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Subject and text in Réjean Ducharme’s L’Avalée des avalés and Le Nez qui voque Wagg, Heather 1985

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SUBJECT AND TEXT IN REJEAN DUCHARME'S L'AVALEE DES AVALES AND LE NEZ QUI VOQUE By HEATHER WAGG M.A. 3 The U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (French) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 27, 1985 <c) Heather Wagg, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of F T C H C h The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date J u l y // j n ? S (3/81) ABSTRACT Although Rejean Ducharme i s a major l i t e r a r y figure i n Quebec, he i s v i r t u a l l y unknown to English Canada. His novels L'Avalee des avales and Le Nez qui vogue are important i n the evolving l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n of Quebec because they foreground the functioning of language, but t h i s tendency also explains why t r a n s l a t i o n of Ducharme i s a d i f f i c u l t under-taking. Thus, as of 1985, Le Nez qui vogue has not been published i n English. The purpose of this study i s to examine L'Avalee des avales and Le Nez gui vogue from two complementary points of view: t r a d i t i o n a l and m e t a f i c t i o n a l . Both of these novels diverge s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the norms of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e while presenting a wealth of psychological motifs. The psychological coherence of the f i r s t - p e r s o n represented i n these texts points out the i n d i v i d u a l subject''s dependence v i s - a - v i s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l values, the r e l a t i v i t y of the concept "subject," and i t s status as a s o c i a l construct or "text" i n i t s own r i g h t . In other words, the psychological representation of subject evokes the l a t t e r ' s status as f i c t i o n a l or constructed, within the text, as character, and outside of the text, as writer/reader. At the same time, the divergence of the novels from the norms of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e constitutes an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c r i t i g u e of those norms and of l i t e r a r y and expository discourse i n general. L'Avalee and Le Nez are metafictions, or novels about f i c t i o n . The image of subject i n L'Avalee des avales repeats the myth of schizoid d e t e r i o r a t i o n presented in Laing's The Divided S e l f , while the subject i n Le Nez gui vogue repeats Freud's obsessive s e l f . In Part I, i i i I discuss these rapprochements i n the l i g h t of a t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n of character. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the subject assumes the f i r s t -person narrator to be the o r i g i n of the discourse which becomes the novel. In Parts II and III of my discussion I reverse t h i s point of view. In Part I I , I show how the language and structure of L'Avalee reveal the text as c o n s t i t u t i n g a parody of the psychological novel, by using Linda Hutcheon's concept of parody as r e p e t i t i o n with a difference. Semantic incongruity defines the parameters of the text, pointing to meaning as a complex or non-univocal structure, just as the schizoid subject caricatures the non-schizoid subject by never being at one with i t s e l f . The subject emerges as an image of the text as r e a l i z e d i n the act of reading. Part III of my discussion addresses the r e l a t i o n s of subject and text i n Le Nez qui vogue, which conforms to v e r i s i m i l i t u d e more than L'Avalee, by representing i t s own i n s c r i p t i o n as the narrator's practise of keeping a journal. Passages of nonsense and word play i n the journal gradually give way to a narrative account of the subject's cure and separation from his a l t e r ego. The discourse which produces the cure also performs a c r i t i q u e of discourse i t s e l f as t a u t o l o g i c a l , a c r i t i q u e outlined i n Patrick Imbert's discussions of Ducharme. This discourse can be displaced only by a r e c i t which i s ultimately included within the closed conceptual universe c r i t i q u e d . The narrative of the a l t e r ego's endangerment and death displaces the narrative of the subject's cure. Instead of reaffirming h i s cure, the narrator's neglect of textual practise i n favour of narrative constitutes his entrapment within a i v closed conceptual universe; and s p e c i f i c a l l y within the ethos of castra-t i o n which interprets the other as a degraded version of the same, the unknown as the already known. The p o s s i b i l i t y of th i s r e v e r s a l of in t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Le Nez qui vogue accords a h i g h - p r o f i l e r o l e to the reader by making overt the l a t t e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n imposing closure on a text. The reduplicating of the narrator's conscious discourse by the unconscious discourse representing c a s t r a t i o n makes e x p l i c i t h i s status as r e s u l t rather than o r i g i n of discourse. The pursuit of psychological subject i n L'Avalee des avales and in Le Nez qui vogue leads one to appreciate subject as text, that i s , as an interpreted p l u r a l i t y . It also leads one to recognize text as subject, that i s , as r e a l i z e d by the reading process. TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgement v i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 P a r t I : The S u b j e c t i n the Text 18 Chapter I : The D i v i d e d S e l f : L ' Avalee 18 Freud, L a i n g and the S u b j e c t i n L'Avalee 18 Imagery o f S c h i z o i d F e a r 23 The F r a g m e n t a t i o n o f S e l f 28 Chapter I I : L'Avalee des a v a l e s : the Others 36 Nature as the I d e a l Other 36 Growth as D i s i n t e g r a t i o n 39 The Second Stage: R e p e t i t i o n and Merging o f R o l e s 45 Chapter I I I : The O b s e s s i v e S e l f : M i l l e M i l l e s 55 The W e l l - D e f i n e d S e l f 55 The O b s e s s i v e V i s i o n of M i l l e M i l l e s 60 The Act o f W r i t i n g 66 Chapter IV: Le Nez q u i vogue: the Other 83 Other v e r s u s Others 83 The O r i g i n o f Chateaugue 83 The Other as S p i r i t or Body 86 The P h a l l i c Woman 89 Pure I n t e n t i o n s 90 A P s y c h o l o g y o f Chateaugue 92 Other S i d e o f the C o i n 94 The Wedding-Dress Mannekin 96 Questa 99 The O b j e c t as S u b j e c t 101 Chateaugue's Death 102 P a r t I I : S u b j e c t , Text and Parody 108 Chapter V: Parody o f W r i t i n g and W r i t i n g o f Parody 109 What Parody Does to the S u b j e c t 109 D e b r i s o f R e c i t 112 N o n - n a r r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e 115 S t y l i s t i c D e v i c e s 119 Proper Names as I n t e r t e x t 127 C o n c l u s i o n • • • 133 v v i Chapter VI: The Subject as Divergent i n L'Avalee des avales 139 The Child as an Impossible Trace 139 The C h i l d 1 s Fate 143 Narrative as Subject 144 Schizoid Subject and Text 146 The Feminine of the Subject 148 The Writing Subject 150 Conclusion 153 Part I I I : Subject, Text and Discourse 158 Chapter VII: Performance and T e x t u a l i t y i n Le Nez qui vogue 158 Non-narrative Discourse i n Le Nez qui vogue 158 Disruption of Reference as B i r t h of Text and Subject 161 Disruption of Reference and the Game of Verbal Jeopardy .... 167 The Novel Begins: Performance Holds Its Own 171 A Reprieve for Text and Textual Subject: Recit Displaced onto Chateaugue 177 Chapter VIII: The Apparent Triumph of the Novel: Discourse at the Service of Sense, Recit and Identity 188 The Persons in Place 188 The Third Person 189 The Irruption of Narrative 191 The Last Textual Interlude 195 The Narrative Turning Point 198 Exposition Displaces Performance 200 The Other as Locus of Binary Oppositions 203 Intradiegetic Subject and Text 205 The Second Person 207 Temporal Location of " I " and "You" i n the Text 209 The Extradiegetic Problem: Readership 210 The Extradiegetic Subject 211 Conclusion 215 Bibliography 222 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Because i t has taken me many y e a r s t o complete t h i s s t u d y , I wish to thank a number o f people who do not know each o t h e r , and who have g i v e n d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a s s i s t a n c e t o me. F i r s t , I f e e l v e r y f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g V a l e r i e R a o u l , Rejean Beaudouin and F r a n c o i s e I q b a l as my a d v i s o r y committee. I thank them, e s p e c i a l l y my super-v i s o r V a l e r i e , f o r t h e i r good-humoured and i n s p i r a t i o n a l a d v i c e . For p a t i e n t a d v i c e i n the d i s t a n t p a s t , I must thank H a r r i e t t Mowshowitz, Anne S c o t t , and M i c h a e l Barden o f the P i n e C l i n i c . F o r her p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and moral s u p p o r t , I would l i k e to thank Kathy Swann of the U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, who typed my d i s s e r t a t i o n . F i n a l l y , f o r t h i n k i n g o f me and a s s u r i n g t h a t I would be a b l e to a f f o r d a t y p i s t , I must thank the l a t e L o r n a Morey o f Okanagan C o l l e g e . INTRODUCTION "Ce jeune e c r i v a i n e c r i t comme on n'a jamais e c r i t avant l u i au Quebec," affirmed Jean E t h i e r - B l a i s i n a review of Rejean Ducharme 1s f i r s t published novel, L'Avalee des avales (1966).''' F i f t e e n years l a t e r L 'Actualite could s t i l l describe Rejean Ducharme as "1'ecrivain quebecois 2 le plus important de sa generation." To grasp the novelty Ducharme represented i n 1966, one might mention the pu b l i c a t i o n the previous year, by Marie-Claire B l a i s , of 3 Une Saison dans l a v i e d'Emmanuel. Both writers portray children or adolescents i n a state of c r i s i s and Ducharme dedicated his t h i r d pub-lis h e d novel, L'Oceantume, to Marie-Claire B l a i s . Unlike B l a i s , Ducharme portrays language i n a state of c r i s i s . The image of the subject i n 4 c r i s i s serves as a stable point of reference i n a discourse where form i s represented as determining meaning. The subject i s a node organizing utterances which otherwise would be d i f f i c u l t indeed to contextualize as a novel. When i n doubt, one may interpret the discourse as the descr i p t i o n of the subject. While an admirer of B l a i s , Ducharme has gone further than her toward representing the subject as the r e s u l t rather than the orig i n a t o r of a discourse. He thus signals a s h i f t i n perspective away from t r a d i t i o n a l humanism which sees the i n d i v i d u a l as an essence, and toward a structuralism i n the broadest possible sense. This s h i f t i n point of view i s confirmed by the author's abdication of public l i f e and statements such as "Je ne veux pas qu'on fasse l e l i e n entre moi et mon r o m a n . T h a t the s h i f t was experienced i n the form of a malaise by a segment of the l i t e r a r y public i s attested to by " L ' A f f a i r e Ducharme," a controversy evoking the p o s s i b i l i t y of the author's non-2 e x i s t e n c e i n the absence of any r e a l e v i d e n c e of h i s n o n e x i s t e n c e . An assumption more i n harmony w i t h those of L 'Avalee des a v a l e s or Le Nez q u i vogue would be t h a t the p e r s o n of the a u t h o r i s p e r i p h e r a l to the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the t e x t r a t h e r than the guarantee of i t s o r i g i n , and t h a t the a u t h o r has no a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t o r c o n t e x t u a l i z e i t f o r the p u b l i c . The problem of the " i d e n t i t y " o f the s u b j e c t was one o f the f i r s t and most p o p u l a r t o p i c s of comment i n r e l a t i o n to Ducharme's n o v e l s . ^ The f o r e g r o u n d i n g of the s t r u c t u r e of language i n the n a r r a t o r ' s d i s -c o u r s e a l s o provoked comment, but at f i r s t d e f i e d a n a l y s i s . A d m i r a t i o n f o r the a u t h o r ' s v e r b a l s k i l l was moderated by a c o m p l a i n t t h a t i t was 8 not made to s e r v e the o v e r a l l u n i t y of the n o v e l s or even good t a s t e . As the n a r r a t o r of Ducharme's l a s t n o v e l says of h i m s e l f , " A l l speed no c o n t r o l , " and to make sure the i r o n y i s o v e r t the a u t h o r t r a n s l a t e s the remark i n a f o o t n o t e to which he appends h i s i n i t i a l s : "Tout [ s i c ] 9 v i t e s s e pas de c o n t r o l e . " More r e c e n t comment on s u b j e c t and language i n Ducharme's n o v e l s i n c l u d e s P i e r r e - L o u i s V a i l l a n c o u r t 1 s e g u a t i n g of the e x t r a d i e g e t i c s u b j e c t ( s u b j e c t t r a n s c e n d i n g t e x t ) w i t h a p e r v e r s e a u t h o r : ... c e t t e f i g u r e f a n t a s m a t i g u e gue l ' a u t e u r p r o j e t t e de lui-meme... d e t r u i s a n t l e Je de l a c o n f e s s i o n e t de 1 1 a u t o b i o g r a p h i e pour en g a r d e r l e contentement a s o i , l a complaisance n a r c i s s i g u e et c o m pensatrice d'un Moi de l ' a u t e u r d e j a t r i b u t a i r e d'un anonymat jalousement e n t r e -t e n u . 1 0 He g u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e l y i d e n t i f i e s a double s t r u c t u r e of t h r e a t e n e d i n t r a -d i e g e t i c s u b j e c t ( s u b j e c t w i t h i n t e x t ) and triumphant e x t r a d i e g e t i c sub-j e c t , but the p r e s e n t study p r e f e r s to c o n s i d e r the l a t t e r as the precedence 3 of the w r i t i n g and s u b s e q u e n t l y the r e a d i n g f u n c t i o n s over the i n i t i a l i n s c r i b i n g o f the t e x t . A c c o r d i n g to P a t r i c k Imbert, who s i t u a t e s Ducharme 1s n o v e l s i n r e l a t i o n to ambivalence toward the F r e n c h l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i n Quebec and i n r e l a t i o n to the t a u t o l o g y o f the c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e , " l e s p a r-cours semantiques e t s y n t a x i q u e s nous enferment dans des modes de pensee p r e c o n s t r u i t s . H e proceeds t o choose the d i f f i c u l t y o f c i r c u m v e n t i n g the s u b j e c t / o b j e c t dichotomy as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the l i m i t i n g shape c o n f e r r e d on thought by the s e m a n t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e . Even though he does not go i n t o the problem o f the s u b j e c t i n Ducharme, h i s r e c o u r s e to the n o v e l s as d e c o n s t r u c t o r s o f the commonplace suggests the importance o f s u b j e c t i n Ducharme. In her major study of Ducharme 1s n o v e l s , Renee Leduc-Park i d e n t i f i e s i n them a d i o n y s i a n s u b j e c t who triumphs through " d u r e t e , " " j e u , " 12 "demesure and " a n d r o g y n i e . " She a l s o emphasizes the isomorphism o f 13 e n u n c i a t i o n and e n u n c i a t e d ; t h a t i s , the r e h e a r s i n g o f the same 14 m o t i f s by d i s c o u r s e and r e c i t , and by s i g n i f i e r s and s i g n i f i e d s . N o n e t h e l e s s i n the case o f the s u b j e c t i t may be t h a t the triumphant mode emanates from the d i s c o u r s e but n o t , i n ev e r y case, from the r e c i t . In L'A v a l e e des a v a l e s and Le Nez q u i vogue, the d e c l i n e o f the c h a r a c t e r i n the r e c i t s e r v e s to evoke the pre-eminence o f d i s c o u r s e or e n u n c i a t i o n , thus s h a r p e n i n g the m e t a f i c t i o n a l a s p e c t o f the t e x t s . ^ Of Ducharme 1s s i x n o v e l s to d a t e , f o u r appeared between 1966-69: L ' A v a l e e des a v a l e s (1966), Le Nez g u i vogue (1967), L'Oceantume (1968), and La F i l l e de C h r i s t o p h e Colomb ( 1 9 6 9 ) . ^ The au t h o r h a v i n g a g u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l on hand when f i r s t he approached the p u b l i s h e r G a l l i m a r d , 4 the order and dates of p u b l i c a t i o n of the texts do not correspond to the order and dates of composition.^ As A l a i n Bosquet suggested of the f i r s t three novels i n 1968, i t seems appropriate to consider a l l four as aspects of a writing project rather than tb trace an evolution 18 in the author's concerns. In La F i l l e de Christophe Colomb the meta-f i c t i o n a l i d e n t i t y of the subject i s evoked i n the r e l a t i o n s between the unnamed narrator and the protagonist, Colombe Colomb. Renee Leduc-Park points out the complementarity of the manipulative male narrator and the female anti-heroine, a d u a l i t y s i m i l a r to that of Le Nez qui 19 vogue where the narrator, on the other hand, does figure in the r e c i t . Though a character sketch of the narrator would be po s s i b l e , La F i l l e de Christophe Colomb rules out psychological i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of character i n the r e c i t because the tenor i s h y p e r b o l i c a l l y parodie. L'Oceantume, the t h i r d novel published, resembles L'Avalee in elements of character 20 and plot to such extent that i t s c r i t i c a l reception suffered. The g i r l protagonist rehearses the uncertainties and intransigences of Berenice i n L'Avalee and the discourse of the novels i s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e at c e r t a i n moments: lode: Ouvrez-vous g u e j'entre! Et Berenice: J e veux bondir g u e ce gouffre dont vous ecartez d'abime en sommet. J e veux les bords a f i n que j 1 e n t r e exerce etre avalee par tout, ne sur moi des t r a c t i o n s . . . . Que s e r a i t - c e que pour en sor-cette bouche grande comme le neant t i r . J e veux etre attaquee m'attrape avec des mains et que par tout ce qui a des ces mains tirent.'-^l armes. (AV, p. 30) Since neither text represents i t s composition overtly, the same undecid-a b i l i t y haunts the r e c i t and confers an i m p l i c i t m e t a f i c t i o n a l i d e n t i t y on the subject in each text. L'Oceantume i s shorter and the r e c i t more episodic than L'Avalee; thus the l a t t e r lends i t s e l f somewhat more 5 r e a d i l y to a psychological reading of character. On the other hand, the r e c i t of L'Oceantume i s more c h e e r f u l l y carnivalesque and lode Ssouvie passes through i t unscathed. In 1973 Ducharme published L'Hiver de force, a novel-length r e c i t narrated by a subject who speaks h a b i t u a l l y as "we" for himself and his female other, though d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between " I " and "she" according to 22 the contingencies of the r e c i t . The two never c o n f l i c t and they swear 23 eternal l o y a l t y . This dual subject's r e l a t i o n s with others are fraught with the anguish that characterizes the e a r l i e r novels. Andre Ferron - Nicole Ferron withdraw from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the 24 s o c i a l order with a view to consolidating t h e i r "vide qui se r e f a i t , " a rather non-Cartesian i d e n t i t y . Their i s o l a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e and the r e c i t recounts t h e i r pursuit of an in f a t u a t i o n with a movie star. They recognize and caricature t h e i r c h i l d - l i k e posture i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . 25 When she t i r e s of them, " l ' h i v e r de force," which i s t h e i r essence, reasserts i t s e l f . A fter discovering t h e i r friend's departure Andre has hyst e r i c s and h i t s Nicole, but he recounts that, seeing blood on her face, 26 " J ' a i eu s i peur de perdre ma Nicole que ca m'a comme degrise." One i s reminded of a statement by the narrator of Le Nez qui vogue: "On souffre... guand on perd une i l l u s i o n " (NQV, p. 140). Unlike Berenice Einberg, M i l l e M i l l e s or lode Ssouvie, Andre Ferron does not hover indeterminately between omnipotence and the void. He constitutes an aspect of a stable interpersonal dual subject or intrapersonal s p l i t subject, conceived as structure rather than substance. As his name implies and as Leduc-Park emphasizes, L'Hiver de force 27 i s the most coherent r e c i t i n Ducharme 1s texts. Although Andre-Nicole's 6 r e s t o r i n g the v o i d evokes the t e x t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g of the s u b j e c t , i n -c o n g r u i t i e s of r e c i t do not f o r c e the r e a d e r o f L ' H i v e r de f o r c e to r e c o n t e x t u a l i z e s u b j e c t c o n s t a n t l y as m e t a f i c t i o n a l . N e i t h e r s u b j e c t nor t e x t wars w i t h i t s e l f as i n t i m a t e l y as i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l s . The r e c i t o f Les Enfantomes (1976) i s somewhat r e m i n i s c e n t o f Le Nez q u i vogue, s i n c e each u n f o l d s a p r o b l e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a r r a t o r and female o t h e r . In Le Nez g u i vogue the t e n s i o n mounts u n t i l Chateaugue 1s death at the end of the r e c i t . Her death c o n s t i t u t e s a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n f o r the r e a d e r to r e c o n t e x t u a l i z e M i l l e M i l l e s and Chateaugue as a s u b j e c t i n whom communication between c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s i s b l o c k e d , p r o d u c i n g f i x a t i o n and n e u r o s i s . The n a r r a t o r does not master h i s t e x t ; i t masters him. The d i a r y form a f f o r d s the n a r r a t o r o n l y l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n s t r u c t a r e c i t s i n c e h i s p r o j e c t i s o r g a n i z e d by r i g i d time c o n s t r a i n t s which r e p r e s e n t the everyday l i f e w o r l d w i t h i n the r e c i t , but which may be read as a b a r r e d a l l u s i o n to h i s s t a t u s as the r e s u l t r a t h e r than the source of the t e x t . The r e c i t o f Les Enfantomes c o u l d be read as a p u t t i n g r i g h t o f Le Nez g u i vogue from the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view. The n a r r a t o r , V i n c e n t , i s i n a p o s i t i o n of r e l a t i v e power s i n c e he knows the s t o r y b e f o r e he b e g i n s to t e l l i t . H i s d e c i s i o n to w r i t e memoirs suggests a d e s i r e to make amends f o r h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n h i s s i s t e r ' s d e a t h , and to s t r e n g t h e n the bonds between s e l f and o t h e r and maximize communica-t i o n between c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s . In each n o v e l the s i s t e r ' s death l i m i t s the r e c i t s t r u c t u r a l l y . In Le Nez death t e r m i n a t e s the r e c i t , but i n Les Enfantomes i t s n a r r a t i o n i s d e f e r r e d i n d e f i n i t e l y . Whereas M i l l e M i l l e s i s p a r a l y s e d by the shape of the c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e , 7 V i n c e n t , as a l i t e r a r y s u b j e c t , can open up the c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e from w i t h i n . In Le Nez the n a r r a t o r seeks and f i n d s t r u t h which he cannot p r o c e s s . In Les Enfantomes the same t r u t h i s a g i v e n p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e of the s u b j e c t ' s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p : " L ' a v e n i r aux a udacieux, et a moi, l e u r s r e s t e s , a moi l e s r e v e s baroques q u i l e s endorment, l e s s e n t i ments t o u f f u s q u ' i l s j e t t e n t , l e s r i r e s h i l a r e s q u ' i l s l a i s s e n t 28 t r a i n e r par t e r r e ! " V i n c e n t , l i k e B e r e n i c e , s u f f e r s from incongruous d i s c o u r s e , but i n h i s case the h y p e r b o l i c i s n a t u r a l i z e d as the i n e v i t a b l e s i g n o f the 29 l i t e r a r y not p e r t i n e n t i n the everyday l i f e w o r l d , as " t a r t e l u . " In Les Enfantomes as i n L ' H i v e r de f o r c e the i d e a l s u b j e c t i s d u a l , e v o k i n g a ' s p l i t c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n o p p o s i t i o n to the monumental u n i t a r y s u b j e c t f o r which the n a r r a t o r s of the e a r l i e r n o v e l s r e t a i n a measure of nos-t a l g i a . From the m e t a f i c t i o n a l p o i n t of view, the d i s c o u r s e of the s u b j e c t i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l s remains r i v e t e d to the model of the l i t e r a r y as a r e f i n e m e n t of the s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t , whereas the s u b j e c t i n the l a t e r n o v e l s subsumes a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f d i a l e c t s e v o k i n g the spoken language. The p r e s e n t study l i m i t s i t s scope to two n o v e l s , L ' A v a l e e des  a v a l e s and Le Nez q u i vogue, as p r o v i d i n g an e c o n o m i c a l p o i n t of depar-t u r e f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the s u b j e c t i n c o n f l i c t of Ducharme's e a r l i e r n o v e l s . The study proposes to e x p l o r e : f i r s t , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l image of s u b j e c t i n the r e c i t ; then, i t s s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p to s t y l e and c o m p o s i t i o n ; a r e l a t i o n s h i p which m o t i v a t e s r e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t e x t u a l s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s study was f i r s t u ndertaken w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n f o r the m e t a f i c t i o n a l . The f i r s t f o u r c h a p t e r s e x p l o r e an i n i t i a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n 8 w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l type. As a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e was no doubt i n s p i r e d by the same sentiment as a r e a d e r o f Ducharme who, r e s e n t i n g the a u t h o r ' s r e c l u s i v e n e s s , p r o t e s t e d t h a t 30 " i l f a u t . . . des j a l o n s de c h a i r e t de sang." The f i r s t r esponse t o the n o v e l s ' s o l i c i t i n g o f c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n by the r e a d e r i s , i n t h i s study, to d e f i n e the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l human l i k e n e s s i n the n o v e l s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l coherence evoked by the t e x t s suggested p a r a l l e l s w i t h two s p e c i f i c models o f type. The f i r s t , which r e l a t e s e s p e c i a l l y n e a t l y to L'Avalee des a v a l e s , i s R. D. L a i n g ' s o u t l i n e o f s c h i z o i d 31 p r o c e s s e s i n The D i v i d e d S e l f . The second, more s p e c i f i c and u s e f u l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the more developed and d e t a i l e d mimetic coherence o f Le Nez q u i vogue, i s Freud's d e s c r i p t i o n o f the o b s e s s i v e - c o m p u l s i v e 32 p e r s o n a l i t y i n i t s r e l a t i o n t o the c a s t r a t i o n complex. The D i v i d e d S e l f i s i l l u m i n a t i n g because i t f o c u s e s on the e v o l u t i o n of a type which may encompass a more or l e s s c o h e r e n t , f u n c t i o n a l or f r a g -mented s u b j e c t . S i n c e the r e f e r e n t i a l coherence o f the r e c i t i n L'Avalee d i m i n i s h e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e to read i n t o i t the d e t e r i o r a -t i o n o f the s u b j e c t . In i n v o k i n g L a i n g ' s model, one i s not committed, however, to r e t r i e v i n g from the r e c i t a r i g i d p r o g r e s s i o n o f images o f p r o g r e s s i v e d y s f u n c t i o n . The " d i v i d e d s e l f " r e t a i n s an u n d e c i d a b i l i t y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a fragmentary r e c i t . The n a r r a t o r o f Le Nez g u i vogue a l l u d e s t o Fre u d and the Oedipus complex, the u n s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n o f which r e s u l t s i n c a s t r a t i o n a n x i e t y and o b s e s s i v e n e s s . As a male s u b j e c t t h i s n a r r a t o r i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to F r e u d i a n a n a l y s i s i f , as seems s e l f - e v i d e n t and as 9 p o s i t e d by Luce I r i g a r a y from a f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , the F r e u d i a n 33 s u b j e c t i s always male. Indeed, I r i g a r a y ' s a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the female s u b j e c t , d e f i n e d by Freud as the absence o f a male s u b j e c t , would from w i t h i n t h i s male w o r l d view always r e p r e s e n t a v o i d e x p e r i -enced as the o n t o l o g i c a l i n s e c u r i t y u n d e r l y i n g the s c h i z o i d w i t h d r a w a l d e s c r i b e d by L a i n g . Thus the s c h i z o i d and o b s e s s i v e types might be expe c t e d , i n a v e r y g e n e r a l way, to c o r r e l a t e w i t h male and female t y p e s . As the b e h a v i o u r o f the s c h i z o i d s u b j e c t c a r i c a t u r e s t h a t o f the n o n - s c h i z o i d s u b j e c t , the d i s c o u r s e and r e c i t o f L ' A v a l e e parody those o f the t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l . P a r t I I o f the p r e s e n t study, i n s p i r e d by P a r t I, examines the gaps o f anomaly o r semantic i n c o n g r u i t y which s e t L'A v a l e e a p a r t from the p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l and from i t s e l f as a psycho-l o g i c a l n o v e l , even i n s p i t e o f the isomorphism o f d i s i n t e g r a t i n g s u b j e c t and d i s i n t e g r a t i n g t e x t . L i n d a Hutcheon's concept o f a g e n t l e parody emphasizing i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y p e r m i t s L ' A v a l e e ' s r e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n as 34 m e t a f i c t i o n . There i s an e v o l u t i o n i n the d i s c u s s i o n r e s u l t i n g from a s h i f t i n t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Chapter V examines semantic i n c o n g r u i t y as a c o n s t i t u t i n g f a c t o r i n the r e c i t and d i s c o u r s e o f L ' A v a l e e . R i f f a t e r r e ' s a n a l y s i s o f con-t e x t s f a c i l i t a t e s the d i s t i n c t i o n o f mimetic and p a r o d i c e f f e c t s w i t h i n L ' A v a l e e ; f o r example, some elements o f the r e c i t tend t o evoke t r a d i -35 t i o n a l v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , o t h e r s more to p r o b l e m a t i z e i t . At the l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e , s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s mediate as w e l l as c o m p l i c a t e the recep-. t i o n o f meaning. L o g i c , s e m a n t i c s , p h o n e t i c s and syntax a r e a s p e c t s of d i s c o u r s e which, as i d e n t i f i e d by Groupe Mu's a n a l y s e s o f r h e t o r i c , b r i n g i n t o p l a y s p e c i f i c t a c t i c s f o r c r e a t i n g the space n e c e s s a r y to 1 0 parody w i t h i n the t e x t . The e s s e n t i a l s t y l i s t i c e f f e c t i n L'Avalee i s i n c o n g r u i t y e v o k i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s t e x t and o t h e r s . T h i s p a r o d i e d i f f e r e n c e i n h e r e s even i n the name " B e r e n i c e E i n b e r g , " which emphasizes the f i c t i o n a l , l i t e r a r y and a n t i - c l a s s i c a l parameters of the mimesis. F i n a l l y , h y p e r b o l i c anomaly o f a l l s o r t s produces a c a r n i v a l e s q u e i n v e r s i o n of the premises o f t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y r e a l i s m , and a f o r e g r o u n d i n g o f t e x t and s u b j e c t as p r o c e s s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f e u p h o r i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e a d e r and e n u n c i a t i n g p r o c e s s emerges i n c o n t r a s t t o the image o f s c h i z o i d d e t e r i o r a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d p r e v i o u s l y w i t h the r e c i t . The s c h i z o i d s u b j e c t evokes, a t a m e t a f i c t i o n a l l e v e l , an a n t h r o -pomorphic image o f the t e x t as p o l y s e m i c , the language o f the t e x t con-s t i t u t i n g a corpus r e p r e s e n t e d by the human form. Chapter VI o u t l i n e s b r i e f l y the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s u b j e c t o f L'Avalee i n r e l a t i o n to images of c h i l d , o f woman, of s c h i z o p h r e n i c , and o f w r i t i n g s u b j e c t , 37 w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o D e r r i d a , I r i g a r a y and B l a n c h o t . In g e n e r a l , the d e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s u b j e c t as essence, o f t e x t as a r t e f a c t , accompanies the v a l o r i z a t i o n o f p r o c e s s and o f empty space, i t s e n a b l i n g f u n c t i o n . Whereas L'Avalee provoked the r e a d i n g o f the t e x t a l t e r n a t e l y as mimesis or as m e t a f i c t i o n , Le Nez q u i vogue t r a c e s the e v o l u t i o n o f the one i n t o or out of the o t h e r . P a r t I I I o f t h i s study d i s t i n g u i s h e s two moments of Le Nez; the f i r s t h a l f o f the t e x t i s dominated by d i s c o u r s e and t e x t u a l i t y i n the performance o f the n a r r a t o r ' s n e u r o s i s (Chapter V I I o f d i s s e r t a t i o n ) , and the second by r e c i t and mimesis i n the n a r r a t o r ' s avowed cure (Chapter V I I I o f d i s s e r t a t i o n ) . In Le Nez the f i c t i o n o f the j o u r n a l a p p a r e n t l y c o n t a i n s and 11 naturalizes the functioning of semantic incongruity. While acting out his ambivalent o s c i l l a t i o n i n the journal the narrator i n e v i t a b l y re-hearses the incongruities of the semantic universe. This performance i s contextualized i n the discussion with reference to speech act theory, and to the status of the f i c t i o n a l journal as a display text f u l f i l l i n g 38 a narrative contract. In the second h a l f of the novel, analysis of the conceptual universe subsides, evoking an apparent remission of the narrator's neurosis as his discourse attaches i t s e l f to the practice of exposition and, when s o l i c i t e d by events, of narration. However, a r e p e t i t i v e , gradated and symbolic r e c i t impedes the reception of the text as cure and thus of the narrator as mastering the text. The narrator's lessening dependence on the journal, the unconscious and h i s other i s reversed i f the r e c i t i s read as determined by these factors; as i t can be when the denouement of the r e c i t corresponds to the suspension of discourse. This l a t t e r i s provoked by the discovery of c a s t r a t i o n i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Chateau-gue's body. The narrator's discourse can resume only to repeat the same r e c i t . L'Avalee i n v i t e s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the decline of i n t r a d i e g e t i c subject as a f f i r m a t i o n of the text as process, and of reading as i t s mode of existence. Le Nez qui vogue s o l l i c i t s more attentive reading at the i n t r a d i e g e t i c l e v e l where the conscious discourse of cure represented by the narrator i s reversed by the unconscious discourse of neurosis c o n s t i -tuted as r e c i t . The widening gap between the two establishes a space for the extradiegetic subject, a second reversal of context, and once again the triumph of text as reading over a p r i o r i meaning. The narrator's 12 p e r s i s t e n c e i n a d d r e s s i n g the o t h e r ( i n t h i s case woman), as a l e s s e r form o f the same (man), and the o t h e r of the d i s c o u r s e ( n o n s e n s e ) , as a simple f a i l u r e to make sense o r e x p o s i t , e f f e c t s a c r i t i q u e of the n o v e l genre where the r e s o u r c e s of language are c o n t a i n e d by an e s t h e t i c of mimesis. Once a g a i n , the image o f a flawed i n t r a d i e g e t i c s u b j e c t i s a p p r o p r i a t e from the m e t a f i c t i o n a l p o i n t of view which p r o b l e m a t i z e s mimesis i n g e n e r a l . In i t s p u r s u i t of the s u b j e c t the p r e s e n t t h e s i s touches on impor-t a n t d i s c u s s i o n s which are c e n t r a l to i t s premises but too broad to be broached here i n d e t a i l . The a n a l y s i s o f Ducharme's language r e q u i r e s a t h e s i s i n i t s own r i g h t , though probed e f f e c t i v e l y by Renee Leduc-Park 39 i n p a s s i n g and i n a r t i c l e s by M a r c e l C h o u i n a rd and B e r nard D u p r i e z . The n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t of w r i t i n g i n Quebec has been l e f t more or l e s s a s i d e or r a t h e r i m p l i e d . I t i s to be hoped t h a t such an a n a l y s i s w i l l be pursued by a Quebecois or by someone who has l i v e d i n Quebec e x t e n s i v e l y . I t i s a l s o to be hoped t h a t the f e m i n i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to be drawn out o f Ducharme's t e x t s w i l l p r o v i d e new i n s i g h t s , f o r r a r e l y has a male w r i t e r so i l l u m i n a t e d the r o l e of the female p e r s o n a . I t may at f i r s t seem incongruous i n the e r a o f p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s m to be determined to pursue e x t e n s i v e l y a d i s c u s s i o n o f the " s u b j e c t , " which means a f t e r a l l , of " p e r s o n " as a g a i n s t non-person; but the i n d i v i d -u a l s u b j e c t i s the f i l t e r through which t e x t s must p a s s , a r o l e as r e s p o n s i b l e as the t r a d i t i o n a l one of measuring a l l t h i n g s . Then a g a i n , to see the s u b j e c t i n the t e x t i s to see, a c c o r d i n g to Groupe Mu's R h e t o r i q u e de l a p o e s i e , what one always d i s t i n g u i s h e s f i r s t i n a zone o f i n d e t e r m i n a c y : 13 Dans l e cas des champs p e r c e p t i f s l e s plus vagues et f l o u s , l e s premieres conjectures sont a n t h r o p o c e n t r i -ques.... Ces t h e o r i e s concernent l a perception sen-s o r i e l l e mais e l l e s sont a p p l i c a b l e s egalement a l a l e c t u r e tant que c e l l e - l a est un cas p a r t i c u l i e r de l a perception dynamique.^O 14 NOTES Jean E t h i e r - B l a i s , "L'Avalee des a v a l e s , " Le D e v o i r , 15 o c t o b r e 1966, p. 13. Jean B l o u i n and J e a n - P i e r r e Myette, "A l a r e c h e r c h e de Rejean Ducharme," L ' A c t u a l i t e , j u i l l e t 1982, p. 44. 3 M a r i e - C l a i r e B l a i s , Une S a i s o n dans l a v i e d'Emmanuel ( M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s du J o u r , 1965). 4 . See, f o r example, Susan Stewart's d e f i n i t i o n o f " d i s c o u r s e " i n Nonsense: A s p e c t s of I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i n F o l k l o r e and L i t e r a t u r e ( B a l t i -more: The Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978), p. 13: "... d i s c o u r s e , t h a t i s , language as s o c i a l event; not language as some c o n t a i n e d and a b s t r a c t ' f a c t , ' nor as a p r o d u c t of some i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h e . " ^ See G e r a l d Godin, " G a l l i m a r d p u b l i e un Quebecois de 24 ans, i n c o n n u , " Le Maclean, septembre 1966, p. 57. ^ See Myriame P a v l o v i c , " L 1 A f f a i r e Ducharme," V o i x e t Images, 6, n° 1 (automne 1980), 75-95. ^ See, f o r example, Gaston L a u r i o n , "L'Avalee des a v a l e s ou l e r e f u s d ' e t r e a d u l t e , " Revue de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e d'Ottawa, 38 (1968), 524-41; and D. J . Bond, "Search f o r I d e n t i t y i n the Novels of R. Ducharme," Mosa i c , n° 9 (Winter 1976), 31-44. 8 See A l a i n Bosquet, "Une I r r e s i s t i b l e Magie: L ' A v a l e e des a v a l e s de Rejean Ducharme," Le Monde, l e r o c t o b r e 1966, p. 13; and e s p e c i a l l y "Le Second Roman de Ducharme: Le Nez q u i vogue," Le Monde, 26 a v r i l 1967, pp. 1-2. Rough treatment i s meted out by Jean E t h i e r - B l a i s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a r e v i e w of L'Oceantume: " l o d e y e s t . . . Eh b i e n ! g u ' e l l e y r e s t e , " Le D e v o i r , 12 o c t o b r e 1968, p. 13. 9 Rejean Ducharme, Les Enfantomes ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1976), pp. 278-279. P i e r r e - L o u i s V a i l l a n c o u r t , " L ' O f f e n s i v e Ducharme," V o i x e t Images, 5, n° 1, automne 1979, pp. 177-185, 183. P a t r i c k Imbert, Roman quebecois contemporain e t c l i c h e s (Ottawa: E d i t i o n s de l ' U n i v e r s i t e d'Ottawa, 1983), pp. 20-24. 15 12 Renee Leduc-Park, Rejean Ducharme: Nietzsche et Dionysos (Quebec: Presses de 1'Universite Laval, 1982), pp. 181-292. 13 Leduc-Park, pp. 14, 41. 14 "Recit" i s used to mean the subspecies of discourse which t e l l s a story. See Gerard Genette, Figures III (Paris: S e u i l , 1972), p. 72: "... notre etude porte essentiellement sur le r e c i t au sens l e plus cou-rant, c'est-a-dire le discours n a r r a t i f . . . . Je propose... de nommer h i s t o i r e le s i g n i f i e ou contenu n a r r a t i f . . . r e c i t proprement d i t le s i g n i f i a n t , enonce, discours ou texte n a r r a t i f lui-meme...." In one sense a l l discourse i n the novel constitutes a r e c i t ; however, i n d i s -cussing L 'Avalee and Le Nez i t i s useful to reserve " r e c i t " for discourse at the service of an h i s t o i r e or story which conforms to conventional expectations of what a story i s , and includes event, suspense, and l o g i c a l coherence. ^ See, for example, Linda Hutcheon, N a r c i s s i s t i c Narrative: the  Me t a f i c t i o n a l Paradox (Waterloo, Ontario: W i l f r i d Laurier University Press, 1980). ^ Rejean Ducharme, L'Avalee des avales (Paris: Gallimard, 1966). References w i l l be included i n text, with AV to indicate which novel i s c i t e d , i n cases where confusion might a r i s e ; Le Nez qui vogue (Paris: Gallimard, 1967). References w i l l be included i n text, with NQV to indicate which novel i s c i t e d , i n cases where confusion might a r i s e ; L'Oceantume (Paris: Gallimard, 1968); La F i l l e de Christophe Colomb (Paris: Gallimard, 1969). ^ 7 See Jean B a s i l e , "Les Evenements: L i t t e r a t u r e , " Le Devoir, 14 Janvier 1967, p. 14; and Norman Lassonde, "Rejean Ducharme? OUI c'est MOI!," Le Nouvelliste, 10 aout 1968, pp. 1, 3, 13. Al a i n Bosquet, "'L'Oceantume1 de Rejean Ducharme," Le Monde (28 septembre 1968), p. I I . 19 Leduc-Park, pp. 281-282. 20 See A l a i n Bosquet, " 1L'Oceantume' de Rejean Ducharme," and es p e c i a l l y Jean E t h i e r - B l a i s , "lode y est... Eh bien! qu'elle y r e s t e . " 21 L'Oceantume, p. 185. 22 Leduc-Park, p. 5( 16 23 L'Hiver de force, p. 258. 24 L'Hiver de force, p. 181. 2 5 L'Hiver de force, p. 282. 26 L'Hiver de force, p. 281. 27 Leduc-Park, pp. 18, 56. 28 Les Enfantomes, p. 13. 29 „ " Les Enfantomes, p. 13. 30 M. Alexandre, "Lettre ouverte a un mort: Rejean Ducharme," Sept-Jours, 18 f e v r i e r 1967, p. 48. 31 R. D. Laing, The Divided Self (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1977). 32 See e s p e c i a l l y Sigmund Freud, "Notes upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis (1909)," Standard E d i t i o n of the Complete Psychological Works (London: Hogarth Press, 1961), X, pp. 155-318. 33 Luce Irigaray, "La Tache aveugle d'un vieux reve de symetrie," Speculum: de l'autre femme (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1974), pp. 9-162. 34 Linda Hutcheon, "Parody without R i d i c u l e : Observations on Modern L i t e r a r y Parody," Canadian Review of Comparative L i t e r a t u r e (Spring 1978), 201-11. 35 Michael R i f f a t e r r e , " S t y l i s t i c Context," Word, n° 2 (1960), 209-12. 3 6 Jacques Dubois et a l , Rhetorique generale (Paris: Larousse, 1970). 37 Jacques Derrida, De La Grammatologie (Paris: S e u i l , 1967); Luce Irigaray, Speculum: de l'autre femme (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1974); Maurice Blanchot, L'Espace l i t t e r a i r e (Paris: Gallimard, 1955). 17 See J. L. Austin, How to Do Things with Words (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975); and Mary Louise Pratt, Toward a Speech Act Theory of  L i t e r a r y Discourse (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1977). J y Marcel Chouinard, "Rejean Ducharme: un langage v i o l e n t e , " Liberte 12 (1970), 109-30; Bernard Dupriez, "Ducharme et d e s f i c e l l e s , " Voix et Images du Pays (Quebec), 5 (1972), 165-85. Jacques Dubois et a l , Rhetorique de l a poesie (Brussels: Editions Complexe, 1977). PART I: THE SUBJECT IN THE TEXT The f i r s t f o u r c h a p t e r s of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n focus on c h a r a c t e r i n L'Avalee des a v a l e s and then i n Le Nez q u i vogue. Both are f i r s t p e r s o n n o v e l s so the d i s c u s s i o n b e g i n s w i t h the n a r r a t o r as c h a r a c t e r (Chapter I and Chapter I I I ) and then the secondary c h a r a c t e r s i n each n o v e l (Chapter I I and Chapter I V ) . I t i s a p a r a d o x i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f these t e x t s t h a t on the one hand the c h a r a c t e r s appear one d i m e n s i o n a l , or p a r o d i c ; on the o t h e r hand, they e x h i b i t p s y c h o l o g i c a l coherence. The f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s attempts to d e f i n e t h a t coherence. C o n s t i t u t i n g an image of p s y c h o l o g i c a l type i n the t e x t p e r m i t s a c l a r i t y o f focus h e l p f u l i n a p p r o a c h i n g two t e x t s as a p p a r e n t l y d i f f u s e and s p e c t a c u l a r l y p o l y s e m i c as L ' A v a l e e des a v a l e s and Le Nez g u i vogue. These n o v e l s do not a l l o w the r e a d e r to i g n o r e t h e i r t e x t u a l i t y . One dimension of t h e i r t e x t u a l i t y i s the s u b j e c t as emerging from d i s c o u r s e . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l images p r o v i d e a pathway to the r e d e f i n i t i o n of s u b j e c t and t e x t i n L'Avalee and Le Nez. CHAPTER I: THE DIVIDED SELF: "L'AVALEE" Fr e u d , L a i n g and the S u b j e c t i n L ' A v a l e e As S a r t r e s a i d o f the p o s i t i o n of Marx i n p h i l o s o p h y , Freud remains as a h o r i z o n i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , one which can be i g n o r e d but not y e t got beyond.''' In c o n s i d e r i n g B e r e n i c e the argument r e l i e s l i t t l e on F r e u d i a n t e x t s w h i l e h e a v i l y e x p l o i t i n g The D i v i d e d S e l f , by R.'D. L a i n g , whose argument, i n s p i t e o f a c r i t i c a l approach to t r a d i t i o n a l 2 p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , i s s o l i d l y c o n s t r u c t e d on F r e u d i a n f o u n d a t i o n s . 18 19 This reliance on The Divided Self can be j u s t i f i e d i n terms of the present purpose; f i r s t for a negative reason, because Laing 1s r h e t o r i c i s less problematic i n the contemporary context than Freud's polemics. A student's introduction to Freud, for example, cautions one not to "take Freud's extreme formulations l i t e r a l l y [but to] treat them as his way of c a l l i n g your attention to a point, [to be] benignly skep-t i c a l about Freud's assertions of proof that something has been e s t a b l i s 3 beyond doubt." The psychology of woman poses more substantial problems in Freudian theory than male psychology does, and also provokes more complex and convoluted explanations: "We have, a f t e r a l l , long given up any expectation of a neat p a r a l l e l i s m between male and female sexual 4 development" wrote Freud i n 1931. One might regret that he did not give i t up sooner and more completely. Generally, we are cautioned that "Freud was overfond of dichotomies, even when his data were better conceptualized as continuous v a r i a b l e s " ; i n other words, even when the data show many shades of grey, they are explained i n terms of black and w h i t e . T h u s , for example, Freud's e s s e n t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "mascu-l i n e " and "feminine" corresponds to " a c t i v e " and "passive". On the whole, his descriptions of human behaviour take the behaviour of men as prototypic, with that of women f i g u r i n g as a deri v a t i v e v a r i a t i o n of secondary i n t e r e s t . Power and i n t e g r i t y are defined as the fantasized c o r o l l a r i e s of possessing the phallus, and even, i n ce r t a i n statements, as the r e a l c o r o l l a r i e s of the penis.^ For th i s reason i t i s simpler to leave aside Freud's pronouncements about women and to r e f e r instead to The Divided Self which describes male and female experience i n much the same terms. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to bear i n mind, however, that a 20 F r e u d i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n tends to d e s c r i b e the female persona as u l t i -m a t e ly p o w e r l e s s . Another r e a s o n f o r u s i n g The D i v i d e d S e l f i s the importance i t a c c o r d s to p o i n t o f view, i n the sense t h a t i s meant a l s o i n r e f e r r i n g t o p o i n t o f view i n a n o v e l . The F r e u d i a n approach r e g a r d s the female as the o t h e r , the o b j e c t , thus the t h i r d p e rson, and even as the Other, g the u n c o n s c i o u s as p e r s o n a l and c o l l e c t i v e . Another problem w i t h p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i t s tendency to p r e s e n t the s u b j e c t as an immutable c o l l e c t i o n of symptoms. L a i n g , on the o t h e r hand, does attempt to u n d e r s t a n d and e x p l a i n the s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e from the p o i n t o f view of the s u b j e c t , t h a t i s , by a p p l y i n g a phenomenological approach to the study of p s y c h o l o g y : ... e x i s t e n t i a l phenomenology becomes the attempt to r e c o n s t r u c t the p a t i e n t ' s way o f b e i n g h i m s e l f i n h i s w o r l d , a l t h o u g h , i n the t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , the focus may be on the p a t i e n t ' s way of being-with-me.... (DS, p. 25) T h i s approach i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the r e a d i n g o f a t e x t i n which the n a r r a t o r does not d i s t i n g u i s h between the r o l e s o f p r o t a g o n i s t and o f n a r r a t o r and thus i n which the r e a d e r must take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f the s t o r y as a t e x t which i s not e x p l a i n e d or n a t u r a l i z e d by the n a r r a t o r . The r e a d e r i s i m p l i c a t e d i n the c r e a t i o n o f the f i c t i o n , which e x i s t s o n l y i n i t s b e i n g - w i t h the r e a d e r . More s t a r t l i n g than the c h o i c e of female n a r r a t o r i n L'Avalee des  a v a l e s i s the c h o i c e of a c h i l d n a r r a t o r , who i s n i n e y e a r s o l d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the r e c i t and l a t e r as o l d as f i f t e e n . Without even con-s i d e r i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s c h o i c e i n l i t e r a r y terms, i t i s s i g n i f i -c a nt i n terms of modern p s y c h o l o g y , b e g i n i n g w i t h F r e u d , which g e n e r a l l y 21 sees the c h i l d as the p r o t o t y p e of the d i s t u r b e d or n e u r o t i c a d u l t : A formula b e g i n s to take shape ... t h a t the s e x u a l i t y of n e u r o t i c s has remained i n , or been brought back t o , an i n f a n t i l e s t a t e . Thus our i n t e r e s t t u r n s to the s e x u a l l i f e o f c h i l d r e n , and we w i l l now p roceed to t r a c e the p l a y of i n f l u e n c e s which govern the e v o l u t i o n of i n f a n t i l e s e x u a l i t y t i l l i t s outcome i n p e r v e r s i o n , n e u r o s i s or normal s e x u a l l i f e . ^ I t i s here i n Three Essays on S e x u a l i t y t h a t Freud d e v e l o p s the t h e o r y of the p r e g e n i t a l phases of p s y c h o s e x u a l development i n c h i l d r e n . There are two of these phases which c o r r e s p o n d i n a most obvious f a s h i o n to dominant themes of L 'Avalee des a v a l e s . Freud d e s c r i b e s the f i r s t phase of i n f a n c y as the " o r a l " phase, d u r i n g which the s u b j e c t i s l e a r n i n g ( i n r e c o g n i z i n g the time i n t e r v a l between f e e l i n g hunger and e a t i n g ) t h a t he has a p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n c e d i s t i n c t from t h a t of the nurse or mother and t h a t a d e s i r e i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from i t s s a t i s -f a c t i o n , a f a n t a s y e x p e r i e n c e i s d i f f e r e n t from a r e a l e x p e r i e n c e . F r e u d s u b d i v i d e s the o r a l phase i n t o a f i r s t , p a s s i v e phase and a l a t e r " o r a l s a d i s t i c " phase, as f e e d i n g e v o l v e s i n t o a g g r e s s i v e e f f o r t s to suck, swallow o r devour. In L 'Avalee des a v a l e s , as the t i t l e i n d i c a t e s , e a t i n g , s w a l l o w i n g , and r e g u r g i t a t i o n a r e the c e n t r a l ' m o t i f s of the t e x t and the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s most important p r e o c c u p a t i o n s : " V o i l a ce q u ' i l f a u d r a que j e f a s s e pour e t r e l i b r e : t o u t a v a l e r , me repandre sur t o u t , t o u t e n g l o b e r , . . . t o u t i n c o r p o r e r " (p. 160). ^ L a t e r , a t about age two, a c c o r d i n g to F r e u d , t h e r e i s "a second of these p r e g e n i t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by sadism and a n a l e r o t i s m . P r e o c c u p a t i o n s he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h i s p e r i o d i n c l u d e the w i l l to c o n t r o l the body, to c o n t r o l o t h e r s , to c o n t r o l p r o c e s s e s i n the w o r l d , to p o s s e s s or g i v e away o b j e c t s . He suggests t h a t a t t h i s 22 time the young c h i l d l e a r n s s o c i a l v a l u e s , b o d i l y c o n t r o l , g o a l - o r i e n t e d a c t i o n . Though c o n s i s t e n t l y " o r a l " i n o u t l o o k , B e r e n i c e E i n b e r g a l s o adopts an " a n a l s a d i s t i c " approach i n h e r d e s i r e to c o n t r o l and p o s s e s s O t h e r s : Tu ne peux te r e a l i s e r p leinement en t a n t q u ' i n d i v i d u qu'en soumettant tous l e s e t r e s humains... Qui ne veut pas d'une v i l l e au l i e u d'une h u t t e , d'une j u n g l e au l i e u d'un c h a t , d'un harem au l i e u d'une epouse? (p. 245) In a n e u r o t i c a d u l t or c h i l d , F r e u d c o n t i n u e s , s e x u a l and e m o t i o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n s have caused the l i b i d o to v a n i s h from c o n s c i o u s a c t i v i t y w h i l e r e i n v e s t i n g these two p r e g e n i t a l phases, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t s e x u a l energy becomes f i x a t e d on the o r a l and a n a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s of i n f a n c y . Thus a c h i l d p r o t a g o n i s t i s a c o n v e n i e n t medium f o r e x p o s i n g and a n a l y s i n g the o b s e s s i o n s of a n e u r o t i c a d u l t . One p o i n t must be c l a r i f i e d however. Freud h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t by the age o f f i v e the c h i l d has a b a s i c a l l y a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y and has not o n l y f o r g o t t e n but r e p r e s s e d 12 the e x p e r i e n c e s of the o r a l and a n a l phases. Freud's t h e o r y of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e d e t e r m i n i n g p e r s o n a l i t y and i t s e v o l u t i o n i s c o g e n t l y r e s t a t e d by B e r e n i c e E i n b e r g : On ne n a i t pas en n a i s s a n t . On n a i t quelques annees p l u s t a r d , quand on prend c o n s c i e n c e d ' e t r e . Je s u i s nee v e r s 1 1 age de c i n q ans, s i j e m'en s o u v i e n s b i e n . E t n a i t r e a c e t age c ' e s t n a i t r e t r o p t a r d , c a r a c e t age on a d e j a un passe, 1'ame a forme. (pp. 142-143) Sin c e the p r e g e n i t a l e x p e r i e n c e i s f o r g o t t e n almost by d e f i n i t i o n , as a c h i l d o f n i n e B e r e n i c e E i n b e r g stands between c h i l d and a d u l t , a s s o c i a t e d m e t o n y m i c a l l y w i t h the o r a l and a n a l phases w h i l e i l l u s t r a t i n g the continuum of e x p e r i e n c e . The r e a l b i r t h , she e x p l a i n s , i s the b i r t h of the s o u l , as memory, and comes a f t e r c h i l d h o o d . In t h i s 23 p a r t i c u l a r passage " c h i l d h o o d " r e f e r s t o a m y t h o l o g i c a l p e r i o d , the p r e g e n i t a l p e r i o d : "... c e t t e ame dont on p a r l e , ne p o u r r a i t - e l l e pas, p l u s simplement, s ' a p p e l e r memoire? En n a i s s a n t , un homme n'a pas d'ame; i l n'en aura une qu'apres l ' e n f a n c e " (p. 270). Thus, f o r Fr e u d , the r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a d u l t and c h i l d , as opposed t o i n f a n t , are not i n p e r s o n a l i t y but i n p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . The c h i l d h o o d y e a r s , say from the age of f i v e to twe l v e , are d e s c r i b e d by Fre u d as a l a t e n c y p e r i o d and a p e r i o d o f p r a c t i c a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , t h a t p e r i o d which e s p e c i a l l y c o r r e s p o n d s to B e r e n i c e ' s t e x t : Je me t i e n s dans ma main en a t t e n d a n t d ' e t r e a s s e z f o r t e pour me l a n c e r au t r a v e r s du firmament. (p. 52) J ' a t t e n d s que mes f o r c e s s o i e n t f a i t e s . . . . (p. 70) L'abbaye e s t a Chat Mort. Je n'y v i s qu'en a t t e n d a n t , qu'en l a t e n c e . (p. 25) The a c t i v i t y o f those [ i n -f a n t i l e s e x u a l ] i m p u l s e s , does not cease even d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f l a t e n c y , though t h e i r energy i s d i v e r -t e d , w h o l l y or i n g r e a t p a r t , from t h e i r s e x u a l use and d i r e c t e d to o t h e r ends.13 Imagery o f S c h i z o i d F e a r We have seen t h a t L'Avalee des a v a l e s e x p l o i t s F r e u d i a n themes of c h i l d h o o d and n e u r o s i s , but to d e s c r i b e the h e r o i n e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y we w i l l t u r n to The D i v i d e d S e l f , w i t h the assumption t h a t B e r e n i c e E i n b e r g has the same c l a i m to be d i s c u s s e d as a formed p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t any n a r r a t o r has. However, we w i l l emphasize how she i s n e u r o t i c , as an a d u l t might be. In The D i v i d e d S e l f L a i n g t r a c e s the development o f a " s c h i z o i d " p e r s o n a l i t y which resembles t h a t which we a t t r i b u t e to B e r e n i c e E i n b e r g : n o t i c e here a l s o the acknowledgement o f i n f a n c y 24 as formative: The i n i t i a l s t ructuration of being into i t s basic elements occurs i n early infancy.... In the schizoid character... there i s an i n s e c u r i t y in the laying down of the foundations [of character] and a compensatory r i g i d i t y i n the super-structure. (DS, p. 77) Laing describes the basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of schizoid personality as "ontological i n s e c u r i t y " , i n s e c u r i t y of being suggesting that the sub-ject usually feels tense, uncomfortable, i l l at ease and rather unhappy. One can almost say that his or her sense of i d e n t i t y i s a f e e l i n g of inadequacy, a fear that there i s no s e l f : "The o n t o l o g i c a l l y insecure person i s preoccupied with preserving rather than g r a t i f y i n g himself: the ordinary circumstances of l i v i n g threaten h i s low threshold of s e c u r i t y " (DS, p. 4 2 ) . 1 4 Certain passages of L'Avalee des avales can be read with d i r e c t reference to Laing's analysis. A person who feels so insecure does not enjoy the companionship of others, which i s the usual s o l u t i o n to lone-l i n e s s , and loneliness i s the experience of Berenice. In t h i s context, the following two passages are important, coming at the beginning of the novel where the reader forms impressions about the character: On regarde, tout autour, comme s i on cherchait. On regarde... on ne v o i t r i e n de bon.... on s'apercoit que ce qu'on regarde nous f a i t mal, qu 1 on est seul et qu'on a peur. (p. 8) Quand on veut savoir ou on est, on se ferme les yeux. On est l a ... dans le noir et dans le vide.... II ne se passe r i e n dans le noir et dans le vide. Ca attend qu'on fasse quelque chose pour que ca se passe, pour en s o r t i r . (p. 9) Such sentiments are t o t a l l y divorced from a very productive con-cept of solitude which Laing i d e n t i f i e s as e s s e n t i a l to the development 25 of a more normal sense of s e l f : ... i n childhood, adults were at f i r s t able to look r i g h t through us, and into us ... what an accomplishment i t was ... the discovery that we are irredeemably alone.... within the t e r r i t o r y of ourselves there can be only our f o o t p r i n t s . . . . This genuine privacy i s the basis for genuine r e l a t i o n s h i p . (DS, p. 37) Where this assurance i s lacking subjects describe t h e i r fears and inadequacies with reference to three images of being destroyed, which occur frequently in many l i t e r a r y contexts, as i n L'Avalee des  avales: engulfment, implosion, and p e t r i f i c a t i o n . The f i r s t discussed by Laing i s the threat of engulfment, e s p e c i a l l y by being swallowed, and relates to the Freudian o r a l phase. Engulfment fantasies are frightening because of the loss of o r i e n t a t i o n and points of reference and the p o s s i b i l i t y of attack from more than one d i r e c t i o n at once: Tout m'avale. Quand j ' a i les yeux fermes, c'est par mon ventre que je suis avalee, c'est dans mon ventre que j'etouffe. Quand j ' a i les yeux ouverts, c'est parce que je vois que je suis avalee, c'est dans le ventre de ce que je vois que j'etouffe. (p. 7) A schizoid person may have a problematical r e l a t i o n to what ex i s t s outside the s e l f but also with the s e l f at the same time. This means that the fear attached to the three images, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to the f i r s t , engulfment, may be experienced by the sufferer as caused now by something i n the world outside, now by something within the s e l f or the body. The second c l u s t e r of images i d e n t i f i e d by Laing relates to the fear of being squashed or suffocated by forces pushing i n on one, fear of implosion (DS, pp. 45-46). L'Avalee des avales describes such a fantasy i n the following l i n e s : 26 Je suis tombee dans un sarcophage qui avait deploye ses a i l e s pour avoir l ' a i r d'une surface plate, d'une grande surface f a i t e pour c o u r i r et prendre ses aise s . Les dix paires d ' a i l e s de plomb se levent sans b r u i t , se dressent sans meme jet e r d'ombre ... me serrent comme dans un seul poing. (p. 86) The name "sarcophagus" for the stone c o f f i n of the Ancients came from the Greek meaning "eater of bodies" since, according to P l i n y , lime-stone was thought to dissolve the body quickly. Thus the image may allude again, u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , to engulfment. The "wings" may be the handles used for lowering the c o f f i n into the e a r t h . ^ As engulfment may come from within or without, so may implosion; the s e l f may be destroyed by a force pushing out from within: "II faut que je retienne ma raison a deux mains... pour qu'elle reste, pour qu'elle ne se v o l a t i l i s e pas; pour qu'elle ne s'enfuie pas de moi comme le gaz d'un ballon qui se fond" (p. 195). The theme of implosion or suffocation i s not i n i t i a t e d i n Quebec by Ducharme; quite the contrary, i t occurred frequently i n the poems of Anne Hebert and Saint-Denys-Garneau, but i s less apparent a f t e r 1950 with the approach of the Quiet Revolution. A t h i r d form of threat of the s e l f i s described i n images of metamorphosis where the subject becomes an inanimate thing, frequently a stone (DS, p. 46). For example, i n the sarcophagus fantasy c i t e d above, the "Avalee" i s flattened and suffocated and f i n a l l y turned into a f o s s i l i z e d residue: "Je suffoque. Je suis etranglee.... Je me decompose. Je me l i q u e f i e . La vi e me deserte, s'ecoule de moi comme d'un tamis. Je durcis. Je me f o s s i l i s e . Je suis p e t r i f i e e " (p. 86, following previous quotation). The sarcophagus seems to be of the Egyptian type, l i k e that of Tutankhamen, which imitates the 27 contours of the human form. Inside, the human body was mummified, and so i n the image the a t t r i b u t e "stone" i s transferred from the con-tainer to the contained; i t engulfs the human remains. In L'Avalee  des avales the underlying perspective i s engulfment, the s h i f t i n g of perspective; thus the frequency and extravagance of mixed metaphors, and of some other fantasy being resolved into a fantasy of engulfment. Laing describes the fears symptomatic of "ontological i n s e c u r i t y " as provoking an offensive defence, i n which the v i c t i m "who i s frightened of his own s u b j e c t i v i t y being swamped, impinged upon, or congealed by the other may be found attempting to swamp, to impinge upon, or to k i l l the other person's s u b j e c t i v i t y " (DS, p. 52). The aggressive and v i o l e n t tenor of L'Avalee des avales i s unmistakable; the narrator alludes to the p o s s i b i l i t y of her swallowing the world (p. 160), but her habitual assault against i n d i v i d u a l s consists of reducing them to plant or animal matter, objects or mere appearances: II y en a qui ont des pommiers... chiens... singes qui savent manger avec un couteau et une fourchette. Moi,... j'aurai un etre humain: mon frere C h r i s t i a n , (p. 71) C h r i s t i a n ! Constance Chlore... Que s o n t - i l s ? Je suis le general et i l s sont les forteresses a prendre.... II faudrait que je ne connaisse d'eux que leur visage, (pp. 32-33) The motif of p e t r i f i c a t i o n , of people turning into matter, i s an anal motif i n the Freudian sense and i t can develop into a confusion i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g "what i s dead and what i s l i v i n g . . . . more exactly, what i s autonomous and what i s co n t r o l l e d by another as a thing would b e . " ^ It remains a secondary threat to that of d i s s o l u t i o n by engulfment since things, although not a l i v e , maintain separate i d e n t i t i e s . 28 The Fragmentation of Self Underlying the offensive defences, the simplest and most e f f e c t i v e protection for the f r a g i l e s e l f i s i s o l a t i o n from a l l contact, contami-nation or attack by others: "Quand je ne suis pas seule, je me sens malade, en danger... (p. 15). £a m'isole et ... tout ce qui i s o l e d e l i v r e " (p. 44). In order to i s o l a t e the s e l f e f f e c t i v e l y , the onto-l o g i c a l l y insecure subject may devise a f a l s e front to present i n the s o c i a l world. Laing sees the t r a d i t i o n a l dichotomy of mind and body as the natural point of departure for the f i r s t schism of the personality into a f a l s e front and an i s o l a t e d but authentic inner s e l f . This d i v i s i o n of mind and body i s not unknown to L'Avalee: Instead of being the core Les blessures corporelles of h i s true s e l f , the body ne sont pas a f f a i r e d'ame is f e l t as the core of a a ame, mais de chose a f a l s e s e l f , which a de- chose. Personne n'a de tached, disembodied, "inner", pouvoir sur moi que moi "true" s e l f looks on at with meme. (p. 191) tenderness, amusement or hatred. (DS, p. 69) The f a l s e front complies with what others want arid t r i e s to resemble what others are thought to want i t to be: "This does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that the f a l s e s e l f i s absurdly good. It may be absurdly bad" (DS, p. 98). Thus Berenice exaggerates her i n t e r e s t i n her brother, recounting a scene between them as a performance for the benefit of the g u l l i b l e parents. The c a r i c a t u r i n g of the role defines the f a l s e front, and C h r i s t i a n , who i s not astute, nonetheless explains that Berenice i s playing a r o l e : On d i r a i t que tu te forces Into the o r i g i n a l appearance pour m'aimer, que tu te of normality ... there creeps cr o i s obligee de m'aimer. a c e r t a i n oddity, a c e r t a i n 29 On d i r a i t meme que tu as une mauvaise idee derriere compulsive excessiveness in unwonted d i r e c t i o n s which turns into a c a r i c a t u r e . (DS, p. 103) l a tete. (p. 138) Instead of appearing e v i l , however, she appears s l i g h t l y b i z a r r e . Her e v i l acts l i k e k i l l i n g the cats or G l o r i a simply remain unknown to others. The attempt to impose h e r s e l f by p o l a r i z i n g good inner s e l f and f a l s e outer s e l f passes unnoticed and the schizoid process proceeds without an e x p l i c i t external yardstick. If one mode of being something i s to adhere to one term of a binary opposition, she f a i l s to become such a something i n the eyes of others. She f a l l s between categories as merely strange or s i l l y . To the extent that such an assessment i s inherently condemnatory, she embodies t h i s marginally e v i l status. Her e v i l i s in being both unspontaneous and inconsistent. The text does include another image of the inner, true s e l f of "L'Avalee," i n private thoughts and f e e l i n g s . The written text i s a structure where what i s r e a l i s not r e f e r e n t i a l l y true: "Pour parer a 1'insuffisance qui ne me permet pas d'agir... je les [choses et a c t i -v i t e s ] d e f i n i s n o i r sur blanc sur une f e u i l l e de papier" (p. 153). Indeed, at f i r s t the d i v i s i o n of roles between narrator and protagonist seems to stand for the inner s e l f monitoring the f a l s e front: Whereas a l l exchanges with the other may be fraught with pretence... the i n d i -vidual seeks to achieve a r e l a t i o n s h i p with himself that i s sincere, honest, frank. Anything may be con cealed from others, but nothing must be hidden from the s e l f . (DS, p. 83) La v i e ne se passe pas sur l a terre mais dans ma tete. Le seul moyen de s'appartenir est de comprendre. Les seules mains capables de s a i s i r l a vie sont a l ' i n t e r i e u r de l a t e t e . . . . (p. 142) (p. 33) A second schism exists within the true s e l f which becomes both 30 the observer and the one observed. Since no one else i s allowed to perceive the true s e l f , i t must become i t s own object. In a state of ins e c u r i t y , the s e l f sees others as threatening, and when i t becomes i t s own observer, that observer also threatens and b u l l i e s : "the part of himself who looks into him and sees him has developed the persecutory features he has come to f e e l the r e a l person outside him to have" (DS, p. 117). In th i s predicament, the enemy i s i n t e r n a l i z e d , a malevolent c r i t i c reminiscent of Freud's archaic "super-ego", behaving " i n a s a d i s t i c 18 manner toward the subject." Laing c i t e s references to the sun as symbol of consciousness: "the schizoid i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t s under the black sun, the e v i l eye, of his own scr u t i n y " (DS, p. 112). Thus i n the sarcophagus fantasy, the wings make no shadows. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , 'L 1Avalee"describes the paraly s i s of consciousness and the realm of experience as frozen, motionless and dead; i t i s a deadly calm with the two aspects locked into one perception which destroys the po t e n t i a l of fantasy: "La lumiere s'est f a i t forme, est hors de l'ocean d ' a i r . . . . Le s o l e i l a des rayons de f e r . La lune a des rayons de bois, comme une roue de c a r r i o l e . Je suis calme" (p. 141). The experience of the true s e l f i s lim i t e d to fantasy, memory and abstract thought, and i s deprived of sensory imput which occurs v i a the body, or fa l s e s e l f : Phantasy, without being i n Quand on s'est compris, on some measure embodied i n peut courir dans 1 1 immense r e a l i t y , or i t s e l f enriched sphere a r m i l l a i r e et s 1im-by i n j e c t i o n s of " r e a l i t y " , aginer que, comme l ' e c u r e u i l becomes more and more empty dans sa cage, on joue, on se and v o l a t i l i z e d . (DS, p. 85) joue. (p. 142) In this context, to understand oneself i s to turn oneself into a thing. To the r a t i o n a l , mechanistic s e l f of Descartes corresponds the universe 31 of Ptolemy. For Ptolemy the e a r t h i s the f o c a l p o i n t , f o r D e s c a r t e s the r a t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l ego. The d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n of i s o l a t i n g the cor e o f b e i n g tends t o r e s u l t i n s e l f - o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n , as i s on o c c a s i o n c l e a r l y s t a t e d by "L' A v a l e e " : " A f i n de me f a i r e une ame j ' a i b r u l e ce que j ' a v a i s de s p o n t a n e i t e " (p. 93). A c c o r d i n g to The D i v i d e d S e l f t h e r e i s lon g - t e r m ambivalence to the s c h i z o i d p r o c e s s as i n L'Avalee des a v a l e s . A c o n v i c t i o n o f i n n a t e p e r s o n a l w o r t h l e s s n e s s accompanies o n t o l o g i c a l i n s e c u r i t y , and i s r e i n f o r c e d by the o b s e r v e r persona o f the fragmented p e r s o n a l i t y , as we see i n the mi d d l e o f L'Avalee des a v a l e s : "Dans l e coeur d'une l a i d e comme moi, d'une mise au monde r i e n que pour s o u f f r i r comme moi, s e u l s h a i n e et d e s e s p o i r ont p l a c e " (p. 140). As L a i n g s a y s , the s u b j e c t f e e l s unworthy t o e x i s t and even more g u i l t y t h a t he i s a f r a i d o f l i f e . The p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g , which might be expec t e d t o e f f e c t a compromise a l l o w i n g r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n and mediated c o n t a c t i s , i n L'Avalee des a v a l e s , t a i n t e d by i m p l i c a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s o f wi t h d r a w a l and f a n t a s y ; f o r example: "Dans un l i v r e , on e s t s e u l . Dans un mauvais l i v r e i l y a des m e u r t r e s , des c o c h o n n e r i e s , t o u t ce que j e s o u h a i t e au monde" (p. 170). The e v i l o f the f a l s e s e l f u l t i m a t e l y contaminates the t r u e s e l f , and the t e x t ; moreover, L a i n g says t h a t i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the t r u e s e l f become charged w i t h h a t e . The h a t r e d comes from f r u s t r a t i o n a t not b e i n g a b l e to take a n y t h i n g i n , s i n c e a l l e x p e r i e n c e , except s e l f -awareness, has been r e l e g a t e d to the f a l s e s e l f . L i k e the f r a g m e n t a t i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y , t h i s s h u t t i n g out o f e x p e r i e n c e s e t s i n motion a 32 s p i r a l of impoverishment and d e b i l i t a t i o n i n the s e l f . The subject becomes incapable of what was f i r s t refused d e l i b e r a t e l y ; in anorexia, for example, a prejudice against eating may become the i n a b i l i t y to digest food. "L'Avalee" proposes to incorporate the world into her s e l f by devouring i t , thus l i q u i d a t i n g her dependency on others, but no sooner i s this r e s o l u t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d than i t i s rejected i n favour of t o t a l destruction, including the voluntary a n n i h i l a t i o n of the s e l f : The only way of destroying Mais j'aime mieux tout de-and of not destroying what t r u i r e . Je ne sais pas pour-i s there may be f e l t to be quoi. C'est plus desinteresse to destroy i t s e l f . (DS, .... Et puis est-ce que cette p. 161) s o l u t i o n ne suppose pas 1'iden-t i f i c a t i o n de l a plus tot a l e v i c t o i r e avec l a mort? (pp. 160-161) The underlying dynamic of L'Avalee des avales remains that of eating, swallowing and vomiting. In the t r a d i t i o n of grotesque realism, one might be surprised to find these themes divorced from c e r t a i n other 19 themes of the body related to digestion or elimination. The "Avalee", on the other hand, cannot r e a l l y incorporate anything; thus one of her most impressive fantasies concerns expropriating the digestive apparatus of others: "Je r a f f o l e des jejunums f r a i s , des jejunums encore chauds de sang et fremissants de v i e " (p. 245). In L'Avalee des avales we can trace a progressive psychic d e t e r i -oration which i s i n t e l l i g i b l e with reference to the schizoid processes described in The Divided S e l f . The dominant thematic perspective i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n , and t h i s n e g a t i v i t y inheres in the a l l u s i o n to e n t i r e l y passive agents in the t i t l e , an a l l u s i o n betrayed i n the English trans-20 l a t i o n as The Swallower Swallowed. This i s not to imply that the 33 text means something negative, but that, from the psychological point of view, and in spite of movements toward p a r t i a l i n t e g ration, the reader i s exposed to the escalation of the schizoid defences: with-drawal, o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of s e l f and others, and the s p l i t t i n g of the s e l f . The consequences for the l i t t l e g i r l , Berenice, are probably disastrous. A l l that remains unaltered by the process of s c l e r o s i s i s an abstract w i l l to escape: "J'appelle l a guerre de l'homme contre ce q u ' i l a f a i t . . . . II faut que je fuie comme un voleur et je n'ai ri e n p r i s d'autre que ma v i e " (p. 90). In describing "L'Avalee" we have c i t e d incidents from the story, expository or pseudo-expository statements, and use of imagery, a l l with reference to a process of character development. We w i l l l a t e r corroborate and round out this d e s c r i p t i o n by examining the story and d i s t r i b u t i o n of secondary characters (Chapter I I ) , always from a psychological point of view s i m i l a r to Laing's: Changes in the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i f f e r e n t aspects of the person's r e l a t i o n s h i p to himself are constantly associated with his inter-personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These are complex and never quite the same from person to person. (DS, p. 74) 34 NOTES See Jean-Paul S a r t r e , Q u e s t i o n s de methode ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1960), p. 12: "... un argument ' a n t i m a r x i s t e 1 n ' e s t que l e r a j e u n i s s e -ment apparent d'une i d e e p r e m a r x i s t e . " 2 R. D. L a i n g , The D i v i d e d S e l f (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , e t c . : Penguin Books, 1966, 1977). W i l l be r e f e r r e d to as DS w i t h r e f e r e n c e s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t e x t . 3 Robert R. H o l t , "On Reading F r e u d , " A b s t r a c t s of the Standard  E d i t i o n o f the Complete P s y c h o l o g i c a l Works o f Sigmund F r e u d , ed. C a r r i e Lee Rothgeb (New York: Jason Aronson, 1973), pp. 69-70. 4 Sigmund F r e u d , "Female S e x u a l i t y , " S t a n d a r d E d i t i o n of the Complete  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Works (London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1961), XXI, p. 226. 5 H o l t , p. 70. F r e u d , "Three Essays on S e x u a l i t y , " SE, XXI, p. 219, note 1. ^ Sigmund F r e u d , "From the H i s t o r y of an I n f a n t i l e N e u r o s i s , " C o l l e c t e d Papers (London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1949), I I I , 555: "We have been d r i v e n to assume t h a t d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of the dream he [the o b s e s s i o n a l n e u r o t i c ] u n d e r s t o o d t h a t women are c a s t r a t e d , t h a t i n s t e a d of a male organ they have a wound which s e r v e s f o r s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e and t h a t c a s t r a t i o n i s the n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y . " See a l s o Luce I r i g a r a y ' s r e r e a d i n g of F r e u d from a woman's p e r s p e c t i v e , Speculum: de l ' a u t r e femme ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 1974). See Anthony Wilden, "Lacan and the D i s c o u r s e of the O t h e r , " The Language of the S e l f : the F u n c t i o n o f Language i n P s y c h o a n a l y s i s ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1968), p. 269: "The Other w i t h a b i g '0' i s the scene o f the Word i n s o f a r as the scene o f the word i s always i n t h i r d p o s i t i o n between two s u b j e c t s . I f no man's a c t i o n s a r e s ymbolic i n t h emselves... then t h e i r s y mbolic n a t u r e i s dependent upon the Other (upon the u n c o n s c i o u s and the o t h e r ) . " 9 F r e u d , "Three Essays on S e x u a l i t y , " SE, V I I , p. 172. Norman N. H o l l a n d , The Dynamics of L i t e r a r y Response (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p. 38: "Of a l l the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of f a n t a s y i n l i t e r a t u r e , the o r a l i s the most common ( a t l e a s t i n my range o f r e a d i n g ) . . . . i n l i f e the sense of t r u s t and o f s e l f t h a t we o b t a i n i n t h i s f i r s t phase u n d e r l i e s a l l our subsequent development, so l i t e r a t u r e seems to b u i l d on o r a l i t y . " 35 1 1 Freud, "Three Essays on Sexuality," SE, VII, p. 233. 12 Freud, "Childhood Memories and Screen Memories," SE, VI, p. 43: Memories of early childhood often seem detached and i n s i g n i f i c a n t . For Freud such are screen memories: "The i n d i f f e r e n t memories owe t h e i r preservation not to t h e i r own content but to an associative r e l a t i o n between t h e i r content and another which i s repressed...." 13 Louis Eidelberg, Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis (Toronto: Collier-Macmillan Ltd., 1968), p. 217. 14 Laing, i n a note, p. 39: "Despite the ph i l o s o p h i c a l use of 'ontology' ... I have used the term i n i t s present empirical sense because i t appears to be the best adverbial or a d j e c t i v a l d e r i v a t i v e of being." ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965). 16 The theme of suffocation i n t h i s poetry seems to echo the i s o l a t i o n i s t trend of t r a d i t i o n a l Quebec. One poem i n p a r t i c u l a r by Saint-Denys-Garneau i s close to the imagery of L'Avalee des avales: II me faut devenir s u b t i l A f i n de, d i v i s a n t a l ' i n f i n i l'infime distance De l a corde a l ' a r c Creer par ingeniosite un espace analogue a l'Au-dela Et trouver dans ce reduit matiere Pour v i v r e et l ' a r t . - Hector de Saint-Denys-Garneau, "Autrefois j ' a i f a i t des poemes...1  Poesies completes (Ottawa: Fides, 1949), p. 80. ^ Holland, p. 41. 1 8 Eidelberg, p. 279. 19 See Mikhail Bakhtine, L'Oeuvre de Francois Rabelais et l a  culture populaire au Moyen Age et sous l a Renaissance (Paris: Gallimard, 1970). 20 Rejean Ducharme, trans. Barbara Bray, The Swallower Swallowed (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1968). CHAPTER I I : L'AVALEE DES AVALES: THE OTHERS Nature as the Ideal Other A reader presented with the record of the l i f e of a c h i l d from the age of nine to sixteen might expect to trace a process of growth and development. Instead, read for i t s mimetic power, L'Avalee des  avales i l l u s t r a t e s a process of schizoid d i s i n t e g r a t i o n above and beyond the persona of the c h i l d . Yet neither i s the c h i l d confined to or defined as a symbolic, s t y l i z e d representation of neurotic consciousness. In the f i r s t moment of the text, p a r t i c u l a r l y when Berenice i s s t i l l at home, a wealth of haphazard and intermittent concrete d e t a i l engages the reader's attention and supports the reference to a l i t t l e g i r l with her i n d i v i d u a l , a l b e i t u n l i k e l y , family s i t u a t i o n . Even when reason clamours that the vocabulary, the breadth of v i s i o n , must not be those of a c h i l d , les e f f e t s du r e e l compel i n t e r e s t and allow the gaps to be ignored. In t h i s chapter a r e a l i s t perspective on the text i s adopted again, by looking beyond the narrator to the secondary characters for a coherent mimesis. Yet, the psychological motifs organize them as a residue of what has already been described: one personal subject, i d i o -s yncratic, non-universal, s h u f f l i n g i t s aspects without regard to the li n e s which evoke the separateness of inside and outside. These l i n e s seem i r r e p r e s s i b l e when one i s describing the s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l , but "L'Avalee" i s present i n or encompassing others rather than with them. In early chapters, l i k e 9, 10 and 11, one recognizes the i d y l l i c world of the romantic Rousseauist child.''" In thi s world the subject i s defined f i r s t i n r e l a t i o n to nature and only 36 3 7 subsequently i n r e l a t i o n to others. One notes the f a c i l i t y and expertise with which Berenice defines h e r s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to the cycles of nature. In Chapter 9 , for example, Berenice and her brother C h r i s t i a n c o l l e c t samples of marsh l i f e . C h r i s t i a n i s the i n i t i a t o r to a universe which, although baroque, i s predictable: "Les bouts de jonc q u ' i l ramasse sont des maisons. II les ouvre et on v o i t s'enfuir un insecte, un p e t i t animal, une sorte de minuscule etre humain, un rhinoceros pas plus gros qu'une tete d'epingle" (p. 3 4 ) . In the worlds C h r i s t i a n knows, everything has i t s place, protected within something else, and the analogy with the human order i s possible. As i n the case of the "pin-head" rhinoceros, or the spiders which f i l l Berenice's eyes l i k e "autant de navires," s p a t i a l perspectives are often altered or blurred. The narrative i s reminiscent of Jung's equa-t i o n of the smaller-than-small with bigger-than-big: I have often encountered motifs which make me think that the unconscious must be the world of the i n f i n i t e s i m a l l y small. It seems to me that t h i s l i k i n g for the diminutive on the one hand and for superlatives -- giants, etc. on the other i s connected with the queer uncertainty of s p a t i a l and temporal r e l a t i o n s i n the unconscious.^ The swamp serves as a c a t c h - a l l image for what i n the mind i s not usually accessible to consciousness. The desc r i p t i o n of the children's dredging with a net suggests r i t u a l i z e d contact with the preconscious and the unconscious. Berenice narrates i n the present, but presents the scene as a r e p e t i t i o n of many previous ones: "chaque f o i s , " "je vois deja," "j'en attends d'autres" (p. 3 5 ) . Also, the net moves slowly and rhythmically so as not to frighten quarry. Psychic r e v e l a t i o n occurs i n a state of relaxation or hypnosis. Here i t occurs i n three stages: one f i r s t perceives the uncertain p r o l i f e r a t i o n of species, 3 8 then the fragmentary or monstruous-seeming forms of the large tadpoles, and at l a s t formal perfection in the " v r a i p e t i t poisson d'aquarium, un p e t i t poisson transparent..." (p. 3 6 ) ; depicted as the highest of ' 3 these l i f e forms and for Jung a frequently invoked image of the s e l f . The s t y l e suggests a set-piece written for school, and a f a c i l i t y corre-sponding to the mastery of a convention. In Chapter 1 0 , C h r i s t i a n and Berenice l i g h t a f i r e to burn o f f the dead grasses; the flames scattered can be said to represent "extremes of emotion and a f f e c t . . . which i n ordinary l i f e are prohibited, suppressed, 4 hidden or altogether unconscious." One i s reminded of Berenice's hearing the rabbi read that "Les impies seront brules comme p a i l l e " (p. 1 1 ) , and of her defiant commitment to be among them. Berenice's f i r e i s a p u r i f i c a t i o n , c l e a r i n g the way for the new growth. The choice of day for the f i r e must be dictated by the l i k e l i h o o d of r a i n i n the wind; these elements w i l l allow the c h i l d r e n to exercise control over the f i r e . Nonetheless, the c h i l d comes into contact with a dangerous force, or passion, and t h i s contact strengthens the s e l f . The i d y l l of childhood i n L'Avalee includes a scene of summer, a scene of autumn, and a scene of winter, Berenice's t r i a l by ice which defeated her in the past. She stuck her tongue on a frozen iron knob, then yanked i t away. Also when she ran out on the r i v e r ice,"comme nous etions a i n s i qu'aujourd'hui en t r a i n d'essayer l a glace, une sorte de tonnerre s'est mis a gronder sous nous... une large f i s s u r e . . . nous a couru sous les pieds" (p. 3 9 ) . The ice supports the skater in the manner of a b a r r i e r separating s e l f from other, conscious from uncon-scious. Previously i n danger, this year the c h i l d r e n run no r i s k of 39 f a l l i n g into the mirror. These chapters e s t a b l i s h the health and i n t e g r i t y of the subject f i g u r i n g as a p r i m i t i v e being, strong yet p o t e n t i a l l y defenseless i n contact with a degraded society. One anticipates that her r e l a t i o n s with others w i l l be problematic. Growth as D i s i n t e g r a t i o n The c o n s t e l l a t i o n of secondary characters i s replaced twice, in conjunction with changes of s e t t i n g which suggest, for convenience's sake, a d i v i s i o n of the text into four sections. The f i r s t section, pages 7-138, covers the period when Berenice l i v e s at home; the second, pages 139-219, covers the period of her l i f e i n New York Ci t y with her father's r e l a t i v e s ; the t h i r d , pages 219-241, a return home; and pages 242-282, the period i n I s r a e l . In a f a m i l i a r t r a d i t i o n of modern psychology, the c h i l d ' s family s i t u a t i o n i s accorded a determining r o l e i n his l a t e r development, even in psychosis. In l a t e r l i f e i n new s i t u a t i o n s , a troubled i n d i v i d u a l re-creates unfortunate patterns of previous family r e l a t i o n s much as, in t his text, any hew characters introduced l a t e r resemble Berenice's father, mother or brother, whence the importance of the family as a st r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e of the text. However, the family as o r i g i n i s known only as recreated by the a r t i c u l a t e c h i l d . Much has been said of the prominence of mothers i n French Canadian wr i t i n g up to the ni n e t e e n - s i x t i e s . ~* In L'Avalee des avales the mother is not a psychological p o r t r a i t of an i n d i v i d u a l , and only marginally a s o c i a l study, as an inverted stereotype. Introduced as Madame Einberg 40 (p. 9), she has no given name and Berenice never addresses her d i r e c t l y . It i s s t a r t l i n g when Berenice's brother refers to her as "Maman" Bruckner (p. 81). Dialogue, i n c i d e n t a l l y , does not play a large r o l e i n L'Avalee  des avales. In the text the mother comes to be known as "Chat Mort," "Chamomor" ("chameau mort") and "Panthere." These names are not without a value judgment. The choice of the cat to represent a young mother, a choice f a m i l i a r to Jung, emphasizes beauty, spontaneity and unselfconscious voluptuousness: " E l l e me f a i t penser a ces gros chats trop paresseux pour se c r i s p e r " (p. 119). But the velvety presence has claws; indeed, she i s e v i l because she relegates the c h i l d to the role of the bad seed. The reasons for her disguised attack i n the following passage are cl e a r : [Berenice]: je l u i a i d i t qu'elle ne s e r a i t jamais qu'une panthere, qu'une bete egoiste et s o l i t a i r e , qu'un etre sourd et aveugle.... - To i , m'a-t-elle repondu en souriant et me caressant, tu ne seras jamais qu'un p e t i t singe, qu'une pe t i t e bete l a i d e , grimacante,railleuse et colere. (p. 101) Berenice i s ugly because she i s i n s i g h t f u l ; t h i s ugliness i s an at t r i b u t e d i d e n t i t y which she makes her own. The mother i s b e a u t i f u l but f a l s e , because frightened of self-awareness as of bright sunlight (p. 24). Her mother's falseness frightens Berenice, who says her mother i s a dead cat. From her influence, the c h i l d fears moral p a r a l y s i s and confusion. In a passage where Berenice explains how death might come to take her away, the reference of the pronoun " e l l e " s l i d e s between " l a mort" and "Chamomor," who i s standing watch to protect her from death: E l l e reste avec moi pour m 1aider a repousser l a mort s i e l l e s ' a v i s a i t de su r g i r , d'attaquer. Seule dans cette chambre, dans l ' e t a t ou je sui s , l a mort aurait 4 1 beau j e u . E l l e n ' a u r a i t qu'a e n t r e r et me p r e n d r e . E l l e e s t dans ma chambre. E l l e e s t dans ma v i e . (p. 9 1 ) The v i s u a l metaphors which form networks i n t h i s t e x t d e p i c t the deadness o f B e r e n i c e ' s mother; i n d e e d , p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s can be checked a g a i n s t them: En e l l e , t o u t e s l e s p o r t e s e t l e s f e n e t r e s sont con-damnees. En e l l e c ' e s t comme une maison ou i l ne v i t p l u s personne. (p. 2 1 ) Je regarde ses yeux. Je r e g arde des yeux que l e u r r e g a r d tourne v e r s 1 ' i n t e r i e u r rend a v e u g l e s . (p. 1 0 2 ) T h i s t e x t p r e s e n t s a v a r i a t i o n on the r o m a n t i c image o f the c h i l d . A l t h o u g h B e r e n i c e i s a l l i n t e g r i t y , she i s not b e a u t i f u l , and i s under-mined by s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The f e l i n e s p o n t a n e i t y o f h e r mother con-c e a l s h y p o c r i s y , f e a r and f a l s e h o o d . The c h i l d e x p l a i n s the mother by comparing her to a c h i l d (pp. 1 0 6 , 1 3 3 ) . The mother and c h i l d taken t o g e t h e r d i s p l a y the t r a i t s o f the r o m a n t i c c h i l d : beauty, s p o n t a n e i t y , i n t e g r i t y . ^ Of t h e s e , the c h i l d B e r e n i c e p o s s e s s e s i n t e g r i t y . Both l a c k s e l f - a s s u r a n c e . B e r e n i c e ' s l a c k o f s e l f - a s s u r a n c e m o t i v a t e s her p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e l f as an a u t h e n t i c i n n e r core c o n c e a l e d by f a l s e f r o n t . In s i t u a t i o n s of e x t e r n a l c o n f l i c t B e r e n i c e a l s o d e p i c t s r e l a t i o n s between these a s p e c t s of her i d e n t i t y . She admires her mother as an analogue of t h i s t r u e s e l f : she f e a r s h e r as an a d v e r s a r y c a p a b l e o f s t e a l i n g and a p p r o p r i a t i n g t h i s s e l f . T h i s e q u i v o c a t i o n , h e s i t a t i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y can be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to E t i e n n e S o u r i a u ' s schema of s i x d r a m a t i c f u n c t i o n s . In h i s s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of drama, a f u n c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s "a d r a m a t i c r o l e c o n c e i v e d a p a r t from any p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c -8 / t e r i z a t i o n o f i t . " In the c a p a c i t y o f n a r r a t o r , B e r e n i c e f i g u r e s 42 w i l l and energy informing c o n f l i c t . Her i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l l i n g others, her tense and coloured discourse, do suggest t h i s image. A second function of Souriau's i s the object desired. The one for whom the object i s desired f u l f i l l s a t h i r d function i n Souriau's schema. As the swallower, Berenice h e r s e l f includes a l l three functions within. Through her mother she seeks to l e g i t i m i z e her s e l f ; the mother's spon-taneity, for example, i s the desired 'object which i s also her own s e l f : "Quand je me r e v e i l l e r a i l ' i d y l l e avec l a mere sera devenue douceur.... E l l e ne pourra se continuer que de moi a moi.... dans les souterrains creuses dans l a lumiere et les tenebres" (p. 109). Yet t h i s mother i s also an opponent, Souriau's fourth function, e s s e n t i a l to the develop-ment of a dramatic c o n f l i c t . She threatens the development and maintenance of Berenice's s e l f . Berenice's dilemma here seems Promethean as she feels unable to obtain without s t e a l i n g or to consolidate without under-mining. How judgmentally one reacts to the mother depends on whether she i s seen to wish to appropriate Berenice or vice versa. The mother's c o n f l i c t i n g roles are manifest during Berenice's hunger s t r i k e (Chapters 26-32) when she does not speak for a month and does not eat for longer than a month. For Freud this "anorexia nervosa" "signals a regression to the o r a l stage, wherein eating represents the act of devouring and food represents the preoedipal mother [ e a r l i e s t 9 s i g n i f i c a n t other]." Conversely an o f f e r by the mother may constitute a disguised attack: "[Chamomor] c'est une b o u t e i l l e pleine d'amour. Et cette b o u t e i l l e , quelquefois, se leve, se penche au-dessus de .moi, tend son goulot a mes levres. Je meurs de s o i f . Je ne b o i r a i pas" (p.99). 43 In L'Avalee the mother's attitude i s ambivalent, and Freud also concedes that i n general " i t i s impossible to say how often this fear of the mother i s supported by an unconscious h o s t i l i t y on the mother's part which i s sensed by the gi r l . " ' ' " ^ One begins to suspect that the elements of story i n L'Avalee des  avales can be reduced to an oedipal configuration. However, opposite the mother we f i n d no father figure emotionally implicated i n Berenice's development. Rather mother and daughter compete for the a f f e c t i o n s of the older c h i l d , C h r i s t i a n , who may e a s i l y be reduced to an image of Berenice's inner s e l f of pure p o t e n t i a l , to be protected at a l l cost from impending destruction: "Ce n'est pas l u i que j'aime... c'est 1 1 idee que je me f a i s de l u i , c'est ce que je porte dans l'ame et appelle C h r i s t i a n " (p. 54). As a f o i l for Berenice he shows the strength of the one-dimensional l i t e r a l i s t (p. 52) who distinguishes r e l i a b l y between fantasy and r e a l i t y (p. 115), a d e r i v a t i v e so-called adult personality i n opposition to her i d e n t i t y which i s Jewish ( C h r i s t i a n versus Jew) and archaic i n the Freudian sense. Unlike the mother, C h r i s t i a n i s non-threatening, but he i s less vigorous and c o l o u r f u l . It seems the "inner s e l f " i s already no longer pure, C h r i s t i a n proving himself d i s l o y a l and cowardly; he abandons his injured rat to the trapper, his mother for his cousin Mingrelie, Mingrelie for his mother, and Berenice for everyone: " C h r i s t i a n est doux comme une chose.... II n'a pas de voix.... II est mou, inconsistant" (pp. 10, 88, 70). During the v i s i t of her numerous cousins, Berenice's r i v a l s seem 44 to have m u l t i p l i e d by d i v i s i o n , such a " p l u r a l i t y o f c h i l d r e n under-s c o r i n g the as y e t incomplete s y n t h e s i s o f personality."