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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Program planning in the Ethiopian extension service : its evolution and structure Mandefrot, Kefyalew 1986

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c. PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ETHIOPIAN EXTENSION SERVICE: ITS EVOLUTION AND STRUCTURE by KEFYALEW MANDEFROT B . S c , A d d i s Ababa U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE ( A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n ) i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Departments of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t And H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n and P l a n t S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1986 © K e f y a l e w M a n d e f r o t , 1986 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 r>T_ £ to /no, \ ' i i ABSTRACT T h i s study examined the program p l a n n i n g mechanism and s t r u c t u r e i n E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n was seen by most p o l i c y makers and f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s as one of the a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r u r a l development. E x t e n s i o n was d e f i n e d as an o u t - o f - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s of working w i t h r u r a l p e o p l e u t i l i z i n g p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s and c e r t a i n s u p p o r t i n g s e r v i c e s w i t h a d i s t i n c t i v e s p i r i t of c o o p e r a t i o n and mutual r e s p e c t . The g o a l was t o enable p e o p l e t o a c q u i r e and use s k i l l s , knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n t o improve t h e i r l i v e s . In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e the o b j e c t i v e of the s t u d y , the h i s t o r y of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n E t h i o p i a from 1952 t o 1980 was r e v i e w e d and the o r i g i n , t r e n d s and problems i n e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g i n E t h i o p i a were d i s c u s s e d . F o l l o w i n g the h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s , a review of program p l a n n i n g models r e l e v a n t t o a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n was p r o v i d e d . The s t u d y , a f t e r p r e s e n t i n g an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e program p l a n n i n g mechanism i n E t h i o p i a , c o n ducted a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of major problems. The major problems i d e n t i f i e d a r e r e l a t e d t o the b a s i c program p l a n n i n g mechanism, c o o r d i n a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . An a l t e r n a t i v e mechanism was i d e n t i f i e d based on S o r k ' s b a s i c p l a n n i n g model. A summary was g i v e n . Major c o n c l u s i o n s of the study were d i s c u s s e d i n terms of program p l a n n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o a n a l y s i s of the p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g , c o o r d i n a t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs r e q u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . The study r e v e a l e d s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t weaknesses i n t h e e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g mechanism used i n E t h i o p i a . I t was suggested t h a t i f these weaknesses a r e e l i m i n a t e d , E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n — and the q u a l i t y of l i f e of t h o s e dependent on the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r — c o u l d be improved. I n c r e a s i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n between a g e n c i e s , j o i n t p l a n n i n g of programs, a l t e r i n g the programming sequence, and b e t t e r t i m i n g of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were suggested as means of i m p r o v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n E t h i o p i a . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS v i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i L IST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 Background Statement 1 Statement of the Problem 7 Purpose and O b j e c t i v e s of the Study 13 Research Q u e s t i o n s t o be Answered .......14 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms t o be Used 15 A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n 15 Nonformal E d u c a t i o n 16 Program 17 Program development 17 C o o r d i n a t i o n 18 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Remaining C h a p t e r s 19 CHAPTER TWO: A HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN ETHIOPIA 1952 TO 1980 20 A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n From 1952 t o 1 966 20 A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n From 1967 t o 1980 22 The Comprehensive Package Programs 22 The Minimum Package Program 24 O b j e c t i v e s and s t r a t e g y 25 The EPID e x t e n s i o n approach 29 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .31 V E x t e n s i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n s ' R e l a t i o n s W i t h Other A g e n c i e s 40 I n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l l i n k a g e 42 N a t i o n a l l e v e l l i n k a g e s 43 G e n e r a l O b e r v a t i o n s : Problems, Trends and O p p o r t u n i t i e s 44 Summary 46 CHAPTER THREE: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON PROGRAM PLANNING MODELS AND.PRINCIPLES 48 Role of Program P l a n n i n g i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n ..........48 Assessment of Program P l a n n i n g Models 53 Sor k ' s B a s i c P l a n n i n g Model (n.d.) 58 Pesson (1966) 62 U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a (1975) 64 B o y l e (1981) 66 Boone, D o l a n , and Shearon (1971) 67 S i m i l a r i t i e s and D i f f e r e n c e s i n the Programming Models 68 E v a l u a t i o n of the Models 71 S e l e c t i o n of Models 77 Summary 80 v i CHAPTER FOUR: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF PLANNING AND COORDINATION 81 Program P l a n n i n g From 1952 t o 1966 81 Program P l a n n i n g From 1967 t o 1980 82 Program P l a n n i n g P r a c t i c e i n Comprehensive P r o j e c t s 82 Program P l a n n i n g i n Minimum Package Programs ....90 C o o r d i n a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n 95 Major I s s u e s and Problems 100 Summary . ....... 1 02 CHAPTER FIVE: A PROPOSED ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY 104 The Need f o r an A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g y 104 Assumptions of the A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g y 108 A n a l y s i s of P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t and C l i e n t System 111 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P l a n n i n g and C o o r d i n a t i o n 115 Development of T r a i n i n g Programs 121 Summary 126 CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..130 C o n c l u s i o n s 138 Recommendations 140 REFERENCES 146 v i i LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ADP Ada Development p r o j e c t CADU C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t CSO C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e - E t h i o p i a EPID E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Imp l e m e n t a t i o n Department IBRD I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development IAR I n s t i t u t e of A g r i c u l t u r a l R esearch MCD M i n i s t r y of Community Development MOA M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e MPP Minimum Package Programs MPPA Minimum Package Program Areas PMGSE P r o v i n c i a l M i l i t a r y Government of S o c i a l i s t E t h i o p i a RRC R e l i e f and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Commission SIDA Swedish I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency UNDP U n i t e d N a t i o n s Development Programme UNECA U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic Commission f o r A f r i c a ' WADU Wolamo A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t v i i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. The 12 Major C a t t l e C o u n t r i e s of the World ..... 4 2. L i v e s t o c k P o p u l a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a 4 3. Number of T r a c t o r s and H a r v e s t e r s i n Use i n Three A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s 6 4. Pe r c e n t a g e of E x p e n d i t u r e 1960 t o 1966 on Government M i n i s t r i e s i n E t h i o p i a . 10 5. P e r c e n t a g e of Government E x p e n d i t u r e on A g r i c u l t u r e of Some A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s 10 6. The D i f f e r e n c e Between the Annual Budget and A c t u a l R e c e i p t s of Funds by I n s t i t u t e of A g r i c u l t u r a l R e search 11 7. Summary of Program P l a n n i n g S t e p s 59 8. L i s t of Q u e s t i o n s f o r A n a l y s i s of P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t and C l i e n t System P a r t i c i p a n t / Program C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 114 i x LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. The S p a t i a l Network of Minimum Package Program Areas 28 2. O r g a n i z a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n E t h i o p i a 33 3. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r t of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e i n 1 972 .. 36 4. O r g r a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r t of the E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Department of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e 38 5. P r e s e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n of EPID 41 6. So r k ' s B a s i c P l a n n i n g Model 60 7. The E x t e n s i o n Program Development P r o c e s s 63 8. M i n n e s o t a E x t e n s i o n Program Development P r o c e s s 65 9. Programming i n the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e : A C o n c e p t u a l Schema 69 X 10. B a s i c Economic Developmental S t r a t e g y U t i l i z e d by the CADU P r o j e c t i n C h i l a l o Awraja 85 11. C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t Model of O p e r a t i o n 88 12. A Summary of World Approaches t o E x t e n s i o n and R u r a l Development 93 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Two peopl e have c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s s t u d y . I thank Vern and B e a t t y Kembel f o r t h e i r c r i t i c a l a d v i c e , encouragement, and f i n a n c i a l and moral s u p p o r t which made t h i s s tudy p o s s i b l e . T h i s work i s d e d i c a t e d t o them. A v o t e of thanks goes t o Dr. James F. R i c h a r d s and Dr. Robert J . Copeman. T h e i r i n s i g h t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g have i l l u m i n a t e d t h i s s t u d y . Above a l l t h i s r e s e a r c h e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o an o u s t a n d i n g s c h o l a r and t e a c h e r , P r o f e s s o r Thomas Sork, whose p a t i e n c e and guidance made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . The r e s u l t a n t e x p e r i e n c e s were of immeasurable p e r s o n a l v a l u e . H i s g e n e r o u s i t y i n time and en t h u s i a s m f o r the study was g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . L a s t l y , I would l i k e t o thank L a r s and Mar g e r e t a Johanson f o r i n s p i r i n g my i n t i t i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s a r e a of st u d y . My thanks go a l s o t o Mrs. Carmel Chambers and Mr. Bruce M c G i l l i v r a y f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n the e d i t i n g and t y p i n g of t h i s m a n u s c r i p t . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background Statement E t h i o p i a i s a l a n d of about 31 m i l l i o n p e o p l e o c c u p y i n g over 1.22 m i l l i o n square k i l o m e t r e s i n the horn of A f r i c a . T h i s a n c i e n t c o u n t r y c o n t a i n s some of the most mountainous and p h y s i c a l l y d i v e r s e t e r r a i n i n the w o r l d . I t s topography c o n s i s t s of h i g h l a n d s w i t h v a s t d i s s e c t e d , rugged h i g h p l a t e a u s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s t opography, E t h i o p i a was s u b s t a n t i a l l y i s o l a t e d from the mainstream of t r a d e , communication and o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i m p o r t a n t f o r the d i f f u s i o n of t e c h n o l o g y . The c o u n t r y has a l a r g e a r e a of c u l t i v a t e a b l e l a n d . A c c o r d i n g t o the Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n (FAO, 1981) and a r e c e n t A f r i c a Guide (1984), t h e r e a r e 120 m i l l i o n h e c t a r e s (ha) of a r a b l e l a n d i n E t h i o p i a , of which o n l y 13 m i l l i o n a r e c u r r e n t l y under c u l t i v a t i o n . The r e s t i n c l u d e s permanent p a s t u r e , w a s t e l a n d , and f o r e s t . The c o u n t r y i s b a s i c a l l y an a g r i c u l t u r a l and p a s t o r i a l s o c i e t y (Amare, 1978; We s t p h a l , 1974). A g r i c u l t u r e dominates E t h i o p i a n l i f e t o the e x t e n t t h a t l i t t l e m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s can be made u n l e s s improvements i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n a r e a c h i e v e d . More than 85 p e r c e n t of the 2 p o p u l a t i o n depends on a g r i c u l t u r e and earns i t s l i v e l i h o o d from s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g . The c o u n t r y e a r n s more than 90 p e r c e n t of i t s f o r e i g n exchange from e x p o r t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s ( A f r i c a G uide, 1984). N i n e t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n comes from the s m a l l peasant c u l t i v a t o r s who a r e i l l i t e r a t e and i n d i g e n t and seven p e r c e n t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i s d e r i v e d from the "modern" s e c t o r of a g r i c u l t u r e , m a i n l y s t a t e farms (Reimer, 1975). D e s p i t e the importance of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the l i f e of E t h i o p i a n s , the annual t o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n growth r a t e from 1969 t o 1980 was 2.4%, s l i g h t l y lower than the r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth which was 2.5% (FAO, 1971, 1972, 1981). In E t h i o p i a , the p e a s a n t r y makes up about 85% of the c o u n t r y ' s e s t i m a t e d 31 m i l l i o n p e o p l e , or about f o u r m i l l i o n h o useholds w i t h an average farm s i z e of under f i v e h e c t a r e s ( T e s f a i , 1975). T h i s same group c o m p r i s e s about 90% of the c o u n t r y ' s l a b o u r f o r c e . Heimpel (1973) f o r the f i r s t t i me c o n f i r m e d t h a t per c a p i t a income of the p e a s a n t r y l i e s below 150 German marks and c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l a r g e number of E t h i o p i a n f a r m e r s l i v e i n a s u b s i s t e n c e economy which b a r e l y p r o v i d e s them w i t h s u f f i c i e n t f o o d . D e s p i t e r e c e n t improvements i n p r o d u c t i o n methods used on the s t a t e owned commercial farms, the use of modern a g r i c u l t u r a l i n p u t s i n E t h i o p i a i s n e g l i g i b l e . For example, i n 1971 E t h i o p i a n consumption of n i t r o g e n o u s f e r t i l i z e r averaged around .25 k i l o g r a m per h e c t a r e of 3 f a r m l a n d ( G i l l , 1975) w h i l e the A f r i c a n average i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 k i l o g r a m s per h e c t a r e . The combined l a c k of t h e s e r e s o u r c e s r e s u l t s i n low farm p r o d u c t i v t y . E t h i o p i a has the l a r g e s t l i v e s t o c k p o p u l a t i o n of any c o u n t r y i n A f r i c a (see T a b l e s 1 and 2 ) . A c a t t l e p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e d a t about 26 m i l l i o n head ranks E t h i o p i a e i g h t h i n the w o r l d and f i r s t i n A f r i c a . Almost a l l the c a t t l e a r e Zebu t y p e . About t h r e e - f i f t h s of the t o t a l a r e i n the h i g h l a n d s where they s e r v e p r i m a r i l y as work a n i m a l s . L i v e s t o c k r a i s i n g always has been l a r g e l y a s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t y ( S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , 1969). In E t h i o p i a , over 99% of the power on the peasant farms i s g e n e r a t e d by human b e i n g s and a n i m a l s . In the h i g h l a n d s , c r o p l a n d i s p r e p a r e d w i t h a t r a d i t i o n a l p l o u g h which s i m p l y d i g s a r u t i n the s o i l . In a r e a s , m a i n l y l o w l a n d s , where due t o t r y p a n o s o m i a s i s , oxen or o t h e r d r a f t a n i m a l s cannot s u r v i v e , a hoe or d i g g i n g s t i c k i s used f o r p r i m a r y c u l t i v a t i o n . Weeding, i f done a t a l l , i s done w i t h e i t h e r p l o u g h or hoe i n the case of r o b u s t c r o p s such as maize. In some a r e a s such as N o r t h e r n Shoa — 45 k i l o m e t r e s from the c a p i t a l c i t y — the muck s o i l i s c o l l e c t e d i n t o heaps a f t e r the f i r s t p l o u g h i n g and s e t on f i r e i n o r d e r t o d e s t r o y p e s t s from the p r e v i o u s c r o p . S y s t e m a t i c manuring of t he l a n d i s done by r o t a t i n g cow pens. Cow dung i s a l s o c o l l e c t e d f o r use as f u e l and as a b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l . S e e ding i s u s u a l l y done by b r o a d c a s t i n g . 4 Ta b l e 1: The 12 Major C a t t l e C o u n t r i e s i n the World and A f r i c a World M i l l i o n Head A f r i c a M i l l i o n Head I n d i a 176.6 Sudan 13.6 U.S.A. 114.6 T a n z a n i a 13.3 U.S.S.R. 99. 1 South A f r i c a 12.3 B r a z i l 97. 1 N i g e r i a 11.6 C h i n a 63. 1 Madigascar 10.6 A r g e n t i n a 49.8 Kenya 8.5 P a k i s t a n 44.2 M a l i 5.5 E t h i o p i a 26.4 Chad 4.5 Mexico 25. 1 N i g e r 4.4 A u s t r a l i a 24. 1 Uganda 4.4 France 21 .6 Rhodesia 4.0 Columbia 21.1 T o t a l 1,141.0 T o t a l 158.0 Source: F.A.O. (1971). F.A.O. P r o d u c t i o n Yearbook. Rome: F.A.O. T a b l e 2: L i v e s t o c k P o p u l a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a C l a s s Numbers i n M i l l i o n s C a t t l e 27 Sheep & Goats 41 P o u l t r y 50 Source: H a i l u (1979). A g r i c u l t u r a l R esearch i n E t h i o p i a . F i e l d Crops Department R e p o r t . A d d i s Ababa: I n s t i t u t e of A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h . 5 The s i c k l e , u s u a l l y w i t h a s e r r a t e d edge, i s the u n i v e r s a l r e a p i n g t o o l and c r o p s are t h r e s h e d by oxen t r a m p l i n g on hard packed e a r t h e n t h r e s h i n g f l o o r s . In the case of g r a i n , winnowing i s done by the time honoured method of t h r o w i n g the t h r e s h e d p r o d u c t i n t o the wind i n o r d e r t o s e p a r a t e the k e r n a l s from the c h a f f . The c r o p , i n most c a s e s , i s t r a n s p o r t e d by pack a n i m a l s (donkeys or mules) a l t h o u g h crude a n i m a l s l e d s a r e found i n a few a r e a s . Produce which i s not d i s p o s e d of i m m e d i a t e l y i s s t o r e d i n e i t h e r mud-walled t h a t c h e d b i n s or i n c o v e r e d p i t s . . T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n o l o g y , d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l by A s s e f a and E s h e t u (1969), G i l l ( 1 975), and H u f f n a g e l (1966), has changed l i t t l e i n the l a s t 35 y e a r s . A c c o r d i n g t o the FAO (1981b, 1977) i n the e n t i r e c o u n t r y t h e r e were o n l y 3900 t r a c t o r s and 150 h a r v e s t e r s i n use i n 1979. T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t w h i l e the Sudan has n e a r l y t h r e e t i m e s as many t r a c t o r s as E t h i o p i a , Kenya owns a l i t t l e l e s s than double the number of E t h i o p i a . In the case of b o t h p r o d u c t i o n methods and a g r i c u l t u r a l o utput the E t h i o p i a n case i s extreme. The h i g h l a n d mixed f a r m i n g system, which i s the dominant f a r m i n g system i n E t h i o p i a , i s i n i t s i n i t i a l s t age of development, where farmers produce m o s t l y f o r t h e i r own s u b s i s t e n c e needs and use t e c h n i q u e s of c u l t i v a t i o n t h a t have been passed on from f a t h e r t o son f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . The d a t a and o b s e r v a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d thus f a r a r e c o n s i s t e n t 6 Ta b l e 3: Number of T r a c t o r s and H a r v e s t e r s i n Use i n Three A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s C o u n t r y Year 1969-71 1974 1975 1976 1 977 1978 1979 E t h i o p i a T r a c t o r s 2858 3500 3600 3700 3750 3850 3900 H a r v e s t e r s 77 125 1 35 1 35 1 40 1 45 150 Kenya T r a c t o r s 6379 6195 6000 6000 6186 6449 6650 H a r v e s t e r s 658 462 431 440 *"" Sudan T r a c t o r s 5043 8500 8880 9000 9300 10000 1 0500 H a r v e s t e r s 340 850 900 950 1 000 1050 1 100 Source: F.A.O. (1980). F.A.O. Trade Yearbook. Rome: F.A.O. w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n made by both Amare (1979) and Heimple (1973) t h a t E t h i o p i a i s a c o u n t r y of pea s a n t s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y p r i m i t i v e form of a g r i c u l t u r e , s t i l l p r i m a r i l y t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g . T h i s f a c t has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . E t h i o p i a , as a c e n t r e of o r i g i n or d o m e s t i c a t i o n of most agronomic c r o p s , was once s a i d t o be the bread basket of the M i d d l e E a s t . Up t o 1967 a l l c e r e a l g r a i n s c u l t i v a t e d and produced i n the c o u n t r y were i n d i g e n o u s . I r o n i c a l l y , t h i s i s why E t h i o p i a has l o n g been a major sour c e of g e n e t i c d i v e r s i t y f o r many temperate zone c r o p s . 7 For example, an E t h i o p i a n s t r a i n e x p o r t e d t o C a l i f o r n i a p r o t e c t e d C a l i f o r n i a b a r l e y from the d e v a s t a t i n g y e l l o w dwarf d i s e a s e . The immense a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l t h a t E t h i o p i a has and t h a t has never been e x p l o i t e d i s the d i s c o v e r y of two s t r a i n s of h i g h l y s i n e - c o n t a i n i n g sorghum i n W o l l o p r o v i n c e which c o n t a i n s o n e - t h i r d more p r o t e i n and t w i c e the l y s i n e of more commonly grown v a r i e t i e s (Brown, 1975, p. 167). At the p r e s e n t t i m e , w i t h a l l her p o t e n t i a l , E t h i o p i a i s among the p o o r e s t c o u n t r i e s on e a r t h . These f a c t s , b e s i d e s h a v i n g i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , i n d i c a t e the s t a t u s of a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n E t h i o p i a . Statement of the Problem The d e c l i n e of E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r e from the l a t e 1960s onward and the death of two m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n 1974 as a r e s u l t of famine suggests t h e r e a r e s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s " i n E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r e (The P r o v i s i o n a l M i l i t a r y Government of S o c i a l i s t E t h i o p i a , 1980, 1981). These problems and t h e i r l i k e l y impact were i d e n t i f i e d i n the 1970s by a number of s t u d i e s . In 1973 L e s t e r Brown s i g n a l l e d the coming d i s a s t e r i n h i s famous book C o n s e r v a t i o n for Survival: Ethiopia's Choice. A l t h o u g h the book was p u b l i s h e d by an E t h i o p i a n u n i v e r s i t y , the book was n e i t h e r used as a t e a c h i n g a i d i n any f a c u l t y nor d i s t r i b u t e d t o the p u b l i c a t l a r g e . Heimple (1973), a f t e r a t horough st u d y of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n i n Shoa and W o l l e g a 8 p r o v i n c e s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t : E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r e i s t h e r e f o r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the problem of a f u r t h e r d e c l i n e i n per c a p i t a income - which, under the p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s can l e a d f i r s t t o s e a s o n a l and l a t e r permanent famine i n the r u r a l a r e a s - and, a t the same t i m e , w i t h the problem of f a l l i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y of i t s r e s o u r c e s (p. 213). A 1978 r e p o r t from the U.S. embassy i n A d d i s Ababa, E t h i o p i a , warned of an e n v i r o n m e n t a l nightmare u n f o l d i n g b e f o r e our eyes ... " I t i s " , s a i d the paper, a r e s u l t of a c t s of m i l l i o n s of E t h i o p i a n s s t r u g g l i n g f o r s u r v i v a l s c r a t c h i n g the s u r f a c e of eroded l a n d and e r o d i n g i t f u r t h e r , c u t t i n g down the t r e e s f o r warmth and f u e l and l e a v i n g the c o u n t r y denuded ... over one b i l l i o n t o n s of t o p s o i l f l o w from. E t h i o p i a ' s h i g h l a n d s each year ( i n Brown, 1984, p. 16). The r e p o r t from the U.S. embassy was r e i n f o r c e d i n t h e May, 1984 Swedish Red C r o s s s u r v e y which f o c u s e d on the E t h i o p i a n problems of d e f o r e s t a t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n and poor l a n d use (E. L a r s o n , p e r s o n a l communication, May 18, 1984). H i l l i g r e e n (1984) i d e n t i f i e d E t h i o p i a as p r o b a b l y the most extreme example of poor a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n t h a t have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e d u c i n g A f r i c a ' s per c a p i t a f o o d p r o d u c t i o n f o r two decades. These assessments i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t t o which a g r i c u l t u r e and f a r m e r s ' e d u c a t i o n has been n e g l e c t e d i n E t h i o p i a . U n t i l the l a s t q u a r t e r of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the whole c o u n t r y was as i t had been f o r c e n t u r i e s . Because of i t s i s o l a t i o n f o r more than 200 y e a r s , and a l s o because of the l a c k of a c o l o n i a l c o n n e c t i o n , t h e E t h i o p i a n s i t u a t i o n 9 i s e s s e n t i a l l y unknown t o A f r i c a n s c h o l a r s ( A s s e f a and E s h e t u , 1969). A s u r v e y , conducted by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , of d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s and masters t h e s e s i n 17 s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the U.S.A. i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s c a t t e r e d s t u d i e s of major problems by E t h i o p i a n s t u d e n t s i n the U.S.A., ar e l a n d t e n u r e , e v a l u a t i o n of r u r a l development and e d u c a t i o n . Most of the s t u d i e s a r e not l i n k e d t o the n a t i o n a l g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of E t h i o p i a , a l t h o u g h some have r a i s e d p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s i m p o r t a n t t o a g r i c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , E t h i o p i a i s so n e g l e c t e d i n the g e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e t h a t few r u r a l A f r i c a n i s t s r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s a c o u n t r y of more than 20 m i l l i o n peasant f a r m e r s . S i n c e t r a d i t i o n a l h i g h l a n d peasant a g r i c u l t u r e i s the main economy of E t h i o p i a , the p e a s a n t s a r e the s o l e p i l l a r on which the economy r e s t s . Thus i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e t o r u r a l E t h i o p i a n s and how programs a r e p l a n n e d t o s e r v e those who farm. A v a i l a b l e documents i n d i c a t e t h a t even i n the m i d - s i x t i e s e x t e n s i o n work of s i g n i f i c a n t impact was n o n e x i s t e n t i n E t h i o p i a . In 1968, a c c o r d i n g t o the U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic Commission f o r A f r i c a (UN/ECA) (1971), t h e r e were o n l y a t o t a l of 124 a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a g ents i n E t h i o p i a . At the same t i m e , Kenya, w i t h l e s s than o n e - h a l f the p o p u l a t i o n of E t h i o p i a , had 5,277 e x t e n s i o n agents on the p a y r o l l ( S c h u l z , 1976). 10 The n e g l e c t of a g r i c u l t u r e i n a c o u n t r y where f a r m i n g i s the o n l y v i a b l e a c t i v i t y can be seen i n T a b l e 4. E x p e n d i t u r e s on a g r i c u l t u r e i n c r e a s e d 0.8% from 1961 t o 1966, an i n s i g n i f i c a n t amount. D u r i n g the same p e r i o d , Kenya i n c r e a s e d e x p e n d i t u r e s by 12%. As seen from T a b l e 5, the e x p e n d i t u r e s on a g r i c u l t u r e i n E t h i o p i a from 1961 t o 1966 a re the lowe s t of a l l c o u n t r i e s i n A f r i c a . T a b l e 4: Percentage of E x p e n d i t u r e 1960 - 1966 on Government M i n i s t r i e s i n E t h i o p i a M i n i s t r y 1961 1962 1963 1 964 1 965 1966 N a t i o n a l Defense 24.5 28.6 26.5 25.4 26.7 26.6 I n t e r i o r 17.9 19.4 19.4 19.4 20.0 19.7 Educat i o n 11.2 12.2 12.2 15.5 15.8 15.2 P u b l i c H e a l t h 6.0 . 6.5 6.5 6.7 6.7 6.3 A g r i c u l t u r e 1 .2 1 .7 1 .7 2.2 2.3 2.0 Oth e r s 39.2 33.7 30.8 30.8 28.5 • 30.2 Source: A s s e f a and E s h e t u (1969). A P r o f i l e of E t h i o p i a n Economy. A d d i s Ababa: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . T a b l e 5: Percentage of Government E x p e n d i t u r e on A g r i c u l t u r e of Some A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s Country Year % E t h i o p i a 1961 1.2 Kenya 1961 12.7 Uganda 1958 9.5 Morocco 1958 5.7 U.A.R. 1960 4.3 Source: A s s e f a and Esh e t u (1969). A P r o f i l e of E t h i o p i a n Economy. A d d i s Ababa: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 11 The low p r i o r i t y a c c o r d e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e by the government a l s o can be seen from d a t a on investment i n a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . A study conducted by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development (IBRD) (1973) i n d i c a t e s a s h o r t f a l l of budget f o r IAR c o n t i n u o u s l y from 1968 t o 1970 (see T a b l e 6 ) . H a i l u (1979), f o r example, r e p o r t e d t h a t 60% of a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h i n E t h i o p i a i s f i n a n c e d by the FAO and U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (AID ) . T a b l e 6: The D i f f e r e n c e Between the Annual Budget and A c t u a l R e c e i p t s of Funds by I n s t i t u t e of A g r i c u l t u r a l R esearch P e r i o d B udget 1 A c t u a l 1 S h o r t f a l l ( - ) 1 or S u r p l u s (+) Through A p r i l 1968 1833 1009 -729 May 1968 - A p r i l 1969 2330 1 593 -737 May 1969 - A p r i l 1970 2821 2305 -516 May 1970 - Feb. 1971 2821 2880 + 59 thousnds of E t h i o p i a n d o l l a r s S o urce: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development (1973). A g r i c u l t u r a l S e c t o r Survey: E t h i o p i a , Volumes 1-3, Report No. P.A. 143, Annex 9. Washington: IBRD. The main f o c u s of t h i s s tudy was the e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n programming system f o r f a r m e r s . The 3 5 - y e a r - o l d e x t e n s i o n program has been s a i d by Amare (1978), B i s r a t ( 1980), Cohen (1975), G i l l (1975), L e l e (1975), S c h u l z 1 2 (1976), Stommes and S e l e s h i (1979) and T e s f a i (1975) t o be unable t o r e a c h the g r a s s r o o t s of the p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h i t s e s t a b l i s h e d c h a n n e l s , s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s and methods used. In t h i s r e g a r d a l o o k a t a d v i c e g i v e n t o the E t h i o p i a n government by such e x p e r t s as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development (1973) and G i n z b e r g and Smith (1967) i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g problems e x i s t i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n : 1. Lack of p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and j o b d e s c r i p t i o n . 2. Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n both i n the head o f f i c e and i n the f i e l d . 3. D e f i c i e n t communication both between and w i t h i n agenc i e s . 4. A wi d e s p r e a d a t t i t u d e of o f f i c i a l s t o c o n s i d e r any k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n as h i g h l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . 5. A m i s a l l o c a t i o n of educated E t h i o p i a n s by k e e p i n g them i n A d d i s when t h e i r s k i l l s were needed i n r u r a l E t h i o p i a . C o n c e r n i n g the major b o t t l e n e c k s i n r u r a l development and e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n , f o u r d i a g n o s e s were p o p u l a r i n the 1960s and c o n t i n u e t o r e c e i v e s u p p o r t i n the 1980s. Many development e x p e r t s and a u t h o r i t i e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a t t r i b u t e d the s h o r t c o m i n g s of r u r a l e x t e n s i o n t o " l a c k of h i g h l e v e l manpower, poor a t t i t u d e among p u b l i c s e r v a n t s , l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n , and i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e " (Chambers, 1974). 13 In a d d i t i o n t o what Chambers has s a i d , Umali notes the major problems a s : F i r s t , inadequate u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the t r u e e x t e n t of. the need f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e ; s e c o n d l y , the d i f f e r e n c e s and c o m p l e m e n t a r i t i e s between a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a r e i n a d e q u a t e l y r e c o g n i z e d ; t h i r d l y , l a c k of a p p r e c i a t i o n of the need f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs f o r farmers ( U m a l i , 1972, p. 4 3 ) . Chambers (1974) and Umali (1972) a r e o f t e n quoted i n development l i t e r a t u r e t o e x p l a i n the e x i s t e n c e of b o t t l e n e c k s and t o answer such q u e s t i o n s as "Why i s i t hard f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t o get s t a r t e d i n m o d e r n i z i n g t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r e ? " In i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s the r e l a t i v e importance of each of the major problems v a r i e s . In E t h i o p i a and many o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a major emphasis i s b e i n g p l a c e d on the p r o d u c t i o n of more h i g h l e v e l manpower. At the same time t h e r e i s a l a c k of a comprehensive and r i g o r o u s system of program p l a n n i n g . Very l i t t l e development l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s e s i t s a t t e n t i o n on t h i s problem. No r e s e a r c h has been found t h a t examines the e x t e n t of program p l a n n i n g problems or the programming mechanism i n E t h i o p i a . Purpose and Objectives of the Study The main purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o examine the program p l a n n i n g system i n the E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e from 1952 t o 1980. Based upon the m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n e d i n e x t e n s i o n and programming r e s e a r c h , the st u d y examined the 1 4 s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n E t h i o p i a . The c r i t i c a l assessment of p l a n n i n g methods used and the p r o p o s a l f o r i m p r o v i n g p l a n n i n g mechanisms i n E t h i o p i a s h o u l d be of i n t e r e s t b o t h t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and donor a g e n c i e s . " The stu d y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n E t h i o p i a and s e r v e s as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o the r o l e and o p e r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . T h i s s t u d y : examines the r o l e of program p l a n n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n ; i d e n t i f i e s f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o e f f e c t i v e program p l a n n i n g ; i d e n t i f i e s i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s and models devel o p e d e l s e w h e r e r e l e v a n t and a p p l i c a b l e t o the E t h i o p i a n s i t u a t i o n ; documents the p r o g r e s s i n the development of program p l a n n i n g i n E t h i o p i a ; a p p r a i s e s the n a t u r e and c h a r a c t e r s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , f a c i l i t y and human r e s o u r c e s used i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n ; proposes changes i n the approaches t o p l a n n i n g d e s i g n e d to improve the outcome of e x t e n s i o n work i n E t h i o p i a . Research Questions to be Answered T h i s study sought answers t o the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : 1. I s t h e r e any congruence between the c u r r e n t program p l a n n i n g mechanism used i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n and what the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e p r e s c r i b e s as good p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e ? 