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Historical and performance perspectives of clarinet material performed in a thesis recital Simon, Karem Joseph 1985

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HISTORICAL AND PERFORMANCE PERSPECTIVES OF CLARINET MATERIAL PERFORMED IN A THESIS RECITAL By KAREM JOSEPH SIMON B.Mus., Mount Allison University, 1978 B.Ed., Mount Allison University, 1979 M.Mus., Northwestern University, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS xn THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Music) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1985 (cp Karem Joseph Simon, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Music  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ABSTRACT This document i s designed to accompany the w r i t e r ' s L e c t u r e - R e c i t a l performed on June 6, 1983. I t presents a l l the m a t e r i a l from the l e c -ture i n a more d e t a i l e d and extensive account. A d i s c u s s i o n of c l a r i n e t solo m a t e r i a l , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of four periods and/or s t y l e s i n the development of the c l a r i n e t r e p e r t o i r e , i s f e atured: an unaccompanied twentieth-century work, H e i n r i c h Sutermeister's C a p r i c c i o ; an e a r l y c l a s s i c a l concerto, K a r l Stamitz's Concerto i n E - f l a t Major; a French Conservatory Contest P i e c e , Charles Lefebvre's F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e ; and a l a t e romantic sonata, Johannes Brahms' Sonata i n E - f l a t Major, Op. 120, No. 2. Sutermeister's C a p r i c c i o (1946), f o r A c l a r i n e t , was commissioned as a contest piece f o r the Geneva Conservatory. The composition i s of a q u a l i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r a contest, f o r two c o n t r a s t i n g ideas permeate the e n t i r e work: one i s rough and c r i s p w i t h staccato passages; the other i s smooth and calm w i t h legato passages. I t i s t h i s w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n that C a p r i c c i o r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e of Sutermeister's c i n e -matic works. K a r l Stamitz's Concerto i n E - f l a t r e f l e c t s the features of the French school of c l a r i n e t p l a y i n g as e x h i b i t e d by the f i r s t well-known c l a r i n e t v i r t u o s o , Joseph Beer. This concerto a l s o shows the i n f l u e n c e of Mozart, as many mutual features occur between Stamitz's Concerto i n i i E - f l a t and Mozart's Concerto i n A. S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to woodwind l i t e r a t u r e have been made by French composers. This i s , i n p a r t , a t t r i b u t a b l e to the P a r i s Conservatory, which s i n c e the l a t e nineteenth century has commissioned French composers to w r i t e contest pieces f o r the f i n a l performance examinations. Such works have included Debussy's Premiere Rhapsodie, and Lefebvre's F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e . Johannes Brahms' f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h Richard M u h l f e l d , eminent c l a r i -n e t i s t of the Meiningen Orchestra, manifests i t s e l f i n four chamber works he wrote f o r the c l a r i n e t . Brahms' C l a r i n e t Quintet Op. 115 i s regarded as one of h i s g r e a t e s t masterpieces. The Two Sonatas f o r C l a r i n e t and Piano Op. 120 o f f e r q u i t e a c o n t r a s t . The f i r s t , i n F minor, i s predominantly the more passionate of the two, whereas the second, i n E - f l a t major, i s of greater intimacy of expression. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES v PREFACE . . . . . . v i CHAPTER I . H e i n r i c h Sutermeister's C a p r i c c i o 1 CHAPTER I I . K a r l Stamitz's Concerto i n E - f l a t Major . . 3 CHAPTER I I I . Charles Lefebvre's F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e . . . 13 CHAPTER IV. Johannes Brahms' Sonata i n E - f l a t Major, Op. 120, No. 2 17 APPENDIX 25 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . 26 i v LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES 1. H. Sutermeister, C a p r i c c i o , mm. 1-4 2 2a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, f i r s t movement, mm. 57-58 7 2b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , f i r s t movement, mm. 50-51 . . . . . . . 7 3a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, f i r s t movement, mm. 134-135 8 3b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , f i r s t movement, mm. 105-106 . 8 4a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, f i r s t movement, m. 73 8 4b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , f i r s t movement, m. 62 8 5a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, f i r s t movement, mm. 172-173 9 5b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , f i r s t movement, mm. 83-84 9 6a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, t h i r d movement, mm. 1-4 11 6b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , t h i r d movement, mm. 1-4 11 7. C. Lefebvre, F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e , mm. 2-4 15 8. C. Lefebvre, F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e , mm. 30-34 16 9. C. Lefebvre, F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e , mm. 134-137 16 v PREFACE This document i s designed to accompany my L e c t u r e - R e c i t a l per-formed on June 6, 1983. Included i s a l l m a t e r i a l from the l e c t u r e i n a more d e t a i l e d and extensive account. A d i s c u s s i o n of c l a r i n e t s o l o m a t e r i a l , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of four periods and/or s t y l e s i n the development of the c l a r i n e t r e p e r t o i r e , i s f e a t u r e d : an unaccompanied twentieth-century work, H e i n r i c h Sutermeister's C a p r i c c i o ; an e a r l y c l a s s i c a l concerto, K a r l Stamitz's Concerto i n E - f l a t Major; a French Conservatory Contest p i e c e , Charles Lefebvre's F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e ; and a l a t e romantic sonata, Johannes Brahms' Sonata i n E - f