^"'" Withdrawing from d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n , she p l a y s h e r mother o f f a g a i n s t h e r c o u s i n M i n g r e l i e . In accounts o f her i n n e r c o n d i t i o n , the one who speaks i s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y an agent: "On peut t o u t v o i r e n t r e l e s p l a n c h e s . . . de l a grange..." (p. 6 4 ) . T h i s p a s s i v i t y i s m a n i f e s t i n the r a p p o r t between B e r e n i c e and the gardener, her " h e l p e r " i n S o u r i a u ' s schema. The gardener i s the keeper o f the i s l a n d ' s e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e , c o n s u l t e d as t o when the i c e i s s a f e , when a g r a s s - f i r e w i l l be s a f e (pp. 5 7 , 3 6 ) . In B e r e n i c e ' s w o r l d he i s a l r e a d y o b s o l e t e : he s e r v e s the soup (p. 28). He i s a r e t i r e d f i s h e r m a n r e m i n i s c e n t o f the s a v i o u r - f i g u r e s who no l o n g e r 12 have power, who a r e f a d i n g away. He has become moody, t a c i t u r n and drunk. On the day t h a t B e r e n i c e k i l l s the c a t Mauriac I I and a l l o w s the gardener t o take the blame, she and h e r mother, s e e k i n g to c o n f r o n t him, f i n d he has k i l l e d h i m s e l f . One remembers warnings to c h i l d r e n t h a t t h e i r misdemeanours w i l l cause p a i n and s u f f e r i n g f o r t h e i r g u a r d i a n a n g e l ; however, the two deaths a r e mer e l y j u x t a p o s e d i n the t e x t : "Un chat a s s a s s i n e e t un j a r d i n i e r mort f o n t deux m o r t s " (p. 122); the s u b j e c t ' s l a c k o f emotion l e a v e s the r e a d e r to s p e c u l a t e on h e r sense of g u i l t . On the o t h e r hand, i t i s a l s o the gardener as g u a r d i a n who has abandoned the c h i l d to e v i l s i n c e he i s a s l e e p when B e r e n i c e does the deed. H i s death s i g n a l s her p a s s i n g from the c y c l i c a l m y t h i c a l o r d e r of n a t u r e to the s o c i a l o r d e r i n which E i n b e r g e x e r c i s e s a u t h o r i t y . A l t h o u g h her mother and b r o t h e r a r e not e n t i r e l y d i s t i n c t from B e r e n i c e , her f a t h e r i s not i m p l i c a t e d i n the p l a y o f p r o j e c t i o n and 45 i n t r o j e c t i o n . H i s power i s e x t e r n a l to B e r e n i c e and determines her d e s t i n y by e x i l i n g h e r , once b r i e f l y , to C a l i f o r n i a , l a t e r t o New York and to I s r a e l . He f u l f i l l s S o u r i a u ' s s i x t h f u n c t i o n , the A r b i t e r , the f u n c t i o n which, c o n t r a r y to her f a n t a s i e s o f power, i s never i n s i d e B e r e n i c e . E i n b e r g c h a r a c t e r i z e s B e r e n i c e as an i n n o c e n t v i c t i m . The p o r t r a y a l of E i n b e r g i s fragmentary and c a r i c a t u r a l , i n c o n -gruous w i t h h i s power at the s e r v i c e o f economic and i d e o l o g i c a l impera-t i v e s . He i n h i b i t s c o n t a c t between B e r e n i c e and the r e s t o f her f a m i l y on r e l i g i o u s grounds and d i s m i s s e s her d o c t o r on economic ones (pp. 94-95 ) . As A r b i t e r he s i m p l y r e p r e s e n t s the c o r r u p t s o c i e t y of Lukacs' 13 t h e o r y of the n o v e l . B e r e n i c e ' s b e i n g g i v e n to t h i s a u t h o r i t y b e f o r e b i r t h i s s c a n d a l o u s : " i l s se sont mis d ' a c c o r d sur une s o r t e de d i v i -s i o n des e n f a n t s . . . I l s ont meme s i g n e un c o n t r a t . . . " (p. 9 ) . I t i s a l s o absurd s i n c e she i s of no use to E i n b e r g : " I I a i m e r a i t b i e n mieux a v o i r C h r i s t i a n . Une f i l l e ce n ' e s t pas bon. £a ne vaut r i e n . E i n b e r g n'a pas v o u l u l a i s s e r Mme E i n b e r g me n o u r r i r . I I e t a i t ecoeure que j e ne s o i s qu'une f i l l e " (p. 1 6 ) . B e r e n i c e ' s i n s e c u r i t y o f b e i n g has a b a s i s i n her s i t u a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the t e x t p r e s e n t s the e f f e c t o f s o c i a l f o r c e s on the c h i l d as l o g i c a l l y a n t e r i o r to t h a t of the p a r e n t . The Second Stage: R e p e t i t i o n and Merging of Roles When E i n b e r g sends B e r e n i c e away from Chamomor and C h r i s t i a n , Chamomor p r o v i d e s Constance C h l o r e as a s u b s t i t u t e companion f o r B e r e n i c e i n e x i l e (p. 137). T h i s l i t t l e f r i e n d behaves toward B e r e n i c e as B e r e n i c e wanted h e r mother and b r o t h e r to behave: Tout ce q u ' e l l e t r o u v e , en e l l e ou a i l l e u r s , q u i p u i s s e f a i r e ma j o i e , e l l e me l e donne. (p. 165) 46 Constance Chlore t r o t t i n e d e rriere moi. Quand je presse le pas e l l e t r o t t i n e plus v i t e . Quand je change de t r o t -t o i r e l l e change de t r o t t o i r . (p. 147) Soul-mate of the inner s e l f , she must see and know Berenice t r u l y . Her eyes are her di s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t ; she i s " l a v e r i t a b l e g a z e l l e " (p. 84), the animal with the large soft eyes. The contamination of the inner s e l f previously discerned i n Ch r i s t i a n returns again i n Constance Chlore. Also, the fantasy of wis h - f u l f i l l m e n t s t e a d i l y undergoes impoverishment. Constance Chlore's compliance i s presented as excess; "molle" (p. 123) l i k e C h r i s t i a n she lacks substance: "Constance Chlore, pale comme les p r a i r i e s de 1'au-tomne, comme le sable, comme l a cendre, comme tout ce qui est s t e r i l e " (p. 145). As Berenice names her mother "Chamomor" she refers to "Constance Chlore" as to a formula the elements of which are not to be c i t e d separately. As noted by Bernard Lombard i n a review of L'Avalee, the name i s that of a Roman Emperor of the fourth century and thus evokes 14 the decline of the Roman Empire as w e l l . Once, a f t e r Constance Chlore's death, Berenice refers to her by a family name, "Cassman." Otherwise the name i s Berenice's and she changes i t : " S i Constance Chlore v i v a i t encore, je changerais son nom en Constance Exsangue. Comment a i - j e pu, pendant cinq ans, l u i conserver un nom aussi bete?" (p. 176). "Exsangue," "cadaverous," makes most e x p l i c i t the ambivalence i n Constance Chlore. She i s "Constance" because of her even and stable d i s p o s i t i o n , but such a v i r t u e behoves the dead: "Que f a i t Constance Chlore pour etre s i constante, s i egale a elle-meme...?" (p. 145). She i s also " c l o r e , " to close or terminate, and "chlore," chlorine, a bleach, a d i s i n f e c t a n t 47 and a poison. A leeching e f f e c t , a poisoning i s possible by contact with the unreal. The s e l f ' s r elegating of perception to a f a l s e s e l f produces impressions of u n r e a l i t y : "Once he becomes aware of something i t becomes unreal although 'I always f e e l that they [others] were once r e a l and are now f l i t t i n g away"' (DS, pp. 109-110). "Constance Chlore" i l l u s t r a t e s a convergence of "les noms propres grammaticaux et les descriptions d e f i n i e s , i d e n t i f y i n g the stock figure of the angelic child.who dies... The ambivalence in the name indicates the decadence of the type. The narrator does not believe i n i t and i t constitutes a threat to her, hence the connotations of bleach and greenish-yellow gas. For "L'Avalee" to be known by another i s to be destroyed. The narrative f a s t i d i o u s l y prepares Constance Chlore's death which coincides with the passing of Berenice's preadolescent childhood (pp. 162-163). Berenice imagines Constance Chlore growing up. While she watches Constance Chlore, the l a t t e r appears enchanted: deep-asleep, i n a poppy-print gown, with a b e a u t i f u l , b l i n d , dead face. Nonetheless Berenice feels that she must save Constance Chlore by escaping out of time, or from the c i t y . These two images orient Berenice d i f f e r -ently, r e s u l t i n g i n p a r a l y s i s , an impression of si l e n c e (pp. 166, 167) and density of the a i r (pp. 166, 167). Wandering the street the children are haunted by the uncanny: " E l l e me f a i t v o i r l o i n en contrebas, l a ou plusieurs voies surelevees se croisent, comme un vaste envoi d'oiseaux lumineux fige entre c i e l et t e r r e " (p. 166). This "V" represents the most t o t a l v i c t o r y i n l i f e , a v i c t o r y which Berenice has previously i d e n t i f i e d as death (p. 161). 48 Constance C h l o r e must d i e to p r e s e r v e her e s s e nce, to r e a l i z e h e r e s s e n ce, and to e l i m i n a t e a t h r e a t to B e r e n i c e . A f t e r the f a c t B e r e n i c e has f a n t a s i e s of c o n t r o l l i n g o t h e r s ' a c t i o n s and a r r a n g i n g d e s t i n y : E l l e s ' e s t supprimee pour me I f t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g the f a i r e p l a i s i r . . . E l l e s ' e s t s c h i z o i d . . . i s l i k e l y to f a i t t u e r pour se conformer b e l i e v e i n , i t i s h i s own a un i m p e r a t i f m y s t e r i e u x d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s . . . h i s l o v e i s s u de ma v o l o n t e . (p. i s dangerous to anyone e l s e . 169) (DS, p. 93) Her ambivalence toward Constance C h l o r e i s the u n f o l d i n g ambivalence toward the s e l f o f pure p o t e n t i a l which moves from c l o s u r e ( c l o r e ) to f a d i n g out (exsangue). Through her mother, C h r i s t i a n and Constance C h l o r e , B e r e n i c e e x p l o r e s d e s i r e d a s p e c t s of h e r s e l f . A f t e r Constance C h l o r e ' s d eath she t u r n s to U n c l e Z i o ( t i o , Z i o n ) the p a t r i a r c h o f her f a t h e r ' s f a m i l y . U n l i k e the o t h e r s he i s not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n n e r i d e a l , but w i t h B e r e n i c e ' s moral c o n s c i e n c e which i s becoming a h o s t i l e o b s e r v e r . In Z i o B e r e n i c e i s o l a t e s an opponent f u n c t i o n w i t h i n h e r s e l f . She p r o -t e s t s a g a i n s t Z i o ' s s h u t t i n g her i n h e r room (p. 197) and i n the b a t h -room cupboard (p. 201), y e t she w a l l s h e r s e l f i n : "Je me s u i s s i b i e n muree, j ' a i tenu mes v a l v e s fermees s i j u s t e s durant ces annees d ' e x i l , que c e t t e n u i t . . . j e me meurs..." (p. 173). B e r e n i c e i s concerned w i t h r u l e s about t a k i n g i n l i g h t or food: Le samedi, Z i o s ' a b s t i e n t de t o u t e n o u r r i t u r e . . . . I I se soude l a bouche e t se coud l e nez pour ne pas a v a l e r d ' a i r . (p. 148) I I ne f a u t pas t o u c h e r au r e f r i g e r a t e u r , a cause de 1 'ampoule e l e c t r i q u e q u i s ' a l l u m e r a i t automatiquement a 1 1 i n t e r i e u r s i par malheur on l ' o u v r a i t . (p. 148) 49 On the Sabbath, i n p r a y e r , the w o r s h i p p e r i s to seek the d i v i n e l i g h t which i n c r e a t i o n " i s p r o g r e s s i v e l y s c r e e n e d so as not to e n g u l f a l l i n i t s tremendous g l o r y so t h a t c r e a t u r e s can appear to e n j o y an i n d e -pendent e x i s t e n c e . In r e a l i t y t h e r e i s n o t h i n g but God."''"'' B e r e n i c e , on the o t h e r hand, sees the h o s t i l e g l a r e of the i n n e r o b s e r v e r who would d e s t r o y h e r , u s i n g a b s t i n e n c e as a p r e t e x t . The concept of a r i g i d moral agency of c h i l d h o o d , whose c o n t i n u e d e f f i c a c y i s a r c h a i c , i s put i n p a r a l l e l w i t h the concept of God, and not f l a t t e r i n g to the l a t t e r . Z i o ' s r i g i d i t y approaches t h a t o f the s t e r e o t y p i c p h a r i s e e . On the o t h e r hand, Z i o would h e l p B e r e n i c e , k e e p i n g her from the opponent w i t h which she i d e n t i f i e s him, f o r "a m e l a n c h o l y a t t i t u d e o f mind i s anathema to H a s i d i s m . . . even over h i s s i n s a man s h o u l d not g r i e v e overmuch"''"'': " I l s sont aimables a mort. I l s sont heureux a mort. I l s sont heureux a mort p a r c e q u ' i l s sont s a i n t s a mort" (p. 139). F u n c t i o n i n g i n a c o n t e x t of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , Z i o i s not l i m i t e d to f u r t h e r i n g immediate p e r s o n a l economic or e m o t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s ; h i s mandate i s r a t h e r to " t r a n s f o r m e v i l i n t o good through an a c t u a l con-18 f r o n t a t i o n o f e v i l i n i t s own domain." However, the persona and the i d e o l o g y a r e judged a n a c h r o n i s t i c , they abandon B e r e n i c e to h e r s e l f and her f a t h e r : " Z i o m'abandonne aux a c i d e s q u i me r o n g e n t . . . . H i e r encore, i l d i s a i t : " j e te d r e s s e r a i , d u s s e - j e y p e r d r e mon ame" (p. 271). A f t e r Z i o ' s d e f e a t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a triumphant homecoming remains f o r B e r e n i c e . Her f a t h e r ' s bad l e g p r e v e n t s him from p h y s i c a l l y c o e r c i n g h e r to v i s i t h e r i l l and d i s f i g u r e d mother (p. 224) who, r e j e c t e d by C h r i s t i a n , r e t r e a t s i n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f m a r t y r : "une mere e s t 50 l ' e s c l a v e enchantee de ses e n f a n t s " (p. 229). B e r e n i c e f e a r s p i t y i n g h e r , whereas C h r i s t i a n ' s broken l e g a l l o w s B e r e n i c e to be of s e r v i c e t o him, making a c l a i m on h i s l o v e w i t h h e r i n c e s t u o u s l o v e which i s a l s o an acceptance and l o v i n g o f the s e l f . But her b r o t h e r i s not i n l o v e w i t h her and once more, through the agency of E i n b e r g , the i n c e s t taboo i s e n f o r c e d and B e r e n i c e sent away. The p h y s i c a l - m o r a l i n f i r m i t y o f the f a m i l y i n t h i s e p i s o d e puts the s e a l o f f i n a l i t y on B e r e n i c e ' s i s o l a t i o n . L e f t a l o n e she c o n t i n u e s to r e c r e a t e an emptiness which was always a l r e a d y t h e r e : " P a r t i r ce n ' e s t pas g u e r i r c a r on demeure" (p. 219). The secondary c h a r a c t e r s i n the l a s t f o r t y - p a g e e p i s o d e are more sympathetic than the o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r s whose r o l e s they r e c r e a t e : f o r E i n b e r g , the b e n i g n Rabbi S c h n e i d e r ; f o r the mother, h i s m i s t r e s s C e l i n e ; f o r C h r i s t i a n , the brave young s o l d i e r Graham Rosenkreutz (compare w i t h C h r i s t i a n Rosenkreuz, l e g e n d a r y founder of the R o s i c r u c i a n s ) ; and f o r Constance C h l o r e , G l o r i a , the a n t i - C o n s t a n c e C h l o r e . They have l i t t l e importance f o r B e r e n i c e , uncoupled from her immediate s i t u a t i o n , d r i f t i n g i n memories and f a n t a s i e s , aware of o t h e r s m o s t l y as a s p e c t s o f h e r s e l f or p a r t i a l s e l v e s : " S ' i l n'y a personne que sont ceux que j e me r a p p e l l e , que j e v o i s et que j ' a n t i c i p e ? I l s sont i l l u s i o n s , m i r a g e s , i m a g i n a i r e s . Ce sont des p o i n t s d' a p p l i c a t i o n i m a g i n a i r e s d o c i l e s du peuple de f o r c e s q u i me h a n t e n t " (p. 266). In I s r a e l i n a time of i n t e r m i t t e n t war w i t h the Arabs, the Rabbi S c h n e i d e r , whose h e l l - f i r e sermons f r i g h t e n e d and r e p u l s e d the young B e r e n i c e , has become an army c o l o n e l . Now t h a t the v i o l e n c e has become a c t u a l , he s t r u g g l e s i n e f f e c t u a l l y to keep i t u n t a i n t e d by the 51 p e r s o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n s which i t i s the f u n c t i o n o f r e l i g i o n t o mediate. F o r him the s t a t u s o f autochthonous I s r a e l i i s a gage of i d e o l o g i c a l p u r i t y ; y e t I s r a e l i autochthony i s both p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s , t h a t i s , f o r the e v e r - t r e n c h a n t B e r e n i c e , merely p e r s o n a l (p. 278). Though B e r e n i c e remains c r i t i c a l o f s o c i a l p r a c t i c e , she a c c e p t s v i o l e n c e as her n a t u r e : Je h a i s sans discernement a l a seconde, t o u t ce q u i s a i -s i t mon sens ou mon imagina-t i o n , (p. 278) I f the p a t i e n t c o n t r a s t s h i s own i n n e r . . . d e s o l a t i o n . . . w i t h the abundance... elsewhere, t h e r e i s evoked... f r a n t i c envy and h a t r e d . . . a d e s i r e to d e s t r o y a l l the goodness, f r e s h n e s s , r i c h -ness i n the w o r l d . (DS, p. 91) In k e e p i n g w i t h the n i g h t m a r i s h atmosphere, B e r e n i c e ' s new a l t e r -ego s t r u g g l e s toward an a p o t h e o s i s i n e v i l (pp. 256-257). U n l i k e the e s s e n t i a l l y good Constance C h l o r e , G l o r i a i s ambiguous and not u n r e a l . She i s not even unsympathetic, and B e r e n i c e announces: " j e s u i s presque sure que ses b e l l e s t h e o r i e s v i c i e u s e s ne sont que b l u f f " (p. 268). Perhaps i n comparison to G l o r i a , B e r e n i c e f i n d s h e r s e l f b e a u t i f u l (pp. 259-260) and r e p e a t s Constance C h l o r e ' s v e r y words w i t h o u t i n t e n d i n g to (p. 254), even as her memory of Constance C h l o r e becomes amb i v a l e n t and the l a t t e r c a l l s f o r B e r e n i c e ' s d e s t r u c t i o n : Dans l e p a l a i s de j u s t i c e ou l e s v o i x se r e p e r c u t e n t comme dans un t u n n e l , Constance Exsangue t r o n e , a i g r i e . . . Que f a i s - t u l a , B e r e n i c e ? ... v i t e , s u i c i d e - t o i ! (p. 277) The o b j e c t s o f [the s e l f ' s ] phantasy r e l a t i o n s h i p s remain the same b a s i c f i g u r e s a l t h o u g h they undergo m o d i f i c a t i o n . . . i n the d i r e c t i o n o f i d e a l i z a t i o n , or they become more p e r s e c u t o r y . (DS, p. 143) The death of G l o r i a , w i t h which the t e x t ends, may be r e a d as B e r e n i c e ' s p s y c h i c c r i s i s . As speaker and agent, B e r e n i c e causes the 52 d e s t r u c t i o n o f a n o t h e r who i s her f a l s e f r o n t ( h e l p e r and opponent) and her t r u e s e l f ( d e s i r e d o b j e c t ) . A h o s t of d i s t a n t and m a n i p u l a t i v e o b s e r v e r s are r e s o l v e d to s a c r i f i c e the p a i r o f g i r l s ; the speaker i s never i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h i s f u n c t i o n . In o v e r - r e a c t i n g to an e x t e r n a l t h r e a t B e r e n i c e provokes a t t a c k and saves h e r s e l f o n l y by h o l d i n g G l o r i a i n f r o n t o f her to be s h o t . The p o w e r f u l f a l s e - f r o n t d e s t r o y e d , a 19 p s y c h i c i n t e g r a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d ; y e t B e r e n i c e ' s s e l f i s h n e s s and d e c e i t make one t h i n k of the i n c i d e n t a l s o as h e r e x i s t e n t i a l death, or a t l e a s t her metamorphosis i n t o a new and e v i l e n t i t y . As G i l l e s M a r c o t t e says "tous l e s meurtres de B e r e n i c e sont des s u i c i d e s e t ce q u i meurt 20 en e l l e , i c i , c ' e s t c e l a meme q u i l a c o n s t i t u a i t , sa r a i s o n d ' e t r e . " F o r the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view i t i s c o n s i s t e n t t h a t the d e s i r e f o r i n t e g r a t i o n and f o r a n n i h i l a t i o n s h o u l d converge i n a s i n g l e a c t : " i n one way, the s c h i z o i d i n d i v i d u a l may be d e s p e r a t e l y t r y i n g t o be h i m s e l f , to r e g a i n and p r e s e r v e h i s b e i n g : y e t i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o d i s e n t a n g l e the d e s i r e to be from the d e s i r e f o r n o n - b e i n g . . . " (DS, p. 139). In t h i s r e c i t the secondary c h a r a c t e r s are not even a p p a r e n t l y s e p a r a t e from the n a r r a t o r ; we have s a i d t h a t i t p o r t r a y s a p r o c e s s o f s c h i z o i d d e t e r i o r a t i o n .in the s u b j e c t ; we can a l s o say t h a t i t p a r o d i e s the concept of a n a r r a t o r p o r t r a y i n g a w o r l d o u t s i d e o f the t e x t . J u s t as B e r e n i c e f e e l s h e r s e l f swallowed up o r swallowing up, the n o v e l as an i n s t i t u t i o n i s d e c o n s t r u c t e d i n the p r o c e s s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r n o v e l ' s d e c o n s t r u c t i n g of l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the one a n a l y s e d h e r e , the c h a r a c t e r as agent. 53 NOTES Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Emile, Oeuvres completes IV (Paris: Gallimard, 1969), p. 58: "Tout est bien en sortant des mains de l'Auteur des Choses; tout degenere entre les mains de l'homme." 2 C. G. Jung, trans. H. G. Baynes, Collected Works (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), IX, p. 223. 3 Jung, Collected Works, VI, p. 182. 4 Jung, Collected Works, X, p. 389. See Jean LeMoyne, Convergences (Montreal: Editions HMH, 1962), p. 105: "Je ne vois qu'un archetype a nos femmes imaginaires... c'est l a mere. Seule en e f f e t l a mere peut rendre compte de l ' i n t e r d i t qui frappe nos heroines; l a mere respectable, venerable, sacree, intouchable, imprenable...." ^ Jung, Collected Works, VI, p. 184: "Sometimes the Kore- and mother-figures s l i t h e r down altogether to the animal kingdom, the favourite representatives then being the cat or the snake or the bear....' ^ Peter Coveney, The Image.of Childhood (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1967), p. 31: "In a world given increasingly to u t i l i t a r i a n values and the Machine, the c h i l d could become the symbol of the Imagina-tio n and S e n s i b i l i t y , a symbol of Nature set against the forces abroad in society a c t i v e l y de-naturing humanity." See also p. 41: "Before Hume, Reason has been associated with Nature; a f t e r him, Nature became in e x t r i c a b l y r e l a t e d to Feeling." Robert Scholes, Structuralism i n L i t e r a t u r e (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974), p. 52. See his discussion of Souriau's,schema, pp. 52-56. See also Etienne Souriau, Les Deux Cent M i l l e situations  dramatiques (Paris: Flammarion, 1950), pp. 57-141. Ludwig Eidelberg, Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis (Toronto: Collier-Macmillan, 1968), p. 34. ^ Sigmund Freud, "Female Sexuality," Standard E d i t i o n of the  Complete Psychological Works (London: Hogarth Press, 1953), XXI, p. 237. 1 1 Jung, Collected Works, IX, p. 165. A " p l u r a l i t y of c h i l d r e n " represents "an as yet incomplete synthesis of personality... an ego may be present but i t cannot experience i t s wholeness within the framework of i t s own pe r s o n a l i t y . " 54 12 Jung, C o l l e c t e d Works, VI, p. 182. 13 Georges Lukacs, La T h e o r i e du roman ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G o n t h i e r , 1963), p. 56: "Les s t r u c t u r e s que l'ame decouvre... en t a n t que sub-s t r a t et support de son a c t i v i t e parmi l e s hommes forment l e monde de l a c o n v e n t i o n ; monde t o u t - p u i s s a n t . . . dont l e s l o i s r i g o u r e u s e s . . . s'imposent avec une n e c e s s a i r e e v i d e n c e au s u j e t c o n n a i s s a n t mais q u i . . . n ' o f f r e n t n i un sens... n i un champ d 1 a c t i v i t e . . . . " 14 Bernard Lombard, "L'Avalee des a v a l e s . Reserves s ur l e c h e f -d'oeuvre c o r r o s i f de Rejean Ducharme," L ' A c t i o n , 22 novembre 1966, p. 17. ^ Oswald Ducrot and T z v e t a n Todorov, D i c t i o n n a i r e e n c y c l o p e d i q u e  des s c i e n c e s du langage ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1972), p. 321. 16 E n c y c l o p e d i a J u d a i c a ( J e r u s a l e m : The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1971), V I I , p. 1403. 17 E n c y c l o p e d i a J u d a i c a , V I I , p. 1404. 18 E n c y c l o p e d i a J u d a i c a , V I I , p. 1410. 19 See G e r a r d B e s s e t t e et a l , H i s t o i r e de l a l i t t e r a t u r e canadienne-f r a n c a i s e ( M o n t r e a l : Centre e d u c a t i f e t c u l t u r e l , 1968), p. 635: "La d i s p a r i t i o n de G l o r i a , q u i a s s u r e l e s a l u t de B e r e n i c e , marque sans doute l a f i n de 1'adolescence." G i l l e s M a r c o t t e , "Rejean Ducharme c o n t r e B l a s e y B l a s e y , " Etudes  f r a n c a i s e s , 11, n° 3-4 ( o c t o b r e 1975), 273. CHAPTER I I I : THE OBSESSIVE SELF: MILLE MILLES The Weil-Defined Self This analysis has as a second point of departure a second novel, Le Nez qui vogue. Each novel portrays as narrator-protagonist a non-unitary subject, problematic and disturbed. It seems appropriate to examine two images of such a subject because they are i n two texts by the same author and so may be a t t r i b u t e d a global coherence. Each evokes a divided s e l f , but the texture of the image i n Le Nez qui vogue i s quite d i f f e r e n t . Although beginning the discussion anew interrupts the presentation of L'Avalee des avales, i t serves the o v e r a l l project of e s t a b l i s h i n g a double image of subject. The analysis of Le Nez qui vogue (1967) w i l l follow somewhat the same l i n e s as that of L'Avalee des avales (1966). The order of pres-entation r e f l e c t s the order of p u b l i c a t i o n . Although The Divided Self has relevance for Le Nez qui vogue, the Freudian reference seems more overt. The subject i s a s p e c i f i c a l l y Freudian subject because male. His motifs are less o r a l and more p h a l l i c , evoking s p e c i f i c c a s t r a t i o n anxiety which displaces generalized o n t o l o g i c a l anxiety. Le Nez qui vogue resembles a t r a d i t i o n a l psychological novel in that i t i s easy to r e l a t e i t s composition to character mimesis. The existence of the text i s explained by the r e c i t as a young man's writing a journal to understand himself in r e l a t i o n to the world. Subordinating composition to character mimesis i n this way poses problems which can-not a r i s e i n L'Avalee des avales. Both the problems and the advantages are manifest as the greater degree of i n d i v i d u a t i o n and v e r i s i m i l i t u d e 56 of the narrator in Le Nez qui vogue. The present project i s to discuss the narrator's psychological idiosyncrasies, and to begin one may c i t e b r i e f l y a t r a i t he has i n common with Berenice of L'Avalee des avales, and that i s a preference for spaces enclosed i n precise boundaries: bodies, rooms, buildings, islands and geographical t e r r i t o r i e s . Even a temporal notation may be changed into a s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n , as the following examples i l l u s t r a t e : II a plu. II va pleuvoir. Nous sommes done entre deux eaux. Mon ame, e l l e , est entre deux os. (p. 38) On ne peut pas tous etre contents de ce qui se trouve entre l a peau du ventre et l a peau du dos. (p. 135) The s e l f i s something a l i e n to the body and a c c i d e n t a l l y imprisoned in i t ; the bones are l i k e the prison bars. This theme of the enclosed space i s important i n poetry before 1950 and one thinks immediately of Saint-Denys-Garneau 1 s "je suis une cage d'oiseau / une cage d'os."^" The body i s the enclosed space which the s e l f occupies, but i s repudiated and defined as the source of i n s t i n c t u a l drives which are ego-alien; 2 that i s , which do not r e a l l y come from the s e l f . The speaker here shares the point of view that body i s not the s e l f , a point of view which can serve as a point of departure for a s p l i t personality. The t e r r i t o r y of the s e l f represented by the body i s s p a t i a l l y and temporally c o n s t r i c t i n g ; indeed i t i s the body which causes experience to be defined i n s p a t i a l and temporal co-ordinates. The pun c i t e d above creates a p a r a l l e l phonetically and g r a p h i c a l l y enclosed space i n the text. To define oneself as co-extensive with the body i s to submit to a n a r c i s -s i s t i c m o r t i f i c a t i o n , and the narrator refers to himself as a body when d i s s a t i s f i e d with himself: "L'embarras va grandissant entre Chateaugue 57 et moi; et c'est l ' i n i m i t e qui a ete mise entre le corps et l'ame" (p. 177). 3 For the narrator the room he l i v e s i n i s , on the contrary, a safe and sure extension of the s e l f : "II ne faudrait pas s o r t i r de notre chambre. Dans notre chambre je suis chez moi. Dehors je suis dans le vide" (p. 82). On one occasion strangers come into his room without his i n v i t a t i o n , and he fears that t h e i r awareness w i l l o b j e c t i f y and wither his s e l f . It i s as i f they were judging him with an authority coming from inside him: "C'est comme s i nos ames [6] etaient a nu [4] et que le vent [4] s o u f f l a i t dessus [4]" (p. 75). The text echoes the enclosed spaces i n the rhymes and rhythm. This room i s the centre of his universe; l i k e the earth i n the ptolemaic system his universe i s made up of concentric c i r c l e s bounded by the void. The room i s safe because enclosed i n " l a maison de ma chambre" and the l a t t e r i s i s o l a t e d by the geographically defined l i m i t s of Montreal i s l a n d . The a i r i n his room smells s t a l e a f t e r an excursion around the i s l a n d , but the isla n d too i s a hermetic e n t i t y , as i l l u s t r a t e d once again by the rhyme closure of the phrase " l l e - v i l l e " (p. 38). A t h i r d , c o l l e c t i v e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of the s e l f , the nation, i s threatened and informed by i m p l i c i t acts of violence interpreted by the subject as enacted on his physical i n t e g r i t y as we l l : "De quoi .1 a - t - i l l ' a i r , le Canada, avec l a pointe du Maine entree jusqu'a Saint-Eleuthere, jusqu'au coeur... Le Labrador en vert couche comme un vi o l e u r sur le Quebec en b l a n c . . . " (p. 19). P o l i t i c a l boundaries define the nation as the physical s e l f i s defined by the l i m i t s of the body; for example, the infant as such is separate from the breast, the 58 source of nourishment. The ambiguous reference of the pronoun " i l " i n the following instance confirms the personal nature of the narrator's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : "Pauvre M i l l e M i l l e s . . . tout seul! II revient de d r o i t au Quebec, le Labrador" (p. 12). Like h i s v i s i o n of Labrador as estranged from Quebec, the narrator i s divorced from the s o c i a l dimension of his s e l f . The i d e a l t e r r i t o r y i s vast, i t s boundaries indefinite;and most important, i t includes empty space. It i s the model of a subject sensi-t i v e to the impinging q u a l i t y of frequent contact and which c a l l s to mind Berenice's "tous vont sans chercher a se heurter, comme des nuages" (AV, p. 57): Je suis en ce pays de l a race des seigneurs, des seigneurs en raquettes, seuls au fond du Minnesota, des seigneurs a l a rame seuls entre les rives de l'Ohio, des seigneurs a l a v o i l e seuls dans l ' A t l a n -tique, des seigneurs a l a beche seuls sur un continent, (p. 19) The subject locates himself i n the context of New France and the eight-eenth century, withholding his i n t e r e s t from the temporal coordinates of the story, which are nonetheless e x p l i c i t l y stated: "c'est le neuf septembre m i l l e neuf cent soixante-cinq" (p. 10). This i s not the w i l l to transcend time and space, but rather the r a d i c a l conservatism indicated by the status of the subject's house, and i l l u s t r a t i n g his f i x a t i o n on childhood: "La maison de ma chambre reste debout... seule debout entre un pare de stationnement et un pare de stationnement. . . . J e ne veux pas a l l e r plus l o i n : je reste done arrete" (pp. 11, 9). In the story the threat from which the subject protects himself i s r e a l : the c o l l e c -t i v e t e r r i t o r y and thus the existence of subject and text are described 59 as endangered: [Mille M i l l e s ] - I c i , c'est le Canada, c'est mon pays... Vous me savez etranger a vos langues et vous les parlez quand-meme. C'est comme s i vous m'exiliez de mon propre pays. [Le patron] - I c i , ce n'est pas le Canada. C'est mon restaurant. (p. 221) Perhaps i n self-defence, the subject presents these demands of others as more anachronistic than hi s own: " J ' a i d i t aux Grecs et aux Romains ce que je pensais du libre-echange... l i s ne se genent pas pour parler les langues mortes. [Ils se disent:] Honte aux colonises... aux vaga-bonds qui trainent sur les routes de 1'Empire grec" (p. 220). Suspicious of s p a t i a l and temporal l i m i t a t i o n s , the subject remains vague and inaccurate when questioned about his etat c i v i l by policemen (pp. 14, 76), a manpower employee and a waiter: [l'employee] - Ou as-tu ete baptise? [ l u i ] - Le lendemain [l'employee] - Ou... Le mot ou, d i t - e l l e , est un adverbe de l i e u . M i l l e M i l l e s . . . a quitte le bureau de placement pour toujours. (pp- 14-15) J ' a i quarante-deux ans. Si je ne les parais pas c'est parce que je suis esquimau.... Si je n'ai pas l'accent... je l ' a i perdu en t r a -versant l a baie d'Hudson. S i je n'ai pas de papiers... je les a i perdus en traversant le d e t r o i t de Bering. (p. 145) In a l l these sit u a t i o n s the emphasis i s on the past. Haziness about the present precludes a c l e a r , i n c i s i v e analysis of the subject's physical, emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l state at any given time and i n h i b i t s problem solving: The creation of uncertainty II n'y a r i e n de plus i n -i s one of the methods em- franchissable que l a con-ployed by the neurosis for fusion qui regne dans ma 60 drawing the patient away from tete. (p. 222) r e a l i t y . . . Doubt and uncertainty are among the subject's most d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t s and in the following section we w i l l discuss how they are determined by and i n turn determine his personality. The Obsessive V i s i o n of M i l l e M i l l e s As early as Chapter 2 in Le Nez the narrator announces his two p r i n c i p a l c o n f l i c t s . For one thing, he has decided to commit suicide, yet does not want to die: "II ne voudrait pas se s u i c i d e r mais cela s 1impose" (pp. 13-14). Worse, he has strong sexual impulses which he repudiates. It i s h i s i n a b i l i t y e i t h e r to suppress hi s sexual feelings or accept them which compels him to entertain suicide as a r e s o l u t i o n to the problem. The p o s i t i v e aspect of his i n t e r e s t i n death i s thus that i t represents an end to his dilemma. Freud described obsessional neurotics who "need the help of the p o s s i b i l i t y of death in order that i t may act as a s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t s they have l e f t unsolved.""' In analysing M i l l e M i l l e s , Freud's d e s c r i p t i o n of obsessional neurotics i s i l l u m i n a t i n g . M i l l e M i l l e s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y espouses the Freudian t r a d i t i o n , a l l u d i n g to h i s own s u i t a b i l i t y for analysis (p. 129). It i s not a question of schematizing the character i n terms of Freudian commonplaces, for the subject i n fact puts psychoanalysis i n perspective by, for example, including the mythical Freud i n the struggle to possess the phallus as the equivalent of a l l power : "Je c r o i s aux theories de Freud: tout y est possible et prouvable. Freud! Monte sur ton obelisque! monte sur le sommet de marbre que je t ' e r i g e " (p. 164). 61 M i l l e M i l l e s i s analyst and analysand. His journal analyses Freudian theory, as he analyses himself. A basic premise about himself i n the f i r s t h a l f of the novel i s "je suis i n f e c t e " (p. 33), arrived at for two reasons which push him towards suicide: " J ' a i perdu ma purete de corps et ma purete d'inten-t i o n " (p. 33). Sexuality i s seen as physical impurity and the c o n f l i c t s i t arouses, which lead to ambivalence, as a further j u s t i f i c a t i o n of s e l f - l o a t h i n g . In the Freudian perspective sexuality, as i n f a n t i l e sexuality, relates to s e l f - l o a t h i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r way: ... The sexual i n s t i n c t i s o r i g i n a l l y divided into a great number of components--or rather, i t develops out of them--some of which cannot be taken up into the i n s t i n c t i n i t s l a t e r form, but have at an e a r l i e r stage to be suppressed or put to other uses. These are above a l l the c o p r o p h i l i c i n s t i n c t u a l components, which have proved incompatible with our aesthetic standards of c u l t u r e . . . . 7 To equate sex with what i s d i r t y , f i l t h y or disgusting i s to equate i t with the function of excretion. In terms of Freud's "childhood stages" t h i s equivalence suggests a . f i x a t i o n on the anal stage of development. In other words, sexuality i s repudiated as unclean; the desires repressed are associated with the excretory function: Quelque chose en moi de tres seduisant m'ordonne de ne pas m'occuper des femmes. Autre chose, de tres f o r t , me pousse a les i d o l a t r e r , a descendre sous terre et a l l e r les adorer l a ou e l l e s sont groupees, l a ou tout moisit. La poubelle est pleine de cigares.... Nous en avons achete autant q u ' i l f a l l a i t en acheter pour emplir l a poubelle, pour r i r e . (p. 63) For Freud the c o p r o p h i l i c tendency was the prototype of i n t e r e s t i n the accumulation of objects, i l l u s t r a t e d here by the cigars and the 62 women as s e x u a l o b j e c t s . The o r i g i n o f the impulse to c o l l e c t i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by the c h o i c e o f o b j e c t , c i g a r s ; and the p l a c e o f s t o r a g e , r e s e r v e d n o r m a l l y f o r garbage. The women are s t o r e d i n the underworld, c o r r e s p o n d i n g , i n the t r a d i t i o n o f gr o t e s q u e r e a l i s m , t o the "lower g b o d i l y s t r a t u m . " The u n c l e a n contaminates a l l o f r e a l i t y , and the n o n - l i v i n g con-taminates the l i v i n g . The women a r e o b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t i n g s e x u a l i t y , and they i n h a b i t the realm o f the shades. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the a n a l v i s i o n f a i l s to d i f f e r e n t i a t e i n a r e l i a b l e f a s h i o n between the l i v i n g and dead. T h i s c o n f u s i o n o f o b j e c t s and l i v i n g b e i n g s accompanies the i d e a which Freud found commonly h e l d by s m a l l c h i l d r e n , t h a t c h i l d b i r t h i s 9 the same as e x c r e t i o n . In F r e n c h t r a d i t i o n the b r e a s t i s a common symbol o f motherhood: "0 Canada, ma p a t r i e , mes a i e u x , t o n f r o n t , t e s s e i n s , t e s f l e u r o n s g l o r i e u x ! " (p. 121). In Le Nez q u i vogue the but-t o c k s become an image o f motherhood: I I y a dans l a surabondance de c h a i r des f e s s e s des femmes, guelgue chose de bon, de genereux, de n o u r r i -c i e r , de s e c o u r a b l e . . . . Songeons a l a Venus C a l l i p y g e , e t r e c u e i l l o n s - n o u s . . . . Les f e s s e s sont ce g u ' i l y a de p l u s m a t e r n e l chez l a femme, en p a r t i c u l i e r l o r s q u ' o n l a v o i t de dos. (pp- 163-164) A f t e r e v o k i n g the b u t t o c k s as a symbol o f M a t e r n i t y , M i l l e M i l l e s broaches the theme o f the mother as o b j e c t o f d e s i r e . In Le Nez q u i vogue the s u b j e c t a s s o c i a t e s s e x u a l i t y w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n the p r o c e s s o f e x c r e t i o n , an a s s o c i a t i o n which has important c o r o l l a r i e s i n F r e u d i a n t h e o r i z i n g . D u r i n g the a n a l stage the i n f a n t l e a r n s to m o n i t o r the body's f u n c t i o n s ; d u r i n g an a n a l f i x a t i o n a s u b j e c t 63 may d e s i r e to m a n i p u l a t e o t h e r s s a d i s t i c a l l y . C o n t r o l o f s e l f i s ex-tended to c o n t r o l o f o t h e r s : Je t e n a i s l a p o r t e de mon ame o u v e r t e une seconde, p u i s j e l a r e f e r m a i s , d'un coup de c o l e r e spasmodique, p u i s j e ne l a i s s a i s p l u s r i e n p a s s e r . J ' a v a i s e n v i e d ' e c r a s e r sa main abandonnee comme on a e n v i e d ' e c r a s e r l a c h e n i l l e jaune e t orange, comme on a e n v i e de f a i r e s o u f f r i r l a g r e n o u i l l e qu'on a t t r a p e . (p. 173) T h i s s a d i s t i c tendency may t u r n a g a i n s t the s e l f , t a k i n g the form o f a r i g i d m oral c o n s c i e n c e . The " a r c h a i c super-ego" h a t e s the s e l f and wants to d e s t r o y i t , as M i l l e M i l l e s hates and wishes t o de-s t r o y h i m s e l f . ^ I t becomes r i g i d i n the endeavor to c o n t r o l or suppress a g g r e s s i o n or sadism d i r e c t e d toward o t h e r s . The a n a l f i x a t i o n thus i m p l i e s more than a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h what i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d u n c l e a n or d i s g u s t i n g . There i s a l s o the w i l l to t r e a t p eople l i k e t h i n g s and f o r the s u b j e c t t o t r e a t h i m s e l f l i k e a t h i n g , w i t h o u t r e s p e c t . T h i s abuse amounts t o an a c t o f ag g r e s -s i o n , and f o r Freud the a n a l complex r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d f e a r o f aggres-s i o n . Freud f u r t h e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t the a c t i v e and p a s s i v e p o l e s o f a g g r e s s i o n and s u b m i s s i o n cannot be d i v o r c e d from each o t h e r ; thus, f e a r o f a g g r e s s i o n means both f e a r o f h u r t i n g someone and o f b e i n g h u r t by someone.''"''" Because Freud a n a l y s e d b e h a v i o u r i n terms o f male s e x u a l i t y , a g g r e s s i o n means c a s t r a t i o n ; thus, h e r e , f e a r o f c a s t r a t i o n and o f c a s t r a t i n g . He r e l a t e s t h i s f e a r t o the b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female: the female p e r c e i v e d as a m u t i l a t e d male, a c a s t r a t e d male. The s u b j e c t f e a r i n g c a s t r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s l o a t h i n g and h o r r o r o f the woman's g e n i t a l s as a l a c k t h e r e o f : "La vue d'une v u l v e nue coupe l e s o u f f l e . . . La f o u r r u r e de l a v u l v e de l a femme e s t 64 a t t a c h e e au c o r p s imberbe de l a femme comme un r e s t e de c h a i r au menton d'un s q u e l e t t e " (p. 264). Such a s i g h t causes the b e h o l d e r to s u f f o c a t e , as the d i f f i c u l t y o f a r t i c u l a t i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n s u g g e s t s . The c h o i c e o f comparison i s u n e q u i v o c a l : the f l e s h i s u n c l e a n and r o t t i n g and what e x i s t s i s a remnant o f what e x i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y . To p r o t e c t h i m s e l f from the t h r e a t of c a s t r a t i o n , the s u b j e c t s i m p l y i g n o r e s the p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female, by r e g r e s s i n g to the a n a l phase o f development, i n the c o n t e x t o f which male and female are s i m p l y a c t i v e and p a s s i v e . N o n e t h e l e s s , i n the F r e u d i a n scheme r e g r e s s i o n does not r e s o l v e the problem; the n e u r o t i c remains c o g n i z a n t o f the female form which i n s p i r e s a n x i e t y and contempt. The s u b j e c t equates s e x u a l f u n c t i o n w i t h d e f e c a t i o n and women w i t h s e x u a l i t y ; and a p a r a l y s i n g f e a r of a g g r e s s i o n m o t i v a t e s t h i s o u t l o o k . As suggested i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the problem of a g g r e s s i o n , the F r e u d i a n p o i n t o f view tends not to c o n s i d e r one p o l e of a b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e to the o t h e r . Thus, i n i d e n t i f y i n g the a n a l p r e o c c u -p a t i o n one a l s o p o s i t s a n t i - a n a l m o t i f s o f p u r i t y , a i r i n e s s , the e t h e -r e a l . In Le Nez q u i vogue one f i n d s , f o r example, the s u b l i m a t e d v e r -s i o n of a n a l b i r t h : "Nous avons o u v e r t l e v a s i s t a s , pour l a i s s e r e n t r e r l a c h a l e u r . L a i s s e z v e n i r a moi l e s p e t i t s e n f a n t s par l e v a s i s t a s . Je ne s u i s pas r e s p o n s a b l e de mes a s s o c i a t i o n s d ' i d e e s " (p. 129). The word " v a s i s t a s " d e r i v e s from the German "What i s t h a t ? " (Was i s t d a s ? ) ; c h i l d h o o d c u r i o s i t y and i n g u i s i t i v e n e s s are s a i d to d e r i v e from the w ish to know where b a b i e s come from. The problem of c o n t r o l i s e x p l i c i t l y c i t e d i n the g u o t a t i o n above, and throughout the n o v e l one f i n d s a n e t -work of r e f e r e n c e s t o , and images o f , doors t h a t open and shut. 65 The woman who i s the locus of the unclean i n the anal v i s i o n may, however, also figure as perfect p u r i t y : "II n'y a pas que vous, l a fange. II y a vous, les chastes, les doux, les v r a i s orgueilleux. Je ne vole pas ou vous volez" (p. 127). One cannot imagine that those who f l y are the castrated ones; on the contrary they must represent the p h a l l i c women, or women with a penis. Thus the masculine grammatical form i s used where the reference should be feminine. Having c i t e d an abundance of anal themes i n the text, we w i l l now t r y to describe t h e i r effectiveness as a point of departure for the story and the text i t s e l f , v i a the personality of the narrative voice. Of course, an anal att i t u d e toward sexuality should protect the subject from the lure of sexual a c t i v i t y . More than t h i s , fear of aggression, the subject's anxiety about monitoring hi s aggressive impulses, may ultimately make a l l action seem dangerous or problematic. Might not any act one commits provoke one's castration? This fear may extend to one's thoughts, wishes or intentions, conceived as tantamount to acts. To avoid the p o s s i b i l i t y of action or decisions leading to acts, the. neurotic mind may c u l t i v a t e i t s d i r e c t i o n l e s s confusion. Purposeful thought i s supplanted by pure thought without reference to action, which becomes compulsive and abstract: A thought-process i s obsessive or compulsive when, i n consequence of an i n h i b i t i o n (due to a c o n f l i c t of opposing impulses) at the motor end of the psychical system, i t i s undertaken with an expenditure of energy which (as regards both quantity and quality) i s normally reserved for actions alone. 