs places minimal importance on such things as the s c i e n t i f i c assessment of an environmental problem and the design of an appropriate solut ion to the problem. His brusque treatment of these topics coupled with no real d iscuss ion of p o l i t i c a l decision-making or the need for an e f f e c t i v e administrative structure makes Downs' model less appealing than Ashby's, which takes a more comprehensive and in depth view of issue advancement. This thes is wil l therefore focus on Ashby's model, recognizing that Downs' model may have some val id ity in specif ic phases of issue advancement. 1.4 Assumptions This thesis assumes that: i . in the face of competing i n t e r e s t s in a l imited resource i t is necessary that wi ld l i fe species (and the i r habitat) are managed to ensure their continued survival and well being. i i . the Fish and Wildlife Branch is the government institution responsible for managing wi ld l i fe in B.C. and that it is desirable that the Branch carry out i ts policy: (a) to maintain the diversity of species representative of the major biophysical zones of the province, and -18-(b) to ensure that within the constraints of land capacity and bio-logical l imits of each species, wi ld l i fe is available in su f f i -cient abundance to meet the recreational and economic needs of society. i i i . co-operation between the W i l d l i f e Branch and other government and private i n s t i t u t i o n s is necessary i f w i l d l i f e management is to be effect ive. 1.5 L imitat ions The scope of this research looks at a particular w i ld l i f e management plan in B r i t i s h Columbia. However the planning principles and framework that are being evaluated may be appl icable to j u r i s d i c t i o n s outside of the province. 1.6 Research Plan and Methodology. A l i terature review was conducted to provide a descr ip t ion of the h i s t -o r i c a l development of w i l d l i f e management. Government repor ts , l e g i s l a t i o n , newspapers as wel l as interv iews were u t i l i z e d in th is endeavour. A s imi lar procedure was used in determining the present s i tuat ion with regard to land use and wi ld l i fe management, spec i f i ca l ly in the Nimpkish watershed. Although a h i s to r i ca l review was done of land use in the Nimpkish, a more detailed analysis was made for the period 1970-82 a time when traditional concepts of resource management were being challenged and in many cases modified. -19-Field work was conducted in Alert Bay and Vancouver from May 1980 to May 1981. The f i r s t six months were spent in Alert Bay researching biophysical and administrat ive information on the Nimpkish watershed and completing a ser ies of interviews with f o r e s t e r s , b i o l o g i s t s , native people and government administrators. The time spent in Vancouver was devoted mostly to ana lys i s , cartography, some further interviews and writing of reports. A presentation of part of the study f ind ing was del ivered to the Pearse Royal Commission on P a c i f i c F i sher ies in the f a l l of 1981. Follow-up interviews with Wildl i fe and Forestry o f f i c i a l s were undertaken in 1984-86. See Appendix I for specific sources of information. -20-CHAPTER TWO W i l d l i f e and Forestry in the Nimpkish Watershed: H i s t o r i c a l Use Patterns and Biophysical Background 2 .1 Introduction This chapter provides background information and gives context to the present ungulate-forestry management program in the Nimpkish watershed. In section 2.2 a brief history of land use is given to show how the influence of white s e t t l e -ment has changed land use patterns in the watershed, especially in the past hundred years . A more d e t a i l e d account i s g iven of the emergence of a large-scale commercial logging operation within the watershed and i t s rapid growth, e s p e c i a l l y since 1960 when Canadian Forest Products Ltd. (CANFOR) was granted Tree Farm Licence 37 which covered the majority of the watershed. Subsequent sect ions (2 .3 - 2.5) d e s c r i b e the physiography, cl imate and vegetation of the watershed which are important factors in determining the c a p a b i l i t y of sustaining both timber and ungulates. Of particular concern for ungulates are such things as: t e r r a i n , snow depth and temperature (especially in winter); age of trees; arboreal lichens and understory vegetation. Foresters are also concerned with climate, soi ls and topography as they affect day to day opera t ions but also in determining the growth rates of trees which is of particular concern in reforestation. A general introduction to the wi ld l i fe of the Nimpkish watershed is presented in section 2.6, while past and present u t i l i z a t i o n of w i l d l i f e are covered in sections 2.6.1 and 2.6.2 respectively. A more detailed description of w i l d l i f e biology is contained in Chapter 4 where the methods of wi ld l i fe assessment and management are addressed. -21-2 . 2 H i s t o r y o f t h e R e s o u r c e Use i n t h e N i m p k i s h Wate r shed A b o r i g i n a l O c c u p a t i o n - F i r s t W h i t e E x p l o r e r s - The Fur T r a d e Occupation of the Nimpkish watershed by aboriginal peoples dates back some 9,000 years shor t ly af ter the retreat of the last ice sheets that covered large portions of northwestern North America (Ham, 1980). The f i r s t contact that the ancestors of the Nimpkish people had with whites might have been with the Spaniard, Juan Perez, who sailed to the Queen Charlottes and to Nootka to trade in 1774. Subsequent v is i ts by Russians, English, French, Yankees and Spanish explorers and traders stimulated the growth of a fur trade which lasted until the late 1800's. Central to th i s trade was the establishment by the Hudson's Bay Company of Fort Rupert (near present day Port Hardy) in 1849. By 1873 the trade in furs had diminished substantially and the fort was sold to Robert Hunt, the former post manager. A more deta i led account of aboriginal use and occupancy of the Nimpkish water-shed is contained in section 2.6.1 of this chapter. W h i t e E x p l o r a t i o n o f N i m p k i s h Wate rshed Although Captain George Vancouver landed at the mouth of the Nimpkish River in 1792 i t wasn't until sixty years later that a documented white expedit ion was mounted into the i n t e r i o r of the watershed. In 1852, a Hudson's Bay employee named Hamilton Moffat was guided by Nimpkish Indians through the watershed along an established native trading route to Nootka Sound. Moffat travelled along the Nimpkish mainstream to Woss Lake and passed over the mountains into the Tahsis drainage to the west. In his journal Moffat describes the presence of v i l l a g e s and of an abundance of food. He also noted the richness of the timber resource which would forete l l the importance of logging in future years. -22-Surveys, Land Grants, Homesteads and Land Speculation The entry of Br i t ish Columbia into Canadian Confederation in 1871 marked the beginning of a more concerted and systematic exploration and survey of the new terr itory - including the Nimpkish watershed. Several surveyors were dispatched in 1873 and 1877 to ascerta in the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for settlement of lands -i n i t i a l l y with an eye to agricultural potential, which they found to be minimal. By 1892 several lots and sect ions had been Crown granted to white settlers in lowlands west of the lower Nimpkish River. Although a few homesteaders actually l ived in the Nimpkish watershed, much of the Crown lands were held f o r speculative purposes and would later be turned over to the forest industry which would dominate act iv ity in later years. As a resu l t of th i s land "speculation" the establishment of Indian reserves in 1880 took on a forced and awkward conf igurat ion to accommodate existing land pre-emptions. A total of six re lat ively small reserves were established: three along the lower Nimpkish River, for f i s h i n g purposes, and three on Cormorant Is land (present-day A ler t Bay) for res ident i a l and bur ia l purposes. The imposition of a reserve system was insens i t i ve to the t r a d i t i o n a l hunting, fishing and gathering cycles of the Nimpkish Indians and acted to restr ic t their movement and continued use of the watershed. It was in e f fec t a form of expropriation. The Start of the Commercial F ish ing Industry While the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l f a i l e d to be rea l i zed in the Nimpkish watershed, other previously neglected resources soon came to the attention of white entrepreneurs and businessmen. The establishment of a f i s h sa l te ry as -23-e a r l y as 1862 and a subsequent larger scale cannery in 1881 in A le r t Bay signalled the f i r s t serious threat to the Nimpkish traditional resource economy. While trading was viewed more as a partnership between the white trader and native trapper , the establishment of a commercial f i s h e r y came in d i r e c t confl ict with established Nimpkish f ish harvesting patterns. Displaying a high level of shrewdness the cannery operators enticed the Nimpkish Indians to work at the cannery by having a vi l lage constructed complete with a church mission, general store, post o f f i c e and wharf. Alert Bay soon replaced Fort Rupert as the region's economic centre. While the Nimpkish people were the majority labour force in the cannery's f i r s t years, they were not t o t a l l y happy with the work - mostly due to the dramatic differences in the work ethic of the two cultures. However, the cannery remained in operation - with a couple of years break - until 1941. Alert Bay remains a f ishing centre to this day, being the home of a substantial seine boat fishing f leet - predominantly native owned and operated. The Nimpkish people adapted to the changes of the fishing industry from the early 1900's to the present day by maintaining a sizeable fishing f leet - mostly seine boats - that has earned a r e p u t a t i o n of being very e f f i c i e n t and successful. Much of this f i s h i n g success can be at t r ibuted to the Nimpkish f ishermen's intimate knowledge of the f ish and their movements which has been passed down from generation to generat ion. A r e l a t i v e l y smal l , but local ly s ignif icant, food fishery centred on the Nimpkish River is s t i l l maintained. Many of the v i l lage people (Alert Bay) s t i l l rely on these f ish as a major food source and a major household canning operation is undertaken in late summer and f a l l coinciding with the different spawning runs. -24-The S t a r t o f the F o r e s t I n d u s t r y - The "Green Gold Rush" To understand the story of the forest industry and especial ly i t s b i r th at the turn of the twentieth century, one must inevitably look at the granting of land timber r ights. The newly formed Confederation of Canada viewed the forest lands as a resource of the commons, not owned by anyone, but having rights vested in the Crown. The privatization of this timber resource ultimately led to the type of resource exploitation experienced in the Nimpkish watershed. The i n i t i a l Crown granting of rights to land took place in 1879 when 160 acres were made ava i lab le to early homesteaders at Beaver Cove. By the 1890's close to 11,000 acres of land were granted by the Crown. It was at this time that the f i r s t timber rights were given in the form of a Timber Lease - a total of 5,271 acres. Several other grants, both Crown and Timber leases, were made pr ior to 1905 - covering an area of over 47,000 acres of the richest and most productive timber land in the Nimpkish and Kokish (south of the Nimpkish) watersheds. In the ear ly 1900's the Prov inc ia l Government found i t s e l f in a weakened economic condition due to years of debt charges and d i s a b i l i t i e s . To counter th i s and ra i se much needed revenue, Premier McBride's government embarked on a po l i cy of large scale land s a l e s and t imber a l i e n a t i o n . The atmosphere surrounding the forest lands could at th i s time be best described as a "gold rush". From 1905 to 1907 approximately 9.6 m i l l i o n acres of fo res ts were alienated by Special Timber Licence. Included in this total were 140,665 acres in the Nimpkish and Kokish watersheds. This represented over one th i rd of the watershed and basical ly all the most productive timber land. -25-In the ear ly 1900's small scale commercial logging was practised by both white settlers and by a number of Kwakiutl bands. For some of the bands i t was their p r inc ipa l source of cash income (Knight, 1978). However, new p r o v i n c i a l regulat ions introduced in 1908 governing the forest industry limited logging to people registered on voters l i s t s or those who were e l ig ib le to be registered (Knight, 1978). This effect ively eliminated native p a r t i c i p a t i o n in logging "Crown" lands and restricted their act iv i t ies to reserve lands. Forestry Comes o f Age: W.W.I - 1980 World War I created a demand for wood products from B.C. and resulted in a mill complex being bui l t at Beaver Cove as well as the start of a railroad system for log hauling within the Nimpkish watershed. Between the wars several changes and consolidations of timber r ights occurred. In 1944 Canadian Forest Products acquired the major interest to logging rights in the Nimpkish Watershed. This was a lso a time when new m i l l s were being b u i l t and the ra i l road system improved. In 1960 Canadian Forest Products (CANF0R) was granted Tree Farm Licence (TFL) 37 which covered approximately 90 percent of the Nimpkish watershed. Parts of two other TFLs extend into the watershed: MacMillan B loedel 's TFL 39 in the northwestern corner of the watershed as well as lands draining into Schoen Lake in the southern portion of the watershed, and Crown Forests' (name changed from Crown-Zellerbach) TFL 2 with two small areas; one on the upper Steele Creek drainage and an area of less than a square mile east of Nimpkish Lake (Fig. 1). -26-The granting of the TFLs, especially TFL 37, created a significant change in the approach taken in logging the Nimpkish watershed. Where previously only the alienated bottom lands were being cut , the new tenure opened up previously untouched timber areas at higher elevations. This extension into new areas has enabled CANFOR to develop a harvesting strategy of summer logging on higher elevations and winter logging on va l ley bottom lands. The rate of harvesting has increased dramatically in the 24 years since the granting of the TFL. The tota l trees cut is estimated to account for over half of the total commercial harvest taken from the watershed (Nimpkish Band, 1982). The Tree Farm Licence is a form of forest tenure granted by the Ministry of Forests that gives the licencee a secure supply of timber (21 year renewable term) that must be managed on a sustainable yield basis. The annual rate of harvest or annual allowable cut (AAC) is ca lcu lated by the licence (based on growth cr i ter ia) and is reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Forests . The Licencee is obl igated to harvest the AAC within specified limits as well as carrying out other management a c t i v i t i e s such as r e f o r e s t a t i o n . The AAC is presented in detail in f ive year management and working plans that are submitted by the licencee to the Ministry of Forests and also referred to other government resource agencies that may have an i n t e r e s t , inc luding the W i l d l i f e Branch. This referral process is discussed in greater depth in Chapter 5 (sec. 5.3). The increases in the AAC in TFL 37 from 1960 - 1976 has been 98 percent. Although substantial, this is low compared to other TFLs in the province, many of which range from 200 to 300 percent. According to Pearse (1976) there are several reasons for the increase: -27-"To an overwhelming extent the increases are the result of revisions in estimates of the forest inventory, reca lcu la t ions of recoverable volumes and growth using assumptions of c l o s e r u t i l i z a t i o n s t a n d a r d s , and shortening of the growing period assumed for new crops." The Nimpkish Band (1982) suggests that the amount of merchantable timber has increased by over 40 percent through recalculat ion by CANFOR. At the same time CANFOR has experienced shortfal ls in f u l f i l l i n g the wood requirements of i t s processing m i l l s and has increased i ts need to buy timber from the open market by 182 percent between 1957 and 1975 (Nimpkish Band, 1982). It is evident that CANFOR is under severe economic pressure to keep i t s AAC at the highest level possible which has serious implications for other resource values - including ungulates - within the Nimpkish watershed. 2.3 Geography and Physiography The Nimpkish watershed encompasses a l l those lands that drain into streams and rivers which ultimately flow into Broughton Strait via the Nimpkish River. The headwaters of the Nimpkish arise in the mountains of the Vancouver Island Range (2,500 m+) in an area northwest of Gold R iver from where i t flows in a northeasterly d i r e c t i on, c o l l e c t i n g waters from t r i b u t a r i e s and associated sub-systems. Some of the major systems include: Schoen Lake/Klaklakama Lakes/Davie R iver , Vernon Lake/Sebahal1 Creek, Woss Lake/Woss R iver , Anutz Lake/Atluck Lake and Creek and the Kipala/Karmutzen Creek drainage a r e a . 2 Overall the drainage covers an area of 1,670 km , making i t one of the largest watersheds on Vancouver Island. The Vancouver Island Range was formed pr ior to the Pleistocene epoch and was a result of an upl i f t ing of the tert iary surface layer. This u p l i f t was in turn modified by glacial erosion during the Pleistocene resulting in a smoothing and -28-rounding of most major peaks. Major f au l t s within the Nimpkish are common and contain the larger drainage systems. The U-shaped valleys are characteristic of past glacial action. 2.4 Climate The climate of the Nimpkish watershed is character ized by c o o l , wet winters contrasted with warm, relat ively dry summers (Klinka et a l , 1979). Total annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n ranged from 1,850 to 2,400 mm. Snow accumulation var ies dramatically over time with e levat ions above 700 m general ly maintaining a complete snow cover from December to March. At e levat ions above 1,400 m on south aspects and 1,200 m on north aspects the growing season is very short, regeneration is severely limited and forest productivity is very low. The Valley Lowlands, below 700 m, can go several years without signif icant snow cover, but in any given winter there can be a very s i g n i f i c a n t (1 .3 m) accumulation that can remain for days or weeks which is an important factor in deer survival . During summer, lower elevations have a f r o s t - f r e e period of approximately 170 days and a low ratio of actual evapotranspiration to potent ia l evapotranspir-ation indicates that water def ic i ts occur during the growing season. The Nimpkish watershed has experienced many natural forest f i r e s , some of which were very large by today's standards (Table 1). For instance, f i res covering up to 50 square miles are known to have occurred around Vernon Lake between 1560 and 1759. Other smaller f i r es , generally less than f ive square miles, have been recorded in the 1800s and 1900s. -29-TABLE 1 Source: Willms, 1971 FIRE HISTORY OF THE NIMPKISH VALLEY Age of Approximate Present Size ? „ Date of Burn Stand (mile) (km) Location 1940 - 59 6 - 10 10 - 16 Vernon Camp 1920 - 39 17 1 _ 5 1.6 - 8 SW Vernon Lake 1 - 5 1.6 - 8 NE Vernon Lake 1914 41 - 60 1 1.6 NE Vernon Lake 1 1.6 NE Woss Lake 1 1.6 N Woss Camp 1 1.6 NE Kaipit Creek 1894 61 - 80 1 1.6 E Vernon Camp 1 - 5 1.6 - 8 S Woss Camp 1 - 5 1.6 - 8 SE Nimpkish Lake 1844 120 11 _ 15 18 - 24 NW Woss Lake; along Nimpkish River to S end Nimpkish Lake and S to Atluck Lake 1 - 5 1.6 - 8 NE Nimpkish Lake 1560 - 1759 270 1 5 1.6 - 8 NE Edge Woss Lake 41 - 50 66 - 80 Vernon Lake 1360 - 1559 400 21 _ 30 34 - 48 Nimpkish Lake 16 - 20 26 - 32 Woss Camp to Schoen Lake; along Nimpkish River 1 - 5 1.6 - 8 NW Woss Lake 540 6 10 10 - 16 Woss Camp, Woss Lake, Vernon Lake 16 - 20 26 - 32 SE Corner of Timber License 960 - 1359 620 1 _ 5 1.6 - 8 W Klaklakama Lake S Vernon Camp 750 1 5 1.6 - 8 w Klaklakama Lake 1 - 5 1.6 - 8 s Woss Lake 1000 1 1.6 w Klaklakama Lake Before 1000+ 400+ 640+ On higher altitudes 960 (7,200') -30-2.5 Vegetation Biogeoclimate Zones The vegetation of the Nimpkish watershed i s represented by three major b ioc l imat ic zones with one zone being represented by two subzones (Krajina, 1969). 1. Alpine Tundra This zone is fragmentary and r e s t r i c t e d to higher elevations - greater than 1,400 m. A few stunted trees (Amabalis F ir and Mountain Hemlock) may grow here but general ly the area is bare except for groundhugging shrubs, hardy grasses, sedges and mat-forming herbs. 2. (a) Mountain Hemlock Zone - Parkland Subzone Continuous with the previous zone the Mountain Hemlock Parkland Subzone extends down to approximately 1,200 m. The dominant trees are Mountain Hemlock and Amabalis F i r . The forest f loor is sparsely covered with shrubs and herbs. (b) Mountain Hemlock Zone - Forested Subzone This is below and continuous with the previous zone and can be found as low as 900 m. Dominant tree species again include Mountain Hemlock and Amabalis F i r , but th is zone is also home for Yellow Cedar. The forest f loor has more shrub and herb cover, but only a sparse moss cover. - 3 1 -3. Coastal Western Hemlock Zone - Wetter Subzone This is the most extensive zone in the Nimpkish cover and is found from sea level up to 900 m. It is dominated by Western Hemlock, Amabalis Fir and Western Red Cedar. The shrub, herb and moss layer are r i ch except in some instances of climax stands where the tree canopy is closed. There are several other smaller azonal vegetation types within the Nimpkish watershed occuring in bogs, swamps, streamside lowlands, sl ide areas and salt marshes. 2.6 W i l d l i f e in the Nimpkish Watershed The Nimpkish watershed supports a diverse wi ld l i fe population that is typical of the moist mixed con i fer forest of the coastal part of northwestern North America. A to ta l of 171 bird species, 28 mammals and 14 species of amphibians and reptiles occur within the watershed (Godfrey, 1966; Cowan and Guiget, 1965; Carl , 1959, 1960). Of particular interest to this thesis are the two species of ungulates found in the Nimpkish: black- tailed deer and Roosevelt elk. Population surveys made by the Wi ld l i fe Branch revealed a deer population of approximately 12 - 16,000 animals in 1972 (Davies, pers. comm.). There was subsequently a sharp decline, of about 80 percent, from 1972 to 1979 (Jones and Mason, 1979). The population decreased further during the ear ly 1980s due l a r g e l y to i n c r e a s e d wolf predat ion (Davies, pers.comm.). Deer reside throughout the watershed; using lower elevation stands of mature hemlock/balsam and Douglas f i r during winter. Mature tree stands on steeper s i d e - h i l l s with southern exposure are p r e f e r r e d as winter range as there is less snow accumulation, more food and better escape from predators. Summer ranges can be -32-either mid-elevation sites or higher sub-alpine areas. The resident elk population in the Nimpkish is re lat ively small - a tota l of 45 - 50 animals in three herds was estimated in the ear ly 1980s (Janz, pers. comm.). There are other herds that migrate in and out of the Nimpkish watershed which can double or t r i p l e the population at any given time. Elk d i f fer from deer in that they tend to use lower parts of va l ley bottoms during summer -there being abundant grasses and herbs which elk prefer. During winter elk can survive deeper snow condit ions due to the i r greater height and strength, but also require mature tree stands for thermal and hiding cover and also as a source of food. Geologists hold that as recently as 10,000 years ago massive ice sheets covered large parts of the Nimpkish watershed. The w i l d l i f e of the Nimpkish are thus, re lat ively speaking, "newly arrived" when compared with non-glaciated areas of the cont inent. Water bodies that separate Vancouver Island from the Brit ish Columbia mainland have acted as an e f f e c t i v e f i l t e r in w i l d l i f e dispersion. Only 28 out of a total of 126 species of mammals native to B.C. have found their way to Vancouver Island. The wi ld l i fe capabil ity of the Nimpkish watershed is determined pr imar i l y by c l imate , topography and vegetat ion. Over the last 80 years there has been a continually increasing influence by humans on the wi ld l i fe community. Logging has been the dominant act iv ity in changing the vegetation from a climax forest to a forest of young, growing trees in even-age patches ranging in size from a few acres to hundreds of acres. -33-2.6.1 P a s t U t i l i z a t i o n of W i l d l i f e and W i l d l i f e H a b i t a t N a t i v e Use We can speculate that the f i r s t human use of wi ld l i fe in the Nimpkish was by the Indian culture that settled on the coast some 9,000 years ago (Ham, 1980). More recent evidence exists of Kwakwala speaking people (ancestors of the Nimpkish Band) inhabiting the Nimpkish watershed. Village sites have been uncovered in the watershed that date back to 1750 and possibly earl ier (Ham, 1980). The f i r s t recorded use of wi ld l i fe involved the trading of furs - most notably sea otter - between coastal Indian bands and early white Maritime explorers from England and Spain in the late 1700's and ear ly 1800's. A second phase of fur trading occurred with the construction of Fort Rupert (near the present day site of Port Hardy) in 1849 by the Hudson's Bay Company. The Company's records show that mink, rabbit, marten, racoon and beaver were the most abundant furs traded. The inc lus ion of rabbit as well as other mainland