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Development of English song within the musical establishment of Vauxhall Gardens, 1745-1784 Borschel, Audrey Leonard 1985

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VM~> DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH SONG WITHIN THE MUSICAL ESTABLISHMENT OF VAUXHALL GARDENS, 1745-1784 by AUDREY LEONARD BORSCHEL A.B., C a l i f o r n i a State U n i v e r s i t y , Los Angeles, 1966 M.A., C a l i f o r n i a State U n i v e r s i t y , Los Angeles, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Music) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1985 © Audrey Leonard B o r s c h e l , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT This document provides a b r i e f h i s t o r y of V a u x h a l l Gardens and an overview of i t s m u sical achievements under the p r o p r i e t o r s h i p of Jonathan Tyers and h i s sons during the 1745-1784 p e r i o d when Thomas Arne (1710-1778) and James Hook (1746-1827) served as music d i r e c t o r s . V a u x h a l l Gardens provided an e x t r a o r d i n a r y environment f o r the develop-ment and n u r t u r i n g of s o l o songs i n the eighteenth century. Here the n a t i v e B r i t i s h composers' t a l e n t s were encouraged and di s p l a y e d to c a p a c i t y audiences of patrons who o f t e n came from p r i v i l e g e d ranks of s o c i e t y . The l a r g e l y anonymous poems of the songs were based on c l a s s i c a l , p a s t o r a l , p a t r i o t i c , Caledonian, d r i n k i n g or hunting themes. The songs ranged from simple, f o l k - l i k e b a l l a d s i n b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e s to phenomenally v i r t u o s i c pieces which o f t e n included s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s . During the e a r l y years of v o c a l performances at Vauxhall (c. 1745-1760), the emphasis was on d e l i v e r y of t e x t s , sung to e a s i l y remembered melodies w i t h l i t t l e ornamentation and few f l o r i d passages. However, -the c o l o r a t u r a s t y l e of I t a l i a n opera was a s s i m i l a t e d and a n g l i c i z e d by Thomas Arne, h i s contemporaries, and l a t e r by James Hook. In the 1770's and 1780's, composers continued to r e f i n e a l l the forms and s t y l e s that had been popular s i n c e the 1740's; t h i s develop-mental process was mainly t e c h n i c a l . V a u x h a l l songs were composed w i t h o r c h e s t r a l accompaniment and incorporated the techniques of the Mannheim school. A l l the melodic, rhythmic, harmonic and o r c h e s t r a l i i devices of the era were a v a i l a b l e to the B r i t i s h composers, and they borrowed f r e e l y from each other and from the continental masters. While c e r t a i n forms evolved more c l e a r l y i n the 1770's and 1780's, such as the rondo, major changes were not observed i n the poetry. Vocal music at Vauxhall Gardens occupies a p o s i t i o n i n h i s t o r y as a steppingstone toward mass culture. Vauxhall ballads were printed i n annual c o l l e c t i o n s and si n g l e sheets by a vigorous publishing industry. When the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution caused the middle class to s p l i n t e r into further groupings toward the end of the eighteenth century, the new lower middle cl a s s shunned the a r t i s t i c pleasures of the upper classes and developed i t s own entertainments, which resulted i n a permanent separation of popular and c l a s s i c a l musical cultures, as w e l l as the decline of Vauxhall Gardens. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES v LIST OF FIGURES . v i PREFACE v i i Chapter I. GENERAL HISTORY OF VAUXHALL GARDENS . 1 The Origins of Vauxhall Gardens 1 1728-1745, The Early Years of Jonathan Tyers' Proprietorship 4 1745-1790, The Great Period of Vauxhall 10 1790-1859, The Decline of Vauxhall Gardens . . . 15 Hi' THE VAUXHALL MUSICAL ESTABLISHMENT, 1745-1784, REVEALED THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SONGS OF THOMAS A. ARNE AND JAMES HOOK . . . 19 Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Vauxhall Songs . . . . . . 19 The L i t e r a r y Subjects of the Vauxhall Songs . . . 22 1737-1774, Thomas Gladwin, John Worgan and Thomas Arne 26 1745-1765, Thomas Arne . 30 1766-1774, Thomas Arne . 39 1774-1784, James Hook 41 Scotch Songs 44 Rondos 46 Ballads 51 I I I . THE VAUXHALL SONGS AND THE PUBLISHING INDUSTRY IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 56 IV. SUMMARY 62 APPENDIX 66 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 68 i v LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES 1. Thomas Arne, "Cymon and I p h i g e n i a " (1750), mm. 24-27 . . . . 22 2. John Worgan, "A Song on the Taking of Mont-Real ..." (1760) 29 3. Thomas Arne, "The Lovesick I n v o c a t i o n " (1745), mm.1-9 . . . 34 4. Thomas Arne, "To a Lady" (1745), mm. 40-51 35 5. Thomas Arne, "Where the bee sucks" (1746), m. 18 38 6. James Hook, "The Lovers Stream" (1774), mm. 16-24 44 7. James Hook, "The Lad Wha L i l t s Sae Sweetly", mm. 44-60 . . . 45 8. James Hook, "Rondo" (1776), mm. 22-29 . . 49 9. James Hook, "Damon" (1779), mm. 54-58 and 83-85 . 50 10. James Hook, "Rondo" (1775), mm. 35-38 50 11. James Hook, "Favourite Rondo" (1777), mm. 35-39 50 12. Charles Thomas C a r t e r , "Hunting Song" (1777), mm. 74-82 . . 51 13. James Hook, "Hark Away to V a u x h a l l " (1778), mm. 24-31 . . . 52 14. James Hook, "Old England" (1779), mm. 23-26 53 v LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 . . • . View showing Thames R i v e r journey . . . . 3 from London to Va u x h a l l Gardens. Figure 2 . . . . The pleasure gardens at Va u x h a l l . . . . 6 Figure 3 . . . . "The Lovesick I n v o c a t i o n " , Thomas Arne . 34 v i PREFACE This i s a place where are those Spring Gardens, l a i d out i n so grand a t a s t e that they are frequented i n the three summer months by most of the n o b i l i t y and gentry i n and near London; and are o f t e n honoured w i t h some of the r o y a l f a m i l y , who are here e n t e r t a i n e d w i t h the sweet song of the numbers of n i g h t i n g a l e s , i n concert w i t h the best band of musick i n England. Here are f i n e p a v i l i o n s , shady groves, and most d e l i g h t f u l walks, i l l u m i -nated by above one thousand lamps so disposed that they a l l take f i r e , almost as quick as l i g h t n i n g , and d a r t such a sudden blaze i s p e r f e c t l y s u r p r i s i n g . Here are, among ot h e r s , two curious statues of A p o l l o , the god, and Mr. Handel, the master of musick; and i n the centre of the area, where the walks terminate, i s erected the temple f o r the musicians, which i s encompassed a l l around w i t h handsome s e a t s , decorated w i t h pleasant p a i n t i n g s , on subjects most h a p p i l y adapted to the season, p l a c e and company.^ England's Gazetteer, 1751 This study of the development of solo v o c a l music at the Vauxhall Gardens was undertaken, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a Lecture R e c i t a l , given on A p r i l 16, 1984 at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The o b j e c t i v e of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to uncover and to perform some examples from a r e p e r t o i r e that has remained l a r g e l y dormant si n c e the end of the e i g h t -eenth century, and to examine the musical and t e x t u a l features of t h i s r e p e r t o i r e . The programme from the performance i s included i n the Appendix. Chapter One, a general h i s t o r y of the Vauxhall Gardens, o r i e n t s the Quoted i n Warwick Wroth, The London Pleasure Gardens of the  Eighteenth Century (London: Macmillan and Co., 1896), p. 292. v i i reader to the more d e t a i l e d musical h i s t o r y which f o l l o w s i n Chapter Two. This musical h i s t o r y discusses some Vauxhall composers, s i n g e r s , pub-l i s h e r s , other i n f l u e n t i a l aspects of the eighteenth century and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the musical product. This d i s c u s s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d 2 to what Chancellor c a l l e d the "great p e r i o d of V a u x h a l l " , from about 1750 to 1790, when Vau x h a l l was at i t s h e i g h t , and p r i m a r i l y to the music of Thomas Arne and James Hook, the two p r i n c i p a l composers at the Vauxhall Gardens during t h i s p e r i o d . M u s i c a l examples document various s t y l e s and l i t e r a r y t o p i c s that p r e v a i l e d i n the v o c a l music composed f o r Va u x h a l l from about 1745 to the e a r l y 1780's. I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the support of my f a m i l y and a l l those who have shared t h e i r knowledge w i t h me during my d o c t o r a l s t u d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y members of my committee, as w e l l as the music l i b r a r i a n s of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, The Huntington L i b r a r y , The W i l l i a m C l a r k L i b r a r y , The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, The B r i t i s h L i b r a r y and the Minet L i b r a r y of the Lambeth Archives Department. E. Beresford C h a n c e l l o r , The Pleasure Haunts of London (London: Constable and Company, 1925), p. 212. v i i i 1 a CHAPTER I GENERAL HISTORY OF VAUXHALL GARDENS The O r i g i n s of Vau x h a l l Gardens The ownership of the Lambeth property that u l t i m a t e l y became the s i t e of the p u b l i c pleasure gardens known as "Vauxhall Gardens" has been documented s i n c e the Norman Conquest. During the eleventh century, Margaret de Repariis''" ("Redevers" or "De Rive r s " ) i n h e r i t e d the twenty-nine acres from her f i r s t husband. Upon her marriage to a knight i n the 2 s e r v i c e of King John, c a l l e d Fulke de Breaute (other s p e l l i n g s : "Faulk de Brent", and "Fulk de B r e n t " ) , t h e i r home became known as Fauks H a l l , 3 Fulke's H a l l , F a u k e s h a l l , F o x h a l l and V a u x h a l l . During the f o l l o w i n g s i x c e n t u r i e s the property changed ownership 4 at l e a s t e i g h t times. In 1615, owner June Vaux renamed the b u i l d i n g Stephen F a r i s h , "The Vau x h a l l Songs of Thomas Arne" (D.M.A. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1962), quoting J . Saunders, "Ranelagh and V a u x h a l l , " London, V o l . 1, e d i t e d by Charles Knight (London: Charles Knight and Co., 1841), p. 403. 2 I b i d . W i l l i a m Boulton, The Amusements of Old London.... V o l . 2 (London: John C. Nimmo, 1901), p. 4. ^ For'more inform a t i o n regarding the h i s t o r i c a l background of t h i s p roperty, see: James Southworth, Vauxhall Gardens, a Chapter i n the S o c i a l H i s t o r y of England (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941) and Warwick Wroth, The London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century (London: MacMillan and Co., 1896). near the s i t e of the ancient manor house "Vauxhall". The property was s o l d by her daughters i n 1652. At the R e s t o r a t i o n the property returned to the Crown and lessees maintained i t . I t i s b e l i e v e d that the gardens on t h i s property were opened to the p u b l i c i n 1661 and were c a l l e d "New Spring Garden". ~* Evelyn and Pepys discussed t h e i r v i s i t s i n t h e i r d i a r i e s and from them we have c o l o u r f u l d e s c r i p t i o n s of both the environment and the behaviour of the people. Other authors c h r o n i c l e d the n o t o r i e t y of the gardens during the l a s t t h i r d of the seventeenth century. Spring Garden had become a "rendezvous f o r fashionable g a l l a n t r y and i n t r i g u e " . ^ From the middle of the seventeenth century the Thames Ri v e r was used f o r pleasure t r i p s as w e l l as f o r commerce, and the opening of Spring Garden provided an e n t e r t a i n i n g d e s t i n a t i o n a f t e r the water journey^ (Figure 1). By the l a t t e r p a r t of the seventeenth century, Spring Garden had developed a r e p u t a t i o n as a meeting place f o r l o v e r s who took f u l l advantage of the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . Because of i t s b l i g h t e d r e p u t a t i o n , i t l o s t the patronage of the upper c l a s s u n t i l Jonathan Tyers took over as prop-g r i e t o r i n 1728. At that time, the r e a l development of V a u x h a l l Gardens 5 Wroth, p. 288 I b i d . ^ E. Bereford C h a n c e l l o r , The Pleasure Haunts of London (London: Constable and Company, 1925), p. 198. C h a n c e l l o r , pp. 200-201 3 Figure 1. View showing Thames River journey from London to Vauxhall Gardens. From A Plan of The C i t i e s of London and  Westminster by John Rocque, revised from 1749 e d i t i o n . Reproduced by H i s t o r i c Urban Plans, Ithaca, N.Y., 1967. began. C a l l e d "Spring Garden" o f f i c i a l l y , i t was commonly known as "Vauxhall Gardens" by 1786, the J u b i l e e Year, w e l l before 1821 when the name was f o r m a l l y changed to "Royal Gardens, V a u x h a l l " , w i t h the approval 9 of George IV, a frequent patron w h i l e P r i n c e of Wales. 1728-1745, The E a r l y Years  of Jonathan Tyers' P r o p r i e t o r s h i p In 1728 Jonathan Tyers took over the lease f o r Spring Garden at an annual r a t e of 250 pounds f o r a t h i r t y - y e a r p e r i o d . " ^ As p r e v i o u s l y arranged, through payments i n 1752 and 1758, he e x e r c i s e d h i s o p t i o n to purchase the lease f o r the property."'""'" A f t e r making necessary improve-ments to the gardens, Tyers opened them on June 7, 1732, w i t h a "Ridotto a l f r e s c o " , a gala f o r four hundred s e l e c t guests who wore masks, dominoes and lawyers' gowns. This event l a s t e d from nine i n the evening u n t i l four i n the morning and was so s u c c e s s f u l that such l a v i s h evenings 12 recurred w i t h r e g u l a r i t y . Tyers went to great lengths to make the gardens more b e a u t i f u l and more comfortable. He employed the p a i n t e r s Hogarth, who l i v e d l o c a l l y i n South Lambeth, and F r a n c i s Hayman to provide p a i n t i n g s f o r i n s i d e the 9 I b i d . , p. 221 1 0 Wroth, p. 290. I b i d . 1 2 TU-A I b i d . I b u i l d i n g s . Those furnish e d by Hayman and others included "scenes from Shakespeare and from popular comedies; r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the f a v o u r i t e sports of the p e o p l e — t h e P l a y of See-saw, the P l a y of C r i c k e t , Leap Frog, S l i d i n g on the Ice; milkmaids dancing around the Maypole, P h y l l i s 13 and Corydon, pipe and tabor, sheep and shepherdesses.... These pastimes were r e f l e c t e d i n some of the music performed l a t e r at Vauxhall Hogarth a l s o designed some of the s i l v e r s e a s o n - s u b s c r i p t i o n badges, r e c e i v i n g i n t u r n f o r h i s s e r v i c e s a gold badge e n t i t l i n g him to f r e e 14 admission to the gardens f o r l i f e . Richard Yeo was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r designs on other badges."'""' The s c u l p t o r s Cheer and R o u b i l i a c were h i r e d to provide f i g u r e s f o r v a r i o u s areas i n the gardens. The statue of Handel, that R o u b i l i a c created i n 1738, was the e a r l i e s t l i f e - s i z e marble statue d e p i c t i n g a l i v i n g a r t i s t . This p i e c e , whose p o s i t i o n 16 r o t a t e d i n the garden from 1738-1818, i s i n the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum.^ As f o r the geographical design of V a u x h a l l , the gardens were planne on about twelve acres i n t e r s e c t e d by g r a v e l walks w i t h many mature t r e e s (Figure 2). Often v i s i t o r s entered at the main entrance, which was at 13 Boulton, p. 20. "^ This badge was included i n the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum's Rococco e x h i b i t i n 1984. "*""* C h a n c e l l o r , p. 206. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 207 and Wroth, p. 303. 1 7 E x h i b i t number VAM(A.3-1965) i n 1984 Rococco e x h i b i t . 6 Figure 2 7 the western end of the gardens. Immediately v i s i b l e was the Grand or Great Walk, about three hundred metres long, w i t h elm trees planted on both s i d e s . The walkway went the l e n g t h of the garden, a l l the way to the eastern boundary. The South Walk p a r a l l e l l e d the Grand Walk and a l s o contained p a i n t i n g s of Graeco-Roman scenes. In the e a r l y days of the gardens, a s e t t i n g c a l l e d R u r a l Downs, lo c a t e d amidst f i r s , cypresses and cedars, contained the M u s i c a l Bushes, where a group of i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s was p o s i t i o n e d underground p l a y i n g p a s t o r a l music f o r the patrons. This p r a c t i c e continued u n t i l the middle of the eighteenth century, when the musicians apparently mustered enough n e g o t i a t i n g s t r e n g t h to end t h i s a t t r a c t i o n ; they claimed the 18 dampness was harmful to t h e i r instruments. When Tyers became p r o p r i e t o r i n 1728, he b u i l t a place f o r the o r c h e s t r a to perform, an outdoor b u i l d i n g that prominently* featured an 19 organ. This s t r u c t u r e remained u n t i l 1758, when another was b u i l t . The " o r c h e s t r a " , as the p a v i l i o n was c a l l e d , was open i n the f r o n t and faced to the west; i t was i n the centre of the Grove, a quadrangle on about f i v e a cres, formed by the major walks and by the western boundary of the garden. Supperboxes and p a v i l i o n s were placed on a l l sides of the quadrangle, i n long rows and s e m i c i r c l e s . The p a i n t i n g s i n these boxes were done by F r a n c i s Hayman around 1742. Hogarth, a c l o s e f r i e n d Wroth, p. 302. I b i d . , p. 300. of Tyers, gave Hayman permission to copy h i s "Four Times of the Day" fo r the boxes. Hogarth's "Henry V I I I , and Anne Boleyn" hung i n the 20 Rotunda. By 1737 c e r t a i n features of the gardens were e s t a b l i s h e d that remained f o r the next f i f t y years. One s h i l l i n g was the admission charge u n t i l 1792, r e s u l t i n g i n greater attendance by people from the working c l a s s e s . Season t i c k e t s , issued i n the form of s i l v e r pendants or badges, admitted two people f o r the e n t i r e season, which extended from May to September. In 1737 these badges cost one guinea, r i s i n g to 21 two guineas by 1748. The l i g h t s i n the t r e e s , much described i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the eighteenth century, were s p e c t a c u l a r , e s p e c i a l l y when a l l l i t at once, accompanied by a musical announcement from the orch e s t r a . Since London was drab a f t e r n i g h t f a l l , even a f t e r gas lamps were common, people came to Vauxhall to enjoy a r t i s t i c a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s 23 created w i t h o i l lamps. Another f a m i l i a r f e a t u r e at Vauxhall was the or c h e s t r a concert which l a s t e d from f i v e or s i x i n the evening u n t i l n i n e . Vocal music was added i n 1745. The patronage of F r e d e r i c k , P r i n c e of Wales, was unwaivering. A frequent v i s i t o r u n t i l h i s death i n 1751, he c r u i s e d the Thames from Kew w i t h musicians on board. He o f t e n r e -quested s e l e c t i o n s from the Vauxhall o r c h e s t r a and enjoyed a dinner f o l l o w i n g the concert i n h i s "prince's P a v i l i o n " opposite the o r c h e s t r a ; 20 I b i d . , p. 301. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 290-291. 22 Boulton, p. 21. 23 I b i d . 9 Tyers had t h i s b u i l t to honor the p r i n c e ' s patronage. In order to encourage v i s i t o r s to V a u x h a l l , Tyers h i r e d poets to 25 w r i t e verses i n p r a i s e of the gardens. Perhaps the 1741 poem of Farmer C o l i n , set to music by e a r l y V auxhall o r g a n i s t Mr. Gladwin, was 26 such an example. Even Handel was in v o l v e d i n one of Tyers' e f f o r t s to p u b l i c i z e the gardens. The only time Handel conducted at Vauxhall was on A p r i l 21, 1739, during a r e h e a r s a l of h i s Fireworks Music, the day before i t s performance at Green Park. Twelve thousand people came to hear the r e h e a r s a l , and a massive t r a f f i c problem ensued over London n -A 2 7 Bridge. Because Jonathan Tyers was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r so many v i s u a l and musical improvements, i t i s unusual to f i n d negative accounts during t h i s p e r i o d at V a u x h a l l . However, "The Evening Lessons being the F i r s t and Second Chapters of the Book of Entertainments", published i n London 28 by W. Bebb i n 1742, a penny "squib", discusses i n m o c k - b i b l i c a l language the i l l u m i n a t i o n s , music, Handel's s t a t u e , high p r i c e s f o r sma l l helpings of c o l d beef, an i n s o l e n t w a i t e r , the i n e v i t a b l e r a i n , C h a ncellor, p. 208. 25 Boulton, p. 24. 26 "Greenwood H a l l " or " C o l i n ' s D e s c r i p t i o n (to h i s Wife) of the Pleasures of Spring Gardens", p r i n t e d e d i t i o n i n Huntington L i b r a r y . 27 Hubert Langley, Doctor Arne (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1936), p. 99. A squib i s a sh o r t , sharp, u s u a l l y w i t t y v e r b a l a t t a c k . The Bebb example was w r i t t e n i n numbered verses and was p r i n t e d i n pamphlet form.• 10 and o f f e r s a comparison w i t h Ranelagh Gardens. 1745-1790, The Great P e r i o d of V a u x h a l l In 1748 Ranelagh Gardens was e s t a b l i s h e d and began to r i v a l Vaux-h a l l . But Vauxhall had two important advantages that caused i t to remain popular: i t could be approached by water, a journey enjoyed by the patrons, and i t s gardens were much l o v e l i e r than those at Ranelagh. V i s i t o r s to Ranelagh were prey to highwaymen on the heaths, and the management of the i n l a n d gardens found i t necessary to provide armed 30 bodyguards f o r patrons ~en route from London, about two miles away. While Ranelagh was open a l l year, i t s f i n e rotunda i n use a l l winter while weather was so unpleasant, Vauxhall's outdoor beauty enhanced i t s 31 r e p u t a t i o n as a summer r e c r e a t i o n spot. Chancellor c a l l e d 1750-1790 "the great period of V a u x h a l l " , because the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , the music and the general s o c i a l ambience of e a t i n g 32 and dancing made Vau x h a l l s p e c i a l and fas h i o n a b l e . During the 1790's the gardens began to fe a t u r e v a r i o u s v a r i e t y a c t s , and although the musi c a l establishment was maintained w e l l i n t o the nineteenth century, Verses 25-28, from a p r i n t e d e d i t i o n i n the Huntington L i b r a r y . The comparison of Vauxhall and Ranelagh was confined to the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , as the squib predated the establishment of Ranelagh's Rotunda and music program. 30 Frank P o t t e r , R e l i q u a r y of E n g l i s h Song, V o l . I I (New York: G. Schirmer, 1916), p. v i i i . C h a n c e l l o r , p. 213. I b i d . , p. 212. 11 other a c t i v i t i e s began to take precedence. During the 1750-1790 p e r i o d , v o c a l music was p a r t i c u l a r l y popular. Singing was a part of s o c i a l gatherings and numerous glee clubs were formed. Vauxhall was the very centre of song and m i n s t r e l s y ; i t was a v e r i t a b l e nest of s i n g i n g b i r d s from i t s own n i g h t i n g a l e s to those imported ones who t r i l l e d f o r t h the roulades of some I t a l i a n opera, or gave v o i c e to those n a u t i c a l and n a t i o n a l d i t t i e s which breathed a s p i r i t of p a t r i o t i s m i n a n a t i o n not yet grown s e l f -conscious . 33 Around 1750 a t y p i c a l evening at Vauxhall would begin w i t h a promenade by the gentry; the women wore formal evening a t t i r e and the men, dressed a l s o i n formal c l o t h e s , walked w i t h t h e i r hats under t h e i r arms. F o l l o w i n g the s t r o l l was the concert, songs a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h i n s t r u m e n t a l s e l e c t i o n s . The o i l p a i n t i n g by Antonio Canaletto (c. 1751), "Vauxhall Gardens, the Grand Walk", shows that the o r c h e s t r a included f l u t e s , horns, s t r i n g s and harpsic h o r d . There were two b u i l d -ings that comprised the o r c h e s t r a s t r u c t u r e . They were interconnected 34 by a balcony on the upper l e v e l . During the f i r s t f i f t e e n years a f t e r v o c a l music was introduced at Vauxhall (1745-1760), a few si n g e r s predominated, such as tenor Thomas Lowe, from 1745-1763, Mrs. Arne f o r a few years from 1745, Miss Stevenson i n the 1748-1758 p e r i o d , and I s a b e l l a B u r c h e l l , from about 1751-1760. Miss B u r c h e l l had worked f o r Tyers as a milkmaid on h i s Chan c e l l o r , pp. 215-216. F14 i n Rococco e x h i b i t , V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, 1984. 12 Surrey e s t a t e , but when he recognized her t a l e n t he helped o b t a i n musical t r a i n i n g f o r her. P r i n c i p a l singers i n the 1760's were C h a r l o t t e Brent and Joseph Vernon. By the l a t e 1760's numerous sing e r s were engaged each season a t Va u x h a l l , among them the celebrated Mrs. 35 W e i c h s e l l . When the f i r s t p a r t of the concert ended at nine i n the evening, a b e l l sounded and the crowd went to the north side of the gardens to watch a v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of a landscape scene that always contained a c o n t r i v e d w a t e r f a l l . I t was described s a r c a s t i c a l l y i n The Connoisseur 36 of May 15, 1755 as the " t i n cascade". This a t t r a c t i o n foreshadowed 37 the v a r i e t y of non-musical acts that occurred a f t e r 1790. The con-c l u d i n g p o r t i o n of the concert followed t h i s i n t e r m i s s i o n and then 38 supper was eaten. Refreshments, i n c l u d i n g a l c o h o l i c beverages, meats, salads and desserts were c o s t l y and the p o r t i o n s were s m a l l . Engravings of the p e r i o d suggest that p i c n i c s were c a r r i e d along and prepared i n the d i n i n g alcoves. Patrons g e n e r a l l y departed the gardens by about 39 three i n the morning. I t i s l i k e l y that Tyers 1 p a r t i a l purchase of the lease f o r the Vauxhall property i n 1752 i n s p i r e d him to b u i l d the indoor music room. 3 5 Wroth, p. 304. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 296. 37 C h a n c e l l o r , p. 221. 3 8 Wroth, p. 296. 3 9 I b i d . , pp. 298-300. 13 The most imposing b u i l d i n g i n the gardens, i t was used f o r concerts on r a i n y n i g h t s . B u i l t as a c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e measuring seventy feet across, i t contained an elegant " o r c h e s t r a " and was otherwise f i n e l y appointed. O r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d the "New Music Room" and the "Great Room", i t was nicknamed "Umbrella" because of the roof's shape and no doubt 40 because of i t s f u n c t i o n i n inclement weather. Tyers' second major b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t f o r V a u x h a l l was the replacement of the o r i g i n a l " o r c h e s t r a " w i t h a s t r u c t u r e shaped l i k e a "Moorish-Gothick" temple i n 41 1758, when Tyers assumed f u l l ownership of the lease. Cunningham i n d i c a t e s that w h i l e segments of the middle c l a s s enjoyed the concerts and dancing at V a u x h a l l , some working people during the r i s e of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d clubs such as the Birmingham M u s i c a l and Amicable S o c i e t y , founded i n 1762. These people gathered f o r "mutual providence and b e n e f i t , but a l s o f o r beer, song and s o c i a b l e 42 d i s c u s s i o n " . The c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y were becoming more p a r o c h i a l i n t h e i r t a s t e s , expressing t h i s through new s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . As Cuiiimings mentioned i n h i s book on Thomas Arne: ^ New Grove, s.v. "London" V. "Pleasure Gardens", p. 303. 41 T V J I b i d . Hugh Cunningham, L e i s u r e i n the I n d u s t r i a l R e volution c. 1780-c. 1880 (London: Croom Helm, 1980), p. 39. 14 Although under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Walpole and h i s Whigs the germ of democracy was beginning to spread through the n a t i o n l i k e a cancerous growth, yet the upper c l a s s had not yet thought i t necessary to conform to the standards of t a s t e and behaviour that marked the lower grades of the community, but s t i l l r e t a i n e d a degree of c u l t u r e and refinement that waned i n the course of the next century... .^3 During the next t h i r t y years the many changes i n s o c i e t y were r e f l e c t e d i n musical and other a c t i v i t i e s at Vauxhall and i t s s i s t e r pleasure gardens. Jonathan Tyers died a wealthy man i n 1767. His two sons and two daughters i n h e r i t e d V a u x h a l l , w i t h sons Jonathan and Thomas ("Tom") se r v i n g as p r o p r i e t o r s . In 1785, Tom, who had c o n t r i b u t e d songs to the gardens, s o l d h i s i n t e r e s t to Jonathan, who remained p r o p r i e t o r u n t i l h i s death i n 1792. 4 4 Between 1768 and 1790 there were few p h y s i c a l changes at V a u x h a l l , and the o r i g i n a l type of musical entertainment continued. The evening concerts i n 1783 were moved to e i g h t i n the evening and ended at eleven. T r u s l e r ' s London A d v i s o r , a London guide-book of 1786, c i t e s two i n the morning as the common departure time of the patrons, p r o v i d i n g that weather c o n d i t i o n s were f a v o u r a b l e . 