66 The A c t of W r i t i n g In Le Nez q u i vogue the emphasis i s on two a c t i v i t i e s which remain open to the d i s t u r b e d n a r r a t o r : these are w r i t i n g , always i n h i s 13 j o u r n a l ; , and m a s t u r b a t i o n , as i s f r e q u e n t l y the case i n j o u r n a l n o v e l s . I t w i l l be e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s l a t t e r c o n t r i b u t e s d i r e c t l y to h i s s e l f -l o a t h i n g and he engages i n i t c o m p u l s i v e l y . On the o t h e r hand, w r i t i n g i s f o r him an e x t e n s i o n of t h i n k i n g as d e s c r i b e d above i n the c o n t e x t o f o b s e s s i v e n e u r o s i s : " E c r i v o n s n'importe q u o i . E c r i v o n s j u s q u ' a ce que l e sommeil nous prenne.... E c r i r e e s t l a s e u l e chose que j e p u i s s e f a i r e pour d i s t r a i r e mon mal et j e n'aime pas e c r i r e " (pp. 44, 59). I t i s t o be expected t h a t i n h i s w r i t i n g doubt and u n c e r t a i n t y w i l l r e i g n ; y e t , e q u a l l y , t h a t he w i l l d e s c r i b e and demonstrate the e x a c t n a t u r e o f h i s f e a r s . L e a v i n g a s i d e h i s s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r f o r a time, we w i l l e x p l o r e the c o n t e n t of h i s w r i t i n g and h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f i t as they r e l a t e t o the n e u r o t i c v i s i o n . By w r i t i n g the n a r r a t o r a c h i e v e s a compromise, f o r the a c t both d i s t r a c t s him from h i s v i o l e n t impulses and a l l o w s him to i n d u l g e them i n a c o n t e x t s e p a r a t e from the r e a l w o r l d . The s u b j e c t of Le Nez q u i  vogue runs the r i s k o f p a r a l y s i s ; e i t h e r from simple f e a r o r from the p e r s e c u t i n g c o n s c i e n c e symptomatic of u n c o n t r o l l a b l e s e l f - a w a r e n e s s : " A l l e z dormir avec l e s o l e i l dans l e s yeux! Avec l e s rayons de s o l e i l au t r a v e r s du c o r p s " (p. 43). The c o n s c i o u s s u b j e c t i s as p a s s i v e and 14 powerless as the l u n a t i c Schreber b e i n g p e n e t r a t e d by the r a y s o f God. He w r i t e s to d i s s i p a t e f e a r and the i n t e n s e u n p l e a s a n t n e s s o f s e l f -awareness. Much of the t e x t c o u l d i l l u s t r a t e w r i t i n g as a defence a g a i n s t p s y c h i c f i x a t i o n and an accompanying d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f how 67 language works. We w i l l d i s c u s s two examples i n d e t a i l . C o u n t i n g and enumerating f u n c t i o n as defences to circumvent f e a r or e v i l thoughts which t h r e a t e n to d e s t r o y the i d e n t i t y o f the s e l f , a t h r e a t which, as mentioned, takes the form of p a r a l y s i s : "Un c h e v a l . Deux chevaux. Une i d e e . Deux i d e e s . Idee me f a i t penser a Cesar. Cesar f u t a s s a s s i n e aux i d e s de mars et i l y a i d e s dans i d e e . . . . Ouach! Ouachington! J e f f e r s o n ! L i n c o l n ! B u i c k ! Desoto! C h e v r o l e t ! Plymouth! En avant, maman!" (p. 133). A l l o w i n g a p a r t i a l f i x a t i o n t o oc c u r i n the r e p e t i t i o n of the message p e r m i t s the c o n s c i o u s s u b j e c t t o overcome p a r a l y s i s , by making d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o c e s s o f the p r e c o n s c i o u s which i s language, or i s at the l e a s t r e p r e s e n t e d by language. In terms o f Jakobson's two dimensions o f language we can say t h a t a paradigm o r group o f s e m a n t i c a l l y and s t r u c t u r a l l y e q u i v a l e n t words i s c o n s t i t u t e d i n t o a sequence. In another c o n t e x t t h i s l i t t l e game c o u l d be a symptom of a d i s r u p t i o n i n the a b i l i t y t o combine d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f speech i n t o s y n t a c t i c a l l y c o r r e c t utterances.''""' Because o f a m b i g u i t i e s i n the code; i . e . , t h a t " L i n c o l n " r e f e r s to a person and a make o f au t o m o b i l e , the paradigm t r a n s f o r m s i t s e l f . T h i s movement i s communicated to the co n s c i o u s s u b j e c t whose normal thought p r o c e s s e s resume: "En avant, maman!" The aim of these s p e c i a l uses of language i n t h i s t e x t seems to be to r e p r e s e n t how sequence i s produced: c o n t i n u i n g sense o f s e l f i n the s u b j e c t and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f events i n the n a r r a t i v e . That the s u b j e c t can t e l l a s t o r y proves h i s e x i s t e n c e . The most extreme example o f r e p e t i t i o n i n Le Nez q u i vogue i s the f o l l o w i n g : Je me r e p e t e dans ce c a h i e r . Mais i l y a beaucoup de 68 place dans mon cahier et je ne suis pas avare de mon temps. II y a beaucoup de place dans mon cahier et je ne suis pas avare de mon temps. II y a beaucoup de place dans mon cahier et je ne suis pas avare de mon temps. I l y a beaucoup de place dans mon cahier et je ne suis pas avare de mon temps. Je ne suis pas avare de mon temps et les cahiers ne coutent pas cher. Les cahiers ne coutent pas bien chers. (p. 103) It i l l u s t r a t e s l i t e r a l l y the narrator's complaint of obsessive thoughts: "mes pensees m'etranglent le cerveau" (p. 43). Yet, as before, the narrator i s c u l t i v a t i n g a f i x a t i o n of his thoughts (here, on his own i d e n t i t y ) , i n order to permit the preconscious part of h i s s e l f to l i q u i d a t e the fear which threatens h i s i d e n t i t y . Once again t h i s fear of aggression, and of sexuality as a form of aggression, i t s e l f con-s t i t u t e s the dangerous f i x a t i o n . Repeating the sentence " i l y a beaucoup de place dans mon cahier et je ne suis pas avare de mon temps" gives the w r i t e r evidence of his temporal continuity, since, as always in the text, the temporal dimen-sion becomes s p a t i a l and therefore more concrete. As Gerard Genette put i t , the text borrows i t s time metonymically from the time of reading; 16 and i n t h i s f i c t i o n a l example, from the time of w r i t i n g . On the other hand, for a hide-bound reader of novels, the narrator of t h i s passage i s indulging i n p e r v e r s i t y by f a i l i n g to get on with the story as promised by the conventions of the t r a d i t i o n a l novel. Such a reader may even claim that the narrator i s t o r t u r i n g him, l i k e a man who kept i n s i s t i n g that h i s dinner guests eat more and moire. At the beginning of Le Nez qui vogue M i l l e M i l l e s declares war on the reader who remains sentimentally entangled with the conventionally l i t e r a r y : "mes paroles... eloigneront de cette table... les amateurs et les 69 a m a t r i c e s de f l e u r s de r h e t o r i q u e " (p. 10). Thus f o r a c e r t a i n r e a d e r a c e r t a i n n a r r a t o r i s d i s c h a r g i n g a g g r e s s i o n , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n a l s o the f i x a t i o n i s l i q u i d a t e d . Perhaps f o r a more moderni s t r e a d e r the passage renews the s e l f -sense as i t does f o r the n a r r a t o r . Roland B a r t h e s muses on t h i s type of p o s s i b i l i t y i n Le P l a i s i r du t e x t e : "on peut p r e t e n d r e (neanmoins, ce n ' e s t pas moi q u i l e p r e t e n d r a i t ) : l a r e p e t i t i o n elle-meme engendre-r a i t l a j o u i s s a n c e . . . . r e p e t e r a l ' e x c e s , c ' e s t e n t r e r dans l a p e r t e , 17 dans l e z e r o du s i g n i f i e . " A g g r e s s i o n can be r e a d i n t o c e r t a i n passages o f Le Nez q u i vogue i n more than one way, as d i r e c t e d not o n l y a g a i n s t the p e r s o n o f the i n t e r l o c u t o r , but a g a i n s t the code i t s e l f . F o r example, the n a r r a t o r ' s f i x a t i o n d i s s i p a t e s when he puts an " s " on " c h e r s . " In so d o i n g , he has g r a m m a t i c a l l y d i s f i g u r e d the code. I t might be f a r - f e t c h e d to i n t e r p r e t the a d d i t i o n o f an " s " as an a c t of a g g r e s s i o n , were i t not f o r the j o y of h o a r d i n g one senses i n the same passage: " J ' a i mis un s a l a f i n de mon deuxieme c h e r . Je ne s u i s pas avare de mes _s_. Uns. Deuxs. T r o i s s . Q u a t r e s . C i n q s . S i x s . S epts. Deux m i l l e t r o i s cent t r e n t e - q u a t r e s! A s - t u vu ce que j ' a i f a i t de ce l a c ? Je 1 ' a i r e m p l i de _s_ m a j u s c u l e s " (p. 103). T h i s i s s u r e l y an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the F r e u d i a n p r i n c i p l e o f c o n s c i o u s d e n i a l as an a d m i s s i o n o f g u i l t , f o r the n a r r a t o r i n d u l g e s the urge to c o n t r o l and m a n i p u l a t e the code ab-n o r m a l l y , thus d i s r u p t i n g the p r o c e s s of communication as i f he c o u l d b r i n g a l l communication to a stop by k e e p i n g a l l the " s ' s " i n the w o r l d 18 f o r h i m s e l f . Such a d e l u s i o n c o r r e s p o n d s to the r e a l i t y o f the t e x t t h a t one can r e a d o n l y the words w r i t t e n t h e r e ; one i s a p r i s o n e r . 70 The p r i s o n e r i s a v o l u n t e e r who can opt out of the n a r r a t i v e c o n t r a c t and so i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the n a r r a t o r w i l l abuse him i n d e f -i n i t e l y . B e s i d e s , ambivalence r a t h e r than h o s t i l i t y i s the long-term norm o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . What Le Nez q u i vogue demonstrates w i t h o u t e g u i v o c a t i o n i s ambivalence i n v o l v i n g both code and i n t e r l o c u -t o r s . The a g g r e s s i o n we have t r i e d to p i n p o i n t has e v a p o r a t e d c o m p l e t e l y i n the sentences immediately f o l l o w i n g the p r e v i o u s g u o t a t i o n : " Viens v o i r ce l a c gue j ' a i r e m p l i de £ m a j u s c u l e s en o r . Prends-moi par l a main pour ne pas tomber; v i e n s ! v i e n s ! Regarde au fond de l ' e a u . Tous ces s_ en o r . On d i r a i t des c l e s de s o l " (p. 103). I s o l a t e d from the p r o c e s s o f d i s c u r s i v e meaning, the s i g n " s " has, i t t u r n s o ut, been t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an o b j e c t f o r e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n . The meta-morphosis o f dr o s s to g o l d has been e f f e c t e d f o r the p l e a s u r e o f the i n t e r l o c u t o r p r e v i o u s l y abused, and f o r whom the n a r r a t o r e x p r e s s e s b e n e v o l e n t p r o t e c t i v e n e s s . One s h o u l d not n e g l e c t , when t a k i n g f o r g r a n t e d the presence o f n a r r a t o r and r e a d e r , to be i n s i s t e n t about how the s p e c i f i c a l l y g r a p h i c i d e n t i t y o f the t e x t i s s t i l l acknowledged. In a p p r o p r i a t i n g Jakobson's terms "code" and " i n t e r l o c u t o r s " from the d e s c r i p t i o n o f a speech a c t one must not f o r g e t t h a t i n the t e x t , which i s n o n e t h e l e s s an a c t of 19 communication, t h e r e i s no unmediated p r e s e n c e . The n a r r a t o r ' s d e v i a n t " s " on " c h e r s " i s p u r e l y g r a p h i c ; i t cannot be he a r d i n speech. F o r the n a r r a t o r the e s t h e t i c " s ' s " a r e g r a p h i c and not p h o n e t i c s i g n s ; o t h e r w i s e he would not t h i n k o f comparing them to the t r e b l e c l e f , a l s o a g r a p h i c s i g n . Here he suggests a l s o t h a t h i s e s t h e t i c o b j e c t remains a s i g n i f i e r which can be w i t h h e l d o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y from c i r c u l a t i o n . 71 Could i t be w i t h h e l d i n the a b s o l u t e i t would become' v a l u e l e s s and i r r e c u p e r a b l y m e a n i n g l e s s ; he would d e s t r o y i t j u s t as he might k i l l e x i s t e n t i a l l y by r e d u c i n g a person to the s t a t u s o f an o b j e c t , a t e n -dency we have a l r e a d y a n a l y s e d . On o c c a s i o n the n a r r a t o r o p e n l y s t e e l s h i m s e l f a g a i n s t the h o s t i l e r e c e p t i o n t h a t h i s s a d i s t i c c o n s c i e n c e has been p r o v o k i n g from the r e a d e r on h i s b e h a l f : " Q u e l l e s o r t e de l i t t e r a t u r e f a i s - j e . . . ? N'a-j u s t e z pas v o t r e a p p a r e i l . C a s s e z - l u i l a gueule e t a l l e z - v o u s - e n " (p. 133). In t h i s t e x t t h e r e i s i n t e n s e c o n t a c t w i t h the r e a d e r . The n a r r a t o r compares the t e x t to a t e l e v i s i o n s e t m a l f u n c t i o n i n g by c i t i n g the formula " N ' a j u s t e z pas v o t r e a p p a r e i l " ; t h a t i s , t r o u b l e o r i g i n a t e s w i t h the sender h i m s e l f . With unconcern the n a r r a t o r i n v i t e s the r e a d e r to smash h i s image on the s c r e e n . C o n t r a r y to what we have j u s t s a i d about the g r a p h i c i d e n t i t y o f the t e x t , the comparison suggests the immediacy p o s s i b l e i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n of an o r a l and v i s u a l p r e s e n c e . One might ask why the n a r r a t o r c o n t i n u e s a f t e r o r d e r i n g h i s i n t e r -l o c u t o r to go away. What "goes away" i s the image which has been smashed, the p i c t u r e but not the words, the f i x a t i o n but not the s u b j e c t as a f u n c t i o n . Once the m i r r o r i s smashed, t r a d i t i o n a l l y the s u b j e c t i s f r e e . D i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e from the use o f the f i r s t and second person which become t e l e g r a p h i c and m e t a p h o r i c a l . The t e l e v i s i o n smashed, a message i s s t i l l r e c e i v e d ; perhaps i t comes from w i t h i n the i n t e r l o c u t o r . In t h i s sense the o n l y r e a l s i l e n c e i s death: we cannot shut out a l l messages because we have always a l r e a d y i n t e r n a l i z e d some. T h i s passage needs to be read not o n l y as two persons i n t e r a c t i n g but a l s o as each a c t i n g on s e l f . What appears as a s o l i c i t a t i o n f o r punishment i s a l s o 72 the wish to be l i b e r a t e d ; the narrator's desire to r e v o l t against h i s super-ego. For the reader i n his capacity as reader of l i t e r a r y texts, the "apparatus" to be destroyed i s a set of norms and values as corrupt as the mass culture for which t e l e v i s i o n i s the v e h i c l e . It remains to be explained how the act of w r i t i n g i s related psychologically to the events and characters of r e c i t . The repression of aggressive impulses motivates t h e i r displacement onto language: ... i l a lance a l a tete de Une grosse bosse a pousse la menue Chateaugue un u l t i - sur l a tete de Chateaugue.... matum de deux m i l l e cinq J'en r i s . . . . Je m'obstine cents l i v r e s , et Chateaugue a marcher d e r r i e r e e l l e , n'a plus qu'a se t i r e r de pour r i r e de l a v o i r b o i t e r . cette impasse. J'aime les (p. 200) phrases qui boitent. Je suis sadique. Je les regarde boi-ter et je trouve cela drole. (p. 186) The l o g i c a l disharmony r e s u l t i n g from the mixed metaphor "ultimatum" and "impasse" makes him think of a person limping and l a t e r i n the r e c i t he a c c i d e n t a l l y knocks Chateaugue down and she does limp. A w i l l 20 to damage and d i s t o r t i s evidenced by the "puissance desintegrante" of the narrator's discourse, the tendency for one word to be broken into several words, as i n the t i t l e of the novel: "C'est une equivoque. C'est un nez qui voque. Mon nez voque. Je suis un nez qui voque" (p. 10). From the Freudian point of view, the f i r s t message having been cut up and destroyed, a r i t u a l c a s t r a t i o n has occurred. But a new message has arisen; for although "voque" i s not a word i t could be a word, having the grammatical form of a verb and even c l o s e l y resembling "vogue" and "vaque." Further, i n speech, two minimal pairs d i s t i n -guishes the two utterances; the two messages could be derived from one 73 s l o p p y u t t e r a n c e . The b e s t r e a d i n g o f the t e x t c o n s i d e r s the two p o s s i b i l i t i e s e q u a l l y r a t h e r than the second as the replacement o f the f i r s t . In the s t o r y , on the o t h e r hand, the message i s not a l t e r -n a t i n g ; i f M i l l e M i l l e s knocks Chateaugue down and laughs a t her , most r e a d e r s w i l l deduce t h a t he has committed an a g g r e s s i v e a c t . As w r i t i n g , h i s b e h a v i o u r can remain a m b i v a l e n t , but i n o t h e r a c t i o n he compromises h i m s e l f . In b r e a k i n g down the message M i l l e M i l l e s e x a g g e r a t e s a d i f f e r e n c e between spoken language, which seems t o f l o w - - i n F r e n c h more so than i n E n g l i s h - - a n d w r i t t e n language which s e p a r a t e s words s p a t i a l l y . In the f o l l o w i n g passage we n o t i c e t h a t not o n l y does he sabotage the message, he responds v e r b a l l y as i f to a s p a t i a l , v i s u a l message, as i f he d i d not d i s t i n g u i s h between what someone says i n the s t o r y and the w r i t t e n v e h i c l e o f the s t o r y : [Chateaugue] - Veux-tu que nous nous a p p e l i o n s Tate et que nous a d d i t i o n n i o n s nos ages? [ M i l l e M i l l e s ] - E s t - c e que t u as vu l e s oignons dans a d d i t i o n n i o n s ? A s - t u vu l e s l i o n s dans a p p e l i o n s ? A s - t u vu l a pomme dans a p p e l -i o n s ? [Chateaugue] - Tu reg a r d e s ce que j e d i s . Tu n'ecoutes meme pas ce que j e d i s . (p. 85) In the pun " a p p e l - " / " a p p l e " M i l l e M i l l e s passes from one i d i o m t o another w i t h o u t comment, a s l i p g i v i n g the r e a d e r pause t o r e f l e c t t h a t i n Quebec, sometimes when d i s c o u r s e i s l e s s a r t i c u l a t e and coh e r e n t one i s f e e l i n g more s t r o n g l y the i n f l u e n c e o f E n g l i s h . Perhaps t h e r e i s a s o r t of a g g r e s s i o n or c a s t r a t i o n t h r e a t e n i n g from w i t h o u t . The m o t i f of f o r e i g n idioms has a s o c i a l d imension s u g g e s t i n g a s o c i a l i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n t o the n a r r a t o r ' s o b s e s s i o n w i t h d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . 74 The s m a l l e s t u n i t o f language t o which the n a r r a t o r reduces sentences or words i s the i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r ; f o r example, i n the f a n -t a s y about the l e t t e r " s . " H i s i n t e r e s t f o c u s e d on a s i n g l e l e t t e r i s l i k e the p a s s i o n i n s p i r e d by one s i n g l e f e a t u r e o f the b e l o v e d o b j e c t : Un u e s t - i l p l u s j o l i qu'un _ i , un jL moins b i e n tourne qu'un e_? Un mot pour moi c ' e s t comme une f l e u r . C'est compose de p e t a l e s ; c ' e s t comme un a r b r e : c ' e s t f a i t de b r a n c h e s . (p. 21) ... t e s o r e i l l e s goutent l e m i e l . . . . Toute t a peau e s t s u c r e e . . . . Tu as l e s l e v r e s g o n f l e e s de sang r o s e . . . . (p. 126) T h i s a n a l y t i c a l p o i n t o f view i s never w i t h o u t a d e s t r u c t i v e n e c e s s i t y , f o r i f the p e t a l i s s e p a r a t e d from the f l o w e r , the f l o w e r has been d e s t r o y e d . In h i s a t t i t u d e toward the components o f language, the n a r r a t o r c o n s i s t e n t l y exposes h i s impulses t o o b j e c t i f y and to d e s t r o y , which c o n t i n u e t o haunt h i s c o n s c i o u s b e h a v i o u r toward h i m s e l f and Chateaugue. O b s e s s i v e n e s s i s communicated i n h i s a g g r e s s i v e impulse to break t h i n g s down and a p a r t . But another more i n d i r e c t a g g r e s s i o n shows through i n the r i g i d i t y o f h i s o p i n i o n s and r e a s o n i n g p r o c e s s e s . Adopt-i n g the l o g i c a l d i s c o u r s e o f e x p o s i t o r y e s s a y s , h i s commentary i s not wi t h o u t s a l i e n t s o c i a l i n s i g h t ; f o r example: "Les femmes d ' a u j o u r d ' h u i savent ce q u ' e l l e s v e u l e n t . . . [ i n t e x t ] E s t - c e v r a i ? Non e l l e s ont p l u s peur qu'avant; i l y a moins d'hommes qu'avant" (p. 130). Though u n j u s t and i n a c c u r a t e , h i s focus on women and aut o m o b i l e s as the causes of s o c i a l i l l s i s not s o c i a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s ; however, h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n of the form o f r a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e f o r i t s c o n t e n t may be p e r c e i v e d at once as d e l i r i o u s . "Je ne s a i s pas ou j e veux en v e n i r mais j e s a i s 75 que j ' y a r r i v e r a i " (p. 47): i n f a c t i t i s the means which become the end, as i s symptomatic o f o b s e s s i v e t h i n k i n g : "... i t would be more c o r r e c t to speak o f ' o b s e s s i v e t h i n k i n g ' [than o b s e s s i v e i d e a s ] and to make i t c l e a r t h a t o b s e s s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s can c o r r e s p o n d to every psy-21 c h i c a l a c t . " Here a g a i n , as the n a r r a t o r p o r t r a y s h i s p e r s o n a l neu-r o s i s he s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a n a l y s e s and c r i t i c i z e s the f u n c t i o n i n g and uses of e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e by c u l t i v a t i n g a mass of e l u c i d a t i o n s , g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n s and a n a l o g i e s , such as the f o l l o w i n g : Les t h e o r i e s q u i f o n t du b r u i t sont de b e l l e s t h e o r i e s . Ma t h e o r i e de l ' a r b r e f e r a un b r u i t f ou c a r c ' e s t une t h e o r i e t r e s j o l i e . Ce n ' e s t pas une t h e o r i e t r e s c l a i r e , mais l e s t h e o r i e s l e s p l u s j o l i e s , comme l e s maisons l e s p l u s b e l l e s . , sont l e s p l u s o b s c u r e s . (p. 41) H i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the t r u t h may be e s t h e t i c i n t h a t i t p r e c l u d e s the need or d e s i r e f o r g o a l - o r i e n t e d b e h a v i o u r ; the more b e a u t i f u l a t h e o r y the l e s s p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t can o r i e n t h i s b e h a v i o u r i n s p e c i f i c ways. M i l l e M i l l e s ' s p e c u l a t i o n s on t r u t h a r e d e l i r i o u s i n t h a t "they a c c e p t c e r t a i n premises o f the o b s e s s i o n they a r e combatting, and t h u s , w h i l e u s i n g the weapons of re a s o n , are e s t a b l i s h e d upon a b a s i s o f p a t h o l o g i c a l 22 thought." On the one hand he wishes to e l i m i n a t e a m b i g u i t y ; on the o t h e r he laments the r e s t r a i n t s imposed by the p r i n c i p l e o f l o g i c a l n o n - c o n t r a -d i c t i o n . S p e l l b o u n d by i t s A r i s t o t e l i a n s t r u c t u r e s , h i s d i s c o u r s e a t c e r t a i n moments condemns i t s e l f to r e p e a t the d i s c o u r s e o f p h i l o s o p h y , sometimes c h o o s i n g the n e g a t i v e p o l e o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n , some-times c h o o s i n g i m p o s s i b l e s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n : I I y a t o u j o u r s quelque chose q u ' i l f a u t r e f o u l e r , c a r i l y a t o u j o u r s a l t e r n a t i v e . M i l l e M i l l e s e s t d ' a v i s qu'on a p l u s de chances de d e v e n i r fou s i on r e f o u l e 76 1'envie d'etre chaste que s i l'on refoule l'autre envie. (p. 51) Chez les autres d'esprit plus pur, moins sclerose, l a p o s s i b i l i t y d'une double action en sens contraires est parfaitement c l a i r e , s a i s i s s a b l e , logique et comprise, (p. 20) It may be that the subject seeks a truth which destroys the absoluteness of the binary opposition and thus h i s dilemma of death versus c a s t r a t i o n , s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n versus c a s t r a t i o n , the p r i n c i p l e of i d e n t i t y ; the more concisely he formulates this project, the more absurd i t appears. He wavers between s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n and r e v o l t expressed through d e r i s i o n : Absurdity s i g n i f i e s d e r i s i o n On n'entend pas p a r l e r de in the language of obsession- ceux qu'on n'entend pas. a l neurosis.23 Ceux qu'on n'entend pas meu-rent sans prestige. Par exemple, qui a jamais entendu parler de Rembrandt? (p. 104) The repeated invocation of the rules of expository prose and the re-peated f a i l u r e to play f a i r with the rules suggest an act of aggression against the reader; or again, the narrator's self-abuse; or again, an attack on expository prose i t s e l f , with writer and reader present only as abstract functions. Besides abstract reasoning, the text invokes other i n e f f e c t u a l truths ranging from the t r i v i a l to the obvious. To foreground the obvious i s to destroy the notion of the obvious by f i n d i n g the point of view from which i t requires explanation; for example, here, the use of the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e i n the general sense, of what i s singular to s i g n i f y what i s p l u r a l : "Presque tous les hommes portent le pantalon. Cependant, i l s ne portent pas tous le meme" (p. 132). M i l l e M i l l e s ' truth and the defence of his disregard for truth--77 " J ' a i s e i z e ans e t j e s u i s un e n f a n t de h u i t ans" (p. 9 ) - - i s t h a t the t r u t h i s a c o n v e n t i o n . I t can be a n a s t y l i t t l e shock to d i s c o v e r how i n a c c u r a t e h i s c o l l e c t i o n of t r i v i a i s : "Je ne possede pas l a v e r i t e mais j' e n possede une bonne d i z a i n e . V o i c i l'une d ' e l l e s : 1 ' i l e de B a f f i n a 178.700 m i l l e s c a r r e s . . . " (p. 132). U n t i l a r e a d e r i s a c c i -d e n t a l l y well-enough informed o r wary enough to v e r i f y the i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s t r u e by consensus, by d e f a u l t . The n a r r a t o r ' s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the t r u t h p r e v e n t s him and p r o t e c t s him from a c t i n g , and h i s t e x t i s the h i s t o r y of a f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the t r u t h . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n opened w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the n a r r a t o r ' s w r i t i n g s e r v e d as a compromise f o r d i s c h a r g i n g a g g r e s s i o n w i t h o u t t h r e a t of r e t a l i a t i o n , and f o r a v o i d i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and a c t i o n . S e v e r a l a s p e c t s of h i s w r i t i n g have been shown to r e v e a l a n e g a t i v e moment o f a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t h i m s e l f , a g a i n s t i m a g i n a r y r e a d e r s , and a l s o a p o s i t i v e a n a l y s i s of c o n v e n t i o n s of t r u t h and meaning which l e n d Le Nez q u i vogue a s p e c i f i c a l l y t e x t u a l v a l i d i t y . In h i s c r i t i g u e and a n a l y s i s of the c o n v e n t i o n s of w r i t i n g the n a r r a t o r , as a c h a r a c t e r , runs a r i s k o f s u r r e n d e r i n g so much o f h i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s v i g i l a n c e as to become dependent on the a c t u a l p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g as e v i d e n c e of p e r s o n a l temporal c o n t i n u i t y . In s h o r t , the need to w r i t e and the p l a y of a s s o c i a t i o n of i d e a s c o u l d come to over-whelm and compel him i n the way t h a t he f e e l s h i s f e a r s and a g g r e s s i v e impulses might. The t e x t i n c l u d e s formulas f o r ending by which the p e r s o n a l essence c a l l s i t s e l f t o o r d e r and i n which the f o r e i g n language puts the damper on the f l o w of the n a t i v e language: Quand c e s s e r a i - j e d ' e r g o t e r et de r a t i o c i n e r ? (p. 169) 78 Cesse d'ergoter et de r a t i o c i n e r , ergoteur et r a t i o c i -neur. (p. 170) H a l t e - l a ! H a l t e - l a ! H a l t e - l a ! (p. 37) Basta, fou! (p. 106) Basta con l a luna! (p. 171) Basta! Basta con l a mar! Basta con i l cha cha cha! Stoppe, cheval! Stoppe, antilope! (p. 179) Perceived as a temptation and compromise with neurosis, the non-narrative portions of the text represent the r e s u l t of "hortensestur-bisme," a term which at f i r s t seems introduced simply to avoid the use of "masturbation" for the other a c t i v i t y the narrator practises compul-s i v e l y : [Mille M i l l e s to h i m s e l f ] : Pourquoi f a i s - t u cela? Est-ce pour le p l a i s i r ? On n'en eprouve aucun. Est-ce pour le degout? Ce doit etre pour le coup de degout qui nous terrasse quand on a t t e i n t le sommet du p l a i s i r . (pp. 129-130) Analogies have been drawn between w r i t i n g and masturbation as substitutes for more r e a l , immediate experience of l i v i n g and acting. In Le Nez qui voque the non-narrative discourse may be read as i l l e -gitimate interference with the t e l l i n g of a story or the b u i l d i n g of a monument to childhood. But, l i k e many other of his notions, "hor-tensesturbateur" i s equivocal; i t also s i g n i f i e s the one who remains attached to the s t a t i c , univocal model, who believes i n the truth value of language as a one-to-one correspondence of language and r e a l i t y . Masturbation may be used by neurotics as a proof of potency, a defence against aggressive wishes (mobili-zation of the opposite wish and s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n ) , and a provocation for punishment (masochistic provocation) . 2' When he repudiates the i d e a l of the s t a t i c , monumental personality and 79 as h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h f o r m a l l o g i c seems to abate, the n a r r a t o r b e g i n s to l o s e i n t e r e s t i n w r i t i n g , as t a i n t e d by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s neu-r o s i s . Language was used to r e c u p e r a t e the i n s e c u r e s u b j e c t as a nega-t i v e essence, a " h o r t e n s e s t u r b a t e u r " ; but t h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n r e i n f o r c e d the t e n d e n c i e s toward p s y c h o l o g i c a l f i x a t i o n : Je s u i s un monstre, un h o r t e n s e s t u r b a t e u r i n -v e t e r e , un obsede s e x u e l b i g o t . (p. 94) S i t u veux un moi f i d e l e a une d e f i n i t i o n , f o r g e - t ' e n -un.... c r o i s , c r o i s ( s u r t o u t aux mots). (p. 197) Mes r e f l e x i o n s sont des i r r e -f l e x i o n s . . . . e l l e s sont d'un e t r e humain: e l l e s ne peuvent pas s ' e n c h a i n e r comme c e l l e s d'un e t r e l o g i q u e . (p. 229) The young man i n Le Nez q u i voque seems to overcome h i s f e a r o f l i f e , t o outgrow h i s t e x t and l e a v e i t b e h i n d , perhaps a f t e r the f a s h i o n o f the Saint-Denys-Garneau poem: A f i n qu'un j o u r , t r a n s p o s e , Je s o i s p o r t e par l a danse de ces pas de j o i e , Avec l e b r u i t d e c r o i s s a n t de mon pas a c o t e de moi, Avec l a p e r t e de mon pas perdu s ' e t i o l a n t a ma gauche Sous l e s p i e d s d'un e t r a n g e r q u i prend une rue t r a n s v e r s a l e . 2 5 J u s t as the poet d i d not b e l i e v e t h i s j o y was r e a l l y p o s s i b l e f o r him, a measure of c o r r u p t i o n and f a l s e - c o n s c i o u s n e s s shadows the repu-d i a t i o n o f the t e x t . To e x p l a i n t h i s a s s e r t i o n i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to examine s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r m a l a s p e c t s o f the t e x t i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r o f t h i s s t u d y . 80 NOTES H e c t o r de Saint-Denys-Garneau, "Cage d ' o i s e a u , " P o e s i e s  completes (Ottawa: F i d e s , 1949), p. 96. 2 Ludwig E i d e l b e r g , E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P s y c h o a n a l y s i s ( T o r o n t o : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n , 1968), p. 119: " ' E g o - a l i e n ' i s d e n o t i v e o f those d e r i v a t i v e s o f the unc o n s c i o u s which g i v e r i s e t o n e u r o t i c symptoms, p a r a p r a x e s , and dreams." 3 Ludwig E i d e l b e r g , E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , p. 250: " N a r c i s s i s t i c m o r t i f i c a t i o n i s the e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t r e s u l t s from a sudden l o s s of c o n t r o l over e x t e r n a l or i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y , or both , w i t h a r e s u l t a n t response o f f r i g h t or t e r r o r . " 4 Sigmund F r e u d , "Notes upon a Case of O b s e s s i o n a l N e u r o s i s (1909)," Standard E d i t i o n o f the Complete P s y c h o l o g i c a l Works o f Sigmund Fre u d (London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1961), X, p. 232. Freu d , "Notes upon a Case o f O b s e s s i o n a l N e u r o s i s , " p. 236. Jean-Joseph Goux, "Numismatiques," T e l Quel, n° 35 (automne 1968), p. 87: "... s i l a marchandise c h o i s i e comme e q u i v a l e n t g e n e r a l e s t e x c l u e de l a consommation immediate... inversement l e c h o i x du sexe comme e q u i v a l e n t g e n e r a l e s t jLe moyen de l ' e x c l u r e de 1'usage immediat." Fr e u d , t r a n s . Helene Is w o l s k y , "On the U n i v e r s a l Tendency to Debasement i n the Sphere o f Love," SE, XI, p. 189. g M i k h a i l B a k h t i n , R a b e l a i s and H i s World (Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1968), pp. 368-436. a F r e u d , "The I n f a n t i l e G e n i t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , " SE, XIX, p. 144. ^ E i d e l b e r g , E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P s y c h o a n a l y s i s , p. 279. 1 1 F r e u d , "Three Essays on S e x u a l i t y , " SE, V I I , p. 167: "In any-one who s u f f e r s from the consequences o f r e p r e s s e d s a d i s t i c impulses t h e r e i s sure to be another d e t e r m i n a n t o f h i s symptoms which has i t s s o u r c e i n m a s o c h i s t i c i n c l i n a t i o n s . " F r e u d , "Notes upon a Case o f O b s e s s i o n a l N e u r o s i s , " p. 246. 81 In the journal, w r i t i n g i s linked to masturbation i n that subject and object, " j e " and " i l " are related to the same person. See V a l e r i e Raoul, The French F i c t i o n a l Journal: F i c t i o n a l Narcissism/  N a r c i s s i s t i c F i c t i o n (Toronto: Un i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1980), p. 72: "... a second s h i f t must also be perceived within the f i c t i o n , as i t i s the source of the irony common to most modern diary-novels: that from " j e " to " j e - i l " on the part of the narrator who speaks of himself also as protagonist." 14 Freud, "The Case of Schreber," SE, XII, p. 22: "God i s from his very nature nothing but nerve. But the nerves of God... are i n f i n i t e and e t e r n a l . . . . In t h e i r creative capacity... they are known as rays. There i s an intimate r e l a t i o n between God and the starry heaven and the sun. " Roman Jakobson, "Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disorders," Selected Writings (The Hague, Pa r i s , New York: Mouton, 1981), I I I , p. 251: "The type of aphasia a f f e c t i n g contexture tends to give r i s e to i n f a n t i l e one-sentence utterances and one-word sentences. Only a few longer, stereotyped, "ready made" sentences manage to survive.... While contexture d i s i n t e g r a t e s , the s e l e c t i v e operation goes on." •I (L Gerard Genette, Figures III (Paris: S e u i l , 1972), p. 78. ^ Roland Barthes, Le P l a i s i r du texte (Paris: S e u i l , 1973), p. 67. 18 Norman N. Holland, The Dynamics of L i t e r a r y Response (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968), p. 54: "The player-queen i n Hamlet avows at great length her love for her husband; the r e a l queen dryly says 'the lady doth protest too much, methinks 1 ... saying or doing one thing but meaning the opposite, corresponds to a defence of r e v e r s a l . " Roman Jakobson, " L i n g u i s t i c s and Poetics," Selected Writings, I I I , pp. 21-22. 20 Marcel Chouinard, "Rejean Ducharme: un langage v i o l e n t e , " L i b e r t e , 12 (1970), p. 109. 21 Freud, "Notes upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis," pp. 221-222. Freud, "Notes upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis," p. 222. 82 Freud, "A Case of Obsessional Neurosis," Collected Papers (London: Hogarth Press, 1956), I I I , p. 354, note 2. 24 Eidelberg, Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis, p. 237. 25 Saint-Denys-Garneau, "Accompagnement," Poesies completes (Ottawa: Fides, 1949), p. 101. CHAPTER IV: LE NEZ QUI VOQUE: THE OTHER Other Versus Others In L'Avalee des a v a l e s the n a r r a t o r persona e n g u l f s the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , who remain fragmentary and e p i s o d i c , or c o n v e r s e l y , B e r e n i c e f i x a t e s t e m p o r a r i l y on these s e v e r a l fragmentary c h a r a c t e r s . In Le Nez  q u i voque, on the c o n t r a r y , the n a r r a t o r d i s t i n g u i s h e s c a r e f u l l y between h i s r o l e as n a r r a t o r and as a c t o r i n the drama, between h i m s e l f and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e female o t h e r , Chateaugue. L'Avalee des a v a l e s p r e s e n t s the c h i l d as the s o l i t a r y l o c u s o f the i n t e r p l a y o f s o c i a l f o r c e s . Whereas i n L'Avalee one wavers between the one and the many, i n Le Nez q u i voque one f o c u s e s on the p o l e s o f a b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n , ever c o n s t a n t , M i l l e M i l l e s and Chateaugue. A d i s c u s s i o n of secondary c h a r a c t e r s i n Le Nez q u i voque w i l l be f i r s t a d i s c u s s i o n o f Chateaugue, and beyond the p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r o f the concept o f the Other, the f e m i n i n e , the o p p o s i t e . The second h a l f o f Le Nez q u i voque a n a l y s e s the c h a r a c t e r o f Chateaugue, c r e a t i n g a two-d i m e n s i o n a l i l l u s i o n d i s s o c i a t i n g the c h a r a c t e r from her o r i g i n a l s i g n i f -i c a n c e f o r the n a r r a t o r , a second dimension o f f i c t i o n d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the p r i m a r y system o f v a l u e s which d e f i n e s Chateaugue. Such an i l l u s i o n i s never e x p l o i t e d i n L'Avalee des a v a l e s . The O r i g i n o f Chateaugue The n a r r a t o r d e f i n e s Chateaugue by r e f e r e n c e to s p a t i a l c o o r d i n a t e s . The f i r s t name by which he r e f e r s to her r e f e r s to a s e t t l e m e n t o f the northwest t i p o f the l a n d mass o f New Quebec, " I v u g i v i c " (p. 10). The name "Chateaugue" (p. 17) suggests a homonym of "Chateauguay" county i n 83 84 the E a s t e r n Townships. The n a r r a t o r has been d i s c u s s i n g the t r a n s l a t i n g o f E n g l i s h p l a c e names i n Quebec i n t o F r e n c h . H i s enthusiasm i n c l u d e s some i r o n y , inasmuch as the l o c a l e s i n q u e s t i o n s are i n h a b i t e d m a i n l y by I n u i t s : " J ' a i l u . . . que P o r t - B u r w e l l , ou I v u g i v i c e s t nee, a e t e t r a d u i t en f r a n g a i s par l e m i n i s t e r e toponymique... J ' a i h a t e de v o i r l e v i s a g e q u ' e l l e f e r a quand j e l u i a p p r e n d r a i q u ' e l l e e s t nee a Havre-T u r q u e t i l " (p. 13). T h i s s e t t l e m e n t o f t e n f i g u r e s on maps w i t h the I n u i t name " T i l l i n i q . " The n a r r a t o r invokes i r o n y w i t h r e s p e c t t o the a p p r o p r i a t i o n i n which he i s engaged, o f " I v u g i v i c " as "Chateaugue." T h i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n p r e s e n t s a p o i n t o f view on the n a r r a t o r ' s a c t i v i t y i n g e n e r a l . On the one hand, i t i s never a q u e s t i o n o f i n v e n t i n g the c h a r a c t e r out o f t h i n a i r . Of c o u r s e , such a p o s s i b i l i t y would undermine the f i c t i o n o f the j o u r n a l , s i n c e the j o u r n a l i n p r i n c i p l e merely r e c o r d s and t r a n s m i t s meaning which d e v e l o p s elsewhere. On the o t h e r hand, the n a r r a t o r i s not an i n n o c e n t i n s c r i b e r because i n changing a name he s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y a l t e r s what he a p p r o p r i a t e s . " M i l l e M i l l e s " evokes a s e r i e s o f manoeuvres t o be executed by the s u b j e c t i n the d i s c o u r s e , a d i s t a n c e to be co v e r e d i n c o n t r a s t w i t h a t t r i b u t i o n o f s t a t i c or p l a c e names t o the t h i r d p e r s o n . M i l l e M i l l e s e x p l a i n s the change o f name f o r Chateaugue as i n s p i r e d by h i s r e a d i n g o f the memoires o f Lemoyne d 1 I b e r v i l l e , a s o l d i e r and a d v e n t u r e r o f New F r a n c e , r e c o u n t i n g the f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t : "Le  quatrieme, mon f r e r e Chateaugue e n s e i g n e du Sr. de S e r i g n y e s t a n t a l a garde du f o r t ennemi (Nelson) pour l e s empescher de f a i r e s o r t y y  f u t tue d' un coup de mousquet" (p. 17)."^ D u r i n g the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , 85 the F r e n c h and E n g l i s h s t r u g g l e d f o r c o n t r o l o f the f u r t r a d e i n the n o r t h . F o r t N e l s o n (York F a c t o r y ) , on the Manitoba c o a s t o f Hudson Bay, passed s e v e r a l times from one group to the o t h e r . In 1694, Lemoyne d " I b e r v i l l e took the f o r t f o r the F r e n c h a t the c o s t o f h i s youngest b r o t h e r ' s l i f e . However, i t was of cou r s e to the B r i t i s h t h a t t h i s t e r r i t o r y was g r a n t e d d e f i n i t i v e l y , w i t h the T r e a t y o f U t r e c h t i n 1713. T h i s p e r s o n a l and h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e f o r Chateaugue does not negate what has j u s t been s a i d o f her b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p l a c e s . "Chateaugue" the h i s t o r i c a l personnage presumably i s d e s i g n a t e d by the name o f a p r o p e r t y r a t h e r than the f a m i l y name, i n k e e p i n g w i t h a r i s t o -c r a t i c p r a c t i c e . As a matter o f f a c t , the "de S e r i g n y " r e f e r r e d to by d ' I b e r v i l l e was h i s and Chateaugue's b r o t h e r a l s o . The p l a c e name "Chateaugue" e x i s t s i n F r a n c e . "Chateauguay" county i s s a i d to have 2 been named by the f i r s t s e i g n e u r o f the domain f o r a p l a c e i n F r a n c e . I t would seem l i k e l y t h a t the name was f i r s t d e s c r i p t i v e , r e f e r r i n g to the p r o x i m i t y o f a "Chateau" and a "gue" or f o r d . The l i k e l y a s s o c i a t i o n o f Chateaugue w i t h "Chateauguay" c o n f i r m s the name's h e r o i c dimension, e v o k i n g the 1813 v i c t o r y o f Canadiens over 3 Americans. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Chateaugue s h o u l d have a s p e c i f -i c a l l y h i s t o r i c a l r a t h e r than l i t e r a r y ascendancy, s i n c e the p o i n t o f view j u s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the n a r r a t o r would negate r a d i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n o f h i s t o r y and f i c t i o n i n f a v o u r o f r e l a t i v i s m , a c c o r d i n g t o which i t i s p o s s i b l e to r e p r e s e n t n e i t h e r u n i n t e r p r e t e d t r u t h or pure t a b u l a -t i o n . I t i s a l s o the case t h a t h i s t o r y has been acknowledged as a source o f l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i n Quebec and t h a t l i t e r a r y manuals c i t e F r a n c o i s - X a v i e r Garneau's L ' H i s t o i r e du Canada (1845-48) as a f i r s t 86 major l i t e r a r y text i n Quebec. The most disturbing aspect of Chateaugue's association with the text of Lemoyne d 1 I b e r v i l l e i s the implication by the narrator, i n repeating " l e quatrieme mon frere Chateaugue," that he envisages s a c r i -f i c i n g Chateaugue i n some sense to his own adventure, as d ' I b e r v i l l e did his brother. Discussion of where Chateaugue comes from involves more than her names. She does not appear u n t i l Chapter 6, where M i l l e M i l l e s unex-pectedly announces that he has fetched her from the Sorel Islands so that she can l i v e with him i n Montreal. As he has been w r i t i n g she has been sleeping on the bed and has just awakened: " E l l e vient juste de se r e v e i l l e r . Quelle drole d'expression. Je me demande ou je l ' a i pechee. D'ou viens-tu Elphege? Je viens de me r e v e i l l e r Brunehilde" (pp. 21-22). At the moment he announces her awakening his attention s l i d e s from his narrative to the process of enunciation i t s e l f , a chan of focus which hi g h l i g h t s the i l l u s i o n of Chateaugue as deriving from the words on the page, from the text or act of reading, " l e l i t , " which i s also the bed where Chateaugue l i e s , the place where dreaming and th> manifestation of the unconscious occurs. In reading or i n dreaming th past comes back as evoked by the archaic names "Elphege" and "Brunhild The Other as S p i r i t or Body In the f i r s t h a l f of Le Nez qui voque M i l l e M i l l e s creates an image of Chateaugue which he then c a l l s into question and dis s o c i a t e s from the character. In discussing t h i s image of Chateaugue one cannot avoid i n d i r e c t l y discussing M i l l e M i l l e s , since i t i s h i s image of her 87 Younger than M i l l e M i l l e s , Chateaugue i s i n t r o d u c e d as an a l l e g o r y o f h i s p a s t , summing up h i s image o f c h i l d h o o d . In C h a p t e r 1, M i l l e M i l l e s says he has d e c i d e d to s t a y " b e h i n d " ( b e h i n d everyone) to s a f e -guard and p r o t e c t h i s c h i l d s e l f ; then, i n the s i x t h c h a p t e r , he b r i n g s i n t o h i s p r e s e n t a f i g u r e o f p u r i t y and inno c e n c e : Ch. 1 Je r e s t e l o i n d e r r i e r e , Ch. 6 Meme l e p o i l sous ses avec moi, avec moi l ' e n - bras, b l o n d comme sa f a n t , l o i n d e r r i e r e , s e u l , peau, a l ' a i r e n f a n t i n , i n t a c t , i n c o r r u p t i b l e ; enjoue, i n o f f e n s i f ; f r a i s e t amer comme une doux e t i n n o c e n t comme pomme v e r t e , dur e t s o l i d e l'agneau n a i s s a n t . (p. comme une ro c h e . (p. 9) 24) Chateaugue w i l l r e p r e s e n t , above a l l e l s e , the p u r i t y the n a r r a t o r f e e l s he once p o s s e s s e d and has l o s t ; as a c r i t i c has put i t : " M i l l e M i l l e s c o n s i d e r e l a p u r e t e de Chateaugue comme une q u a l i t e o n t o l o g i q u e . " Monique G e n u i s t puts h er f i n g e r on the g r e a t prominence o f c o u r t l y themes i n the p o r t r a y a l o f Chateaugue. F o l l o w i n g Denis de Rougemont's a n a l y s i s o f the t r a d i t i o n o f c o u r t l y l o v e i n L'Amour e t 1'Occident, one might see the poet as e s s e n t i a l l y r i v e n i n t o t h r e e e n t i t i e s : a body and a s o u l , but a l s o a pure s p i r i t which has remained i n heaven, w i t h which he longs to be u n i t e d : " I I e s t important de mentionner i c i l a v e n e r a t i o n manicheenne s ' a d r e s s a n t a l a "forme de l u m i e r e " q u i dans chaque homme r e p r e s e n t e son p r o p r e e s p r i t (demeure au C i e l , hors de l a m a n i f e s t a t i o n ) e t q u i a c c u e i l l e l'hommage de son ame par un s a l u t et un b a i s e r . " ^ I t i s t h i s s p i r i t which the woman as l o v e d o b j e c t may r e p r e -sent, and w i t h which the l o v e r may d e s i r e to be u n i t e d i n t h i s l i f e . De Rougemont i d e n t i f i e d the Manichean h e r e s y as important i n the c o u r t l y t r a d i t i o n ; i t c l a i m s t h a t the w o r l d i s the work o f the d e v i l , not o f God. T h i s t h e s i s i s com p a t i b l e w i t h M i l l e M i l l e s ' complete pessimism 88 about a d u l t l i f e i n Le Nez q u i voque. S i n c e the m a t e r i a l w o r l d i s the work o f Satan, c h a s t i t y i s r e c -ommended and a l l s e x u a l a c t i v i t y condemnable. The i n c a r n a t e M i l l e M i l l e s must t r a n s c e n d h i s s e x u a l n a t u r e to reproduce as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e the a s e x u a l i t y o f the S p i r i t . C l e a r l y , he w i l l have a problem i n r e d u c i n g Chateaugue to the S p i r i t i f he p r e s e n t s h er a l s o as i n c a r n a t e . P h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s by d e f i n i t i o n e v i l . M i l l e M i l l e s r e h e a r s e s an e s c h a t o l o g y as p e s s i m i s t i c as the Manichean e x p l a n a t i o n o f c r e a t i o n : D i e u ne s a u r a i t e t r e l ' a u t e u r du Je l e comprends comme j e l e monde, de ses ten e b r e s e t du peche v o i s : i l s ont j e t e des hommes q u i nous e n s e r r e . Sa c r e a t i o n dans un d e s e r t avec l a femme premiere dans l ' o r d r e s p i r i t u e l , pour s e u l combat e t s e u l r e p o s , p u i s animique, a e t e achevee dans avec l a femme pour s e u l e honte l ' o r d r e m a t e r i e l p a r l'Ange r e v o l - e t s e u l e g l o i r e . I l s ont l a i s s e t e . . . Pour mieux s e d u i r e l e s Ames, des e s p r i t s , des anges, des L u c i f e r l e u r a montre "une femme ames, des d i e u x , gemir dans un d'une beaute e c l a t a n t e , q u i l e s d e s e r t avec r i e n que des fem-a enflammees de d e s i r " . P u i s i l mes! C r o i s s e z e t m u l t i p l i e z -a q u i t t e l e c i e l avec e l l e pour vous! Lacher l a femme, l a descendre dans l a m a t i e r e e t t i e d e u r , l a v e u l e r i e , l a b e t i s e , dans l a m a n i f e s t a t i o n s e n s i b l e . parmi des hommes s e u l s dans un Les Ames-Anges, ayant s u i v i d e s e r t . (p. 141) Satan e t l a femme d'une beaute e c l a t a n t e , ont e t e p r i s e s dans des corps m a t e r i e l s , q u i l e u r e t a i e n t e t demeurent e t r a n g e r s . . . L 1ame, des l o r s , se t r o u v e separee de son e s p r i t q u i r e s t e au C i e l . ^ The e v i l i n s e x u a l i t y i s t h a t o f the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n as i t i n h e r e s i n the body. F o r M i l l e M i l l e s , s e x u a l i t y i s un c l e a n ; s e x u a l l o v e i s c o p r o p h i l i a . J u s t as Chateaugue stands i n f o r h i s S p i r i t , woman's body stands f o r s e x u a l i t y , the most u n c l e a n , the p r o c r e a t i v e f o r c e o f M i l l e M i l l e s . The p r e s e n t a t i o n of Chateaugue as s p i r i t must deny i n some s i g n i f i c a n t way t h a t she has a woman's body. In Le Nez q u i voque the myth o f woman as " b e i n g o f l i g h t " i s r e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d as the F r e u d i a n 89 myth o f the p h a l l i c woman. The P h a l l i c Woman Chateaugue ne se prend pas pour une femme et ne veut pas e t r e p r i s e pour une femme. (p. 46) La beaute de Chateaugue n'a r i e n de f e m i n i n . (p. 176) M i l l e M i l l e