mammals such as f isher, fox and lynx ref lect the nature of the trade at Fort Rupert which collected from both Vancouver Island, the inside coastal islands and the mainland. By 1859 the sea otter had been severely reduced in number and was only a minor item on the t rader ' s inventory. Fur trading ended at Fort Rupert in 1873 when the Hudson's Bay Company holdings were bought by Robert Hunt. Prior to 1860 i t is bel ieved that the Nimpkish had settlements in the upper reaches of the Nimpkish watershed (Ham, 1980). The only site located to date is s i tuated at the junct ion of the Woss and Nimpkish r i v e r s . Other major settlement s i t es have been ident i f ied between the mouth of the Nimpkish River and the outlet of Nimpkish Lake. The most recent ly occupied site was Xwalka, -34-situated on the west bank of the Nimpkish River mouth (Ham, 1980). Spring, summer and ear ly f a l l were times of f i s h i n g , berry p i ck ing , plant gathering and preserving food while winter was a time for hunting and trapping. Deer and elk were hunted along the lower Nimpkish River , at the out let of Nimpkish Lake and further up the valley (Ham, 1980). Trapping of mink and other small mammals was carried out along the lower Nimpkish River, around the mouth of Woss River and in the Vernon Lake area. G In the 1860's-70's the Nimpkish Indians moved from Xwalka to Yalis (Alert Bay) on Cormorant Island to work at the newly establ ished f i s h saltery. There is good evidence that the Nimpkish Band continued their traditional food gathering in the Nimpkish Valley until at least 1930 (Ham, 1980). The W h i t e S e t t l e r s In the early 1900's businessmen, entrepreneurs and opportunists staked claims to the timber resource of the Nimpkish watershed. Init ia l logging was small scale and included some participation by Kwakiutl bands (Taylor, 1975). Large scale logging was undertaken in the late 1920's and has continued to the present day. In 1925 a sawmill was built at Beaver Cove which in turn brought in new settlers and further increased the level of logging act iv i ty . From 1920 through 1940 logging was restricted to the area around Beaver Cove, Thiemer Lake and south end of Nimpkish Lake. Although l i t t l e good information exists for the period between 1900 and 1930 we can assume that white s e t t l e r s were hunting and trapping in the Nimpkish in addition to the act iv i t ies of the Nimpkish Band. In 1948 the community of Woss -35-was established by Canadian Forest Products (CANFOR) to serve as the admin-i s t r a t i v e centre for i ts Englewood Logging Division, which encompasses most of the Nimpkish watershed. Other CANFOR logging communities within the watershed include Nimpkish, Vernon Lake, a mobile camp at Atluck Lake and Beaver Cove at the mouth of the Kokish River. From 1940 on there was increased penetration by loggers into the upper end of the Nimpkish watershed. Improved technology, particularly the introduct ion of an extensive logging ra i lway, by the late 1950's fac i l i tated logging of as yet untouched areas, including the area bounded by Woss Lake, Hoomak Lake and Vernon Lake. This area besides being rich in high qua l i ty timber is also the most productive habitat for ungulates (Davies, pers. comm.). A dramatic increase in the deer population was noted by resident hunters in the Nimpkish in the early 1960's. Large clear cuts made in the 1950's created ideal forage conditions and, combined with mild winters, deer numbers quite na tura l l y increased. The opening of logging access roads in the early 1960's and the establishment of "permanent" logging camps within the watershed contributed to escalate the in tens i t y of deer hunting. The Nimpkish watershed enjoyed a r e p u t a t i o n of being one of the " h o t - s p o t s " in the ent i re province for black-tai led deer from the mid 1960's to 1973 when deer numbers and hunter success began to decrease. -36-2.6.2 Present Utilization of Wildlife Hunting There are designated hunting seasons for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, wolf, fox and racoon. In addition there is a limited entry season for elk in the Kokish drainage system ( F i g . 1) . There are also open seasons for grouse, ducks, snipe, geese, pheasants and band-tailed pigeons (Ministry of Environment, 1980). The most important spec ies , in terms of hunter numbers, money spent while hunting and number of animals k i l l e d , is the black-tai led deer. A Fish and Wildl ife Branch report (Hebert, 1979) states that Vancouver Island was from 1965 - 1973 an area renowned f o r i t s deer h u n t i n g , with the Nimpkish being particularly outstanding: "The black-tailed deer harvest from the island contributes 30 - 45% of the to ta l deer harvest ( a l l species) on Vancouver Island. Speci f ical ly , the Nimpkish River Valley provides about 12% of the total deer harvest in B.C. from a land base which comprises only 0.2% of the total deer range." The deer harvest records for Management Area 1-11 (Nimpkish and Kokish water-sheds) kept by the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch for the period from 1964 - 1978 varied from a low in 1964 of 385 to a high of 3,374 in 1973 (Table 2). The harvest increased dramatically from 1964 on, until 1973 when a sharp decline was recorded. The total number of hunters increased from 174 in 1964 to 2,902 in 1974. The decl ine in hunter numbers follows the decline in hunter success which dropped from 2.19 deer per hunter in 1964 to .21 deer per hunter in 1983. What these -37-TABLE 2 Source: B.C . Fish and Wildl ife Branch, Nanaimo HUNTER SUCCESS IN NIMPKISH WATERSHED 1964-1984 M.U. 11 Number Number Number Of of Deer of Deer Year Hunters Harvested Hunter 1964 175 384 2.19 1965 289 414 1.43 1966 636 1,231 1.93 1967 648 1,243 1.92 1968 854 1,718 2.01 1969 781 1,138 1.46 1970 1,199 1,348 1.12 1971 1,436 2,043 1.42 1972 N.A. N.A. N.A. 1973 2,096 3,374 1.61 1974 2,903 3,282 1.13 1975 N.A. N.A. N.A. 1976* 2,682 1,360 .53 1977 2,167 1,455 .67 1978 2,173 1,299 .60 1979 1,819 712 .39 1980 1,618 728 .45 1981 1,185 417 .35 1982 974 342 .35 1983 664 141 .21 1984 734 326 .44 * N.A. Estimates from provincial hunter sample, 1976-1984 Not Available. -38-figures reveal is that, while hunter numbers and number of deer k i l led continued to increase from 1966 to 1973, actual hunter success was decreasing. Recreation There exists a great potential for recreational use of the Nimpkish watershed. In a report to the Nimpkish Band Council, Frieda Schade (1979) outlined some of the poss ib i l i t ies and problems. Photography, observation and angling would be the major a c t i v i t i e s that would involve w i l d l i f e . Obv ious ly there i s a tremendous potent ia l for viewing deer and, to a lesser degree, elk. Wolves being much more secret ive would more l i k e l y be heard than seen. B i rd l i fe is abundant and varied and contributes to a "wilderness" experience. There are seven campsites administered by CANFOR and one Provincial park (Schoen Lake) within the Nimpkish watershed. The total overnight camping capacity is 107 spaces; though this number varies due to the "undesignated" spaces used by campers inside and outside designated campgrounds. Al l major campgrounds are located beside lakes and this has created concern for the Nimpkish Band Council who are conscious of the need to protect f ish habitat and particularly spawning areas which are found on some of the watershed's lakes (Schade, 1979). The opening of the new Island Highway in 1979 will undoubtedly increase recreat ion t r a f f i c on Vancouver Is land, which already ranks as the second most important tourist region in the provinces (B.C. Department of Travel Industry, 1977). -39-Scientific Study The Nimpkish watershed has been used by various people in conducting major studies of terrestr ia l w i l d l i f e over the years . Most of these studies have concentrated on deer (Willms, 1971; E l l i s , 1974; Jones, 1974; Harestad, 1979; Rochelle, 1980; Bunnell, 1979). The Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch has carried out some studies on deer, elk, wolves and waterfowl, and these are ava i lab le in report form from the Branch off ice in Nanaimo. The Nimpkish presents an ideal location for studying the impact of logging on wi ld l i fe and w i l l probably see increased attent ion as fo res t ry and wi ld l i fe management becomes a greater p r i o r i t y for the prov inc ia l government. The proposed "Nimpkish Island" eco log ica l reserve - already designated as an Internation B i o l o g i c a l Program (IBP) s i t e - a l so prov ides a potent ia l opportunity to study the climatic and soi l conditions that have contr ibuted to growing a stand of some of the ta l lest coniferous trees in Canada and, in some cases, in North America. A c r i t i c a l concern would be to c a r e f u l l y plan recreat ional a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s so as to preserve the w i l d l i f e species and the i r habitat that are deemed valuable. Aesthetic and Spiritual Values Aesthet ic or s p i r i t u a l value is often overlooked or under-rated simply because i t is subjective by nature and thus d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to measure. For native people, in this case the Kwakiutl , and for some white people, the value of wi ld l i fe goes far beyond just a sense of appreciation that wild animals are l i v i n g in a free state. Certainly, i t is important for the feeling of well -40-being for many people that w i l d l i f e are preserved and that wi ld l i fe management areas, ecological reserves such as the "Nimpkish Island proposal, and parks are set aside for this purpose. The value of wi ld l i fe to native people is d i f f i cu l t to assess since i t exists in every part of the i r cu l tu re . The history of the Nimpkish Band reflects their respect and closeness to animals. This a f f i n i t y is reflected in the language, dances, carv ings, legends and t r i b a l i d e n t i t i e s and acts as a c u l t u r a l foundation for the original inhabitants of the Nimpkish Valley. 2.7 C o n c l u s i o n : There are several highlights that emerge from the preceding historical overview of resource use in the Nimpkish watershed: i . F irst human use of the Nimpkish watershed was by the ancestors of the Nimpkish Band who engaged in a seasonal cycle of harvesting plants, f ish and wi ld l i fe from the watershed. Commercial logging was started in the ear ly 1900's but only became a major act iv ity in terms of harvest after the Second World War. The granting of a Tree Farm Licence (37) to Canadian Forest Products committed the ent i re watershed to t imber production to be managed on a sustained yield basis. i i . As a resu l t of commercial logging, mature stands of trees are rapidly disappearing in the Nimpkish watershed and there is severe economic pressure on the present TFL to maintain harvest l eve ls at as high a level as possible to satisfy sawmill operations on the south B.C. coast. -41-The Nimpkish watershed i s regarded by the W i l d l i f e Branch as an important area for black-tailed deer sport hunting. At i ts peak in 1973 the watershed produced 45 percent of deer harvested on Vancouver Island and approximately 12 percent of the provincial total from a land base of less than 0.2 percent of the total deer range in B.C. Deer harvested by hunters increased from 1964 to 1973 at which time a sharp decl ine was recorded. While hunter numbers and number of deer k i l led increased during this time, actual hunter success was steadily decreasing. There exist other values within the Nimpkish aside from forestry and deer hunting. These include outdoor recreat ion , s c i e n t i f i c study and s p i r i t u a l values. Of pa r t i cu la r in terest is the "Nimpkish Island" ecological reserve proposal, which would provide a unique opportunity to study the environmental condit ions that have created an exceptional stand of coniferous trees in the heart of the Nimpkish watershed. -42-CHAPTER THREE An Aroused Publ ic Conscience 3.1 Introduction In Chapter 2 we looked at the biophysical features of the Nimpkish watershed to gain an understanding of the forest habitat and i ts use by people and ungulates. The forest is dynamic by nature; forever changing through natural causes such as wind, f looding, f i r e s and simple aging, or by the a c t i v i t i e s of man, such as commercial logging. In th i s chapter we w i l l look at the level of p u b l i c awareness and concern for our environment with a focus on the Brit ish Columbia scene and the f o r e s t r y / u n g u l a t e s i t u a t i o n in the Nimpkish watershed in p a r t i c u l a r . We w i l l in f a c t look at the f i r s t component of Ashby 's decision-making model, namely the presence of "an aroused public conscience." In the chain react ion of events involved in the p o l i t i c s of environmental , protection, Ashby (1978) identif ies an i n i t i a l phase where the public conscience i is excited, once i t has learned of a particular environmental hazard or "issue". This arousal of public concern is t rans lated into lobbying by interest groups seeking to stop decisions - either administrative or po l i t i ca l - that threaten t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . The reve lat ion of the environmental issue can be some unexpected incident that shocks the publ ic sens ib i l i ty or i t can be through the disclosure of sc ient ists , warning us of an impending environmental threat. Ashby (1978) argues quite vigorously that, "in the present soc ia l c l imate some dramatization is necessary" to excite the public conscience. While Ashby draws on examples that are more immediate and l i f e threatening - toxic chemicals and air pollutants for instance - the same argument can be used for other, seemingly more innocuous environmental concerns; such as the loss of ungulate habitat in - 4 3 -the Nimpkish watershed. If we look at the Nimpkish we in fact do see dramatization of the forestry-ungulate s i tuat ion and from a somewhat surprising source; the sc ient ists . In the next section we w i l l see that i t has been the b i o l o g i s t s and foresters - at least some of them - who have sounded the loudest warnings concerning the fate of Nimpkish wi ld l i fe resources. In the case of the Nimpkish watershed forestry-ungulate situation there has also been a parallel tracking of concerned in terest groups: the hunter/sportsman lobby; environmental/natural ist groups and the Nimpkish Band. A l l are interested in preserving w i l d l i f e habitat within the watershed; however each group has a different end use of the w i l d l i f e in mind and each has adopted a different strategy to achieve their specif ic end. The hunter lobby has enjoyed good re lat ions with the Fish and Wildl i fe Branch and has most often lobbied the Branch in an informal manner, without pub l i c i t y or fanfare. Until recently the hunters' interests could, for the most part, be achieved through the adjustment of hunting regu la t ions . However, in the last 15 years in p a r t i c u l a r , the greater issue of habitat loss has been recognized by hunters as being the number one pr ior i ty in maintaining w i l d l i f e populat ions. With th is recognition has come an increased effort in more publicized lobbying of the Ministry of Forests for habitat protect ion which has resulted in alliances with environmental and naturalist organizations in opposing the logging of pristine watersheds, such as the Tsit ika and Stein River basins. The environmentalists' tack has been one of drawing attention to the aesthetic and symbolic value of the forest and i ts wi ld l i fe resources. Two issues that have su r faced in the l a s t ten years have been the wolf control program implemented in the Nimpkish watershed in August, 1982 and a proposal to preserve - 4 4 -an exceptional stand of trees - known as the "Nimpkish Island" stand - as an eco log ica l reserve. Having no c lose l i a i s o n with e i ther the M i n i s t r y of Environment or the Min is t ry of Forests the environmentalists have taken their message to the media and have rece ived substant ia l p u b l i c i t y through the newspapers, magazines and te levis ion. The third group that has a general in terest in the protect ion of the forest habitat in the Nimpkish watershed is the Nimpkish Band form Alert Bay. The focus of the Band's concern has been the protection of salmon habitat; part icularly spawning areas in the streams and lakes of the watershed. They have gained some public attention over the larger issue of aboriginal land claims, when in 1974 they issued a Declarat ion of Sovereignty, af f i rming the i r ownership of the watershed and its resources. A fourth group, the academics and professionals, have also provided c r i t i ca l support to the issue of habitat protection in the Nimpkish watershed. In their role as "experts" they have provided object ive assessments of the resource confl icts within the watershed; but they have also provided their own subjective views on the state of affairs and have garnered considerable support from both the government and the public. Having a dual role as scientist and cit izen has in effect given these people what might be called an "elevated" s ta tus , where they appear to have a greater ab i l i ty to say and influence the news media which is invariably naive of the s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s . Later in th i s chapter we shall discuss now important th i s factor has been in organizing and mainta in ing interest in the Nimpkish watershed. -45-It is apparent that while the three interest groups d i f fer on the specifics of forest and wi ldl i fe use, they do share a common goal of protecting the forest habitat. It is this convergence of interests that has, to a large extent, put pressure on the government to implement a study of the forestry-ungulate problem on northern Vancouver Is land. It is in teres t ing to note that the t i t l e of i n i t i a l A p r i l , 1982 d iscuss ion paper, Old Growth and Ungulates of Northern Vancouver Island, was transformed to, Reservation of Old Growth Timber for the Protection of Wildl i fe Habitat on Northern Vancouver Island, on the f inal report released in January, 1983. The change is s ignif icant, in that i t recognizes a richer representation of in terests that have been expressed in the Nimpkish forestry-wi ldl i fe issue. 3.2 Environmental Awareness in B r i t i s h Columbia At the turn of the twentieth century B r i t i s h Columbia was viewed by the co lon i s t s from Europe as a hinterland of unimaginable resources waiting to be taken. This attitude with regard toward natural resources never real ly changed until the 1960s. It has recent ly changed because even the most opt imis t i c "captains of industry" , who are fur thest from the conservationist camp, have acknowledged that the well is running dry. It was unimaginable in the early days of commercial logging, that one day we would be faced with s e r i o u s shortages of economically accessible timber. But indeed this is exactly what has happened. In 1966, R.M. Fowler, then president of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, made the following statement at a national f o res t ry conference in Montebello, Quebec: -46-". . . the f i r s t thing is to convince p o l i t i c a l leaders and the publ ic that a problem exists - that the old happy, easy affluent days of unlimited forest resources are nearly over." (Vancouver Province, Sept. 23, 1980, p. C4) There is a general high level of concern for the environment and in par t i cu la r for w i l d l i f e in Brit ish Columbia that is revealed by a joint federal-provincial survey of Canadians' att i tudes toward w i l d l i f e (B.C. Ministry of Environment, 1983). Unfortunately, there is no break down of cultural groups such as native vs. non-native which may have provided some interesting results. The survey reported the following results: - 22% of B.C. residents (vs. 19% of Canadians) made outings spec i f ica l ly to view wi ld l i f e - and spent an average of 18 days and $1,000 each during a year; - 8% of B.C. res idents (vs. 10% of Canadians) hunted and spent an average of 16 days and $1,245 each during a year; - 87% of B.C. r e s i d e n t s are i n t e r e s t e d in non-hunting w i l d l i f e act iv i t ies ; - 24% of B.C. residents are interested in hunting; - almost 90% of B.C. residents think i t is very or f a i r l y important both to maintain wi ld l i fe diversity and to preserve endangered species. Concern for the environment has come from many levels of the public and can be broken into f ive broad categories: 1. Aboriginal peoples 2. Sports hunters 3. Naturalists 4. Environmental groups 5. Academics and Professionals - 4 7 -1 . Aboriginal people The aboriginal people of Brit ish Columbia have always had a close r e l a t i o n -ship with the land which they perceive as a provider and a spir itual base. There has been a strong and continued commitment by native people to affirm the i r abor ig inal r ights to the land and i t s resources. However, the provincial government has steadfastly refused to acknowledge these r ights. In a 1980 proposal to undertake a comprehensive resource study of the Nimpkish watershed, the Nimpkish Band made the following comment on the people's re la t ionsh ip to the land, espec ia l l y the Nimpkish River Valley (Nimpkish Band, 1982): ". . . we have continued to insist that we be recognized as the people who have the r ight to a c o n t r o l l i n g voice in the development of those resources; that , in the r i v e r is the source of our t r a d i t i o n s ; the representation of our cultural cont inu i ty , the sustenance of our people in the f ish i t provides for food and commerce, in the rich resources i t o f fe rs to our ch i ldren in the i r education . . . . There are str ik ing paral lels between the lack of control that we, as Indian people, have over our natural resources and the lack of control that , unt i l now, we have had over our health care." The Nimpkish Band attracted media attention to the Nimpkish watershed in 1980 when they erected a roadblock on the the newly-established Island highway. While some viewed the protest as being spec i f ica l ly related to the legal ity of land surrender - of using reserve land to bui ld the road - the Band i t s e l f saw i t as a more general protest against insensitive resource development in a watershed they regarded as their homeland. -48-Th e blockade was ended when the "Attorney General of B.C. , David Vickers, agreed to meet with the Band. The meeting resulted in an assurance by Vickers of another meeting between senior government o f f i c i a l s - who were active in resource decision making in the Nimpkish watershed - and the Band to c la r i fy exactly what kind of resource development plans the prov inc ia l government had. From the Band's perspect ive i t was c lear that the prov inc ia l government had no long term v i s ion of integrated resource development and that the interests of the Band were in no way represented (Nimpkish Band, 1982). The Nimpkish Band thus undertook i t s own comprehensive resource study of the Nimpkish watershed in 1980 so as to determine past resource use and development and suggest ways in which the Band could pa r t i c i pa te in future resource use decis ions - spec i f i ca l ly forestry and f ish management. The purpose of the study was two-fold. F i r s t l y , the Band documented t rad i -tional use of the land and i ts renewable resources and also assessed the inherent biological capabil ity of the land to provide these resources. The study also looked at h i s t o r i c a l white development and exp lo i ta t ion of renewable and non-renewable resources and attempted to i den t i f y ways in which native people can participate in future management of the resources. A follow-up to this study has been the Musgamagw Demonstration Project which was init iated in 1985 by the federal Department of Indian Affairs to look at the co-ordination of f isher ies , forestry and other natural resource programs with the aim of fos ter ing Indian economic and social development (Gordon, pers. com.). The project includes three other Bands - Hopetown, Kingcome and Guilford - besides the Nimpkish Band which has several ongoing projects; - 4 9 -inc luding a salmon hatchery at Telkwa Creek, of f the southern end of Nimpkish Lake. The project will also be looking closely at the interaction of the forestry and f i s h e r y management programs and how they can become participants in programs such as f ish habitat enhancement, s i l v i c u l t u r e and monitoring of f ish and forestry act iv i t ies , 2. Sports Hunters For many of the f i r s t European s e t t l e r s in B.C. hunting, f i sh ing and trapping of wi ld l i fe was essential to the i r survival . This act ivity was at the time assumed as a "right" in that i t was a bounty that was r e a d i l y and s u f f i c i e n t l y ava i lab le to s a t i s f y everyone's needs without depleting the populations. Over time both the need for and a v a i l a b i l i t y of animals has decreased and consequently hunting and t r a p p i n g have become more a recreat iona l a c t i v i t y with the added bonus of providing "wild" meat, much preferred by serious hunters. While there is no longer a dependence on wild game for food there s t i l l Vingers the sentiment amongst hunters that they have a t r a d i t i o n a l "r ight" to hunt f o r game f o r both the food value and sometimes as a trophy. Underlining th is des i re to pursue hunting is a strong conservationistic ethic that puts the protection of the environment as a high pr ior i ty . It is this mix of both conservationist and consumptive interests in the hunting f r a t e r n i t y that on occasion causes con f l i c t s with the s t r i c t l y conserva-t ionist naturalist organizations. -50-John Dixon, a past president of the B.C. W i l d l i f e Federation - which