15 2. What weaknesses e x i s t i n the c u r r e n t program p l a n n i n g mechanism w i t h r e g a r d t o : a) c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system a n a l y s i s , b) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g , c) c o o r d i n a t i o n of the program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and d) t r a i n i n g of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n e x t e n s i o n programs? 3. What changes i n the program p l a n n i n g mechanism might b r i n g about the g r e a t e s t improvement i n E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n ? To answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s the study examined t h e p h i l o s o p h y of e x t e n s i o n upon which program development depends. P o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s t h a t g uide the e x t e n s i o n p r o c e s s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s of e x t e n s i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s , t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s , manpower u t i l i z a t i o n systems, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e x t e n s i o n , r e s e a r c h , and t r a i n i n g a l s o were examined. These r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were s u b j e c t e d - t o d e s c r i p t i v e assessment i n l i g h t of e x t e n s i o n p r i n c i p l e s and a b a s i c p l a n n i n g model. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms to be Used A g r i c u l t u r a l extension. I t was i m p o r t a n t t o d e f i n e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p r e c i s e l y because i t was the f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y . The meaning of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n v a r i e s from c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y and from o r g a n i z a t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n , y e t a l l d e f i n i t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n v o l v e change and e d u c a t i o n (Maunder, 1972; S a v i l , 1965). 1 6 A c c o r d i n g t o Mosher (1958): "the essence of ... e x t e n s i o n i s t h a t i t i s an o u t - o f - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s o f : 1. w o r k i n g w i t h r u r a l p e o p l e a l o n g t h o s e l i n e s of t h e i r c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t and need which a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o g a i n i n g a l i v e l i h o o d 2. u t i l i z i n g p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , 3. c o n d u c t e d w i t h the a i d of c e r t a i n s u p p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and 4. c a r r i e d on w i t h a d i s t i n c t i v e s p i r i t of c o o p e r a t i o n and mutual r e s p e c t " (p. 12). T h i s d e f i n i t i o n was adopted f o r t h i s s t u d y because i t i n c l u d e s the f o u r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . I t i s a l s o t h e most c i t e d d e f i n i t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . Nonformal Education. The term n o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n was im p o r t a n t i n t h i s s t u d y because a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n as an o u t - o f - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s subsumed under t h i s c o n c e p t . That i s t o say, e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i s p a r t of nonformal e d u c a t i o n . Nonformal e d u c a t i o n has been d e f i n e d by Coombs (1974) a s : any o r g a n i z e d or s y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d on o u t s i d e the framework of the f o r m a l system t o p r o v i d e a s e l e c t e d type of l e a r n i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r subgroups i n the p o p u l a t i o n , a d u l t s as w e l l as c h i l d r e n (p. 8 ) . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n of Coombs was adopted because i t i s such a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n of non f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n which i n c l u d e s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n f o r a d u l t f a r m e r s and r u r a l y o u t h as w e l l as farmer t r a i n i n g programs. 17 Program. One purpose of t h i s s tudy was t o c r i t i c a l l y examine the v a r i o u s e x t e n s i o n programs i n E t h i o p i a . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d a c l e a r statement of what the term program i m p l i e s . The term 'program' i s p u z z l i n g . E d u c a t o r s seem t o r e f e r or equate i t w i t h c u r r i c u l u m w h i l e e c o n o m i s t s equate i t w i t h p r o j e c t s ( K u l p , 1970). A c c o r d i n g t o K u l p (1970), program " i s the document s e t t i n g f o r t h the proposed or a u t h o r i z e d a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s among p r o j e c t s " (p. 8 6 ) . B o y l e (1981) d e f i n e s program as "the pr o d u c t r e s u l t i n g from a l l the programming a c t i v i t i e s i n which the p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r and l e a r n e r a re i n v o l v e d " (p. 5 ) . T h i s study a d o p ts B o y l e ' s d e f i n i t i o n because i t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t a program i s a r e s u l t of a c t i v i t y where e d u c a t o r and l e a r n e r b o th p l a y a r o l e . T h i s concept f a c i l i t a t e s the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of e x t e n s i o n programs i n v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s . Program development. The c e n t r a l theme of t h i s study was t o examine the development p r o c e s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs. T h e r e f o r e , i t was i m p o r t a n t t o c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e t h i s c o n c e p t . Program development or program b u i l d i n g i s the major t o p i c of c o u r s e s , s e m i n a r s , workshops, and t r a i n i n g m e e t i n g s . Yet t h e dilemma of e d u c a t o r s and p l a n n e r s emerges d u r i n g program development on the q u e s t i o n of 18 c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Brower, 1964). In t h i s s tudy the main purpose of program b u i l d i n g i s taken as f i r s t and foremost t o d e v e l o p a sound, d e f e n s i b l e and p r o g r e s s i v e p l a n . Program development was d e f i n e d by the U n i v e r s i t y of Min n e s o t a (1975): as a s e t of p l a n n e d , p u r p o s e f u l , c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g e x t e n s i o n s t a f f a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s and then c l i e n t s i n d e s i g n i n g and c a r r y i n g out l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . E v a l u a t i o n and feedback t o a s s u r e program v i a b i l i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l renewal a r e an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of e f f e c t i v e program development (p. 3 ) . T h i s s t u d y adopted the above d e f i n i t i o n of program development. Coordination. The l a c k of c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y i n the usage of the word c o o r d i n a t i o n by e d u c a t o r s , e c o n o m i s t s , and o t h e r development e x p e r t s i s e v i d e n t from the l i t e r a t u r e . Y e t , i t i s a concept i m p o r t a n t i n p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . For t h i s reason a r i g o r o u s d e f i n i t i o n was used i n t h i s s t u d y . F o y a l (1925) s t a t e s t h a t : t o c o o r d i n a t e means h a r m o n i z i n g and b a l a n c i n g the whole. I t means a s s i g n i n g the c o r r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o t h i n g s and a c t i o n s . I t i m p l i e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an u l t i m a t e l i a i s o n between s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s as f a r as t h e i r f u n c t i o n s a r e co n c e r n e d , but whose g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e i s the same (p. 111). T h i s study employed F o y a l ' s d e f i n i t i o n of c o o r d i n a t i o n as one element i n the a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a . I t was adopted because i t c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h e h a r m o n i z i n g and b a l a n c i n g of the whole which u n i t e p l a n n i n g w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 19 Organization of the Remaining Chapters The second c h a p t e r of the study p r e s e n t s the h i s t o r i c a l development of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on package program o b j e c t i v e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Chapter t h r e e p r e s e n t s a r e v i e w of s e l e c t e d program p l a n n i n g methods r e l e v a n t t o e x t e n s i o n . The c h a p t e r s u p p l i e s an assessment of s e l e c t e d models and d i s c u s s e s the r o l e of program p l a n n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . Chapter f o u r p r e s e n t s program p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s used i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n . T h i s p o r t i o n of the study examines the n a t u r e of program p l a n n i n g a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s . T h i s s e c t i o n examines the n a t u r e of c o o r d i n a t i o n and e x p l o r e s p l a n n i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . C hapter f i v e p r oposes an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r e x t e n s i o n based on an a n a l y s i s of major problems. Chapter s i x p r e s e n t s the major c o n c l u s i o n s of the study and p r o v i d e s recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvements i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used f o r E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n a r e g i v e n a l s o . 20 CHAPTER TWO A HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN ETHIOPIA 1952 TO 1980 The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e x p l a i n the h i s t o r i c a l development of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a b r i e f account of e x t e n s i o n from 1952 t o 1980. Then p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o package programs, o b j e c t i v e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . of E x t e n s i o n E d u c a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a . The l a s t s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s some p e r s i s t e n t p l a n n i n g problems and i s f o l l o w e d by a summary of the c h a p t e r . A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension From 1952 to 1966 The A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Program was s t a r t e d i n 1952 under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e at Alemaya. In 1954 the program began o p e r a t i n g w i t h f o u r e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s . The program's i n i t i a l f o c u s was on improvement of sheep husbandry ( H u f f n a g e l , 1966). L a t e r the program a l s o a d d r e s s e d problems of c o f f e e p r o d u c t i o n , farm mechanics, and c r o p improvement. B e s i d e s the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e (MOA) and the C o l l e g e of A g r i c u l t u r e , some o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s s t a r t e d p r o v i d i n g e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same t i m e . Prominent among them was the M i n i s t r y of Community Development (MCD) which ran i t s own c r o p improvement t r i a l s 21 and c a t t l e farms as p a r t of i t s community development a c t i v i t i e s . In 1963 the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d from the c o l l e g e t o MOA. A v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e does not p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s t r a n s f e r . A f t e r the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of MOA, the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of MOA's department and a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a t the head o f f i c e r e s u l t e d i n temporary d i s r u p t i o n of e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g those days had a l s o c r e a t e d problems of c o o r d i n a t i o n and communication between o f f i c e r s i n A d d i s and r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s (IBRD, 1973). As a r e s u l t , no s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n s i o n work was done from 1963 t o 1967. The h i s t o r y of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a from 1952 t o 1967 i s marked by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t models and programs, e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n c e n t r e s f o r a n i m a l s and p l a n t s w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g g o a l s and c o n t r o l and w i t h no s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s t o be used as a c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of e x t e n s i o n d u r i n g t h i s t i me have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by S e l e s h i (1978), Seyoum (1971) and UN/ECA (1971) as l a c k i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n and an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g system w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n many i n s t a n c e s of d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t , time wasted and misuse of r e s o u r c e s (Seyoum, 1971). 22 I t i s of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t t o note one i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Over the p e r i o d 1952 t o 1961, a t o t a l of almost 100 m i l l i o n U.S. d o l l a r s was o f f e r e d t o E t h i o p i a by the U n i t e d S t a t e s , earmarked p u r e l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development ( E t h i o p i a n Economic Review, 1961, p. 4 8 ) . A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension From 1967 to 1980 The y e a r 1967 marks an i m p o r t a n t event i n the h i s t o r y of E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n . I t was i n t h i s y e a r t h a t the f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l program was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the c o u n t r y . T h i s e r a " a l s o marks the b e g i n n i n g of f i v e major comprehensive p r o j e c t s and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Minimum Package c o n c e p t . In a d d i t i o n , the E t h i o p i a n government, f o r the f i r s t t i m e , s t a t e d i t s p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s w i t h r e g a r d s t o the removal of s e l e c t e d b a r r i e r s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development. These e v e n t s l e a d t o the e x a m i n a t i o n of problems and t r e n d s , and t o the e v a l u a t i o n of r e s u l t s i n e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , the e x t e n s i o n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was improved. The Comprehensive Package Programs. In 1967 a f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l program on c e r e a l c r o p s was i n i t i a t e d by the Freedom From Hunger F e r t i l i z e r Program. Through r e s u l t and method d e m o n s t r a t i o n s the p r o j e c t p r o v e d t h a t economic y i e l d response c o u l d be o b t a i n e d under peasant c o n d i t i o n s (IBRD, 1973; S c h u l z , 1976). The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s program was 23 c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t h a t i t demonstrated f o r the f i r s t time the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n c r e a s i n g y i e l d s of c e r e a l s i n the c o u n t r y . I t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d beyond doubt t h a t i l l i t e r a t e peasant farmers r a p i d l y responded when o f f e r e d t i m e l y i n p u t and u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n which they would c o n s i d e r e f f e c t i v e . F i n a l l y , the program showed t h a t the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f of the MOA had the c a p a c i t y t o become an e f f e c t i v e agent of p r o g r e s s i f g i v e n the pro p e r guidance and means. In l a t e 1967, w i t h the h e l p of the Swedish I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (SIDA), t h e C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t (CADU) was e s t a b l i s h e d as the f i r s t comprehensive a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program ( T e s f a y e , 1975; S t a h l , 1973). The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of CADU marked the i n t r o d u c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l program p l a n n i n g i n the E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n system. The s t r a t e g y of CADU was " i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development" which c o n c e n t r a t e s l i m i t e d a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n c l e a r l y d e f i n e d g e o g r a p h i c zones i n the form of package p r o j e c t s * T h i s e r a was a l s o marked by the emergence of many comprehensive development u n i t s such as the Wolamo A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t (WADU). The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s of CADU and WADU were t o i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and t o educate f a r m e r s . T h e i r approach emphasized n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the l o c a l arrangements by u t i l i z i n g e x i s t i n g l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e s f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r and f o r p r o v i d i n g e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n t o farmers (Cohen, 1974; S e l e s h i , 1978). F u r t h e r m o r e , each comprehensive program 24 was g i v e n some l e v e l of i n t e r n a l autonomy, c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s t o e n a b l e them t o t a c k l e the major b o t t l e n e c k s t o development i n the a r e a s concerned ( T e s f a i , 1975). The Minimum Package Program. The comprehensive programs, such as CADU, a r e d e s i g n e d t o c o v e r l i m i t e d a r e a s . They form an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of t h e development p r o c e s s , but a r e too c o s t l y , b o th i n terms of c a p i t a l and t r a i n e d p e r s o n a l , t o be expanded t o a l a r g e r s c a l e . As a r e s u l t , the concept of the minimum package was d e v e l o p e d f o r l a r g e r a r e a s w i t h the i n t e n t of r e a c h i n g as many peasant farmers as p o s s i b l e (IBRD, 1973; T e s f a i , 1975). The concept of the minimum package was based on t h e promotion of a few proven methods and i n n o v a t i o n s which have been t e s t e d by the comprehensive programs. The main a c t i v i t i e s of the Minimum Package Program were d e m o n s t r a t i o n s on o n e - h e c t a r e p l o t s ('model' a r e a s ) of the e f f e c t s of u s i n g f e r t i l i z e r s i n c e r e a l g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n , and the p r o v i s i o n of c r e d i t t o s m a l l f a r mers f o r the purchase of f e r t i l i z e r s , improved seeds and p e s t i c i d e s . Each Minimum Package Program a r e a had one s u p e r v i s o r , one c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z e r , and f i v e e x t e n s i o n a gents r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an a r e a which c o n t a i n s 10,000 peasant f a m i l i e s . As a consequence, t h e E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Implementation Department (EPID) of the MOA s t a r t e d f u l l o p e r a t i o n of the Minimum Package Program (MPP) i n 1971 w i t h 25 Swedish and FAO t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . The E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Imp l e m e n t a t i o n Department then brought t o g e t h e r the d i s p e r s e d , u n c o o r d i n a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s and s t a f f i n t o one u n i t w i t h i n MOA (EPID, 1970). Objectives and strategy. The E t h i o p i a n N a t i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e had adopted the minimum package i d e a as the g u i d i n g concept i n program development. The main i d e a b e h i n d the Minimum Package Program (MPP) was t h a t the farmer r e q u i r e s i n t e g r a t e d s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s i n a d d i t i o n t o a d v i c e from e x t e n s i o n s t a f f . The MPP was d e s i g n e d t o be t h e o u t l e t f o r s p r e a d i n g i n n o v a t i o n s , d e v e l o p e d and t e s t e d a t CADU, t o farmers throughout E t h i o p i a ( S c h u l z , 1976). In t h i s c o n t e x t CADU and the MPP can be viewed t o g e t h e r . The l a t t e r i s an e x t e n s i o n of the former ( S t a h l , 1973). The MPP i n t h i s c o n t e x t s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d as a program w i t h p o l i c i e s t o v o l u n t a r i l y r e s t r i c t t he p r o m o t i o n a l e f f o r t s t o a s m a l l s et of c r u c i a l s e r v i c e s which e n a b l e t h e farmer t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . From the s t a n d p o i n t of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , manpower s c a r c i t y , problems of c o o r d i n a t i o n , and budget l i m i t a t i o n s , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a few proven i n n o v a t i o n s and methods i s viewed by B e t r u (1975), IBRD (1973) and S c h u l z (1976) as r e l e v a n t t o produce a dynamic e x t e n s i o n campaign w i t h i n a d i f f i c u l t e nvironment. 26 In p r a c t i s e , the p h i l o s o p h y of the minimum package approach and i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l development as used i n E t h i o p i a was t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of "green r e v o l u t i o n " g r a i n t e c h n o l o g y . W i t h r e s p e c t t o c r o p s , the E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n program f o c u s e s on wheat, maize, b a r l e y , sorghum and on a l o c a l l y i m p o r t a n t g r a i n , T e f f . The i n g r e d i e n t s of the minimum package were e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n , s o i l f e r t i l i z a t i o n , improved seeds, and farm c r e d i t s . A l l t h e s e p r o m o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s have been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d w i t h i n one agency, EPID, which was a p a r t of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e . The c o n t e n t s of the minimum package were based on the outcomes of a few proven methods and i n n o v a t i o n s t e s t e d by the comprehensive p r o j e c t s , m a i n l y sponsored by CADU. Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o EPID (1970), i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t each minimum package a r e a was t o g r a d u a l l y become more comprehensive. The o b j e c t i v e s of the package p r o j e c t s can be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : t o s e a r c h c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r s u i t a b l e e x t e n s i o n methods f o r f u r t h e r i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l development throughout the c o u n t r y ; t o r a i s e t h e r e a l income of s m a l l f a r m e r s ; t o e l i c i t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the s m a l l f a r mers and l o c a l government a u t h o r i t i e s i n the p r o j e c t s d e v e l o p m e n t a l e f f o r t s ; and t o narrow p r e v a i l i n g income d i s p a r i t i e s by d i r e c t i n g e f f o r t s m a i n l y towards farmers i n the lower income b r a c k e t s . 27 These o b j e c t i v e s a r e t o be pu r s u e d t h r o u g h : i n t r o d u c t i o n of improved f a r m i n g methods; c r o p d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n programs; c o n t i n u i n g r e s e a r c h , farmer e d u c a t i o n and s t a f f t r a i n i n g , based m a i n l y on c r o p p r o d u c t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n , l i v e s t o c k husbandry, s o i l and water c o n s e r v a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i v e s ; and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x p a n s i o n (EPID, 1970; S t a h l , 1973; T e s f a i , 1975). To a t t a i n i t s s t a t e d g o a l s , EPID s t a r t e d i t s e x t e n s i o n work by s e t t i n g up o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c e l l s i n the so c a l l e d minimum package a r e a s (MPPA). The MPPA u n i t s were s i t u a t e d a l o n g n e g o t i a b l e r o a d s . The d e c i s i o n was made because a p p r o x i m a t e l y 58 p e r c e n t of t h e c o u n t r y ' s p o p u l a t i o n was e s t i m a t e d t o l i v e more than 30 k i l o m e t r e s (km) from any type of road i n the e a r l y 1970s. A c a l c u l a t i o n based on crude d a t a f o r 1980 from the E t h i o p i a n Highway A u t h o r i t y suggests t h a t t h i s i s now around 45 p e r c e n t . Each MPPA was 75 km l o n g and encompassed a band 3 t o 5 km wide on each s i d e of the road (see F i g u r e 1 ) . Up t o 10,000 farm f a m i l i e s may l i v e i n one of t h e s e a r e a s . Each MPPA was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e e x t e n s i o n a r e a s (every 15 km) t o which one e x t e n s i o n a g e n t , a j u n i o r c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e , was a s s i g n e d . At l e a s t f i v e m a r k e t i n g a s s i s t a n t s , one home economics age n t , and one c o o p e r a t i v e agent b e l o n g t o each MPPA. T h e i r main t a s k s seem t o be t o a d v i s e f a r m e r s , and t o ha n d l e i n p u t s u p p l i e s and farm c r e d i t . T h e i r l o n g term t a s k , a c c o r d i n g t o S c h u l z (1976), c o n s i s t s of growing i n t o the r o l e of c o o p e r a t i v e managers. 28 F i g u r e 1: The S p a t i a l Network of Minimum Program A r e a s S o u r c e : E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Department ( 1 9 7 4 a ) . A M a s t e r P l a n f o r EPID. A d d i s Ababa: EPID. 29 Each MPP i s headed by one s u p e r v i s o r who i s a grad u a t e from the C o l l e g e of A g r i c u l t u r e . The EPID extension approach. In i t s i n t e r v e n t i o n , EPID has d e v e l o p e d a phase concept t o weave the farmers of an MPPA i n t o i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a b r i c . B i s r a t (1980) c o n s i d e r s t h i s as p r e p a r a t o r y work w h i l e S c h u l z (1976) c o n s i d e r s i t as a phase. A l t h o u g h they d i f f e r i n t e r m i n o l o g y , each d e s c r i b e s EPID's approach i n the same way. Once an a r e a i s s e l e c t e d a l o n g an a l l weather r o a d , i t i s d e s i g n a t e d as an O b s e r v a t i o n Area (OA) f o r two y e a r s . An e x t e n s i o n agent who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d o p t i o n of the i n n o v a t i o n s by the farmers i s a s s i g n e d t o the a r e a t o conduct s u r v e y s on f a r m i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t o c a r r y out t r i a l s and t o make c o n t a c t s w i t h the farm p o p u l a t i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o c o n d u c t i n g f e r t i l i z e r and seed v a r i e t y t r i a l s on one h e c t a r e . I f s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s a r e a c h i e v e d , the a r e a u s u a l l y becomes a D e m o n s t r a t i o n Area (DA) f o r one y e a r . At t h i s s t a g e , one m a r k e t i n g a s s i s t a n t i s p l a c e d i n t o t h i s a r e a . D u r i n g t h i s y e a r , the a t t i t u d e and i n t e r e s t of farmers towards the i n n o v a t i o n s a re s t u d i e d t h r o u g h d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and l i m i t e d e x t e n s i o n and c r e d i t s e r v i c e s . At the same time t h e r e a re more t r i a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n s on a f i e l d s u b d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i o u s agronomic and p e s t c o n t r o l t r i a l p l o t s . •30 The key a c t i v i t y of t h i s p e r i o d , however, i s the s e l e c t i o n of 'model f a r m e r s . ' A c c o r d i n g t o EPID (1970), B i s r a t (1980), and S t a h l (1973), a model farmer i s a farmer chosen by the e x t e n i o n agent a t t h e p r o p o s a l of the l o c a l f a r m e r s . He i s the one who i s supposed t o s e r v e as the u l t i m a t e l i n k between the p r o j e c t and the f a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n the a r e a . The 'model f a r m e r s ' approach had been p r e v i o u s l y used by C o m i l l a P r o j e c t (Arnon, 1981) and CADU ( B e t r u , 1 975; Cohen, 1974; T e s f a i , 1975) f o r the d i s s i m i n a t i o n of the e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s . The E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Implementation Department found the approach e f f e c t i v e and i n t r o d u c e d i t t o MPP. A c c o r d i n g t o EPID (1970), f e l l o w f a r m e r s i n DA a r e asked t o propose f i v e c a n d i d a t e s from which the EPID agents p i c k one. The s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r the model farmer i s any farmer who i s an a c t i v e and w e l l - r e s p e c t e d man i n h i s community, whereas the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r MPPA's were on the b a s i s of c r o p t e s t t r i a l r e s u l t s , f a r m e r ' s i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t , and a v a i l a b i l i t y of roads or o t h e r forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development. The model farmer has t o r e p r e s e n t and t o i n f l u e n c e 100 farm f a m i l i e s . He must be w i l l i n g t o e s t a b l i s h d e m o n s t r a t i o n p l o t s on h i s f i e l d s f o r which he g e t s f r e e f e r t i l i z e r and improved seeds. F u r t h e r m o r e , the model farmer i s e x p e c t e d t o spearhead t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n s by i n t r o d u c i n g them t o 31 n e i g h b o u r i n g f a r m e r s , t o urge them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e x t e n s i o n programs, t o summon them t o m e e t i n g s , and t o remind them t o pay t h e i r dues. In a d d i t i o n , the model farmer i s e x p e c t e d a l s o t o h e l p the m a r k e t i n g a s s i s t a n t i n s c r e e n i n g c r e d i t a p p l i c a t i o n s . At t h i s p o i n t , i t may be noted t h a t farm c r e d i t i s p r o v i d e d f o r f a r m e r s of h o l d i n g s up t o 20 h e c t a r e s . I f t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s - s e l e c t i o n of s i t e , f e r t i l i z e r and seed v a r i e t y t r i a l s , and s e l e c t i o n of model farmers - r e s u l t i n a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e , the d e m o n s t r a t i o n a r e a w i l l become a f u l l Minimum Package Program A r e a . At t h i s time i t . r e c e i v e s the e n t i r e endowment of f i e l d p e r s o n n e l mentioned e a r l i e r . A c c o r d i n g t o EPID (1970), the a d m i n i s t r a t o r of MPP, the program has a t a r g e t of r e a c h i n g 75 p e r c e n t of the a r e a ' s farmers by the 13th year — the time of the program's f u l l development. As of 1976, 351 d e m o n s t r a t i o n a r e a s and 55 Minimum Package Program Areas were i n o p e r a t i o n (EPID, 1976 a , b ) . Organizational structure and administration. The MOA has been the main m i n i s t r y charged w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l programs i n E t h i o p i a . H u f f n a g e l (1966) i n d i c a t e s t h a t b e f o r e 1957 the g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y f o r the c o u n t r y used t o be o u t l i n e d and c o o r d i n a t e d by the A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l and A g r i c u l t u r a l Board. A l t h o u g h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of MOA d a t e s back t o the l a t e r p a r t of the 19th C e n t u r y , i t s f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were not s t a t e d u n t i l 1966 when the government i s s u e d Order No. 46. 32 A c c o r d i n g t o the I m p e r i a l E t h i o p i a n I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (1966), t h i s decree d e f i n e d the f u n c t i o n s of the MOA i n A r t i c l e 27. The M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e was g r a n t e d the g e n e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of d e v e l o p i n g a g r i c u l t u r e . In c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r M i n i s t r i e s , the MOA was empowered t o e s t a b l i s h p r o c e d u r e s t o n e g o t i a t e and c o n c l u d e a g r i c u l t u r a l , f o r e s t r y , f i s h i n g and w i l d l i f e c o n c e s s i o n s and propose programs f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . Even a f t e r such a broad o b j e c t i v e d e f i n i t i o n by the government, the p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e remained d i s p e r s e d among the departments of the MOA and s e v e r a l autonomous b o d i e s . Many of t h e s e a g e n c i e s had o f f i c e s i n each of the 14 p r o v i n c e s of the empire and as such, n e i t h e r the MOA nor any o t h e r body was a b l e t o c o o r d i n a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and e d u c a t i o n i n 1966 (FOA, 1966). A c c o r d i n g t o a v a i l a b l e documents on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e (UN/ECA, 1971), the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n E t h i o p i a i s o r g a n i z e d on n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s (see F i g u r e 2 ) . F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t d u r i n g 1967 a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e was one of n i n e departments of the MOA. I t f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t d u r i n g t h i s time the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e had f i v e p r i m a r y d i v i s i o n s . These d i v i s i o n s were t r a i n i n g , y o u t h , "home economics, and s u b j e c t m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t s . MINISTRY UP AGRICULTURE" LMB MINI STER IAR V. Minister Plant Pro duo ti on & Pro tun Wop Animal Husbandry Fiaherieo • Eoonomios & Statiatica Extension Servloe I V. MiniBter T Foreatry 1 Veterinary Eoon. & Tech. Assiatance Ada. Services 1 1 ? 