4 ^ The l a t e eighteenth century was a time of popular drama and 43 , W i l l i a m Cummings, Dr. Arne and Rule, B r i t t a n i a (London: N o v e l l o , 1912), p. 48. The term "upper c l a s s " r e f e r s to the n o b i l i t y , gentry, c l e r g y , lawyers, and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s . Between the "upper c l a s s and the "lower grades of the community" was a l a r g e group of manufacturers, tradesmen and merchants which formed a part of the g r e a t l y expanding eighteenth-century middle c l a s s . 44 Wroth, p. 305. I b i d . 15 spectacle; the wealthy turned away from the theatres and massive reno-vations were done on the old buildings to increase the seating capacity to hold the new lower-class audiences. In fact, people at a l l levels of society were lured by novel entertainment. For example, when the Montgolfier brothers invented the f i r s t practical hot-air balloon in 1783, the interest in England was just as keen as i t was in France. Perhaps i t was Vicenzo Lunardi's ascent in the Strand in London on September 15, 1784 that prompted Michael Arne to compose his song "The 46 Balloon" for the 1785 season. Balloon ascents became frequent attractions at Vauxhall during the nineteenth century, culminating in an 47 ascent on horseback by Charles Green in 1850. In 1792 the price of admission to the gardens rose to two shillings, 48 with three shillings the charge for gala evenings. J a m e s Boswell f e l t that "a number of the honest commonality" were being 49 excluded from "sharing in elegant and innocent entertainment". 1790-1859, The Decline of Vauxhall Gardens When Jonathan Tyers died in 1792, part of Vauxhall was inherited by 46 "The Balloon" is part of the collection of the British Library. Lunardi's ascent is discussed in Leslie Gardiner, "Icarus in a Captain's Coat", Voyager Magazine, August/September 1984: 11-12. 4 7 Chancellor, p. 225. 48 1 Wroth, p. 311. 49 Mollie Sands, "Music not too refined", Musical Times 91 (1950): 11. 16 Bryan B a r r e t t , Tyers' daughter's husband. B a r r e t t bought out the other shareholders and he ran Vauxhall u n t i l 1809, when the lease passed to h i s son George B a r r e t t . During the 1790's Vauxhall's p o p u l a r i t y dwindled due to competition from i t s r i v a l s Ranelagh, Marylebone and Cuper's Gardens, a l l of which had made firew o r k s a r e g u l a r p a r t of the entertainment. Vauxhall added firew o r k s d i s p l a y s i n 1798."'"'' They were i n d i c a t i v e of changes to come: " J u s t , too, as there was a d i f f e r e n c e between the fashionable company i n the mid-eighteenth century and i t s r a t h e r bourgeois counterpart at the beginning of the nineteenth, so Vauxhall i t s e l f was passing from 52 being a fashionable haunt to being merely a popular one". Many of the pleasure gardens, at the peak of t h e i r a c c l a i m during the eighteenth century s u r v i v e d i n t o the nineteenth century by o f f e r i n g popular entertainment and by lowering p r i c e s . This entertainment, w h i l e t a k i n g on aspects of s p e c t a c l e and encouraging audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n , became l e s s a r t i s t i c i n the process. L i k e the saloon t h e a t r e , i t became one of the homes f o r v a r i e t y entertainment. Despite the added a t t r a c t i o n s , Vauxhall continued to maintain a l a r g e musical establishment under the d i r e c t o r s h i p of James Hook u n t i l "^ C hancellor, p. 222, 5 1 I b i d . , p. 220. I b i d . . p . 221. 17 1820. A f t e r that concerts r e g u l a r l y featured the comic songs of Mssrs. M a l l i n s o n and W i l l i a m s as w e l l as performances by i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y - k n o w n opera s i n g e r s , who sang between showings of the " d i s p l a y s " . Two of these included a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the B a t t l e of Waterloo i n 1827, and "Venice", r e p l e t e w i t h " I m i t a t i o n water", which appeared a few years l a t e r . " ' 3 Vauxhall's p o p u l a r i t y waned, although when management reduced the admission p r i c e to one s h i l l i n g f o r the day on August 2, 1833, more than 54 27,000 people came. However, the syndicate p r o p r i e t o r s h i p ended i n 1839 and on September 9, the day a f t e r the c l o s e of the 1841 season, an a u c t i o n of Vauxhall's f u r n i s h i n g s was held."*"* The stage-manager f o r the 1841 season gathered memorabilia concerning V a u x h a l l during i t s heyday and published a j o u r n a l c a l l e d V auxhall Papers three times weekly 56 during the 1841 season. Some concerts s t i l l took place at V a u x h a l l i n l a t e r years, such as the promenade concerts conducted there by P h i l i p p e Musard from 1845. The f i n a l performance, on J u l y 25, 1859, was followed by an e q u e s t r i a n 5 3 Wroth, p. 319. 54 I b i d . In 1821, the B a r r e t t f a m i l y had s o l d Vauxhall Gardens to a syndicate comprised of Mssrs. B i s h , Gye and Hughes f o r t h i r t y thousand pounds. Wroth, I b i d . 56 A l f r e d Bunn, ed., The Vauxhall Papers (Royal Gardens, Vauxhall: John M i t c h e l l and John Armstrong, 1841). 18 show. P e o p l e danced p a s t m i d n i g h t u n t i l t h e l i g h t d i s p l a y " F a r e w e l l f o r E v e r " c l o s e d a l o n g e r a o f London's l e i s u r e h i s t o r y . ^ 7 The t w e l v e a c r e s o f V a u x h a l l Gardens were d e v e l o p e d f o r h o u s i n g and the c h u r c h o f S t . P e t e r , V a u x h a l l , c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1864. Today t h e r e i s an open g r a s s y a r e a w i t h i n t e r s e c t i n g c o n c r e t e walkways on t h e o l d s i t e t h a t i s r e t a i n e d as a p a r k , c a l l e d "New S p r i n g Garden". The a u t h o r n o t i c e d some r e m i n d e r s o f t h e once-famous amusement c e n t r e i n t h e names o f b u i l d i n g s and s t r e e t s , s u c h as D a r l e y House, named f o r a l a t e -e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y V a u x h a l l t e n o r , and T y e r s S t r e e t , f o r the f a m i l y t h a t n u r t u r e d t h e g a r d e n s . James G r a n v i l l e S o u t h w o r t h , V a u x h a l l Gardens, a C h a p t e r i n t h e S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 941), p. 181, q u o t i n g The Times, J u l y 26, 1859. 19 CHAPTER I I THE VAUXHALL MUSICAL ESTABLISHMENT, 1745-1784, REVEALED MAINLY THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SONGS OF THOMAS A. ARNE AND JAMES HOOK C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Vauxhall Songs ... those shallow and unconnected Compositions, which have of l a t e so much abounded, e s p e c i a l l y those i n s i p i d and unconnected e f f o r t s that are d a i l y made to set to Music that Flood of Nonsense which i s l e t i n upon us sinc e the Commencement of our Summer Entertainments, and which i n the Manner they are conducted, cannot p o s s i b l y prove of any Advantage to Music.1 Although Avison d i d not appreciate the merits of the Vauxhall songs, the pleasure gardens of London d r a m a t i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d E n g l i s h eighteenth-century v o c a l l i t e r a t u r e . E a r l y i n the century v o c a l music was f l o r i d , f u l l of r a p i d s c a l e passages. The a i r s of P u r c e l l and Handel commonly contained such " d i v i s i o n s " . But t h i s s t y l e of music caused problems f o r sin g e r s i n the pleasure gardens, f o r the f l o r i d passages had l i t t l e impact on the crowds of s t r o l l i n g or t a l k i n g patrons. Because f i n e t native-born singers were engaged at the p u b l i c gardens, composers wrote songs to s u i t t h e i r t a l e n t s , as w e l l as p u b l i c t a s t e . Melodies, such as those of the p a s t o r a l type by Handel, were conceived w i t h smoother, more d i r e c t l i n e s . Although a m a j o r i t y of the "beau monde" of the eighteenth H, Diack Johnstone, " E n g l i s h Solo Song c. 1710-1760", Proceedings  of Royal M u s i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (1968-69): 72-73, quoting Charles Avison, "An Essay on M u s i c a l Expression", p. 82. 20 century probably p r e f e r r e d f o l k b a l l a d s to Handelian a i r s , s i n c e John Gay's Beggar's Opera was so s u c c e s s f u l and Handel was twice f i n a n c i a l l y 2 rui n e d , a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the Vau x h a l l patrons must have cared very much about concert v o c a l music because they continued to support the 3 V a u x h a l l musical establishment f o r many years. E n g l i s h song conjoined entertainment w i t h a r t music. Because the songs were conceived and performed w i t h o r c h e s t r a l accompaniment, the development of piano accompaniment was slower i n England than on the Continent, where Li e d e r 4 developed and f l o u r i s h e d . The p r o p r i e t o r s of the various gardens d i d much f o r E n g l i s h music of the pe r i o d by presenting the lengthy concert seasons and by he l p i n g to e s t a b l i s h a f o l l o w i n g f o r the n a t i v e performers and composers. They a l s o f o s t e r e d the p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i n B r i t a i n , f o r many firms made s u b s t a n t i a l p r o f i t s from the p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s of s e l e c t i o n s that were featured at the pleasure gardens. The songs were e i t h e r b a l l a d s or more elaborate f l o r i d p i e c e s . The simple b a l l a d s of the l a t e seventeenth century were embroidered w i t h t h e a t r i c a l i t y and w i t h musical ideas derived from I t a l i a n opera. In many cases the o r c h e s t r a played an i n t r o d u c t i o n and the va r i o u s strophes 2 W i l l i a m Hayman Cummings, Dr. Arne and Rule, B r i t t a n i a (London: N o v e l l o , 1912), p. 48. 3 I b i d . Rosemary Hughes, "Solo Song", i n New Oxford H i s t o r y of Music, V o l . V I I , The Age of Enlightenment, Egon Wellesz and F r e d e r i c k S t e r n f e l d , ed. (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973), p. 340. 21 of the b a l l a d were separated by b r i e f r i t o r n e l l o s , o f t e n c a l l e d "symphonies" i n the scores. Binary s t r u c t u r e s p r e v a i l e d i n the b a l l a d s , f o r the da capo a r i a form was seldom used a f t e r 1740 i n the E n g l i s h songs of the e a r l y Vauxhall p e r i o d . Eighteenth-century b a l l a d s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n t r i p l e meter, o f t e n employed French dance rhythms. C r i s p rhythms and words that were set to emphasize s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n aided i n understanding the t e x t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n humorous, t o p i c a l or p a t r i o t i c songs. The songs followed convention-a l eighteenth-century p r a c t i c e w i t h square-cut phrases and anapestic meters, such as s i x - e i g h t and twelve-eight.^ From the published scores of the songs of the pleasure gardens, much has been learned about the use of the o r c h e s t r a . Cues f o r i n s t r u -ments, instrumentation and t e c h n i c a l i n d i c a t i o n s were o f t e n found i n the manuscripts and published short scores, w h i l e the E n g l i s h operas of the p e r i o d were not u s u a l l y published e i t h e r w i t h complete music or w i t h f u l l o r c h e s t r a l d e t a i l . A score of Jonathan B a t t i s h i l l ' s "Kate of Aberdeen" i n c l u d e s three v i o l i n p a r t s , which would impart an unusually r i c h t e x t u r e . Hughes, p. 339. Arthur Jacobs, "The B r i t i s h I s l e s " , i n A H i s t o r y of Song, Denis Stevens, ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1960), p. 143. A p r i n t e d e d i t i o n of the song i s i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y . 22 The L i t e r a r y Subjects of the Vauxhall Songs The Vauxhall songs were composed to texts on a v a r i e t y of subjects. Some texts described contemporary l i f e , with t o p i c a l references to society or p o l i t i c s . Other songs were set to pastoral poetry, which involved the inhabitants of Arcady. In these English names were often substituted for Greek and Roman ones, which imparted a f o l k q u a l i t y to the songs, as i n Arne's " P o l l y W i l l i s " and "Peggy Wynne" and Hook's "Lass of Richmond H i l l " . 7 Some of the songs describing country l i f e were composed to texts that s i g n i f i e d awkwardness, ignorance, i n -elegance and s i m p l i c i t y on the part of the l o v e r s . Even the music characterized the r u s t i c i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , such as that composed for Cymon's walk i n Arne's cantata "Cymon and Iphigenia" (Example 1). Example 1. Thomas Arne, "Cymon and Iphigenia", mm. 24-27. Hunting and drinking songs were two of the more robust categories of Vauxhall vocal s e l e c t i o n s . There were also songs based on current and past l i t e r a r y fashions, for example, Worgan's "Hark, hark! i s a voice from the tomb" of 1751, which r e f l e c t e d the taste for Gothic Early printed editions are found i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y . Q Printed e d i t i o n s located In B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Huntington Library and U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, Music L i b r a r y . 23 9 ruxns. Songs composed to Shakespearean t e x t s were very popular, such as Arne's "Where the bee sucks". Many new s e t t i n g s were created e s p e c i a l l y f o r the numerous r e v i v a l s of Shakespeare's plays i n the London theatres throughout the eighteenth century."^ P a t r i o t i c songs were performed r e g u l a r l y , as B r i t i s h troops were c o n s t a n t l y engaged i n b a t t l e . There were many songs composed during the period of war i n the New World; one of the many examples i s Worgan's 11 "Song on the t a k i n g of Mont-Real by General Amherst" of 1759. Other songs focused on other events of the French and Indian Wars, and of the American and French Revolutions. Texts d e s c r i b i n g the p l i g h t of French refugees were f r e q u e n t l y set to music; i n England, the m o r a l i t y of the French R e v o l u t i o n was a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e , w i t h some c i t i z e n s per-c e i v i n g the s i t u a t i o n as a freedom movement and others as anarchy. P o l i t i c a l songs, o f t e n w i t h an element of s a t i r e d i r e c t e d towards the E n g l i s h government, were heard at the gardens, a l s o songs about the sea and sea v i c t o r i e s . Rather mundane occupations were c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n 12 Vauxhall songs, such as those of milkmaids, co b b l e r s , plumbers and q The New Grove, s.v. "London" V. "Pleasure Gardens". 10 See p. 37 below. ^ P r i n t e d e d i t i o n s l o c a t e d i n Huntington and B r i t i s h L i b r a r i e s . See pp. 28-30 below f o r a n a l y s i s . 