represents sports hunters and fishermen - focuses on the hunter-environment-a l i s t controversy: "We wil l continue to be in the forefront of the environmental movement f i g h t i n g for the preservation of habitat and natural resources to the best of our ab i l i ty . We shal l continue to r e s i s t any attempt to take away our right (emphasis mine) to harvest that resource. "All this argument may leave you with the impression that there is no bond between the hunter and the anti-hunter (read environmentalist) but that simply isn't true. "Try s i t t ing them down together over a succulent brace of roast mallard stuffed with wild r ice " (Vancouver Sun, Oct. 24, 1978, p.6) A serious r i f t that has occurred between the hunters and environmentalists/ naturalists camps is over the recently init iated wolf control program in the Nimpkish watershed. The hunters claim - as do the regional F ish and Wildl ife biologists - that since the forest and ungulates are both heavily managed i t only makes sense that the wolves, which prey on deer and e lk , should also be managed. In other words, the i r number should be reduced either by poisoning, hunting or t rapp ing . Wayne Harling, president of the Vancouver Island chapter of the B.C. Wildl i fe Federation, offers his view of the wolf control program: "We don't want to wipe the wolves out, but we do have an a r t i f i c i a l situation with the habitat (read clear-cut logging), and i f you're going to t r y to manage the deer and e lk , the f o r e s t , you'd better s tar t managing al l aspects of the ecosystem, and that includes wolves, because otherwise you throw the whole thing out of balance." (Nature Canada, Jan/March 1984, p.38) -51-The environmentalists point out that the wolves are not the sole predators of ungulates and that sport hunting should be stopped to see i f the deer can come back on the i r own. While there is agreement between the two groups that forest habitat should be protected there are dist inct differences in what these protected areas should provide - either hunting or non-consump-tive use. The Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch in i t s management plans has identif ied that managing habitat for deer and elk for sport hunting is the i r f i r s t and second pr ior i t ies respectively for Vancouver Island; including the Nimpkish watershed . Th is emphasis on consumptive use i s at the crux of the hunter-environmentalist disagreement which is derived from a fundamental d i f fe rence in values that the two groups h o l d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s disagreement in values has the effect of tainting any other dialogue which deals with less d i v i s i v e concerns regarding actual conservation of the forest environment and the methods required to do so. With a membership of over 30,000 the B.C. Wildl ife Federation is one of the most powerful publ ic in terest groups in the province and has often joined c o a l i t i o n s with other groups to oppose a v a r i e t y of environmentally destructive development proposals. The Federation has been especially vocal in i ts attempt to prevent the logging of forest habitats such as the Stein bas in , the T s i t i k a watershed (adjacent to the Nimpkish) and Northeast coal development. This is not to say that the Wi ld l i f e Federation is always in agreement with environmental organizations; often the leadership of the day may put more emphasis on the consumptive aspect of hunting rather than on conservation. However, as a general t rend, the Federation has recognized -52-the environmental movement as a growing and po l i t i ca l l y powerful voice and a potential a l ly to achieve common goals, such as habitat protection where the entire watershed i n t e g r i t y is maintained such as the T s i t i k a and Stein (Harling, pers. comm.). There has been an ongoing interest on the part of hunters (many of whom belong to the Wi ld l i f e Federation) in the management of ungulates in the Nimpkish. This interest is highlighted by the fact that the Nimpkish gained a reputation as being a deer haven for hunters from the mid-60s to the early 70s. As a result of this "bui l t - in" interest the hunter lobby has worked c l o s e l y with the Fish and Wildl i fe Branch, mostly on an informal basis, and has, more than any other interest group, been responsible for the in i t iat ion of the 5 year Integrated W i l d l i f e Intensive Forestry Research (IWIFR) program for Vancouver Island (Janz, pers. comm.; Har l ing , pers. comm.). Wayne H a r l i n g , the Vancouver Island representat ive for the W i l d l i f e Federation, has stated that his organizat ion has intentionally kept a low prof i le not wanting to "st i r up a hornet's nest" of publ ic debate on the ungulate-forestry issue in the Nimpkish watershed. 3 . Na tura l i s t s The natura l is ts of Brit ish Columbia enjoy a long tradition of promoting and lobbying for environmental protection, either through local chapters or the provincial umbrella organization, the Federation of B.C. Natural ists. This lobby group has taken a conservative approach in addressing environmental issues, preferring to work with other moderate groups such as the Sierra Club or Society for Po l lut ion and Environmental Control (SPEC) in j o in t e f f o r t s or through ex is t ing government channels to secure funding for -53-conservation ac t iv i t ies . One of the major objectives of the naturalists is to preserve as pristine an environment as possible for the non-consumptive enjoyment of the public. Generally the publ ic image of na tura l i s t s is one depict ing a gaggle of b i n o c u l a r e d , gumbooted "birders" out on a Sunday morning f i e l d t r i p . However, naturalists have been in the foref ront of various causes lobbying for habitat protection, pollution control, improved w i l d l i f e management of non-game species and endangered species, to name only a few. On Vancouver Island local na tura l i s t organizat ions represented by the T s i t i k a Conservation Committee were very much involved in the 1978 approval of an integrated resource plan for the T s i t i k a watershed (Tsitika Planning Committee, 1978). The Tsit ika is adjacent to the Nimpkish watershed but received much greater attention due to the fact that i t was the last major unlogged or "v i rg in" watershed on northern Vancouver Is land. In 1972 conservat ion is ts proposed that the ent i re watershed be reserved as an ecological reserve and that provincial parks be established around Schoen and Gold Lakes at the western edge of the watershed. In the Nimpkish there has been a proposal since 1973 for an eco log ica l reserve to preserve an exceptional stand of mature Douglas F i r , believed to be some of the ta l lest trees in Canada. A group of conservationists and academics joined forces in January of 1983 to create a non-profit society to give support to the Ecological Reserves Unit of the p r o v i n c i a l government. Ca l l ing themselves "Friends of Ecological Reserves," th is group was p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e in creating -54-public interest in the plight of the trees in the Nimpkish, known as the "Nimpkish Island" stand. Art ic les appeared in magazines such as Horizon and Equinox and in The Vancouver Sun as well . Some local television stations picked up the story and ran a series of in-the-f ield human interest c l ips on the proposed ecological reserve. There is a d e f i n i t e bias by natura l i s t/conservat ion is t organizations to place high value on pristine habitats, witnessed by the i r involvement in lobbying for preservation of unlogged areas such as the Tsit ika and Stein watersheds and islands such as Meares and South Moresby. These groups have recognized that there is wide public appeal, and just as important, media interest, in issues involving unique or rare habitats and have ut i l ized this sentiment in helping establish ecological reserves, wi ld l i fe areas and parks throughout the p r o v i n c e . It i s t h e r e f o r e not surpr is ing that the conservationists' interest in the Nimpkish has been limited to a re lat ive ly small stand of trees, a mini-virgin forest, while the rest of the watershed has been in effect "written off". More recently concern was expressed for a wolf control program init iated by the Fish and Wildlife Branch in the Nimpkish watershed. In a position paper f o r the Canadian Nature Federat ion, Rosemary Fox, a well-known B.C. conservationist, questioned the v a l i d i t y and motivation for the control program, claiming that ". . . h is tor ica l ly , w i l d l i f e management in B.C. as e lsewhere has been management of game species to benefit h u n t e r s . . . . wi ld l i fe managers are responding to p o l i t i c a l pressures." (Nature Canada Jan./Mar. 1984, p.37). -55-In addressing the larger issue of habitat protection Fox suggests that the wolf control program "may be t reat ing a symptom but not the cause of the problem. Whether or not wolves are the cause of the deer decline, is i t in the public interest to remove wolves for the benefit of hunters who are a small proportion of the publ ic? Should not hunting be managed so as to enable wi ld l i fe populations to maintain their natural equilibrium." (Nature Canada Jan./March 1984, p.40). While Fox's comment has a r ing of truth to i t , i t does not take into considerat ion the very "unnatural" situation vis-a-vis the extensive logging of the watershed that has created not only ideal condit ions for the deer but also for the wolves which are using logging roads as hunting routes and are concentrating on deer that are congregating espec ia l l y in winter in the remaining winter ranges of the watershed (Janz, pers. comm.). 4. Environmental Groups One of the products of the 1960s was the birth of a so-called environmental movement which spawned an array of public interest groups. Reflecting the diversity of society i t se l f , these groups adopted a variety of ideologies as well as means of operation ranging from low prof i le , dil igent research/lobby groups such as SPEC to r a d i c a l con f ront a t ion - o r i e n t e d groups l i k e Greenpeace. While Greenpeace has gained much media attention in such issues as the wolf control program in B.C., i t general ly deals only with high p r o f i l e single species issues, often ignoring the broader issues of habitat protection. It has been le f t up to more restrained groups such as SPEC or the Sierra Club to work at the overall issue of habitat needs for wi ld l i fe . - 5 6 -Environmental groups have paid re lat ively l i t t l e attention to the Nimpkish watershed, espec ia l l y before the 1970s, when environmental activism was at i ts peak. More conservative groups such as the Sierra Club have expressed concern over forestry and wi ld l i fe management practices in a general manner, and have also lent support to conservation/naturalist groups in lobbying for the establishment of an ecological reserve in the Nimpkish. In the 1980s the emergence of a wolf control program in d i f f e rent parts of the province, inc luding the Nimpkish watershed, e l ic i ted a response from organizat ions such as Greenpeace. However, most of the attent ion was focused on northeastern B.C. where Paul Watson, an ex-Greenpeace member, c rea ted cons iderab le controversy that in turn attracted considerable newspaper and t e l e v i s i o n a t t e n t i o n . Some members of Greenpeace also established a f ie ld camp in the Nimpkish to protest the wolf program there but the level of protest and media attention were not nearly as great as experienced in the Watson expedition (Gregory, pers. comm.). 5. Academics and P r o f e s s i o n a l s The academic community of Brit ish Columbia has played a key role in raising the consciousness of the general publ ic with regard to environmental p r o t e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the forest lands of the province. Foresters , b io logists and botanists have, through the i r academic work and through involvement with naturalist or environmental groups, been able to inf luence s ignif icant ly the way in which forest lands are managed.' -57-One of the most well known and influential of al l the academics is Vladimir Krajina who developed a system of c l a s s i f y i n g forest vegetation - biogeo-climatic zones - that has been adopted by several prov inc ia l government m i n i s t r i e s . Kraj ina was also instrumental in establ ishing, in 1968, an Ecologica l Reserve program - which i s aimed at preserving unique and important features of B.C. 's natural environment. Kraj ina has attended numerous meetings and interviews while spreading his message for the continuing need to es tab l i sh more reserves; at least 0.5 percent of the province's land area. An ecological reserve is s t i l l being actively pursued for a stand of exceptionally t a l l Douglas F i rs in the Nimpkish watershed. Kra j ina , f u l l of passion in his campaign to save the Nimpkish trees, points to their uniqueness and value to forests and the public in general: "Today, the Nimpkish Island trees are unique. Originally, there were a few other such prime s i tes , but al l have been cut down. If these trees are cut , the b io log i ca l condit ions - th i s marvellous combination of nutr ients that allowed them to grow - w i l l deter iorate because of erosion. If these trees are cut, i t ' s l i k e l y we w i l l never have such trees in Canada again. We must save them." (Equinox May-June, p.38.) A group of academics from Vancouver and Victoria that includes foresters, botanists, biologists, lawyers and others have come together as "Friends of Ecological Reserves" to gather money to compensate CANFOR for the release of the "Nimpkish Island" Ecological Reserve. In c o - o p e r a t i o n with the prov inc ia l government - Min is t ry of Lands, Parks and Housing, which is responsible for ecological reserves - the group has raised $14,000 toward the purchase of the Nimpkish stand which is valued by CANFOR at over $1 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s (Hori zon , 2 2 : 1 , p .26 . ) Over the l a s t f i v e years considerable p u b l i c i t y through newspapers, magazines and te levis ion has arisen over the Nimpkish eco log ica l reserve proposal and has c e r t a i n l y turned the public's attention to the watershed. (Equinox May-June 1983). -58-In the 1970s a good deal of concern was expressed by the Forestry faculty at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia concerning the state of the province's forests (Bunnell, pers. comm.). There was a burst of act iv ity in student research work in the Nimpkish watershed during the 1970s and carrying through the 80s looking at the relationship between wi ld l i fe - particularly ungulates - and the f o r e s t h a b i t a t . Much of the work was under the direction of Fred Bunnell of U.B.C., who has establ ished a c lose working re la t ionsh ip with the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch and has helped fac i l i t a te several joint U.B.C. - Branch applied research projects. The work of Bunnell and his students has received f a i r l y good publicity through conferences and publ ic meetings.''' The research work has helped st imulate and f a c i l i t a t e proposed forestry/ungulate management options in the Nimpkish watershed (Ministry of Forests, 1983). 3.4 Public Concern for Nimpkish Watershed Over the years the Nimpkish has drawn attent ion from different segments of the general public; usually in connection with forestry and logging and their effect on the resident f ish and wi ld l i fe . The following is an abbreviated chronology of public interest in the Nimpkish watershed over the last 80 years: 1. W i l d l i f e Management Opportunities Through Intensive Forestry. - Seminar, V ictor ia , B.C. Spring, 1981. Threatened and Endangered Species and Habitats in B.C. and the Yukon. Symposium. Richmond, B.C. March 8-9, 1980. Brit ish Columbia Land for Wildlife Past Present and Future. Symposium. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. Oct. 23-24, 1981. -59-1900 - 1959 - Native use of wi ld l i fe decreased by 1930s but rel iance on f i s h e r i e s remains strong to the present. Non-native interest is r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l ; r e s t r i c t e d to sports hunting, fishing and hiking. 1960 - 1969 - The Nimpkish gains attent ion province-wide as the "hot spot" for deer (Davies, pers.comm.). A combination of open browsing areas created by logging and a series of mild winters creates ideal condit ions for deer which explode in numbers and a t t r a c t deer hunters by the thousands. There is a general concern for low numbers of Vancouver Island wolf, which is subsequently put on the endangered l i s t by Canadian conservat ion is ts (Janz, pers.comm.). 1970 - 1975 - Deer numbers are s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s i n g and concern is expressed by hunters that perhaps adequate habitat wi l l not be l e f t a f ter logging is completed. In 1974 the Nimpkish Band i s s u e s a D e c l a r a t i o n of Sovereignty, claiming rightful ownership to the Nimpkish watershed and i t s resources. The Band was especially concerned about the effect of logging pract ices on f ish and their habitat in the watershed. A major p r o t e s t is mounted by a coalit ion of the B.C. Wildl i fe Federation, naturalists and environmenta l groups to stop logging of the T s i t i k a watershed adjacent and south of the Nimpkish Valley. The f i r s t wave of Un ivers i ty of B.C. student researchers -Wi l lms , 1971; Jones, 1974 - studying deer and forest habitat characteristics have swept into the Nimpkish. An ecological reserve is proposed for an exceptional stand of Douglas F i r on "Nimpkish Island" in the heart of the watershed. 1976 - 1983 - Decreases in deer numbers become even more severe. Public in terest espec ia l l y in w i l d l i f e is spurred by increased U.B.C. research within the Nimpkish Valley ( E l l i s , 1979; Harestad, 1979; Kale, 1979; Rochel le , 1980; Stevenson, 1978). A surpr ise eruption of the Vancouver Island wolf population i s noted in the l a t e 1970s. Greenpeace protests a subsequent wolf control program within the Nimpkish watershed and attracts some media attention. The proposed "Nimpkish Island" eco logica l reserve receives extensive media coverage through newspapers, magazines and t e l e v i s i o n . In 1978 an i n t e g r a t e d resource plan is implemented in the Tsit ika watershed and is later used as a model to propose a s imi la r management plan for the Nimpkish. In 1981-82 the Nimpkish Band conducts a comprehensive resource study of the Nimpkish watershed and makes a presentation to the Pearse Inquiry on P a c i f i c Fisheries Policy in January, 1982. - 6 0 -3 . 5 C o n c l u s i o n It must be acknowledged that although an aroused public conscience concerning the protection of ungulates and their habitat in the Nimpkish does exist, i t is diverse in nature and therefore d i f f i c u l t to put a handle on. While sports hunters, natural ists, aboriginal people and environmental act iv ists may al l seek a s imi lar end product in terms of protection of wi ld l i fe and/or habitat, they often di f fer on how this is best done and who should have access to the natural resources. It is interesting to note that while the Nimpkish watershed has received considerable attention from different interest groups over the last ten years espec ia l ly , there remains the challenge on the part of the government and the groups themselves to reconc i le some of the fundamental value differences that each holds. In the case of the Nimpkish watershed we have witnessed concern from d i f f e r e n t publ ics for s p e c i f i c elements of the resident f i s h and w i l d l i f e and their habitat. The Nimpkish Band has raised the issue of f i s h habitat protection especially regarding the e f fec ts of logging on such hab i ta t . Meanwhile the hunter lobby is concerned with sustaining a healthy black-tailed deer and elk population. Their immediate concern is " con t ro l l i ng" wolves which are deci-mating the ungulates. The hunters are also supporting ongoing UBC - Branch research to determine whether second growth timber can be used as winter range by deer and elk. Many environmental and natural ist groups are strongly opposed to wolf control (especially through use of poison baits) and would l i k e to see the w i l d l i f e and habitat l e f t as they are - in theory to let nature take its course and return eventually to some ecological equilibrium. The naturalists as well as the hunters and the Nimpkish Band a l l support in p r i n c i p l e the preservation of the "Nimpkish Island" stand of t a l l t r e e s . As a general -61-p r i n c i p l e the d i f f e r e n t groups also endorse the preservat ion of mature and unlogged (read pristine) forests ; however each group has different perceptions of what "pristine" real ly means; what areas are real ly worth preserving. As we have already seen in th i s chapter, the difference in values is often found in how the different publics or interests wish to "use" the watershed. If we compare the Nimpkish s i tuat ion with Ashby's model we can see that an arousal of the public conscience has occurred; but that there are d i f f e ren t publ ics each with i t s own concerns and mandate for achieving environmental protection. While many d i f ferences ex is t between the public interest groups there is a convergence of shared concern for the habitat within the watershed and th is has stimulated the government to in i t ia te resource studies and look at management options as we shall see in the following two chapters. - 6 2 -CHAPTER FOUR Scientific Assessment of the Forestry-Ungulate Problem and Finding an Appropriate Solution 4.1 Introduction In the last chapter we saw that concerns have arisen among various publics for the Nimpkish watershed generally, and for the ungulate populations as they are affected by forestry in particular. In Ashby's words, concern was been ignited. But to continue the "chain react ion" of advancing an environmental concern, requires that the issue " . . . be examined objectively, to find how genuine and how dangerous i t i s , and just what is at r i s k . " (Ashby, 1978, p.14). A closely related need is that a feasible management practice is ava i lab le to cope with the problem. In the present chapter we examine the adequacy of an objective assessment and avai lab i l i ty of feasible management alternatives for dealing with the Nimpkish forestry/ungulate interactions. 4.2 The Evolution of Forestry-Ungulate Research in the Nimpkish Watershed The earl iest forestry-ungulate studies done on Vancouver Island were located on the southern half of Vancouver Island during the period from 1945 to 1968 (Cowan, 1945; Robinson 1958; Gates, 1968; Smith, 1968). Walter Willms (1971) was the f i s t researcher to look at the forestry-ungulate relationship on the northern part of Vancouver Island - speci f ica l ly the Nimpkish watershed - where i n t e n s i v e logg ing had progressed to in the 1960s. Willms evaluated the influence of environmental factors such as forest edge, elevation, aspect, site index and roads on deer use of logged and unlogged forests. The results of his study indicated that mature forests were of s ign i f i cant importance for deer survival . - 6 3 -A study of deer winter range requirements conducted by Greg Jones (1974) was pivotal in gaining an understanding of deer habitat needs, e s p e c i a l l y the relationship of deer use in logged and unlogged areas. Jones' work bui lt on the f ind ings of Willms and went further in descr ib ing several key environmental factors such as crown closure, forage, serai type, timber type, terra in, slope, aspect and e l e v a t i o n . It was at about th i s time that other events were u n f o l d i n g in the area of w i l d l i f e and fo res t ry management. The logging companies' cutting plans were being referred to the Fish and Wildl i fe Branch via the provincial Forest Service for comment. This created a situation where both logging harvest policy and habitat preservation became part of the management process. As a consequence the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch was obliged to find methods of identifying key environmental fac tors control l ing deer populations and secondly to infer capabil ity of given forest areas to sustain deer. It was at t h i s time that the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch had been given funding to undertake research, s p e c i f i c a l l y on deer use of old growth f o r e s t . In a co-operative program with the Branch, the Faculty of Forestry at U.B.C. provided a signif icant research effort to study forestry-ungulate relations from 1975 to 1979. ( E l l i s , 1979; Harestad, 1979; Kale , 1979; Rochelle, 1980; Stevenson, 1978). The following is a br ie f descr ipt ion of the deer-re lated work carried out by University of Brit ish Columbia graduate students (Bunnell, 1979): Rick E l l i s Subject: Biomass, nutrient and population dynamics of shrubs; exclosure and f e r t i l i z e r studies. -64-Alton Harestad Subject: Dispersal of deer including factors invol-ved in habitat selection. Wayne Kale Subject: Refinement of deer harvest s t a t i s t i c s , including hunter effect; deer-habitat relations. Jim Rochelle Subject: Nutrient dynamics of forage, in v i t ro d iges t ib i l i t i e s , VFA product ion, animal condit ion measures. Barbara Scott Subject : Food hab i t s , population dynamics, and social organization of Vancouver Island wolves. Susan Stevenson Subject: Taxonomy and ecology of forage lichens, lichen l i t t e r f a l l , methods of quant i fy ing l ichen abundance. The studies used a broad conceptual framework developed by Bunnell and Eastman (1976) that looks at the changes in w i l d l i f e resource requirements following removal of tree overstory - in th i s case the e f fec ts of p a r t i c u l a r fo res t ry management p r ac t i ces . The resources considered were energy, nutrients, water, temporary shelter (thermal cover, snow intercept ion) habitation, escape cover and space. The following sections w i l l discuss how these studies helped to f l esh out the conceptual framework and the pioneer work done by Willms (1971) and Jones (1974). A second research i n i t i a t i v e was undertaken j o i n t l y by the Forestry and Environment ministries in assessing the potential of second growth forests to s u s t a i n deer ; p a r t i c u l a r l y during hard winters . A problem analys is was completed by the Ministry of Forests in ear ly 1980 and a 5 year program, known as the Integrated Wildl ife Intensive Forestry Research project (IWIFR), was launched in May 1980 ( E l l i s , pers. comm.). The impetus for this study came from a var ie ty of interest groups, including the B.C Wildl ife Federation and conser-vationists. There was also strong support from biologists within the Fish and Wildlife Branch, fo res ters within the Min is t ry of Forests and the fo res t ry -65-companies; a l l agreeing that second growth deserved a look in that i t was quickly becoming the dominant forest type on Vancouver Island. The research involved a study of deer and elk use of f i r s t growth and second growth as well as habitat requirements; response of forage to different s i lv icu l tura l treat-ments and the re lat ionship between crown c losure and understory productivity ( E l l i s , pers. comm.). The f i r s t phase of the IWIFR program was completed in March, 1986. A second 5 year phase now underway wi l l be fo l lowing up on the i n i t i a l work and wil l attempt to in i t ia te some forestry treatment demonstration projects, including a project on arboreal lichen potential in second growth ( E l l i s , pers. comm.). The results wil l have significant implications on forestry-ungulate management i f i t can be shown that second growth trees, with proper treatment, can sustain deer and elk through harsh winters. Having outlined the historical development of research we wil l now take a closer look at the specif ic environmental factors that determine ungulate abundance. 