1 1 Sub jeot-Matter Soecialiata Home Economics Youth j Training Information Provincial Director Administrative Service Eztens ion anv Extension Agen ts Farm People ther Depta. F i g u r e 2: O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n E t h i o p i a 1 S o u r c e : U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic Commission f o r A f r i c a ( 1 9 7 1 ) . A C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Systems. E/CN. 14/AGRIP/10. Rome: F.A.O. 34 A l t h o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y , the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e was o r g a n i z e d i n a l l p r o v i n c e s , by 1967 the d e l i v e r y of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n was not e f f e c t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d . A c c o r d i n g t o UN/ECA (1971), n e i t h e r the number of t o t a l e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , w h i c h i n 1968 was about 120 f o r more than 4 m i l l i o n s m a l l peasant h o u s e h o l d s , nor the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c l i m a t e was c o n d u c i v e t o run the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e by 1970. But S i i r a ' s s tudy i n 1965 ( c i t e d i n Stommes and S e l e s h i , 1979) i n d i c a t e d t h a t f a c t o r s , such as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems, r a t h e r than the i n s i g n i f i c a n t number of e x t e n s i o n agents i n the c o u n t r y had a much g r e a t e r n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the development of an e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n system. The S i i r a s tudy was s a i d t o have documented the f o l l o w i n g major problems: 1. a l a c k of a w r i t t e n j o b d e s c r i p t i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r s which d e f i n e s t h e i r d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s t a n d a r d s by which the s u p e r v i s o r i s a b l e t o e v a l u a t e and s u p e r v i s e f i e l d a g e n t s ; 2. the awarding of s a l a r i e s w i t h i n MOA which a r e not based on p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( f o r example, h e a d q u a r t e r s ' o f f i c i a l s r e c e i v e d h i g h e r s a l a r i e s and b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f o r e i g n s t u d i e s than d i d t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l c o u n t e r p a r t s w i t h the same e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s ) ; 3. a l a c k of p r o c e d u r e s g o v e r n i n g the t r a n s f e r of p e r s o n n e l ; 35 4. the p l a n n i n g of e x t e n s i o n budgets and programs f o r the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e ; 5. a l a c k of c o o p e r a t i o n between e x t e n s i o n and o t h e r f i e l d a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l development; and 6. the low budget a l l o c a t i o n f o r e x t e n s i o n and the poor o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e . As a r e s u l t of the s e problems and the two F i v e - y e a r P l a n s , the government r e c o g n i z e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n s t r a i n t s on a g r i c u l t u r e . As a consequence, t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the MOA became u r g e n t . However, a c c o r d i n g t o B e t r u (1975) and S e l e s h i and Stommes (1980) the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the M i n i s t r y d i d . not b e g i n u n t i l 1971 when t h e E t h i o p i a n government agreed t o r e o r g a n i z e the M i n i s t r y and i t s e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h SIDA. A c c o r d i n g l y , MOA was r e o r g a n i z e d as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. T h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a c e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n under the M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e , c r e a t e d a p l a n n i n g and programming u n i t , and a t t a c h e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s t o the M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e . The l a t t e r u n i t n o m i n a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the a g r i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s but does not d i r e c t them. The a g r i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s have r e t a i n e d t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e autonomy. One of the f o u r p r i n c i p a l departments a c c o r d i n g t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t i s the E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Impl e m e n t a t i o n Department. A c c o r d i n g t o EPID (1972), EPID Minister of Minister Agriculture of State Planning and Programming Unit Administration and Leeal Service Unit Education. Training and Information Unit Internal Audit Resources Conservation and Development Department Provincial Offices Co-ordinator Extension & Project Implementation Department Regulatory. Research and Services Department F i g u r e 3: O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r t of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e i n 1972. S o u r c e : EPID. Minimum Package Project Programme Loan A p p l i c a t i o n to IBRD/IDA. EPID P u b l i c a t i o n No. J a n u a r y , 1972; Annex XIX: 1. 37 was g r a n t e d the s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r n a t i o n a l e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and was g i v e n autonomy. I t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t i s d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 4. F i g u r e 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t e x t e n s i o n d i v i s i o n was o r g a n i z e d i n t o s i x groups. T h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the MOA, i n i t i a t e d m a i n l y by SIDA, except f o r g i v i n g EPID a seemingly sound base has caused problems of v a r i o u s t y p e s such a s : 1. the inadequate p r o v i s i o n f o r l i a i s o n between r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n work (see F i g u r e 3 ) ; and 2. the merging of the d i s p a r a t e f u n c t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of employees and p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a s i n g l e u n i t w i t h a s e p a r a t e t r a i n i n g group i n EPID (IBRD, 1973). In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e , the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n made i n the MOA does not p o r t r a y a c c u r a t e l y the a c t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y who r e p o r t s t o whom. F i g u r e 4 i n d i c a t e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the e x t e n s i o n i n s t i t u t i o n i n E t h i o p a . The emergence of EPID, as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 4, brought the comprehensive and minimum package p r o j e c t s under one u m b r e l l a . The E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Implementation Department's main f u n c t i o n was t o manage MPPs and c o o r d i n a t e the e f f o r t s of comprehensive p r o j e c t s i n c l u d i n g CADU, WADU and the Ada Development P r o j e c t (ADP) which c o n c e n t r a t e on a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n , r e s e t t l e m e n t and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t e d t o r u r a l development i n the s p e c i f i c a r e a s . 38 Ministerial Committee for Pnckagc Projects Minister of Agriculture Co-opcrntion with AIDII. MIA. L M B , etc. Head and Deputy Heads of Department (Project Director) Co-operation with Research and Training Insliliilions Evaluation Unit Unison Committee for Package Project* Liaison Division. Liaison with eompr. projects and road construction Common Services Division: necimntmg, internal nudiling. legal questions, Stan' service* Extension Division Training Group Peasnnt Canning. Development or Methods, etc. A D A , C A D U , I IADU, W A D U . etc. Commercial Projects: A V A , Northwestern lowlands. Shashcmcnc Agronomic Group Animal Husbandry Group Minimum Projects Co-op. Prom. Group Marketing A Credit Group Home Economics and Youth Group Demons! ration area Ohscrvntion area F i g u r e 4: O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r t of the E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Im p l e m e n t a t i o n Department of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e S o u r c e : M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , EPID. Minimum Package Project Programme Loan Application to IBRD/IDA. EPID P u b l i c a t i o n No. 6. J a n u a r y , 1972; Annex XIX: 2. 39 On the o t h e r hand, the MPP, based on CADU's e x p e r i e n c e , f o c u s e d o n l y on the p r o v i s i o n of t h r e e b a s i c e x t e n s i o n components deemed e s s e n t i a l f o r s m a l l farmer development. These two f u n c t i o n s of EPID, d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 4, p a r t i c u l a r l y the a n t i c i p a t e d c o o r d i n a t i o n of so many development u n i t s , seems u n r e a l i s t i c f o r a young i n s t i t u t i o n such as EPID. In f a c t , the IBRD team s t a t e d t h a t : the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and c e r t a i n autonomous a g r i c u l t u r a l b o a r d s / p r o j e c t s , f i s h e r i e s , w i l d l i f e , f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h and o t h e r p r o j e c t s seem t o be u n f a m i l i a r i n d e t a i l w i t h each o t h e r ' s programs and a c t i v i t i e s , even when the M i n i s t r y i s r e p r e s e n t e d on the o t h e r agency's g o v e r n i n g board (IBRD, 1973, p. 20, Annex 18). The l a n d r e f o r m and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of peasant a s s o c i a t i o n s a f t e r March 1974 made i t e x p e d i e n t t o r e o r g a n i z e and remodel both the MOA and EPID. The major r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t i o n s a f t e r 1974 were: 1. renaming the MOA — the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y i n 1975 2. the merging of the M i n i s t r y of Land Reform and S e t t l e m e n t and the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e 3. the e l i m i n a t i o n of the I n s t i t u t e of A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h (IAR) from the M i n i s t r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t and l i n k i n g i t t o the S c i e n c e and Technology Commission 4. the merging of the S e t t l e m e n t A u t h o r i t y w i t h the R e l i e f and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Commission (RRC) i n A p r i l , 1979. A v e r y remarkable note i n the c h a i n of the renaming and merging or u n i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t has ta k e n p l a c e 40 from 1974 t o 1979 l e f t EPID's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s compared t o the main M i n i s t r y . The minor i n t e r n a l changes t h a t EPID has undergone a r e changes of names. For example, the E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n was renamed the Farm Technology D i v i s i o n . T r a i n i n g , which was under the E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n , was t r a n s f e r r e d t o the O f f i c e of Deputy Heads. F i g u r e 5 i n d i c a t e s the c u r r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t of t h e EPID. The r e s t of the changes, as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 5, a r e the r e s u l t of the government's i n t e n t i o n t o expand EPID's a c t i v i t y t o most a r e a s which n e c e s s i t a t e s the p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i c t and s u b d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o note t h a t both the p r e v i o u s government and the p r e s e n t s o c i a l i s t government encourage the s p r e a d of the MPP, a l t h o u g h f o r d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s . The i m p e r i a l government r e g a r d e d MPP as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the much needed l a n d r e f o r m w h i l e the p r e s e n t government r e g a r d s the MPP as a means of c o n s o l i d a t i n g i t s r a d i c a l p o l i c y of l a n d and power r e d i s t r i b u t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l ( B i s r a t , 1980). Extension Organizations' Relations With Other Agencies E x t e n s i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n E t h i o p i a r e p r e s e n t a mosaic of donor o r g a n i z a t i o n s and v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s w i t h i n the c o u n t r y . To f a c i l i t a t e an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t o t a l i m p a ct, t h e i r t a s k environment and r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two l e v e l s : a) the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l and b) the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . 41 Heed of Department Interne! Audit Unit Deputy Heedt L e g * Unit Admimt(rat ion Orvfrilon P M o n n M Account inf Tremport Section Section Section Property Mant igemeni Section Planning end Evaluation Unit Training ar id Information Unit Farm Technology Onotion Agronomy Section Animal Hutbamiry Section Soil C miervation and Engirt* wring Section Home Cconomict Section Crop "roduct io Section Provincial Office Co-operative and AdmtnMt ration Marketing Farm Tpchnolngy Agronomy Soil Conservation and Engineering Animat Hutbendry Home Economics Crop Protection Avrmm Office Administration Farm Technology htoreda Office Agricultural Development Agent Home Economic! Agent Co-operative Organiser F i g u r e 5: P r e s e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n of EPID S o u r c e : E x t e n s i o n and P r o j e c t I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Department ( E P I D ) . EPID Work Program and Budget for the 1977/78 (1970 EC) F i s c a l Year Revised), EPID P u b l i c a t i o n No. 44, A d d i s Ababa, M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and S e t t l e m e n t , O c t o b e r , 1977. 42 I n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l l i n k a g e . T h i s i s o n l y v i s i b l e i n CADU and EPID. What makes CADU unique i s t h a t the R o y a l Swedish Government i s o f f i c i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n E t h i o p i a by a Development A s s i s t a n c e O f f i c e (DAO), a branch o f f i c e of SIDA, which c o o r d i n a t e s and s u p e r v i s e s a l l Swedish a i d a c t i v i t i e s i n E t h i o p i a . B e s i d e s r e v i e w i n g and a p p r o v i n g the a n n u a l work program and budget of CADU i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the E t h i o p i a n M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , SIDA j o i n t l y a p p o i n t s the p r o j e c t ' s e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r and e v a l u a t i o n team, r e c e i v e s r e p o r t s and h a n d l e s most p u r c h a s i n g f o r the p r o j e c t o u t s i d e E t h i o p i a . "The r e l a t i o n s h i p between CADU and SIDA, deve l o p e d and n u r t u r e d by the pure d e d i c a t i o n of Swedish e x p e r t s and young educated E t h i o p i a n s , was e f f e c t i v e l y used t o e x e r t p r e s s u r e on the E t h i o p i a n government t o make fundamental changes i m p o r t a n t f o r the s u c c e s s of CADU and MPP ( B e t r u , 1975; S t a h l , 1973). The same t e c h n i c a l s e t u p was used t o ease EPID from the b u r e a u c r a c y of the E t h i o p i a n government which was not se t up t o handle the new demands of r u r a l development (Stommes and S e l e s h i , 1978, p a r t 2 ) . The f a c t o r of prime importance i s t h a t i n the case of CADU the R o y a l Swedish government i s r e p r e s e n t e d by DAO whereas i n the case of EPID, SIDA i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a Deputy G e n e r a l Manager of EPID. 43 As f o r WADU, t h e r e i s no v i s i b l e l i n k a g e w i t h the World Bank t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h e r can c o n f i r m . S e l e s h i and Stommes (1980) a l s o found no v i s i b l e l i n k a g e f o r ADP w i t h U.S. A i d , and f o r WADU w i t h the World Bank. National l e v e l linkages. Though SIDA has o f f i c a l l y formed the MOA-CADU l i n k a g e e xcept f o r the o f f i c e of the V i c e M i n i s t e r i n charge of development programs, the b u l k of the MOA community has not p e r c e i v e d CADU as an im p o r t a n t component of the MOA ( B e t r u , 1975). The E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Department seems t o have f a c e d the same a l i e n a t i o n d u r i n g i t s phase one. To date t h e r e i s no v i s i b l e communication between EPID and V e t e r i n a r y d i v i s i o n . S i n c e the l i n k a g e of o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the MOA i s not w e l l d e f i n e d , t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o examine the l i n k a g e s w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The main problem i n the l a c k of t h i s l i n k a g e seems t o be the d e s i r e of the E t h i o p i a n government t o d e v e l o p i s o l a t e d i s l a n d s of t o t a l l y modern a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e CADU a r e a and the g e n e r a l statement of l i n k a g e i n terms of " i n c o n s u l t a t i o n " which has never s t a t e d the 'how' and 'whom' p a r t of the l i n k a g e q u e s t i o n . As a r e s u l t , out of n i n e a g e n c i e s i d e n t i f i e d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h CADU i n e x t e n s i o n programs, "none of the n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s e x c e p t the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n were a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h the s e r v i c e i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h CADU" ( B e t r u , 1975, p. 2 9 ) . 44 At the l o c a l l e v e l n e i t h e r CADU, EPID nor WADU and ADP have been p e r c e i v e d as r e g u l a r components of the p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n n e t w o r k s . N o n e t h e l e s s because of t h e i r package programs a t l e a s t CADU and EPID touched almost e v e r y agency's j u r i s d i c t i o n and o f t e n f a c e d a h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e . For example, EPID e x t e n s i o n agents and s u p e r v i s o r s a r e seen, except by t e a c h e r s , m o s t l y as an e x t r a v a g a n t group of educated p e o p l e . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , made by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , was a l s o c o n f i r m e d by B e t r u (1975). W h i l e B e t r u (1975), Cohen (1974, 1975) and p a r t i c u l a r l y Pausewang (1973) i n d i c a t e d the l i n k a g e problem and i d e n t i f i e d a h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e towards the CADU p r o j e c t and i t s s t a f f i n pre-1974, t h i s r e s e a r c h e r as an e x t e n s i o n agent b e f o r e 1974 and as an e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r i n W o l l o and W a l l e g a r e g i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o b s e r v e d t h a t the EPID e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s ' c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the p e a s a n t r y was viewed by some a g e n c i e s , such as the Mass O r g a n i z a t i o n O f f i c e , as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the p e o p l e . General Obervations: Problems, Trends and Opportunities A c l o s e l o o k a t the E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e from 1952 t o 1980 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were p e r s i s t e n t problems which passed from one government system t o a n o t h e r . T h i s o f t e n o c c u r r e d because d e c i s i o n s made p r e v i o u s l y had a c r i t i c a l e f f e c t on what was t o be done "t o d a y " . 45 A c c o r d i n g t o the I m p e r i a l E t h i o p i a n Government (1968), up u n t i l 1974 t h e r e were two p o l i c i e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l development. One p o l i c y d e a l t w i t h l a r g e s c a l e commercial farms w h i l e the o t h e r d e a l t w i t h peasant a g r i c u l t u r e . The same p o l i c y o p e r a t e s today i n two s e p a r a t e m i n i s t r i e s : t he M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and the M i n i s t r y of S t a t e Farms. When these two p o l i c i e s a r e promoted i n the same ar e a a t the same t i m e , the s m a l l f a r m e r s ' i n t e r e s t s have y i e l d e d t o the i n t e r e s t s of the commercial f a r m e r s , r e d u c i n g the impact of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e ( S t a h l , 1973). In l i g h t of the mosaic of e x t e n s i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n r u r a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e i s an app a r e n t l a c k of e v a l u a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s i n t o an e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n program. As a r e s u l t , the f o l l o w i n g problems p r e v a i l : 1. a l a c k of a pr o p e r program p l a n n i n g mechanism, 2. a l a c k of an o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n s i v e t o e d u c a t i o n a l problems and e x p e r t a d v i c e , and 3. a l a c k of adequate u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t r a i n i n g as a major component of e x t e n s i o n programs. D e s p i t e a l l th e s e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p r a c t i c a l p roblems, the o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e v e a l e d by CADU and EPID were p r o m i s i n g ( S t a h l , 1973; S c h u l z , 1976). The r e s u l t s of the CADU e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e from 1967-1971 a r e i m p r e s s i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r economic g o a l . But the p l a n t h a t the new government now wishes t o implement does not appear t o compare w i t h what was o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e 1974 ( A f r i c a Guide, 46 1984). T h i s seems t o reduce the impact of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n on the t o t a l development by i t l a c k of c o n t i n u i t y and r e f i n e m e n t of p o l i c y and programs. Summary The h i s t o r y of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n E t h i o p i a can be s a i d t o be the h i s t o r y of a program which s t a r t e d w i t h the improvement of M e r i n o sheep, c o f f e e p r o d u c t i o n , and farm mechanics. I n i t i a l l y the program had o n l y minor r e l e v a n c e t o i t s b e n e f i c i a r i e s ' immediate use. A l t h o u g h t h i s seemed to have changed a f t e r the Freedom From Hunger F e r t i l i z e r Program, n o t h i n g s e r i o u s was a c h i e v e d u n t i l 1967. The a g r i c u l t u r a l board c r e a t e d i n 1957 t o c o o r d i n a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n remained u n n o t i c e d . . As a r e s u l t , the t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n of f a r m e r s remained s c a t t e r e d , d i s o r g a n i z e d and u n c o o r d i n a t e d . The d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of MOA s t a t e d i n Order No. 44 A r t i c l e 27 of 1966 was a l s o l e f t u n r e a l i z e d even a f t e r the r i s e of CADU and EPID. O r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h implementing e x t e n s i o n programs were not a b l e t o c r e a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c l i m a t e s c o n d u c i v e t o c o p i n g w i t h the c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n , and t o p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g i n the f i e l d . The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t most a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s had undergone d i d not s o l v e the b a s i c problems. In f a c t , some of the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n compounded the problems of c o o r d i n a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n 47 program management. Lack of l i n k a g e s w i t h i n E t h i o p i a a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s was d i s c u s s e d as a major problem c o n f i n i n g the g r a i n t e c h n o l o g y i n a g i v e n p r o j e c t a r e a . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i s an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n . I t has been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as e d u c a t i o n a l i n program c o n t e n t and methodology. E d u c a t i o n a l programs p a r t i c u l a r l y a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs r e q u i r e a c o o r d i n a t e d approach and l i n k a g e s a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s . T h i s l i n k a g e and c o o r d i n a t i o n seems p o s s i b l e w i t h programs d e v e l o p e d on sound and c l e a r p l a n n i n g models. The next c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a r e v i e w of program p l a n n i n g models. The purpose of the r e v i e w i s m a i n l y t o i d e n t i f y a model r e l e v a n t t o e x t e n s i o n work i n E t h i o p i a t o h e l p us u n d e r s t a n d problems, c o n d i t i o n s and mechanisms i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n . 48 CHAPTER THREE REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON PROGRAM PLANNING MODELS AND PRINCIPLES The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o c r i t i c a l l y examine some of the major program p l a n n i n g models, c o n c e p t s and i d e a s which a r e found i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . The fo c u s i s on i d e n t i f y i n g a model r e l e v a n t t o e x t e n s i o n work i n E t h i o p i a . F i r s t , however, the r o l e of program p l a n n i n g w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and the assessment of some models w i l l be und e r t a k e n . Role of Program Planning in A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension The o r i g i n of e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s can be t r a c e d t o the M o r r i l l A ct of 1862 which e s t a b l i s h e d l a n d g r a n t c o l l e g e s and t o t h e Hatch A c t of 1887 which s e t up a g r i c u l t u r a l experiment s t a t i o n s . B e a l , B l a u n t , Powers, and Johnson (1966), Boone and K i n c a i d (1966) and Sanders (1966) i n d i c a t e t h a t u n t i l 1920 e x t e n s i o n programs were p r e d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o assumed wants and needs of f a r m e r s . C l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e s i g n and e v a l u a t i o n of the program was l i m i t e d . Programs were e s s e n t i a l l y p r o d u c t i o n o r i e n t e d and were l i m i t e d t o g i v i n g a d v i c e on s c i e n t i f i c or t e c h n i c a l p r o d u c t i o n problems of f a r m i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o Boone and K i n c a i d (1966), such a p r o d u c t i o n o r i e n t e d approach t o program 49 p l a n n i n g became unable t o s o l v e more complex problems of p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n . To improve the c o n d i t i o n , more emphasis came t o be p l a c e d on g a t h e r i n g f a c t s about l o c a l , s t a t e , and n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s as the b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g programs. T h i s emphasis on l o c a l f a c t s l e d t o the d r a f t of the Mount Weather Agreement. By t h i s agreement the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e agreed t o o r g a n i z e and o p e r a t e a system of s t a t e , c o u n t y , and community committees of l a y and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e t o a p p r a i s e r e s o u r c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o p o p u l a t i o n ; ... and t o promote c o o r d i n a t i o n among a g e n c i e s (Boone and K i n c a i d , 1966, p. 9 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o B e a l et al . (1966) and Raudabaugh (1963), l a t e r e v a l u a t i o n s have shown t h a t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the Mount Weather Agreement d i d not meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s of i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . As a r e s u l t , the need f o r more c o o r d i n a t i o n of programming e f f o r t s by a g e n c i e s t h a t were s e r v i n g f a r m e r s was u n d e r s c o r e d . S i n c e then c o o r d i n a t i o n of program a c t i v i t i e s has r e c e i v e d more and more a t t e n t i o n on a much broader base i n U.S. a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . In 1955 a f i r m s t a n d was taken by the E x t e n s i o n Committee on O r g a n i z a t i o n and P o l i c y . I t r e c o g n i z e d a need t o d e v e l o p b e t t e r program-making p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s which would more e f f e c t i v e l y h e l p p e o p l e t o p l a n , implement and e v a l u a t e programs t o meet t h e i r needs ( B o y l e , 1965). The major o b j e c t i v e was t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r a s s i s t a n c e t o farm p e o p l e so farmers and p l a n n e r s c o u l d c o l l e c t i v e l y a n a l y z e major problems and d e v e l o p sound e x t e n s i o n programs (Sanders, 1966). 50 As a r e s u l t of c o n t i n u o u s change and r e f i n e m e n t based on e m p i r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n , e f f e c t i v e program development was a c h i e v e d a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s such as s u b j e c t m a t t e r , a r e a e x t e n s i o n , county agent and, f i n a l l y , a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l . C o n t r a r y t o p r a c t i c e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , new programs i n the U.S. E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s t a r t w i t h the a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n of on-going programs. The o t h e r s a l i e n t f e a t u r e not c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d by B e a l et al. (1966), Boone and K i n c a i d (1966) and Sanders (1966) i s the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x t e n s i o n and r e s e a r c h i n which the U.S. E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e combines t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h , and e d u c a t i o n — the a g r i c u l t u r a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e t r i n i t y i n the U.S. T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n i s i n no s m a l l measure r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e s e n t h i g h l e v e l of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n the U.S. McDermott (1971) might g i v e us a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what e x t e n s i o n r e a l l y i s i n the l i f e of U.S. f a r m e r s . To McDermott "the v e r y name e x t e n s i o n means l i t e r a l l y an e x t e n s i o n of the campus f u n c t i o n s t o the needs and problems of s o c i e t y " (1971, p. 153). Relevance i s the most i m p o r t a n t h a l l m a r k of t h e l a n d g r a n t c o l l e g e system t h a t l e a d s e x t e n s i o n programs (McDermott, 1971). Next t o r e l e v a n c e , c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n program p l a n n i n g i s a u n i v e r s a l p r o c e d u r e i n U.S. e x t e n s i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e , a v a i l a b l e documents i n d i c a t e t h a t from 51 the b e g i n n i n g t h e r e has been c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and w i t h l a y groups. Anyone who t h i n k s t h a t whatever has worked w e l l i n the U.S. would a l s o work w e l l e l s e w h e r e s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the s u b s t a n t i a l amount of work done t o improve the program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n e x t e n s i o n and the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e t h a t the t r i n i t y has had i n e x t e n s i o n work. T a k i n g o n l y e x t e n s i o n from the n o r t h e r n hemisphere and t e s t i n g i t i n the s o u t h e r n hemisphere, as suggested i n D e v r i e s (1978), i s t o imply what L e a r n e r (1958) has s a i d : "Wanted a r e modern i n s t i t u t i o n s but not modern i d e o l o g i e s , modern power but not modern pur p o s e s , modern w e a l t h but not modern wisdom" (p. 4 7 ) . In the c o n t e x t of e x t e n s i o n , what i s wanted or d e s i r a b l e i s t o l o o k f o r a r e l e v a n t model t o d e v e l o p a sound program. P r o v i d e d a workable model i s s e l e c t e d and used p r o p e r l y , a b a l a n c e d program w i l l emerge g i v i n g the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y t o e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g harmonously i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the g e n e r a l l e v e l of development w i t h i n a c o u n t r y ( K o r t e n , 1980; L i o n b e r g e r and Chang, 1981). S e l e c t i n g a workable model o n l y w i l l not improve th e q u a l i t y of the program. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s and i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s b e h i n d the model i s a l s o r e q u i r e d . In t h i s r e s p e c t B o y l e (1981) and Maunder (1972) a r e i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s of p r i n c i p l e s and c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o program p l a n n i n g . B o y l e (1981) and Maunder (1972) s t a t e d the f o l l o w i n g a s sumptions which form t h e b a s i s on which e x t e n s i o n programs r e s t : 52 1. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t , o r g a n i z e and a d m i n i s t e r c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s of t e c h n o l o g y , p e r s o n n e l , methods and f a c i l i t i e s t o h e l p p e o p l e a c h i e v e more d e s i r a b l e ways of l i v i n g . 2. People need the guidance of p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s p o s s e s s i n g the knowledge and s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o h e l p them l e a r n t o s o l v e t h e i r problems. 3. Change i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o p r o g r e s s and t h a t the s t a t u s quo must be a t l e a s t m o d i f i e d i n f a v o r of new ways of t h i n k i n g and d o i n g . 4. P r o g r e s s i s made o n l y when someone who has i d e a s about a b e t t e r way has the s k i l l and o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r y them o u t . 5. P e o p l e w i l l c o n t i n u e t h e i r p r e s e n t ways of t h i n k i n g and d o i n g u n t i l they have new e x p e r i e n c e from p l a n n e d change. 6. Most e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s from c h o i c e not chance, from an i n t e n t t o t e a c h and l e a r n , under the most d e s i r a b l e c o o r d i n a t e d c o n d i t i o n s t h a t can be c r e a t e d . 