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Development of memory for narratives : effects of encoding variability and age White, William B. 1985

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DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY FOR NARRATIVES: EFFECTS OF ENCODING V A R I A B I L I T Y AND AGE  by W I L L I A M B. WHITE B.A., W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n t h e Department of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND S P E C I A L EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 8, 1985 © W i l l i a m B. W h i t e , 1985  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND SPECIAL EDUCATION The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6(3/81)  OCT. 15, 1985  i i ABSTRACT  R e c a l l of n a r r a t i v e content was studied in a sample of children  ranging  from  5  to  11  years of age.  d i v i d e d i n t o three equal i n t e r v a l s . interval  were  randomly  The  assigned  to  Age range was  children  of  capacities  interactions  within  between  so that any  age-affected  cognitive  and d i f f e r e n t encoding conditions could be gauged at  30 seconds and one week (after encoding). condition)  and  between  conditions  Between-ages  (within  age)  accompanied  by s i g n i f i c a n t r e c a l l advantage.  sufficiently  across the ages that age advantage was diminished when  free r e c a l l performances of 5-7 year old iconic  encoding  conditions  were  children  of  encoding.  in  enactive  compared to free r e c a l l  performances of older c h i l d r e n (9-11 years of age) conditions  uniformly,  Analyses revealed  that e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t encoding conditions were  and  (within  comparisons  revealed that age increase was g e n e r a l l y , though not  variable  each  four encoding c o n d i t i o n s  (symbolic, i c o n i c , e n a c t i v e , and symbolic-rehearsal) effects  170  in  symbolic  The r e s u l t s are discussed in r e l a t i o n  to t h e o r e t i c a l issues and educational questions.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE L i s t of tables  v  L i s t of f i g u r e s . . . . :  vi  Acknowledgement  vi  I  Introduction and l i t e r a t u r e review Introduction L i t e r a t u r e Review  1  II  D e r i v a t i o n of research questions and hypotheses  III  Design and methodology Design Age Encoding D e s c r i p t i v e data Intellectual ability S o c i a l status Method Sample Apparatus The n a r r a t i v e Procedure Preliminary preparation Procedural flow chart "Warmup" "Training session" "Habituation period Experimental c o n d i t i o n and purposes Experimental c o n d i t i o n and procedures P o s t - t e s t procedures Post-Test-1 Post-Test-2 Scoring measures Rubin's u n i t s of measurement Rumelhart's story categories Memory under i n t e r r o g a t i o n (or cued r e c a l l measurement) Scoring procedures Analysis  15  -  23 23 24 24 26 27 28 .28 28 30 31 32 32 33 33 34 35 36 38 41 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5  iv  CHAPTER  PAGE  IV  Results , 52 Part A 53 Age and treatment e f f e c t s 53 Part B 56 Within age-span comparisons between the c o n d i t i o n s . . . 56 Y age-span comparisons (between conditions) 58 M age-span comparisons (between conditions) 61 0 age-span comparisons (between conditions) 65 Part C 69 Other observed d i f f e r n c e s : exploratory post-hoc a n a l y s i s 69 A b i l i t y (IQ), SES, and gender v a r i a b l e s 78 A b i l i t y (IQ) 78 Gender and SES 78 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Free R e c a l l Measurement 79  V  Discussion Evaluation of hypotheses Part A: age and treatment e f f e c t s Part B: c o n d i t i o n v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n age-span groups Youngest (Y) age-span group Middle (M) age span group Oldest (0) age-span group Part C: exploratory a n a l y s i s Summary evaluation Discussion and educational i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n a l considerations L i m i t a t i o n s and caveat Age sample Free r e c a l l technique Rehearsal e f f e c t s D i r e c t i o n s for further research Conclusion  91 100 103 103 104 104 106 107  Bibliography  1 09  Appendix A: Rationale for the n a r r a t i v e content Appendix B: r a t i o n a l for d i r e c t i o n s for e l i c i t a t i o n of free r e c a l l Appendix C: Questions asked about the story Appendix D: Word u n i t s from s t o r y . . . Appendix E: Categories Appendix F: Figure 2B  121  80 82 82 83 83 83 84 84 85  122 .124 125 127 128  V  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I II III  IV  V  VI  VII  VIII  IX  X  PAGE Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of ages (in months) for each age-span group  29  Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of a b i l i t y scores by age-span group and gender  30  (IQ)  Means and standard deviations of each measure at PT-1 and PT-2 of the Y age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n  59  Summary of the r e s u l t s of a l l pairwise comparisons on the PT-1 category and PT-2 category and cued r e c a l l measures (Y age-span)  61  Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s on each measure at PT-1 and PT-2 of the M age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n  62  Summary of the r e s u l t s of a l l pairwise comparisons on the PT-1 category measure and the PT-2 category and cued r e c a l l measures (M age span )  65  Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of each measure at PT-1 and PT-2 by the 0 age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n  66  Summary t a b l e of r e s u l t s of the Tukey HSD post-hoc a n a l y s i s on the category measure (at PT-1) with a l l age-spans across a l l conditions  75  Summary table of the r e s u l t s of the Tukey HSD post-hoc a n a l y s i s on the category measure (at PT-2) with a l l age-spans across a l l conditions  76  Summary t a b l e of the r e s u l t s of the Tukey HSD post-hoc a n a l y s i s on the cued r e c a l l measure (at PT-2) with a l l age-spans across a l l conditions  77  vi  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 2A  2B  3A 3B  4A 4B  5A 5B  6 7 8  PAGE Procedural flow chart with time elapsed for each a c t i v i t y in preliminary preparations  33  Mean r e c a l l performance (PT-1 and PT-2) on the category measure by each treatment c o n d i t i o n group (EC IC SC and SIRC) for each age span group  57  Mean r e c a l l performance (PT-2) on the cued r e c a l l measure by each treatment c o n d i t i o n group (EC IC SC and SIRC) for each age span group  128  Condition group performance means for Y age span (category and unit measures at PT-1)  60  Condition group performance means for Y age span (category, unit and cued r e c a l l measures at PT-2)  60  Condition group performance means for M age span (category and unit measures at PT-1)  63  Condition group performance means for M age span (category, u n i t , and cued r e c a l l measures at PT-2)  64  Condition group performance means for 0 age span (category and unit measures at PT-1)  67  Condition group performance means for 0 age span (category, u n i t , and cued r e c a l l measures at PT-2)  68  Performance means for each age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n on the category measure at PT-1  72  Performance means for each age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n on the category measure at PT-2  .73  Performance means for each age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n on the cued r e c a l l measure at PT-2  74  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Great a p p r e c i a t i o n i s not enough to extend to one given me h i s e f f o r t , wisdom, and encouragement. Dr. LeRoy D. T r a v i s  who  who  has  I wish to thank  has been f i r s t and foremost in helping  me to complete t h i s p r o j e c t . As w e l l , a sincere thanks to Dr. S . S . Lee,  Dr. N. Suzuki,  and  would l i k e to extend my thanks to Heritage  and  Highglen  elementary  Dr. J . Conry,  Dr. S. F o s t e r ,  Dr. M. Westwood. the  staff  schools  and  Further, children  I at  for t h e i r time and  cooperation. L a s t l y , I would l i k e to express my gratitude to have  given  me  their  quiet  those  who  understanding, moral support, and  pat ience. To A r c h i e , E l l a , and Lynda, I thank you.  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW  INTRODUCTION "Everybody who i s s k i l l e d at anything n e c e s s a r i l y has a good memory for whatever a c t i v i t y demands."  Failure  information  (Neisser,  that  1982, p. 17)  to r e c a l l information from connected discourse may  be highly implicated in a s t u d e n t ' s poor performance in Various  researchers  performance clustering organization categories Flavell,  to or  have  age,  explored the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of r e c a l l  coding  chunking, of  (for  systems,  recall . strategies,  mnemonic or mediation techniques, and  material  into  superordinate  have  or  subordinate  example, J a b l o n s k i , 1974; Kreutzer, Leonard, &  1975; Moely, 1977; Kobasigawa, 1977).  researchers  school.  directed  In recent  years  a t t e n t i o n to young c h i l d r e n ' s (ages  4-7 years) r e c a l l of n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l in the form of sentences or b r i e f s t o r i e s (Brown, 1975;  Glenn,  1978;  Horton  &  Mills,  1984; P a r i s & Lindauer 1976; S t e i n & Glenn, 1975). This  attention  to  memory  for  prose  is  actually  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n which was given substance work of B a r t l e t t (1932). mainstream  style  by  a the  B a r t l e t t departed from what became the  of memory study in that he preferred to study  2  memory for meaningful content rather than  memory  for  nonsense  s y l l a b l e s or other d i s c r e t e u n i t s which do not together comprise meaningful  content.  Researchers in t h i s l a t t e r t r a d i t i o n which  Ebbinghaus (1964) e s t a b l i s h e d have sought r e g u l a r i t i e s in memory by c o n t r o l l i n g between s u b j e c t ' s d i f f e r e n c e s in such factors prior  learning  (DiSibio,  1982).  By s u b s t i t u t i n g  as  unconnected  u n i t s such as nonsense s y l l a b l e s or numerals for the content connected  d i s c o u r s e , greater experimental c o n t r o l was exercised  and greater p r e c i s i o n was gained memory  capacity  mnemonics; effects  of  for  list  gauging  interference  but  a  few  phenomena;  of  the  in  order  to  gain  an  a  matters  as  organizational and  matters  c o n t r a s t , B a r t l e t t was prepared to accept precision  such  d i s c r e t e items; e f f e c t s of  different  (to  in  rehearsal  studied).  lesser  understanding  In  degree  of  of memory for  meaningful content. The B a r t l e t t t r a d i t i o n has people  like  Neisser  (1982)  been have  revitalized concluded that  recently  as  regularities  revealed by rigorous studies of the Ebbinghaus t r a d i t i o n t e l l us l i t t l e about the concerns that draw us to the study of memory in the f i r s t p l a c e . span  and  v  word  Neisser, l i k e B a r t l e t t ,  contends  that  digit  l i s t memory t e l l us l i t t l e about memory for the  content of connected discourse  upon  which  teachers  rely  for  instruction. The here.  study  of  memory  for  This i s important for both  purposes  n a r r a t i v e content i s addressed theoretical  and  educational  because l i t t l e i s known about how such memory develops  3  or how such memory of people, in varying degrees of maturity, different  encoding  conditions.  The  is  affected  by  reported  research  on memory for narrative content evoked suggestions for  the present work which compared how memory for n a r r a t i v e content varied  with  consideration  age of  and  encoding  published  conditions.  research  Accordingly,  a  pertinent to the present  study i s in order.  LITERATURE REVIEW The present study of macro-memory i s  an  expression  of  a  growing i n t e r e s t , w i t h i n the research community, in a v a r i e t y of aspects text.  of  macro-memory.  Some  researchers  study memory for  She of  follows  Drum (1985) i s one of these.  course  in  the t r a d i t i o n of B a r t l e t t (mentioned above) and those l i k e Cofer (1941)  who  kept  t h i s l i n e of thought a l i v e .  Cofer (1941) was  i n t e r e s t e d in d i f f e r e n c e s in verbatim l e a r n i n g logical found  or that  essential  idea  verbatim  recall  learning of  compared  to  by c o l l e g e students.  He  different  as  lengths  of  prose  passages was more d i f f i c u l t than was r e c a l l of g i s t or e s s e n t i a l ideas.  Of  course  Jerome  Bruner  maintained an i n t e r e s t in memory Bruner  and  Olson  for  and  his  meaningful  collegues  have  content  too.  (1977-78) for example, explored "symbols and  texts as t o o l s of i n t e l l e c t " , because of an abiding i n t e r e s t memory  (and  in  for other considerations connected with " t r a n s f e r "  and competence of higher order processes).  4  Others have focused on pertains  so-called  to r e c a l l of meaningful content.  or c l a s s i f i c a t o r y systems  of  ordered  (Thorndyke,  in  hierarchies)  structures  study what i s remembered in a s t o r y . such  work  are  Thorndyke,  Mandler  and  as  it  Schemata of s t o r i e s , and  elements  (often  1977), have been used to Among  those  who  report  Johnson (1977); Rumelhart (1975); list  These researchers generally report that "high l e v e l "  central)  story  elements  are  l e v e l " (or p e r i p h e r a l ) d e t a i l s . work  theory  (1977); and Thorndyke and Hayes-Roth (1979), to  but a few. (or  schemata  has  come  under  r e c a l l e d more than are "low  Unfortunately,  this  line  of  a cloud in recent times (Horton & M i l l s ,  1984) . •Memory f o r . s c r i p t s has a l s o become a topic of i n t e r e s t to a number of researchers such as Mandler and "Murphy (1983); Black,  and  Turner (1979).  While " s c r i p t " theory i s  to s p e c i f i c elaboration of the frame theory Black,  & Turner,  1979),  of  Bower,  attributed  Minsky  (Bower,  a " s c r i p t " i s described as a generic  memory s t r u c t u r e of stereotyped s i t u a t i o n s (such as going restaurant;  going  to  a  zoo;  riding  (Bower, B l a c k , & Turner, 1979).  a  Although  to  a  plane, and the l i k e ) there  may  be  some  question about the use of " s c r i p t s " for study i n r e c a l l of prose (Mandler  and Murphy, 1983), i t i s an area that some researchers  f i n d promising as a means of enhancing our understanding of what is recalled. reported  that  For example, stories  Mistry  and  Lange  (1985)  recently  which contain "strong" s c r i p t  (material  which t r e a t s experience and events in stereotype)  were  recalled  5  better  than  stories  with  "weak"  scripts.  c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y v i s i t f a s t food o u t l e t s they  visit  That  more  is,  since  frequently  than  c i r c u s e s or zoos they are more l i k e l y to remember a  story about a v i s i t to McDonald's than about a v i s i t to the zoo. A t t e n t i o n to what i s remembered material  has a l s o a t t r a c t e d i n t e r e s t .  to be of great i n t e r e s t . stories  from  Bartlett  complex,  meaningful  Of course g i s t continues  (1932)  reported  that  he used were not r e c a l l e d verbatim but were r e c a l l e d in  what he and aformentioned researchers would now say was schemata,  the  or  gist.  script,  G i s t , of course, i s not verbatim content,  but i s what Cofer (1941) c a l l e d l o g i c a l and e s s e n t i a l  ideas  of  the prose r e c a l l e d . Many  researchers  have  studied  sentence, s t o r y , and t e x t  r e c a l l , and have proposed various concepts of what and  why.  is  recalled  H e r t e l (1985) i s one of those who brings i n t e r e s t  interference to the study of complex prose  material.  This  in is  merely one of a v a r i e t y of t h e o r e t i c a l perspectives one n o t i c e s . Thus an  one sees a range from a G e s t a l t view of sentence memory to assocciative  independently  view  linked  (or  from  concepts)  well  formed  (Horton & M i l l s ,  of s c r i p t , schemata, and g i s t adapted to  wholes 1984, p.  endeavors  which  to 385) look  for reasons why s p e c i f i c information i n sentences and s t o r i e s i s recalled.  All  of  t h i s has made the Ebbinghaus t r a d i t i o n look  quaint and a r c h a i c . The present thread of research, which combines i n t e r e s t  in  6  memory for story content with concerns about the s i g n i f i c a n c e or impact  of encoding c o n d i t i o n s and the impact of development, i s  part of t h i s renewed and growing i n t e r e s t in macro-memory.  Some  of the roots which anchor, and the main  stem  features  of  the  which supports the present work warrant mention. Paris  & Lindauer  (1977)  describe  studies  of r e c a l l of  n a r r a t i v e s in which young c h i l d r e n (around 5 years of  age),  comparison with older c h i l d r e n (around 10 years of age), poor  recall  of  narrative  material.  other memory research (eg. on etc.)  paired  exhibit  This i s consistent with associates,  digit  span,  wherein r e c a l l i s generally reported to increase with age  (Brown, 1975a; 1975b; E l k i n d , 1971; F l a v e l l , 1974;  Kobasigawa,  1971; J a b l o n s k i ,  1977).. However, some research suggests that  encoding c o n d i t i o n s a l s o a f f e c t r e c a l l (Paris & Lindauer, 1977; T r a v i s & White, 1979). of  in  1976;  This suggests that the magnititude  r e c a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between older and younger c h i l d r e n may be  composed  of  variability  due  to  the  interaction  of  developmentally d i f f e r i n g s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Jablonski,' 1974; P a r i s & Upton, 1976; see below) and encoding c o n d i t i o n s . Both  the  Genevan  theorizing  (Inhelder  & P i a g e t , 1964;  F u r t h , 1969) and the aforementioned evidence (Paris & Lindauer, 1976;  1977; T r a v i s & White, 1979) suggest that when c h i l d r e n of  about 5 to 7 years of age actions  organize  information  through  they increase t h e i r capacity to r e c a l l i t .  overt  Apparently,  the younger c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e functioning i s more dependent upon enactive schemes than i s that of older  children  who  generally  7 seem to be comparatively more a d r o i t in a s s i m i l a t i n g information to  figurative  aspects  of  both  representation schemas (Furth,  1969).  imaginal  and  symbolic  Both Piaget (Piaget, 1962; 1967; 1969; 1976a; 1976b; Piaget & Inhelder, 1971; 1973) claimed  that  and  Bruner  representational  F i r s t , the c h i l d organizes and his  actions;  (1964;  systems  1966;  1973)  have  develop in a sequence:  represents  information  through  the second, or what Bruner (1964; 1973) c a l l s the  i c o n i c system, develops from the f u n c t i o n i n g of the enactive first  or  system, and i t e n t a i l s the a s s i m i l a t i o n of information to  images with which the c h i l d represents information  to  Third,  develop  and  capacity  still to  representations  later  in  assimilate  ontogeny,  children  information  to  more  himself. the  abstract  the elements of which are signs or true symbols  (Inhelder & P i a g e t , 1964). Each of these r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l systems  putatively  enables  the c h i l d to construct knowledge of the world; but the knowledge which  is  so  constructed  i s given character by the p a r t i c u l a r  system or systems which are used to construct i t . children's  knowledge  of  t h e i r overt a c t i o n s in children  can  construct  the  and a  on  While  young  world i s constructed f i r s t , from it  world  (and of  c h i l d r e n can construct knowledge with  it  images symbolic  on  them),  and  older  s t i l l older  representations  as w e l l as a c t i o n s and images (Bruner, 1973; P i a g e t , 1976). A  constructivist  theory  (DiSibio,  1982) such as that of  8 Piaget ( P a r i s & Lindauer, 1977), would suggest only  do  children  who  then,  that  not  can construct knowledge with images and  symbols gain advantage through increased c a p a c i t i e s to know more of the world, they can a s s i m i l a t e i t and accommodate to i t more  versatility  (Piaget,  1976).  The  with  capacity to construct  knowledge in imagery and symbols apparently enables c h i l d r e n gain  increasing  independence  from  to  t h e i r concrete actions for  t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n of knowledge (see a l s o D i S i b i o , 1982). From a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t vantage p o i n t , then, that  what  a  and  knowledge  Accordingly, i f  the  knowledge  is  that such  children  material  can  argue  c h i l d knows i s a f f e c t e d by both how he or she can  know and how he or she has come to know. recall  one  are young  predominantly  through  who their  not  Moreover, the  independent  (prior  to  age  of 7  child's  one or  another.  8)  child's  enactive knowing, one might expect  construct  their  knowledge  of  given  own motoric a c t i o n s on i t , w i l l r e c a l l  more of the m a t e r i a l than w i l l t h e i r cohorts who are deprived of the opportunity to encode the same m a t e r i a l in the same  manner.  Older c h i l d r e n who are deprived of the opportunity to encode the same  material  in  enactive schemes, should not be handicapped.  With the c a p a c i t i e s to construct knowledge of  the  material  in  i c o n i c and/or symbolic schemas more f u l l y developed, c h i l d r e n at or beyond the age of mid-latency should be able to construct and recall  knowledge  younger c h i l d r e n material.  of the m a t e r i a l as w e l l as or better than the who  constructed  enactive  knowledge  of  the  This l i n e of reasoning seems to inform the Brunerian  9 conjecture (1964) about the ontogenetic order in the development of the representational systems. In passing, we should notice that a l l systems in  place  in  rudimentary  are  usually  forms by the end of the second year.  However, they do not seem to d i f f e r in t h e i r subsequent from  other  systems, such as s k e l e t a l and n e u r o l o g i c a l systems,  which are incomplete in the infancy years. become  careers  That i s ,  they  more elaborate and complete through the:passage of time.  Apparently,  our  differentiation,  experience  contributes  organization  something  to  such  and e l a b o r a t i o n of language just  as i t contributes to the development of coordinated actions neurological  development  (Bower, 1979).  capacity  to  complexity  handle a much greater d i v e r s i t y of experience  than do other systems.  The range of p h y s i c a l actions which  emerge,  and  be  organized  be  actions  For these reasons we can expect the action-scheme  systems to approach t h e i r f u l l and  symbol  systems.  