4 . 3 Population Estimate of Ungulates in the Nimpkish Watershed Unfortunately no rel iable estimates exist of historical ungulate populations in the Nimpkish watershed. E a r l i e s t estimates from Canadian Forest Products (Willms, 1971) and from the Fish and Wildl ife Branch indicate that deer numbers were r e l a t i v e l y low in the 1950s and early 1960s. Deer numbers based on hunter harvest records from 1964 - 1977 show an increase in deer k i l l ed , from a low of 385 in 1964 to a high of 3374 in 1973 with a subsequent f a l l off . The number of hunters also increased dramatically during this time, 174 hunters in 1964 and peaking in 1974 with 2904 sportsmen, with a downturn in following years. Hebert -66-(1979) cautions that harvest-density declines may not ref lect true changes in the population because second-growth f o r e s t s can reduce v i s i b i l i t y and consequently hunter success. A mark-recapture system of obtaining deer harvest data has been in place since 1975 on Vancouver Island. The system involves the cross-referencing of hunting licences to hunter questionnaires (recapture phase) and l i cence numbers are recorded for hunters contacted (marking phase) in the f ie ld or at game checks. Kale (1979) has found that the mark-recapture estimates are much more accurate than questionnaires alone. The two methods most commonly employed by the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch to estimate deer abundance are pellet (feces) counts and roadside counts. A major d i f f i c u l t y with pe l le t counts is the variation in the disintegration rates and v i s i b i l i t y of pellets between wet and dry areas (Bunnell, 1979). Bunnell (1979) estimates that pellet counts can overestimate deer populations by up to three times, i f conducted on uncleared plots. Visual roadside counts of deer, using a spotlight technique, have been carr ied out by the Fish and Wildl i fe Branch in the Nimpkish since 1968 (Jones and Mason, 1979). Unfortunately, not al l areas have received equal coverage and therefore a true picture for a l l areas is not ava i l ab le . The resu l t s of these surveys show a general trend of reduced numbers of deer since the mid-70s in almost a l l sections of the Nimpkish watershed (Jones and Mason, 1979). If we look at counts from 1975 and 1979 when coverage of survey areas was 87% completed, we see a decrease of 11 deer/km to 6.1 deer/km. -67-There are problems with roadside counts as w e l l . Bunnell (1979) poses the dilemma as fo l lows: "Variance in night counts decreases with increasing transect length; at a f ixed e f f o r t , increase in transect length reduces the number of transects counted; a decrease in number of counts increases the variance." (p.91). There are numerous sources of error in estimating any free ranging wi ld l i fe population and ungulates are no exception to t h i s . Changes in weather, vege-tation and in observers (especially over several years), are only a few of the more obvious var iables that determine success or lack of i t during any single count. It is acknowledged by biologists that estimating ungulate populations is an imperfect science and that for the most part i t is much more practical and useful to talk in general terms such as population trends. It must also be remembered that ungulate populations are contro l led by a number of natural environmental fac tors (aside from man-created fac tors) and that these cause populations to fluctuate, sometimes quite s igni f icant ly , over time. It is for th is reason that W i l d l i f e Branch biologists are more concerned about wi ld l i fe habitat than actual numbers unless, of course, the numbers are so low that local extinction may result . 4.4 Environmental Factors Regulating Ungulates in the Nimpkish Watershed Regulating factors for ungulates can be broken down into two broad categories: 1. Natural There are a number of factors c o n t r o l l i n g ungulate surv iva l and repro-duction such as disease (both of the animal i t se l f , or the food i t rel ies on); predators; vegetative succession; nutr ients in s o i l , and climate. -68-Climatic factors that ungulates are particularly sensitive to include snow accumulation, temperature extremes, and forest f i r e s . 2 . Man-Created This category would include act iv i t ies such as logging and hunting. Other act iv i t ies such as road bu i ld ing , outdoor recreation and sc ient i f i c study also have effects on ungulate survival . The following discussion will focus on those factors that are central to the topic of this thesis, namely what kind of habitat do ungulates require; do they at present have suff icient habitat and, i f they do not, how might their habitat requirements be met. Due to the complex nature of ungulate management we w i l l look b r i e f l y at how a number of factors including the role that predation, both by man and animals (wolf and cougar), play in regulating deer and elk. 4.4.1 Habitat requirements of Ungulates Deer Only one species of deer lives within the Nimpkish watershed - the coast black-tai led deer. Deer are found throughout the watershed but surveys have shown that the most productive area is in the triangular area described by Woss Camp, Claude E l l i o t Lake and Vernon Camp (Davies, pers. comm.). Individual animals migrate up and down in elevation according to season and avai labi l i ty of food and seldom travel more than one or two miles along a valley (Jones, 1974). -69-In his study of deer response to forage abundance, Harestad (1979) found that seasonal deer movement corresponded to areas of highest food ava i lab i l i ty . Those movements most common were vertical migrations, up and down mountain slopes, but other hor izontal migrations occur as well as s h i f t s in intens i ty of use of logged and unlogged forests. At one time i t was believed that deer on the west coast increased their numbers in recently logged areas (Cowan, 1945; Robinson, 1958). This was the "popular wisdom" unt i l the ear ly 1970's when biologists found that while nutrient rich food was made ava i lab le and deer often did thr ive (at least i n i t i a l l y ) in clear-cut areas, a severe winter would cause a not iceably high mor ta l i t y . It was found that deer require, among other things, mature (200 years old) stands of trees with high percentage crown closure to survive severe winter conditions (Davies, pers. comm.). Thus the concept of "deer winter range" as being of pr imary importance in maintenance of deer populations (in areas of heavy snowfall) was adopted as a management strategy by the Fish and Wildl i fe Branch. Several studies done on Vancouver Island (Gates, 1968; Willms, 1971; Jones, 1974; Harestad, 1979; Rochelle, 1980) describe deer biology quite thoroughly. The more recent studies al l stress the importance of "deer winter ranges" as a limiting factor in deer survival in the interior mountains of Vancouver Island. According to Greg Jones (1974), a former biologist for Canadian Forest Products in the Nimpkish from 1974-1979, there are eight characterist ics of deer winter ranges used during a severe winter: -70-1 . Crown closure (area covered by tree canopy) - High deer use recorded in timber stands with crown closure of 65% or greater. - The s ing le most important e f f e c t of high crown closure is the reduction of snow accumulation on the ground. - Timber stands with 45% or less crown closure sometimes is used but deer mortality is very high. 2. Food - Most important foods include red cedar, Douglas f i r , sa la l , vaccinium species, arboreal lichens and western hemlock. - Lichens, red cedar and Douglas f i r are eaten as l i t t e r f a l l from the tree canopy. 3. Serai type - Al l heavily used winter ranges were mature timber stands with a high percentage crown closure. - Logged areas are used when snow is hard crusted. 4. Timber type - Winter ranges most heavily used have Douglas f i r and western hemlock as overstory - these species having a higher percentage crown closure than other f i r species. 5. Rock Bluffs - Areas with small bluffs and high percentage crown c losure are used f r e q u e n t l y because of low snow accumulation and access ib le food plants. 6. Slope - Most winter ranges are on slopes 50% or greater. - Snow accumulation is a key factor. 7. Elevation - Most winter ranges are below 790 m. - Snow accumulation is a key factor. 8. Aspect - The majority of winter ranges are on south aspects. - South aspects are not used i f crown closure percentage is low. - North aspects with high percent crown closure and abundant food are used. -71-Roughly 75% of the total lower elevation (790 m) timber in the Nimpkish water-shed has been logged. In specif ic areas this percentage is higher (Woss River; Hoomak Lake/Vernon Lake) or lower ( K i l p a l a R i v e r ) . The overa l l e f fec t of logging on deer has been a reduction in the avai labi l i ty of high quality winter ranges. Rochelle (1980) continued work init iated by Jones (1974) on the evaluation of deer food habits, but also pursued a more intense study of deer-forage relat ion-ships - looking at monthly changes in the chemical composition of ten major forage plant species and relating them to d i g e s t i b i l i t y and nutr ient content. One result of particular interest was Rochelle's discovery that arboreal lichens are a s igni f icant component of deer diets in winter and spring; representing 35 percent of the total volume eaten. Rochelle also found that during winter the production of l i t t e r f a l l - lichens that have fal len from the tree canopy - was approximately equal in weight to the production of rooted forage. F inal ly , i t was found that the d igest ib i l i ty of the lichens was 30 - 40 percent higher than key forage species such as vaccinium parv i fo l ium (Blue huckleberry); Thuj a  pl icata (W. red cedar) and Gautheria shallon (sa la l ) . The r e s u l t s of work by Jones, Rochelle and Harestad suggests that shrub productivity is a major controll ing factor of black-tailed deer numbers in some forest types during winter and spring (Bunnell, 1979). An integrat ion of the work of the above researchers' works, as well as that of Stevenson and E l l i s , is current ly being undertaken by Fred Bunnell and should provide an insight to the degree of control that forage a v a i l a b i l i t y has on deer numbers ( E l l i s , pers. comm.). -72-Elk The sub-species of elk found in the Nimpkish watershed is the Roosevelt elk (Cervus canadensis roosevelt i) . Much less is known about elk biology than is known about deer in the Nimpkish. Historical evidence indicates that elk were probably present in the valley at least 100 years ago (Ham, 1980). Elk travel and feed in dense bush and in groups making i t d i f f i c u l t to assess changes in population levels. Estimates made in the ear ly 1980s by the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch put the number of animals at 45 - 50 in three "resident" herds centred around Woss Camp, Croman Lake and the lower Tsulton River (Janz, pers. comm.). There are other herds that migrate in and out of the Nimpkish watershed at Pinder Creek, Atluck Lake, Steele Creek, Kaipit Lake, Claude E l l i o t Lake, Upper Ts i t ika River, Nisnak Lake, upper Nimpkish River and possibly at the south end of Woss Lake (Fig. 1). The habitat requirements of elk are somewhat d i f f e ren t than those of black-t a i l e d deer. Elk tend to feed c loser to valley bottoms and in meadows where grasses and herbs make up a large part of the i r d i e t . However, elk will also browse on shrubs such as salmonberry, thimbleberry and huckleberry. There i s , as yet , no good data on elk use of c learcut versus natural openings in the Nimpkish. Present information suggests that the Croman and Woss elk do not leave the Nimpkish watershed in winter but remain in low e levat ion areas that provide adequate food, water and cover (Janz, pers. comm.). Generally elk can survive deeper snow conditions than deer because of the i r greater height and strength. In studies done on Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) i t has been -73-shown that optimum elk habitat should have 20% hiding cover; 20% thermal cover and 60% forage area (Thomas, 1979). The crown closure of mature stands of trees that is required to provide adequate cover in winter is probably the same as for deer - around 70 - 80% (Thomas, 1979). 4.4.2 Ungulate Predators The major predators of ungulates, besides humans, are wolves, black bears and cougars. Due to an e f f e c t i v e bounty hunting program over the ear ly 1950s (terminated in 1955), cougar numbers have been kept at a re lat ively low level and have consequently had l i t t l e impact on the ungulate population in the Nimpkish. Hatter (1982) in reviewing the l iterature about cougar predation on elk and deer on Vancouver Island, concludes that cougars could take 5 - 12% of a f a l l deer populat ion, which suggests that cougars, i f abundant, could be a l im i t ing factor in an ungulate p o p u l a t i o n . L i t t l e is known about cougar predation on elk in the Nimpkish Valley or elsewhere on Vancouver Island. Black bear predation on ungulates is restricted almost exclusively to very young calves of both deer and elk, but p a r t i c u l a r l y of elk (Hatter , 1982). In an Idaho study, Schlegel (1976) reported that elk calf mortality due to black bears was as high as 65%. There is l i t t l e quant i ta t ive data on bear predation on ungulates in the Nimpkish, although Hatter (1982) suggests that individual bears do specialize in hunting deer fawns. As was mentioned ear l ier , the wolf population of Vancouver Island has fluctuated quite wildly since the ear ly 1900's (Scott , 1979). There were few reports of wolf sightings on the north end of the is land between 1950 and 1970. At the same time, there were even fewer sightings on the southern half of the island. -74-In 1970 the Vancouver Island wolf was placed on the endangered l i s t of the Canadian Wildl ife Federation. It must be remembered that s ight ings alone -which were of a random nature - would not necessarily ref lect the true state of the population. By the mid-1970's i t became apparent to the Fish and Wildl ife Branch that the wolf was, in fact , present in healthy numbers on the north is land and had been increasing up to the 1980s (Hebert et a l . , 1980). Wolf predation on deer and elk is thought to be signif icant by the Fish and Wildlife Branch: " . . . wolf predation rates have the potent ia l to severely a f fect prey populations especially where logging reduced or t o t a l l y removed mature timbered winter ranges, causing deer to concentrate to densities of 150 to 200/square kilometre in small timbered areas in moderate to severe winters. The potential of wolf predation on elk populations is less certain. To date, i t appears that wolves are u t i l i z i n g elk as food source but at a r a t e , in most areas, considerably below recruitment." (Hebert et a l , 1980). The report goes on to describe that predation of elk may increase in areas where deer populations are low or decreas ing and that elk v u l n e r a b i l i t y may be increased considerably during moderate or severe winters, when elk congregate in low elevation timber stands. A study conducted by Barb Scott (1979) in the Adam/Eve Watershed (adjacent to the Nimpkish) reveals that wolves are preying predominantly on deer and to a lesser degree on e lk . Information gathered by the Branch from the Nimpkish suggests that there are f ive or more packs with 5 - 8 animals per pack. This is -75-probably a minimum f igure, with a total population of 100 wolves a p o s s i b i l i t y . Assuming a Nimpkish wolf population of 50 - 100 animals, the total number of deer k i l led by wolves could be 1500 - 3000 per year (Davies, pers. comm.). Wolves are very mobile and are known to travel 160 kilometres (100 miles) or more in a few days in some circumstances. Pack home ranges in the adjacent Adam River drainage were measured to be 64 - 75 square kilometres (24 - 29 square miles) (Scot t , 1979). The extensive network of logging roads undoubtedly enables wolves to travel quickly and cover large areas in a short time (Davies, pers. comm.). 4.4.3 H u n t i n g o f U n g u l a t e s Deer hunting has been described previous ly in Chapter 2 (See 2.6.2) and in Section 4.3 of this chapter. Wildl ife Branch records show that during the best years of hunting in the late 1960s and ear ly 1970s between 2,000 - 3,000 deer were being shot per season in the Nimpkish watershed. If that rate of harvest were sustained i t would c e r t a i n l y have an impact on the deer populat ion, however, both the number of deer and hunters have decreased drast ical ly over the last ten years. The hunting s t a t i s t i c s for Vancouver Island indicate that deer hunters are opportunists, concentrating on areas of deer abundance and avoiding areas of deer scarcity. B io log i s t s with the W i l d l i f e Branch are confident that hunter pressure on the deer population is reasonable and eas i l y contro l led through the provincial hunting regulations, which are published annually (Davies, pers. comm.). The regulat ions are area specif ic and based on yearly population estimates that are in turn weighed against hunter e f fo r t and k i l l rates determined by hunter -76-questionnaires and road-side checks. 4.4.4 Summary of Regulating Factors Changes in deer habitat, brought on by logging, can have a signif icant effect on deer use. Early stages of a clear-cut are often used intensively by deer as a source of fo rage (Wil lms, 1971). However, larger and older (15+ years) clear-cuts l imit deer use by creat ing large dense second growth stands (Cowan, 1956) and in areas of heavy snowfall these clear-cuts lack the a b i l i t y of old growth stands to provide shelter and food during severe winters (Jones, 1974). Few deta i led studies have been done on the effects of (sport) hunting on deer populations of Vancouver Is land. While i t is acknowledged that heavy hunting pressure can decrease deer numbers i t is usual ly other environmental fac tors such as climatic conditions, habitat quality and level of natural predation that have the greatest effect in the long term on deer populations (Jones and Mason, 1983). While few studies have been done on the re la t ionsh ip between predators and Vancouver Island deer, recent studies (Hatter, 1982; Hebert et a l , 1982) would suggest that wolves can decrease deer numbers. Jones and Mason (1983) stress the importance of managing al 1 regulat ing factors i f predation control is contemplated. This means that habitat qua l i ty must be maintained and that hunting must be regulated in tandem with any predation control program that might be undertaken. -77-4.5 Management of Ungulates and Habitat Within the Nimpkish Watershed The previous section describes some fundamental changes that occurred in the understanding of deer and their habitat requirements. This new thinking has had a signif icant influence on wi ld l i fe managers, making them much more sensitive to the need for specif ic habitat types (dependent on geography and cl imate) and incorporating these requirements within their management plans. In the Fish and Wildl ife Branch's Proposed Wildl ife Management Plan for Br i t ish Columbia (1979), the following management prescriptions head the l i s t for deer: 1. Ident i fy and protect c r i t i ca l habitat. In winter this consists of low snow areas of south and west facing slopes and river banks. In areas of high snowfall deer require mature forests; and for elk, 1. Identify and protect c r i t i ca l elk habitat. In winter this cons ists of . . . mature forest and streams and estuaries for Roosevelt elk. Spring ranges (sunny areas where ear ly spring plant growth appears) and migration routes between ranges are also c r i t i c a l . The regional biologist for Vancouver Island, Daryl Hebert (1979, p.11) suggests that black-tailed deer of the interior mountains (of Vancouver Island) including the Nimpkish watershed have specif ic habitat requirements. He states that the habitat requirements could be met by "def ining winter ranges in mature timber and deleting (withdrawing) these ranges from development plans for an indefinite period by 1) reducing the annual allowable cut (AAC); 2) providing migration - 78 -c o r r i d o r s ; and 3) by u t i l i z i n g r o t a t i o n a l logg ing adjacent t o winter ranges in order to ma in ta in forage p r o d u c i n g a r e a s . In a d d i t i o n , r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the logg ing over a l a r ge r po r t i on of the wa te r shed f o r any g i v e n p e r i o d of t i m e , r e d u c t i o n of t he s i z e of c l e a r c u t s , con t ro l of cu tb lock s i z e between south and north aspec ts , and the e x t e n s i o n of greenup f o r p e r i o d s of 10-15 years (10-15 foo t he ight c l a s s ) would a l so be extremely b e n e f i c i a l . " The T s i t i k a Watershed Integrated Resource P lan (1978) i n which Heber t p l a y ed a key r o l e d i d in f a c t endorse the removal of c r i t i c a l deer w in te r range from the AAC f o r a p e r i o d of 150 y e a r s . P r o v i s i o n was a l s o made f o r a l t e r n a t e areas should des ignated w in te r ranges be l o s t to blowdown or f i r e . S p e c i f i c p r e s c r i p -t i o n s f o r w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t management of the T s i t i k a i n c l u d e : l o c a t i o n o f open ings ( c l e a r c u t ) ; opening s i z e ; opening d i s t r i b u t i o n ; t im ing of l o gg i ng , and burning and bush c o n t r o l . Hebert (1979) has c r i t i c i z e d tha t l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n at both the ope ra t i ona l l e v e l - lack of a uni form c l a s s i f i c a t i o n sys tem of f o r e s t t y pe s - and at the p o l i c y l e ve l between the M i n i s t r y of Fores ts and M i n i s t r y of Environment. There has been some progress i n t h i s regard in the 1980s and w i l l be d i scussed in more d e t a i l in Chapter 6. 