l a t Major, Op. 120, No. 2. Each of the four chap-t e r s i s devoted to one work of the r e c i t a l and the order of chapters corresponds d i r e c t l y to the order of the r e c i t a l programme ( r e f e r to the Appendix). The r e p e r t o i r e i s approached- from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the per-former. E f f o r t i s made to show the importance of s t r u c t u r a l f eatures and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as w e l l as thorough knowledge of h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , i n order to p r o j e c t an accurate, as w e l l as p e r s o n a l , r e a l i z a t i o n of the music. v i I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the tremendous support of my wife, Ruth, whose i n t e r e s t i n my doctoral studies greatly enhanced the qu a l i t y of my work. In addition, I am indebted to my committee members and e s p e c i a l l y to my c l a r i n e t i n s t r u c t o r s , Ronald de Kant and Wesley Foster, whose demonstrated high performance standards exerted profound influence on my c l a r i n e t a r t i s t r y . v i i 1 CHAPTER I H e i n r i c h Sutermeister's C a p r i c c i o H e i n r i c h Sutermeister, born i n 1910, i s a Swiss composer noted p r i -m a r i l y f o r h i s operas and works f o r cinema, r a d i o , and t e l e v i s i o n . He s t u d i e d at the Munich Academy of Music under C a r l O r f f . His s t y l e em-phasizes sweeping melodic l i n e s , d i a t o n i c t u n e f u l n e s s , and, g e n e r a l l y , ease of c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y . ^ I t i s s t r u c t u r a l l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , p l e a s -i n g , and e f f e c t i v e . In a d d i t i o n to h i s v o c a l , o r c h e s t r a l , and chamber music, he wrote two works f o r c l a r i n e t : a Concerto (1975), and an un-accompanied work, C a p r i c c i o (1946). The C a p r i c c i o , f o r A c l a r i n e t , was commissioned as a contest piece f o r the Geneva Conservatory. I t i s unusual i n that i t i s one of very few unaccompanied c l a r i n e t works that i s e a s i l y understandable by the l i s t e n e r . The composition i s of a q u a l i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r per-formance i n a c o n t e s t , f o r two c o n t r a s t i n g ideas permeate the e n t i r e work: one i s rough and c r i s p w i t h staccato passages; the other i s smooth and calm w i t h legato passages. Both are presented i n the opening l i n e of the piece (Example 1). The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and M u s i c i a n s , 1980, ed., s.v. "Sutermeister, H e i n r i c h . " 2 Example 1. H. S u t e r m e i s t e r , C a p r i c c i o , mm. 1-4. The f i r s t s u b j e c t i s d e v e l o p e d i n the opening and c l o s i n g p o r t i o n s of the work, w h i l e the second i s e l a b o r a t e d upon i n the m i d d l e s e c t i o n ; thus the form i s t e r n a r y (ABA'). The rugged i d e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s p i r i t e d , funny, and rough p l a y i n g , through l i g h t s t a c c a t o runs and r a p i d e m b e l l i s h i n g p a s s a g e s . The o t h e r theme i s much more e l e g a n t and sweet-tempered, f e a t u r i n g a c a n t a b i l e s t y l e w i t h wide l e a p s and s o f t dynamics. There are many sudden changes o f dynamics, meter, and mood—demonstrated by the i n s c r i b e d q u a l i f y i n g terms s p i r i t o , l e g a t i s s i m o , g r a z i o s o , g i o c o s o , e l e g a n z a , r u v i d o , and a m a b i l e — a l l o f which c o n t r i b u t e to the c a p r i c i o u s c h a r a c t e r . I t i s t h i s w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t C a p r i c c i o r e -f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e o f S u t e r m e i s t e r ' s c i n e m a t i c works and as such, i t would not be d i f f i c u l t t o s e t a program to i t : the f r o l i c k i n g m a t e r i a l might r e p r e s e n t a m i s c h i e v i o u s , i m p a t i e n t l i t t l e boy, c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the smooth m a t e r i a l , s u g g e s t i n g t h e p l e a s a n t , c o m f o r t i n g mother. The c a p r i c i o u s temperament of t h i s work seems to evoke the mood of the c l a r i n e t p a r t s i n P r o k o f i e v ' s P e t e r and the Wolf and S t r a u s s ' s T i l  E u l e n s p i e g e l . A t the coda (meno mosso), the l i t t l e boy shows s i g n s of s e r i o u s n e s s and d e t e r m i n a t i o n , as the theme i s fragmented and s l o w e r ; but i t ends i n the gay and w h i m s i c a l mood i n which i t began. 3 CHAPTER I I K a r l Stamitz's Concerto i n E - F l a t The Mannheim School has been c r e d i t e d w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g the c l a r i -net as a concerto s o l o instrument. A l t h o u g h - e a r l i e r c l a r i n e t c o n c e r t i had been w r i t t e n — n o t a b l y four by Johann Melchior M o l t e r , ca. 1746, f o r D c l a r i n e t — t h e f a c t remains that the Mannheimers were the f i r s t to e s t a b l i s h a c o n s i s t e n t t r a d i t i o n of s o l o c l a r i n e t w r i t i n g , as w e l l as to produce the f i r s t l i n e of v i r t u o s o c l a r i n e t s o l o i s t s and s e v e r a l v i r -tuoso c l a r i n e t i s t - c o m p o s e r s ."