s does indeed have an o c c a s i o n a l tendency t o r e f e r to Chateau-gue i n the m a s c u l i n e , as i n "Chateaugue e s t i c i , a s s i s s u r l e l i t ( a s s i s rime avec i c i , mais p o i n t a s s i s e . . . ) " (p. 21). Indeed, he p o r t r a y s h e r as n ot q u i t e a woman and perhaps a her m a p h r o d i t e , i f one i s s e n s i t i v e , i n the F r e u d i a n t r a d i t i o n , to h i s i n t e r e s t i n any p a r t o f h e r body which might be imagined to s u b s t i t u t e f o r the p h a l l u s as a f e t i s h : The c h i l d b e l i e v e s t h a t i t La n u i t e l l e met l e s p i e d s s u r i s o n l y unworthy female moi. (p. 40) persons t h a t have l o s t t h e i r g e n i t a l s . . . Women whom he Chateaugue q u i a t o u j o u r s l e s r e s p e c t s . . . r e t a i n a p e n i s jambes f r o i d e s e t l e s p i e d s f o r a l o n g time.9 sees b i e n q u ' i l f a s s e chaud e t humide. (p. 44) Chateaugue's body i s a s p i r i t - b o d y , complete unto i t s e l f , u n a f f e c t e d by e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s . On the c o n t r a r y , woman's body i s a fragmentary c r e a t i o n wrought by the d e v i l and t h e r e f o r e i m p e r f e c t , as a male form w i t h o u t the p h a l l u s . Yet i t appears t h a t i n a Manichean w o r l d the male form too i s m u t i l a t e d , c a s t r a t e d i n a sense. S e x u a l potency, which shows d e s i r e f o r something beyond the g i v e n , becomes a measure o f one's i n c o m p l e t e -n e s s . F o r the i n c a r n a t e man the r e a l e q u i v a l e n t o f power i s not the p h a l l u s as h i s a c t u a l p e n i s , i t i s the s p i r i t . Thus i n h i s a d u l t p h y s i c a l form M i l l e M i l l e s e x p e r i e n c e s h i s body as d i s t o r t e d : Mes genoux se d r e s s e n t a l a f a c e de mes jambes, comme des 9 0 montagnes rocheuses a l a surface d'une l i e . J ' a i les genoux affreux parce que je me suis mis a genoux trop souvent... Chateaugue a de beaux genoux, on ne s'aper-c o i t qu'elle en a que l o r s q u ' e l l e se p l i e les jambes. (p. 62) His knobbly knees protrude i n a manner suggestive of the male sexual function, whereas the young g i r l conforms to the c l a s s i c a l aesthetic of the i n d i v i d u a l as a complete and separate e n t i t y independent of i t s context. Be i t the young man's body, the p o l i t i c a l boundaries of Quebec or the t i t l e of the book, Le Nez qui voque communicates an anxiety about the grotesque, incongruous, incomplete, mutilated, and even castrated: "l'homme est incomplet, est une creature a la q u e l l e i l manque de tout, est un p a r a s i t e " (p. 41). Physical manifestation i s a misfortune corresponding to the Manichean separation of man and s p i r i t and to the Freudian obsession with c a s t r a t i o n : It has been quite c o r r e c t l y pointed out that a c h i l d gets the idea of a n a r c i s s i s t i c i n j u r y through a bodily loss from the experience of l o s i n g h i s mother's breast... from the surrender of... faeces and, indeed, even from his sep-aration from the womb at b i r t h . Nevertheless one ought not to speak of a c a s t r a t i o n complex u n t i l this idea of loss has become connected with the male g e n i t a l s . ^ For M i l l e M i l l e s , the ultimate and r a d i c a l s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem l i e s beyond cha s t i t y i n s u i c i d e . Pure Intentions Whereas the man i s a composite creature, the S p i r i t i s one. Beyond the p u r i t y of the body, M i l l e M i l l e s cannot recuperate unity of purpose while fragmented between forces of good and e v i l , e v i l being f i r s t l y sexual desire. This struggle provokes opposing desires even i n r e l a t i o n to Chateaugue: "Des f o i s i l m'arrive de ne v o i r en e l l e 91 qu'une ame, qu'une facon d'etre. D'autres f o i s , l e de s i r chasse tout mon sang a ma te t e " (p. 56). This o s c i l l a t i o n i n feelings spreads out from the sexual f i x a t i o n and colours a l l his thinking so that he cannot commit himself to an opinion or course of action. He loses his appetite and nothing s a t i s f i e s him. M i l l e M i l l e s f a l l s into a state of par a l y s i s from which the only salvation would be death, but i n death he lacks the compelling f a i t h of the hero of romance: Dans d'amers deboires d'amour, Je ne veux plus r i e n . On ne angoisses, lourdes peines et tour- peut pas v o u l o i r 1'impossible. ments, ce q u ' i l s font pour s'y On peut esperer en 1'impossible soustraire, s'en a f f r a n c h i r et s'en a condition d'etre imbecile, venger les a s s e r v i t d'un l i e n plus Je n'ai envie de r i e n de ce qui i n e x t r i c a b l e encore.... Celui qui est, de r i e n de ce qui peut etre. tend tous ses desirs vers un bon- (p. 59) heur ina c c e s s i b l e , c e l u i - l a met sa volonte en guerre avec son des i r . H Suffering refines his ennui but reveals nothing; even i n h i s secret purpose he i s hamstrung between l i f e and death: "'Boredom' ... at least i n neurotic exaggeration i s a state of excitement i n which the aim i s repressed; anything the person can think of doing i s not adequate to the 12 release of inner tension." On the contrary, M i l l e M i l l e s sees Chateaugue as incapable of e v i l , and demonstrating exceptional i n s t i n c t u a l energy which, i r o n i c a l l y , lends an e r o t i c colouring to her behaviour. As he writes, broods, f a l l s into insomnia, she i s sleeping l i k e a log: "Chateaugue qui dort, l a bouche ouverte, comme un bebe, immuable, repue, invulnerable, se rechar-geant de faim..." (p. 37). In a l l a c t i v i t y she plays, manifesting a form of being without intent to modify r e a l i t y or obtain anything: she stomps on the mattress (p. I l l ) , hides under the bed (p. 129), shouts 92 "eeeee" u n t i l hoarse (p. 194). Indeed, her access to discourse i s not from necessity: " e l l e ne parle que pour r i e n d i r e quand e l l e p a r l e " (p. 6 7 ) . For the narrator, on the other hand, w r i t i n g as a form of discourse i s a necessity which reveals his impure nature: fused to the mythical presentation of the i d e a l ; the reader i s unequiv-o c a l l y warned of th i s connection. Chateaugue 1s r e a l name i s not Chateau-gue; she i s M i l l e M i l l e s 1 s i s t e r but not his r e a l s i s t e r ; she may or may not be an Inuit (read: o r i g i n a l man); i n short, she seems rather than i s (pp. 31, 44): "Chateaugue... a eu l ' a i r de comprendre, a paru aggressivement d'accord. Son enthousiasme, f e i n t ou authentique, e t a i t quelque chose a v o i r " (pp. 22-23). Though Chateaugue does not become as r e a l i s t i c i n the conventional way as the narrator, i n the second hal f of the text the mythical image recedes, leaving Chateaugue i n frag-m e n t s — i n Questa, her child r e n , and even a mannekin wearing a wedding dress. The one-dimensional p u r i t y of the other i s shattered. A Psychology of Chateaugue Even though the narrator has a v i s i o n of Chateaugue as the id e a l or s p i r i t she also remains a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , "Chateaugue," whom the reader t r i e s to know just as the narrator often chooses not to know her: "Je ne sais pas ce qu'elle pense, a quoi e l l e pense, ce qu'elle II faut l a l a i s s e r etre. II faut l a regarder en gar-dant l'anonymat. (p. 5 6 ) Tout ce qui est s a t i s f a i t et p a r f a i t se t a i t . (p. 42) Sur son pied e s t a l l a femme trone, b e l l e , pure et s i l e n -cieuse, tandis que l'homme a ses pieds s 1analyse. La science de l'homme progresse, l a femme reste muree dans le silence de l a p i e r r e . ^ ^ In the f i r s t h a l f of Le Nez qui voque the female character i s 93 pense de moi et de toute cette mise en scene..." (p. 67). Chateaugue seems not to know who she i s and expresses d i s t r e s s i n perceiving her-s e l f other than as defined by him: "Tu as les yeux fermes, tu es p a r t i . II n'y a plus de Tate. II n'y a plus de Chateaugue. II n'y a plus que moi" (p. 112). Thus one sees her as dependent on him for an i d e n t i t y . The narrator devotes a spe c i a l chapter to reminiscing about hi s c h i l d -hood with Chateaugue, and makes i t clear that he has always taken the place of family for her: "Ses parents adoptifs ne s'occupaient pas d ' e l l e . Moi, je m'en occupais. Personne ne v o u l a i t d ' e l l e . Personne n'a jamais voulu d ' e l l e " (p. 139). Most important, perhaps, i s the casual way i n which he indicates the excessiveness of her dependency on him. Her need of his approval i s suggestive of the r e l a t i o n between a schizoid c h i l d and i t s mother: "A 1'age ou on est i n d o c i l e , Chateaugue obeiss a i t a tous mes ordres. A 1 1 age ou on ne se soucie de personne, e l l e me poursuivait, e l l e s 1 e t a i t attachee a mes pas" (p. 138). Rather than growing up with free w i l l and a sense of s e l f , she exists i n fantasy as part of an encompassing being, together with M i l l e M i l l e s . She says they are "Tate," an e n t i t y apparently l i k e that of mother and infant together: "Prends-moi dans tes bras comme s i tu et a i s ma maman, comme s i j ' e t a i s ta p e t i t e f i l l e . . . . Mouche-moi. Je ne suis qu'un p e t i t enfant. Quand tu ne prends pas soin de moi, j ' a i peur" (pp. 114, 108). She wants his permission to express negative emotions and his protection from t h e i r possible negative consequences: Je n'ai jamais hax personne. J ' a i toujours eu peur de hai r . J ' a i aime tous ceux que j ' a i connus. (p. 137) E l l e s a i t que le mechant, le t r a i t r e et le v i i l a guet-tent, se jetteront sur e l l e et 1'empoisoneront, attendent qu'elle s o i t seule. (p. 130) 94 According to the Freudian d i a l e c t i c , aggression which does not turn outward w i l l turn inward, thus motivating such an observation by her as " J ' a i toujours eu envie de mourir" (p. 1 3 7 ) . ^ A f i r s t psychological sketch of Chateaugue suggests a gloomy prospect. While for M i l l e M i l l e s she represents the ide a l of the s e l f -contained i n d i v i d u a l , we see her also as devoid of selfhood and unable to perceive M i l l e M i l l e s as an equal. As he says i n a moment of d i s -illusionment: "Debarque-moi de sur le dos..." (p. 131). On the other hand, another aspect of the character, which may at f i r s t seem merely p l a y f u l , sheds a less personal l i g h t on her id i o s y n c r a s i e s . Chateaugue i s also an Inuit, portrayed as a noble savage. The self-sense of the t r a d i t i o n a l Inuit bears l i t t l e resemblance to that described by Freud and which M i l l e M i l l e s turns t h i s way and that. In the t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e i t was important to have a s p e c i a l person to sleep with, without the r e l a t i o n s n e c e s s a r i l y being sexual (p. 112). The Inuit language possesses dual person morphemes, a s p e c i a l word form for two things together, just as "Tate" designates M i l l e M i l l e s and Chateaugue. Most important, shyness about showing negative feelings i s not pathological i n a society whose language, according to one i n t e r p r e t e r , had no word for "hate." The In u i t s ' amazement at the apparently demonic aggressivi of whites has become a c l i c h e . ^ To sum up, Chateaugue's asthenia i s related to chronic a c c u l t u r a t i o n , whether that of an Inuit or that of a t r a d i t i o n a l French Canadian. Other Side of the Coin As a very private character or as a type of the displaced person, 95 Chateaugue i s dissociated from the univocal angelic image. The d i s -crepancy becomes most e x p l i c i t when the narrator emphasizes as intolerab shortcomings the former v i r t u e s with which he has adorned her. Where the e a r l i e r Chateaugue was l o y a l , spontaneous and af f e c t i o n a t e , the l a t e r Chateaugue i s portrayed as s i l l y , stubborn and cloying. For example, her innocent obsessiveness when under the influence of alcohol i s chaplinesque i n an early episode: Quand e l l e a bu, l a f o l i e de laver l a prend.... Tout a 1'heure, juchee sur l a commode, son torchon a l a main, e l l e l a v a i t l e plafond. Tout a coup e l l e est tombee et l a commode est tombee sur e l l e . Cela ne l ' a pas decou-ragee. E l l e s'est relevee, a releve l a commode, a ramasse son torchon, e l l e est remontee sur l a commode, et comme s i de ri e n n ' e t a i t , sans changer d'air sans que son a i r absorbe change, e l l e a continue a torcher le plafond. (p. 61) The narrator's s t y l e suggests the great concentration of energy she brings to mundane a c t i v i t y . Repetitions, gradations and rhymes abound; for example: "Chateaugue... calmee... t r a n q u i l l i s e e , en a eu assez, recouchee" (p. I l l ) and "Chateaugue... epouvantee... epouvantee... tremblant d'epouvante" (p. 179). On the other hand, when she returns f i f t y miles on foot to Montreal to be with him, she becomes tedious, pathological or maddening. Her f a i l u r e to exercise her i n t e l l i g e n c e makes her as vulnerable as the narrator's pet dogs, the l a s t of which made a f a t a l habit of s i t t i n g i n the middle of the road. Seeing her hand on the f l o o r next to his foot the narrator remarks: "Je pensais a une main comme l a sienne que quelqu'un de confiant comme e l l e avait pose devant l a roue d'un t r a i n l a v e i l l e de p a r t i r " (p. 173). As his d i s i l l u s i o n progresses, Chateaugue feels more insecure, d i f f i d e n t and needy. According to the narrator her self-effacement 96 provokes a s a d i s t i c s t r e a k i n cranks l i k e the shopkeeper (p. 210) and the man w i t h s e n s i t i v e e a r s (p. 226). A l t h o u g h one cannot d i s t i n g u i s h p e r f e c t l y between changes i n Chateaugue and changes i n the n a r r a t o r ' s p o i n t o f view, she does r e a c t to M i l l e M i l l e s ' n e g l e c t w i t h m a s o c h i s t i c complacency and some anger: "Je c r o i s que j e commence a te h a i r . On ne s a i t pas ce qu'on r i s q u e a pren d r e l ' a i r avec un sans-coeur comme t o i " (pp. 242-243). The n a r r a t o r ' s need to withdraw from h i s l i f e w i t h Chateaugue h i n g e s on h i s awareness o f how v u l n e r a b l e she i s . The sp i r i t - a s - w o m a n , the form o f l i g h t , would be impervious t o h i s m o r t a l and e r r a n t b e h a v i o u r . Chateaugue, on the c o n t r a r y , s o l i c i t s h i s p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t what i s v i l e and t r a i t o r o u s i n the w o r l d and i n h e r s e l f . But her f e a r s are M i l l e M i l l e s ' own. Her d e s i r e t h a t he p r o t e c t h er compounds h i s f e a r s , and, t h i n k i n g o f h e r , he f e e l s h i m s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y v i l e . T h i s v i l e n e s s reminds him o f h i s o t h e r , s e x u a l v i l e n e s s — s e x u a l i t y b e i n g v i l e by d e f i n i t i o n and i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from a g g r e s s i o n . In o r d e r to spare h i m s e l f the n e c e s s i t y o f s u i c i d e or a c t i o n he withdraws, from h i s i d e a l because he has no one to whom to a t t a c h i t , and from Chateaugue because she needs him. The a g g r e s s i o n w a i t i n g t o escape from i n s i d e him, and i n p a r t i c u l a r h i s resentment a t Chateaugue f o r c a l l i n g h i s b l u f f , are much i n e v i d e n c e when he a f f i r m s h e r d i f f i d e n c e to be a m a s o c h i s t i c p r o v o c a t i o n , when he imagines stomping on her hand. The Wedding-Dress Mannekin At the p o i n t where Chateaugue i s no l o n g e r o n l y the t r u e s p i r i t f o r M i l l e M i l l e s , o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s appear i n the s t o r y . The o t h e r s are 97 also female, but do not capture the reader's emotional in t e r e s t as Chateaugue does. Chateaugue's presentation i s fragmentary, but other characters are thematic fragments of her. The theme of the u n r e a l i t y of the other grows e x p l i c i t i n the episode of the store-window mannekin, which precedes M i l l e M i l l e s ' discovery by Questa, Chateaugue's alleged successor i n his a f f e c t i o n s . A r e l a t i v e high point of adventure i n Le Nez qui voque, the manne-kin incident i n v i t e s scrutiny. Confirming the motif of death as trans-f i g u r a t i o n , M i l l e M i l l e s o f f e r s Chateaugue a new dress which she i s to wear at th e i r death. However, her choice of dress dismays him: "Les mains collees comme des ventouses, le visage tout ecrase contre l a c l o i s o n de verre, e l l e eprouvait des bonheurs epouvantables, des envies effrayantes" (p. 89). In this case her enthusiasm i s alarming to M i l l e M i l l e s because of i t s object: a wedding dress. She wants to wear a wedding dress to her own suicide. He responds with the c o l l o q u i a l accusation: "Tu es completement f o l l e . C'est une robe de mariage" (p. 90, my underlining). As the pages follow he feels more and more out of harmony with Chateaugue. He senses a r i f t i n d i c a t i n g two d i f f i c u l t i e s with her choice. F i r s t , she equates death with sexual union, which hi s death i s to repudiate. Second, she can wear the dress only i n sp e c i a l circumstances and so her choice i s impractical. By im p l i c a t i o n , his commitment to suicide i s less than t o t a l . She commits h e r s e l f e n t i r e l y in play while he maintains an unspoken reservation. For him play exists in contrast to s o c i a l l y committed behaviour; but for her l i f e i s play. The rules of her game are personal, yet because the consequences she must take are r e a l , the dress she chooses i s that of an adult. He 98 a c c e p t s her c h o i c e as v a l i d , however, as i s acknowledged even i n the d e c i s i o n t o s t e a l r a t h e r than purchase i t : i t i s removed from the c i r c u i t o f exchange and r e l a t i v i t y . However, as the n a r r a t o r r e c o u n t s the t h e f t , i t s o b j e c t changes: "Nous n'emporterons pas que l a robe; nous emporterons l e mannequin a u s s i . Nous ne sommes pas pour nous m e t t r e a l a d e s h a b i l l e r sous l e s yeux des r a r e s a u t o m o b i l e s e t des d e r n i e r s p a s s a n t s " (p. 9 7 ) . T h i s u n o b t r u s i v e r a t i o n a l remark s h i f t s the f o c u s from d r e s s t o mannekin, from Chateaugue now to the f u t u r e . In o r d e r to s t e a l the d r e s s the two must pass through a basement s k y l i g h t i n the p i t c h dark. A p p r o a c h i n g the b u i l d i n g the n a r r a t o r i s engrossed i n a f a n t a s y o f d e s c e n t : Les e d i f i c e s n o i r s q u i se d r e s s e n t des bords de l a r u e l l e s ' e l e v e n t j u s q u ' a l a s u r f a c e du firmament de l a n u i t ; nous sommes comme au fond d'un abime au fond de ces c o n s t r u c t i o n s q u i se d r e s s e n t p r e s q u e c o t e a c o t e , e t q u i b a i g n e n t dans l e l i q u i d e n o i r e t v o l a t i l de l a n u i t . (p. 96) The n a r r a t i v e becomes m y t h i c a l ; t h a t o f a hero d e s c e n d i n g to the e a r t h ' s c o r e , doubled by the F r e u d i a n myth o f c h i l d r e n g i v i n g b i r t h t o t h e i r mother. M i l l e M i l l e s has to throw h i m s e l f through a s o r t o f v a g i n a  d e n t a t a and f i g h t h i s way up to the window: "Je m'engage, l e s p i e d s l e s p r e m i e r s , dans l a gueule armee de dents de v i t r e e t j e s a u t e . . . . Un c r o c de v i t r e e s t r e s t e p r i s au t r a v e r s de ma joue; j e l ' e x t r a i s d'un coup s e c " (p. 9 6 ) . H i s entanglement w i t h the F r e u d i a n myth suggests a d i s t o r t i o n of the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t ; a f t e r the t h e f t Chateaugue i s d i s p l a c e d by the s t i l l - b o r n mother, who i s t h e i r c h i l d a l s o : . . . i l s l e deposent s u r l a banquette a r r i e r e du t a x i avec s o i n , comme s i c ' e t a i t un bebe. (p. 98) 99 La p r e s e n c e de l a mariee dans n o t r e chambre e s t comme un s o l e i l . E l l e e s t t e l l e m e n t i n s o l i t e q u ' e l l e f o r c e et f i x e l e r e g a r d . . . . Chateaugue d i t que c ' e s t dommage que ce ne s o i t pas une V i e r g e M a r i e . (pp- 101-102) A l t h o u g h b e a u t i f u l and a s t o n i s h i n g , she i n d i c a t e s t h e i r f a i l u r e to a c t , the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f the s t a t u s quo, and the d i s t a n c e between them. Questa As l o n g as Chateaugue does not take the d r e s s f o r her own s e l f , the mannekin overshadows h e r , as e v i d e n c e d by the s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y Questa e x e r c i s e s over both M i l l e M i l l e s and Chateaugue. She m a t e r i a l i z e s from the r i f t between the two, l i k e a coming t o l i f e o f the wedding-d r e s s mannekin. As the r i f t f i l l s w i t h o t h e r s i t becomes i m p o s s i b l e to mend: "II f a u d r a i t f a i r e coucher l a mariee avec nous. Mais sa robe se f r i p p e r a i t . E l l e se l e v e r a i t avec l a robe en ac c o r d e o n . . . . (p. 112) Nous avons o u b l i e Questa.... --Nous couchons avec e l l e . --I1 va f a l l o i r que j e l a d e s h a b i l l e . Sa robe se f r i p p e r a i t " (p. 219). M i l l e M i l l e s a t t r i b u t e s h i s adventure w i t h Questa to Chateaugue's f a i l u r e , b e g i n n i n g h i s e n t r y "Tout a commence avec l a toux de Chateau-gue..." (p. 143). Her cough i s a s i g n o f the u l t i m a t e weakness which the n a r r a t o r cannot t o l e r a t e . On the o t h e r hand, " l ' a t o u t " i s her trump c a r d , the p o s s i b i l i t y which he e i t h e r cannot c o n c e i v e or w i l l seek elsewhere. Questa t e l l s M i l l e M i l l e s , " J e m ' a p p e l l e Questa, r i e n que pour t o i . . . Ca veut d i r e : C e t t e c h o s e - l a , c e t t e g r o s s e chose l a " (p. 146). She chooses the name, c o l l u d i n g i n the f a n t a s y o f the e v i l woman, u n c l e a n and c a s t r a t e d ; as she says a l s o : " J ' a i d i x ans de mariage, d i x ans de p r o s t i t u t i o n " (p. 149). An Eve f i g u r e , Questa i s M i l l e M i l l e s ' 100 " s p e c i a l type of object choice made by men": The person [man] i n question s h a l l never choose as his love-object a woman who i s disengaged.... A woman who is chaste... never exercises an a t t r a c t i o n that might elevate her to the status of a love-object.... The man is convinced that without him she would lose a l l moral control....16 The humorous aspect of this obsession comes out i n the narrator's de-scr i p t i o n s of the two women; Questa, the actual object, and Chateaugue whom, i n spite of her in t e r e s t i n the wedding dress, he w i l l l i m i t to the role of i d e a l object: "Questa vient se rasseoir sur mes genoux. Peu a peu, l a chair abondante et molle de ses fesses chauffe mes genoux.... Les fesses sont ce q u ' i l y a de plus maternel, chez l a femme, en p a r t i -c u l i e r lorsque qu'on l a v o i t de dos" (p. 164). He warns Chateaugue that she must not continue to l i v e , because she would develop enormous buttocks (p. 102). Chateaugue remains bound to the other pole of the f i x a t i o n : viewed from i n front, the breasts are the woman's most promi-nent maternal feature. Her breasts have for him a fa s c i n a t i o n suggestive of envy: " J ' a i tellement envie d'embrasser ses petit e s mamelles que les o r e i l l e s me bourdonnent" (p. 92). His d i s t i n c t i o n between e r o t i c i n t e r e s t and a f f e c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n s p i r e s the p a r t i a l s u b s t i t u t i o n of Questa for Chateaugue. The r e a l bride i s for him the mannekin, an a l i e n fantasy which, even battered by her t r i p out of the skyl i g h t , cannot be made r e a l . Chateaugue, for example, once touched by him sexually, could not e x i s t ; only Questa could e x i s t . S p a t i a l l y and temporally, front and back, i n youth and in middle age, he sees hi s female persona as s t i l l shots. As he i n s i s t s to Questa: "on ne devient pas ce que tu es; on l ' a toujours ete" (p. 153). 101 In his obsession, movement does not occur and time's passing i s r e f l e c t e d i n mirror images. Questa, as his protegee, blends into Chateaugue. With Chateaugue gone Questa sleeps i n the bed while M i l l e M i l l e s writes i n his journal. In her own s t y l e , each gets drunk, vomits and breathes on him (pp. 113, 161). He kisses Questa on the l i p s and Chateaugue merely on the knee, with the same e f f e c t ; his mouth feels as i f i t were f u l l of ether (pp. 193, 257). Questa substitutes for Chateaugue; his reference s l i p s from one to another i n a conversation with Questa (p. 192). But since Questa i s bad ("la fange" in opposition to Chateaugue " l e pur"), she i s i n exactly the same p o s i t i o n as M i l l e M i l l e s . The Object as Subject Questa h e r s e l f has a story which r e f l e c t s that of the narrator. A poetess i n the pejorative sense, Questa chatters and purges h e r s e l f of r e i f i e d language, reminding one of M i l l e M i l l e s ' caution: "Quand j ' a i quitte 1'ecole, j ' e t a i s p l e i n de noms comme on est p l e i n de scar-l a t i n e . J ' a i de l a misere de m'en remettre, a t e n i r debout sur mes pieds pas celebres" (pp. 104-105). Years, dates and numbers fascinate and confound her; ambivalent o s c i l l a t i o n plagues her discourse: "Le secret du bonheur des enfants, c'est leur chastete... Ca n'a aucun sens. Je renie tout ce que je viens de d i r e " (p. 181). In Questa M i l l e M i l l e s ' neurotic tendencies l i v e again. Her drunkard's condition i s the r e s u l t of motherhood: "Je ne suis ivrognesse que depuis que je connais mes petit e s f i l l e s fourmis" (p. 147). Though she worships t h e i r innocence, she experiences them as a v i r u s , weakening and destroying her as i t 102 reproduces i t s e l f . The chil d r e n , l i k e her own chatter, have become monstrous, a spider with many eyes which the youngest sees in her mother's throat (p. 150). A v i s i o n of degradation and g u i l t , Questa condemns her-s e l f to the reproductive function, merely reproducing obsolete discourse and the same c h i l d , or rather three copies of an archetypal c h i l d : Anne, Anne and Anne. Questa bespeaks the urgency of disposing of i l l u s i o n s ; but also, true to the myth of the " s p e c i a l object choice," she w i l l improve he r s e l f through her association with him: "Ma soeur Questa. Dieu doit etre gene d'entendre r i r e s i f o r t une femme... q u ' i l a f a i t v i e i l l i r " (p. 261); though l i k e Chateaugue 1s disgrace, Questa's improvement r e s u l t s also from changing point of view. Dialogue occurs between M i l l e M i l l e s and Questa, and her children are relegated to Chateaugue "muree dans le silence de l a p i e r r e . " The reproductive force, " l e ca" (Questa) attaches the chi l d r e n to her: " E l l e les merite et c'est e l l e q u ' i l leur faut" (p. 253). From t h i s nightmare l o g i c Chateaugue i s rescued by a deus ex machina: "Mardi s o i r , l e pere, un homme que Chateaugue a trouve grand, beau et p o l i , est venu reprendre les Anne" (p. 254). Chateaugue's Death The f i r s t h a l f of Le Nez qui vogue presents an i d e a l Chateaugue, and a psychological Chateaugue overshadowed by the narrator's u n r e l i -a b i l i t y . The text subsequently d i s t o r t s the i d e a l i s t v i s i o n while depicting a p a r a l l e l change in Chateaugue, who i s seen as and i s becoming, discouraged, tenacious, masochistic. She never does become r e a l l y ignoble and reproaches the narrator only when he abjures the suicide 103 p a c t (p. 1 9 0 ) , a f t e r he n e g l e c t s her once (p. 2 4 2 ) and a f t e r he does not l e t her i n t o h i s room (p. 2 6 2 ) . She does not bear a grudge f o r l o n g , but i s d r i f t i n g i n t o an independent, a d u l t e x i s t e n c e when w i t h no apparent f o r e w a r n i n g M i l l e M i l l e s f i n d s t h a t she has k i l l e d h e r s e l f . F o r h i s p a r t he has c o n t i n u e d to make assumptions about h e r , f o r example: " S i nous p a r l i o n s d'une fagon p e s s i m i s t e , ce n ' e s t pas parce que nous e t i o n s c o n v a i n c u s de ce que nous d i s i o n s . . . " (p. 8 9 ) . The wedding d r e s s which she wears s i g n a l s the i n t e n t o f her death as a r i t u a l o f t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n , i n the i d e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n s w i t h which the n a r r a t o r has been f l i r t i n g and which the t e x t p a r o d i e s : "Nous r e t o u r n o n s , purs e t . . . f o r t s , v e r s ce q u i nous i n s p i r e l ' h e r o i s m e v e r t i -gineux de 1 ' a f f r o n t e r " as A x e l s a i d ^ or M i l l e M i l l e s c o u l d have s a i d . M i l l e M i l l e s ' o p t i n g out o f the p a c t has provoked the most extreme d i s t r e s s i m a g i n a b l e i n Chateaugue: E l l e s ' e s t mise a g e s t i c u l e r , comme s i e l l e a v a i t e t e p r i s e de haut mal. E l l e s ' e s t mise a pousser des c r i s de mort en s ' a r r a c h a n t l e s cheveux a p l e i n e s p o i g n e e s . . . E l l e se p r e n a i t t e l l e m e n t au s e r i e u x q u ' e l l e e t a i t en t r a i n de se t u e r a f o r c e de c r i e r . (p. 1 9 0 ) The p o s s i b i l i t y of u n i o n i n death w i t h M i l l e M i l l e s has been d e s t r o y e d f o r her; but e q u a l l y the e r o t i c a u r a which hovers over h e r attachment to M i l l e M i l l e s w i l l not be r e a l i z e d . Not once does she d i s c u s s sex; not once does she d i s c u s s death. As the n a r r a t o r p o i n t s o ut: " E l l e a l ' a i r de t o u t comprendre, de prendre p a r t . P e u t - e t r e ne comprend-elle r i e n " (p. 6 7 ) . She has chosen a wedding d r e s s ; she i n t e r p r e t s the word " m o u r i r " as "mou r i r e " (p. 1 1 6 ) and remarks elsewhere t h a t s k i n i s "mou" (p. 9 0 ) . Embracing the n a r r a t o r she announced the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the moment, as one who, l i k e a k n i g h t o f romance, has acc o m p l i s h e d 104 the r i t e s of p u r i f i c a t i o n : Si nous ne mourons pas tout de s u i t e , i l va f a l l o i r r e p a r t i r a r i e n , marcher... dans les epines, marcher sur nos coeurs, jusqu'a ce que ca revienne, ca, ce silence eclatant, etre etourdie dans tes bras, avoir peur dans tes bras. (p. 116) On the contrary M i l l e M i l l e s himself i s not ready for any cosmic reunion. Death for him represents a t h e o r e t i c a l s o l u t i o n , a pose invoked to ward of f despair. To be ready for death i s to overcome his fear of l i f e , and the converse; but his actual dilemma i s impotence, fear of c a s t r a t i o n or e x i s t e n t i a l death. As Chateaugue's naivete i s beginning to sour, the narrator i s opening to challenges; but as Chateaugue i s seen not to have changed profoundly a f t e r a l l , so i t i s with M i l l e M i l l e s . He t e l l s her death through the g r i d of his fears, as a v i s i o n of blood and mutila-t i o n not d i s t i n c t from the minor accidents which b e f a l l her; and there-fore, although the book ends with Chateaugue's death, M i l l e M i l l e s ' story has no true beginning or end. In L'Avalee secondary characters adhere more c l o s e l y to the con-ventions of fantasy, as related to a schizoid narrator persona, than to conventions of interpersonal v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . In Le Nez the s i t u a t i o n i s more complex. The presentation of Chateaugue i s readable as a psycho-l o g i c a l image of the female other remaining within the " o r a l " perspective of non-individuation which informs L'Avalee. In Le Nez the female sub-jec t i s excluded from the discourse and her actions negate her independence from the narrator. Chateaugue i s also readable as the narrator's fantasy of a p h a l l i c woman disguised as a Rougemontian being of l i g h t . The ten-sion between these dimensions points up the narrator's avowed u n r e l i a b i l i t y , and f i n a l l y c a l l s into questions his cure for the following reason: i f 105 c u r e d the n a r r a t o r would not abandon Chateaugue and not p r e s e n t her d eath as an image of c a s t r a t i o n . The p o l y v a l e n t and fragmentary c o n t e x t i n which B e r e n i c e p r e s e n t s h e r s e l f r e i n f o r c e s an image o f p s y c h i c d i s -i n t e g r a t i o n i n which i n s i d e resembles o u t s i d e . The t w o - l a y e r e d c o n t e x t i n which M i l l e M i l l e s p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f evokes a n e u r o t i c but f u n c t i o n a l s u b j e c t i n whom f a n t a s y and r e a l i t y v i e f o r dominance. A l t h o u g h the l a t t e r g a i n s momentum i n the n a r r a t o r ' s d i s c o u r s e , the former r e t u r n s to c l o s e the r e c i t . Thus the p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g o f Ducharme's p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r suggested i s t h a t L 'Avalee r e p r e s e n t s the l i m i t i n g c a s e, s c h i z o p h r e n i a , and Le Nez, the o t h e r l i m i t i n g c a s e, f u n c t i o n a l n e u r o s i s . 106 NOTES This i s probably a quotation from Lemoyne d 1 I b e r v i l l e , "Relation de l'expedition et pr i s e du f o r t N i l s o n , " BN Clairambault 881: 170v. See Guy Fregault, I b e r v i l l e le conquerant (Montreal: Editions Pascal, 1944), p. 185: "Le commandant note le f a i t [mort de Chateaugue] en deux mots, dans l e plus pur sty l e m i l i t a i r e . " See also Encyclopedia  Canadiana, "York Factory" (Ottawa: G r o l i e r Society, 1965), X. 2 The Macmillan Book of Canadian Place Names (Toronto: Macmillan, 1978), p. 237. 3 Gerard Bessette et a l , H i s t o i r e de l a L i t t e r a t u r e canadienne- francaise (Montreal: C.E.C., 1968), p. 338, discuss the nouvelle about the Battle of Chateaugue i n A l a brunante (1874) by Faucher de Saint-Maurice. This b a t t l e i s important i n popular t r a d i t i o n as a compensation for the conquest when the Canadiens l o s t . 4 See Bessette et a l , p. 39: "... Garneau represente un s e u i l a p a r t i r duquel l a l i t t e r a t u r e canadienne-frangaise p r i t conscience d ' e l l e -meme et, partant, commenca a t i r e r de son ame profonde des themes de plus en plus en harmonie avec l a nature et l a c i v i l i s a t i o n des Canadiens." ~* Pierre Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire universel du XIXe s i e c l e (Paris: Larousse et Boyer, 1870), VII, p. 388: "Elphege or Alphege, a saint and martyr of the Catholic Church (954-1012 A.D.): "II fut t i r e de l a r e t r a i t e q u ' i l s ' e t a i t c h o i s i et ou i l se l i v r a i t , avec de nombreux d i s c i p l e s , a d'incroyables a u s t e r i t e s . " Brunehilde i s the daughter of Wotan i n the Nibelungen. Monique Genuist, " M i l l e M i l l e s et l a Femme dans Le Nez qui  vogue," A t l a n t i s , A Women's Studies Journal, 2, 2 (Spring 1977), p. 60. 7 Denis de Rougemont, L'Amour et 1'Occident (Paris: Union gene-ral e d'Editions, 1962, c 1930), p. 67. g de Rougemont, p. 65. 9 Sigmund Freud, "The I n f a n t i l e Genital Organization," Standard  E d i t i o n of the Complete Psychological Works (London: Hogarth Press, 1963), XIX, p. 144. Freud, "The I n f a n t i l e Genital Organization," p. 144, note 2. 107 ^ de Rougemont, p. 112. 12 Ludwig Eidelberg, Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis (Toronto: Collier-Macmillan, 1968), p. 57. 13 Genuist, p. 61. 14 Louis Eidelberg, "Suicide," Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis (New York: The Free Press, 1968), p. 421: "The impoverished ego iden-t i f i e s with an ambivalently loved i n t r o j e c t e d object, treats i t s e l f as this object and turns against i t s e l f a l l the h o s t i l e impulses o r i g i n a l l y directed against the in t r o j e c t e d object." Jean L. Briggs, Never i n Anger (Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press, 1970), pp. 162-163; Ken Harper, The Eskimo  Dialects of Cumberland Peninsula and North B a f f i n Island (Ottawa: National Museum of Canada, 1974), p. 5. 1 f\ Freud, "A Special Type of Object Choice Made by Men," SE, XI, p. 166. 1 7 V i l l i e r s de l ' I s l e Adam, Axel (1890) (Paris: G. Gres et C i e , n.d.), p. 264. PART I I : SUBJECT, TEXT AND PARODY The s c h i z o i d s u b j e c t c a r i c a t u r e s the C a r t e s i a n image o f s u b j e c t . Independence, s e l f - c o n t r o l , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s become f o r the s u b j e c t r e p r e s e n t e d i n the t e x t the a b s o l u t e g o a l s of a quest which may d e s t r o y the s c h i z o i d s e l f by r e d u c i n g i t to a s c h i z o p h r e n i c h y p o s t a s i s . The f o c u s on s c h i z o i d s e l f i n the t e x t s a t i r i z e s a m o n o l i t h i c , u n i t a r y concept of s e l f , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the former i s r e p r e s e n t e d as s u b j e c t of the d i s c o u r s e and r e c i t . B e r e n i c e ' s i n s e c u r i t y i s v a l o r i z e d , f o r example, i n r e l a t i o n to Z i o ' s s e l f - a s s u r a n c e . U n l i k e Le Nez q u i voque, L ' A v a l e e des a v a l e s does not r e p r e s e n t e x p l i c i t l y the e x i s t e n c e of the w r i t t e n t e x t . L ' A v a l e e i s n a t u r a l i z e d n e i t h e r as B e r e n i c e ' s j o u r n a l nor as s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s d i s c o u r s e . C o n s i d e r i n g i t as the l a t t e r might provoke the r e a d e r to r e c e i v e the t e x t as a parody of s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The t e x t does not r e v e a l a " t r u e " s e l f o f the s c h i z o i d whose d i s c o u r s e c o n s i s t s of g r a m m a t i c a l l y c o r r e c t sentences and b ears the r h e t o r i c a l t r a p p i n g s of a r t i f i c e . The image of the s c h i z o i d s e l f may be p e r c e i v e d a t t h i s p o i n t as a r e s u l t o f the t e x t , not i t s o r i g i n , and as an a l l u s i o n t o the f i c t i o n a l , con-s t r u c t e d s t a t u s of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l c h a r a c t e r i n g e n e r a l . L 'Avalee p a r o d i e s the image of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r c o n s i d e r e d as n a t u r a l r a t h e r than c u l t u r a l . I t p a r o d i e s the t e x t s o f modern p s y c h o l o g y l i k e F reud and L a i n g , d e n y i n g a b s o l u t e n e s s to t h e i r e x p o s i t o r y as opposed to f i c t i o n a l s t a t u s . U n l i k e the obvious r i d i c u l e o f the C a r t e s i a n s u b j e c t i n L ' A v a l e e , t h i s parody r e l a t i v i z e s but does not d i s m i s s the psycho-l o g i c a l . L i n d a Hutcheon's a n a l y s i s of modern l i t e r a r y parody seems 108 109 t o a p p l y e x a c t l y to L ' A v a l e e : " t h e r e i s c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e but l i t t l e r i d i c u l e o f the t e x t s backgrounded."''" She r e p e a t e d l y employs the term " i n c o r p o r a t i o n " t o d e s c r i b e what the p a r o d i c t e x t does t o i t s p a r o d i e d i n t e r t e x t , but s t r e s s i n g the i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a means t o a c h i e v i n g 2 d i s t a n c e and s e p a r a t i o n . In o t h e r words, the p a r o d i c t e x t i s d e s c r i b e d as p e r f o r m i n g some o f the same manoeuvres as the s c h i z o i d s u b j e c t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s i d e n t i t y . The d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s w i l l examine the d i s c o u r s e o f L'Avalee as parody o f an i n t e r t e x t ( Chapter V ) , and r e t u r n t o focus on the s u b j e c t i n p a r t i c u l a r as a p a r o d i c image (Chapter V I ) . CHAPTER V: PARODY OF WRITING AND WRITING OF PARODY What Parody Does to the S u b j e c t In t h i s s e c t i o n we w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e an a s p e c t which i s more r a d i -c a l i n L'Avalee des a v a l e s than i n Le Nez q u i voque, an a s p e c t which makes the former more d i f f i c u l t t o read as a n o v e l . In Le Nez q u i voque one may c l i n g t o the n a r r a t o r as t o a buoy i n the ocean, or perhaps the f l o a t i n g o b j e c t evoked i n the t i t l e . A n a l y s i s o f the p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g may be e x p l o r e d w i t h i n the f i c t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r ' s w r i t i n g i n h i s j o u r n a l . In L ' A v a l e e des a v a l e s the s u b j e c t and t e x t do not d e f i n e t h e i r mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p . The parody o f w r i t i n g does not p r e s e n t i t s e l f w i t h i n the f i c t i o n o f a n a r r a t o r ' s j o u r n a l , as i n Le Nez q u i voque. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b j e c t d r i f t s toward s c h i z o p h r e n i a w h i l e , on the m e t a f i c t i o n a l l e v e l o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h i s " c h a r a c t e r " may be read as 1 1 0 an anthropomorphic image of the t e x t . The t e n s i o n between p s y c h o l o g i c a l and m e t a f i c t i o n a l r e a d i n g s c o n s t i t u t e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i n c o n -g r u i t y r e a l i z e d by v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s as a g e n e r a l i z e d p a r o d i c e f f e c t . By parody, i n r e f e r e n c e to L'Avalee des a v a l e s , i s meant an o f t e n humorous c r i t i q u e o r r e l a t i v i z i n g o f the c o o r d i n a t e s o f the semantic u n i v e r s e . S p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s o f i n c o n g r u i t y may o r may not imply s a t i r e o f s o c i a l norms. In g e n e r a l , the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f nonsense which by d e f i n i t i o n d e p a r t s from the norms o f common sense, stands i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p of parody to the t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t o f the n o v e l . However, i n the m e t a f i c t i o n a l c o n t e x t where the r e a d e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e the t e x t as p l a y and nonsense as an important element o f p l a y , i t would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e to a t t r i b u t e t o the t e x t the i n t e n t to r i d i c u l e a n y t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see the t e x t as m e t a f i c t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t the same time. The p o s s i b l e bridge.between the two i s c l e a r l y d i s c e r n -i b l e i n L ' A v a l e e , where the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r p a r a l l e l s the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t e x t as r e c i t . The concept o f p a r o d i c w r i t i n g suggests a t e x t which o v e r t l y r e t a i n s a measure of i n c o h e r e n c e or "semantic i n c o n g r u i t y " : " L ' i n c o h e r e n c e semantique s ' e t a b l i t e n t r e un s i g n e et ce q u i se tro u v e a u t o u r de l u i : c ' e s t - a - d i r e e n t r e une 3 e x p r e s s i o n l i n g u i s t i q u e e t son c o n t e x t e . " 4 M i c h a e l R i f f a t e r r e d i s t i n g u i s h e s among t h r e e l e v e l s o f c o n t e x t . " C o n t e x t " i n one sense r e f e r s to the l i t e r a r y , h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n which the t e x t i s t r a n s m i t t e d and r e c e i v e d . A second or "macrocontext" w i t h i n the t e x t surrounds and c o n t r a s t s w i t h the s i g n or s i g n s b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d as a s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e . A t h i r d or I l l " m i c r o c o n t e x t " i n c l u d e s the unmarked or unremarkable elements i n c l u d e d i n the s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e . The r o l e of m i c r o c o n t e x t i s important i n the a l t e r e d c l i c h e s of L ' Avalee des a v a l e s ; f o r example, the e x p r e s s i o n " g e l e r a p i e r r e f e n d r e " t u r n s up as "en sante a p i e r r e f e n d r e " (pp. 123-124), an image which evokes a p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i f o f the t h r e a t e n e d e x p l o s i o n of the s c h i z o i d s u b j e c t . The image evokes the m e t a f i c t i o n a l e x c e s s e s of the t e x t which sabotage i t s own f i c t i o n , and more g e n e r a l l y , the dominance of p o l y v a l e n t meaning i n the t e x t . In L ' A v a l e e des a v a l e s i n c o n g r u i t y and anomaly o p e r a t e not o n l y i n t e r t e x t u a l l y , i n r e l a t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m , f o r example, but a l s o i n t r a t e x t u a l l y i n t h a t more r e a l i s t or l y r i c a l passages a l t e r n a t e w i t h more f a n t a s t i c a l o r g r o t e s q u e passages. As M a r c e l Chouinard says of the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n Ducharme's w r i t i n g , q u o t i n g Ducharme h i m s e l f : "Successivement, l ' e c r i t u r e de Ducharme 'marche b i e n d r o i t ' p u i s 'manque de tomber sur l e dos' . The macro-c o n t e x t s i n L ' Avalee are the l e s s p a r o d i e elements. They p r e v e n t parody from s a t u r a t i n g the t e x t , and p r e s e r v e the i n t r a t e x t u a l e f f e c t of d i f -f e r e n c e or d i v e r g e n c e . The t e x t p a r o d i e s i t s e l f , i n Hutcheon's sense of "parody," by i n c l u d i n g elements which impede or p r o b l e m a t i z e a s p e c t s of i t s f u n c t i o n i n g . We w i l l take a b r i e f l o o k a t t h r e e l e v e l s where semantic i n c o n g r u i t y m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f , each time f o c u s i n g m a i n l y on the r o l e o f i n c o n g r u i t y i n r e l a t i o n to the t e x t as a whole, r a t h e r than on i n t e r t e x t u a l a l l u s i o n s to o t h e r works. 