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Program planning in the Ethiopian extension service : its evolution and structure Mandefrot, Kefyalew 1986

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c. PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ETHIOPIAN EXTENSION SERVICE: ITS EVOLUTION AND STRUCTURE by KEFYALEW MANDEFROT B.Sc,  A d d i s Ababa U n i v e r s i t y ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED  1977  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension) in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t s o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t And H i g h e r and P l a n t S c i e n c e )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA APRIL ©  1986  Kefyalew Mandefrot,  1986  Education  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and study.  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood t h a t  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  r>T_ £  to /no, \  Iti s  Columbia  written  'ii  ABSTRACT This study structure  in  Agricultural funding  examined the program p l a n n i n g mechanism Ethiopian  extension  agencies  development.  services  as  process  with  a  of  was  The  and  k n o w l e d g e and  skills,  g o a l was  as  an  to  and  of  to enable  rural  utilizing  certain  spirit  and  out-of-school  with r u r a l people  techniques  distinctive  makers  alternatives  defined  mutual respect. use  the  of working  teaching  extension.  s e e n by most p o l i c y  one  Extension  educational particular  was  agricultural  and  supporting  cooperation  people  to  and  acquire  i n f o r m a t i o n t o improve  their  lives. In history 1980  order  to  achieve  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  was  reviewed  e x t e n s i o n program Following  the  t h e o b j e c t i v e of t h e s t u d y ,  extension  and  the o r i g i n ,  planning  in  historical  p l a n n i n g models  relevant  provided.  study,  The  identified  analysis are  mechanism, m e c h a n i s m was  of  t r e n d s and  Ethiopia  analysis, to  discussed.  review  agricultural  to  problems i n  were  a  1952  of  program  extension  was  a f t e r p r e s e n t i n g an e x a m i n a t i o n  t h e program p l a n n i n g mechanism critical  i n E t h i o p i a from  the  in  Ethiopia,  major problems.  related  coordination  to and  i d e n t i f i e d based  the  The  basic  conducted major  program  training.  An  on  basic  Sork's  of a  problems planning  alternative planning  model. A summary was were  discussed  given.  Major c o n c l u s i o n s of  i n terms of program p l a n n i n g ,  the  study  particularly  with  respect  t o a n a l y s i s of t h e p l a n n i n g  system, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g , programs r e q u i r e d  for effective  The s t u d y r e v e a l e d extension was  program p l a n n i n g  suggested that  Ethiopian  several  i f  agricultural  coordination extension  planning and  Increasing  weaknesses  production  education.  are  sector  of e d u c a t i o n a l  —  programming  activities extension  It  eliminated,  — and t h e q u a l i t y  the  a s means o f i m p r o v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l Ethiopia.  training  of  were  life  could  c o l l a b o r a t i o n between a g e n c i e s ,  of programs, a l t e r i n g  better timing  and  used i n E t h i o p i a .  o f t h o s e d e p e n d e n t on t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l improved.  and c l i e n t  important weaknesses i n t h e  mechanism  these  context  be  joint  sequence, suggested  services  in  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT L I S T OF ABBREVIATIONS L I S T OF TABLES L I S T OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  i i v i i viii ix xi  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  1  Background  1  Statement  Statement of t h e Problem Purpose and O b j e c t i v e s  7  of t h e Study  R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s t o be A n s w e r e d  13 .......14  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms t o be U s e d Agricultural  15  extension  15  Nonformal Education  16  Program  17  Program  development  17 18  Coordination Organization  of t h e Remaining Chapters  19  CHAPTER TWO: A HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION I N ETHIOPIA 1952 TO 1980  20  Agricultural  Extension  From 1952 t o 1 966  20  Agricultural  Extension  From 1967 t o 1980  22  The  Comprehensive  Package  The Minimum P a c k a g e  Programs  Program  O b j e c t i v e s and s t r a t e g y  22 24 25  The EPID e x t e n s i o n a p p r o a c h 29 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .31  V  Extension Agencies  Organizations'  Relations  With  Other 40  International National  level  level  linkage  42  linkages  General Obervations: Opportunities  43  Problems,  Trends  and  Summary  46  CHAPTER THREE: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON PROGRAM PLANNING MODELS AND.PRINCIPLES Role of Extension  Program  Planning  in  Assessment of Program P l a n n i n g Sork's Basic Pesson  44  Planning  Agricultural ..........48  Models  Model  48  (n.d.)  (1966)  53 58 62  U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a (1975)  64  Boyle  66  (1981)  Boone, D o l a n , and Shearon S i m i l a r i t i e s and D i f f e r e n c e s Models Evaluation  of the Models  (1971) i n t h e Programming  67 68 71  S e l e c t i o n of Models  77  Summary  80  vi  CHAPTER FOUR: A C R I T I C A L ANALYSIS OF PLANNING AND COORDINATION  81  P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g From 1952 t o 1966  81  P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g From 1967 t o 1980 Program Planning Practice in Projects  82  Program P l a n n i n g Coordination  Comprehensive  i n Minimum P a c k a g e P r o g r a m s  i n Ethiopian Extension  82  ....90 95  Major I s s u e s and Problems  100  Summary  . ....... 1 02  CHAPTER F I V E : A PROPOSED ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY  104  The Need f o r an A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g y  104  Assumptions of the A l t e r n a t i v e Strategy  108  A n a l y s i s of P l a n n i n g Context and C l i e n t  System  111  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P l a n n i n g and C o o r d i n a t i o n  115  Development  121  of T r a i n i n g Programs  Summary  126  CHAPTER S I X : SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..130 Conclusions  138  Recommendations  140  REFERENCES  146  vi i  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  ADP CADU CSO EPID IBRD IAR MCD MOA MPP MPPA PMGSE RRC SIDA UNDP UNECA WADU  Ada D e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t Central S t a t i s t i c a l Office - Ethiopia E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Implementation Department International Bank of Reconstruction and Development I n s t i t u t e of A g r i c u l t u r a l Research M i n i s t r y o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e Minimum P a c k a g e P r o g r a m s Minimum P a c k a g e P r o g r a m A r e a s Provincial Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia R e l i e f and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Commission Swedish I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e v e l o p m e n t Programme U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic Commission f o r A f r i c a ' Wolamo A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t U n i t  vi ii  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1.  The 12 M a j o r C a t t l e C o u n t r i e s o f t h e W o r l d  2.  Livestock Population  3.  Number o f T r a c t o r s a n d H a r v e s t e r s Three A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s  4.  Percentage o f E x p e n d i t u r e 1960 t o 1966 on Government M i n i s t r i e s i n E t h i o p i a .  10  5.  Percentage o f Government Expenditure A g r i c u l t u r e o f Some A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s  10  6.  The D i f f e r e n c e Between t h e Annual Budget and A c t u a l R e c e i p t s o f F u n d s by Institute of A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h  11  7.  Summary o f P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g  59  8.  List of Questions f o r A n a l y s i s of Planning Context and C l i e n t System Participant/ Program C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  in Ethiopia  ..... 4  4  i n Use i n  on  Steps  6  114  ix  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.  The Spatial Network Program Areas  of  Minimum  2.  Organization of Agricultural Service in Ethiopia  3.  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Chart of A g r i c u l t u r e i n 1 972 ..  4.  Orgranizational Chart of P r o j e c t and Implementation  the  Package  Extension  Ministry  of  28  33  36  the Extension Department of  the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e  38  5.  P r e s e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n of EPID  41  6.  Sork's B a s i c P l a n n i n g Model  60  7.  The E x t e n s i o n P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t P r o c e s s  63  8.  Minnesota Process  65  9.  Programming i n t h e C o o p e r a t i v e S e r v i c e : A C o n c e p t u a l Schema  Extension  Program  Development  Extension  69  X  10.  11.  12.  Basic Economic Developmental Strategy U t i l i z e d by t h e CADU P r o j e c t in Chilalo Awraja  85  C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t of O p e r a t i o n  88  A Summary o f W o r l d A p p r o a c h e s t o and R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t  Model  Extension  93  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Two  people  have  contributed  s u c c e s s f u l completion of t h i s B e a t t y Kembel f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l and moral  significantly  study.  critical  I  thank  to the Vern  and  a d v i c e , encouragement, and  s u p p o r t w h i c h made t h i s  study  possible.  T h i s work i s d e d i c a t e d t o them. A vote of thanks Dr. Robert  goes  J . Copeman.  have i l l u m i n a t e d t h i s wishes  t o D r . James Their  study.  insight Above  F. R i c h a r d s a n d and understanding  a l l this  researcher  t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o an o u s t a n d i n g  s c h o l a r a n d t e a c h e r , P r o f e s s o r Thomas S o r k , whose and  guidance  made  this  experiences  were  of  generousity  i n time  study  possible.  immeasurable  The r e s u l t a n t  personal  and enthusiasm  patience  value.  f o r the study  His was  greatly appreciated. Lastly,  I  would  Johanson f o r i n s p i r i n g study.  My  thanks  like  my i n t i t i a l  go  Mr.  Bruce M c G i l l i v r a y  and  typing of t h i s  t o thank  also  fortheir  manuscript.  L a r s and Margereta  interest  i nt h i s area of  t o M r s . C a r m e l Chambers a n d assistance i n the  editing  1  CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION  Background Statement Ethiopia occupying of  i s a  over  Africa.  land  of  1.22 m i l l i o n  about  31  T h i s a n c i e n t c o u n t r y c o n t a i n s some o f t h e most  topography  trade,  communication  The According 1981)  only  and  a  result isolated other  of  this  topography,  from t h e mainstream o f  international  relations  country has a l a r g e area to  of  cultivateable  t h e Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l  hectares  Africa  Guide  (1984),  there  society  The  rest  and f o r e s t .  i s b a s i c a l l y an a g r i c u l t u r a l and p a s t o r i a l  (Amare,  1978;  dominates E t h i o p i a n l i f e progress  a r e 120  (ha) o f a r a b l e l a n d i n E t h i o p i a , o f which  i n c l u d e s permanent p a s t u r e , w a s t e l a n d , country  land.  O r g a n i z a t i o n (FAO,  13 m i l l i o n a r e c u r r e n t l y u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n .  The  world.  f o r the d i f f u s i o n of technology.  and a recent  million  As  was s u b s t a n t i a l l y  important  i n the  c o n s i s t s of highlands w i t h vast d i s s e c t e d ,  rugged h i g h p l a t e a u s . Ethiopia  people  square k i l o m e t r e s i n t h e horn  mountainous and p h y s i c a l l y d i v e r s e t e r r a i n Its  million  c a n be  Westphal,  Agriculture  t o the extent that l i t t l e material  made u n l e s s  production areachieved.  1974).  More  improvements i n a g r i c u l t u r a l than  85  percent  of the  2  p o p u l a t i o n d e p e n d s on a g r i c u l t u r e and e a r n s i t s from  subsistence  farming.  The  c o u n t r y e a r n s more t h a n  p e r c e n t of i t s f o r e i g n exchange from e x p o r t i n g products  ( A f r i c a Guide,  agricultural cultivators  1984).  production who  are  livelihood 90  agricultural  N i n e t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of the  comes  from  illiterate  the  and  small  indigent  and  p e r c e n t of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i s d e r i v e d "modern" s e c t o r o f a g r i c u l t u r e , m a i n l y s t a t e  peasant seven  from  farms  the  (Reimer,  1975). Despite  the  importance of a g r i c u l t u r e  i n the l i f e  of  E t h i o p i a n s , the annual t o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n growth rate  from  1969  t o 1980  was  2.4%,  r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h w h i c h was 1981). the  In  Ethiopia,  1972,  t h e p e a s a n t r y makes up a b o u t  85% of  million  h o u s e h o l d s w i t h an a v e r a g e  hectares  (Tesfai,  1975).  time  peasantry  confirmed l i e s below  (FAO,  people,  that  per  or  about  four  farm s i z e of under  T h i s same g r o u p  of the c o u n t r y ' s l a b o u r f o r c e .  first  2.5%  lower than the 1971,  c o u n t r y ' s e s t i m a t e d 31 m i l l i o n  90%  slightly  comprises  Heimpel capita  (1973)  income  five about  f o r the of  the  150 German m a r k s a n d c o n c l u d e d t h a t a  l a r g e number o f E t h i o p i a n  farmers  live  in  a  subsistence  economy w h i c h b a r e l y p r o v i d e s them w i t h s u f f i c i e n t  food.  D e s p i t e r e c e n t improvements i n p r o d u c t i o n methods used on  the  state  owned  agricultural  inputs  example,  1971  fertilizer  in  commercial in  Ethiopia  Ethiopian  averaged around  f a r m s , t h e use o f modern  .25  is  negligible.  consumption  of  kilogram  per  For  nitrogenous hectare  of  3  farmland  (Gill,  approximately of  these  1975)  while  Ethiopia in  has  at  1  about  and  26  the  cattle  a r e Zebu t y p e .  a r e i n t h e h i g h l a n d s where t h e y  work  animals.  In  farms i s generated highlands, which  99%  of  simply digs a r u t i n  the  cattle  head  ranks Almost  primarily  h a s been l a r g e l y a Institute,  1969).  and  animals.  In the  with a traditional soil.  In  areas,  plough mainly  l o w l a n d s , where due t o t r y p a n o s o m i a s i s , o x e n o r o t h e r animals cannot primary  e i t h e r plough maize. from  s u r v i v e , a hoe o r d i g g i n g s t i c k  cultivation.  the c a p i t a l  heaps a f t e r  d e s t r o y p e s t s from of  such as Northern  c i t y — t h e muck  the f i r s t  soil  Seeding  crops  fuel  and  as  such  i s collected  p l o u g h i n g a n d s e t on f i r e  the previous crop.  f o r use as  i s used  for  as  Shoa — 45 k i l o m e t r e s  a  i s u s u a l l y done by b r o a d c a s t i n g .  into  i n order t o  Systematic  t h e l a n d i s done by r o t a t i n g cow p e n s .  collected  draft  W e e d i n g , i f done a t a l l , i s done w i t h  o r hoe i n t h e c a s e o f r o b u s t  I n some a r e a s  as  t h e power on t h e p e a s a n t  by human b e i n g s  crop land i s prepared  A  Africa.  serve  (Stanford Research over  2).  in  L i v e s t o c k r a i s i n g always  Ethiopia,  lack  About t h r e e - f i f t h s of t h e  total  subsistence a c t i v i t y  The c o m b i n e d  million  E t h i o p i a e i g h t h i n t h e w o r l d and f i r s t all  is  l i v e s t o c k p o p u l a t i o n o f any  (see Tables  estimated  average  i n low farm p r o d u c t i v t y .  the largest  Africa  population  African  20 k i l o g r a m s p e r h e c t a r e .  resources r e s u l t s  country  the  manuring  Cow dung i s a l s o  building  material.  4  Table  1: The 12 M a j o r C a t t l e C o u n t r i e s i n t h e W o r l d and A f r i c a  Million  World  Head  Africa  Million  India  176.6  Sudan  13.6  U.S.A.  114.6  Tanzania  13.3  U.S.S.R.  99. 1  South A f r i c a  12.3  Brazil  97. 1  Nigeria  11.6  China  63. 1  Madigascar  10.6  Argentina  49.8  Kenya  8.5  Pakistan  44.2  Mali  5.5  Ethiopia  26.4  Chad  4.5  Mexico  25. 1  Niger  4.4  Australia  24. 1  Uganda  4.4  France  21 .6  Rhodesia  4.0  Columbia  21.1  Total  1,141.0  Total  Head  158.0  S o u r c e : F.A.O. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . F.A.O. P r o d u c t i o n Rome: F.A.O.  Yearbook.  T a b l e 2: L i v e s t o c k P o p u l a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a Class Cattle Sheep & Goats Poultry  Numbers i n M i l l i o n s 27 41 50  Source: H a i l u (1979). A g r i c u l t u r a l Research i n E t h i o p i a . F i e l d Crops Department R e p o r t . A d d i s Ababa: I n s t i t u t e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h .  5  The  sickle,  universal  usually  reaping  with  tool  and  a  serrated  crops  are  edge,  t h r e s h e d by  t r a m p l i n g on h a r d p a c k e d e a r t h e n  threshing floors.  case  done  of  grain,  winnowing  method of t h r o w i n g  is  The  crop,  animals found  most  i n a few a r e a s .  described  is  in  detail  i n 1979.  is  by  animal not  pack  sleds are  disposed  of  by  Assefa  (1966), has  and  Eshetu  changed  technology, (1969),  little  in  Gill the  FAO  (1981b,  1977)  Table  in 150  3 indicates that while  the  entire  harvesters in  the  Sudan  has  t h r e e t i m e s a s many t r a c t o r s a s E t h i o p i a , Kenya owns l e s s than double  In  the  agricultural highland  case output  mixed  farming system development,  been d a t a and  t h e number of  of  both  farming  system,  in Ethiopia, where  farmers  passed  on  use  is  case  is  which  in  its  produce  techniques  from  Ethiopia.  production  the E t h i o p i a n  s u b s i s t e n c e n e e d s and  The  in  years.  a little  have  wind  transported  c o u n t r y t h e r e were o n l y 3900 t r a c t o r s and  nearly  the  honoured  the  This t r a d i t i o n a l agricultural  A c c o r d i n g t o the  use  oxen  the c h a f f .  Produce which  ( 1 9 7 5 ) , and H u f f n a g e l 35  the  i s s t o r e d i n e i t h e r mud-walled t h a t c h e d b i n s or  covered pits..  last  cases,  into  (donkeys or mules) a l t h o u g h crude  immediately in  in  In  by t h e t i m e  the threshed product  o r d e r t o s e p a r a t e the k e r n a l s from  is  extreme.  is  the  initial  mostly of  f a t h e r t o son  observations presented  methods  and The  dominant stage  of  for their  own  cultivation  that  for generations.  thus f a r are c o n s i s t e n t  6  Table  3: Number o f T r a c t o r s a n d H a r v e s t e r s i n Use i n T h r e e A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s  Country  Year 1969-71  1974  1975  1976  1 977  1978  1979  2858 77  3500 125  3600 1 35  3700 1 35  3750 1 40  3850 1 45  3900 150  6379 658  6195 462  6000 431  6000 440  6186  6449  6650  5043 340  8500 850  8880 900  9000 950  9300 10000 1 000 1050  Ethiopia Tractors Harvesters Kenya Tractors Harvesters  *""  Sudan Tractors Harvesters Source: with  F.A.O. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Rome: F.A.O.  1 0500 1 100  F.A.O. T r a d e Y e a r b o o k .  t h e o b s e r v a t i o n made by b o t h Amare ( 1 9 7 9 ) a n d H e i m p l e  (1973) t h a t E t h i o p i a  is a  country  relatively  primitive  traditional  subsistence farming.  implications  of  peasants  form o f a g r i c u l t u r e , s t i l l This fact  f o r the planning process  with  a  primarily  has  important  used i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  extension. Ethiopia,  as  a  centre of o r i g i n or domestication of  most a g r o n o m i c c r o p s , was o n c e s a i d t o be t h e b r e a d  basket  of  grains  the  Middle  East.  Up  to  1967  c u l t i v a t e d and produced i n  the  Ironically,  Ethiopia  source  this  i s why  country  a l l cereal were  indigenous.  h a s l o n g been a m a j o r  o f g e n e t i c d i v e r s i t y f o r many t e m p e r a t e z o n e  crops.  7  For  e x a m p l e , an  protected dwarf  Ethiopian  California  strain  barley  exported  from  to  California  the d e v a s t a t i n g  yellow  disease.  The immense a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l that Ethiopia has and that has never been exploited is the discovery o f two s t r a i n s of h i g h l y s i n e - c o n t a i n i n g sorghum i n W o l l o p r o v i n c e w h i c h c o n t a i n s one-third more p r o t e i n and t w i c e t h e l y s i n e of more commonly grown v a r i e t i e s (Brown, 1975, p. 1 6 7 ) . At  the present  i s among t h e p o o r e s t besides  having  time,  w i t h a l l her  countries  important  on  potential, Ethiopia  earth.  implications  p r o c e s s used i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n ,  These  for  facts,  the  planning  i n d i c a t e the  status  of a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n E t h i o p i a .  Statement of The  the  decline  1960s o n w a r d and a  result  Ethiopian of  of  of  t h e d e a t h of  a g r i c u l t u r e (The  likely  Ethiopia, i m p a c t were  number  of  coming  disaster  studies.  Survival:  in  Ethiopia's  published  by an  used  a  as  of  a g r i c u l t u r e from the  two  teaching  the  In his  late  m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n 1974  as  serious  problems"in  Provisional Military  Government  1980,  are  1981).  identified 1973  the  1970s  book  Conservation  Although  a i d i n any Heimple  agricultural  by  and a  L e s t e r Brown s i g n a l l e d t h e  famous Choice.  in  These problems  the  book  E t h i o p i a n u n i v e r s i t y , t h e book was  the p u b l i c a t l a r g e . study  Ethiopian  famine suggests t h e r e  Socialist  their  Problem  f a c u l t y nor (1973),  situation  for was  neither  d i s t r i b u t e d to  after  a  i n Shoa and  thorough Wollega  8  provinces, concluded  that:  Ethiopian agriculture i s therefore confronted with the problem of a f u r t h e r d e c l i n e i n per c a p i t a income - w h i c h , u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s c a n lead first t o s e a s o n a l and l a t e r p e r m a n e n t f a m i n e i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s - and, a t the same t i m e , with the problem of falling productivity of i t s r e s o u r c e s (p. 213). A  1978  report  f r o m t h e U.S.  E t h i o p i a , w a r n e d o f an b e f o r e our  e y e s ...  embassy i n A d d i s  environmental  " I t i s " , s a i d the  nightmare  Ababa,  unfolding  paper,  a result of acts of millions of Ethiopians struggling f o r s u r v i v a l s c r a t c h i n g t h e s u r f a c e of e r o d e d l a n d and e r o d i n g i t f u r t h e r , cutting down the trees f o r warmth and fuel and l e a v i n g t h e country denuded ... over one billion tons of topsoil flow from. E t h i o p i a ' s h i g h l a n d s each year ( i n B r o w n , 1984, p. 1 6 ) . The May,  r e p o r t f r o m t h e U.S.  1984  S w e d i s h Red  Ethiopian  problems  of  degradation  and  land  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , May  Cross  poor 18,  E t h i o p i a as p r o b a b l y agricultural  survey  which  focused  use  (E.  the  environmental  Larson,  personal  (1984)  identified  Hilligreen  most  on  extreme  example  poor that  h a v e been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e d u c i n g A f r i c a ' s p e r c a p i t a  food  f o r two  decades.  environmental  of  degradation  production  and  r e i n f o r c e d in the  deforestation,  1984). the  policies  embassy was  These a s s e s s m e n t s i n d i c a t e  e x t e n t t o w h i c h a g r i c u l t u r e and neglected Until  e d u c a t i o n has  been  the l a s t q u a r t e r of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  the  in Ethiopia.  whole c o u n t r y  was  its  f o r more t h a n  the  farmers'  the  isolation  as  i t had  been f o r c e n t u r i e s . 200  y e a r s , and  Because of  a l s o because  l a c k of a c o l o n i a l c o n n e c t i o n , t h e E t h i o p i a n  of  situation  9  is  essentially  Eshetu, A  unknown  to  African  scholars (Assefa  1969). survey,  conducted  d i s s e r t a t i o n s and  by  t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , of d o c t o r a l  masters theses  i n 17  i n t h e U.S.A. i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e  state  in  tenure,  development  evaluation  Most o f t h e  of  policy questions a  literature country  of  important  U.S.A.,  the  although  t h a t few more  than  economy  Ethiopia,  20 m i l l i o n peasant  E t h i o p i a n s and  some  goals  have r a i s e d education.  i n the  realize  general  that i t i s  peasant farmers.  agriculture  is  Thus i t i s i m p o r t a n t  extension  how  education.  the  service  to  main on  examine  available  to  to serve  those  programs are planned  a  Since  the peasants are the s o l e p i l l a r  w h i c h t h e economy r e s t s . agricultural  land  national  t o a g r i c u l t u r e and  rural Africanists  major  are  and  r e s u l t , E t h i o p i a i s so n e g l e c t e d  highland  the  the  l i n k e d to  Ethiopia,  traditional of  rural  s t u d i e s a r e not  objectives  As  of  universities  s c a t t e r e d s t u d i e s of  p r o b l e m s by E t h i o p i a n s t u d e n t s  and  and  rural who  farm. Available  documents  indicate  mid-sixties  extension  work  nonexistent  in Ethiopia.  In  Nations  Economic  t h e r e were o n l y agents than  in  a  total At  of the  the  population  e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s on  the p a y r o l l  even  significant  1968,  Commission  Ethiopia.  one-half  of  that  in impact  a c c o r d i n g t o the  for  Africa  124  agricultural  the  (UN/ECA)  United (1971),  extension  same t i m e , K e n y a , w i t h of  Ethiopia,  (Schulz,  1976).  was  had  less 5,277  10  The  n e g l e c t o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n a c o u n t r y where  is the only  viable  Expenditures 1966,  on  activity  can  agriculture  be  increased  an i n s i g n i f i c a n t amount.  During  K e n y a i n c r e a s e d e x p e n d i t u r e s by 12%. t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s on a g r i c u l t u r e 1966  seen  farming  i n Table  0.8% f r o m the  4.  1961 t o  same  period,  As seen from T a b l e  in Ethiopia  from  1961  5, to  a r e t h e lowest of a l l c o u n t r i e s i n A f r i c a . Table  4: P e r c e n t a g e o f E x p e n d i t u r e 1960 - 1966 on G o v e r n m e n t M i n i s t r i e s i n E t h i o p i a  Ministry  1961  1962  1963  1 964  1 965  1966  24.5  28.6  26.5  25.4  26.7  26.6  Interior  17.9  19.4  19.4  19.4  20.0  19.7  Educat ion  11.2  12.2  12.2  15.5  15.8  15.2  National  Public  Defense  Health  Agriculture Others  6.0 .  6.5  6.5  6.7  6.7  6.3  1 .2  1 .7  1 .7  2.2  2.3  2.0  39.2  Source:  30.8  30.8  28.5  • 30.2  A s s e f a and Eshetu (1969). A P r o f i l e of Ethiopian Economy. A d d i s A b a b a : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  Table  Source:  33.7  5: P e r c e n t a g e o f G o v e r n m e n t E x p e n d i t u r e on A g r i c u l t u r e o f Some A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s Country  Year  Ethiopia Kenya Uganda Morocco U.A.R.  1961 1961 1958 1958 1960  % 1.2 12.7 9.5 5.7 4.3  A s s e f a and Eshetu (1969). A P r o f i l e of Ethiopian Economy. A d d i s A b a b a : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  11  The  low  government  priority  also  agricultural  can  accorded be  research.  International  Bank  A  for  (IBRD) (1973) i n d i c a t e s continuously (1979),  from  in  f r o m d a t a on study  a to  1970  is  of  (see  that  financed  by  Budget  Through A p r i l  1968  1  Table  6).  of  1  and  Hailu  United  (AID).  and  S h o r t f a l l (-) o r S u r p l u s (+) 1  1833  1009  -729  May  1968  - April  1969  2330  1 593  -737  May  1969  - April  1970  2821  2305  -516  May  1970  - Feb.  2821  2880  1971  IAR  agricultural  by t h e FAO  Actual  the  for  6: The D i f f e r e n c e B e t w e e n t h e A n n u a l B u d g e t A c t u a l R e c e i p t s of F u n d s by I n s t i t u t e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Research  Period  in  Development  budget  60%  the  investment  and  S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development  Table  by  conducted  shortfall  reported  Ethiopia  agriculture  Reconstruction  1968  f o r example,  research  seen  to  + 59  thousnds of E t h i o p i a n d o l l a r s Source:  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development (1973). A g r i c u l t u r a l Sector Survey: E t h i o p i a , V o l u m e s 1-3, R e p o r t No. P.A. 143, Annex 9. W a s h i n g t o n : IBRD.  The  main  focus  of  this  e d u c a t i o n programming system extension (1980),  program Cohen  study  was  for farmers.  the The  extension 35-year-old  has  been  s a i d by Amare ( 1 9 7 8 ) ,  Bisrat  (1975),  Gill  (1975),  Schulz  L e l e (1975),  12  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Stommes a n d S e l e s h i unable its  to  (1979) and T e s f a i  reach the grass roots  established  channels,  (1975) t o  of t h e p o p u l a t i o n  stated  objectives  be  through  and  methods  used. In t h i s regard a look government  by  such  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Smith  (1967)  agricultural  at advice given to the Ethiopian  experts as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development  indicate  the  (1973)  and  following  Ginzberg  problems  and  exist in  extension:  1.  Lack of p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  2.  Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n field.  3.  Deficient agenc i e s .  4.  A widespread a t t i t u d e of o f f i c i a l s t o c o n s i d e r of i n f o r m a t i o n a s h i g h l y c o n f i d e n t i a l .  5.  A misallocation in Addis when Ethiopia.  and j o b d e s c r i p t i o n .  b o t h i n t h e head o f f i c e and i n t h e  communication  both  between  and  within  any k i n d  o f e d u c a t e d E t h i o p i a n s by k e e p i n g them their skills were n e e d e d in rural  Concerning t h e major b o t t l e n e c k s and  Bank f o r  extension education,  four  in rural  d i a g n o s e s were p o p u l a r  1960s a n d c o n t i n u e t o r e c e i v e  support  development  authorities  experts  and  development  i n the  1980s.  i n the Many  in agricultural  extension a t t r i b u t e d the shortcomings of r u r a l extension t o "lack  of  servants,  high  l e v e l manpower, p o o r a t t i t u d e among  lack  of  inappropriate  integration  structure"  and  (Chambers,  coordination,  1974).  