l i m i t e d range forcast expected  to  this.  approach  their  possibilities That The full  the  greatest  sooner  than  the  i s t h e i r premier status and imaginal maturity  systems but before the symbol systems. have  than  imagined), and s t i l l more l i m i t e d than i s the range for  abstractions.  image  can  become coordinated seems to be more  l i m i t e d than i s the range of images (because more can  and  However, some systems  "have an inherent p o t e n t i a l to develop a much greater and  will  systems  might  be  after  the a c t i o n  The symbolic  capacities  p o t e n t i a l for e l a b o r a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ,  and o r g a n i z a t i o n ; are the most f l e x i b l e ; and, in a d d i t i o n to the  10  f a c t o r s mentioned, because t h e i r rudiments appear l a s t , they can be expected to take the greatest amount of time  and  experience  to reach f u l l bloom. If late  Bruner  latency  reconstructed  is might  in  be  'from  with p r o f i c i e n c y . narrative  correct,  one might expect that c h i l d r e n i n  expected  enactive However,  or  to  recall  information  i c o n i c representation systems  their  capacity  to  reconstruct  a  a r e c a l l task would be expected to be g r e a t e r ,  if  at t h i s age, they construct t h e i r knowledge of the n a r r a t i v e a  symbolic representation system such as language.  approach  puberty,  usually  developed  children's sufficiently  p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i d e a l s , and enables  them  to  be  more  R e c a l l of language-construed ordered  proficiency to  counter-factual flexible, content  language  has  information.  This  independent, and f l u e n t . (as  opposed  to  content  with actions or images) might be expected to be optimal  interests  of  a  person's  own  and c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s m a t e r i a l that has the best  chance of being a c c e s s i b l e in memory" before  this  (Bruner,  1973,  p. 412).  .stage of development the c h i l d ' s capacity to  order r e a l i t y with what Pavlov, called  For as they  enable them to contemplate  since "material that i s organized in terms  Well  with  in  as  well  as  Vygotsky  (1978),  the second s i g n a l system has been repeatedly shown to be  well established.  However, with each passing  year  fluency and f l e x i b i l i t y increases very n o t i c e a b l y .  our  verbal  Accordingly,  by age 10 or so our vocabularies and our knowledge surpass those of  p r e - s c h o o l and primary school c h i l d r e n so that we can handle  11  f e a t s of symbolic manipulation that mystify c h i l d r e n of 5 years.  What  Bruner  pp.  (1966,  or  6  c a l l e d the "power" and  44-50)  "economy" of the symbolic "mode" of representation enable one to hold and process more information in that mode than i s the with  the  other  two  (enactive  and  iconic)  case  representational  systems. Some research i n d i c a t e s that the development of  competence  in motoric representation precedes the development of competence with  iconic  and  symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ; that i c o n i c knowing  develops p r i o r to the development knowing,  our, powers  Furth,  Vygotsky, notable  1969;  1978).  gains  in  1964;  1966;  1973;  (Cavanaugh  Likewise,  there—also  are  cognitive  functioning  as  & Borkowski,  1980;  1 9 7 1 ; Hartup Sc Coates, 1 9 7 2 ; Jablonski,  1 974;  children's strategic •cueing,  rehearsal,  information as  improves do  represent  more 1976).  Flavell,  their  Lange  indications  thinking etc.)  S< P i a g e t ,  Jackson,  1974).  (with  mnemonics,  and  complex  order  7  on a and  8  1964; At  this  1969; time  organization,  t h e i r o v e r a l l a b i l i t y to r e c a l l  noticeably logical  ages  of  Dunham Sc L e v i n , 1 9 7 9 ; F l a v e l l ,  Inhelder Sc  1969;  manifested  (Flavell,  1977;  Jablonski,  competencies  which  require the  maturation of c a p a c i t i e s to use true symbols to  Piaget,  symbolic  Inhelder & P i a g e t , 1 9 6 4 ; Richardson,  v a r i e t y of i n d i c a t o r s during the p e r i o d between  1974),  of  and that our memory performances are influenced by our  competencies for knowing (Bruner, 1963;  of  (Owen,  understand  Froman, Sc Moscow,  and 1981;  1 2  Thus  if  young  representational  children's  structures  iconic  are  and  relatively  symbolic undeveloped,  c o n d i t i o n s which require that they encode information in or  symbolic schemas may produce a s s i m i l a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s which  are r e f l e c t e d in t h e i r comparatively poor In  most i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the subjects'  restricted  by  recall  of  tested  appears  the c o n d i t i o n s in which they t y p i c a l l y  the i n f o r m a t i o n .  Since the information u s u a l l y  is  to  be  encounter  apprehended  i t i s made a v a i l a b l e , in v i s u a l or verbal form, the apparent  r e c a l l advantage that reflect  accompanies  concomitant  accompany  the  increases  development  representational  systems.  If  increasing  in  encoding  of  iconic  the  symbolic  registers  (i.e.  age  may  and. in  either  younger  which  symbolic which  the  iconic  or  to those systems which are more f u l l y  developed with age), the r e s u l t s may be misleading the  simply  capacities  conditions  m a t e r i a l i s encountered r e s t r i c t encoding to  to  material.  l a t i t u d e for encoding the  m a t e r i a l on which t h e i r r e c a l l i s to be  as  iconic  with  regard  conclusion regarding the memory capacity of c h i l d r e n at ages.  efficiency  may  appears to be encounter  At  the  conditions.  younger  depend excluded material  Reported  ages,  upon by  children's  enactive the  results  encoding  conditions  to-be-recalled may  not  optimal  in  recall  which u s u a l l y  under  which  they  conventional  test  represent  the  young  children's recall capacities well. Measures  of free r e c a l l of n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l require  that  the young c h i l d reconstruct the n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l in a symbolic  13 system ( i . e . young  language).  child's  From a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t  capacity  r e c a l l task might  be  to  reconstruct  expected  to  be  perspective  the  the  n a r r a t i v e in the  greater  if  the  child  constructs knowledge of i t in h i s or her enactive representation system, rather than i f the c h i l d constructs h i s or her knowledge of the n a r r a t i v e in the symbolic system (see Brown, 1975). expectation  is  based  on  the  between what one knows and Given  the  relatively  premise  what  one  immature  his  capacity  to  about the r e l a t i o n s h i p  can  evoke  symbolic  construct  systems  knowledge  less  -  it.  In  than he can say he  age,  make  would  register  be  to  enactive  in the f i r s t case. translations  another  transposed ( i . e .  will  know  more  even though he may be expected to r e c a l l more  better to  will  the  the f i r s t case, the c h i l d might be induced to say  more than he knows; and in the second case, he  than  (compared  f u l l y - i f such knowledge must be constructed  in a symbolic r e g i s t e r than i f i t were a s s i m i l a t e d schemes.  memory.  enactively)  m a t e r i a l t o - b e - r e c a l l e d w i l l be known l e s s w e l l assimilated  from  c o n d i t i o n of the young c h i l d ' s  capacity to construct knowledge in with  This  or  Presumably, one can, at any transpositions  from  one  i f one knows w e l l the t o - b e - t r a n s l a t e d or  transformed and  reconstructed)  material  well  than i f one knows the m a t e r i a l l e s s w e l l . If  optimal  recall  of  information  depends upon enactive encoding of i t , information conditions  may which  be  obtained  enable  them  by  optimal  younger recall  children of  such  by p r o v i d i n g young c h i l d r e n with to  construct  knowledge  of  14  to-be-recalled Moreover,  material  through  motoric  system  as  Bruner  (1964)  optimal r e c a l l may be a s s o c i a t e d with to  assimilate  structures. them  to  from  the  first  advantages  to  their enable  imaginal  which  enable  of symbolic coding may  In other words, optimal  recall  may  on enactive encoding; next i t may depend upon  i c o n i c coding; and s t i l l l a t e r , coding.  material  For s t i l l older c h i l d r e n , c o n d i t i o n s  benefit  at  which  it.  iconic  conjectured,  conditions  to-be-recalled  f a c i l i t a t e optimal r e c a l l . depend  of  since older c h i l d r e n become more adept with an  representational  them  organization  it  may  depend  What has not been examined e x t e n s i v e l y  upon  symbolic  i s the degree to  which c h i l d r e n ' s memory of n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s a f f e c t e d by the conditions  under  efficiency  with  which  they  and  encode i t and how t h e i r  dispositions  to  employ  relative different  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l systems change as they develop. Moreover,  neither the age-span w i t h i n which optimal r e c a l l  i s a s s o c i a t e d with enactive o r g a n i z a t i o n or when optimal becomes  associated  established.  with  iconic  recall  or symbolic encoding has been  In s p i t e of the wealth of research  on  children's  r e c a l l a b i l i t i e s , there i s a poverty of information about how or if  age  recall.  and  encoding  conditions  interact  to  influence free  15  CHAPTER  II  DERIVATION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES  The be  foregoing  associated  increases. propose  d i s c u s s i o n suggests that optimal r e c a l l may  with  different  Developmental  a  developmental  increasingly  mature  encoding  conditions  as  age  theorists  such as Piaget and Bruner  sequence  in  the  emergence  powers of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  These t h e o r i s t s  claim that while optimal c o g n i t i v e functioning depends at on  enactive  structures  schemes and  it  of  first  subsequently depends upon information  functions  associated  with  images  and  then  symbols. Although  the  rudiments  of  all  three  representational  systems for most c h i l d r e n may w e l l be f u n c t i o n a l by of  the  second  functional abstract  year;  and  thenceforth,  although  all  development  of  the  middle  three systems may be differentation  in  systems i s p u t a t i v e l y l e s s a matter of prospect as age  increases  (Bower,  1979;  Bruner,  1964).  That  preschool  years, the development of the o n t o g e n e t i c a l l y premier  (enactive) system i s more advanced than i s that (iconic)  of  the  in  the  second  system and the second i s more f u l l y developed than the  t h i r d (symbolic). enactive  is,  knowing  Accordingly, decreases  the with  necessity  of  increasing  relying age  on  because  a l t e r n a t i v e s become both i n c r e a s i n g l y a v a i l a b l e and r e l i a b l e  as  16 the second and t h i r d systems develop more f u l l y (with increasing age). This  line  of  theoretical  speculation (eg. Bruner, 1966;  1973) and accumulated evidence (Travis & White, 1979) led to the formulation of the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : (1) Does the r e c a l l advantage that age advance seems remain  constant  conditions? enactive  within  as  (2) Does the  encoding  well  to  confer  as  across  various encoding  comparative  recall  advantage  conditions  which  seem to confer on young c h i l d r e n  also emerge for older c h i l d r e n when  the  performances  of  such  older c h i l d r e n , in various encoding c o n d i t i o n s , are compared? The  superior memory performances of young c h i l d r e n induced  to encode and organize information through overt represent  the  1979) further conditions  actions  which  tb-be-remembered subject matter (Travis & White, suggest  and  that  recall  is  affected  by  encoding  t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a b l e s  (or  c o g n i t i v e functions) which apparently change with increased age. According to Piaget ( F l a v e l l , representations  appear  into systems b u i l t symbolic  on  to  1963) and Bruner (1964), entail  action  representations  are  enactive  organization of information  schemes,  and  presumed  to  young  children's  develop from t h e i r  p r i o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and use of enactive representations 1964;  Inhelder  & Piaget,  1964).  presently no basis for assuming that impact  of  the  Unfortunately, the  pattern  (Bruner, there  of  is  relative  encoding c o n d i t i o n s (which were compared in the  T r a v i s & White study) i s s i m i l a r or uniform across ages.  17  However,  one  performances  of  can  conjecture  that  the  improved  memory  c h i l d r e n in the l a t t e r years of primary school  may be a consequence of  enhanced  maturity  of  capacities  for  representing information in iconic or symbolic codes ( J a b l o n s k i , 1974;  Kail,  1979;  Kuhlman  & Wolking, 1972; Vygotsky, 1978).  Notable observers have described how c h i l d r e n appear to increased  capacities  symbolic systems learning  with  to  and  increase  increased  Lindauer, 1976; 1977). years  of  primary  assimilate  age  information to i c o n i c and  their  strategy  (Flavell,  efficiency  1970;  1977;  In other words, c h i l d r e n in school  may  develop  have  matured  Paris &  the or  latter  developed  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l systems which are more economical and than  powerful  that which i s established through the motoric organization  of t h e i r experiences (see Inhelder,  Bovet,  Inhelder  Ghatala,  & Piaget,  1964;  Levin,  & Sinclair,  1974;  DeRose, W i l d e r , &  Norton, 1975; P i a g e t , 1969; Richardson, 1969; Vygotsky, Thus,  in  older  1978).  p u p i l s may not need to r e l y so heavily on enactive  schemes for the construction of knowledge as  do  their  younger  counterparts. The  foregoing  hypotheses.  a n a l y s i s led to the formulation of research  The t e s t i n g of these e n t a i l e d the  organization  of  equal i n t e r v a l age-spans which together (in sum) encompassed (1) a  period  associated utilization  when with of  the u t i l i z a t i o n of enactive schemes seems to be maximum r e c a l l ; symbolic  systems  (2)  a  could  period be  when  expected  the to  be  18 associated with maximum r e c a l l ; and (3) a period the  former  and  precedes  the  latter,  and  which  in  follows  which notable  t r a n s i t i o n s in cognitive functioning have been documented. experimental  procedures  design features structural  which  also  required  systematically  that, vary  in  the  The  a d d i t i o n to (age-related)  factors (represented by age as t h e i r p r o x y ) ,  factors  which influence encoding also had to be varied and s t a n d a r d i z e d . Accordingly, four experimental c o n d i t i o n s were devised to induce encoding v a r i a b i l i t y within each age-span sub-set of a sample of children. within  These  age-spans;  features,  together  with  standard  (common)  information  content; standard r e c a l l m e t r i c s ; comprised  the  hypotheses by  and  random  uniform  assignment (narrative)  time  controls,  major features of the design devised to t e s t the experiment  and  gain  data  which  bear  on  the  research questions. Therefore, M= 84-107 months; treatment  given  three  age-spans  0= 108-131 months);  conditions  designed  to  (Y= 60-83 months;  given  four  encoding  allow for e s t i m a t i o n of the  impact of such conditions both w i t h i n and between age-spans; and given  a  common  instrumentation,  narrative one  can  as test  well  as  common  predictions  with  measurement respect  treatment (condition) e f f e c t s w i t h i n and between age-spans age  e f f e c t s within treatments).  (H)  were  formulated  with  to (and  Thus, the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses  regard  to  the  measured  recall  performances of the twelve sub-sets of the sample: An  i n t e r a c t i o n of age and encoding c o n d i t i o n s i s suggested  19  by two p r o p o s i t i o n s : F i r s t , as age increases of  narration  content  is  more  complete  children's  when such content i s  organized and represented with symbols (such as is  recall  language)  than  the case when such content i s organized and represented with  enactive and i c o n i c representations. children  are  better  and represented by material  structures).  Thus  younger  ages,  able to r e c a l l m a t e r i a l that i s organized  enactive  organized  Second, at  and the  schemes  (compared  represented first  by  hypothesis  to  iconic was  recall or  of  symbolic  formulated  as  follows: H1:  There  will  be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between age-spans  and encoding conditions on r e c a l l . Since there i s l i t t l e reason that  enactive  capabilities  which  or  evidence have  been  optimal r e c a l l by young c h i l d r e n should d e c l i n e since  recall  which  suggests  associated with with  age;  and  d i f f e r e n c e s were expected to be observed (as past  research i n d i c a t e s improvements of r e c a l l  with  age  increase),  the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were made with regard to age e f f e c t s : H2:  The  oldest  (0) age-span w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior to  the youngest and middle (Y and M) age-spans on r e c a l l . H3:  The middle (M) age-span w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  superior  to  the youngest (Y) age-span on r e c a l l . Since,  as  i n d i c a t e d above, the enactive c a p a b i l i t i e s  r e c a l l performance) of the c h i l d r e n are not expected to  (for  decline  with age, but the symbolic c a p a b i l i t i e s (for r e c a l l performance) are expected to increase with age, the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were  20  made for c o n d i t i o n e f f e c t s : H4:  The  r e c a l l performances of c h i l d r e n from enactive encoding  conditions w i l l be superior to the r e c a l l of c h i l d r e n  from  i c o n i c encoding c o n d i t i o n s . H5:  The  r e c a l l performances of c h i l d r e n from enactive encoding  conditions w i l l be superior to the r e c a l l of  the  children  from symbolic encoding c o n d i t i o n s . The  next  set  of  hypotheses  educators must deal with when variable  effects  was  concerned  considering  the  levels.  age, while  of  of learning conditions on the performances of at  specific  For example, teachers of c h i l d r e n 9 to 11 years of perhaps  concerned  what  possibility  c h i l d r e n between the d i f f e r e n t encoding c o n d i t i o n s age  with  interested,  presumably  would  not  be  as  with the performances of c h i l d r e n 5 to 7 years of age  as they would be with performances in the 9 to 11 year age-span. However,  little  performance  research  with  regard  has to  been  conducted  encoding  f o l l o w i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l speculation and  on  children's  conditions.  Therefore,  accumulated  evidence  presented  above, hypotheses were formulated which are concerned  with  differential  the  developmental  (age)  attenuation  advance.  of  White (1979) could be be r e p l i c a t e d . focused  effects  by  The f i r s t of these follows from  the premise that observed r e l a t i o n s h i p s  hypothesis  condition  reported  Accordingly,  by  Travis  &  the f o l l o w i n g  on  encoding  treatment  e f f e c t s w i t h i n the  In the Y age-span,  children  from  enactive  youngest age-span: H6:  the  encoding  21  condition  w i l l r e c a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y more n a r r a t i v e  than t h e i r age cohorts in the i c o n i c or  content  symbolic  encoding  conditions. Since  there was no e m p i r i c a l basis for p r e d i c t i n g that the  conditions would d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t r e c a l l in the M age-span; and there  were  theoretical  differentiation  and  abilities  enable  would  representations  and  reasons  maturation children  recall  for of  of  supposing  cognitive this  that  or  age  to  the  symbolic construct  same with greater p r o f i c i e n c y than  was the case when they were younger, an exploratory a n a l y s i s was conducted to test for  any  systematic  difference  between  the  conditions for t h i s age-span. While youngsters are usually remarkably able to handle true symbols  in  speech  at  powers are much r i c h e r . flexibility children. confer  and  an  early  age, by age 9 t h e i r symbolic  They order a b s t r a c t i o n s  with  fluency,  complexity that are beyond the powers of young  The economy and power of such symbol  systems  should  c o g n i t i v e and r e c a l l advantages on those members of t h i s  age-span, who, due to experimental c o n d i t i o n s , r e l y on same opposed  to  cohorts  who  do not do s o ) .  In a s i m i l a r v e i n , by  t h i s age the superior e f f i c i e n c y of i c o n i c processing with  enactive)  should  observed  advantage  expected  to  be  made with respect  be  observable.  (as  (compared  Moreover,  rehearsal  (Kail,  seen.  Therefore,  the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis was  encoding  oldest group (0 age-span):  treatment  effects  can  often  of  to  1979)  the  also  within  be  the  22  H7:  In the 0 age-span, c h i l d r e n from the symbolic and rehearsal encoding  condition  will  demonstrate  superior  recall  performance when compared to the performances of t h e i r cohorts  from  the other (enactive,  age  i c o n i c , and symbolic-no  rehearsal) encoding c o n d i t i o n s . Since r e l i a b l e knowledge of the degree of different  encoding  at  thirty  to-be-recalled comparison  seconds  (PT-1)  narrative  (PT-2)  had  enables  assessing  of  observations  been  encountered.  It also provides  r e l i a b i l i t y of measurement.  to  test  for  performance d i f f e r e n c e s .  stability  second  of  a  Therefore, one week test  (PT-2)  was  observed free r e c a l l  teachers  are  concerned  long term r e t e n t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n ; and the e f f e c t s of age  in i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c o n d i t i o n s , such as might be d i s c e r n e d , be  basis  Enduring e f f e c t s are most r e a d i l y seen  to have pedagogcial i m p l i c a t i o n s since with  The  one to assess retention of the sort  a f t e r PT-1 had been concluded the second post administered  were  and one week (PT-2) a f t e r the  which i s of i n t e r e s t in i n s t r u c t i o n . for  which  conditions and d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of maturity  have on free r e c a l l was sought, two sets made  influence  seen  to  bear  on  questions about i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s .  