^  Johann Stamitz (1717-1757), one of the f i r s t leaders of the Mann-heim School, was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a t r a d i t i o n of prominent p a r t s f o r wind instruments, i n c l u d i n g c l a r i n e t s , i n h i s symphonies. Often the c l a r i n e t p a r t s were played by o b o i s t s , who doubled on c l a r i n e t , but from 1758 the Mannheim Orchestra r e g u l a r l y l i s t e d a p a i r of c l a r i -n e t i s t s i n i t s membership. Johann Stamitz wrote one c l a r i n e t concerto, but h i s son K a r l (1745-1801) composed s e v e r a l : one f o r c l a r i n e t and bassoon, one f o r two c l a r i n e t s , and at l e a s t eleven solo c o n c e r t i . K a r l Stamitz wrote most of h i s c l a r i n e t c o n c e r t i f o r Joseph Beer (1744-1811), who was the f i r s t well-known c l a r i n e t v i r t u o s o . Beer's p a r t i c u l a r importance l i e s i n championing the r o l e of the c l a r i n e t as Arthur H. Christmann, ed., Concerto i n E - f l a t by K a r l Stamitz (New York: G. Schirmer, 1968), Preface. a b r i l l i a n t solo instrument throughout Europe and i n his formation of a 2 t y p i c a l l y French school of playing. According to F. Geoffrey Rendall, Franz Tausch, a c l a r i n e t virtuoso of Mannheim and a contemporary of Beer, put beauty, expression, and gradation of tone f i r s t , whereas Beer 3 placed these secondary to b r i l l i a n c e and v o l u b i l i t y . B r i l l i a n c e and v o l u b i l i t y have long been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the French school. C l a r i n e t i s t s often regard the works of Karl Stamitz as having been written considerably e a r l i e r than Mozart's famous concerto, despite the fact that Stamitz and Mozart were contemporaries. Mozart was awed by the c l a r i n e t s he heard i n the orchestra at Mannheim. In a l e t t e r to h i s father of December 3, 1778, Mozart stated, "Ah, i f we only had c l a r i n e t s too! You cannot imagine the glorious e f f e c t of a symphony with f l u t e s , oboes and c l a r i n e t s . . ." Although impressed by the c l a r i n e t he s t i l l used i t sparingly i n h i s o r c h e s t r a l works. I t i s also regrettable that Mozart f a i l e d to write a concerto for Beer as he had been requested. Beer's i n t e r n a t i o n a l reputation would have assured instant success for such a work. Apparently, the o f f e r was rejected because Mozart did not f i n d favor with Beer's offensive personality and improper behavior.^ F. Geoffrey Rendall, The C l a r i n e t (London: Ernest Benn, 1971), p. 80. 3 Ibid. 4 However, Anton Stadler, for whom his great concerto was written, was no better a person and was constantly i n debt to Mozart. (It i s believed that Stadler pawned the manuscripts of the Quintet and Con-certo.) Mozart's Concerto did not seem to enjoy any immediate popu-l a r i t y and l i t t l e , i f any, outside Vienna. No contemporary of Stadler appears to have played i t ; Beer preferred Mozart's Variations on the I t was not u n t i l r e c e n t l y that a l l of K a r l Stamitz's c l a r i n e t con-c e r t i were p u b l i s h e d . 5 In h i s works Stamitz uses the c l a r i n e t c h i e f l y as a s i n g i n g instrument and i n most cases p r e f e r s an expressive melodi-ousness to v i r t u o s i t y . T e c h n i c a l demands are l i m i t e d and the chalumeau r e g i s t e r i s p r i m a r i l y used f o r chordal f i g u r e s . He u t i l i z e s the j u x t a -p o s i t i o n of r e g i s t e r s by great leaps i n the melodic arc of the c l a r i n e t and by the r e p e t i t i o n i n the high r e g i s t e r of a passage f i r s t played i n the low one. Formally, the f i r s t movements are prototypes of the l a t e r Weber c o n c e r t i , f a l l i n g i n t o the b a s i c s o n a t a - a l l e g r o form, and l i k e the Weber c o n c e r t i , they u s u a l l y contain.a number of r a p i d l y moving t e c h n i -c a l passages. The second movements are u s u a l l y i n a three-part song form and c o n s i s t of a melodic s o l o l i n e of c l a s s i c a l grace and charm set over a simple accompaniment. The t h i r d movements are g e n e r a l l y r a p i d rondos which are s i m i l a r i n t h e i r t e c h n i c a l demands to the f i r s t move-ments. As i n other c o n c e r t i and symphonies of t h i s formative p e r i o d of music, these f i n a l movements are o f t e n l i g h t - h e a r t e d and somewhat l e s s March of the Samnites of which he alone possessed the manuscript. This was presumably an arrangement of h i s v a r i a t i o n s on a theme from Les  Mariages Samnites of Gretry K. 352. 5 In her a r t i c l e of 1964 E l s a Ludewig mentions only four c u r r e n t l y p u b l i s h e d , f e a r i n g that the others were l o s t during the Second World War. However, Arthur H. Christmann s t a t e s that e a r l y manuscripts, many of which have appeared i n p r i n t during the l a s t two decades, are a v a i l -able i n va r i o u s European l i b r a r i e s . Oskar K r o l l , The C l a r i n e t (London: B. T. B a t s f o r d , 1968), p. 56. 6 m u s i c a l l y g r a t i f y i n g than the f i r s t two. 7 The Concerto i n E - f l a t , according to Helmut Boese's a u t h o r i t a t i v e d i s s e r t a t i o n , Die K l a r i n e t t e a l s Soloinstrument i n der Musik der Mann-heimer Schule, ("The C l a r i n e t as Solo Instrument i n the Music of the 8 9 Mannheim School"), i s K a r l Stamitz's eleventh c l a r i n e t concerto. ' Because t h i s concerto i s a l a r g e r and meatier work than Stamitz's pre-vious ones, Pamela Weston b e l i e v e s that i t must have been w r i t t e n a f t e r 1792, when Beer was i n the employment of the P r u s s i a n c o u r t . ^ Thus, t h i s concerto was conceived w e l l a f t e r Mozart's concerto of 1791. I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e that Stamitz and Mozart may have heard each other's c l a r i n e t s o l o w r i t i n g . Many s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t between Stamitz's Concerto No. 11 i n E - f l a t and Mozart's Concerto i n A. In sheer l e n g t h , the Stamitz concerto, which takes over twenty-two minutes to perform, surpasses a l l h i s previous ones and approaches the h a l f hour r e q u i r e d E l s a Ludewig, "Eighteenth Century C l a r i n e t Music," Woodwind Anthology 1980 (November 1964), 507. g Christmann, Concerto i n E - f l a t by K a r l Stamitz, c i t i n g Die  K l a r i n e t t e a l s Soloinstrument i n der Musik der Mannheimer Schule. 