public and  13  I n a d d i t i o n t o what Chambers h a s s a i d , U m a l i n o t e s t h e major problems a s : F i r s t , inadequate u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e t r u e e x t e n t of. t h e n e e d f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a n d training i n a g r i c u l t u r e ; secondly, the d i f f e r e n c e s and complementarities between agricultural education and agricultural extension are inadequately recognized; thirdly, lack of a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e need f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs f o r farmers ( U m a l i , 1972, p. 4 3 ) . Chambers (1974) a n d U m a l i development  literature  to  (1972) a r e o f t e n explain  the  b o t t l e n e c k s and t o a n s w e r s u c h q u e s t i o n s for  developing  their  countries  agriculture?"  importance  of  Ethiopia  and  emphasis  is  comprehensive Very l i t t l e  the  other  being  placed  major  rigorous  existence  of  a s "Why  cases  i s i t hard  the  problems  developing  countries  there  system  is  of  a  In  major  o f more h i g h  a  lack  program  focuses  relative  varies.  on t h e p r o d u c t i o n  A t t h e same t i m e and  in  s t a r t e d i n modernizing  individual  of  many  get  development l i t e r a t u r e  t h i s problem. extent  In  each  l e v e l manpower.  to  quoted  of  a  planning.  i t s a t t e n t i o n on  No r e s e a r c h h a s been f o u n d t h a t e x a m i n e s t h e  of program  planning  problems  or  the  programming  mechanism i n E t h i o p i a .  Purpose and O b j e c t i v e s of the Study The  main  program p l a n n i n g from  1952  purpose  of  this  study  was t o e x a m i n e t h e  system i n t h e E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n  t o 1980.  Service  B a s e d upon t h e m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n e d i n  e x t e n s i o n and programming r e s e a r c h , t h e study  examined  the  14  strengths  and  weaknesses  of  the  planning  process  in  Ethiopia. The c r i t i c a l the  proposal  a s s e s s m e n t o f p l a n n i n g methods  f o r improving  s h o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t agencies.  " The s t u d y  of a g r i c u l t u r a l starting  both  extension  point  to  administrators  and  in Ethiopia and  donor  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the understanding in  for further  o p e r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l This  p l a n n i n g mechanisms  used  Ethiopia  and  serves  research  into  as  a  the r o l e and  extension.  study:  examines the education; identifies planning;  role  of  program  planning  i n extension  factors that contribute to e f f e c t i v e  program  identifies important planning concepts and models developed e l s e w h e r e r e l e v a n t and a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e Ethiopian situation; documents the progress planning i n E t h i o p i a ;  i n t h e development of program  appraises the nature and characters of the organizational s t r u c t u r e , f a c i l i t y a n d human r e s o u r c e s used i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n ; proposes changes i n the approaches t o p l a n n i n g designed t o i m p r o v e t h e outcome o f e x t e n s i o n work i n E t h i o p i a .  Research Questions to be Answered This  study  sought  answers  to  the  f o l l o w i n g three  questions: 1.  I s t h e r e any c o n g r u e n c e between the current program p l a n n i n g m e c h a n i s m u s e d i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n a n d what t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e p r e s c r i b e s a s good planning practice?  15  2.  What w e a k n e s s e s e x i s t i n t h e c u r r e n t mechanism w i t h r e g a r d t o : a) b) c)  planning  c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system a n a l y s i s , administrative planning, c o o r d i n a t i o n of t h e program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and program implementation, and t r a i n i n g of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n e x t e n s i o n programs?  d) 3.  program  What c h a n g e s i n t h e p r o g r a m bring about the greatest a g r i c u l t u r a l extension? To  answer  philosophy  of  these  questions  extension  upon  depends.  Policy  process,  organizational  institutions,  planning mechanism might improvement i n Ethiopian  which  directives  training  the  study  examined t h e  program  that  guide  structures  facilities,  development  the  extension  of  extension  manpower  utilization  s y s t e m s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e x t e n s i o n ,  research,  and  questions  t r a i n i n g a l s o were e x a m i n e d .  were  subjected-  to  descriptive  These r e s e a r c h assessment  e x t e n s i o n p r i n c i p l e s and a b a s i c p l a n n i n g  in  light  of  model.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms to be Used  Agricultural  extension.  It  agricultural  extension  precisely  of t h i s varies  study. from  The  country  meaning to  was  of  country  important  to  b e c a u s e i t was t h e f o c u s agricultural  extension  and from o r g a n i z a t i o n t o  o r g a n i z a t i o n , y e t a l l d e f i n i t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n v o l v e change and e d u c a t i o n  define  (Maunder,  extension  1972; S a v i l ,  1965).  16  According  t o Mosher  (1958):  " t h e e s s e n c e o f ... e x t e n s i o n i s that i t i s an out-of-school educational process o f : 1. working with r u r a l people along those l i n e s of their current interest a n d need which a r e closely related to gaining a livelihood 2. u t i l i z i n g p a r t i c u l a r teaching techniques, 3. conducted with the a i d of c e r t a i n supporting a c t i v i t i e s , and 4. c a r r i e d on w i t h a distinctive spirit of c o o p e r a t i o n and mutual r e s p e c t " ( p . 1 2 ) . This d e f i n i t i o n  was  adopted  includes the four  important  It  most  i s also  the  for this  study  because  f a c t o r s of extension  cited  definition  of  i t  education. agricultural  extension.  Nonformal E d u c a t i o n .  The  important  in  this  education  as  an  subsumed  under  education  i s p a r t of nonformal  Nonformal  study  term  because  out-of-school this  concept.  education  nonformal  education  agricultural  educational  was  extension  process  is  That i s t o say, e x t e n s i o n education.  h a s been d e f i n e d by Coombs  (1974)  as: any organized or systematic e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d on o u t s i d e t h e framework of the formal system to provide a s e l e c t e d type of l e a r n i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r subgroups i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n , a d u l t s as w e l l as c h i l d r e n (p. 8 ) . This d e f i n i t i o n  o f Coombs was a d o p t e d b e c a u s e i t i s s u c h  comprehensive  definition  includes agricultural  of  extension  youth as w e l l as farmer t r a i n i n g  nonformal  education  a  which  f o r a d u l t f a r m e r s and r u r a l programs.  17  Program.  One p u r p o s e o f  examine  the  this  study  was  v a r i o u s e x t e n s i o n programs  necessitated a clear  statement of  to  critically  in Ethiopia.  what  the  term  This  program  implies. The refer it  t e r m 'program'  program  (Kulp,  " i s the  1970).  document  authorized allocation  all  t h e programming  According to  setting  Kulp  to  (1970),  f o r t h the proposed or  o f r e s o u r c e s among p r o j e c t s "  and  activities  learner  are  adopts Boyle's d e f i n i t i o n program  is a  result  learner both play a r o l e .  in  which  involved"  Program development. examine  extension  the  programs.  the  (p. 8 6 ) .  of  activity  This  The c e n t r a l development Therefore,  from  professional  (p. 5 ) . This  because i tc l e a r l y  indicates  study that  where e d u c a t o r a n d  concept  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of e x t e n s i o n programs  to  seem  (1981) d e f i n e s program as " t h e p r o d u c t r e s u l t i n g  educator  a  Educators  or equate i t w i t h c u r r i c u l u m while economists equate  with projects  Boyle  i s puzzling.  facilitates  i n various  settings.  theme o f t h i s process  of  i t was  the  study  was  agricultural important  to  c a r e f u l l y define t h i s concept. Program development o r program b u i l d i n g topic  of  meetings. emerges  courses, Yet  during  the  seminars, dilemma  program  of  is  the  major  workshops,  and  training  educators  and  planners  development  on  the  question of  18  client  participation  (Brower,  1964).  main p u r p o s e o f program b u i l d i n g foremost  to  develop  a  is  In t h i s  taken  as  study the first  and  sound, d e f e n s i b l e and p r o g r e s s i v e  plan. Program Minnesota  development  was d e f i n e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  (1975):  as a s e t of p l a n n e d , purposeful, coordinated a c t i v i t i e s involving extension staff at various levels and then c l i e n t s i n d e s i g n i n g and c a r r y i n g out l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . E v a l u a t i o n and feedback to assure program viability and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e n e w a l a r e an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f e f f e c t i v e program development (p. 3 ) . This study adopted the  above  definition  of  program  development.  Coordination. of  the  word  The l a c k o f c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y coordination  other development e x p e r t s Yet,  i t i s a concept  this  reason Foyal  by  educators,  i s evident  important  from  i n t h e usage  economists, the  and  literature.  i n planning a c t i v i t i e s .  a rigorous definition  was u s e d i n t h i s  For  study.  (1925) s t a t e s t h a t :  t o c o o r d i n a t e means h a r m o n i z i n g a n d b a l a n c i n g t h e whole. I t means a s s i g n i n g t h e c o r r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to things and actions. It implies the establishment of an u l t i m a t e l i a i s o n between s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s as f a r as t h e i r f u n c t i o n s a r e concerned, b u t whose g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e i s t h e same (p. 1 1 1 ) . T h i s study employed F o y a l ' s d e f i n i t i o n of c o o r d i n a t i o n a s one e l e m e n t i n t h e a n a l y s i s a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f education  in  Ethiopia.  states the harmonizing unite planning with  extension  I t was a d o p t e d b e c a u s e i t c l e a r l y  and b a l a n c i n g  implementation.  of  the  whole  which  19  Organization The  of the Remaining Chapters  second  historical  chapter  of  development  particular  emphasis  the  of  on  study  presents  the  agricultural  extension  with  package  program  objectives,  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Chapter three presents planning  methods  a review  relevant  to  of  selected  extension.  program  The  chapter  s u p p l i e s an a s s e s s m e n t o f s e l e c t e d m o d e l s a n d d i s c u s s e s t h e r o l e of program p l a n n i n g  in agricultural  Chapter four presents in Ethiopian extension. the nature  examines  planning  in relation  Chapter extension  T h i s p o r t i o n of the study  five  the  nature  at  various  proposes  examines  levels.  of c o o r d i n a t i o n and  t o the t h e o r e t i c a l an  used  This  explores  literature.  alternative  strategy for  b a s e d on an a n a l y s i s o f m a j o r p r o b l e m s .  Chapter study  program p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s  of program p l a n n i n g  section  extension.  six  and p r o v i d e s  Suggestions  for  presents  the  recommendations  major for  c o n c l u s i o n s of the further  research.  improvements i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  for Ethiopian extension are given  also.  used  20  CHAPTER TWO  A HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN ETHIOPIA 1952 TO 1980  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r development  of extension education  section presents 1980.  Then  programs,  a brief  and  explain  the  historical  i nEthiopia.  The f i r s t  account of extension  particular attention will objectives,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . of last  i sto  be g i v e n t o p a c k a g e  organizational  Extension  s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s some  Education persistent  f r o m 1952 t o  structure  and  i nEthiopia. planning  The  problems  i s f o l l o w e d by a summary o f t h e c h a p t e r .  Agricultural  Extension  From 1952 to 1966  The A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n Alemaya.  In  of  The sheep  program's husbandry  the program a l s o addressed farm mechanics, and c r o p Besides College  of  initial  focus  problems of  coffee  four  was  ( H u f f n a g e l , 1966).  at  on  Later  production,  improvement. of  Agriculture,  some o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s s t a r t e d  Prominent  Development  College  theMinistry  providing extension time.  the Agricultural  1954 t h e p r o g r a m began o p e r a t i n g w i t h  extension agents. improvement  of  P r o g r a m was s t a r t e d i n 1952  services  Agriculture  at  (MOA)  approximately  and t h e  t h e same  among them was t h e M i n i s t r y o f Community  (MCD) w h i c h r a n i t s own c r o p  improvement  trials  21  and  cattle  farms  as  part  of  i t s community  development  activities. In was  1963 t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  transferred  from  the  l i t e r a t u r e does not p r o v i d e After  the Extension  MOA,  the  d i s r u p t i o n of initiated  at  to  the  of  head  MOA's  regional  significant The  office  1952  offices  extension  and  centres  (IBRD,  The  with  and  criteria  for evaluation.  the  UN/ECA  no  (1971) planning  monitoring  and  stated  as  resources  of  result,  system w i t h  evaluation.  of  (Seyoum,  1971).  different  multiplication goals  during  (1978),  this  Seyoum  coordination  provision  This  has  no  and  t o be u s e d a s a  of e x t e n s i o n  lacking  Addis  i n E t h i o p i a from  objectives  instances of d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t , of  a  1963 t o 1967.  introduction  establishment  activities  appropriate  a  education  h a v e been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by S e l e s h i and  As  in  and p l a n t s w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g  control  Educational  1973).  extension  programs,  and  reorganization  officers  work was done f r o m  of  f o r animals  transfer.  days had a l s o c r e a t e d problems of  t o 1967 i s m a r k e d by  models  Available  r e s u l t e d i n temporary  activities.  those  history  MOA.  department  c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n between and  extension  S e r v i c e came u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f  extension  during  college  and  a rationale forthis  decentralization  reorganization  f o r research  for  time  (1971) and  an  effective  resulted  time wasted and  i n many misuse  22  It  i s of  factor during total  of  historical  this period.  almost  Ethiopia  by  agricultural  i n t e r e s t t o n o t e one i m p o r t a n t  the  100  Over t h e p e r i o d  1952 t o 1 9 6 1 , a  m i l l i o n U.S. d o l l a r s was o f f e r e d t o  United  development  States,  earmarked  purely  for  ( E t h i o p i a n Economic Review, 1961,  p. 4 8 ) .  A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension From 1967 to 1980 The of  year  Ethiopian  fertilizer This  1967 m a r k s an i m p o r t a n t e v e n t Extension.  It  was  in  marks  the  history  t h i s year that the  t r i a l p r o g r a m was e s t a b l i s h e d  era" also  i n the  in  beginning  the  of  country.  five  major  comprehensive p r o j e c t s and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e Package for  concept.  the f i r s t  In  time,  addition, the Ethiopian  stated  i t s policy  Minimum  government,  directives  with  regards t o the removal of s e l e c t e d b a r r i e r s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development.  These  problems  and  extension  education.  events  trends,  lead  to  the  examination  and t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n As a r e s u l t ,  the  of  of r e s u l t s i n  extension  planning  p r o c e s s was i m p r o v e d .  The Comprehensive Package Programs. trial  I n 1967 a  p r o g r a m on c e r e a l c r o p s was i n i t i a t e d  From Hunger F e r t i l i z e r demonstrations  the  Program.  project  response could  be o b t a i n e d  1973;  1976).  Schulz,  fertilizer  by t h e F r e e d o m  Through r e s u l t and  proved  that  economic  under peasant c o n d i t i o n s  method yield (IBRD,  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p r o g r a m was  23  considerable possibility It  also  i n that  of i n c r e a s i n g y i e l d s of c e r e a l s  established  farmers r a p i d l y useful  progress  which  t h e program  had  the  beyond doubt t h a t  r e s p o n d e d when  information  Finally, MOA  i t demonstrated f o r the f i r s t  late  to  1967,  would c o n s i d e r  become  with  Development  A g r i c u l t u r a l Development  an  1973).  introduction Ethiopian  the  help  Agency  Unit  of  The  of  establishment  of  program  system.  The  the  Chilalo  ( T e s f a y e , 1975;  CADU  marked  the  in  the  planning  strategy  of  CADU was  concentrates  limited  emergence  T h i s e r a was a l s o  The  primary  objectives  of  CADU  i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and approach  arrangements structures  by  emphasized  providing extension  Unit  and  to  existing  distribution education  Furthermore,  to  of  educate  were t o farmers.  i n the l o c a l  local  government  fertilizer  farmers  units  (WADU).  WADU  non-intervention  utilizing  f o r the  1978).  marked  o f many c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t  s u c h a s t h e Wolamo A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t  Seleshi,  Swedish  r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n c l e a r l y d e f i n e d g e o g r a p h i c zones  t h e form of package p r o j e c t s *  Their  of the  (CADU) was e s t a b l i s h e d a s t h e  educational  extension  available  the  effective.  the  (SIDA),  " i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development" which  by  and  e f f e c t i v e agent of  comprehensive a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program  Stahl,  input  showed t h a t t h e e x t e n s i o n s t a f f  capacity  International  in  timely  peasant  i f g i v e n t h e p r o p e r g u i d a n c e a n d means.  In  first  i n the country.  illiterate  offered  they  time the  (Cohen,  each comprehensive  and f o r 1974; program  24  was  g i v e n some l e v e l o f i n t e r n a l autonomy,  responsibilities, to  and s u f f i c i e n t  clearly  resources to  defined  enable  them  t a c k l e t h e major b o t t l e n e c k s t o development i n t h e a r e a s  concerned  The  (Tesfai,  1975).  Minimum Package Program.  The c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o g r a m s ,  s u c h a s CADU, a r e d e s i g n e d t o c o v e r form too  limited  areas.  an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s , b u t a r e costly,  b o t h i n terms of c a p i t a l and t r a i n e d  personal,  to  be e x p a n d e d t o a l a r g e r s c a l e .  of  t h e minimum p a c k a g e was d e v e l o p e d f o r l a r g e r a r e a s  the  The  concept  been  of  t h e minimum p a c k a g e was b a s e d on t h e methods  of  demonstrations  the  Minimum  provision  of  Minimum  to  improved  The m a i n  Program  ('model'  cereal  which  areas) of the  grain  small seeds  were  production,  farmers f o r the and  pesticides.  P a c k a g e P r o g r a m a r e a h a d one s u p e r v i s o r , one  cooperative responsible  in  credit  purchase of f e r t i l i z e r s ,  families.  innovations  Package  on o n e - h e c t a r e p l o t s  e f f e c t s of using f e r t i l i z e r s the  and  t e s t e d by t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o g r a m s .  activities  Each  with  1975).  p r o m o t i o n o f a few p r o v e n  and  As a r e s u l t , t h e c o n c e p t  i n t e n t o f r e a c h i n g a s many p e a s a n t f a r m e r s a s p o s s i b l e  (IBRD, 1973; T e s f a i ,  have  They  organizer, f o r an As a  Implementation  area  and which  consequence, Department  five  the  (EPID)  extension  contains  agents  10,000 p e a s a n t  Extension  Project  and  o f t h e MOA  started  full  o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Minimum P a c k a g e P r o g r a m  (MPP) i n 1971 w i t h  25  Swedish  and  FAO  technical  assistance.  The  Extension  P r o j e c t and Implementation Department then brought the  dispersed,  activities  uncoordinated  and s t a f f  into  agricultural  one u n i t w i t h i n MOA  O b j e c t i v e s and s t r a t e g y .  together extension  (EPID,  The E t h i o p i a n N a t i o n a l  1970).  Extension  S e r v i c e h a d a d o p t e d t h e minimum p a c k a g e i d e a a s t h e g u i d i n g concept  in  program development.  The m a i n i d e a b e h i n d t h e  Minimum P a c k a g e P r o g r a m (MPP) was t h a t t h e f a r m e r integrated extension  support staff.  spreading  innovations, throughout  context  CADU  and  program  MPP with  promotional  in  addition  developed  Ethiopia t h e MPP  i s an e x t e n s i o n  The  in  The MPP was d e s i g n e d  farmers  latter  services  context  policies efforts  and  to  to a  1976).  (Stahl,  should  In  scarcity, the  of  organizational  restrict  s e t of c r u c i a l  i s v i e w e d by B e t r u  the  services From  effectiveness,  problems o f c o o r d i n a t i o n , and budget  concentration  The  1973).  which enable t h e farmer t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . standpoint  this  be u n d e r s t o o d a s a  voluntarily small  from  t e s t e d a t CADU, t o  be v i e w e d t o g e t h e r .  of t h e former  this  t o advice  t o be t h e o u t l e t f o r  (Schulz, can  requires  the  manpower  limitations,  on a few p r o v e n i n n o v a t i o n s a n d methods (1975),  relevant  to  difficult  environment.  IBRD ( 1 9 7 3 ) a n d S c h u l z  produce a dynamic e x t e n s i o n  (1976) a s  campaign w i t h i n a  26  In p r a c t i s e , the approach  and  philosophy  integrated  E t h i o p i a was  the  technology.  With respect  locally  important  minimum  package  agency,  the  "green  to crops,  Teff.  were  extension  EPID,  been  which  was  as  used  Ethiopian  The  i m p r o v e d s e e d s , and  package  revolution"  the  grain,  have  minimum  development  wheat, m a i z e , b a r l e y ,  promotional functions one  rural  a p p l i c a t i o n of  p r o g r a m f o c u s e s on  fertilization,  of  extension  ingredients  on  part  of  the  a  of  education,  the soil  A l l these  institutionalized a  grain  sorghum and  farm c r e d i t s .  in  within  Ministry  of  Agriculture. The  c o n t e n t s o f t h e minimum p a c k a g e were b a s e d on  o u t c o m e s o f a few the  p r o v e n methods and  comprehensive  Thus, a c c o r d i n g minimum  projects,  innovations  mainly  sponsored  tested by  t o EPID ( 1 9 7 0 ) , i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t  package  area  was  to  gradually  become  the by  CADU. each more  comprehensive. The as  objectives  of  the  package p r o j e c t s can  be  stated  follows: to search continuously for s u i t a b l e extension methods for f u r t h e r i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l development throughout the country; to r a i s e the  r e a l income o f  small  t o e l i c i t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the local government authorities d e v e l o p m e n t a l e f f o r t s ; and  farmers; small farmers and in the projects  t o n a r r o w p r e v a i l i n g i n c o m e d i s p a r i t i e s by directing efforts mainly towards farmers i n t h e l o w e r income brackets.  27  T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e t o be p u r s u e d  through:  i n t r o d u c t i o n of improved farming crop d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  methods;  and i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  programs;  continuing research, farmer education and staff training, based mainly on crop p r o d u c t i o n and protection, livestock husbandry, soil and water c o n s e r v a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i v e s ; and organizational T e s f a i , 1975). To a t t a i n  expansion  up o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c e l l s  minimum p a c k a g e a r e a s  (MPPA).  along n e g o t i a b l e roads. approximately  58  percent  type  road  75  decision  30  the  was  kilometres  i n t h e e a r l y 1970s.  f o r 1980 f r o m t h e  that t h i s  in  of t h e country's  t o l i v e more t h a n  suggests  of  the  Ethiopian  (every college  MPPA  15 km)  (see Figure  was to  graduate,  was  one  belong  advise  farmers,  credit.  and  to  extension  Authority  E a c h MPPA was on  each  t o 10,000 f a r m  agent,  At l e a s t  a  five  one  areas junior  marketing  cooperative  T h e i r main t a s k s seem t o be t o  handle  input  supplies  T h e i r long term t a s k , a c c o r d i n g  c o n s i s t s of growing  any  b a s e d on  into five extension  assigned.  t o e a c h MPPA.  from  wide  Up  a s s i s t a n t s , one home e c o n o m i c s a g e n t , a n d agent  because  areas.  subdivided  which  called  p o p u l a t i o n was  Highway  1).  i n one o f t h e s e  made  A calculation  i s now a r o u n d 45 p e r c e n t .  road  f a m i l i e s may l i v e Each  1973;  so  (km)  km l o n g a n d e n c o m p a s s e d a b a n d 3 t o 5 km  side  Stahl,  The MPPA u n i t s were s i t u a t e d  The  estimated  crude data  1970;  i t s s t a t e d g o a l s , EPID s t a r t e d i t s e x t e n s i o n  work by s e t t i n g  of  (EPID,  and  t o Schulz  i n t o t h e r o l e of c o o p e r a t i v e  farm  (1976),  managers.  28  Figure  1: The S p a t i a l N e t w o r k o f Minimum P r o g r a m  Areas  S o u r c e : E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Department ( 1 9 7 4 a ) . A M a s t e r P l a n f o r EPID. A d d i s Ababa: EPID.  29  E a c h MPP  i s h e a d e d by one s u p e r v i s o r who i s a g r a d u a t e  from  the C o l l e g e of A g r i c u l t u r e .  The EPID extension approach. has  developed  MPPA  into  a  In  phase concept  i t s organizational  considers  this  considers  i t as  terminology,  as  each  phase.  EPID  t o weave t h e f a r m e r s  o f an  fabric.  preparatory a  i t s intervention,  work  Bisrat while Schulz  Although  describes  EPID's  (1980)  they  (1976)  differ  approach  in  i n t h e same  way. Once an a r e a  i s s e l e c t e d a l o n g an a l l w e a t h e r r o a d , i t  i s d e s i g n a t e d a s an O b s e r v a t i o n A r e a An  extension  for  two  years.  a g e n t who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a d o p t i o n o f  t h e i n n o v a t i o n s by t h e f a r m e r s conduct  (OA)  i s assigned to the  area  s u r v e y s on f a r m i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t o c a r r y o u t  to  trials  and  t o make c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e f a r m p o p u l a t i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n  to  conducting  hectare.  fertilizer  If satisfactory  and  results are  u s u a l l y becomes a D e m o n s t r a t i o n this  s t a g e , one m a r k e t i n g  area.  During  farmers  this  towards  demonstrations  and  Area  the  innovations  trial  subdivided plots.  achieved,  is  placed  attitude are  on one  the  area  into  At this  and i n t e r e s t o f studied  through  l i m i t e d e x t e n s i o n and c r e d i t  services.  A t t h e same t i m e t h e r e a r e more t r i a l field  trials  (DA) f o r one y e a r .  assistant  year,  the  seed v a r i e t y  into  demonstrations  v a r i o u s agronomic and p e s t  on  a  control  •30  The  key a c t i v i t y  selection Bisrat  of  of  'model  by  farmers.  i s t h e one  ultimate  link  population  i n the a r e a .  is  A c c o r d i n g t o EPID  ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a model farmer  who  i s supposed  between  the  1974;  ( A r n o n , 1981)  Tesfai,  1975)  extension education process. Implementation introduced  to  project  'model f a r m e r s ' a p p r o a c h  by C o m i l l a P r o j e c t Cohen,  however,  is a  serve  and  According  the  and  CADU  (Betru,  the  The  Project  and  effective  and  f a r m e r s i n DA  are  Extension  EPID  (1970),  fellow  selection criteria  community,  whereas  the s e l e c t i o n  and  availability  transportation The farm  for agricultural  criteria  results, roads  families.  fertilizer  and  is  agricultural  He plots  must on  seeds. to  innovations  f o r MPPA's were  or  initial  o t h e r forms  to influence  willing  to  of  the  the  free model  application  introducing  100  establish  f o r w h i c h he g e t s  Furthermore,  spearhead by  his  development.  his fields  improved expected  be  in  farmer's  model farmer has t o r e p r e s e n t and  demonstration  farmer  of  agents  f o r the model farmer i s  i s an a c t i v e and w e l l - r e s p e c t e d man  on t h e b a s i s o f c r o p t e s t t r i a l interest,  1 975;  f o r the d i s s i m i n a t i o n of  pick  f a r m e r who  used  MPP. to  The  the  farming  f i v e c a n d i d a t e s from which t h e EPID  one.  local  as  asked t o propose  any  farmer  had been p r e v i o u s l y  Department found the approach  i t to  the  (1970),  the e x t e n i o n agent a t t h e p r o p o s a l of the He  The  period,  farmers.'  ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and S t a h l  chosen  this  them  of to  31  n e i g h b o u r i n g f a r m e r s , t o u r g e them t o extension remind  programs,  them t o pay  farmer  to  their  summon  them  dues.  In  noted  that  farm c r e d i t  up t o 20 h e c t a r e s . site,  fertilizer  model  farmers  demonstration Program  If and  -  to meetings, addition,  At t h i s p o i n t ,  these  procedures  seed v a r i e t y in  a  will  become  At  this  time  a  program  has  a  target  development.  may  be  of  selection  of the  Minimum P a c k a g e the  entire  earlier.  administrator  of  MPP,  o f r e a c h i n g 75 p e r c e n t o f  the  13th year — the time of the program's  As o f  1976,  351  demonstration areas operation  and  (EPID,  a,b).  Organizational structure the  indicates  programs  in  t h a t b e f o r e 1957  the c o u n t r y used  Advisory  and  administration.  The  MOA  has  main m i n i s t r y c h a r g e d w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  agricultural  Council  Century,  stated until  Ethiopia.  the g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l  Agricultural  Board.  d a t e s back t o t h e l a t e r  i t s f u n c t i o n s and  1966  Huffnagel  policy  Although part  of  (1966)  t o be o u t l i n e d and c o o r d i n a t e d by  and  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f MOA 19th  model  selection  i t . receives  55 Minimum P a c k a g e P r o g r a m A r e a s were i n  for  to  response,  full  p e r s o n n e l mentioned  a r e a ' s f a r m e r s by t h e  been  and  the  it  and  positive  area  Area.  -  trials,  A c c o r d i n g t o EPID ( 1 9 7 0 ) , the  1976  the  i s p r o v i d e d f o r f a r m e r s of h o l d i n g s  result  endowment o f f i e l d  full  in  i s expected a l s o to h e l p the marketing a s s i s t a n t i n  screening credit applications.  the  participate  of  the the the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were n o t  when t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s s u e d O r d e r No.  46.  32  According Public  to  the  Imperial  Administration  (1966),  f u n c t i o n s of the  MOA  Agriculture  granted  was  developing  in  the  MOA  was  such  the  agricultural, and  a broad  such,  each  among  (FOA,  of  with  other  procedures  forestry,  propose  fishing  programs  objective definition  the  for  of  by  the  agriculture  d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e MOA  Many  of  these  and  agencies  had  14 p r o v i n c e s o f t h e e m p i r e and  nor  agricultural  any  other  activities  body and  was  able  education  as to  in  1966  1966). According  structure Service levels 1967  of the  n e i t h e r t h e MOA  coordinate  responsibility  administration  s e v e r a l autonomous b o d i e s . in  of  The  empowered t o e s t a b l i s h  public  dispersed  offices  Ministry  27.  extension.  after  remained  the  consultation  concessions  government,  defined  decree  In  and  Even  of  general  conclude  agricultural  Institute  the  t o n e g o t i a t e and wildlife  this  Article  agriculture.  Ministries,  Ethiopian  to  (UN/ECA,  available 1971),  documents the  on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  Agricultural  Extension  i n E t h i o p i a i s o r g a n i z e d on n a t i o n a l and (see F i g u r e 2 ) .  Figure 2  illustrates  provincial  that  a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l t h e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e was  n i n e d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e MOA. during  this  divisions.  time These  e c o n o m i c s , and  the  It  further  subject matter  were  training,  specialists.  one  indicates  e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e had  divisions  during  five youth,  of  that  primary "home  MINISTRY UP AGRICULTURE" LMB  MINI STER  IAR  I  V. Minister  Plant Pro duo ti on  T  Animal Husbandry  & P r o tun Wop  Fiaherieo  V. MiniBter  •  1  Foreatry  Veterinary  Eoon. & Tech. Assiatance  Eoonomios & Statiatica  Ada. Services  Extension Servloe  ?  1  1  Sub jeot-Matter Soecialiata  Home Economics  1  1  Youth  j  Training  Information  Provincial Director  Administrative Service  Eztens ion  ther Depta.  anv  Extension Agen ts Farm People  Figure  2: O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Service i n Ethiopia  Extension  1  Source: U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic Commission f o r A f r i c a (1971). A Comparative A n a l y s i s of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S y s t e m s . E/CN. 1 4 / A G R I P / 1 0 . Rome: F.A.O.  34  Although a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y , the extension organized  in  extension  education  was  According  to  (1971),  extension 4  But  small  not  study  organizational  effectively  neither  f a c t o r s , such  agents  in  negative  influence  effective  extension  system.  of  officers  a written which  responsibilities is able 2.  developed.  120 f o r more t h a n  s e r v i c e by 1970.  the  on  the  administrative  than the i n s i g n i f i c a n t country  the  The S i i r a  have documented t h e f o l l o w i n g major lack  of  t h e number o f t o t a l  as  problems, rather  greater  a  delivery  i n 1965 ( c i t e d i n Stommes a n d S e l e s h i ,  number o f e x t e n s i o n  1.  the  was  peasant households, nor t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  indicated that  and  1967  was c o n d u c i v e t o r u n t h e e x t e n s i o n  Siira's  1979)  UN/ECA  by  a g e n t s , w h i c h i n 1968 was a b o u t  million  climate  a l l provinces,  service  had  a  development study  was  much of  an  said  to  problems:  job description for a g r i c u l t u r a l  defines  their  duties  and  a n d s t a n d a r d s by w h i c h t h e s u p e r v i s o r  to evaluate  and s u p e r v i s e  field  agents;  t h e a w a r d i n g o f s a l a r i e s w i t h i n MOA w h i c h a r e n o t b a s e d on  position classification  officials  received  opportunities provincial  for  ( f o r example,  higher foreign  counterparts  with  headquarters'  salaries studies  than  the  same  governing  the  and did  better their  educational  levels); 3.  a  lack  personnel;  of  procedures  transfer  of  35  4.  the planning of extension provincial  office  budgets and programs  without  consulting  f o r the  the  regional  office; 5.  a lack of cooperation  between  e x t e n s i o n and other  agencies involved i n a g r i c u l t u r a l 6.  t h e low budget a l l o c a t i o n  As a r e s u l t  agriculture.  recognized  and  Ministry  agreed  begin  the  until  A c c o r d i n g l y , MOA  1971  reorganize  3.  was  to Betru  when  the  reorganized  the  and i t s  SIDA. illustrated  in  T h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a c e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n under  and a t t a c h e d  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  Minister's  unit nominally  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  represents  them.  The a g r i c u l t u r a l  and  education,  information u n i t s to the  not d i r e c t  of  the Ethiopian  with as  the  (1975) a n d  Ministry  the M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e , c r e a t e d a p l a n n i n g unit,  of  reorganization  extension administration i n cooperation  Figure  Plans,  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n s t r a i n t s on  (1980)  to  poor  office.  However, a c c o r d i n g  Stommes  d i d . not  government  the  As a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  became u r g e n t .  Seleshi  and  o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s a n d t h e two F i v e - y e a r  the government  MOA  development; and  f o r extension  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l  field  office.  programming t r a i n i n g and The  latter  s c h o o l s but does  schools  have  retained  t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e autonomy. One o f t h e f o u r p r i n c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s a c c o r d i n g organizational  chart  is  Implementation Department.  the  Extension  According  t o EPID  to the  Project (1972),  and EPID  Minister of Agriculture Minister of State Administration and Leeal Service Unit Planning and Programming Unit Education. Training and Information Unit  Internal Audit  Resources Conservation and Development Department  Figure Source:  Provincial Offices Co-ordinator  Extension & Project Implementation Department  Regulatory. Research and Services Department  3: O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r t o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n 1972.  E P I D . Minimum  Package  Project  Programme  Loan  A p p l i c a t i o n to IBRD/IDA. E P I D P u b l i c a t i o n No. J a n u a r y , 1972; A n n e x X I X : 1.  37  was g r a n t e d t h e s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r n a t i o n a l administration chart  a n d was g i v e n  i s displayed  extension  reorganization  except  for giving  2.  extension  the  work  does  not  for liaison  between  as  functions  to  to  these, the reorganization accurately  institution  the  actual  i n Figure  i n Ethiopa. 4,  brought  organizational t o whom.  s t r u c t u r e of the  The e m e r g e n c e o f E P I D , the  comprehensive  u n d e r one u m b r e l l a .  manage MPPs a n d c o o r d i n a t e  Project extension,  including (ADP)  public  made i n t h e MOA  and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Department's main  projects  and  1973).  minimum p a c k a g e p r o j e c t s Project  research  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  4 indicates the organizational  indicated  by  3 ) ; and  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y who r e p o r t s  extension  mainly  into a single unit with a separate t r a i n i n g  portray  Figure  that  types such a s :  (see Figure  g r o u p i n EPID (IBRD, addition  initiated  i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of employees  information  In  4 illustrates  i n t o s i x groups.  merging of the d i s p a r a t e  education  I t s organizational  EPID a s e e m i n g l y sound base has  the inadequate p r o v i s i o n and  Figure  o f t h e MOA,  caused problems of v a r i o u s 1.  4.  d i v i s i o n was o r g a n i z e d  This SIDA,  i n Figure  autonomy.  extension  CADU,  which  resettlement  The  and  Extension  function  was  the e f f o r t s of comprehensive  WADU  and  concentrate and o t h e r  the on  Ada  applied  activities  r u r a l development i n t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a s .  Development research,  directed  to  38  Ministerial Committee for Pnckagc Projects  Minister of Agriculture Co-opcrntion with AIDII. MIA. L M B , etc.  Co-operation with Research and Training Insliliilions  Head and Deputy Heads of Department (Project Director)  Evaluation Unit  Unison Committee for Package Project*  Liaison Division. Liaison with eompr. projects and road construction  Peasnnt Canning. Development or Methods, etc. ADA, C A D U , IIADU, W A D U . etc.  Extension Division  Common Services Division: necimntmg, internal nudiling. legal questions, Stan' service*  Training Group  Commercial Projects: A V A , Northwestern lowlands. Shashcmcnc  Agronomic Group  Marketing A Credit Group  Animal Husbandry Group  Home Economics and Youth Group  Minimum Projects  Figure  Co-op. Prom. Group  Demons! ration area  Ohscrvntion area  4: O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r t o f t h e E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t a n d Implementation Department o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f Agriculture  S o u r c e : M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , E P I D . Minimum Project  Programme  Loan  Application  to  E P I D P u b l i c a t i o n No. 6. J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 2 ; Annex X I X : 2.  Package IBRD/IDA.  39  On  the  experience,  other  focused only  extension  components  development. Figure  hand,  4,  deemed  as  of  of  on  CADU's  three  basic  f o r small  farmer  EPID,  depicted  the a n t i c i p a t e d coordination  units,  such  based  essential  functions  particularly  institution  MPP,  on t h e p r o v i s i o n  T h e s e two  many d e v e l o p m e n t  the  seems  EPID.  unrealistic  in  of so  for a  young  I n f a c t , t h e IBRD team  stated  that: the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and c e r t a i n autonomous a g r i c u l t u r a l boards/projects, f i s h e r i e s , wildlife, forestry, a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h and o t h e r p r o j e c t s seem t o be u n f a m i l i a r i n d e t a i l w i t h each other's p r o g r a m s a n d a c t i v i t i e s , e v e n when t h e M i n i s t r y i s r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e o t h e r a g e n c y ' s g o v e r n i n g board (IBRD, 1973, p. 2 0 , Annex 1 8 ) . The  land  reform  associations reorganize  after  renaming Forestry  2.  the  March  the  organization  1974  made  a n d r e m o d e l b o t h t h e MOA a n d  reorganization 1.  and  of  peasant  i t expedient EPID.  The  to  major  a c t i o n s a f t e r 1974 w e r e : the  MOA  —  the  M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and  i n 1975  merging  of  the  Ministry  of  Land  Reform  and  S e t t l e m e n t and t h e M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e 3.  the  elimination  Research and 4.  the  Institute  (IAR) from t h e M i n i s t r y  organizational  chart  Commission  the merging of the Settlement A u t h o r i t y w i t h  the R e l i e f  A  linking  of A g r i c u l t u r a l  i t t o t h e S c i e n c e and Technology  and  and  of  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Commission very  remarkable  (RRC) i n A p r i l , 1979.  note i n the chain  merging or u n i f i c a t i o n process  that  of t h e renaming  has  taken  place  40  f r o m 1974 t o 1979 l e f t  EPID's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  structure  no s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s c o m p a r e d t o t h e m a i n The m i n o r i n t e r n a l c h a n g e s t h a t changes  o f names.  renamed  with  Ministry.  EPID has u n d e r g o n e a r e  For example, the E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n  t h e Farm T e c h n o l o g y D i v i s i o n .  Training,  which  was was  u n d e r t h e E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n , was  transferred  t o the O f f i c e  of  indicates  the  Deputy  Heads.  Figure  organizational  chart  as  in  indicated  of t h e EPID.  Figure  government's  intention  areas  necessitates  which  5  5, to  current  The r e s t o f t h e c h a n g e s ,  are  the  result  of  expand EPID's a c t i v i t y the  provincial  the  t o most  district  and  subdistrict office. It  i s instructive  government the The the  and  imperial  policy  MPP  of l a n d  (Bisrat,  Extension  that  r e g a r d e d MPP  reform while  as  for  both  the  previous  government encourage different  purposes.  a s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o  the  present  government  a means o f c o n s o l i d a t i n g  i t s radical  and power r e d i s t r i b u t i o n a t t h e l o c a l  level  1980).  Organizations'  Extension  To  relationships relationships  R e l a t i o n s With Other Agencies  institutions in Ethiopia  donor o r g a n i z a t i o n s  country.  although  government  much n e e d e d l a n d the  note  the present s o c i a l i s t  s p r e a d o f t h e MPP,  regards  of  to  and v a r i o u s  facilitate and t o t a l can  be  an  represent a mosaic  ministries examination  within of  impact, t h e i r task environment classified  the their and  i n t o two l e v e l s : a ) t h e  i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l a n d b) t h e n a t i o n a l  level.  41  Heed of Department  Interne! Audit Unit  Deputy Heedt Planning end Evaluation Unit L e g * Unit Training arid Information Unit  Admimt(ration Orvfrilon  PMonnM Section  Account inf Section  Tremport Section  Farm Technology Onotion  Property Mantigemeni Section  Agronomy Section  Soil C miervation and Engirt* wring Section  Animal Hutbamiry Section  Home Cconomict Section  Crop " r o d u c t i o Section  Provincial Office  Co-operative and Marketing  AdmtnMt ration  Farm Tpchnolngy  Agronomy  Soil Conservation and Engineering  Animat Hutbendry  Home Economics  Crop Protection  Avrmm Office  Farm Technology  Administration  htoreda Office  Agricultural Development Agent  Home E c o n o m i c ! Agent  Figure Source:  Co-operative Organiser  5: P r e s e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n o f E P I D  E x t e n s i o n and P r o j e c t ( E P I D ) . EPID Work 1977/78 (1970 EC)  Implementation  Program Fiscal  and Year  Department  Budget for the Revised), EPID  P u b l i c a t i o n No. 4 4 , A d d i s A b a b a , M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e a n d S e t t l e m e n t , O c t o b e r , 1977.  42  International level linkage. and EPID.  T h i s i s o n l y v i s i b l e i n CADU  What makes CADU u n i q u e  Government  is officially  represented  Development A s s i s t a n c e O f f i c e SIDA,  which  activities the  coordinates  i n Ethiopia.  i s that the Royal  (DAO),  and  w i t h t h e E t h i o p i a n M i n i s t e r of the project's  a  branch  by a  office  of  a l l Swedish a i d  reviewing  a n n u a l work p r o g r a m a n d b u d g e t  appoints  in Ethiopia  supervises  Besides  Swedish  and  approving  o f CADU i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n  Agriculture,  SIDA  executive director  jointly  and e v a l u a t i o n  t e a m , r e c e i v e s r e p o r t s a n d h a n d l e s most p u r c h a s i n g f o r t h e project and  outside  Ethiopia.  "The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n CADU  SIDA, d e v e l o p e d a n d n u r t u r e d by t h e p u r e d e d i c a t i o n  Swedish  experts  effectively government  used to  and to  make  young  exert  educated  pressure  fundamental  s u c c e s s o f CADU a n d MPP ( B e t r u , The the  same  technical  Ethiopians,  on  the  up  to  handle  the  changes important f o r t h e  1975; S t a h l ,  1973).  s e t u p was u s e d t o e a s e EPID  new  demands o f r u r a l 2 ) . The f a c t o r  importance  i n t h e c a s e o f CADU t h e R o y a l  EPID, EPID.  SIDA  in  not  development  1978, p a r t  g o v e r n m e n t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by DAO w h e r e a s  from  was  (Stommes a n d S e l e s h i , i s that  was  Ethiopian  b u r e a u c r a c y o f t h e E t h i o p i a n government w h i c h  set  of  the  of  prime Swedish  case  of  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a D e p u t y G e n e r a l Manager o f  43  As World  f o r WADU, t h e r e Bank  that t h i s  i s no  visible  researcher  linkage  can confirm.  with  S e l e s h i and  Stommes ( 1 9 8 0 ) a l s o f o u n d no v i s i b l e l i n k a g e f o r ADP U.S.  linkages.  the  linkage  MOA-CADU  Minister  Though SIDA h a s o f f i c a l l y except  f o r the o f f i c e  community  has n o t p e r c e i v e d  CADU  as  an  important  The E x t e n s i o n  Project  i t s phase  one.  To  date  there  v i s i b l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n EPID a n d V e t e r i n a r y Since  w e l l defined, there  problem  i s no s i g n i f i c a n t  the  consultation"  government  statement which  of  The  l i n k a g e seems t o be t h e t o develop  isolated  identified  linkage  As a  t o cooperate  p r o g r a m s , "none o f t h e n a t i o n a l of  in cooperation  in  terms  of " i n  h a s n e v e r s t a t e d t h e 'how' a n d 'whom'  part of the linkage question.  Ministry  justification to  o f t o t a l l y modern a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e CADU a r e a a n d  general  agencies  division.  national institutions.  i n thelack of t h i s  desire of the Ethiopian islands  i s no  t h e l i n k a g e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e MOA i s  examine t h e l i n k a g e s w i t h o t h e r main  of t h e  I m p l e m e n t a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t seems t o h a v e f a c e d t h e same  alienation during  not  formed  of the Vice  i n charge o f development programs, t h e bulk  component o f t h e MOA ( B e t r u , 1 9 7 5 ) . and  with  A i d , a n d f o r WADU w i t h t h e W o r l d Bank.  National level  MOA  the  Education  result,  out of  nine  w i t h CADU i n e x t e n s i o n  institutions  were a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h  except the the service  w i t h CADU" ( B e t r u , 1 9 7 5 , p . 2 9 ) .  44  At  the local  l e v e l n e i t h e r CADU, EPID n o r WADU a n d ADP  have been p e r c e i v e d a s r e g u l a r c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l and  district  because  public administration  of  their  networks.  Nonetheless  p a c k a g e p r o g r a m s a t l e a s t CADU a n d E P I D  touched almost every  agency's j u r i s d i c t i o n and o f t e n  a hostile attitude.  F o r example, EPID e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s and  s u p e r v i s o r s a r e seen, except extravagant made by  group  this  of  by  teachers,  educated people.  researcher,  was  also  faced  mostly  This  as  an  observation,  confirmed  by  Betru  (1975). While particularly and  Betru  (1975),  Pausewang  Cohen  i t s staff  agent b e f o r e and  Wallega  i n pre-1974, t h i s  t o w a r d s t h e CADU researcher  1974 a n d a s an e x t e n s i o n  close  viewed  agencies,  some  and  contact  supervisor  O f f i c e , as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r  with  such  project  a s an e x t e n s i o n  r e g i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , observed  extension agents' by  1975)  (1973) i n d i c a t e d t h e l i n k a g e p r o b l e m  identified a hostile attitude  and  (1974,  the  in  Wollo  t h a t t h e EPID peasantry  was  a s t h e Mass O r g a n i z a t i o n  r e l a t i o n s with the people.  General O b e r v a t i o n s : Problems, Trends and O p p o r t u n i t i e s A c l o s e look a t the E t h i o p i a n extension 1952  from  t o 1980 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were p e r s i s t e n t p r o b l e m s  w h i c h p a s s e d f r o m one g o v e r n m e n t s y s t e m t o often  service  occurred  critical  because  decisions  made  e f f e c t on what was t o be done  another.  This  p r e v i o u s l y had a  "today".  45  According up  until  1974  development. farms  t o t h e I m p e r i a l E t h i o p i a n Government there  were  two  p o l i c i e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l  One p o l i c y d e a l t w i t h l a r g e s c a l e  commercial  w h i l e the other d e a l t w i t h peasant a g r i c u l t u r e .  same p o l i c y Ministry  operates  of  When t h e s e  today  i n two s e p a r a t e m i n i s t r i e s :  Agriculture  and t h e M i n i s t r y  interests  impact  of  the  involved  in  of  the  commercial  mosaic  same  farmers,  area  of  reducing  extension  As  a  result,  the  institutions  r u r a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e i s an a p p a r e n t  program.  at  1973).  e v a l u a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s extension  the  i n t e r e s t s have y i e l d e d t o  of extension s e r v i c e (Stahl,  In l i g h t  The  o f S t a t e Farms.  two p o l i c i e s a r e p r o m o t e d i n t h e  t h e same t i m e , t h e s m a l l f a r m e r s ' the  (1968),  lack of  i n t o an e f f e c t i v e  the following  problems  prevail: 1.  a lack of a proper  2.  a l a c k o f an  program p l a n n i n g mechanism,  organization  responsive  to  educational  problems and e x p e r t a d v i c e , and 3.  a l a c k of adequate understanding component o f e x t e n s i o n Despite  a l l these  of t r a i n i n g as a major  programs. philosophical  and  practical  p r o b l e m s , t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e v e a l e d by CADU a n d E P I D promising  (Stahl,  1973; S c h u l z ,  CADU e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e f r o m respect  compare  to  The r e s u l t s o f t h e  1967-1971 a r e  t o t h e i r economic g o a l .  g o v e r n m e n t now w i s h e s  1976).  were  impressive  with  B u t t h e p l a n t h a t t h e new  implement  does  w i t h what was o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e  not  appear  1974 ( A f r i c a  to  Guide,  46  1984).  This  education and  seems  to  reduce  the  impact  on t h e t o t a l d e v e l o p m e n t by  refinement  of p o l i c y and  of  i t l a c k of  extension continuity  programs.  Summary The be  said  the  history t o be  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  of  farm mechanics.  this  to  Merino  the  program  beneficiaries'  have c h a n g e d a f t e r  Program,  started  with  sheep, c o f f e e p r o d u c t i o n ,  Initially its  seemed to  Fertilizer  i n E t h i o p i a can  the h i s t o r y of a program which  improvement  relevance  extension  nothing  had  only  immediate use. the Freedom  serious  was  and  minor  Although  From  Hunger  achieved  until  1967. The  agricultural  agricultural the  education  training  and  d i s o r g a n i z e d and The No.  after with  the  create  of f a r m e r s  1966  was  r i s e o f CADU and  also EPID.  extension  situation,  individuals  working  problems.  compounded  the  a  result,  remained s c a t t e r e d ,  left  and  to  i n the  In  fact,  problems  of  unrealized  were  The  not  of  concerned to  to coping with  the  incentives  for  reorganization that  undergone d i d not some  even  able  provide  field.  s t a t e d i n Order  Organizations  programs  most a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s had basic  As  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of MOA  i n s t i t u t i o n a l c l i m a t e s conducive  changing  to coordinate  uncoordinated.  27 o f  implementing  c r e a t e d i n 1957  remained unnoticed..  education  d u t i e s and  44 A r t i c l e  board  the  coordination  solve  the  reorganization and  extension  47  p r o g r a m management. various the  levels  was d i s c u s s e d  g r a i n technology The  education  Lack of l i n k a g e s  i n a given  project  extension  institution.  It  in  program  has  programs p a r t i c u l a r l y  require  a  coordinated  levels.  This  service been  approach  models. model  a  and  and  review  The p u r p o s e o f t h e r e v i e w  relevant to extension  an  work i n  adult  conceptualized  programs various  seems p o s s i b l e  of  models.  program  i s mainly Ethiopia  as  methodology.  linkages at  p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d on s o u n d and c l e a r p l a n n i n g present  is  adult education  l i n k a g e and c o o r d i n a t i o n  will  at  area.  content  Educational  next chapter  Ethiopia  as a major problem c o n f i n i n g  agricultural  educational  within  with The  planning  to identify to  help  a us  u n d e r s t a n d p r o b l e m s , c o n d i t i o n s and m e c h a n i s m s i n E t h i o p i a n extension.  48  CHAPTER THREE  REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON PROGRAM PLANNING MODELS AND PRINCIPLES  The  purpose  of t h i s chapter  i st o c r i t i c a l l y  of t h e major program p l a n n i n g models, which  a r e found i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  i s on i d e n t i f y i n g Ethiopia. will  a model r e l e v a n t  First,  however,  e x a m i n e some  concepts  and  literature.  The f o c u s  t o extension  the role  ideas  work  of program  in  planning  be d i s c u s s e d a n d t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f some m o d e l s w i l l be  undertaken.  Role of Program P l a n n i n g i n A g r i c u l t u r a l The  o r i g i n o f e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g  S t a t e s c a n be t r a c e d t o t h e M o r r i l l established 1887  land  grant  colleges  w h i c h s e t up a g r i c u l t u r a l Beal,  Kincaid  Blaunt,  Powers,  (1966) and Sanders  extension  1862 w h i c h  and t o t h e Hatch A c t of  experiment and Johnson  p r o g r a m s were p r e d e t e r m i n e d Client  stations. (1966),  giving problems  advice of such  production on  according  farming. a  According  production  or  technical  t o Boone  oriented  1920  t o assumed  participation  o r i e n t e d a n d were  scientific  Boone a n d  that u n t i l  a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m was l i m i t e d .  were e s s e n t i a l l y  (1966),  i n the United  Act of  (1966) i n d i c a t e  wants a n d needs o f f a r m e r s . design  Extension  in  the  Programs  limited  to  production and K i n c a i d  approach t o program  49  planning  became  unable  t o s o l v e more c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s o f  p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n . more  emphasis  local,  came  improve  the  condition,  t o be p l a c e d on g a t h e r i n g  s t a t e , and n a t i o n a l  p l a n n i n g programs.  To  situations  as  the  T h i s e m p h a s i s on l o c a l  d r a f t o f t h e Mount W e a t h e r A g r e e m e n t .  facts  about  basis  for  f a c t s l e d to the  By t h i s  agreement  the extension s e r v i c e agreed to organize and operate a system of s t a t e , county, and community committees of l a y and p r o f e s s i o n a l people to appraise resources i n r e l a t i o n to population; ... and t o p r o m o t e c o o r d i n a t i o n among a g e n c i e s (Boone and K i n c a i d , 1966, p. 9 1 ) . According (1963),  to  later  implementation  Beal  et  al .  evaluations  (1966)  have  then and  coordination  of  coordination  on  agricultural  extension.  In  firm  a  stand  much  was  b e t t e r program-making  w h i c h w o u l d more e f f e c t i v e l y and The  taken  farm people  objective so  farmers  h e l p people  a n a l y z e major problems and d e v e l o p (Sanders,  1966).  by  Since  in  the  and  U.S.  Extension a need  procedures  to plan,  needs  planners  the  efforts  I t recognized  was t o p r o v i d e and  result,  base  by  policies  e v a l u a t e p r o g r a m s t o meet t h e i r major  the  h a s r e c e i v e d more  broader  C o m m i t t e e on O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d P o l i c y . to develop  a  was u n d e r s c o r e d .  of program a c t i v i t i e s  attention  1955 a  As  programming  t h a t were s e r v i n g f a r m e r s  more  that  o f t h e Mount W e a t h e r A g r e e m e n t d i d n o t meet  f o r more  agencies  Raudabaugh  shown  the e x p e c t a t i o n s of i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . need  and  implement  (Boyle,  1965).  greater assistance to could  collectively  sound e x t e n s i o n  programs  50  As a r e s u l t o f c o n t i n u o u s on  c h a n g e and  refinement  based  e m p i r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n , e f f e c t i v e program development  achieved  at s e v e r a l l e v e l s such  extension, Contrary  county  agent and,  t o p r a c t i c e s of  developing  countries,  as  subject  finally,  agricultural new  matter,  at the  state  extension  S e r v i c e s t a r t w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s and  area level.  in  p r o g r a m s i n t h e U.S.  was  most  Extension  e v a l u a t i o n of  on-going  programs. The et  al.  other  salient  f e a t u r e n o t c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d by  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , Boone and  K i n c a i d ( 1 9 6 6 ) and  Sanders  i s t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e x t e n s i o n and which  the  U.S.  r e s e a r c h , and  Extension  education —  trinity  in  the  U.S.  measure  responsible  Service  the  for  a g r i c u l t u r a l production  the  present  i n t h e U.S.  g i v e us a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g in  the  life  o f U.S.  extension  means  functions  to  p.  153).  land  Relevance  grant  college  (McDermott, Next planning addition  the  needs  extension  high  small  level  of  (1971) m i g h t  of  the  is  campus  p r o b l e m s of s o c i e t y "  i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t system  i n no  To M c D e r m o t t " t h e v e r y name  an and  inseparable  is  McDermott  teaching,  o f what e x t e n s i o n r e a l l y  farmers.  literally  combines  combination  (1966)  research i n  agriculturally  This  Beal  hallmark  that leads extension  (1971, of  the  programs  1971). to  relevance,  client  i s a u n i v e r s a l procedure to  participation in  U.S.  i n program  extension.  In  t h e s e , a v a i l a b l e documents i n d i c a t e t h a t  from  51  the  beginning  there  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and Anyone who U.S.  has  with lay  t h i n k s t h a t w h a t e v e r has  amount  planning process the  trinity  cooperation  of  elsewhere work  had  other  worked w e l l  i n the  in  should  done  i n e x t e n s i o n and  has  with  groups.  