Therefore,  the above hypotheses apply  immediate  tests  delayed  test  hypothesized  of  of  can  to  scores  on  both  the  r e c a l l ( t h i r t y second d e l a y ) , and the more  recall  (one  week  delay);  that  is,  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . were expected to be robust across a  period of one week.  23  CHAPTER  III  DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY  DESIGN  As suggested e a r l i e r , s i g n i f i c a n t abilities  notice  has  of  been  age taken  (Richardson, of  the  1969).  extent  magnitude of measured gains i s a f f e c t e d by for  of  recall  (as w e l l as other c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s ) are frequently  notable around 8 years little  improvements  to  encoding  However, which the conditions  these c h i l d r e n and those, both younger and o l d e r , with whom  they are compared.With the above designed  to  considerations  in  mind,  this  from  5  to  11  years of age.  discover the extent to which the free each  was  i n v e s t i g a t e how four d i f f e r e n t encoding c o n d i t i o n s  a f f e c t free r e c a l l performances of 170 c h i l d r e n age  study  Further, recall  who  varied  in  i t was designed to performances  for  of the twelve age-encoding v a r i a t i o n s would be s t a b l e over  a period of one week. children  Accordingly, the r e c a l l  performances  of  in the age-span 84-107 months were compared with those  from the adjacent (older and younger)  age-spans  of  equivalent  width, so that a l l age-spans were compared to one another.  24  Ac[e The three age-spans i n c l u d e d : (1)  the  youngest  (Y)  group (age 60-83 months) the members of  which have not reached the age within gains  are  commonly  which  notable  cognitive  seen (and to which reference has just been  made); (2) the middle (M) group those  one  might  expect  (age  84-107  to  manifest  months) the  which  included  memory gains which  accompany other gains in c o g n i t i v e powers; (3) the oldest (0) c h i l d r e n (age 108-131 months) expected  to  be  the  most  who  might  mature  thinkers  and  three  adjacent  age-spans  be  proficient  recollectors. Encoding Children within randomly  assigned  each to  of  the  four  encoding  conditions,  were three  conditions of which were devised to r e s t r i c t encoding to one another  of  or  the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l systems (enactive, i c o n i c , and  symbolic); and.one of which (symbolic and imagery rehearsal) was included to make p o s s i b l e the estimation imagery  rehearsal  effects.  denoted by the  following  enactive  (2) i c o n i c (IC);  (EC);  four  These names  of  the  encoding and  magnitude  of  conditions  are  abbreviations:  (1)  (3) symbolic (SC);  (4) symbolic  and imagery rehearsal (SIRC). The encoding conditions were designed to r e s t r i c t options,  such  encoding  that (a) a sub-set of each age group encountered  25  conditions the  w h i c h were d e s i g n e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y  to-be-recalled  information  would  s y s t e m o f a c t i o n schemes (an e n a c t i v e (b) a n o t h e r into  systems  system of was (or the  a  mental  imagery  representation);  symbolic  of  symbolic  condition  s t o r y as  (iconic  was  because  Accordingly,  rehearsal  influences  condition  was  the  sought.  the c o n d i t i o n s  of  the  allowed  estimation  estimate recall  The  performances  of  of  the  of  rehearsal  condition.  allow  contributions A  c o n d i t i o n s can  more be  impact  subtracted should  see  detailed on  the  employ  the  rehearsal. in  the  substance  rehearse extent  in  to  one the  in  the  to  a  the which  feature  the  (symbolic  and  (below).  on  enactive  scores  the  from the of  that of  this  to estimate  of  A comparison  rehearsal  description  p a g e s 36-40  of  enactive  symbolic c o n d i t i o n of  from  plus  effects.  children  i n d i c a t e t h e m a g n i t u d e of  performance scores,  to  those  rehearsal  those i n the  difference,  of  fourth c o n d i t i o n then, c o n s i s t e d  rehearsal), c o n d i t i o n with  This  last  children  have of  symbolic treatment of  symbolic  c h i l d r e n i n the a l t e r n a t i v e  material.  an  iconic  the  to  would n e c e s s a r i l y r e h e a r s e the  s y m b o l i c ) t r e a t m e n t s d i d not  recall  (d) and  then imagery  ( i c o n i c and  the  call  induced  and  i t , and  information  s u b - s e t of e a c h a g e - g r o u p  was  included  they dramatized  f o r an  the  s c h e m a t a o r an  representation);  age-span  into a  representation);  s y s t e m o f m e n t a t i o n we  representation  fourth condition  s y s t e m of  (c) a n o t h e r  s y s t e m of  sub-groups f o r each  enactive the  of  transformed  induced to transform  i n d u c e d t o employ t h e  system This  s u b - g r o u p was  be  that  the  should recall.  condition magnitude enactive encoding  26  The  performances of each sub-set of the sample as measured  with two i n d i c e s of free r e c a l l , were compared with those of a l l other s u b - s e t s . within  the  That  is,  performance  were  made  age-spans across the c o n d i t i o n s and then within the  conditions across the age-spans. recall  comparisons  procedure  (during  At the end of the second  PT-2),  questions  obtain another type of memory measure.  were  free  employed to  This allowed for  further  assessment of the impact of the d i f f e r e n t encoding conditions on c h i l d r e n ' s memory for n a r r a t i v e discourse as they vary in age. This design afforded the assessment of (1) which  free  r e c a l l * varied  age-spans; (2) performances  the  extent  associated  with to  with  encoding  which the  the  the  extent  conditions pattern  of  to  within recall  c o n d i t i o n s within age-spans  remained stable across age-spans; and (3) the  extent  to  which  free r e c a l l v a r i e d with age w i t h i n and across c o n d i t i o n s . D e s c r i p t i v e Data Although treatment groups w i t h i n each of the three age-span sub-sets  of  the  sample  were  formed  on  the basis of random  assignment, random assignment between age-spans  (as  contrasted  to within age-spans) was not p o s s i b l e given the age manipulation requirement of the d e s i g n . could  differ  from  A c c o r d i n g l y , between age-span groups  one another with regard to not only age but  other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as gender composition, a b i l i t i e s , and socio-economic  class.  Since  the  recall  performances  (as  27  assessed  by  three measures - see below) may have covaried with  gender, a b i l i t i e s ( I . Q . ) , and s o c i a l statistics  on  these  variables  class  for  (SES),  descriptive  each age group provided a  basis for assessing the extent to which the groups came from the same  gender-mix,  Therefore,  as  a  socio-economic,  scores.  populations.  p r e c a u t i o n , data on IQ, sex, and s o c i a l c l a s s  were analyzed to c o n t r o l , by systematic  and a b i l i t i e s  influence  they  statistical  means,  any  possible  might have on the dependent measure  A d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y  measure and  s o c i a l c l a s s information f o l l o w s . Intellectual The  Ability  ability  measure  (I.Q.)  was derived by administering  Form 2 of the Quick Test (QT) (Ammons & Ammons, 1962). is  a  reasonable estimator of the general l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l  a b i l i t y as i n d i c a t e d by p e r c e p t u a l - v e r b a l performance Ammons, 1962; 1979; Davis & Dizzonne, 1972;  The QT  Libb  & Coleman,  (Ammons &  1970; J o e s t i n g & J o e s t i n g ,  1971; Mednick, 1969; V i o l a t o , White, &  T r a v i s , 1984), which performance was of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s Since  t h i s study e n t a i l e d the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c h i l d r e n 5 to 1 1  years of age, a t e s t (difficult  for  that  many  d i d not  5 year  entail  written  old children)  Moreover, since the design of t h i s study made same  study.  test  for  all  participants  was  the  responses required.  use of the  d e s i r a b l e , and circumstances  required that c h i l d r e n d i d not lose more  class  time  than was  necessary, the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the QT for the present purposes was  enhanced  (Dizzonne  & Davis,  1973; Gendreau,  Roach, &  28 Gendreau, 1973; Nicholson, 1977). S o c i a l Status Parents were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r usual occupations on a parental permission form. his  absence,  status.  that  of  The occupation of the f a t h e r ,  were  classified  classifications: employed,  1)  as  businessmen);  2)  (e.g.,  licensed  mill  occupation  compared.  There  ratings.  one  of  all  four SES  independent,  self  Professional/Managerial  (e.g.,  executives,  etc.).  etc.);  3)  Skilled  and  100% agreement  The number and percentage  Labour  (e.g.,  clerks,  Three r a t e r s c l a s s i f i e d each  independently;  was  to  (e.g.,  (unlicensed)  workers,  parent's  established,  workers such as plumbers, e l e c t r i c a n s ,  e t c . ) ; and 4) N o n - s k i l l e d labourers,  were  belonging  Entrepreneurs  lawyers, p h y s i c i a n s , teachers, Labour  in  the mother, was used to i n d i c a t e s o c i a l  After the parents' occupations  children  or  of  their  ratings  were  between the independent children  in  each  SES  l e v e l are presented below in the sample d e s c r i p t i o n s e c t i o n .  METHOD Sample The months. district  sample  of  170  c h i l d r e n ranged in age from 65 to 131  They attended two schools in  north-central  British  in  the  Columbia;  developed neighborhood which followed c i t y proportional  (economic)  mixed  same  urban  school  and came from a  planning  bylaws  of  housing development (the mix of  29  d o m i c i l e s one w o u l d e x p e c t f r o m t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l above).  Parental  participant three  c o n s e n t f o r e a c h c h i l d who  was o b t a i n e d .  equal  intervals  nonoverlapping  age  The e n t i r e (described  groups  age r a n g e was d i v i d e d earlier)  54  described  was a p r o s p e c t i v e  so  that  ( Y , M, and 0 ) were f o r m e d .  g r o u p so f o r m e d had a minimum o f each  mix  children.  into three  E a c h age  Children  from  age g r o u p were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one o r a n o t h e r o f f o u r  treatment c o n d i t i o n s .  This allowed  f o r each treatment c o n d i t i o n a t means  (expressed  sample age-span  in  months)  c a n be s e e n  f o r a minimum o f 13 s u b j e c t s  each  age  interval.  The  age  and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h  i n Table I .  Table I Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f A g e s f o r e a c h Age-Span G r o u p Age-Span Group  Mean Age ( i n months)  Y M 0  Range 65-83 85-107 109-131  72.66 98.37 120.77  ( i n months)  Sd  n  4.80 5.55 6.66  59 54 57  Total=170  The Q u i c k T e s t (Ammons & Ammons, 1962) was a d m i n i s t e r e d g a i n an e s t i m a t e o f e a c h c h i l d ' s II).  Demographic  socio-economic of  children  rating in  data  were  intellectual ability collected  to  to  (see Table  establish  f o r e a c h c h i l d ( t h e p e r c e n t a g e and  a  number  e a c h SES l e v e l w e r e : 5.9% e n t r e p r e n e u r ( n = l 0 ) ;  30  22.9%  professional/managerial  (n=64);  33.5% n o n s k i l l e d  (n=39);  labour  37.6% s k i l l e d  (n=57)).  These data and the  gender of each c h i l d were recorded, which provided a identifying  or  represents.  These d e s c r i p t i v e  Chapter  describing  the  populations data  results  labour  basis  for  which t h i s sample are  reported  in  IV.  Table  II  Means and Standard Deviations of A b i l i t y (IQ) by Age-Span Group and Gender Age-Span Group  Gender  Mean Score A b i l i t y (IQ)  Scores  Sd  n  Y  M 105.38 . F 101.32 Mean Total 103.46  10.91 14.41 12.75  31 28 59  M  M 102.55 F 100.63 Mean Total 101.41  10.80 10.55 10.59  22 32 54  O  M 101.82 F 93.79 Mean Total 97.74  17.39 12.72 15.59  28 29 57  Mean Grand Total 100.89  13.32  170  Apparatus A  Panasonic  portable  cassette  tape  recorder (Model #RQ  2108) with a b u i l t in microphone was used to d e l i v e r a n a r r a t i v e and to record the c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l of  same.  A  cassete  tape  31  recording  of a male voice v o c a l i z i n g a n a r r a t i v e for one minute  and 17 seconds in d u r a t i o n , was used with below  for  a  recorder.  use  cotton  were  puppets  of  this  used.  material).  Two  It  was  used  made  to  resemble a black cougar.  tail.  This  conditions.  below).  The  other  eyes,  ears,  nose,  puppet was used in the EC and IC experimental  A two part f o l d i n g scene of a forest with a winding  t r a i l , a c l u s t e r of houses for a town, and a backdrop of a sky,  clouds,  and  and IC c o n d i t i o n s . utilized in  to  the  blue  sun was used for a background prop in the EC The cougar  puppet  and  scenery  prop  were  dramatize the experiences of the c e n t r a l character  narration.  Stopwatch  a  It was a l s o made from a  (black) cotton sock on which were sewn f e l t and  resembled  during a t r a i n i n g session in which each  c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e d (see procedural section was  homemade  One, a brown cotton sock on  which were a f f i x e d f e l t eyes, ears, nose, and t a i l gopher.  (See  t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e and Appendix A for  the r a t i o n a l e for the sock  the  model)  A was  Remex used  electronic to  measure  t r a i n i n g , treatment, and t e s t i n g .  stop  watch  (Sports  time sequences during  A record form for  the  Quick  Test r e s u l t s and demographic data, as w e l l as a parental consent form, was a l s o used for each c h i l d . The Narrative The story used in t h i s study was as f o l l o w s : One e a r l y morning, a black cougar named Rufus l e f t h i s hole that was home and walked along a forest t r a i l . He was looking for something to eat. As he looked he turned h i s head from one  32 side to the other. The longer he looked the f a s t e r he walked. He even ran a l i t t l e , with h i s head s t i l l turning as he searched. Suddenly the forest disappeared and to h i s l e f t he saw a town. He thought, "There must be food t h e r e . " He leaped toward the town. Soon he could see nothing but houses when he turned round and round. As he d i d so he nearly f e l l over. He f e l t dizzy - and hungry. The sight of a bowl with a j u i c y bone in i t made him forget he was d i z z y and hungry. "That w i l l make a good m e a l , " he s a i d . Rufus dived at the bowl. The c l a t t e r awoke a dog whose bark made the cougar's ears stand up. The dog's bark was coming c l o s e r and c l o s e r . Rufus pressed h i s body close to the ground and began to creep away. But suddenly something made a loud noise next to him. Rufus jumped high into the a i r and ran home as fast as h i s legs could carry him. He had nothing to eat for breakfast but food for thought: A bone in a bowl puts a cat in the h o l e . Procedure Preliminary preparations. Preliminary preparations consisted of three phases: (1) A one minute "warm up" designed to put each c h i l d at ease; (2) a three minute ensure  that  "training  session"  which  was  devised  a l l c h i l d r e n would (or could) use a puppet to  dramatize n a r r a t i v e  content;  (3) a one minute "habituation period" wherein the c h i l d r e n made  familiar  to  with  the  were  presence and operation of a tape  recorder. A flow chart for times involved on each phase of the preliminary preparations with each experimental condition Figure 1 below.  can  be  seen  in  33  Figure 1 Procedural flow chart with time elapsed for each a c t i v i t y in p r e l i m i n a r y preparations Preparation Time in Experimental Conditions IC SC  EC  SIRC  Activity "Warm up"  1 mm,  1 min  1  min.  1 min.  +  +  3 min,  "Training"  3 min,  3 min,  3 min. +  + "Habituation' and Treatment Set-up*  T o t a l Time  50 sec,  50 sec,  + 10 sec  + 10 • sec  5 min  5 min.  1 min.  1 min.  5 min,  5 min,  Treatment set-up for the EC and IC conditions consisted of p l a c i n g a scenery prop in front of the c h i l d , as w e l l as p l a c i n g a puppet on the c h i l d ' s hand (EC) or experimenter's hand (IC) - see below for a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s a c t i v i t y .  Each of the preliminary preparation phases i s discussed in t u r n . "Warm-up" Each c h i l d classroom  was  introduced  to  the  experimenter  and was then taken to a t e s t i n g room.  in  the  As soon as the  c h i l d entered the room he/she was asked to s i t down at a  table.  34 A  brief  (i.e.  "warm-up"  designed  to  put  the experimenter talked with  the c h i l d at ease ensued  the  child  in  a  warm  and  f r i e n d l y manner about conventional t o p i c s which a r i s e in i n i t i a l encounters  wherein  people  "get acquainted" with one another).  A f t e r one minute lapsed the experimenter s a i d , "I I would l i k e to show you."  have something  A " t r a i n i n g " session then f o l l o w e d .  "Training Session" The t r a i n i n g session l a s t e d three minutes for a l l c h i l d r e n . It e n t a i l e d a demonstration of how a puppet dramatize  or  make  could  be  made  manifest whatever some sentences i n d i c a t e d .  When the demonstration was completed the experimenter asked c h i l d i f he/she would l i k e to t r y . experimenter  With a p o s i t i v e response the  The experimenter then asked  to demonstrate some moves that the puppet might make.  the  child  A f t e r the  made some manipulations with the puppet, the experimenter  asked the c h i l d puppet.  Two  to  dramatize  an  such  sentences  were  observe the c h i l d ' s response. "The  the  gave the c h i l d the puppet and helped put i t on the  c h i l d ' s hand i f needed.  child  to  gopher  was  walking  The  through  uttered used first  sentence to  with  provide help and  sentence  used,  was:  the grass when he heard h i s  mother c a l l i n g him to come to dinner as fast as he c o u l d . " second  the  The  sentence used, was: "A gopher was walking through a yard  when he saw some f r i e n d s .  He stopped to  went  the  on  again."  Since  say  hello,  and  then  t r a i n i n g session was intended to  ensure that the c h i l d was competent to manipulate a puppet while l i s t e n i n g , once the c h i l d responded a p p r o p r i a t e l y , a  discussion  35  about  puppets  ensued  u n t i l the three minutes lapsed (from the  time the t r a i n i n g session began). manipulating  or  dramatizing  If there  the  sentences,  helped the c h i l d by either moving the suggestions,  and  repeating  the  showed  a  disinclination  difficulty  hand  or  end  of  making  sentences u n t i l three minutes  to  session.  Any  child  undertake or had d i f f i c u l i t y  dramatizing the sentence content at the end of t h i s was omitted from the study.  in  the experimenter  child's  lapsed from the beginning of the t r a i n i n g who  was  time  There were four such cases.  frame At the  the " t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n " , the puppet was removed from the  c h i l d ' s hand and placed out (approximently  one  of  minute)  ("habituation period")  the  child's  discussion  sight.  about  A  tape  short  recorders  followed.  "Habituation Period" The d i s c u s s i o n about experimenter  pointed  to  tape  recorders  the  name), t h i s i s a tape recorder. operation  of  when  the  a tape recorder which had been on the  table since the c h i l d entered  The  commenced  room,  and  said,  "(Child's  Have you ever used one before?"  the tape recorder was then d i s c u s s e d .  about one minute (dependent upon  the  treatment  condition  After the  c h i l d had been assigned to - see above flow chart) the c h i l d was t o l d , "I have a story on the tape recorder that I would l i k e you to  listen  to.  Would you l i k e to l i s t e n to i t ? "  responded negatively to returned  to  the  listening  classroom  and  to  the  story,  If  the c h i l d  he/she  was  subsequently dropped from the  study (one Y age group c h i l d d i d not wish to l i s t e n to the story  36 and was dropped from t h i s study at t h i s p o i n t ) .  With a p o s i t i v e  response the session continued. In sum, the introduction to the experimenter duration),  the t r a i n i n g session  discussion  (three  minutes  in  duration),  about tape recorders and the i n v i t a t i o n to l i s t e n to  a story (about one minute in d u r a t i o n ) , minutes.  This  same  amount  before the story was heard. this  (one minute in  five  minutes  with  took  a  total  of  five  of time was spent with each c h i l d No c h i l d spent more  or  less  than  the experimenter on these procedures.  Each c h i l d was then given a story in his/her assigned  treatment  condit i o n . Experimental Conditions and Purposes The encoding conditions (as discussed above and below) were structured  to  restrict  condition was designed narrative  iconic  four  (IC);  rehearsal  enhance  These encoding  the  That  probability  conditions  names and a b b r e v i a t i o n s : (3)  (SIRC).  these f o l l o w . provided  to  options.  is,  each  that  the  content would be encoded in one system and not in the  alternatives. following  encoding  symbolic The  (SC);  purpose  (4) and  are  denoted  by  the  (1) enactive (EC);  (2)  symbolic  and  imagery  major feature of each of  A more complete d e s c r i p t i o n of each c o n d i t i o n  is  thereafter.  The purpose and major feature of each condition f o l l o w s : (1)  Children  in  the  enactive  (EC)  condition  encountered  c o n d i t i o n s which were designed to maximize the p r o b a b i l i t y  that  37  the  to-be-recalled  transposed i n t o enactive  information,  a  system  a n a r r a t i v e , was  of  sensory  system of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) .  manipulated a puppet  motor  transformed or  schemes  In t h i s c o n d i t i o n  to dramatize the content of  (or  an  children  the  narration  (2) Children  i n the i c o n i c (IC) c o n d i t i o n encountered  conditions  which  designed  while they l i s t e n e d to the tape r e c o r d i n g  were  to-be-recalled transposed In  this  watching  to  information  children  a  (manipulated  puppet  Children  in  the  probability  narration)  condition  conditions  was  imagery  listened  that  transformed  (or i c o n i c  to  the  a  or  schemata).  narration  by an experimenter  while  so that i t  content).  