12 Milkmaids were the subject of "Catch hold onto Day", by Henry Heron, Book VI, 1778, and "The M i l k Maid", by John P o t t e r , both i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 24 ]_ paymasters, who were, as Woods quipped, " u s e f u l but u n p o e t i c a l people". Even the e a r l y f e m i n i s t movement was captured i n song, w i t h Hook's "The Rights of Women" of 1801 and Henry Brewster's "Female L i b e r t y Regained", two songs that gave e a r l y support to the s u f f r a g e t t e movement. An important c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Vauxhall songs that could be i d e n t i f i e d as much by i t s musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as by i t s p o e t i c t e x t was the l o c a l i z e d b a l l a d , represented p a r t i c u l a r l y by the "Scots" or S c o t t i s h songs. There were a r t i f i c i a l S c o t t i s h melodies, composed by v i r t u a l l y a l l the Vauxhall composers, to t e x t s that were a l s o created to appear a u t h e n t i c . They included considerable use of d i a l e c t and Scottish-sounding places and names. The constant musical feature was the "Scotch Snap" or "Scotch Catch". This rhythmic f i g u r e ( J> £ ) o r i g i n a t e d i n S c o t t i s h f o l k music and was employed during the seven-teenth century i n songs of W i l l i a m and Henry Lawes and others. Accord-14 i n g to C a r l Engel, an e a r l i e r use of t h i s rhythm was i n a dance c a l l e d the "Strathspey", a slow dance i n f o u r - f o u r meter, w i t h many dotted notes o f t e n organized as an i n v e r t e d catch or snap."'""' 13 F. Cunningham Woods, "A C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the Various Types of Songs Popular i n England During the Eighteenth Century", Proceedings of  the M u s i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (1896-97): 44. "*"^  C a r l Engel, An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Study of N a t i o n a l Music (London: Longmans, Green, Reader and Dyer, 1866), p. 99. W i l l i A p e l , Harvard D i c t i o n a r y of Music (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P ress, Revised e d i t i o n , 1972), p. 808. 25 Towards the end of the eighteenth century there was renewed i n t e r -e st i n s e t t i n g authentic S c o t t i s h melodies. George Thomson (1757-1851), a s o n g - c o l l e c t o r and a n t i q u a r i a n , commissioned composers such as Haydn and Beethoven to provide arrangements. Robert Burns and S i r Walter Scott wrote new verses to the o l d t u n e s . T h e f i r s t book of these songs, S e l e c t C o l l e c t i o n of O r i g i n a l S c o t t i s h A i r s , published i n Edinburgh i n 1793, was arranged by P l e y e l , whose music was heard f r e -quently at V a u x h a l l . ^ 7 Not much i s known about many of the authors of Vauxhall song t e x t s . Arne s e l e c t e d some of h i s t e x t s from v a r i o u s E l i z a b e t h a n poets. The 17th-and 18th - c e n t u r y poets included John Dryden, W i l l i a m Upton, Robert Houlton, Samuel Boyce and John Lockman, i n the e a r l y days of V a u x h a l l , John Cunningham around 1760, and Mr. Richardson i n the 1790's. Some of the authors were amateurs or even the composers themselves. The l a c k of poets' names alongside many of the t e x t s used by Arne, as w e l l as h i s experience i n re-working e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l f o r the t h e a t r e , suggests that Arne wrote many of h i s n o n - a t t r i b u t e d t e x t s . C l a s s i c a l references were s t i l l as popular i n the eighteenth century as they had been during the previous one. They were found not only i n song t e x t s , but a l s o i n parliamentary speeches and i n l e t t e r s to the 18 newspapers. P o l i t i c i a n s spiced t h e i r speeches w i t h L a t i n and Greek Jacobs, p. 146. Johnstone, p. 74. See p. 61 above. 26 quotations and p o l i t i c a l l e t t e r s were o f t e n signed w i t h the name of a 19 Roman p o l i t i c i a n from the time of the Roman Empire. The songs of the Vauxhall Gardens r e f l e c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l and widely accepted contemporary themes. At no time during the height of the musical l i f e of Vauxhall d i d the verses depart from the customary subject-matter, except when 20 drawing a t t e n t i o n to an i n v e n t i o n or other n o v e l t y . 1737-1774, Thomas Gladwin, John Worgan and Thomas Arne Before 1745 the music at Vauxhall was e n t i r e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l , except f o r a performance of a chorus, "Hush ye p r e t t y w a r b l i n g c h o i r " , from Handel's A c i s and Galatea f o r a concert i n 1739, perhaps f o r a s p e c i a l 21 occasion. Many of the most well-known London and f o r e i g n musicians played at V a u x h a l l . Tyers b u i l t an organ f o r the garden i n 1737 and 22 even Handel performed h i s organ concertos there. The f i r s t musician engaged on a r e g u l a r b a s i s at Vauxhall was probably Thomas Gladwin (c. 1710- c. 1799), who e s t a b l i s h e d a t r a d i t i o n of performing organ concertos at V a u x h a l l , as Handel had done at o r a t o r i o performances elsewhere. He composed songs to t e x t s about Vauxhall that 19 P o t t e r , p. v. See p. 15 above. The New Grove, s.v. "London", V. "Pleasure Gardens". E r i c Blom, Music i n England (New York: Penguin Books, 1947), p. 132, quoted i n F a r i s h , p. 19. 27 were r e p r i n t e d i n l a t e r eighteenth-century c o l l e c t i o n s . While the com-p o s i t i o n of some of h i s songs, such as "Greenwood-Hall" predated v o c a l music performances at V a u x h a l l , t h e i r performances elsewhere i n London 23 helped to promote the gardens. James Worgan (1715-1753) succeeded Thomas Gladwin as p r i n c i p a l 24 o r g a n i s t at V a u x h a l l around 1737, and he a l s o composed songs during 25 the 1740's and 1750's. Since t i t l e s f o r musicians i n t h i s p e r i o d were of t e n i n c o n s i s t e n t , v a r y i n g from one i n s t i t u t i o n to another, the music d i r e c t o r p o s i t i o n was sometimes synonymous w i t h that of o r g a n i s t , con-ductor or composer. When v o c a l music was added at V a u x h a l l Gardens, Thomas Arne was engaged as composer, although some accounts suggest that 26 he a l s o acted as music d i r e c t o r . John Worgan (1724-1790) followed h i s brother as o r g a n i s t and com-poser, s e r v i n g V a u x h a l l from 1751 u n t i l 1761, and again from 1770-1774. A g i f t e d o r g a n i s t , he was o f t e n compared w i t h Handel. He wrote many b a l l a d s f o r the gardens that were r e p r i n t e d i n magazines and published 27 as separate songs and i n c o l l e c t i o n s between 1745-1771. He a l s o composed s e v e r a l . o r a t o r i o s and keyboard works that s u r v i v e i n manuscript. 23 See p. 9 above. 2 4 The New Grove, s.v. "James Worgan". 25 B r i t i s h L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 26 Frank Kidson, "The Nurseries of E n g l i s h Songs", The M u s i c a l  Times 63 (1922): 620. 27 B r i t i s h L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 28 A p a r t i c u l a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e example of h i s p a t r i o t i c songs i s 28 "A Song on the Taking of Mont-Real by General Amherst" of 1760 (Example 2 ) , which commemorated the b a t t l e of that year i n which Baron J e f f r e y Amherst (1717-1797) captured Montreal from the French, ending 29 the s e r i e s of French and Indian Wars. The s e t t i n g i s i n C^  major, a fr e q u e n t l y chosen key f o r p a t r i o t i c or m i l i t a r y songs s i n c e many of the instruments were b u i l t i n C, although the meter i s a l e s s common 6/4. 30 Trumpets and drum are i n d i c a t e d i n the p r i n t e d short score, i n a d d i t i o n to s t r i n g s and continuo. I t i s a b a l l a d w i t h a four-measure o r c h e s t r a l opening and a two-measure r i t o r n e l l o which serves to separate the e i g h t stanzas, each twelve measures long. The v o c a l l i n e , composed f o r tenor Thomas Lowe, extends from e_ to and i s q u i t e angular, w i t h a prominent t o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the top-space e"*" and the second-28 Huntington L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 29 This song was r e p r i n t e d i n London Magazine, or Gentleman's  Monthly I n t e l l i g e n c e r , V o l . 29, 1760, p. 660. While a l l e i g h t verses were included i n t h i s r a t h e r rough.engraving, j u s t the v o c a l and bass l i n e s were given without i n t r o d u c t i o n and postlude. W i t h i n t h i s volume, s e v e r a l aspects of the b a t t l e of Montreal were discu s s e d , i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i c a l and f i s c a l commentaries. The C i t y of Montreal was described i n an a r t i c l e and a con g r a t u l a t o r y message to the King from the Lord Mayor, aldermen and commons of the C i t y of London on the v i c t o r y at Montreal was i n c l u d e d , along w i t h the King's r e p l y . 30 A short score i s a space-saving condensation of an o r c h e s t r a l score. Instead of each instrument having i t s own l i n e , o f t e n j u s t two or three staves were used, w i t h each instrument i n d i c a t e d as i n Example 2. I t i s l i k e l y that many of these scores were incomplete r e d u c t i o n s , but they are valu a b l e documents f o r many aspects of the development of o r c h e s t r a t i o n i n the eighteenth century. Example 2. John Worgan, "A Song on the Taking of Mont-Real ..." (1760) ZJ< 1 v^y ^ - , ^ T T - _ - ' ' 1 • " * ) *-T r u m y e t , 0 Fame! H i s D e e d s f h a l l p r o t U i ' i i , A n d fpread round the Globe A m h e r i t ' s F r a i l e . A n d 7 {p read round the G l o b e A m he rft's Prai(e I i I * J D r u m a T h r o "Woods , a n d o e r L a k e s , Hi's p r o g r e f s h e t a k e s , W i t h M o n t - r e a l f u l l i n h i s Eye. T h e F r e n c h w o u ' d , i n v a i n . O r I n d i a n s , r e f t r a i n H i s T r o o p s who to V i c t o r y f l y . 3 C a p e B r e t o n our o w n , G a l l i a ' s F i f h e r y ' s o 'er thrown. C h i e f N u r f e r y o f her M a r i n e . Inv . i f ion . that J o k e , W i l l thence e n d i n S m o k e , A n d B r i t a i n f t i l l re ign Ocean's Q u e e n . 4 T h e Indians, a n d "We, S h a l l h e n c e f o r t h agree . T h u s our M a n u f a c t u r e s advance . O u r F o e s , t o their c o f t . See T h e i r r i c h F u r - T r a d e l o f t . G r e a t B l o w to the C o m m e r c e o f F r a n c e . T r i u m p h a n t , w i t h P r i d e , O'er O c e a n -we r i d e ; N o t a f i n a l e A t t e m p t n o w m i f c a r r i e s . T o o u r r a v i f h ' d E y e s , C r e f s y , A g i n c o u r t r i f e , And t h e D a y s o f o u r E d w a r d s < S - H a r r y s . J u f t G e o r g e ! O f o r T h e e T h e F a t e s d i d d e c r e e , A Reign w i l l e t e r n a l l y f h i n e . T h e f a n f d C o n q u e f t s t o l d , In our A n n a l s o f o l d . A r e already e q u a l d i n T h i n e . O V r w h e l m ' d w i t h f a d F e a r s , S e e G a l l i a , i n T e a r s , T h e L o i s o f M o n t - r e a l b e m o a n . T h e French are undone ; A n d now Canada 's w o n , B r i t a n n i a l h a l l v there f i x H e r T h r o n e . 8 B u t h a r k ! Heav'n-^bdrn Peace , B i d s "War's H o r r o r s c e a f e ; A n d l o i where the G o d d e f s d e f c e n d s . H e r C h a r m s a l l a d o r e ; H u m a n B l o o d f t r e a m s no m o r e : A n d F o e s , l o n g contending.are F r i e n d s . 30 l i n e _g. The t r i a d i c ( also f o u r t h and f i f t h movement) by the v o i c e i s an attempt at a m i l i t a r y gesture. U n t i l the l a s t phrase, the melodic m a t e r i a l i s arranged i n downward p a t t e r n s , i n c l u d i n g the sequence at mm. 10-11. An ascending s c a l e on i s the consequent to mm. 12-13, the l a s t descending phrase. The words of t h i s phrase are repeated i n the ascending l i n e , which i s the climax of each strophe. The poem by John Lockman describes the c o n f l i c t i n Canada and i t s consequences f o r England and France. Much n a t i o n a l i s t i c propaganda i s contained w i t h i n the vers e s , which are b r i e f l y summarized below: 1. P r a i s e of Amherst 2. The i n e v i t a b i l i t y of Amherst's v i c t o r y over the Indians and French 3. Cape Breton, France's f i s h e r y , i s captured by the B r i t i s h 4. The Indians and B r i t i s h agree to trade the Indians' f u r s f o r B r i t i s h manufactured goods 5. Continued expectations of v i c t o r y f o r B r i t a i n , as i n the past 6. P r a i s e f o r King George I I I 7. France weeps at the l o s s of Montreal, w h i l e B r i t a i n wins Canada 8. B i d f o r peace among foes. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the g l o r i f i e d i d e a l of peace comes through i n the l a s t stanza to s o f t e n the hawk-like substance of the r e s t of the t e x t . Perhaps t h i s i n c l u s i o n was made both because of the i d y l l i c surroundings i n which the song was performed at Vauxhall and because England was v i c t o r i o u s at Montreal. 1745-1765, Thomas Arne at Vauxhall For the season of 1745, Tyers engaged Arne as composer, and h i s w i f e , the former C e c i l i a Young, Thomas Lowe and Thomas Reinhold as the f i r s t V a uxhall s i n g e r s . Thomas Arne (1710-1778) was born i n t o a middle 31 c l a s s f a m i l y of u p h o l s t e r e r s . He studied law at Eton and l a t e r entered 31 music; h i s only formal study was w i t h v i o l i n i s t Michael F e s t i n g . E a r l y i n h i s career Arne composed f o r the stage and e s t a b l i s h e d h i s r e p u t a t i o n w i t h Comus. Burney wrote of Arne's music: In 1738, Arne e s t a b l i s h e d h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a l y r i c composer, by the admirable manner i n which he set M i l t o n ' s Comus. In t h i s masque he introduced a l i g h t , a i r y o r i g i n a l , and p l e a s i n g melody, wholly d i f f e r e n t from that of P u r c e l l or Handel, whom a l l E n g l i s h com-posers had h i t h e r t o e i t h e r p i l l a g e d or i m i t a t e d . Indeed j the melody of Arne at t h i s time, and of h i s Vauxhall songs afterwards, forms an era i n E n g l i s h music; i t was so easy, n a t u r a l and agreeable to the whole kingdom, that i t had an e f f e c t upon our n a t i o n a l t a s t e ; and t i l l a more modern s t y l e was introduced i n the p a s t i c c i o E n g l i s h operas of Mssrs. B i c k e r s t a f f and Cumberland, i t was the standard of a l l p e r f e c t i o n at our theatres and TO p u b l i c gardens. J In 1736 Arne had married singer C e c i l i a Young (1711-1789), a well-known i n t e r p r e t e r of Handel's opera and o r a t o r i o r o l e s , who a l s o sang i n many of her husband's productions. The Arne's marriage c o l l a p s e d i n the 1750's due to Arne's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s famous p u p i l C h a r l o t t e Brent, but the Arnes r e c o n c i l e d i n 1777, s h o r t l y before the composer's death. During the e l d e r Tyers' p r o p r i e t o r s h i p , d e t a i l s of Vauxhall concert s e l e c t i o n s were not published i n newspaper advertisements, so i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine p r e c i s e l y the t i t l e s of the songs and when they The New Grove, s.v., "Thomas Arne". 