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Conserving liberalism : an interpretation of truth, hope and power in the philosophy of Karl Popper Williams, Douglas E. 1985

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CONSERVING  LIBERALISM:  AN  POWER  PHILOSOPHY  IN  THE  INTERPRETATION OF  OF T R U T H ,  KARL  POPPER  By Douglas  A  B.A., M.A.,  California California  THESIS  SUBMITTED  THE  E.  State University, State"University,  IN  REQUIREMENT DOCTOR  Williams  PARTIAL FOR  OF  THE  1971 1973  FULFILLMENT DEGREE  OF  PHILOSOPHY  in THE  FACULTY  (Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  OF of  this  GRADUATE Political  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  January . ©  Douglas  E;  as.  STUDIES Science)  conforming  standard  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 1985 Williams,  1985  OF  HOPE  AND  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Political  Science  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  March 20.  1985  written  ii  ABSTRACT This study i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l thought and methodology of K a r l Popper, one of the most heralded yet c o n t r o v e r s i a l philosophers of our time. The goal has been to provide a more coherent, accurate, and systematic account of Popper's thought and of i t s relevance to students of p o l i t i c s and s o c i e t y than c u r r e n t l y  exists  by, f i r s t , emphasizing c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l and contextual f a c t o r s i n connection with the s t r u c t u r e and development of h i s ideas which r u l e out c e r t a i n contemporary misunderstandings of h i s thought, and secondly, by a l l o w i n g Popper's own formulat i o n s to take precedence over those of h i s commentators, regardless of t h e i r sympathies and estimate of Popper's massive i n t e l l e c t u a l legacy. I t i s my p r i n c i p a l argument that the unity of Popper's philosophy l i e s i n i t s moral dimension, h i s l i f e long determinat i o n to conserve the i n t e l l e c t u a l foundations of hope and progress that human autonomy requires — the d i s t i n c t i v e l y Kantian b e l i e f that mind can and should be d e c i s i v e i n p r a c t i a l a f f a i r s no l e s s than i n the struggle with nature, the twin p i l l a r s of the Enlightenment and modern l i b e r a l i s m a l i k e . Given the nature of our times - - a century of " t o t a l " wars,  iii  endless c r i s e s , and one i n t e l l e c t u a l r e v o l u t i o n a f t e r another — such an endeavour i s no small achievement. I have t r i e d to capture the proposit'ionai cutting-edge of my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Popper's thought i n the keywords of the s u b t i t l e of t h i s study:  t h a t , without the b e l i e f i n the  p o s s i b i l i t y of o b j e c t i v e t r u t h — knowledge that i s independent of whether we wish to acknowledge i t s existence or not, there i s l i t t l e hope i n the future prospects of the "open s o c i e t i e s " of the Western w o r l d , and that one of the gravest e r r o r s of the l i b e r a l i s m of the past was i t s underestimation of the need to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e i t s best i n t e r e s t s against the threat of many forms of i l l i b e r a l power known i n our time, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the "unintended" v a r i e t y .  I  accordingly argue that Popper's v i s i o n i s best c h a r a c t e r i s e d as a combat-toughened conception of r e a l i t y , and of the corresponding r a t i o n a l i t y necessary to s u r v i v e ,  l e t alone to  l i v e w e l l , as the Western t r a d i t i o n of p o l i t i c a l theory has held to be d e s i r a b l e .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page '  Acknowledgments P r e f a c e w i t h a Note on Methodology  vi-xi  Key t o t h e A b b r e v i a t i o n s o f Popper's works Chapter 1: Notes  v  Introduction  v i i 1-10 11-15  C h a p t e r 2: A P o r t r a i t o f Popper's E a r l y L i f e and Times Notes  16-39 40-45  C h a p t e r 3 : The M e t a p h y s i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f O r d e r l y Growth: K a n t , Popper, and t h e C r i s i s i n t h e I d e a l s o f the Enlightenment Notes  46-84 85-92  C h a p t e r 4: T r u t h As Consequences: Popper's Thought Notes  93-146 147-155  The U n i t y o f  Chapter 5: C r i t i c a l R a t i o n a l i s m and t h e L o g i c o f the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s Notes *  156-220 221-229  C h a p t e r 6: C o n s e r v i n g L i b e r a l i s m : An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f T r u t h , Hope,.and Power i n Popper's Philosophy Notes  230-283 284-286  C h a p t e r 7: C o n c l u s i o n : Liberalism Notes  287-320 321-322  Bibliography  The L i m i t s o f Popper's  323-338  V  Acknowledgements During  the course o f a number o f y e a r s , r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s  study r e c e i v e d generous f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Canada C o u n c i l , and  the Canadian  P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n to a t t e n d the European Consortium of P o l i t i c a l Research a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Essex. l i k e to g r a t e f u l l y  I would a l s o  acknowledge a Research F e l l o w s h i p from the  Dean of A r t s and S c i e n c e s o f Queen's U n i v e r s i t y a t K i n g s t o n , which made i t p o s s i b l e to see t h i s p r o j e c t through i t s l a s t stages.  I would l i k e to thank each of these i n s t i t u t i o n s , agen-  c i e s , and o f f i c e r s f o r t h e i r k i n d  support.  G r a t i t u d e o f a more p e r s o n a l v a r i e t y i s due A l a n C. C a i r n s and Robert H. Jackson, mine who  f r i e n d s and  to P r o f e s s o r s teachers  have j o i n t l y s u p e r v i s e d t h i s study s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n .  I a l s o a p p r e c i a t e the comments o f P r o f e s s o r s George A. and J . A. Laponce on an e a r l i e r d r a f t nally,  I cannot b e g i n to express my  Cynthia.  of  Her l o v e , understanding,  were e s s e n t i a l to the completion  o f t h i s work.  indebtedness p a t i e n c e , and  of my  And, f i -  to my  wife,  scepticism •  l a b o u r s ; her own  c a p a c i t i e s as a s c h o l a r were undoubtedly a t p l a y .  Feaver  fine  vi Preface  w i t h a Note On Methodology  There seems l i t t l e purpose i n r e c o r d i n g h i t s on a t a r g e t that has no e x i s t e n c e o u t s i d e our own m i n d s . . . . John Dunn, The P o l i t i c a l Thought o f John Locke T h i s study i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l thought o f one o f the most h e r a l d e d y e t c o n t r o v e r s i a l l o s o p h e r s o f our time, K a r l Popper. aimed a t  i s a more coherent,  t i c s and s o c i e t y  I n crude o u t l i n e what  accurate,  I o f P o p p e r ' s thought and o f i t s  phi-  and systematic  relevance  to students  than i s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e .  is  account of  poli-  A c t u a l l y , any-  one f a m i l i a r w i t h the mammoth commentary on h i s thought might reasonably a s k ,  " w i l l the r e a l K a r l Popper p l e a s e stand up"?  Such, I b e l i e v e , are m i s l e a d i n g accounts  the r a d i c a l l y d i s p a r a t e and, by and l a r g e , o f P o p p e r ' s w r i t i n g s c u r r e n t l y i n vogue.^  I see few s c h o l a r l y v a l u e s , present by a l l o w i n g P o p p e r ' s commentators  or future,  to score " h i t s " a g a i n s t  "Popper" ( o r an a l l e g e d p a r t o f a "Popper") 2 not e x i s t .  b e i n g served a  t h a t simply does  And the same i s even more t r u e o f those who attempt  to e n l i s t P o p p e r ' s i d e a s i n support o f causes whose e x i s t e n c e he v i g o r o u s l y d e t e s t s — s c e p t i c i s m ,  r e l a t i v i s m , and h i s t o r i c i s m ,  f o r example.^ I have t r i e d to remedy these c o n f u s i o n s about P o p p e r ' s thought b y , f i r s t , contextual  emphasising c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l and  f a c t o r s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the s t r u c t u r e  ment o f P o p p e r ' s i d e a s which r u l e out c e r t a i n  and d e v e l o p -  misinterpretations  of h i s thought and, s e c o n d l y , by a l l o w i n g P o p p e r ' s own formulations  to take precedence  whatever sympathies,  over those o f h i s commentators,  i n d i s p u t e s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n over what  the " r e a l " meaning o f h i s views It  of  are.  i s my p r i n c i p a l argument that the u n i t y o f P o p p e r ' s  phi-  losophy l i e s i n i t s moral dimension, h i s l i f e - l o n g  determination  to conserve  intellectual  i n a d i s t i n c t i v e l y K a n t i a n f a s h i o n the  f o u n d a t i o n s o f hope and p r o g r e s s  that human autonomy r e q u i r e s ,  the b e l i e f t h a t mind can and should be d e c i s i v e i n p r a c t i c a l  vii affairs  no l e s s  pillars  of  the  than i n the  crises,  of our times—a  the  i n our century courage,  in  to m i n d .  the  alike,  prospects  that  is,  to to  then w i l l I  the the  its  have  subtitle  little the  vision of  reality,  survive, political  the  alone  be  thought  its  prospects  equally  to  evident.  that  is  existence or not, of  the  I as  live well,  the g r a v e s t against  the  is  of  the  of  the  need  to  t h r e a t o f many  particularly of  the Western to  of  there  errors  that  a combat-toughened  has h e l d  possi-  "open s o c i e t i e s "  a c c o r d i n g l y argue  as  of  the  independent  corresponding r a t i o n a l i t y  consistently  Only  i n the keywords o f  power known i n o u r t i m e ,  the  vision—  provide.  under-estimation of  interests  Below,  to  special  without the b e l i e f i n the  p a s t was i t s best  pay v e r y  propositional cutting-edge  truth—knowledge  its  to  society  heat of Popper's  limits,  that,  characterised  theory  the  and t h a t one o f  and o f  let  ourselves  l i g h t he s e e k s  or i t s  capture  variety.  best  the  future  illiberal  is  to  a n d to  acknowledge  Western w o r l d ,  "unintended"  owe i t  of  study:  hope i n t h e  forms o f  sustain  o r d e r l y growth o f mind and  of Popper's  we w i s h to  institutionalize  to  hope  the  perhaps  powers,  find  to  the  intellectual  thin-  a t h i n k e r l i k e Popper can a l s o  shadows,  l i b e r a l i s m of  few  that  source  this  another—  last  of objective  whether  the  end-  the  structure  tried  of  twin  war,  Indeed,  f a i t h i n mankind n e c e s s a r y  for  my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n bility  have p o s s e s s e d  t h e n we c e r t a i n l y  attention  "total"  revolution after  Bertrand Russell i s If  of  no s m a l l a c h i e v e m e n t .  and the  such a p r o j e c t . comes  century  a n d one i n t e l l e c t u a l  such an endeavour i s kers  with nature—the  E n l i g h t e n m e n t a n d modern L i b e r a l i s m a l i k e .  Given the n a t u r e less  struggle  the  Popper's  conception  necessary tradition  be u l t i m a t e l y  to of  desi-  rable. With the n e e d to to  that  the  to  the  can r e a d i l y d i s c e r n  assumptions  h a r b o u r no i l l u s i o n s a b o u t  do j u s t i c e  do b e l i e v e  I  of hindsight, I  comment o n s e v e r a l  Although I able  benefit  at  play i n this  the  study.  a b r i e f discussion being  complexity of  the  following observations  issues are  of  involved,  I  considerable  viii relevance  to  work,  they  for  dology here At do n o t  address  at  justify,  texts,  all-important  the m e r i t s  the present  thought; n e e d e d to  of  the nature  of  thought.  