w o u l d a l s o work w e l l  substantial  been  to improve the  the  intrinsic  extension  work.  e x t e n s i o n f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n h e m i s p h e r e and the southern to  hemisphere, as  i m p l y what L e a r n e r  institutions  but  not  n o t modern p u r p o s e s , (p.  47).  In  desirable  suggested  (1958) has  said:  the  program  value  that  Taking  only  testing  in Devries "Wanted  it  in  (1978),  is  are  modern  modern i d e o l o g i e s , modern power  modern w e a l t h b u t  the  consider  not  modern  but  wisdom"  c o n t e x t o f e x t e n s i o n , what i s w a n t e d  i s to look  for a  relevant  model  to  develop  or a  sound program. Provided  a  workable  p r o p e r l y , a balanced priority into  (Korten,  general 1980;  of  Lionberger  and  model  program.  An  important  concepts  In  only  understanding behind  sources  program p l a n n i n g . following  of Boyle  rest:  harmonously  Chang,  1981).  used highest  integrated country  Selecting  improve the q u a l i t y  the  basic  of  assumptions  a the and  the model i s a l s o r e q u i r e d . ( 1 9 8 1 ) and  principles  and  Maunder concepts  ( 1 9 8 1 ) and Maunder  assumptions  e x t e n s i o n programs  and  development w i t h i n a  not of  t h i s respect Boyle  important  the  will  selected  emerge g i v i n g t h e  training  level  workable  is  program w i l l  t o e d u c a t i o n and  the  model  which  (1972)  are  related  (1972)  f o r m t h e b a s i s on  to  stated which  52  1.  It  is  possible  certain  2.  select,  to  help people  People  need  the the  the  status  new  p e r s o n n e l , methods  quo  professional  and  skills  necessary  must be a t l e a s t m o d i f i e d  has  to  help  and  that  problems.  i n f a v o r of  doing.  i s made o n l y when someone who  b e t t e r way  leaders  p r e r e q u i s i t e to progress  ways o f t h i n k i n g and  Progress  of  k n o w l e d g e and  Change i s a n e c e s s a r y  a  administer  a c h i e v e more d e s i r a b l e ways  guidance  them l e a r n t o s o l v e t h e i r  4.  and  living.  possessing  3.  organize  r e s o u r c e s of t e c h n o l o g y ,  facilities of  to  the s k i l l  and  has  ideas  about  o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r y them  out. 5.  People  will  continue  doing  until  they  their have  present new  ways o f t h i n k i n g  experience  from  learning  results  and  planned  change. 6.  Most  effective  choice  not  teaching  c h a n c e , f r o m an  u n d e r t h e most d e s i r a b l e can 7.  be  and  i n t e n t t o t e a c h and  coordinated  from learn,  conditions  that  created.  Educational attainment  changes  i n people  o f o t h e r s o c i a l and  are p r e r e q u i s i t e to economic g o a l s  the  in a free  soc i e t y . Given program statement  the  above  assumptions,  the  main  p l a n n i n g i s t o p r o v i d e a c l e a r and o f what i s t o be done a n d  why.  purpose  of  concise written  D e c i s i o n s on  what  53  i s t o be done a n d why r e q u i r e s o r g a n i z i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e mission,  determine  objectives, reporting  the  implementing results.  acceptable, these  to  realistic  reasons,  i s an u r g e n t  plan,  decisions  produce  a  evaluating,  and  with regard t o the  specific,  measureable,  and t i m e - r e l a t e d program f o r a c t i o n .  searching  question  of t h e program, d e f i n i n g  the  Proper  above f a c t o r s h e l p  For  content  f o r a relevant planning  in agricultural  model  extension.  Assessment of Program P l a n n i n g Models Periodic study  review  of  the  i s useful i n gaining  direction  of  a  an  and  evaluative  Sork  i n a n y . f i e l d of  insight  into  field.  In  particular  p a r t i c u l a r l y with a review Buskey  literature  the this  of program p l a n n i n g  literature,  ( 1 9 8 2 ) d e l i v e r an i m p o r t a n t  document a n d  examining  numerous  books,  monographs,  a r t i c l e s t h a t d e a l t w i t h p l a n n i n g models, Buskey concluded  author's  planning  process  indicates  in  review  models tend  areas  (1982)  a  than  given  Sork  t o represent the  should  approach  describing planning  and  and  how  the  program  situation.  The  o f Buskey and Sork i s unique because i t  important  d i s t i n c t i o n s among a v a i l a b l e m o d e l s  in  of t r a i n i n g , c o o p e r a t i v e e x t e n s i o n , and g e n e r a l  adult education. Sork  most  rather  i s done  literature  the  that  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r how one  planning  regard,  criteria.  After  (1982)  general  E x t e n s i o n models reviewed  included  Boone  by  et al. ( 1 9 7 1 ) ,  Buskey Boyle  and  (1965),  54  Iowa  State University  ( 1 9 7 4 ) , M i n n e s o t a ( 1 9 7 5 ) , and Pesson  (1966). From  this  review,  Buskey  models t r e a t program p l a n n i n g Examination  of  their  p l a n n i n g models, f o r model  is  the  treatment  in  a  analytical example,  comprehensive  planning process.  and  in  client  and  summaries  of the program  that  no  single  i t s t r e a t m e n t of the program  a s s e s s i n g needs, d e v e l o p i n g  Minnesota  context  few  manner.  M o s t e x t e n s i o n m o d e l s were r a t e d l o w  of  of  found that  comprehensive  indicates  and d e s i g n i n g e v a l u a t i o n p l a n s . University  Sork  in  objectives,  The m o d e l d e v e l o p e d by t h e  (1975) i s r a t e d h i g h i n terms of  analysis  and  design  of  evaluation  procedures. Although the extension  were  major  program  models  in  i d e n t i f i e d a n d r e v i e w e d by B u s k e y a n d S o r k  (1982), v a r i a t i o n s of t h e s e models e x i s t . models  common i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  and H a r r i s o n The  Closely  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Chambers ( 1 9 7 4 ) , a n d K o r t e n  Training  and  Visit  A clearly  related  e x t e n s i o n a r e t h o s e of B e n o r (1980).  System of Benor and  (1977) has t h e f o l l o w i n g e s s e n t i a l 1.  agricultural  Harrison  characteristics:  d e f i n e d number o f f a r m f a m i l i e s t o be  visited  by e a c h e x t e n s i o n a g e n t . 2.  A  sharply  defined  educational responsibility  f o r the  extension agent. 3.  A c l o s e guidance  and  supervision  of  each  extension  agent. 4.  A  specific  recommendation  p r a c t i c e s of s e l e c t e d  farmers.  for  improving  farming  55  5.  A  fixed  visit  of  contact  f a r m e r s a t a s e t d a t e and  time. In  a  strict  visit  system  conceptual i s nothing  interpretation,  more  a  set  translated  of  elementary  principles  of  organizing,  s u p e r v i s i n g , and i n s t r u c t i n g a d i s p e r s e d  staff,  management  than  t h e t r a i n i n g and  field  i . e . , i t only addresses administrative planning.  doing t h i s ,  i t views t h e r o l e of t h e e x t e n s i o n agent  s i m p l e f a r m management Although the  technical  s y s t e m seems u s e f u l farming.  The  and  on  extension  the  reorganization  example,  i n rural Ethiopia  farmers  and  ratio,  a  dry  land  other of  activities  resource  which  given  a  large  for  would  visits,  require a  allocation.  For  t h e r e a r e no w e l l d e v e l o p e d a l l low  i s about  t h e agent time  to  a n d management o f  time-table  Furthermore, the  as t o whether at  assumptions  in  i t depends  Its rigid  definite  certainty  programs  organization  sessions,  family  a  s y s t e m c a n be q u e s t i o n e d , t h e  Yet  efficient  services.  roads.  as  system has a b u i l t - i n mechanism f o r program  training  weather  theoretical  for extension  m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . extent  In  advisor.  behind t h e t r a i n i n g and v i s i t  farm  into procedures f o r  and  extension  agent  to  1:3500, a n d a l a c k o f  will  be  available  for  p l a c e seems t o r e d u c e t h e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the system. Although  widely  practiced  B a n g l a d e s h , t h e t r a i n i n g and v i s i t  in  India,  Nigeria,  system does not  have  and a  56  s e t of p r o c e d u r e s which definition  of  programs. than  The  address  objectives main f o c u s  questions  and  design  i s on p l a n  on p l a n n i n g a s o u n d p r o g r a m .  t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g and  visit  most a v a i l a b l e p l a n n i n g The Model  of  educational  implementation As a r e s u l t  system  is  not  rather  i t i s found  comparable  Implementation  Chambers ( 1 9 7 4 ) has  Management  and  report.  Chamber's  implementation  formulation rural  research.  p l a n n i n g and  model s t a r t s w i t h t h e  of o n g o i n g p r o g r a m s and  through  to  local  This  ends  (a) (c)  during  deals  with  a an  planning  with  plan  participation, evaluation,  model  i s important  (PIM)  t h r e e main components:  p r o g r a m m i n g e x e r c i s e , (b) a management m e e t i n g , and action  to  models.  P r o g r a m m i n g and  of  pertaining  and  administrative  the program  implementation  process. A Learning important  Process  characteristics:  (b) p l a n n i n g  with  people,  building with action. learning through  process  learning  e f f i c i e n c y , and o r g a n i z a t i o n and The  ( 1 9 8 0 ) has  error,  (c) l i n k i n g  knowledge  and  In i t s i d e a l i z e d  In each stage task,  expansion. how  three  (a) e m b r a c i n g  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the  approach to program development  three stages.  different  A p p r o a c h by K o r t e n  proceeds  the emphasis i s  successively  a  on e f f e c t i v e n e s s ,  T h i s m o d e l seems t o  deal  with  to deal with p i l o t p r o j e c t s .  a b o v e t h r e e m o d e l s i l l u s t r a t e what B u s k e y and  (1982) found i n t h e i r  on  literature  a v a i l a b l e m o d e l s seem n o t  review  w h i c h was  t o t r e a t program  Sork  t h a t most  planning  in  a  57  comprehensive  manner.  As a r e s u l t ,  the program development d e f i n i t i o n Yet  in  planning critical  the  model  absence  in  of  adult  none  of  adopted  any  them  in this  satisfy study.  comprehensive  program  e d u c a t i o n , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e and  t o a s k what we know  about  program  planning  and  what we h a v e l e a r n e d f r o m e x p e r i e n c e i n e x t e n s i o n p r o g r a m s . To a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , a c r i t i c a l models w i l l The  be p r e s e n t e d  following c r i t e r i a  m o d e l s t o be  section.  were  used  in  selecting  the  reviewed:  1.  t h e models a d d r e s s e d  2.  the  models  discussed  3.  in this  r e v i e w o f some o f t h e  were in  b a s i c program p l a n n i n g  relevant  previous  implications  f o r other  the  helped  models  to  situations  chapters  and  problems; in Ethiopia had  wider  countries;  to  identify  a  feasible planning  p r a c t i c e ; and 4.  t h e models had a w i d e r in a nonformal  implication  education  framework.  B a s e d on t h e s e c r i t e r i a , selected  f o r program p l a n n i n g  the  following  models  f o r f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n : Boone, D o l a n , a n d S h a r o n  (1971), Boyle University  of  (1981), Pesson Minnesota  (1966), Sork  (1975).  (n.d.)  and  out,  resulted  in  p r o g r a m f o r an a d u l t c l i e n t p. 2 ) .  the group"  the  Model i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s  d e f i n e d a s "a s e t o f s t e p s , t a s k s o r d e c i s i o n s w h i c h , carried  were  design (Buskey  when  o f an e d u c a t i o n a l and Sork,  1982,  58  Implicit  in  the  above  program development process activity.  As  indicated  sequence i n the regard  Sork  s t e p s and  f l o w of  (n.d.)  in  Table  the  (1971),  ( 1 9 6 6 ) i n c l u d e p l a n n i n g and  B a s i c P l a n n i n g Model  basic  planning  a t t e n t i o n and  steps  In  this  planning  the  model.  (1975),  and  steps  in  implementation  (n.d.).  which  and  Sork's  start  client  distinctive  clarity  in  orderly  7).  Sork's  One  i s an  U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a  t h e i r models (see Table  the  continuous  process.  implementation  Pesson  evaluation.  a  i n d i c a t e s o n l y the necessary  et  context  as  7, t h e r e  planning  Boone  planning  models i s t h a t  i s presented  does not c o n s i d e r al.  selected  with  system,  m o d e l has  the a n a l y s i s of and  ends  f e a t u r e of S o r k ' s  i t gives to  six  with  model i s the  evaluation  (see  Figure  6). Evaluation, according and  retroactive.  The  model and  is  of  clearly  important  forms of e v a l u a t i o n : f o r m a t i v e  s u m m a t i v e (end e v a l u a t i o n ) .  broadens  the u t i l i t y  accountability.  context,  its  the  two  (means e v a l u a t i o n )  doing  I t provides a p r a c t i c a l  and  through  a t t a c h i n g e v a l u a t i o n and steps.  indicates  in  so  the  model  of e v a l u a t i o n f o r d e c i s i o n making  client  planning  In  proactive  comprehensive  treatment  and  evaluation  t o t h i s model, i s both  needs,  problems,  means and  feedback t o  to  and  assess  opportunities each  of  its  59  T a b l e 7:  Step  Sork  Summary o f P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g  Pesson  U of Minn.  Steps  Boyle  Boone et  al .  Analysi s of P l a n n i n g Context Client System  Collect facts  Recognize forces  Formulate organization philosophy  Understand the s t r u c t u r e of organization  2  Identify needs  Analyze situation  Understand I d e n t i f y and c l a r extensive organii f y needs zation  Need a n a l ysis leader i n volvement  3  Develop Identi fy o b j e c t i v e s problems  4  Formulate D e c i d e on D e t e r m i n e o b j e c t i v e s n e e d s and instructional plan goals  5  Formulate administrative plan  6  Develop Execute summative a c t i o n evaluat ion plan  8  Develop p l a n of work  Identify and i n volve relevant people  Organize Speci fy and m a i n - n e e d s tain planning group Ident i fy problem, establish goal/objective  P l a n of work s e quencing  Planning Prepare and l o n g program r a n g e p r o - document gram  Activate the p l a n of work  Prepare annual p l a n of work  Evaluation and a c countability  Determine progress  Implement the p l a n  Reconsider  Evaluate and r e p o r t  Evaluate  60  SORK'S  BASIC  PLANNING MODEL  NEEDS  F 0 R M A T I V E  OBJECTIVES  L  ANALYZE PLANNING CONTEXT AND CLIENT SYSTEM  ¥  IDENTIFY DEVELOP  *  A  XT  I 0 N a  FORMULATE INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN FORMULATE ADMINISTRATIVE PLAN DEVELOP SUMMATIVE EVALUATION  PLAN  c  K  Figure  6: S o r k ' s B a s i c  Planning  Model  S o u r c e : S o r k , Thomas J . P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g a n d E v a l u a t i o n , Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  61  This b u i l t - i n the  planning  formative  system  and  step.  subpoints reveals  in  evaluation  alternatives planning  feedback mechanism i s the main i n p u t Sork's  and  feedback  consider  Critical  raised  by  the  model  verification,  and  checking  of p l a n n i n g  i n F i g u r e 6,  sequence  step-by-step  evaluation  provide  information  the The  each  seems  to  proper  feedback  a very  is  evaluation  and  feedback  necessary stated  produce  with  successively  According to  action  formative  monitoring  and  to  this and  that  e v a l u a t i o n and  development.  As  evaluation assesses  is  system.  by  This  a  to the  the w o r t h of the  to  sound and This  number  of  that  the  so  number o f d e c i s i o n s model, remedy  formative shortcomings  Conceptually  feedback i s e q u i v a l e n t  critical  indicated  the  verbs  the  of a p r o g r a m .  a s s e s s i n g program i n p u t s  information  spiral  sequence.  reduce  identify  d u r i n g the developmental stage Sork's  in  mechanism h e l p s  to  involves a decreasing  attempts  the  results.  process  evaluation  model  balance  interactive  planning  progresses.  the  r e c h e c k i n g ) , as i n d i c a t e d  a l t e r n a t i v e s and/or c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  it  of  revision,  and  remaining  as  each  s t e p of the  d e c i s i o n s at each s t e p appear to f o l l o w a mechanism  at  m o d e l , d e c i s i o n s a r e made f r o m of  model  examine  factors  for  ( c h e c k i n g and  to Sork's  through  to  f o r c o n s i s t e n c y and  With such  interrelated  program.  allows  the model p r e s e n t s  According  input  helps  important  under  that  process  The  s c r u t i n y of t h e m o d e l and  Sork  program development.  model.  of  and  gathering  effective  to of  program  model,  summative  f i n a l program  output.  62  Sork's evaluation  model, i n a d d i t o n t o broadening  i n the p r o c e s s , a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h e importance  administrative  Pesson  (1966).  process  as  Pesson r e p r e s e n t s t h e program  circular.  eight steps  four comprise through  the  defining  action  eight.  objectives.  program implementation appears  In  situation  phase  phase. the  from t h e c o l l e c t i o n  existing  process.  Pesson's  model  ( s e e F i g u r e 7 ) , o f w h i c h s t e p s one  overlap i n step  the  development  This i l l u s t r a t e s h i s d e f i n i t i o n of  t h e program p l a n n i n g  seven  progresses  of  planning.  program p l a n n i n g as a continuous has  t h e u t i l i t y of  to  and  through  steps  five  The two p h a s e s t e n d t o first  phase  the  model  of f a c t s and t h e a n a l y s i s of problem  identification  and  The p r o g r a m a c t i o n p h a s e d e a l s and a s s e s s i n g p r o g r e s s .  Step  with eight  t o a c t as a b r i d g e between t h e p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n  phases. The  most d i s t i n c t i v e  g i v e s maximum a t t e n t i o n extension  program  f e a t u r e of t h i s model i s t h a t i t  to  client  development  deals with developing effective this  Pesson  client of  appears  participation  involvement  context  process.  i n the  As a r e s u l t , i t  a d v i s o r y groups.  t o address  In  doing  the v a r i o u s dimensions  s u c h a s t h e "what", "who",  and  of  "how"  i n the process.  P e s s o n i s more c o n c e r n e d the  participation  of  rural  with the s o c i a l  extension.  action within  As a r e s u l t  t h e model  63  Evaluation  Evaluation  F i g u r e 7: The E x t e n s i o n P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t Source:  Process  P e s s o n , Lynn L. (1966). E x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f c l i e n t e l e . I n H.C. S a n d e r (Ed.),  Cliffs,  The  cooperative  N.J.:  extension  Prentice-Hall.  service.  Englewood  64  requires  indepth  a n a l y s i s of t h e s o c i a l  system.  I t further  considers  planning  as a " f u n c t i o n of democracy"  (p. 102).  According  to  model,  situation  requires  this  studies  of  assessing  clientele,  a  given  suggestions  from  subject  m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t s , and s t u d i e s of c o n t e m p o r a r y l i f e . approach  is  important  c l i e n t e l e and t h e i r The  model  for  behavior  the p r e c i s e  considers  evaluation  I t e m p h a s i z e s c o l l e c t i o n and  and  role  for  of p l a n n i n g  of  as  a  continuous  analysis  of  data,  committees as a c r i t i c a l  factor  e v a l u a t i n g a program.  U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a program p l a n n i n g Figure  8).  educational result,  (1975).  social,  f o r c e s form the  the  T h i s model  economic, base  model  starts  One  distinctive  of  (see  extension  step  Figure  8)  two  with  history,  indicates  i n n o v a t i o n , and c r e a t i v i t y  and  the  of the  As  program  steps.  planning,  program a c t i o n .  while  organization.  Step  understanding  of  the  policies,  organizational  In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s ,  required extension  S t e p s one t h r o u g h steps  a  i s that  flexibility, organization.  S t e p s one a n d two u n d e r p i n t h e e n t i r e p r o g r a m p r o c e s s . model has e i g h t  and  identifying  f e a t u r e of t h e model  r o l e s , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . also  model.  by r e c o g n i z i n g  deals  organization  objectives,  the  political,  this  g i v e s due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o e x t e n s i o n  two  represents  p r o c e s s a s a w h e e l r o t a t i n g on a b a s e ( s e e The  these forces. it  identification  patterns.  process. the  This  four  deal  f i v e through eight deal  The with with  65  Figure  8: M i n n e s o t a  Source: U n i v e r s i t y Extension  E x t e n s i o n Program Development P r o c e s s  of M i n n e s o t a . Program  (1975).  Development  Process,  Minnesota Part  1  and  2. S p e c i a l R e p o r t No. 4 7 , A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Service, St. Paul: Author.  66  Boyle  (1981).  comprehensive practice  The  by  the  s y n t h e s i s of a v a i l a b l e p l a n n i n g t h e o r i e s  and  makes  models of Table  Boyle's 7.  greater  model  detail  provided  different  from  the other  B o y l e ' s model has s i x b a s i c  15 r e l e v a n t p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s  upon w h i c h  program development p r o c e s s r e s t s .  These  steps  Boyle b e l i e v e s the 15 c o n c e p t s a r e :  1.  Establishing a philosophical basis for planning  2.  Situation  3.  Involvement  of p o t e n t i a l  4.  Levels  intellectual  analysis  of  potential  clientele and  social  development  Determining  6.  R e c o g n i t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l  7.  Criteria  8.  Degree of r i g i d i t y / f l e x i b i l i t y  9.  L e g i t i m i z a t i o n a n d s u p p o r t w i t h power  program  objectives  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g program  11. I d e n t i f y i n g  instructional  13. O b t a i n i n g r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y  situation  experiences  priorities  t o support t h e program  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s , r e s u l t s and/or  15. C o m m u n i c a t i n g  The  programs  design  e f f e c t i v e promotional  14. D e t e r m i n i n g  constraints  priorities  of planned  10. S e l e c t i n g a n d o r g a n i z i n g l e a r n i n g  decision  of  clientele  5.  12. U t i l i z i n g  and  the  impact  v a l u e of t h e program t o a p p r o p r i a t e  makers.  first  n i n e of t h e above  the p l a n n i n g stage, the next  four  15 c o n c e p t s to  r e f e r more t o  implementation,  and  67  the  final  two  approach  each  effect  evaluation  emphasizes  understanding of  to  a  and  more  reporting.  theoretical  of p l a n n i n g r a t h e r t h a n  step  of  the  i t p r o v i d e s an  Boyle's  analysis  the s p e c i f i c  details  program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  important  conceptual  and  To  this  understanding  of  program p l a n n i n g . The clear  m o d e l has  s i x basic  identification  learner,  and  progresses  the  from  a n a l y s i s , and Boyle  development  philosophical  finally  (1981)  Understanding and  a the It  situational  to evaluation. agricultural  but h i s a p p r o a c h c o v e r s a l l f a c e t s of programs.  The  main  high  curriculum  problem  demand  theory,  and  h i s a p p r o a c h t o n e e d , d e s i g n and  it  with  puts  on  sociology. evaluation,  h i s a s s u m p t i o n s on c h a n g e r e q u i r e s a d v a n c e work i n t h e  above  Boone,  disciplines.  Dolan,  o f Boone et from  to  seems t o draw h e a v i l y upon  education  psychology,  requires  process.  background  B o y l e ' s m o d e l a p p e a r s t o be t h e social  and  of o n e ' s b e l i e f s a b o u t e d u c a t i o n , program  extension experience, nonformal  assumptions  al.  and  Shearon  has  s i x basic essential  understanding  e v a l u a t i o n and  the  (1971).  The  conceptual  steps  which  schema range  e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n to program  accountability.  The  model  operates  under  f o u r a s s u m p t i o n s which a l l r e v o l v e around t h e r o l e of a d u l t educator.  68  Each s t e p s p e c i f i e s t h e p l a n n i n g system brings and  together  organizing  extension that their  work.  learning  One  activities  important  i n d i c a t e s how  involvement.  to  to i t s clients  involvement  (see Figure  through 9).  essential  model i s  reach  and  clients links  development  get  an e x t e n s i o n  need a n a l y s i s and l e a d e r  The  other  f e a t u r e of  model i s t h a t i t v a l u e s t h e r o l e of t h e a d u l t program  to  f e a t u r e of t h i s  The s e c o n d h e a d i n g  institution  the  and  a more e d u c a t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k f o r d e f i n i n g the  i tclearly  required  process,  this  educator  more s o t h a n  in  the other  models.  Similarities With except  and D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e P r o g r a m m i n g M o d e l s  regard  those  to  of Sork  the  planning  (n.d.) and B o y l e  specifically  f o r e x t e n s i o n work.  programming  model  education  in  programming for  The  to  modern  Sork's  the  its utility  (1981), a r e designed  concept  urban  model,  of g e n e r a l  setting.  That  adult i s ,  t o t h e c o n t i n u i n g demand  through  i t s action  u n d e r any p l a n n i n g  basic similarity  a l l models,  Boyle appears t o l i n k h i s  i s ; seen a s a r e s p o n s e  education.  indicates  more  the  context,  verbs,  context.  of these models i s  that  a l l of  them h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s i n common: ( a ) p r o b l e m a t i c need  identification,  (c) e x p l i c i t to  or i m p l i c i t  be a w o r d i n g  (Pesson,  1966),  (b) d e f i n i n g evaluation.  difference,  the  the "recognize  objectives, Although  "analysis  of  and  t h e r e seems situation"  f o r c e s " (Minnesota,  1975),  69  The institution and its renewal processes Understanding and comm i t m e n t to the s t r u c t u r e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n (i.e.. Cooperative Extension , Service): • Philosophy • Objectives . Roles • Relationships K n o w l e d g e a b l e about and skilled in management: • Staffing • Staff d e v e l o p m e n t • Supervision • Accountability Understanding o f and c o m m i t m e n t to a tested conceptual framework for p r o g r a m m i n g : • L i n k a g e of institution to its p u b l i c s t h r o u g h need analysis and leader involvement. • Program design and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n tail o r e d to t h e needs o f Extension's publics.  Linking the institution to its publics through need analysis and leader involvement  S t u d y , analysis, a n d m a p ping of county and/or area. Identification and analysis o f s u b s y s t e m s w i t h i n countv and/or  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f target subsystems.  Program design and implementation Long-range program  Plans of work  Specification of m a c r o needs. Delineation of macro objectives. Designation of strategies for obtaining objectives.  Identifying a n d interfacing w i t h l e a d e n of target subsystems.  Delineating, ordering, and  sequencing micro needs. Specifying instructional level objectives. Selecting and organizing leamer activities.  Activating plans of work  Program evalua tion and accountability  M o b i l i z i n g and utilizing resources.  Determining program outputs.  M o n i t o r i n g the teachinglearning procesi.  .Assessing p r o g r a m inputs.  R e i n f o r c i n g learners.  Utilizing evaluative findings for p r o gram revisions, institutional renewal, and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y to publics, funding sources, a n d to the profession.  Revising and redirecting activities based on feedback.  Formulating p l a n s for evaluation.  Formation of leadership systems r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f target subsystems. Needs identification and a n a l y s i s s p e c i f i c to target s u b s y s t e m s . R e l a t i n g needs o f target s u b s y s t e m to the larger system a n d identifying m a c r o needs c o m m o n to t w o or more subsystems.  Understanding of and  commitment to continuous institutional renewal.  F i g u r e 9: P r o g r a m m i n g i n t h e C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e : A C o n c e p t u a l Scheme Source:  Boone, E . J . , D o l a n , Programming  R.J., and Shearon,  in the Cooperative  Extension  R.W.  (1971).  Service:  Conceptual Scheme R a l e i g h , N.C.: N o r t h C a r o l i n a A g r i c u l t u r a l ' E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e P u b l i c a t i o n 72.  A  70  and  the  "analysis  ( S o r k , n.d.)  of p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and  a l l seem t o be e q u i v a l e n t and  client  serve  system"  the  same  purpose. The total and  most v i s i b l e  similarity  agreement of the a u t h o r s objectives.  Boyle  of the f i v e models i s on t h e n e e d t o d e f i n e  (1981)  and  Pesson  the goals  (1966),  in  p a r t i c u l a r , c o n s i d e r the p h i l o s o p h i c a l concerns  of  and  programming  the r a t i o n a l e  process,  for involving  w h i l e the Sork  l e a r n e r s i n the  ( n . d . ) and  d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n f o r m a t i v e and A  clear  distinction  evaluation help feedback.  to  Minnesota  (1975),  e v a l u a t i o n i s an According  thereby in  underscoring  the  provides  measure/output  in  within  of  early  probable  to the U n i v e r s i t y  and  the  of  planner  then  the p r o c e s s "  make  (p.  40),  of f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n  e v a l u a t i o n reduces  result  types  i n d i c a t o r of  process  importance  Formative  t h a t poor p l a n n i n g w i l l necessary  the  d u r i n g r a t h e r than a f t e r  a g i v e n model.  and  two  formative evaluation permits  " t o a p p r a i s e each element of adjustments  these  programs  weaknesses or impediments.  (1975) models  summative e v a l u a t i o n .  between  modify  Formative  Minnesota  planning  failure  to  the  chance  produce  a l i m i t e d amount o f  a  time  b e c a u s e o f t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g number o f d e c i s i o n s t o be made. The  Sork  attention  and  t o c l i e n t and  Boone et of Minnesota The  other  Minnesota  al.  models are a l s o s i m i l a r  context  (1971), Pesson  in their  analysis. ( 1 9 6 6 ) , and  (1975) p i n p o i n t the n e c e s s a r y c o n s i s t e n t s i m i l a r i t y of the  the plan  University of  work.  f i v e models i s the  71  concentration  on t h e p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g p h a s e w h i c h  a concern f o r c a r e f u l Visible  design.  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e models a r e a p p a r e n t  f o r the p a t t e r n s of emphasis g i v e n planning process.  than  to  The d i f f e r e n c e s  t o p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g seem t o be rather  of  substance.  