the  symbolic  (SC)  condition  encountered  which were designed to maximize the p r o b a b i l i t y that  the t o - b e - r e c a l l e d a  (a  i n t o systems of mental  enacted the n a r r a t i v e (3)  maximize  of i t .  system  of  information  symbolic  c h i l d r e n merely  (a n a r r a t i o n )  representations.  listened  to  the  was  assimilated  In  this  narration.  No  to  condition puppets  or  scenery props were used. (4)  Children  in  the  (SIRC) c o n d i t i o n merely  symbolic  encoding and  l i s t e n e d to the recorded  d i d c h i l d r e n i n SC); but i n a d d i t i o n , and listened  to  the  t h e i r eyes and t e l l and  try  themselves were used.  to  see  story,  the  themselves what  imagery  rehearsal  narrative  immediately a f t e r they  SIRC c h i l d r e n were t o l d to c l o s e the s t o r y they  have  just  happens i n the s t o r y as they t o l d  (imagery r e h e a r s a l ) .  (as  No  puppets  or  scenery  heard i t to props  38  Experimental Conditions and Procedures As stated e a r l i e r , a l l c h i l d r e n , w i t h i n each age-span, were randomly  assigned to the four c o n d i t i o n s ; and they were treated  and tested i n d i v i d u a l l y . commenced  when  the  tape  Involvement with treatment recorder  was  turned  conditions  on.  Further  d e s c r i p t i o n s of d e t a i l in each c o n d i t i o n f o l l o w : ( 1 ) EC: A f t e r the c h i l d responded p o s i t i v e l y to to  listen  the  to the s t o r y , the experimenter placed a scenery prop  on the table in front of the c h i l d , brought out and  said,  one on?" the  invitation  "Here i s another puppet. When the c h i l d agreed, the  another  puppet  Would you l i k e to put t h i s experimenter  then  helped  c h i l d put the puppet on his/her preferred hand when needed.  (This procedure took ten seconds, and i s part of the preliminary preparations described above). am  The experimenter then  said,  going to play a story that i s on t h i s tape recorder.  "I  I want  you to make the puppet act out the story while you are l i s t e n i n g to the s t o r y . child  Do you think you can do t h a t ? "  As  soon  as  the  gave a p o s i t i v e response, the experimenter, while turning  the tape recorder on, s a i d , " L i s t e n very c a r e f u l l y to the s t o r y , and make the puppet do what the story s a y s . " played. but  The story was then  As the story was being played the experimenter  watched  d i d not make any gestures or comments during t h i s time.  soon as the story was f i n i s h e d , the sight,  and  the  puppet  placed out of s i g h t . recorder;  and  a  was  scenery  was  removed  As from  taken off of the c h i l d ' s hand and  The story tape was removed from  blank tape was put in i t s p l a c e .  the  tape  During t h i s  39  time the experimenter remained q u i e t . and  story  tape,  The removal of the  and the p l a c i n g of a blank tape i n t o the tape  recorder u s u a l l y took s l i g h t l y l e s s than 30 procedure  took  waited ( i . e .  props  less  seconds.  If  this  time, the experimenter remained quiet and  looked at a procedure paper in front of him,  busy, and so f o r t h ) u n t i l 30 seconds passed.  acted  P o s t - t e s t 1 (PT-1)  then commenced (see below). (2)  IC:  A f t e r the c h i l d responded p o s i t i v e l y to the i n v i t a t i o n  to l i s t e n to a s t o r y , the experimenter placed a scenery prop the  table in front of the c h i l d , and brought out another puppet  used with the story to be heard. the  puppet  on  described  The experimenter  h i s , the experimenter's, hand.  took ten seconds; and i s part of above).  The  the  puppet  act  placed  (This procedure preparations  experimenter then s a i d , "I am going to I  will  make  the  out the story while you watch the puppet and l i s t e n  to the s t o r y .  Do you think you can do that?"  As  soon  as  the  gave a p o s i t i v e response, the experimenter, while turning  on the tape recorder, s t a t e d , story  then  preliminary  play a story that i s on t h i s tape recorder.  child  on  and  "Listen  very  carefully  watch the puppet do what the story s a y s . "  to  the  While the  recorded story was played on the tape recorder, the experimenter enacted the story with the puppet._  As soon  as  the  story  was  over, the same procedures c a r r i e d out when the story f i n i s h e d in the EC c o n d i t i o n were followed. (3)  SC:  PT-1 then began (see below).  A f t e r the c h i l d responded p o s i t i v e l y to the i n v i t a t i o n  to l i s t e n to a s t o r y , the experimenter s a i d , "I am going to play a story that i s on t h i s tape recorder.  I want you to l i s t e n  to  40  the  story  that?"  while  it  i s being p l a y e d .  soon  as  the  As  experimenter  said,  child  the experimenter l i s t e n e d the  responded  positively,  While the story was being played,  with  the  child.  The  experimenter  same procedures as in the EC and IC c o n d i t i o n s as  soon as the story f i n i s h e d , except that there was no scenery  the  while t u r n i n g the tape recorder on, " L i s t e n  very c a r e f u l l y to the s t o r y . "  followed  Do you think you can do  prop  to remove.  puppet  or  PT-1 commenced when the standard time  had elapsed. (4) SIRC: A f t e r the c h i l d responded p o s i t i v e l y to the i n v i t a t i o n to l i s t e n to a s t o r y , the experimenter s a i d , "I am going to play a story that i s on t h i s tape r e c o r d e r . the  story  that?"  As  while  it  i s being p l a y e d .  soon  as  the  experimenter  said,  child  Do you think you can do  responded  positively,  the  child.  Immediately  after  story the c h i l d r e n in t h i s group were t o l d ,  "Close  your eyes, t e l l yourself the s t o r y , and imagine or what  the  While the story was being played,  the experimenter l i s t e n e d with the  to  .while t u r n i n g the tape recorder on, " L i s t e n  very c a r e f u l l y to the s t o r y . "  hearing  I want you to l i s t e n  to  see  happens in the story as you t e l l yourself the s t o r y . "  The  c h i l d was given 30 seconds to do  this.  While  the  try  child  was  doing t h i s the experimenter exchanged tapes in the tape recorder and  remained  silent  until  the  30  seconds  seconds lapsed, PT-1 then began (see below).  lapsed.  When 30  41  Post-Test Procedures Post-test 1 listened  to  (PT-1):  the  Thirty  narration  while turning the tape  seconds  the  recorder  after  the  child  experimenter asked the c h i l d , on  to  'record',  please t e l l me the story you just heard?  "Would  you  If you can not t e l l  it  to me e x a c t l y as you heard i t , then t e l l me the story as best as you  c a n . " (The  rationale  for  the  given in Appendix B ) .  When the c h i l d  (or  for  remained  silent  20  character of d i r e c t i o n s i s was  finished  responding  seconds), the experimenter s a i d ,  " T e l l me everything or anything you remember about  the  story."  When the c h i l d was f i n i s h e d , i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r by statement or by failure  to  respond  for  20 seconds, the experimenter s a i d ,  w i l l give you a moment to t h i n k . anything  A f t e r a 30 second pause, the  is  child  asked, "Is there anything e l s e you remember about the story  that you would l i k e to t e l l me?" responding, period  tell  as  of  returning  indicated  silence, to  anyone  continued  anyone  else,  child  was  finished  saying so or through a 20 second  was  terminated.  However,  before  the classroom, the c h i l d was t o l d , "Please .do not what  in  PT-1  by  When the  two  you  did  today."  different  The  ways.  experimenter s a i d , " L e t ' s make t h i s  For  our  experimenter the  secret  is  then  Y  group  the  and  not  tell  unless you wish to t e l l your p a r e n t s . "  and M groups the experimenter s a i d , "It study  there  e l s e you would l i k e to t e l l me which you have not said  y e t , you may t e l l me t h e n . " was  When I t e l l you, i f  "I  important  that you do not t e l l anyone what we d i d today.  For the 0 for  this  Of course  42  i f your parents ask you, you may t e l l them, but i t i s that you do not t e l l any of your classmates. with  all  important  When I am f i n i s h e d  of the c h i l d r e n who w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e I w i l l t e l l you.  Then i f you wish to t a l k about what you d i d today you may. you  do  this  for me?"  After the c h i l d responded he or she was  returned to h i s or her c l a s s . Post-Test 2 narration, story.  This concluded P T - 1 .  (PT-2): one week a f t e r each  he/she  was  again  tested  This was done in two p a r t s .  entered  the t e s t i n g room, a b r i e f  intended to help put each c h i l d visit  the  child  heard  the  on his/her r e c a l l of the  Part One: a f t e r  the  child  (one minute) warm-up or v i s i t  at  ease  occured.  After  the  experimenter s t a t e d , "Last week you heard a story on  t h i s tape r e c o r d e r . " to the  Can  tape  While saying t h i s the experimenter pointed  recorder  and  turned  it  on.  The  experimenter  continued: "Would you please t e l l me the story you heard on t h i s tape  recorder?  If  you  can  not t e l l i t to me exactly as you  heard i t , then t e l l me the story as best as you c a n . " d i r e c t i o n s as given in PT-1 were then terminated. Part Two: first  part  going  to  At  this  where  of ask  PT-2 you  then  Test  concluded. some  read  (QT)  PT-1  point the f i r s t part of PT-2 terminated.  answer (see Appendix C). Quick  to  The second part of PT-2 began immediately  experimenter  the  followed  The exact  set  of  about  the  story."  The  questions for the c h i l d to  After a l l r e c a l l tasks was  the  The experimenter s a i d , "I am  questions a  after  administered.  were  When  the  complete QT  was  completed, the experimenter concluded PT-2 by thanking the c h i l d  43  for coming in a g a i n , and asked the c h i l d (class)  friends  not  to  tell  his/her  about the test as was done at the end of PT-1.  Moreover, prearrangements were made in that each c h i l d ' s teacher was asked to remind each c h i l d , p r i v a t e l y ,  not to  discuss  what  had been done. Scoring Measures The  purpose  which four memory  of  different  performances  this  study  encoding of  was to examine the extent to  treatment  children  who  conditions  varied  in age.  performance here had as i t s object of r e c a l l , n a r r a t i v e which  was  identical  conditions.  for  all  age-span  groups  Duration of the period allowed  content was a l s o i d e n t i c a l for a l l s u b j e c t s . other  affected  for  Memory content  and treatment encoding  this  With these and the  c o n t r o l s described in p l a c e , age and c o n d i t i o n e f f e c t s on  n a r r a t i v e r e c a l l were assumed to be a s s e s s a b l e . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , there are a number of researchers who are concerned with prose  material  and  its  recall.  However,  these people appear to have been more concerned with how content features  influence  r e c a l l or the impact of the type of content  used on r e c a l l ; and they have not studied how v a r i a t i o n s in interact  with  encoding  conditions  to  V a r i a b i l i t y in story c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as  influence length,  age  recall. content,  theme development, and so f o r t h are of i n t e r e s t in such s t u d i e s . As  such,  these  story c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are v a r i e d while age and  encoding c o n d i t i o n s are held constant.  Thus, not a l l studies of  44 c h i l d r e n ' s memory of n a r r a t i v e prose examine  age  effects.  At  the same time l i t t l e i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n have been devoted to the  study  of  the  n a r r a t i v e content. study  keeps  impact  For reasons of the same  the  present  the story c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e . g . n a r r a t i v e  content)  constant while varying the impact  of  of encoding conditions on r e c a l l of  age  and  sort,  encoding  conditions,  which v a r i a t i o n s i s of i n t e r e s t here.  the  Therefore,  in  order to examine the influence of the encoding c o n d i t i o n s on the amount of r e c a l l , one passage was used for a l l and  all  encoding  treatment  conditions  to  age-span  groups  maintain the same  pattern of s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s across the experimental conditions and age-span groups with regard to content. There a r e , of course, many ways of measuring and/or scoring free r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s from prose passages (see Brown,  1975; Cofer,  what  is  Stein  measured i s of concern.  & Glenn,  prose.  One  1975b).  As Cofer (1941) has  suggested, there are two major ways of examining r e c a l l of  1932;  1941; Mandler & Johnson, 1977; Meyer, 1975;  Rubin, 1978a, 1978b; Rumelhart, 1975; However,  Bartlett,  mastery  e n t a i l s a focus on verbatim (or word for word)  content, and the other focus i s on e s s e n t i a l ideas (idea content or g i s t ) of a expositional  passage.  When  discourse  (three  descriptive, of  argumentative,  the four types of connected  discourse) are r e c a l l e d , exact or verbatim r e c a l l concern  since  In  might  be  of  v a r i a t i o n s in r e c a l l of d e t a i l s from these types  of discourse could be c r i t i c a l to the meaning them.  or  or  substance  of  such cases, the f i r s t major way of examining mastery  45  of prose (focus on verbatim c o n t e n t ) , might be more d e s i r a b l e as a measure for these  types  of  discourse.  However,  with  the  fourth type of connected d i s c o u r s e , n a r r a t i o n (which was used in this  study),  variations  in  reconstructions of content do not  n e c e s s a r i l y change meaning or substance.  Furthermore,  the  age  and encoding conditions e n t a i l e d in t h i s study may influence the degree  to  which  reconstructions  verbatim r e c a l l or are gist.  In  any  transformations  event,  minor  where subjects are asked to 1932;  Brown,  of the n a r r a t i v e depart from or  reconstructions  of  v a r i a t i o n s are commonly reported  recall  prose  material  1975; Meyer, 1975; Northway,  (Bartlett,  1940; S t e i n & Glenn,  1975a). As B a r t l e t t (1932) has reported, r e c a l l  of  prose  changed to f i t one's "schema" when r e c a l l i n g a s t o r y . if  stories.  Since  minor  frequently  resign  what they regard as "exact"  or an  reproduction),  (Nelson,  variations  procedures should r e f l e c t  this.  say  And, even  exact  1981)  must  be  reconstructed  expected, scoring  Furthermore,  impossible avoidance  task of  where  children  (such  as  making  an  t h i s i s d e s i r a b l e i f one  A c c o r d i n g l y , one does  not  ask  reproduction, and hence t h i s j u s t i f i e s adoption of a  scoring system which r e f l e c t s the f a c t that not  in  less than they know when faced with  wants to avoid f a l s e negatives.  was  be  "exact" r e c a l l i s required or asked f o r , transformations are  normal rather than anomalous  for  may  requested.  exact  reproduction  Thus, t h i s study used the l a t t e r focus or  second major way of examining r e c a l l of prose.  To  repeat,  the  46  present focus was on e s s e n t i a l ideas (or g i s t ) verbatim  recall.  were used. ideas  or  Therefore,  of the s t o r y ,  not  two ways of measuring free r e c a l l  Both of these were designed to measure the e s s e n t i a l substance  substitutions  and/or  of  the  story,  and  take  into  account  transformations of the story content  (see  below) . Another way of measuring memory interrogation.  One  asks  of  questions  discourse  recall  because  the  performances  performances.  Accordingly,  an  may  output.  again  exploration  through i n t e r r o g a t i o n may reveal p o s s i b l e which  than  respondent i s cued by the questions.  However, the age and/or treatment c o n d i t i o n s these  through  about the subject matter.  Such i n t e r r o g a t i o n may produce higher r e c a l l free  is  may  affect  of  recall  differential  effects  or may no't be evident in the a n a l y s i s of free r e c a l l  This a l s o may add weight to the conclusions that can be  drawn from a n a l y s i s of the data. The foregoing considerations led to the adoption measures  of  the  children's  of  three  r e c a l l of the story content.  f i r s t two of these were designed to measure the c h i l d r e n ' s recall,  and  the  third  was  designed  to  measure  It  of  three  measures  basis  for  However,  the  (as discussed below) allows for a more  thorough examination of observed broader  through  i s p o s s i b l e to use only one measure to explore  the p r e d i c t i o n s and the hypotheses in t h i s study. use  free  ( t e s t ) the  c h i l d r e n ' s remembrance of the story content as e l i c i t e d questioning.  The  differences,  and  provides  a  drawing conclusions about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  47  between the v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t than i s provided by  a  single  measure. Rubin's u n i t s of measurement. The  first  instrument  (or  scoring  designed to measure free r e c a l l of story  as  scheme)  specific  employed was  word  units  defined and described by Rubin (1978b).  of  This measure  scored s p e c i f i c "word u n i t s " (units) of the text r e c a l l e d . procedure allowed minor v a r i a t i o n s of the f o l l o w i n g s o r t : case, number, and synonym  semantics.  substitutions  are  Noun also  to  pronoun  acceptable.  a  This tense,  changes,  and  Therefore,  this  measurement scheme allowed for s u b s t i t u t i o n s of the words  which  comply with the rules for the defined u n i t s in the text i n order to  measure  amount  transformed s t a t e .  of  content  At the  same  remembered time  it  but  r e c a l l e d in a  maintains  scoring procedure for a l l c h i l d r e n in a l l c o n d i t i o n s . used  in  the  same  The story  t h i s study contained 76 p o s s i b l e " u n i t s " (see Appendix  D) that could be r e c a l l e d . Rumelhart's story c a t e g o r i e s . The second instrument designed  to  measure  ideas of the t e x t . structure  (or  scheme)  employed  was  free r e c a l l of the substance or e s s e n t i a l  This measure was  based  on  the  "category"  of a story developed by Rumelhart (1975) and modified  by Stein and Glenn (1975b). content  scoring  categories.  These  This design separates a s t o r y categories  s e t t i n g s , events, i n t e r n a l responses  or  (thoughts  "schemas" and  into denote  feelings),  48  activities  (excluding  thoughts),  and consequences.  The story  was categorized i n t o Rumelhart's (Stein & Glenn, 1975b) schemas, or meaning u n i t s . by  This method, then, measures amount of  recall  story category rather than by word u n i t s for a n a l y s i s of the  substance of the content.  It allows for g i s t to be  the scoring as w e l l as the verbatim content. substance  or  procedure, accounts  essential  the  subjects  which  idea  is  are  not  the concern for t h i s scoring penalized  for  maintain the g i s t with f i d e l i t y .  substance  of a t e x t .  transformed There were 41  story.  Both of the aforementioned measures examine or  in  Since the category  "categories" (see Appendix E) derived from the  ideas  counted  the  essential  The word unit measure examines  s p e c i f i c word u n i t s which are based on "content" words described by  Rubin  (1 978b')_.  phrases (categories) as  "function"  The  category  measure  examines  specific  which include these "content" words as w e l l  words  omitted  by Rubin (1978b).  The word unit  measure i s a smaller unit of measure than the category  measure;  and the category measure includes the contents of word u n i t s but treats  same in terms of the category r e f e r e n t s .  However,  p o s s i b l e to r e c a l l a word unit and not the category of as  well  substance Therefore,  as  it  of for  a  is  possible  category  to  without  is  text,  r e c a l l the e s s e n t i a l idea or the  defined  word  unit.  a more complete a n a l y s i s of the free r e c a l l the  use of both these measures i s d e s i r a b l e in order to possible  a  it  differential  effects  reveal  any  which may or may not be evident  with one measurement of the free r e c a l l output.  49  Memory under i n t e r r o g a t i o n (or cued r e c a l l measurement). A t h i r d means of measuring story r e c a l l was made by questions  about  the s t o r y .  r e c a l l ) were a sample of content.  These  The questions (referred to as cued  possible  questions  were  questions used  to  about allow  the for  a n a l y s i s and comparison of the treatment c o n d i t i o n s . constructed  in  accordance  with  and  how  questions.  story further  They  Spencer's (1973, c . f .  1975) prose a n a l y s i s system based upon where,  asking  who,  what,  Meyer,  why,  They  were  not  r e s u l t s , at  PT-2  (see  Kobasigawa, 1977; Meyer, 1979) asked.  The  of the  total  questions.  recall  asked a f t e r the f i r s t p o s t - t e s t so  that the exchange e n t a i l e d at PT-1 would not confound recall  when,  The i n t e r r o g a t i o n of c h i l d r e n for  r e c a l l of story content took place a f t e r the second free post-test.  were  Flavell,  A t o t a l of  1977; 24  the  free  K a i l , 1979;  questions  were  l a s t f i v e of these questions were not used as part cued  recall  score  since  they  were  "opinion"  As such, there were 19 questions to be answered for  scoring purposes.  These are l i s t e d in Appendix C.  Scoring procedures The measurement procedures y i e l d e d three sets of scores r e c a l l data.  of  These scores were derived from the three dependent  measures: word u n i t s , story c a t e g o r i e s , and answers to questions (cued r e c a l l ) .  These measures were scored as f o l l o w s :  1) Word unit scores were t a l l i e d using a predetermined l i s t made from  the  words  derived  from  the  story  (see  Appendix  D).  50  S u b s t i t u t i o n s of any  word  unit  were  counted  as  correct  if  acceptable under the given r u l e s . 2)  Category  categories  scores (see  were  t a l l i e d from a predetermined l i s t of  Appendix  E).  All  transformations  of  each  category were i n d i v i d u a l l y judged or rated by two t r a i n e d judges (raters)  to  determine  whether or not the transformed category  should be counted as c o r r e c t . raters  were  brought  Where  together  to  disagreements  arose,  the  come to a mutual agreement.  This procedure r e s u l t e d in 100% agreement between the r a t e r s . 