larised  has  still  With regard  the  themes t a k e n to  precisely  commentary  study of  figure,  history  of  the  of  texts,  criteria  ideas  however,  the  debate of  the  impres-  and  poli-  the a d o p t i o n o f  second l e v e l o f  analy-  concerning Popper's  this  literature  Under such  is  works.  deeply po-  circumstances,  and u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y o f P o p p e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y  not  the  result  specialised.  care i s is  the  works h a v e b e e n c l a r i f i e d  extent,  critical  risk of being l o s t  it  of  of analysis:  to  a contemporary  been the  the  interpretation  i n connection with his  b l u n t l y , the n a t u r e  blur  though  to  run the  "Poppers"  discuss,  r e a s o n i n g as  and e x c e s s i v e l y  the u n i f y i n g  I  a n d my judgment a n d l i n e o f  To a v e r y l a r g e  state of  Stated  metho-  on  and d e v e l o p e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the  the  the  commentaries  legacy.  the  h a v e drawn u p o n i n a p p r o a c h i n g h i s  sis,  Popper's,  existing  although Popper i s  such c r i t e r i a  study of  study,  three l e v e l s  be done most  intellectual  tical  this  question of  following  t h o u g h t ' i n terms o f  Popper's  I  the  s t a g e s i n the  themselves;  what i s  understanding of  play.  several  Popper's  sive  an adequate  and/or severely  preserve  real  because on h i s  their  nature  integrity  before  of his contribution.  so many " P o p p e r s "  thought  misrepresented  that I  certain  g u i d e l i n e s f r o m t h e most  history  o f p o l i t i c a l thought  felt  have  outstanding  so many In  emerged  inclined  if  to  fact, within  embrace  r e c e n t work i n  where s u c h p r o b l e m s a r e  the  regularly  encountered. In a variety cated  to  Pocock,  explore  of  here,  among o t h e r s ,  o f a number o f  contexts,  unfortunately  far  too  Q u e n t i n S k i n n e r , John Dunn, have  anachronisms  done t h e i r v e r y b e s t  to  compli-  and J .  G. A.  disabuse  and o t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  errors  us in  4 the  study o f  the  p o l i t i c a l theory  of  the  past.  In his  outstan-  d i n g s t u d y o f L o c k e , f o r e x a m p l e , Dunn b e g i n s by n o t i n g : The c l a i m t h a t t h e a c c o u n t g i v e n h e r e o f L o c k e ' s argument . . • i s ' h i s t o r i c a l ' i m p l i e s t h a t i t s  ix s t a t u s depends upon the adequacy o f i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f L o c k e ' s own m e a n i n g . . . By ' h i s t o r i c a l t h e n , i s meant a n a c c o u n t o f what L o c k e was t a l k i n g a b o u t , n o t a d o c t r i n e w r i t t e n ( p e r h a p s u n c o n s c i o u s l y ) by him i n a s o r t o f i n v i s i b l e i n k w h i c h becomes a p p a r e n t o n l y when h e l d up to rthe l i g h t ( o r h e a t ) o f the t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y mind. And, the  i n h i s now-seminal a r t i c l e , History of Ideas",  c u m b i n g to doctrines of  a number o f  S k i n n e r s i m i l a r l y warns u s  against  "mythologies"  of  which a l l b e l i e  paradigms"—that  " M e a n i n g and U n d e r s t a n d i n g  is,  the  i n the  general  study  danger  of  of our preconceptions  in  suc-  texts,  "the  priority  determining  our  perceptions.^ As f a r limiting  as  the  I  can t e l l , to  texts of  should apply equally  particularly nature of  no c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n s  f o r c e and a p p l i c a t i o n o f  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n they  there are  i n the  to  the  the  such c r i t e r i a  past.  study  absence of a  of our  scholarly  the  individual's contribution.  can c r i t i c i s m  c l a i m to be w e l l i n f o r m e d ,  ly  concerns  study,  rather  I have  t h a n some u l t e r i o r  tried  to  I n the  of  adequacy  first  instance,  contemporaries,  consensus  as  Only then, the  for  I  product  motive.  to  believe,  of  I n the  the  scholar-  following  a b i d e by t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s whenever  pos-  sible. As a f i e r c e little  doubt  feration of his  realm of  t h a t P o p p e r h i m s e l f has  since  thought. it  Ironically,  given Popper's  was H e g e l who p e r h a p s  systems t y p i c a l l y "they  owe t h e i r 7  gone b e f o r e . " thing Hegelian, Hegel's  origins  however,  insight,for  the  role  hostility  that  different  "one-sided"  a reaction  against  have  t h e most p r o m i n e n t that  thinkers positive  "enemies"  have  to  proli-  to  Popper  nature  fashion what for  has every-  agree of  played i n  seeks to  his  philoso-  features  and p h i l o s o p h i c i d e a s . ideals  the  best understood, the  i n such a to  to  be  interpretations  P o p p e r would s u r e l y  one o f  the  treatment of other argue that  evolve  there can  Notwithstanding h i s profound d i s t a s t e  own p h i l o s o p h y i s I  ideas,  contributed  s u c h a phenomenon when he o b s e r v e d  phic  3,  i n the  o f p o l a r i s e d and t y p i c a l l y o n e - s i d e  philosophy, of  gladiator  In  with his  his  Chapter  defend  are  X  essentially  those o f  the Enlightenment,  physical  structure  (and l i m i t a t i o n s )  putative  "enemies"  is  design.  As f a r  I  about  Popper's  assault If  as  i n this  cultural  connection  ideals  vision,  study w i l l  achieved.  have been that  of  the  other  and f o r m a l i s t s ,  contextualists,  on the  and a p p r e c i a t i o n pursued i n the of  the  cal  and s u p p o r t s  t h e n one o f  related  studies  on the  the  present  Popper's  context.  from w i t h i n an e s s e n t i a l l y ly  i l l u m i n a t i n g i n ways  present I  am s u r e  p r i m a r y aims o f  transcendenand  understanding than  been' t r u e  of l i b e r a l  the  those  politi-  "deontological"  future  studies  of  and " m o d i f i c a t i o n o f u t i l i t a r i a n i s m " Kantian perspective  f a r beyond the  am a l s o not  of  the  belief,  found i t s  scope  will  prove.equal-  and d e s i g n o f  the  i n w h i c h P o p p e r was  raised  the  into  this  preliminary references  7»  Seldom have  would deepen, to  rather  such f a c t o r s  creativity,  conducive  By t h e to  the  indeed " r e v o l u t i o n s " ,  and s p a c e a l l o w e d , I and f o r g e  youth.  the  I  believe  foundations  as  same t o k e n , sort of so  than  fur-  1,  supports  they  2 and  necesto  were i n  seldom has  intellectual a b i l i t y to  subthe  a  ferment,  t y p i c a l of our age.  that Popper's  milieux  contradict,  weak a n d v u l n e r a b l e  v e r s i o n b o t h f r o m w i t h i n and f r o m w i t h o u t been as  that  i n Chapters  c u l t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  f o r g e n u i n e l i b e r a l i s m b e e n as  Vienna of Popper's  study,  research  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l  the  the  b a se d upon a good d e a l o f  way d i r e c t l y  ther i n q u i r i e s into  milieu,  our  variety  this  still-evolving  certainly  that  unity  interpretation.  t h a t has  sary  T h i s has  equally Kantian i n complexion,  "consequentialism"  society.  sustaining  p h i l o s o p h y i n ways o t h e r  philosophy of John Rawls.^ I  and  of Western  i n the  other—would enlarge  of Popper's  written  one h a n d , and h i s t o r i c i s t s  debate concerning a d i f f e r e n t  theory  their  crisis  debate between K a n t i a n i s m and H e g e l i a n i s m — b e t w e e n talists  on  know, v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g h a s b e e n  and h e a t o f P o p p e r ' s  assume  meta-  o f . h i s assault  such a d i s c u s s i o n succeeds i n a m p l i f y i n g the  I  the  p r o f o u n d l y K a n t i a n i n i n s p i r a t i o n and  thought  upon the  and t h a t  If  time  discern  o f o r d e r l y g r o w t h i n m i n d and  society  xi amidst such a k a l e i d o s c o p e of i n t e l l e c t u a l chaos would stand out as a l l the more remarkable, of y e t - t o - b e - e x p l o r e d  and e n r i c h our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  expanses o f i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y and  contemporary s o c i a l t h e o r y — c o n t r a s t s example,  and convergences,  w i t h the work o f l i b e r a l compatriots  such as  for Joseph  Schumpeter, Hans K e l s e n , P a u l L a z a r s f e l d , and F r i e d r i c h Hayek. The f a c t t h a t "enemies" have p l a y e d such a prominent r o l e i n P o p p e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y i s c e r t a i n l y not an unmixed b l e s s i n g when i t comes to the h i s t o r y o f i d e a s ,  t e n d i n g as i t does  to-  wards a M a n i c h e a n - l i k e "good guys and bad guys" forma m e n t i s . Ironically,  it  thus tends towards p r e c i s e l y the s o r t o f a n a -  c h r o n i s t i c approach to o t h e r t h i n k e r s that I have t r i e d to cue P o p p e r ' s thought from at c e r t a i n  res-  stages o f t h i s s t u d y .  But,  except i n p a s s i n g , l i t t l e i s s a i d here about the obvious l i m i tations  and i n a d e q u a c i e s o f P o p p e r ' s approach to e a r l i e r  sophers and i d e a s , f o r a good d e a l o f the secondary  philo-  literature  t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t s exposes these problems i n h i s thought  at  great l e n g t h . B e a r i n g a l l t h i s i n mind, what f o l l o w s i s p r i m a r i l y a c o n structive  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of P o p p e r ' s attempt to conserve  the  i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral f o u n d a t i o n s o f the l i b e r a l way o f l i f e an e s s e n t i a l l y h o s t i l e environment. straints  That,  even w i t h i n the c o n -  o f such a p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e  ample need and room f o r c r i t i c i s m  design, there  w i l l be c l e a r at  is  several  stages o f what f o l l o w s , but t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case i n Chapter 7 when the l a r g e r me.  in  task o f " l i g h t i n g the way" i s behind  xii NOTES 1  F o r an extended r e v i e w o f the secondary l i t e r a t u r e on t h o u g h t , see my " M a s o n s , E v a n g e l i s t s , a n d H e r e t i c s i n C a t h e d r a l " , Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 8 4 (Forthcoming).  Popper's Popper's  2  The most r e c e n t example o f s u c h a n a p p r o a c h P o p p e r and A f t e r ( O x f o r d , 1 9 8 2 ) .  is  David  Stove,  3  F o r a treatment o f P o p p e r ' s thought a l o n g these l i n e s , see T . E . B u r k e , The P h i l o s o p h y o f P o p p e r ( M a n c h e s t e r , 1983). Q u e n t i n S k i n n e r , "Meaning and U n d e r s t a n d i n g i n the H i s t o r y o f I d e a s " , H i s t o r y a n d T h e o r y , V I I I ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 3 - 5 3 , a n d "Some P r o b lems i n t h e A n a l y s i s o f P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t a n d A c t i o n , " P o l i t i c a l T h e o r y , I I ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 2 7 9 - 2 8 5 ; John Dunn, "The I d e n t i t y o f the H i s t o r y o f I d e a s " , P h i l o s o p h y ( A p r i l , 1 9 6 8 ) , 8 5 - 1 0 4 ; and J . G . A . P o c o c k , P o l i t i c s , L a n g u a g e , a n d T i m e (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 ) . 5  John Dunn, ix.  The P o l i t i c a l  Thought o f John Locke  (Cambridge, 1 9 6 9 )  6  Q u e n t i n S k i n n e r , "Meaning and U n d e r s t a n d i n g I d e a s " , op. c i t . , 6.  i n the  History  of  7  W a l t e r K a u f m a n n , " T h e H e g e l M y t h and I t s M e t h o d " , The P h i l o s o p h i c a l Review ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 1 ) , r e p r i n t e d i n h i s H e g e l ' s P o l i t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 0 ) , 1 3 8 . 8  On t h i s a s p e c t o f R a w l s ' p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y , see M i c h a e l J . L i b e r a l i s m and the L i m i t s o f J u s t i c e (Cambridge, 1982).  