7. E d u c a t i o n a l changes i n p e o p l e are p r e r e q u i s i t e t o the a t t a i n m e n t of o t h e r s o c i a l and economic g o a l s i n a f r e e soc i e t y . G i v e n the above a s s u m p t i o n s , the main purpose of program p l a n n i n g i s t o p r o v i d e a c l e a r and c o n c i s e w r i t t e n statement of what i s t o be done and why. D e c i s i o n s on what 53 i s t o be done and why r e q u i r e s o r g a n i z i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h the m i s s i o n , determine the c o n t e n t of the program, d e f i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , implementing the p l a n , e v a l u a t i n g , and r e p o r t i n g r e s u l t s . Proper d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o the above f a c t o r s h e l p t o produce a s p e c i f i c , measureable, a c c e p t a b l e , r e a l i s t i c and t i m e - r e l a t e d program f o r a c t i o n . For t h e s e r e a s o n s , s e a r c h i n g f o r a r e l e v a n t p l a n n i n g model i s an urgent q u e s t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . Assessment of Program Planning Models P e r i o d i c r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e i n a n y . f i e l d of stud y i s u s e f u l i n g a i n i n g an i n s i g h t i n t o the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . I n t h i s r e g a r d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h a r e v i e w of program p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , Buskey and Sork (1982) d e l i v e r an i m p o r t a n t document and e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . A f t e r examining numerous books, monographs, and a r t i c l e s t h a t d e a l t w i t h p l a n n i n g models, Buskey and Sork (1982) c o n c l u d e d t h a t most models te n d t o r e p r e s e n t the a u t h o r ' s recommendations f o r how one s h o u l d approach the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r a t h e r than d e s c r i b i n g how program p l a n n i n g i s done i n a g i v e n p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w of Buskey and Sork i s unique because i t i n d i c a t e s i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s among a v a i l a b l e models i n the a r e a s of t r a i n i n g , c o o p e r a t i v e e x t e n s i o n , and g e n e r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . E x t e n s i o n models re v i e w e d by Buskey and Sork (1982) i n c l u d e d Boone et al. (1971), B o y l e (1965), 54 Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y (1974), M i n n e s o t a (1975), and Pesson (1966). From t h i s r e v i e w , Buskey and Sork found t h a t few models t r e a t program p l a n n i n g i n a comprehensive manner. E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e i r a n a l y t i c a l summaries of the program p l a n n i n g models, f o r example, i n d i c a t e s t h a t no s i n g l e model i s comprehensive i n i t s t r e a t m e n t of the program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Most e x t e n s i o n models were r a t e d low i n the t r e a t m e n t of a s s e s s i n g needs, d e v e l o p i n g o b j e c t i v e s , and d e s i g n i n g e v a l u a t i o n p l a n s . The model d e v e l o p e d by the U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a (1975) i s r a t e d h i g h i n terms of c l i e n t and c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s and d e s i g n of e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . A l t h o u g h the major program models i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n were i d e n t i f i e d and r e v i e w e d by Buskey and Sork (1982), v a r i a t i o n s of t h e s e models e x i s t . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d models common i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a r e t h o s e of Benor and H a r r i s o n (1977), Chambers (1974), and K o r t e n (1980). The T r a i n i n g and V i s i t System of Benor and H a r r i s o n (1977) has the f o l l o w i n g e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. A c l e a r l y d e f i n e d number of farm f a m i l i e s t o be v i s i t e d by each e x t e n s i o n agent. 2. A s h a r p l y d e f i n e d e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e x t e n s i o n agent. 3. A c l o s e guidance and s u p e r v i s i o n of each e x t e n s i o n agent. 4. A s p e c i f i c recommendation f o r i m p r o v i n g f a r m i n g p r a c t i c e s of s e l e c t e d f a r m e r s . 55 5. A f i x e d v i s i t of c o n t a c t farmers a t a s e t date and t i m e . In a s t r i c t c o n c e p t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the t r a i n i n g and v i s i t system i s n o t h i n g more than a s e t of ele m e n t a r y p r i n c i p l e s of management t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r o c e d u r e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g , s u p e r v i s i n g , and i n s t r u c t i n g a d i s p e r s e d f i e l d s t a f f , i . e . , i t o n l y a d d r e s s e s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . In d o i n g t h i s , i t views the r o l e of the e x t e n s i o n agent as a s i m p l e farm management a d v i s o r . A l t h o u g h t h e t e c h n i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l a ssumptions b e h i n d the t r a i n i n g and v i s i t system can be q u e s t i o n e d , the system seems u s e f u l f o r e x t e n s i o n programs i n d r y l a n d f a r m i n g . The system has a b u i l t - i n mechanism f o r program m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . Yet i t depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on the e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n and management of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . I t s r i g i d t i m e - t a b l e f o r v i s i t s , t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s would r e q u i r e a d e f i n i t e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . For example, i n r u r a l E t h i o p i a t h e r e a r e no w e l l d e v e l o p e d a l l weather r o a d s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the low e x t e n s i o n agent t o farm f a m i l y r a t i o , which i s about 1:3500, and a l a c k of c e r t a i n t y as t o whether the agent w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r farmers a t a g i v e n time and p l a c e seems t o reduce the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the system. A l t h o u g h w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d i n I n d i a , N i g e r i a , and Ban g l a d e s h , the t r a i n i n g and v i s i t system does not have a 56 s e t of p r o c e d u r e s which a d d r e s s q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o d e f i n i t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s and d e s i g n of e d u c a t i o n a l programs. The main f o c u s i s on p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than on p l a n n i n g a sound program. As a r e s u l t i t i s found t h a t the t r a i n i n g and v i s i t system i s not comparable t o most a v a i l a b l e p l a n n i n g models. The Programming and I m p lementation Management (PIM) Model of Chambers (1974) has t h r e e main components: (a) a programming e x e r c i s e , (b) a management meet i n g , and (c) an a c t i o n r e p o r t . Chamber's model s t a r t s w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of ongoing programs and ends w i t h p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n t h r o u g h l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , and r u r a l r e s e a r c h . T h i s model d e a l s w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and i s i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g the program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . A L e a r n i n g P r o c e s s Approach by K o r t e n (1980) has t h r e e i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (a) embracing e r r o r , (b) p l a n n i n g w i t h p e o p l e , and (c) l i n k i n g knowledge b u i l d i n g w i t h a c t i o n . In i t s i d e a l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s approach t o program development proceeds t h r o u g h t h r e e s t a g e s . In each s t a g e the emphasis i s on a d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g t a s k , s u c c e s s i v e l y on e f f e c t i v e n e s s , e f f i c i e n c y , and e x p a n s i o n . T h i s model seems t o d e a l w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n and how t o d e a l w i t h p i l o t p r o j e c t s . The above t h r e e models i l l u s t r a t e what Buskey and Sork (1982) found i n t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e r e v iew which was t h a t most a v a i l a b l e models seem not t o t r e a t program p l a n n i n g i n a 57 comprehensive manner. As a r e s u l t , none of them s a t i s f y t h e program development d e f i n i t i o n adopted i n t h i s s t u d y . Yet i n t h e absence of any comprehensive program p l a n n i n g model i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e and c r i t i c a l t o ask what we know about program p l a n n i n g and what we have l e a r n e d from e x p e r i e n c e i n e x t e n s i o n programs. To answer th e s e q u e s t i o n s , a c r i t i c a l r e v i ew of some of the models w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were used i n s e l e c t i n g the models t o be r e v i e w e d : 1. the models a d d r e s s e d b a s i c program p l a n n i n g problems; 2. the models were r e l e v a n t t o s i t u a t i o n s i n E t h i o p i a d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s and had w i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ; 3. the models h e l p e d t o i d e n t i f y a f e a s i b l e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e ; and 4. the models had a wider i m p l i c a t i o n f o r program p l a n n i n g i n a nonformal e d u c a t i o n framework. Based on t h e s e c r i t e r i a , t h e f o l l o w i n g models were s e l e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n : Boone, D o l a n , and Sharon (1971), B o y l e (1981), Pesson (1966), Sork (n.d.) and t h e U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a (1975). Model i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s d e f i n e d as "a s e t of s t e p s , t a s k s or d e c i s i o n s w h i c h , when c a r r i e d o u t , r e s u l t e d i n the d e s i g n of an e d u c a t i o n a l program f o r an a d u l t c l i e n t group" (Buskey and Sork, 1982, p. 2 ) . 58 I m p l i c i t i n the above s e l e c t e d models i s t h a t the program development p r o c e s s i s p r e s e n t e d as a c o n t i n u o u s a c t i v i t y . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 7, t h e r e i s an o r d e r l y sequence i n the f l o w of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In t h i s r e g a r d Sork (n.d.) i n d i c a t e s o n l y the n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g s t e p s and does not c o n s i d e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n the model. Boone et al. (1971), U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a (1975), and Pesson (1966) i n c l u d e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t e p s i n t h e i r models (see T a b l e 7 ) . S o r k ' s B a s i c P l a n n i n g Model ( n . d . ) . S o r k ' s model has s i x b a s i c p l a n n i n g s t e p s which s t a r t w i t h the a n a l y s i s of p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system, and ends w i t h e v a l u a t i o n . One d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of S o r k ' s model i s the a t t e n t i o n and c l a r i t y i t g i v e s t o e v a l u a t i o n (see F i g u r e 6 ) . E v a l u a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s model, i s both p r o a c t i v e and r e t r o a c t i v e . The model i s comprehensive i n i t s t r e a t m e n t of e v a l u a t i o n and c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the two i m p o r t a n t forms of e v a l u a t i o n : f o r m a t i v e (means e v a l u a t i o n ) and summative (end e v a l u a t i o n ) . In d o i n g so the model broadens the u t i l i t y of e v a l u a t i o n f o r d e c i s i o n making and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . I t p r o v i d e s a p r a c t i c a l means t o a s s e s s c l i e n t and c o n t e x t , needs, problems, and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h r o u g h a t t a c h i n g e v a l u a t i o n and feedback t o each of i t s p l a n n i n g s t e p s . 59 T a b l e 7: Summary of Program P l a n n i n g Steps Step Sork Pesson U of Minn. B o y l e Boone et al . A n a l y s i s of P l a n -n i n g Con-t e x t C l i e n t System C o l l e c t f a c t s R e c o g n i z e f o r c e s F o r m u l a t e o r g a n i z a -t i o n p h i -l o s o p h y U nderstand the s t r u c -t u r e of o r g a n i z a -t i o n 2 I d e n t i f y A n a l y z e U n d erstand I d e n t i f y Need a n a l -needs s i t u a t i o n e x t e n s i v e and c l a r - y s i s l e a -o r g a n i - i f y needs der i n -z a t i o n volvement 3 Develop I d e n t i f y I d e n t i f y O r g a n i z e S p e c i f y o b j e c t i v e s problems and i n - and main- needs v o l v e t a i n p l a n -r e l e v a n t n i n g group p e o p l e 4 F o r m u l a t e Decide on Determine Ident i f y P l a n of i n s t r u c t - o b j e c t i v e s needs and problem, work se-i o n a l p l a n g o a l s e s t a b l i s h q u e n c i n g g o a l / o b -j e c t i v e 5 F o r m u l a t e Develop P l a n n i n g P r e p a r e A c t i v a t e a d m i n i - p l a n of and l o n g program the p l a n s t r a t i v e work range p r o - document of work p l a n gram 6 Develop Execute P r e p a r e E v a l u a t e E v a l u a t i o n summative a c t i o n a n n u a l and ac-e v a l u a t i o n p l a n of c o u n t a b i l -p l a n work i t y Determine p r o g r e s s Implement the p l a n 8 R e c o n s i d e r E v a l u a t e and r e p o r t 60 SORK'S BASIC PLANNING MODEL ANALYZE PLANNING CONTEXT AND CLIENT SYSTEM ¥ IDENTIFY NEEDS DEVELOP OBJECTIVES * FORMULATE INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN FORMULATE ADMINISTRATIVE PLAN F 0 R M A T I V E A L X T I 0 N a DEVELOP SUMMATIVE EVALUATION PLAN c K F i g u r e 6: S o r k ' s B a s i c P l a n n i n g Model S o u r c e : S o r k , Thomas J . Program P l a n n i n g and E v a l u a t i o n , Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 61 T h i s b u i l t - i n feedback mechanism i s the main i n p u t of the p l a n n i n g system i n S o r k ' s model. The i n p u t t h r o u g h f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n and feedback h e l p s t o examine a l t e r n a t i v e s and c o n s i d e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a t each p l a n n i n g s t e p . C r i t i c a l s c r u t i n y of the model and of the s u b p o i n t s r a i s e d by Sork under each s t e p of the model r e v e a l s t h a t the model a l l o w s f o r p r o p e r r e v i s i o n , v e r i f i c a t i o n , and c h e c k i n g f o r c o n s i s t e n c y and b a l a n c e i n program development. With such feedback and the s p i r a l p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g ( c h e c k i n g and r e c h e c k i n g ) , as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 6, the model p r e s e n t s a v e r y i n t e r a c t i v e system. A c c o r d i n g t o S o r k ' s model, d e c i s i o n s a r e made from th e i n t e r r e l a t e d sequence of e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s . T h i s s t e p - b y - s t e p e v a l u a t i o n and feedback mechanism h e l p s t o p r o v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o produce a sound program. The model i s s t a t e d w i t h a c t i o n v e r b s and d e c i s i o n s a t each s t e p appear t o f o l l o w a sequence. T h i s mechanism seems t o s u c c e s s i v e l y reduce the number of r e m a i n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and/or c o n s i d e r a t i o n s so t h a t the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s a d e c r e a s i n g number of d e c i s i o n s as i t p r o g r e s s e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s model, f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o i d e n t i f y and remedy s h o r t c o m i n g s d u r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t a l stage of a program. C o n c e p t u a l l y S o r k ' s f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n and feedback i s e q u i v a l e n t t o m o n i t o r i n g and a s s e s s i n g program i n p u t s and g a t h e r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s c r i t i c a l t o e f f e c t i v e program development. As i n d i c a t e d by the model, summative e v a l u a t i o n a s s e s s e s the worth of the f i n a l program o u t p u t . 62 S o r k ' s model, i n a d d i t o n t o br o a d e n i n g the u t i l i t y of e v a l u a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s , a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h e importance of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . Pesson (1966). Pesson r e p r e s e n t s the program development p r o c e s s as c i r c u l a r . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s h i s d e f i n i t i o n of program p l a n n i n g as a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . Pesson's model has e i g h t s t e p s (see F i g u r e 7 ) , of which s t e p s one th r o u g h f o u r comprise the program p l a n n i n g phase and s t e p s f i v e t h r o u g h seven the a c t i o n phase. The two phases tend t o o v e r l a p i n s t e p e i g h t . In the f i r s t phase the model p r o g r e s s e s from the c o l l e c t i o n of f a c t s and the a n a l y s i s of the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n t o problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . The program a c t i o n phase d e a l s w i t h program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and a s s e s s i n g p r o g r e s s . Step e i g h t a p p e a r s t o a c t as a b r i d g e between the p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n phases. The most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of t h i s model i s t h a t i t g i v e s maximum a t t e n t i o n t o c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e x t e n s i o n program development p r o c e s s . As a r e s u l t , i t d e a l s w i t h d e v e l o p i n g e f f e c t i v e a d v i s o r y g r o u p s . In d o i n g t h i s Pesson appears t o a d d r e s s the v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s of c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n such as the "what", "who", and "how" of i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p r o c e s s . Pesson i s more concerned w i t h the s o c i a l a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of r u r a l e x t e n s i o n . As a r e s u l t the model 63 Evaluation Evaluation F i g u r e 7: The E x t e n s i o n Program Development P r o c e s s S o u r c e : P e s s o n , Lynn L. (19 6 6 ) . E x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e . I n H.C. Sander ( E d . ) , The cooperative extension service. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . 64 r e q u i r e s i n d e p t h a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l system. I t f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r s p l a n n i n g as a " f u n c t i o n of democracy" (p. 102). A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s model, a s s e s s i n g a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s s t u d i e s of c l i e n t e l e , s u g g e s t i o n s from s u b j e c t m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t s , and s t u d i e s of contemporary l i f e . T h i s approach i s i m p o r t a n t f o r the p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e and t h e i r b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s . The model c o n s i d e r s e v a l u a t i o n as a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . I t emphasizes c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of d a t a , and the r o l e of p l a n n i n g committees as a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r f o r e v a l u a t i n g a program. U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a (1975). T h i s model r e p r e s e n t s the program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as a wheel r o t a t i n g on a base (see F i g u r e 8 ) . The s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l f o r c e s form the base of t h i s model. As a r e s u l t , the model s t a r t s by r e c o g n i z i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e f o r c e s . One d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of t h e model i s t h a t i t g i v e s due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . S t e p two (see F i g u r e 8) d e a l s w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n h i s t o r y , p o l i c i e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , r o l e s , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , s t e p two a l s o i n d i c a t e s the r e q u i r e d f l e x i b i l i t y , i n n o v a t i o n , and c r e a t i v i t y of the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . S t e p s one and two u n d e r p i n the e n t i r e program p r o c e s s . The model has e i g h t s t e p s . Steps one through f o u r d e a l w i t h program p l a n n i n g , w h i l e s t e p s f i v e t h r ough e i g h t d e a l w i t h program a c t i o n . 65 F i g u r e 8: M i n n e s o t a E x t e n s i o n Program Development P r o c e s s S o u r c e : U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Minnesota Extension Program Development Process, Part 1 and 2. S p e c i a l R e p o r t No. 47, A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , S t . P a u l : A u t h o r . 66 B o y l e (1981). The g r e a t e r d e t a i l p r o v i d e d by the comprehensive s y n t h e s i s of a v a i l a b l e p l a n n i n g t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e makes B o y l e ' s model d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r models of T a b l e 7. B o y l e ' s model has s i x b a s i c s t e p s and 15 r e l e v a n t p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s upon which B o y l e b e l i e v e s the program development p r o c e s s r e s t s . These 15 c o n c e p t s a r e : 1. E s t a b l i s h i n g a p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g 2. S i t u a t i o n a n a l y s i s 3. Involvement of p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t e l e 4. L e v e l s of i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l development of p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t e l e 5. D e t e r m i n i n g program o b j e c t i v e s 6. R e c o g n i t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r a i n t s 7. C r i t e r i a f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g program p r i o r i t i e s 8. Degree of r i g i d i t y / f l e x i b i l i t y of p l a n n e d programs 9. L e g i t i m i z a t i o n and support w i t h power s i t u a t i o n 10. S e l e c t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s 11. I d e n t i f y i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n 12. U t i l i z i n g e f f e c t i v e p r o m o t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s 13. O b t a i n i n g r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y t o support the program 14. D e t e r m i n i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s , r e s u l t s and/or impact 15. Communicating the v a l u e of the program t o a p p r o p r i a t e d e c i s i o n makers. The f i r s t n i n e of the above 15 c o n c e p t s r e f e r more t o the p l a n n i n g s t a g e , the next f o u r t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and 67 the f i n a l two t o e v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g . B o y l e ' s approach emphasizes a more t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p l a n n i n g r a t h e r than the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of each s t e p of t h e program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . To t h i s e f f e c t i t p r o v i d e s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of program p l a n n i n g . The model has s i x b a s i c assumptions and r e q u i r e s a c l e a r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of one's b e l i e f s about e d u c a t i o n , the l e a r n e r , and the program development p r o c e s s . I t p r o g r e s s e s from p h i l o s o p h i c a l background t o s i t u a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , and f i n a l l y t o e v a l u a t i o n . B o y l e (1981) seems t o draw h e a v i l y upon a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n e x p e r i e n c e , but h i s approach c o v e r s a l l f a c e t s of nonformal e d u c a t i o n programs. The main problem w i t h B o y l e ' s model appears t o be the h i g h demand i t p u t s on s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y , and s o c i o l o g y . U n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s approach t o need, d e s i g n and e v a l u a t i o n , and h i s assumptions on change r e q u i r e s advance work i n the above d i s c i p l i n e s . Boone, D o l a n , and Shearon (1971). The c o n c e p t u a l schema of Boone et al. has s i x b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s t e p s which range from u n d e r s t a n d i n g the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o program e v a l u a t i o n and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . The model o p e r a t e s under f o u r assumptions which a l l r e v o l v e around th e r o l e of a d u l t e d u c a t o r . 68 Each s t e p s p e c i f i e s the p l a n n i n g system r e q u i r e d and b r i n g s t o g e t h e r a more e d u c a t i o n a l framework f o r d e f i n i n g and o r g a n i z i n g the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s e s s e n t i a l t o e x t e n s i o n work. One i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e of t h i s model i s t h a t i t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s how t o r e a c h c l i e n t s and get t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t . The second h e a d i n g l i n k s an e x t e n s i o n i n s t i t u t i o n t o i t s c l i e n t s t h r o u g h need a n a l y s i s and l e a d e r involvement (see F i g u r e 9 ) . The o t h e r f e a t u r e of t h i s model i s t h a t i t v a l u e s the r o l e of the a d u l t e d u c a t o r i n the program development p r o c e s s , more so than the o t h e r models. S i m i l a r i t i e s and D i f f e r e n c e s i n the Programming Models With r e g a r d t o the p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t , a l l models, except t h o s e of Sork (n.d.) and B o y l e (1981), a r e d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r e x t e n s i o n work. B o y l e appears t o l i n k h i s programming model more t o the concept of g e n e r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the modern urban s e t t i n g . That i s , programming i s ; seen as a response t o the c o n t i n u i n g demand f o r e d u c a t i o n . Sork's model, t h r o u g h i t s a c t i o n v e r b s , i n d i c a t e s i t s u t i l i t y under any p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . The b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y of the s e models i s t h a t a l l of them have t h e f o l l o w i n g elements i n common: (a) p r o b l e m a t i c need i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , (b) d e f i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , and (c) e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t e v a l u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e seems t o be a wording d i f f e r e n c e , the " a n a l y s i s of s i t u a t i o n " ( P esson, 1966), the " r e c o g n i z e f o r c e s " ( M i n n e s o t a , 1975), 69 The institution and its renewal processes U n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o m -mi tment to the s t ructure of the ins t i tu t ion (i.e.. C o o p e r a t i v e Ex tens ion , S e r v i c e ) : • P h i l o s o p h y • Objec t ives . Roles • Re la t ionsh ips K n o w l e d g e a b l e about and s k i l l e d i n manage-ment: • Staff ing • Staff d e v e l o p m e n t • S u p e r v i s i o n • A c c o u n t a b i l i t y U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f and c o m m i t m e n t to a tested c o n c e p t u a l f r amework for p r o g r a m m i n g : • L i n k a g e o f ins t i tu t ion to its p u b l i c s th rough need analys is a n d leader i nvo lvemen t . • P r o g r a m des ign and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n tai-lored to the needs o f Ex tens ion ' s pub l ics . U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a n d commitment to continu-ous institutional renewal. Linking the institution to its publics through need analysis and leader involvement S t u d y , analysis , and map-p i n g o f coun ty and/or area. Ident i f ica t ion a n d anal -ysis o f subsystems w i t h i n coun tv and/or Ident i f ica t ion o f target subsystems. Iden t i fy ing a n d inter-fac ing w i t h l e a d e n o f target subsystems. F o r m a t i o n o f l eadersh ip systems representat ive o f target subsystems. Needs iden t i f i ca t ion a n d analys is specif ic to tar-get subsystems. R e l a t i n g needs o f target subsys tem to the larger sys tem a n d iden t i fy ing m a c r o needs c o m m o n to t w o or m o r e subsystems. Program design and implementation Long-range program Plans of work Activating plans of work Spec i f i ca t ion o f D e l i n e a t i n g , m a c r o needs. o rde r ing , and D e l i n e a t i o n o f m a c r o object ives . D e s i g n a t i o n o f strategies for o b t a i n i n g object ives . sequencing micro needs. M o b i l i z i n g and u t i l i z ing resources. M o n i t o r i n g the teaching-l ea rn ing p roces i . S p e c i f y i n g ins t ruc t iona l l eve l objec t ives . Re in fo rc ing learners. S e l e c t i n g a n d o r g a n i z i n g l e a m e r ac t iv i t ies . F o r m u l a t i n g p lans for eva lua t ion . R e v i s i n g and redi rec t ing act ivi t ies based on feedback. Program evalua tion and accounta-bility D e t e r m i n i n g p rogram outputs . .Assessing p r o g r a m inputs. U t i l i z i n g eva lua t ive findings for p r o -gram revis ions, ins t i tu t ional renewal , a n d accoun tab i l i ty to publ ics , f und ing sources, a n d to the profession. F i g u r e 9: Programming i n t h e C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e : A C o n c e p t u a l Scheme So u r c e : Boone, E . J . , D o l a n , R . J . , and Shearon, R.W. (1 9 7 1 ) . Programming in the Cooperative Extension Service: A Conceptual Scheme R a l e i g h , N.C.: N o r t h C a r o l i n a A g r i c u l t u r a l ' E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e P u b l i c a t i o n 72. 70 and the " a n a l y s i s of p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system" (Sor k , n.d.) a l l seem t o be e q u i v a l e n t and s e r v e the same purpose. The most v i s i b l e s i m i l a r i t y of the f i v e models i s the t o t a l agreement of the a u t h o r s on the need t o d e f i n e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . B o y l e (1981) and Pesson (1966), i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n s i d e r the p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e r n s of p l a n n i n g and the r a t i o n a l e f o r i n v o l v i n g l e a r n e r s i n the programming p r o c e s s , w h i l e the Sork (n.d.) and M i n n e s o t a (1975) models d i s t i n g u i s h between f o r m a t i v e and summative e v a l u a t i o n . A c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e two t y p e s of e v a l u a t i o n h e l p t o modify programs and p r o v i d e s e a r l y feedback. F o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i s an i n d i c a t o r of p r o b a b l e weaknesses or impediments. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a (1975), f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n p e r m i t s the p l a n n e r " t o a p p r a i s e each element of t h e p r o c e s s and then make ad j u s t m e n t s d u r i n g r a t h e r than a f t e r the p r o c e s s " (p. 4 0 ) , t h e r e b y u n d e r s c o r i n g the importance of f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i n a g i v e n model. F o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n reduces the chance t h a t poor p l a n n i n g w i l l r e s u l t i n f a i l u r e t o produce a n e c e s s a r y measure/output w i t h i n a l i m i t e d amount of time because of the overwhelming number of d e c i s i o n s t o be made. The Sork and M i n n e s o t a models a r e a l s o s i m i l a r i n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o c l i e n t and c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s . Boone et al. (1971), Pesson (1966), and the U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a (1975) p i n p o i n t the n e c e s s a r y p l a n of work. The o t h e r c o n s i s t e n t s i m i l a r i t y of the f i v e models i s the 71 c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the program p l a n n i n g phase which r e f l e c t s a c o n c e r n f o r c a r e f u l d e s i g n . V i s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between th e s e models a r e apparent f o r the p a t t e r n s of emphasis g i v e n t o each s t e p of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n emphasis and approach t o program p l a n n i n g seem t o be more a m a t t e r of degree r a t h e r than of s u b s t a n c e . For example, B o y l e (1981) and Boone et al . (1971) emphasize the r o l e of the programmer w h i l e Pesson (1966) i s d e d i c a t e d p u r e l y t o c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The most pronounced d i f f e r e n c e s between the models a r e t h e i r approaches t o need i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d e f i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , and program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . For example, B o y l e and Sork emphasize more c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g w h i l e o t h e r s i n d i c a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and the a n n u a l work p l a n . Need i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n the case of Boone et al . and Pesson seem t o be the r e s u l t of s o c i a l a n a l y s i s . In b r i e f , the above s t a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s appear t o be between the p h i l o s o p h i e s of the a u t h o r s and the purpose f o r which each model was d e v e l o p e d . A l t h o u g h most of th e s e models t r y t o i n d i c a t e the v a l u e of e v a l u a t i o n i n program p l a n n i n g , o n l y the Sork and U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a models o f f e r a comprehensive t r e a t m e n t of e v a l u a t i o n . E v a l u a t i o n of the Models The range of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s d i s p l a y e d by the f i v e models examined i n d i c a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e of numerous approaches t o p l a n n i n g . T h i s makes i t n e c e s s a r y t o choose 72 between models or a s p e c t s of models i n o r d e r t o f i t one's s p e c i f i c needs. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s p r e s e n t e d as an a i d t o making t h i s c h o i c e . In p r a c t i c e , p l a n n e r s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on the f i r s t two or t h r e e s t e p s of program p l a n n i n g (see T a b l e 7 ) . T h i s k i n d of p l a n n i n g , which moves from c l i e n t and c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s t o e v a l u a t i o n and r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s c a l l e d by Bruce (1964) the c o n v e n t i o n a l method of program p l a n n i n g . Bruce (1964) and Chambers (1974) contend t h a t t h i s c o n v e n t i o n a l method i s i n e f f i c i e n t . Bruce (1964) s t a t e s t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l methods of. program p l a n n i n g g e n e r a l l y a r e performed i n the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : 1. f o r m a t i o n of l a y l e a d e r , 2. o b s e r v i n g and d e s c r i b i n g s i t u a t i o n s , 3. d e t e r m i n i n g problems and a s s i g n i n g p r i o r i t i e s , 4. statement of o b j e c t i v e s , and 5. p r e p a r a t i o n of p l a n of work. Bruce c o n s i d e r s t h e s e methods t o be i n e f f i c i e n t because: 1. t h e u n i v e r s a l use of a l a y a d v i s o r y committee o f t e n r e s u l t s i n an e n t i r e waste of t i m e ; 2. t h e r e i s a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h o b j e c t i v e s ; 3. the o b j e c t i v e s a r e s t a t e d i n terms of t h i n g s t o be done r a t h e r than as t h i n g s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d ; 4. t h e r e seems t o be an assumption t h a t a c c u m u l a t i n g l a r g e masses of s i t u a t i o n a l d a t a w i l l s a t i s f y the o b j e c t i v e s ; and 5. a l s o an assumption t h a t a l l good p l a n n i n g w i l l f o l l o w a s i n g l e p r o c e s s ( i . e . , problem — s o l u t i o n ) (p. 222-223). 