9 Most of K a r l Stamitz's c l a r i n e t c o n c e r t i are i n B - f l a t Major or E - f l a t Major, because the f i v e - k e y c l a r i n e t f o r which he wrote functioned best i n these keys. (As a B - f l a t instrument, the c l a r i n e t was incapable of p l a y i n g many of the a c c i d e n t a l s w e l l ; thus, Stamitz's w r i t i n g was predominantly d i a t o n i c . ) Some confusion does a r i s e , however, when r e -f e r r i n g to i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r t i , as he wrote s e v e r a l i n each of the two keys and a l l are not numbered p r o p e r l y . Pamela Weston, C l a r i n e t V i r t u o s i of the Past (London: N o v e l l o , 1971), p. 31. 7 f o r Mozart's. The form of the f i r s t m o v e m e n t — s o n a t a - a l l e g r o — i s the same i n both c o n c e r t i . Although i t i s p o i n t l e s s to compare the two pure l y on musical q u a l i t i e s , an examination of the c l a r i n e t idiom does r e v e a l other mutual f e a t u r e s . The rhythms of the opening bars are very s i m i l a r (Examples 2a and 2b). Example 2a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, f i r s t movement, mm. 57-58. Example 2b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , f i r s t movement, mm. 50-51, —! (R> — j — / " I — The use of the l o w - r e g i s t e r of the instrument f o r harmonic f i g u r a t i o n (Examples 3a and 3b), the bold use of t r i a d s over an extended range (Examples 4a and 4b), a l l echo devices used by Mozart Christmann, Concerto i n E - f l a t by K a r l Stamitz, Preface. 8 Example 3a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, f i r s t movement ,_mm.__l 34-135. 3f Example 3b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , f i r s t movement, mm. 105-106, — e — « J ? by" "* y • Example 4a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, f i r s t movement, m. 73. 1 Example 4b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , f i r s t movement, m. 62, "J An important melodic device i s the use of appoggiatura f i g u r e s , which occur f r e q u e n t l y i n both c o n c e r t i (Examples 5a and 5b). Example 5a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, f i r s t movement, mm. 172-173. 1/ /~s ' • ? L - • Example 5b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , f i r s t movement, mm. 83-84, "1 r — While composing t h i s concerto, Stamitz c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h Beer on the thematic m a t e r i a l and v i r t u o s o aspect of the composition. The main t e c h n i c a l problem presented by t h i s work i s that of sheer breath support needed f o r the long passages and phrases. As w i t h other Stamitz con-c e r t i , the f i r s t movement here i s the most extensive and s u b s t a n t i a l of the three. In common w i t h most eighteenth century composers, Stamitz d i d not provide a cadenza; i n s t e a d he urged the s o l o i s t to w r i t e or im-pr o v i s e one of h i s own. The t i t l e of the second movement, " S i c i l i a n o , " i s somewhat unusual as a concerto movement. The Harvard D i c t i o n a r y of Music d e f i n e s a S i c i l i a n o as a 17th- and 18th-century dance of S i c i l i a n o r i g i n , i n very 6 12 moderate R or „ meter, u s u a l l y w i t h a f l o w i n g broken-chord accompani-10 12 ment and a s o f t , l y r i c a l melody with dotted rhythms. A l l these fea-tures are presented i n t h i s work. Of i n t e r e s t i n the second movement, as w e l l as the others, are the ornaments, which are of the s t i l e galant school, i n which ornamentation i s added to the melodic l i n e , as opposed to the ornamental method of the empfindsamer school, i n which i t i s an e s s e n t i a l component of the l i n e . Other than the t r i l l s , the ornaments of p a r t i c u l a r importance are the appoggiatura, the acciaccatura, and the s l i d e . The appoggiatura i s i n d i -cated by a small quarter or eighth note appearing j u s t before the p r i n -c i p a l note to which i t i s connected by a s l u r . The i n t e r v a l between i t and the p r i n c i p a l note i s always a second; t h i s embellishment i s per-formed by taking a minimum of one-half the value of the p r i n c i p a l note and placing i t on the beat. By w r i t i n g an appoggiatura a composer was able to use a note foreign to the chord without disrupting the harmonic t r a d i t i o n of the time. The acciaccatura i s written as an appoggiatura with an oblique l i n e through the stem and hook of the eighth note. In performance i t i s customary to place t h i s grace note s l i g h t l y before the beat i n which the p r i n c i p a l note occurs. F i n a l l y , the s l i d e , a rather rare ornament, consists of two or more grace notes preceding the p r i n -c i p a l note. These appoggiatura-like notes are reproduced as t h i r t y -second notes, and the remaining time i s taken by the p r i n c i p a l note. Performers should be c a r e f u l , however, because there i s considerable freedom i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of ornaments and experts disagree as to Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed., s.v. " S i c i l i a n a . " how they were f i r s t performed. The f i n a l movement, Rondo, i n g meter, i s l i v e l y , c o n s i s t i n g of r a p i d s c a l e and arpeggiated f i g u r a t i o n . As i n the other movements, a l l melodic i n t e r e s t l i e s p r i m a r i l y i n the c l a r i o n r e g i s t e r . The theme, r e c u r r i n g throughout, i s h o r n - l i k e , evoking the mood of a hunting scene. Pick-up notes and repeated notes, as i n the Mozart Concerto i n A, are a fe a t u r e of t h i s theme (Examples 6a and 6b). Example 6a. W. A. Mozart, Concerto i n A, t h i r d movement, mm. 1-4. Example 6b. K. Stamitz, Concerto i n E - f l a t , t h i r d movement, mm. 1-4. —9 7 : r " r * — p <- 0 -- j>- -r * 0 # f i-_klL_°_ The Stamitz Concerto No. 11 i n E - f l a t i s h a r d l y a masterpiece, but i t i s a charming and f l u e n t example of the t y p i c a l instrumental compo-s i t i o n of h i s time, possessing a melodic grace that i s most p l e a s i n g to the l i s t e n e r . I t i s a sound musical work of the Mannheim School, and, Kenneth Bray, For Young Musicians, v o l . 2 (Waterloo: Waterloo Music, 1967), pp. 78-83. l i k e Stamitz's other c o n c e r t i , i s a s i g n i f i c a n t , pioneer work i n the c l a r i n e t r e p e r t o i r e . 