Sahdel,  9  F o r e x a m p l e , see R. B a m b r o u g h . e d . , P o p p e r , P l a t o and P o l i t i c s ( C a m b r i d g e a n d New Y o r k , 1 9 6 7 ) ; W a l t e r K a u f m a n n , o p . c i t . ; and Ronald B . L e v i n s o n , I n Defense o f P l a t o (Cambridge, M a s s . , 1 9 5 3 ) .  - 1 -  CHAPTER 1 Introduction  . . . o u r p o l i t i c a l i d e a s a n d what we c a l l t h e r e s t o f o u r i d e a s a r e n o t i n f a c t two i n d e p e n d e n t w o r l d s , ... t h o u g h t h e y majy come t o u s a s s e p a r a t e t e x t a n d c o n t e x t , t h e meaning l i e s , as i t a l w a y s must l i e , i n a u n i t y i n which t h e s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e o f t e x t and context i s resolved. M i c h a e l Oakeshott When we b e g i n t o s t u d y t h e i m m e d i a t e h i s t o r i c a l backg r o u n d o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p h i l o s o p h y we e n c o u n t e r a c u r i o u s fact.;: one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p a r t s o f t h i s background i s p r e c i s e l y the disappearance o f t h i s background from o u r f i e l d o f v i s i o n . W. W. B a r t l e y , III i Since time immemorial, fundamental c r i s e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and p o l i t i c a l  o r i e n t a t i o n have s e t t h e s t a g e f o r o u r most en-  d u r i n g v i s i o n s o f man a n d s o c i e t y .  Plato's Republic, the f i r s t  g r e a t p a r a d i g m o f W e s t e r n p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , was a d i r e c t ponse  res-  t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l breakdown o f t h e A t h e n i a n p o l i s .  he r e c o u n t s i n h i s S e v e n t h  As  Epistle,  . . . o u r c i t y was no l o n g e r a d m i n i s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e s t a n d a r d s and p r a c t i c e s o f o u r f a t h e r s . . .. , t h e w r i t t e n l a w a n d t h e c u s t o m s were b e i n g c o r r u p t e d a t a n a s t o u n d i n g r a t e , [ a n d ] I, who a t f i r s t had been f u l l o f eagerness f o r a p u b l i c c a r e e r , as I gazed upon t h e w h i r l p o o l o f p u b l i c l i f e a n d saw t h e i n c e s s a n t movement o f s h i f t i n g currents, a t l a s t f e l t dizzy.2 S i m i l a r l y , a n e q u a l l y p r o f o u n d sense t h a t t h e i r " w o r l d had become d e r a n g e d " was t h e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e b e h i n d t h e t h o u g h t o f as d i v e r s e a group as M a r s i l i u s o f Padua, M a c h i a v e l l i , B o d i n , H o b b e s , L o c k e , T o c q u e v i l l e , a n d M a r x , t o name a f e w o f t h e more o b v i o u s  illustrations.^  As i s w e l l known b y now, d u r i n g t h e c l o s i n g d e c a d e s o f t h e l a s t century, an equally disturbing r i f t  began to develop be-  tween what L i o n e l T r i l l i n g has  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "the master  i d e a o f the modern age"  and  which i t o r i g i n a l l y was  expected to f i n d e x p r e s s i o n .  had  the dominant i n s t i t u t i o n s  through If i t  become a commonplace c e r t i t u d e s i n c e the Renaissance to  assume t h a t "what the mind might, encompass o f knowledge o f  the  physical universe  hu-  man  existence,  in political naive  and  has  a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon the q u a l i t y of  ...  t h a t mind can, and  l i f e " , ^ by the 1870s and  should be  80s,  few but  the most  o f t h i n k e r s c o u l d escape the seeds o f r a d i c a l doubt  that were b e g i n n i n g to s u r f a c e with r e s p e c t As  decisive  the  to these  claims.  juggernaut o f an "emancipated s c i e n c e " pushed Western  society's apparently  irreversible  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n to new  i t s most s e n s i t i v e students began to v o i c e profound about the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t that such "progress"  was  heights,  reservations h a v i n g upon  a l l a u t h o r i t i e s , whether o f a r e l i g i o u s , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , o r 5  poli-  t i c a l v a r i e t y . N i e t z s c h e observed w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n s i g h t , "...  i t i s the d i s o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s t h a t g i v e our age i t s  character." Amidst what A r n o l d H a u l t a i n ( f o r many years p e r s o n a l t a r y to Goldwin Smith, and as the " r a t h e r smug" and century,  a s c h o l a r i n h i s own  w i t h i t s v e r i t a b l e c u l t of m a t e r i a l progress and  cent h i s t o r i a n o f the p e r i o d )  "to assume that i n any  t i v e s , were s u s c e p t i b l e to r a t i o n a l argument." nue  sure,  large  ments i n t h e i r standard  of l i v i n g ,  industrial capitalism.  But,  i n one  and  concrete  brought on by intellectual  demo-  For a b r i e f  the masses seemed content to reap and  the s t r u g g l e f o r the m a t e r i a l gains  a  (to quote a r e -  were f r e e to choose, were conscious o f t h e i r own 7  time, to be  19th  and u n c r i t i c a l p o s i -  t i v i s m , i t i n c r e a s i n g l y became more d i f f i c u l t gree men  right) recalled  "myopic" assumptions o f the l a t e  n e a r l y u n i v e r s a l worship o f a mechanistic  secre-  conti-  improve-  the march o f community  a f t e r another, a "growing s e n s i t i v i t y to [ t h e ] d i s s o l v i n g c e r t a i n t i e s " o f the two  preceding  c e n t u r i e s " d i s p l a c e d the  axis  -  3  -  o f s o c i a l thought" to such a degree t h a t even the courageous Max  Weber had  l i e s ahead o f us, but and  to confess  that "not  summer's bloom  r a t h e r a p o l a r n i g h t o f i c y darkness  hardness, no matter which group may  now".  soberly-  triumph e x t e r n a l l y  Caught i n the d i s i l l u s i o n i n g g r i p s o f the newly d i s -  covered worlds o f i t s own  c o n d i t i o n i n g - whether o f a Dar-  winian, N i e t z s c h e a n , Marxian, Durkheimian, o r F r e u d i a n r i e t y - an embattered reason stood the b r i n k " and  was  va-  " s h i v e r i n g timorously  at  " o b l i g e d to walk a r a z o r ' s edge" between II  the d i s c r e d i t e d n a i v e t i e s and century  confident  optimism o f the  18th  (what C a r l y l e l a t e r d e c r i e d as the "mechanical  o f h i s own  day  and  age)  and  spirit"  the h o r r o r s o f the i r r a t i o n a l  for-  ces o f d e s t r u c t i o n t h a t seemed to l i e i n the immediate f u t u r e . ^ Doubts t h a t the worst of i n t e l l e c t u a l f e a r s had gerated  were q u i c k l y d i s p e l l e d as one  other was order,  b a t t e r e d by  European power a f t e r an-  the u n p a r a l l e l l e d f o r c e s o f s o c i a l  economic c r i s i s , and  f i x e d on the moral and  l i z e d i n France d u r i n g the  dis-  i n s t i t u t i o n a l decay t h a t accom-  panied the events o f the 1880s and'90s. meter was  been exag-  Whether one's baro-  political crisis  that  crystal-  tumult o f the D r e y f u s - a f f a i r ,  or  on the r a d i c a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l  ideolo-  g i e s and  provoked  p r a c t i c e s t h a t the mounting " s o c i a l q u e s t i o n "  throughout Europe ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l a t e d e v e l o p i n g economies of C e n t r a l and Southern Europe f o l l o w i n g the Great D e p r e s s i o n o f 10 1873-96),  o r on the a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n t r i v e d (and  hence v u l -  n e r a b l e ) n a t u r e o f the regimes which n a t i o n a l u n i f i c a t i o n "had endowed upon Germany, I t a l y , and darkness" seemed i n e s c a p a b l e . a l t h o u g h s c h o l a r s and a firmer foundation and  19th  century  d i s c u s s i o n s and  the Habsburg Empire, the " i c y  Indeed, i t was  i n t e l l e c t u a l s may  a t hand.  have hoped to  Thus, provide  f o r a s c i e n c e o f s o c i e t y than t h e i r  p r e d e c e s s o r s had a c h i e v e d , t h e i r  18th  searching  l e a r n e d d i s p u t a t i o n s were r u d e l y cut s h o r t  " f o r c e s prepared to raze r a t h e r than r e f u r b i s h the ment's house o f i n t e l l e c t "  1 1  s e i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y  as  Enlightenand  trans-  of p o l i t i c s  4 -  formed the  nature  from a debate and p u b l i c  logue into  unbridled aggression  and c r u d e  H a v i n g w i t n e s s e d mass d e s t r u c t i o n blunting of so-called  conscience  Great  War,  chauvinism.  and a  on an unprecedented  by t h e  European i n t e l l e c t u a l s  1930s  dia-  concomitant  scale  during  the  "an increasing  number  of  were c o n c l u d i n g t h a t a n a t t i t u d e  of  12 political  commitment  was  the  only possible  f o r hope o f b r i n g i n g t h e  best  sophes  p o l i t i c a l turmoil of  study  to  bear  examines  the  l o g y o f one o f of  upon the social  last  number o f  h i m s e l f as  ideals  one o f  t h e most  already  of our  time",  and a n o t h e r  i n the  the  fields  b e e n h a i l e d as  philosophy, social  argued  champions crisis  spanning a thinkers  perhaps that  established of our  "the  " n o b o d y c a n do without  science  and h i s t o r y ,  considers  more p r a c t i c a l ,  medicine,  n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , b i o l o g y , and g e o g r a p h y ) ,  sive. ^ cine  and, h i m s e l f , writes,  philosopher of to  "I  the  of  t h i n k Popper i s  science  John E c c l e s ,  testifies  a keen student t h a t has  another  the  Nobel p r i z e  and  greatest  same v e i n ,  i n neurophysiology,  of Popper's  "my s c i e n t i f i c  list  impres-  thought  I n the  as  for medi-  incomparably the been."  one  (such  t h e more  scientific  Nobel Laureate  immense i m p a c t  r e s e a r c h when he w r i t e s ,  ever  the  logic,  quantum If  endeavor  grows a l l  S i r P e t e r Medawar,xwinner o f  practice, Sir  and m a t h e m a t i c s ) . ^  from noted a u t h o r i t i e s  terms  metaphysics,  and p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , a p p l i e d areas of  serious  c o m i n g to  evolutionary  tributes  cen-  John Locke  mechanics,  of  in  seemingly  Popper has  ideas  social  theory,  This  and methodo-  work ( t h o s e m e n t i o n e d b e i n g e p i s t e m o l o g y , science,  philo-  age.  endured t h i s  significant has  basis  Popper.  t o u c h e d by h i s  philosophies of  ancient  have  f i e l d s of i n q u i r y ,  He h a s  with his  to  f o u r decades,and  tury. work"  the  the  and p o l i t i c a l thought  o p t i m i s m , S i r K a r l R.  D u r i n g the endless  t r a d i t i o n of  and  t h e most p r o l i f i c and c o n t r o v e r s i a l  such Enlightenment  political  i n the  choice"  writings  l i f e owes  on h i s  so much  to  my c o n v e r s i o n i n 1 9 4 5 .  .  . to P o p p e r ' s t e a c h i n g on the c o n -  duct o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  . . .  I have endeavoured to f o l l o w  Popper i n the f o r m u l a t i o n and i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f f u n d a mental problems i n n e u r o b i o l o g y " . winner,  Yet another Nobel p r i z e -  the noted mathematician and t h e o r e t i c a l  S i r Hermann B o n d i , has exclaimed t h a t , science  astronomer,  "There i s no more to  than i t s method, and there i s no more to i t s method 15  than Popper has s a i d " . f l u e n c e on contemporary  Summing up the range o f P o p p e r ' s i n thought and c u l t u r e ,  and n o t i n g t h a t  t h i s even extends to a r t h i s t o r i a n s o f g r e a t s t a t u r e (such as E . H . Gombrich) and l e a d i n g p o l i t i c i a n s (the  instances  cited  b e i n g the l a t e Anthony C r o s l a n d and B r i t a i n ' s S i r Edward B o y l e ) , Bryan Magee s t a t e s simply t h a t h i s impact i s "unapproached by that o f any E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p h i l o s o p h e r now l i v i n g . " F o r those o f us who are p r i m a r i l y students and s o c i e t y , though l e s s  of p o l i t i c s  P o p p e r ' s w r i t i n g s have been e q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t the o b j e c t  o f systematic  study than o t h e r  facets  17  o f h i s thought.  ' I n h i s biography of K a r l Marx, S i r I s a i a h  B e r l i n has d e s c r i b e d one o f the two o f P o p p e r ' s s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d "war e f f o r t s " ,  The Open S o c i e t y and I t s  Enemies  as  (1945),  work o f e x c e p t i o n a l o r i g i n a l i t y and power . . . .  "a  provid[ing]  the most s c r u p u l o u s and f o r m i d a b l e c r i t i c i s m o f the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l d o c t r i n e s o f Marxism by any l i v i n g w r i 1 ft ter.  W r i t i n g i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n to the F i r s t S e r i e s o f  P h i l o s o p h y , P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y e s s a y s ,  Peter Laslett  c r i b e s Popper as "perhaps the most i n f l u e n t i a l o f p h i l o s o p h e r s who have addressed themselves  the  des-  contemporary 19  to p o l i t i c s " .  J  Upon i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1 9 5 7 , P o p p e r ' s o t h e r major work i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l theory,  The Poverty o f H i s t d r i c i s m , was p r o -  claimed by A r t h u r K o e s t l e r to be " p r o b a b l y the o n l y book publ i s h e d t h i s y e a r which w i l l o u t l i v e t h i s c e n t u r y " , and has s i n c e become the o b j e c t o f two recent books c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h i s 20 claim. H i s views c o n c e r n i n g the u n i t y o f s c i e n t i f i c method  and the in  the  role  so-called hypothetico-deductive  s o c i a l as  staples  to  political place  of  w e l l as  considerable scientists,  their  6 -  the n a t u r a l numbers o f  sciences  explanations  have  economists,  become  sociologists,  and even a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  w i s h i n g to  d i s c i p l i n e s o n a more c r e d i b l e a n d  sophisticated  21 scientific  foundation.  o f l i b e r a l i s m as tation to  And h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  an "open s o c i e t y "  of a f a l l i b i l i s t  has been r e f e r r e d appropriate defense ment,  to  a "piece-meal  metaphysical perspective" yet  t h e s e commentators  to  adop-  and k n o w l e d g e ,  social  technology",  o n more t h a n one o c c a s i o n a s  of l i b e r a l values  so  p r e d i c a t e d upon the  v i e w o f human n a t u r e  be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a s  conception  a n d "most  be a d v a n c e d -  "the  ideally  formidable" a vast  c l a i m , upon John S t u a r t  improve-  Mill's  22 philosophy. Popper's has  work h a s  always been c o n t r o v e r s i a l ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y been the  o f p o l i t i c a l thought  case with h i s  and the  Amongst p h i l o s o p h e r s ,  it  has  logic of  generations of  the  scholars  same r e a s o n s ,  substance ly),  of  of his  aspects  greatly  of Popper's to  many o t h e r tory  fields  where  the  justificationism, c l a s h at  every  succinctly hot  i  or  intellectual effect,  forces  that  of  one  one may n o t  same,  that  a n d f o r many  style  appear  to  credence  observed,  to  i n Popper's  hands the  c o l d responses  i n his  sort of writer  readers,  so  hisbattle-  fallibilism  A s one p o l i t i c a l the  the  case w i t h Kant and  r e a s o n and p a s s i o n ,  "Popper i s  short-  have  o f method become v e r i t a b l e  turn.  the  be e x p l o r e d  h i s t o r i c i s m a n d i n d e t e r m i n i s m , a n d so  conceivable  future  I n a d d i t i o n to  and l e n d  A s had b e e n t h e  and q u e s t i o n s  history  sciences.  growing signs  ideas.  Enlightenment f i g u r e s ,  of ideas  i n the  social  (some o f w h i c h w i l l  this  comparison with Kant.  but  s a y much t h e  of Popper's  thought  contributed  Kant,  There are  will  the  this  f r e q u e n t l y been s a i d t h a t  may p h i l o s o p h i s e f o r o r a g a i n s t philosophise without him.  studies  and  for his is  and  on,  theorist who  produces  self-admittedly  a combative  prose."  23 J  7 -  Thus, i n the second o f h i s three major  I volumes o f essays on epistemology and methodology, C o n j e c t u r e s and R e f u t a t i o n s ;  The Growth o f S c i e n t i f i c Knowledge  Popper f r a n k l y admits  (1963),  that " l i k e many o t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r s I am  a t times i n c l i n e d to c l a s s i f y p h i l o s o p h e r s as b e l o n g i n g to two main groups - those w i t h whom I d i s a g r e e and those who agree 24 w i t h me."  S m a l l wonder, then, t h a t , while some have h a i l e d  ' Popper as " t h i s c e n t u r y ' s Locke", and as propounding metaphysics"  the " i d e a l  o f a l i b e r a l s o c i e t y , o t h e r s have been most im-  pressed by d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed i m p l i c a t i o n s and h a b i t s o f his  thought. One well-known student o f p o l i t i c a l thought,  has complained  o f "the a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f Popper's  f o r example, fundamental  p r i n c i p l e s " , t h a t "the use o f 'we' employed throughout [The Open S o c i e t y ] takes on an i n s i d i o u s tone f o r a l l who a r e not o f the charmed community" o f C r i t i c a l R a t i o n a l i s m , and that h i s l i b e r a l m e l i o r i s m " s a n c t i o n s a dangerous e x t e n s i o n o f the 25 interventionist state."  From a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t  perspec-  t i v e , s e v e r a l s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s have charged t h a t Popper has p r o v i d e d a " j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the c u l t o f empiricism and pragmatic c o n s e r v a t i s m " and a "comprehensive defense o f the adminis t r a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i s t s - indeed a manifesto f o r them, no l e s s " 26 e f f e c t i v e f o r b e i n g unread by many who most p r o f i t from i t . I n s h o r t , i t appears  that  , p r e c i s e l y as Kant had done a cen-  t u r y and a h a l f b e f o r e , Popper has p o l a r i s e d the thought o f h i s contemporaries  and t h a t o f a t l e a s t the next g e n e r a t i o n  oh the most p r e s s i n g questions o f modern l i f e :  What can I  know?, What ought I to do?, and What may I hope f o r ?  Not c o -  i n c i d e n t a l l y , from the s t a n d p o i n t o f u l t i m a t e l y a s s e s s i n g Popper's s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l thought and methodology, these happen to be Kant's one o f  three g r e a t q u e s t i o n s , each the s u b j e c t o f  h i s monumental C r i t i q u e s .  I n the l e a d i n g s t a n z a o f the f i n a l chapter to P o l i t i c s and  -  Vision,  Sheldon Wolin notes  c e n t and contemporary  8  that  conceptions  risky undertaking f u l l  -  "to  describe adequately  o f what i s  o f the p i t f a l l s that  re-  political is come f r o m  a  stan-  ii 07 d i n g so c l o s e the  to  events  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  case o f a t h i n k e r as  Popper, cally  influential  of  events.  and c o n t r o v e r s i a l  s u c h r i s k s must n o t o n l y be a c k n o w l e d g e d b u t  addressed.  Perhaps  t h e most n o t a b l e  lapse  into  a type of  | roring his current  r i s k stems f r o m  teria  of  noted  this  "whiggish presentism",  s u c c e s s and t o d a y ' s  evaluation.  as  specifi-  t e n d e n c y o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f commentary o n h i s to  In  most  the  thought  simply m i r -  fashionable  I n c r e a s i n g numbers o f o b s e r v e r s  cri-  have  t e n d e n c y when t h e y l a m e n t P o p p e r ' s h a v i n g become  a  " c u l t f i g u r e " whose d i s c i p l e s have v i e d f o r t h e m a s t e r ' s m a n t l e a n d d o c t r i n e s h a v e b e e n s c r u t i n i z e d as much f o r h e r e s y as f o r 29 error." quite  Similarly,  a w e l l - k n o w n p h i l o s o p h e r who i s  f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o w a r d much o f P o p p e r ' s  writes  that,  " a l l t o o many o f  the  contributors  otherwise  thought  [to  the L i b r a r y  o f L i v i n g P h i l o s o p h e r s v o l u m e s ] come u n c o m f o r t a b l y c l o s e grovelling."^  H e n r y V e a t c h g o e s so  f a r as  to  " T i m e was when o n l y a pope was deemed a f i t a line  of  demarcation [between  b u t nowadays t h i s  observe  that  o f f i c e r to  d i f f e r e n t modes o f  to  draw  experience];  o n e - t i m e p a p a l f u n c t i o n would a p p e a r  to  have  II "5 1  d e v o l v e d upon a u n b l u s h i n g and ever the a p p r o p r i a t e responses ideas, his  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r these u n c r i t i c a l ,  to P o p p e r ' s  ourselves,  viously,  the  t h o u g h t may b e ,  and our p o s t e r i t y  same i s  e v e n more  thought and p o r t r a y  nor a c a r e f u l  ready S i r K a r l .  student  it  as  true  triumphalist  I b e l i e v e they  a great of  those  Whatever  J  do h i s  disservice. who  Ob-  caricature  something that n e i t h e r  o f h i s work w o u l d r e c o g n i z e  as  Popper his  actual  views. One ( a d m i t t e d l y  imperfect  and d i f f i c u l t  of a v o i d i n g these p i t f a l l s , or at to  least  to  execute)  the worst  c o n d u c t o u r d i s c u s s i o n , whenever p o s s i b l e , a s  critique -  taking Popper's  premises  and i d e a s  as  of  means  them,  is  a n immanent o u r own a n d  - 9 submitting of  them to  reason.  the  facts  constitutes  for  larly  a gain,  thought  overriding port  concern.  point  the  way to  lives  on,  as  f o r any  a limiting  complexion of will  points  of  optimism.  it  is  (CR:  entire  will  its  His early  theory  32).  life  is  ideally suited  be a r g u e d is  should it  that of  ideas  whatpoli-  and  ar-  A s we s h a l l  thought, this  essen-  task  t h a t a good d e a l o f  b e s t u n d e r s t o o d as  face of  tremendous  intellectual  of  i n the  inheres  i n the nature  of  title  challenges  that  and u n i f y i n g  theme o f  of)  its  thought,  the  analy-  air  of  this  success,  and i n c r e a s i n g l y  study itself  removed f r o m ( a n d ,  f r e q u e n t l y the v i c t i m o f i t s  s u r r o u n d e d by h o s t i l e ,  r e p u t a t i o n and f o l l o w i n g  sharpened our p e r c e p t i o n of  the  early  l i b e r a l discourse  ignorant  A great  to  to  1920s a n d  we s h a l l s e e  a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y so f a r  and i d e a s .  in  an attempt  be b e g i n n i n g t h e  historically  beginnings,  science  formation of h i s  will  contemporary  Popper's  c o n f i d e n c e and p o l i t i c a l  i n V i e n n a d u r i n g the  Ultimately,  contained  has  it  case". to  sup-  c o u l d be  take i t  of his  his  particu-  i n which  Popper's  structure  period that I  paradox  large  I  a "limiting  sense p i v o t a l i n the  with this  forces  "there  e p i s t e m o l o g y and p h i l o s o p h y o f  bases of  i n C h a p t e r 2.  social  He i s  than that  f u t u r e may b e ,  departure)  30s was i n e v e r y and i t  theory  which i s  considerable  own w o r k .  fact  appreciation  "more c o m p r e h e n s i v e " t h e o r i e s  l i b e r a l i s m i n the  traditional  .  the  growth.  work ( i n c l u d i n g h i s conserve  .  case"  Kantian i n nature,  Ultimately,  sis  .  