4.6 C o n c l u s i o n A l t h o u g h w i l d l i f e popu l a t i on management - p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r ungulates - remains an imper fect s c i e n c e , good f i e l d work has been done i n t he f i e l d of hab i t a t management in the l a s t twenty y ea r s . Much of t h i s work has been c e n t e r e d on Vancouver I s l a n d , w i t h t he N impk i sh wa te r shed p l a y i n g a major r o l e i n the unders tand ing of u n g u l a t e h a b i t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s ( W i l l m s , 1971; J o n e s , 1974; -79-E l l i s , 1979; Harestad, 1979; Rochel le , 1980). Where in the past c learcut logging was viewed quite benignly, even endorsed in some cases, i t has become apparent that in s p e c i f i c areas of high snowfa l l (such as the Nimpkish watershed), there is an urgent need to maintain c r i t i ca l winter ranges for both deer and e l k . As a r e s u l t of a recent f l u r r y of s c i e n t i f i c studies on deer-forestry relat ions, w i l d l i f e managers now have access to re lat ively good information on ungulate habitat requirements. Lord Ashby (1978, p.33 et seq.) notes that d i f f i c u l t i e s remain with providing sc ient i f i c evidence regarding an environmental issue. In Ashby's view there are th ree major k inds of d i f f i c u l t i e s . F i r s t l y , there is the constra int of addressing only one facet of a problem in the face of complexity. This most often results in o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the problem and opens the door for unexpected and undesirable side-effects. A second and very important d i f f i cu l ty ar ises when responsible authorities "may not appreciate the reservations in the sc ient ist 's advice" (Ashby, 1978, p.34). F i n a l l y the s c i e n t i s t s may not be "asked the right question (by 'r ight' I mean the question that wil l provide the answer needed for a po l i t i ca l decision.)" (Ashby, 1978, p.37). If we look at the f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y again we see some obvious examples in the Nimpkish ungulate-forestry s i tua t ion of how complexity can confound research ef forts . The sudden eruption of the wolf population on northern Vancouver Island has caught Fish and Wildl ife staff off-guard and has created a situation where monitoring deer response to fo res t ry treatment alone has become very d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible. Quite simply the wolves have become so e f f i c i e n t in k i l l i ng deer that widespread areas have been decimated and this has created a situation where deer have become d i f f i c u l t to locate let alone determine changes -80-in population levels (Janz, pers. comm.). Another d i f f i c u l t y with complexity has been the unexpected succession of rela-t ive ly mild snow-free winters over the last decade. Much of the management prescriptions have been based on deer habitat requirements during a harsh winter of heavy snowfall and cold temperatures. Due to a lack of those conditions the ongoing deer - fores t ry research has been unable to make comparisons of deer survival in old growth and second growth forest stands and i t has made i t d i f f i cu l t to make further refinements on work done by Jones (1974) and the other University of B.C. researchers in the late 1970s. In looking at the second category of d i f f i c u l t y , there e x i s t s a c l a s s i c s i tua t ion where s c i e n t i s t s - in our case b i o l o g i s t s - are reluctant to make f ina l judgments on management prescr ip t ions because of lack of s u f f i c i e n t information. Because of the complexity of ecosystems of which w i l d l i f e are a component, there often occur unexpected surprises that could perhaps have been avoided i f more data was c o l l e c t e d . A major concern in that regard is that intense research on wi ld l i fe populations rarely exceeds 2-3 years in durat ion; g iv ing l i t t l e insight into what changes might be expected over the longer term. The previously mentioned wolf population explosion and unexpected mild winters are cases in point. While acknowledging that wi ld l i fe managers often do have reservations regarding implementation of speci f ic management regimes there is the very real danger of waiting too long. During a Wildlife-Forestry seminar in Victor ia , B.C. in 1981, Jack Ward Thomas, a w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t from Oregon, spoke of the danger that biologists may face i f they defer management action for fear of inadequate -81-information: "We can't wait 25 years for information on wi ld l i fe - forest management will keep moving on without i t . B io log i s t s must learn to come on with the information and sk i l l s they have and refine them as they go. I t ' s better than waiting and being too late." (B.C. Wildlife Review, Summer, 1981, p.22) Thomas has developed a comprehensive forestry-wi l d l i f e management handbook, ca l l ed W i l d l i f e in Managed F o r e s t s , developed for the Blue Mountains of Washington and Oregon. The handbook stresses the importance of habitat in maintaining w i l d l i f e populations and provides alternative wi ld l i fe scenarios based on particular forestry harvest p r a c t i c e s . It is useful in that i t uses the best available b io log i ca l and fo res t ry information and synthesizes the information to predict long term consequences to both resources. This approach is being assessed by the B.C. Wildl i fe Branch which published a problem analysis paper on wi ld l i fe habitat handbooks for B.C. in 1984 (Harcombe, 1984). The third d i f f i c u l t y , that of being asked the r ight quest ion, is one that is faced with a cer ta in amount of t rep idat ion on the part of b i o l o g i s t s and foresters a l i ke in the Nimpkish forestry-deer s ituation. What biologists are faced with is a very hard rea l i t y of an economic climate where unemployment is high and considerable pressure is being put on government to do something about i t . The forest industry which has tradit ional ly been the largest employer in the province is being looked upon to a l l e v i a t e the unemployment situation which has in turn resulted in giving p r i o r i t y management of fo res ts for increased logging at a time when biologists are asking for reservations of old growth from logging. In response to th is dilemma biologists and foresters have looked at alternatives to old growth resu l t ing in the i n i t i a t i o n of the IWIFR program, -82-which looks at the potential of second-growth trees in providing winter range for ungulates. Using the ava i lab le information on habitat, in general, wi ld l i fe managers are now able to draw up s p e c i f i c management plans regarding the maintenance of specif ic habitats over time. The only catch is that the power to implement these plans l ies within another ministry - Forestry. While the technical infor-mation necessary for management is now readily available, there s t i l l remains an impasse at the implementation stage. What is now necessary is a mechanism whereby the resource agencies responsible for w i l d l i f e and habitat - in this case the Ministries of Environment and Forests - can es tab l i sh a co-operat ive management plan that i d e n t i f i e s and recognizes the needs of each others' jur isd ic t ion . It is this re lat ionship that w i l l be looked at next, in Chapter 5. -83-CHAPTER FIVE The Effectiveness of the Present Administrative Structure in Maintaining Old Growth Forest for Ungulates within the Nimpkish Watershed. 5 . Introduction A s h b y ' s t h i r d s t a g e i s t h e m e l d i n g o f o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , p u b l i c a d v o c a c y a n d s u b j e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g u n d e r t h e m o r e g e n e r a l t i t l e o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . B e f o r e a d i s c u s s i o n c a n b e m a d e o f w h a t h a s h a p p e n e d o n t h e N i m p k i s h u n g u l a t e - f o r e s t r y i s s u e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e some b a c k g r o u n d o n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n , m a n d a t e s a n d p o l i c i e s o f t h e m a j o r a g e n c i e s . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e t w o m i n i s t r i e s m o s t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n u n g u l a t e h a b i t a t m a n a g e -m e n t a r e t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s a n d t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t ( F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h ) . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g t h e m a n d a t e f o r t h e s e a g e n c i e s w i l l b e e x a m i n e d w i t h r e g a r d t o s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n f o r h a b i t a t i s s u e s . P o l i c y , a s e m b o d i e d i n f o r m a l s t a t e m e n t s r e l e a s e d b y t h e M i n i s t r i e s , w i l l a l s o b e c o n s i d e r e d . 5 .2 Statutes and Policy C h a p t e r s 1 a n d 2 h a v e a r g u e d t h a t g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n i s p a r a m o u n t i f w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t i s t o b e a d e q u a t e l y m a n a g e d . A p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r s u c h c o - o p e r a t i o n i s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p u b l i c w i l l t h a t i n o u r s o c i e t y i s c o m m o n l y e x p r e s s e d i n g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y a n d l e g i s l a t i o n . C h a p t e r 1 o u t l i n e d t h e d i f f e r e n t g o v e r n m e n t r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s t h a t h a v e s o m e c o n t r o l o v e r w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t a n d p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s h a s b y f a r t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e o n f o r e s t w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t . T h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n w i l l t h e r e f o r e f o c u s o n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a n d p o l i c y o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s a n d t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t ( F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h ) t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e s e t w o a g e n c i e s h a v e w i t h e a c h o t h e r . -84-The new Forest Act proclaimed in 1978 replaced a sore ly outdated and much amended Forest Act which had survived 66 years without a major overhaul. Indeed the new Act professed to make the government more responsive to the needs of the forest industry and users of the forest resource. Tom Waterland, the Minister of Forests, declared that the new Act would improve forest use and particularly that production of timber would be increased. Waterland (1978) emphasized the expected improvement on the forest industry side. He also stated that "The Act stresses the need for consideration for al l uses of forest land It provides for consultation with other m in i s t r i es and agencies so that forest management decisions ref lect the concerns of other users of forest land." Waterland went on to say that the Ch ie f F o r e s t e r would no longer e x e r c i s e the vast d i sc re t ionary powers that were common in the past: " . . . A major thrust throughout the Act is to decentralize decision-making. The purpose here is to have forest management decisions made as close to the resource as possible." If we look at the actual legislat ion we find that while some decentralization of d e c i s i o n making i s in ev idence and that some considerat ion is given to non-timber fo res t ry resources ( inc luding w i l d l i f e ) , a wide gap s t i l l exists before these in i t ia t ives can be implemented. In Section 3 i t states "The chief f o r e s t e r s h a l l assess the land in the Province for i t s potent ia l for c) providing forage for livestock and w i l d l i f e . . . " . And Section 4 goes on to state that the chief forester "shall c lass i fy land as forest land i f he considers that i t will provide the greatest contribution to the social and economic welfare of the Province i f predominantly maintained in successive crops of trees or forage, or both." -85-There are several other sect ions [5(4)(d) , 7(3)(v) , 11 (4)(d ), 27(5 ) ( d ) , 34(6)(d)] that address the issue of considerat ion of w i l d l i f e resources on forest land. Section 5 of the Forest Act states that Provincial forests (including Crown land in a tree farm licence area) shall be managed and used for a variety of purposes including timber production, forage product ion, forest oriented recreation and water, f isheries and wi ld l i fe resource purposes. In other sect ions of the Act the evaluation of appl icat ions for forest l i cences , tree farm licences and pulpwood agreements is undertaken by the chief forester who considers each case on i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r "meeting o b j e c t i v e s of the Crown in respec t of environmental qua l i ty and the management of water, f i s h e r i e s and w i l d l i f e resources. . ." . Within the Act there is no requirement to consult or co-ordinate with the Ministry of Environment in determining just what the "objectives of the Crown in respect of environmental qua l i t y and management of water, f i s h and w i l d l i f e resources" r e a l l y are. No mention is made of how a provincial forest is to be managed for multiple use, integrated use or otherwise. Another piece of legis lat ion, the Min istry of Forests Act (1978), does address this apparent lack of direction in co-ordinat ing forest resources with other government agencies. Section 4(c) states that the purpose and function of the Ministry is to: "plan the use of the forest and range resources of the Crown, so that the production of timber and forage, the harvesting of t imber, the grazing of livestock and the realization of f isher ies , wi ld l i fe , water, outdoor recreation and other natural resource values are co-ordinated and integrated, in -86-consultation and co-operation with other m in i s t r i e s and agencies of the Crown and with the private sector." However, there is in fact no s p e c i f i c d i rec t ion on how the integration is to be achieved within the Ministry of Forests or with other resource agencies. Forestry po l i cy in B.C. has most o f ten been re f l ec ted by the Min istry of Forests' management p rac t i ces , the content of Forestry l e g i s l a t i o n and by statements from Forestry o f f i c i a l s . In a 1982 conference on wi ld l i fe and land Carl Highsted, a Director with the M i n i s t r y of Forests ' Planning Branch, prefaced his address with the following (1982) "The ministry is charged by the Min is t ry of Forests Act to encourage maximum productivity of the province's forest and range resources. The act further charges that th is production be managed through multiple resource use planning processes." (p.59). Highsted also pointed out that the Min is t ry of Forests ' Per iodic Resource A n a l y s i s , presented as required by l e g i s l a t i o n for a f i r s t time in 1979, included a contribution from the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch which outlines areas of forestry-wi ldl i fe concern. The lack of co-operation and integration of forestry practices with the needs of w i l d l i f e have been documented by resource managers (both f o r e s t e r s and b i o l o g i s t s ) and researchers (Bunnel l , 1982; E l l i s , 1980; Hebert, 1982). The shift in forest policy to incorporate considerat ion of other resources besides timber has only been a recent occurrence stimulated most d i r e c t l y by new fo res t ry l e g i s l a t i o n and to some degree by the overa l l trend of government ministries to adopt a more integrated approach in their planning during the late -87-1970s. A f i r s t step toward the integrat ion of management planning by the M in i s t r i es of Forests and Environment is the Integration of W i l d l i f e and Intensive Forest Research that was launched in 1980. At the same time there has been increased pressure from public interest groups and an increased sensit iv i ty in government staff - especially at the operational level - that has resulted in a broader outlook in the Ministry's approach to forest management (Janz, pers. comm.). The other agency in this issue is the Ministry of Environment, which acts under the Wildl i fe Act (1982) in managing wi ldl i fe resources. There are other Acts such as the Environment and Land Use Act, the Environment Management Act and the Ecological Reserves Act that also consider wi ld l i fe and their habitat; but i t is the W i l d l i f e Act which ac tua l l y guides regional Fish and Wildl ife managers at the operational leve l . The new Wildl i fe Act was proclaimed in 1982 after considerable discussion, both within the government and in the public. The majority of people with the Fish and Wildl i fe Branch and the public acknowledged that the nature of wi ld l i fe management had changed dramatically since the proclamation of the old Wildl i fe Act in 1966 (Walker, pers. comm.). A discussion paper, entitled "A New W i l d l i f e Act" was circulated for review in 1980 (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment , 1980). The document made strong recommendations that habitat a c q u i s i t i o n , recognit ion of non-consumptive wi ldl i fe values and co-operative planning and management of other Crown lands be included in the new Act. -88-The W i l d l i f e Act deals mostly with r e g u l a t i o n and administrat ion of the harvesting of individual game species, with only a few sections addressing the issue of w i l d l i f e habitat. While habitat acquisition eventually did become an important component of the new Act - in the form of a Habitat Conservation Fund (Sec. 11) - a vacuum continues in the areas of non-game wi ld l i fe management and inter-agency co-operation and planning. Section 3 of the Act does talk about acquiring, administering and entering agreements: "The minister, for the purpose of access to or the management or protection of w i ld l i f e , may a) acquire and administer land, improvements on land and timber, timber rights and other rights on private land, and b) enter into and carry out an agreement with a person, associa-tion or other body." The section is vague and gives no d i rec t ion as to how the minister may approach other ministries in engaging in co-operative resource planning and management. It is left up to the Environment Management Act (Sec. 2) to provide the Ministry of Environment with guidance in respect to resource planning. The section goes on at length specifying that the minister has power to plan, research, develop policy, design, construct and operate f a c i l i t i e s for the "management, protection or enhancement of the environment" - which is also spel led out to include w i l d l i f e management along with a host of other resources including s o i l , water, f isher ies , waste (man-made) and a i r . But again there is no directive for the integration of th i s internal planning with that of other m i n i s t r i e s , most notably Forests. -89-Pol icy in government min is t r ies is often elusive or of such a general nature that i t defies elucidation. It is often not stated expl ic i t ly but is implicit in a ministry's legislation or in i ts planning, decision-making and management act ions . In fact the Fish and Wildl ife Branch has expended considerable energy in spe l l i ng out i t s po l i cy with regard to w i l d l i f e management. In a 1979 publication entitled "Proposed Wildl ife Management Plan for B r i t i s h Columbia" po l i cy statements are c l e a r l y stated for publ ic re la t ions uses of wi ld l i fe management and regulations. Under the head of management eleven separate areas of concern are addressed. Encouragement of co-operative planning and management of wi ld l i fe (habitat) is expressed in the following sections: "d) Habitat enhancement On lands acquired for habitat management that are in a natural or near-natural s ta te , management techniques will be limited to the control or maintenance of a p a r t i c u l a r stage of eco log ica l succession through the use of th inn ing , prescribed f i r e , and domestic grazing. However, i f i t can be clearly demonstrated that act ive enhancement w i l l r e s u l t in a s i g n i f i c a n t increase in productivity and associated benefits, a more comprehensive approach wil l be used. Lands acquired for habitat management that have been substantially modified by human use wil l be ac t i ve ly enhanced for the production of designated wi ld l i fe species, and managed where p o s s i b l e , f o r i n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e u s e . Lands under the administration of other agencies w i l l be enhanced when possible where they are managed for integrated resource use. Most species using an area w i l l be given considerat ion when enhancement is planned. "(e) Interagency co-operation Co-operation of provincial agencies administering or using the land is encouraged. Greater e f f o r t must be made to i n t e g r a t e multi-agency planning at an early stage i f the resource (vegetation and w i l d l i f e ) is to be protected or enhancement opportunit ies real ized. "(f) Intergovernmental co-operation Close co-operation is pract ised with other governments who share jur isdict ion over the resource (migratory b i rds) , the hab i tat , or who have s im i l a r management problems. Membership is held in several i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s whose main i n t e r e s t is conservation and w i l d l i f e management. Co-operation with local governments, other provinces, and the federal government will be -90-continued to help solve w i l d l i f e problems of local and national interest." The next section w i l l describe the general system by which the Min is t ry of Forests and, separately , the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch decide on the fate of specific areas of forest land. Included in the discussion will be the means by which wi ld l i fe interests are accounted for by the Ministry of Forests and also how the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch is supposed to affect forestry decisions as they affect w i ld l i f e . 5 . 3 D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g It does not always fo l low that the decision-making process w i l l ref lect the intent of stated po l i cy and l e g i s l a t i o n . This can be due to a var ie ty of reasons: vague or overly generalized policy; policy not substantiated by data, and lack of resources to implement management actions are some of the most obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s . It is also important that dec is ions be made by the appropriate people at the appropriate levels. Ashby (1978) argues that c i v i l servants at the operational level must be w i l l i n g and able to look at not only the hard data but also at social values, al l the while holding a bias toward an improvement or conservation of the environment. He also cautions against relying on a quant i f i ca t ion of soc ia l values - sometimes attempted in cost-benefit analysis - and would rather see more time spent on understanding the ethical attitudes which underly the social values. If we look at forestry-ungulate management in the Nimpkish watershed we can identify three levels of decision-making: i) the operational level - involving f ie ld staff which identif ies s ite specif ic objectives; i i ) the regional level --91-u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g m i n i s t r y p o l i c y p o s i t i o n s that i dent i f y regional ob jec t i ves ; and i i i ) p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l - u s u a l l y cabinet l e v e l , i . e . the Environment and Land Use Committee. The vast majority of the Nimpkish watershed is under a form of fo res t ry tenure known as a Tree Farm Licence (TFL). A TFL is a mixture of pr ivate land (Schedule A) and Crown land (Schedule B) . Under this form of tenure the forest company is responsible for the forest inventory and si 1v icu l tura l pract ices under a 21 year lease agreement. Productive land (for trees) can be withdrawn (Schedule B) at the discretion of the Minister of Forests for amounts up to f ive percent of the total land of the TFL. Any amount of non-productive land can be also withdrawn by the Minister, without compensation to the licence holder. The Crown must compensate the licence holder for deletions from the TFL greater than f ive percent. If agreement cannot be reached with respect to the compensation, then the issue w i l l go to arb i t rat ion . According to Janz (pers. comm.) there had been no instances of mature timber being withdrawn by the Minister to protect w i l d l i f e values, although Western Forest Products has on i t s on i n i t i a t i v e 'withdrawn' timber that has been designated by the Fish and Wildlife Branch as deer winter range. A referral process where the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch reviews forestry manage-ment working plans - which describe s i z e , locat ion and sequencing of timber harvest - was i n i t i a t e d on Vancouver Island in 1974 (Janz, pers. comm.). The referral involves an annual review of the development/cutting plans which is in essence a more detailed annual operational plan, and allows the Branch to make suggestions regarding protect ion of w i l d l i f e values. Although there is no requirement through l e g i s l a t i o n that the suggestions be acted upon there has -92-been some progress in i n c o r p o r a t i n g w i l d l i f e va lues in the f o r e s t r y development/cutting plans (Davies, pers. comm.). We wil l discuss some of the progress as i t relates to the Nimpkish watershed later in this chapter. It became apparent in the early 1970s that logging operations on the B.C. coast were expanding at higher rates than ever before. Of pa r t i cu la r concern, to w i l d l i f e managers e s p e c i a l l y , was the increased s i ze of c learcuts and the construction of logging roads in unstable terrain and the consequent effects on f ish and wi ld l i fe values. As a response to these concerns the Forest Service i ssued a d i r e c t i v e in 1972 ca l l ed "Planning Guidel ines for Coast Logging Operations". The guidel ines were viewed only as an inter im measure by the Forest Service to help protect other resource values such as f i s h e r i e s and w i l d l i f e , minimize eros ion , reduce the aesthetic impact of logging and f a c i l -itate prompt reforestation. At around the same time another i n i t i a t i v e - the Resource Folio Planning System - was introduced by the Forest Service. This system involved the use of overlay maps describing a l l resource uses in the area as well as basic b iophysical information on a watershed basis. The intention was that the different resource agencies would indicate their management objectives and explain what constraints might be necessary to protect their resource values. A follow-up meeting of the various agencies would take place to harmonize their objectives, co-ordinate logging r e s t r i c t i o n s and attempt to resolve c o n f l i c t s . As a f inal step the Forest Service would consolidate the comments of the d i f f e r e n t agencies and forward them, as a map f o l i o , to the licensee, for