3) The answers given to the questions (from i n t e r r o g a t i o n the  story  at  the  end  of  about  the PT-2 free r e c a l l session) were  t a l l i e d for correctness from a  list  of  predetermined  answers  (see Appendix C). Since  either  one does or does not r e c a l l a given instance  of i n f o r m a t i o n , the data (word unit scores, category scores, and cued r e c a l l scores) were treated as nominal data and same  was  of  scored as one point while f a i l u r e or incorrect r e c a l l  was i n d i c a t e d by zero. each  recall  Each c h i l d accumulated  of the word unit and category measures.  two  scores  for  Thus one p a i r was  acquired at PT-1 and one p a i r was gained at PT-2.  In  addition,  each c h i l d acquired one score from the number of c o r r e c t answers on  the  cued r e c a l l measure (given as the second part of P T - 2 ) .  This comprised the scoring of recall,  category  recall,  and  n a r r a t i v e content in the s t o r y .  the  three  cued  measures  (word  unit  r e c a l l ) of memory for the  51  Analysis Since t h i s study was i . e . age  factor  plus  experiment (Ferguson, age and  4  of  observations  one  the  (memory) measures.  two  factor  treatment  (one  i . e . encoding  conditions  was  devised  of  variance  The  to  organize  The p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s were age (Y, M, and 0)  (MANOVA)  was  used  treatment e f f e c t s , as w e l l as for age by effects.  factor)  e f f e c t s of these f a c t o r s on the dependent  and treatment c o n d i t i o n (EC, IC, SC, and SIRC). analysis  classification,  1981), a f a c t o r i a l design with 3 l e v e l s of  encoding of  a  criterion  s i g n i f i c a n c e was p_<.05.  for  For  A  multivariate  to test for age and  treatment  judgement  individual  interaction  of  statistical  age-span  differences,  contrasts between the c o n d i t i o n s (within age-spans) were made to test  for  between group d i f f e r e n c e s .  a l s o used in t h i s study  for  post-hoc  Tukey's HSD procedure was analysis  which  included a l l pairwise comparisons that could be made. when  making  all  possible  comparisons  comparisons could not be regarded this  post-hoc  Kirk,  1967).  test  was  taken  as  between  independent.  usually Moreover,  means,  such  Therefore,  to be appropriate (Hays, 1973;  52  CHAPTER IV  Results The present study was designed to  discover  if  recall  of  n a r r a t i v e information i s a f f e c t e d by age and encoding c o n d i t i o n s (in  which  children  encountered  narrative  material).  S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study attempted to test hypotheses about effects  of  the  c o n d i t i o n s (as stated in Chapter 2) within age-span  groups and of age within c o n d i t i o n s . In order to t e s t the hypotheses, a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance tested the f i r s t set of hypotheses r a i s e d in Chapter 2. This a n a l y s i s tested effects,  and  for  age  by  treatment e f f e c t s .  treatment  interaction,  age  These r e s u l t s are reported in  part A of t h i s chapter. For the second set  of  hypotheses  raised  in  Chapter  2,  c o n t r a s t s between the d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n groups for the Y and 0 age  groups  age-span;  tested and  differences was  also  a  for one  between  way  were  c o n d i t i o n e f f e c t s within each  analysis  of  variance  as  an  indicated  exploratory by  differences  t h i s chapter.  for  were.  analysis.  When  t h i s l a t t e r a n a l y s i s , pairwise  c o n t r a s t s between the groups were made in order the  test  the c o n d i t i o n groups within the M age-span  undertaken  differences  between  to  find  where  These r e s u l t s are reported in part B of  53  A t h i r d s e c t i o n (part C) i s included in t h i s chapter gives  results  of  a  analysis  was  to  encoding  treatment  post-hoc  explore  analysis.  empirical  The purpose of t h i s  connections  Since t h i s a n a l y s i s was of a decidely  nature,  opportunity  age-spans provides differences  not  between  the  conditions and memory for n a r r a t i v e content  performance. the  which  to  some seen  compare r e s u l t s between the three  insight in  exploratory  the  as  to  analysis  possible  performance  in  A or B (and  part  questions which they r a i s e d ) . S t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r o l of v a r i a b i l i t y on the attributable  to  other  recall  measures  than the independent v a r i a b l e s , age and  encoding c o n d i t i o n s , was sought through comparisons of a l l c e l l s with  respect  comparisons  to are  pages 78-79).  gender,  IQ  (ability),  reported  at  the  and  SES.  These  end of t h i s chapter  A n a l y s i s of r e s u l t s pertinent to  the  (below,  study  now  follows. Part A Age and Treatment e f f e c t s The p r e l i m i n a r y m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance indicated that  there  was  Therefore,  a  age  hypothesis  interaction reveal  no  effects,  which  main  there  condition  predicted  effect  age  of  age,  a  significant  treatment, F(15,426)=4.16, p ^ *  *  Since the  0001  interaction. and  encoding  However, t h i s a n a l y s i s d i d  was  2<.001.  well,  encoding  was r e j e c t e d .  significant As  1,  by  F(10,308)=13.17, main  e f f e c t of  hypotheses  were  54  concerned  with both PT-1 and PT-2, the r e s u l t s from an a n a l y s i s  at PT-1 and PT-2 f o l l o w . was  found  to  be  Further,  highly  since  correlated  to  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .93 between measure the  at  PT-1;  category  performances  the  category  the  the  measure  unit measure (a  category  and  and a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .94 between  and  unit  measure  at  PT-2)  the  unit  measure  were dropped from further consideration since they  contribute l i t t l e that  is  purposes.  the  Hereafter,  not  merely  redundant  for  present  measures under discussion should be  understood to be the category measures unless otherwise Moreover, interest 1968,  unit  since  it  is  the  univariate  results  stated.  that  are of  (seen e s p e c i a l l y at PT-2) B o n f e r r o n i ' s procedure  pp. 79-80)  hypothesis  of  dividing  t e s t i n g was used.  the  significance  Therefore,  (Kirk,  level  for  the c r i t i c a l region of  acceptance for the hypotheses t e s t i n g was reset to p_<.01. An u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s significant  main  PT-2  there  F(2,158)=36.79,  treatment,  again  p_<.000l; 2 « <  0 0 0 1  )-  for  the  Nonorthogonal treatment  cued  conditions  significantly  PT-1  revealed  inferior  F (2 , 1 58 ) =6. 08 ,  significant  for  the well,  treatment  recall  contrasts  a  A s  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t of and  at  1  was  (F (2 , 1 58 ) =41 . 62 ,  variance  e f f e c t of age, F (2 , 1 58) = 61 . 41 , p/^OOO ?  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t of At  of  measure,  between  the  main  cued at  a n (  3 a  p_<.0007.  e f f e c t of age  recall  PT-2,  a  measure,  there  (F (3 ,1 58) =9. 03 ,  was  a  p_<.000l;  F (3 , 1 58 ) = 1 9. 26, p_<« 00l). n  age-spans  across  the  i n d i c a t e d that at PT-1 the Y age-span was to  the  M age-span  (F(1,158)=13.34,  55  2<.0004), and to the 0 age-span (F (1 , 1 58) = 1 09. 48 , p_<.000l). M  and  0  age-spans  were  The  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at P T - 1 .  Therefore, hypothesis 2, which p r e d i c t e d superior r e c a l l by oldest  age-span  (as  compared  to  the  the Y and M age-spans), was  r e j e c t e d ; while hypothesis 3, which predicted superior r e c a l l by the M age-span (as  compared  to  the  youngest  age-span),  was  supported at P T - 1 . At  PT-2  the  mean  performances for the Y and M age-spans  were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . Y  age-span  was  (F(1,158)=71.97, F ( 1 , 1 58 ) = 51 . 37 , found  to  be  significantly £<.0001;  and  p_<.000l).  p_<.000l;  F(1,158)=22.20, £><.0001).  on  As  significantly  (F (1 , 1 58 ) = 1 1 . 50 ,  inferior the  well,  ^  o n  the to  t  n  the  cued  inferior an<  to  e  However,  the  O' age-span  recall  measure,  M age span was a l s o the  cued  0 recall  age-span measure,  A c c o r d i n g l y , at PT-2 hypothesis 2 was  supported while hypothesis 3 was r e j e c t e d . For the treatment c o n d i t i o n s (across the ages), at PT-1 the IC c o n d i t i o n group was found to be (F (1 , 1 58) = 1 5. 01 , p_<.0002).  superior  to  the  SC  group  S i m i l a r l y the IC c o n d i t i o n group was  found to be superior to the SIRC group (F (1 , 1 58) =9. 46, p_<.0025). No  other  differences  were  found  at  PT-1.  Accordingly,  hypothesis 4, which p r e d i c t e d r e c a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between the and  IC c o n d i t i o n s was rejected at P T - 1 .  which p r e d i c t e d r e c a l l  differences  EC  F u r t h e r , hypothesis 5,  between  the  EC  and  both  symbolic conditions (SC and SIRC), was a l s o r e j e c t e d at P T - 1 .  56  At P T - 2 , the EC c o n d i t i o n group was found to be superior to the  SC group  (F(1,158) = 17 . 42,  p^-  measure, F ( 1 , ,1 58 ) = 35 . 86 , p<.0001. also  found  to  be  )*  The EC  0  n  t  h  e  c  u  e  condition  recall  d  group  was  superior to the SIRC group (F(1,158)=15.11,  p_<.0002; on the cued r e c a l l measure, Further,  0 0 0 1  F (1 , 1 58) = 29. 34 ,  p^'  0 0 0 1  )*  the IC c o n d i t i o n group was found to be superior to the  SC group (F(1 , 1 58) = 1 3.99, p_<.0003; on the cued F(1,158)=32.96,  p_<.0001).  Also,  the  IC  recall  measure,  c o n d i t i o n group was  found to be superior to the SIRC group (F (1 , 1 58 ) =9 . 57 ,  p_<.0024.  The  measure,  same  • result  was  F (1 , 1 58) = 21 . 90 , p_<.000l).  found  on  Therefore,  the  cued  recall  hypothesis 4 was  rejected  while hypothesis 5 was supported at P T - 2 . Part B . Within Age-Span Comparisons Between the Conditions Again,  for  c l a r i t y and s i m p l i c i t y , only the PT-1 category  measure and PT-2 category and cued r e c a l l results  are  reported  measures  performance  (given the high c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  obtained between the category and unit measures at PT-1 PT-2  as  reported  above).  Figure  2A  graphic representation of the mean r e c a l l category  measure  for  (below,  and at  page 57) i s a  performances  on the  each age-span group i n each c o n d i t i o n at  PT-1 and P T - 2 . A graphic representation of performances on the cued r e c a l l measure (PT-2) can be seen i n Appendix F, Figure 2B. The  analysis  follows:  of  results  pertinent  to  each  age-span  group  57  F i g u r e 2A 1  2  Mean r e c a l l performance (PT-1 and PT-2 ) on the category measure by each treatment c o n d i t i o n group (EC, IC, SC, and SIRC c o n d i t i o n s ) f o r each age-span group M E A N P E R F 0 R M A N C E S C 0 R E S  23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 .1 3 12 1 1 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00  -+  E  c  +-  +  I  S  c  c  Treatment Conditions for Y Age-Span 1  -+  +  +  +  +-  S I R C  E C  I C  S C  S I R C  Treatment Conditions for M Age-Span  -+E C  -+I  c  -+-  s c  -+  Treatment Conditions for O Age-Span  s  I R  c  - The upper most extremity (.) i n each c o n d i t i o n represents the mean performance on the category measure at PT-1. 2 _ The bottom most extremity (.) i n each c o n d i t i o n represents the mean performance on the category measure at PT-2. The v e r t i c a l bar (|) between the two e x t r e m i t i e s represents the decrement from PT-1 t o PT-2 on the category measure f o r the c o n d i t i o n s .  58  Y age-span comparisons (between  conditions).  For the performance on a l l measures (PT-1 and PT-2) by Y  age-span  group,  the  the  means and standard d e v i a t i o n s for each  c o n d i t i o n are presented  in  Table  graphic  of  the  representation  III  (below,  page  59).  A  means on each measure for each  c o n d i t i o n group at PT-1 and PT-2 i s presented i n Figure  3A  and  3B (below, page 60). An  initial  univariate  (Helmert contrast) difference  analysis  indicated  between  the  EC  that  cued  recall  measure  there  variance was  no  contrast  significant  c o n d i t i o n and the other conditions  when contrasted at PT-1 and PT-2. the  of  too.  Moreover, t h i s Therefore,  was  case  on  hypothesis 6, which  s t i p u l a t e d that the EC group would-be superior on performance to a l l the other However,  a  conditions post-hoc  (IC,  SC,  and  SIRC)  was  rejected.  a n a l y s i s revealed that c h i l d r e n in the EC  c o n d i t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior to the c h i l d r e n in the condition at  PT-2  at  PT-1 and on the category and cued r e c a l l measures  (Tukey  significantly  SC  HSD,  p_<.05).  As  well,  the  EC  group  was  superior on performance when compared to the SIRC  group on the cued r e c a l l measure at  PT-2  (Tukey  HSD,  p_<.05).  However, the IC group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior to the SC group at PT-1 and on the PT-2 cued r e c a l l measure. was  A l s o , the IC group  found, to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior to the SIRC group on the  cued r e c a l l measure at PT-2 (Tukey HSD, 2<.05).  I t appears that  the IC group was accounting for the  nonsignificant  differences  found when t e s t i n g t h i s hypothesis.  This i s evident since at  59  Table  III  Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of each measure at PT-1 and PT-2 by the Y age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n  Measure  Condition  PT-1 Mean SD.  Mean  Category:  EC IC SC SIRC  6.53 7.67 2.80 4.21  3.81 4.42 2.31 3.40  5.40 4.60 2.33 3.00  3.66 3.02 1.84 2.75  5.32  3.98  3.84  3.08  13.47 15.00 6.13 9.50'  7.02 7.72 4.45 6.25  11.50  7.22  Mean Total  Unit:  EC IC SC SIRC Mean Total  7.47  5.19  8.60 7.07 4.33 4.21  2.59 2.28 2.32 2.39  6.08  3.00  Mean T o t a l  both  EC=15;  PT-1  IC=15;  and  SC=15;  PT-2  the  SIRC=14;  mean  SD.  10.53 6.19 9.06 • 4.64 4.47 3.40 5.71 4.01  Cued R e c a l l : EC IC SC SIRC  n:  PT-2  Total= 59.  r e c a l l scores for the IC group  c l o s e l y resembled those of the EC group.  A  summary  r e s u l t s i s presented in Table IV (below, page 61).  of  these  60  Figure 3A Condition group performance means for Y age-span (category and unit measures at PT-1)  M  E A N S C o  R E S  17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00  Legend:  category= unit =  V  -+  EC  +  +  +  IC SC SIRC Condition Groups (Y Age-Span)  Figure 3B Condition group performance means for Y age-span (category, u n i t , and cued r e c a l l measures at PT-2) M  E A N S C 0 R E S  16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00  Legend:  -+  EC  +  category: unit = cued=  +  +  IC SC SIRC Condition Groups (Y Age-Span)  61  Table  IV  Summary of the r e s u l t s of a l l p a i r wise comparisons on the PT-1 category and PT-2 category and cued r e c a l l measures (Y age-span)  Group  Measures PT-1 PT-2 Category Category Cued R e c a l l  Contrast  EC vs IC EC vs SC EC vs SIRC IC vs SC IC vs SIRC SC vs SIRC * = s i g n i f i c a n t at p<.05 (Tukey HSD Test, Post-Hoc). Absence of a s t e r i s k s = no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups M age-span group comparisons (between  conditions).  For the performance by the M age-span  group  at  PT-1  and  PT-2 on a l l measures, the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s for each condition are presented in Table V (below, page 62). graphic  representation  of  the  means on each measure for each  condition group can be seen in Figures 4A and 4B 63-64).  Further, a  (below,  pages  62  Table V Means and standard deviations of each measure at PT-1 and PT-2 by the M age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n  Measure  Condition  Category:  EC IC SC SIRC Mean Total  Unit:  EC IC SC SIRC Mean Total  Mean  PT-1  SD.  Mean  3.79 5.16 4.58 4.67  10.38 8.35 5.69 5.93  1.89 3.71 4.23 3.20  12.26  4.81  7.57  3.80  23.92 24.50 20.46 18.21  4.91 7.78 6.75 6.23  17.08 14.71 10.77 11.43  3.84 5.65 7.38 6.13  21.76  6.85  13.43.  6.28  9.85 9. 43 5.69 6.57  1.91 2.50 3.12 2.74  7.89  3.10  • '  Mean Total EC=13;  A  IC=14;  one  SD.  14.23 14.00 11.00 9.86  Cued r e c a l l : EC IC SC SIRC  n:  PT-2  SC=13;  SIRC=14;  Total* 54.  way u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance on the category  measure at PT-1 d i d not i n d i c a t e that there were any s i g n i f i c a n t differences  between  the  conditions.  However,  at  PT-2  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were revealed (F(3,50)=5.71, p<.002; and for  the  cued  r e c a l l measure, F(3,50)=8.35, 2 « ° 0 1 ) .  comparisons between the treatment groups on the  <  Pairwise  measures  using  Tukey's HSD procedure i n d i c a t e d that at PT-2 the EC group was  63  Figure 4A Condition group performance means for M age-span (category and unit measures at PT-1)  significantly (category Further,  superior  and  cued  to  recall)  the  SC  and  measures  SIRC (Tukey  groups  on both  HSD,  p_<.05).  the IC group was superior to the SC and SIRC groups on  the cued r e c a l l measure. seen in Table VI  A summary table of the r e s u l t s can  (below, page 65).  be  64  Figure 4B Condition group performance means for M age-span (category, u n i t , and cued r e c a l l measures at PT-2)  Condition Groups (M Age-Span)  65  Table VI Summary of the r e s u l t s of a l l pairwise comparisons on the PT-1 category measure and the PT-2 category and cued r e c a l l measures (M age-span)  Condition Group Contrast  PT-1 Category  Measures Category  PT-2  Cued R e c a l l  EC vs IC EC vs SC  *  *  EC vs SIRC  *  *  IC vs SC  *  IC vs SIRC  *  -  SIRC vs SC absence of a s t e r i s k = nou5 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups. * = s i g n i f i c a n t at 2<' (Tukey HSD Test, Post-Hoc)  0 age-span comparisons (between The  means  performances  and  for  the  standard 0  deviations  means  of  each  of  the  measures  group c o n d i t i o n subgroups at PT-1 and  PT-2 are presented in Table VII the  conditions).  measure  (below, page 66).  Furthermore,  in each condition are g r a p h i c a l l y  presented in Figures 5A and 5B (below, pages 67-68). since  it  is  obvious  from close inspection of the mean r e c a l l  performances that the SIRC group was not superior one  other  condition  p r e d i c t e d , hypothesis-  Moreover,  group 7  was  at  PT-1  rejected.  to  at  least  or PT-2, as hypothesis 7 Finally,  a  post-hoc  66 a n a l y s i s (using Tukey's HSD t e s t ) d i d not reveal any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between any of the groups on t h i s a n a l y s i s at PT-1 or PT-1. Table  VII  Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of each measure at PT-1 and PT-2 by the 0 age- span group in each condit ion  Measure  Condition  Mean  Category:  EC IC SC SIRC Total  Unit:  EC IC SC SIRC Total  PT-1  Mean  1 3.93 1 5.29 1.2.80 14.00  3.91 5.31 5.33 5.83  1 0.79 1 1 .64 8.67 8.43  3.12 3.43 5.45 4.83  1 3.98  5.09  9.86  4.44  24. 14 26.86 22.73 24.64  5.48 8.39 8.59 10.15  18.86 20.93 1 5.00 15.21  3. 16 5.77 8.30 8.98  24.56  8.24  17.46  7.24  10.86 1 1 .57 9.13 9.36  1 .99 2.59 2.50 3.73  10.21  2.89  Cued R e c a l l : EC IC SC SIRC Total n:  EC=14;  1 0 1 4 ; SC=15;  PT-2  SD.  SIRC=14;  Total= 57.  SD.  67  Figure  5A  C o n d i t i o n g r o u p p e r f o r m a n c e means f o r 0 a g e - s p a n ( c a t e g o r y and u n i t m e a s u r e s a t PT-1)  Condition  Groups  (0 A g e - S p a n )  68  Figure  5B  C o n d i t i o n g r o u p p e r f o r m a n c e means f o r 0 a g e - s p a n ( c a t e g o r y , u n i t , and c u e d r e c a l l m e a s u r e s a t PT-2)  Condition  Groups  (0 A g e - S p a n )  69  Part C Other Observed D i f f e r e n c e s : Exploratory Post-Hoc A n a l y s i s Observed  d i f f e r e n c e s which a r i s e from comparisons made for  reasons other than those required for t e s t i n g the hypotheses set f o r t h above are worthy of examination. Figure 6 (below, page 72) i s a the  mean  recall  performances  representation  of  representation  each  condition.  A  similar  the mean r e c a l l performances on the  PT-2 category measure can be seen in Figure 7 (below, page Likewise,  a  graphic  of  at PT-1 on the category measure  across the age-span groups within graphic  graphic  representation  of  performances w i t h i n each c o n d i t i o n (at  the  73).  mean cued r e c a l l  P T - 2 ) . can  be  seen  in  Figure 8 (below, page 74). As  can  be  seen  from  figures  6-8,  the  performance graph appears to f l a t t e n (or be at the  older  age-spans,  an  interaction  increases.  in  the  While  by  with  for  graphs  interaction  However, j u s t as one interaction  effects  & Stanley, 1970), n o n i n t e r a c t i o n should a l s o be treated  with thoughtful care since "such f a i l u r e to notions  these  treatment  i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s (part A ) .  should exercise caution when d e a l i n g (Glass  plateau)  (a c r o s s i n g or i n t e r s e c t i o n of slopes  formed from means), there was no age found  a  condition  while the graphs of the other c o n d i t i o n s  appear to steadly r i s e as age indicate  EC  reflected  hazard (or r e a l i t y )  perfectly  in  of an attempt  our to  see  our  intuitive  mathematical models i s a present  the  real  world  70  mathematically"  (Glass  & Stanley,  A nonsignificant performances conditions means  (within  plotted  conditions, 6-8,  condition  curiosity  or that  and  across  does  compared  about  not  the  to  indicate  adequacy  age-spans)  i n the  when w i t h i n c o n d i t i o n  t h e y s h o u l d be p a r a l l e l .  however,  Further  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e  were s i m i l a r ,  are  1970, p. 4 1 0 ) .  the  of the other  An i n s p e c t i o n this.  of  plots  the  age-span  of  figures  These f i g u r e s  mathematical  a n a l y s i s o f between g r o u p s d i f f e r e n c e s  analysis.  and t r e n d s i n t h e  d a t a seems w a r r a n t e d f o r b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l since  the  differed  performances  of  (note between c o n d i t i o n s  These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s was  the  favored  children within  an e x p l o r a t o r y  best  connects  the  age-spans)? best  linear  group  trends  in  each  from a l i n e a r  Testing condition)  form  f o r each  of  the  for  revealed  trend  linear that  t r e n d s a t PT-1 ( t = 4.13,  was  were a l s o  trends three  curve  which  (across  polynomial points)  of the  tests for  undertaken.  Tests  for  undertaken.  a c r o s s t h e age g r o u p s  conditions  p_<.0002 f o r t h e  the  function  To a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n ,  condition  which  What d e g r e e o f  condition of  B above).  analysis  t h e f o r m o f t h e g r o u p means ( d a t a  encoding conditions?  