each  Pesson  participation. models  are  (1966)  more  a  matter  their  example,  Boyle  and  and Sork  while others indicate  to  program  need  which  degree  programmer to  client  the  the  identification,  implementation.  e m p h a s i z e more c a r e f u l the  For  planning  annual  work  i n t h e c a s e o f Boone et al . a n d  P e s s o n seem t o be t h e r e s u l t o f s o c i a l  between  the  ( 1 9 8 1 ) and  the  purely  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and  Need i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  brief,  of  dedicated  approaches  objectives,  In  of  For example, Boyle  is  of  The most p r o n o u n c e d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n  defining  plan.  step  i n emphasis and a p p r o a c h  Boone et al . (1971) e m p h a s i z e t h e r o l e while  reflects  analysis.  a b o v e s t a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s a p p e a r t o be  t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f t h e a u t h o r s and t h e p u r p o s e f o r each  model  was  developed.  A l t h o u g h most o f t h e s e  models t r y t o i n d i c a t e t h e v a l u e of e v a l u a t i o n planning,  in  program  o n l y t h e Sork and U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a models  o f f e r a comprehensive t r e a t m e n t of e v a l u a t i o n .  E v a l u a t i o n of the Models The  r a n g e o f s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s d i s p l a y e d  by  t h e f i v e m o d e l s e x a m i n e d i n d i c a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f numerous approaches t o planning.  T h i s makes i t n e c e s s a r y t o  choose  72  between models or a s p e c t s specific an  needs.  The  a i d t o making t h i s In  two  practice,  of m o d e l s i n o r d e r  of  analysis  which  have c o n c e n t r a t e d  moves  t o e v a l u a t i o n and  the  first  (see T a b l e  7).  This  from  client  reconsideration  and  is  t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l method of p r o g r a m  Bruce  (1964)  and  Chambers is  (1974)  contend  inefficient.  Bruce  i n the  1.  formation  of l a y l e a d e r ,  2.  observing  and  3.  determining  4.  s t a t e m e n t of o b j e c t i v e s , and  5.  p r e p a r a t i o n o f p l a n of  (1964) s t a t e s generally  describing situations,  p r o b l e m s and  t h e u n i v e r s a l use results  assigning  priorities,  work.  of a  lay  advisory  i n an e n t i r e w a s t e o f  i s a preoccupation  inefficient  because:  committee  often  time;  2.  there  3.  t h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e s t a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h i n g s t o be  with objectives;  r a t h e r t h a n a s t h i n g s t o be 4.  this  following order:  B r u c e c o n s i d e r s t h e s e methods t o be 1.  by  planning.  that  t h a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l methods of. p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g are performed  context  called  (1964)  method  as  on  Bruce  conventional  one's  choice.  planners  planning,  f i t  f o l l o w i n g discussion i s presented  or t h r e e s t e p s of program p l a n n i n g  kind  to  done  accomplished;  t h e r e seems t o be an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a c c u m u l a t i n g masses of s i t u a t i o n a l d a t a w i l l  satisfy  large  the o b j e c t i v e s ;  and 5.  a l s o an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l l good p l a n n i n g w i l l s i n g l e process  (i.e.,  problem — s o l u t i o n ) (p.  follow a 222-223).  73  Chambers  (1974)  indicated  his  c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g m e t h o d s and Table  7 by d e l i b e r a t e l y  steps are l i s t e d  and  r e v e r s i n g the  criticism s t e p s as  of  shown i n  sequence i n which  the  stated that:  a more logical order might start with plan formulation, leading into programming and implementation. But i t has been p r e c i s e l y the l o g i c of s t a r t i n g w i t h p l a n formulation that has generated the status of unimplemented and u n i m p l e m e n t a b l e p l a n s w h i c h m o u l d e r , f a d e and feed termites on t h e s h e l v e s o f o f f i c e s t h r o u g h o u t E a s t A f r i c a (p. 33). Although  Bruce  and  Chambers  criticized  the  c o n v e n t i o n a l approach to p l a n n i n g , Bruce's  main  focuses  involvement  on  what  can  participation.  be  termed  client  to  Bruce,  According  farmers/adults  in  order  to  get  involvement  a s a means o f t e a c h i n g  functional  relation  to  support  them  to the p r o d u c t i o n  to  the c o n v e n t i o n a l method  reasons.  to  is  divert  from p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n which program  resources  activities  planning.  generated  development  more  from  where  he  his  The  observed  not  given anything  rhetoric" to  do.  or  to  plan  has  for  ( p . 89)  no  major  and  less  two  main  resources part  reason  of  seems t o have  experience  nothing  of  developed  in  that p a r t i c i p a t i o n  was  use  which i s the design  other  research  program development committee "echo w i t h h o l l o w  the  difficult  of program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  administrative been  to  involve  some a t t e n t i o n and  consumes  or  of a sound program.  Chambers c r i t i c i z e d One  criticism  more  rural of  the  than  an  where p a r t i c i p a n t s were  74  Vanderberg Chambers not  (1964),  (1974),  i n agreement w i t h Bruce  states  program.  involved  According  to  help  develop  P o w e r s (1966) t h e  i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of l a y people  committee  and  t h a t a c o l l e c t i o n of a d u l t s does  n e c e s s a r i l y make an a b l e c o m m i t t e e t o  sound  (1965)  on  the  a  routines planning  are:  a t t e n d i n g t h r e e or receiving  f o u r m e e t i n g s of t h e  information  concentrated  in  set of f a c t s ,  the  committee,  usual  manner  figures, etc.,  ( p . 13)  (a and  f inally, forgetting, expect  the  the  issue  committee  which to  makes  it  recommend  impossible  priority  for  to a  program. The method  criticisms of  program  presented planning  against  the  conventional  i n d i c a t e the dilema  in adult  education  w h i c h emerges d u r i n g program development  on  question  of  Studies  client  participation  undertaken to increase educators' to  promote  participation  indicate l i t t l e its  basic  (Brower, and  1964).  planners'  capacities  i n e x t e n s i o n program development  a g r e e m e n t on what p a r t i c i p a t i o n  dimensions  the  (what  kind,  who,  is and  or how  on of  participation). A  critical  examination  of  Boyle  (1981) i n d i c a t e s a  r e d u c t i o n o f t h e a b o v e p r o b l e m by  pinpointing  involvement  of  also provides  a  potential  clientele.  r o l e t o be p l a y e d  by  Boyle  participants  and  a  definite  congruency  of  75  method o f  involvement with resources  reduces  the  whole  planning  to the  of those  t o be  Boyle  (1981) and  planners  take  of p o t e n t i a l  Sork  participation "How  i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g  and  participation  of  following question:  differentiated?" educators  notion  utilized.  Sork  in  w e l l are process  (n.d.) program  the  roles  defined  ( n . d . ) seem t o  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the  participants  in  the  and help  proper  planning  process. Boone el of  al.  participants  of those  who  Minnesota  (1971) i n d i c a t e t h e but  d i d not  i n t e n s i v e involvement  specifically  p a r t i c i p a t e in planning.  '(1975)  model  specific  r o l e d e s i r e d i n each approach.  appears  to  an  University  does  not  important  area  of d i f f e r e n c e i n  lie  the  awareness  educational planning. (1971),  but  in  According  educational  of  consists  of  i n t e r r e l a t e d major subsystems — e d u c a t i o n a l systems and  t e a c h i n g and  l e a r n i n g systems.  i n most e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , neglected. of  the  In  models  administrative  regard,  are  explicit  planning.  T a b l e 7 seem t o h a v e f o c u s e d minimal  state  the  the  models  Van two  to  in  Gendt closely  administration They s t a t e t h a t  administrative  this  of  subsystems  t o H e i f n e r and  system  roles  the approaches used  citizens  other  planning  The  involve  The  in  discusses  d e f i n e the  systems  are  e x c e p t f o r S o r k ' s m o d e l , none in  questions  related  to  Most of the models d i s p l a y e d i n on  i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning  e m p h a s i s on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g .  As a  with  result,  the models, except f o r Sork's b a s i c p l a n n i n g model, f a i l  to  76  address  the  manpower  implementation  of  administrative  and  facility  the  program.  planning  particularly  requirements  in  i n extension  The  poor  that  'supervision'"  field  and  (p. 55). of  programs,  almost  Moris  non-existent  (1981) i n d i c a t e s  educational  uncoordinated.  This  u n d e f i n e d and e r r a t i c  administration  the  process.  program p l a n n i n g  of  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c a n be s e e n f r o m  administration  disorganized  neglect  educational  Chambers ( 1 9 7 4 ) who i n d i c a t e d " e r r a t i c or  for  programs  i s b a s i c a l l y due t o  not a n t i c i p a t e d  during  Chambers ( 1 9 7 4 ) a n d L e o n a r d ( 1 9 7 7 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , cases  in  Africa  administrative quantifiable educational  planning targets  The  Boyle  where  resulted  in  f o r a l l areas. be  without regard  the the  cited  neglect  of  setting  of  As a c o n s e q u e n c e most  homogenized,  rigidified,  f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t a r e a s and  r e q u i r i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t e d treatment. models  priority  Asia  programs tend t o  and s t a n d a r d i z e d clienteles  and  is  e x a m i n e d a p p e a r e d t o have no m e c h a n i s m o f  s e t t i n g f o r problems (1965,  1981)  stated  identified. that  priorities  e s t a b l i s h e d f o r problems i d e n t i f i e d , given.  Boone  Minnestoa  (1975) g i v e  for p r i o r i t y  et  al.  (1971)  no s p e c i f i c  s e t t i n g when u s i n g  For  b u t no  and  the  criteria  their  example,  should  mechanism University or  respective  be was of  strategies models.  77  S e l e c t i o n of Models According  t o E. E l m a g h r a b y  (cited  i n Kulp,  1970)  any  model  r e q u i r e s a r i g o r o u s a d h e r e n c e t o p u r p o s e a n d must be  simple  enough so t h a t  serve  i t c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d  a s an a i d t o t h o u g h t  t h e p r o b l e m , a s an a i d t o prediction,  and  instruction. planning  as  Having  must  communication,  as  a guide t o the design considered  some  a  tool  of  used  following  a  a workable model. criteria  set  of  the  of  functions i t can  principles for  Kulp (1970), f o r good  for  of t r a i n i n g and  p e r f o r m a n d some o f t h e d y s f u n c t i o n s  selection  to  i n h i g h l i g h t i n g the s t r u c t u r e of  d i s p l a y , one c a n now e s t a b l i s h  the  and s t u d i e d  f o r example,  planning  model  selection: 1.  Consideration  of a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  2.  issues  3.  broad  4.  easy  5.  c o m p l e t e n e s s , and t e a c h a b i l i t y .  identified,  evaluation,  of a l t e r n a t i v e s i m p l i e s the  system t o provide  available. planning  Issues  and  Easy e v a l u a t i o n  and  presentation  a u t h o r i t i e s and  ability  of  e x p l i c i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l options  identified  procedure  decisions. format  and b o t t l e n e c k s ,  participation,  Consideration the  options  learners.  indicates the a b i l i t y  format  to  focus  r e f e r s to the to This  speed  on  ability  the  criterion  of  the  the b i g of  the  of  the  requires  the  work  78  h i g h l i g h t i n g o f main elements of  f a c t o r s and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  i n the system.  t h e model  decisions  to  cover  necessary  also requires summarized  Completeness a l l planning  compactness  Given these c r i t e r i a  model 1.  compared  of  t o other  model  Completeness  so  i t can  be  presentation.  with  I t clearly mirrors  the  emphasis  on  training  models, Sork's b a s i c  in  planning  complexity  of  the  system  i t  to represent.  I t i s s h o r t , c l e a r and f r e e from q u a l i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e s , and c a n be u s e d i n s h o r t workshops  3.  the  and a l l  (n.d.) has t h e f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t i e s :  . claims 2.  activities  t o g e t a c t i o n underway.  on one page f o r s h o r t  extension,  includes the a b i l i t y  and  seminars  program  development.  It  unique  is  neglected place  t r a i n i n g programs  in  to  revealing  i n most m o d e l s .  for  courses,  i m p r o v e t h e management o f  the  complex  The model  administrative  and  confers  planning  problems the r i g h t  in  program  development. 4.  Its  format  criteria  for  and good  presentation planning  satisfies  model  the  selection  above (Kulp,  1970). 5.  Although  Table  7  displays  the  agreement  models  f o r t h e n e c e s s i t y o f need  assessment,  paper  by S o r k s u g g e s t s t h e m a r k e t t e s t ,  mandate, t h e t r e n d a n a l y s i s , and t h e a s a l t e r n a t i v e s t o need  assessment.  among t h e a  draft  the compelling  problem  analysis  79  6.  The  m o d e l a l s o g i v e s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o n e e d  so  that  one  does  not  have t o w a i t  need a s s e s s m e n t t o d e v e l o p 7.  I t a l s o s p e c i f i e s the  f o r the r e s u l t  The  model  with  r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and  with reasonable One Sork's how  each  m i g h t be is  subpoint  step  is  i t s requirement with  The  subpoints  model s a t i s f y with  (1983).  As  researcher  for  These  each  a used  judge  The  are  possible criteria  personnel.  Provided  able  t o judge each  condition,  p l a n n i n g model c a n  there  is  a  be u s e d w i t h i t s  t o judge program c h o i c e . raised  result Sork's  on w h i c h t o b a s e  by  Sork under each s t e p i n h i s  p r o v i d e d by K u l p  criteria  p l a n n i n g c a r r i e d out  or  to  s u b p o i n t s as  personnel  time  the c r i t e r i a the  easily  criteria  step.  for trained  at a p a r t i c u l a r  s u b p o i n t s as c r i t e r i a  standard  completed.  trained  base t h a t Sork's  agree  be m a s t e r e d  p r a c t i c a l advantage of  problem w i t h u s i n g these  used  such  effort.  i n the subpoints  anticipated  as  participation.  p l a n n i n g model i s t h a t i t s u p p l i e s c r i t e r i a  well  sound  s u b p o i n t s can  ready-made t h e o r e t i c a l and  indicated  it  its  of  a program.  doesn't s i m p l y s t a t e t h e need f o r c l i e n t 8.  assessment  grid  of  developed  these  model  by S m i t h  as of  a the  also  et  justifications,  (n.d.)  judgements  ( 1 9 7 0 ) and  al . this  comparative quality  i n the E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e .  of  80  Summary In t h e process searching  of  a  survey  the  literature  was p r o v i d e d .  the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  on e x t e n s i o n  w i t h a c a s e f r o m t h e U.S.A.  The i m p a c t o f education  In doing  so  was an  improving illustrated  attempt  t o i n d i c a t e how t h e i m p r o v e m e n t a n d r e f i n e m e n t  program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s achieve  and  f o r a w o r k a b l e m o d e l , a p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e r o l e  of program p l a n n i n g  made  of  a high standard  presented  important  emphasize  the  has enabled of l i v i n g .  concepts  necessity  of  e x t e n s i o n methods w i t h t h e  American  of the  farmers  to  Furthermore, the review  from  Learner  (1958)  a s s o c i a t i n g the borrowing  ability  was  to  adapt  a  that of  workable  p l a n n i n g model t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Five extension  different were  models  relevant  to justify  agricultural  d e s c r i b e d and t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses  of e a c h m o d e l were i d e n t i f i e d . able  to  the selection  to use as a standard  As a r e s u l t ,  t h e study  o f a p l a n n i n g model  i n assessing  planning  was  suitable  activities  in  Ethiopia. The  next  chapter  will  examine  the  m e c h a n i s m u s e d by t h e E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n  program Service.  planning  81  CHAPTER FOUR  A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF PLANNING AND The  purpose  planning  of  practices  Minimum  Package  i s t o examine  i n comprehensive  and  section of t h echapter  projects  The c h a p t e r  coordination  process  objectives,  chapter  Programs.  current state of planning  this  COORDINATION  will  program  and  consider the  i n the extension  program  the  implementation.  program The f i n a l  d i s c u s s e s major problems r e l a t e d  target  determination,  to  organizational  e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and program c o o r d i n a t i o n .  Program Planning Although five-year planning  this eraf e l l  development mechanism  agricultural  within  plans, in  science  From 1952 t o 1966  place  Five-Year  there to  was  Development  and no  acknowledged  (1973)  that  the  P l a n was a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s a n d  ( I m p e r i a l E t h i o p i a n Government and Eshetu  modern  In fact, the  t h a t no s y s t e m a t i c p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t m e c h a n i s m  Assefa  second  organized  introduce  t o Ethiopian peasants.  E t h i o p i a n governments of t h e time first  the f i r s t  (1969),  (IEG),  was  used  1962).  Cohen ( 1 9 7 4 ) ,  and  Pausewang  r e p o r t t h a t t h e r e was no v i s i b l e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e d  during this period.  Although  Huffnagel  that  v a r i o u s measures, such as f i e l d  model  farms  production,  f o r livestock, were  taken  (1966)  trials  indicates  f o r c r o p s , and  and m o d e r n i z a t i o n  of  sheep  by t h e E t h i o p i a n g o v e r n m e n t ,  there  82  i s no i n d i c a t i o n  t h a t t h e s e measures h e l p e d d e v e l o p a sound  extension service. "there  were  priorities  Stommes a n d S e l e s h i  no  and  programs  policies  planning period"  to  (1978) s t a t e d  establishing be  that  agricultural  implemented  during  the  (p. 25).  Program Planning From 1967 to 1980  Program Planning P r a c t i c e i n Comprehensive P r o j e c t s Prior priority period  to  1967,  farmer  education  was  given  by t h e g o v e r n m e n t e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e .  (1952-1966) a l l  out c e n t r a l l y  extension  activities  low  During  this  were  carried  i n A d d i s A b a b a , b u t p r o g r a m s were i m p l e m e n t e d  at s i t e s  175 t o 1000 k i l o m e t r e s f r o m  result,  program  Addis  implementation suffered  resource a l l o c a t i o n . adequately  a  reflect  Above a l l ,  such  Ababa.  from  a  As  a  insufficient  system  t h e r e a l needs of i t s c l i e n t s  d i d not (Heimpel,  1973). In  an  a t t e m p t t o c h a n g e f r o m a c e n t r a l i z e d t o a more  decentralized organized  planning  within  process,  several  new  comprehensive  l a r g e s t o f w h i c h was t h e C h i l a l o Unit  a  approach  was  projects,  the  Agricultural  Development  (CADU). The C h i l a l o  Agricultural  Development  Unit's  (CADU)  p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g m e c h a n i s m c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f i t s main a s s u m p t i o n . and  means  Implicit  i n the project's plans,  programs  o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n  83  that  the  target  population realized  change and a c c e p t e d accomplished marketing  by  the p r o p o s i t i o n that  through  This  provided  program p l a n n i n g which  was  asserts  this  According  second  farmers,  of  improved  prelude  towards  of  marked  constraints.  strong  that  do  not  belief  "there fully  i n Galbraith's  c a n be no e f f e c t i v e participate"  (1962,  t o S t a h l ( 1 9 7 3 ) a n d CADU ( 1 9 6 7 ) ,  aspect  participation  best  o f CADU's s t r a t e g y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f the  advance i f t h e masses 46).  a  was  e x t e n s i o n package programs i n a c o u n t r y  other aspect  proposal  change  establishment  s e r i o u s economic and s o c i a l The  p.  the  facilities.  instituting  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of  which  the  local  placed  emphasis  people,  particularly  i t is  on  the small  which from t h e Swedish p o i n t of view j u s t i f i e d t h e  program and Swedish involvement Based conducted  on an  t h e above analysis  i n t h e program.  assumption,  the  Swedish  team  of t h e p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t  system, and f o r m u l a t e d a  workable  agricultural  extension  program.  seemed t o h a v e c l e a r l y  followed a  The  analysis  s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g model  but  institutions  T h a t i s , CADU o r i g i n a l l y  in Ethiopia.  missed  w i t h a m i s c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e d i f f e r e n t the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota a n a l y s i s underestimated relationship. critically educational  It  Model  of  started  F o r example, t h e  of the  landowner-tenant  appears that the a n a l y s i s d i d not  examine t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y services  assessment  forces implicated i n  (1975).  the nature  also  the  provided  of  local  health  by o t h e r a g e n c i e s .  and  Except  84  for  the  underestimation  of  t h e impact of t h e landowner-  tenant r e l a t i o n s h i p and a w e l l developed CADU  had  made  objectives The to  step  i n broad  bring  by i n i t i a l l y  were:  about  economic  and  social  work, and  to  methods  toward  verify staff  (CADU,  strategy these  providing  by CADU t o d i r e c t  (see F i g u r e  incentives,  10)  credit,  through education.  inputs,  Land  with and  economic  r e f o r m was d e s i g n e d i n conducive  to  using  grain technology i n Ethiopia.  (1980)  (initiators  have  of  underestimated  the the  stated  first  that  planned  various  because  farmers c l e a r l y important.  the  peasant a g r i c u l t u r e , identified.  situation  addition, such as  Selshi  Swedish  extension  and team  program)  forces operating i n Ethiopia,  i d e n t i f i e d problems In  and the  p l a n n i n g m e c h a n i s m seemed t o be b o t h  creative  and t o  started  farm  A l t h o u g h B e t r u ( 1 9 7 5 ) , Cohen ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Stommes  of  i t s efforts  The s t r a t e g y was t o l e a d t o  s t r a t e g y t o c r e a t e an e n v i r o n m e n t  improved  to  1967).  objectives  market  development  of a g r i c u l t u r a l development  designed  extension education.  as  development  district  development  The  the  stating i t s  g i v e t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n an i n c r e a s e d awareness  train  the  forward  bureaucracy,  terms.  objectives  Chilalo to  a  local  satisfactory  and  d i a g n o s i s conducted  with  which t h e  other lack  of  farmers  limiting farm  saw  factors i n  credit,  were  85  EXPECTED TENURE CRE MARKETS  LAND REFORM  HIT  INPUTS  ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  E X T E NS I O N AG R ARIA N SE R V I C E S  Figure  10: B a s i c E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t S t r a t e g y U t i l i z e d t h e CADU P r o j e c t i n C h i l a l o A w r a j a  S o u r c e : C o h e n , J.M. ( 1 9 7 4 . R u r a l Change i n E t h i o p i a : The C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t . Economic Development  and  Cultural  Change,  22(4),  580-614.  by  86  The to  continuous evaluation  correct  unanticipated  chronic.  A  good  discontinuation evaluation  stopped after  the  peasant two  The  the  c o l l e c t i o n and  evaluation  The  terms.  key  that  experiences  of  involvement  of  distribution  of  to  (Betru,  the  in  Agriculture's  program  implementation employing  planners the  local  case  is  rich elite  eviction  1975).  As  of  i t s objectives was  the  after  the  peasants  by also  from p e a s a n t s  a r e s u l t of  among  the  above  i n more o r  less  a l s o u s e d as a means t o  a t t a i n m e n t of  project  goals  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f CADU's p r o g r a m drew  upon  earlier  the  technical assistance  the  administrative  planners which  were  accounted evaluation  also  the  paperwork  reduce.  Project.  for  level  Their  which case  of  Ethiopian of  CADU,  responsible their  of  direct  Ministry  In the also  The  contributed  results.  reduced  successful  grassroots  has  of e v a l u a t i o n program  very  Comilla  Swedish e x p e r t s at the  formative  implementation.  this  became  staff.  n a t i o n a l s cannot bypass or the  they  m a r k e t i n g of m i l k  improve the  e f f e c t i v e use  involvement  in  Evaluation  f a c t o r i n the  the  before  team f o u n d n u t r i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s  e x a m p l e s , CADU r e s t a t e d  to upgrade  CADU e n a b l e d i t  C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t  recommend ways t o  was  example  discovered  children  specific  and  problems  of c r e d i t t o the  team  landlords.  c o n d u c t e d by  practice  to monitor the  progress  for of of  87  According  t o CADU's m o d e l  of  operation  (see  11), r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g components a r e o r g a n i z e d a way t h a t t h e y also  reinforce extension  illustrates  with  research,  t e c h n i c a l and goals. The a  i t also  in  i n d i c a t i n g an  support  toward  l i n e of  the  stated  o f CADU's m o d e l . farm  The c e n t r a l p o i n t  In the process  t h e g e n e r a l model  i n the implementation  the e x t e n s i o n agents, demonstration  t h e model f a r m e r ,  plots.  s e r v i c e s on d e m o n s t r a t i o n  individual  farm p l a n s  through  11  efforts  extension.  operation,  t h e key  farmers  activity  and  were  committee,  The n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n  strategy supporting  p l o t s where t h e m o d e l f a r m e r , t h e  e x t e n s i o n agent, and farmers (1975),  of  the ultimate  of nonformal education  u s e d by CADU c o o r d i n a t e s a l l i t s  Betru  i n Figure  f a m i l i e s o r t a r g e t groups t o which a l l other  This being elements  as  a n d power t o e x t e n s i o n a s  of r e s e a r c h a n d t r a i n i n g a r e c h a n n e l l e d  to  effective  indicates a single  g i v i n g more l i f e  services are directed.  and  11  •  catalyst  the  Figure  feedback and e v a l u a t i o n i n a l l components a c t s  the h e a r t is  More t h a n  administrative  .  i n such  an " i d e a l " model f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  agricultural extension. link  programs.  Figure  the  committee i n t e r a c t .  area  extension  According  agent  f o r each farmer b e f o r e  prepares  t h e farmer can  acquire  new i n p u t s on c r e d i t .  T h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e d u r e CADU  insures  the  desirability  innovations  feasibility  and  a t t h e farm l e v e l .  Chambers ( 1 9 7 4 ) ,  Hunter  (1970),  According and Wharton  of  t o Arnon (1965),  applying (1981), such  a  Figure  11: C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t M o d e l o f Operation  Source: B e t r u Gebregziabher. in Ethiopia: Agricultural  an evaluation Development  University International p u b l i c a t i o n o f PASITAM.  (1975). I n t e g r a t e d  development  study of the Chilalo Unit. Bloomington: Indiana  Development Research C e n t e r . A  89  practice are  taken to ensure innovations  promoted  by  extension,  a g r i c u l t u r a l extension Examination  of  strengths:  1.  strategy  The  educational  is  research vital  to  considered  a v a i l a b l e documents i n d i c a t e t h a t  the  programs.  procedures used to develop following  d e v e l o p e d by  a  program  utilized  programs  to  at  CADU  design  involves  have  and  farmers  the  implement  in  program  development. 2.  Its  model  of  and  training  operation in  a  has  close  kept e x t e n s i o n , relationship  research,  with  proper  h a v e been  derived  feedback. 3.  The  objectives  with  inputs  extension 4.  An  for grain technology  from  farmers,  researchers,  and  from  agents.  essential  element  in i t s extension  providing professional  in-service  programming i s  education  for  its  staf f. 5.  Systematic,  on-going  what h a p p e n e d and 6.  A  e v a l u a t i o n was  to improve f u t u r e  reconnaissance  survey  s o c i o e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s was research 7.  o b j e c t i v e s , and  Administrative staff with and  farmers  and  of  used to programs.  agrotechnical  used t o i d e n t i f y  and  problems,  priorities.  ( d i r e c t o r s ) were i n v o l v e d extension  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of  determine  agents i n the  programs.  equally  development  90  These of  qualities  program  therefore  o f CADU a r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s  planning be  found  concluded  r e p r e s e n t s "good"  in  that  the  literature.  CADU's  planning  I t can mechanism  planning.  Program Planning i n Minimum Package Programs The  comprehensive development p r o j e c t s  i n the country,  m a i n l y CADU, h a v e c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h them  from  national,  package programs. projects  which  regional,  local  l e v e l minimum  Common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  comprehensive  differentiate  and  distinguish  them  from  minimum p a c k a g e  programs a r e : 1.  A l l have a d i r e c t suffer  small  l i n k with external  policy-related  donor a g e n c i e s and  problems concerning  their  programs. 2.  A l l have  separate  extension,  making  research  components  tested As  important  innovations  at the C h i l a l o  such,  institution  CADU  Agricultural  areas  of  directions.  were  i s organizationally  i n the  to  t h e r e s e a r c h - e x t e n s i o n - f a r m e r model  p r a c t i c a l w i t h communication i n both All  connected  conceived  Development  and Unit.  above any n a t i o n a l  management  control  and  finance. 3.  CADU  has  facilities,  i t s own  training  centre  s t a f f , and r e c u r r e n t budgets  with for  permanent training  programs. 4.  A l l have a d e f i n e d g e o g r a p h i c a r e a f o r t h e i r service.  