32 Charles Burney, A General H i s t o r y of Music, Volume I I (New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, r e p r i n t e d i t i o n , n.d.), p. 1004. 32 were performed. However, the p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s of the music o f t e n i n d i c a t e the places where the songs were given t h e i r f i r s t hearing, as w e l l as the names of the sin g e r s f o r whom they were composed. Since many of the songs were c o l l e c t e d i n volumes by season, the p u b l i c a t i o n dates provide an adequate reference p o i n t f o r d a t i n g the songs. More than two hundred songs by Arne were s u b - t i t l e d "As sung by... 33 at V a u x h a l l " (or at Ranelagh or Marylebone). Those performed at Vauxhall were composed over a twenty-nine year p e r i o d . The major c o l l e c t i o n s were: L y r i c Harmony, Volume I , 1745 L y r i c Harmony, Volume I I , 1746 Vocal Melody, Book I , 1746 The Agreeable M u s i c a l Choice, 1757 B r i t i s h Melody No. X I, 1760 A Choice C o l l e c t i o n of Songs Sung at Vauxhall Gardens, 1761 The New Songs Sung at V a u x h a l l , 1765 Summer Amusement, 1766 The Vocal Grove, 1774 3 H" L y r i c Harmony, Arne's f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of Vauxhall songs, was p r i n t e d f o r Arne by W i l l i a m Smith i n London and was r e p r i n t e d by . J . Simpson i n 1746. The seventeen songs and one p a s t o r a l dialogue contained i n the volume are q u i t e s i m i l a r i n s t y l e , t e x t and form. Most are s t r o p h i c w i t h b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e s and f o l l o w a t y p i c a l l y eighteenth-century tonic-dominant-tonic harmonic p a t t e r n . H a l f of the songs are i n t r i p l e meter and only one song i s i n a minor key. The choice of minor mode f o r "The Generous D i s t r e s s e d " (No. 8) i s r e l a t e d to the sad-Far i s h , p. 36. W i l l i a m Clarke L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 33 ness of the p a r t i c u l a r case of spurned love and contemplated s u i c i d e . Usually, u n f u l f i l l e d love was treated with l e s s seriousness. Arne's frequent s e l e c t i o n of t r i p l e meter was probably influenced by the popular appeal of dance-like melodies, which he employed when the texts would permit, as he was always motivated to please the taste of the patrons. Among other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s found i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n was the "motto" beginning, with the thematic material announced i n the introduction and restated and expanded a f t e r the opening. Also observed was the old Baroque device of word-painting, with f l o r i d passages used for d e s c r i p t i v e means, for the song "The I n v i t a t i o n " . Coloratura for d i s -play purposes i s found i n "Colin's I n v i t a t i o n " (No. 7). Arne also employed the Scotch snap i n seven out of eighteen pieces, often without any textual reason. While most of the sel e c t i o n s conform i n s t y l e as to structures, 35 harmony, mode, meter and i n the use of pastoral love poetry, some of the songs have unusual a d d i t i o n a l elements, for example, "The Lovesick Invocation" (No. 11), the only song with an introductory r e c i t a t i v e , the text of which r e l a t e s to the f i r s t stanza (Example 3). See F a r i s h , pp. 43-44, for discussion of " L y r i c Harmony Stereotype". 34 Example 3. Thomas Arne, "The Lovesick I n v o c a t i o n " , from L y r i c  Harmony, V o l . 1 (1745), mm. 1-9. L. . r - Pl...1^. I-f f F o l l o w i n g the r e c i t a t i v e are two s e c t i o n s of unequal l e n g t h . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of v o c a l and instrumental m a t e r i a l i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the b a l l a d of t h i s p e r i o d , and i s shown i n Figure 1: Figure 3 'The Lovesick Invocation", Thomas Arne (1745) Sectio n Length Intr o d u c t o r y r e c i t a t i v e 9 measures Part one: "Symphony" 16 measures Vocal 16 measures R i t o r n e l l o 4 measures Part two: Vocal 21 measures Postlude 4 measures Three stanzas are set i n 3/4 meter l i k e a minuet song. The key i s B - f l a t , w i t h a range from jf' to a.". The t e s s i t u r a l i e s h i g h , on top of the t r e b l e s t a f f f o r the most p a r t . While the t e x t u r e i s not f l o r i d some 35 ornamentation i s w r i t t e n i n t o the melody, such as appoggiaturas, turns and grace notes. Three of the songs i n t h i s volume of L y r i c Harmony have two con-t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n s or movements. These are "To a Lady, Who being ask'd by her Lover f o r a token of her constancy gave him a knife' : (No. 13), "The Complaint" (No. 14) and "The Happy B r i d e " (No. 17). For Nos. 13 and 14 Arne wrote a short stanza f o r the f i r s t s e c t i o n and a r e f r a i n f o r the second. The stanzas set i n minor keys r e f l e c t sadness while the r e f r a i n s , which are cast i n major, impart a b r i g h t e r mood. The r e f r a i n s a l s o contrast w i t h the stanzas i n tempo and meter. In the song "To a Lady", the r e c i p i e n t of the unwelcome g i f t (the k n i f e ) bemoans h i s f a t e i n the stanza that i s marked Andante (4/4), w h i l e i n the A l l e g r o s e c t i o n (3/8) that f o l l o w s , he appears to go mad. The f l o r i d passages on "flow'd" describe the mental s t a t e of the scorned l o v e r (Example 4a). Since by the t h i r d stanza, "Damon" decides to use the k n i f e to end h i s d e s p a i r , Arne modifies the music to f i t the words of the t h i r d stanza (Example 4b). Example 4a. Thomas Arne, "To a Lady", from L y r i c Harmony (1745), mm. 40-51. h 9*kf 0 r •-xt f f 'f ' , ^..f f , / . tt - \ v -VevcerrVj. f / 1 u \ \ • • • irv 36 Example 4b. mm. 18-20 and addendum. ••f jift d enotes your f=^=f=] fading love f p f r i J - i i 'TV* ©v\Vj \ sVvftW UeecV> The problem of s e t t i n g d i f f e r e n t verses to the same melodic m a t e r i a l has always e x i s t e d f o r composers. The a t t i t u d e of some composers i n the eighteenth century toward the problem was summed up by Goethe, who wrote: " I t was s u f f i c i e n t i f the melody of a s t r o p h i c song f i t s w e l l only the f i r s t stanza, the r e s t being only a matter of v a r i a t i o n i n per-formance" . 3^ 37 Arne's second volume of L y r i c Harmony (1746), which a l s o contained eighteen songs, i n c l u d e d s e t t i n g s of verses by Chaucer, Shakespeare, S i r John S u c k l i n g , Ben Jonson and Addison. The song "The Dumps" was composed to an a l t e r e d verse by.John Gay. This volume of songs f o r V a u x h a l l Gardens was f i r s t p r i n t e d i n 1746 and was r e p r i n t e d by I. Simpson i n 1748. The s i n g e r s who made them popular were again Mrs. Arne, Thomas Lowe and Thomas Reinhold. 36 Hans Joachim Moser, Das deutsche solo L i e d und d i e B a l l a d , 1957, ed. C a r l Gustav F e l l e r e r (Cologne: Arno Volk V e r l a g , 1958), p. 6, quoted i n F a r i s h , p. 56. 37 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, c o l l e c t i o n . 37 The s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s found i n the f i r s t volume of L y r i c  Harmony were maintained throughout the second c o l l e c t i o n . The dialogue song, "Damon and Cloe", i n c l u d e s a strophe i n which the soprano and tenor s i n g i n simultaneous duet, a co n t r a s t to the question and answer duet form of " C o l i n and Phoebe" from the f i r s t volume. The o r c h e s t r a -t i o n i n c l u d e s two horns, two. oboes, two v i o l i n p a r t s and continuo, but we may i n f e r from eighteenth-century custom that v i o l a s and bassoons 38 were a l s o employed. A p a r t f o r bass s i n g e r Thomas Reinhold was added, making t h i s s e l e c t i o n a forerunner of those s p e c i a l ensemble f i n a l e s that ended concerts at V a u x h a l l when James Hook was d i r e c t o r . One of the more enduring songs from L y r i c Harmony, Volume I I , i s "Where the bee sucks", e n t i t l e d " A r i e l ' s Song i n the Tempest" i n the p r i n t e d e d i t i o n . When Shakespeare's The Tempest was r e v i v e d on 39 January 31, 1746 at the Drury Lane Theatre, A r i e l was portrayed by K i t t y C l i v e , who sang Arne's songs i n the production. The next summer at V a u x h a l l she performed "Where the bee sucks", and the song made i t s way i n t o the seasonal c o l l e c t i o n . The t e x t was taken from Lewis Theobald's 1733 e d i t i o n of Shakespeare's works, which was an attempt to c o r r e c t e r r o r s i n Pope's e d i t i o n of 1726. The German f l u t e was used as an "ornamental instrument" during the "symphonies" and v o c a l s o l o passages, and a l s o to i m i t a t e the bee (Example 5a). 38 Thurston Dart, The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Music (London: Hutchinson's U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1954), p. 68. 39 F i s k e , p. 206. 38 Example 5a. Thomas Arne, "Where the bee sucks", from L y r i c Harmony (1746), m. 18. i n ' r rtrr Crv|, u>V\ew OUJ\5 <io "Where the bee sucks" follows a t y p i c a l pattern for songs i n both the gardens and theatres during t h i s part of the eighteenth century. I t s melody i s e a s i l y remembered and there i s much word-painting, which occurs i n the f l o r i d passage on the word " f l y " , i n the f l u t e solo that imitates the bee, and i n the l i l t i n g phrases on "merrily". Arne devel-oped h i s melodies through r e p e t i t i o n and sequence as shown i n Example 5b. Example 5b. mm. 12-16 and 21-24 s b«e «UCK$ there IOTK I* «• ^ *V* ^ X ^ * bocV* tat*. Ac X~ i j f If t f f If i r With i t s binary structure, o r c h e s t r a l introduction, r i t o r n e l l o separating the two sections and o r c h e s t r a l postlude, "Where the bee sucks" i l l u s -39 t r a t e s the s i m i l a r i t y o f . s t y l e s encountered i n both the theatres and pleasure gardens, p a r a l l e l s t y l e s which continued throughout the 40 century. U n t i l the l a t e 1750's Arne's s t y l e remained much the same. J u l i a n Herbage suggested that the combination of Jlandel's death and Arne's being honoured w i t h the Doctor of Music degree from Oxford were two motivations encouraging him to become more experimental w i t h h i s musical s t y l e . Arne's career seemed to be sandwiched between those of Handel and J . C. Bach: "During the whole course of Arne's l i f e the 41 fashionable musical c l i q u e had succumbed to f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e " . 1766-1774, Thomas Arne Arne's compositional s t y l e changed n o t i c e a b l y w i t h the ei g h t songs and one cantata of Summer Amusement (1766), s u b - t i t l e d "A C o l l e c t i o n of L y r i c Poems w i t h the F a v o u r i t e A i r s set to them". From the t i t l e - p a g e we are informed that the performers were Mr. Vernon, Mrs. W e i c h s e l l and Miss Brent. In t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , Arne chose to set more songs i n through-composed form than i n b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e s . Although o r c h e s t r a l t e x t u r e s remained s i m i l a r to those i n previous songs, he introduced p a i r e d c l a r i n e t s to double the v i o l i n s i n the cantata "Love and Resent-For more inf o r m a t i o n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of V a u x h a l l songs and v o c a l music composed f o r the t h e a t r e , see F i s k e , pp. 327-329 and pp. 605-606. J u l i a n Herbage, "The Vocal S t y l e of Thomas Augustine Arne", Proceedings of the Royal Music A s s o c i a t i o n (1951-52): 85-86. ment", i n s t e a d of oboes. This p i e c e , w r i t t e n f o r C h a r l o t t e Brent, contained the f i r s t accompanied r e c i t a t i v e i n Vauxhall music, although the p r a c t i c e of accompanied r e c i t a t i v e was common i n opera and theatre music w r i t t e n by the previous generation. Arne a l s o began to w r i t e v i r t u o s i c v o c a l l i n e s , and he placed the t e x t i n a secondary r o l e . At t h i s time he was adapting the I t a l i a n b e l canto s t y l e t o . E n g l i s h language opera, p a r t i c u l a r l y to h i s success-f u l Artaxerxes of .1762. His p u p i l , C h a r l o t t e Brent, who possessed an e x c e p t i o n a l l y a g i l e v o i c e , g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d h i s d e c i s i o n to develop h i s v o c a l w r i t i n g along more f l o r i d l i n e s . Miss Brent sang the r o l e of Mandane i n Art a x e r x e s , which was composed to d i s p l a y her t e c h n i c a l prowess. Burney, n o t i n g the development from Comus and the e a r l y V a u x h a l l songs to Artaxerxes, c r e d i t e d Arne w i t h a s s i m i l a t i n g the 42 I t a l i a n s t y l e i n t o the E n g l i s h s t y l e . The V o c a l Grove (1774), published by Longman, Lukey and Company, was Arne's l a s t c o l l e c t i o n of V a u x h a l l songs. (James Hook was already s e r v i n g as music d i r e c t o r i n h i s f i r s t season at V a u x h a l l , although he 43 had c o n t r i b u t e d songs f o r s e v e r a l years.) This set of e i g h t songs emphasized the f l o r i d s t y l e , which Arne handled i n two ways: (1) orna-mentation e i t h e r w r i t t e n out or performed by reading the symbol, and e n t a i l i n g lengthy f l o r i d passages; and (2) longer f i o r a t u r a o c c u r r i n g i n s i n g l e words, l e a v i n g the r e s t of the v o c a l l i n e f r e e of orna-Burney, p. 1015. B r i t i s h L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 41 mentation. I t . was t h i s second s t y l e , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of considerable word-painting, which dominated h i s work, as w e l l as that of h i s con-temporaries and successors, i n c l u d i n g James Hook. The Va u x h a l l patrons embraced t h i s a n g l i c i z e d I t a l i a n idiom i n the f l o r i d d i s p l a y pieces throughout the 1770's. . 