deviation  P<.0001  means  the  I n o t h e r w o r d s , what l e v e l  describes  various  approximates  reasons,  each age-span  comparisons i n Part  u n d e r t a k e n t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n :  polynomial  evoke  (within  had s i g n i f i c a n t IC  f o r ' t h e SC c o n d i t i o n ; a n d t = 5.98,  linear  condition; p_<«  0 0 0 1  f  o  r  t = 5.95, t  h  e  S  I  R  C  71  condition).  Further, one c o n d i t i o n , the EC c o n d i t i o n ,  significantly  from  a  linear  results  were  found:  (t = 3 . 1 2 ,  p<.0035),  On the P T - 2 category  i n d i c a t e d a quadratic t r e n d . same  trend  the  deviated  measure  and the  IC, SC and SIRC conditions had  s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r trends and the EC c o n d i t i o n deviated  from a  linear  trend  t=6.92,  J2<. 0 0 0 1  for the SC c o n d i t i o n ;  condition;  (t=5.59,  from  For  linear  the IC c o n d i t i o n ;  t=7 . 0 2 ,  and the EC condition  from a l i n e a r t r e n d ) . deviations  for  p_<.000l  the trends  2  <  t=2.27,  -  0  0  1  f  o  recall  found.  r  t  the  t =6 . 6 8 ,  EC  condition;  p_<.000l  t=4 . 9 3 ,  e  measure  S  I  R  C  no  However, a l l the  c o n d i t i o n s d i d have a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r trend (t = 9 . 8 2 , for  h  for deviation  p<.029  P T - 2 cued were  0  p_<.000l  for the IC c o n d i t i o n ;  p_<.000l  for the SC c o n d i t i o n ; and t = 7 . 2 8 ,  p_<.000l  for  the SIRC c o n d i t i o n ) . As  indicated  i n Chapter 2 , one might wonder i f conditions  of encoding m i t i g a t e age d i f f e r e n c e s the  in  recall.  Accordingly,  f o l l o w i n g questions were posed: ( 1 ) Do a l l condition groups  of the Y age-span d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from age-span  condition  groups  at P T - 1 ?  all  the M and 0  And ( 2 ) are a l l condition  groups of the Y age-span s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from a l l the 0 age-span  condition  groups  at  PT-2?  To  answer  these  two  q u e s t i o n s , a post-hoc a n a l y s i s using the Tukey test (Hays, 1 9 7 3 ; Kirk,  1 9 6 7 ) was employed to test for  between  all  ages  all  possible  differences  across the c o n d i t i o n s at PT-1 and P T - 2 . The  r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s on the category measure (PT-1 and P T - 2 ) and  on  the  cued  recall  measure ( P T - 2 ) can be seen in tables  72  V I I I - X (below pp. 7 5 - 7 7 ) .  Figure 6 Performance means for each age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n on the category measure at PT-1)  Age-Span Groups  73 Figure 7 Performance means for each age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n on the category measure at PT-2  M E A N P E R F 0 R M A N C E S C 0 R E S  27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00  Legend:  Y  EC = IC = SC = SIRC =  M Age-Span Groups  0  74  Figure 8 Performance means for each age-span group in each c o n d i t i o n on the cued r e c a l l measure at PT-2)  Table VIII Summary table of r e s u l t s of the Tukey HSD post-hoc a n a l y s i s on the category measure (at PT-1) with a l l age-spans across a l l conditions age  Y Y Y Y M M O O M O M O condition  C  mean  S S E I S S S E I S E I I C C I C C C C I C C R R R C C C  2.80  Y  SC  4.22  Y  SIRC  6.53  Y  EC  7.67  Y  IC  9.86  M SIRC  *  *  1 1 .00  M SC  *  *  1 2.80  0  SC  *  *  *  13.93  O  EC  *  *  *  *  1 4.00  M  IC  *  *  *  *  14.00  O  SIRC  *  *  *  *  1 4.23  M EC  *  *  *  *  15.29  O  *  *  *  *  IC  * = Denotes p a i r s of groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at p_<.05.  76  Table IX  Summary t a b l e o f r e s u l t s o f t h e Tukey HSD p o s t - h o c a n a l y s i s on t h e c a t e g o r y m e a s u r e ( a t PT-2) w i t h a l l a g e - s p a n s a c r o s s a l l conditions age span condition  Y  Y  Y  Y  M  M  M  0  0  M  O  0  S C  S I R C  I C  E C  S C  S I R C  I C  s  s c  E C  E C  c  mean 2.33  Y  SC  3.00  Y  SIRC  4.60  Y  IC  5.40  Y  EC  5.69  M  SC  5.93  M  SIRC  8.36  M  IC  *  *  8.43  0  SIRC  *  *  8.67  0  SC  *  *  10.38  M  EC  *  *  *  *  *  10.79  0  EC  *  *  *  *  *  *  1 1 .64  0  IC  *  *  *  *  *  *  * = Denotes p a i r s of groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y  I R C  I  d i f f e r e n t a t p_<.05.  77  Table X Summary table of r e s u l t s of the Tukey HSD post-hoc a n a l y s i s on the cued r e c a l l measure (at PT-2) with a l l age-spans across a l l conditions age span  Y Y M M Y Y O O M M O O condition  mean  S S S S I E S S I C C I C C C I C R R R C C C  4.21  Y  SIRC  4.33  Y  SC  5.69  M SC  6.57  M SIRC  7.07  Y  IC  8.60  Y  EC  *  *  9.13  0  SC  *  *  *  9.36  0  SIRC  *  *  *  9.43  M IC  *  *  *  9.85  M EC  *  *  *  10.86  0  EC  *  *  *  *  *  1 1 .57  0  IC  *  *  *  *  *  I E E I C C C  * = Denotes p a i r s of groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at p_<.05.  78  Ability  (IQ),  Ability  SES,  and  Gender  Variables  (IQ).  A oneway a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e the  ability  factor  differences Moreover,  between no  condition  indicated the  groups i n regard  the  scores  that  there  age  tiers  three  significant  on  differences to the  from  were no s i g n i f i c a n t on  were  ability  obtained  this  measure.  found between  measure  within  the each  age-span.  G e n d e r and The  SES.  proportions  of  males  ( a g e - t i e r ) d i s t r i b u t i o n s d i d not with  a  chi  age-tiers  SES  sub-samples when  of  differences between  i n the  Since there g e n d e r , and was  SES  assumed  throughout the systematic  in  their  compared  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of groups.  with  three  compared  Nor  did  socio-economic  a  the  class  f o r each  of  Kolmogorov-Smirnov  M o r e o v e r , no s i g n i f i c a n t  these v a r i a b l e s  This  the  when t h e y were  ( S i e g e l , 1956).  ( S i e g e l , 1956).  condition  random a s s i g n m e n t  in  females  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of p r o p o r t i o n s  were  f i t test  the  differ  the  categories  goodness  differ  square t e s t s t a t i s t i c  composition four  and  i s as  were  found  expected, given  the  procedure.  were no  significant differences  f a c t o r s b e t w e e n any that  these  s a m p l e , and  influence  on  s u b g r o u p s of  variables as the  were  s u c h , d i d not dependent  i n the the  evenly appear to measures.  ability,  sample,  it  distributed have No  any  further  79  statistical warranted with  analysis since  for  control  of  these  variables  sample s u b - s e t s d i d not d i f f e r  r e g a r d t o gender or sex mix,  social  was  f r o m one a n o t h e r  class,  and  measured  ability.  Reliability Since  of the Free R e c a l l measures of f r e e  one week f o l l o w i n g an  Measurement  recall  the c h i l d r e n ' s  assessment of the r e l i a b i l i t y  in  the  study.  Calculation  were t a k e n a t 30 s e c o n d s and  encounter with  the  o f measurement was of  Pearson  narrative, incorporated  product-moment  c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r test(PT~1) - retest(PT-2) r e l i a b i l i t y  revealed  respectable n=  170.;  correlations  p_< .001;  p_< . 0 0 1 ) .  and  on  Accordingly,  (on  the  the  unit  one may  category  measure  r= .80;  measure  r= .79;  n=  conclude that  was v e r y modest a n d t h a t  the  measures  While  the  m e a s u r e s was d i s c u s s e d  the  validity  C h a p t e r 3, f u r t h e r  of  support  is  m e a s u r e s by t h e h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y  were  measurement  afforded obtained.  the  highly  170; error  reliable. earlier  validity  of  in the  80  CHAPTER V  Di scussion As  was  indicated  in  the f i r s t two chapters, the present  study was undertaken to obtain e m p i r i c a l evidence conjectures  about  the  development  discourse.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  that  memory  such  depends  upon  depends  are  by  (c)  that  enhanced  as  suggestions  (a)  affected  by  the  knower  capacities  are  knowing  nature and  the  and  of  the  conditions  (d) that the knower's  transformed,  augmented  and  the knower matures (through t i m e ) ; and f i n a l l y  that the character meaningful  for meaningful  said  which the knowledge i s constructed;  representational  and  discourse  to  upon knowing; (b) that such knowing  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s of the under  memory  i t was informed  representation;  representation  of  pertinent  extent  of  memory  for  or  recall  (e) of  i s a f f e c t e d by the c o n d i t i o n s under which  the discourse information i s encoded and the degree to which the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l systems i n which  the  information  is  encoded  have matured. The  successive  representational  systems  emergence which  in Bruner  the (1964;  development 1966;  of 1973)  d e s c r i b e d , provided the t h e o r e t i c a l basis for the formulation of developmental  hypotheses  about  recall  performances.  In the  present study, the manipulation of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l maturity was made p o s s i b l e through (1) the use of  a  cross-sectional  design  81  wherein 5  to  the r e c a l l performances of c h i l d r e n varying in age from 11  years  were  representations  compared;  which  were  (2)  the  ordered  manipulation  through  the  of  systematic  v a r i a t i o n of encoding conditions (whereby the four sub-sets from any one of the three age t i e r s encoded the n a r r a t i v e content four  different  encoding  encoding  conditions  corresponding  was  conditions; identical  and to  each  those  of  the  encountered  sample sub-sets in the other two age t i e r s ) .  in four by The  said manipulations and other design features c o n s t i t u t e d a means by which the developmental hypotheses discussed above  could  be  how  the  tested by experimental procedures. In  effect,  the  study  attempted  to  explore  i n t e r a c t i o n of encoding conditions with a g e - a f f e c t e d affects  recall  of n a r r a t i v e content.  The d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s  of encoding c o n d i t i o n s were assessed within comparisons cohort  of  formed  effects  recall through  age  tiers  through  performances of the sub-sets of the age random  assignment.  The  differential  of i n c r e a s i n g l y mature r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s were  assessed through exploratory a n a l y s i s of the from  capacities  the  three  age  tiers  (with  one  mean  another)  performances within  the  condi t ions. As was seen in chapter IV (Results) a large amount of was  gathered  and reported.  Therefore, t h i s chapter provides a  summary of the f i n d i n g s and evaluation of addition, considered.  alternative  data  explanations  the of  hypotheses. the  results  In are  Furthermore, the r e s u l t s are considered in r e l a t i o n  82  to a number of t h e o r e t i c a l issues and questions including raised  in  the  first  sections  directions  for  further  of t h i s document.  research  which  arise  Thereafter,  from  underscored by the present f i n d i n g s are d e s c r i b e d . implications  the  results  those  or  are  Finally,  the  have for i n s t r u c t i o n a l questions are  explored. Evaluation of Hypotheses 1.  Part A: Age and treatment e f f e c t s . As seen from the i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s ,  differences  in  interesting  observation  performances  recall  of  the  were  also  commonly  found  however,  is  M age-span.  in  this  the  While  reported study.  variability the  age An in  M age-span had  per-foxmances l i k e the 0 age-span on the immediate  recall  task,  they performed more l i k e the Y age-span c h i l d r e n on the one week delayed  recall  task.  These  results  intermediate degree of maturity of  seem  their  to  cognitive  reflect  the  structures  and functions (compared with the younger and older subsamples). The  initial  a n a l y s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d that the performances  of the c h i l d r e n in the i c o n i c c o n d i t i o n children PT-2.  in  the  At PT-2 the  superior  to  the  although there was  were  superior  to  the  symbolic (SC and SIRC) conditions at PT-1 and children  in  the  EC  condition  were  c h i l d r e n in the symbolic c o n d i t i o n s . an  absence  of  a  significant  also  Lastly,  interaction  e f f e c t , there were between age-span w i t h i n c o n d i t i o n , as w e l l as w i t h i n age-span between c o n d i t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s .  It appears that  83  the  r e s u l t s obtained  give  significant  questions  study  during  the  time  A.  Youngest  While  (Y) a g e - s p a n  i t was  found w i t h  this  hypothesized  study  the youngest indicates  associated  immediate and  performances symbolic  were  conditions  B.  Middle  For  the  theoretical would  one  recall week  compared  middle  the  groups.  same  by T r a v i s a n d W h i t e  observed  (1979) w o u l d  was t h e e n a c t i v e the  as w e l l .  delay to  iconic  from  condition  c.ondition  was  T h i s was f o u n d on b o t h  recall  the r e c a l l  when  these  recall  performances of the  group.  age-span  group  there  was  no  f o r p r e d i c t i n g that the encoding  an e x p l o r a t o r y  affect  recall  performances.  a n a l y s i s between t h e e n c o d i n g  was made f o r t h i s a g e - s p a n . the  below.  (SC a n d S I R C ) .  differentially  reason,  study.  (Y) a g e - s p a n g r o u p , t h e e v i d e n c e  (M) a g e - s p a n  basis  that  r e c a l l , but  with optimal  cognitive  in this  w i t h i n age-span  that not only  associated with optimal  the  i s presented  raises  group.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s as those r e p o r t e d be  in  span i n c o r p o r a t e d  P a r t B: c o n d i t i o n v a r i a b i l i t y  enough t o  T h i s , of course,  of q u a l i t a t i v e changes  d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s p o i n t  2.  were n o t p o w e r f u l  interaction effects.  about the extent  functioning Further  from t h i s  No r e c a l l  previous conditions For  this  conditions  d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d on  i m m e d i a t e r e c a l l , b u t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d on t h e one week  delay  recall.  Further,  t h e M a g e - s p a n r e s u l t s were  similar  to  84  the 0 age-span r e s u l t s (see below) at PT-1, and s i m i l a r to the Y age-span r e s u l t s at PT-2 - as was found on the i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s . That  i s , at PT-2, the EC and IC c o n d i t i o n s were superior to the  symbolic c o n d i t i o n s (SC and SIRC) on the one week  delay  recall  but not on the immediate r e c a l l t a s k . C.  Oldest (0) age-span group.  Superior e f f i c i e n c y of symbolic representation (as compared to  enactive and i c o n i c representation)  oldest  group  (0 age-span  group).  was hypothesized for the However,  no  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s between any of the encoding c o n d i t i o n s were obtained when  both  the immediate and one week delay r e c a l l performances  were t e s t e d . 3.  Part C: exploratory While the  possibility  trend  analysis.  analysis  indicated  that  there  is  the  that the enactive c o n d i t i o n was p o s s i b i l y d e v i a t i n g  from a l i n e a r trend (and that the other c o n d i t i o n s were n o t ) ,  it  must be remembered that the EC c o n d i t i o n d e v i a t i o n  of  sufficient linear  magnitude  trends  indicate  that  of  to  the  possibly  be other older  significantly conditions.  was  not  d i f f e r e n t from the However,  it  does  c h i l d r e n (than those sampled in  t h i s study) should be tested to gain a better estimate of trends from  a  greater  (i.e.  l e s s , truncated)  age  range.  d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s l a t t e r point i s resumed below.  Further  85  4.  Summary e v a l u a t i o n . The mean r e c a l l performance of c h i l d r e n of 9 years and l e s s  in . the  enactive  encoding  condition  was superior to the mean  performances of c h i l d r e n in the SC and SIRC c o n d i t i o n s ,  as  was  However,  the  i c o n i c condition was no l e s s powerful for the same age-spans  (up  the  case  in  the  Travis and White (1979) study.  to 9 years of age). and  White  (1979)  present study. were  sample  was  that  the  Travis  younger than the Y group in the  A f t e r age 9 the enactive and  iconic  conditions  not associated with advantage or disadvantage on r e c a l l of  a narrative. in  In passing we may notice  the  For c h i l d r e n between 9 and 11 years of age  oldest  age-tier  in  this investigation)  (those  there were no  d i f f e r e n c e s in r e c a l l between the c o n d i t i o n s . The evidence gathered from t h i s study (within each age-span between condition e f f e c t s ) appears to i n d i c a t e an symbolic  processing  a f t e r 7 years of  age  efficiency. when  This  immediate  emergence  of  e f f i c i e n c y was evident recall  was  asked  for.  However, r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of retention over one week declined for  youngsters under 9 years of age in the symbolic c o n d i t i o n s .  This was evident by the superior r e c a l l performances and  M age-span  %  groups  groups  were  groups)  Y  The  Y  and M  not as p r o f i c i e n t in t h e i r r e c a l l of the  n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l as the 0 age-span  the  in the EC and IC c o n d i t i o n s ; and t h e i r  poorer performances in the symbolic c o n d i t i o n s . age-span  of  age-span  group.  They  (Y  and M  may not have f u l l y developed t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s  to a s s i m i l a t e information  in  symbolic  systems,  or  have  not  86  matured  or  developed  alternative  systems  economical and powerful than that which i s motoric  or  which  established  i c o n i c organization of t h e i r experiences.  i t appears that in the M and Y age-spans, knowledge in  are  enactive  or  iconic  schemes  was  more  Perhaps  the  dependent  and  Spiro,  schemas  As such,  enduring or  and with  younger c h i l d r e n ' s (Y and M age-span  groups) c o g n i t i v e functioning i s more iconic  through  constructed  reconstructable than the symbolic constructions (alone rehearsal).  more  (see  Anderson,  upon  enactive  & Anderson, 1978;  Bower, Black, & Turner, 1979; Richardson, 1969) than i s the case for the older c h i l d r e n (0 adroit  in  assimilating  representation increased  who  were  information  to  all  (enactive,  (from  encoding  age-span)  5  conditions  to  iconic,  11  and  generally  three systems of  symbolic).  no  significant  decreased  since  the  latter  between-condition  the younger age ranges.  age  had  no  While there  differences  group, s i g n i f i c a n t between-condition d i f f e r e n c e s in  As  years of age) the importance of the  d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on r e c a l l in the eldest group. were  more  were  in  the 0  observed  As w i l l be discussed below, t h i s i s  perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g in t h i s study with  respect  to i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s for i n s t r u c t i o n . As  can  be seen from the r e s u l t s , the two questions r a i s e d  on page twelve can now be given t e n t a t i v e answers in r e l a t i o n to the study: confer  1) The r e c a l l advantage that  age  advance  seems  to  remained constant within and across the various encoding  conditions at each p o s t - t e s t .  However, t h i s consistency i s only  87  seen at each p o s t - t e s t . shift  between  Within the  M age-span,  there  was  the p o s t - t e s t s w i t h i n and across the c o n d i t i o n s .  Performances resembled those of the 0 age-span at PT-1 and those  of  the  Y  age-span  at PT-2.  advantage which the enactive young  a  children  in  the  like  2) The comparative r e c a l l  encoding  condition  conferred  on  Travis and White (1979) report d i d not  appear in the present study.  However,  both  the  enactive  and  i c o n i c conditions of encoding n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l were associated with  recall  study.  superiority  up  to  9 years of age in the present  In f a c t , as the c h i l d r e n ' s ages increased in the present  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , there were fewer r e c a l l d i f f e r e n c e s  between  the  v a r i a b l e conditions (seen e s p e c i a l l y at P T - 2 ) . This  - l a t t e r fact i s of t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t .  That i s , the  fact of diminishing d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of encoding  conditions  which accompany age increases (as observed) has a bearing on the question order  of  of  how accurate i s the Brunerian conjecture about the  emergence  reconsideration  of  for  representational  Bruner's  theoretical  systems.  A  speculation  brief  and the  inferences from and extensions of the same speculation which are pertinent to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  present  results  is  in  order. Recall  that  according  to  Bruner  three representational systems (enactive, emerge  in  the  l i s t e d order.  (1964; 1966; 1973) the i c o n i c , and  symbolic)  Moreover, while rudiments of a l l  three systems are usually evident by the end of the second year, the maturity of the f i r s t or enactive system  is  more  advanced  88  then,  and  for some time t h e r a f t e r , than i s the maturity of the  i c o n i c and symbolic systems. explicitly  While l i t t l e  more  than  this  is  set f o r t h by Bruner, one may c o n j e c t u r e , as was done  in the present work, that the systems that emerge in order a f t e r the enactive system, w i l l eventually surpass the enactive system in  power,  economy  and  efficiency  with  respect  to  the  representation and organization of i n f o r m a t i o n . One  index of such power, economy and e f f i c i e n c y i s memory.  However, since the duration of the period(s) which before  the  premier  later  system  speculation,  emerging  was  and  (and  must  elapse  systems equal and then surpass the still  inference  is)  were  unknown,  extrapolation,  a l l one had to estimate when  such developments would be evident. One can extrapolate from Bruner's (1966; 1973) and  speculate  that  one of the two l a t e r emerging systems (the  i c o n i c system) may account for the often remarked which  are  reportedly  modal  in  the  seventh  Compared with the enactive mode i t has superior representating  discussions  information  that  upon  changes  or eighth year. capacities  for  i s action-independent such as  can be i l l u s t r a t e d by states or q u a l i t i e s which inhere in things acted upon.  That i s , notable gains in c o g n i t i v e functions which  have been reported r e g u l a r l y as emerging eight  year  period  may  reflect  maturity in the second or i c o n i c feats suited.  