him to try and incorporate into the watershed development plan and design the cutting operations plan to meet the other agencies' requirements (Pearse, 1976). -93-However, some real problems were encountered with what appeared as sound planning on paper. F i r s t of a l l when the Fish and Wildl i fe Branch asked for reservations of mature timber for w i l d l i f e the Forest Service response was negative pointing out that they had to adhere to the annual allowable cut quotas (Dick, 1982). Another s i g n i f i c a n t de f i c iency was the lack of quant i ta t ive w i l d l i f e information on the part of the wi ld l i fe managers. Quite simply, the Fish and Wildl ife Branch was often unable to say exactly how many deer per unit area they hoped to maintain as a target population. Even when Fish and Wildl i fe has stated specif ic target populations, the real problem has been in determining how much habitat of specif ic types, arrangement, etc . , is required to meet the population ob jec t ives . According to Janz (pers. comm.) the fo l io system never real ly progressed fur ther than the issue i d e n t i f i c a t i o n stage due to lack of adequate biological information and policy on integrated resource planning. John Dick (1982) explains the plight of the Ministry of Environment in the early stages of so-called integrated planning: ".. . pragmatic, operational processes, no matter how well conceived, cannot be fu l l y effective in a policy vacuum. We were constantly being invited to participate in operational level planning processes init iated by people who had a clear idea of what their management objectives were. We had no such idea, and even i f we had operational planning was an inappropriate level to attempt to i n t e g r a t e resource management objectives . . ." Despite the inherent problems of the fo l io system, there were a few instances where fo l ios were completed (Toquart and Koprino watersheds) and there was even an integrated plan completed for the Nahmint watershed on the west coast of Vancouver Island (Janz, pers. comm.). These watersheds were relat ively small in - 9 4 -s ize and did not possess the same intensity of resource confl icts exhibited by watersheds such as the Nimpkish and T s i t i k a . We w i l l look at the T s i t i k a integrated plan as a "success story" la ter in th i s chapter and attempt to understand how another success might be created in the Nimpkish watershed and elsewhere. The introduction of new forestry legislation in 1978 coupled with a new wi ld l i fe management policy (Proposed W i l d l i f e Management Plan for B.C., 1980) and new legislation (Environment Management Act , 1981 and W i l d l i f e Act , 1982) helped pave the way for more integration in planning, but unfortunately i t s t i l l occurs mostly at the operational l e v e l . And while attempts have been made at fo l io planning and integrated planning the "guts" of the consultative process between the Forest Service and the Fish and Wildl i fe Branch remains with the r e f e r r a l system, init iated in the early 1970s (Janz, pers. comm.). In the case of the Nimpkish watershed, the Fish and Wildl i fe Branch had prepared maps of c r i t i c a l deer and elk wintering areas as early as 1976-77. Over the next few years several meetings and discussions were held with the Forest Service and Canadian Forest Products (the major f o r e s t r y operator in the Nimpkish) and eventual ly agreement was reached whereby most of the c r i t i ca l areas would be deferred from timber harvesting. The only qual i f ication was that the moratorium on logging would be for only 20 years - in 1991 the ungulate winter ranges would be cut. The stage was thus set for the two min i s t r i es to come to some r e s o l u t i o n of the f o r e s t r y - ungulate issue in the Nimpkish watershed and resul ted in a co-operat ive problem analysis released in April 1982. -95-5.4 The Reservation of Old Growth for the Protection of Wildlife Habitat on Northern Vancouver Island The discussion paper entitled "Problem Analysis: Old Growth and Ungulates of Northern Vancouver Island" was released jo int ly by the Ministry of Forests and the Ministry of Environment. The document stated that a working group would be set up from the two ministries and that i t would evaluate the supply and demand for timber and ungulates (in TFLs 37 and 39), determine the interactions between the two and prescribe options for presentation to government. (B.C. Ministry of Forests, 1982). Adopting a tone of mutual co-operation B i l l Young, Chief Forester, Ministry of Forests, made the following introductory remarks to the analysis paper: "We fee l that our respect ive s t a f f s can adequate ly d e s c r i b e the b io log i ca l and economic aspects of the interactions between timber and w i l d l i f e , but we earnest ly r e q u i r e input from the publ ic and the industry on the social factors involved in the t rade-o f f s that may be necessary. We urge the interested public to review our proposal, and give us their ideas and opinions on our problem outline and the issue i t se l f . " (Ministry of Forests, 1982, preface). Despite a lack of media attention this joint effort between the two min i s t r i es was, in retrospect, quite a historic in i t ia t ive in that a co-operative analysis was undertaken, where a l e g i s l a t i v e base was present; where the operational staff were co-operating; where senior administrat ion were co-operat ing, and where even the publ ic at large was invited to participate. The f inal stage of this process would see a report containing the recommendations of the Steering Committee to be forwarded to the Environment and Land Use Committee (ELUC) for a decision on what management option was to be pursued. -96-The objectives of the report to be produce included: 1. to define the interactions between ungulate production and timber harvesting in Tree Farm Licences 37 and 39 on northern Vancouver Island; 2. to divide the overall problem into component questions that can be individually assessed within existing data; 3. to define an orderly procedure which will result in the formulation of several management options for presentation to government. (B.C. Ministry of Forests, 1982, p.2) Inc luded in the Terms of Reference f o r the program were d i rec t i ves on identifying "the soc ia l , economic and resource allocation problems arising from the interaction of the two resources" and "maintain an e f f e c t i v e and ongoing l iaison with the forest industry, environmental groups and the general public on al l aspects of the program." (B.C. Ministry of Forests, 1982). In deve lop ing a l l o c a t i o n opt ions the a n a l y s i s paper out l ines a set of assumptions: 1. Old growth timber is a necessity for the overwinter survival of deer and elk in c r i t i c a l snow years , although the l a t t e r species can endure greater snow depths than the former. 2. The old growth timber is contained within h i s t o r i c forest tenures which have s p e c i f i c legal and compensation impl icat ions i f any modification is proposed. 3. The analysis wil l be concerned pr imar i l y with ungulate populations, not with al l wi ld l i fe species. Where f e a s i b l e , benef i ts to other w i l d l i f e wi l l be identified where they can be easi ly related to old growth and winter range conditions. 4. The analysis wil l u t i l i ze only existing data - it is an interpretive exercise and is not intended to include a research component. -97-5. The analysis will be concerned with timber production and ungulate population targets for TFL 37 and the Vancouver Island blocks of TFL 39. It w i l l not deal with production t a r g e t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l specific areas within these TFLs. 6. Climatic trends of the last four decades will continue to the end of the century. 7. It is possible to control predation by wolves using existing manage-ment techniques. (B.C. Ministry of Forests, 1982, p.5) The problem analys is paper goes on to suggest the kinds of management options that the study should be enter ta in ing , namely a regime of unrestricted timber harvest (minimal ungulate production); maintaining the existing level of timber harvest (low level of ungulate production); reduced timber harvest with reserves and scheduling of harvest in winter ranges (increased ungulate production) and no further timber harvest in important winter ranges (maximum ungulate production). For each of the scenarios the report is expected to provide a va lue f o r the t imber and w i l d l i f e produced and should also describe the impl icat ions of any r e d u c t i o n in the meeting of demands and management objectives for both forest companies and management agencies. The c r i t i ca l path of the old-growth ungulate study i d e n t i f i e s two rounds of publ ic consu l ta t ion ; one to review the problem analys is in Apr i l 1982 and another to review the draft report plus management options in October 1982. The f i r s t review was completed on time with written comments received from the pub l i c . As a resu l t of the comments the Terms of Reference were expanded to include a l l wi ld l i fe habitat, not just ungulate habitat, and is reflected in the t i t l e change of the draft report - Reservation of Old Growth Timber for the Protection of W i l d l i f e Habitat on Northern Vancouver Island - released in -98-January 1983, s l ight ly behind schedule. I n i t i a l l y the two co-operating m in i s t r i es had scheduled public meetings to review the 1983 draft report . However, a late hour decis ion was made at the provincial cabinet level that no public meetings would be called (Addison, pers. comm.). What followed was a ver i tab le deluge of mail to both m i n i s t r i e s ' o f f i c e s - a to ta l of 228 submissions from a wide array of ind iv idua ls and interest groups, with the notable exception of Indian bands (Addison, pers. comm.). The January 1983 Draft Report on Old Growth and Wildlife Habitat The draft report on old growth and w i l d l i f e habitat needs was completed and released for publ ic comment in January, 1983. In the report f ive different options for management of timber, and how these affect wi ld l i fe , are considered. Economic value was assigned to both r e s o u r c e s , although both m in i s t r i es acknowledged that other values might have been used but that i t is d i f f i c u l t to assign "subjective" values that are acceptable by the majority of society. It is worth looking at the results of the report in order that we can form an analysis of Ashby's third step of the chain reaction - namely the advancement of an environmental issue through the melding of object ive information, public advocacy and subjective po l i t i ca l decision-making. Forestry Concerns The report notes that the forest industry plays an important economic ro le on Vancouver Island and s p e c i f i c a l l y in TFL 37 in the Nimpkish watershed. It provides employment and an economic base for several small communities such as -99-Woss, Port McNeill, Port Hardy, Beaver Cove, Kokish and Gold River . The Crown land timber supplies are expected to decline gradually over the next 100 to 150 years as logging of old growth g ives way to production of second growth. Private supplies of timber w i l l decl ine more rap id ly which w i l l resu l t in a coastal timber supply def ic i t relative to the current mil l capacity in the very near future. The current harvest rate for TFL 37 is 1,093,000 cubic metres and this quantity supports most of Canadian Forest Products' (CANFOR) coast lumber production. Non-Timber Concerns The land within TFL 37 is also valuable for other non-timber resource uses including hiking, boating, f ishing, hunting, cross-country skiing and canoeing. The watershed has good year round access v ia Highway 19 and there are eight recreat ion s i t es managed by CANFOR s i tuated by lakes and r i ve rs along the Nimpkish drainage system. As well there are two areas - Nimpkish Island and Duncan Ridge - that have been proposed as Ecological Reserves. Wildlife Concerns The Ministry of Environment has noted an increasing demand for recreat iona l h u n t i n g , photography and viewing of w i l d l i f e at a time when the w i l d l i f e resource is d e c l i n i n g . Recreational hunting harvest and success rate for instance has dropped s ignif icant ly from 1967 to 1979. There was a 70 percent deer harvest decrease and a drop from 74 to 34 percent in hunter success during this time. The Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch is attempting to reverse this trend through strategic and regional planning. -100-The deer management objectives for Vancouver Island are as follows: 1. to maintain deer numbers at present day or historic levels; 2. to optimize deer production in second growth forests; 3. to maintain winter habitat necessary to sustain deer popula-tions during severe winters; and 4. to provide a minimum harvest of 10,000 deer per year. The major obstacles that are thwarting these objectives are the loss of mature timber used as winter range, predation by wolves and a lack of research ef fort . To achieve long-term sustained deer and elk production the current sc ient i f ic knowledge indicates that old growth winter range must be permanently reserved from logging. The existing deferral - until 1991 in TFL 37 - w i l l allow only half of the natural deer population to survive a severe winter. If no winter ranges are reserved the deer populations w i l l suffer a catastrophic collapse as was observed on southern Vancouver Island following a severe winter in 1968-69. Current knowledge also indicates that second growth timber stands up to 200 years old do not provide adequate winter range habitat and therefore old growth habitat is regarded as a non-renewable resource. Northern Vancouver Island, part icular ly the north-central par t , has been the most productive area for ungulates since the deer decline in southern areas in 1968-69. The northern area has a high ungulate capability which is not found in other portions of Vancouver Island due to land tenure, ecological features and past logging practices. The southeast part of the Island has high ungulate production capabil ity but i t is a relat ively small area (15 percent of Vancouver - 1 0 1 -Island), has been heavily logged and is largely in private ownership. The r e p o r t recogn i zes that ungulates are not the only w i l d l i f e that are dependent on old growth for a l l or part of their l i f e cycle. However, "because other species have not been directly sought out by society, there has been very l i t t l e documentation of the i r value and dependence upon this habitat type." (p.12) It is assumed that old growth will provide adequate habitat for non-game species as well as game spec ies . It is also noted that "species richness" is greater (30 percent) in old growth stands with snags and f a l l e n trees than in second growth s i tes . A compounding factor in the deer management issue is the sudden increase of wolves in the Nimpkish watershed since the mid 1970s. The deer density index has dropped 70 percent from 1976 to 1981 and the best ava i lab le information ind icates that wolves are primarily responsible for the decrease. A wolf study init iated in 1982 wil l assess the wolf problem and determine the feas ib i l i t y of a wolf control program. The present impact of wolves on the ungulate population is expected to be short term while the effects of harvesting winter ranges w i l l last 200 years or longer. Assumptions Concerning Winter Range Options In look ing at winter range the Steering Committee - comprising the Chief Forester, Ministry of Forests and the Ass istant Deputy Minister, Ministry of Environment - accepted ten basic condit ions and assumptions. Some of these assumptions were l isted in the Problem Analysis while other new ones were added on. The new assumptions of interest include: -102-1. The study is cons t ra ined by present p r a c t i c e s . Some of the respondents to the Problem Analysis speculated that there may be management techniques that could be adopted in second growth to simulate old growth conditions. Many of these techniques are being studied in the Integrated W i l d l i f e Intensive Forestry Research project being j o i n t l y undertaken by the Ministries of Environment and Forests, but they are current ly unproven. This study focusses on current management options based on current condit ions so that the land base question can be isolated. The management options may change when new practices are introduced. 9. The G u i d e l i n e s f o r B e n e f i t - C o s t A n a l y s i s produced f o r the Environment and Land Use Committee are used as a primary reference for this study. 10. If the winter range reserves are to be effect ive, additional areas will have to be managed to provide spring forage adjacent to winter ranges. At present, this is achieved by deferring blocks of mature timber from harvesting for varying in terva ls of time. The cost involved in production of spring forage is not included in the economic evaluation because further study is expected to i den t i f y more cost-effective means of forage production. (p. 13-14) The forestry-ungulate management options looked at in the draft report vary somewhat from those l isted in the Problem Analysis: 1. Elimination of winter ranges. 2. Minor winter range reserves. 3. Schedule B land winter range reserves. 4. Reservation of existing winter ranges. 5. Additional winter ranges. (p. 15) In each of the options, except the "E l iminat ion" opt ion, there is a provision for 500 hectares of elk winter range habitat to be reserved. -103-Analysis of Different Option Scenarios The analysis for both ungulates and timber were carr ied out using computer simulation models. As well there was s t r i c t adherence to the ELUC Benefit- Cost Analys is guidel ines in an attempt to standardize the values of timber and w i ld l i f e . To overcome problems of discounting value over time - for instance the value of winter range reservat ions - the analysis was divided into two intervals of twenty years each; 1982 to 2001 and 2002 to 2021. Wildlife Analysis The computer simulation allows a comparison of ant ic ipated changes in deer numbers according to different harvesting regimes. The actual future number of deer are not predicted but wil l be dictated by the severity of the winters and the area of winter range reserved. The simulation also uses the logist ical growth model which assumes that population growth w i l l occur in a density dependent manner. The simulation results show that of the f ive options only options 4 and 5 would support a r e c r e a t i o n a l l y usable population of deer in TFL 37 (Fig. 2). This assumes that a recreationally usable population is at least 5 deer/km , which is deemed by the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch to be the acceptable level for both recreational hunters and non-hunters. Timber Analysis The computer simulation model used for analyzing changes in timber supply is the Forest Estate Model used by the Ministry of Forests' Forest and Range Analysis 1980. This method projects future timber harvest under various management c r i te r ia and can discern impacts of various management options over time. F I G U R E Z« POTENTIAL 20 YEAR AVERAGE DEER POPULATION FOR EACH WINTER RANGE OPTION IN T F L 37. Source: B.C. Ministry o f Forests, 1983 DEER WINTER RANGE IN T F L 37 (Km ) -105-Some of the major considerations in the timber model is the effect winter ranges would have on seasonal operations and also the e f fect on the t rans i t ion of harvest of old growth to harvest of second growth. Al l management options also assume that regeneration w i l l be carr ied out but no provis ion is made for improved forest management such as spacing, f e r t i l i z a t i o n or genetic improve-ment . The analysis shows that timber harvest rates w i l l be maintained in a s imi lar pattern of time regardless of management option and that only the overall harvest level would change. The present harvest levels can be maintained for the next 70 years before a decline would occur. A low point would be reached in 90 years and then r ise to a sustainable level again. If the seasonal operations continue as they are the winter supplies are not a l imiting factor in any of the options. The analysis also determined that the harvest w i l l consist of timber stands older than 140 years for the next 20 years and that after that time younger stands must supplement the harvest from old growth regardless of which option is chosen. In 80 years a l l stands older than 120 years will have been logged and the harvest wil l come from younger trees. Economic Implications of Different Option Scenarios There are two cautionary points made in the discussion of the Benefit-Cost Ana lys i s . F i r s t , the ELUC guidelines state that benefit-cost analysis should attempt to measure the benefits and costs to a society as a whole, rather than to specif ic interests within soc ie ty . Secondly, the benef i t -cost analysis -106-compares the net values of the costs and benefits and not the gross values. In the case of timber harvest, i t is the value of the timber produced, minus the costs necessary to produce i t . When the benefits and costs are distributed over time, the benefits and costs are discounted to give a net present value. Wildlife The economic analysis for ungulates was based on a measurement of d i r e c t b e n e f i t s to hunters associated with each management opt ion. Concern was expressed that other w i l d l i f e species were not considered and that option and existence values of other species were not addressed. The option value is the value a person confers to the p o s s i b i l i t y or option to e i ther hunt or view ungulates even though they do not choose to do so at present. Existence value is simply the value of knowing of the existence of deer and elk. As well , there is no attempt in the benefit-cost analysis to evaluate the active or inc identa l non-consumptive uses of w i ld l i fe , including viewing, feeding, and photographing. There is also no accounting of the indirect costs or benefits that arise in the direct consumptive use of ungulates. Using a deer hunter day as a unit of value, estimates were made for the f ive management options. Values ranged from $121,000 (1982 dol lars) in option 1 to $2,352,000 in option 5 for TFL 37. Elk hunting was valued at $72,000 i f existing elk winter range was retained and at $11,000 i f the winter ranges were removed. -107-Timber The reduction in harvest of timber will cause government to lose revenues, the fo res t ry industry w i l l lose cutting rights and labour wil l lose income assoc-iated with a decrease on c u t t i n g , transport and m i l l i n g . A summary of the breakdown of the timber values is as follows: A comparison of the value of wi ld l i fe and foregone timber rights for the twenty year interval 1982 to 2001 is presented in Table 3. The d r a f t report makes no recommendations regarding which , i f any, of the management options is preferable. It is left up to the government to assess the technical and economic information and also to take into consideration other indirect and intangible values when making its f inal policy decis ion regarding forestry-wi ldl i fe management. 5.5 Reaction to the Report The f i n a l report ent i t led "Reservation of Old Growth Timber for the Protection of Wildl i fe Habitat on Northern Vancouver Island" was released in January, 1983. The Vancouver Sun picked up the story with the headline "Old growth timber 'needed to save deer'" (Jan. 21, 1983, p. A10). The a r t i c l e attempted to dramatize the c o n f l i c t between the surv iva l of deer at the expense of lost forestry revenue and employment. However, the ar t i c le also mentioned that the Timber value Wage and Sal. Tax $10.25/m^ 3.75/m; 2.00/rrr $16.00/m (P.41) -108-present situation was different from the past, when short-term solut ions were reached by simply temporari ly protect ing s p e c i f i c areas from cutt ing and designating them as ungulate winter ranges. There was at the time of the release of the report a strong sentiment within the Ministry of Environment that w i l d l i f e values would be largely ignored unless each deer and elk was assigned a dollar value (Janz, pers. comm.) However i t was not the M i n i s t r y ' s preference to take the benef i t/cost approach. Ray Addison (pers. comm.) of the Ministry of Forests was involved in the preparation of the report and viewed the benef it/cost analys is as a major flaw in the document. He is convinced that i t was the wrong ana lyt ic method for both w i l d l i f e and timber; the benef it/cost analys is being more suited to a much larger economic picture, such as the provincial economy. Addison also fe l t that because of the "forced" atmosphere of the benefit/cost analysis that many of the economic facts were distorted and that the values of both wi ld l i fe and timber were not accurately re f l ec ted in the repor t . It is commonly recognized by wi ld l i fe managers that much more work needs to be done in the f ie ld of assessing w i l d l i f e values; both consumptive and non-consumptive. This is especially true of unique and sensitive habitats (Hoover, 1976). According to Addison and Janz (pers. comm.) the views of respondents to the report were sp l i t equally between those who wanted to cut a l l the trees and those who wanted to preserve the trees. Negligible interest was shown in the three compromise scenarios described in the report where portions of winter ranges would be l e f t but logging would also be allowed to continue in some ungulate winter range habitats. This polarization of views is not uncommon in B.C. environmental issues, where the "good guys vs. bad guys" syndrome appears -109-to leave l i t t l e room for rational dialogue, let alone negotiation or compromise. 