indeed constitute  securing orderly  their  we f i n d  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  i n C h a p t e r 3» t h e  tially  tribunal  themselves  of l i b e r a l society  And, happily,  l i b e r a l i s m i n the  guments see  future  overall  q u o t i n g E i n s t e i n ' s view t h a t  destiny  the  and t h e  "Popperian"  i n the  such a b e l i e f i n Popper's  fond of  tical  not always  n o t .a l o s s ,  and t h e  no f a i r e r  ever  experience  I n l i g h t o f p r o c e e d i n g i n such a manner,  that our conclusions are of his  of  stems f r o m t h e these problems  hence, own  illiberal  deal of Popper's fact  deservedlythat  "from  -  he  within"  our Enlightenment h e r i t a g e -  i n t e r r o g a t i n g l i b e r a l i s m ' s own  u t i l i t a r i a n v o c a b u l a r y of d e s i r i n g by r e a s s e r t i n g mined demands o f a sobered,  combat-toughened  the  deter-  rationality.  Future h i s t o r i a n s o f p o l i t i c a l thought may thus d i s c e r n i n P o p p e r ' s work a s u s t a i n e d and sytematic r a l society  from i t s e l f ,  effort  as much as from i t s  expecting and a s k i n g too much o f p o l i t i c s ,  to save l i b e -  enemies -  from  from embracing  erroneous i d e a s and f a l s e i d o l s and, above a l l , from a s k i n g such q u e s t i o n s and b e l i e v i n g what we b e l i e v e i n the "wrong" o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y mistaken manner*  An e x p l o r a t i o n o f these  themes i s pursued i n Chapters 5 and 6 o f t h i s s t u d y . P o p p e r ' s own f a i t h i n the powers and progress  of  That  scientific  reason may be a t odds w i t h the maintenance and s u r v i v a l of the i n d i v i d u a l freedom and autonomy he so much c h e r i s h e s  will  be one o f the p r i n c i p a l paradoxes r a i s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l i b e r a l i s m i n my c o n c l u s i o n .  -  11 -  NOTES 1 M i c h a e l Oakeshott, I n t r o d u c t i o n to the L e v i a t h a n by Thomas Hobbes (Oxford, 1 9 4 6 ) , i x ; and W. W. B a r t l e y , I I I , "Theory of Language and P h i l o s o p h y o f Science as Instruments o f Educ a t i o n a l Reform: W i t t g e n s t e i n and Popper as A u s t r i a n S c h o o l t e a c h e r s " , i n R. S. Cohen and M. W. Wartofsky, eds., Boston S t u d i e s i n the P h i l o s o p h y o f S c i e n c e , V o l . XIV ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 307. 2 P l a t o , The C o l l e c t e d D i a l o g u e s , e d i t e d by E d i t h Hamilton and Huntington C a i r n s ( P r i n c e t o n , 1961), 1575 ( L e t t e r VII:325e). 3  Sheldon S. Wolin, "Paradigms and P o l i t i c a l T h e o r i e s " , i n P. K i n g and B. C. Parekh, eds., P o l i t i c s and E x p e r i e n c e (Cambridge, 1968), 147-8. ' 4 L i o n e l T r i l l i n g , Mind i n the Modern World (New York, 1 9 7 3 ) ,  6.  5 i  T h i s n o t i o n i s developed w i t h g r e a t s k i l l by M i c h a e l D. B i d d i s s , The Age o f the Masses: Ideas and S o c i e t y i n Europe S i n c e 1870 (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x England, 1977), Chapter 2. 6 F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , The W i l l to Power, t r a n s , by W. Kaufmann and R. J . H o l l i n g d a l e (New York, 1968), s e c t i o n 65 ( w r i t t e n between Nov., 1887 and March, 1888), 43. 7  H a u l t a i n i s quoted i n S. E. D. S h o r t t , The Search f o r an I d e a l : S i x Canadian I n t e l l e c t u a l s and T h e i r C o h v i c t i o n s i n an Age o f T r a n s i t i o n 1890-1930 (Toronto, 1976), 3: and M i c h a e l D. B i d d i s s , op. c i t . , 142. 8 H. S t u a r t Hughes, Consciousness and S o c i e t y (New York, 1958), I 66, and Max Weber, " P o l i t i c s As A V o c a t i o n " , i n H. G e r t h and C. W. M i l l s , eds., From Max Weber: Essays i n S o c i o l o g y (New York, 1946), 128, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 9  H. S t u a r t Hughes, i b i d . , 430, and Thomas C a r l y l e , " S i g n o f the Times", i n S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , e d i t e d by A. S h e l s t o n (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x England, 1971), 61-85, r e s p e c t i v e l y . :  10 Hans Rosenberg, " P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Consequences o f the Great D e p r e s s i o n o f 1873-1896 i n C e n t r a l Europe", Economic H i s t o r i c a l  -  12 -  Review, V o l . X I I I ( 1943), 58-73; c f . , George L i c h t h e i m , Europe i n the T w e n t i e t h Century (New York, 1972), 3-42 and 99-164, and R e i n h a r d Bendix, N a t i o n - B u i l d i n g and C i t i z e n s h i p (New York, 1969), Chapters 2, 3 and 6. 11  M i c h a e l D. B i d d i s s , op. c i t . , 143; c f . . Robert N i s b e t , H i s t o r y o f the Idea o f P r o g r e s s (New York, 1980), Chapter 9. 12 H. S t u a r t Hughes, op. c i t . , 402. The e f f e c t s o f these events on i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y i n Germany and A u s t r i a (Popper's main c u l t u r a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s a t the time) have been d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t l e n g t h by F r i t z K. Ringer, The D e c l i n e o f the German Mand a r i n s (Cambridge, Mass., 1969), 128-252, and by W i l l i a m M. Johns t o n i n h i s s e m i n a l study, The A u s t r i a n Mind: An I n t e l l e c t u a l and S o c i a l H i s t o r y 1848-1938 ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s , 1972), 76-111, 323-34, and 365-379. 13 Gerard R a d n i t z k y , Contemporary Schools o f M e t a s c i e n c e , T h i r d E d i t i o n ( t h r e e volumes i n one) (Chicago, 1973), 331. 14 F o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f Popper's i n f l u e n c e on contemporary b i o l o g y , see M i c h a e l Ruse, " K a r l Popper's P h i l o s o p h y o f B i o l o g y " , P h i l o sophy o f S c i e n c e , V o l . XXXXIV (1977), 638-661, and M e l v i n Cohn, " R e f l e c t i o n s on a D i s c u s s i o n w i t h K a r l Popper: The M o l e c u l a r Biology of Expectation", A l l - I n d i a I n s t i t u t e of Medical Science B u l l e t i n , V o l . I (1967), 8-16. Some o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e o f Popper's work on geography a r e d i s c u s s e d by James H. B i r d , " M e t h o d o l o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Geography from the P h i l o sophy o f K a r l R. Popper", S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l Magazine, V o l . LXXXXI( 1975), 153-6315 P e t e r Medawar, BBC Radio 3 t a l k o f 28 J u l y 1972, John E c c l e s , F a c i n g R e a l i t y (1970), and Hermann Bondi (no source g i v e n ) are a l l quoted by B r y a n Magee i n h i s b r i e f and e x c e s s i v e l y sympat h e t i c i n t r o d u c t i o n to Popper's thought, Popper (London, 1973), 9-10. 16 I b i d . , 10; c f . , h i s " K a r l Popper: The U s e f u l P h i l o s o p h e r " , H e r i t a g e , 1974, 52-57, and Edward B o y l e , " K a r l Popper's Open . S o c i e t y : A P e r s o n a l A p p r e c i a t i o n " , i n P a u l A. S c h i l p p , ed., ;'. The P h i l o s o p h y o f K a r l Popper (La S a l l e , 1974), V o l . I I , 843-58. 17 I n c r e d i b l y , Popper's s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l thought and methodology have y e t to be the s u b j e c t o f a s i n g l e p u b l i s h e d book. I n comp a r i s o n , d u r i n g the l a s t decade, there has been a v e r i t a b l e  -  13  -  f l o o d o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s members o f the F r a n k f o r t S c h o o l , some o f whom a r e among Popper's major t a r g e t s i n deb a t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e l o g i c o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . A c a s u a l (by no means e x h a u s t i v e ) p e r u s a l o f my b o o k s h e l f r e v e a l s some 14 such books ( ! ) . I n an o t h e r w i s e h e l p f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s thought, R o b e r t Ackermann goes so f a r as to doubt t h a t Popper has made any o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to " t h e o r e t i c a l debates about s o c i a l t h e o r y " , The P h i l o s o p h y o f K a r l Popper (Amherst, 1976)» 157« I n v i e w o f so v e r y many t e s t i m o n i a l s from w i t h i n the ranks o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t o t h e c o n t r a r y , i t would seem t h a t e i t h e r Ackermann's v i e w r e s t s on the c l a i m t o know more about t h e " t h e o r e t i c a l d i m e n s i o n " o f t h e i r work than they do, o r ( a s I s u s p e c t i s more l i k e l y the case) t h a t he o p e r a t e s w i t h an o v e r l y r e s t r i c t i v e and erroneous concept o f a t h i n k e r ' s o r i g i n a l i t y . A t l e a s t two u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n s e x i s t on Popper's t h o u g h t , b u t n e i t h e r has seen the l i g h t o f day s i n c e b e i n g completed. See C h a r l e s R. Embry, A C r i t i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Thought o f K a r l Popper (Duke U n i v e r s i t y , 1972), and J o e l K a s s i o l a , F a l l i b i l i s m and P o l i t i c a l Knowledge: A N o n - J u s t i f i c a t i o n i s t E p i s t e m o l o g y and I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Normative P o l i t i c a l Theory i n Our Contemporary Age D e s t i t u t e o f F a i t h ( P r i n c e t o n , 1974). F o r reasons b e t t e r l e f t to t h e body o f t h i s s t u d y , I do n o t s h a r e t h e assumptions o f e i t h e r o f these i n t e r e s t i n g works. 18  I s a i a h B e r l i n , K a r l Marx, H i s L i f e and Environment, T h i r d E d i t i o n (London, O x f o r d , and New Y o r k , 1963), 287. This' a l s o seems to have been t h e judgment o f G i l b e r t H y l e who r e p o r t e d l y s a i d t h a t w i t h the appearance o f The Open S o c i e t y , " M a r x i s t e x e g e s i s would n e v e r be t h e same a g a i n " . Quoted i n George A. F e a v e r , "Popper and Marxism", S t u d i e s i n Comparative Communism, J u l y - O c t o b e r , 1971, 21. 19  P e t e r L a s l e t t , I n t r o d u c t i o n to P h i l o s o p h y , P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y , F i r s t S e r i e s ( O x f o r d , 1956), x i i . 20  Quoted by B r y a n Magee, Popper, 13« The two s t u d i e s o f Popper's p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y r e f e r r e d to a r e P e t e r S k a g e s t a d , Making Sense o f H i s t o r y : The P h i l o s o p h i e s o f Popper and C o l l i n g w o o d ( O s l o , B e r g e n , and Troms, 1975;, and B u r l e i g h T. W i l k i n s , Has H i s t o r y Any Meaning? A C r i t i q u e o f Popper's P h i l o s o p h y o f H i s t o r y ( H a s s o c k s , Sussex, 1978). 21  To c i t e b u t a few examples from each o f the d i s c i p l i n e s mentioned i n t h e t e x t , s e e : T. W. H u t c h i s o n , Knowledge and Ignorance i n Economics ( C h i c a g o and O x f o r d , 1977), C h a p t e r s 3 and 4, and Mark B l a u g , The Methodology o f Economics (Cambridge, 1980), C h a p t e r s  -  14 -  1, 2 and 15; Stephen M e n n e l l , " S o c i o l o g y " , i n C. B. Cox and A. E. Dyson, eds., The Twentieth Century Mind; H i s t o r y , Ideas and L i t e r a t u r e i n B r i t a i n (London, 1972), 154-5 i n p a r t i c u l a r , and John O ' N e i l l , " S c i e n t i s m , H i s t o r i c i s m and the Problem o f R a t i o n a l i t y " , i n J . O ' N e i l l , ed., Modes o f I n d i v i d u a l i s m and C o l l e c t i v i s m (London, 1973), 3-26; David R i c c i , "Reading Thomas Kuhn i n the P o s t - B e h a v i o r a l E r a " , Western P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . XXX (March, 1977), 8-11, i n p a r t i c u l a r , and A l a n Ryan, "'Normal' S c i e n c e o r P o l i t i c a l Ideology?", i n P. L a s l e t t , W. G. Runciman, and Q. S k i n n e r , eds., P h i l o s o p h y , P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y , F o u r t h S e r i e s (Oxford, 1972), 86-100; and I . C. J a r v i e , The Revol u t i o n i n Anthropology, w i t h a Foreword by E r n e s t G e l l n e r (London, 1964), Chapters 1 and 6. 