1774-1784, James Hook The musical establishment at Vau x h a l l Gardens continued to f l o u r i s h throughout the l a s t three decades of the eighteenth century. In 1774 James Hook became music d i r e c t o r and h e l d that p o s i t i o n f o r f o r t y - s i x seasons u n t i l 1820. James Hook (1746-1827) was born i n Norwich, and he stu d i e d w i t h Garland, the o r g a n i s t at Norwich Cathedral. As a young musician he a d v e r t i s e d that he could i n s t r u c t on g u i t a r , h a r psichord, spin e t and German f l u t e , and that he was w i l l i n g to copy or transpose 44 music, compose f o r a l l instruments and tune them as w e l l . He l e f t f o r London 1763-1764, and he soon became known there f o r composing and performing l i g h t music, h i s f o r t e throughout h i s career. He took many p r i z e s f o r h i s songs, catches and gl e e s , but he a l s o wrote more than twenty stage p i e c e s , many organ and harpsichord concertos, piano 45 sonatas, church music, and a textbook on piano i n s t r u c t i o n . His compositional s t y l e r e f l e c t e d the conventions of the p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y h i s o r c h e s t r a t i o n s , which were i n f l u e n c e d by the techniques developed at The New Grove, s.v., "James Hook". I b i d . , which l i s t s these works. Mannheim. His music for Vauxhall included progressively more use of winds, p a r t i c u l a r l y c l a r i n e t s . When Hook became organist and composer at Vauxhall, he introduced new elements, such as catches and glees, into the concerts. By 1775 the audience entertained i t s e l f during dinner or before the concert by 46 singing on i t s own. Hook, who was known as an i n c o r r i g i b l e punster, received the Catch Club medal for "Parting Catch" (1765). In w r i t i n g catches, the common pr a c t i c e was to combine the music and words i n a manner that would sound comical when performed, even ludicrous. The f i n a l e to the second h a l f of the concert during Hook's tenure consisted of an extended work that usually involved several, i f not a l l of the singers of the evening. This was a p r a c t i c e developed over the years from Arne's early dialogue songs which served to conclude per-formances. In addition Hook composed operas for Vauxhall during the 1780's. Because the "orchestra" lacked space for movement and scenery, one assumes these works were given as semi-staged or concert perform-ances. The four known short operas by Hook are The P o l l Booth, Op. 34, 1784; A Word to the Wives, Op. 41, c. 1785, described as a sequel to the cantata, "The Cryer"; The Triumph of Beauty, Op. 46, 1786, with singers Mr. Incledon and Mrs. Wrighten; and The Queen of the May, 47 c. 1787. Hook's other extended song forms, cantatas, odes, serenatas, as wel l as p a t r i o t i c and hunting ballads wete also used to conclude con-Wroth, p. 310. Fiske, p. 395. 43 c e r t s . Often the verses were sung by each singer i n t u r n , and then the r e f r a i n was performed i n p a r t s by the ensemble of s o l o s i n g e r s . An example of t h i s i s "Hunting Song and Chorus" (1779), which was sung by 48 Mr. Vernon, Mrs. Wrighten, Miss Thornton and Mrs. W e i c h s e l l . Between 1768 and c. 1807, Hook's songs were published i n annual c o l l e c t i o n s , beginning w i t h the e a r l y songs from Marylebone Gardens, where he was the o r g a n i s t from 1769-1774, followed by the songs from 49 h i s V a u x h a l l tenure. These songs numbered approximately two thousand. Hook's musical s t y l e grew more f l o r i d during the 1770's i n keeping w i t h the f a s h i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by Arne from the A r t a x e r x e s - C h a r l o t t e Brent p e r i o d of the previous decade. Others, such as W i l l i a m Bates, Thomas Carter and Henry Heron"'^ wrote In a s i m i l a r s t y l e f o r the capable Va u x h a l l s i n g e r s . One of the, most celebrated sopranos at V a u x h a l l from 1766-1784 was Mrs. W e i c h s e l l , who premiered many of J . C. Bach's Vau x h a l l songs and most of Hook's f l o r i d p i e c e s . She e x c e l l e d i n songs w i t h high t e s s i t u r a s and considerable f i o r a t u r a , and she was given many of the extended v o c a l numbers. Always r e f e r r e d to by her surname, her f i r s t name i s ^ unknown and her biography i s l a c k i n g i n d e t a i l . However, her n o t i c e s t y p i c a l l y mentioned her great t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y : "Mrs. W e i c h s e l l was, as she always i s , r e p l e t e w i t h t a s t e and execution and 48 Huntington L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 49 The New Grove, s.v., "James Hook". The Huntington and B r i t i s h L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s . 44 was encored. „51 Scotch Songs Hook composed many Scotch songs during h i s long tenure at Vauxhall. Most were b a l l a d s , w i t h between two and four stanzas. Three of the 52 songs from the 1774 c o l l e c t i o n , "The Braes of B a l l a d i n e " , "Scotch Song" and "The Lovers Stream", c o n t a i n the b a s i c elements of t h i s popular genre. I t i s the combination of the Scotch snap w i t h other rhythmic f i g u r e s that r e s u l t s i n a v a r i e t y of p a t t e r n s as shown i n Example 6. Example 6. James Hook, "The Lovers Stream" (1774), mm. 16-24 "rail i n r / f f ' f t ' m 51 Morning Herald, May 21, 1785, Minet L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 52 U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, c o l l e c t i o n . 45 "The Lovers Stream" introduces paired c l a r i n e t s . I t s slower tempo, common time signature and key of E - f l a t tend to make i t more s t a t e l y than the other two examples of Scotch songs from the 1774 c o l l e c t i o n . In contrast to "The Lovers Stream", Hook's "The Lad Wha L i l t s Sae Sweetly", 5 3 with words by Charles Dibdin (1745-1814), i s composed i n a fo l k idiom. The vocal l i n e i s f a r less ornamented and the words depend heavily on Sc o t t i s h d i a l e c t . An obbligato p i c c o l o i s featured i n the introduction and postlude. I t i s l i k e l y that t h i s song was composed during the l a t e 1780's or early 1790's. I t r e f l e c t s the fashionable i n t e r e s t i n more authentic ethnic idioms, found i n the c o l l e c t i o n s of George Thomson.5V The use of the Scotch snap i s not nearly as obvious as i t i s i n e a r l i e r Scots songs. The s t y l e thus becomes les s affected (Example 7). Example 7. James Hook, "The Lad Wha L i l t s Sae Sweetly", Ten Songs, Stainer and B e l l , 1979, mm. 44-60. I f ' I I l L . II , I t>cr,-oAi Ot T V \oAuAvo. V.\V$ ^At S.oceM.j iWt WA coVva V.\Vs*o,e Sweety, H e y r u i j i " ' i j \ m 1 1 The University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, Music L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . See p. 25 above. 46 Rondos Hook f r e q u e n t l y employed the rondo form during the 1770's and 1780's. In seventeenth-century France, L u l l y and other composers w r i t i n g f o r the theatre adopted the r e i t e r a t e d r e f r a i n w i t h changing couplets commonly i n use by the French c l a v e c i n i s t s . A t y p i c a l p a t t e r n was a r e f r a i n of e i g h t or s i x t e e n measures, w i t h couplets emphasizing a d i f f e r e n t t o n a l i t y , such as the t o n i c f o r the r e f r a i n , dominant f o r the f i r s t or second couplet, and r e l a t i v e minor f o r the second or t h i r d couplet. During the l a t t e r p a r t of the eighteenth century, t h i s developed i n t o the rondo form of the sonata. The rondo became s i m i l a r to sonata form when the couplets were l i m i t e d to three, and when the music f o r the f i r s t and t h i r d couplets was composed of the same ma t e r i -a l s , though rearranged. The A and A 1 s e c t i o n s corresponded to e x p o s i t i o n and r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , the B p o r t i o n to the development. Examples of t h i s are found i n the sonatas of J . C. Bach. But the term "rondo" was a l s o used by. E n g l i s h composers f o r pieces w i t h s h o r t e r a l t e r n a t i n g s e c t i o n s , the ternary ABAB form, the f i v e - p a r t ABABA or ABACA forms. The ternary form i s commonly considered " f i r s t rondo form", w h i l e the f i v e - p a r t form i s c a l l e d "second rondo form". The more elaborate " t h i r d rondo form" i s that which was employed f o r f i n a l movements of the l a t e - e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y sonatas and concertos, as w e l l as Beethoven's e a r l i e r piano sonatas. A p e l , pp. 651-652. 47 Hook's rondos appeared as s i n g l e songs or as par t of extended pieces . The f o l l o w i n g are examples composed between 1774-1779, a l l performed at Vau x h a l l by Mrs. W e i c h s e l l : "Rondo", 1774 "Rondo", 1775 "Rondo", 1776 "Favourite Rondo", 1777 "Cr u e l Cupid", 1778 "Damon", 1779 These rondos were s e l e c t e d from the c o l l e c t i o n of Vauxhall songs i n the Huntington L i b r a r y , San Marino, C a l i f o r n i a . For the purpose of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , the rondos w i t h known dates of composition were placed i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, and one rondo was a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d f o r each of the s i x years. In s p i t e of the small sample, s e v e r a l g e n e r a l i t i e s emerge from the survey concerning form, harmony and melodic and rhythmic m a t e r i a l s . , F u r t h e r , a p a t t e r n i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the v o c a l w r i t i n g f o r the capable Mrs. W e i c h s e l l . F i v e of the rondos conform to Apel's "second rondo form" or f i v e -p a r t form, w h i l e one example, from 1776, i s a ternary s t r u c t u r e , 5 6 corresponding to the " f i r s t rondo form" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Except f o r the 1777 example, these rondos f o l l o w a harmonic p l a n that i s co n s i s t e n t w i t h the form. The A s e c t i o n s are i n the t o n i c key, the B se c t i o n s move to the dominant, and the C s e c t i o n s are i n the r e l a t i v e minor. In the 1777 rondo, the B s e c t i o n i s i n the t o n i c and the C s e c t i o n i s i n the dominant. The rondo i n ternary form from 1776 moves to the dominant f o r the middle s e c t i o n . I b i d , and see p. 46 above. 48 The rondos begin w i t h o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n s v a r y i n g i n length from s i x t e e n to t h i r t y measures. These i n t r o d u c t i o n s present the thematic m a t e r i a l of the A s e c t i o n s and o f t e n i n c l u d e e p i s o d i c m a t e r i a l . A l l the A s e c t i o n s i n t h i s group of rondos cont a i n motto beginnings except f o r the 1775 s e l e c t i o n . The f i r s t v o c a l phrase i s presented and then i s followed by an o r c h e s t r a l restatement of the m a t e r i a l . The A s e c t i o n s form the most s u b s t a n t i a l component of these songs, t a k i n g up an average of 38.5% of t h e i r length. Together, the B and C se c t i o n s are an average 39% of t o t a l d u r a t i o n . In three of these rondos the B s e c t i o n exceeds the le n g t h of the C s e c t i o n , but i n the remaining two works, the converse i s t r u e . Based on t h i s s m all sample i t i s not p o s s i b l e to determine a p a t t e r n f o r length and p r o p o r t i o n of the couplet s e c t i o n s . The p r o p o r t i o n s , even i n the l i m i t e d sample, show considerable range. The tempos of these rondos are f a i r l y slow, w i t h Andantino the i n d i c a t i o n f o r four of them and A l l e g r e t t o f o r the 1779 example. There was no tempo marking on the p r i n t e d copy of the 1775 p i e c e , but Andantino seems probable. Meter was e i t h e r 2/4 or 3/4, and the samples s e l e c t e d were evenly d i v i d e d . As f o r choice of key, a l l were major, w i t h two examples i n E - f l a t , two i n A, and one each i n F_ and (J, a l l t y p i c a l keys f o r c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d compositions. In the e a r l y p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s examined, the music i s presented i n short scores, w i t h the bass l i n e , f i r s t and second v i o l i n p a r t s and wind p a i r i n g s i n d i c a t e d . Of the s i x rondos surveyed, only two were scored w i t h winds. The 1776 ternary rondo has two c l a r i n e t s and the 49 example from 1777 uses two f l u t e s . This does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that the other winds were not used, or that the other rondos only em-ployed s t r i n g s . I t i s possible that the short scores were not copies of the complete manuscript. The orchestrations are consistent with the pra c t i c e of the period, however, and there are no i n d i c a t i o n s that Hook's s t y l e changed during those s i x years. The poetry i n the s i x rondos i s p a s t o r a l , but i n most of the songs, there i s a mischievous or "arch" subtext. The only author i d e n t i f i e d on the printed e d i t i o n s was a Mr. Hawkins, who penned the verses to "Cruel Cupid" (1778) and to "Rondo" (1777), which was examined at the Huntington Library but not included i n the survey. The vocal demands of these pieces are considerable, with coloratura passages to challenge the most accomplished soprano. The d i f f i c u l t i e s are presented mainly i n the passages of f i o r a t u r a , which consist of varied melodic and rhythmic patterns. Long l y r i c a l l i n e s lacking ornamentation are rare, and most of the phrases appear to be composed of short rhythmic units instead of longer note values. From the music composed for her, i t i s clear that Mrs. Weichsell's strong s u i t was the e b u l l i e n t , much embellished song with a very high t e s s i t u r a . There are, however, a few phrases that demand legato singing over f l e x i b i l i t y , such as the A section of the 1776 rondo (Example 8). Example 8. James Hook, "Rondo" (1776), mm. 22-29. ° f r +-w 50 But most of the v o c a l w r i t i n g c o n s i s t s of patterns of c o l o r a t u r a i n -v o l v i n g s c a l e s and arpeggios (Example 9 ) , t r i p l e t s (Example 10), dotted f i g u r e s and groupings of va r i o u s melodic and rhythmic combinations (Example 11). Example 9. James Hook, "Damon" (1779), mm. 54-58 and 83-85. t n - -S-f1 fe--«4r -VVxe. SJMA Example 10. James Hook, "Rondo" (1775), mm. 35-38 i thotigVt% difcrett jc pttfe Example 11. James Hook, "Favourite Rondo" (1777), mm. 35-39. -O l ip PrienWOiip if too cold a g ' l e f t . K r i c n ri -._ Oi i p K r i i n d . . i h t y Frieiirfftitp 51 B a l l a d s Hook's contemporary, Irishman Charles Thomas Cart e r (c. 1740-1804), composed songs f o r Vauxhall between 1773-1779. His "Hunting Song" ( 1 7 7 7 ) 5 7 was sung by Mrs. Wrighten, who performed at V a u x h a l l from the mid-1770's to the mid-1780's, and who was known f o r her b a l l a d s and hunting songs, which d i s p l a y e d her powerful v o i c e and wide range. She had no d i f f i c u l t y p r o j e c t i n g these songs over an o r c h e s t r a that was o f t e n f u l l e r than u s u a l f o r these numbers. "Mrs. Wrighten gained great applause i n her songs which she