13 CHAPTER I I I Charles Lefebvre's F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to woodwind l i t e r a t u r e have been made by French composers. This i s , i n p a r t , a t t r i b u t a b l e to the P a r i s Conserva-t o r y (more a c c u r a t e l y , the Conservatoire N a t i o n a l Superieur de Musique), which since the e a r l y 19th century, has been one of the c e n t r a l t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r composers and performers i n Europe. Each year French works are used as contest pieces f o r the f i n a l performance examinations: The c u l m i n a t i o n of a student's study at the P a r i s N a t i o n a l Conservatory i s an attempt to win a Premier  P r i x ( F i r s t P r i z e ) w i t h the l i m i t of f i v e years time or before reaching the maximum age. These annual com-p e t i t i v e examinations are an e s s e n t i a l part of the cur r i c u l u m f o r a l l instruments. The student has one month to memorize the r e q u i r e d s o l o , which i s c a l l e d a " s o l o de concours" or "morceau de concours", and the competition i s open to the p u b l i c . The j u r y c o n s i s t s of the l e a d i n g a r t i s t s and the composer of the year's s o l o . A f t e r q u a l i f y i n g i n Solfege ( s i g h t - s i n g i n g , w h i l e conducting), M u s i c a l A n a l y s i s and Sight-reading w i t h the instrument, a student i s permitted to per-form the f i n a l c o m p e t i t i o n . x According to George Wain, winning a F i r s t P r i z e c a r r i e s tremendous pres-2 t i g e and a s s i s t s the winner i n a t t a i n i n g a f u t u r e o r c h e s t r a l p o s i t i o n . Harry R. Gee, C l a r i n e t Solos de Concours, 1897-1980 (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1981), p. 1. George Wain, "Conservatoire N a t i o n a l de P a r i s , " The Instrumen- t a l i s t X I I (September 1957), 99. 14 F i r s t P r i z e winners i n c l a r i n e t have included C y r i l l e Rose, Paul Jeanjean, Louise Cahuzac, Henri Lefebvre, Gaston Hamelin, Augustin Duques, and D a n i e l Bonade. Before 1897 works of the standard c l a r i n e t r e p e r t o i r e , such as Weber's c o n c e r t i were used as contest p i e c e s , but s i n c e that date composers have been s p e c i a l l y commissioned to w r i t e them. Many of these composers— Debussy, Tomasi, Milhaud, Widor, and F r a n c a i x — h a v e gained i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the composers of the examination solos d e d i -cate t h e i r pieces to the current p r o f e s s o r s . Prosp&re Mimart, f o r ex-ample, c l a r i n e t p r o f e s s o r at the P a r i s Conservatory from 1905-1918, was 3 the dedicatee of Debussy's 1910 contest p i e c e , Premiere Rhapsodie. This work has become a s t a p l e of the c l a r i n e t r e p e r t o i r e , and i s among i t s most f r e q u e n t l y performed and recorded p i e c e s . Solos w r i t t e n between 1887 and 1918 r e f l e c t the t a s t e s of the o p e r a t i c and v o c a l composers Weber, Hann, Messager, Mouguet, Rabaud, and Coquard. In the previous century c l a r i n e t a r t i s t r y emphasized t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t y and b r i l l i a n c e , f o r example Joseph Beer's r e n d i t i o n of Stamitz's Concerto; the newer works, however, are noted p r i m a r i l y f o r e x p l o i t i n g the expressive q u a l i t i e s of the c l a r i n e t , w i t h b e a u t i f u l l y r i c passages emphasizing tone q u a l i t y and s t y l e . The second h a l f of each solo u s u a l -l y s t r e s s e s staccato and/or t e c h n i c a l d e x t e r i t y . Even more recent s o l o s , d a t i n g from the 1950's, s t r e s s d i f f i c u l t t e c h n i c a l and musical demands w e l l beyond the a b i l i t i e s of younger students and amateurs. Mimart gave the f i r s t p u b l i c performance w i t h piano accompani-ment on January 16, 1911. 15 One of the e a r l i e r commissioned contest pieces f o r c l a r i n e t i s F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e by Charles Lefebvre (1843-1917). I t was used i n 1905, 1915, and 1916 as the examination p i e c e . Current sources provide l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h i s French composer, though i t i s known that he won the P a r i s Conservatory's coveted P r i x de Rome i n 1870 f o r h i s cantata Le judgement de Dieu. Although h i g h l y regarded by the French c r i t i c s d uring the l a t e 19th century, he was not as accomplished as the l e a d i n g French composers of the time. In a d d i t i o n to h i s compositional s k i l l s , he taught the ensemble c l a s s at the P a r i s Conservatory. F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e i s a short l y r i c a l work w i t h the t e c h n i c a l de-mands based l a r g e l y on d i a t o n i c harmony and few notes i n the a l t i s s i m o r e g i s t e r . As i t s t i t l e suggests, the work i s i n a f r e e form. I n t e r e s t l i e s almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n the c l a r i n e t p a r t , w i t h the piano accompanying i n chordal f i g u r a t i o n s . The beginning, l a b e l l e d Poco l a r g o , i s of markedly improvisatory character w i t h the runs spanning the e n t i r e com-pass of the instrument. The theme i s angular, covering a wide range (Example 7). Example 7. C. Lefebvre, F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e , mm. 2-4. 16 Of p a r t i c u l a r importance i s the opening four-note motif i n the c l a r i n e t , which pervades the e n t i r e work i n v a r y i n g guises (Example 7). In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , at a f a s t e r tempo ( A l l e g r o ) , the motif appears w i t h the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of duple and t r i p l e t rhythms (Example 8 ) . Example 8. C. Lefebvre, F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e , mm. 30-34. Next i s a c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n that i s l y r i c a l and very e x p r e s s i v e . The f i n a l e (Moderato), i n g meter, i s a f l o r i d p r e s e n t a t i o n of the motif (Example 9 ) . Example 9. C. Lefebvre, F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e , mm. 134-137. L i k e many other French contest p i e c e s , t h i s work ends w i t h a f l o u r i s h . Though a l i g h t work, and not as s e r i o u s or as w e l l composed as Debussy's e x c e p t i o n a l Premiere Rhapsodie, F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e i s repre-s e n t a t i v e of the examination requirements and compositional s t y l e of t h i s p e r i o d of the P a r i s Conservatory. 