extension  91  The  above  factors  have  important  implications  f o r the  p r o g r a m m i n g m e c h a n i s m o f minimum p a c k a g e p r o g r a m s . The (EPID)  Extension is a  Project  and  department  within  government agency mandated t o programs  1973).  I t has  f i n a n c i a l a n d manpower covers and  the  entire  agency.  Furthermore,  t r a i n i n g of s t a f f created  as  an  It  I t operates  no f l e x i b i l i t y  requirements  result  of  there  and c l i e n t s .  or  the  Stated  t h i s , EPID f o c u s e d  minimum  package  allocations.  component  national  research  briefly,  EPID  at large.  on how t o i n t e g r a t e t h e  to  was  the f i n d i n g s of  the  selection  of  As  an a n a l y s i s  system and e v a l u a t i o n of ongoing a c t i v i t i e s  new Due  target  farmer s i t u a t i o n , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n .  In  of i t s (Seleshi  Stommes, 1 9 8 0 ) . The  farming  one  It  more on how t o e x t e n d t h e  f a c t , EPID s t a r t e d i t s program w i t h o u t  that  to i t s  p r o g r a m s i n t o e x i s t i n g MOA a c t i v i t y .  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was n o t g i v e n  and  regulations  with regard  o f CADU t o t a k e  f i n d i n g s o f CADU t h a n  client  limited  i s no b u d g e t a l l o c a t i o n f o r  research  areas,  package  under  and  CADU a n d i n t r o d u c e them t o E t h i o p i a n f a r m e r s a  i s t h e major  I t h a s no r e s e a r c h  connected t o  extension  Department  minimum  agency r u l e s  country.  i s not o f f i c i a l l y  MOA.  administer  at the national l e v e l .  i n f l e x i b l e c e n t r a l personnel (IBRD,  Implementation  main  o b j e c t i v e o f E P I D was t o i n t r o d u c e  methods t o E t h i o p i a n farmers  under  the  improved  assumption  " s c i e n c e knows t h e a n s w e r s " a n d t h e p r o b l e m was m e r e l y of communicating t h i s  information to  farmers.  Census  92  data  and sample a r e a  sources  of  information  EPID c o l l e c t e d transfer,  observation  (EPID,  which  production,  critical 1970).  considered  seemed t o h i n d e r  organizational  appeared t o to client  The only  EPID  had  not  analysis, highest  priority  minimum  programs.  package  by  (1978) c o n s i d e r e d  the  minimum  to  anticipate  1973).  was g i v e n  and  t o food crops  (1975),  the p r i o r i t y  Schulz  given  context in i t s  (1976) a n d  t o food  crops  i n d i c a t i o n of  peasant,  not  goal  criteria  for evaluation.  do many  things  results  (EPID, 1976a).  which  at  itemized  general  terms  giving  to  410,  once  however,  number t o 351 ( E P I D , In  a  summary  r u r a l development  has  no  a  mass site  no  I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t EPID wanted t o with  ambitious  projections  of  F o r example, t h e t a r g e t s t a t e d f o r  1974-75 was t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f e x t e n s i o n  using  this  seem t o be a b r e a k d o w n o f t h e n a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l  sectors  347  to  approach t o program development.  The o b j e c t i v e s o f E P I D , s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r Two o f study,  in  implementation  package program as a s t r o n g  organized  innovation  conducted c l i e n t  Lele  only  problems  to the  the Swedish committment t o t h e E t h i o p i a n the b u i l t - i n  on  EPID's a b i l i t y  the  analysis that  technical  o f minimum p a c k a g e p r o g r a m s ( E P I D ,  Seleshi  focus  c o n s t r a i n t s important  Although  be  E P I D was a b l e o n l y  areas  from  to increase the  1976b). of  world  (see Figure  approaches t o extension indicated  as  method i n i t s minimum p a c k a g e p r o g r a m s .  It  specific  12),  information  EPID  is  and  available  to  deliver  United  States  Britain  Ethiopia '  China  U.S.S.R.  Tanzania  Collective farming  Ujamaa  1 P r i m a r y Agency  Cooperative extension servi ce  NAAS  MOA EPID  Communes  2  R u r a l and a g r i cultural development  R u r a l and a g r i cultural development  Rural and a g r i cultural development  Rural and a g r i cultural development-  PartIcipat ive democracy  P a r t i c i p a t i ve demo.cracy  S o c i a l i sm New D e m o c r a t i c Revo l u t i on  Communism  Communism  S o c i a l i sm  4 Adm. Processes/ Organization  Highly decentralized  H i g h l y decent r a l i zed i ntera c t i ve  Highly ized  Highly decentralized  H i g h l y decent r a 1 i zed  Decentralized  5  Participating Uni t s  Federal, states, counties, univ e r s i t i es  P r o v i nc i a 1 , counties, instit u t e s , towns h i p s , smal 1 agric. units  P e a s a n t a s s o c i a - Communes, p r o tions, cooperad u c t i o n br1 t i ves g a d e s , teams  S t a t e farms (Kolkhosz), coo p e r a t i v e farms (Sovkhoz)  Reg i o n a l , d i s t r i c t s , Ujamaa v i11 a g e s  6  Agricultural Characteristics  H i g h l y mechanized corporate farms  H i g h l y mechani z e d l a r g e farms  L a b o u r i n t e n s i v e L a b o u r i n t e n s i v e M e c h a n i z e d comsmall farms communal f a r m s munal f a r m s  7  Methods  Educat i o n a l , b a s e d on i n d i vidual/group needs  E d u c a t i ona1, b a s e d on i n d i vidual/group needs  P o l i t i c a l , educat i o n a l , based on mass n e e d s  I s s u e and Focus of A t t e n t i o n  3 Basic  Ideology  Figure Source:  C o m p i l e d by  12:  A Summary  a u t h o r from Arnon  of World  central-  Approaches  ( 1 9 8 1 ) , A x i n n and  Thorat  P o l i t i c a l , educat 1onal, based on mass n e e d s  to Extension  and  ( 1 9 7 2 ) , Chambers  Rural  R u r a l and a g r i cultural devel.opment  P o l i t l e a l , educat i o n a l , based on mass n e e d s  movement  Rural and a g r i cultural development  Labour i n t e n s i v e s m a l l communal farms P o l 11 i c a l , e d u cat i o n a l , based on communal needs  Development  (1974), L e l e  ( 1 9 7 5 ) , and Maunder  (1972)  94  situation  specific  information 1972,  delivery  1974a,b,  all  of  research  This  is  evidenced  EPID  uniform  plots  it  seemed  very  response A  that  lacked  EPID a p p e a r s not methods,  of  study  indicated  management  the  a by  be  viewing not  given Hunter  m e d i a , and  planning  was itself  not  nearly  confused  with  for farmers  mechanism  t o see  management  al.  (cited  in Schulz,  plots  the  and  their  planning.  Since  appropriateness  of  f o r each o b j e c t i v e , the realized.  t h a t EPID u s e d c a n the  the  or  p l o t s were not  Beyond  This  input  s u p e r v i s i o n and  activites  introduced  head  office,  be  called program  a v a i l a b l e anywhere i n i t s s t r u c t u r e .  In  a s t h e c e n t r e of a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i t  conduct  appears  i n p u t s r a t h e r than means.  et  t o have examined  p l a n n i n g programs. programs  for  ( S c h u l z , 1976).  demonstration  close  "hands-on" method.  planning  did  hectare  to  difficult  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d e m o n s t r a t i o n The  an  application  where f i v e o r s i x f a c t o r s were  makes  technique. 1976)  by  fertilizer  compared t o a s i n g l e c o n t r o l p l o t  different  the  1970,  in a l l areas.  trials  practice  of  mechanisms (EPID,  100kg d i a m o n i u m p h o s p h a t e p e r  crops  indication  or  a fairly  Demonstration  and  nor any  systems  1978).  recommendation r a t e of  production advice  client  and  context  As a r e s u l t , to  be  how  a n a l y s i s as p a r t  the c e n t r a l  focus  of  of its  t o d i s t r i b u t e a v a i l a b l e farm  a i d i n g farm f a m i l i e s through  educational  95  The  objectives  of  EPID  e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and implementation  of  knowledge base. planning  institutional programs.  for  Above a l l i t  sharply focused  i t seems t o  which  seems  identified  consequence cannot apply  not  as a r e s u l t  programs  pathologies  are  there  to  by K u l p  self-evaluation  e n v i r o n m e n t t o p l a n and  (1970),  implement  According  to  a  proper  that  theoretical  Extension  (1) t o p l a c e and  as  indications  to Webster's D i c t i o n a r y (1966),  (2) t o b r i n g i n t o p r o p e r  and  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  in Ethiopian  " c o o r d i n a t e " means e i t h e r  the  educational  EPID p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s are c o n g r u e n t w i t h the  Coordination  sound  from  to create a  I n b r i e f , t h e r e a r e no v i s i b l e  program p l a n n i n g procedures r e p o r t e d  attempt  i s no  suffer  on  i n the  r e l a t i v e order  the verb  to  same r a n k ,  or  to  harmonize,  adjust. The  planning relating  second meaning a p p e a r s t o a p p l y c o n c e r n s and to proper  and  Analytically, interagency (1971)  r e l a t i v e harmony and  coordination  as  closely  brings w i t h i t important  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  identified  more  is  joint  assumptions  adjustment.  related  planning  to  which  t h e c e n t r a l p u r p o s e o f any  process.  In t h i s regard p l a n n i n g  is a futuristic  pursued  to  uncertainty.  reduce  risk  and  Weitz  activity Therefore,  planning,  developed  :  such as  the  planning  c o o r d i n a t i o n , as the c e n t r a l p u r p o s e of f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons,  to  can  be  96  1.  matching needs w i t h  2.  connecting  resources,  activities  a n d p r o g r a m s when d e s i r e d  output  d e p e n d s on more t h a n one f u n c t i o n , a n d 3.  making e f f i c i e n t This  use of s c a r c e  resources.  indicates that coordination  i n the absence of a s t i p u l a t i o n  i s empty  for  policy  communication,  to  and  understanding,  justify  action.  the  word  content  of t h e a i m i t s e r v e s and i t  requires a clear policy to direct this need  of  aim.  There  interagency  In  the  a  relations,  absence  coordination  is  of  this  degenerates  into  misuse. According result  to  Mosher  o f an o b s e s s i o n  with coordination.  Ethiopia  this  identical  to the antidote  result,  (1969), t h i s degeneration  obsession  ... maximum c o o r d i n a t i o n national  slogan  For example,  with coordination for bureaucratic  " i f integration  and  problems.  problems  i n E t h i o p i a than before.  that coordination  c o n c e p t t h a t d e v e l o p s by a c c i d e n t . planning, persistent  coordination  requires  failure  a  the  approach, as  MOA,  This  generated  may  indicate  a  planning  or  As a c e n t r a l p u r p o s e o f and  effort.  to  coordinate  services to rural clientele and  became  i n t e l l i g e n t , vigorous,  Most a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n that  a  then  This  i s n o t a management t o o l  As  a r e good  ... [ i s ] b e s t o f a l l "  i n d i c a t e d by t h e a c t i o n t a k e n t o r e o r g a n i z e more  in  was f o u n d t o be  coordination  ( C h a m b e r s , 1974, p. 2 5 ) .  i s the  lowering  of  working  the  papers  d e l i v e r y of  r e s u l t s i n waste and  service effectiveness.  indicate  educational confusion,  In principle,  97  extension  personnel  w i t h those  of o t h e r  about  mutual  to  the  case  coordinate  agencies,  clientele.  models d e s c r i b e the In  need  To  r o l e of of  and this  joint  (Amare,  Heimple,  1973;  IBRD,  Seleshi,  1978;  Seyoum,  1980). (IAR)  For  example, the  (1979)  uncertain  Betru,  1973;  Lele,  ate,  readily  Research  the  studies  baking  on  and  was  teff  which  neglected.  As  a  are a v a i l a b l e (Melak  characteristics  of  the  comprehensive  of  triticale  projects  to i n t e r a c t with other agencies 1975).  A l o o k a t any  but  felt  in  the are  vehicles  being  not  fuel,  dispatched  only  one  weak  use  can  f r o m one  same r e g i o n c a r r y i n g d i f f e r e n t e x p e r t s This uncoordinated  the  it  was  country  agency i n E t h i o p i a i n d i c a t e s  a l s o i n day-to-day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  d e s p i t e s c a r c e t r a n s p o r t and  client.  1979,  t o the country — w h i l e t e f f ,  t h a t c o o r d i n a t i o n of work i s  eight  Seleshi,  available.  important  terms  1976;  Wondimagegnehu, 1 9 8 0 ) , w h e r e a s r e p o r t s on  and  None  (Betru,  Schulz,  of  two  breeding  1979;  was  result,  1966;  1975;  Hailu,  into t r i t i c a l e — a grain  g r a i n i n the country,  Haile,  1975;  Stommes and  most i m p o r t a n t only  documentation  I n s t i t u t e of A g r i c u l t u r a l  value  planning  r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s were  1978;  never seen, never  economic  information most  available  emphasized research  E t h i o p i a n s had  effect  nor  1971;  share  activities  program p l a n n i n g .  Ethiopia,  indicated that neither extension coordinated  to  their  in  planning  For  example,  observe f i v e  to  m i n i s t r y to  the  t o address the  of v e h i c l e s d r a i n s t h e  same fuel  98  budget  and  without  leaves  ample  educational educational  desired  financial  activity  support.  facilities  and  The  at  peak  most  audio v i s u a l centres,  used t o improve e x t e n s i o n  and  times  important  institutions,  mass m e d i a , f a r m e r s t r a i n i n g  associations, a r e not  the  such  centres, printing  effectiveness  as  peasant machines, (Kefyalew,  1981 ) . In g e n e r a l , and  the  simple  the c o o r d i n a t i o n exchange  developed.  Neither  coordinated  nor  1975). the  The  lack  the  are  of  with  an  P r o g r a m seems t o h a v e low  be  the  given  extension  sector assistance  farmers and  are  the  to  resources not  periphery  coordinated seems  i t as an  in  programs  in  for farmers. educational  This  The  be  important  inputs  the  model  which  necessary  i s because the  recommendations  originate  f l o w of a c c u r a t e  and  needed  exception  strongly hierarchial  timely  from the  s t r u c t u r e of  communication theory  than the  knowledge,  goal appears  to the MOA.  of  would  to  farmers  network  where  EPID head o f f i c e .  information rather  are  Minimum P a c k a g e  t o t h e Minimum P a c k a g e P r o g r a m ' s i n f o r m a t i o n  fashionable  (Le.le,  Ethiopia  information-delivery  acquiring  attitudes.  the  are  to  a d d i t i o n o f t h e maximum f e a s i b l e number o f  is  well  function.  associated mainly  skills,  nor  meant t o be  consideration  Agricultural  assist  information  centre  they  available  main s h o r t c o m i n g of c o o r d i n a t i o n  administrative  public  of  of  The  where  it  is  rule  in  the  Despite  the  upon w h i c h EPID b a s e d i t s  99  Minimum  Package Program, t h e r e  happens  t o e x t e n s i o n m e s s a g e s a s t h e y move  E P I D head o f f i c e In  t o MPP  addition  undermine  the  a n d t h e one  to  this,  testing  verification  conditions training which very  their  downwards  from  problems  seem  to  plots  in  First,  l a c k of on-farm  that  recommendations  indicate  a l l areas,  o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y a n d may n o t c o n f e r  benefits.  coupled  of  main  relevance.  lack f e a s i b i l i t y promised  two  demonstration  of  the  o f what  e f f i c i e n c y o f EPID n a t i o n a l recommendations  hectare  and  evidence  areas.  irrespective  often  i s no h a r d  Second,  diverse  environmental  w i t h meager r e s o u r c e s a n d i n s u f f i c i e n t  extension  agents  makes  recommendations t o communicate  decisions  regarding  f o r a given  situation  difficult. The  E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Implementation  Minimum  Package  administrative  Program  planning  lacks  Department's  sound  ( S c h u l z , 1976; S t a h l ,  proactive 1973).  r e s u l t , e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s do n o t h a v e a c l e a r r e g a r d i n g how t o c o o r d i n a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l with other v i l l a g e agents  accountable  extension  agents  resources  to  program. activities  give  functions,  to  to  their  farm  each  and  how  different  F o r example, E l l i s  extension  to  to what aim  agent  policy  programs  make  ratio for,  of what  performing  from t h e s t a t e d  (1973) r e p o r t e d  activity  field  t o improve t h e  i n extension agents  i n a manner c o m p l e t e l y  of  how  clients,  families agent,  T h i s has r e s u l t e d  c o r r e c t procedure. deviation  level  education  As a  the  i n t h e Ada a r e a .  100  Ellis  observed  applicants  or  applicant's eligible As  have  agents any  holdings  its  extension  f o r these  e n t i r e country  f i t any  p.  30)  by  implementation  of  program p l a n n i n g  Ethiopian all  and  and  package  minimum  a l l  weaknesses,  regions  equal  of  the  of r e s o u r c e s ,  thinly  situation  or  Such  over  wherein  the  every  programs which  and  observation  do  i n d i c a t e that  mechanism  i s coordinated  and  nor  program  congruent  with  literature.  Problems  a n a l y s i s of p l a n n i n g  coordination  were this  in  i n d i c a t e d some p e r p l e x i n g p r o b l e m s i n  Although  Harrison  and  field  (1977),  experiments Chambers  organizational researcher  defects  lists  performed  (1974),  (1982) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the g e n e r a l p r o b l e m s education  program. program  resources  development  EPID  extension  programs.  Benor  to  as  precisely.  M a j o r I s s u e s and A critical  farmer  the e x t e n s i o n  s t r u c t u r e s and  contention  program  the  which r e s u l t e d i n the  extension  r e g i o n ' s needs  the  of  r e g i s t e r e d the  mission  seems t o c r e a t e a  above  extent  credit  s e r v i c e s t o make a d i f f e r e n c e .  i s poorly served  neither  the  of n e e d , a v a i l a b i l i t y  a s t r a t e g y of s p r e a d i n g  The  they  of v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s  regardless  opportunity  not  of  i n the e x t e n s i o n c r e d i t  ( S c h u l z , 1976,  distribution  region  not always v i s i t  p u b l i c sector investment,  of EPID l o s t approach  did  idea  before  to p a r t i c i p a t e a  country  that  the  with and  and  by  Roling  extension operational  following  as  a d d i t i o n a l major i s s u e s i n e x t e n s i o n programs i n E t h i o p i a :  101  Most p r o g r a m s a r e the  goals  being  meet t h e s e writing  d e f i c i e n t when i t comes t o s p e c i f y i n g p u r s u e d and  objectives.  The  the  objectives,  "eradicating  illiteracy",  education"  (Africa  make i t i m p o s s i b l e  the  activities  general  s u c h as and  terms  "raising  an  used  to in  standards",  "providing  Research B u l l e t i n , to design  required  polytechnic  1983,  effective  p.  6192),  system  of  usually  in  evaluation. Work  targets  Addis  are  Ababa,  Setting  with  targets  programs allocation,  no  in  that  personnel  decided at a high local  this  suffer  staff  way  participation.  frequently  from  particularly  level,  results in  inadequate  in  recurrent  resource costs  and  time.  Organizational  defects  and  o p e r a t i o n a l weaknesses which  manifest themselves i n : a.  a l a c k of  supervision  b.  evaluation numbers o f rather  c.  The  a  of  lack  of  communication;  p e r s o n n e l work p e r f o r m a n c e b a s e d  fertilizer  t h a n on  and  sacks sold  a c t u a l work e f f o r t s o r proper  administrative  coordinate  and  p r o c e s s and  implementation.  programming  adequately development  and  control  procedures  reflect  and  the  real  the  of  program  the  need  visits  made  impact; planning  to  development  system for  on  do  not  agricultural  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l  needs i n  102  each r e g i o n .  Most p l a n documents  seem t o be t h e r e s u l t  of  exercises,  than  planning  priority of  5.  needs, because they  farmers' t o an  area.  Project  plan  documents  support  specifying  and  duties,  The  virtual  training  response  actions  on e q u i p m e n t  defining  and  objectives,  responsibilities,  and  for evaluation. of  f o r new  orientation  and  in-service  employees and e x i s t i n g  makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d how  to  an a n a l y s i s  necessary  focus mainly neglect  absence  programs  and  assigning  establishing criteria  a  do n o t p r o v i d e  circumstances  specific  logistic  6.  rather  t o implement a g i v e n  staff  the  program  the  program  plan.  Summary This  chapter  p l a n n i n g mechanisms from  1952  to  examination  described  1980.  Through  developed  by CADU was a n a l y z e d  Development satisfied  Service  chronological  document  i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t no w e l l d e f i n e d  process  as  analyzed  u s e d by t h e E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n  planning  model  and  a  was  in  place  the  (CADU)  for  planning  Agricultural  development  mechanism  a sound p l a n n i n g  w h i l e t h e program development mechanism shown t o d e v i a t e  A program  basic  The C h i l a l o  program  requirements  1967.  using Sork's  frame of r e f e r e n c e . Unit  before  program  from b a s i c p l a n n i n g  used  models.  by  process  EPID  was  1 03  This  chapter  coordination  and  also  its  clarified  relationship  was  development or  implementation required  this  planning  researcher  coordination  in  to  Coordination  expecting  presented  the  concept  program  such  a  t o come f r o m c o o r d i n a t i o n . found  in  no  indications  comprehensive  projects  planning.  way  planning  that  its  rather  than  As  of or  of  a  result,  meaningful in  minimum  package programs. In  a d d i t i o n to i d e n t i f y i n g major  the c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t the education  were  mechanism.  The  strategy  based  coordinated  a  lack  b a s i c p r o b l e m s of  of  a  next chapter w i l l on  effort  a  i s s u e s and  systematic  systematic discuss  an  problems, extension  programming alternative  p r o g r a m m i n g m o d e l and  to eliminate poverty  through  education.  a  1 04  CHAPTER FIVE  A PROPOSED ALTERNATIVE  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r strategy first  for planning  i s to  extension  alternative. planning  strategy The l a s t  context  and c o o r d i n a t i o n ,  and  In a s t r i c t education  will  r e f e r r e d t o as extension  The  f o r an  discuss  analysis  of  planning  of t r a i n i n g programs.  Strategy  philosophical point the  t h e need  system, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  theoretical analysis  in E t h i o p i a , excluding  alternative  b a s i c assumptions of t h e  and t h e development  The Need f o r an A l t e r n a t i v e  an  i n Ethiopia.  discuss  state  section  and c l i e n t  present  education  s e c t i o n of t h e chapter w i l l  alternative  STRATEGY  and  from  an  of view the extension  CADU  program,  education.  is  The main  adult service  erroneously  short  comings  t a r g e t group,  tested  are: 1.  Lack of c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s , d e f i n e d product  or  message,  effective  communication  and  organ i z a t i o n , 2.  Lack of a r o l e d e f i n i t i o n  f o rextension  3.  Lack of c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  4.  Lack of steady flow of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ,  5.  Lack of r e g u l a r  6.  Lack of c o o r d i n a t e d  and frequent effort.  agents,  i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , and  105  In are  a d d i t i o n t o the above  imposed  from  above  shortcomings  and  do n o t t a k e  n e e d s and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a r m e r s .  downward  approach  learners. farmers and  has  little  of  improved  unconfirmed  i n t o account  and  designed  the  to  tell  are  the top  validity  farming techniques which  for their  programs  Above a l l ,  meaning  I t a p p e a r s t o be a s y s t e m  most  to the  untested  p r o f i t a b i l i t y at the peasant  farm  level. Morss  (1976) c o n s i d e r s t h e t h r e e key  project  success  1.  increase  an  to  determinants  of  be: in  the  agricultural  in  the  self-help  knowledge of s m a l l  farmers, 2.  3.  an  increase  farmers,  and  a  probability  high  program w i l l Although areas  there  where  not  have  and  their did  development. have  study.  extension  self-sustaining. been an  i n c r e a s e i n farm  EPID,  and  not  been  WADU  not  achieved.  contribute  income i n t h e  operate,  o b j e c t i v e s of c r e a t i n g  potential  agriculture.  definition  small  to  the  above  Simpson  (1976)  Ethiopia  did  s t a b l e new  farm  healthy  regional  As a r e s u l t , c u r r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o e x t e n s i o n  little  agricultural  of  t h a t the b e n e f i t s of the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t s e t t l e m e n t schemes i n  achieve  units  has  ADP,  determinants further  be  capability  For  reason  improving that  e x t e n s i o n i n E t h i o p i a does not c o n f o r m t o  the  extension  same  substantially  i t i s concluded  of  the  for  presented  i n Chapter  One  of  this  106  This nonconformity made this  a  search  of e x t e n s i o n p r o g r a m s  f o r a workable a l t e r n a t i v e  r e g a r d the works of A x i n n  (1974),  and  Korten  (1980)  information useful for extension  ( 1 9 8 0 ) and  Management  (PIM)  implications a  country  Kortens  the  The  new  like  alternative  and  Ethiopia.  What  makes  on  Through  monitoring  the  two  what  is  of  why  systems  and  seem t o h a v e p r o d u c e d a life  of  is  combined  important  strategy  study  for  is  and  their  sound, rural  happening  were  or  context  As a r e s u l t  viable farmers  1974), i n I n d i a , S r i Lanka, T h a i l a n d Bangladesh  Implementation  not  effects  to program implementation.  the  Approach  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n .  evaluation  achieved,  for  Chambers PIM  l e a r n i n g approach r e l e v a n t to t h i s  continous  provide  Learning Process  Programming  In  Chambers  (1982)  f o r t h e d e s i g n o f an a l t e r n a t i v e  focus  altered  a  imperative.  (1972),  Roling  designing  Ethiopia  S y s t e m o f Chambers ( 1 9 7 4 ) h a v e  special  system  Thorat  and  program p l a n n i n g .  of K o r t e n  and  in  were  and  not  and  client  the  systems  program i n Kenya  and  that  has  (Chambers,  particularly  ( K o r t e n , 1980), a c o u n t r y w i t h problems  in  similar  to E t h i o p i a ' s . Bangladesh, through  the  simple  relief  a  learning  process  approach  development education today,  country  achieved  the  prone  t o d r o u g h t and  approach • s t a r t i n g  ( " f o o d f o r w o r k " ) and  f o r h e r m a l e and ability  female  famine, with  a  well-designed population,  t o w i t h s t a n d the problems of  107  food  production.  Korten  (1980) a t t r i b u t e s t h e s u c c e s s i n  these c o u n t r i e s t o : a h i g h degree of f i t between program design, beneficiary needs, and the capacities of the a s s i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n (p. 490). Bangladesh teaching  and  I n d i a took a slower  their  poverty  and  and  famine  harder  easier distribution  While attest  the  rationale  mechanism,  agriculture  the  opens a new  of  scientific  proved  farm  minimum  of  highly  Korten  the  program  success  achieved  in  Taiwan  The  of  and  improving  of  Taiwanese system  developing  educated  people.  agricultural of  i n f o r m a t i o n ( L i o n b e r g e r and  the p o s s i b i l i t y  the  behind  venue i n t h e f i e l d  extension organization.  through  delivery  Chang,  agriculture  1981)  with  What c a n be  who  know how  human r e s o u r c e s and need  of  problem  trained  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , not manpower,  of development.  important Thorat  t o make e f f e c t i v e use  which  This  matter  specialists.  stations  from  information. the system  inference  i n the case of E t h i o p i a .  (1972), e x t e n s i o n agents  which A  In  1972 these  seems  of the  chronic  t o be t h e m a j o r is  i n Taiwan are  agents  particularly  not  study  group  which  and  subject  s i x experimental received  their  v e r y i m p o r t a n t means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n  i s the farm  of  available  According to Axinn  T a i w a n had  a  inferred  from the Taiwanese e x p e r i e n c e i s t h a t i t i s the s h o r t a g e officials  to  food.  t h e s u c c e s s e s d e s c r i b e d by Chambers  to  planning  of  of  s t r i c k e n p e o p l e how  grow f o o d r a t h e r t h a n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m f a s t e r and  course  meets  in  for the  108  e v e n i n g s once every  two  farm e x p e r i e n c e  on p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t .  and  I n summary, t h e Lionberger result  and  weeks t o  Chang  (1981)  on  identified  by  are  more t h a n  the  nothing  of:  a n a l y s i s of p l a n n i n g  2.  coordinated "waste not proper  any  scarce  approach  in a  a dynamic e d u c a t i o n a l with  a  tenet  of  and  an  and  success  farmers.  ingredients  program p l a n n i n g ,  possible  this  researcher  a l t e r n a t i v e , that  service.  basic  system,  with  for adult  i n the E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n  presented  client  resource",  different  describe  applied  and  administrative planning  these  innovative now  context  i n s t r u c t i o n a l design  Using  will  information  successful ingredients  1.  3.  exchange  can  be  s e r v i c e t o h e l p make i t  The  alternative  justification  and  will  be  to  be  factors  considered.  A s s u m p t i o n s of the A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g y To certain  clearly  understand  l i m i t a t i o n s and  pinpointed.  To  the  alternative  strategy,  c o n s t r a i n t s i n E t h i o p i a need t o  this effect  the  following  assumptions  be are  made. 1.  The  alternative  Agriculture  (MOA)  is  not  t o c r e a t e a super M i n i s t r y of  but  to improve the  i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and 2.  In and  line  w i t h the data  observation  of  existing  i t s staff  system,  utilization.  a v a i l a b l e , ( A f r i c a Guide,  the  existence  of  1983)  international  109  technical assistant personnel, this alternative the  availability  of  ( l o c a l and f o r e i g n ) development 3.  a  to  trained ignite  long  the  resource  required  base  initial  process.  Since the problems i n peasant so  human  assumes  untackled  a g r i c u l t u r e were l e f t f o r  scientifically,  the  alternative  c o n s i d e r s p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t not only  f o r reasons  quality 4.  To  to  of s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t o peasant  ensure  policy  o f economy, b u t a l s o  the  closest  improve  farmers.  