22 John N. Gray, "The L i b e r a l i s m o f K a r l Popper", Government and O p p o s i t i o n , V o l . XI (Summer, 1976), 354 and 339, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; c . f . , Anthony Quinton, " K a r l Popper: P o l i t i c s Without Essences", i n A. de C r e s p i g n y and K. Minogue, eds., Contemporary P o l i t i c a l P h i l o s o p h e r s (New York, 1975), 167: "Popper's aim i s d i r e c t l y continuous w i t h M i l l ' s , and the measure o f h i s s u p e r i o r i t y to M i l l i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s that o f the s u p e r i o r i t y o f the L o g i k der Forschung to M i l l ' s System o f L o g i c " . 23 George A. Feaver, op. c i t . ,  10.  24 Second E d i t i o n (New York, 1965), 228.  H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as  CR.  25 Dante Germino, " K a r l Popper's Open S o c i e t y " , The P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Reviewer, V o l . V I I I ( F a l l , 1978), 60-61; c . f . , h i s "Prel i m i n a r y R e f l e c t i o n s On the Open S o c i e t y : Bergson, Popper, V o e g e l i n " , i n D. Germino and K. von Beyme, eds., The Open Soc i e t y i n Theory and P r a c t i c e (The Hague, 1974), 12-20. 26 James P e t r a s , "Popperism: The S c a r c i t y o f Reason", S c i e n c e and S o c i e t y , V o l . XXX (1966), 1, and Norman Birnbaum, " S o c i a l Cons t r a i n t s and Academic Freedom", U n i v e r s i t i e s and L e f t Review, V o l . V (1958), 50. ~ 27  (Boston,  1960), 352.  28 George W. S t o c k i n g , J r . , E d i t o r i a l , "On the L i m i t s o f 'Present i s m ' and ' H i s t o r i c i s m ' i n the H i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f the B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s " , J o u r n a l o f the H i s t o r y o f the B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , V o l . I (1965), 211-218. ~"  -  29 D. H . M e l l o r , ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 195. |  15 -  " T h e P o p p e r Phenomenon",  Philosophy,  V o l . LII  30 J o h n K e k e s , o p . c i t . , 37; c . f . , A n t h o n y M . M a d i r o s , " K a r l Popper As a S o c i a l P h i l o s o p h e r " , C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . V ( S e p t . , 1975), 157, f o r a s i m i l a r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h " t h e l a c k o f c r i t i c a l b i t e " i n the S c h i l p p e s s a y s . 31 Henry V e a t c h , Apologetics",  " A N e g l e c t e d Avenue i n C o n t e m p o r a r y R e l i g i o u s R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , V o l . X I I I ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 31.  - 16  -  CHAPTER 2 A P o r t r a i t o f Popper's E a r l y L i f e and Times . . . from the c r i t i c i s m o f a t e x t to the c r i t i c i s m o f a s o c i e t y , the way i s s h o r t e r t h a n i t seems. , , , .1 — J o s e p h Schumpeter r  i K a r l Raimund Popper was b o r n i n J u l y , 1902, i n the Ober 3t. V e i t d i s t r i c t of Vienna. The o n l y son and youngest o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n o f Dr. Simon Siegmund C a r l and Jenny (nee S c h i f f ) Popper, he r e c a l l s h a v i n g been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements as w e l l as h i s mother's c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . H i s mother i s remembered as b e i n g v e r y m u s i c a l , h a v i n g heard Brahms, L i s z t , and Bulow p e r f o r m i n t h e i r p r i m e , and h a v i n g " p l a y e d M o z a r t and B e e t hoven v e r y s i m p l y and b e a u t i f u l l y " on the B o s e n d o r f e r c o n c e r t 2 grand i n t h e i r d i n i n g room. G i v e n h i s mother's f a m i l i a l background and e x t e n s i v e i n t e r e s t s i n c l a s s i c a l m u s i c , Popper n o t e s , " f o r a time - between the autumn o f 1920 and perhaps 1922 - I m y s e l f thought q u i t e s e r i o u s l y o f becoming a m u s i c i a n . But as w i t h so many o t h e r t h i n g s - mathematics, p h y s i c s , and c a b i n e t making - I f e l t i n the end I was not r e a l l y good enough".^ Hence, a f t e r a y e a r ' s s t u d y i n the V i e n n a K o n s e r v a t o r i u m ("Academy o f M u s i c " ) , Popper t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n and c o n s i d e r a b l e e n e r g i e s to o t h e r p u r s u i t s . S t i l l , to t h i s day, he c r e d i t s the e a r l y i n f l u e n c e o f c l a s s i c a l music and h i s "unbounded adm i r a t i o n f o r the g r e a t composers o f o l d " w i t h h a v i n g been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " a t l e a s t t h r e e i d e a s which i n f l u e n c e d me f o r life": one h a v i n g to do w i t h the c o n t r a s t between "dogmatic" and " c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g " and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f dogmas and t r a d i t i o n s , which stemmed from h i s e a r l y s t u d i e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y ; a n o t h e r h a v i n g to do w i t h what he f e l t was the "immensely i m p o r t a n t " d i f f e r e n c e between two k i n d s o f m u s i c a l comp o s i t i o n ( w h i c h he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y terms " o b j e c t i v e " and " s u b j e c t i v e " ) ; and, f i n a l l y , "a r e a l i z a t i o n o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l  -  poverty and and  17 -  d e s t r u c t i v e power of h i s t o r i c i s t ideas  i n the a r t s i n g e n e r a l " His f a t h e r was  ("IA," 42-3).  a p r o f e s s o r of law hut,  I i n h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l autobiography, "he s c h o l a r than a lawyer" ("IA", 6). h i s f a t h e r as "a poet, and  i n music  was  as Popper remarks r e a l l y more o f a  Elsewhere, he  describes  excellent c l a s s i c a l scholar  and  h i s t o r i a n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the H e l l e n i c p e r i o d which a c o n s i d e r a b l e was  to  p a r t o f h i s l i b r a r y o f ten thousand books  devoted.^ As Popper r e c a l l s , "there were books everywhere;  the atmosphere i n which I was ("IA", 5).  The  brought up was  decidedly  bookish"  q u a l i t i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y h i s f a t h e r seems to  have embodied i n c l u d e d a tremendous c a p a c i t y f o r l o n g hours o f hard work i n both h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l and "a l i g h t  touch and  activities,  s t r o n g sense of humour", a keen i n t e r e s t i n  " s o c i a l problems", and  a studied reluctance  views on those around him 6-7).  leisurely  to impose h i s  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s son)  Popper notes t h a t , l i k e most A u s t r i a n s ,  pected the Emperor", but,  politically,  "was  (cf.,  Indeed, i n 1904,  "IA",  his father "res-  a radical  liberal  o f the s c h o o l o f J . S. M i l l , and not a t a l l a supporter government". ("IA", 5).  own  of  the  Popper's f a t h e r wrote  what h i s son r e f e r s to as "a b r i l l i a n t p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e , Anno 1903"  under the pen name o f Siegmund K a r l P f l u n g , which  s e i z e d by  the p o l i c e on i t s p u b l i c a t i o n . . . and  the index o f p r o h i b i t e d books u n t i l apparently  never d i s c u s s e d  f a t h e r was  v e r y a c t i v e i n "two  1918"  remained  on  ( i b i d ) . Although  he  the matter w i t h h i s son,  a r e s u l t o f severe a g r i c u l t u r a l depressions o f the Empire and  continued  to mount.  mittees  Popper's  committees which were running  homes f o r the homeless", whose numbers continued provinces  "was  to s w e l l  as  i n the o u t l y i n g  as the l u r e o f employment i n Vienna  As Popper l e a r n e d l a t e r , one  ran "a freemasons l o d g e , f o r which he was  of those comf o r many y e a r s  the Master, which ran a home f o r orphans, w h i l e the o t h e r comm i t t e e (not masonic) b u i l t and f o r homeless a d u l t s and  administered  f a m i l i e s " (one  a large  institution  of whose "inmates"  was  A d o l f H i t l e r , d u r i n g h i s e a r l y years i n Vienna) ( i b i d ) . I r o n i -  -  cally,  I  18 -  g i v e n h i s o p p o s i t i o n to  the government  s h i p i n the  freemasons  ciety),  " o l d Emperor" h i m s e l f , F r a n z J o s e p h ,  the  Popper's his  father  into  contributions  to  (which at  the  Ritter  the  and h i s  t i m e was a n i l l e g a l  such c h a r i t a b l e  causes.  "certainly  started later  his  As a c h i l d ,  he n o t e s ,  puritanical,  even p r i g g i s h , though t h i s f e e l i n g that I  o f anybody except m y s e l f " feelings his  might c a l l a emotions tive  I  agitated in  memories", 'softy',  remember"  affluence  of abject that  it  the  "I  ("IA",  poverty  [with]  . to  suspect, .  sit  in  somewhat  and b e t t e r s "  "frequent  as  the  contrast  some  was s t i l l  a very  was a l m o s t  always at  the  of  Americans  strongest  to  the  o f h i s own s u r r o u n d i n g s ,  i n V i e n n a was one o f  tem-  judgement  He h i g h l i g h t s  In stark  de-  was p e r h a p s  c o m p a s s i o n one o f  (ibid).  he n o t e s  .  I  t h a t he was "what  me when I  same v e i n ,  was,  4).  and n o t e s  and c o m f o r t  philosophical develop-  had no r i g h t  o f a d m i r a t i o n f o r my e l d e r s  "earliest  for  5  t h a n my e m o t i o n a l and m o r a l  velopment". - p e r e d by t h e  so-  knighted  der F r a n z J o s e f Ordens  As f o r h i m s e l f , Popper r e c a l l s , ment  member-  rela-  "the  sight  the main problems which  small c h i l d -  so much so  b a c k o f my m i n d " .  Continuing  that:  few p e o p l e now l i v i n g i n one o f t h e W e s t e r n D e m o c r a c i e s know what p o v e r t y meant a t t h e beginning of this century; men, women, a n d c h i l d r e n s u f f e r i n g f r o m h u n g e r , c o l d , and h e l p l e s s n e s s ( " I A " , 4). P o p p e r was t w e l v e y e a r s o l d when t h e out,  and a s  aftermath  were,  development. pecially calls  he h a s  frequently pointed out,  i n every  respect,  p o l i t i c a l opinions" ("IA",  having been "staggered" supporters  of A u s t r i a ' s Serbia).  decisive  T h e y made me c r i t i c a l at  the  f o r m e r l y and " d e c i d e d l y p a c i f i s t " come  of  the  alliance  expansionist general  "the  8).  war a n d  its  opinions,  es-  Above a l l , Popper  sight  of  so many o f  swinging over  re-  his to  be-  b e t w e e n A u s t r i a and Germany and  p o l i c y i n the B a l k a n s  mood",  W o r l d War b r o k e  f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l  of accepted  friends  Though a d m i t t i n g t h a t h e ,  i n f e c t e d by t h e  First  this  too,  (especially  had become  lasted  but  "a  "a  few  little weeks",  a f t e r which time ( i . e . , d u r i n g the winter o f 1915-16) "I came convinced  be-  - under the i n f l u e n c e , no doubt, o f prewar  s o c i a l i s t propaganda - that the cause of A u s t r i a and Germany was  a bad cause and  t h e r e f o r e t h a t we  t h a t we  deserved to l o s e the war  (and  would l o s e i t , as I n a i v e l y argued)"  ("IA", 9 ) .  Throughout the next three to f o u r y e a r s , Popper p o i n t s out, Vienna was doom; gan  besieged  by rumours and a sense o f imminent  rumours about the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the Empire t h a t  to mount amid growing d e f e c t i o n s o f Czechs, S l a v s ,  I t a l i a n s from the A u s t r i a n army, "and  then we  about the death sentences f o r treason, and ted  and  heard rumours  the t e r r o r  direc-  by the A u s t r i a n a u t h o r i t i e s a g a i n s t people suspected  disloyalty"  ("IA", 9-10).  