112 D e b r i s o f R e c i t The r e f e r e n t i a l w o r l d o f L ' A v a l e e des a v a l e s undergoes p r o g r e s s i v e impoverishment, a g r e y i n g e f f e c t . The r e a d e r l o s e s touch w i t h the con-c r e t e persona of the c h i l d n a r r a t o r ; the secondary c h a r a c t e r s d i s a p p e a r and reappear i n t r i v i a l i z e d v e r s i o n s ; the t e x t i n c l u d e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s n a r r a t i o n and more p s e u d o - i n t r o s p e c t i o n . T h i s impoverishment can be n a t u r a l i z e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s c h i z o i d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The p a r t i c u l a r l y marked i n c o n g r u i t y of s p e c i f i c e p i s o d e s or d i a l o g u e s may r e i n f o r c e the g r e y i n g e f f e c t , or may h e i g h t e n both the pathos r e p r e s e n t e d i n the s t o r y and the p l a y f u l n e s s of the a n t i - r e a l i s t t e x t . The fragmented i m a g i n a r y w o r l d o f L'Avalee des a v a l e s i s f r a u g h t w i t h unsurmounted and u n r e c o g n i z e d s u f f e r i n g , as i n t h i s n a r r a t i v e o f B e r e n i c e e n c o u n t e r i n g E i n b e r g : Soudain, l e s yeux flamboyants de c r i s d ' E i n b e r g se f i x e n t s u r moi, ... i l avance v e r s moi, me tendant l e s b r a s . . . . i l degage une odeur f o r t e , f e t i d e . I I tombe a genoux.... I I se r e l e v e . I I f a i t un bond en avant. I I e s t t o u t p r e s de moi, b r a s grands o u v e r t s , r i a n t a p l e i n e bouche. I I va tomber sur moi. Je m'enleve. I I tombe avec f r a c a s e t dans un r o t f o r m i d a b l e , se decharge a mes p i e d s de tous ses v i s c e r e s . (p. 156) T h i s scene evokes the n a r r a t o r ' s shock as w e l l as E i n b e r g ' s degra-d a t i o n . The s t y l e conveys the t e n s i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the n a r r a t o r i n the s e r i e s o f simple sentences b e g i n n i n g w i t h " i l . " S u p e r l a t i v e s and h y p e r b o l e s a r e f r e q u e n t throughout L'Avalee des a v a l e s , and n o t a b l e i n t h i s passage i n the c h o i c e o f "se f i x e n t , " " f l a m b o y a n t s , " " f e t i d e , " "bras grands o u v e r t s , " "a p l e i n e bouche," "avec f r a c a s , " " r o t f o r m i -d a b l e , " "tous ses v i s c e r e s . " G r a d a t i o n s and r e p e t i t i o n s o f s i m i l a r i d e a s a r e a l s o t y p i c a l , as here i n "une odeur f o r t e , f e t i d e . " 7 The 113 s h i f t t o the immediate f u t u r e tense s i g n a l s the c l i m a c t i c moment: " i l va tomber sur moi." N i g h t m a r i s h urgency and f a s c i n a t i o n are conveyed by o m i t t i n g l o g i c a l t r a n s i t i o n between the p r e c e d i n g and the r e s u l t i n g a c t i o n : "Je m'enleve." B e r e n i c e ' s d i s c o u r s e p o s s e s s e s h y p e r b o l i c g norms and c o n s t i t u t e s a "nonce s t a n d a r d " o f p r e c i o u s n e s s , d i s p l a y i n g i n g e n i o u s n e s s which i s both b r i l l i a n t and c l o y i n g . N o n e t h e l e s s , the passage c o n c e r n i n g E i n b e r g evokes f e a r and d i s g u s t , u n e q u i v o c a l l y r a t h e r than p a r o d i c a l l y . Pathos i s evoked i n o t h e r scenes i n s p i t e o f the b l a t a n t i n c o n -g r u i t y o f d e t a i l s i n the n a r r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n . In a d i s c u s s i o n between the p a r e n t s , the s t y l e o f argument, w i t h each p a r t y e x a g g e r a t i n g h i s innocence and the o t h e r ' s p e r v e r s i t y — w i t h o u t r e g a r d to f a i r n e s s -connotes r e a l i s m ; on the o t h e r hand the f a c t s o f the case, which tax cred e n c e , render the scene humorous. C o u n t e r i n g the r e a d e r ' s t e m p t a t i o n to see the c h i l d n a r r a t o r as e x a g g e r a t i n g the f a c t s i s the absence o f e v a l u a t i v e commentary on her p a r t : [ E i n b e r g ] - Tu n 1 e t a i s pas s i dedaigneuse quand j e t ' a i t r o u v e e , a V a r s o v i e , dans l ' e g o u t . Tes f r e r e s , MM. l e s c o l o n e l s , c o l l a b o r a i e n t . Tes f r e r e s , MM. l e s P o l o n a i s , v e n a i e n t de t e v i o l e r . . . Je t ' a i donne du c h o c o l a t . Tu a v a l s s i fa i m que t u l ' a s mange dans ma main. [Chamomor] - J ' e t a i s f o l l e , M a u r i t i u s E i n b e r g ! Le d e s e s p o i r m'avait rendue f o l l e . J ' a v a i s t r e i z e ans.... Vous avez abuse d'une p e t i t e f i l l e de t r e i z e ans q u i , en p l u s , a v a i t perdu l a r a i s o n ! [ B e r e n i c e ] -Qa l e s r e p r e n d . I l s se repenchent s u r l e u r p asse, (pp. 77-78) It i s a h a r d w o r l d , i n which the c h a r a c t e r s do not r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r power to b r u t a l i z e the o t h e r i s minimal i n comparison w i t h the b r u t a l i t y 114 of the f a t e they endure. The b l a c k humour o f the p a r e n t s ' a l t e r c a t i o n i s r e p e a t e d i n the mother's adventure w i t h the whi t e octopuses (p. 228), and i n the baroque d i c t i o n a t t r i b u t e d to E i n b e r g : "Je t ' a i ordonne de monter v o i r t a mere. Mon o r d r e s e r a e x e c u t e , d u s s e - j e a v o i r r e c o u r s a un e s c a l i e r r o u l a n t , a un t r a n s p o r t e u r a e r i e n a m o n o r a i l ! " (p. 223). As a p o i n t o f c o n t r a s t t h i s d i c t i o n c a l l s to mind a passage i n Le Nez  q u i vogue, when the boss goes h y s t e r i c a l over Chateaugue 1 s b l a c k e n e d mouth: - S i demain t u me r e v i e n s avec un rouge a l e v r e s a u s s i v o y a nt, je te chasse. La ne f u r e n t pas ses e x a c t e s p a r o l e s . Je l ' a u r a i s t r o u v e d r o l e , s i c ' e t a i t c e l a g u ' i l a v a i t d i t . N'em-peche; c ' e s t c e l a g u ' i l v o u l a i t d i r e e t g u ' i l a u r a i t d i t s ' i l a v a i t eu l e sens de l'humour, t a n t s o i t peu. (NQV, p. 186) In Le Nez g u i vogue, M i l l e M i l l e s t e l l s h i s audience how to rea d him; B e r e n i c e d e c l i n e s . F a n t a s t i c a l elements r e i n f o r c e the n a r r a t i v e impoverishment when the i n c i d e n t s r e c o u n t e d a r e u n b e l i e v a b l e and the tone u n e m o t i o n a l . In c o n t r a s t to e a r l y c h a p t e r s where B e r e n i c e d e s c r i b e s h e r l i f e i n n a t u r e ( f o r example, Cha p t e r s 9 and 10), the w i t h h o l d i n g o f e v a l u a t i v e com-mentary, and the summary p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n c i d e n t s such as her jumping out o f the window (Chapter 57), or confinement i n a cupboard (Chapter 58), l e a v e the n a i v e r e a d e r w i t h a d e s i r e t o r e - e v a l u a t e h i s e a r l i e r r e s p o nse. The c o l o u r f u l w o r l d one saw beyond B e r e n i c e may now be a grey w o r l d ; B e r e n i c e , a c h i l d i n a r e f e r e n t i a l u n i v e r s e , has become a u n i v e r s e i n h e r s e l f , a microcosm which cannot be known u n t i l i t i s put i n r e l a t i o n t o something o u t s i d e , by the r e a d e r . The e n u n c i a t i n g sub-j e c t has become a t e x t , to be i n t e r p r e t e d by the r e a d e r . In the f i r s t 115 chapter of this discussion the c i r c u i t was defined as a mimesis of psychic d e t e r i o r a t i o n . When Zio shuts Berenice up in a cupboard, one interprets that the subject i s withdrawing as a defence, with r e s u l t i n g emotional impoverishment and repudiation of the conventional l i m i t s between shared and personal experience. This reading i s not i n v a l i d , but cannot account for the text as a whole. Berenice's least acceptable experiences, from the point of view of common sense, include the follow-ing two episodes: Zio se met a me sequestrer, a me murer pour des jours sans plus de pain et d'eau que de vent et de s o l e i l . La porte de ma chambre est barricadee comme contre une garnison entiere. Une seule issue! l a fenetre... Je saute! ... au l i e u de mourir, je m'affaisse dans un mon-t i c u l e de neige.... Je marche.... J'atteins l a fr o n t i e r e canadienne. La faute de meilleur pays que le mien, ... je decide de revenir sur mes pas. (pp- 197-98) I l s m'ont enfermee dans l'armoire de l a s a l l e de bains. J ' a i mai aux rein s , aux rei n s . Depuis deux semaines je suis p r i -sonniere de l'armoire de l a s a l l e de bains. On ne me d e l i v r e r a que lorsque j'eprouverai quelque repentir sincere au sujet de ma conduite. (p. 200) Some readers argue that the situa t i o n s depicted are not l i t e r a l l y im-possible; one may i d e n t i f y with the urge to lock Berenice i n a cupboard. In a text which poses extreme mimetic disharmony between the speaker and her d i c t i o n , some readers f i n d i t i d l e to i s o l a t e p a r t i c u l a r i n -stances of narrative incongruity. A reader who does not consistently hold the f i c t i o n of Berenice i n abeyance and who involves himself i n the r e c i t , i s confronted with the most marked narrative in c o n g r u i t i e s . Non-narrative Discourse A second area of most obvious incongruity i n L'Avalee des avales 116 i s Berenice's pseudo-introspective, pseudo-expository discourse. It has been suggested that, for the reader intent on the r e c i t , the r e f e r -e n t i a l world beyond Berenice collapses into Berenice to re-emerge as subjective and f a n t a s t i c a l . In the passages devoted to her thoughts and feelings a s i m i l a r discomfort i s evoked for a d i f f e r e n t reason. Her inner world i s impersonal; for example, the i l l u s i o n of spontaneity i s destroyed by the r h e t o r i c a l organization and presentation of i n t e r n a l analysis i n L'Avalee des avales. Berenice's i n t e r n a l analysis includes a parody of the r h e t o r i c of the seventeenth century as learned at school and reproduced anachro-n i s t i c a l l y and incongruously by the student, a s t y l e known as grandilo-9 quent. This r h e t o r i c displays r h e t o r i c as an end i n i t s e l f by means of intense r e p e t i t i o n and absurd ideas. In a passage concerning eyes (p. 102), seven sentences begin with "c'est par les yeux," one with "C'est avec les yeux," one with "C'est apres les yeux." The speaker exhumes the " d i s - j e " figure of h e s i t a t i o n , of feigning to q u a l i f y one's thought on the spot while i n fact assuring that the audience's attention remains riv e t e d to one's r h e t o r i c ^ : "C'est lorsque les yeux se sont ouverts que l a v e r i t e , que le mensonge, d i s - j e , a eclate, que l ' i l l u s i o n a envahi l'homme, que les pires h a l l u c i n a t i o n s se sont mises a g r o u i l l e r dans sa profonde montagne de tenebres...." (p. 1 0 2 ) . ^ When she manipulates abstract ideas, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the concept of l o g i c a l or natural necessity, one can imagine Berenice as something appearing to Descartes i n a nightmare. According to Peter France, philosophers and s c i e n t i s t s of the seventeenth century "mocked at the precocious a b i l i t y of children to juggle words before they had any ideas 117 to express and they exposed the d i s t o r t i o n of simple truth i n the name o 12 fluency and elegance." Berenice v i o l a t e s the syllogism, putting grandiloquence at the service of b l a t a n t l y specious reasoning: Les poissons vivent dans Je p r i s garde que, pour l a l'eau et en meurent. Les logique, ses syllogismes et etres humains vivent dans l a plupart de ses autres l ' a i r et en meurent. II inst r u c t i o n s servent plutot y a l'eau, l ' a i r et l a a expliquer a autrui les choses lumiere. L'eau et l ' a i r qu'on s a i t ou meme... a parler sont veneneux. La lumiere sans jugement de c e l l e s qu'on reste seule. (p. 250) ignore, qu'a les apprendre.^ Whereas Descartes claimed that errors i n reasoning resulted when w i l l -fulness outstripped understanding, Berenice claims that for psychologica reasons w i l l f u l n e s s must o u t s t r i p understanding: "Je donne a r b i t r a i r e -ment une autre forme a toute chose qui, par son manque de consistance ou son immensite, est impossible a s a i s i r . . . " (p. 153). Her arguments might be poetic commonplaces. In the story of water, l i g h t and a i r , quoted above, the natural order i s presented as cr u e l . In a poem one might read " l i g h t " as the poem i t s e l f which con-s t i t u t e s a l a s t i n g trace of the human. In the context above " l i g h t " i s associated with l o g i c , i n accordance with the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n which i s , by implication, presented as specious. Poetry, on the other hand, posits language as mediating a l l contradiction. In Rhetorique de l a poesie, i t i s suggested that the harmony created by the r h e t o r i c a l power of language to mediate contradictions may be experienced as fa l s e 14 and more i n t o l e r a b l e than what i t remedies. Berenice's abuse of l o g i c , by means of i n f l a t e d , s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d r h e t o r i c constitutes a mise en abyme of the poetic p r i n c i p l e on which many other passages of the text depend. Returning to the story of trees and eyes, one finds 118 f a m i l i a r themes: "C'est parce q u ' i l s n'ont pas d'yeux que les arbres ne marchent pas et ne parlent pas. C'est par les yeux seuls qu'on peut c h o i s i r qui h a i r , qui aimer" (p. 102). "Tree" i s an element in the s e r i e s : body, i s l a n d , boat, s e l f . "Eye" i s an element in the s e r i e s : window, door, mouth, outside. Making free with the use of "parce que" and " s e u l , " the speaker affirms as l o g i c a l necessity what i s more appropriately a poetic theme. F i r s t , as a tree, the human i s assimilated to the natural; then, in the subsequent development, "eyes" cause the human to separate from the natural order; separation of anthropos and cosmos i s , for the authors of Rhetorique de l a poesie, the most general form of contradiction which r h e t o r i c a l language, in the broad sense, i s c a l l e d upon to mediate.^ Just as Berenice i s suspicious of her mother's external beauty, one i s i n v i t e d to be suspicious of poetic language even, for example, that of the de s c r i p t i o n of her mother's eyes which provokes the tree and eye tirade: "Ses yeux d'une transparence hyaline et d'un bleu lunaire embras-sent fixement l a tempete. Ses yeux sont aquatiques. I l s lu i s e n t comme deux trous d'eau a l a surface de son visage" (p. 102). This language of harmonious metaphors and sounds constitutes a threat which i s the fa s c i n a t i o n of the engulfing mother, and the closed conceptual universe. By exploring the concrete aspect of language there l i e s , i n parodie grandiloquence, a path to understanding: Mais i l y a un remede. II y a un remede. II s'agit de le trouver. Deblayons ces ruines et mettons-nous-y. Mettons-nous aussitot a quatre pattes et cherchons. A l'oeuvre! A l'oeuvre! Au t r a v a i l ! Nous savons tous quoi f a i r e maintenant. (p. 231) Rhythmic r e p e t i t i o n and apostrophe co-habit with the f a m i l i a r "mettons-nous a quatre pattes." To assess one's p o s i t i o n now, one i s i n v i t e d 119 to examine the evidence of texts l e f t by the past. Meaning develops out of language, and the incongruous emerges i n contrast to what i s perceived as coherent and harmonious. To emphasize r h e t o r i c i s to render as contingent the ideas the r h e t o r i c was f i r s t conceived as serving. L'Avalee parodies the ethos of expository prose by the fore-grounding of r h e t o r i c , which negates ideas as natural truths anterior to language. Language defines as well as mediating the opposition of anthropos and cosmos, defines the subject as well as mediating the i s o l a t i o n of the subject. A l l language i s poetic i n the sense that i t creates as well as transmits meaning. S t y l i s t i c Devices In parodic grandiloquence, where rhet o r i c ' s role i s to construct expository truths, one may see an expanded metaphor of the functioning of the figures or s t y l i s t i c devices, which compel the in t e r e s t and attention of the reader regardless of narrative context. L'Avalee des avales i s conspicuously weighed down with t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l i s t i c devices such as metaphor, s y l l e p s i s , paronomasia. Some motifs--the house and boat for example — occur i n the r e c i t but also serve as e x p l i c i t metaphors for the s e l f , and so contribute to the psychological coherence of the text. The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of these devices i n clusters also contributes enormously to semantic incongruity. Although not a l l the s t r i k i n g f i g u r a t i v e passages create such an e f f e c t , i t i s probably t h i s e f f e c t which c a l l s attention most f o r c i b l y to the s t y l i s t i c devices. A s t y l i s t i c device or figure has been described as the a l t e r a t i o n of 120 a norm, or rather, to avoid the p r e s c r i p t i v e connotation of "norm," a 16 departure from a "zero degree" of expressiveness. The r h e t o r i c a l zero degree has been defined thus: "Le degre zero d'une p o s i t i o n de-17 terminee c'est ce que le lecteur attend dans cette p o s i t i o n . " A s t y l i s t i c device surprises the reader, c a l l i n g attention to the language of the text i t s e l f , and away from one's a n t i c i p a t i o n of di s c u r s i v e meaning. A highly r h e t o r i c a l text requires more e f f o r t of i t s reader because i t s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i s less than that of a non-rhetorical text. In L'Avalee des avales the reader may hesitate between two i n t e r e s t s : on the one hand psychological coherence, on the other formal coherence. Rhetorical figures play on these two aspects. By the s t y l i s t i c device, the enunciating subject signals his r e l a t i o n to the discourse. The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of devices evokes a s e l f -conscious subject's defence against an oppressive i n t e r t e x t . As the devices themselves become l i t e r a r y norms or c l i c h e s , incongruity remains as a distance to be inserted between subject as text and i n t e r t e x t . As Chouinard says " L ' i r r u p t i o n brusque du discontinu dans l e continu s u f f i t 18 a detruire l'ordre du systeme c l o s . " At one and the same time, i n -congruity signals the passage of the subject and his decenteredness or i n e s s e n t i a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to the discourse. Although i t i s when clustered together that the figures make the most unmistakable impression, i t i s useful to d i s t i n g u i s h the four categories of figures described i n Groupe Mu's Rhetorique generale, because these categories show how d i f f e r e n t types or lev e l s of function-ing can be effected by s t y l i s t i c devices. Metalogismes and metasememes act on .the s i g n i f i e d , the semantic information to be expected i n the 121 context; metataxes and metaplasmes act on the phonetic and graphic 19 aspects d i r e c t l y . The e a r l i e r discussion of l o g i c and r a t i o n a l d i s -course has already dealt with a l t e r a t i o n s of thought patterns expected or metalogismes (p. 117). However, one f a n c i f u l example w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s type of figure operating concurrently with a metaphor when, Berenice says: "Mure, l a c i t r o u i l l e tombe de l'arbre. Je me suis ecroulee tout a coup" (p. 255). The incongruous pumpkin may a r i s e from " c i t r o u i l l e " as a c o l l o q u i a l term for head, and "arbre" as c o r r e l a t i v e for the s e l f . Metaphors are a type of metasememe or "trope" i n the t r a d i t i o n a l 20 sense, where one semantic unit i s substituted for another. In L'Avalee  des avales one may be disoriented by the ubiquity of mixed metaphors, e s p e c i a l l y ones which contribute to the topos of movement versus s t a s i s , inside versus outside or same versus other: "Mais pour perpetrer mon enlevement, les deux epoux avaient compte sur 1'absence de Zio qui, soudain, comme un cheveu sur l a soupe, a r r i v e et serre tous les f r e i n s " (p. 179). Not infrequently the mixed metaphors play on confusing a part and the whole, e s p e c i a l l y when th i s e f f e c t v i o l a t e s the i n t e g r i t y of the human body: On peut v o i r leurs coeurs ouvrir une enorme gueule armee d'ep.ees, une benne preneuse f a i t e pour devorer v i f . (p. 139) Je sens mon cerveau perdre pied, ne tenant plus qu'a un f i l , mon cerveau s'echappe. (p. 156) Le mufle humide et les pieds f r o i d s de Constance Exsangue c r i e n t de plus en plus f o r t , appellent d'une fagon de plus en plus brutale. (p. 203) These samples come close to the heart of bad taste, as Todorov finds the t r a d i t i o n a l r h e t o r i c i a n Fontanier describing i t : "A ce coeur q u ' i l 122 vous l a i s s e , osez pretez un bras: Quoi de plus absurde, s'exclame Fontanier, qu'un bras prete a un coeur... 1'absurde est au niveau des 21 sens propres." When f o s s i l i z e d metaphors l i k e "serrer les f r e i n s " , "perdre pied" or "preter un bras" are brought back to l i f e by contact with other elements i n the sentence, one often s l i p s from f i g u r a t i v e to l i t e r a l , much as one's attention s l i p s between the r e c i t and the process of i t s enunciation i n reading the text. As images of the body are manipulated i n L'Avalee des avales, the point of view regresses; a part becomes a whole having parts each i n i t s turn a whole. This pattern of metamorphosis v a l o r i z e s a baroque world view i n opposition to a c l a s s i c a l view. Chouinard says of Ducharme's wri t i n g i n general: "Nous sommes en p l e i n univers baroque et l ' e c r i t u r e 22 de Ducharme est c e l l e de l a p r o l i f e r a t i o n . " There i s an i m p l i c i t analogy of a s s i m i l a t i o n of body to text as a concrete e n t i t y . A c l a s s i c a l text i s characterized by formal balance and harmony, p o l i s h and complete-ness. L'Avalee des avales revels rather in the process of emerging from and merging into other texts, i n the process of meaning emerging from language rather than language as manifesting meaning. The subject represented by L'Avalee as divided i s not inherently nonfunctional but portrayed as such, as schizoid, i n r e l a t i o n to a c l a s s i c a l world view which gives r i s e to realism and the psychological novel. Semantic incongruity may a r i s e from quantitative rather than purely q u a l i t a t i v e factors, though the two types are not e n t i r e l y d i s -23 tinguishable. The recurrence of conventional metaphors such as "mettre des batons dans les roues," "perdre les pedales" and "bouche a l'emeri" c a l l s attention to t h e i r l i t e r a l meaning, developing the motif of motion 123 versus s t a s i s . The r e p e t i t i o n of " r i r e dans sa barbe" suggests incon-g r u i t y i t s e l f as a topos: C h r i s t i a n r i t dans sa barbe. (p. 61) Chamomor doit r i r e dans sa barbe. (p. 100) Je m'approche de l a table en r i a n t dans ma barbe. Je je t t e un coup d ' o e i l a Einberg: i l r i t dans sa barbe. (p. 130) I I me f a i t des reflex i o n s qui me font r i r e dans ma barbe. (p. 137) Je lance un regard du cote de Zio. I I attendait ce regard.... I I r i t dans sa barbe. (p. 187) [Zio] s'imagine que par l'entremise de... sa longue barbe artisonnee... i l contribue a relever l e niveau de bonheur des etres humains. (p. 186) The beard i n the c l i c h e , which i s a sleeve i n the English "to laugh i n one's sleeve," becomes an incongruous common denominator s i g n i f y i n g th independence of the text v i s - a - v i s any primary r e a l i t y except language and the nonesse n t i a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s e l f . The reason for Zio's having a beard seems to be the expression " r i r e dans sa barbe," rather than the Hassidic practice of wearing beards. Incongruity through quantity, or r e p e t i t i o n , often r e s u l t s from metaplasmes including rhyme, a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance and parono-masia. The c l u s t e r i n g of these devices tends to set up a l i n g u i s t i c rhythm i n the text, savoured independently of the na r r a t i v e . One can re l a t e t h i s s t y l e to the ch i l d ' s parody of the high tone. For example rhyme and regular rhythm have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been seen as lamentable i n prose, as explained by Cressot i n Le Style: "De tout temps, on a re-commande aux prosateurs... d'eviter l ' e g a l i t e syllabique entre les elements rythmiques ou les groupes rythmiques, d'eviter egalement l a 124 rime a l a f i n a l e de ces elements ou de ces groupes." The frequent occurrence of rhyme and in t r u s i v e rhythm i n L'Avalee des avales creates a nonce-standard peculiar to Berenice. Captivated by what sometimes seems to resemble a speech impediment i n the text, one i s sen s i t i z e d to the presence of sound r e p e t i t i o n s , which are usually not perceived 25 or perceived only as they r e l a t e to meaning. Thus one may come to regard the pure excess of repeated sounds as representing the motif of explosiveness. In the following examples the theme of excess i s e x p l i c i t l y stated: Zio semble s 1 i n t e r r o g e r au sujet du surmenage que ma voracite m'impose. (p. 190) Apres avoir complete un cours de cor anglais j 1 en entreprends un de c l a i r o n . (p. 162) Repetition of sounds sometimes develops into a true play on words, i n which the phrase or sentence as a microcontext breaks lose from the discursi v e macrocontexts, l i k e a side path turning back on i t s e l f : Berenice ma f i l l e m e fie-toi. (p. 56) La vie est d i f f i c i l e pour les f i l l e s f a c i l e s . (p. 136) II y f a i t doux comme dans une nuit d'aout. (p. 118) J' a i autant de dents que d'ans maintenant. (p. 259) Je f a i s ma diarrhee de jeremiades. (p. 145) The s e t t i n g apart of the microcontext from the larger context i s t y p i c a l of a chapter beginning, since i t i s p h y s i c a l l y set o f f from what precedes. The puzzling aspect of some chapter beginnings i n L'Avalee  des avales r e s u l t s from word play and i n t e r t e x t u a l a l l u s i o n as well. Chapter 63, for example, begins with an altered c l i c h e : " P a r t i r , ce n'est pas guerir car on demeure. Revenir, c'est p a r e i l " (p. 219). 125 The commonplace " P a r t i r , c'est mourir un peu" i s the f i r s t l i n e of a sentimental poem: P a r t i r c'est mourir un peu: C'est mourir a ce qu'on aime On l a i s s e un peu de soi-meme En toute heure et dans tout lieu.^6 The renewed c l i c h e hesitates between "mourir" (negative) and "guerir" ( p o s i t i v e ) . In addition, "car on demeure" evokes "Le temps s'en va et je demeure," from A p o l l i n a i r e 1 s "Le Pont Mirabeau." The subject suffers from the impoverishment of experience in schizoid withdrawal, a psycho-l o g i c a l dimension in harmony with the r e p e t i t i o u s aspect of the discourse which has d i f f i c u l t y saying other than what has already been said. The discourse l i t e r a l l y impedes the subject, who wants to s t a r t anew. In a closed conceptual universe, a l l beginnings are problematic. The motif of departure figures frequently at the beginning of chapters, always evoking the paradox of beginning anew: "Me j e t e r sur une epee. Tomber dans une embuscade. Prendre le quai. Prendre l a gare. Prendre l a route. P a r t i r " (p. 88). In t h i s case, repeating the word allows for a change in meaning rather than the contrary, which i s also frequent in L'Avalee des avales. "Prendre" s l i p s from l i t e r a l to f i g u r a t i v e meaning. The subject s o l i c i t s i t s own destruction i n the i n t e r e s t of change. The impulse may be that of a s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e schizoid subject seeking to escape from a prison of i t s own design; but may also evoke an empty, dynamic concept of subject as pure function, a subject as purely the r e s u l t of the functioning of language and without conceptual content. Incongruous sound r e p e t i t i o n s i n L'Avalee des avales c a l l attention 126 to the language of the text, to meaning as developing from the way language presents i t s e l f rather than as predetermined. In this text, metalogismes, metasemenes, metaplasmes contribute to the foregrounding of language as a creative force, not an embellishment. To the extent that one senses the subordination of narrative l o g i c to language, incon-gruity i s manifest. Of the metataxes or figures of syntax, i t i s the humorous, con-t r i v e d and unsubtle s y l l e p s i s and zeugma which, together with the general abuse of l o g i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f e c t s the "fausses fenetres" of r h e t o r i c a l language as mediator and harmonizer. The following passage refers to C h r i s t i a n , Berenice's brother, whose i d e n t i t y i s r i g i d and unchanging: "II y en a qui, comme Leandre, traversent 1'Hellespoint a l a nage, d'autres qui traversent l a Manche a l a nage. C h r i s t i a n , bien assis dans sa chaise, traverse une c r i s e r e l i g i e u s e " (p. 121). Like C h r i s t i a n , Uncle Zio i s incongruous because he i s not incongruous. His consistency i s b u i l t on r h e t o r i c a l sophistry, exposed by recourse to a c l a s s i c example of zeugma: "vetue de probite et de l i n blanc": " P a r t i d'Armenie et de h a i l l o n s , i l [Zio] d i r i g e maintenant, vetu d'un complet de f i n lainage britannique et chausse a l ' i t a l i e n n e , une importante societe de prets sur hypotheque" (p. 178). It i s not the case that L'Avalee des avales i s saturated by semantic in c o n g r u i t i e s , that the tone becomes naggingly facetious. In spite of Berenice's d i c t i o n the grotesque alternates with or even co-habits with the pathetic or t r a g i c : Quand j ' a i les yeux fermes, c'est par mon ventre que je suis avalee, c'est dans mon ventre que j'etouffe. Quand j ' a i les yeux ouverts, c'est parce que je vois que je suis 127 avalee, c'est dans mon ventre que je suffoque.... Que j'a i e les yeux ouverts ou fermes, je suis englobee: i l n'y a plus assez d'air tout a coup, mon coeur se serre, l a peur me s a i s i t . (p. 7) The text describes i t s e l f foundering between an i r r e l e v a n t l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n and a decentered r e a l i t y ; i t imposes a centre which i s the narrative voice and the person of the narrator. The incongruousness of the center i s portrayed as s u f f e r i n g , that i s , translates both the s t r i v i n g of the enunciating subject and i t s i n e v i t a b l e decline toward a s t a b i l i z e d text and an unproblematic i d e n t i t y . From the textual point of view, the subject's tragedy l i e s not i n the diffuseness of i t s i d e n t i t y but i n i t s condemnation to mimic a u n i f i e d i d e n t i t y . From the psycho-l o g i c a l point of view, the subject's tragedy l i e s i n ignorance of the point of view that "... i d e n t i t y i t s e l f . . . i s always an a r t i s t i c construct," 27 as Hutcheon puts i t . The text s a c r i f i c e s the subject of the r e c i t i n order to make v i s i b l e i t s conceptual shape. Proper Names as Intertext Proper names attempt to make an i n d i v i d u a l unique and personal, but Berenice's names also make her seem a t e x t u a l l y constituted person, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n and i n an as yet imperfectly mediated s o c i a l r e a l i t y . The name "Berenice" f i r s t appears i n Chapter 6 where the gardener i s c a l l i n g "Mademoiselle Berenice" to come to dinner. One thinks immediately of the noble, c l a s s i c a l world of Racine's Berenice (1670) and Co r n e i l l e ' s less fortunate T i t e et Berenice (1670). C. L. Walton, i n his commentary on Berenice, makes the following statement: "The enchanting name Berenice has been described as 'harmonieux comme un chant de f l u t e ' (A. Hallays, £. Debats, 14 jan. 1894). It recurs 128 i n the text 45 times, 14 times at the rhyme and 10 times with i t s f i n a l 28 e_ unelided within the body of the l i n e . " This "enchanting" name becomes parodic i n the context of L'Avalee des avales: "Berenice Einberg, as-tu du coeur? J ' a i p l e i n de peau mais pas de coeur, Monseigneur" (p. 186). In Le Cid the hero who must s a c r i f i c e sentiment to duty asks himself: "Rodrigue, as-tu du coeur?" To be noble i n Rodrigue's sense 29 one must deny the dictates of the heart i n the romantic sense. In Racine's play, Berenice and love are s a c r i f i c e d to the i n t e r e s t s of the state. With the reference to "Monseigneur," L'Avalee recontextualizes C o r n e i l l e i n r e l a t i o n to the rigorism of t r a d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l ideology which functioned as the ideology of the state i n Quebec u n t i l the Quiet Revolution. The heart as sentiment camouflages the w i l l to s i n , and i s defined i n opposition to s p i r i t u a l i t y . The importance of the mind versus body dichotomy i n t r a d i t i o n a l Quebec i s presented by L'Avalee as fo s t e r i n g schizoid withdrawal and fragmentation: " A f i n de me f a i r e une ame j ' a i d e t r u i t mon coeur, j ' a i brule tout ce que j'avais de spon-taneity" (p. 93); "... Mon coeur je l'arrache, le j e t t e dans le fleuve" (p. 26). By envisaging the ultimate negative consequences of the t r a d i -t i o n a l point of view, L'Avalee p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the ethos of the Quiet Revo-l u t i o n . As Racine's Berenice i s s a c r i f i c e d to the state, Ducharme's i s s a c r i f i c e d to a reductio ad absurdum of a s o c i a l ideology. The s a c r i f i c e of Berenice's v e r s i m i l i t u d e , on the other hand, allows the functioning of representation i n the novel to be made obvious. She i s associated with the f l e s h , which at the textual l e v e l means the m a t e r i a l i t y of language; the passage c i t e d above continues with a gradation foregrounding the 129 t a u t o l o g i c a l aspect of language: "Ca m'est venu comme ca, p e t i t a p e t i t , peu a peu, au jour le jour, sans que je m'en apergoive" (p. 186). Although a queen i s i d e n t i f i e d by her given name alone, Berenice Einberg i s i d e n t i f i e d by a family name which sounds somewhat l i k e her f i r s t name turned back to front. The Jewish surname undoes the g a l l i c i s m of the given name. "Einberg" i s parodie i n i t s e l f , meaning "a mountain," "one mountain," the nonexistent and unmarked term of the series "Eisen-berg" (iron mountain), "Goldberg," and no doubt most immediately for most readers "Steinberg" (stone mountain), r e f e r r i n g to the owners of the supermarket chain. For an anglophone reader "Einberg" may evoke "iceberg." whereas "Berenice" has obvious l i t e r a r y associations, "Einberg" has s o c i a l connotations, s i t u a t i n g the l i t e r a r y as dependent upon a s o c i a l context which renders i t problematic and incongruous. The Jewish subject of the r e c i t rehearses the rapprochement of Quebecois and Jewish people as oppressed m i n o r i t i e s , as i l l u s t r a t e d by the r e e d i t i o n i n Quebec of the P o r t r a i t du colonise (1972) by Albert 30 Memmi, also the author of P o r t r a i t d'un J u i f . One must also allow, however, that Einberg's Jewishness, as representative of phallo- and logocentrism, may be construed as anti-Semitic. By recommending avoidance of non-Catholics, the c l e r i c a l ideology of Quebec l e f t i t s e l f vulnerable to c r i t i c i s m as fost e r i n g xenophobia and, in the context of a high pro-f i l e Jewish presence (for example, Steinberg's supermarkets), e s p e c i a l l y . „ . . 31 antl-Semitism. Though engaged i n a struggle with c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c , the Berenice of L'Avalee never mentions C o r n e i l l e ' s or Racine's play, and d e l i b e r a t e l y seeks a namesake among h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y c u r i o s i t i e s : 130 Je cours apres toutes les Berenice de l a l i t t e r a t u r e et de l ' h i s t o i r e . J'apprends que Berenice d'Egypte a epouse son f r e r e , Ptolemee Evergete et s'est f a i t assassiner par son f i l s , Ptolemee Philopator.... Berenice, f i l l e d'Ag-rippa l e r j me p l a i t moins, quoiqu'elle a i t a s s i s t e sans broncher a l a condamnation d'un des apotres du C h r i s t . A l i r e et r e l i r e l a Berenice d'Edgar Poe, de f a i r e ce qu'elle f a i t , d'etre comme e l l e est. L'influence qu'exerce sur moi ces Berenice n'est pas a negliger. (p. 161) Rather than the c l a s s i c a l models, Berenice situates h e r s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to the Gothic, the exotic, even the seedy underside of high culture. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the h i s t o r i c a l Berenice who saw the apostle Paul i n prison (Acts XXVI) was also the Berenice who loved T i t u s : "The h i s t o r i c a l Berenice fades into obscurity i n A.D. 70, only to be reborn i n Racine's poetry as ' l a v r a i e Berenice 1, as the symbol of pure and s a c r i f i c i a l 32 love." It i s the shadow which Berenice Einberg seeks, the one who, according to a c e r t a i n Isidore Loeb of La Grande Encyclopedie: "a reuni dans sa personne, tous les vices de l a fa m i l l e d'Herode: l'amour du faste et du pouvoir, le gout de 1'intrigue et des tripotages p o l i t i q u e s , 33 l'egoisme sans scrupules, l a passion sans f r e i n . " On the fringes of the supposedly ordered Roman world tottered the dynasties of Ptolemies and Herods. Beyond h i s t o r i c a l anecdote, Berenice i n L'Avalee des avales alludes to an "outside" i n r e l a t i o n to which order i s defined, that 34 which Racine evoked i n the phrase " l 1 o r i e n t desert." One thinks of Cor n e i l l e ' s and Racine's Berenice as a glorious c l a s s i c a l f i g u r e , but a figure which a l l the same represented some elements a l i e n and perhaps unacceptable to the c l a s s i c a l i d e a l . Closer to the contemporary period one finds the c l a s s i c a l name "Berenice" reappearing i n the romantic t r a d i t i o n ; i n Poe's short story, 35 "Berenice" (1835) and, almost a century l a t e r , i n Maurice Barres' 131 3 6 novel Le Jardin de Berenice (1921). The emphatic a l l u s i o n to Poe in L'Avalee des avales (p. 161) seems i n keeping with the text's insistence on i n t e n s i t y and nostalgia for the spontaneous. In Baudelaire's famous t r a n s l a t i o n the narrator says of Berenice: " E l l e , a g i l e , gracieuse et debordante d'energie; a e l l e le vagabondage sur l a c o l l i n e . . . . e l l e , errant insoucieuse a travers l a v i e , sans penser aux ombres de son chemin 37 ou a l a f u i t e silencieuse des heures au noir plumage." In Poe's tale such an image of innocence exists only i n r e l a t i o n to the h o r r i b l e fate of innocence: Un mal f a t a l s ' a b a t t i t sur sa c o n s t i t u t i o n comme le simoun; et meme pendant que je l a contemplais, 1'esprit de metamor-phose passait sur e l l e et l ' e n l e v a i t , penetrant son e s p r i t , ses habitudes, son caractere, et de l a maniere l a plus sub-t i l e et l a plus t e r r i b l e , perturbant meme son identite.^8 She comes to be the one who i s both h e r s e l f and another, both a l i v e and dead. G i l l e s Marcotte points out that the fas c i n a t i o n for Berenice's "teeth" i n Poe 1s story develops concurrently with a fa s c i n a t i o n for s c r i p t which i s v i s u a l and provokes the subject's experience of r e d u p l i -39 cation, distance and space. Thus Berenice i n L'Avalee resembles Poe 1s Berenice as a divided subject associated with t e x t u a l i t y . It i s d i f f i -c u l t to summarize Poe' s story without provoking laughter: fascinated by the sight of Berenice's teeth, the narrator rends them from her mouth while she i s i n a coma. The text was probably intended to be paro d i c . 4 ^ As a parody of Gothic romanticism Poe 1s "Berenice" resembles Berenice Einberg as a parody of the psychological character. Much l a t e r but s t i l l , i t seems, i n the t r a d i t i o n of the young woman as a c h i l d (who stands for the s e l f i n a state of nature), i s 132 Barres' Berenice: L'ame populaire, ame r e l i g i e u s e , i n s t i n c t i v e . . . et pleine d'un passe dont e l l e n'a pas conscience.^ L ... cette part du moi que 1'intelligence n'embrassera jamais, cette part secrete qui communique directement avec les forces de l a nature et l'ame du monde. Not once does our Berenice mention Barres' heroine; however, the narrator of Le Nez qui vogue attacks Barres the writer: E c r i r e rend digne d1amour, comme d i t Barres. Savez-vous pourguoi Barres e c r i t ? C'est parce g u ' i l n'a pas pu se debarrasser de 1'influence de ses professeurs, g u ' i l est reste un enfant d'ecole.... Monsieur Barres... s i vous n'etes pas mort et s i vous etes blesse de ce gue j'emploie votre nom dans un sens p e j o r a t i f , vous n'aviez gu'a ne pas l a i s s e r votre nom c o u r i r les rues. (NQV, p. 106) Perhaps i t i s i n L'Avalee des avales that Barres' name, i . e . "Berenice," i s most taken i n vain. In Berenice Einberg one may choose to see some parody of the c l a s s i c a l heroine and also of the romantic child-woman; yet egually one may f e e l the a f f i r m a t i o n of process as an i d e a l . Barres' Berenice says: "Reconnais en moi l a p e t i t e secousse par ou chague par-c e l l e du monde temoigne 1'effort secret de 1'inconscient. Ou je ne suis 43 pas c'est l a mort; j'accompagne partout l a v i e . " Ducharme's Berenice transcends t h i s s e l f - e f f a c i n g femininity and obfuscation of the i n t e r -preted, textual aspect of the subject and text--as i s evident i n her assuming the discourse of Nerval's "Desdichado": "Je suis le tenebreux, le veuf, l'inconsole / Le prince d'Aguitaine a l a tour a b o l i e , " which becomes: "Je suis l a grande Berenice, l a vaingueuse, l a temeretre, 1'incorruptible. Je suis Berenice d'un bout a l'autre du fleuve Saint-Laurent, d'un bout a l'autre de l a voie lactee" (p. 135). Like Nerval's 133 " j e , " Ducharme's i s empty but triumphant. "Berenice" comes from a name meaning "bringer of v i c t o r y " ; i n her 44 one may respond to a p o s i t i v e force. The active dominates the passive, although the good does not dominate the bad. From a discussion of generalized incongruity i n the text we have returned to a discussion of parody i n r e l a t i o n to a s p e c i f i c t r a d i t i o n , romantic in a broad sense, and to a discussion of a p o s i t i v e narrator f i g u r e . Our next chapter w i l l r e i n t e r p r e t the parodic subject of L'Avalee. Conclusion To see semantic incongruity as a structuring p r i n c i p l e of L'Avalee  des avales i s not to i n v a l i d a t e reading the text as a mimesis of psycho-l o g i c a l type, but merely to recontextualize t h i s psychological aspect. The text includes a coherent and t r a g i c account of schizoid d i s i n t e g r a -t i o n . The l u d i c aspect of the text does not mock, r i d i c u l e or t r i v i a l i z e t h i s representation. The l u d i c aspect of the text accomplishes two major functions with respect to the psychological representation. F i r s t , i t makes e x p l i c i t the function of the text, i n accordance with l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , as recreative and pleasure-giving while reacting against the possible masochistic disguise of pleasure i n the representation of s u f f e r i n g . Second, i t describes the i d e n t i t y of the subject as a r e l a t i v e and f i c t i o n a l construct; i t posits a subject in process associated with the enunciating subject and d i s s o c i a t e d from the subject as enunciated, and p a r t i c u l a r l y hypostatized as character. The incongruousness of the c h i l d narrator's voice f a c i l i t a t e s the reception of an enunciating subject not s o l e l y defined as a character. 134 The emptiness introduced into the " I " of the text allows the reader to replace the enunciating subject, sharing a euphoric sense of mastery evident i n the foregrounding of the phonic and graphic aspects of lan-guage. The subject enunciated as character i s a schizoid subject. The global subject i s s p l i t i n a more o p t i m i s t i c mode. The enunciated subject cannot correspond even mimetically to the enunciating subject. The l a t t e r i s not one but p l u r a l because i t stands also for the readers of L'Avalee. 135 NOTES Linda Hutcheon, "Parody without R i d i c u l e : Observations on Modern L i t e r a r y Parody," Canadian Review of Comparative L i t e r a t u r e , Spring 1978, p. 201. 2 3 p. 74. Hutcheon, "Parody without R i d i c u l e , " pp. 205, 206, 208, 211. Caterina M. Wolf, "L'Ecriture parodique," Diss. (U.B.C., 1976), 4 Michael R i f f a t e r r e , " S t y l i s t i c Context," Word, n° 2 (1960), pp. 209-212. ~* Marcel Chouinard, "Ducharme: un langage v i o l e n t e , " L i b e r t e , 12 (1970), p. 110. ^ For discussion of "saturation" of context, see R i f f a t e r r e , " S t y l i s t i c Context," p. 216. ^ See Bernard Dupriez, "Ducharme et des f i c e l l e s , " Voix et Images  du Pays (Quebec), 5 (1972), p. 174: " S i Ducharme hesite a repeter mot pour mot... i l n'hesite guere... a revenir plusieurs f o i s sur l a meme idee, en des termes plus ou moins d i f f e r e n t s . C'etait du reste une figure que les anciens appelaient commoration et que les rheteurs fran-gais appellent demeure. II s'agit, en somroe, de demeurer longtemps sur l e meme sujet, d'y revenir, d'allonger l a sauce." See R i f f a t e r r e , p. 217: "... nonce-standards, the fragmentary language systems which the author uses to suggest the speech of one of his characters or to parody a s t y l e . These can be seen as spec i a l contexts developed by saturation from SDs [ s t y l i s t i c d e vices]...." 9 Peter France, Rhetoric and Truth in France: Descartes to Diderot (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), p. 139: "The r e p e t i t i o n s , the enume-r a t i o n , the gradation, the b e a u t i f u l e f f e c t s of balance, the sonorous harmony, these are the q u a l i t i e s which i n a debased form have made formal eloquence so r i d i c u l o u s and even repulsive i n our day. Yet this sort of eloquence can work, and i t does work i n Bossuet i n that i t often compels our attention and makes his sermons s a t i s f y i n g and memorable experiences, however l i t t l e we may be i n sympathy with his message." See Tzvetan Todorov, L i t t e r a t u r e et s i g n i f i c a t i o n (Paris: 136 Larousse, 1967), pp. 111-112: "Nous pouvons passer maintenant au deu-xieme grand type d'expressions figurees, aux figures proprement d i t e s . Dans ce cas l a figure ne s'oppose pas a une regie mais a un discours qu'on ne s a i t pas d e c r i r e . . . . 3. SEMANTIQUE. . .. ( l a semantique est l o i n d'avoir repertorie les d i f f e r e n t s types d'enonces; c'est pourquoi nous pouvons nous arreter plus longuement sur les propositions venant de l a rhetorique.) On y distingue... l a correction ('L'heritier. . . ose applaudir, que dis-je? ose appuyer 1'erreur... 1)," 11 Chouinard, p. 115, emphasizes elements of B i b l i c a l parody i n th i s passage: "Non seulement l a demarche du r e c i t de l a creation de Ducharme e s t - e l l e calquee dans sa structure sur c e l l e de l a Bible, mais aussi le vocabulaire de ce passage est apparente sensiblement a c e l u i du r e c i t mythique." 12 France, Rhetoric and Truth i n France, p. 27. 13 Descartes i n the Discours, quoted by France, Rhetoric and  Truth i n France, p. 44. 14 Jacques Dubois et a l , Rhetorique de l a poesie: lecture  l i n e a i r e , lecture tabulaire (Bruxelles: Complexe, 1977), p. 89. ^ Jacques Dubois et a l , Rhetorique de l a poesie, p. 88: " l ' e f f proprement poetique correspond selon nous a deux conditions: 1. manifestation, d i r e c t e ou i n d i r e c t e , d'une isotopie cosmos et d'une isotopie anthropos 2. mediation rhetorique, e x p l i c i t e ou i m p l i c i t e , entre les deux i s o t o p i e s . " ^ Jacques Dubois et a l , Rhetorique generale (Paris: Larousse, 1970), p. 41. 17 18 19 20 Jacques Dubois et a l , Rhetorique generale, p. 37. Chouinard, p. 129. Jacques Dubois et a l , Rhetorique de l a poesie, pp. 35, 46. Todorov, p. 99. Tropes = "figures qui comportent un change-ment de s i g n i f i c a t i o n . " 137 21 Todorov, p. 105. 22 Chouinard, p. 111. Yoshihiko Ikegami, "A L i n g u i s t i c Essay on Parody," L i n g u i s t i c s n° 55 (1969), p. 15: " I f an expression or expressions are used i n a given context so frequently as to be judged inappropriate, then we have a case of incongruity i n terms of quantity." Marcel Cressot, Le Style (Paris: Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1963), p. 219. 25 Jacques Dubois et a l , Rhetorique de l a poesie, p. 121: "Toute f o i s , dans le decodage d'un message quelconque, les redondances du plan de 1'expression ne sont pas percues comme t e l l e s , sans doute en raison de leur caractere o b l i g a t o i r e . Par contre, l a reception du message poetique pourrait a 1'inverse etre interpreted comme l a v a l o r i s a t i o n des redondances devenues s i g n i f i c a t i v e s avec l e changement du niveau de perception, v a l o r i s a t i o n qui donnerait l i e u a l a s a i s i e des re g u l a r i t e s c o n s t i t u t i v e s d'une nouvelle isotopie sonore, connotative, s i 1'on veut et non plus denotative." (Greimas, 1972: 16): The reference i s to A.-J. Greimas, Introduction aux Essais de semiotique poetique (Paris: Larousse, 1972), p. 16. 26 The poem i s by Edmond Haraucourt (1857 1941) and i s c i t e d by P. Dupre i n the Encyclopedie des c i t a t i o n s (Paris: Editions de Trevise 1965), p. 153. 27 Linda Hutcheon, N a r c i s s i s t i c Narrative: the Me t a f i c t i o n a l  Paradox (Waterloo, Ontario: W i l f r i d Laurier University Press, 1980), p. 51. 28 C. L. Walton i n notes on "Acteurs" i n Jean Racine, Berenice, C. L. Walton, ed. (London: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 139. 29 See, for example, Paul Robert, Dictionnaire alphabetique et  analogique de l a langue frangaise, T. I (Paris: Societe du Nouveau L i t t r e , 1965), p. 810. 30 Albert Memmi, P o r t r a i t du colonise, e d i t i o n revue et corrigee  par l'auteur, 1972 (Montreal: Les Editions l ' E t i n c e l l e , 1972), Por- t r a i t , d'un J u i f (Paris: Gallimard, 1962). 31 For a discussion of v i r u l e n t anti-Semitism i n Quebec during 138 the t h i r t i e s , see Bernard Saint-Aubin, Duplessis et son epoque (Montreal: La Presse, 1939), pp. 84-87. 32 C. L. Walton i n introduction to Berenice, p. 27. 33 La Grande Encyclopedie (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Larousse, n.d.), VI, p. 290. 34 Jean Racine, Berenice, Acte I, Scene IV, ligne 234: Antiochus: "Dans 1'Orient desert quel devint mon ennui!" 35 Edgar A l l a n Poe, "Berenice," f i r s t published i n Southern L i t e r a r y  Messenger, 1, n° 7 (March 1835), 333-36. 36 Maurice Barres, Le Jardin de Berenice (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Plon, 1929). 37 Edgar A l l a n Poe, Oeuvres en prose, trans. Charles Baudelaire (Paris: Gamier, 1951), p. 328. 38 Poe, Oeuvres en prose, p. 329. 39 G i l l e s Marcotte, "Rejean Ducharme contre Blasey Blasey," Etudes  francaises, 11, n° 3-4 (octobre 1975), pp. 267-270. 40 See, for example, G. R. Thompson, Poe's F i c t i o n : Romantic  Irony i n the Gothic Tales (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973), pp. 167-68: "'Berenice' (1835) a c t u a l l y lampoons i t s l i t e r a r y type... It has been his [the narrator's] perverse misfortune to have been both born and brought up i n a l i b r a r y , and thus he has become t o t a l l y imbued with the Gothic horrors and weird philosophical (trans-cendental) mysticism of the day." 41 Barres, Le Jardin de Berenice, p. 68. 42 Barres on Berenice, c i t e d by Dictionnaire des l e t t r e s fran- caises: l e dix-neuvieme s i e c l e ; A-K (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Artheme Fayard, 1961), p. 102. 43 Barres, Le Jardin de Berenice, p. 202. 