c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l  f o r m u l a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and implementation  national  level  the  over  at the  t h e MOA  i s d e s i g n a t e d as the focus f o r  change  in  t h i s major work. 5.  Improvement a n d possible  only  agricultural  through  Ethiopian  training  o f f i c e r s and f a r m e r s .  organized  training  excellent  means  program  to  agriculture  and  education  Furthermore,  i s considered  identify  problems  of  a well  to  and  is  be an  consider  alternatives. The  improvement approach  might  be  a  paradigm s h i f t  extension to context.  the  Therefore  Ethiopian  i t is  from  study took as important  the ' t e l l i n g '  approach  of  approach  in  the  Ethiopian  important  to  define certain  t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e . government  t r a i n e d human r e s o u r c e s government  this  'learning'  p o i n t s t o make c l e a r The  which  i s the  i n the country.  sole  employer of  T h e r e f o r e how  the  o r g a n i z e s i t s o p e r a t i o n s and t h e e f f i c i e n c y and  1 10  effectiveness  with  which  i t c a r r i e s them o u t w i l l  largely  determine  t h e s u c c e s s of t h e c o u n t r y ' s d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m .  That  t o s a y t h e n a t u r e of g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y  and Any  is  s t r a t e g i e s h o l d s t h e key alternative  supported Full  by  is  to progress for  doomed  political  to f a i l u r e  and  strategy  the  country.  i f i t i s not  administrative  s u p p o r t by t h e p o l i t i c a l  statements  authorities  fully  authorities.  f o r the  proposed  for planning extension education i n Ethiopia  would  involve: 1.  Adoption  of  a  policy  statement  on  the  g u i d e l i n e s t h a t p l a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and on p e o p l e and  arrange  general  obligations  f o r r i g o r o u s enforcement  of  these  obligations. 2.  A d o p t i o n of a p o l i c y which which  is  broadly  understandable,  e n t e r t a i n s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y by  (1973),  and  which  creates  conditions  organizations for coordinated planning, and 3.  to  IBRD  improve  implementation,  evaluation.  A d o p t i o n of a p o l i c y  that  is  based  on  actual  farm  conditions. 4.  Adoption  of  a policy  that helps extension o f f i c e r s  t h i n k through p o l i c i e s , meaning, c o n t e n t use  to  reduce  misunderstanding  i m p l e m e n t e d , and w h i c h This  full  support  d i r e c t i o n and apparatus  by  to  intended  o f what i s p l a n n e d  and  s e r v e s as a r e f e r e n c e .  the  supervision.  dedicated  and  to  authorities Furthermore,  rural  implies the  development,  control,  government particularly  111  education  and a g r i c u l t u r e ,  highest p r i o r i t y It  by t h e g o v e r n m e n t .  i s only  i f these  government t h a t t h e people best  of  clearly along  their  s h o u l d be t r e a t e d a s a m a t t e r o f  positions  c a n be summoned t o m o b i l i z e  e n e r g i e s and r e s o u r c e s  defined policy  The  expected  aforementioned  f o r development.  q u e s t i o n s a r e answered.  ensures  policy  requirements  A  the f u l f i l m e n t of  will  achieve  provided  the  the  following  The f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s a r e :  1.  What i s t h e s o c i a l  2.  How do f a r m e r s  3.  What a r e t h e d y n a m i c s o f r u r a l  4.  What a r e t h e r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s ?  5.  What a r e t h e t e c h n i c a l f a c t o r s ?  6.  How c a n  the  the  framework c o o r d i n a t e d and c h a n n e l l e d  a given d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n  targets.  a r e a d o p t e d by t h e  situation?  perceive  chain  of  poverty? problems?  command  and  coordination  be  s i m p l i f ied? The  answers t o these  benchmark  and  client  f a c t s which w i l l  Conducting  context  the  system w i l l  will  analysis  development.  a  to evaluate of  help to provide  and C l i e n t  planning important  System  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of e x t e n s i o n and  form  answer t h e above q u e s t i o n s .  A n a l y s i s of Planning Context The  questions  from which t o s t a r t and subsequently  l a t e r achievement. context  fundamental  client That  system is  is a  because  basic  the  more  planning  s t e p i n program accurate  the  112  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t c o n t e x t and c l i e n t , that  the  critical  problems  c o n c l u s i o n s reached  regarding  because  "facts  avoid  approach  is  Ethiopia 1.  The  this  what  is  (Leagans,  1964,  Blaug  approach  o f what i s and available and  and  (1967),  education  involves  what s h o u l d be  in  the  Heimpel  with  Gill  (1984),  (1973),  the  problem  a thorough  of p e a s a n t  identified  case  o f new  Therefore  the  Eshetu  and  Ginzberg  by and  IBRD (1973) h a v e  to  agriculture  e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e  and  existing  Coombs  i n p u t s and  team  (1974)  improved  situation  study  of  farm to  farm analysis  where  the  families be  the  practice. is  the  critical  resides.  Of p a r t i c u l a r limitations  by  required  interdisciplinary  of  farming.  also  application  by  This  Embassy s t u d y c i t e d  l e a r n i n g needs of s m a l l s u b s i s t e n c e  problem  92).  reasons:  (1970),  delineated  situation  t o gaps  possible.  practical  ( 1 9 7 4 ) , t h e U.S.  ( 1 9 8 4 ) , FAO  already  true  p.  v a r i o u s s t u d i e s by Amare ( 1 9 7 8 ) , A s s e f a and  Smith  is  This  n e e d s by p o i n t i n g  alternative  f o r the f o l l o w i n g  Brown  The  is  scientific  (1969),  2.  sound  w a s t i n g t i m e c o l l e c t i n g masses of d a t a t h a t  the continuous examination with  i d e n t i f i e d and  be  what s h o u l d be"  defy useful a n a l y s i s ,  starting  i t is  objectives.  help to i d e n t i f y  between what i s and To  will  t h e more l i k e l y  and  importance  is a critical  constraints  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and  objectives.  in  extension  examination  of  organization,  C o n d i t i o n s of f a r m e r s  are  1 13  a l s o of major importance. Table data  8  important  "potential  to  that  delineate there  development  increase their Proper  the  i s no  f a r m e r s " who w i l l  agricultural  purposes  of such  evaluation  terms  Parallel  to t h i s a n a l y s i s there  analysis  of  The  the  really  Ethiopia  of  the  i s also  the  problem  analysis  of  a  tough  part  of  i s not f a b r i c a t i n g  improved crop  distribution), behavior each  technology 2.  variety  but  rather  in  the  (Mosher,  f o r educational perceive  and  attitude.  In t h i s context  of  context  planning  and c l i e n t , This  i s due t o : development  improved t e c h n i q u e s  spreading  in  (e.g.,  w i t h i n f i v e years but  still  the  the  context.  economic  is  to  organization to  limited  in i t s  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f human  u n d e r new r u l e s t h a t e n a b l e s  other  for  requirement  extension  CADU p r o d u c e d a t e s t e d t e c h n o l o g y the  willing  energy  farmers  r e d u c t i o n of t h e problem t o such a l e v e l 1.  of very  skills,  such a p o t e n t i a l .  reduces  to  how  knowledge,  ability  exploit  potential  of  in  alternative  Experience  income.  requires  effectively  problem.  shortage  in  i f they p e r c e i v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  exploitation  the  stated  team w i t h b a s i c  summon r e m a r k a b l e  poverty  evaluate  of q u e s t i o n s  may p r o v i d e t h e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  demonstrates  to  The l i s t  and  people use  to  help  of e f f e c t i v e  1971).  R e s o u r c e s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e do n o t come t o where they  are  seriously  needed  unless  c o o r d i n a t e d t o serve a purpose a t a given  organized place  and in  a  114  Table  8: L i s t o f Q u e s t i o n s f o r A n a l y s i s o f P l a n n i n g and C l i e n t S y s t e m P a r t i c i p a n t / P r o g r a m Characteristics  Context  Questions • What a r e t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a r n e r s ( s e x , age, number)? • What i s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d o f l e a r n e r s ? • What s k i l l s do t h e y h a v e ? • What i s t h e p r i m a r y o c c u p a t i o n o f l e a r n e r s ? • What a r e t h e h e a l t h a n d n u t r i t i o n standards? • What a r e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o g r a m ? • What t y p e o f a g e n c y manages t h e p r o g r a m ? • What a c t i v i t i e s a r e p l a n n e d i n t h e p r o g r a m ? • What s t r a t e g i e s a r e o u t l i n e d f o r t h e d e l i v e r y o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (methods, t e c h n i q u e s ) ? • Who i s r e p o n s i b l e f o r m a n a g i n g t h e p r o g r a m ? • How do p l a n n e r s c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n ? • Who a r e t h e members o f t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n ? • How i s t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n s e g m e n t e d ? • How a r e t h e c o m m u n i t y n e e d s a s s e s s e d ? • What a r e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a n d s k i l l l e v e l s o f t h e t a r g e t population? • Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e a c h t a s k ? • Does t h e p r o g r a m h a v e a t i m e s c h e d u l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ? • W h a t a b o u t f l e x i b i l i t y ? What i f s o m e t h i n g g o e s wrong?  c e r t a i n p e r i o d of justifies  the  with proper  time.  Therefore  coordinated  monitoring  this  mobilization  alternative of  resources  and e v a l u a t i o n i n t h e process of  implementation. In  addition  conducting  such  answer S o r k ' s  to a  aiding  planning  question  mobilization context  of  resources,  a n a l y s i s would a l s o  o f "How c o m p l e t e i s  the  discussion  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t ? " answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l and  define  the  work  effectively.  help to  organizational  pinpoint  context  The  constraints  where p e o p l e  will  115  The and  alternative stresses  evaluation  t h e n , no  as a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s .  task  program  is  isolated  activity  is  from  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P l a n n i n g and Extension be  effective  implementation  technical. planning  The  the  short,  the and  designing  planning  others  Each by  the  below.  of  features  which  organization i f  achieved.  The  first  the  t h i r d a t t r i b u t e i s the magnitude  of  the  program.  extension The  There  above  are  that  administrative  to  and  further  draw  extension  and  analyses  concept  are  programs which  ones  planning  complexity  is  of  of  administrative  important  the  number  i s t o be  important kind  others.  c a p a c i t i e s of an  planning.  most  illustrate  for  specific  administrative  assessing  The  needed  a t t r i b u t e s of  the  second a t t r i b u t e i s the  process.  resources  cover  the  problems  Coordination  programs have a  matched w i t h  to  discussed  of  In the a l t e r n a t i v e  a l l  related  administrative planning  must  identification-  upon  features  sufficient are  required  requirements. coordination  develop  a  is  program  to in In an or  implement i t . Most programs i n E t h i o p i a l a c k planning.  As  advocated,  administrative  a result this alternative strategy  administrative planning procurement  proper  and more  and  coordination  allocation than  point  focusing  on  from  of v i e w . the  approaches a  resource  The  approach  major  problems  1 16  studied, helps resources The set-up not  i n the  o f MOA.  MOA  i s not  academic  a new  poorly  of MOA  to  Mosher's  This  extension  kind  of  resources.  Also,  improve  helps  develop  i t e n a b l e s t h e MOA  the  (1971)  organizational of  research,  f o r m t h e m a i n s t r u c t u r e of t h e  set-up  quality  flexible  to  MOA.  use  control.,  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  do  Therefore  i n l i n e w i t h Mosher's  According  new  I t s tasks  lines.  t o d e v e l o p modern a g r i c u l t u r e , d i v i s i o n  t r a i n i n g and  utilized  starts with a  a university.  disciplinary  set-up  i s required.  set-up  of  country.  The  parallel  study  use  a n t i c i p a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e plan  developing  and  t o make e f f i c i e n t  of  evaluate  education  in  the  country. Organizing important Many  problem  rural  extensive  of  problems  side  other  the  agreement way  to  departments  MOA.  problems r e q u i r e l a r g e s c a l e a c t i o n , farmers,  effects.  than  l o n g t e r m f o l l o w up  Therefore sound  on  scale.  This  within  an  a  The  i t is practically to  o f any  requires  policy  r e d e f i n e the c u r r e n t  these  cooordinated  of  jurisdiction a  attack  well  scale  and  the  problem  single ministry statement  s t a t u s o f MOA  and  i n such a  that everything associated with a g r i c u l t u r e , education,  production, and  different  s c o p e and  department.  s u g g e s t e d above a l s o s o l v e s  t h e o r e t i c a l l y not  multiorganizational  or  as  involvement with  f e a s i b l e and  exceeds  MOA  education  unanticipated not  the  and  administration, particularly  t r a n s f e r of t r a i n e d  agriculturalists,  is  the m o b i l i t y coordinated  117  and  monitored  should  i n one  serve  necessary  central  existing  regrouping  departments  according is  to  resources  and  a  close  information  and  on  administrators  look  the  encourages  effort  is  scheduling.  waste  toward  central or  agreed  binding top  monitor  during  the  (cited  house  transition in Fisher, in three  for  and 1974)  stages.  information  r o u t i n e exchanges of  information.  and  the  other  upon c o v e r i n g g o a l s , j o i n t p l a n n i n g  T h i r d , formal  This  planning,  and c o o r d i n a t i o n .  common  clearing  said  including  to  c o o r d i n a t i o n occur  initiates  by  authority  of c o o p e r a t i o n  This  ( 1 9 8 0 ) has  emerges  of  separate  w h i c h i s b a s e d upon a and  be This  personnel.  what G r i f f i t h  delegated  confusion,  commitment,  ministry.  should  and  S e c o n d , a c o o r d i n a t i o n commitment o f t h e MOA  legal  and  of c o o r d i n a t i o n i n  trained  i n s t i t u t i o n s , Haygood  move the  MOA  objectives.  obstacles  Coordination  offically  reduce of  at  resources  day-to-day progress  regrouping  stated  scarce  evaluation  a g r e e m e n t t o use  To  within  d u p l i c a t i o n of  coordination.  programming  agency  office  t o r e d u c e t h e h i g h demand t h a t e a c h  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n puts requires  to  minimize  boundary d e f i n i t i o n ,  First,  central  as a c l e a r i n g house f o r b a s i c  reorganized  had  This  material.  The  about,  office.  brings formal  p r e p a r a t i o n o f l o c a l and  collaboration, a l l  other  collaboration  which  agencies requires  r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s and  and  requires under  one  proper  personnel.  118  Initiation  of  an  organizational  restructuring  a t t a c k t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m on basis help  requires institutions,  facilities,  farmers adopt improved p r a c t i c e s .  and  t o u s e them e f f e c t i v e l y  1.  Developing  e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g  training  sustained  and s e r v i c e s t h a t  To e s t a b l i s h  these  institutions.  This  requires:  d e v e l o p m e n t means p o o l i n g l o c a l l y and  a  to  facilities  available  under  one  education  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  management; 2.  F o r m a l i z i n g an o f f i c i a l l y a u t h o r i z e s t h e MOA facility  Pooling  and a i r t i m e of  that  experts  the  research  agreement  farm i n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e  w i t h t h e M i n i s t r y of 3.  sanctioned  the  educational  which  t o share the mass  media  Education;  t o man t h e t r a i n i n g d i v i s i o n  farm  information  centres  thereby  unit  is  o f MOA  linked  to  a l l o w i n g i t t o produce  so the  local  t e a c h i n g a i d s a n d m a n u a l s t h a t c a n be u s e d i n d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s ; and 4.  Reorganizing  the  agricultural  research centre at both  the n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s staffing  and  r e g i o n a l based approach current The  field adaptive  research  is  need  research  addressed. is  for  such as A  team  preferable t o the  approach.  research  purpose  team  is  research  i n adaptive  For t h i s  of adaptive  trials  s i n g l e agronomist  goal  perfection. adaptive  to  conducting  so t h a t t h e  the to test  i s appropriateness responsibility  of  not an  recommendations under  1 19  farm  conditions  recommendations. recommendations the  and  to  The  regional  to  a central  recommendations t o the  office  directly  broadcasts The  the  jointly  involved  stated policy.  supply  last  general  training  extension  the  in  According  of  the  can  or  for  is  farmers,  A common d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  i s r e q u i r e d t o be can  process of  be  one  easily  of  under develop  administrative  effectively functioning  achieved  an  (1925) and  by  directing,  and  planning  The  Sork  administrative  organizing, staffing, budgeting.  and  the  improving  the  EPID.  to Fayol  designing  selected  This  inservice training.  development  This  current a c t i v i t y  and  goals,  programs  Group c o h e s i v e n e s s  step  lines.  under  endorses  them t o e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s  defines  in  with refresher courses  is  the  r e s e a r c h team i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h  body f o r r e s e a r c h and  planning  passes  farm i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e .  a s s i s t a n t a g e n t s arid l a y l e a d e r s .  The  team  specific  recommendations.  e x t e n s i o n agent  the  region  r e s e a r c h team w h i c h  communicates  adaptive  regularly  formulate  f o r the a l t e r n a t i v e  (n.d.), are  planning,  coordinating,  reporting  and  approach  plan  subpoints  coordinating were  given  aspects above.  What r e m a i n s i s o r g a n i z i n g , s t a f f i n g , d i r e c t i n g , r e p o r t i n g , and  budgeting. To  organize a c t i v i t i e s  context.  The  planning  operates  r e q u i r e s knowledge of  environment under which reflects  the  this  nature  planning  administrative  of the  commitment  120  given  to  coordination.  Given  commitment t o c o o r d i n a t i o n required 1.  the  a  strong  following  governmental  steps  would  be  t o implement t h e d e c i s i o n :  breaking  the  required  grouping  research,  practical  u n i t s b a s e d on s i m i l a r i t y a n d i m p o r t a n c e ,  2.  assigning  qualified  3.  keeping t r a c k of personnel t r a n s f e r s ,  4.  informing  each  work  into  extension  components, i . e . ,  and  training  into  personnel,  member o f what a c t i v i t y  he i s e x p e c t e d  t o p e r f o r m and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r s , 5.  clearly  s t a t i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and o b l i g a t i o n of  a  p e r s o n t o a c h i e v e t h e r e s u l t d e t e r m i n e d , and 6.  providing On  the  planning, and  facilities question  except  quite  costs  to  release  evaluation.  in  i n developing  countries  1974).  run extension, costs  Hunter  means  f o c u s on  research  i s nothing  are said to  This  the  recurrent  and t r a i n i n g .  more  than  making  o f f u n d s when p l a n n e d a c t i v i t i e s h a v e t o  planning  is  (1973) r e d u c e s  supervision  and  a s p e c t t o be  decentralization  s u p e r v i s i o n and  the  concept  evaluation  of  considered  control,  whole to  s e t t i n g and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c o n t r o l . suggests  administrative  on c a p i t a l c o s t , most m a n a g e r s  Next t o budgeting the other  administrative  control,  budgeting  (Chambers,  f o c u s on r e c u r r e n t  start.  t o do t h e j o b .  in this alternative will  necessary  proferred  in  f o r priming  good  administration  The  of  development e x p e r t s  be  required  control,  proper  FAO  of  target  (1970)  also  supervison  and  121  evaluation  f o r extension.  Therefore,  b a s e d on d e c i s i o n s  t a k e n on what i s t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , t h i s planning  uses  supervise,  delegation  and  report  of  subdivisions.  coordination  of s e r v i c e s rendered  Furthermore, the  i t allows  needs of t h e  supervisors  area  work d o n e . free  cross  and  control  travel  activities  served.  Decentralization the f i e l d  criterion  to  government on 1.  any o t h e r  the  the  worker, provides  feedback t o f i e l d  to  improve  get  red  workers, actual  a  its field  value staff.  will  then  speed  up  joint  intervention  by  the  tape  and  Programs policy  proposed plan  r e l i e s on t r a i n i n g more t h a n  because:  d e p a r t s from t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  planning.  a  pressures.  desired  variables  The p r o p o s a l program  cut  external  Development of T r a i n i n g Next  enables  check performance r e p o r t s w i t h  cost,  with  eases  exercised.  D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n reduce  to  approach  T h r o u g h t h i s t h e management w i l l  measurement  control,  t h e t o t a l p r o g r a m t o be a d a p t e d t o  to stress helping  helps . to  to  decentralizing  This  mechanism f o r d i r e c t and t i m e l y and  authority  through  geographical  administrative  The  proposal  methods  of  u s e s an e n t i r e l y  new  a p p r o a c h where p r o g r a m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n is  considered  the  a n a l y s i s o f on g o i n g  and  development  a s a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t emerges f r o m programs.  122  The  proposal  approach 1984;  also  deviates  to extension  Howell,  from  education  the  (Arnon,  1981;  Gill,  1977; Monu, 1982; Von B l a n c k e n b u r g ,  1982)  where a d u l t f a r m e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s of  information.  the b e l i e f and  Inherent  appreciating  of  knowledge,  comes  experiments.  scientists'  catalytic  role  along  from  side  down  experiments  t h a n c o u l d be done therefore,  by  although  naturally or  laid  down  educationalists'  the peasant  that of reducing the d i s s i m i l a r i t y laid  approach i s  The a r g u m e n t i s t h a t t h e  non-experimental, The  recepients  i s capable of experimenting  knowledge.  stock  mere  i n the proposed  that the peasant  peasant's  conventional  the  naturally  c a r r i e d o u t i n more  dimensions  the  from  w o u l d t h u s be  peasant.  has t o l e a r n t o see n a t u r e  The  scientist,  i n approximately  t h e same d i m e n s i o n  as the peasant,  while retaining  additional  i f he  be  analysis.  views This  is  philosophical  to  reorientation  r e q u i r e s t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g . how  agriculture  Netherlands  and  was  transformed  Japan  (Schultz,  r e o r i e n t a t i o n and investment people  effective  Available in  strongly s o u r c e s on  of  e d u c a t i o n a l programs  Lele  proper  p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g b u t a l s o due t o l a c k o f a  t r a i n i n g component. and  farm  growth.  were t h w a r t e d n o t o n l y due t o l a c k o f p o l i c y o r educational  the  1970) i n d i c a t e t h a t  i n the education  i n d i c a t e s t h a t genuine  in his  Denmark,  t o be t h e m a i n s o u r c e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  Experience  his  (1975),  Benjamin  (1981),  f o r example, a t t e s t  Coombs  (1974),  that the better  123  designed  projects  component,  yet  sufficient To units  the  the  be  to the  public  t r a i n i n g program the  c o n s o l i d a t e d u n d e r one  halls  are  task  conduct  t r a i n i n g programs.  The  follows:  a)  .Training  of  farmers  b)  Training  of  extension  agents  c)  Training  of  extension  supervisors  d)  Training  of  research workers  e)  Training  of  trainers  sophistication the  famous E t h i o p i a n  teaches."  education  for  be  to  organization.  has  they  are This  be  to the  MOA,  the  assessment  and  the  mounted a t  training t o be  which  and  attacks  required  different  and  level  of  taken for granted  says  "he  to  rural  master the  policy  a c c o m p l i s h e d by policy  direct  who  organizing  interpretation. h a v e t o be located means  poverty itself.  an  In t h i s  drawn t o g e t h e r in  the  participants  in and  This  orientation orientation irrespective  hierarchy are  is  learns  t h i s proverb, a l l participants  coordinated  seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s where  of  proverb  should learn  m a s t e r y can  of  what  According  these j o i n t l y  seminar  levels  vary,  training  and  programs w i l l  A l t h o u g h the  give  d i v i s i o n for  c o m p o n e n t s of  as  levels.  scattered  i s t o c o n d u c t t r a i n i n g needs  training  rarely  training.  available  t r a i n i n g are  These  training  Since t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s  already  required  a  planners  d e s i g n of  access to t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . and  include  project  attention  effect will  generally  of  the  extension  1 24  a g e n t s , s u p e r v i s o r s and and t r a i n e r s This  administrators,  primary the  seminar  should  deal  policy  within  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and w i t h f a r m e r s . this orientation  directed  to  outcome  would  that their  seminar  sensitize be  and  The  MOA,  how  to  with  other aspect  s h o u l d have an o b j e c t i v e and The  most  w o r k e r s , so  l i n e s o f work i n r e s e a r c h , are  extension,  viewed  interdependent functions  be  significant  r e o r i e n t a t i o n of f i e l d  administration  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s but  with  communication  officers.  the  particular  training  workers  themselves.  communicate  of  research  not  in  a  as  system  d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e a common o b j e c t i v e . In should It  was  addition  t o f o c u s i n g on c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  address  p l a n n i n g and  found important t o  regional conduct  seminar  implementation of the  conduct  such  training  policy. at  the  l e v e l w h i l e t h e same p o o l o f e x p e r t s o r g a n i z e and the seminar  The  throughout  orientation  (Warner  seminar  has  p r e l u d e t o a c h a i n of c o n t i n u o u s training  division  information unit  in  will of  to  knowledge,  and s k i l l s  problems.  Through the assembled  and  needed t o improve  the E t h i o p i a n N u t r i t i o n  used  the  farm  in-service  to  of  solve  the d i v i s i o n  will  developed  (originally a and  The  application  such as t h o s e  Institute  p r o j e c t ) , which are e f f e c t i v e l y  and  ability  facility  simple teaching aids,  programs. with  training  development  1980).  be c o n s i d e r e d as a  training  redefine  in  a l s o produce  terms  and K e f y a l e w ,  collaboration  training  by  the  Swedish  distributed  by  1 25  extension are  groups to supplement l e c t u r e  believed  by  this  c o m m u n i c a t i n g new Many  implementation  extension  programs.  deficiencies,  in-service training systematically (Sork,  1981)  Therefore,  the  n e e d s t o be  officers  were n o t  prepared  peasant  farmers.  orientation  it  emphasize  the  extension  question that  IBRD  essential  implies task  of  from  administer  in  the  form  of  f o r program s t a f f success  or  to  failure  most also  studies to e f f e c t i v e l y deal  with  important  to  that  t r a i n e d i n e x t e n s i o n and  d u r i n g the and  the  vital  and  be  Inherent  farmers  there  are  1977,  to  stage  enforce  of and  nature  facilitators  of of  in this philosophical i s embedded a  mature, 42).  adult,  reality rational  Accepting  this  a h o u s e c l e a n i n g w i t h i n t h e MOA,  whose  i s to arrange  p.  initial  democratic  would  of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n  assumption  to  (1973) . i n d i c a t e d  were n o t  (Jedlicka,  farmers.  organized.  development.  individuals"  methods  program  philosophical  "subsistence  how  in  accepting these c o n s t r a i n t s  Therefore,  education  agricultural  the  by t h e i r  is  and  o r a b l o c k of t i m e  analyze  and  seem t o a r i s e  following training  Teshome (1979) and extension  personnel  difficulties knowledge  These  t o have a r e a l v a l u e  ideas to extension  l a c k of b a s i c e x t e n s i o n  and  researcher  discussion.  organizational conditions  o p e r a t i o n so t h a t p e o p l e  work t o g e t h e r  and  towards  the o b j e c t i v e s . This difference  approach,  in  addition  i n p e r c e p t i o n and  value  to  helping  regarding  reduce  peasants  the and  1 26  farm problems, w i l l  a l s o widen the  about  education.  extension  expectations new  the  context.  include  To  internal  orientation This  mode  b a r r i e r s , c o n s t r a i n t s and s p e c i f i c Airing  out c l e a r l y  organization increase  will  unrealistic  also of  address  reduce f a l s e  should  of o p e r a t i o n ,  possible  role  to  be  involved.  should  promises  which  of the  themselves  of the peasantry.  To e f f e c t t h i s e n d i t . i s a manual o f t h e e x t e n s i o n  the  context  what i s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t  program n e g a t i v i s m  manual  officers  as w e l l as from t h e  must  discussion  structure,  of  reduce  both from the o r g a n i z a t i o n  approach,  planning  knowledge  of prime importance t o  supply  program t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s .  describe  extension-research-training  and  The  explain  policy,  the  organizational  o b j e c t i v e s , r o l e and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f d i f f e r e n t  people  in  extension. Periodic around  important  sociology science  in-service  training  behavioral  should  sciences  a n d management a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  part  organized  such as The  education,  agricultural  o f t h e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g n e e d s t o be c l o s e l y  tied  to f i e l d  problems revealed  and  requires  the involvement of the College  for  be  b e t t e r use of f a c i l i t i e s  by a d a p t i v e  and e x p e r t s  research  teams  of A g r i c u l t u r e  available.  