K a r l Kraus, one  l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s o f the p e r i o d captured and  be-  of  o f the l e a d i n g  t h i s sense of doom  defeat w e l l when he observed that A u s t r i a "served as a  dress r e h e a r s a l f o r the apocalypse"  - an o p i n i o n echoed by  one  o f the g r e a t A u s t r i a n n o v e l i s t s , Robert M u s i l , i n h i s  Man  Without Q u a l i t i e s . ^ F o r those who  c h e r i s h e d the  d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l i d e a l s o f peace, p r o g r e s s ,  tra-  and order,  these 7  indeed must have seemed l i k e "the l a s t days o f mankind." In the words o f a well-known h i s t o r i a n , the f o r c e s t h a t rose to  c h a l l e n g e , and u l t i m a t e l y p r e v a i l e d a g a i n s t the b e l a t e d  ascendancy o f l i b e r a l i s m i n A u s t r i a " c o u l d not f a i l an o b s e r v e r  who  to b a f f l e  viewed them through a l i b e r a l conceptual  screen  Q  and w i t h a l i b e r a l ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s It made one  was  of h i s t o r y . "  d u r i n g the l a s t y e a r o r so o f the war  that Popper  of the most s i g n i f i c a n t d e c i s i o n s o f h i s l i f e  o f h i s subsequent i n t e l l e c t u a l development.  Having s u f f e r e d  from an i l l n e s s f o r over two months, Popper " r e a l i z e d c l e a r l y what I had  f e l t i n my  ("IA", 23).  and hours o f hopeless  time:  ( c a l l e d "Gym-  nasium" and h o r r i b i l e d i c t u - "Realgymnasium") we that much o f the t e a c h i n g "was  very  bones f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e  that i n our famous A u s t r i a n secondary s c h o o l s our time s h o c k i n g l y "  i n terms  were wasting  As he p o i n t s out,  the  fact  b o r i n g i n the extreme - hours  t o r t u r e " was  c e r t a i n l y "not new  to  me",  - 20 -  but, upon h i s r e t u r n from h i s convalescence, my  c l a s s had made .hardly any p r o g r e s s ,  which had been the one t i n g and  he "found t h a t  even i n mathematics,"  s u b j e c t i n which he had  t r u l y i n s p i r i n g teacher". i t made me  By h i s own  "an i n t e r e s accounts,  "this  was  the eye-opener:  eager to l e a v e s c h o o l " ( " I A " ,  The  f o l l o w i n g y e a r brought d e f e a t to the C e n t r a l Powers i n the  war  and  the imposed d i s s o l u t i o n of the Empire, the  o f which, he now grown up"  r e c a l l s , "destroyed  the world  s c h o o l and he  aftermath  i n which I  ( i b i d ) . T h i s gave Popper the o p p o r t u n i t y  24).  had  to l e a v e  eagerly seized i t .  Popper notes " i t was p o l i t i c a l ones".  a time of upheavals, though not  Runaway i n f l a t i o n , famine, and  hunger r i o t s were the o r d e r o f the day  i n what he  only  widespread elsewhere  Q  r e c a l l s as " s t a r v i n g post-war Vienna". little  was  to eat; and as f o r c l o t h i n g , most o f us c o u l d a f f o r d  only d i s c a r d e d army uniforms, 24).  He notes "there  Few  adapted f o r c i v i l i a n use"  ("IA",  thought " s e r i o u s l y o f c a r e e r s - there were none"  (ex-  cept perhaps i n commerce, which never i n t e r e s t e d him  i n the  least).  times i n  Perhaps w i t h the marked c o n t r a s t to our own  mind, he c o n t i n u e s , sake o f s t u d y i n g .  "we  s t u d i e d not f o r a c a r e e r but f o r the  V/e s t u d i e d and we  discussed  politics"(ibid).  From the p o i n t o f view o f h i s subsequent v o c a t i o n a l success, i t i s most i n t e r e s t i n g to note Popper's r e c o l l e c t i o n t h a t : i f I thought o f a f u t u r e , I dreamt of one day founding a s c h o o l i n which young people c o u l d l e a r n without boredom, and would be s t i m u l a t e d to pose problems and. d i s c u s s them; a s c h o o l i n which no unwanted answers to unasked questions would have to be l i s t e n e d t o ; i n which one d i d not study f o r the sake of p a s s i n g examinations ("IA", 31). He  r e c a l l s having been " c l o s e enough to hear the  bullets  w h i s t l e when, on the o c c a s i o n o f the D e c l a r a t i o n o f the A u s t r i a n Republic,  s o l d i e r s s t a r t e d s h o o t i n g a t members o f the P r o -  v i s i o n a l Government assembled a t the top o f the steps l e a d i n g to the P a r l i a m e n t  b u i l d i n g " ("IA", 24).  Soon t h e r e a f t e r ,  - 21  -  Popper notes, "there began a p e r i o d of c o l d and  hot c i v i l  which ended w i t h H i t l e r ' s i n v a s i o n of A u s t r i a , and Second World War".  I t was  against  i n c e s s a n t p o l i t i c a l s t r i f e and decided  to "stage my  own  p r i v a t e r e v o l u t i o n " and  v e r s i t y of Vienna.  Revealingly,  the settlement  student a t the  to stage my  was  because Popper's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Austria  i n c l i n a t i o n to m o r a l i z e  about  political  ( i n the absence o f a f i r m s o c i a l base and e f f e c t i v e middle-class  sad p l i g h t o f A u s t r i a n l i b e r a l i s m the g e n e r a t i o n  A u s t r i a was  not  before.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y l i b e r a l i z e d , l e t alone democra-  t i z e d , w i t h the " D e c l a r a t i o n of the A u s t r i a n R e p u b l i c " , instead foreed  to see i f i t c o u l d f i n a l l y become so.  number o f e x c e l l e n t s t u d i e s have p o i n t e d war  Uni-  ...revolution"  c o n t r o l o f power) that c h a r a c t e r i z e d the educated and  school  as a " r e v o l u t i o n " r e f l e c t s the same type of  , p o l i t i c a l pathos and questions  leave  t h a t the A l l i e s imposed on Germany and  f o l l o w i n g the war  nearly  Popper r e c a l l s that i t  r e v o l u t i o n " t h a t " i n c i t e d me Revealing,  the  economic r u i n that Popper f i n a l l y  as a non-matriculated  ("IA", 24).  l e d to  t h i s background o f  to study on h i s own "the  war  settlement  represented  throw o f d y n a s t i e s ,  a  though the  post-  a change i n c o n s t i t u t i o n s , an  over-  the u n d e r l y i n g  out,  As  but  s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and  eeo10  nomic s t r u c t u r e o f the bygone Empire remained untouched. And,  as the next decade and a h a l f t r a g i c a l l y  demonstrated,  the r e p u b l i c a n c o n s t i t u t i o n , that " f o r e i g n import", 11 d i d not  f i t w i t h the t r a d i t i o n s o f the  I t was  clearly  nation.  s h o r t l y a f t e r s t a g i n g h i s " p r i v a t e r e v o l u t i o n " that  Popper r e s o l v e d another i s s u e o f momentous import to h i s subsequent i n t e l l e c t u a l development, what he terms h i s "encounter w i t h Marxism".  He  F i r s t World War  were grim f o r most of my  myself, i t was  notes t h a t "although the y e a r s a f t e r the f r i e n d s and a l s o f o r  an e x h i l a r a t i n g time" ("IA", 29).  expect under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , "there was o f the French R e v o l u t i o n , b l i s h i n g a f r e e r and  and  As one  would  an upsurge o f i d e a l s  o f Marxism, and  a hope o f  esta-  b e t t e r world, and to b a n i s h war and autho12 ritarianism forever." Given the a n t i - l i b e r a l tendencies of  - 22 -  both the German N a t i o n a l s ( l a t e r absorbed by the N a z i s ) and the  :  C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l i s t s , the s o l e p o l i t i c a l o p t i o n s were to support e i t h e r the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e S o c i a l Democratic munists  (who  p a r t y o r the Com-  were s m a l l e r i n numbers).  I n i t i a l l y , Popper r e c a l l s , i t was v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to t e l l the two a p a r t , s i n c e " t h e i r M a r x i s t b e l i e f s were then very s i m i l a r " and "they both dwelt, r i g h t l y , on the h o r r o r s o f ("IA", 24).  A t the time, he observes, the communists "claimed  they had proven t h e i r p a c i f i s m by ending the war, Litovsk.  war"  Peace,  they s a i d , was  at Brest-  what they p r i m a r i l y stood f o r ;  [and] • . • not o n l y f o r peace but, i n t h e i r propaganda a t l e a s t , a g a i n s t a l l 'unnecessary' v i o l e n c e " ( i b i d ) . Thus, as a member o f "the a s s o c i a t i o n o f s o c i a l i s t p u p i l s o f secondary s c h o o l s " ( s o z i a l i s t i c h e M i t t e l s c h u l e r ) and a t the meetings  o f the so-  c i a l i s t u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , Popper l i s t e n e d to numerous speak e r s o f both s o c i a l democratic and communist l e a n i n g s and " f o r about  two o r t h r e e months I regarded myself as a communist" ("IA",  24-25).  Then, s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s seventeenth b i r t h d a y , Popper  experienced what he f r e q u e n t l y has r e f e r r e d to as "one of the most important i n c i d e n t s i n my perhaps Popper's  own  life".  Given i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n should speak f o r i t s e l f :  In Vienna, s h o o t i n g broke out d u r i n g a demons t r a t i o n by unarmed s o c i a l i s t s who, i n s t i g a t e d by the communists, t r i e d to h e l p some communists to escape who were under a r r e s t i n the c e n t r a l p o l i c e s t a t i o n i n Vienna. S e v e r a l young s o c i a l i s t and communist workers were k i l l e d . I was h o r r i f i e d and shocked a t the p o l i c e , but a l s o at m y s e l f . F o r I f e l t that as a M a r x i s t I bore p a r t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the tragedy - a t l e a s t in principle. M a r x i s t theory demands that the c l a s s s t r u g g l e be i n t e n s i f i e d , i n o r d e r to speed up the coming o f s o c i a l i s m . I t s thesis i s that a l t h o u g h the r e v o l u t i o n may c l a i m some v i c t i m s , c a p i t a l i s m i s c l a i m i n g more v i c t i m s than the whole s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n . That was the M a r x i s t theory - p a r t o f so called 'scientific socialism'. I now asked mys e l f whether such a c a l c u l a t i o n c o u l d ever be supported by ' s c i e n c e ' . The whole e x p e r i e n c e ,  - 23 -  and e s p e c i a l l y t h i s q u e s t i o n , l e d me to a l i f e - l o n g r e v u l s i o n o f f e e l i n g ("IA", 25). Though he s t i l l  "hoped f o r a b e t t e r world, a l e s s  violent  and a more j u s t world", Popper r e c a l l s , "I questioned whether I r e a l l y knew - whether what I had thought was not perhaps mere p r e t e n c e " .  knowledge  C o n t i n u i n g , he asks  was  i n the mea-  sured manner o f a p r e s i d i n g judge, "had I examined i t c r i t i c a l ly,  as anybody should do b e f o r e he a c c e p t s a creed which j u s -  tifies  i t s means by some d i s t a n t end?" ("IA", 25)•  he was  soon f o r c e d to  And,  sadly,  admit,  . • . not o n l y had I accepted a complex theory somewhat u n c r i t i c a l l y , but I had a l s o a c t u a l l y n o t i c e d q u i t e a b i t t h a t was wrong, i n the theory as w e l l as i n the p r a c t i c e of communism, but had r e p r e s s e d t h i s - p a r t l y out o f l o y a l t y to my f r i e n d s , p a r t l y out o f l o y a l t y to 'the cause', and p a r t l y because there i s a mechanism f o r g e t t i n g o n e s e l f more and more deeply i n v o l v e d : once one has s a c r i f i c e d one's i n t e l l e c t u a l conscience over a minor p o i n t one does not wish to g i v e up too e a s i l y ("IA", 25). Though i t was  " a w f u l l y d e p r e s s i n g to have f a l l e n i n t o  a t r a p " , p a r t i c u l a r l y " f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l , and t h i n k " ( i b i d ,  26), Popper's subsequent  . . . who  can read  c a r e e r and  interest  would have been v i r t u a l l y i n c o n c e i v a b l e as we now without h i s "encounter w i t h Marxism". "the experience enabled me  know them  As he r e a d i l y  to understand  admits,  l a t e r t h i n g s which  otherwise I would not have understood" and i t "taught me ber o f l e s s o n s which I have never f o r g o t t e n " . taught him  such  a num-  Above a l l , i t  "the wisdom o f the S o c r a t i c s a y i n g , 'I know t h a t I  do not know'.  " I t made me a f a l l i b i l i s t ,  the v a l u e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l modesty.  And  and impressed  me  i t made me most con-  s c i o u s o f the d i f f e r e n c e between dogmatic and c r i t i c a l k i n g " ("IA", 27-28).  on  Thus, as he reminds us i n an  essay w r i t t e n i n memory o f Otto Neurath, ideas w i t h r e g a r d to Marxism t h a t " l e d me  i t was  thin-  interesting  these  critical  to become i n t e r e s t e d  i n problems o f the theory o f knowledge and o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e " and, i n t u r n , o f " t h e i r b e a r i n g on p o l i t i c a l  problems".  -  24 -  Perhaps a b r i e f pause to comment upon the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these e a r l y events i n Popper's l i f e would be h e l p f u l b e f o r e p l e t i n g our s k e t c h o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a j e c t o r y . own  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the p r i o r i t y of s o c i a l and  ses to the f o r m a t i o n in  epistemological  com-  Given h i s  political  cri-  o f h i s l a t e r , more p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s  and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r e s o l u t i o n s o f those  ses, i t seems i l l - c o n c e i v e d to i n s i s t t h a t p o l i t i c s has been a p e r i p h e r a l focus o f h i s work, o r that he  cri-  only  "shifted" his  i n t e r e s t s at "mid-career" to problems i n the s o c i a l and  ,  sciences  the t h r e a t o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , t h e r e a f t e r r e t u r n i n g hap-  p i l y to more b a s i c concerns w i t h l o g i c , methodology, and 14 temology.  epis-  / I b e l i e v e (and w i l l pursue a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n  s e v e r a l c h a p t e r s to come) t h a t the c a t e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f Popper's epistemology and  the b a s i s o f h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  s c r i p t i o n s are i n h e r e n t l y and  d i s t i n c t i v e l y p o l i t i c a l - domi-  nated by a " l i f e - l o n g r e v u l s i o n o f f e e l i n g " a g a i n s t causes and  pre-  t r a g i c c o s t s o f the War  and  termined to prevent t h e i r r e c u r r e n c e .  the a l l e g e d  i t s a f t e r m a t h , and To  t h i s end,  de-  Popper  remained s t e a d f a s t i n h i s e a r l y c o n v i c t i o n t h a t questions  has of  knowledge have such p r a c t i c a l , p o l i t i c a l consequences t h a t separate the two  can o n l y l e a d to f u r t h e r c r i s e s , i f not d i -  s a s t e r , f o r l i b e r a l democracies. in  Chapter 4, Popper has  tenets o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y By  to  the time he was  not  Furthermore, as we  shall  see  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d the major  during  the  post-War p e r i o d .  seventeen, "I had become an  anti-Marxist",  though the d e c i s i o n to p u b l i s h h i s views o n l y came some s i x t e e n y e a r s l a t e r " i n an atmosphere poisoned by ("IA", 26).  Popper notes that he  f a c i s m and  latent c i -  vil  war"  "remained a  socialist  for  s e v e r a l y e a r s " more but observes w i t h obvious r e f e r e n c e  his  experience during  t h i s p e r i o d t h a t , " i f there c o u l d be  to such  a t h i n g as s o c i a l i s m combined with i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y , I would be a s o c i a l i s t s t i l l . a modest, simple, 27).  and  Unfortunately,  b e a u t i f u l dream".  For nothing free l i f e  c o u l d be b e t t e r than l i v i n g  i n an e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y "  Popper c o n t i n u e s ,  Popper then d i s t i l l s  t h i s i s "no  (ibid.  more than a  the essence of h i s i i -  -  25  -  b e r a l i s m i n the form o f three a x i o m - l i k e p r o p o s i t i o n s : dom  i s more important  than e q u a l i t y " ; "the attempt  to  "free-  '  realize  I e q u a l i t y endangers freedom"; and t h a t , " i f freedom i s l o s t , there w i l l not even be e q u a l i t y among the u n f r e e " ( i b i d , 2 7 ) . Needless  to say, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f "the most r e l e v a n t  aspect" o f Popper's p o l i t i c a l theory as i t s "philosophy o f soc i a l democracy" f i n d s v e r y l i t t l e support i n these remarks. Moreover, these c o r n e r s t o n e s o f h i s p o l i t i c a l thought  suggest  t h a t , to the extent t h a t one can f i n d i n Popper's w r i t i n g s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r "a dangerous e x t e n s i o n o f the  interventionist  16  state",  t h i s must be t r a c e d to one o f the c r i t i c a l ,  though un-  acknowledged t e n s i o n s i n h i s thought - t h a t between h i s  techno-  l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y and h i s commitment to the maxim i z a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y and autonomy - than to any s c i o u s i n t e n t i o n o r d e s i g n on question i m p l i e s ) .  h i s p a r t (as the commentator i n  As he observed a decade ago, by the time  wrote the Open S o c i e t y , he c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f an  he  "individualist",  opposed i n theory to such dangerous a b s t r a c t i o n s as k i n d " , and  con-  "class"/'man-  "meaning i n h i s t o r y " , and i n p r a c t i c e to p r o p o s a l s to  n a t i o n a l i z e the means o f p r o d u c t i o n whether M a r x i s t o r 17 ( i . e . , S o c i a l Democratic) i n i n s p i r a t i o n .  non-Marxist  ii Popper passed h i s "Matura" (entrance examination)  as a  m a t r i c u l a t e d student a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Vienna i n .1922,  non-  just  one y e a r l a t e r than would have been the case had he continued i n secondary  school.  Although he sampled courses i n a number of sub-  j e c t s (he mentions h i s t o r y , l i t e r a t u r e , psychology,  philosophy,  and even m e d i c i n e ) , he r e c a l l s that he "soon gave up g o i n g to l e c t u r e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f mathematics and p h y s i c s " ("IA", 30).  theoretical  I n 1923, he passed a second  a teacher's t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e , which q u a l i f i e d him mary s c h o o l .  But  "Matura" a t to teach p r i -  " t h e r e were no p o s t s a v a i l a b l e f o r t e a c h e r s "  -r  so,  26 -  h a v i n g concluded an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p as a cabinetmaker,  he  became a s o c i a l worker ( H o r t e r z i e h e r ) w i t h n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . I t was  e a r l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , Popper r e c a l l s , t h a t he  t h e r developed h i s i d e a s , i n i t i a l l y w i t h Marxism", about  fur-  prompted by h i s "encounter  the demarcation between s c i e n t i f i c  theories  ( l i k e E i n s t e i n ' s ) and p s e u d o s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s ( l i k e Marx's "scientific  socialism", A l f r e d Adler's individual  psychology,  and Freud's p s y c h o a n a l y s i s ) ( i b i d , 3 1 ) • Having been "brought up i n an atmosphere i n which Newton's mechanics and Maxwell's electrodynamics were accepted s i d e by s i d e as u n q u e s t i o n a b l e t r u t h s " , and t h e r e f o r e to b e i n g admitt e d l y "dazed" upon f i r s t  h e a r i n g E i n s t e i n l e c t u r e i n Vienna,  Popper r e c a l l s t h a t "what impressed me most was E i n s t e i n ' s c l e a r statement  own  t h a t he would regard h i s theory untenable i f i t  should f a i l i n c e r t a i n t e s t s " ("IA", 2 8 - 2 9 ) .  Thus, E i n s t e i n  observed, t h a t " I f the r e d s h i f t o f s p e c t r a l l i n e s due to g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l should not e x i s t , then the g e n e r a l theory 1 ft of r e l a t i v i t y w i l l be u n t e n a b l e " .  I n May,  1919, E i n s t e i n ' s  e c l i p s e p r e d i c t i o n s were s u c c e s s f u l l y t e s t e d by two  teams o f  B r i t i s h r e s e a r c h e r s , and Popper observes t h a t , "a new of g r a v i t a t i o n and a new  theory  cosmology suddenly appeared, not  just  as a mere p o s s i b i l i t y , but as a r e a l improvement on Newton - a b e t t e r approximation to the t r u t h " ("IA", 28).  Einstein's  thod, Popper contends, l e d him to l o o k f o r " c r u c i a l  me-  experiments  whose agreement w i t h h i s p r e d i c t i o n s would by no means e s t a b l i s h his  t h e o r y " , but whose disagreement  "would show h i s theory to be  u n t e n a b l e " , whereas i n the work of Marx, Freud, A d l e r , and  even  more so t h a t o f t h e i r f o l l o w e r s , an " u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t " , dogmatic a t t i t u d e p r e v a i l e d ( i b i d ) . t h e i r s was  As he observes  elsewhere,  a world: f u l l o f v e r i f i c a t i o n s . . . I t was p r e c i s e l y t h i s f a c t - t h a t they [ i . e . , the t h e o r i e s i n d i s p u t e ] always f i t t e d , that they were always confirmed which i n the eyes o f t h e i r admirers c o n s t i t u t e d the s t r o n g e s t argument i n f a v o u r o f these t h e o r i e s . I t began to dawn on me that t h i s apparent s t r e n g t h was i n f a c t t h e i r weakness (CR, 3 5 ) .  - 27 -  On the c o n t r a r y , Popper maintains t h a t "what made a theory, o r a statement,  s c i e n t i f i c , was  i t s power to r u l e out, o r  exclude  the occurrence o f these events: the more a theory f o r b i d s ,  the  more i t t e l l s us" ("IA", 31; i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) . I n 1925,  the c i t y o f Vienna founded  c a t i o n , The Pedagogic nationwide  e d u c a t i o n a l reform movement o f Otto G l o c k e l .  U n i v e r s i t y , and  the Popper  l i n k e d somewhat l o o s e l y w i t h the  t h a t a l o n g w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r s o c i a l workers, he  admitted as a s t u d e n t .  the new  i n s t i t u t e o f edu-  I n s t i t u t e . I t had been i n s p i r e d by  r e c a l l s t h a t the I n s t i t u t e was  I was  a new  I n s t i t u t e was  He a l s o notes t h a t "the purpose o f  to f u r t h e r and support the reform,  i n p r o g r e s s , o f the primary and secondary  then  s c h o o l s " t h a t had been  p r e c i p i t a t e d by the chaos o f the a f t e r m a t h o f the F i r s t World  War  ("IA", 57). Although the pre-war A u s t r i a n system o f e d u c a t i o n compared q u i t e w e l l w i t h the most p r o g r e s s i v e systems i n Europe, I t  was  n o n e t h e l e s s , i n the words o f a well-known student o f the movement, " h a r d l y a paradigm o f p r o g r e s s i v e t h i n k i n g :  instruction,  l a r g e l y i n the hands o f the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, was  mechanical  19  and as u n i f o r m as was  practical."  J  To a l a r g e extent, the s c h o o l  reformers found t h a t the major impediments to a thoroughly s e c u l a r , l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e , one  i n which a genuine c l a s h o f i d e a s  and the development o f each i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t i e s c o u l d take p l a c e , were the product o f the thought man  t h i n k e r , Johann F r i e d r i c h Herbart  never s e t f o o t i n A u s t r i a ,  o f the 19th century Ger(1776-1841).  the i n f l u e n c e o f H e r b a r t ' s  was mainly secured by f o l l o w e r s , such as Robert 1898), whose own