17 CHAPTER IV Johannes Brahms' Sonata i n E - f l a t Major, Op. 120, No. 2 When Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) sent the manuscript of h i s G Major  S t r i n g Quintet to h i s p u b l i s h e r , Simrock, i n 1890, he inc l u d e d a note saying, "The time has now come f o r you to say goodbye to any f u r t h e r compositions of mine." His doctor reported that Brahms " r e j e c t s the idea that he i s composing or w i l l ever compose again.""'" At f i f t y - s e v e n years o l d , Brahms had resolved to r e t i r e from composing music. Many of h i s l i f e - l o n g companions were already dead and the composer f e l t deserted and l o n e l y . I n c e n t i v e was res t o r e d i n March 1891, when Brahms met the eminent c l a r i n e t i s t of the Meiningen Orchestra, Richard M u h l f e l d . At t h i s time the Meiningen was one of the l e a d i n g o r c h e s t r a l ensembles i n Europe and had toured w i t h Brahms, i n a d d i t i o n to premiering s e v e r a l of h i s most important works. Muhlfeld had j o i n e d the o r c h e s t r a i n 1873 as a v i o l i n -i s t , but by 1876 he had taught him s e l f to play the c l a r i n e t so w e l l that he could assume the heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of f i r s t c l a r i n e t i s t . Accord-ing to Geoffrey R e n d a l l , t h i s change made Muhlfeld p l a y l e s s as a c l a r i n e t i s t than as a f i n e and s e n s i t i v e musician, who e x c e l l e d i n Ma r t i n B e r n s t e i n , j a c k e t notes f o r Brahms Sonatas f o r C l a r i n e t  and Piano (Decca Gold L a b e l ) . 18 2 a r t i s t i c phrasing and the f i n e r p o i n t s of s t y l e . T e c h n i c a l l y , he was no doubt i n f e r i o r to some of h i s contemporaries. Opinions of h i s tone and i n t o n a t i o n vary. Some important c r i t i c s found him d e f i c i e n t i n both; others p r a i s e d the v e l v e t q u a l i t y of h i s lower r e g i s t e r . Rendall continues that no a r t i s t has ever had a more profound i n f l u e n c e . Furthermore, h i s i n f l u e n c e was s a l u t a r y i n s t r e s s i n g the importance of musicianship and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n over b r i l l i a n c e of technique and showy 3 execution. Brahms was so taken by Muhlfeld's wonderful p l a y i n g that he soon set to work to compose two pieces f o r an idiom he had never used before i n h i s chamber music. While preparing these works, Muhlfeld gave Brahms d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s as to the t o n a l and t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t i e s of the c l a r i n e t . Brahms requested that M i i h l f e l d p l a y the e n t i r e c l a r i n e t reper-t o i r e f o r him, and repeatedly asked f o r the Mozart Quintet K. 581 and Weber Concertos. As a r e s u l t of h i s e f f o r t s , Brahms' C l a r i n e t T r i o Op. 114 and C l a r i n e t Quintet Op. 115 were premiered w i t h M i i h l f e l d i n December 1891. Both works were w e l l r e c e i v e d , and the "Adagio" from the Quintet was replayed as an encore. The C l a r i n e t Quintet i s r e -garded as one of Brahms' greatest masterpieces. Three years l a t e r , i n J u l y 1894, Brahms composed, f o r h i s own ple a s u r e , two Sonatas f o r C l a r i n e t and Piano. I t was not u n t i l Septem-2 Geoffrey R e n d a l l , The C l a r i n e t (London: Ernest Benn, 1971), p. 113. 3 I b i d . 19 ber of that year that he made any mention of them to Muhlfeld. Brahms' own p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f i r s t performance of these works demonstrates how highly he regarded them. They seemed to give him a new lease on l i f e , for i n 1895 an extensive tour was arranged for himself and Muhlfeld to perform these works.^ Muhlfeld's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these works was so f a s c i n a t i n g that Brahms claimed that they were to be played by "piano and, Muhlfeld." 5 When one hears these works, i t i s evident that Muhlfeld's l y r i c a l , luminous s t y l e had profound influence on Brahms' c l a r i n e t w r i t i n g . I t has been said that at t h i s time Brahms' compo-s i t i o n s displayed a mood of r e f l e c t i v e , mildly melancholic l y r i c i s m to which Muhlfeld's s t y l e was unusually apt. A l t e r n a t i v e versions of these sonatas were arranged by the composer for v i o l i n and v i o l a . 7 The two sonatas o f f e r quite a contrast. The f i r s t , i n F minor, i s Kathleen Dale, Brahms (London: C l i v e Bingley, 1970), p. 50. 5 Brahms' feeli n g s for Muhlfeld manifested themselves i n two a f f e c t i o n a t e nicknames—"My dear Nightingale" and " F r a u l e i n K l a r i n e t t e . " A d d i t i o n a l evidence of the f a s c i n a t i o n exercised upon l i s t e n e r s by the playing of t h i s celebrated c l a r i n e t i s t i s afforded by the p o r t r a i t s of him by two famous painters, A. E. F. Menzel and Pierre-Auguste Renoire. ^ Burnett James, jacket notes for Brahms The Two C l a r i n e t Sonatas, Op. 120 (Seraphim S-60302). 7 The v i o l i n arrangement i s v i r t u a l l y never heard, for i t loses much of the music's uniqueness and, i n addition, c a l l s for changes i n the keyboard part. On the contrary, the v i o l a version was a welcomed addit i o n to the v i o l a r e p e r t o i r e , which i s s t i l l today very l i m i t e d . 