of  thought  for  which  the system  the  during  the  seven  to  emergence of a degree of which  makes  possible  a c t i o n - b a s e d system i s l e s s  A c c o r d i n g l y , these expectations about the  maturational  89  pattern for the i c o n i c system was r e f l e c t e d in the hypotheses of t h i s study. Similarly,  Bruner's  w r i t i n g s , and those of others such as  Piaget (1968; 1976), suggest that the f u l l powers  emerges  still  later.  should r e f l e c t an expectation system  would  This that  flower  of  symbolic  suggested that hypotheses maturity  of  the  symbolic  be evident in superior memory performances in the  oldest age t i e r  (i.e.  toward the end of latency p e r i o d ) .  When one turns to the  evidence  produced  by  the  present  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , several matters pertinent to Bruner's t h e o r e t i c a l conjectures  emerge.  First,  clear-cut  and  confirmation of h i s conjectures (about the order and  unequivocal of  emergence)  the i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn about the patterns of maturation for  the three systems are not provided by t h i s study.  However,  the  evidence tends to support, more than r e f u t e , the general o u t l i n e of Bruner's i d e a s . While  the  design  does  not  permit an a c t u a l test of the  conjecture about order of emergence, the superior power enactive  system  for  the  youngest  group.  advantage  for  the  effects.  and  older  groups  reveal  a  in r e c a l l for the enactive c o n d i t i o n and  emerging symbolic e f f i c i e n c y , as condition  conditions  This i s e s p e c i a l l y compelling when the between  groups comparisons for the middle diminishing  the  subjects i s i n f e r a b l e from  comparisons of r e c a l l performances between youngest  of  reflected  in  convergence  of  However, notice must be taken of the r e c a l l  90  performances of the Y subjects in performances condition.  are  the  iconic  whose  not i n f e r i o r to t h e i r cohorts in the enactive  This suggests that the maturity of the i c o n i c system  i s more advanced by the ages represented tier  condition  than  was  expected.  in  the  youngest  age  Moreover, the f u l l power of a mature  symbolic system was not evident (in superior r e c a l l ) as expected in those oldest (0) subjects in the symbolic c o n d i t i o n . turn suggests that f u l l maturity emerge  later  than expected.  of  the  symbolic  This conclusion or  This in  system  may  interpretation  i s bolstered in a strongly suggestive, i f not compelling way the  slopes  of  by  the curves formed by j o i n i n g a l l data points of  group means from the respective or  corresponding  tests  across  ages.  Said curves, when used as a basis for e x t r a p o l a t i o n about  when  f u l l symbolic system power may be evident, suggests future  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of these matters with included in the present In  sum,  the  older  subjects  than  were  study.  differences  in  memory  performances in the  present study do suggest that the three representational systems reach maximum e f f i c i e n c y in an order that what  one  would  not  expect given Bruner's s p e c u l a t i o n s .  (0) c h i l d r e n were better able  to  symbolic  encoding  than  children.  It  representational  does  condition therefore system  with those c h i l d r e n  in  were  appears'  emerged the  recall  last  present  the  contradict The older  narrative  in  a  the younger (Y and M) that  the  symbolic  (as Bruner conjectured) investigation.  If  such  representation systems emerge at d i f f e r e n t times in a p a r t i c u l a r  91  order  (enactive  then  iconic  then symbolic), one might expect  that in childhood the ontogeny of the system which appears w i l l be more advanced than w i l l be the Likewise,  case  with  the  first  second.  the second system w i l l be more mature than the t h i r d ,  u n t i l a l l reach f u l l maturity (unless they mature rates).  Unfortunately  However, i f  this  successive  representational suggested,  then  matter  emergence  systems there  is  are  of a  is  at  not  maturity warranted  obvious  different  settled  here.  in  three  the  conclusion,  scientific  as  well  as as  educational i m p l i c a t i o n s which are worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Discussion and Educational I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s  "Since  the  remembering,  pioneer there  work has  Investigation  of B a r t l e t t (1932) on been  a  tendency  to  t r i v i a l i z e human learning in experiments designed to  discover  fundamental  general  principles."  (Entwistle,  1976, p. 1)  Success in showing mastery of depends,  in  content of  part, the  on  various  the  subject  matter  in  schools  capacity to r e c a l l the information  forms  of  discourse  e x p o s i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , and argumentation).  (e.g.  narration,  The development of  t h i s capacity i s of i n t e r e s t to teachers and to scholars who are concerned the  with gaining understanding about r e c a l l or memory for  purpose  of  enhancing  recall  of  important  information.  92  Consideration apparently, of  the  of  what  is  entailed  in  1982; S c r i b n e r ,  issue  focuses  has,  in  spite  s u b s t a n t i a l amount of time and research e f f o r t on  memory, l i t t l e of p r a c t i c a l consequence i s  taken  recall  led some scholars to the conclusion t h a t ,  very  (Neisser,  such  with  1984).  this  exclusively  what  about  memory  Even so, Wickelgren (1981) has  conclusion.  on  known  However,  may  be  in doing so he  called  studies  of  micro-memory phenomena. Wickelgren phases  (1981)  involved  (consolidation recognition). macro-studies  claims  in and  studies:  forgetting),  and  he  the  following  chunks. forgetting  and  Storage of  of  encoding is  such  retrieval  concerned small  cells  (or  single  with of  storage  (recall  micro-studies  basis:  single  these  are three temporal learning,  distinguishes  concerned with the learning associations,  there  memory  Further, . on  that  from  Micro-studies  are  a  of)  small  (or  the  and  set  small  set of)  consolidation  and  learned i n f o r m a t i o n ; and  r e t r i e v a l i s concerned with a s i n g l e elementary act of r e c a l l i n g or recognizing some unit proposition). multiple  of  information  Macro-studies  recall,  ordered  ( e . g . word,  concept,  c o n s i s t of such studies  involving  recall,  free  recall,  creativity,  problem s o l v i n g , and comprehension of large u n i t s of t e x t . This d i s t i n c t i o n between micro- and macro-studies of memory phenomena  is  important  when one considers Wickelgren's (1981)  contention that s i g n i f i c a n t knowledge and understanding has been gathered with  regard  to  memory.  For  in  making  his  case,  93  Wickelgren,  explicitly  the consideration memory  may  memory  within  concerns  of  and e x c l u s i v e l y , micro-studies.  l i m i t s h i s argument to  While  many  studies  of  have been able to discover s i g n i f i c a n t knowledge of the  that  Wickelgren  framework  informed  (1981)  of  micro-  considerations,  the  the assessments of the c r i t i c s to whom  reacted  might  well  be  rooted  in  the  macro-world (which he excludes). If m i c r o - s t u d i e s t e l l us l i t t l e of s i g n i f i c a n c e with regard to  how developing memory r e l a t e s to macro-phenomena such as the  information content of d i s c o u r s e , and t h i s i s what makes important  for  teachers  reason to address micro-studies they may  learners (Neisser,  matters.  have  been  us  little  about  For  however  tell  (Neisser,  such  and  1982).  This  is  1982), one has  not  to  say  memory  in  natural  cumulative  need to know about macro-memory.  point a r i s e s since exclude  the  that  altogether or e n t i r e l y p o i n t l e s s ; but  the  procedures  settings  results  m i c r o - s t u d i e s might be, they may never be able to t e l l we  memory  us  of what  Consideration of t h i s l a s t employed  in  micro-studies  the study of macro-considerations, such as how the form  and unity and i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s  of  the  content  affect  free  r e c a l l ; or how d i f f e r e n t degrees of c o g n i t i v e maturity, encoding conditions, interact relevance  and  to  the nature and coherence of discourse m a t e r i a l  influence  recall.  Therefore,  the  utility  or  of micro-memory research to educational questions and  issues may be doubted. Answers  to  questions  which  are  central  to  practical  94  problems  and  issues  such as " . . . h o w p u p i l s use t h e i r own past  experiences in meeting the present p. 12,  1982),  studies. that  are  sought  and  through  the  future"  (Neisser,  the designs of macro-memory  The Ebbinghaus t r a d i t i o n  of  studying  "pure  memory"  i s o l a t e s i t s e l f from previous l e a r n i n g ( D i S i b i o , 1982) and  p o s s i b l y future (1982,  p.12)  learning, would  say,  divorces  itself  "natural  conditions".  concerns are focused on educational issues entail  from,  and  as  Neisser  As  teacher  questions  that  memory for meaningful information and understanding, and  memory for what makes sense recall  of  nonsense  of  (as  opposed  concern  to  the  interest  in  in the Ebbinghaus t r a d i t i o n ) ,  macro- considerations such as those  listed  above  have  to  be  incorporated, in memory studies i f the study of memory i s to have significance  or  e s p e c i a l l y so  functional  where  concerned ( D i S i b i o , Accordingly,  value  (Scribner,  1984).  and  ecological  validities  external  practical  one  has  reason to suggest that macro-memory who  must  functions  (Scribner,  1984,  in  isolation  the  with  case  in  from  one  p. 2 ) ; for macro-memory studies  are concerned with p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y and u t i l i t y presently  deal  problems of memory better than do studies which  investigate "...mental another..."  are  1982; Hultsch & Hickey, 1978).  studies approach the concerns of teachers more  This i s  micro-memory  more  studies.  than As  such,  macro-studies may have more p r a c t i c a l (or use) value because respect  for  mundane  is  of  realism and e c o l o g i c a l as w e l l as content  v a l i d i t i e s than that which derives from  exclusive  concern  for  95  experimental  realism  and  t h e o r e t i c a l p u r i t y ( T r a v i s , 1984; in  press). It  is  not  considerable studies.  difficult  body  of  One only  comprehend  understand  why  there  is  a  l i t e r a t u r e which emphasizes micro-memory  needs  why  to  the  to  look  Ebbinghaus  at  the  present  experimental  study  to  tradition  has  continued to be so popular; and why one t r i e s to c o n t r o l as many v a r i a b l e s as p o s s i b l e . measures  have  SES, a b i l i t y control  of  Since d i f f e r e n c e s on r e c a l l  been (and  reported the  such  like),  performance  with v a r i a b l e s l i k e age, gender, certainly  variables is desirable.  some  methodological  Further,  controlling  for these v a r i a b l e s can contribute to c l a r i f i c a t i o n of relationships  and  .advance  theoretical  observed  interpretation  of.  experimental-findings.  However, such v a r i a b l e s  are  difficult  in  extra-laboratory  to  research  control  settings.  representational  classroom  Moreover,  capacity  of  or other  since short  "attempts  frequently  to  measure  term memory have been met  with numerous d i f f i c u l i t i e s " (Rohwer & Dempster, 1977,  p. 411),  d i f f i c u l t i e s may be encountered when t r y i n g to apply the r e s u l t s gained  from  micro-memory s t u d i e s , or t r y i n g to generalize from  m i c r o - to macro-memory Lester,  situtations  (see  Klapp,  Marshburn,  &  1983).  This i s not to say that we have not gleaned any information from  micro-memory  studies that have educational u t i l i t y .  Rohwer and Dempster (1977) confirm t h i s when they "Teachers  suggest  Even that  should be well a d v i s e d . . . to consider the p o s s i b i l i t y  96  of memory f a i l u r e whenever they present material..."  (p. 414)  (One  a  wonders  great though,  grandparents could not have t o l d us t h i s ! ) . reported  in  deal if  of  new  even  our  However,  this  is  r e l a t i o n to d i g i t span capacity l i m i t s , and not to  representational  capacity.  representational  capacity  It  is  yet  unknown  how  much  i s a v a i l a b l e (see Rohwer & Dempster,  1977) when one deals with sentences or s t o r i e s with c h i l d r e n different  ages.  In  any  case,  the  evidence  of the present  macro-memory study i s c o n s i s t e n t with the r e l i a b l e micro-memory maturity  seem  proficiency The  research to  which  be  that  accompanied  by  findings  increases increases  in  impact . of  in  documented  age or  in  memory  a g e - a f f e c t e d f a c t o r s on memory has. be§n of  early  these  That increase in age  life  (Honsick,  Furthermore,  and  1983;  adversely Pozdek  observations  of  affects  memory  in l a t e l i f e i s w e l l &  Michili,  age-affected  1982).  factors  memory are being supplemented and r e f i n e d by work which on  particular  classes  with age increase Michili,  1982).  of  v a r i a b l e s which are known to change  (Honsick, For  on  focuses  1983;  McGraugh,  example,  children  1983; may  Pozdek &  develop  i n c r e a s i n g l y become more p l a n f u l , aware, and s t r a t e g i c in approach to problems, as w e l l as t h e i r preparation for (Cavanaugh  in  (within the range of age studied h e r e i n ) .  i n t e r e s t for a long time. favorably  show  of  or  their  retrieval  & Borkowski, 1980; F l a v e l l , 1977; F l a v e l l & Wellman,  1977; Kreutsner, Leonard, & F l a v e l l , 1975; Yussen & Levy, 1975). Some developmental d i f f e r e n c e s on r e c a l l performances  have  97  been  shown  results  by  of  the present the  between-ages  study.  exploratory  performance  As can be seen from the  analysis  (Tables  d i f f e r e n c e s decreased when the r e c a l l  of the older (M versus Y; 0 versus Y) c h i l d r e n i n conditions  VTII-X),  the  symbolic  was compared to the younger (Y) c h i l d r e n who were i n  the EC and IC  conditions.  were  age  made,  When  differences  between-age-tier were  found.  between-age-tier comparisons were made age  differences  few  cases  not  diminishing  VIII-X).  conclusive.  differences  Results  are  studies  or  performances  as  all  when  conditions,  The  age  the  results  fact  increases  consistently  between-condition age  present  of  is  are  observed  provocative.  of the p o s s i b i l i t y that i f a s e r i e s of  investigators of  across  However,  as  suggestive  diminution  However,  diminished to the point of i n s i g n i f i c a n c e in a  (see Tables  certainly  comparisons  increases,  a  find  a  pattern  differences noteworthy  in  of  recall  developmental  phenomenon w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . Clearly,  questions s t i l l must be r a i s e d about how encoding  conditions i n t e r a c t with a g e - a f f e c t e d c o g n i t i v e to  affect  memory.  The  extent  of  these  often-seen age advantage i n memory when r e c a l l children  as  performances evidence  young of  as  5 to  children  indicates  that  9 to  same  in  enactive  e f f e c t s can cancel performances  of  are compared with l i k e  11 years.  The  exploratory  c h i l d r e n aged 5 to 7 years, when they  encode n a r r a t i v e content i n encode  7 years  characteristics  conditions  which  enable  them  to  and i c o n i c systems, do not d i f f e r i n  98  t h e i r r e c a l l performances from that of c h i l d r e n years  (the  0  children)  who  encode  the  aged  same  to  11  material  in  conditions which require that the n a r r a t i v e content in  symbolic  systems.  The  Y  children  in  9  be  these  encoded same  two  conditions do not d i f f e r from the M c h i l d r e n (aged 7-9 years) in the SC and SIRC conditions e i t h e r . Accordingly, one may question g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about development  which  do  not  take  account  encoding conditions and suggest that these  matters  is  warranted.  of  further  the influence of investigation  warrant  reconsideration  While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to  of  In p a r t i c u l a r , conclusions from  past research, which as a rule only e n t a i l e d symbolic may  memory  encoding,  in the l i g h t of present f i n d i n g s .  incorporate  procedures  which  embody  enactive and i c o n i c encoding c o n d i t i o n s in studies of memory for digits,  e v e ' s , or s i n g l e words (other than concrete words) in a  very short time span, the present that  generalizations  which  have  pattern  of  results  been drawn from such studies  warrant r e v i s i o n in the l i g h t of the encoding c o n d i t i o n seen h e r e i n .  suggest  effects  For example, Brown (1975), i n o f f e r i n g a c o r o l l a r y  to F l a v e l l ' s dictum on mnemonics and e f f i c i e n t task performance, stated  that when no mnemonic strategy i s required for e f f i c i e n t  performance of a t a s k , "the task w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y to  developmental  trends."  (p.  110).  The  insensitive  evidence  of  the  present study i s not e n t i r e l y in accord with t h i s dictum. While i t i s accepted that c h i l d r e n ' s performances on r e c a l l measures generally increases with age ( J a b l o n s k i , 1974; S t e i n &  99  Glenn, 1976; Cavanaugh & Borkowski, 1980), some researchers have suggested that i t i s the task of verbal recounting that presents difficulties  for young c h i l d r e n (Brown, 1975).  Moreover, young  c h i l d r e n may be unaware of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between organization and r e c a l l , o r , are l e s s apt to organize t h e i r r e t r i e v a l in free r e c a l l as adults (Lange & G r i f f i t h , (1973)  has  claimed  that,  o r g a n i z a t i o n . " (p. 411). be  learned  1977).  "The  Similarly,  key  to  retrieval  is  Well organized information appears  to  more r e a d i l y and remembered longer than information  that i s not w e l l organized (Bower, C l a r k , Lesgold, 1964).  Bruner  Accordingly,  present study the EC  & Wineberg,  there i s reason to conjecture that in the and  IC  encoding  conditions  facilitated  o r g a n i z a t i o n which was r e f l e c t e d in higher mean performances for the  Y  and  M groups  in  these c o n d i t i o n s compared with t h e i r  cohorts in the SC and SIRC groups. organized  in  terms  structure  is  material  accessible  in  of  a that  Further,  study  has  memory" (Bruner,  may  have  that  is  person's own i n t e r e s t and c o g n i t i v e the  best  chance  1973, p. 412).  suggested that the enactive and i c o n i c this  "material  It  encoding  of  being  i s therefore  conditions  of  both (1) engaged the c h i l d r e n ' s (Y and M  age-span) i n t e r e s t s ; and (2) maximized e f f i c i e n t a s s i m i l a t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e content by t h e i r current c o g n i t i v e structures  (as  seen in the r e s u l t s ) . This  would  support  Bruner's  (1973)  " c h i l d r e n do best in recovering m a t e r i a l t i e d forms  of mediation they most often u s e . "  contention together  (p. 411).  by  that the  Therefore,  100  Bruner's suggestion of successive systems  from  enactive  to  emergence iconic  of  to  representation  symbolic  representation i s not contradicted by the present since  the  younger  children  p r o f i c i e n t when r e c a l l i n g  (Y  and  forms  investigation  M age-spans)  information  after  of  were more  encoding  in  the  enactive and i c o n i c c o n d i t i o n s ; and since the the older c h i l d r e n (0 age-span) were more p r o f i c i e n t than were the younger c h i l d r e n when  recall  was  tested  after  they  encoded  under  symbolic  conditions. Bruner (1964), Piaget (1976), and Vygotsky (1978) have suggested  that  all  cognitive functioning in young c h i l d r e n i s more  dependent upon enactive schemas than  is  children.  that  They  seem  to  suggest  the  case  older  with  older  children  are  generally more a d r o i t in a s s i m i l a t i n g information to . f i g u r a t i v e aspects  of  both  iconic  and symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l schemas  than are the younger c h i l d r e n .  This  suggests  that  there  is  development of c o g n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from enactive to i c o n i c to  symbolic  representation encoding a b i l i t i e s .  differences  seem  differences  (as  to  be  associated  with  Moreover, such  memory  suggested by the present study)..  performance Accordingly,  one might consider the meaning of these d i f f e r e n c e s in  relation  to i n s t r u c t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n a l Considerations Past  research  has  shown  that young c h i l d r e n r e c a l l more  information when encoding in enactive systems of  representation  101  than  when  encoding in symbolic representation systems (Paris &  Lindauer, 1975; P a r i s & S c o t t , 1975; Travis & White, 1979). well,  there  are  many  reports  performances when c h i l d r e n connection  with  are  presented  which i n d i c a t e superior required  material  to  do  (Danner  As  recall  something  in  & T a y l o r , 1973;  L e v i n , Ghatola, DeRose, W i l d e r , & Norton, 1975; L e v i n ,  Lesgold,  Shimron, & Guttman, 1975; L e v i n , McCabe, & Bender, 1975; P a r i s & Lindauer,  1976;  P a r i s & Upton, 1976; Richardson, 1969; Rubin &  P o l l a c k , 1969; S i l v e r n & Yawkey, 1977; Travis These  & White,  1979).  considerations underscore the d e s i r a b i l i t y of f i n d i n g out  i f memory performance  is  enhanced  throughout  childhood  when  information i s organized and represented by e n a c t i o n . At the present time, enactive and i c o n i c representations of discourse  information  representations Variations  in  for  seem  recall  encoding  to  by  be  children  conditions  d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on r e c a l l  superior  of  up  do  to  not  narrative  to  symbolic  age seem  nine. to  content  have  after  9  years of age. Accordingly, (narrative) superior  where  information  recall  teachers by  material  children  performances  arranges for c h i l d r e n ( 5 - 9 enactively  or  organization  years  recall of  of  age),  be  expected i f the teacher  years  of  age)  iconically.  