73 Chambers (1974) i n d i c a t e d h i s c r i t i c i s m of c o n v e n t i o n a l program p l a n n i n g methods and s t e p s as shown i n T a b l e 7 by d e l i b e r a t e l y r e v e r s i n g the sequence i n which the s t e p s a r e l i s t e d and s t a t e d t h a t : a more l o g i c a l o r d e r might s t a r t w i t h p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n , l e a d i n g i n t o programming and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . But i t has been p r e c i s e l y the l o g i c of s t a r t i n g w i t h p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n t h a t has g e n e r a t e d the s t a t u s of unimplemented and unimplementable p l a n s which moulder, fade and f e e d t e r m i t e s on the s h e l v e s of o f f i c e s t h r o u g h o u t E a s t A f r i c a (p. 3 3 ) . A l t h o u g h Bruce and Chambers c r i t i c i z e d the c o n v e n t i o n a l approach t o p l a n n i n g , B r u c e's main c r i t i c i s m f o c u s e s on what can be termed c l i e n t i n v o l v e m e n t or p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o B r u c e , t o i n v o l v e f a r m e r s / a d u l t s i n o r d e r t o get s u p p o r t or t o use involvement as a means of t e a c h i n g them t o p l a n has no f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n t o the p r o d u c t i o n of a sound program. Chambers c r i t i c i z e d the c o n v e n t i o n a l method f o r two main r e a s o n s . One i s t o d i v e r t some a t t e n t i o n and r e s o u r c e s from p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n which consumes the major p a r t of program r e s o u r c e s t o more d i f f i c u l t and l e s s d e v e l o p e d a c t i v i t i e s of program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n which i s the d e s i g n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . The o t h e r reason seems t o have been g e n e r a t e d from h i s r e s e a r c h e x p e r i e n c e i n r u r a l development where he o b s e r v e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the program development committee was n o t h i n g more than an "echo w i t h h o l l o w r h e t o r i c " (p. 89) where p a r t i c i p a n t s were not g i v e n a n y t h i n g t o do. 74 Vanderberg (1964), i n agreement w i t h Bruce (1965) and Chambers (1974), s t a t e s t h a t a c o l l e c t i o n of a d u l t s does not n e c e s s a r i l y make an a b l e committee t o h e l p d e v e l o p a sound program. A c c o r d i n g t o Powers (1966) the r o u t i n e s i n v o l v e d i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of l a y people on the p l a n n i n g committee a r e : a t t e n d i n g t h r e e or f o u r meetings of the committee, r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n the u s u a l manner (a c o n c e n t r a t e d s e t of f a c t s , f i g u r e s , e t c . , (p. 13) and f i n a l l y , f o r g e t t i n g , the i s s u e which makes i t i m p o s s i b l e t o e x p e c t the committee t o recommend p r i o r i t y f o r a program. The c r i t i c i s m s p r e s e n t e d a g a i n s t the c o n v e n t i o n a l method of program p l a n n i n g i n d i c a t e the d i l e m a i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n which emerges d u r i n g program development on the q u e s t i o n of c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Brower, 1964). S t u d i e s u n dertaken t o i n c r e a s e e d u c a t o r s ' and p l a n n e r s ' c a p a c i t i e s t o promote p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t e n s i o n program development i n d i c a t e l i t t l e agreement on what p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s or on i t s b a s i c d i m e n s i o n s (what k i n d , who, and how of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) . A c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of B o y l e (1981) i n d i c a t e s a r e d u c t i o n of the above problem by p i n p o i n t i n g i n v o l v e m e n t of p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t e l e . B o y l e a l s o p r o v i d e s a d e f i n i t e r o l e t o be p l a y e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s and a congruency of 75 method of i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h r e s o u r c e s u t i l i z e d . Sork (n.d.) reduces the whole n o t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n program p l a n n i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "How w e l l a r e the r o l e s of those t o be i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d e f i n e d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ? " B o y l e (1981) and Sork (n.d.) seem t o h e l p e d u c a t o r s and p l a n n e r s take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the proper p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Boone el al. (1971) i n d i c a t e t h e i n t e n s i v e involvement of p a r t i c i p a n t s but d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e the r o l e s of those who p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a n n i n g . The U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a '(1975) model d i s c u s s e s the approaches used t o i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s i n p l a n n i n g but does not s t a t e the s p e c i f i c r o l e d e s i r e d i n each approach. The o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a r e a of d i f f e r e n c e i n the models appears t o l i e i n the awareness of subsystems i n e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o H e i f n e r and Van Gendt (1971), an e d u c a t i o n a l system c o n s i s t s of two c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d major subsystems — e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n systems and t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g systems. They s t a t e t h a t i n most e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e systems a r e n e g l e c t e d . In t h i s r e g a r d , e x c e p t f o r S o r k ' s model, none of the models a r e e x p l i c i t i n q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . Most of the models d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 7 seem t o have f o c u s e d on i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g w i t h m i n i m a l emphasis on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . As a r e s u l t , the models, except f o r Sork's b a s i c p l a n n i n g model, f a i l t o 76 a d d r e s s the manpower and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the program. The n e g l e c t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , can be seen from Chambers (1974) who i n d i c a t e d " e r r a t i c a l most n o n - e x i s t e n t or poor ' s u p e r v i s i o n ' " (p. 5 5 ) . M o r i s (1981) i n d i c a t e s t h a t f i e l d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l programs i s d i s o r g a n i z e d and u n c o o r d i n a t e d . T h i s i s b a s i c a l l y due t o u n d e f i n e d and e r r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n not a n t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g the program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Chambers (1974) and Leonard (1977), f o r example, c i t e d c a s e s i n A f r i c a and A s i a where t h e n e g l e c t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g r e s u l t e d i n the s e t t i n g of q u a n t i f i a b l e t a r g e t s f o r a l l a r e a s . As a consequence most e d u c a t i o n a l programs t e n d t o be homogenized, r i g i d i f i e d , and s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r the d i f f e r e n t a r e a s and c l i e n t e l e s r e q u i r i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t r e a t m e n t . The models examined appeared t o have no mechanism of p r i o r i t y s e t t i n g f o r problems i d e n t i f i e d . F o r example, B o y l e (1965, 1981) s t a t e d t h a t p r i o r i t i e s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r problems i d e n t i f i e d , but no mechanism was g i v e n . Boone et al. (1971) and the U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s t o a (1975) g i v e no s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a or s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r i o r i t y s e t t i n g when u s i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e models. 77 S e l e c t i o n of Models A c c o r d i n g t o E. Elmaghraby ( c i t e d i n K u l p , 1970) any model r e q u i r e s a r i g o r o u s adherence t o purpose and must be s i m p l e enough so t h a t i t can be c o n s t r u c t e d and s t u d i e d t o se r v e as an a i d t o thought i n h i g h l i g h t i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the problem, as an a i d t o communication, as a t o o l f o r p r e d i c t i o n , and as a gu i d e t o the d e s i g n of t r a i n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n . Having c o n s i d e r e d some of the f u n c t i o n s p l a n n i n g must p e r f o r m and some of the d y s f u n c t i o n s i t can d i s p l a y , one can now e s t a b l i s h a s e t of p r i n c i p l e s f o r s e l e c t i o n of a workable model. K u l p (1970), f o r example, used the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a f o r good p l a n n i n g model s e l e c t i o n : 1. C o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s , 2. i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d , o p t i o n s and b o t t l e n e c k s , 3. broad p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 4. easy e v a l u a t i o n , 5. c o m p l e t e n e s s , and t e a c h a b i l i t y . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s i m p l i e s the a b i l i t y of the system t o p r o v i d e e x p l i c i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e . I s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d i n d i c a t e s the a b i l i t y of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e and format t o f o c u s on the b i g d e c i s i o n s . Easy e v a l u a t i o n r e f e r s t o the a b i l i t y of the format and p r e s e n t a t i o n t o speed the work of the a u t h o r i t i e s and l e a r n e r s . T h i s c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e s the 78 h i g h l i g h t i n g of main f a c t o r s and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of elements i n the system. Completeness i n c l u d e s the a b i l i t y of the model t o co v e r a l l p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and a l l d e c i s i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o get a c t i o n underway. Completeness a l s o r e q u i r e s compactness of the model so i t can be summarized on one page f o r s h o r t p r e s e n t a t i o n . G i v e n t h e s e c r i t e r i a w i t h emphasis on t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n , compared t o o t h e r models, S o r k ' s b a s i c p l a n n i n g model (n.d.) has the f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t i e s : 1. I t c l e a r l y m i r r o r s the c o m p l e x i t y of the system i t . c l a i m s t o r e p r e s e n t . 2. I t i s s h o r t , c l e a r and f r e e from q u a l i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e s , and can be used i n s h o r t t r a i n i n g programs and c o u r s e s , workshops and seminars t o improve the management of program development. 3. I t i s unique i n r e v e a l i n g the complex problems n e g l e c t e d i n most models. The model c o n f e r s the r i g h t p l a c e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i n program development. 4. I t s format and p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t i s f i e s the above c r i t e r i a f o r good p l a n n i n g model s e l e c t i o n ( K u l p , 1970). 5. A l t h o u g h T a b l e 7 d i s p l a y s the agreement among the models f o r the n e c e s s i t y of need assessment, a d r a f t paper by Sork s u g g e s t s the market t e s t , the c o m p e l l i n g mandate, the t r e n d a n a l y s i s , and the problem a n a l y s i s as a l t e r n a t i v e s t o need assessment. 79 6. The model a l s o g i v e s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o need assessment so t h a t one does not have t o w a i t f o r the r e s u l t of need assessment t o d e v e l o p a program. 7. I t a l s o s p e c i f i e s the r o l e of p a r t i c i p a n t s and as such doesn't s i m p l y s t a t e t h e need f o r c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 8. The model w i t h i t s s u b p o i n t s can be mastered e a s i l y w i t h r e a s o n a b l e e f f o r t . One ready-made t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l advantage of S o r k ' s p l a n n i n g model i s t h a t i t s u p p l i e s c r i t e r i a t o judge how w e l l each s t e p i s completed. These c r i t e r i a a r e i n d i c a t e d i n the s u b p o i n t s f o r each s t e p . The p o s s i b l e a n t i c i p a t e d problem w i t h u s i n g these s u b p o i n t s as c r i t e r i a might be i t s requirement f o r t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l . P r o v i d e d i t i s used w i t h t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l a b l e t o judge each s u b p o i n t a t a p a r t i c u l a r time or c o n d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a sound base t h a t S o r k ' s p l a n n i n g model can be used w i t h i t s s u b p o i n t s as c r i t e r i a t o judge program c h o i c e . The s u b p o i n t s r a i s e d by Sork under each s t e p i n h i s model s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i a p r o v i d e d by K u l p (1970) and a l s o agree w i t h the c r i t e r i a g r i d d e v e l o p e d by Smith et al . (1983). As a r e s u l t of t h e s e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r used So r k ' s model (n.d.) as a c o m p a r a t i v e s t a n d a r d on which t o base judgements of the q u a l i t y of p l a n n i n g c a r r i e d out i n the E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . 80 Summary In the p r o c e s s of a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e and s e a r c h i n g f o r a workable model, a p e r s p e c t i v e on the r o l e of program p l a n n i n g was p r o v i d e d . The impact of i m p r o v i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s on e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n was i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h a case from the U.S.A. In d o i n g so an attempt was made t o i n d i c a t e how the improvement and r e f i n e m e n t of the program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s has e n a b l e d American farmers t o a c h i e v e a h i g h s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , the r e v i e w p r e s e n t e d i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s from L e a r n e r (1958) t h a t emphasize the n e c e s s i t y of a s s o c i a t i n g the bo r r o w i n g of e x t e n s i o n methods w i t h the a b i l i t y t o adapt a workable p l a n n i n g model t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . F i v e d i f f e r e n t models r e l e v a n t t o a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n were d e s c r i b e d and the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of each model were i d e n t i f i e d . As a r e s u l t , t he study was a b l e t o j u s t i f y t he s e l e c t i o n of a p l a n n i n g model s u i t a b l e t o use as a s t a n d a r d i n a s s e s s i n g p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n E t h i o p i a . The next c h a p t e r w i l l examine the program p l a n n i n g mechanism used by the E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . 81 CHAPTER FOUR A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF PLANNING AND COORDINATION The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine program p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n comprehensive p r o j e c t s and the Minimum Package Programs. The c h a p t e r w i l l c o n s i d e r the c u r r e n t s t a t e of c o o r d i n a t i o n i n the e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h e c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s major problems r e l a t e d t o o b j e c t i v e s , t a r g e t d e t e r m i n a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and program c o o r d i n a t i o n . Program Planning From 1952 to 1966 A l t h o u g h t h i s e r a f e l l w i t h i n the f i r s t and second f i v e - y e a r development p l a n s , t h e r e was no o r g a n i z e d p l a n n i n g mechanism i n p l a c e t o i n t r o d u c e modern a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e t o E t h i o p i a n p e a s a n t s . In f a c t , the E t h i o p i a n governments of the time acknowledged t h a t the f i r s t F i v e - Y e a r Development P l a n was a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s and t h a t no s y s t e m a t i c program development mechanism was used ( I m p e r i a l E t h i o p i a n Government ( I E G ) , 1962). A s s e f a and E s h e t u (1969), Cohen (1974), and Pausewang (1973) r e p o r t t h a t t h e r e was no v i s i b l e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h H u f f n a g e l (1966) i n d i c a t e s t h a t v a r i o u s measures, such as f i e l d t r i a l s f o r c r o p s , and model farms f o r l i v e s t o c k , and m o d e r n i z a t i o n of sheep p r o d u c t i o n , were taken by the E t h i o p i a n government, t h e r e 82 i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e s e measures h e l p e d d e v e l o p a sound e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . Stommes and S e l e s h i (1978) s t a t e d t h a t " t h e r e were no programs e s t a b l i s h i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r i o r i t i e s and p o l i c i e s t o be implemented d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g p e r i o d " (p. 2 5 ) . Program Planning From 1967 to 1980 Program Planning Practice in Comprehensive Projects P r i o r t o 1967, farmer e d u c a t i o n was g i v e n a low p r i o r i t y by the government e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d (1952-1966) a l l e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d out c e n t r a l l y i n A d d i s Ababa, but programs were implemented a t s i t e s 175 t o 1000 k i l o m e t r e s from A d d i s Ababa. As a r e s u l t , program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s u f f e r e d from i n s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . Above a l l , such a system d i d not a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t the r e a l needs of i t s c l i e n t s (Heimpel, 1973). In an attempt t o change from a c e n t r a l i z e d t o a more d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a new approach was o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n s e v e r a l comprehensive p r o j e c t s , the l a r g e s t of which was the C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t (CADU). The C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t ' s (CADU) program p l a n n i n g mechanism can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of i t s main a s s u m p t i o n . I m p l i c i t i n the p r o j e c t ' s p l a n s , programs and means of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was the u n d e r l y i n g assumption 83 t h a t the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n r e a l i z e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of change and a c c e p t e d the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t change was bes t a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of improved m a r k e t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s p r o v i d e d a p r e l u d e towards i n s t i t u t i n g e x t e n s i o n package programs i n a c o u n t r y marked by s e r i o u s economic and s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s . The o t h e r a s p e c t of CADU's s t r a t e g y i n the p r o c e s s of program p l a n n i n g was the s t r o n g b e l i e f i n G a l b r a i t h ' s p r o p o s a l which a s s e r t s t h a t " t h e r e can be no e f f e c t i v e advance i f the masses do not f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e " (1962, p. 4 6 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o S t a h l (1973) and CADU (1967), i t i s t h i s second a s p e c t which p l a c e d emphasis on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the l o c a l p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s m a l l f a r m e r s , which from the Swedish p o i n t of view j u s t i f i e d t h e program and Swedish invo l v e m e n t i n the program. Based on the above a s s u m p t i o n , the Swedish team con d u c t e d an a n a l y s i s of the p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system, and f o r m u l a t e d a workable a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n program. The a n a l y s i s seemed t o have c l e a r l y f o l l o w e d a s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g model but mis s e d the assessment of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n E t h i o p i a . That i s , CADU o r i g i n a l l y s t a r t e d w i t h a m i s c a l c u l a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f o r c e s i m p l i c a t e d i n the U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a Model (1975). For example, the a n a l y s i s u n d e r e s t i m a t e d the n a t u r e of the landowner-tenant r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t a l s o appears t h a t the a n a l y s i s d i d not c r i t i c a l l y examine the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l o c a l h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by o t h e r a g e n c i e s . Except 84 f o r t he u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n of the impact of the landowner-t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p and a w e l l d e v e l o p e d l o c a l b u r e a u c r a c y , CADU had made a s t e p f o r w a r d by i n i t i a l l y s t a t i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s i n broad terms. The o b j e c t i v e s were: to b r i n g about economic and s o c i a l development t o C h i l a l o d i s t r i c t t o g i v e the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n an i n c r e a s e d awareness of development work, and to v e r i f y methods of a g r i c u l t u r a l development and t o t r a i n s t a f f (CADU, 1967). The s t r a t e g y d e s i g n e d by CADU t o d i r e c t i t s e f f o r t s toward t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s (see F i g u r e 10) s t a r t e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g market i n c e n t i v e s , c r e d i t , farm i n p u t s , and e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . The s t r a t e g y was t o l e a d t o economic development t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . Land r e f o r m was d e s i g n e d i n the s t r a t e g y t o c r e a t e an environment c o n d u c i v e t o u s i n g improved g r a i n t e c h n o l o g y i n E t h i o p i a . A l t h o u g h B e t r u (1975), Cohen (1974), and S e l s h i and Stommes (1980) have s t a t e d t h a t the Swedish team ( i n i t i a t o r s of the f i r s t p l a n n e d e x t e n s i o n program) u n d e r e s t i m a t e d the v a r i o u s f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g i n E t h i o p i a , the p l a n n i n g mechanism seemed t o be both s a t i s f a c t o r y and c r e a t i v e because the s i t u a t i o n d i a g n o s i s conducted w i t h f a r m e r s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d problems which the farmers saw as i m p o r t a n t . I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s i n peasant a g r i c u l t u r e , such as l a c k of farm c r e d i t , were i d e n t i f i e d . 85 M A R K E T S C R E H I T I N P U T S E X T E N S I O N E X P E C T E D L A N D T E N U R E R E F O R M E C O N O M I C D E V E L O P M E N T A G R A R I A N S E R V I C E S F i g u r e 10: B a s i c Economic Development S t r a t e g y U t i l i z e d by the CADU P r o j e c t i n C h i l a l o A w r a j a S o u r c e : Cohen, J.M. (1974. R u r a l Change i n E t h i o p i a : The C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t . Economic Development and Cultural Change, 22(4), 580-614. 86 The c o n t i n u o u s e v a l u a t i o n conducted by CADU e n a b l e d i t t o c o r r e c t u n a n t i c i p a t e d problems b e f o r e they became c h r o n i c . A good example i n t h i s case i s the d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n of c r e d i t t o the l o c a l r i c h e l i t e a f t e r the e v a l u a t i o n team d i s c o v e r e d e v i c t i o n of p e a s a n t s by l a n d l o r d s . The C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t a l s o stopped the c o l l e c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g of m i l k from p e a s a n t s a f t e r the e v a l u a t i o n team found n u t r i t i o n a l problems among peasant c h i l d r e n ( B e t r u , 1975). As a r e s u l t of the above two examples, CADU r e s t a t e d i t s o b j e c t i v e s i n more or l e s s s p e c i f i c terms. E v a l u a t i o n was a l s o used as a means t o recommend ways t o improve the a t t a i n m e n t of p r o j e c t g o a l s and t o upgrade s t a f f . The key f a c t o r i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of CADU's program was t h a t the p l a n n e r s drew upon the v e r y s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s of the e a r l i e r C o m i l l a P r o j e c t . The i n v o l v e m e n t of Swedish e x p e r t s a t the g r a s s r o o t s l e v e l of d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e has a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e f f e c t i v e use of e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s . T h e i r d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n the program reduced the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e paperwork which E t h i o p i a n n a t i o n a l s cannot bypass or reduce. In the case of CADU, the program p l a n n e r s were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n which a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e i r p r a c t i c e of e m p l o y i n g f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n t o m o n i t o r the p r o g r e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 87 A c c o r d i n g t o CADU's model of o p e r a t i o n (see F i g u r e 11), r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g components a r e o r g a n i z e d i n such a way t h a t they r e i n f o r c e e x t e n s i o n programs. F i g u r e 11 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s an " i d e a l " model f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . More than i n d i c a t i n g an e f f e c t i v e l i n k w i t h r e s e a r c h , i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s a s i n g l e l i n e of t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t toward the s t a t e d g o a l s . . • The feedback and e v a l u a t i o n i n a l l components a c t s as a c a t a l y s t i n g i v i n g more l i f e and power t o e x t e n s i o n as the h e a r t of CADU's model. The c e n t r a l p o i n t i n F i g u r e 11 i s the farm f a m i l i e s or t a r g e t groups t o which a l l o t h e r s e r v i c e s a r e d i r e c t e d . I n the p r o c e s s the u l t i m a t e e f f o r t s of r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g a r e c h a n n e l l e d t h r o u g h e x t e n s i o n . T h i s b e i n g the g e n e r a l model of o p e r a t i o n , the key elements i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of nonformal e d u c a t i o n were the e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , the model farmer, f a r m e r s committee, and d e m o n s t r a t i o n p l o t s . The nonformal e d u c a t i o n s t r a t e g y used by CADU c o o r d i n a t e s a l l i t s a c t i v i t y and s u p p o r t i n g s e r v i c e s on d e m o n s t r a t i o n p l o t s where the model fa r m e r , the e x t e n s i o n agent, and farmers committee i n t e r a c t . A c c o r d i n g t o B e t r u (1975), t h e a r e a e x t e n s i o n agent p r e p a r e s i n d i v i d u a l farm p l a n s f o r each farmer b e f o r e the farmer can a c q u i r e new i n p u t s on c r e d i t . Through t h i s p r o c e d u r e CADU i n s u r e s the f e a s i b i l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y of a p p l y i n g i n n o v a t i o n s a t the farm l e v e l . A c c o r d i n g t o Arnon (1981), Chambers (1974), Hunter (1970), and Wharton (1965), such a F i g u r e 11: C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t Model of O p e r a t i o n S o u r c e : B e t r u G e b r e g z i a b h e r . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . I n t e g r a t e d development in Ethiopia: an evaluation study of the C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Unit. B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development R e s e a r c h C e n t e r . A p u b l i c a t i o n of PASITAM. 89 p r a c t i c e t aken t o ensure i n n o v a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d by r e s e a r c h a r e promoted by e x t e n s i o n , i s c o n s i d e r e d v i t a l t o a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs. E x a m i n a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e documents i n d i c a t e t h a t the p r o c e d u r e s used t o d e v e l o p a program a t CADU have the f o l l o w i n g s t r e n g t h s : 1. The s t r a t e g y u t i l i z e d t o d e s i g n and implement e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n v o l v e s f a r mers i n program development. 2. I t s model of o p e r a t i o n has kept e x t e n s i o n , r e s e a r c h , and t r a i n i n g i n a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p r o p e r feedback. 3. The o b j e c t i v e s f o r g r a i n t e c h n o l o g y have been d e r i v e d w i t h i n p u t s from f a r m e r s , r e s e a r c h e r s , and from e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s . 4. An e s s e n t i a l element i n i t s e x t e n s i o n programming i s p r o v i d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s s t a f f . 5. S y s t e m a t i c , on-going e v a l u a t i o n was used t o d etermine what happened and t o improve f u t u r e programs. 6. A r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s u r vey of a g r o t e c h n i c a l and s o c i o e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s was used t o i d e n t i f y problems, r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s , and p r i o r i t i e s . 7. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f ( d i r e c t o r s ) were i n v o l v e d e q u a l l y w i t h f a r m e r s and e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s i n the development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of programs. 90 These q u a l i t i e s of CADU a r e congruent w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of program p l a n n i n g found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I t can t h e r e f o r e be c o n c l u d e d t h a t CADU's p l a n n i n g mechanism r e p r e s e n t s "good" p l a n n i n g . Program Planning in Minimum Package Programs The comprehensive development p r o j e c t s i n the c o u n t r y , m a i n l y CADU, have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i s t i n g u i s h them from n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , and l o c a l l e v e l minimum package programs. Common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of comprehensive p r o j e c t s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from minimum package programs a r e : 1. A l l have a d i r e c t l i n k w i t h e x t e r n a l donor a g e n c i e s and s u f f e r s m a l l p o l i c y - r e l a t e d problems c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r programs. 2. A l l have s e p a r a t e r e s e a r c h components co n n e c t e d t o e x t e n s i o n , making the r e s e a r c h - e x t e n s i o n - f a r m e r model p r a c t i c a l w i t h communication i n both d i r e c t i o n s . A l l i m p o r t a n t i n n o v a t i o n s were c o n c e i v e d and t e s t e d a t the C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t . As such, CADU i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y above any n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n the a r e a s of management c o n t r o l and f i n a n c e . 3. CADU has i t s own t r a i n i n g c e n t r e w i t h permanent f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f , and r e c u r r e n t budgets f o r t r a i n i n g programs. 4. A l l have a d e f i n e d g e o g r a p h i c a r e a f o r t h e i r e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . 91 The above f a c t o r s have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the programming mechanism of minimum package programs. The E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Implementation Department (EPID) i s a department w i t h i n MOA. I t i s the major government agency mandated t o a d m i n i s t e r minimum package programs a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . I t o p e r a t e s under l i m i t e d i n f l e x i b l e c e n t r a l p e r s o n n e l agency r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s (IBRD, 1973). I t has no f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s f i n a n c i a l and manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s or a l l o c a t i o n s . I t c o v e r s the e n t i r e c o u n t r y . I t has no r e s e a r c h component and i s not o f f i c i a l l y c o n n e c t e d t o the n a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h agency. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s no budget a l l o c a t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g of s t a f f and c l i e n t s . S t a t e d b r i e f l y , EPID was c r e a t e d as an e x t e n s i o n of CADU t o tak e the f i n d i n g s of CADU and i n t r o d u c e them t o E t h i o p i a n f a r m e r s a t l a r g e . As a r e s u l t of t h i s , EPID f o c u s e d more on how t o ext e n d the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s of CADU than on how to i n t e g r a t e the new minimum package programs i n t o e x i s t i n g MOA a c t i v i t y . Due c o n s i d e r a t i o n was not g i v e n t o the s e l e c t i o n of t a r g e t a r e a s , farmer s i t u a t i o n , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n . In f a c t , EPID s t a r t e d i t s program w i t h o u t an a n a l y s i s of i t s c l i e n t system and e v a l u a t i o n of ongoing a c t i v i t i e s ( S e l e s h i and Stommes, 1980). The main o b j e c t i v e of EPID was t o i n t r o d u c e improved f a r m i n g methods t o E t h i o p i a n farmers under the assumption t h a t " s c i e n c e knows the answers" and the problem was merely one of communicating t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o f a r m e r s . Census 92 d a t a and sample a r e a o b s e r v a t i o n appeared t o be the o n l y s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n c r i t i c a l t o c l i e n t a n a l y s i s t h a t EPID c o l l e c t e d (EPID, 1970). The f o c u s on i n n o v a t i o n t r a n s f e r , which c o n s i d e r e d o n l y t e c h n i c a l problems i n p r o d u c t i o n , seemed t o h i n d e r EPID's a b i l i t y t o a n t i c i p a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o r t a n t t o the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of minimum package programs (EPID, 1973). A l t h o u g h EPID had not conducted c l i e n t and c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s , h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y was g i v e n t o f o o d c r o p s i n i t s minimum package programs. L e l e (1975), S c h u l z (1976) and S e l e s h i (1978) c o n s i d e r e d the p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o food c r o p s by the minimum package program as a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n of the Swedish committment t o the E t h i o p i a n p e a s a n t , not t o the b u i l t - i n o r g a n i z e d approach t o program development. The o b j e c t i v e s of EPID, s t a t e d i n Chapter Two of t h i s s t u d y , seem t o be a breakdown of the n a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r s g o a l which i t e m i z e d g e n e r a l terms g i v i n g no c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t EPID wanted t o do many t h i n g s a t once w i t h a m b i t i o u s p r o j e c t i o n s of r e s u l t s (EPID, 1976a). For example, the t a r g e t s t a t e d f o r 1974-75 was t o i n c r e a s e the number of e x t e n s i o n a r e a s from 347 t o 410, however, EPID was a b l e o n l y t o i n c r e a s e the number t o 351 (EPID, 1976b). In a summary of w o r l d approaches t o e x t e n s i o n and r u r a l development (see F i g u r e 12), EPID i s i n d i c a t e d as u s i n g a mass method i n i t s minimum package programs. I t has no s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o d e l i v e r U n i t e d S t a t e s B r i t a i n E t h i o p i a ' China U.S.S.R. Ta n z a n i a 1 P r i m a r y Agency C o o p e r a t i v e NAAS MOA Communes C o l l e c t i v e Ujamaa movement e x t e n s i o n s e r - EPID farmin g v i ce 2 I s s u e and Focus Ru r a l and a g r i - R u r a l and a g r i - Rural and a g r i - Rural and a g r i - Rural and a g r i - Rural and a g r i -o f A t t e n t i o n c u l t u r a l d e v e l - c u l t u r a l d e v e l - c u l t u r a l d e v e l - c u l t u r a l d e v e l - c u l t u r a l d e v e l - c u l t u r a l d e v e l -opment opment opment opment- .opment opment 3 B a s i c I d e o l o g y P a r t I c i p a t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i ve S o c i a l i sm New Communism Communism S o c i a l i sm democracy demo.cracy Democratic Rev-o l u t i on 4 Adm. P r o c e s s e s / H i g h l y decen- H i g h l y decen- H i g h l y c e n t r a l - H i g h l y decen- H i g h l y decen- D e c e n t r a l i z e d O r g a n i z a t i o n t r a l i z e d t r a l i zed i n t e r - i z e d t r a l i z e d t r a 1 i zed a c t i ve 5 P a r t i c i p a t i n g Uni t s F e d e r a l , s t a t e s , c o u n t i e s , u n i -v e r s i t i es Prov i nc i a 1 , c o u n t i e s , i n s t i -t u t e s , town-s h i p s , smal 1 a g r i c . u n i t s Peasant a s s o c i a -t i o n s , coopera-t i ves Communes, pro-duct ion br1 -gades, teams S t a t e farms ( K o l k h o s z ) , co-o p e r a t i v e farms (Sovkhoz) Reg i o n a l , d i s -t r i c t s , Ujamaa v i11 ages 6 A g r i c u l t u r a l H i g h l y mechan- H i g h l y mechan- Labour i n t e n s i v e Labour i n t e n s i v e Mechanized com- Labour i n t e n s i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i z e d c o r p o r a t e i z e d l a r g e farms small farms communal farms munal farms small communal farms farms 7 Methods Educat i o n a l , Educat i ona1, P o l i t i c a l , edu- P o l i t i c a l , edu- P o l i t l e a l , edu- Pol 11 i c a l , edu-based on i n d i - b ased on i n d i - c a t i o n a l , based ca t 1onal, based c a t i o n a l , based ca t i o n a l , based v i d u a l / g r o u p v i d u a l / g r o u p on mass needs on mass needs on mass needs on communal needs needs needs F i g u r e 12: A Summary of World Approaches to E x t e n s i o n and Rural Development S o u r c e : Compiled by author from Arnon (1981), Axinn and Thorat (1972), Chambers (1974), L e l e (1975), and Maunder (1972) 94 s i t u a t i o n s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t i o n a d v i c e nor any i n d i c a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n d e l i v e r y systems or mechanisms (EPID, 1970, 1972, 1974a,b, 1978). T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by an EPID recommendation of a f a i r l y u n i f o r m f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n r a t e of 100kg diamonium phosphate per h e c t a r e f o r n e a r l y a l l c r o p s i n a l l a r e a s . D e m o n s t r a t i o n p l o t s seemed t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h r e s e a r c h t r i a l s where f i v e or s i x f a c t o r s were i n t r o d u c e d and compared t o a s i n g l e c o n t r o l p l o t ( S c h u l z , 1976). T h i s p r a c t i c e makes i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r farmers t o see the d i f f e r e n t response of a g i v e n i n p u t or management t e c h n i q u e . A study by Hunter et al. ( c i t e d i n S c h u l z , 1976) i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e m o n s t r a t i o n p l o t s and t h e i r management l a c k e d c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n and p l a n n i n g . S i n c e EPID appears not t o have examined the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the methods, media, and a c t i v i t e s f o r each o b j e c t i v e , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d e m o n s t r a t i o n p l o t s were not r e a l i z e d . The p l a n n i n g mechanism t h a t EPID used can be c a l l e d t h e "hands-on" method. Beyond the head o f f i c e , program p l a n n i n g was not a v a i l a b l e anywhere i n i t s s t r u c t u r e . In v i e w i n g i t s e l f as the c e n t r e of a g r i c u l t u r a l development i t d i d not conduct c l i e n t and c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s as p a r t of p l a n n i n g programs. As a r e s u l t , the c e n t r a l f o c u s of i t s programs appears t o be how t o d i s t r i b u t e a v a i l a b l e farm i n p u t s r a t h e r than a i d i n g farm f a m i l i e s t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l means. 95 The o b j e c t i v e s of EPID a r e not s h a r p l y f o c u s e d on e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and as a r e s u l t i t seems t o attempt i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of programs f o r which t h e r e i s no sound knowledge base. Above a l l i t seems t o s u f f e r from the p l a n n i n g p a t h o l o g i e s i d e n t i f i e d by K u l p (1970), and as a consequence cannot a p p l y s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n t o c r e a t e a p r o p e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l environment t o p l a n and implement e d u c a t i o n a l programs. In b r i e f , t h e r e a r e no v i s i b l e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t EPID p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s a r e congruent w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l program p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . C o o r d i n a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n A c c o r d i n g t o Webster's D i c t i o n a r y (1966), t h e v e r b t o " c o o r d i n a t e " means e i t h e r (1) t o p l a c e i n the same rank, or (2) t o b r i n g i n t o proper and r e l a t i v e o r d e r t o harmonize, t o a d j u s t . The second meaning appears t o a p p l y more c l o s e l y t o p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n s and b r i n g s w i t h i t i m p o r t a n t assumptions r e l a t i n g t o p r o p e r and r e l a t i v e harmony and a d j u s t m e n t . A n a l y t i c a l l y , c o o r d i n a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o the i n t e r a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and j o i n t p l a n n i n g which W e i t z (1971) i d e n t i f i e d as the c e n t r a l purpose of any p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In t h i s r e g a r d p l a n n i n g i s a f u t u r i s t i c a c t i v i t y p u rsued t o reduce r i s k and u n c e r t a i n t y . T h e r e f o r e , c o o r d i n a t i o n , as the c e n t r a l purpose of p l a n n i n g , can be d e v e l o p e d f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s , such as : 96 1. matching needs w i t h r e s o u r c e s , 2. c o n n e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and programs when d e s i r e d o utput depends on more than one f u n c t i o n , and 3. making e f f i c i e n t use of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o o r d i n a t i o n i s empty of c o n t e n t i n the absence of a s t i p u l a t i o n of the aim i t s e r v e s and i t r e q u i r e s a c l e a r p o l i c y t o d i r e c t t h i s aim. There i s a need f o r p o l i c y t o j u s t i f y i n t e r a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s , communication, and a c t i o n . In the absence of t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , the word c o o r d i n a t i o n d egenerates i n t o m isuse. A c c o r d i n g t o Mosher (1969), t h i s d e g e n e r a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of an o b s e s s i o n w i t h c o o r d i n a t i o n . For example, i n E t h i o p i a t h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h c o o r d i n a t i o n was found t o be i d e n t i c a l t o the a n t i d o t e f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c problems. As a r e s u l t , " i f i n t e g r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n a r e good then ... maximum c o o r d i n a t i o n ... [ i s ] best of a l l " became the n a t i o n a l s l o g a n (Chambers, 1974, p. 2 5 ) . T h i s approach, as i n d i c a t e d by the a c t i o n t aken t o r e o r g a n i z e MOA, g e n e r a t e d more problems i n E t h i o p i a than b e f o r e . T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t c o o r d i n a t i o n i s not a management t o o l or a p l a n n i n g c o ncept t h a t d e v e l o p s by a c c i d e n t . As a c e n t r a l purpose of p l a n n i n g , c o o r d i n a t i o n r e q u i r e s i n t e l l i g e n t , v i g o r o u s , and p e r s i s t e n t e f f o r t . Most a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k i n g papers i n d i c a t e t h a t f a i l u r e t o c o o r d i n a t e the d e l i v e r y of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o r u r a l c l i e n t e l e r e s u l t s i n waste and c o n f u s i o n , and a l o w e r i n g of s e r v i c e e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I n p r i n c i p l e , 97 e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l need t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h those of o t h e r a g e n c i e s , and t o share i n f o r m a t i o n about mutual c l i e n t e l e . To t h i s e f f e c t most p l a n n i n g models d e s c r i b e the r o l e of j o i n t program p l a n n i n g . In the case of E t h i o p i a , a v a i l a b l e documentation i n d i c a t e d t h a t n e i t h e r e x t e n s i o n nor r e s e a r c h programs were c o o r d i n a t e d (Amare, 1978; B e t r u , 1975; H a i l u , 1979; Heimple, 1973; IBRD, 1973; L e l e , 1975; S c h u l z , 1976; S e l e s h i , 1978; Seyoum, 1971; Stommes and S e l e s h i , 1979, 1980). For example, the I n s t i t u t e of A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h (IAR) (1979) emphasized r e s e a r c h i n t o t r i t i c a l e — a g r a i n E t h i o p i a n s had never seen, never a t e , and which was of u n c e r t a i n economic v a l u e t o the c o u n t r y — w h i l e t e f f , the most i m p o r t a n t g r a i n i n the c o u n t r y , was n e g l e c t e d . As a r e s u l t , o n l y two s t u d i e s on t e f f a r e a v a i l a b l e (Melak H a i l e , 1966; Wondimagegnehu, 1980), whereas r e p o r t s on the b r e e d i n g and b a k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t r i t i c a l e a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . None of the comprehensive p r o j e c t s f e l t i t was i m p o r t a n t t o i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n the c o u n t r y ( B e t r u , 1975). A l o o k a t any agency i n E t h i o p i a i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o o r d i n a t i o n of work i s not o n l y weak i n p l a n n i n g terms but a l s o i n day-to-day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . For example, d e s p i t e s c a r c e t r a n s p o r t and f u e l , one can o b s e r ve f i v e t o e i g h t v e h i c l e s b e i n g d i s p a t c h e d from one m i n i s t r y t o the same r e g i o n c a r r y i n g d i f f e r e n t e x p e r t s t o a d d r e s s the same c l i e n t . T h i s u n c o o r d i n a t e d use of v e h i c l e s d r a i n s the f u e l 98 budget and l e a v e s the d e s i r e d a c t i v i t y a t peak t i m e s w i t h o u t ample f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . The most i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as e d u c a t i o n a l mass media, farmers t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s , peasant a s s o c i a t i o n s , a u d i o v i s u a l c e n t r e s , and p r i n t i n g machines, ar e not used t o improve e x t e n s i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( K e f y a l e w , 1981 ) . In g e n e r a l , the c o o r d i n a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and the s i m p l e exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n a r e not w e l l d e v e l o p e d . N e i t h e r the c e n t r e nor the p e r i p h e r y a r e c o o r d i n a t e d nor a r e they meant t o be c o o r d i n a t e d (Le.le, 1975). The main s h o r t c o m i n g of c o o r d i n a t i o n seems t o be the l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o i t as an i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs i n E t h i o p i a a r e a s s o c i a t e d m a i n l y w i t h an i n f o r m a t i o n - d e l i v e r y model of p u b l i c s e c t o r a s s i s t a n c e f o r f a r m e r s . The Minimum Package Program seems t o have low e d u c a t i o n a l i n p u t s which would a s s i s t f a r m ers i n a c q u i r i n g the n e c e s s a r y knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s . T h i s i s because the g o a l appears t o be the a d d i t i o n of the maximum f e a s i b l e number of f a r m e r s t o the Minimum Package Program's i n f o r m a t i o n network where recommendations o r i g i n a t e from the EPID head o f f i c e . The f l o w of a c c u r a t e and t i m e l y i n f o r m a t i o n t o where i t i s needed i s the e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r than th e r u l e i n the s t r o n g l y h i e r a r c h i a l s t r u c t u r e of the MOA. D e s p i t e the f a s h i o n a b l e communication t h e o r y upon which EPID based i t s 99 Minimum Package Program, t h e r e i s no ha r d e v i d e n c e of what happens t o e x t e n s i o n messages as they move downwards from EPID head o f f i c e t o MPP a r e a s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , two main problems seem t o undermine the e f f i c i e n c y of EPID n a t i o n a l recommendations and the one h e c t a r e d e m o n s t r a t i o n p l o t s i n a l l a r e a s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r r e l e v a n c e . F i r s t , l a c k of on-farm t e s t i n g and v e r i f i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t recommendations o f t e n l a c k f e a s i b i l i t y or c o m p a t i b i l i t y and may not c o n f e r the promised b e n e f i t s . Second, d i v e r s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s c o u p l e d w i t h meager r e s o u r c e s and i n s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g of e x t e n s i o n agents makes d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g which recommendations t o communicate f o r a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n v e r y d i f f i c u l t . The E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t and Implementation Department's Minimum Package Program l a c k s sound p r o a c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g ( S c h u l z , 1976; S t a h l , 1973). As a r e s u l t , e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s do not have a c l e a r p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g how t o c o o r d i n a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n programs w i t h o t h e r v i l l a g e l e v e l f u n c t i o n s , how t o make f i e l d a g e n ts a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e i r c l i e n t s , what r a t i o of e x t e n s i o n a gents t o farm f a m i l i e s t o aim f o r , what r e s o u r c e s t o g i v e each agen t , and how t o improve the program. T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n e x t e n s i o n a gents p e r f o r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n a manner c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t from the s t a t e d c o r r e c t p r o c e d u r e . For example, E l l i s (1973) r e p o r t e d the d e v i a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n agent a c t i v i t y i n the Ada a r e a . 100 E l l i s o b s e r v e d t h a t a gents d i d not always v i s i t c r e d i t a p p l i c a n t s or have any i d e a of the e x t e n t of the a p p l i c a n t ' s h o l d i n g s b e f o r e they r e g i s t e r e d the farmer as e l i g i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e x t e n s i o n c r e d i t program. As a p u b l i c s e c t o r i n v e s t m e n t , the e x t e n s i o n program of EPID l o s t i t s e x t e n s i o n m i s s i o n and minimum package approach ( S c h u l z , 1976, p. 30) which r e s u l t e d i n t h e e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s t o a l l r e g i o n s of the c o u n t r y r e g a r d l e s s of need, a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s , or o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s e s e r v i c e s t o make a d i f f e r e n c e . Such a s t r a t e g y of s p r e a d i n g e x t e n s i o n r e s o u r c e s t h i n l y over the e n t i r e c o u n t r y seems t o c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n w h erein e v e r y r e g i o n i s p o o r l y s e r v e d by s t r u c t u r e s and programs which do not f i t any r e g i o n ' s needs p r e c i s e l y . The above c o n t e n t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t n e i t h e r the program development mechanism nor program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of EPID i s c o o r d i n a t e d and congruent w i t h program p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . M ajor I s s u e s and Problems A c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n i n d i c a t e d some p e r p l e x i n g problems i n a l l programs. A l t h o u g h f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t s performed by Benor and H a r r i s o n (1977), Chambers (1974), and R o l i n g (1982) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the g e n e r a l problems w i t h e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n were o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e f e c t s and o p e r a t i o n a l weaknesses, t h i s r e s e a r c h e r l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g as a d d i t i o n a l major i s s u e s i n e x t e n s i o n programs i n E t h i o p i a : 101 Most programs a r e d e f i c i e n t when i t comes t o s p e c i f y i n g the g o a l s b e i n g pursued and the a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o meet the s e o b j e c t i v e s . The g e n e r a l terms used i n w r i t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s , such as " r a i s i n g s t a n d a r d s " , " e r a d i c a t i n g i l l i t e r a c y " , and " p r o v i d i n g p o l y t e c h n i c e d u c a t i o n " ( A f r i c a R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , 1983, p. 6192), make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o d e s i g n an e f f e c t i v e system of e v a l u a t i o n . Work t a r g e t s a r e d e c i d e d a t a h i g h l e v e l , u s u a l l y i n A d d i s Ababa, w i t h no l o c a l s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S e t t i n g t a r g e t s i n t h i s way f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t s i n programs t h a t s u f f e r from inadequate r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e c u r r e n t c o s t s and p e r s o n n e l t i m e . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e f e c t s and o p e r a t i o n a l weaknesses which m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n : a. a l a c k of s u p e r v i s i o n and communication; b. e v a l u a t i o n of p e r s o n n e l work performance based on numbers of f e r t i l i z e r s a c k s s o l d and v i s i t s made r a t h e r than on a c t u a l work e f f o r t s or impact; c. a l a c k of p r o p e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g t o c o o r d i n a t e and c o n t r o l the program development p r o c e s s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The programming p r o c e d u r e s of the system do not a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t the r e a l need f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l needs i n 102 each r e g i o n . Most p l a n documents seem t o be the r e s u l t of p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s , r a t h e r than a response t o p r i o r i t y needs, because they do not p r o v i d e an a n a l y s i s of f a r m e r s ' c i r c u m s t a n c e s and n e c e s s a r y a c t i o n s s p e c i f i c t o an a r e a . 5. P r o j e c t p l a n documents f o c u s m a i n l y on equipment and l o g i s t i c s u p port and n e g l e c t d e f i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , s p e c i f y i n g d u t i e s , a s s i g n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n . 6. The v i r t u a l absence of o r i e n t a t i o n and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs f o r new employees and e x i s t i n g s t a f f makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o u n d e r s t a n d the program and how t o implement a g i v e n p l a n . Summary T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d the program p l a n n i n g mechanisms used by the E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e from 1952 t o 1980. Through c h r o n o l o g i c a l document e x a m i n a t i o n i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t no w e l l d e f i n e d program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was i n p l a c e b e f o r e 1967. A program d e v e l o p e d by CADU was a n a l y z e d u s i n g S o r k ' s b a s i c p l a n n i n g model as a frame of r e f e r e n c e . The C h i l a l o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development U n i t (CADU) program development mechanism s a t i s f i e d the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a sound p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i l e the program development mechanism used by EPID was shown t o d e v i a t e from b a s i c p l a n n i n g models. 1 03 T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o c l a r i f i e d the concept of c o o r d i n a t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o program p l a n n i n g . C o o r d i n a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d i n such a way t h a t i t s development or i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e d p l a n n i n g r a t h e r than e x p e c t i n g p l a n n i n g t o come from c o o r d i n a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r found no i n d i c a t i o n s of m e a n i n g f u l c o o r d i n a t i o n i n comprehensive p r o j e c t s or i n minimum package programs. In a d d i t i o n t o i d e n t i f y i n g major i s s u e s and problems, the c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e b a s i c problems of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n were a l a c k of a s y s t e m a t i c programming mechanism. The next c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y based on a s y s t e m a t i c programming model and a c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t t o e l i m i n a t e p o v e r t y t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . 1 04 CHAPTER FIVE A PROPOSED ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r p l a n n i n g e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of the c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s the need f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y and s t a t e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s of the a l t e r n a t i v e . The l a s t s e c t i o n w i l l d i s c u s s a n a l y s i s of p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n , and the development of t r a i n i n g programs. The Need for an Alternative Strategy In a s t r i c t t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s and from an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t of view the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n E t h i o p i a , e x c l u d i n g the CADU program, i s e r r o n e o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o as e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . The main s h o r t comings a r e : 1. Lack of c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s , d e f i n e d t a r g e t group, t e s t e d p r o d u c t or message, e f f e c t i v e communication and organ i z a t i o n , 2. Lack of a r o l e d e f i n i t i o n f o r e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , 3. Lack of c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 4. Lack of stea d y f l o w of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , 5. Lack of r e g u l a r and f r e q u e n t i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , and 6. Lack of c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t . 105 In a d d i t i o n t o the above sh o r t c o m i n g s most programs a r e imposed from above and do not take i n t o account the needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a r m e r s . Above a l l , the t o p downward approach has l i t t l e meaning and v a l i d i t y t o l e a r n e r s . I t appears t o be a system d e s i g n e d t o t e l l the farmers of improved f a r m i n g t e c h n i q u e s which a r e u n t e s t e d and u n c o n f i r m e d f o r t h e i r p r o f i t a b i l i t y a t the peasant farm l e v e l . Morss (1976) c o n s i d e r s the t h r e e key d e t e r m i n a n t s of p r o j e c t s u c c e s s t o be: 1. an i n c r e a s e i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge of s m a l l f a r m e r s , 2. an i n c r e a s e i n the s e l f - h e l p c a p a b i l i t y of s m a l l f a r m e r s , and 3. a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the b e n e f i t s of the e x t e n s i o n program w i l l be s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s e i n farm income i n the a r e a s where ADP, EPID, and WADU o p e r a t e , the above d e t e r m i n a n t s have not been a c h i e v e d . Simpson (1976) f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t s e t t l e m e n t schemes i n E t h i o p i a d i d not a c h i e v e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s of c r e a t i n g s t a b l e new farm u n i t s and d i d not c o n t r i b u t e t o h e a l t h y r e g i o n a l development. As a r e s u l t , c u r r e n t approaches t o e x t e n s i o n have l i t t l e p o t e n t i a l f o r s u b s t a n t i a l l y i m p r o v i n g a g r i c u l t u r e . For the same reason i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n E t h i o p i a does not conform t o the d e f i n i t i o n of e x t e n s i o n p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter One of t h i s s t u d y . 106 T h i s n o n c o n f o r m i t y of e x t e n s i o n programs i n E t h i o p i a made a s e a r c h f o r a workable a l t e r n a t i v e i m p e r a t i v e . In t h i s r e g a r d the works of A x i n n and Thorat (1972), Chambers (1974), and K o r t e n (1980) and R o l i n g (1982) p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l f o r d e s i g n i n g a new a l t e r n a t i v e f o r e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g . The L e a r n i n g P r o c e s s Approach of K o r t e n (1980) and the Programming and Implementation Management (PIM) System of Chambers (1974) have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the d e s i g n of an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r a c o u n t r y l i k e E t h i o p i a . What makes Chambers PIM and K o r t e n s l e a r n i n g approach r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h e i r s p e c i a l f o c u s on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . Through m o n i t o r i n g what i s and i s not happening and c o n t i n o u s e v a l u a t i o n of why e f f e c t s were or were not a c h i e v e d , the two systems combined c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system t o program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . As a r e s u l t the systems seem t o have produced a sound, v i a b l e program t h a t has a l t e r e d the l i f e of r u r a l farmers i n Kenya (Chambers, 1974), i n I n d i a , S r i Lanka, T h a i l a n d and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Bangladesh ( K o r t e n , 1980), a c o u n t r y w i t h problems s i m i l a r t o E t h i o p i a ' s . Bangladesh, a c o u n t r y prone t o drought and famine, through the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s approach • s t a r t i n g w i t h a s i m p l e r e l i e f approach ("food f o r work") and w e l l - d e s i g n e d development e d u c a t i o n f o r her male and female p o p u l a t i o n , t o d a y , a c h i e v e d the a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d the problems of 107 food p r o d u c t i o n . K o r t e n (1980) a t t r i b u t e s the s u c c e s s i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s t o : a h i g h degree of f i t between program d e s i g n , b e n e f i c i a r y needs, and the c a p a c i t i e s of the a s s i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n (p. 490). Bangladesh and I n d i a took a s l o w e r and h a r d e r c o u r s e of t e a c h i n g t h e i r p o v e r t y and famine s t r i c k e n p e o p l e how t o grow food r a t h e r than d e a l i n g w i t h the problem through the f a s t e r and e a s i e r d i s t r i b u t i o n of f o o d . W h i l e the s u c c e s s e s d e s c r i b e d by Chambers and K o r t e n a t t e s t t o the r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d i m p r o v i n g the program p l a n n i n g mechanism, the s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d i n Taiwan a g r i c u l t u r e opens a new venue i n the f i e l d of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Taiwanese system of d e l i v e r y of s c i e n t i f i c farm i n f o r m a t i o n ( L i o n b e r g e r and Chang, 1981) proved the p o s s i b i l i t y of d e v e l o p i n g a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h a minimum of h i g h l y educated p e o p l e . What can be i n f e r r e d from the Taiwanese e x p e r i e n c e i s t h a t i t i s the s h o r t a g e of o f f i c i a l s who know how t o make e f f e c t i v e use of a v a i l a b l e human r e s o u r c e s and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , not the c h r o n i c need of t r a i n e d manpower, which seems t o be the major problem of development. T h i s i n f e r e n c e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n the case of E t h i o p i a . A c c o r d i n g t o A x i n n and Thorat ( 1 9 7 2 ) , e x t e n s i o n agents i n Taiwan a r e not s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s . In 1972 Taiwan had s i x e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a t i o n s from which t h e s e agents r e c e i v e d t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n . A v e r y i m p o r t a n t means of communication f o r the system i s the farm study group which meets i n the 108 e v e n i n g s once ev e r y two weeks t o exchange i n f o r m a t i o n on farm e x p e r i e n c e and on program development. In summary, the s u c c e s s f u l i n g r e d i e n t s i d e n t i f i e d by L i o n b e r g e r and Chang (1981) a r e n o t h i n g more than the r e s u l t o f : 1. a n a l y s i s of p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system, 2. c o o r d i n a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g w i t h a t e n e t of "waste not any s c a r c e r e s o u r c e " , and 3. p r o p e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n f o r a d u l t f a r m e r s . U s i n g t h e s e d i f f e r e n t s u c c e s s i n g r e d i e n t s and an i n n o v a t i v e approach i n program p l a n n i n g , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r w i l l now d e s c r i b e a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , t h a t can be a p p l i e d i n the E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e t o h e l p make i t a dynamic e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e . The a l t e r n a t i v e w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h b a s i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n and f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . Assumptions of the A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g y To c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d the a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y , c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s i n E t h i o p i a need t o be p i n p o i n t e d . To t h i s e f f e c t the f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s a r e made. 1. The a l t e r n a t i v e i s not t o c r e a t e a super M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e (MOA) but t o improve the e x i s t i n g system, i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and i t s s t a f f u t i l i z a t i o n . 2. In l i n e w i t h the d a t a a v a i l a b l e , ( A f r i c a G u i d e , 1983) and o b s e r v a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l 109 t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n t p e r s o n n e l , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e assumes the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a t r a i n e d human r e s o u r c e base ( l o c a l and f o r e i g n ) t o i g n i t e the r e q u i r e d i n i t i a l development p r o c e s s . 3. S i n c e the problems i n peasant a g r i c u l t u r e were l e f t f o r so l o n g u n t a c k l e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , t he a l t e r n a t i v e c o n s i d e r s p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t not o n l y f o r reasons of economy, but a l s o t o improve the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t o peasant f a r m e r s . 4. To ensure the c l o s e s t c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l over p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l the MOA i s d e s i g n a t e d as the f o c u s f o r t h i s major work. 5. Improvement and change i n E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r e i s p o s s i b l e o n l y t h r o u g h t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r s and f a r m e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a w e l l o r g a n i z e d t r a i n i n g program i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e x c e l l e n t means t o i d e n t i f y problems and c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s . The improvement approach which t h i s study took as i m p o r t a n t might be a paradigm s h i f t from the ' t e l l i n g ' approach of e x t e n s i o n t o the ' l e a r n i n g ' approach i n the E t h i o p i a n c o n t e x t . T h e r e f o r e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e f i n e c e r t a i n p o i n t s t o make c l e a r the frame of r e f e r e n c e . The E t h i o p i a n government i s the s o l e employer of t r a i n e d human r e s o u r c e s i n the c o u n t r y . T h e r e f o r e how the government o r g a n i z e s i t s o p e r a t i o n s and the e f f i c i e n c y and 1 10 e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h which i t c a r r i e s them out w i l l l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e the s u c c e s s of the c o u n t r y ' s development program. That i s t o say the n a t u r e of government p o l i c y s t a tements and s t r a t e g i e s h o l d s the key t o p r o g r e s s f o r the c o u n t r y . Any a l t e r n a t i v e i s doomed t o f a i l u r e i f i t i s not f u l l y s u p p o r t e d by p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s . F u l l s u p port by the p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r the proposed s t r a t e g y f o r p l a n n i n g e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a would i n v o l v e : 1. A d o p t i o n of a p o l i c y statement on the g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s t h a t p l a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s on p e o p l e and a r r a n g e f o r r i g o r o u s enforcement of t h e s e o b l i g a t i o n s . 2. A d o p t i o n of a p o l i c y which i s b r o a d l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , which e n t e r t a i n s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the study by IBRD (1973), and which c r e a t e s c o n d i t i o n s t o improve o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n . 3. A d o p t i o n of a p o l i c y t h a t i s based on a c t u a l farm c o n d i t i o n s . 