20 predominantly the more passionate of the two, whereas the second, i n g E - f l a t major, i s of greater intimacy of expression. Andrew Kenner, a Brahms s c h o l a r , s t a t e s that i n the E - f l a t Sonata, "the opening move-ment possesses a r e l a x e d , clear-eyed s i m p l i c i t y of great poetry and s e r e n i t y — a n d , perhaps most apparently, an impression of continuous 9 f l o w i n g i n v e n t i o n . " This " r e l a x e d , clear-eyed s i m p l i c i t y " as w e l l as the " m i l d l y melancholic l y r i c i s m , " which was mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , are both apparent immediately as the f i r s t theme i s heard (mm. 1-8). A l -though the f i r s t movement i s i n sonata form, the e x p o s i t i o n , development, and r e c a p i t u l a t i o n are not s e c t i o n a l i z e d by doubled bars because of the "continuously f l o w i n g i n v e n t i o n . " The development, which begins w i t h an e l a b o r a t i o n of the opening theme, i s approached by a s e r i e s of r i s i n g octaves a l t e r n a t i n g between piano and c l a r i n e t , making f o r a gentle t r a n s i t i o n (mm. 48-52). The second theme, l i k e the f i r s t , i s long-breathed, a r t f u l l y l e n d -in g a supple movement to the piano's q u i e t , r e g u l a r accompaniment. I t i s gently r e f l e c t i v e and f o r a few bars canonic; the piano i m i t a t e s the c l a r i n e t one beat l a t e r (mm. 22-29). E s s e n t i a l l y , these two themes are not d i f f e r e n t i n character. Contrast i n t h i s e x p o s i t i o n i s achieved by way of i t s a s s e r t i v e b r i d g e s . Q Andrew Keener, j a c k e t notes f o r Brahms: The 2 C l a r i n e t Sonatas, Op. 120 (Chandos ABR 1020) . 9 I b i d . 10 -I-. • j I b i d . The f i r s t b r i d g e , which leads from the f i r s t to the second theme, not only shows t h i s a s s e r t i v e n e s s , but a l s o i s an example of a Brahms " n a t u r a l r i t a r d . " Instead of w r i t i n g r i t ardando i n the score, Brahms chose to lengthen the note values g r a d u a l l y g i v i n g the same e f f e c t as a ritardando (mm. 15-21). Cross r h y t h m s — t r i p l e t s against p a i r s of e i g h t h n o t e s — a r e another feature of t h i s movement. They f i r s t appear i n the e x p o s i t i o n i n measures 36-39, as another a s s e r t i v e bridge l e a d i n g to the t h i r d theme. These become e s p e c i a l l y prominent i n the development i n measures 74-87, an extensive s e c t i o n employing the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of t r i p l e t s against duples. In the development, a fragment of the opening theme appears throughout and takes on a darker, intense c o l o r as i t i s t r e a t e d se-q u e n t i a l l y , before easing i t s e l f i n t o the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , where the opening theme i s now c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t r i p l e t accompaniment (mm. 88-103)."'""'' The t r i p l e t s continue to undergo transformation as Brahms introduces them i n t o the s e r e n i t y of the coda (mm. 150-173). This coda begins i n the same way as the development d i d , preceded by r i s i n g octaves. An unusual fe a t u r e of the second movement i s that i n s t e a d of being a slow movement i t i s an a l l e g r o , l i k e the f i r s t . Contrast i s achieved by various means: changing the t o n a l i t y from E - f l a t major to E - f l a t minor; changing the meter from duple to t r i p l e ; and changing the mood from p l a c i d to impassioned, as represented by the composer's q u a l i f y i n g 11 TT,-,, Ibid. 22 terms, amabile and appassionato r e s p e c t i v e l y . The second movement, though s t i l l " A l l e g r o , " i s r e a l l y quicker than the f i r s t . This move-ment i s i n ABA form, w i t h the B s e c t i o n as a T r i o . Emotional i n t e r e s t i s immediately aroused when the c l a r i n e t plunges i n t o the s p i r i t of the f i r s t subject at the opening bar, followed by the piano, i n s p e l l s of e i g h t bars each. The scheme of the f i r s t s e c t i o n appears to be to f o l l o w t h i s subject twice w i t h two a u x i l i a r y m o t i f s ; 12 on the second occasion new m o t i f s are introduced. By t h i s time four m o t i f s have appeared, p r o v i d i n g f o r the r e s t l e s s n e s s of t h i s s e c t i o n as 13 compared w i t h the T r i o , which has only one s u b j e c t . Contrast i n t h i s movement i s provided by the appearance of a second subject i n the B s e c t i o n , cast i n the subdominant of the r e l a t i v e major key, B. The subject i s f i r s t s t a t e d by the piano w i t h lower oc-taves and f u l l chord harmony. Here, Brahms i s s u c c e s s f u l i n t r e a t i n g the piano o r c h e s t r a l l y , as he r e q u i r e s maximum t o n a l q u a n t i t y and s o n o r i t y from the instrument. Free from syncopation or other d i s p l a c e -ments of the n a t u r a l accent, as w e l l as from the b a r - s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o s i x eighth-notes, t h i s c a n t a b i l e s e c t i o n suddenly reaches the impassioned q u a l i t y of the A s e c t i o n i n measure 126, when a l l these missing features The f i r s t motif begins i n measure 17 and the second i n measure 27. A f t e r another statement of the s u b j e c t , m o t i f s three and four appear i n measures 49 and 66 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Edwin Evans, Chamber and O r c h e s t r a l Music of Johannes Brahms, v o l . 