should  (5-11  the  may  imply that a l l m a t e r i a l s should Symbolic  require  be also  to  However, addressed  organize  the  t h i s i s not to in  these  ways.  be encouraged since a w e l l  developed a b i l i t y to represent information in symbolic forms  is  1 02  highly  advantageous,  and i t s development probably depends upon  e f f o r t f u l p r a c t i c e (Horton & M i l l s ,  1984).  F u l l development  of  such a b i l i t i e s might be retarded or may not be aided and abetted as  well  as might be the case i f teachers r e s t r i c t the encoding  c o n d i t i o n s to those which are most advantageous the short term or immediate sense. gains  in  knowledge,  for  recall  in  A f t e r a l l , education implies  a b i l i t i e s , and s e n s i b i l i t i e s .  Such gains  require accommodation or m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g structures and such  accommodation  capacities  to  the  requires  that  requirements  learners or  augment  discipline  present  of impersonal  reality. The r e c a l l of c h i l d r e n between still  benefit  organization. produce  or  be  However,  superior  children,  symbolic  performance  requested to r e c a l l the younger  enhanced  given  this  should  9-11  years  from  enactive  ordering results  where  information. not  at  imply  of  age or  it.  Moreover,  since  age  the  child  is  like  the  Again,  of  encoding  may  s t r i c t use of only emphasis  the present study c l e a r l y shows that  increase in age i s accompanied by decreases in the effects  iconic  this  symbolic encoding o r g a n i z a t i o n , but p o s s i b l y j u d i c i o u s of  may  conditions  on  recall  differential of  discourse  i n f o r m a t i o n , another i m p l i c a t i o n for i n s t r u c t i o n i s that perhaps teachers of p u p i l s over 10 or 11 otherwise  like  years  of  age  (and  who  are  those in the present study) need not be gravely  concerned about such encoding conditions as they of the sort studied here.  affect  memory  103  L i m i t a t i o n s and Caveat The  present  study,  l i k e a l l s t u d i e s , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s which warrant d i s c u s s i o n . connected with (1)  age  sample  Some of these are  considerations;  (2)  the  free  r e c a l l procedure; and (3) the rehearsal c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t s .  Each  of these are discussed in turn below. Age sample. As  reported,  the  present  study  incorporated  assignment of c h i l d r e n w i t h i n each age-span condition  groups  in  each age-span t i e r .  s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s confirmed that age evenly d i s t r i b u t e d across c o n d i t i o n s .  to  form  random  the  four  As one would expect,  in  each  age-span  was  However, the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of c h i l d r e n across the three two-year age-spans was not e n t i r e l y uniform.  Tests  of  homogenity  of variance on the three spans  i n d i c a t e d that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Y  children  in  the  5-7  age-span d i f f e r e d from the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the 0 c h i l d r e n in the 9-11  age-span  (Bartlett-Box  F=6.007;  p_<.0l4).  All  other  comparisons on homogenity of variance between the age t i e r s were not s i g n i f i c a n t ( i n d i c a t i n g that the d i s t r i b u t i o n s variances conclude  were that  comparisons  of  not  heterogeneous).  comparisons groups  between  which  t h e i r respective age-spans.  of  the  age  Accordingly,  one  may  adjacent  age  tiers  are  are s i m i l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d within Therefore,  for  purposes  of  the  present study, there i s l i t t l e reason to consider d i f f e r e n c e s in homogeneity of d i s t r i b u t i o n s between the t i e r s .  104  Free r e c a l l technique. The a c t i o n s and operational routines of many teachers imply that  children  some point implicit  are expected to meet requests for information at  in  the  future.  messages  about  Children  what  is  study), recall  discern  these  expected and presumably are  a f f e c t e d by them in varying degrees. in Chapter III  readily  As was  indicated  earlier  (in the procedure of introducing the story in the  no  child  was  t o l d beforehand that they would have to  the  story  after  they  listened  to  it.  Since  no  i n s t r u c t i o n s suggested that r e c a l l was imminent, t h i s absence of instruction  may  have  influenced the older c h i l d r e n ' s (M and 0  age-span groups) s t r a t e g i e s in the same  (Flavell,  1977, p. 209).  encoding  and  "storage"  As such, the r e c a l l performances  obtained from the M and 0 age-span groups may have been as  is  implied  forewarned. have  been  by  Flavell  (1977),  had  the  higher,  children  been  However, the Y age-span performance scores may  not  so a f f e c t e d since c h i l d r e n of t h i s age apparently do  not employ mnemonic s t r a t e g i e s in a n t i c i p a t i o n of r e c a l l to extent  of  that older c h i l d r e n do (Brown,  sum, these considerations suggest that contrasts  in  this  study  might  the  1975; F l a v e l l , 1977). the  between  underestimate  age  In  group  age-related  d i f f e r e n c e s in r e c a l l performances. Rehearsal e f f e c t s . As stated e a r l i e r , the SIRC c o n d i t i o n was included children  in  the  enactive  condition  necessarily  because  would  have  105  rehearsed the substance of the Children  in  the  the m a t e r i a l . get  story  as  dramatized  it.  IC and SC conditions did not have to rehearse  Therefore,  t h i s condition (SIRC) was included  to  an estimate of the extent to which rehearsal influences the  r e c a l l measures in the enactive treatment. was  they  the  SIRC  condition  significantly  different  condition within any age-span group. ' As significant  differences  within each  age-span  comparisons  in  found in the apparent  SC  SIRC  was made.  from the SC  there  were  no  of  the  between  age-span  c o n d i t i o n y i e l d e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s as Therefore, rehearsal  c o n d i t i o n , no estimation of effects  Further,  condition.  contribution  well,  time  found between the EC and IC c o n d i t i o n s  group.  the  However, at no  the  since  there  was  no  to the scores of the SIRC  putative  ensconced  rehearsal  These expected rehearsal e f f e c t s , since they  are apparently n e g l i g i b l e , d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e  to  any  notable  degree. However,  why  rehearsal  did  not  provide  increase in the measured r e c a l l i s of i n t e r e s t probably  should  have  had  some  story  was  narrated  at  rehearsal  the  Perhaps  information.  142 words per minute, and was one  minute and t h i r t y seconds in d u r a t i o n . was t h i r t y seconds.  since  apparent  e f f e c t ( K a i l , 1979).  there was not enough time a l l o t e d to rehearse The  any  The rehearsal time given  This may mean that those  children  in  the  SIRC c o n d i t i o n would need to rehearse the story at 284 words per minute  for  verbatim  rehearsal  of  the  entire  story.  Since  l i s t e n i n g comprehension a b i l i t y apparently ranges from 75 to 175  1 06 words per minute ( B r o s k i , 1974) i t i s p o s s i b l e that the c h i l d r e n who were t o l d to rehearse (SIRC subjects) d i d time  to  rehearse  the  complete s t o r y .  not  have  T h i s , of course, could  help explain the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found SC  and  SIRC  conditions  rehearsed  the  However, when  one  a story (verbatim content, g i s t , or an episode of the  story -see Horton & M i l l s , why  between  w i t h i n each age-span group.  u n t i l further research can c l a r i f y what i s rehearses  enough  the  1984), one can only  speculate  about  SIRC c o n d i t i o n d i d not have greater performance scores  than the SC c o n d i t i o n , as might be expected (see K a i l ,  1979).  D i r e c t i o n s for Further Research In a d d i t i o n to the foregoing c a u t i o n s , some questions a r i s e from the present study which need  further  investigation.  One  may ask: 1) At what age(s) do the i c o n i c encoding a b i l i t i e s begin to have efficiency  in  constructing  knowledge  similar  to that of the  enactive encoding a b i l i t i e s ?  Studies  which  include  younger  present  study  may  than  those  in  the  children  answer  this  older  than  quest i o n . 2) When the r e c a l l performances of c h i l d r e n who are those  in  the  present  study  are s t u d i e d , w i l l the a b i l i t y of  those who encode n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l then  in  symbolic  systems  (and  r e c a l l same) be associated with r e c a l l advantage (compared  to r e c a l l performances a l t e r n a t i v e systems)?  of  their  cohorts  who  encode  in  the  Studies which include c h i l d r e n older than  those in the present study should answer t h i s q u e s t i o n .  107  3)  Since the present study was designed to incorporate one form  of discourse (narration) addressed  by,  as  only,  well  the  same  questions  that  were  as those which a r i s e from, the present  study should a l s o be explored in r e l a t i o n to the other forms  of  discourse - e x p o s i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , and argumentation. 4)  Just as i t may be important to study how much i s remembered,  so  may  it  be  just  as  important to study what i t i s that i s  remembered and how much and what kind of under  variable  content  is  forgotten  encoding c o n d i t i o n s at d i f f e r e n t ages.  of the strategy seen  in  the  present  investigation  The use could  be  incorporated for the study of c o n d i t i o n s of f o r g e t t i n g (with the decrement  line  magnitude, as seen in Figure 1, as the index of  f o r g e t t i n g for each c o n d i t i o n ) . Conclusion The i n v e s t i g a t i o n under d i s c u s s i o n was designed our  ignorance  in  one  of  the  macro-memory.  Phenomena from that  learning  teaching  and  h e a v i l y on the various pursuit  of  because forms  or  realms realm  are  learners types  educational o b j e c t i v e s .  which  to  encompasses  significant  for  and teachers r e l y so of  discourse  in  the  The r e s u l t s of the present  i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d for such i m p l i c a t i o n s might  reduce  as  they  have for i n s t r u c t i o n and theory since the question of how  encoding c o n d i t i o n s and a g e - a f f e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t e r a c t to influence (narration)  recall  of  information  in  was e n t a i l e d in the present  one  type  study.  of  discourse  108  It  does  appear  that  both  encoding  age-affected c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s influence r e c a l l . evident  in  the  present  investigation.  conditions This i s  clearly  While a.more complete  t h e r o e t i c a l explanation for the present r e s u l t s requires research as i n d i c a t e d by the-quest ions r a i s e d may  take  note  that  above,  further  educators  t h i s study has shown how age and encoding  conditions can a f f e c t the r e c a l l children  and  of  narrative  information  by  ranging in age from 5 to 11 years a f t e r encoding under  several c o n d i t i o n s .  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S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p a l s in experimental New York: McGraw H i l l Book Company  Wingfield, A. introduction.  (1979). Human l e a r n i n g and memory: an New York: Harper and Row.  120  Yussen, S . R . , Gagne, E . , G a r r i u l o , R., & Kunen, S. (1974). The d i s t i n c t i o n between p e r c i e v i n q and memorizing in elementary school. University ol Wisconsin. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 098538)  121 APPENDIX A Rationale for the Narrative  Content  The narrative used in t h i s study i s an o r i g i o n a l composition. The use of same ensured-that no c h i l d r e n had seen or heard the story p r i o r to i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n . In t h i s way one gains experimental c o n t r o l by ensuring a l l subjects have an i d e n t i c a l amount of experience with the m a t e r i a l on which t h e i r recall is tested. Within the story there are 7 instances of non-motoric a c t i o n sequences that can not be o v e r t l y acted out. Of these 7, only 2 are complete sentences. One of these sentences deals with pure thought (and no a c t i o n ) ; and the other sentence deals with thought that contains a c t i o n . In Rumelhart's (1975) story c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , both of these sequences (as w e l l as others) would be categorized as ' i n t e r n a l knowledge' and are accounted for in the measuring instrument proposed. Moreover, previous studies (Travis & White, 1979; White, 1978) have contained s i m i l a r categories in t h e i r story s t r u c t u r e . Upon i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e s u l t s from these s t u d i e s , i t has been found that some c h i l d r e n from a l l treatment conditions ( s i m i l a r treatments to those proposed for t h i s study) r e c a l l e d some of these story 'categories' during free r e c a l l (as well as the other 'categories'). Moreover, p i l o t studies have been c a r r i e d out with c h i l d r e n in a l l age-span groups and treatment c o n d i t i o n s , and some of these instances of information (as well as the other instances of information defined by the categories) have been r e c a l l e d by some c h i l d r e n in a l l the age-spans and treatment c o n d i t i o n s . Therefore, since a l l categories or instances of information appeared to be r e c a l l e d regardless of treatment or age-span, there was no reason to suppose that any c h i l d in any age-span or treatment condition would not be able to r e c a l l these instances of information.  122 APPENDIX B Rationale for D i r e c t i o n s for E l i c i t a t i o n of Free R e c a l l  The present study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e how age and encoding conditions i n t e r a c t to influence the extent to which c h i l d r e n could produce from memory complete and accurate reconstructions of the n a r r a t i v e content which they encountered. However, the nature of the d i r e c t i o n s or request for the reconstruction can influence performance. Since between age (within condition) and between condition (within age) comparisons were made, one had to ensure that (1) all respondents would i n t e r p r e t the task requirements (for r e c a l l ) in the same manner; and (2) that a l l respondents, without prejudice to condition or age, would perform as w e l l as they were a b l e . In order to develop the i n s t r u c t i o n s which f u l l f i l l e d the above c r i t e r i a , p i l o t studies were c a r r i e d out which tested subjects (N=36) in a l l age-spans for r e c a l l and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the various requests. Some c h i l d r e n (22%) who were given the d i r e c t i o n s to r e c a l l in the ' e x a c t ' context refused to give any account of the story with the usual . response being, "I can't t e l l i t back ' e x a c t l y ' " , when questioned. When probed or cued to r e t e l l parts of the s t o r y , these c h i l d r e n (80%) as well as others who stated that they ' f o r g o t ' some parts (60%) were able to r e c a l l some parts of the s t o r y . Of those subjects who were given the same d i r e c t i o n s as in t h i s study, about 5% refused to r e c a l l and about 5% stated they ' f o r g o t ' some p a r t s . Moreover, when questioned, almost a l l (95%) of the c h i l d r e n given the i n s t r u c t i o n s s a i d that they i n t e r p r e t e d the i n s t r u c t i o n s to mean that they were to r e t e l l the story just as they heard i t . Accordingly, requests for exact reproduction can be expected to i n f l a t e f a l s e negatives because some c h i l d r e n refuse to respond or say less than they know when given what they seem to percieve as an impossible t a s k . On the other hand, requests which do not i n d i c a t e that the most complete and accurate p o s s i b l e reconstruction i s desired can be expected to camouflage the magnitude of d i f f e r e n c e s in r e c a l l . In such circumstances, some c h i l d r e n might not i n t e r p r e t the task requirements to mean that they should reconstruct the story as accurately and completely as they can while others may assume otherwise. However, on the basis of the p i l o t study evidence where the experimental i n s t r u c t i o n s ( i . e . " r e c a l l as best as you can.") indicated that an exact reconstruction was not mandatory, but that t h e i r best e f f o r t s in reconstructing the story was d e s i r e d , greater uniformity in i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of task requirements and greater uniformity in readiness to expend t h e i r best e f f o r t s was  123  expected. This set of i n s t r u c t i o n s then, seemed to e l i c i t more responsiveness than requests for exact reproduction and thus f a l s e negatives were minimized while c h i l d r e n could be expected to s t r i v e for complete and accurate r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . Under these conditions the magnitude of r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s should not be camouflaged as d i f f e r e n c e s might be i f c h i l d r e n were not given to understand that t h e i r best e f f o r t s were being s o l i c i t e d . On the other s i d e , the adoption of standard protocols ( i . e . the word unit and category measures) which defined the l i m i t s within which deviations (transformations of verbatim text) were acceptable, c o n t r o l l e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for f a l s e p o s i t i v e s .  124  APPENDIX C Questions Asked about the Story (followed by acceptable answers) 1 2  3  8: 9:  10:  11  12 13 14 15! 16: 17: 18 19:  20 21 22 23 24  What animal was the story about? A. cougar, c a t . What was the cougar's name? A. Rufus. Where d i d he l i v e ? A. In a h o l e , cave, den, tunnel/ underground. When d i d he leave h i s home to look for food? A. In the (early) morning. What d i d he do as he went down the t r a i l ? A. He turned h i s head from side to side (and/or) to look for food. The longer he walked along the forest t r a i l , what d i d he begin to do? A. Walk f a s t e r / run. As Rufus was walking down the forest t r a i l , what d i d he see when the forest disappeared? A. A town / houses. What side of the t r a i l was the town on? A. l e f t ( s i d e ) . What did Rufus see all around him in the town? A. Houses. How d i d Rufus f e e l when he looked at a l l the houses around him in the town? A. Dizzy and/or hungry (one point each). What d i d Rufus see in the town that he thought he could eat? A. A j u i c y bone / a bone / food. What happened when he dived at the bowl? A. The bowl clattered / it clattered. Who woke up with a l l the noise? A. A dog. What d i d Rufus do when the dog barked? A. His ears stood up / he began to creep away. What happened when Rufus was creeping away? A. Something made a loud noise next to him. When he heard a loud noise next to him, what d i d he do? A. (Jumped) high into the a i r . A f t e r he jumped high into the air, what did he do? A. Ran away / ran home. How d i d Rufus run? A. As f a s t as h i s legs could carry him / as fast as he could / f a s t / q u i c k l y . What d i d Rufus have for breakfast? A. Nothing but food for thought / nothing. Did you l i k e the story? A. Omit. Would you l i k e to hear more s t o r i e s l i k e t h i s ? A. Omit. Would you l i k e to read s t o r i e s l i k e t h i s ? A. Omit. Do you l i k e s t o r i e s about animals? A. Omit. Do you l i k e s t o r i e s about people? A. Omit.  APPENDIX D Word Units from Story 1) early 2) morning 3) black 4) cougar 5) named 6) rufus 7) l e f t 8) hole 9) home 10) walked 1 1 ) forest 12) t r a i 1 13) looking 14) something 15) eat 16) turned 17) head 18) side 19) other 20) longer 21 ) faster 22) ran 23) l i t t l e 24) s t i l l 25) searched 26) suddenly 27) disappeared 28) l e f t 29) saw 30) town 31 ) thought 32) food 33) leaped 34) soon 35) nothing 36) houses 37) round 38) nearly 39) f e l l 40) over 41 ) f e l t 42) dizzy 43) hungry 44) sight 45) bowl 46) j u i c y 47) bone 48) made 49) forget  (cat / animal) (he / i t / cat) (went/leave/came out/jumped out/got out) (cave) (walking) (woods / bushes / jungle) (path / road) (looked / f i n d i n g ) (some) (food / bone) (twisted / swing / spinned / t w i r l e d ) (around / back / f o r t h / both ways) (around) (more) (fast / quicker) (run / scampered) (some / a b i t ) (sudden) (gone / no more) ( d i r e c t i o n - l e f t hand) (city / village) ( t o l d himself) (went / jumped / hopped / scampered) (no) (around) (almost) (down) (got) (saw) (dish / p l a t e ) (forgot)  126 50) 51 ) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61 ) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) 71 ) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76)  good (dinner) meal dived clatter awoke (woke) dog (barking / growl) bark ears (stood / perked) stand up (came / got) comming (nearer) closer pressed (flattened/crouched/pushed/laid/lay (himself) body ground (started) began (sneaking / crawl) creep (big) loud (bang / sound) noi se (beside) next (leap) jumped (up) high air legs (take) carry (food) breakfast food for thought  flat)  127  APPENDIX E Categories  1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41)  One early morning, a black cougar named Rufus l e f t his hole that was home, and walked along a forest t r a i l . He was looking for something to eat. as he looked he turned h i s head from one side to the o t h e r . The longer he looked the faster he walked. He even ran a l i t t l e , with h i s head s t i l l turning as he searched. Suddenly the forest disappeared and to h i s l e f t he saw a town. He thought, "There must be food t h e r e . " He leaped toward the town.. Soon he could see nothing but houses when he turned round and round. As he d i d so he nearly f e l l over. He f e l t dizzy - and hungry. The sight of a bowl with a j u i c y bone in i t made him forget he was dizzy and hungry. "That w i l l make a good meal." He s a i d . Rufus dived at the bowl. The c l a t t e r awoke a dog whose bark made the cougar's ears stand up. The dog's bark was coming c l o s e r and c l o s e r . Rufus pressed h i s body close to the ground and began to creep away. But suddenly something made a loud noise next to him. Rufus jumped high into the a i r and ran home as fast as h i s legs could carry him. He had nothing to eat for breakfast but food for thought: A bone in a bowl puts a cat in the h o l e .  128  APPENDIX F Figure 2B Mean r e c a l l performance (PT-2) on the cued r e c a l l measure by each treatment c o n d i t i o n group (EC, IC, SC, and SIRC conditions for each age-span group  

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