executed w i t h a l l t h a t amazing power 58 and comic archness, f o r which she i s so eminently d i s t i n g u i s h e d " . While the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s not notated i n the p r i n t e d score of Carter's "Hunting Song", the open f i f t h s and i d i o m a t i c horn w r i t i n g seem to i n d i c a t e that horns and perhaps oboes or f l u t e s and timpani would augment the s t r i n g s . This s p i r i t e d and robust song i n p r a i s e of the hunt has three stanzas and a r e f r a i n that i s sung a f t e r each stanza. A g a l l o p i n g f e e l i n g i s imparted by a repeated rhythmic motive i n the r e f r a i n (Example 12). Example 12. Charles Thomas C a r t e r , "Hunting Song" (1777), mm. 74-82. Huntington L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . Morning Herald , May 14, 1783, Minet L i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 52 Hook's bal l a d s , l i k e t h e i r eighteenth-century counterparts, con-si s t e d of two or more verses set to the same music. Because the verses t o l d a t a l e , the music was composed to favour the p r o j e c t i o n of the text. Ornamentation was therefore l i m i t e d and texts were generally set so that there would be one note for each s y l l a b l e . While mid-century ballads often contained l i t t l e instrumental accompaniment apart from the continuo, the ballads of Hook and h i s contemporaries were usually composed for f u l l orchestra. Certain types of ballads favoured s p e c i f i c instrumentation. For example, hunting ballads i n -variably c a l l e d for horns and p a t r i o t i c numbers were scored f o r trumpets. The melodies of the various types of b a l l a d s , such as hunting, S c o t t i s h , p a t r i o t i c , t o p i c a l and comical, took on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s suggested by t h e i r texts. The hunting ballads' melodies imitated open sounds of 59 horn c a l l s , as i n Example 13, Hook's "Hark Away to Vauxhall", where the vocal l i n e i s composed pr i m a r i l y of the disjunct i n t e r v a l s and rhythmic figures associated with horn wr i t i n g . Example 13. James Hook, "Hark Away to Vauxhall" (1778), mm. 24-31. S Ct><n*e. t-cvel A-voa-vj, \h Wr ^ . C n w c revel a - ~VW.«> W &v.y, cVie^, Hoax a\i»uj 1t> VAU*VVA.». SV\ecr»e<, KO.T* WXXK <Miooj \o VcUA.*kW\\ . 59 Huntington Library c o l l e c t i o n . 53 The p a t r i o t i c b a l l a d s t y l e contained regular dotted rhythms and strong, punctuated pulses i n duple meter. These songs flourished throughout the century, changing l i t t l e from John Worgan's songs that 60 were composed about 1759-1760. The formal structures of these ballads varied, however. A s e t t i n g by Mr. Orme, composed between 1775-1785 and sung by Joseph Vernon, was composed of two parts: a military-sounding r e f r a i n , and a p a s t o r a l section marked S i c i l i a n o Larghetto. Both the music and the texts are sharply contrasting, expressing the c o n f l i c t over desire for v i c t o r y and wish for peace. Most other examples of the p a t r i o t i c b a l l a d lack the p a s t o r a l musical component, although the texts often include a f i n a l verse expressing peaceful sentiments. Another type of nat i o n a l song was the b a l l a d that praised n a t i o n a l 61 p o l i c y . The four verses and chorus of "Old England" (1779), composed for Vernon by Hook, are enhanced by an ornate bass l i n e (Example 14a). Example 14a. James Hook, I  Mf t.f, t rT v "Old England" (1779) f— f - ^ ^ ' — v f -, mm. 23 -26. fa f f V f l 1 v v \ — L - > -<nu.r«ys»ATtA^ Staves txV - f l u f f frfffftfiv J b Ul—Y v Yoke, re- \tfe 1' R 7 , See pp. 27-30 above. Huntington Library c o l l e c t i o n . 54 The c l e a r , unembellished and e a s i l y remembered melody of "Old England" was t y p i c a l f o r songs of t h i s genre (Example 14b). Most l i k e l y t h i s song would have served as a second act f i n a l e and the Vauxhall s o l o i s t s would have j o i n e d Joseph Vernon f o r the chorus. Example 14b. mm. 9 - 1 2 . U>0iV m i PI , r i f - j w ^ / f j ' f f i ^ fe The humourous ballads dealt often with s o c i a l commentary or amorous themes. These were devoid of f l o r i d displays, and the words were of utmost importance, i n contrast to the very ornamented pieces, i n which both poetry and word s e t t i n g were secondary to the vocal l i n e . A t o p i c a l song that r e l i e d on a simple melody to project a complex text was "The Monstrous Good Song" by Hook, which was sung by Mrs. Wrighten 62 during the 1779 season. Its three stanzas, a l l containing t o p i c a l references, are set to a s p r i t e l y A l l e g r o Moderato tempo. Perhaps the second verse i s the most amusing f o r twentieth-century l i s t e n e r s who r e l a t e to the ambiguity of today's androgenous fashions: The ladies good creatures mean a l l f o r the best, Why i f the french come they s h a l l f i n d us w e l l drest, Encamp'd so l i k e s o l d i e r s , h a i r powder'd and fuzzled, To decide which was which they'd be MONSTROUSLY puzzled. 62 Huntington Library c o l l e c t i o n . Let no sour grey beard deride t h e i r i n t e n t i o n ; Any lady among them cou'd vanquish a frenchman, Shou'd the monsieurs invade what with women and men, They'd be MONSTROUSLY glad to get safe back again. 56 CHAPTER I I I THE VAUXHALL SONGS AND THE PUBLISHING INDUSTRY IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY Despite the f a c t that most of the songs performed at Vau x h a l l Gardens d i d not achieve l a s t i n g p o p u l a r i t y w i t h l a t e r generations, they were s u c c e s s f u l w i t h the London p u b l i c during the heyday of the pleasure gardens. While the Walsh f i r m monopolized the p u b l i s h i n g business u n t i l the death of John Walsh, the son, i n 1766, s e v e r a l new firms were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l a t e eighteenth-century, some w i t h f a m i l y t i e s to the Walsh concern. Many of these new businesses f l o u r i s h e d because of a new middle c l a s s that had money to spend. The e l d e r John Walsh e s t a b l i s h e d h i s business i n 1695, and published Handel's Rinaldo i n 1711, making considerable p r o f i t . ^ The son, who continued h i s f a t h e r ' s business when he died i n 1736, continued to 2 p u b l i s h Handel's works, although they d i d not appear i n f u l l score. John Walsh, J r . enlarged the scope of the business by d i s t r i b u t i n g much 3 I t a l i a n music by C o r e l l i , A l b i n o n i , V i v a l d i and Buononcini. A l s o the f i r m p ublished o p e r a t i c works i n f u l l score, as w e l l as songs and E r i c David Mackerness, A S o c i a l H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Music (London: Routledge and K. P a u l , 1964), p. 106. 2 Charles Hemphries and W i l l i a m C. Smith, Music P u b l i s h i n g i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1970), p. 24. Mackerness, p. 107. 57 in s t r u m e n t a l pieces from p l a y s . The Walsh f i r m p ublished many of Thomas Arne's c o l l e c t i o n s f o r V a u x h a l l , as w e l l as songs by W i l l i a m 4 Boyce, the Worgan b r o t h e r s , Samuel Arnold and Michael Arne. When John Walsh, Jr.. died i n 1766, the business was operated s u c c e s s i v e l y by Rand a l l and A b e l l , Randall ( a l o n e ) , E l i z a b e t h R a n d a l l , Wright and Wil k i n s o n . These people a d v e r t i s e d the contents of the previous Walsh catalogue and a l s o published f u l l scores of Handel's o r a t o r i o s . 5 However, they remained uninvolved w i t h the current popular trends that l e d to the formation of s e v e r a l new music p u b l i s h i n g b u s i -nesses. The Rand a l l catalogue of 1776 shows r a t h e r s t a b l e p r i c e s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s f i r s t p r i n t e d i n the Walsh e r a . ^ But both the p r i n t i n g process and p r i c e s became cheaper i n t h i s p e r i o d due to l e s s a r t i s t i c engraving done f o r s e v e r a l of the p u b l i s h e r s who produced the Vaux h a l l c o l l e c t i o n s . 7 Some of the p r i n c i p a l music p u b l i s h e r s of the l a t e eighteenth-century were Thompson (1746-1798), Welcker (1762-1785), S t r a i g h t and S k i l l e r n (1766-1826), John Johnston (1767-1778), W i l l i a m Napier (1772-1809), John Bland (1776-1795), and Dale (1783-1823). 8 4 W i l l i a m Charles Smith, A B i b l i o g r a p h y of the M u s i c a l Works  Published by John Walsh, 1695-1766 (London: B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1948-1968), survey of contents. 5 Humphries, pp. 29-30. 6 I b i d . 7 I b i d . , p. 27. 8 I b i d . 58 Hook's songs were published by Thompson i n the 1770's and 1780's, by Bland & Weller i n the 1790's, and by Dale i n the 1800's. 9 Most of the new p u b l i s h i n g f i r m s were e s t a b l i s h e d e i t h e r s l i g h t l y before or s h o r t l y a f t e r , the death of John Walsh, the younger. The new middle c l a s s , which r e s u l t e d from the e f f e c t s of the I n d u s t r i a l Revo-l u t i o n , reacted as groups o f t e n do when they f i r s t achieve wealth and s t a t u s : they spent money to "educate t h e i r c h i l d r e n and given them the advantages of c u l t u r e and r e f i n e m e n t " . ^ The songs of the pleasure gardens were r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e both i n annual c o l l e c t i o n s and i n the magazines. P e r i o d i c a l s p ublished the words and oft e n the music of the most f a v o r i t e s e l e c t i o n s heard at V a u x h a l l . Among the eighteenth-century l i t e r a r y magazines that published songs were: The Lady's  Magazine, The Gentleman's Magazine, The U n i v e r s a l Magazine, The London  Magazine and the New U n i v e r s a l M a g a z i n e . ^ Exshaw's London Magazine, f i r s t a r e p r i n t of The London Magazine, was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Du b l i n i n May, 1741, and i t ceased p u b l i c a t i o n , by 12 the end of 1794. A f t e r s e v e r a l years i t contained a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of m a t e r i a l devoted to I r i s h causes and events, but at f i r s t i t 9 I b i d . I b i d . , pp. 29-30; the term " I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n " i s being used as i n Columbia V i k i n g Encyclopedia, s.v., " I n d u s t r i a l R e volution". Humphries, pp. 29-30. W. J . Lawrence, "Eighteenth-Century Magazine Music", The  M u s i c a l Antiquary 3 (October 1911-July 1912): 18. was only a copy of.the London p u b l i c a t i o n . Mr. W. J . Lawrence compiled a l i s t of the songs that were published i n t h i s p e r i o d i c a l during i t s 13 exi s t e n c e . About ten per cent of the songs on t h i s l i s t were per-formed at Vauxhall Gardens, according to the i n f o r m a t i o n given on the l i s t . Other songs included i n the magazine may have been sung there a l s o , but l o c a t i o n s f o r performances were not given f o r most of the e n t r i e s . The f o l l o w i n g songs d e f i n i t e l y connected w i t h V a u x h a l l per-14 formances have been e x t r a c t e d from Lawrence's l i s t : J u l y , 1749: "A New Song". Sung by Mr. Lowe at Va u x h a l l Gardens. Set by Mr. Weideman, p. 358. August, 1749: "A New Song". Sung by Miss Stevenson at Vauxhall Gardens, p. 308. August, 1750: "Jockey and Jenny". A New Song. Sung by Mr. Lowe and Mrs. Arne at V a u x h a l l , p. 372. September, 1750: "Jockey". A Favourite New Song sung by Miss Stevenson at V a u x h a l l , p. 420. August, 1751: "Young Strephon a shepherd the p r i d e of the p l a i n " . Sung by Miss Stevenson at V a u x h a l l , and "Mutual Love". Set by Mr. Worgan, p. 434. May, 1752: "Jenny of the Green". Sung by Mr. Lowe at V a u x h a l l , p. 262. August, 1769: "Under the Rose". Sung by Mr. Vernon at Va u x h a l l . Set by Mr. P o t t e r , p. 495. 1 3 I b i d . , pp. 20-39. A complete set of 54 volumes of Exshaw's London Magazine i s i n the Huntington L i b r a r y . 60 March, 1773: "As Now My Bloom". Sung by Miss Jameson at • V a u x h a l l , pp. 190-92. A p r i l , 1773: " I do as I w i l l w i t h my swain". Sung by Miss Jameson at V a u x h a l l , pp. 253-56. September, 1773: "Ah, Where can one f i n d a True Swain?" Sung by Miss Wewitzer at Va u x h a l l . Set by Mr. Hook, pp. 576-78. September, 1775: "The S a i l o r ' s F a r e w e l l " . Sung by Mr. Vernon at V a u x h a l l , f r o n t . November, 1776: "How pleased w i t h i n my n a t i v e bow'rs". Sung by Mr. Vernon at V a u x h a l l , f r o n t . September, 1777: "A b e a u t i f u l face and a form without f a u l t " . Sung by Mr. Vernon at Va u x h a l l . October, 1777: "The Nod, Wink and Smile". Sung by Mr. Vernon at Vau x h a l l . Set by Mr. Hook. May, 1779: Composed by Dr. Arn o l d , and sung at Vau x h a l l by Mrs. W e i c h s e l l . January, 1781: "Patty of the H i l l " . As sung by Mr. Vernon at Vau x h a l l . Composed by Mr. Hook. October, 1781: "The Willows". Composed by Mr. Hook, sung at Vauxhall by Mrs. Kennedy. March, 1783: "The Fa v o u r i t e Man". Sung by Mrs. Wrighten at Va u x h a l l . January, 1784: "Shannon's Flow'ry Banks". Sung by Mrs. Kennedy at V a u x h a l l . Music by Tom Carter.15 J u l y , 1786: "Young Strephon". Sung by Mrs. Wrighten at Va u x h a l l . August, 1786: "The Bonny S a i l o r " . Sung by Mrs. Kennedy at Vau x h a l l . Mrs. Kennedy, the former Margaret Doyle, was o r i g i n a l l y from I r e l a n d , as was Tom C a r t e r , composer. 61 Despite the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of p r i n t e d copies of songs on s i n g l e sheets, or i n magazines and c o l l e c t i o n s , some composers f e l t they were i n s u f f i c i e n t l y rewarded f o r t h e i r compositions, according to an advertisement i n the Morning Herald and D a i l y A d v e r t i s e r , March 2, 1781 : 1 6 New f a v o u r i t e advertisement. The Composers of music, i n London, most r e s p e c t f u l l y acquaint the n o b i l i t y and gentry, that henceforth t h e i r new music w i l l be s o l d at t h e i r own d w e l l i n g houses; the reason f o r t h i s i s , because the music-shop keepers take so much advantage over the composers, v i z . 1st when a set of music s e l l s f o r . 10s 6d the music shops take h a l f a crown f o r t h e i r t r o u b l e of s e l l i n g i t . I t h i n k sixpence or a s h i l l i n g p r o f i t i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r a.copy, as the only t r o u b l e i s to s e l l i t to the person that asks f o r i t i n the shop.-—N.B. As i t i s customary w i t h the b o o k s e l l e r s . 