5.6 Fate of the 1983 Report on Old Growth and Wildlife Habitat The mass of written submissions in response to the draft report were analyzed and compiled by the respect ive ministries and along with the f inal report was sent to the Environment and Land Use Committee, as out l ined in the original terms of reference. The Environment and Land Use Committee did not make a d e c i s i o n on the f i v e management options but returned the document to the ministers of Forests and Environment (Addison, pers.comm.). Informed sources within the two m in i s t r i e s share the view that the Environment and Land Use Committee is re luctant to make recommendations based on the report and are awaiting the results of the continuing IWIFR program, which is looking into the potential of second growth forest in providing ungulate winter range. There has been strong support from the forest industry, conservationists and the B.C. W i l d l i f e Federation for IWIFR and the government has responded by i n i t i a t i n g a second f i v e year phase for the program. It appears that the government's strategy is to s t a l l on making a decision on the old growth issue on the premise that the IWIFR program can show that second growth can with proper management f u l f i l l the funct ion of old growth; at least in terms of ungulate winter range requirements. The reluctance to establish policy on reservation of old growth is also undoubt-edly a resu l t of the economic c l imate where both the forest industry and forestry unions are concerned about timber supply and employment respec t i ve ly . As well the government could lose a significant amount of revenue from timber taxes and may also be required to make substant ia l compensation payments for -110-timber harvest withdrawals that are greater than 5 percent of TFL land. A dec is ion on the Nimpkish watershed ungulate winter range reserves could have far-reaching consequences on a province-wide scale that the present government is not, at this time, prepared to accept. There are some very real dangers i f the government delays dec is ion making too long. Although the present deferra ls are e f f e c t i v e unt i l 1991, the IWIFR program is not guaranteed to provide a second growth solution to the ungulate problem. Even i f second growth can substitute for old growth winter ranges to some degree , the time to grow and manipulate these stands pr ior to the replacement of the old growth is substant ia l (40 - 60 years plus). Indeed, i f second growth is proven to be inadequate as winter range and i f winter range habitat already identif ied is not permanently secured (or at least for 200 - 300 y e a r s ) , then catastrophic col lapses in the ungulate populations could well occur. The loss of old growth would also have an adverse effect on non-game w i l d l i f e , f i s h and aesthet ics which are a l l important values to d i f f e ren t interest groups that have expressed an interest in the Nimpkish watershed. To gain a better understanding of how w i l d l i f e issues can be success fu l ly advanced we wil l now look at the case of a nearby watershed, the Ts i t ika , where an integrated resource plan was implemented in 1978. 5.7 Tsitika Watershed Integrated Resource Plan While some individuals were not fu l l y sat isf ied with the outcome of the T s i t i k a Integrated P lan, i t is regarded by many as a high water mark in fores t ry-wi ld l i fe planning on Vancouver Island and quite possibly the province (Morrison, pers. comm.). In 1972 when a proposal was put for th to designate the entire -111-Tsit ika drainage as an ecological reserve - the argument being that i t was the last remaining unlogged watershed on northeastern Vancouver Island and was valuable as an undisturbed ecosystem. In 1973 the Minister of Lands, Forests and Water Resources announced a moratorium on logging and road construct ion on 300,000 acres including the Tsit ika River and Schoen Lake drainages. There was at this time strong support from local and prov inc ia l conservation groups to preserve the Tsit ika in i ts pristine state and to establish a park around Schoen Lake. Soon a f t e r , Howard P a i s h , a c o n s u l t a n t , was h i r e d to c o - o r d i n a t e an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y study group (North Island Study Group) to organize public meetings and submit a f inal report to ELUC on land use options for the Ts i t ika -Schoen area. The report was completed in 1975 and described four land use options - ranging from complete preservation to large scale commercial logging. Public meetings were then held to gather opinions on the various options. Based on a review of the report and the resu l ts of the meetings ELUC decided to release 160,000 acres for commercial logging while reta in ing the remaining 140,000 acres in the Tsit ika and Schoen Lake areas for further study ( T s i t i k a Planning Committee, 1978). In 1977 ELUC made further decis ions on the fate of Schoen Lake, which was designated as a provincial park and on the Strathcona Park boundaries which were expanded. However, the Schoen Creek area, whose timber values are high, was removed from moratorium status and an integrated management plan for forest development of the Tsit ika was requested; the moratorium continuing until such a plan was approved and implemented by ELUC. -112-Th r ee basic considerat ions were identified by the Tsit ika Planning Committee, taking into account ELUC's decis ion that timber harvesting should proceed, but that resource uses be integrated and that public opinion should be sought during the planning process. The three cons idera t ions were ( T s i t i k a P lann ing Committee, 1978): 1. Forest industry employees and communities are dependent on contin-uing timber supply from the T s i t i k a in keeping with the TFL agreements (parts or al l of three TFLs are situated in the T s i t i k a watershed: #39, #25 and #37). 2. S ign i f i can t f ish and wi ld l i fe , recreation and ecological values are found in the Ts i t i ka . 3. There are strong s i g n i f i c a n t ins tances of c o n f l i c t i n g pub l i c , industry and government agency interest for both the preservation and development of the Ts i t ika 's resources. Based on these considerat ions the Planning Committee agreed to adopt three guiding objectives for their integrated resource plan: 1. A sustained harvest of economically viable timber must be insured. 2. Other resources including f i s h , w i l d l i f e and recreation, should be maintained and representative ecological areas should be set aside from development. 3. Adverse impacts of development on resource product iv i ty and on sensitive areas must be minimized and where possible resource values should be enhanced. (Tsit ika Planning Committee, 1978, page 7) The Planning Committee in i t s f i n a l repor t acknowledged that the guiding objectives in some instances would be incompatible and that "trade-offs" had to be made between the fo res t ry in terests and other competing interest groups. There was an overall consensus (with the exception of the United Fishermen and -113-Al l ied Workers Union) that the Tsit ika Integrated Resource Plan met the general intent of the considerations and guiding objectives (Tsit ika Planning Committee, 1978). The success of the Plan was in large part due to the membership on the Planning Committee of al l groups with an interest in the Ts i t i ka . Representatives were included from government (Forest Service, Fish and Wildl ife Branch and Fisheries and Marine Service); the public; organized labour and industry. Admittedly the public had a single seat to represent a diversity of interest groups, but i t was in keeping with the overa l l theme of the Committee to keep membership of al l interest groups to a minimum. Another posit ive feature of the T s i t i k a plan was the comprehensive and well  designed public involvement phase. Preparatory background information on the T s i t i k a issue was displayed in six communities while actual meetings were held at four communities on Vancouver Is land. There was a thorough documentation of public concerns and the Planning Committee made modifications to their proposed Plan based on the concerns. One of the major concerns expressed was that there was an absence of government po l i cy on t rade-o f fs between major resource uses. Several other concerns were aired, many of which focused on specif ic issues such as logging methods; use of herbicides, lack of f i s h enhancement and a rather in teres t ing concern regarding the d e s i r a b i l i t y of cost/benefit analysis in determining trade-offs. This last concern is part icular ly s i g n i f i c a n t in hindsight as i t became a major point of contention in the proposed Nimpkish land use options released in 1983. The Planning Committee response to cost/benefit analysis was as follows (Tsit ika -114-Planning Committee, 1978, p.45): "The major problem in applying cost benefit techniques to the analysis of trade-offs is that the costs and benef i ts are often d i f f i c u l t to measure. While, for example, the cost/benef i ts to f o r e s t r y of a pa r t i cu la r set-as ide may be read i l y defined in terms of employment, products, and revenue l o s t , the cost benef i ts of less tangible values are d i f f i c u l t to ascertain, requiring that value judgements be made." Obviously the Steering Committee for the Northern Vancouver Island proposal chose not to heed the adv ice of the T s i t i k a group and was subject to considerable c r i t i c i sm in using the cost/benefit analysis to assign value to ungulates. As a f inal note on the Tsit ika planning process i t must be recognized that the f inal approval of the Plan at the ministerial level was far from smooth sa i l ing . B i l l Otway, the then d i rec tor of the B.C. Wildl ife Federation, chastized the game-playing of the Minister of Recreation and Conservation, Sam Bawlf, who at f i r s t balked at the p lan . It was pointed out to Mr. Bawlf, by the publ ic in terest representat ive on the Planning Committee, that he, Mr. Bawlf, should benefit from the consultat ion of his technical s ta f f much as the Minister of Forests had done. Mr. Bawlf agreed to this and reconvened with the Minister of Forests , f u l l y aware that time was running short. After considerable delay Mr. Bawlf informed the Planning Committee that he s t i l l did not wish to approve the plan (Otway, 1978, p.51). It was rather fortunate in the case of the Ts i t ika that a l l the other part ies i n v o l v e d d id agree to the plan and u l t imate ly the plan was approved and implemented. However, the incident i l l u s t r a t e s the continuing d i f f i cu l ty of -115-achieving po l i t i ca l commitment in resolving c o n f l i c t i n g resource use issues , which in turn perpetuates the pub l i c ' s skeptic ism and mistrust of elected minister's ab i l i ty to make judgements when they are called upon to do so. It must also be remembered that the T s i t i k a "success" must be tempered with the fact that or ig inal ly the entire watershed was proposed as an ecological reserve, to be left in i ts pristine state. Therefore while considerable concessions were made to wi ld l i fe interests, there was also a considerable compromise on the part of conservationists to allow substantial logging to proceed. In the case of the Nimpkish watershed i t can be argued that the conservat ion is ts have fewer "bargaining chips" with which to negotiate with the forest industry, as the watershed has already experienced considerable commercial cutting. Considerable attent ion was given to the implementation and follow-up of the Tsit ika Plan. A Follow-up Committee, s imi la r in composition to the Planning Committee, was formed to evaluate the effectiveness of the planning process, to monitor the implementation of the plan and to i d e n t i f y and co-ordinate any studies that were proposed in the plan. Most participants viewed the results of the implementation phase as being acceptable, although s p e c i f i c problems concern ing l o c a t i o n , s ize and timing of some cutt ing prescr ip t ions were identif ied (Morrison, pers. comm.). In her thesis on the implementation of the T s i t i k a plan Vreeswijk (1985) found the Follow-up Committee to be "an e f f e c t i v e mechanism f o r adapt ive plan implementation allowing for adjustments to environmental, socio-economic, and technological cond i t ions ." She also concluded that i t provided for public accountability and accessibi l i ty and consequently promoted understanding between -116-confl ict ing interest groups. On the negative side Vreeswijk found that there was i n s u f f i c i e n t f i nanc ia l and s t a f f i n g support to conduct planning process evaluations, operations surveillance and management prescription monitoring. 5.8 Conclusions It wil l be informative in l i gh t of the d i f f e rent " fates" of planning for the Nimpkish and the Tsit ika watersheds to compare both processes and outcomes. Why has one become an example for planning about these kinds of issues while the other has stalled without fu l l implementation? In answering these questions we set the stage for conclusions regarding the "chain reaction" as it applies to the issue of ungulate-forestry management. In looking at the planning process of the two watersheds we can compare the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f fe rences : who p a r t i c i p a t e d , use of objective analyses (technical and economic) and po l i t i ca l decision-making. Participation The involvement of the different interested publ ics in the two watershed plans reveals some signif icant differences. The Tsit ika plan involved public on three levels: as members of the planning committee, through involvement in data collection and f ina l l y through participation at public meetings in reviewing the d r a f t p l a n . The membership of the planning committee was comprehensive including representatives from the m in i s t r i es of Forests and Environment; the forest industry, labour and public interest groups. Considerable attent ion was paid to ensure that the public involvement process was eff ic ient and meaningful to those who participated. -117-In contrast the Nimpkish planning process had no representation on the working committee outside the m in i s t r i e s of Forests and Environment. The p u b l i c involvement in the development of the management options for the watershed was limited to two rounds of written submissions - at the problem analysis stage and in a review of the draft management options report . Although public meetings were scheduled for review of the draft report a po l i t i ca l dec is ion was made by the respect ive ministers to cancel them. In addit ion the f ina l report and compilation of responses to the draft options have never been made public. Use of Objective Analysis The technical evaluation of resource values for the Ts i t ika watershed was much broader in scope than that found in the Nimpkish eva luat ion . Whereas the Nimpkish options focussed primari ly on the ungulate resource the Ts i t ika plan addressed other values such as non-game w i l d l i f e , f i s h , non-consumptive recreation and ecological reserves. To be fa i r the Nimpkish report did mention some of these other values but they were presented as addendums rather than integral concerns in the overall planning process. In terms of economic analysis the Nimpkish report placed a great emphasis on the benefit-cost analys is that was used to compare ungulate and timber values. Despite some reservations expressed by the two m in i s t r i e s (MOF and MOE) the draft report made i t c lear that the benef i t -cost methodology was used in an attempt to objectify the comparison of the two resource values. In contrast the Tsit ika kept clear of the use of benef i t -cost analysis and in i ts 1978 report c lear ly states resources other than timber as less tang ib le , d i f f i c u l t to ascertain and require value judgements to be made. -118-P o l i t i c a l D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g In t ry ing to understand the nature of pol i t ica l decision-making as i t occurred (or fa i l ed to occur) in the two watersheds, i t is useful to understand the context of what was being attempted in the two areas. The Tsit ika was the last large unlogged watershed on northern Vancouver Island when i t came to the public's attention in the early 1970s. An i n i t i a l proposal was put forward in 1972 to preserve the entire watershed as a combination of ecological reserve and park. Eventual ly the government declared a moratorium on logging in the watershed and appointed a study group whose task was to consider land use options. This group evolved into a planning committee which made specif ic recommendations concerning areas to be preserved and other areas to be logged. The government was under continual pressure from industry and public interest groups to produce an integrated resource plan and was also committed in principle to implementing the plan or face a signif icant p o l i t i c a l backlash on the issue. The other signif icant aspect of the Tsit ika plan was that the public interest groups were getting much less than they had i n i t i a l l y wanted while the forest industry was at least ge t t ing something, when gett ing nothing was considered by some as a real poss ib i l i ty . In this l ight the government was able to appease the two opposing interests and maintain an image of fairness. In the case of the Nimpkish the ungulate-forestry issue is focussed on the very specific requirement of reservation of old growth as winter range for ungulates. Having such a narrow issue focus has resulted on less public concern both in terms of breadth of in terest and i n tens i t y . The ongoing IWIFR program has defused some of the concern of the major proponents of ungulate winter range reservat ions and the government is content to await the results before making policy decisions on old growth reservat ion. The economic climate, spec i f ica l ly -119-the unemployment rate in the province, has also deteriorated since the T s i t i k a plan was developed and has added pressure on the government to at least maintain current timber production levels. -120'-. CHAPTER SIX: Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Arousal of the Public Conscience Although the in terest generated in the Nimpkish watershed has come from a diversity of advocacy groups there has been a certain degree of convergence in the issues especially over the question of maintaining old growth forests for both ungulates and non-game wi ld l i fe . The intensity of interest has fluctuated over the years depending on the par t i cu la r issue of the day. While i n i t i a l l y the deer dec l ine was the dominant concern i t was not that well publ ic ized outside the hunting community. In the late 1970s a proposal for an ecological reserve on Nimpkish Island received considerable media attention - chief ly due to the magnificent and unique character of the trees that were being d iscussed. The media has certainly built up the aesthetic and symbolic nature of the trees - some were claimed to be the t a l l e s t in Canada - and has resulted in perhaps the most intensive and sustained media coverage of any environmental issue raised in the watershed. Another issue that drew media attention in the ear ly 1980s was the protest against the wolf control program in the Nimpkish watershed. However, the attention was rather short-lived because of more dramatic confrontat ions that were occurr ing in the northeastern part of B r i t i s h Columbia. The conser-vationists did generate some public discussion regarding the greater question of lack of adequate habitat management for a l l w i l d l i f e species. It was around this time that the public, including hunters, conservat ion i s ts , environment-a l i s t s and academics was responding to the j o i n t Min istry of Forests and Environment draft report on ungulate-timber management options for the Nimpkish -121-watershed. A br ie f f l u r r y of in terest and involvement was fol lowed by a r e l a t i v e l u l l in a c t i v i t y as the government had fai led to act on the options presented regarding ungulate winter range reservat ions . Publ ic interest continues at a sustained but diminished level for both the Nimpkish Island ecological reserve and the wolf control program. The Nimpkish Band also has had a continuing interest in maintaining the ecological integrity of the watershed and they have a particular interest in maintaining adequate f ish habitat in the Nimpkish drainage system. We can say that Ashby's f i r s t component of an arousal of public conscience has occur red a l though i t has been somewhat f ractured and e r r a t i c over t ime. However, there has been a convergence of some of the interests of the different groups that has created suff ic ient pressure for the government to analyze the situation and to commit i t se l f to make a policy decision on the issue of habitat reservation for ungulates and coincidentally also for non-game wi ld l i fe . 6.2 Scientific Assessment of the Problem and Its Solution Research into the effects of logging on ungulates was init iated in 1971 in the Nimpkish and has been continued on an ongoing basis by Univers i ty of B.C. graduate students and the Ministry of Environment f ie ld staff . Much of what is known about deer winter ranges was achieved by researchers such as Greg Jones, David Willms and Rick E l l i s through the 1970s. While the b i o l o g i c a l requirements for maintaining deer populations have become better understood i t has been lef t up to the Fish and Wildl ife Branch to translate these requirements and present them to the Forest Service and logging companies for integration into their timber harvest work plans. A temporary deferral on cutting specif ic deer winter ranges has been agreed to by the three parties, but i t extends only -122-to 1991. A complicating factor in the Nimpkish is the recent explosion of wolf numbers on northern Vancouver Island. Studies done by researchers (Scott, 1979) indicate that deer numbers have dropped to near zero in known wolf ranges and that numbers have remained low in adjacent areas. Elk have also suffered r e l a t i v e l y high m o r t a l i t y as a resu l t of the recent wolf invas ion . It is therefore d i f f i cu l t to assess in some areas whether the loss of habitat or the increase in wolf predation has caused a drop in the deer, although in the long term the loss of habitat is an over-riding factor in l imiting deer numbers. The economic benefit-cost analysis that was done for the Nimpkish ungulate and timber values has created considerable controversy with government staff as well as natural ist , environmental and hunter interest groups. The most fundamental problem is the lack of accounting for intangib le values associated with the wi ld l i fe resource. There is also no consideration for the indirect benefits and costs associated with either ungulates or non-game species of wi ld l i fe . Ashby argued quite strongly that i t is inappropriate to use benefit- cost analysis and assign monetary value to environmental protection. According to Ashby we run the r i sk of warping the perspective of p o l i t i c i a n s who must make the policy decisions regarding land use c o n f l i c t s . Ashby prefers that pol i t ic ians be left with the task of incorporating the unquantified values as they are into the i r decision-making process. Recognizing that w i ld l i f e managers must often work with imperfect knowledge i t is evident that a re lat ively good base of biological information does exist with regard to the habitat requirements of ungulates in the Nimpkish watershed. The -123-management prescription of leaving mature timber as ungulate winter ranges is based on several years of f i e ld study and has been adopted by wi ld l i fe managers in other jurisdict ions in northwestern North America. We can therefore say that Ashby's second component of assessment and p r e s c r i p t i o n of appropriate management has been f u l f i l l e d , but only at the technical level . With respect to the economic analysis the Nimpkish planning process f a l l s short of Ashby's model, in that i t d isplays the inappropriate use of benefit-cost analysis to assign value to intangible environmental resources. 