4. A d o p t i o n of a p o l i c y t h a t h e l p s e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s t o t h i n k t h r o u g h p o l i c i e s , meaning, c o n t e n t and i n t e n d e d use t o reduce m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what i s p l a n n e d and implemented, and which s e r v e s as a r e f e r e n c e . T h i s f u l l s u p p ort by the a u t h o r i t i e s i m p l i e s c o n t r o l , d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the government a p p a r a t u s d e d i c a t e d t o r u r a l development, p a r t i c u l a r l y 111 e d u c a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r e , s h o u l d be t r e a t e d as a ma t t e r of h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y by the government. I t i s o n l y i f these p o s i t i o n s a r e adopted by the government t h a t the people can be summoned t o m o b i l i z e the bes t of t h e i r e n e r g i e s and r e s o u r c e s f o r development. A c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p o l i c y framework c o o r d i n a t e d and c h a n n e l l e d a l o n g a g i v e n d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n e n s u r e s the f u l f i l m e n t of t a r g e t s . The e x p e c t e d p o l i c y w i l l a c h i e v e the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d r e q u i r e m e n t s p r o v i d e d the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e answered. The fundamental q u e s t i o n s a r e : 1. What i s the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n ? 2. How do farmers p e r c e i v e p o v e r t y ? 3. What a r e the dynamics of r u r a l problems? 4. What a r e the r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s ? 5. What a r e the t e c h n i c a l f a c t o r s ? 6. How can the c h a i n of command and c o o r d i n a t i o n be s i m p l i f i e d ? The answers t o these fundamental q u e s t i o n s w i l l form a benchmark from which t o s t a r t and s u b s e q u e n t l y t o e v a l u a t e l a t e r achievement. C o n d u c t i n g t h e a n a l y s i s of p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system w i l l h e l p t o p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t f a c t s which w i l l answer the above q u e s t i o n s . A n a l y s i s of P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t and C l i e n t System The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of e x t e n s i o n p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system i s a b a s i c s t e p i n program development. That i s because t h e more a c c u r a t e the 1 1 2 i n f o r m a t i o n about c o n t e x t and c l i e n t , the more l i k e l y i t i s t h a t the c r i t i c a l problems w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d and sound c o n c l u s i o n s reached r e g a r d i n g o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s i s t r u e because " f a c t s h e l p t o i d e n t i f y needs by p o i n t i n g t o gaps between what i s and what s h o u l d be" (Leagans, 1964, p. 9 2 ) . To a v o i d w a s t i n g time c o l l e c t i n g masses of d a t a t h a t d e f y u s e f u l a n a l y s i s , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e approach i n v o l v e s the c o n t i n u o u s e x a m i n a t i o n of what i s and what s h o u l d be by s t a r t i n g w i t h what i s a v a i l a b l e and p o s s i b l e . T h i s approach i s s c i e n t i f i c and p r a c t i c a l i n the case of E t h i o p i a f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. The v a r i o u s s t u d i e s by Amare (1978), A s s e f a and E s h e t u (1969), B l a u g (1974), the U.S. Embassy study c i t e d by Brown (1984), FAO (1970), G i l l (1984), G i n z b e r g and Smith (1967), Heimpel (1973), and IBRD (1973) have a l r e a d y d e l i n e a t e d the problem t o a g r i c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n w i t h a thorough e x p l a n a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n of peasant f a r m i n g . 2. The l e a r n i n g needs of s m a l l s u b s i s t e n c e farm f a m i l i e s i s i d e n t i f i e d a l s o by Coombs (1974) t o be the a p p l i c a t i o n of new i n p u t s and improved farm p r a c t i c e . T h e r e f o r e the r e q u i r e d s i t u a t i o n a n a l y s i s i s the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team study of where the c r i t i c a l p roblem r e s i d e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r importance i s a c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of l i m i t a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s i n e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and o b j e c t i v e s . C o n d i t i o n s of farmers a r e 1 13 a l s o of major i m p o r t a n c e . The l i s t of q u e s t i o n s s t a t e d i n T a b l e 8 may p r o v i d e the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team w i t h b a s i c d a t a i m p o r t a n t t o d e l i n e a t e the problem. E x p e r i e n c e demonstrates t h a t t h e r e i s no sh o r t a g e of v e r y w i l l i n g " p o t e n t i a l f a r m e r s " who w i l l summon remarkable energy f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development i f they p e r c e i v e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r income. Pro p e r e x p l o i t a t i o n of such p o t e n t i a l f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes r e q u i r e s e v a l u a t i o n of how f a r m e r s p e r c e i v e p o v e r t y i n terms of knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e . P a r a l l e l t o t h i s a n a l y s i s t h e r e i s a l s o a re q u i r e m e n t t o e v a l u a t e the a b i l i t y of the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o e f f e c t i v e l y e x p l o i t such a p o t e n t i a l . In t h i s c o n t e x t the a l t e r n a t i v e reduces the problem of c o n t e x t and c l i e n t , a n a l y s i s t o the a n a l y s i s of p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . T h i s r e d u c t i o n of the problem t o such a l e v e l i s due t o : 1. The r e a l l y tough p a r t of economic development i n E t h i o p i a i s not f a b r i c a t i n g improved t e c h n i q u e s ( e . g . , CADU produced a t e s t e d t e c h n o l o g y w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s but the improved c r o p v a r i e t y i s s t i l l l i m i t e d i n i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n ) , but r a t h e r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of human b e h a v i o r under new r u l e s t h a t e n a b l e s p e o p l e t o h e l p each o t h e r i n the s p r e a d i n g and use of e f f e c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y (Mosher, 1971). 2. Resources and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e do not come t o where they a r e s e r i o u s l y needed u n l e s s o r g a n i z e d and c o o r d i n a t e d t o s e r v e a purpose a t a g i v e n p l a c e i n a 1 1 4 Ta b l e 8: L i s t of Q u e s t i o n s f o r A n a l y s i s of P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t and C l i e n t System P a r t i c i p a n t / P r o g r a m C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Q u e s t i o n s • What a r e the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a r n e r s ( s e x , age, number)? • What i s the e d u c a t i o n a l background of l e a r n e r s ? • What s k i l l s do they have? • What i s the p r i m a r y o c c u p a t i o n of l e a r n e r s ? • What a r e the h e a l t h and n u t r i t i o n s t a n d a r d s ? • What a r e the o b j e c t i v e s of the program? • What type of agency manages the program? • What a c t i v i t i e s a r e pl a n n e d i n the program? • What s t r a t e g i e s a r e o u t l i n e d f o r the d e l i v e r y of the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (methods, t e c h n i q u e s ) ? • Who i s r e p o n s i b l e f o r managing the program? • How do p l a n n e r s communicate w i t h the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n ? • Who a r e the members of the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n ? • How i s the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n segmented? • How a r e the community needs a s s e s s e d ? • What a r e the e d u c a t i o n a l and s k i l l l e v e l s of the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n ? • Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r each t a s k ? • Does the program have a time s c h e d u l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ? •What about f l e x i b i l i t y ? What i f something goes wrong? c e r t a i n p e r i o d of t i m e . T h e r e f o r e t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e j u s t i f i e s the c o o r d i n a t e d m o b i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s w i t h p r o p e r m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o a i d i n g m o b i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , c o n d u c t i n g such a p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s would a l s o answer S o r k ' s q u e s t i o n of "How complete i s the d i s c u s s i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o the p l a n n i n g e f f o r t ? " The answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l h e l p t o p i n p o i n t c o n s t r a i n t s and d e f i n e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t where p e o p l e w i l l work e f f e c t i v e l y . 115 The a l t e r n a t i v e s t r e s s e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - of problems and e v a l u a t i o n as a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . In the a l t e r n a t i v e t h e n , no t a s k i s i s o l a t e d from a l l the o t h e r s . Each program a c t i v i t y i s r e l a t e d t o the o t h e r s by the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g d i s c u s s e d below. Administrative Planning and Coordination E x t e n s i o n programs have a number of f e a t u r e s which must be matched w i t h the c a p a c i t i e s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n i f e f f e c t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t o be a c h i e v e d . The f i r s t i s t e c h n i c a l . The second a t t r i b u t e i s the c o m p l e x i t y of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The t h i r d a t t r i b u t e i s the magnitude of r e s o u r c e s needed f o r the program. There a r e f u r t h e r a t t r i b u t e s of s p e c i f i c e x t e n s i o n programs which draw upon a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . The above e x t e n s i o n f e a t u r e s c o v e r the most i m p o r t a n t ones and a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o i l l u s t r a t e the k i n d of a n a l y s e s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d i n a s s e s s i n g and d e s i g n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s . In s h o r t , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g concept t o d e v e l o p a program or implement i t . Most programs i n E t h i o p i a l a c k p r o p e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . As a r e s u l t t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y approaches a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n from a r e s o u r c e procurement and a l l o c a t i o n p o i n t of v i e w . The approach a d v o c a t e d , more than f o c u s i n g on the major problems 1 16 s t u d i e d , h e l p s t o make e f f i c i e n t use of p o o r l y u t i l i z e d r e s o u r c e s i n the c o u n t r y . The a n t i c i p a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n s t a r t s w i t h a new s e t - u p of MOA. The MOA i s not a u n i v e r s i t y . I t s t a s k s do not p a r a l l e l academic d i s c i p l i n a r y l i n e s . T h e r e f o r e d e v e l o p i n g a new s e t - u p of MOA i n l i n e w i t h Mosher's (1971) study i s r e q u i r e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Mosher's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t - u p t o d e v e l o p modern a g r i c u l t u r e , d i v i s i o n of r e s e a r c h , t r a i n i n g and e x t e n s i o n form the main s t r u c t u r e of the MOA. T h i s k i n d of s e t - u p h e l p s d e v e l o p f l e x i b l e use of r e s o u r c e s . A l s o , i t e n a b l e s t h e MOA t o c o n t r o l . , e v a l u a t e and improve the q u a l i t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y . O r g a n i z i n g the MOA as s u g g ested above a l s o s o l v e s an i m p o r t a n t problem of d i f f e r e n t departments w i t h i n MOA. Many r u r a l e d u c a t i o n problems r e q u i r e l a r g e s c a l e a c t i o n , e x t e n s i v e involvement w i t h f a r m e r s , l o n g term f o l l o w up and u n a n t i c i p a t e d s i d e e f f e c t s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y not f e a s i b l e and t h e o r e t i c a l l y not sound t o a t t a c k t h e s e problems o t h e r than on a w e l l c o o o r d i n a t e d m u l t i o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s c a l e . The s c a l e of the problem exceeds the scope and j u r i s d i c t i o n of any s i n g l e m i n i s t r y or department. T h i s r e q u i r e s a p o l i c y statement and agreement t o r e d e f i n e the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of MOA i n such a way t h a t e v e r y t h i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , e d u c a t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the m o b i l i t y and t r a n s f e r of t r a i n e d a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , i s c o o r d i n a t e d 1 1 7 and m o n i t o r e d i n one c e n t r a l o f f i c e . T h i s c e n t r a l o f f i c e s h o u l d s e r v e as a c l e a r i n g house f o r b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n and n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l . The e x i s t i n g departments w i t h i n MOA s h o u l d be r e o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s r e g r o u p i n g i s t o m i n i m i z e o b s t a c l e s of c o o r d i n a t i o n i n boundary d e f i n i t i o n , d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t and waste of r e s o u r c e s and t o reduce the h i g h demand t h a t each s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p u t s on s c a r c e t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l . T h i s r e q u i r e s a c l o s e l o o k a t what G r i f f i t h (1980) has s a i d about, c o o r d i n a t i o n . C o o r d i n a t i o n emerges by p l a n n i n g , programming and e v a l u a t i o n which i s based upon a b i n d i n g agreement t o use r e s o u r c e s and a u t h o r i t y i n c l u d i n g t o p a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f f i c a l l y d e l e g a t e d t o m o n i t o r the day-to-day p r o g r e s s of c o o p e r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n . To reduce c o n f u s i o n , common d u r i n g t r a n s i t i o n and r e g r o u p i n g of i n s t i t u t i o n s , Haygood ( c i t e d i n F i s h e r , 1974) had the move toward c o o r d i n a t i o n occur i n t h r e e s t a g e s . F i r s t , the c e n t r a l c l e a r i n g house f o r i n f o r m a t i o n encourages or i n i t i a t e s r o u t i n e exchanges of i n f o r m a t i o n . Second, a c o o r d i n a t i o n commitment of the MOA and the o t h e r agency i s agreed upon c o v e r i n g g o a l s , j o i n t p l a n n i n g and s c h e d u l i n g . T h i r d , f o r m a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n , which r e q u i r e s l e g a l commitment, b r i n g s a l l o t h e r a g e n c i e s under one m i n i s t r y . T h i s f o r m a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n r e q u i r e s p r o p e r p r e p a r a t i o n of l o c a l and r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s and p e r s o n n e l . 118 I n i t i a t i o n of an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g t o a t t a c k the fundamental e d u c a t i o n a l problem on a s u s t a i n e d b a s i s r e q u i r e s i n s t i t u t i o n s , f a c i l i t i e s , and s e r v i c e s t h a t h e l p farmers adopt improved p r a c t i c e s . To e s t a b l i s h t h e s e and t o use them e f f e c t i v e l y r e q u i r e s : 1. D e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s development means p o o l i n g l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s under one o r g a n i z a t i o n and management; 2. F o r m a l i z i n g an o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d agreement which a u t h o r i z e s the MOA farm i n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e t o share the f a c i l i t y and a i r time of the e d u c a t i o n a l mass media w i t h the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ; 3. P o o l i n g e x p e r t s t o man the t r a i n i n g d i v i s i o n of MOA so t h a t the farm i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t i s l i n k e d t o the r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g i t t o produce l o c a l t e a c h i n g a i d s and manuals t h a t can be used i n d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s ; and 4. R e o r g a n i z i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h c e n t r e a t both the n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s so t h a t the need f o r s t a f f i n g and c o n d u c t i n g of a d a p t i v e r e s e a r c h such as r e g i o n a l based f i e l d t r i a l s i s a d d r e s s e d . A team approach t o a d a p t i v e r e s e a r c h i s p r e f e r a b l e t o the c u r r e n t s i n g l e agronomist approach. The g o a l i n a d a p t i v e r e s e a r c h i s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s not p e r f e c t i o n . For t h i s purpose the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of an a d a p t i v e r e s e a r c h team i s t o t e s t recommendations under 1 19 farm c o n d i t i o n s and t o f o r m u l a t e r e g i o n s p e c i f i c recommendations. The r e g i o n a l team passes the recommendations t o a c e n t r a l r e s e a r c h team which endorses the recommendations t o the farm i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e . T h i s o f f i c e d i r e c t l y communicates them t o e x t e n s i o n agents or b r o a d c a s t s the recommendations. The a d a p t i v e r e s e a r c h team i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the e x t e n s i o n agent j o i n t l y d e f i n e s g e n e r a l g o a l s , and i s r e g u l a r l y i n v o l v e d i n t r a i n i n g programs f o r f a r m e r s , a s s i s t a n t a g ents arid l a y l e a d e r s . A common d e c i s i o n making body f o r r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o be one under the s t a t e d p o l i c y . Group c o h e s i v e n e s s can e a s i l y d e v e l o p w i t h r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e s and i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . The l a s t s t e p i n the p r o c e s s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i s the development of e f f e c t i v e l y f u n c t i o n i n g s u p p l y l i n e s . T h i s can be a c h i e v e d by i m p r o v i n g t h e c u r r e n t a c t i v i t y of EPID. A c c o r d i n g t o F a y o l (1925) and Sork ( n . d . ) , s u b p o i n t s under d e s i g n i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n a r e p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , s t a f f i n g , d i r e c t i n g , c o o r d i n a t i n g , r e p o r t i n g and b u d g e t i n g . The p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g a s p e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r the a l t e r n a t i v e approach were g i v e n above. What remains i s o r g a n i z i n g , s t a f f i n g , d i r e c t i n g , r e p o r t i n g , and b u d g e t i n g . To o r g a n i z e a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e s knowledge of p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . The environment under which t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g o p e r a t e s r e f l e c t s the n a t u r e of the commitment 120 g i v e n t o c o o r d i n a t i o n . G i v e n a s t r o n g governmental commitment t o c o o r d i n a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s would be r e q u i r e d t o implement the d e c i s i o n : 1. b r e a k i n g the r e q u i r e d work i n t o components, i . e . , g r o u p i n g r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n and t r a i n i n g i n t o p r a c t i c a l u n i t s based on s i m i l a r i t y and i m p o r t a n c e , 2. a s s i g n i n g q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l , 3. k e e p i n g t r a c k of p e r s o n n e l t r a n s f e r s , 4. i n f o r m i n g each member of what a c t i v i t y he i s e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r s , 5. c l e a r l y s t a t i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and o b l i g a t i o n of a person t o a c h i e v e the r e s u l t d e t e r m i n e d , and 6. p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o do the j o b . On the q u e s t i o n of b u d g e t i n g i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g , except f o r p r i m i n g on c a p i t a l c o s t , most managers and development e x p e r t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e s a i d t o be q u i t e good (Chambers, 1974). T h i s means the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e w i l l f o c u s on r e c u r r e n t c o s t s n e c e s s a r y t o run e x t e n s i o n , r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g . The f o c u s on r e c u r r e n t c o s t s i s n o t h i n g more than making p r o f e r r e d r e l e a s e of funds when pl a n n e d a c t i v i t i e s have t o s t a r t . Next t o b u d g e t i n g the o t h e r a s p e c t t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i s c o n t r o l , s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . Hunter (1973) reduces the whole concept of c o n t r o l , s u p e r v i s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n t o p r o p e r t a r g e t s e t t i n g and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c o n t r o l . FAO (1970) a l s o s u g g e s t s d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c o n t r o l , s u p e r v i s o n and 121 e v a l u a t i o n f o r e x t e n s i o n . T h e r e f o r e , based on d e c i s i o n s t a k e n on what i s t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g uses d e l e g a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l , s u p e r v i s e , and r e p o r t t h r o u g h d e c e n t r a l i z i n g t o g e o g r a p h i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s . T h i s approach eases c o o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s r endered and c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t a l l o w s the t o t a l program t o be adapted t o the needs of the a r e a s e r v e d . D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n e n a b l e s s u p e r v i s o r s t o s t r e s s h e l p i n g the f i e l d w orker, p r o v i d e s a mechanism f o r d i r e c t and t i m e l y feedback t o f i e l d w o r k e r s , and h e l p s . t o c r o s s check performance r e p o r t s w i t h a c t u a l work done. Through t h i s the management w i l l get a v a l u e f r e e measurement c r i t e r i o n t o improve i t s f i e l d s t a f f . D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n w i l l then reduce t r a v e l c o s t , c ut r e d tape and speed up j o i n t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s . Development of T r a i n i n g Programs Next t o the d e s i r e d p o l i c y i n t e r v e n t i o n by the government the proposed p l a n r e l i e s on t r a i n i n g more than on any o t h e r v a r i a b l e s because: 1. The p r o p o s a l d e p a r t s from the c o n v e n t i o n a l methods of program p l a n n i n g . The p r o p o s a l uses an e n t i r e l y new approach where program i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and development i s c o n s i d e r e d as a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t emerges from the a n a l y s i s of on g o i n g programs. 122 The p r o p o s a l a l s o d e v i a t e s from the c o n v e n t i o n a l approach t o e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n (Arnon, 1981; G i l l , 1984; H o w e l l , 1977; Monu, 1982; Von B l a n c k e n b u r g , 1982) where a d u l t farmers a r e c o n s i d e r e d as mere r e c e p i e n t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . I n h e r e n t i n the proposed approach i s the b e l i e f t h a t the peasant i s c a p a b l e of e x p e r i m e n t i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g knowledge. The argument i s t h a t the pe a s a n t ' s s t o c k of knowledge, a l t h o u g h n o n - e x p e r i m e n t a l , comes from n a t u r a l l y l a i d down e x p e r i m e n t s . The s c i e n t i s t s ' or e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s ' c a t a l y t i c r o l e a l o n g s i d e the peasant would thus be t h a t of r e d u c i n g the d i s s i m i l a r i t y from the n a t u r a l l y l a i d down ex p e r i m e n t s c a r r i e d out i n more di m e n s i o n s than c o u l d be done by the pea s a n t . The s c i e n t i s t , t h e r e f o r e , has t o l e a r n t o see n a t u r e i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same dimension as the pe a s a n t , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g h i s a d d i t i o n a l views i f he i s t o be e f f e c t i v e i n h i s a n a l y s i s . T h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e o r i e n t a t i o n s t r o n g l y r e q u i r e s t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g . A v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s on how a g r i c u l t u r e was t r a n s f o r m e d i n Denmark, the N e t h e r l a n d s and Japan ( S c h u l t z , 1970) i n d i c a t e t h a t r e o r i e n t a t i o n and inve s t m e n t i n the e d u c a t i o n of farm p e o p l e t o be the main sou r c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l growth. E x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t genuine e d u c a t i o n a l programs were t h w a r t e d not o n l y due t o l a c k of p o l i c y or proper e d u c a t i o n a l program p l a n n i n g but a l s o due t o l a c k of a t r a i n i n g component. Benjamin (1981), Coombs (1974), and L e l e (1975), f o r example, a t t e s t t h a t the b e t t e r 123 d e s i g n e d p r o j e c t s g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e a t r a i n i n g component, yet the p r o j e c t p l a n n e r s r a r e l y g i v e s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o the d e s i g n of t r a i n i n g . To e f f e c t the t r a i n i n g program the s c a t t e r e d t r a i n i n g u n i t s w i l l be c o n s o l i d a t e d under one d i v i s i o n f o r d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . S i n c e t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and p u b l i c h a l l s a r e a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e t o the MOA, the r e q u i r e d t a s k i s t o conduct t r a i n i n g needs assessment and conduct t r a i n i n g programs. The components of the r e q u i r e d t r a i n i n g a r e as f o l l o w s : a) . T r a i n i n g of f a r m ers b) T r a i n i n g of e x t e n s i o n a gents c) T r a i n i n g of e x t e n s i o n s u p e r v i s o r s d) T r a i n i n g of r e s e a r c h workers and e) T r a i n i n g of t r a i n e r s These t r a i n i n g programs w i l l be mounted a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . A l t h o u g h the l e v e l s of t r a i n i n g and l e v e l of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n v a r y , what has t o be t aken f o r g r a n t e d i s the famous E t h i o p i a n p r o v e r b which says "he who l e a r n s t e a c h e s . " A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p r o v e r b , a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e j o i n t l y c o o r d i n a t e d a t t a c k s t o r u r a l p o v e r t y and e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d l e a r n and master the p o l i c y i t s e l f . T h i s mastery can be a c c o m p l i s h e d by o r g a n i z i n g an o r i e n t a t i o n seminar f o r p o l i c y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s have t o be drawn t o g e t h e r i r r e s p e c t i v e of where they a r e l o c a t e d i n the h i e r a r c h y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s means p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e x t e n s i o n 1 24 a g e n t s , s u p e r v i s o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , r e s e a r c h workers and t r a i n e r s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s p r i m a r y seminar s h o u l d d e a l w i t h how t o communicate the p o l i c y w i t h i n the MOA, w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and w i t h f a r m e r s . The communication a s p e c t of t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n seminar s h o u l d have an o b j e c t i v e and be d i r e c t e d t o s e n s i t i z e o f f i c e r s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t outcome would be the r e o r i e n t a t i o n of f i e l d w o r k e r s , so t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r l i n e s of work i n r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n , t r a i n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are viewed not as s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s but i n t e r d e p e n d e n t f u n c t i o n s i n a system d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e a common o b j e c t i v e . In a d d i t i o n t o f o c u s i n g on communication, the seminar s h o u l d a d d r e s s p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p o l i c y . I t was found i m p o r t a n t t o conduct such t r a i n i n g a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l w h i l e the same p o o l of e x p e r t s o r g a n i z e and conduct the seminar throughout (Warner and K e f y a l e w , 1980). The o r i e n t a t i o n seminar has t o be c o n s i d e r e d as a p r e l u d e t o a c h a i n of c o n t i n u o u s t r a i n i n g programs. The t r a i n i n g d i v i s i o n i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the farm i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t w i l l r e d e f i n e t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n terms of development and a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge, and s k i l l s needed t o improve a b i l i t y t o s o l v e problems. Through the assembled f a c i l i t y the d i v i s i o n w i l l a l s o produce s i m p l e t e a c h i n g a i d s , such as t h o s e d e v e l o p e d by the E t h i o p i a n N u t r i t i o n I n s t i t u t e ( o r i g i n a l l y a Swedish p r o j e c t ) , which a r e e f f e c t i v e l y used and d i s t r i b u t e d by 1 25 e x t e n s i o n groups t o supplement l e c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n . These ar e b e l i e v e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o have a r e a l v a l u e i n communicating new i d e a s t o e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l and f a r m e r s . Many i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s seem t o a r i s e from l a c k of b a s i c e x t e n s i o n knowledge and how t o a d m i n i s t e r e x t e n s i o n programs. T h e r e f o r e , a c c e p t i n g t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s and d e f i c i e n c i e s , the f o l l o w i n g t r a i n i n g i n the form of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g or a b l o c k of time f o r program s t a f f t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n a l y z e the program s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e ( Sork, 1981) needs t o be o r g a n i z e d . Teshome (1979) and IBRD (1973) . i n d i c a t e d t h a t most e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s were not t r a i n e d i n e x t e n s i o n and a l s o were not p r e p a r e d by t h e i r s t u d i e s t o e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l w i t h peasant f a r m e r s . T h e r e f o r e , d u r i n g the i n i t i a l s t a g e of o r i e n t a t i o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t and v i t a l t o e n f o r c e and emphasize the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and d e m o c r a t i c n a t u r e of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n t o the would be f a c i l i t a t o r s of a g r i c u l t u r a l development. I n h e r e n t i n t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n t h e r e i s embedded a r e a l i t y t h a t " s u b s i s t e n c e farmers are mature, a d u l t , r a t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s " ( J e d l i c k a , 1977, p. 4 2 ) . A c c e p t i n g t h i s a ssumption i m p l i e s a house c l e a n i n g w i t h i n the MOA, whose e s s e n t i a l t a s k i s t o a r r a n g e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and methods of o p e r a t i o n so t h a t p e o p l e work t o g e t h e r towards the o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s approach, i n a d d i t i o n t o h e l p i n g reduce the d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r c e p t i o n and v a l u e r e g a r d i n g p e a s a n t s and 1 26 farm problems, w i l l a l s o widen the knowledge of o f f i c e r s about e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . To reduce u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s b oth from the o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as from the new approach, the o r i e n t a t i o n must a l s o a d d r e s s the p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of c o n t e x t s h o u l d i n c l u d e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e , mode of o p e r a t i o n , p o s s i b l e b a r r i e r s , c o n s t r a i n t s and s p e c i f i c r o l e t o be i n v o l v e d . A i r i n g out c l e a r l y what i s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the l i m i t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l reduce f a l s e promises which themselves i n c r e a s e program n e g a t i v i s m of the p e a s a n t r y . To e f f e c t t h i s end i t . i s of prime importance t o s u p p l y a manual of the e x t e n s i o n program t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The manual s h o u l d d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n the e x t e n s i o n - r e s e a r c h - t r a i n i n g p o l i c y , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , r o l e and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of d i f f e r e n t people i n e x t e n s i o n . P e r i o d i c i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d around i m p o r t a n t b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s such as e d u c a t i o n , s o c i o l o g y and management a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e p a r t of the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g needs t o be c l o s e l y t i e d t o f i e l d problems r e v e a l e d by a d a p t i v e r e s e a r c h teams and r e q u i r e s the in v o l v e m e n t of the C o l l e g e of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r b e t t e r use of f a c i l i t i e s and e x p e r t s a v a i l a b l e . Summary The d i f f e r e n t e x t e n s i o n models employed by c o u n t r i e s s i m i l a r t o E t h i o p i a and t h e degree of model s u c c e s s were examined. In a l l c a s e s the major i n g r e d i e n t f o r s u c c e s s 127 was found t o be the d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t made t o improve the e x t e n s i o n program development p r o c e s s . An a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y was p r e s e n t e d f o r E t h i o p i a . The a l t e r n a t i v e s t a r t s w i t h p o l i c y i n p u t s by the government th r o u g h the n a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l . To p r e v e n t c o n f u s i o n i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y , o r i e n t a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of p a r t i c i p a n t s i s c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of the program p l a n n i n g . G i v e n a d e f i n e d p o l i c y and c l e a r o b j e c t i v e i t was found by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i m p o r t a n t t o conduct i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s i t u a t i o n a n a l y s i s . Comprehensive a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g was taken as a means t o implement and c o o r d i n a t e e f f o r t s . C o o r d i n a t i o n was t a k e n as a problem of r e s o u r c e a c q u i s i t i o n and used t o d i s p e n s e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . To overcome t h e s e problems a s t r o n g emphasis was g i v e n t o p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s t o d e v e l o p f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i o n . T h i s f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n v o l v e s f o r m a l l y o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , l e g i t i m a t i o n and r e l i a b l e communication c h a n n e l s . T h i s c o o p e r a t i o n was i n d i c a t e d i n the d e s i g n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the f o r m a t i o n of a j o i n t d a t a bank i n the Farm I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e ; d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f o r prompt communication; and i n c r e a s e d feedback between programs w i t h a s t r o n g r e c o g n i t i o n of c e n t r a l d e c i s i o n making body s t a f f e d w i t h development minded p e r s o n s . The main f a c t o r t h a t u n d e r p i n s t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g was i m p l i c a t e d 128 throughout t o be a p o l i c y t h a t g i v e s a mandate, l e g i t i m i z e s and funds the c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g which r e q u i r e s a c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t t o o r g a n i z e , d i r e c t , s t a f f , budget and r e p o r t i s g i v e n due c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y . T h i s p l a n n i n g o c c u r s under the proposed o r g a n i z a t i o n a l model where the n a t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l a d v i s e s the MOA i n a l l m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g a g r i c u l t u r e . The m i n i s t r y i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o be o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e major t e c h n i c a l d i v i s i o n s which d i r e c t l y come under one . D i r e c t o r of R e s e a r c h and E x t e n s i o n . The t h r e e d i v i s i o n s , E x t e n s i o n , A d a p t i v e R e s e a r c h , and T r a i n i n g c o n c e n t r a t e on f e e d i n g i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s , recommendations and r e s o u r c e s t o the farm i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t . The farm i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t which documents and d i s s e m i n a t e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l knowledge w i l l combine mass media and a r e a e x t e n s i o n t o s u p p l y r e g i o n a l l y based i n f o r m a t i o n . In t h i s s e t u p the a d a p t i v e r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n and t r a i n i n g a r e i n t e g r a t e d a t one p o i n t . Through farm i n f o r m a t i o n and l o c a l e x t e n s i o n agents i t i s easy t o know what happens t o d i s s e m i n a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n or programs implemented f o r q u i c k improvement. S i n c e the r e g i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d a d a p t i v e r e s e a r c h team c o n d u c t s r e s e a r c h under l o c a l farm c o n d i t i o n s and a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t r a i n i n g e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s and f a r m e r s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t u p w i l l s a t i s f y the q u e s t i o n of c o m p a t a b i l i t y and r e l e v a n c y of a g i v e n recommendation. 