2 (New York: Burt F r a n k l i n , 1970), pp. 326-327. are s u p p l i e d . A f t e r a four bar bridge and a two bar announcement of the coming theme, the A s e c t i o n r e t u r n s . This i s the same as the open-in g s e c t i o n w i t h the a d d i t i o n of a f i n a l cadence. The F i n a l e , l i k e that of Brahms' and Mozart's C l a r i n e t Q u i n t e t s , i s a set of v a r i a t i o n s . The theme i s d e l i g h t f u l l y f o l k l i k e . The f i r s t four v a r i a t i o n s are i n the "Andante" tempo of the theme i n f time. o However, the note values and character of each v a r i a t i o n l e a d q u i t e e a s i l y to s u b t l e changes of tempo. In the minor f i f t h v a r i a t i o n , the 2 meter i s changed to ^ and the tempo i s f a s t e r , " A l l e g r o . " The f i r s t four bars of each v a r i a t i o n are repeated, though w r i t t e n out i n f u l l , as f i r s t one instrument then the other p l a y s the melody. In i t s i n i t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h i s theme ends w i t h a seemingly innocuous l i t t l e f i g u r e , harmonized i n g e n i o u s l y as an imperfect cadence on i t s f i r s t appearance, and t r e a t e d as a f u l l c l o s e at the end of each v a r i a -t i o n . Brahms' development of t h i s cadence as the v a r i a t i o n s progress i s r i c h l y i m a g i n a t i v e , nowhere more so than w i t h h i s use of i t as the doorway to the P u i t r a n q u i l l o coda, which f o l l o w s the r e s t l e s s , minor-key f i f t h v a r i a t i o n . This coda i s the heart of the movement, where theme and cadence f i g u r e are combined before reaching a dashing, trium-phant conclusion.''" 5 The wide appeal of t h i s work and i t s companion (Op. 120, No. 1 ) , among c l a r i n e t i s t s , v i o l i s t s , and audiences, helps the l i s t e n e r to I b i d . , pp. 328-329. Keener, j a c k e t notes to Brahms: The 2 C l a r i n e t Sonatas, Op. 120. 24 understand how Brahms was further i n s p i r e d to continue h i s endeavors as a composer. 25 APPENDIX THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC R e c i t a l H a l l Monday, June 6, 1983 8:00 p.m. *GRADUATE LECTURE-RECITAL Karem J . Simon, clarinet a s s i s t e d by Terence Dawson, -piano C a p r i c c i o Concerto i n E - f l a t Major Allegro Siciliano Rondeau F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e Charles Lefebvre (1843-1917) - INTERMISSION -Sonata i n E - f l a t Major, Op. 120, No. 2 Johannes Brahms Allegro amabile (1833 1897) Appassionato 3 ma non troppo Allegro Andante con moto H. Sutermeister (b. 1910) K a r l Stamitz (1745-1801) *In p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Doctorate of Mu s i c a l A r t s degree w i t h a major i n C l a r i n e t Performance. 26 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY C a p r i c c i o — H e i n r i c h Sutermeister: DeColo, Ted. Music For The C l a r i n e t - w i t h Theodore DeColo, c l a r i n e t ; Kun Koo P a i k , piano. Harlequin Records #3806, 1973. The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and Musicians, 6th ed. S.v. "Sutermeister, H e i n r i c h . " Swiss Composers' League. 40 Contemporary Swiss Composers. Z u r i c h : Bodensee-Verlag A m r i s w i l , 1956. Concerto i n E - f l a t M a j o r — K a r l Stamitz: Bray, Ken. For Young Musicians. V o l . 2. Waterloo: Waterloo Music, 1967. Christmann, Arthur H., ed. Concerto i n E - f l a t by K a r l Stamitz. New York: G. Schirmer, 1968. Harvard D i c t i o n a r y of Music. 2nd ed. S.v. " S i c i l i a n a . " K r o l l , Oskar. The C l a r i n e t . London: B. T. B a t s f o r d , 1968. Ludewig, E l s a . "Eighteenth Century C l a r i n e t Music." In Woodwind  Anthology 1980 (November 1964), 507. The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and Musicians. 6th ed. S.v. "Stamitz, K a r l . " R e n d a l l , F. Geoffrey. The C l a r i n e t . London: Ernest Benn, 1971. Weston, Pamela. C l a r i n e t V i r t u o s i of the Past. Great B r i t a i n : N o v e l l o , 1971. 27 F a n t a i s i e - C a p r i c e — - C h a r l e s Lefebvre: Gee, Harry R. C l a r i n e t Solos de Concours. Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1981. The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and Musicians. 6th ed. S.v. "Lefebvre, Charles." P a u l , Jean-Marie. " C l a r i n e t and Piano In France: Eighty Years of Music - 1860-1940." In The C l a r i n e t 8 (Spring 1981), 14-18, and (Summer 1981), 36-38. Wain, George. "Conservatoire N a t i o n a l de P a r i s . " In The I n s t r u - m e n t a l i s t X I I (September 1957), 99. Sonata Op. 120, No. 2—Johannes Brahms: Anderson, W. R. I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Music of Brahms. London: Dennis Dobson L t d . , 1949. B e r n s t e i n , M a r t i n . Brahms Sonatas f o r C l a r i n e t and Piano Op. 120 - w i t h Reginal K e i l , c l a r i n e t ; J o e l Rosen, piano. Decca Gold Lable. Cobbett's Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music. 2nd ed. S.v. "Brahms, Johannes," by Donald F. Tovey. Dale, Kathleen. Brahms. London: C l i v e B i n g l e y , 1970. Evans, Edwin. Chamber And O r c h e s t r a l Music Of Johannes Brahms. V o l . 2. New York: Burt F r a n k l i n , 1970. Fan, Paula. "The Unashamed, Unabashed C l a r i n e t i s t ' s Accompanist and the Brahms' Sonatas - P a r t I . " In The C l a r i n e t 9 (Summer 1982), 22-25. G e i r i n g e r , K a r l . Brahms His L i f e and Work. London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1948. James, Burnett. Brahms: A C r i t i c a l Study. London: J . M. Dent and Sons L t d . , 1972. . Brahms The Two C l a r i n e t Sonatas, Op. 120 - w i t h Gervase de Peyer, c l a r i n e t ; D a n i e l Barenboim, piano. Seraphim #S-6032, 1977. 28 Keener, Andrew. Brahms; The 2 C l a r i n e t Sonatas, Op. 120 - w i t h Janet H i l t o n , c l a r i n e t ; Peter F r a n k l , piano. Chandos ABR 1020, 1981. K r o l l , Oskar. The C l a r i n e t . London: B. T. B a t s f o r d , 1968. Latham, Peter. Brahms. London: J . M. Dent and Sons L t d . , 1962. May, Florence. The L i f e Of Johannes Brahms. 2 v o l s . London: Edward Ar n o l d , 1905. Niemann, Walter. Brahms. New York: Tudor P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1945. R e n d a l l , F. Geoffrey. The C l a r i n e t . London: Ernest Benn, 1971. S c h a u f f l e r , Robert Haven. The Unknown Brahms. Westport: Gordon Press, 1972. Severin, C h r i s . "The Piano And I t s Role In The C l a r i n e t Reper-t o i r e . " In The C l a r i n e t 8 ( F a l l 1980), 54-55. Specht, Richard. Johannes Brahms. Translated by E r i c Bloom. London: J . M. Dent and Sons L t d . , 1930. U l r i c h , Homer. Chamber Music. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966. Weston, Pamela. C l a r i n e t V i r t u o s i of the Past. Great B r i t a i n : N o v e l l o , 1971. 

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