6.3 The Effectiveness of the Present Administrative Structure in Maintaining Old Growth Forest for Ungulates within the Nimpkish Watershed. Although Ashby sees po l i t i ca l and administrative decision-making as the c r i t i ca l th i rd step in the chain reac t ion , he does not provide much insight into what that decision-making must enta i l . He focusses on "two parameters" (p.74) - the p o l i t i c i a n ' s b e l i e f s and the weight he attaches to them. But i t would be e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i f f i c u l t to locate and describe these beliefs and weights for the ungulate-forestry issue, given that i t is not a major publicized topic of discussion in B.C. po l i t i cs ! Moreover, it seems important to look more broadly at the performance of the ent i re apparatus of decision- making; Ashby (1978, p.73 f f . ) recognizes that the dec i s ion-maker i s r a r e l y one i n d i v i d u a l , suggesting that i t is often a committee. In fact this is a great simplif ication since in most cases decisions are the output of a complex web of in teract ing players (Schon, 1971). Because of th is , we wil l use some c r i te r i a that look at the overall administrative decision-making system. The approach used here is based on O'Gorman (1978) and Dick (1982). -124-Does each ministry (Forests and Environment) have c lear p o l i c i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n d i rec t ing i t s par t i c ipa t ion in the planning and management of wi ld l i fe on Crown forests? We have learned from Chapter 5 that both ministries do indeed have direction to undertake co-operative planning. For the Ministry of Forests i t is spelled out in the Ministry of Forests Act that other resource va lues are to be "co-ord inated and in tegrated , in consultation and co-operation with other ministries and agencies". On the Min is t ry of Environment side there i s a c l e a r p o l i c y statement made in the Proposed Wildl i fe Management Plan for B.C. which says that inter-agency co-operation in the planning stages is necessary to protect and enhance wi ld l i fe and their habitat. Other encouragement for co-operative planning comes from the Environment Management Act which stresses the need to develop an internal strategic planning process that would give a clear statement of the supply and demand of specific resources including land, water and wi ld l i fe . This t ies in with the Ministry of Forests requirement -under the Forest Act - to submit periodic resource analysis of the timber resource including figures on supply and demand. Are both Ministries (Forests and Environment) acting in accordance with the requirements of their respective acts and policies? The two ministries have in fact entered into co-operative planning at the operational level in the Nimpkish. After acknowledging that c o n f l i c t i n g management o b j e c t i v e s were u n r e s o l v a b l e at the technica l level a joint Steering Committee (comprised of the Chief -125-Forester and the Ass istant Deputy Minister of Environment) was formed in Apr i l 1982. The committee set i t s e l f the task of ana lyz ing the current f o r e s t r y - w i l d l i f e c o n f l i c t and to make recommendations on various resource use options to the Environment and Land Use Committee by the end of 1982. i i i . Is the present w i ld l i fe - fores t ry process e f f e c t i v e in producing resource use d e c i s i o n s that are based on the best possible information. Specif ical ly does i t identify the following: a) the public demand for each resource b) the levels of use that a resource can sustain over time c) the costs of management actions d) the points of conf l ict with other resource users e) the options that exist for confl ict resolution f) the implications of those options - both in the short and long term. The above c r i t e r i a have a l l been met in the present w i l d l i f e -forestry planning process. Details on the s p e c i f i c analysis are contained in a report - Reservation of Old Growth Timber for the Protect ion of W i l d l i f e Hab i ta t on Northern Vancouver Island produced jo int ly by the Ministries of Forests and Environment in January, 1983. One area of concern is the use of benefit-cost analys is in the va lua t ion of u n g u l a t e s . There was a f a i r l y widespread sentiment among p lann ing p a r t i c i p a n t s that the q u a n t i t a t i v e va lues were i n f l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y and that a qualitative approach would have been more appropriate. The report concludes with a l i s t of f ive management options ranging from total elimination of ungulate winter range to reservation of addit ional (over and above the winter ranges currently deferred from harvest) ranges. One interest in the w i l d l i f e that is not accounted for in -126-the report is that of aboriginal people. Recent i n i t i a t i v e s co-ordinated by the federal Department of Indian Affairs suggests that the N i m p k i s h Band has e n t e r e d i n t o c o - o p e r a t i v e forestry-fishery management planning with the Min istry of Forests and other provincial and federal agencies (Gordon, pers. comm.). Is there follow through by decision-makers at al l levels to make a management dec is ion once they are presented with a l l acceptable options? In the case of the Nimpkish the decision-making process came to a g r i n d i n g h a l t once the F o r e s t r y - W i l d l i f e report reached the Environment and Land Use Committee. No decision has been made on the f ive management options that were presented in 1983 although there appeared to be a rekindled interest in late 1985 on the part of the Minister of Forests , Tom Waterland, to re-evaluate his ministry's posit ion. The stand taken by the Environment and Land Use Committee is to defer making a decision until the expiration of the 1991 deer winter range logging deferra l agreement or when results are known from the IWIFR program (Janz, pers. comm.). The Environment and Land Use Committee has in fact passed the report back to the two ministr ies concerned for their decision (Addison, pers. comm.). Are management plans implemented once a resource use decision has been made? Since a f inal management decision has not been made in the Nimpkish this question cannot be properly answered. If we look at a similar planning and management process - the Tsit ika Watershed Integrated -127-Resource Plan - init iated in 1977 in an adjacent watershed, we find that as ide from some s p e c i f i c problems regarding the lack of compliance with management prescr ip t ions the implementation phase has been successful (Morrison, pers. comm.). The establishment of a fol low-up Committee, comprising the same people as were involved in the in i t i a l planning committee, has ensured that monitoring and guidance in implementing the Plan is delivered. This stage of Ashby's model has not been tota l ly s a t i s f i e d in the case of the Nimpkish management proposal . While there is substant ia l co-operation and collaboration at the operational level between the min is t r ies of Forests and Environment, a serious i ne r t i a remains at the senior minister l e v e l . There ex ists strong economic pressures to maintain timber production and this is made expl ic i t in provincial Forestry l e g i s l a t i o n and policy. There has also been a trend to minimize the p u b l i c ' s ro le in contr ibut ing to the formulation of management plans. F inal ly , there has been a reluctance at the ministerial level - s p e c i f i c a l l y at the Environment and Land Use Committee - to make decisions on resource trade-offs. While the Committee was o r i g i n a l l y intended as a f inal decision-maker in resource use c o n f l i c t s where techn i ca l r e s o l u t i o n was impossible, i t has seldom exercised i ts power. 6.4 Recommendations Ignition of Public Concern Public awareness and concern could be increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y i f a better education and publ ic r e l a t i o n s program were e s t a b l i s h e d j o i n t l y by the ministries of Forests and Environment. Such a program would f a c i l i t a t e the -128-pub l i c ' s a b i l i t y to par t i c ipa te in a more meaningful manner and i t would aid both resource managers and p o l i t i c i a n s in f u l f i l l i n g these tasks . For the managers i t would provide both a source of information as well as an informed public opinion during the review of draft management plans. Pol i t ic ians would also benefit by being able to "read" better the publ ic sentiments on given resource issues. Another benefit of improved education and publ ic re la t ions would be that the communications media - newspapers, magazines, radio and television - could give more extensive and more accurate information for public consumption. Objective Analysis In reviewing the process of objective analysis in both the Tsit ika and Nimpkish watersheds i t is evident that the use of benef i t -cost analysis confuses and confounds the decision-making process more than enl ightens i t . Further, i t appears i t would be des i rab le for s c i e n t i s t s to give q u a l i f i c a t i o n s on the advice they give to decis ion makers, e s p e c i a l l y when the consequences are potentially undesirable. The loss of old growth stands raises questions that are perhaps more serious than just the loss of ungulate hab i ta t . It may also resu l t in the loss of the integr i ty of forest eco-systems which may have far-reaching consequences for al l wi ld l i fe species. While acknowledging that the i r knowledge is imperfect i t is important that s c i e n t i s t s use the best a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n in d e s i g n i n g management p r e s c r i p t i o n s . Otherwise po l i t i c ians will be forced to make policy decisions regarding management actions that w i l l be unsc ient i f i c and potentially harmful both economically and environmentally. However, scientists should design the i r management actions in a manner that ensures that fa i lure will not result in -129-irreversible changes in the environment. Hoi 1ing (1978) stresses the importance of learning from our fai lures while at the same time avoiding irreparable damage to the subject being experimented with. L e g i s l a t i o n The need for inter-agency co-operation in forestry-wi ld l i fe management has been identif ied by resource managers, academics and pol i t ic ians for at least the last ten years. We have witnessed a sometimes slow and awkward but always steady progress - at least until the early 1980s - toward a more sophisticated approach to w i l d l i f e - f o r e s t r y planning in Brit ish Columbia. Some important amendments and additions to the forestry l e g i s l a t i o n (Ministry of Forests Act) has opened the door to allow for a more integrated approach to wi ldl i fe-forestry planning, although i t does not go far enough to compel ministers to incorporate other forest related values, unless there is a surplus supply of timber - a condition that has not existed in B.C. for the last twenty years. The most recent j o i n t e f fo r t by the M in i s t r i es of Forests and Environment suggest that an organized planning process is now possible. It would appear that the c r i t i ca l stage at which the process has fal len down is at the level of the Environment and Land Use Committee. This committee, made up of prov inc ia l cabinet members, has balked at making an immediate decision, with the result that resource managers are l e f t without d i rec t ion as to how to proceed in planning for future research and management act ions . The experience of the T s i t i k a Watershed Integrated Resource Plan restates the problem of decision making and suggests that perhaps increased publ ic attent ion acts to motivate cabinet to make decisions. -130-Some apprehension has been expressed by s ta f f of the W i l d l i f e Branch (name changed in 1984) that the structured planning approach used in the Tsit ika is being abandoned in favour of looser open forums witnessed in the Tashish and Queen Charlotte Islands forestry-wi ld l i fe c o n f l i c t s (Morrison, pers. comm.). These conf l i c t s are characterized by their lack of structure resulting in quick polarization of views, due largely to ignorance on the part of interest groups in knowing what concessions are rea l i s t i c within ex is t ing f o r e s t r y po l i cy and l e g i s l a t i o n . Rather than es tab l i sh ing dia logue, the looseness of publ ic meetings has encouraged confrontat ional at t i tudes that benefit neither the forestry interest nor the wi ld l i fe people. John Dick (1982) has proposed a model of resource management which would see each min is t ry integrate the i r plans at the strategic level through a Regional Co-Ordinating Committee (Fig. 3). The ro le of such a body would be to identify major conf l icts between agencies and to direct the confl icts to the appropriate leve ls of government for reso lut ion . What the process desperately needs is a legis lat ive base such as a Land Use Act (tabled in the B.C. Legislature in 1982 but was never realized) that would provide a more formal vehicle for integrated resource planning. Unfortunately an e a r l i e r attempt to introduce s imi lar legislation in the form of a Planning Act was also unsuccessful. Political Decision-Making One possible strategy that proponents of wi ld l i fe habitat protection could adopt is the use of phased or incremental management plans. We have already witnessed some reluctance on the part of p o l i t i c i a n s to make bold po l i cy decisions on wi ldl i fe habitat protection measures in the Nimpkish and also in the T s i t i k a watershed which was a q u a l i f i e d success story. It might be useful to present -131-Figure 3. Strategic Level Resource Management Integration Source: Dick, 1982 Sectoral Strategic Plans cu E c o > >> i -+J co CD S-o CD cu E CD CD CO S-3 S->> s-T3 o ro £_ CD c: CD C 3 CD 3 O C o •i— +-> S-o Q. co ro s-c o +J ro CD s_ u co E to =5 CO CO o i— s_ O 3 s- o -M CO co co Public Input to Individual Demand Analyses - A t t i -tudes and Expect-ations Trade-Off and Conflict Resolution Regional Co-Ordinati Committee slndividual Agencies Integration Land and Water PI anning Integrated Resource Management Plan Sub-Regional Land And Water Use Plan Public Consultation Pulhic Consultation Revised Strategic Plans Opera-tional Plans Publ ic Involvement -132-decision-makers with the kinds of issues where they can feel comfortable, or as Ashby (1978) states: "The password that the pol i t ic ian is waiting for is the word 'overdue' . When he hears that he knows i t is becoming safe for him to act. The action he takes may be quite t r i v i a l ; th i s is not important. The important contribution the p o l i t i c i a n can make is to ensure that the dec is ion is incremental , that i s , that i t i s a step in the 'r ight ' direct ion." (p.80) Once a p o l i t i c i a n has made th is s t e p , however smal l , he or she should be rewarded with publ ic praise (and of course, e lec tora l support) that w i l l encourage them to take f u r t h e r , perhaps even bolder steps in future wi ld l i fe-forestry policy decisions. A major problem with co-operative management of resources, in this case between the M i n i s t r i e s of Forests and Environment, is the lack of s e n s i t i v i t y and responsiveness to the different interest groups represented in society at large. Boschken (1982) argues that we are confronted by an industrial ized, urbanized and bureaucratized society where we have traded off certain freedoms for more administrative control. If this is the case we must look for a means of opening up the decision-making process to a greater d i v e r s i t y of in te res ts whi le retaining a degree of organizational eff ic iency. While acknowledging that the problem we are faced with is h is tor ica l ly deeply rooted and that behavioural changes w i l l not occur overnight there are some avenues that might be worth exploring. Cer ta in ly we can look to some of the successes experienced in Brit ish Columbia. The Tsit ika Integrated Plan demon-strated that a ra t iona l d iscuss ion and synthesis of information can occur -133-between government resource managers, industry and public interest groups. What the Tsitika Planning Committee did accomplish was the establishment of a set of management prescr ipt ions which addressed the needs of loggers, fishermen, hunters and conservat ionis ts . There was a blending of hard scient if ic facts with more subjective values which has not often been witnessed in the province. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in resource management has been an i n a b i l i t y - despite many val iant attempts - of resource managers to weigh intangible values, such as aesthetics of ecological s t a b i l i t y , in the same balance as raw resources that have a do l la r value in the open market. It may turn out to be a fut i le struggle, in that intangible values simply are not and never wi l l be amenable to monetary valuation. Perhaps we should instead look to establ ishing bodies such as the Tsit ika Planning Committee where the intangible values are at least expressed and where possible incorporated in management plans. One would hope that senior p o l i t i c i a n s would accept management recommendations that have a basis in scientif ic knowledge, but that would also incorporate the sentiments of other interest groups whose interests are not always s t r i c t l y economic. While the kind of 'success' that the T s i t i k a Plan enjoyed might be viewed as in f in i t e s ima l i t could through continued practice bring about a broader acceptance of values presently expressed in resource conf1 ic ts . -134-Bibliography Ashby, E. 1975. " P o l i t i c s and the Environment." in a Ditchberg Foundation Lecture delivered July 18, 1975. Ashby, E. 1978. Reconciling Man with the Environment. Stanford Univ. Press. B.C. Ministry of Forests. 1980. Forest and Range Resource Analys is Technical  Report. Two volumes. Information Services Branch, Ministry ot Forests, Victor ia, B.C. B.C. Ministry of Forests. 1982. Problem Analysis: Old Growth and Ungulates of  Northern Vancouver Island. V ictor ia , B.C. B.C. Ministry of Forests . 1983. Reservation of Old Growth Timber for the  Protection of Wildl i fe Habitat on N. Vancouver Island. V ictor ia , B.C. B.C. M in is t ry of Environment. 1979. Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch. Proposed  Wildlife Management Plan. Queen's Printer, V ictor ia , B.C. B.C. M in is t ry of Environment. 1980. Draft Discussion paper on new Wildlife Act. Unpublished. Victor ia , B.C. B.C. Ministry of Environment. 29 August 1983. "Wi ld l i f e Interest Highest in Brit ish Columbia." News Release. V ictor ia , B.C. B.C. Wildl ife Review. Summer 1981. "Planning the Habitat with the Harvest." p.21-23. Boschken, H.L. 1982. Land Use Conflicts - Organizational Design and Resource Management. University of I l l ino is Press. Brit ish Columbia. 1977. Depart, of Travel Industry. Tourism Highlights. Bunnell, F.L. 1979. Deer-forest re la t ionsh ips on northern Vancouver Island. Sitka Black-tailed Deer. Proc. of a Conf. in Juneau, Alaska: p. 86-101. Bunnell, F.L. 1982. "Wildlife and Land: The Vancouver Island Example." in Proc. Symposium B.C. Land for Wi ldl i fe: Past, Present, Future. Burnaby, B.C. 1981: 111-130": Bunnell, F.L. and D.S. Eastman. 1976. E f fec ts of forest management practices  on wi ld l i fe in the forests of B r i t i s h Columbia, in P r o c , Div. I, XVI. IUFRO World Congress, Oslo, Norway, p. 631-689. Car l , G.C. 1959. The Amphibians of Brit ish Columbia. Handbook No. 2. B.C. Provincial Museum. Victor ia , B.C. -135-Carl , G.C. 1960. The Rept i les of B r i t i s h Columbia, Handbook No. 3. B.C. Provincial Museum. Victor ia , B.C. Cowan, I. McT. 1945. The ecological re la t ionsh ips of the food of Columbian  b lack - ta i l ed deer in the coast region of S. Vancouver Is . , B.C. Ecol. Monogram 15(2): p. 110-139. Cowan, I. McT. and C . J . Guiguet. 1965. The Mammals of B r i t i s h Columbia. Handbook No. 11. B.C. Provincial Museum. Victor ia, B.C. Dick, T.H. 1982. "Strategic Planning for Wildl ife in B.C." in Proc. Symposium. B.C. Land for Wi ldl i fe: Past, Present, Future. Burnaby, B.C. 1981: 39-51. Downs, A. 1972 "Up and down with ecology - the 'issue-attention' cyc le ' ." The  Public Interest 28 p. 38-50. E l l i s , R.M. 1979. Dynamics of understory vegetation in coastal forests. M.Sc. Thesis. Univ. of Brit ish Columbia, Vancouver. E l l i s , R.M. 1980. Intensive s i l v i c u l t u r e - w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n s : research needs on Vancouver Island. Unpublished problem analysis, B.C. Ministry of Forests. V ictor ia , B.C. Equinox. May-June 1983. "Embattled Brobdingnagians - In search of Canada's ta l lest trees: scientists and loggers eye a 700 year-o ld legacy deep in Vancouver Island." p. 24-40. Gates, B.R. 1968. Deer food production in certain serai stages of the coast  forest. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Brit ish Columbia, Vancouver. Godfrey, W.E. 1966. The Birds of Canada. Queen's Printer. Ottawa, Ontario. Ham, L.C. 1980. A Prel iminary Survey of Nimpkish Heritage Sites. A report prepared for Umista Cultural S o c i e t y , Hert Bay, B. C. and Her i tage Conservation Branch, Min istry of the Prov inc ia l Secretary - Government Service, V ictor ia , B.C. Harcombe, A.P. 1984. Wildl i fe Habitat Handbooks for Brit ish Columbia: Problem  Analysis. Ministry of Environment, F ish and W i l d l i f e Branch, Kami oops, B.C. Report R-10. Harestad, A.S. 1979. Influences of f o res t ry pract ices on d ispersa l black- tai led deer. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of Brit ish Columbia, Vancouver. Hatter, J.W. 1982. Predator-Ungulate Relationships in Second Growth Forests on  Vancouver Is. Problem Analysis. IWIFR-5. Victor ia, B.C. Hebert, D.M. 1979. W i l d l i f e - f o r e s t r y planning in the coastal forests of  Vancouver Island. Sitka B lack- ta i l ed Deer: Proc. of a Conf. in Juneau, Alaska: p.113-159. -136-Hebert, D.M. 1982. "Implications of Forest Tenure for Wi ld l i fe Management in Coastal Ecosystems." in Proc. Symposium. B.C. Land for Wildl i fe: Past,  Present, Future. Burnaby, B.C. 1981: 131-135. Hebert, D.M., J . Youds, R. Davies, H. Langin, D. Janz. and G.W. Smith. 1982. Prel iminary invest igat ions of the Vancouver I s . Wolf (Canis lupus  eras sodon) prey r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B.C. Ministry of Environment. Fish and WiIdlife Branch. Highsted, C.J. 1982. "Ministry of Forests ' Part ic ipat ion in Wildl i fe Habitat Management." in Proc. Symposium - B.C. Land for Wi ld l i f e : Past, Present,  Future. Burnaby, B.C. 1981: 59-63. Holland, . 1964. Landforms of Br i t ish Columbia: a physiographic outl ine. Brit ish Columbia Dept. of Mines - Petroleum Resources. Bul l . No. 48. Holl ing, C.S. (editor) 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. John Wiley & Sons. Hoover, R.L. 1976. "Incorporating F i s h and W i l d l i f e Values in Land Use Planning." in Transact ions: F o r t y - f i r s t N. Am. W i l d l i f e and Natural Resources Conference. March 21-25 1976. Washington, D.C. Horizon. 1983. "Nimpkish Island on the Block." Vol 22:1. p.26. Jones, G.W. 1974. Aspects of winter ecology b lack- ta i led deer (Odocoileus  hermionus columbianus) on northern Vancouver Is . M.Sc. Thesis. Univ. of Brit ish Columbia, Vancouver. Jones, G.W., B. Mason. 1979. Nimpkish Val ley Deer P o p u l a t i o n I n d i c e s :  1968-1979. B r i t i s h Columbia Min is t ry ot Environment. Fish and Wi Idlife Branch. Draft report. Nanaimo, B.C. Jones, G.W. and B. Mason. 1983. Relat ionships among Wolves, Hunting and Population Trends of Black-Tailed Deer in the Nimpkish Valley on Vancouver Island. B.C. Minsitry of Environment. Fish and Wildl ife Report R-7. Kale, W. 1979. Evaluation of hunter harvest s t a t i s t i c s for management of  black-tailed deer. M.Sc. Thesis. Univ. of Brit ish Columbia. Kl inka, K., F.C. Nuszdorfer and L. Skoda. 1979. Biogeocl imatic Units of  Central and Southern Vancouver I s l a n d . B.C. M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s . V ictor ia , B.C. Knight, R. 1978. Indians at Work - an informal history of Native Indian Labour  in Brit ish Columbia 1858 - 1930. New Star Books: Vancouver. Kraj ina, V . J . 1969. The Eco logy of Western North America. Volume I I . Department of Botany, University of Brit ish Columbia. -137-Nature Canada. January/March 1984. "Caught in the Crossfire." p.35-40. Nimpkish Band. 1982. Submission of the Nimpkish Band Council to the Royal  Commission on P a c i f i c F isher ies Pol icy" Commissioner Dr. Peter Pearse. January 1982. O'Gorman, D.K. 1978. "Integrated Management of Resources: Parameters, Problems and Prospects, pp. 21-34 in Conference on Integrated Management  of Resources. Centre for Continuing Education, University of B.C. Otway, W.J. 1978. Comments of Reaction Panel in Integrated Management of  Resources Conference. Vancouver, B.C. p. 43-53. Pearse, P.H. 1976. Timber Rights and Forestry Policy in Brit ish Columbia. Two volumes. Report on the Royal Commission on Forest Resources Peter H. 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The effects of hunting and serai succession upon Vancouver  Is . b l ack - ta i l ed d e e r . M.Sc. T h e s i s . Un iv . of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Stevenson, S. 1978. Distribution and abundance of arboreal l ichens used as  winter food by black-tailed deer~ M.Sc. Thesis. Univ. of Brit ish Columbia. Taylor, G.W. 1975. Timber - History of the Forest Industry in B.C. Vancouver: J . J . Douglas. -138-The Province. 23 September, 1980. "Timber shortages threaten al l regions." Province newspaper Vancouver, B.C. p. C2. The Vancouver Sun. 24 October, 1978. "The hunter's r i g h t : To harvest a resource." Vancouver, B.C. p. A6. The Vancouver Sun. 21 January, 1983. "Old growth needed to save d e e r . " Vancouver, B.C. p. A10. Thomas, J.W. 1979. "Introduction in W i l d l i f e Habitats in Managed Forests." Agric. Handbook No. 553. US. Dept. of Agr i cu l tu re , Forest Services, p. 10-21. Tsit ika Planning Committee. 1978. Tsit ika Watershed Integrated Resource Plan Vol. II . 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Forest Serv i ce , Research Branch, Victor ia, B.C. Personal communication. 1982, March 1986. Gordon, D.C. Indian and Northern A f f a i r s Canada. Property and Resources, Reserves and Trusts. B r i t i s h Columbia Region, Vancouver, B.C. Personal communication. November 1985. Gregory, M. Greenpeace. 2108 W. 4th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. Persona l communication. July 1982. Harling, W. B r i t i s h Columbia W i l d l i f e Federat ion. Vancouver Island Region representative. Personal communication. March 1986. Hebert, D.M. Ministry of Environment. F ish and Wildl i fe Branch, Nanaimo, B.C. Personal communication. 1981-82. Janz, D. B.C. Ministry of Environment. Fish and Wildl ife Branch, Nanaimo, B.C. Personal communication. 1981 - 1986. Morrison, D. B.C. Ministry of Environment. Fish and Wildl i fe Branch, Nanaimo, B.C. Personal communication. October - November 1985. Walker, J . B.C. M in is t ry of Environment, Fish and Wildl i fe Branch, Victor ia , B.C. Personal communication. 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