1 29 T h i s a s s u r a n c e of c o m p a t i b i l i t y and r e l e v a n c y i m p l i e s good c r e d i b i l i t y f o r l o c a l e x t e n s i o n workers i m p o r t a n t t o m o t i v a t e farmers i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n . The t r a i n i n g component was p r e s e n t e d i n such a way as t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the g o a l s and the s t e p s t o a t t a i n program c r e d i b i l i t y . Under t h i s c o n t e x t the next c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the summary and main f i n d i n g s of the s t u d y . 130 CHAPTER SIX SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o h i g h l i g h t t h e background of E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r e a g a i n s t the p r o g r e s s a c h i e v e d and problems i d e n t i f i e d . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of the c h a p t e r d e l i v e r s a summary of t h i s background. The second s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s the main f i n d i n g s of the study and d i s c u s s e s the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by the c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r made as a r e s u l t of t h i s s t u d y . E t h i o p i a i s a c o u n t r y of peasants w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l system. A g r i c u l t u r e , the c o r n e r s t o n e of the E t h i o p i a n economy, i s s t i l l the work of s c a t t e r e d and i s o l a t e d p e a s a n t s . E f f o r t s t o t r a n s f o r m the s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e t o modern s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e seem t o have met w i t h l i t t l e s u c c e s s . One of the major i n s t i t u t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o u n t r y ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development i s the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e (MOA). A l t h o u g h the MOA was s a i d t o be the major M i n i s t r y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e x t e n s i o n programs, h i s t o r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the M i n i s t r y was not a b l e t o o r g a n i z e and c o o r d i n a t e r u r a l e d u c a t i o n . S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h e M i n i s t r y does not seem t o be o r g a n i z e d on sound a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s t o run development a c t i v i t i e s such as e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . There a r e gaps between 131 r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n , t r a i n i n g and the f a r m e r ; the gap between knowledge and p r a c t i c e w i t h i n MOA i s u s u a l l y wide. Even a f t e r the n a t i o n a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e adopted the minimum package i d e a as the g u i d i n g concept i n program development, e x t e n s i o n , r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g were not t r e a t e d as m u t u a l l y dependent, i n t e r a c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s e s s e n t i a l t o the improvement of a g r i c u l t u r e . The s u c c e s s of CADU i n a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d of time i n d i c a t e s the t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s m i s s i n g i n the E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n program s i n c e 1952: (1) a d e f i n e d program p l a n n i n g mechanism, (2) a w e l l o r g a n i z e d t r a i n i n g program, and (3) i n n o v a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . These f a c t o r s , more than making CADU a t r u l y e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e f l e c t e d the b e l i e f t h a t development s t a r t s w i t h p e o p l e , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , and d i s c i p l i n e . The s u c c e s s of e x t e n s i o n i n the CADU a r e a seems t o i n d i c a t e the f a l l a c y of a s h o r t a g e of man-power by showing the r e a l problem t o be, f u n d a m e n t a l l y , " o f f i c i a l s " ( p o l i c y m a k e r s , p l a n n e r s ) who do not know how t o make an e f f e c t i v e use of a v a i l a b l e man-power t o d e v e l o p and implement a g i v e n program. A v a i l a b l e documents i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s no mechanism w i t h i n the MOA t o c u l t i v a t e the human r e s o u r c e s needed t o run e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n programs and no c o o r d i n a t e d u t i l i z a t i o n of o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the c o u n t r y . 132 The b o t t l e n e c k s i n the E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e seem t o r e s u l t from l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n , inadequate a p p r e c i a t i o n of the t r u e e x t e n t of the need f o r program p l a n n i n g , and i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e of the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the d e l i v e r y of development e d u c a t i o n . A t y p i c a l example i s the g e n e r a l emphasis on p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g the c u l t u r a l m i l i e u and e d u c a t i o n a l need of the p e a s a n t r y . In p r a c t i c e , t h i s i s a top-down communication e x e r c i s e based on the p e r c e i v e d needs of the farmers which r e q u i r e s no c o n t e x t and c l i e n t a n a l y s i s , no problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , no d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e s , and no e v a l u a t i o n . The approach seems t o t r e a t farmers as mere r e c i p i e n t s of t e c h n o l o g y and c o n s i d e r s f e r t i l i z e r consumption as a proxy of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e x t e n s i o n program. As a r e s u l t , e x t e n s i o n program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a can be s a i d t o be s i m p l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r and c r e d i t w i t h no s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r the f a r m e r s . The f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y has been t o answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s i n l i n e w i t h b a s i c p l a n n i n g models i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . 1. I s t h e r e any congruence between the c u r r e n t program p l a n n i n g mechanism used i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n and what the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e p r e s c r i b e s as good p l a n n i n g ? 1 33 The answer i s no. E x c l u d i n g the CADU program p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s , t h e r e i s no v i s i b l e s i m i l a r i t y between what one reads i n the l i t e r a t u r e and what one o b s e r v e s i n E t h i o p i a . Program o b j e c t i v e s and p r i o r i t i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d i n one c e n t r a l o f f i c e w i t h no i n p u t from e x t e n s i o n c l i e n t s . In f a c t E t h i o p i a i s e s p e c i a l l y noted by UN/ECA (1971) as a case where the e x t e n s i o n workers a r e not a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s programs u n t i l t he p l a n documents a r e ready f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o K u l p (1970), the o p e r a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y i n E t h i o p i a i s "here a r e the g o a l s and r e s o u r c e s " (p. 9 1 ) , now implement the program. N e i t h e r the programs of the comprehensive p r o j e c t s nor the Minimum Package Programs have a r i s e n from a n a t u r a l sequence of program p l a n n i n g s t e p s . The c o n c e p t s of c l i e n t and c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s , e v a l u a t i o n , and m o d i f i c a t i o n of programs a r e v i r t u a l l y a b s e n t . New programs a r e u s u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d a l l a t once and a r e never s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d . The concept of j o i n t programming and j o i n t t a r g e t s e t t i n g , which the p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e s as good p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , i s not p r a c t i s e d . A l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g by p l a n n e r s of the r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s of farmers and p a r t i c u l a r l y of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs has l e d t o the c r e a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as peasant a s s o c i a t i o n s , c o o p e r a t i v e s , and s e t t l e m e n t schemes, r a t h e r than d e v e l o p i n g sound r e l e v a n t e d u c a t i o n a l programs. S i n c e the system has no v i s i b l e s e l f - e v a l u a t i n g mechanism, 134 i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d on t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s over the p a s t 35 y e a r s has not been used a d e q u a t e l y t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i n E t h i o p i a . E x a m i n a t i o n of e f f o r t s t o b r i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n o l o g y w i t h i n r e a c h of farmers i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e were no s i m i l a r i t i e s between program development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and what Chambers (1974), K u l p (1974), and Sork (n.d.) s t a t e as e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g . As a r e s u l t of thes e i n c o n g r u e n c i e s , a f t e r 35 y e a r s of e x t e n s i o n work, the same programs a r e c o n s t a n t l y r e v i v e d and pu r s u e d . 2. What weaknesses e x i s t i n the c u r r e n t program p l a n n i n g mechanism? A v a i l a b l e p l a n n i n g models c o n s i d e r c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system a n a l y s i s as a b a s i c s t e p toward d e v e l o p i n g a program because t h e s o c i a l , economic, and e d u c a t i o n a l f o r c e s p r e s e n t i n any community a f f e c t the e n t i r e programming p r o c e s s . T h i s i s why the p r o p e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l o c a l t e c h n o l o g y , o p p o r t u n i t y , and approach t o f a r m i n g communities l i e s a t the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n of sound e x t e n s i o n programming. W i t h i n a g i v e n E t h i o p i a n community l o c a l d i a g n o s i s t o i d e n t i f y what t o do w i t h what t o o l s was a p p a r e n t l y l a c k i n g . No emphasis was g i v e n t o make c o n t e x t and c l i e n t system a n a l y s i s more l o c a l i z e d , more r e l e v a n t t o the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a c t i o n . The a n a l y s e s performed d i d not c o n s i d e r s o c i a l f a c t o r s nor d i d they i n v o l v e t h o s e o f f i c i a l s and farmers 135 who would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the programs. The main b e n e f i t from l o c a l d i a g n o s i s and l o c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n , a v o i d a n c e of the l o c a l m i s f i t of c e n t r a l l y d e s i g n e d programs, was not e x p l o i t e d . The major weakness of the p l a n n i n g mechanism i n E t h i o p i a i s i t s i n a b i l i t y t o d e s i g n a workable a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n . The mechanism n e g l e c t s p r o p e r d e s i g n and t i m i n g of work, a l l o c a t i o n of v i a b l e w o r k l o a d s and m o n i t o r i n g of i t s s t a f f and programs. Most program documents from MOA and EPID do not p r o v i d e a c l e a r statement of what s h o u l d be done and why, nor do t hey g i v e b a s i c s t a n d a r d s f o r achievement (IBRD, 1973; Stommes and S e l e s h i , 1979, 1980). A d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n s do not c l e a r l y s t a t e how, where, when, and by whom the program s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d and implemented. The system of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n E t h i o p i a seems t o be v e r y weak i n the a r e a of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g and management f u n c t i o n s . Except f o r b u d g e t i n g and a n n u a l r e p o r t i n g , t h e r e i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y document t h a t s t a t e s p r o p e r p r o c e d u r e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g , s t a f f i n g , d i r e c t i n g , and c o o r d i n a t i n g r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s seems p o o r l y c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . An i n a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between c o o r d i n a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n s seems t o compound the p roblem of c o o r d i n a t i o n . . The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of MOA and the merging of two or more o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h d i s s i m i l a r 1 36 o b j e c t i v e s seems t o g e n e r a t e more c o o r d i n a t i o n problems. I n c i d e n t a l l y , i t does appear t h a t a f t e r 1974, E t h i o p i a seems t o have c r e a t e d s t r u c t u r e s t h a t g e n e r a t e i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l c o n f l i c t , d e s t r o y i n g any c o o r d i n a t i o n e f f o r t a t an e a r l y s t a g e . O b s t a c l e s , such as boundary d e f i n i t i o n among p e r s o n n e l and i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o m p e t i t i o n and c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n n u r t u r e d by c o m p l i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e s , vague p o l i c y d e c l a r a t i o n on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of agency over agency, p o s t on p o s t s seem t o be the major ones (IBRD, 1973). The s e p a r a t i o n of r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n , the i s o l a t i o n of MOA from h a v i n g any say on the m a t t e r of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n seem t o be c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s h i n d e r i n g a c o o r d i n a t e d approach ( K e f y a l e w , 1981). A l t h o u g h a l l p l a n n i n g models recommend a s t r o n g t r a i n i n g component i n program development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e does not p r o v i d e even minimum o r i e n t a t i o n f o r i t s s t a f f and p a r t i c i p a n t s ( G i z b e r g and S m i t h , 1967). N e i t h e r the e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s or the farmers r e c e i v e o r g a n i z e d t r a i n i n g i n the form of o r i e n t a t i o n programs, o n - s i t e t r a i n i n g , workshops, or s e m i n a r s . 3. What changes i n the program p l a n n i n g mechanism might b r i n g about the g r e a t e s t improvement i n E t h i o p i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n ? 1 37 P l a n n i n g i s the key management f u n c t i o n of any e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . R e g a r d l e s s of whether i t i s a c a s e of p l a n n i n g l o n g t e r m MPP p r i o r i t i e s or p l a n n i n g a two-hour t r a i n i n g s e minar, the p l a n n i n g a s p e c t of program p l a n n i n g i s the major c o n t r i b u t o r t o s u c c e s s . E s s e n t i a l l y t h i s i s t r u e because p l a n n i n g i s a f u t u r i s t i c a c t i v i t y ; i t i s d e s i g n i n g the f u t u r e , a n t i c i p a t i n g problems, and i m a g i n i n g s u c c e s s . For p l a n n i n g t o a c h i e v e these g o a l s i n E t h i o p i a t h e r e i s a s t r o n g need t o change the e n t i r e approach t o the e x t e n s i o n program development p r o c e s s . The r e o r i e n t a t i o n and r e - v a l u a t i o n of programs and s t a f f i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o b r i n g about the d e s i r e d change. R e o r i e n t a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s s t a f f so t h a t t h e r e i s a c l e a r statement of the .extension p h i l o s o p h i e s , o b j e c t i v e s , and p o l i c i e s t h a t d i r e c t e x t e n s i o n programs. R e - v a l u a t i o n i s needed t o e s t a b l i s h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , and t o s e t p r i o r i t i e s t h r o u g h r e v i s i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n terms of c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n s , and o b s o l e s c e n c e of knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s . R e o r i e n t a t i o n and r e - v a l u a t i o n a r e thought t o c r e a t e an atmosphere c o n d u c i v e t o e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g (Chambers, 1974; Whyte, 1975). E f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g i d e n t i f i e s and d e f i n e s the problems of c l i e n t s . I t d e v e l o p s v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s and e v a l u a t e s the a c t u a l d e c i s i o n and the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . I t c o n s t a n t l y d e f i n e s and communicates the program's purpose so t h a t a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o o r d i n a t e d . 1 38 A d e s i r a b l e change i n the E t h i o p i a n program p l a n n i n g mechanism would be one t h a t g i v e s a s t r o n g emphasis t o c l i e n t and c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s , t o p r o p e r and i n n o v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g , and t o e v a l u a t i o n . However, f i n a l achievement of g o a l s depends upon the i n i t i a t i v e and s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the farmers t h e m s e l v e s . T h e r e f o r e , growing p a r t i c i p a t i o n of f a r m e r s , l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , and s t r o n g s t a f f - t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a major approach towards i m p r o v i n g program p l a n n i n g i n E t h i o p i a n e x t e n s i o n . Program p l a n n i n g i s a dynamic system of i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s e s . These i n t e a c t i v e p r o c e s s e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when changes t o the p l a n n i n g mechanism a r e c o n t e m p l a t e d . C o n c l u s i o n s The performance of ' CADU has a d e q u a t e l y demonstrated the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a sound e x t e n s i o n program. CADU, thro u g h i t s package concept which u n i t e d r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n and t r a i n i n g under i t s nonformal e d u c a t i o n s t r a t e g y , demonstrated beyond doubt the p o t e n t i a l of y i e l d i n c r e a s e t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r s u c c e s s s t i m u l a t e d the MOA which r e s u l t e d i n the emergence of EPID as a p a r t of MOA which a d m i n i s t e r s e x t e n s i o n a t a n a t i o n a l l e v e l . Today, what seems t o be h o l d i n g up the p r o g r e s s i n the domain of a g r i c u l t u r e i s not so much the l a c k of demand or l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the f a r m e r s , but the l a c k of 139 w e l l d e s i g n e d programs. What i s needed, i f p a s t m i s t a k e s a r e not t o be r e p e a t e d , i s e m p i r i c a l f i e l d r e s e a r c h i n program p l a n n i n g . T h i s would h e l p t o i d e n t i f y or a n t i c i p a t e what b o t t l e n e c k s do e x i s t or a r e l i k e l y t o be c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t of a g i v e n program. T h i s e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s h o u l d d e l i n e a t e a r e a s and t a r g e t s where program o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d f o c u s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n programs, which p a r t i c u l a r l y f o c u s on peasant a g r i c u l t u r e , a r e c r i s i s - p r o n e . T h i s means t h e r e a r e c o n s t a n t e n c o u n t e r s w i t h u n a n t i c i p a t e d problems. These k i n d s of problems can o n l y be reduced w i t h p r o p e r t a r g e t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c o n t i n u o u s e v a l u a t i o n . M o n i t o r i n g the d a i l y a c t i v i t y d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o the immediate c o n t r o l of u n a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t s . In s h o r t , c r i s i s - p r o n e r u r a l e d u c a t i o n programs r e q u i r e a d e l i b e r a t e e x a m i n a t i o n of l i m i t s , c o n s t r a i n t s and a c o n s t a n t e v a l u a t i o n of one's e f f o r t toward the g o a l . Next t o program p l a n n i n g , e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i n a c o u n t r y such as E t h i o p i a r e q u i r e s a mix of s e r v i c e s , f a c i l i t i e s and d i v e r s e human e x p e r t i s e . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y beyond the c a p a c i t y of one o r g a n i z a t i o n . Above t h i s , most e x t e n s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n E t h i o p i a seem t o have an i n t e g r a l w o r l d view where s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a g i v e n s e r v i c e , o r the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of e x p e r t s , i s c o n s i d e r e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t . G iven t h i s c o n d i t i o n , e x t e n s i o n programs s h o u l d always c o n s i d e r the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach and i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s i n i t s e n t i r e p r o c e s s . 140 Recommendations E x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d i n e x t e n s i o n programs from 1952 t o 1980 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p o v e r t y of E t h i o p i a i s not due t o a l a c k of n a t u r a l w e a l t h or l a c k of i n t e r n a t i o n a l support n e c e s s a r y t o i n i t i a t e a sound development program. The causes of p o v e r t y and a c o n t i n u e d d e c l i n e of q u a l i t y of l i f e i n E t h i o p i a seems a c h r o n i c d e f i c i e n c y i n e d u c a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n . For t h i s reason the f o l l o w i n g recommendations a r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t : 1. P o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s , i m p o r t a n t t o d i r e c t a g i v e n e d u c a t i o n a l program, s h o u l d emerge from the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c o n c r e t e e d u c a t i o n a l needs of farmers.. T h i s p o l i c y s h o u l d a l s o e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s among competing e d u c a t i o n a l needs. Such a p o l i c y s h o u l d t r e a t a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y t o embrace the e n t i r e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs as w e l l as the f u l l spectrum of d i f f e r e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s and methods of e d u c a t i o n a l d e l i v e r y . 2. P l a n n i n g of e x t e n s i o n programs s h o u l d b e g i n w i t h c l i e n t and c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s , and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c h i e v e a d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e t o reduce f a i l u r e and f r u s t r a t i o n . The m u l t i p l e i n p u t s i n v o l v e d i n most e x t e n s i o n programs, such as home economics, f a m i l y p l a n n i n g , c r o p p r o d u c t i o n and s o i l f e r t i l i t y , e t c . , r e q u i r e e v a l u a t i o n of the program from the m u l t i p l e i n p u t p o i n t of view. 141 As a b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t and i n d i c a t i o n of the d e m o c r a t i c n a t u r e of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n , program development i n e x t e n s i o n s h o u l d be seen always as a j o i n t a c t i v i t y of an e x t e n s i o n agent ( s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t ) and a farmer.. To m a i n t a i n r e l e v a n c y i n e x t e n s i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p l a c e e x t e n s i o n r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g under one o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a key concept i n o r g a n i z i n g e x t e n s i o n programs i s t o form a u n i t y i n p r o d u c t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s w i l l h e l p t o t r e a t f a r m i n g and f a r m e r s ' problems comprehensively., w i t h minimum impediments. Above a l l , such an approach t o e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n makes the program t r u l y e d u c a t i o n a l and h e l p s p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l as a f u l l p a r t n e r of change i n the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g . T h i s approach c o n t r i b u t e s t o the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g by d i r e c t l y h e l p i n g t o d e s i g n a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n . C o o r d i n a t i o n of programs and d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s h o u l d be g i v e n t o p p r i o r i t y . G o o d w i l l i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o a c h i e v e c o o r d i n a t i o n . An a u t h o r i t y t o g i v e o r d e r s , d i r e c t and e v a l u a t e the c o o r d i n a t i o n e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d . C o o r d i n a t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s must have as i t s o b j e c t i v e the d e l i v e r y of more e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e t o f a r m e r s . T h i s r e q u i r e s an i n t e g r a t e d approach t o the r u r a l e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n 142 and e v a l u a t i o n . C o o r d i n a t i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e c t o r w i t h o u t c o o r d i n a t i n g the o t h e r s e c t o r s produces no v i s i b l e r e s u l t s . 5. A t r a i n i n g program i s s i m p l y the s t r u c t u r e d arrangement of a c t i v i t i e s which f a c i l i t i a t e s l e a r n i n g . I t s f u n c t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y the h e a r t of any e f f o r t t o reduce v i s i b l e d i s p a r i t y between knowledge and p r a c t i c e . T h i s i s m a i n l y because l e a r n i n g i s the a c q u i s i t i o n of new b e h a v i o u r s , a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s and knowledge ( J e d l i c k a , 1977). T r a i n i n g reduces the d i s p a r i t y or d e f i c i e n c y i n e d u c a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and management. I f p r o p e r l y d e s i g n e d and d i r e c t e d toward a c e r t a i n program p l a n n e r and i m p l e m e n t a t o r , t r a i n i n g programs h e l p t o b r i n g a f i t between p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n means t o t r a n s l a t e i d e a s i n t o a c t i o n . The a c t i o n i s c a r r i e d out by p e o p l e . In e x t e n s i o n programs, t h i s a c t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s of government p o l i c y and b a s i c a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s , and i n t h e case of E t h i o p i a , e x t e n s i o n workers can not meet t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s i s because t h e r e i s no o r g a n i z e d , s y s t e m a t i c and t i m e l y t r a i n i n g programs f o r o f f i c e r s . I t seems t h a t n e i t h e r s t a f f t r a i n i n g , nor the v a l u e of t r a i n i n g , i s c o n s i d e r e d as an i n t e g r a l component of management a c t i o n . The n a t u r e of e x t e n s i o n i n E t h i o p i a seems t o be t e a c h i n g w i t h o u t l e a r n i n g , i n t e g r a t i n g 143 d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t c o n s o l i d a t i n g s t r u c t u r e s and p o l i c e s . T h i s b e i n g the g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e , i t i s s t r o n g l y recommended t h a t E t h i o p i a d e v e l o p a s t r o n g t r a i n i n g component f o r e x t e n s i o n s t a f f and farmers t o remedy most of the i l l s i n e x t e n s i o n programs. T r a i n i n g i n the form of i n - s e r v i c e program s e m i n a r s , workshops, and an n u a l s t a f f meetings which were not c o n s i d e r e d i n any of the examined documents, can e a s i l y be o r g a n i z e d . To a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d r e s u l t t h rough t r a i n i n g , a s t r o n g t r a i n i n g p o l i c y , i s h i g h l y needed. The t r a i n i n g p o l i c y f o r MOA s h o u l d be s e t up t o ask and answer such q u e s t i o n s a s : 1. How can e x t e n s i o n o b j e c t i v e s be a s s i s t e d by t r a i n i n g ? 2. What i s the purpose of t r a i n i n g and what p r i o r i t y w i l l i t have? 3. Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a i n i n g programs? 4. What k i n d s of t r a i n i n g a r e r e q u i r e d ? 5. In what way s h o u l d t r a i n i n g be d e l i v e r e d ? The above q u e s t i o n s a r e of v a l u e o n l y i f a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e c i s i o n making. That i s t o say, improvement i n E t h i o p i a n E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e depends on how the above q u e s t i o n s , which a r e b a s i c a l l y program p l a n n i n g q u e s t i o n s , a r e a c c e p t e d and answered. The main purpose of t h i s study was t o examine the d i f f e r e n t programming models r e l e v a n t t o a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and f o r m u l a t e a s e t of p r i n c i p l e s t o guide 1 44 p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n E t h i o p i a . P u r s u a n t t o the t h e o r e t i c a l frame of r e f e r e n c e which was based on S o r k ' s b a s i c p l a n n i n g model e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g mechanisms were examined i n the study w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , c o o r d i n a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . In the p r o c e s s i t was found t h a t t h e r e has never been any s i n g l e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i n E t h i o p i a . t o s p e l l out and make p r o v i s i o n f o r a s p e c i f i c and s y s t e m a t i c e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e as a p a r t of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n system i n t h e c o u n t r y . The g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs a r e so d i f f u s e and sometimes ambiguous enough t o p e r m i t a wide range of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . S i n c e e d u c a t i o n a l work competes w i t h o t h e r MOA programs d e c i s i o n making f o r e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n seem t o come from day-to-day p r e s s u r e s , not from w e l l p l a n n e d s t u d y . T h i s i n d i c a t e d a weak o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t up and unplanned and u n c o o r d i n a t e d work. The c o o r d i n a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n methods, t e c h n i q u e s , and r e s o u r c e s used t o t e a c h peasant farmers was e i t h e r weak or u n a v a i l a b l e . The study has i d e n t i f i e d a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s which a f f e c t t h e s u c c e s s of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g i n E t h i o p i a . These i n c l u d e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o t t l e n e c k s under which a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e subsumed. On the b a s i s of t h i s major problem the study i d e n t i f i e d an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y where c o n t e x t a n a l y s i s , c o o r d i n a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g , 1 45 and t r a i n i n g component a r e g i v e n the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y i n program p l a n n i n g . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s the r e s u l t s of t h i s study are congruent w i t h the f o r m u l a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y w i l l p r o v i d e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and donor a g e n c i e s w i t h i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . 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