44 Le P e t i t Robert 2 (Paris: S.E.P.R.E.T., 1975), p. 213; "Berenice" i s from the Greek "Pherenike." CHAPTER VI: THE SUBJECT AS DIVERGENT IN L'AVALEE DES AVALES Parody i n L'Avalee des avales involves a reworking of a vast i n t e r -text, not only l i t e r a r y , but including the text of common sense "a domain of situa t i o n s i n the everyday l i f e w o r l d , " as Susan Stewart des-cribes i t i n her analysis of nonsense.''" From the Quebecois perspective, Patrick Imbert describes this generalized i n t e r t e x t as the global tau-2 tology of the semantic universe of Indo-European languages. Parodic w r i t i n g as an analysis of the c u l t u r a l "given" which the wr i t i n g subject brings to the text i s also parody of the subject as part of that given. In t h i s chapter we w i l l examine some aspects of the parodic subject as revealed i n the narrator-protagonist of L'Avalee des avales. The parodic subject i n L'Avalee constitutes a point of view i n r e l a t i o n to a t r a d i -t i o n concerning c h i l d , woman, schizophrenic and writer. The Child as an Impossible Trace Peter Coveney sums up the modern t r a d i t i o n of the c h i l d figure i n European l i t e r a t u r e i n his The Image of Childhood. He c i t e s Rousseau's Emile as the inception of th i s t r a d i t i o n : "Tout est bien sortant des 3 mains de l'Auteur des Choses; tout degenere entre les mains de l'homme." Rousseau begins the Romantic era, i n s p i r i n g such poets as William Words-worth whose infant comes into the world " t r a i l i n g clouds of glory." In Poe's and Barres 1 Berenice one found the Romantic image of the innocent c h i l d l i k e woman. Coveney explains that the thrust of high Romanticism i s to show i n the c h i l d a po t e n t i a l which i s , or should be, also present i n the adult: "In ta l k i n g of childhood, the great Romantics were, i n 139 140 a very r e a l sense, t a l k i n g of the whole condition of Man.... the c h i l d was an active image, an expression of human potency i n the face of human ,A experience. Psychoanalysis echoes this common thread i n , for example, Jung's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c h i l d motif: The occurrence of the c h i l d motif i n the psychology of the i n d i v i d u a l s i g n i f i e s as a rule an a n t i c i p a t i o n of future developments, even though at f i r s t sight i t may seem l i k e a retrospective configuration.... the c h i l d paves the way for a future change.^ Coveney i d e n t i f i e s Freud as stressing a continuity between c h i l d and adult that i s f a i t h f u l to the Romantic i d e a l . This continuity has been touched on by the present study i n the discussion of neurosis and the stages of childhood development. The energy and dynamism of Berenice i n L'Avalee des avales also are f a i t h f u l to the Romantic t r a d i t i o n , but in her case the in c o e r c i b l e forces that possess her threaten her existence: "Une force volcanique m'habite, une force douloureuse que r i e n au monde ne peut declencher, assouvir" (p. 156). In addition to the l i t t l e g i r l speaking, something speaks through her: "Le cyclone sans issue me gonfle, me secoue, me f a i t s o u f f r i r et suer comme une femme en gesine.... J ' a i c h o i s i toutes les f l e u r s , tous les champs. Je n'ai r i e n a f a i r e dans ce n i d " (p. 269). The grotesque motif of possessed c h i l d may constitute a humorous a l l u s i o n to the o r i g i n of the subject i n "di f f e r e n c e " and " d e f e r r a l . " Derrida c r i t i c i z e s the transcendent status of the s i g n i f i e d i n the sign, arguing that the trace or movement of "di f f e r e n c e " l o g i c a l l y precedes a l l acts of meaning and that the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l consciousness requires the other as i t s context: 141 L 1 1immotivation' du signe requiert une synthese dans laqu e l l e l e tout autre s'annonce comme tel--sans aucune s i m p l i c i t e , aucune i d e n t i t e , aucune ressemblance ou continuite--dans ce qui n'est pas l u i . . . . II faut penser l a trace avant 1'etant.^ In a s i m i l a r vein, Jean-Joseph Goux writes of a "productive force" i n the s i g n i f i e r , underpinning the process of discurs i v e meaning but ob-scured by i t : La notion de valeur... se superpose, en l a masquant (par 1'intermediaire de I'argent) a c e l l e fondatrice de t r a v a i l , . comme l a notion de sens se superpose en l a masquant (par 1'intermediaire de l a parole) a c e l l e fondatrice de l a production de l a t r a c e . 7 As a s p l i t subject, Berenice also represents the functioning of language i n L'Avalee des avales as i r r e d u c i b l e to that of discurs i v e prose. In addition, the incongruous presentation of subject depicts the derivation of f i c t i o n a l subject from text. F i n a l l y , absence of i n t r a d i e g e t i c a l l u s i o n to the existence of the written text of L'Avalee des avales, i n conjunction with Berenice's p e c u l i a r l y l i t e r a r y discourse, can be read as a grotesque representation of "writing" or i n s c r i p t i o n as a difference l o g i c a l l y anterior to speech. Derrida sees "writing" as a manifestation of o r i g i n as dif f e r e n c e : Si I ' e c r i t u r e s i g n i f i e i n s c r i p t i o n et d'abord i n s t i t u -t i o n durable d'un signe (et c'est le seul noyau irreduc-t i b l e du concept d ' ' e c r i t u r e 1 ) , I ' e c r i t u r e en general couvre tout l e champ des signes linguistiques.° Immotive, tout signe s e r a i t impensable sans une i n s t i t u - t i o n durable: c'est-a-dire sans 1'instance de l a trace... qui par "une structure de renvoi" f a i t apparaitre l a dif f e r e n c e . ^ Berenice's discourse has been c r i t i c i s e d from the point of view of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e : 142 Si e l l e e x i s t a i t vraiment, Berenice s e r a i t certes capable de s e n t i r ce qu'elle sent dans L'Avalee, et sans doute de concevoir une bonne pa r t i e de ses pensees; mais e l l e ne pourrait pas elucider ces pensees ou ces sentiments, et encore moins les formuler avec autant de pre c i s i o n et de b r i o . - ^ Conventional expectations of the performance of a c h i l d writer may be i l l u s t r a t e d by the conclusion of Daisy Ashford's The Young V i s i t o r s , written when the author was nine years o ld: Ethel's parents were too poor to come so far [to her wedding] but her Mother sent her a gold watch which did not go but had been for some years i n the family and her father provided a cheque for 2£ and promised to send her a d a r l i n g l i t t l e baby c a l f when ready.H The c a l f represents a highly desirable a c q u i s i t i o n from the c h i l d ' s point of view, but would make a grotesque wedding present from the adult point of view. Such b l u r r i n g of perspective i s expected from a c h i l d , but absent i n L'Avalee. On the other hand, i n contemporary commentary on the c h i l d myth, Kristeva notes the tendency to project adult discourse onto the c h i l d : "... ce demontage du mythe chretien-rousseauiste de l'enfance s'accom-pagne d'une homologation problematique: on y trouve projetes au l i e u 12 suppose de l'enfance... les t r a i t s propres du discours adulte." Berenice's incongruity r e s u l t s from her being presented simultaneously as c h i l d and as not c h i l d . Since the ch i l d - a d u l t d i s t i n c t i o n i s tempora i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to find that time references play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l i n provoking t h i s e f f e c t . In Huckleberry Finn, Zazie dans l e metro or What Maisie Knew, the 13 reader accepts the c h i l d as narrator or f o c a l point without question. These figures represent childhood i n t e g r a l l y and t h e i r ages are never 143 mentioned. In L'Avalee the mention of Berenice's age obtrudes incon-gruously at several points in the text. Zazie dans le metro ends with a w i t t i c i s m , when Zazie announces a f t e r passing twenty-four hours i n 14 P a r i s : " J ' a i v i e i l l i . " To the c h i l d , time passes r e l a t i v e l y slowly, and to the adult, the c h i l d evolves r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d l y . The discourse of Berenice, however, i s the same at the beginning of L'Avalee where she i s described as nine years old and at the end where she i s at least eighteen. The s t a t i c q u a l i t y of t h i s voice counters mimetic expecta-tions more b r u t a l l y than the precocity of the f i c t i o n a l narrator. The dynamic force of Berenice i s not that of a character maturing; the character deteriorates: " J ' a i quinze ans, pas toutes mes dents et pas tous mes cheveux" (p. 233). The corruption of Berenice i n L'Avalee has always already begun, just as the process of representation has always already begun, as Derrida puts i t : "La presence, pour etre presence et presence a s o i , a toujours deja ete entamee. L'affirmation elle-meme doit toujours s'entamer en se repetant. The Child's Fate Coveney presents a second image of the c h i l d , a de r i v a t i v e image and for him a perversion of high Romanticism. This second c h i l d i s doomed to corruption and better o f f dead than l e f t to deteriorate i n the society of degenerates: ... the emphasis s h i f t s towards the state of innocence i t s e l f , not as a r e s i l i e n t expression of man's p o t e n t i a l i n t e g r i t y , but as something s t a t i c a l l y juxtaposed to experience, and, ultimately... something not so much s t a t i c as a c t u a l l y i n r e t r e a t . . . . at worst, the p o s i t i v e assertion of l i f e becomes a negative assertion of with-drawal and death.... the image i s transfigured into the image of an innocence which dies.-^ 144 The b i p o l a r i t y inherent i n t h i s image i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the a l t e r n a t i v e readings of Henry James' The Turn of the Screw, in which the two children are seen either as helpless innocents or as demons.^ In L'Avalee des  avales the decadent image i s made manifest i n the personae of Constance Chlore, the good, and G l o r i a , the bad. According to J u l i a K r isteva, the progress of the novel consists in the s e t t l i n g out of a non-disjunc-t i v e or ambiguous character into univocal elements such as good and 18 e v i l . The elimination of Berenice's personae empty her of content so that her structure as a non-disjunctive suspension of elements be-comes v i s i b l e . Narrative as Subject The narrator represents the conventional source or o r i g i n of the text i n t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y . The events and characters of Berenice's r e c i t repeat themselves and they repeat her i n the recurrent configuration of secondary characters. In i n s i s t i n g upon the phenomenon of r e p e t i t i o n , the text foregrounds a paradox upon which the conceptual universe r e s t s , as Susan Stewart explains: I r o n i c a l l y , r e p e t i t i o n , whose nature i s seen as ongoing, can only achieve this q u a l i t y of ongoingness by "swallow-ing" the ongoing q u a l i t y of context, by holding context s t i l l . The machine's threat i s the disregard of context, ... the blindness c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the "mechanical a p p l i c a -t i o n " of any rule.19 The e x p l i c i t n e s s of the narrator's r e p e t i t i o n s in L'Avalee i l l u s t r a t e s the premise that narrative and a l l representation imply r e p e t i t i o n . The narrative turns into a d e s c r i p t i o n of the narrator: Le moteur qui me f a i t fonctionner echappe a mon i n t e l l i -gence et a ma volonte... S ' i l ne m'obeit pas, a qui 145 d'autre o b e i t - i l ? . . . coup de hache apres coup de hache, je romps l ' e t i n c e l l e , l a gazoline.... je mets mon epaule a l a roue et je pousse. Nous n'irons pas l o i n Berenice, mais nous irons par nos propres moyens. (pp- 93-94) Plus degourdie qu'une grelee de plombs, je peux v o u l o i r contre l ' e l a n . . . mais mon sang et mes chairs sont remplis d'une d i r e c t i o n et je ne peux plus en changer qu'une bou-t e i l l e ne peut changer de contenu. (p. 142) Berenice reveals the nonessentiality of the c h i l d ' s p u r i t y as the re-presentation of an o r i g i n . As "force of meaning" or s i l g n i f i e r , the force which possesses Berenice i s confined, l i m i t e d and momentarily suppressed by the process of representation, by representation of the subject. The theory of the subject rests on representation; for example, i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the concept of s e l f through a mirror image, commented on by Stewart: "... by means of r e p e t i t i o n , the integer--the o b j e c t -i s made to appear. What i s repeated i s what i s , a parameter defined i n 20 spite of time." Derrida makes the same point i n a philosophical perspective: "Autre nom de l a r e p e t i t i o n representative: l ' E t r e . L'Etre est l a forme sous la q u e l l e indefiniment l a d i v e r s i t e i n f i n i e des formes et des forces de vie et de mort peuvent se meler et se repe-21 ter dans le mot." In L'Avalee, the narrator, who i s by d e f i n i t i o n the i n t r a d i e g e t i c o r i g i n of the r e c i t , turns out to be the shape of the r e c i t . One may say that the r e c i t bares i t s structure since extradie-g e t i c a l l y Berenice i s an e f f e c t of the text. One may also say that the text presents an extradiegetic model of i t s functioning; one which presents the writer (scripteur) as both o r i g i n and e f f e c t of text, considering "to write" as a "verb of middle voice"; one whose subject 22 i s "simultaneously agent and p a t i e n t . " 146 Schizoid Subject and Text In L'Avalee des avales, the s p e c i f i c a l l y textual aspect of play of s i g n i f i e r s corresponds to the subject's unconscious. Writing as an a c t i v i t y i n this context i s incompatible with the subject as agent. A subject apparently absent from the domain of representation i s generally c a l l e d schizophrenic: "Ce que le schizophrene v i t specifiquement, generiquement, ce n'est pas du tout un pole specifique de l a nature, 23 mais l a nature comme processus de production." Schizophrenia, i n a s p e c i a l sense as i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , constitutes the subject and i s immi-nent i n his functioning because imminent i n the functioning of his d i s -course. In the commonplace sense, as a negative hypostasis of the absent subject, schizophrenia i s deferred i n L'Avalee i n order to allow the performance of a r e c i t . The psychological d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the subject of the r e c i t i n L'Avalee i s also a m e t a f i c t i o n a l deconstruction of character. One may impose closure on t h i s text by saying that at the end of the r e c i t the narrator becomes schizophrenic; at that moment Berenice i s an anthropomorphic form without content. Then again, one may suggest that the novel's abrupt ending s o l i c i t s a rereading before the reader can impose closure on his reading, and thereby i l l u s t r a t e s reading as a p o t e n t i a l l y interminable process, l i k e schizophrenia as process. The subject of the r e c i t , fragmented and tormented, represents both the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of the novel's dispensing with the subject of the r e c i t , and the subject's f i c t i t i o u s status both i n t r a - and e x t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y . What Roland Barthes said of the text i n general i s obviously the case for the novel or r e c i t : "Le texte a besoin de son ombre: cette ombre 147 2^ r c'est un peu d 1 i d e o l o g i e , un peu de representation, un peu de sujet." To borrow Leduc-Park's terms, i n L'Avalee the subject i s aware of her e s s e n t i a l "neant" which i n the mode of lack or inadequacy i s 25 portrayed as ontol o g i c a l i n s e c u r i t y : II ne faut pas s'occuper de ce qui a r r i v e a l a surface de l a terre et a l a surface de l'eau. Ca ne change r i e n a ce qui se passe dans le no i r et le vide, l a ou on est. II ne se passe r i e n dans le noir et l e vide.... ca attend qu'on fasse quelque chose pour que ca se passe, (p. 9) At the same time, emptiness i s valued p o s i t i v e l y i n r e l a t i o n to po t e n t i a l content as a l i e n , inauthentic and inescapable: " S i les hommes perdaient l a vue on les v e r r a i t bientot s'arreter, se t a i r e , se f i x e r dans le s o l . . . . leurs montagnes fermeraient leur fausse porte a l a fausse lumiere du s o l e i l " (p. 163). The narrator portrays the subject as s e l f wedded to non-self and order wedded to disorder. To move toward any o r i g i n a l p u rity (or the "force" behind meaning) requires the destruction of subject and novel, which i s impossible, since one i s reading a novel. From the perspective of common sense, "no one" answers the narrator's c a l l to anarchy and disorder because, outside of th i s perspective, there i s not "one" e n t i t y or i d e n t i t y to respond: "J'appelle le desordre Mais personne ne vien t . II faut que je fuie comme un voleur et je n'ai r i e n p r i s d'autre que ma v i e . . . quelqu'un qui f u i t avec sa vie f u i t en meme temps avec l a v i e de tous les autres" (p. 90). The c h i l d subject as associated with the "force of meaning" does not escape representation and therefore destruction. F i n a l l y , the violence of the subject, directe against the human form, relates to the destruction of the subject as shape or closure of L'Avalee. The " I " evokes process i n opposition 148 to a closed structure of r e c i t and of character, and thus may be associ-ated with a text and a discourse which are at odds with the conventions of the novel. The destructive bent a t t r i b u t e d to the " I " emerges i n thi s m e t a f i c t i o n a l context of opposition and i l l u s t r a t e s Jean-Louis Baudry's d e s c r i p t i o n of a t y p i c a l representation of the process of i n s c r i p t i o n : V o i l a ce q u ' i l faut que je fasse pour etre l i b r e : tout avaler.... imposer ma l o i a tout.... Mais j'aime mieux tout d e t r u i r e . (p. 160) J' a i le gout d'arracher des ongles avec des t e n a i l l e s , de s c i e r des o r e i l l e s avec un r a s o i r , de tuer des etres humains.... (pp. 143-144) L'ecriture comme t r a v a i l , comme t r a v a i l manifeste... se trouve condamne comme 1'irruption d'un dehors v i o l e n t dans un dedans sans defense.26 The Feminine of the Subject In Speculum: de l'autre femme, Luce Irigaray argues that "toute 27 theorie du 'sujet' aura toujours ete appropriee au 'masculin'." From this point of view, the choice of female subject as narrator i n L'Avalee  des avales contributes s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the text's parodie dimension. According to Irigaray, the woman as subject of the discourse i s often heard as a c h i l d or equated with a c h i l d : A i n s i s'amuse-t-on d'un enfant qui proclame bien haut les f o l l e s ambitions que les adultes t a i s e n t . On s a i t son inaptitude a les r e a l i s e r . Et qu'elle exhibe aussi naivement leurs fantasmes de puissance leur sert de re-creation dans leur course au pouvoir.28 In Berenice's discourse t h i s tendency i s taken to the extreme of stereo-typed p h a l l i c images and f l i r t a t i o n with triumphant machismo; for example: 149 Je suis de ceux qui brulent de se repandre sur toute l'etendue du c i e l , comme l'azur. Lorsque je se r a i grande, je b a t t r a i les campagnes de tous les pays et j'en r a b a t t r a i tous les li o n s de 1'ennui. J'aurai un grand canon et je chasserai 1'ennui jusqu'a ce que je tombe morte. (p. 54) Irigaray emphasizes Freud's view of the c h i l d as masculine: "LA PETITE FILLE EST ALORS UN PETIT HOMME," and shows that the female i s nowhere 29 defined other than by negative comparison to the male. In L'Avalee the tension between e x p l i c i t l y feminine and i m p l i c i t l y masculine subject i s never more manifest than when the narrator adopts the discourse of ideologues and v i s i o n a r i e s : "J'appelle l a guerre de l'homme contre ce q u ' i l a f a i t " (p. 90). Beyond the humorous or narrowly s a t i r i c a l , the narrator's tirades point up the marginal p o s i t i o n of woman i n the d i s -course: "Arretez tous les t r a i n s . . . . je vois l a chose comme s i j'y e t a i s . Tout est arrete. Et i l se leve, le v e r i t a b l e Adonai. II parle. II nous pa r l e " (p. 231). " I I " refers to Berenice who concludes her peroration: "C'est Berenice Einberg qui vous le d i t . Et Berenice Einberg, l a v o i l a grosse Berenice Einberg comme devant" (p. 232). By invoking her name and thus her sex, she contextualizes what precedes as nonsense. To posit a female subject i s to posit a textual subject i f , as Irigaray claims, woman does not speak of or from h e r s e l f but i s possessed and spoken through by a ph a l l o c e n t r i c i n t e r t e x t : " l a femme s e r a i t le support, l'espace d 1 i n s c r i p t i o n , des representants de 1'inconscient i . „30 masculm. For the subject of L'Avalee seeing oneself from the outside i s a problem. Her others are fragmentary and male (Christian) or are her 150 mother (Constance Chlore). Irigaray i d e n t i f y h e r s e l f as female except as or as a mother not d i s t i n c t from her contends that the woman cannot an i n f e r i o r male (that i s , castrated), own mother: E l l e [tout ce qui est femme] fonctionne comme un trou... dans 1'elaboration des processus imaginaires et symboli-ques. Mais cette f a i l l e , ce defaut, ce "trou," l a femme dispose justement de trop peu d 1images, de f i g u r a t i o n s , de representations, pour pouvoir s'y representer.31 For L'Avalee, the "trou" i s the image of subject and text, with t h e i r expanding and contracting movement, including and excluding what i s always already there. The impossible o r i g i n i s also " l ' a u t r e femme" and "l'Autre, femme" underwriting a conceptual system i n which she i s suppressed. The Writing Subject The representation of female c h i l d i n L'Avalee conspires i n the representation of a s p l i t subject without an essence and p o t e n t i a l l y without i d e n t i t y . This choice posits a subject who i s not the master of his (her) language (doubly so i f female), but through whom an i n t e r -text manifests i t s e l f . A t h i r d aspect of the narrator, as wr i t i n g sub-j e c t , might seem incompatible with the image of a subject undergoing deconstruction, since the f i c t i o n a l journal represents the wr i t i n g process 32 as an aid to mastery of neurosis. However, the subject of L'Avalee does not re f e r to the i n s c r i p t i o n of the text, does not read i t , and cannot s t r i c t l y speaking be described as a d i a r i s t . The reticence of the text regarding i t s i n s c r i p t i o n i n v i t e s an extradiegetic consideration of the narrating subject. Her lack of self-consciousness regarding the writing process points up her f i c t i t i o u s status i n r e l a t i o n to a 151 male w r i t i n g subject whose name appears on the cover of the book. A t r a d i t i o n a l analysis would allude to the persona, Berenice, as the author unconscious or his i n s p i r a t i o n . A feminist point of view, l i k e Irigaray' might see the persona as an acknowledgement of the female as place of i n s c r i p t i o n of the other and of the i n t e r t e x t . In any case the text suggests tensions at play i n the a c t i v i t y of wri t i n g and shows the in t e r t e x t commanding the text, and functioning as content of the wri t i n g subject. In 1955 i n L'Espace l i t t e r a i r e Maurice Blanchot probed the status of the l i t e r a r y text and i t s author.33 assertion of the retreat of personal i d e n t i t y from the w r i t i n g subject p a r a l l e l s the concept of deconstruction of subject. One comes across passages of L'Espace l i t t e r a i r e which are very close to the text of L'Avalee des avales. For example, the i s o l a t i o n and i n s e c u r i t i e s of Berenice at the beginning of L'Avalee echo Blanchot's de s c r i p t i o n of the writing subject at the beginning of L'Espace l i t t e r a i r e : Je suis seule. Je n'ai qu'a La ou je suis, le jour me fermer les yeux pour m'en n'est plus que l a perte du apercevoir. Quand on veut sejour, l ' i n t i m i t e avec le savoir ou on est, on se ferme dehors sans l i e u et sans les yeux. On est l a ou on repos. La venue i c i f a i t est quand on a les yeux que c e l u i qui vient appar-fermes: on est dans l e t i e n t a l a dispersion, a l a noir et dans le vide. (p. f i s s u r e ou l' e x t e r i e u r est 8) 1'intrusion qui etouffe... ou l'espace est le vertige de 1 1espacement.34 Self as loss and the tension of s h i f t i n g perspectives are intimately related to the act of writing as envisaged by Blanchot. The wr i t i n g subject i s removed from the domain of common sense to that of i t s under-pinnings, and instead of text as space confronts the process of s p a t i a l d e f i n i t i o n (espacement). This process in s p i r e s anguish s i m i l a r to the 152 malaise a t t r i b u t e d to Berenice. Consciousness turning i n on i t s e l f encounters what i s a l i e n and becomes a process of w i l l i n g and focusing what causes i t s own malaise: Tout m'avale. Quand j ' a i les Voir suppose l a distance, yeux fermes, c'est par mon l a decision separatrice, ventre que je suis avalee, le pouvoir de n'etre pas c'est dans le ventre de ce en contact et d'eviter que je vois que je suffo- dans le contact l a confu-que. (p. 7) sion.... Mais qu'arrive-t-i l quand ce qu'on v o i t quoi-Car l e regard, quand i l est qu'a distance, semble vous seul, est une breche f a i t e toucher par un contact s a i s i s -a soi-meme, une red d i t i o n sant, quand l a maniere de in c o n d i t i o n n e l l e , un r e l a - v o i r est une sorte de toucher, chement des mailles qui quand v o i r est un contact,a permet a l a v i l l e d'entrer distance.... Ce qui nous est en s o i comme le vent par donne par le contact a d i s -les fenetres ouvertes et tance est 1'image, et l a de mener en s o i le b a l . f a s c i n a t i o n est l a passion (pp. 152-153) de l'image. 3 5 Berenice says that i n seeing (that i s , i n focusing attention on a phenom-enon) there i s a r i s k of fa s c i n a t i o n and engulfment. Fascination, "l'autre mort" of Blanchot, in s p i r e s the w r i t i n g subject who becomes the process of defining text and context: "Qui veut mourir, ne meurt pas, perd l a volonte de mourir, entre dans l a f a s c i n a t i o n nocturne ou 36 i l meurt dans une passion sans volonte." The f i c t i o n a l subject of L'Avalee accepts the challenge against her w i l l , although as the voice defining the c i r c l e of the text she also parodies the w r i t i n g subject f a l l i n g prey to an i l l u s i o n of power as described by Blanchot: C'est a moi le s o l e i l , c'est ... parce que l ' e c r i v a i n moi le createur et le posses- c r o i t r e s t e r l'un et l'au-seur du s o l e i l . (p. 55) tre--l'homme qui dispose des mots et ce l i e u ou l ' i n d i s -ponible qu'est l e langage echappe a toute d i v i s i o n . . . 153 i l l u i vient 1 ' i l l u s i o n q u ' i l peut disposer de 1 1 i n d i s p o n i b l e et tout di r e et donner voix et parole a t o u t . 3 7 As the subject of the discourse, Berenice i s masculine; just as Blanchot's w r i t i n g subject believes himself to be both "l'homme" and " l e l i e u " or " l a femme-mere," i n Irigaray's terms. The empty c i r c l e of L'Avalee tends toward a vanishing point which i s an i d e a l of the l i t e r a r y work for Blanchot: "l 1extreme que l ' a r t puisse atteindre... le point profondement obscur vers lequel l ' a r t , le 38 d e s i r , l a nuit semblent tendre." Indeed, the image of form as c i r -cular i n L'Avalee c a l l s to mind Blanchot's reference to the c i r c l e as image of a closed conceptual system: "Chaque f o i s que l a pensee se heurte a un c e r c l e , c'est qu'elle touche a quelque chose d ' o r i g i n e l 39 dont e l l e part et qu'elle ne peut depasser que pour y revenir." It may seem that any rapprochement of L'Espace l i t t e r a i r e and L'Avalee i s merely an unknowing a l l u s i o n to the p h i l o s o p h i c a l heritage shared by both; nonetheless, i t i s unusual to f i n d such s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s between a c r i t i c a l text and a novel, p a r a l l e l s which suggest that Ducharme and Blanchot are addressing the same problem of the w r i t i n g subject. Conclusion In L'Avalee the incongruity of enunciating subject and subject enunciated creates an empty space into which one may read various c r i -tiques of the subject. The parody of c h i l d narrator both s a t i r i z e s the concept of o r i g i n as essence and incorporates the motif of c h i l d as dynamic recommencement. The choice of female subject includes a 154 s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y element from the point of view of feminist c r i t i q u e of discourse, and reduplicates the choice of c h i l d since i n texts l i k e Barres 1 Berenice woman i s expressly equated with c h i l d . Berenice i n L'Avalee i s a v i c t i m of diminished momentum, i n t e n s i f i e d fragmentation and s t a s i s , motifs evoking a closed conceptual universe into which a dynamic subject i s integrated. In the context of the r e c i t the subject's momentum i s represented as a destructive force which prevents integration, a " d i f f e r e n c e " which impedes her functioning with self-assurance, and provokes aggressivity. The persistence of th i s force e f f e c t s a hypostasis of the subject as schizophrenic, thus at least preventing hypostasis as a Cartesian unitary subject. If one takes a meta f i c t i o n a l point of view, the blatant incongruity of subject and discourse i n L'Avalee f a c i l i t a t e s contextualization of r e c i t as play and produces a text more obviously f e s t i v e than does the na t u r a l i z a t i o n of r e c i t i n Le Nez qui vogue. 155 NOTES Susan Stewart, Nonsense: Aspects of I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i n Folk- lore and Li t e r a t u r e (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), p. 8. 2 Patrick Imbert, Roman quebecois contemporain et cl i c h e s (Ottawa: Editions de l' U n i v e r s i t e d'Ottawa, 1983), p. 22: "Nous vivons dans un univers ou le taux de redondance est des plus f o r t s et ou on d i t fonda-mentalement l a meme chose meme s i une myriade de d e t a i l s , provenant d 1 oppositions paradigmatiques simples, masquent les axes semantiques communs." 3 Peter Coveney, The Image of Childhood (London: R o c k l i f f , 1982), p. 43; Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Emile, Oeuvres completes IV (Paris: Gallimard, 1969), p. 58. 4 Coveney, p. 192. 5 C. G. Jung, "The Child Archetype," Collected Works, trans. H. G. Baynes (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), IX, p. 164. Jacques Derrida, De La Grammatologie (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1967), p. 69. ^ Jean-Joseph Goux, "Marx et 1' i n s c r i p t i o n du t r a v a i l , " Tel Quel, n° 33 (printemps 1968), p. 89. g Derrida, De La Grammatologie, p. 65. Oswald Ducrot and Tzvetan Todorov, "Grammatologie et l i n g u i s t i -que," Dictionnaire encyclopedique des sciences du langage (Paris: S e u i l , 1972), p. 436. ^ Gerard Bessette, Lucien Ge s l i n , Charles Parent, H i s t o i r e de l a  l i t t e r a t u r e canadienne-francaise (Montreal: C.E.C., 1968), p. 636. ^ Daisy Ashford, The Young V i s i t o r s ; or, Mr. Salteenas' Plan (London: Chatto and Windus, 1919), p. 78. Punctuation as i n o r i g i n a l . 12 J u l i a K r i s t e v a , Polylogue (Paris: S e u i l , 1977), p. 472. 156 13 Mark Twain, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (London: Chatto and Windus, 1884); Raymond Queneau, Zazje dans le metro (Paris: Gallimard, 1959); Henry James, What Maisie Knew (London: William Heinemann, 1897). ^ Raymond Queneau, Zazie dans le metro (Paris: Gallimard, 1959), p. 253. ^ Jacques Derrida, L ' E c r i t u r e et l a difference (Paris: S e u i l , 1967), p. 366. 1 6 Coveney, pp. 192-193. ^ Henry James, The Turn of the Screw (New York: Scribner's, 1908). 18 J u l i a K risteva, Semeiotike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris: S e u i l , 1969), pp. 122, 128. 19 Stewart, p. 121. 20 Stewart, p. 121. 21 Derrida, L'Ecriture et l a dif f e r e n c e, p. 361. 22 See V a l e r i e Raoul 1s commentary on Barthes' concept i n The  French F i c t i o n a l .Journal: F i c t i o n a l Narcissim/ N a r c i s s i s t i c F i c t i o n (Toronto: Un i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1980), p. 62. 23 , G i l l e s Deleuze and F e l i x Guattari, Capitalisme et schizophrenic: L'Anti-Oedipe (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1972), p. 371. Roland Barthes, Le P l a i s i r du texte (Paris: S e u i l , 1973), p. 53. 25 Renee Leduc-Park, Rejean Ducharme: Nietzsche et Dionysos (Quebec: Presses de l' U n i v e r s i t e Laval, 1982), pp. 31-39. 26 Jean-Louis Baudry, "Linguistique et production t e x t u e l l e " i n Theorie d'ensemble, ed. Philippe S o l l e r s (Paris: S e u i l , 1968), p. 357. 27 Luce Irigaray, Speculum: de l'autre femme (Par i s : Editions de Minuit, 1974), p. 165. 157 Irigaray, p. 175. 29 Irigaray, p. 26. Irigaray, p. 138. 3 ^ Irigaray, p. 85. 3 2 Raoul, pp. 29-31. 33 Maurice Blanchot, L'Espace l i t t e r a i r e (Paris: Gallimard, 1955). 34 Blanchot, p. 24. 35 Blanchot, p. 25. 3 6 Blanchot, p. 128. 3 7 Blanchot, pp. 241-242. 3 8 Blanchot, p. 227. 19 Blanchot, p. 110. PART I I I : SUBJECT, TEXT AND DISCOURSE Unlike L'Avalee des avales, Le Nez qui vogue presents the text as the discourse of a writing subject. The obsessive narrator appar-ently masters the discourse and emerges from his journal writing cured. However, the o p t i m i s t i c preliminary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of character be-comes problematic when reviewed with reference to the presentation of secondary characters i n Le Nez gui vogue. The narrator f a i l s to abandon his v i s i o n of the other as either Ideal or degraded, and reje c t s his other i n favour of this abstract binary system i n which the r e a l i s degraded by comparison with the Ideal which i s unreal. Chateaugue's death i s portrayed as the r e a l i z a t i o n of c a s t r a t i o n , the v i o l a t i o n of the Ideal by the r e a l . The problematic r e l a t i o n of narrator and other reopens the gues-t i o n of the nature of his r e l a t i o n as subject to the discourse. He achieves a measure of mastery i n the discourse, yet he i s not cured, but remains under the sway of the ca s t r a t i o n complex. The following discussion w i l l consider f i r s t the triumph of the discourse (Chapter VII), then the triumph of r e c i t i n Le Nez gui vogue, and f i n a l l y the r e d e f i n i t i o n of the subject i n l i g h t of the tensions between the two modes of the text (Chapter VIII). CHAPTER VII: PERFORMANCE AND TEXTUALITY IN LE NEZ QUI VOQUE Non-narrative Discourse i n Le Nez qui vogue Chapters 1-25 of Le Nez may be described simply as "waiting for 158 159 the money to run out," the actions serving to i l l u s t r a t e habits or develop Chateaugue's character. Only three chapters recount dramatic events: i n Chapter 16, Chateaugue i s hurt i n a b i c y c l e accident; i n Chapter 17, Chateaugue and M i l l e M i l l e s s t e a l the wedding-dress manne-kin; and in Chapter 19, they spend a day in bed, a dramatic enactment of i n e r t i a . One b r i e f chapter portrays the evolution of the childhood friendship between M i l l e M i l l e s and Chateaugue i n i t e r a t i v e narrative, i n accordance with the tendency of the text to repeat and comment on an e a r l i e r text. Much of Chapters 1-25 constitutes an account of the narrator's thoughts and feelings at the time of w r i t i n g . This non-narrative d i s -course i s not homogeneously expository, i f by expository i s meant "the process of making something i n t e l l i g i b l e , or saying why c e r t a i n things are as they are, or the account used to do these things."''" In fa c t , the expository i s not the dominant mode of the discourse, which tends to evolve into nonsense; and when one considers the novel as a structured whole, "nonsense" i t s e l f requires explanation. As an example of what happens, here i s a series of expository statements which come to be dominated by the expressive element: "Je n'ai plus de v i e dans l e corps. Je n'ai plus r i e n dans l e corps. Je suis torture. Mon ame, en p l e i n vide, suffoque. Mon s o u f f l e me met l a bouche en feu. Mes pensees m'etranglent l e cerveau" (p. 43). The frequency of re p e t i t i o n s of words, semantic elements, or phrase structures begins to saturate 2 the context, i n R i f f a t e r r e ' s sense. At times the concept of parodic w r i t i n g discussed i n connection with L'Avalee des avales (Chapter V of t h e s i s ) , i s applicable, as when the passage above continues with 160 the altered c l i c h e s : " J ' a i mange a pi e r r e fendre. J ' a i bu comme un l o i r " for "geler a pierre fendre" and "dormir comme un l o i r . " This i s a type of context i n Ducharme's w r i t i n g described by Marcel Chouinard also: "Les nouveaux mots ne sont motives que par l'ampleur de ceux qui les precedent, s i bien qu'au bout du compte, cette progression debouche sur une e c r i t u r e hyperbolique tres eloignee de 1'objet i n i t i a l 3 de l a d e s c r i p t i o n . " The d i s t o r t i o n s are progressive and cumulative. The speaker seems fr u s t r a t e d , but instead of describing t h i s f e e l i n g , he acts i t out. This performance characterizes the non-narrative, nonexpository discourse. At the l e v e l of narration and wr i t i n g the narrator provides scene as well as summary. This discourse i s also reminiscent of what J u l i a Kristeva defines as the polyphonic novel, which according to her includes "hieroglyphic" elements and spectacle. The drama can be interpreted i n terms of the narrator's neurosis, but the hieroglyphics i n Le Nez qui vogue come to the fore when the personal " I " recedes into the background. If the r e f e r e n t i a l drama of wr i t i n g consists e s p e c i a l l y i n the performance of feelings of ambivalence, the impersonal " I " (that i s , the " I " considered as enunciating function rather than person) i s characterized by ambivalence i n the sense of multiple values and meanings as described by Kristeva: Le terme 'd'ambivalence 1 impligue 1'insertion de l ' h i s -t o i r e (de l a societe) dans le texte, et du texte dans l ' h i s t o i r e ; pour I ' e c r i v a i n i l s sont une seule et meme chose.... I'e c r i t u r e comme lecture du corpus l i t t e r a i r e anterieur, le texte comme absorption et repligue a un autre texte.^ In the narrator's pseudo-expository discourse, the reader responds to i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y more immediately than to the r e f e r e n t i a l f i c t i o n whose 161 immediacy the i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y usually disrupts. At such a moment the performance or spectacle s h i f t s to the text's display of i t s function-ing. When t r a d i t i o n a l v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i s the dominant p r i n c i p l e , the text neither shows nor t e l l s of i t s functioning. In th i s text, how-ever, a u t o r e f e r e n t i a l i t y outweighs v e r s i s i m i l i t u d e and becomes what the text i s "about." Disruption of Reference as B i r t h of Text and Subject In a context where generalization i s not lim i t e d by s p e c i f i c reference, reference i n general breaks down. The enunciating subject portrays c l e r i c a l r h e t o r i c as pseudo-philosophical i n a series of rhe-t o r i c a l questions beginning "Pourquoi" and "Qui." These are followed by a series of assertions concerning "on," beginning, "On peut etre chaste ou p a i l l a r d . . . . On peut etre f o r t ou lache" (p. 50). He focuses p a r t i c u l a r l y on the either/or binary opposition and i t i s to this struc-ture that the passage f i n a l l y r e f e r s . One may read the passage as r e f e r r i n g to the narrator's obsessional neurosis which drives him to escape from the here and now into the domain of g e n e r a l i t i e s and which proh i b i t s the choice between a l t e r n a t i v e s . At the same time the iden-t i t y of the narrator, or even of the c l e r i c a l persona ("Je parle comme un v i c a i r e , " p. 50), fades into the text of the semantic universe, where the prestige of popular wisdom i s seen to derive from i t s reliance on binary oppositions. In the c i t i n g of p a r t i c u l a r s , emphasis on l i t e r a l meaning may be used to mock popular wisdom: "Qui ne souhaite pas etre fort? Les gymnases, les gymnastes, les gymnasiarques et Monsieur Amerique ne 162 sont que quatre des m i l l i a r d s de f a i t s et exemples qui plaident en faveur de ma theorie" (p. 50). In other cases the progression i s not based p r i m a r i l y on what i s semantically l i t e r a l . Repetition of phonemes and rhythms i s seen to determine meaning: "On s u i t . On se l a i s s e g l i s s e r a l a suite des autres" (p. 51). This example evokes moral laxness as responsible for language's active r o l e , an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n keeping with the narrator's psychology, and probably with a common-sense point of view as well. One of multifarious other breakdowns of r e f e r e n t i a l i t y occurs at the beginning of Chapter 18, where the narrator again escapes into the realm of ideas: "Pasteur, en 1495, inventa le prototosteate de pentacleine. En 1497, on le trouva dans son c e r c u e i l ; . . . . Qui n'a pas entendu p a r l e r de Pasteur, le malfaiteur de l'humanite?" (p. 99). Through the speaker there re-emerges a f a m i l i a r essay or public lecture s t y l e , reminiscent of the Grand Larousse's reference to Pasteur as "un des plus grands bien f a i t e u r s de l'humanite,"^ inverted i n keeping with the narrator's Weltschmerz. It i s , however, the r e d u p l i c a t i o n of "to" which i n "prototosteate" suggests parody of s c i e n t i f i c jargon, or at least mimesis of the layperson's attempt to enunciate i t . "Pro-totosteate de pentacleine," without being a s c i e n t i f i c term, alludes to one, since the p r e f i x "proto" r e f e r s to c e r t a i n chemical compounds and the root "steat" means "consisting of grease or f a t . " The text displays i t s relatedness to s c i e n t i f i c discourse. The passage also manages to allude to h i s t o r y without simply including a h i s t o r i c a l element. "On le [Pasteur] trouva dans son c e r c u e i l " suggests that Pasteur expired i n his c o f f i n , just as one might say of a man that 163 he "was found dead i n the bathtub." This metalogical figure opens up uncertainty i n the heart of the commonplace. Furthermore, the Pasteur of the h i s t o r i c a l text could not have been found i n his c o f f i n 325 years before his b i r t h . The text merely alludes to the use of dates i n c o n s t i t u t i n g biography. Etymology, with i t s promise of revealing o r i g i n s , also comes in for scrutiny: "Le mot cocon ne vient pas du mot con mais du mot coco" (p. 44). Again, the text displaces the decoding process by invoking the l i t e r a l : cocon = co + con or coco + n. Spleen i s vented against school experience by i n t r o j e c t i n g into learned discourse the obscene "con" and the f a m i l i a r term of endearment "coco." Sound determines sense and furthermore a term of the standard d i a l e c t i s seen to derive from what i t excludes rather than v i c e versa. The choice of "Coco" r i d i c u l e s a schoolmasterish aversion for impropriety, "con" being more l o g i c a l since, l i k e "cocon," i t evokes an enclosed space; and phono-l o g i c a l l y the r e d u p l i c a t i o n of "co" i s perceived as more plausible than the s u f f i x i n g of "n." Elsewhere etymology does reveal a hidden dimension of truth: "Texaco vient du mot Texas. La gazoline Texaco est une gazoline canadienne. Est-ce que cela t i e n t debout" (p. 123)? The r e l a t i o n of the enunciating subject to " t r u t h " by this point i n the discussion c r i e s out for c l a r i f i c a t i o n . He goes some way to providing i t : Je ne possede pas l a v e r i t e mais j'en possede une bonne dizaine. V o i c i l'une d ' e l l e s : l ' i l e de B a f f i n , dans 1'ocean Arctique, a 178 000 m i l l e s carres. En v o i c i une autre: Les Chinois sont nombreux. En v o i c i une t r o i -sieme: Le centre biologique du Quebec a une c o l l e c t i o n de 240 especes de poissons. Je vous en confie une der-niere: Jeanne d'Arc est morte depuis 1448.... (p. 132) 164 The truth relevant to the project of the journal i s truth about the narrator. In the absence of a v a i l a b i l i t y of such truth, any a v a i l -able information i s both relevant and i r r e l e v a n t . As the speech philosopher Austin says of truth: It i s e s s e n t i a l to r e a l i z e that "true" and " f a l s e " . . . do not stand for anything simple at a l l ; but only for a general dimension of being a r i g h t or proper thing to say as opposed to a wrong thing, i n those circum-stances, to t h i s audience, for these purposes and with these intentions. The truth or f a l s i t y of a state-ment depends not merely on the meanings of the words but on what act you were performing i n what circum-stances . ^  One must assume that the l i t e r a r y speaker i n the above passage from Le Nez qui vogue i s , as Mary Louise Pratt claims of a l l narrative d i s -play texts, "not only reporting but also v e r b a l l y d i s p l a y i n g a state of a f f a i r s , i n v i t i n g his addressee(s) to j o i n him i n contemplating i t , evaluating i t , and responding to i t . " 7 The i n t e r e s t i n g , t e l l a b l e aspect of the material c i t e d i s that the h i s t o r i c a l , the s c i e n t i f i c , the con-ven t i o n a l l y "true" i s not t e l l a b l e or i n t e r e s t i n g ; or to put i t another way, what can be asserted cannot automatically be displayed. It w i l l by now not be s u r p r i s i n g that the information presented as true i n the passage i s once again not true--or not i n conformity with the stan-dard s o c i a l text. F i r s t , the assumption behind "Jeanne d'Arc est morte depuis 1448" i s c l e a r l y "Jeanne d'Arc est morte en 1448"; whereas d i c -tionnaries and other impedimenta of the standard s o c i a l text give 1431 as the date of her demise. Second, the area of B a f f i n Island (and there are contexts where i t matters) i s usually given as 183,810 sguare miles. Rather than making true statements, the text endeavours to leave no doubt that i t i s displaying the true not only as a function 165 of relevance but as a function of b e l i e f . It would thus seem to suggest the primacy of the f i c t i o n a l . The narrator, manoeuvring to avoid truths about himself, denies the p o s s i b i l i t y of truth independent of his w i l l . From the textual point of view, t h i s text asserts mastery of the i n -tertext . So f a r , the pseudo-expository discourse of Le Nez qui voque has been seen to do nothing els e : popular wisdom i s stripped to the tauto-l o g i c a l bone; sense i s lucky to emerge from sound; the true i s a struc-ture which threatens even i t s own functioning. Le Nez qui voque includes various mises en abyme of narrative which, not s u r p r i s i n g l y , s t r i v e desperately to provoke the "so what?" response that "natural" narrative s t r i v e s desperately, according to g William Labov, to f o r e s t a l l . The following t y p i c a l example might function e f f e c t i v e l y as a presummary or abstract of a n a r r a t i v e : "A Halifax pendant l a greve des p i l o t e s de l'isthme de Chignectou, une p e t i t e femme et un p e t i t homme s 1embrasserent" (pp. 42-43). It i s r i c h i n elements of o r i e n t a t i o n : " H a l i f a x , " " l a greve des p i l o t e s . " The " l a " i s problematic i n the present context, however, since i t must presuppose f a m i l i a r i t y with the s t r i k e or be elucidated i n the course of the n a r r a t i v e , which aborts. A "complete" narrative as defined by Labov "begins with an o r i e n t a t i o n , proceeds to the complicating action, i s suspended at the focus of evaluation before the r e s o l u t i o n , concludes with the r e s o l u t i o n , and returns the l i s t e n e r to the present 9 time with the coda." The H a l i f a x n a r r a t i v e , l i k e others of i t s type i n Le Nez qui voque, i s minimal since i t lacks evaluative elements and i s therefore devoid of t e l l a b i l i t y , or substantial narrative 166 i n t e r e s t in Labov's sense. Like f a c t s , s t o r y t e l l i n g lacks relevance i n Le Nez qui vogue, which thus presents i t s e l f as a post- and meta-narrative text, the discourse of the subject proper emerging subseguent to the narratives which open Chapter 13 and, most remarkably, Chapter 1. The extensive portions of Le Nez gui vogue which the narrator devotes to h i s r e f l e c t i o n s of the moment e f f e c t a l t e r e d performance of several types of text, including n a r r a t i v e . Thus attention i s drawn to the performance aspect of s o c i a l discourse, that i s , to a meaning actualized through a subject and emerging from context and i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n . It can be suggested, and has been e a r l i e r i n t h i s discussion, that the text represents a f i c t i o n a l narrator discharging h i s aggres-sion by v i o l a t i n g s o c i a l norms of the truth. It can also be said that through the f i c t i o n of the narrator, a display text i s asserting power over and against s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l and other l i t e r a r y texts. While making an inventory of the text as performance one may c i t e not only the psychological acting out and the textual a c t u a l i z i n g of the i n t e r t e x t , but also the representation of the "performative" aspect of discourse in the language philosopher's sense. According to Austin's f i r s t formulation, performative utterances do not "(a) 'describe' or 'report' or (con)"state" anything at a l l , are not 'true or f a l s e ' ; and (b) the u t t e r i n g of the sentence i s , or i s part of, the doing of an action, which again would not normally be described as, or as 'just,' saying something."