Summary The similar examined.  d i f f e r e n t extension to  Ethiopia In  models employed  by  countries  a n d t h e d e g r e e o f m o d e l s u c c e s s were  a l l cases t h e major i n g r e d i e n t  f o r success  127  was  f o u n d t o be  t h e d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t made t o  e x t e n s i o n program development An The  alternative  alternative  through  s t r a t e g y was  presented  starts with policy  confusion  strategy,  i n the  orientation  considered  as  part  d e f i n e d p o l i c y and researcher  of  clear  important  i n p u t s by  training  the  for  Ethiopia.  the  government  coordinating council.  implementation  and  the  process.  the n a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l  prevent  improve  of the of  program  objective i t  To  alternative  participants  planning. was  is  Given  found  by  to conduct i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  a  this  situation  analysis. Comprehensive  administrative  means t o i m p l e m e n t and was  taken  dispense  coordinate  educational services.  ordered  This  design  the  of a j o i n t  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; and a  strong  data  legitimation was  used  to  develop involves reliable  indicated  in  organization in Information  implementation  for  prompt  i n c r e a s e d feedback between programs w i t h  recognition  underpins  to  and  bank i n t h e Farm  of  central  decision  s t a f f e d w i t h development minded p e r s o n s . that  a  problems  cooperation  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and  formation  Service;  statements  This cooperation  as  Coordination  overcome t h e s e  formal  relationships,  communication channels. the  To  taken  a c q u i s i t i o n and  given to p o l i c y  cooperation.  formally  efforts.  a s a p r o b l e m of r e s o u r c e  a s t r o n g e m p h a s i s was formal  p l a n n i n g was  The  making main  t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g was  body factor  implicated  128  t h r o u g h o u t t o be a p o l i c y  t h a t g i v e s a mandate,  and  effort.  funds t h e c o o r d i n a t e d The  administrative  planning  which  coordinated effort  to organize, direct,  report  due  is  given  strategy.  This  planning  organizational council  consideration  model  advises  agriculture.  where  the  The  occurs  MOA  in  and  on f e e d i n g  resources The  a l l  disseminates media  Research,  important  findings,  information  developmental  and  area  information. extension  Adaptive  this  to  concerning  The t h r e e  and  Training  recommendations  documents  and  combine  mass  will  regionally  adaptive  i t is  what h a p p e n s t o d i s s e m i n a t e d  programs implemented regionally  f o r quick  organized  r e s e a r c h under l o c a l in  training  organizational compatability  at  research,  Through farm i n f o r m a t i o n and l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents know  integrated  based  point.  to  are  come  one  easy  training  the  organized  directly  which  supply  setup  proposed  unit.  knowledge  extension  In and  unit  and  coordinating  matters  which  a  alternative  the  national  t o the farm i n f o r m a t i o n  farm  the  of R e s e a r c h and E x t e n s i o n .  Extension,  concentrate  budget  m i n i s t r y i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o be  one . D i r e c t o r  divisions,  staff, in  i n t o three major t e c h n i c a l d i v i s i o n s under  requires  under  the  legitimizes  adaptive  improvement. research  setup  will  relevancy  agents satisfy of  a  and the given  Since  team  farm c o n d i t i o n s and a l s o  extension  and  information or the  conducts  participates farmers, question  the of  recommendation.  1 29  This  assurance  credibility  of c o m p a t i b i l i t y and r e l e v a n c y i m p l i e s  for  motivate  farmers  training  component  operationalize credibility.  local  the  extension  involved was  in  presented  goals  workers  their in  good  important  to  own e d u c a t i o n .  The  such  a  way  and t h e s t e p s t o a t t a i n  Under t h i s c o n t e x t t h e next c h a p t e r  t h e summary a n d m a i n f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y .  as  to  program  discusses  130  CHAPTER SIX  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  The  purpose of t h i s chapter  i sto highlight  t h e background  of E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r e a g a i n s t t h e p r o g r e s s problems  identified.  The  first  section  d e l i v e r s a summary o f t h i s b a c k g r o u n d . presents  t h e main  findings  research questions. and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s this  This  i s a  traditional  scattered  country  agricultural  cornerstone  One  and i s o l a t e d peasants. agriculture  of  country's Ministry be  t h e major  agricultural  t h e major  programs,  history  to organize  Agriculture,  administrative  does  extension  (MOA).  Ministry  agriculture  responsible for the  development  Although  responsible  for  r u r a l education. t o be  There  extension  was n o t a b l e Structurally,  organized  t o r u n development  education.  i s the  t h e MOA was s a i d  that theMinistry  n o t seem  principles  the  success.  and r u r a l  and c o o r d i n a t e  Ministry  E f f o r t s t o transform  institutions  indicates  the  t h e work o f  t o modern s c i e n t i f i c  of Agriculture  as  of peasants with a r e l a t i v e l y system.  seem t o h a v e met w i t h l i t t l e  such  made a s a r e s u l t o f  o f t h e E t h i o p i a n economy, i s s t i l l  subsistence  the  the conclusions  study. Ethiopia  to  section  and d i s c u s s e s t h e  by  that the researcher  and  of the chapter  The s e c o n d  of t h e study  i sfollowed  achieved  on s o u n d activities  a r e gaps  between  131  research,  extension,  training  b e t w e e n k n o w l e d g e and Even  after  the  treated  national  essential The  mutually  t o the  concept  in  research  and  dependent,  the  t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t  Ethiopian  extension  more  than  (3)  The indicate the  the  real  CADU  a truly  to  be,  effective  of  needed  to  coordinated country.  run  These  i n the  i n the  who  factors,  with  do  people,  discipline.  CADU  area  seems  o f man-power by  fundamentally,  available  not  to  showing  "officials"  know how  man-power  to  t o make an  develop  and  program.  documents  within  time  educational organization,  of a s h o r t a g e  planners)  mechanism  1952:  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  (policymakers,  Available  since  leadership.  of e x t e n s i o n  implement a g i v e n  of  factors missing  t h a t development s t a r t s  fallacy  use  period  training  innovative  problem  short  m e c h a n i s m , (2) a w e l l o r g a n i z e d  their  success  activities  defined  making  education,  not  (1) a  r e f l e c t e d the b e l i e f their  were  agriculture.  indicates  program  the  program  training  interacting  gap  wide.  guiding  o f CADU i n a v e r y  p r o g r a m , and  i s usually  adopted  improvement of  planning  the  service  success  program  farmer;  extension  the  extension,  as  the  p r a c t i c e w i t h i n MOA  minimum p a c k a g e i d e a a s development,  and  t h e MOA effective  utilization  indicate  that  to c u l t i v a t e extension  of o t h e r  there  is  no  t h e human  resources  programs  and  resources  no  a v a i l a b l e i n the  132  The seem  bottlenecks in  to  result  from  the  Ethiopian  lack  of  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the t r u e e x t e n t planning,  and in  typical  example  the  delivery is  without  the  based  practice, this on  and  defined  client  of  considers  and  on  A  production milieu  and  farmers  which r e q u i r e s identification, The  approach  as mere r e c i p i e n t s o f t e c h n o l o g y consumption  e x t e n s i o n program implementation  systematically  education.  no e v a l u a t i o n .  extension  simple d i s t r i b u t i o n  institutions  cultural  a n a l y s i s , no p r o b l e m  the  program  i s a top-down c o m m u n i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e  farmers  in  inadequate for  emphasis  the  service  peasantry.  fertilizer  participation  need  development  general  objectives,  seems t o t r e a t  be  the  the p e r c e i v e d needs of the  no c o n t e x t no  of  considering  e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d of t h e In  coordination,  i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e of the  involved  techniques,  extension  of  program.  a  proxy  As  a  result,  be  said  i n E t h i o p i a can  fertilizer  organized  as  and  educational  and  credit  with  programs  for  of  to no the  farmers. The  focus  of  following questions identified  1.  Is  in this  there  any  this in  study  line  has  with  been  basic  to  answer  planning  models  between the c u r r e n t  program  research.  congruence  p l a n n i n g m e c h a n i s m u s e d i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n and the  theoretical  the  l i t e r a t u r e p r e s c r i b e s as good  what  planning?  1 33  The  answer i s no.  practices, there reads  Excluding  i s no v i s i b l e  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  t h e CADU p r o g r a m  s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n what  office  with  no i n p u t  are  where  the  extension  their  country's  for  implementation.  resources" Neither  the  Minimum  context  (1971)  to  Kulp  In  as  a  with  (1970),  i n E t h i o p i a i s "here a r e  the  the goals  ( p . 9 1 ) , now i m p l e m e n t t h e p r o g r a m .  t h e programs of t h e comprehensive p r o j e c t s nor Package  Programs  analysis,  a l l at  have a r i s e n from a n a t u r a l  steps.  The c o n c e p t s o f c l i e n t  evaluation,  programs a r e v i r t u a l l y absent. introduced  clients.  workers a r e not acquainted  According  sequence of program p l a n n i n g and  UN/ECA  i n one  programs u n t i l t h e p l a n documents a r e ready  operational philosophy and  determined  from e x t e n s i o n  f a c t E t h i o p i a i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t e d by case  one  a n d what one o b s e r v e s i n E t h i o p i a .  Program o b j e c t i v e s and p r i o r i t i e s central  planning  once  New  and  and  modification  programs  are  never  are  of  usually  systematically  evaluated. The setting, planning  concept  of  joint  which the p l a n n i n g procedures,  understanding  the  by p l a n n e r s  creation  associations,  system  not  of the of t h e i r  and j o i n t  identifies  practised. real-life  institutions,  such  A  as  no  visible  good  lack  of  needs has l e d as  peasant  schemes, r a t h e r  sound r e l e v a n t e d u c a t i o n a l programs.  has  target  s i t u a t i o n s of  educational  c o o p e r a t i v e s , and s e t t l e m e n t  than developing the  of  literature  is  farmers and p a r t i c u l a r l y to  programming  self-evaluating  Since  mechanism,  134  information 35  years  collected has  contribution  not  were  no  of  within  used  over  the past  adequately  to  make  efforts  reach  similarities  implementation, Sork  been  institutions  to extension education  Examination technology  on t h e s e  of  in Ethiopia.  to  bring  farmers  between  program  35 y e a r s  Kulp As  and  (1974), and  a  result  of  of e x t e n s i o n work, t h e  same p r o g r a m s a r e c o n s t a n t l y r e v i v e d a n d  pursued.  2.  program  What w e a k n e s s e s e x i s t  there  development  a n d what Chambers ( 1 9 7 4 ) ,  incongruencies, after  agricultural  indicates that  (n.d.) s t a t e as e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g .  these  a  i n the current  planning  mechanism? A v a i l a b l e p l a n n i n g models c o n s i d e r c o n t e x t and  client  system a n a l y s i s as a b a s i c s t e p toward  d e v e l o p i n g a program  because  the  educational  present  in  process.  social, any  economic,  community  affect  T h i s i s why t h e p r o p e r  technology,  opportunity,  communities l i e s a t the very  and  and  the e n t i r e  programming  identification approach  forces  of  to  f o u n d a t i o n of sound  local farming  extension  programming. W i t h i n a g i v e n E t h i o p i a n community l o c a l d i a g n o s i s i d e n t i f y what t o do w i t h what t o o l s was a p p a r e n t l y No e m p h a s i s was g i v e n t o make  context  and  client  to  lacking. system  a n a l y s i s more l o c a l i z e d , more r e l e v a n t t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a c t i o n . factors  The a n a l y s e s p e r f o r m e d d i d n o t c o n s i d e r  nor  did  they  i n v o l v e those  officials  and  social farmers  135  who  would  programs.  be The  responsible  main b e n e f i t  prescription,  avoidance  d e s i g n e d p r o g r a m s , was The  major  Ethiopia  is  administrative and  not  t i m i n g of work,  of  the  documents  from  statement  o f what s h o u l d  1979,  its  staff  MOA  and  and  by  implemented. Ethiopia  plans  whom The  be  do  the  to  of  be  and  staffing,  facilities.  As  coordinated  design  workloads Most  and  program a  do  1973;  clear  they  give  Stommes  and  and  two  or  weak  more  in  the  where,  developed  and  extension  in  the  of  area  functions.  reporting,  Except  there  proper  is  procedures  coordinating  planning  no for  resources  process  seems  implementation.  distinguish  p r o b l e m of c o o r d i n a t i o n . .  be  agricultural  d i r e c t i n g , and  coordinating  s t a t e how,  should  states  with plan to  clearly  management  a result,  inability  of  proper  nor  in  workable  provide  why,  (IBRD,  very  s a t i s f a c t o r y document t h a t  merging  not  program  annual  budgeting  structure  do  not  for  An  viable  done and  and  poorly  a  programs.  EPID  administrative planning  and  local  of c e n t r a l l y  design  of  and  system  seems  organizing,  and  1980).  Administrative when,  the  mechanism  mechanism n e g l e c t s  standards f o r achievement  Seleshi,  planning  to  allocation  of  local misfit  of  exploited.  The  monitoring  basic  the  inability  plan.  implementation  from l o c a l d i a g n o s i s  of  weakness its  for  functions  The  between  coordinative  seems t o compound  reorganization  organizations  of MOA  with  and  the the  dissimilar  1 36  objectives  seems  Incidentally, seems  to  i t does  that  after  1974,  Ethiopia  i n t e r n a l or  d e s t r o y i n g a n y c o o r d i n a t i o n e f f o r t a t an  s u c h a s b o u n d a r y d e f i n i t i o n among  institutions,  nurtured  by  declaration post  appear  stage. Obstacles,  and  more c o o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s .  t o have c r e a t e d s t r u c t u r e s t h a t g e n e r a t e  external conflict, early  generate  complicated on  on p o s t s  competition  the  and  compartmentalization  structures,  establishment  personnel  vague  policy  of agency over  agency,  seem t o be t h e m a j o r ones (IBRD, 1 9 7 3 ) .  separation  of r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n , t h e i s o l a t i o n  from having  any s a y on t h e m a t t e r  seem  to  approach  be  contributing  (Kefyalew,  Although training  provide  participants extension  in  the  (Gizberg or  training  in  training,  workshops, or  3.  the  models  form  and  Smith,  the  farmers  for  i t s  1967).  orientation  and  Neither  the  organized  programs, o n - s i t e  seminars.  bring  improvement  agricultural  and  staff  receive  planning  the  strong  S e r v i c e does not  What c h a n g e s i n t h e p r o g r a m about  a  development  Extension  orientation  of  recommend  program  Ethiopian  minimum  officers  education  1981).  component  even  o f MOA  factors hindering a coordinated  a l l planning  implementation,  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  The  greatest  extension?  mechanism in  might  Ethiopian  1 37  Planning extension planning  is  the  service. longterm  training  key  management  Regardless  MPP  seminar,  because  priorities  or  planning  the p l a n n i n g aspect  planning  d e s i g n i n g the success. there  a  a  planning  any  of program  Essentially  futuristic  to achieve  these  planning this  activity;  goals  is  i t is  imagining in Ethiopia  i s a s t r o n g need t o change the e n t i r e a p p r o a c h t o program  development p r o c e s s .  r e - v a l u a t i o n of programs  order  and  of  two-hour  f u t u r e , a n t i c i p a t i n g p r o b l e m s , and  For  extension and  is  of  of w h e t h e r i t i s a c a s e  i s the major c o n t r i b u t o r t o success. true  function  the  The r e o r i e n t a t i o n  staff  is  necessary  in  t o b r i n g about the d e s i r e d change. Reorientation  organization  and  is  necessary  its  staff  s t a t e m e n t of the .extension policies  that  needed t o  direct  establish  structures, objectives  and in  obsolescence  the there  philosophies,  and  priorities  terms  of  changing  knowledge,  a  clear  and  thought  is  revising  situations,  to e f f e c t i v e planning  and  organizational  through  skills,  r e - v a l u a t i o n are  is  Re-valuation  informal  set  extension  objectives,  e x t e n s i o n programs. formal  atmosphere conducive Whyte,  that  to  of  R e o r i e n t a t i o n and  so  for  and  attitudes.  to  create  (Chambers,  an 1974;  1975).  Effective  planning  i d e n t i f i e s and  of c l i e n t s .  I t develops  the  decision  actual  d e f i n e s the  v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s and  and  the decision-making  c o n s t a n t l y d e f i n e s and  communicates the  so t h a t a c t i v i t i e s a r e  coordinated.  problems evaluates  process.  program's  It  purpose  1 38  A  desirable  change i n the E t h i o p i a n program  m e c h a n i s m w o u l d be one client  and  context  that  gives  analysis,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g , and achievement  of  goals  growing  to  approach  towards  proper  upon  farmers  should  be  improving  the  emphasis and  to  innovative  However,  final  initiative  themselves.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of f a r m e r s ,  strong s t a f f - t r a i n i n g  strong  to e v a l u a t i o n .  depends  s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  a  planning  and  Therefore,  leadership training, considered  as  program p l a n n i n g  a  and  major  in Ethiopian  extension. Program processes.  planning  is  a dynamic system of  These i n t e a c t i v e p r o c e s s e s  should  when c h a n g e s t o t h e p l a n n i n g m e c h a n i s m a r e  interactive  be  considered  contemplated.  Conclusions The  performance  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of through  its  o f ' CADU has a  sound  adequately  extension  package  concept  training  under  program.  which  united  research,  and  strategy,  d e m o n s t r a t e d beyond doubt the p o t e n t i a l of  MOA MOA  which  education.  resulted  nonformal  CADU,  extension  increase through  its  demonstrated  Their success  education  stimulated  i n t h e e m e r g e n c e of E P I D a s a p a r t  the of  which a d m i n i s t e r s extension at a n a t i o n a l l e v e l . T o d a y , what seems t o be h o l d i n g up t h e p r o g r e s s  domain of a g r i c u l t u r e i s not lack  yield  of  participation  from  so much t h e the  i n the  l a c k o f demand  farmers,  but  the  or  l a c k of  139  well  designed  programs.  a r e n o t t o be r e p e a t e d , program  planning.  What i s n e e d e d , i f p a s t is  empirical  This  would  field  help  to  mistakes  research  in  identify  or  a n t i c i p a t e what b o t t l e n e c k s do e x i s t o r a r e  likely  created  as  This e m p i r i c a l  research  should d e l i n e a t e areas  objectives  a  result  should  of a g i v e n program. and t a r g e t s  where  education  programs,  which  there are constant  target  of  encounters problems  the  contributes  to  effects.  In  with unanticipated  and  daily the  continuous  activity  immediate  such  facilities beyond  of  of l i m i t s ,  e v a l u a t i o n of one's e f f o r t  as  Ethiopia  unanticipated programs  c o n s t r a i n t s and  toward the g o a l .  extension  requires  a n d d i v e r s e human e x p e r t i s e .  education  a  mix This  t h e c a p a c i t y o f one o r g a n i z a t i o n .  v i e w where s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  service, or the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n insignificant.  Given  should always consider internal resources  and  this  is  most  integral  of o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a given experts,  is  considered  condition, extension  coordination process.  a  certainly  Above t h i s ,  the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  external  in i t s entire  of  in  of s e r v i c e s ,  e x t e n s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n E t h i o p i a seem t o h a v e an world  proper  implementation  short, c r i s i s - p r o n e rural education  Next t o program p l a n n i n g , country  problems.  evaluation.  during  control  require a d e l i b e r a t e examination a constant  T h i s means  c a n o n l y be r e d u c e d w i t h  identification  Monitoring  program  particularly  f o c u s on p e a s a n t a g r i c u l t u r e , a r e c r i s i s - p r o n e .  kinds  be  focus.  Agricultural  These  to  of  programs  approach  and  activities  and  140  Recommendations Experience 1980  of  natural  necessary causes  and  i n e x t e n s i o n programs from  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p o v e r t y  lack  life  gained  wealth  to i n i t i a t e  a  poverty  and  of  o f E t h i o p i a i s n o t due  or l a c k of sound  Policy  For  statements,  educational  farmers.. among  of  should  well  the  following  direct  a  emerge  needs.  the  given  from  context  objective multiple such  as  to  full  priorities  Such  a  policy  their  spectrum  of  to  learning different  methods of e d u c a t i o n a l d e l i v e r y .  and  constraints reduce  home soil  to  failure  inputs involved in  p r o d u c t i o n and  of  education comprehensively  analysis,  organizational  the  needs  should also e s t a b l i s h  r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and  as  of  education  P l a n n i n g of e x t e n s i o n programs s h o u l d b e g i n w i t h and  The  in  educational  educational  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and 2.  to  should  treat agricultural  as  support  important:  concrete  embrace t h e e n t i r e needs  reason  important  This policy  competing  to a  program.  deficiency  this  program,  identification  to  a c o n t i n u e d d e c l i n e of q u a l i t y  recommendations are c o n s i d e r e d 1.  international  development  i n E t h i o p i a seems a c h r o n i c organization.  1952  economics, fertility,  identification achieve  and  most  client  a  desired  frustration. extension  family  of  The  programs,  planning,  crop  etc., require evaluation  of t h e p r o g r a m f r o m t h e m u l t i p l e i n p u t p o i n t o f  view.  141  As  a  basic  democratic  nature  development  in  joint activity  maintain  place  of  and  organization.  be  agent  the  program  seen a l w a y s as (subject  in extension,  research  and  Therefore,  matter  i t i s important  training  a key  under  concept  help  to  of  treat  comprehensively.,  agricultural farming  in organizing  truly  as a f u l l and  t e a c h i n g by d i r e c t l y  direct  required.  evaluate  An  makes  the  of  helping to  i s not  authority  the  learning process design  sufficient to give  coordination  to  orders,  effort  is  C o o r d i n a t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s must h a v e a s i t s  o b j e c t i v e the d e l i v e r y of farmers.  all,  d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s h o u l d  Goodwill  coordination. and  Above  instruction.  given top p r i o r i t y .  achieve  will  helps p a r t i c i p a n t s feel  of change i n the p r o c e s s  C o o r d i n a t i o n of p r o g r a m s and be  and  problems  T h i s approach c o n t r i b u t e s to the  o f l e a r n i n g and appropriate  farmers'  organization  e d u c a t i o n a l and  partner  teaching.  This  w i t h minimum i m p e d i m e n t s .  s u c h an a p p r o a c h t o e x t e n s i o n program  information.  and  to one  e x t e n s i o n programs i s t o form a u n i t y i n p r o d u c t i o n dissemination  a  farmer..  relevancy  extension  of  education,  should  of an e x t e n s i o n a  indication  extension  extension  s p e c i a l i s t ) and To  ingredient  This  rural education,  more  r e q u i r e s an  effective  service  to  i n t e g r a t e d approach to  the  including administration, organization  142  and  evaluation.  without  coordinating  visible 5.  Coordinating the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sector the  other  sectors  p r o d u c e s no  results.  A t r a i n i n g program i s s i m p l y t h e s t r u c t u r e d arrangement of  activities  function  which  is mainly  T r a i n i n g reduces  education,  and fit  attitudes,  skills  and  and d i r e c t e d toward  action.  management.  I f properly  implementation.  implementation  means t o t r a n s l a t e  t h i s a c t i o n i s expected  ideas  i n t h e case  these  t o meet t h e  requirements  seems  that  training,  and  to  be  staff  considered  management a c t i o n . seems  T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no o r g a n i z e d ,  timely training  neither is  principles,  o f E t h i o p i a , e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s c a n n o t meet  requirements.  systematic  into  In extension  of government p o l i c y and b a s i c a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and  planner  programs h e l p t o b r i n g a  The a c t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t by p e o p l e .  programs,  new  (Jedlicka,  a c e r t a i n program  training  between p l a n n i n g and  Program  of  This  the d i s p a r i t y or d e f i c i e n c y i n  organization  implementator,  acquisition  and knowledge  Its  t o reduce  between knowledge and p r a c t i c e .  because l e a r n i n g i s the  behaviours,  designed  learning.  i s g e n e r a l l y t h e h e a r t o f any e f f o r t  visible disparity  1977).  facilitiates  training, as  The n a t u r e teaching  programs f o r o f f i c e r s . nor  an  integral  of  extension  without  the  learning,  It  value  of  component  of  in Ethiopia integrating  143  different  activities  without  c o n s o l i d a t i n g s t r u c t u r e s and  being  general  polices. This recommended  the  that  Ethiopia  component f o r e x t e n s i o n the  ills  i n extension  Training  in  practice,  develop  i t is  a  strong  s t a f f and farmers  strongly training  t o remedy most o f  programs.  t h e form of i n - s e r v i c e  annual  staff  meetings  program which  seminars,  workshops,  and  considered  i n a n y o f t h e e x a m i n e d d o c u m e n t s , c a n e a s i l y be  organized.  To a c h i e v e  the desired result  were  through  not  training,  a s t r o n g t r a i n i n g p o l i c y , i s h i g h l y needed. The  training policy  f o r MOA  s h o u l d be s e t  and  answer such q u e s t i o n s a s :  1.  How c a n e x t e n s i o n o b j e c t i v e s be a s s i s t e d  2.  What it  by  to  ask  training?  i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t r a i n i n g a n d what p r i o r i t y  will  have?  3.  Who  4.  What k i n d s o f t r a i n i n g a r e r e q u i r e d ?  5.  I n what way s h o u l d  The  up  i s responsible f o r training  above  questions  d e c i s i o n making. Extension  programs?  t r a i n i n g be d e l i v e r e d ? a r e of v a l u e o n l y  i f associated with  That i s t o s a y , improvement i n  Ethiopian  S e r v i c e d e p e n d s on how t h e a b o v e q u e s t i o n s ,  are b a s i c a l l y program p l a n n i n g q u e s t i o n s , a r e accepted  which and  answered. The different  main purpose of t h i s programming  e x t e n s i o n and  formulate  study  models a  set  was  to  examine  relevant  to  agricultural  of  principles  to  the  guide  1 44  planning  activities  theoretical  frame  in of  Ethiopia.  Pursuant  r e f e r e n c e w h i c h was  to  b a s e d on  b a s i c p l a n n i n g model e x t e n s i o n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g were  examined  organizational In any  in  the  study  the process  i t was  found  provision  for  a  t h a t t h e r e has  specific  s e r v i c e a s a p a r t of t h e  adult  country.  and  The  goals  and  Since programs come f r o m  a w i d e r a n g e of  educational decision  work  making  day-to-day  systematic  objectives  on  n e v e r been  spell  education  e x t e n s i o n p r o g r a m s a r e so d i f f u s e and enough t o p e r m i t  emphasis  training.  single l e g i s l a t i v e act in Ethiopia . to  make  Sork's  mechanisms  with p a r t i c u l a r  s t r u c t u r e , c o o r d i n a t i o n and  the  out  extension  system of  and  in  the  agricultural  sometimes  ambiguous  interpretations.  competes  with  other  for extension education  pressures,  not  from  well  MOA  seem t o planned  study. This unplanned  indicated and  a  weak  organizational  uncoordinated  work.  e x t e n s i o n m e t h o d s , t e c h n i q u e s , and peasant farmers The and  was  s t u d y has  situational  other  include  identified a factors  number  which  administrative  the study  context analysis,  and  used to  teach  e i t h e r weak o r u n a v a i l a b l e .  f a c t o r s a r e subsumed.  problem  up  c o o r d i n a t i o n of  resources  On  of  affect  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e x t e n s i o n p r o g r a m These  The  set  organizational the  planning  success in  of  Ethiopia.  b o t t l e n e c k s under which a l l the  basis  i d e n t i f i e d an a l t e r n a t i v e coordination,  of  this  major  s t r a t e g y where  administrative  planning,  1 45  and t r a i n i n g component  are given the  highest  priority  in  program p l a n n i n g . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h e congruent  with  the  anticipated that  the  administrators  and  information. alternative  Given  results  formulated alternative donor the  of  planning strategy w i l l  strategy  of  will  with  policy  program  in Ethiopia.  is  provide important the  planners choice,  t r a i n i n g , and s u p e r v i s i o n of e x t e n s i o n  which are b a s i c a l l y m i s s i n g  are  It  support  help extension  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g f o r selection  study  objectives.  agencies  necessary  this  work,  1 46  REFERENCES  Africa  Guide 1984 (8th ed.). W o r l d of I n f o r m a t i o n .  Africa  Research Bulletine. (1983). Volume 20, E x t e r , England: A f r i c a n Research.  Amare G e t a h u n .  (1978).  1  Agricultural  American  Agricultural  Systems,  2,  Pschological  Author. I.  (1981).  developing  problems.  England: Number  systems i n (1983).  4.  Ethiopia.  Manual  As soci at i on.  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