2dly, the music-shop keepers take the seventh copy f o r t h e i r p r o f i t , which they c a l l allowance; consequently there remains only 6s 3d out of the h a l f guinea to the composer f o r h i s performance, and he i s o b l i g e d to pay the engraving., p r i n t i n g , paper and other expenses. The composers of music w i l l r e f e r to the i m p a r t i a l judgment of a generous p u b l i c , i f i t i s j u s t , that when a good composition appears, and i s accepted by the p u b l i c , that the music-shop keepers, take the money, and f o r the composer remains only the honour, by which he i s to l i v e . Consequently the shop keepers l i v e by the sweat and labour of the composers, and are, i n t o the bargain, very i n s o l e n t and impertinent towards them. Thus much from APPOLO. The anonymous signature of APPOLO i s an example of the c l a s s i c a l r e f e r ences found throughout the century i n newspapers and p o l i t i c a l speeche 16 Humphries, p. 33. ^ See pp. 25-26 above. 62 CHAPTER IV SUMMARY Vauxhall Gardens provided an extraordinary environment for the development and nurturing of solo songs i n the eighteenth century. I t was one of the few places where native B r i t i s h composers' talents were encouraged and displayed. P r i o r to Arne's residency as composer to three of the major gardens (Vauxhall, Marylebone and Ranelagh), English solo song was confined to t h e a t r i c a l performances or small p r i v a t e chamber music concerts. The encouragement of vocal music at the pleasure gardens by i t s proprietors enabled large audiences to hear the music and to be influenced by what they heard. Because a large percentage of Vauxhall patrons were from p r i v i -leged ranks of society, t h e i r preferences became the fashionable standard i n music and a l l the a r t s . Whether poems with c l a s s i c a l , p a s t o r a l or p a t r i o t i c themes; whether Caledonian, drinking or hunting b a l l a d s , they r e f l e c t e d the tastes of these people, who were generous with t h e i r approval and vocal i n t h e i r displeasure. The proprietors and music d i r e c t o r s were kept well-informed as to the l a t e s t musical developments on the Continent. Instrumentalists from abroad were frequently engaged to display t h e i r s k i l l as well as innovations and refinements to t h e i r instruments. The singers during the eighteenth-century Vauxhall period were l a r g e l y B r i t i s h , but they often had the benefit of I t a l i a n , as well as 63 E n g l i s h s i n g i n g masters. The songs sung at the gardens ranged from simple, f o l k - l i k e b a l l a d s to phenomenally v i r t u o s i c p i e c e s . During the e a r l y , mid-century years of v o c a l performances at V a u x h a l l , the emphasis was on the d e l i v e r y of t e x t s , sung to e a s i l y remembered melodies w i t h l i t t l e ornamentation and few f l o r i d passages. However, the c o l o r a t u r a s t y l e of the I t a l i a n opera was incorporated and a n g l i -c i z e d by Arne and h i s contemporaries, and by the 1760's, i t was fashionable to compose musical phrases f o r the purpose of d i s p l a y i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s i n g e r ' s f a c i l i t y . Singers who possessed remarkable tech-nique, such as C h a r l o t t e Brent, became very popular w i t h the patrons. Towards the end of the century, w i t h more si n g e r s i n v o l v e d i n the Vauxhall concerts than had been p r e v i o u s l y , v o c a l i s t s became known f o r t h e i r s p e c i a l t i e s , some as b a l l a d s i n g e r s , others f o r t h e i r " s c i e n c e " , that i s , f o r t h e i r t e c h n i c a l prowess. The composers r e f i n e d a l l the forms and s t y l e s i n the l a t t e r decades that had been popular since the 1740's. Much of t h i s r e f i n e -ment can be perceived as "formula" w r i t i n g ; however, i t i s apparent that the v o c a l music composed f o r the t h e a t r e , that i s , f o r both I t a l i a n and E n g l i s h opera, as w e l l as b a l l a d opera, g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the songs. A l s o , since the V a u x h a l l songs were composed w i t h o r c h e s t r a l accompaniment, and the techniques of the Mannheim school were being incorporated by the E n g l i s h s c h o o l , there was a sense of experimentation on the one hand, and a sameness on the other, because a l l the composers were d e a l i n g b a s i c a l l y w i t h the same m a t e r i a l s . A l l the melodic, rhythmic, harmonic and o r c h e s t r a l devices of the era were a v a i l a b l e to a l l the composers, and they borrowed f r e q u e n t l y from one another and 64 from the c o n t i n e n t a l masters, p a r t i c u l a r l y Haydn. The developmental process o c c u r r i n g i n the songs from the 1740's to the e a r l y 1790's was mainly t e c h n i c a l . While c e r t a i n forms evolved more c l e a r l y i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the century, such as the rondo, major changes on a p o e t i c or s p i r i t u a l l e v e l d i d not take place i n the songs composed f o r V a u x h a l l . Neither the music nor the t e x t s rose to greater heights than those achieved i n the compositions of Arne. The compositions were meant to be e n t e r t a i n i n g , although the patrons of V a u x h a l l needed some musical background knowledge to appreciate f u l l y some of the m a t e r i a l . This i s probably one of the most important f a c t o r s i n the r i s e and demise of the musical establishment at V a u x h a l l . Vocal music at Vauxhall occupies a p o s i t i o n i n h i s t o r y as a steppingstone toward mass c u l t u r e . The Vauxhall b a l l a d s were the popular songs f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l segment of London s o c i e t y . Toward the end of the eighteenth century, the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y s p l i n t e r e d the middle c l a s s i n t o f u r t h e r groupings, each w i t h i t s own i d e n t i t y , power base, economic base and d e f i n i t e preferences as to how i t s people would spend t h e i r hard-earned, increased l e i s u r e time. I t was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the development of separate popular and c l a s s i c a l m u s ical c u l t u r e s that the new lower middle c l a s s e s i n England would shun the a r t i s t i c pleasures of the upper c l a s s e s and develop t h e i r own entertainments, which were more o r i e n t e d to s p e c t a c l e , n o v e l t y , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t i s important to recognize that although v o c a l music at V a u x h a l l was performed i n E n g l i s h , n e i t h e r the t e x t s nor the music had the immediacy to communicate w i t h and to s u s t a i n the i n t e r e s t of 65 t h i s new and large group of working class c i t i z e n s . An e l i t i s t stigma f e l l on what was once considered popular music. The upwardly-mobile lower-middle classes looked once again to the theatres for t h e i r entertainment, as they had during the r i s e of the b a l l a d opera. No previous academic or musical t r a i n i n g was required i n order to enjoy these performances, whereas the people who patronized Vauxhall during i t s prime studied the arts as a necessary part of t h e i r t o t a l education. Vocal music at Vauxhall Gardens during the eighteenth century con-tained a synthesis of the elements of art music and entertainment. In the nineteenth century, English art song retreated to the drawing-room, while popular songs were heard i n nascent concert h a l l s , r e s u l t i n g i n a p o l a r i z a t i o n of art and entertainment i n London's concert l i f e . C l a s s i c a l singers were considered " a r t i s t s " while popular singers became known as "entertainers". OS'}, APPENDIX 66 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRIT ISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC R e c i t a l H a l l Monday , A p r i l 1 6 , 1984 8 : 0 0 p .m . * LECTURE RECITAL Aud rey L e o n a r d B o r s c h e l , soprano P h i l i p T i l l o t s o n , hecppaichord & piano Mary S o k o l , violin K a r e n F o s t e r , violin H a n i - K a r l P i t t z , viola C h a r l e s I nkman , cello D a v i d B r o w n , bass C a m i l l e C h u r c h - f i e l d , flute E l i z a b e t h Bohm, flute M a r t i n B e r i n b a u m , trumpet Edward B a c h , trumpet L i n d s a y L y o n , timpani M i c h a e l B o r s c h e l , conductor The R i c h V a r i e t y o f E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l i s h Songs Composed f o r London A u d i e n c e s 1 7 5 0 - 1 8 0 0 . a s s i s t e d by 0 B i d You r F a i t h f u l A r i e l F l y Thomas L i n l e y , J r . S l e e p , G e n t l e C h e r u b , f rom J u d i t h Thomas A . A r ne Cymon and I p h i g e n i a , a c a n t a t a Thomas A . A r ne A s o n g on t h e t a k i n g o f M o n t - R e a l by G e n e r a l Amhers t John Worgan M i d s t S i l e n t Shades Johann C . Bach - TMERMISSICW P i e r c i n g Eyes The M e r m a i d ' s Song The S p i r i t ' s Song F i d e l i t y F r a n z J . Haydn C o n t ' d 67 S c o t c h Rondo James Hook H u n t i n g Song C h a r l e s Thomas C a r t e r The N i g h t i n g a l e , a c a n t a t a James Hook Be M i n e T e n d e r P a s s i o n , S t e p h e n S t o r a c e f rom The Haun ted Tower * I n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D o c t o r o f M u s i c a l A r t s Deg ree w i t h a M a j o r i n V o c a l P e r f o r m a n c e . 68 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Backus, Edythe N. Catalogue of Music i n the Huntington L i b r a r y P r i n t e d  Before 1801. San Marino, C a l i f o r n i a : The Huntington L i b r a r y , 1949. Besant, S i r Walter. The Survey of London. V o l . 6: London i n the Eighteenth Century. 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London: S t a i n e r and B e l l , 1980. "The evening l e s s o n s , Being the f i r s t and second chapters of the book of entertainments..." London: W. Webb, 1742. F a r i s h , Stephen Thomas. "The Vau x h a l l Songs of Thomas Arne". D o c t o r a l t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1962. F i s k e , Roger. E n g l i s h Theatre Music i n the Eighteenth Century. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973. F i s k e , Roger. The Rise of E n g l i s h Opera. London: John Lehmann, 1951. 69 Gentleman's Magazine. Dublin: John Exshaw, 1741-1794. Huntington Library C o l l e c t i o n . H a l l , James Husst. The Art Song. Norman, Oklahoma: Uni v e r s i t y of Oklahoma Press, 1953. Herbage, J u l i a n . "The Vocal Style of Thomas Augustine Arne". Pro- ceedings of the Royal Music Association: 1951-52, p. 83-96. Horner, Burnham W. L i f e and Works of Dr. Arne, 1710-1778. London: Imprinted the Chiswick Press, 1893. Hughes, Rosemary. "Solo Song". In New Oxford History of Music, Vol. VII, The Age of Enlightenment, pp. 336-341. Edited by Egon Wellesz and Frederick Sternfeld. London: Oxford University Press, 1973. Hume, Robert D. The London Theatre World 1660-1860. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980. Humphries, Charles and William C. Smith. Music Publishing i n the  B r i t i s h I s l e s . Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell, 1970. Johnstone, H. Diack. "English Solo Song c. 1710-1760". Proceedings  of Royal Musical Association: 1968-69, pp. 67-80. K e l l y , Michael. Reminiscences. London: 1826. Reprint E d i t i o n , London: Oxford University Press, 1975. Kidson, Frank. "The Nurseries of English Song". The Musical Times 58 (1922): 394-95, 620-22. Langley, Hubert. Doctor Arne. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni v e r s i t y Press, 1938. Lawrence, W. J. "Eighteenth-Century Magazine Music". The Musical  Antiquary 3 (1911-12) : 18-39. L o c k i t t , Charles Henry. The Relations Between French and English  Society 1763-93. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1920. London Magazine or Gentleman's Monthly I n t e l l i g e n c e r . London: C. Ackers, 1732-85. Huntington Library C o l l e c t i o n . McCutcheon, Roger P h i l l i p . Eighteenth-Century English L i t e r a t u r e . London: Oxford Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1950. Mackerness, E r i c David. A S o c i a l History of English Music. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1964. 70 M i t c h e l l , R. J . and M. D. R. Leys. A H i s t o r y of London L i f e . London: Longmans,. Green and Co., 1958. M u s i c a l Biography. V o l . 2. London: Henry Colburn, 1814. Northcote, Sydney. Byrd to B r i t t e n . London: John Baker, 1966. Parke, W. T. M u s i c a l Memoirs. V o l . 1. London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1830. Reprint e d i t i o n i n one volume, New York: Da Capo Press, 1970. Parkinson, John A. An Index to the Vocal Works of Thomas Augustine Arne and Michael Arne. D e t r o i t : D e t r o i t Studies i n Music B i b l i o -graphy, 21, D e t r o i t Information Coordinators, 1972. P o t t e r , Frank, ed. R e l i q u a r y of. E n g l i s h Song, V o l . 2: 1700-1800. New York: G. Schirmer, 1916. Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and Musicians. London: MacMillan, 1980. Sands, M o l l i e . "Music as a .Profession i n Eighteenth-Century England". Music and L e t t e r s 24 (1943): 90-92. Sands, M o l l i e . "Music not too r e f i n e d " . The M u s i c a l Times 91 (1950): 11-15. Sands, M o l l i e . "The Singing Master i n Eighteenth-Century England". Music and L e t t e r s 23 (1942): 69-80. Sands, M o l l i e . "These Were Singers". Music and L e t t e r s 25 (1944): 103-109. S c o t t , Marion M. "Some English. A f f i n i t i e s and A s s o c i a t i o n s of Haydn's Songs". Music and L e t t e r s 25 (1944): . 1-12. Smith, W i l l i a m Charles. A B i b l i o g r a p h y of the M u s i c a l Works Published  by John Walsh, 1695-1766. London: B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1948-1968. Southgate, T. Lea. "Music at the P u b l i c Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century". Proceedings of the M u s i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1911-1912, pp. 141-159. Southworth, James G r a n v i l l e . V a u x h a l l Gardens, a Chapter i n the S o c i a l  H i s t o r y of England. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941. Stevens, Denis, ed. A H i s t o r y of Song. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1960. 71 Terry, Charles Sanford. John C h r i s t i a n Bach, 2nd ed. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967. T o s i , P i e r Francesco. O p i n i o n i d e ' c a n t o r i antiche e moderni...Bologna, 1723, t r a n s l a t e d by Johann Ernst G a l l i a r d . Observations on the F l o r i d Song. London, 1742. U n i v e r s a l Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure. London: J . Hinton, 1747-1803, Huntington L i b r a r y C o l l e c t i o n . Woods, F. Cunningham. "A Co n s i d e r a t i o n of the Various Types of Songs Popular i n England During the Eighteenth Century". Proceedings  of the M u s i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (1896-97): 37-55. Wroth, Warwick. The London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century. London: MacMillan and Co., L t d . , 1896. 

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