^ One should acknowledge that i t i s widely held today that a l l utterances encompass a performative aspect. S. Fish's commentary i s perhaps the most f a m i l i a r i n l i t e r a r y 167 discussion of the subject: ... ordinary circumstances, circumstances i n which objects, events, and intentions are transparently accessible, are shown to be an impossible i d e a l the moment the absolute (as opposed to conventional) d i s -t i n c t i o n between constatives and performatives can no longer be made. •'-•'-One must also admit that i n considering a text to be l i t e r a r y one prob-ably c l a s s i f i e s i t as e s s e n t i a l l y performative. Nonetheless, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g simply to note how Le Nez qui voque e x p l o i t s language events t r a d i t i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as performative. The imperative form, where "do X" i s said to imply the overt performative "I order you to do X," occurs frequently i n the narrator's discourse, for example: Aimez-vous Brahms? Oui? Vous aimez Brahms? Eh bien, embrassez-le! A l l e z - y . Ne soyez pas timide. II ne vous mangera pas; ce n'est pas un carnaval, ce n'est pas un anthropologiste, ce n'est pas un numis-mate. C'est mon cahier, et j ' e c r i r a i ce que je voudrai dedans. (p. 133) Disruption of Reference and the Game of Verbal Jeopardy In c i t i n g the imperative, one raises the whole specter of the second person. The narrator of Le Nez qui voque addresses a "you" who i s not n e c e s s a r i l y only himself because, for example, he describes his journal as a "chef-d'oeuvre de l a l i t t e r a t u r e frangaise" (p. 44). That "you" may d i r e c t l y r e f e r to a reader or audience i s s i g n i f i c a n t here, because the narrator v i o l a t e s rules governing narrator-audience r e l a -tions. He superimposes the conversational model on the narrative model; in conversation each i n t e r l o c u t o r has a turn, whereas the readers of 12 narrative have v o l u n t a r i l y abrogated t h e i r turn. One thus senses the inconsistency (and i n the written context, the absurdity) of i n v i t i n g 168 dialogue. The problem i s not affected by allowing that the reader and not the author constitutes the text, i f the present reader i s i n -voking another implied reader. Returning to the t r a d i t i o n a l point of view, i t i s further obvious that, l i k i n g Brahms, the reader invoked here represents the norms of o f f i c i a l high culture. Why should t h i s i n d i v i d u a l be instructed to ki s s Brahms? It i s because the author i s firml y entrenched as o r i g i n of the work, command-ing respect i n his person; the transfer of respect from work to person i s made e x p l i c i t i n the command "Embrassez-le!" Considered as a perform-ati v e utterance, the command must m i s f i r e because the i n d i v i d u a l Brahms does not exi s t and cannot be kissed. In context, one responds to the command i n s t a n t l y as an attack against a hidebound middleclass reader. One may imagine t h i s reader's i d e n t i t y as implied by the reformulation of "Aimez-vous Brahms?" as "Vous aimez Brahms?", the former being i n t e r -pretable as an obvious a l l u s i o n to Aimez-vous Brahms? by Frangoise Sagan. "Allez-y. Ne soyez pas timide" mitigates the abrupt "embrassez-l e " ; the reader depicted i s a r e a l sycophant. Fortunately for the actual reader, the sycophant i s , unlike him, also an ignoramus who cannot navigate p o l y s y l l a b i c words ("carnaval, anthropologiste, numis-mate"). In f a c t , t h i s straw man functions to reassure the actual reader of whom the text makes considerable demands. In a text where the sub-jec t i s undergoing deconstruction, the narrator nonetheless manages to orient the reader and consolidate the narrator-audience bond. In th i s l i g h t the metaleptic "C'est mon cahier et j ' e c r i r a i ce que je voudrai dedans" squarely recognizes that the narrator appears to v i o l a t e the 169 narrative contract. This single example of the imperative has ent a i l e d rules of speech act theory (the performative), as applied to narr a t i v e . A published written text provides the p r i v i l e g e d context for f l o u t i n g these rules since, according to Pratt, i t s very existence assures the reader of i t s 13 ultimate i n t e r e s t and worth. The narrator's contradicting himself may appear to jeopardize communication, as i n the following: Ceux qui parlent ont bien plus de prestige que ceux qui se ferment l a gueule. On n'entend jamais parler de ceux qu'on n'entend pas. Ceux qu'on n'entend pas meurent sans prestige. Par exemple, qui a jamais entendu parler de Rembrandt? (p. 104) The subject of the enunciation i s here i n process; i t i s not a Cartesian subject. In the construction of this subject, r h e t o r i c , representing the tautology of the semantic universe, i s overtly determining meaning. Catachresis replaces any ultimate formulation of truth: "On n'entend jamais parler de ceux qu'on n'entend pas." Chouinard says that i n Ducharme's texts: "Les langages ne parlent pas le monde, i l s se parlent. Paradoxalement, l a parole de Ducharme apparait comme une mise en doute A 1 1 " 1 4 de l a parole. Allowing free reign to the Doxa allows i t s contradictions to be-come e x p l i c i t and the subject to instate a measure of monitoring. The Self/Other s p l i t i s portrayed as fundamentally i n t r a s u b j e c t i v e and not congruent with narrator/audience. The reader can read the s p l i t i n t r a -sub j e c t i v e l y ; thus i t seems misguided simply to interpret the contradic-t i o n , which i s absurd, as d e r i s i o n of the reader. The narrator's "Ce n'est pas un carnaval" (p. 133), i s quite inappropriate i f interpreted 170 i n l i g h t of J u l i a Kristeva's use of the term "carnavalesque": La structure carnavalesque est comme l a trace d'une cosmogonie qui ne connait pas l a substance, l a cause, l ' i d e n t i t e , en dehors du rapport avec le tout qui n'existe que dans et par l a relation.15 One may charge that the concept of subject i n process does nothing to defuse the maliciousness of the l i e (a v i o l a t i o n of what Pratt terms the "Cooperative p r i n c i p l e " i n speech a c t s ) , i n a passage such as t h i s : Les poules en savent bien plus long que les savants au sujet des oeufs.... Tous les t r a i t e s que j ' a i l u s , au sujet des oeufs, concluent en affirmant que les oeufs sont bien des oeufs. Quel p r o f i t pourrais-je t i r e r de p a r e i l l e s lectures? (p. 224) Nonetheless, the apparent l i e c l e a r l y alludes to the closed, t a u t o l o g i c a l structure of the conceptual universe, of which Patrick Imbert sees the texts by Ducharme as an expose: "les oeufs sont bien des o e u f s . I n other words, i t i s unnecessary to read a t r e a t i s e on eggs i n order to read or predict the semantic structures on which the t r e a t i s e w i l l r e l y . If at times the subject's handling of the i n t e r l o c u t o r i s b r u t a l , so i s his handling of s e l f : M i l l e M i l l e s passe son temps a dir e des s o t t i s e s ; mais i l ne l e regrette pas... Je suis le r o i de l a betise et j'en suis f i e r parce que l a betise est tres repandue. Le r o i des Etats-Desunis est bien plus f i e r d'etre r o i que le r o i des Esquimaux.... les Americains sont bien plus repandus.... (p. 106) Nonsense or "bet i s e " i s a key to sense, in r e l a t i o n to which sense may be grasped. Susan Stewart states that "Nonsense, play, and paradox, as a c t i v i t i e s that discourse on the nature of discourse, are b u i l t 18 into the generic system as methods for innovation and evaluation." The epithet " r o i de l a b e t i s e " i s not as deprecatory as one might 171 unthinkingly assume. In the pseudo-expository discourse of Le Nez  qui vogue, " I , " "you" and the topic are i n a state of f l u x , as non-sense i n v i t e s reassessment of an argument or of the context of a text. Neither Americans nor Eskimos have a king, but the expression "King of Alaska" has a h i s t o r y i n phi l o s o p h i c a l discourse. A. R. Lacey's A Dictionary of Philosophy refers to a discussion of a s i m i l a r phrase, "King of Alaska" ("roi des Esquimaux," i n Le Nez, p. 106): i s i t " s u i t -able for mentioning a r e a l king i f there were one" or i s i t that i t 19 "mentions that non-existent king?" Inasmuch as the massive non-narrative material i n Le Nez qui  vogue i s related to a psychological n a t u r a l i z a t i o n , i t portrays the narrator performing his neurosis. Inasmuch as i t lays bare the under-pinnings of narrative and meaning i n general, i t dramatizes the text/ i n t e r t e x t r e l a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i n i t s portrayal of speech acts and narra-tor/audience r e l a t i o n s , this material imitates a breakdown of communica-tio n i n t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y while e x t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y i t merely plays at verbal jeopardy, since we do read i t , with pleasure. The Novel Begins: Performance Holds Its Own In Le Nez gui vogue the performative mode of discourse does not appear to dominate i n the entire text; event intrudes into t h i s i d y l l i c discourse i n Chapter 16, where Chateaugue has a b i c y c l e accident, con-s t i t u t i n g the beginning of a r e c i t . U n t i l Chapter 16 the performative mode does dominate but with the understanding e x t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y that the text i s a novel and w i l l include a r e c i t . The f i r s t section of Le Nez, dominated by the performative mode, nonetheless prepares the 172 r e c i t i n two stages. Chapters 1-5 constitute an introduction to the opposition between discourse and r e c i t , between enunciating and enun-20 ciated subject ; and Chapters 6-15 describe the narrator's preliminary manoeuvre to preserve the supremacy of subject as discourse, or enun-c i a t i n g subject, i n opposition to subject as r e c i t , or enunciated sub-j e c t . With the f i r s t event of the r e c i t , Chateaugue's accident, the journal loses i t s r e l a t i v e autonomy from the realm of sense and neces-s i t y . Chapters 1-5 begin with M i l l e M i l l e s ' a r r i v a l i n Montreal and end with Chateaugue's a r r i v a l . This introduction proceeds apace on two l e v e l s : that of the narrative and that of the performative as s p e c i f i c a l l y l i t e r a r y presence of language. At i t s beginning the text throws out a welter of c u l t u r a l a l l u s i o n s which d i s o r i e n t the reader instead of o r i e n t i n g him in a coherent f i c t i o n a l universe, as t r a d i t i o n requires. In the world of the text the f a m i l i a r and factual may become problematic: "Le s o i r de l a r e d d i t i o n de Breda, Roger de l a Tour de Babel, avocat au Chatelet, p r i t sa canne et s'en a l i a . En 1954, a Tracy, Maurice Duplessis, avocat au Chatelet, mourut d'hemorragie cere-brale; celebre et c e l i b a t a i r e " (p. 9). The f i r s t sentence evokes the high l i t e r a r y tone. In "La r e d d i t i o n de Breda" we may discover an a l l u s i o n to the h i s t o r i c a l surrender of Breda (1625) or Velasquez's canvas representing i t (1634-35), an a l l u s i o n to the gap between art 21 and l i f e . The name "de l a Tour" seems generated by the a l l u s i o n to 22 art however. In t h i s text, furthermore, "de l a Tour" becomes " l a Tour de Babel"; the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l codes babble at each other inconsequentially; the gap i s destroyed. 173 In the second sentence of the introduction the s e t t i n g of the story nonetheless becomes s p e c i f i c a l l y Quebecois. The one and only Maurice Duplessis, premier of Quebec, died at S c h e f f e r v i l l e from a 23 brain hemorrhage on September 8, 1959. Frequent references so s p e c i f i c and s p e c i f i c a l l y inexact challenge commonplace notions of true and f a l s e . The actions described i n the f i r s t two sentences are actions of bringing to conclusion, s i g n a l l i n g the end of something. They suggest less the possible adventure of the banal "La marquise s o r t i t a cinq heures" than a true sense of ending. The novel begins on a note of modernist pessimism, implying that where the novel begins i t might as well end; although the text may also suggest that adventure begins where the novel as r e c i t ends. Before being defined i n r e l a t i o n to the intimate world of M i l l e M i l l e s , the text appears as a backdrop against which fragments of previous texts c o l l i d e . This i s a beginning i n medias res i n a performative mode, in which language i s prevented from functioning as a reference to extra-l i n g u i s t i c r e a l i t y . By the t h i r d sentence, the personal subject " I " has appeared to occupy center stage henceforth. His f i r s t statement prevents his being perceived as a coherent personality: " J ' a i seize ans et je suis un enfant de s i x ans" (p. 9). Beyond romantic n o s t a l g i a for childhood, the narrator posits himself as contradictory, uncertain, even denying his status as an apparently personal narrator. In the two pages follow-ing, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to situate narrator or text i n space or time. The narrator plays with s h i f t i n g temporal perspectives, and with 174 r e d u p l i c a t i o n of s e l f as subject i n the process of enunciating and subject of the statement enunciated, as subject w r i t i n g and read. The narrator narrating i s enunciating subject; but the reader confronts both an enunciating subject, one i n process, and an enunciated subject, one represented by a f i n i t e number of propositions. The former moves through the text as a l i n e a r sequence leaving the l a t t e r l i k e a geological deposit. The act of written enunciation i s depicted as f i x i n g and determining the enunciated subject who, subsequent to the suicide or silence of the enunciating subject, becomes the subject i n the absolute: Je ne veux pas a l l e r plus l o i n : je reste done arrete. (p. 9) Je les l a i s s e tous v i e i l l i r , l o i n devant moi. Je reste d e r r i e r e , seul, i n t a c t , i n c o r r u p t i b l e . (p. 9) Indeed, the enunciating subject i s only the function of an act. His silence i s his encapsulation within an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or reading of the text, as subject of the enunciation. Because his text i s f i n i t e , that i s , s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l , i t too i s affected and can be destroyed by time's passing, i f only i n the sense that, as time passes,the p r o b a b i l i t y of i t s being read decreases. Thus the narrator's project i s also f u t i l e from the outset: "Je v e i l l e , le ventre dans toute l a cendre avec des cadavres qui me l a i s s e n t t r a n q u i l l e , avec tout ce qui est cadavre, seul avec 1'enfant moi, seul avec une image dont le t a i n s'use sous mes doigts" (pp. 9-10). "Je" i s the enunciating subject as not yet encapsulated in the completed act of enunciation, i n t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y , the f i c t i o n a l journal. He depicts what informs him, the sum of a l l possible acts of enunciation he can perform, as already having been enunciated by absent others of whom he, 175 as subject of the enunciation, w i l l be one: "une image dont le t a i n s'use sous mes doigts." One immediately perceives Le Nez qui voque as beginning jLn medias  res, the question being to i d e n t i f y the res. The text displays this problem as an enigma to be resolved. A charming aspect of the narra-tor's discourse i s the frank and concise assessment of possible reader competence and expectations. A f t e r just twenty-seven l i n e s of i n t e r -textual v i r t u o s i t y one encounters the following no nonsense o r i e n t a t i o n : "Je ne suis pas fou. Je sais ce que je f a i s et ou je suis. C'est le neuf septembre m i l l e neuf cent soixante-cinq" (p. 10). Chapter 2 thus provides the t r a d i t i o n a l flashback i n which the narrator's present circumstances are explained and a sense of beginning emerges with M i l l e M i l l e s 1 l i f e i n Montreal, i n competition with the sense of an ending i n Chapter 1. However, the narrator again evokes ambivalence toward the text and evokes i t s problematic status at the beginning of Chapter 2: " I l s ont des taches h i s t o r i q u e s . Sans accent circonflexe nous obtiendrons: i l s ont des taches h i s t o r i q u e s " (p. 10). The text i s i n t u i t e d as a project (tache) producing residue (tache) rather than monument. The speaker also seems to a l l y himself with the enunciating rather than enunciated subject: "Mon nez voque. Je suis un nez qui voque" (p. 10), 26 possibly from the L a t i n "vocare," "to c a l l . " Chapter 3 promises to develop two t r a d i t i o n a l narrative themes, sex and death: " M i l l e M i l l e s . . . vient de terminer l a lecture d'un l i v r e sexuel.... II ne voudrait pas se s u i c i d e r , mais cel a s'impose" (pp. 13-14). The pessimism of the f i r s t chapter, the sense of an ending, 176 i s related to the narrator's personal s i t u a t i o n . He i s preoccupied by sex and suicide. However, his discourse i s determined by what he has read; he cannot avoid reproducing an in t e r t e x t which i s that of the novel as a genre. Throughout Ducharme's novels, G i l l e s Marcotte has commented on the equation, of l i t e r a t u r e (and therefore the novel) with pornography: "On ne f a i t pas ce qu'on veut quand on e c r i t un 27 roman. On f a i t ce que veut le roman. Et le roman veut... l e sexe." As pornography i s not di s i n t e r e s t e d esthetic contemplation, neither i s the discourse of the novel i n general. It i s determined by a p a r t i c u l a r conceptual universe and an ideology. The narrator's sexual preoccupation may be read as a textual preoccupation despairing of the p o s s i b i l i t y of transcending ideology i n the discourse. In other words, the text begins by acknowledging the subordination of the performative mode to the narrative mode, to be confirmed by the events of the r e c i t . Two minor aborted narratives rehearse the motif of impasse. F i r s t , the narrator recounts a f a i l e d departure from Montreal which f a i l s be-cause, as a c y c l i s t , he cannot cross the r i v e r v i a an automobile bridge. This incident indicates his lack of s u i t a b i l i t y as a subject of the r e c i t . Second, he recounts an interview i n a placement bureau, also engineered to present him as not s o c i a l l y recuperable. He deconstructs the interview, by responding to the conventional questions with con-ventional but inappropriate answers. His speaking i n quotations and f a i l u r e to integrate s o c i a l l y confirms the p o r t r a i t of an int r o v e r t who withdraws into journal w r i t i n g , and of a would-be clown whose talents receive no s o c i a l recognition. These incidents may be read as a meta-f i c t i o n a l a l l u s i o n to the narrator as an e f f e c t rather than a source 177 of the text, but also to the subject ( i n t r a - or e x t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y ) as constructed by language. A Reprieve for Text and Textual Subject: Recit Displaced onto Chateaugue In beginning a novel, which supposes a r e c i t , the discourse con-demns i t s e l f to espouse "sense" as opposed to "nonsense," and to serve coherence, v e r i s i m i l i t u d e and a t a u t o l o g i c a l conceptual universe. Thus Le Nez begins by evoking endings and envisages i t s own destruction, that i s , the t o t a l transparence of i t s discourse as univocal meaning. Con-currently, the discourse introduces a narrator and a s e t t i n g of a r e c i t . On the one hand, t h i s narrator favours play, nonsense and evanescence and abhors convention, goal-oriented a c t i v i t y and commitment. Thus he i l l u s t r a t e s a textual or ludic point of view toward everyday l i f e . On the other hand, i n i t i a l l y , he states h i s adherence to the c h i l d - s e l f as an absolute good. In Chapter 4 a second character i s introduced to represent the c h i l d - s e l f , protecting the l u d i c or textual i d e n t i t y of the narrator and dramatizing the i n t e r n a l schism of enunciating and enunciated subject. In Chapter 5, the consequences of commitment to an Ideal are taken upon himself s u c c i n c t l y by the narrator: "... A 1'instant de sa conception, 1'idee se dedouble. . • s i nous ne l a jugeons pas, ne l a freinons pas, e l l e nous emporte avec e l l e dans les deux sens" (p. 20). His "idea" i s a binary structure of opposition. As a textual or p l a y f u l subject his f i r s t commitment must be to deconstruct the conceptual universe; otherwise he i s defined by i t e n t i r e l y , enunciated rather than enunciat-ing. In order to preserve h i s own status he w i l l s a c r i f i c e an other, 178 who inasmuch as she represents an i d e a l represents i t s negation. Introducing a t h i r d person into the discourse, the subject lessens his i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with enunciated rather than enunciating subject and i d e n t i f i e s Chateaugue o f f i c i a l l y as enunciated subject. The choice of her name, associated with a martyr, suggests that the enunciated sub-ject i s associated with the r e c i t , with meaning as fixed and ideologic-a l l y determined. This reducing of the other to the status of an object is compensated to the extent that she i s associated with the most highly prized of objects, the c h i l d - s e l f . Nonetheless, she i s excluded from access to the discourse as an i n t e r l o c u t o r i n order to f o r e s t a l l the narrator's reduction to enunciated subject or subject of the r e c i t . He uses her as subject of the r e c i t i n order to reserve an e x p l i c i t l y textual domain to himself, and thus a reprieve for performative d i s -course i n i t s struggle to occupy the discourse of the novel, ultimately reserved for narr a t i v e . Thus, i n the section which begins with the a r r i v a l of Chateaugue and ends with her b i c y c l e accident, the narrator does not dominate the text, which remains under the sway of the performative mode. The narra-tor can wait for something to happen to Chateaugue and, i n d i r e c t l y , to himself. His suicide i s i m p l i c i t l y the abdication of personal i d e n t i t y i n the wr i t i n g process. Chateaugue's suicide represents her role as subject of the r e c i t who must be o b j e c t i f i e d . In his association with the text, the narrator assures himself a marginal s o c i a l i d e n t i t y as a writer. This section of Le Nez qui voque i s r i c h i n the parody of common-places, aphorisms, the high s t y l e and even expository prose. The 179 discourse restates aggressively what has been said, heard and written i n a new context where i t becomes incongruous i n ways which have been discussed. In Chapters 6-15, other s t y l e s of discourse, including nar r a t i v e , word play, straightforward non-narrative commentary, and 28 comic r e f l e x i v e statements, r e l i e v e the i n t e n s i t y of the incongruous rehearsing of a closed conceptual universe. The narrative of Chateaugue 1s a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s presence provides a s p a t i a l and temporal frame to the performance. Her a c t i v i t i e s are e i t h e r i t e r a t i v e or p l a y f u l and thus do not at t h i s stage constitute a r e c i t which threatens the performance. Another d i s t r a c t i o n from the serious rehearsing of c l i c h e s originates with the narrator who describes his own discourse as nonsense and disclaims i t . These r e f l e x i v e remarks recontextualize the discourse as a c r i t i q u e . A t h i r d sort of interrup-t i o n comes from the opposite d i r e c t i o n , that i s , e i t h e r from the narra-tor's preconscious, according to a psychological i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , or from the phonological aspect of language as i t reorganizes the semantic aspect i n word play. This l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y can be described as the text's reorganizing the i n t e r t e x t and constitutes the s p e c i f i c i d e n t i t y of Le Nez qui vogue as not just the r e a c t i v a t i o n of a set of commonplaces associated with the novel genre. Word play rep-resents the harmonious triumph of both the subject i n the text as char-acter, and of the text as subject, i n the act of reading, mastering an i n t e r t e x t . Various types of discourse cohabit, and i n t h i s section dominate the ostensibly narrative text of Le Nez gui vogue. The intimate record of urges and h e s i t a t i o n s resolves i t s e l f into s o c i a l commonplaces, 180 c u l t u r a l a l l u s i o n s and word play. The subject represented i n the text as i n d i v i d u a l i s also represented as a s o c i a l construct. As a f i c t i o n a l character, he i s the re s u l t not the o r i g i n of discourse; but also, the very i d i o s y n c r a t i c image of the obsessive s e l f i s seen to r e s u l t from a s o c i a l construct. The personal unconscious i s represented as an in t e r t e x t . Just as the subject c a l l s into question the d i s t i n c t i o n of true and f a l s e perceived as natural rather than c u l t u r a l , so the text c a l l s into question the casual acceptance of the " i n d i v i d u a l " as natural rather than c u l t u r a l . A b r i e f survey of Chapters 7, 8, and 9 w i l l show how the various types of discourse mesh. The p r i n c i p a l idea discussed and deconstructed i n Chapter 7 i s death, p a r t i c u l a r l y as acculturation. The least accept-able form of a s s i m i l a t i o n i s the conscious attempt to adopt French c u l t u r a l values (p. 28), as the voice propounding t h i s point of view i s interrupted by another explaining: "De quoi a l ' a i r un p i s s e n l i t qui se donne des a i r s de dahlia? Ce p i s s e n l i t a l ' a i r d'un Canadien frangais qui se donne des a i r s de heros de films d'avant-garde made i n France" (p. 28). This denouement suggests that i m i t a t i n g the French w i l l not prevent a s s i m i l a t i o n by English elements since "films d 1avant-garde" are "made i n France." A less despicable s o l u t i o n i s the i s o l a -tionism of t r a d i t i o n a l nationalism: "Restons en a r r i e r e , avec Cremazie, avec Marie-Victorin, avec Marie de 1'Incarnation, ... avec I b e r v i l l e et ses freres heroiques" (p. 29). This solution i s , however, recontex-t u a l i z e d as the acceptance of i n e v i t a b l e death: "Couchons-nous sur nos saintes ruines sacrees et rions de l a mort en attendant l a mort. Rien n'est serieux. Tout est r i s i b l e " (p. 29). The f i n a l s o l u t i o n offered 181 here i s textual rather than p o l i t i c a l , because the text i s represented as the domain of play. The text i s not committed to the t r a d i t i o n a l values p o l i t i c a l l y : i t i s committed to not neglecting them as i t s i n t e r t e x t . In the journal the narrator washes his hands of the law of noncontradiction i n general, and i n Chapter 7 his devotion to the past i s balanced by h i s r e v o l t at having to carry a b i c y c l e around his neck up several f l i g h t s of s t a i r s : "C'est 1,'ere des machines; ce n'est pas l'ere des bras. II va f a l l o i r que nous changions d'ere" (p. 30). Reflexive comments, word play and narrative a l l contribute to developing the motif of death. The journal maintains a commitment to account for the everyday r e a l i t y of the narrator's l i f e which he d i s -places p a r t i a l l y onto Chateaugue, i d e n t i f y i n g himself as c l o s e l y as possible with the text: "Devant moi, les jambes ba l l a n t e s , Chateaugue est assise sur l a table" (p. 30). He represents the text, but a text ultimately subordinated to the everyday l i f e w o r l d which at t h i s point conforms to his requirements that i t resemble a l u d i c text. One of the protagonists' chief a c t i v i t i e s i s reading. The intimacy of l i f e and art i s suggested by the narrator's brusque t r a n s i t i o n s from his perform-ance to a narrative account: "Ou l'amour est malheureux a mourir, ou l'amour est ennuyeux a mourir, a dormir debout. Jusqu'a dix heures, nous avons lu ensemble, dans le meme l i v r e , a l a bibliotheque Saint-Sulpice" (p. 29). This t r a n s i t i o n terminates a page of non-narrative discourse without even a change i n paragraph. The most extraordinary event of the day involves the photographing of M i l l e M i l l e s and Chateau-gue 1 s b i c y c l e s by a French moviemaker, i n other words, involves l i f e ' s becoming a r t . 182 The opening paragraph of Chapter 7 i l l u s t r a t e s the interplay of the semantically given, of word play and of r e f l e x i v e comments. The basic semantic given consists of binary oppositions of content: "Ce q u ' i l faut savoir. Ce q u ' i l ne faut pas savoir," and of form: "Ce q u ' i l faut savoir, ma noire. Ce q u ' i l ne faut pas savoir, le s o i r " (p. 26). The narrator i d e n t i f i e s the l a t t e r , i n a r e f l e x i v e comment, as a p r i v i l e g e d means of undoing f i x a t i o n on the former: "J'aime cela quand cela rime" (p. 26). He posits the text as a p r i v i l e g e d domain for undoing c u l t u r a l oppression, perhaps even i n i t s p o l i t i c a l aspect: "Accaparons-nous de 1'Alaska. L'Alaska f a i t p a r t i e du Canada comme le pied du panda f a i t p a r t i e du panda. Panda rime avec Canada et avec Alaska" (p. 26). Chapter 8 (pp. 31-33) i s denser than Chapter 7 (pp. 26-31). The performance of the text i s more intense since narrative i s l e f t aside i n favour of the unfolding of the sexual theme which i s also a theme of ambivalence and i l l u s t r a t e s the interdependence of opposites: "Quand je regarde Chateaugue, je me dis que je ne veux pas l a toucher, l a po l l u e r . . . . N'est-ce pas assez sexuel? Tout est sexuel, meme l a purete incarnee" (p. 33). Sex i s the concrete, compelling manifestation of " a f f e c t i o n , " i n the meaning of being affected by something, and there-fore also belongs to the domain of r e l a t i v i t y and interdependence. The narrator i s a f r a i d of p o l l u t i n g Chateaugue, but i n making love to her he would become a subject of the r e c i t l i k e her, l o s i n g h i s i l l u s i o n of inconsequentiality. The following entry, Chapter 9 (pp. 34-36) returns predictably to a l i g h t e r interweaving of narrative and word play. The presence of 183 language, anterior to meaning, asserts i t s e l f i n the unanticipated remark: "Quant a l'emploi du mot hostie, j'y r e v i e n d r a i " (p. 34). As announced and without further j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h i s word motif re-appears two pages l a t e r i n a paragraph-long development, apparently motivated by the narrator's epithet "hostie de comique" (e.g., p. 13), which occurs many times throughout Le Nez. Chouinard interprets "Hostie de comique" as a r e f l e x i v e commentary: Le leitmotiv'Hostie de comique,'pour sa part, apparait generalement comme l a sanction f i n a l e reservee a toute parole qui se veut r e f l e x i v e ; plusieurs passages dans lesquels M i l l e M i l l e s tente de rendre le monde i n t e l l i -g i b l e . . . se terminent par ce slogan.29 One can venture to say that " l a parole qui se veut r e f l e x i v e " includes the rehearsing of the semantically given and that functional r e f l e x i v e commentary i n Le Nez qui vogue i n s t r u c t s the reader to contextualize the former, the pseudo-expository, as nonsense or a game. Patterns emerge i n the na r r a t i v e . The i t e r a t i o n of d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s such as eating, drinking, smoking, reading, suggests a narrowing sphere of existence for the narrator outside of the textual. A long walk with which the characters refresh themselves i n th i s chapter serves also as a break from pseudo-philosophy i n the text, a break which re-freshes the reader. The preceding discussion suggests with what finesse the narrator apportions his text to d i f f e r e n t and t r a d i t i o n a l l y incompatible types of discourse. In the chapters which follow (10-15), the text immerses i t s e l f i n a world less and less narrative which i s not a pure explora-t i o n of language or of ideas. This purgatory i s again r e l i e v e d by gusts of insight ("Je dis cela parce gue j'en a i envie" (p. 27)), by 184 poetry ("Nous irons a Troi s - R i v i e r e s en r i v i e r e " (p. 26)), or by human in t e r e s t ("Devant moi, les jambes bal l a n t e s , Chateaugue est assise sur l a table" (p. 30)). The i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the performative mode occurs i n response to the i r r u p t i o n of narrative event which displaces i t as dominant structuring p r i n c i p l e of the text. 185 NOTES A. R. Lacey, A Dictionary of Philosophy (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976, p. 64. ? Michael R i f f a t e r r e , " S t y l i s t i c Context," Word, n° 2 (1960), pp. 209-212. 3 Marcel Chouinard, "Rejean Ducharme: un langage v i o l e n t e , " L i b e r t e , 12 (1970), p. 123. 4 J u l i a Kristeva, "Bakhtine, le mot, le dialogue et le roman," Cr i t i q u e , n° 238, mars 1967, p. 444. ~* "Pasteur." Grand Larousse encyclopedique (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1963), VIII. J. L. Austin, How to Do Things with Words (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975), p. 22. ^ Mary Louise Pratt, Toward a Speech Act Theory of L i t e r a r y Dis- course (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977), p. 136. g William Labov, Language i n the Inner City (University Park: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972), p. 366. 9 Labov, p. 369. ^ J. L. Austin, p. 5. ^ Stanley E. F i s h , "With the Compliments of the Author: Reflec-tions on Austin and Derrida," C r i t i c a l Inquiry, Summer 1982, p. 716. 1 2 See Pratt, p. 105. 1 3 Pratt, pp. 117-118, 215. 14 Chouinard, p. 117. ^ Kristeva, p. 453. 186 1 6 See Pratt, pp. 129-130. 17 Patrick Imbert, Roman quebecois contemporain et cl i c h e s (Ottawa: Editions de 1'Universite d'Ottawa, 1983), p. 30. 18 Susan Stewart, Nonsense: Aspects of I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i n Folk- lore and L i t e r a t u r e (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1978), p. 50. 1 9 Lacey, pp. 183-184. 20 See J u l i a K risteva, Le Texte du roman (The Hague: Mouton, 1970), p. 84: "LE SUJET DE L'ENONCE est a l a f o i s representant du sujet de 1'enonciation et represente comme objet du sujet de l'enoncia-t i o n . " 21 "Breda ( l a Reddition de)," Grand Larousse encyclopedique (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1960), I I : "... d i t aussi les Lances..., l'un des plus celebres chefs-d'oeuvre de Velasquez... peint vraisemblablement en 1635." 22 "La Tour (Georges de)," Grand Larousse encyclopedique (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1962), VI: "Ses oeuvres ont ete longtemps a t t r i b u t e s a d i f f e r e n t s peintres caravagistes, et meme, son fameux Joueur de v i e l l e ... a Velasquez, Zurbaran ou M u r i l l o " ; "Patrice de l a Tour du Pin," Grand Larousse, VI: "Une somme de poesie (1946) reunit ses oeuvres anterieures; e l l e s expriment... 1'inquietude metaphysique d'un Chretien qui cherche a decouvrir l e mystere du monde." 23 See, for example, Pierre Laporte, The True Face of Duplessis (Montreal: Harvest House, 1960), p. 25. 2 ^ See Jean Ricardou, Pour une theorie du nouveau roman (Paris: S e u i l , 1971), pp. 76-77; and Andre Breton, Manifestes du surrealisme (Paris: Gallimard, 1973), p. 15: "Par besoin d'epuration, M. Paul Valery proposait dernierement de reunir en anthologie un aussi grand nombre que possible de debuts de roman, de 1'insanite desquels i l atten-da i t beaucoup. Les auteurs les plus fameux seraient mis a contribution. Une t e l l e idee f a i t encore honneur a Paul Valery qui, naguere, a propos des romans, m'assurait qu'en ce qui le concerne, i l se r e f u s e r a i t tou-jours a e c r i r e : La marquise s o r t i t a cinq heures. Mais a - t - i l tenu parole?" The beginning of Le Nez qui voque may serve as an example of what Gerard Genette, Figures III (Paris: S e u i l , 1972), p. 79, c a l l e d 187 "ces ouvertures a structure complexe, et comme mimant pour mieux l'exor-c i s e r 1'inevitable d i f f i c u l t e du commencement.... On s a i t que ce debut i n medias res s u i v i d'un retour en a r r i e r e e x p l i c a t i f deviendra l'un des topoi formels du genre epique, et aussi combien l e st y l e de l a narration romanesque est reste sur ce point f i d e l e a c e l u i de son l o i n -t a i n ancetre, et ce jusqu'en p l e i n XIX e s i e c l e ' r e a l i s t e . . . .'" 26 See also Bernard Dupriez, "Ducharme et des f i c e l l e s , " Voix  et Images du Pays (Quebec), 5 (1972), p. 185. 27 G i l l e s Marcotte, "Rejean Ducharme contre Blasey Blasey," Etudes  francaises, 11, n° 3-4, p. 250. 28 See Tzvetan Todorov, L i t t e r a t u r e et s i g n i f i c a t i o n (Paris: Larousse, 1967), p. 26: "... l'enonce r e f l e x i f n'a pas une structure d i f f e r e n t e des autres enonces. De meme que l'enonce o r d i n a i r e , i l a un referent; seulement c e l u i - c i coincide avec l'enonce lui-meme." 29 Chouinard, p. 125. See also Dupriez, p. 175: "Un autre genre de commoration est l e r e f r a i n . . . . Le meme procede s'etend d'un bout a l'autre du roman de facon plus typique encore: c'est le mot hostie.... Cela donne une sorte de leitmo t i v qu'on retrouve toutes les vingt pages: 'hostie de comique 1...." CHAPTER VIII: THE APPARENT TRIUMPH OF THE NOVEL: DISCOURSE AT THE SERVICE OF SENSE, RECIT AND IDENTITY The Persons i n Place The tendency to defer the r e c i t i n the f i r s t 15 chapters of Le  Nez qui vogue corresponds to a prolonged presentation of the narrator and his other, e s t a b l i s h i n g the r e l a t i o n s of each to the text. Before analysing the emergence of r e c i t i n Le Nez, and the apparent subordination of the performative, l u d i c mode of the text to the novel, i t i s relevant to review the roles of f i r s t , second and t h i r d person i n Le Nez qui  vogue. The analysis of t r a d i t i o n a l novel structures i n Le Nez qui  vogue begins with these structures fir m l y i n t h e i r place. M i l l e M i l l e s conforms to the t r a d i t i o n of r e a l and f i c t i o n a l d i a r i s t s c i t e d by V a l e r i e Raoul: The impression which i s l e f t by studies of r e a l French d i a r i s t s . . . or by an anthology of t h e i r writings such as the one edited by Maurice Chapelan, i s summed up by Romberg, with reference to f i c t i o n a l journals: 'the commonest type of diary narrator i s the lonely, unhappy human being who cannot a t t a i n contact with others and turns inwards upon himself.'1 Raoul claims that the schizoid tendencies recognizable i n f i c t i o n a l d i a r i s t s derive from the i n t e r n a l communication model of the diary form: written by subject, about subject, for subject. Thus, unlike the subject of L'Avalee, M i l l e M i l l e s i s presented in d i s t i n c t roles as "enunciating subject" and "subject enunciated." In addition, he w i l l be presented as the reader of a portion of his diary in Chapter 44. From the outset, however, M i l l e M i l l e s i s in search of an audience for whom he intends to leave a testimony: " J ' a i besoin des hommes. Je 188 189 redige cette chronique pour les hommes comme i l s ecrivent des l e t t r e s a leur fiancee. Je leur e c r i s parce que je ne peux pas leur parler, parce que j ' a i peur de m'approcher d'eux pour leur p a r l e r " (p. 10). The f i c t i o n a l j o u r n a l i s t here s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e s h i s journal as a speech act which i s second-best to face-to-face communication, and i n v i t e s the reader to project an i n t r a d i e g e t i c narratee. He plays at jeopardizing the narrative contract s i t u a t i o n by invoking the command form. Nonetheless, the narrator does not explain how his journal might come to be read by others. The Third Person The narrator makes a point of giving r e f e r e n t i a l coordinates to his r e c i t , introducing himself and e s t a b l i s h i n g his personal i d e n t i t y for the reader: "Mon cher nom est M i l l e M i l l e s . Je trouve que c'est mieux que M i l l e Kilometres" (p. 10). He flaunts the improbability of his name. From time to time he s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y refers to himself i n the t h i r d person; for example, i n presenting himself as a character i n a d i t t y l i k e "Malbrough s'en va-t'en guerre": " M i l l e M i l l e s s'en va-t'en guerre. M i l l e M i l l e s s'en va-t'au Systeme, a b i c y c l e t t e , v o i r Marlon Brando dans The Young Lions" (p. 13). The t h i r d person, because removed from the instance of discourse, manifests a more timeless, i d e a l e n t i t y . In the novel, as i s common knowledge, "d 1 o r d i n a i r e , l e 'je' est temoin, c'est le 'II' qui est 2 acteur." In Chapter 6, the narrator does not r e s i s t the temptation to shore up his journal and his l i f e as r e c i t , by r e d u p l i c a t i n g himself, in his role as subject enunciated, with a conventional t h i r d person 190 protagonist. In spite of Chateaugue's i d e a l status as actor, M i l l e M i l l e s i s e x p l i c i t about her textual or interpreted status also, as she i s to represent the h i s t o r i c a l figure of D ' I b e r v i l l e 1 s brother Chateaugue. Thus, i n Le Nez qui voque the pr o p r i e t i e s of " j e " i n the discourse, seconded by " i l / e l l e " i n the r e c i t , are respected i n t r a -d i e g e t i c a l l y . However, the fashion of Chateaugue's i n s e r t i o n into the text makes completely e x p l i c i t what Kristeva has said of the process of s i g n i f i c a t i o n in the novel: "Son dynamisme est suture par le sujet (ecrivant) qui exprime un s i g n i f i e anterieur a son expression, et par le principe de 3 cette expression meme fonde l e signe." The e x p l i c i t n e s s of this process r e f l e c t s on the r e f e r e n t i a l i n t e g r i t y of the narrator who further acknowl-edges c o n s t i t u t i n g his t h i r d person as a s p l i t e n t i t y ; on the one hand r e a l , unknown and whom he prefers not to know; on the other, i d e a l , unknowable and whom he wishes to know: " J ' a i souvent 1'impression de l a i s s e r l a v r a i e Chateaugue l a , de m'accrocher intentionnellement a une autre Chateaugue, une Chateaugue que l a v r a i e Chateaugue f a i t e c l a t e r de toutes parts" (p. 177). The secondary characters i n L'Avalee repeat fragments of the subject. In Le Nez qui voque the other i s envisaged a l t e r n a t e l y as symbolic and psychological. M i l l e M i l l e s distinguishes between the person--a material substratum--and her function as s i g n i f i e r i n his l i f e and text. He tends to l i m i t her to an equivalent i n the series c h i l d - p u r i t y - I d e a l , i n the t r a d i t i o n of the "symbol," described by Kristeva: La semiotique du symbole car a c t e r i s e l a societe euro-peenne jusqu'aux environs du X I I I e s i e c l e . . . . C'est une pratique semiotique cosmogonique: ces elements 191 (les symboles) renvoient a une (des) transcendance(s) u n i v e r s e l l e ( s ) irrepresentable(s) et meconnaissable(s) Chateaugue i s e x p l i c i t l y acknowledged as both symbolic, the being of l i g h t , and as an evolving character whom the narrator does not wish to int e r p r e t . The symbol does not function as personal double or a l t e r -ego of a psychological narrator. Chateaugue i s e s p e c i a l l y represented as that which i s transcendental, "beyond the l i m i t s of human reason altogether," as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary.~* When elements of a r e c i t invade the journal, Chateaugue i s the immediate cause. She thus becomes associated with external necessity in everyday l i f e , which the narrator seeks to master i n the journal. The events of the r e c i t , which are associated with a r e a l other, must be associated with the Ideal which he assigns Chateaugue to represent. The Irruption of Narrative The performative mode i s pushed to the background by narrative i n Chapters 16-19. At the opening of Chapter 16, a dramatic event has tran-spired i n the l i v e s of the characters. A car c o l l i d e s with Chateaugue's b i c y c l e ; she i s knocked unconscious; M i l l e M i l l e s momentarily believes her dead. The d i s t r e s s caused him by the accident subsides, and i s replaced by intense d i s q u i e t . During his b r i e f absence, the p o l i c e have arrived at the rooming-house to interview Chateaugue. He reacts to th i s i n t r u s i o n as a v i o l a t i o n . He and Chateaugue have avoided s o c i a l contacts and existed apart from the s o c i a l order u n t i l the police's presence forces t h i s contact on them. It seems an inattention on the part of the narra-tor has allowed a major narrative event, heretofore banished, to usurp 192 the space of the text. Yet the narrator wholeheartedly meets the challenge of s t o r y - t e l l i n g , and summons the resources of suspense. This motif of inattention appears in the narrative of the accident. In crossing the str e e t , Chateaugue i s following M i l l e M i l l e s . Like a mythical hero, he accepts the challenge of a test i n order to pass a threshold of existence: "[La rue Craig] un autre de ces fleuves et c'est le p i r e : feux verts ou feux rouges, les automobiles, toutes en meme temps, s'elancent l a , a l'assaut des trente points cardinaux" (p. 72). Following his lead, Chateaugue i s injured i n h i s place. He allows her to be s a c r i f i c e d and at the same time to replace him as the fo c a l point of narrative. "La rue Craig" i s l i k e a River Lethe; the hero looks back twice: J ' a i v i t e regarde en a r r i e r e , vu Chateaugue arretee, r e p r i s mon calme et r e p r i s de l a v i t e s s e . (pp- 72-73) J ' a l l a i s m'effondrer ou narguer quand, soudain, tournant l a tete, tragiquement, le souvenir de Chateaugue m'est revenu. Une automobile rouge... s'abattait sur Chateaugue. (p. 73) In i n t e r p r e t i n g backwards from the denouement, the accident takes on i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as foreshadowing Chateaugue's death. The r e c i t ' s coherence i s constructed by the reader's i n e v i t a b l e "looking back" and r e i n t e r p r e t i n g what he has read. The theft of the wedding-dress i n the following chapter may be read, on the other hand, as a response to the threat posed by the i n t r u -sion of " l a p o l i c e et l a medecine" (p. 74), as well as by the p o s s i b i l i t y of Chateaugue's death. The p a r a l l e l s suggests the equivalence: s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n - c a s t r a t i o n . By committing a theft the pair become o f f i c i a l l y 193 a n t i - s o c i a l . However, the object of the theft i s symbolic. The theft i s more p l a y f u l than p r a c t i c a l and as such i n harmony with the p l a y f u l , textual mode which the narrator a f f e c t s . However, instead of affirming the inconsequentiality of the i r acts, the mannekin evokes the unrealize act of sexual union, and the incest taboo that M i l l e M i l l e s invokes i n his r e l a t i o n s to Chateaugue. This taboo i s a s o c i a l imperative but M i l l e M i l l e s supposedly ignores s o c i a l imperatives. In Chapter 18, M i l l e M i l l e s returns to the pr a c t i s e of wr i t i n g as t e x t u a l i t y . He att r i b u t e s the corruption of nature to culture, and by extension the corruption of the text or esth e t i c function i s also blame on culture: "Combien, oh combien de musees sont prosperes aujourd'hui, grace a Velasquez" (p. 100). The s o c i a l order encloses bacteria i n pe t r i e dishes, paintings i n museums, trees i n boxes. The text must be capable of including and surpassing mainstream culture by i t s own persistence: II y a beaucoup de place dans mon cahier et je ne suis pas avare de mon temps. II y a beaucoup de place dans mon cahier et je ne suis pas avare de mon temps. II y a beaucoup de place dans mon cahier et je ne suis pas avare de mon temps. (p. 103) The events which he has recounted may also be considered as c u l t u r a l constructs, as elements of a r e c i t , the enactment of c l i c h e s which the text opposes. The tenaciousness of the performative mode i n the text i s no longer d i s i n t e r e s t e d but defensive i n the new context of text invaded by r e c i t . In the following chapter (19) M i l l e M i l l e s does not respond to 194 Chateaugue's c a l l for suicide. Events are evoked but do not occur. Chateaugue suggests spending the day i n bed and she expresses the wish to die (pp. 113, 116). They do not k i l l themselves and they do not make love; M i l l e M i l l e s holds Chateaugue i n place so that she cannot move and i n the evening they get up. In the preceding chapter he holds the text i n place by repeating a sentence. This r e p e t i t i o n may be ca l l e d a suicide of the narrator or a surrender of the conscious s e l f . But i n the narrative the suppression of Chateaugue rather suggests homicide. From fearing her loss he has come i n four chapters to de s i r -ing i t : " S i tu n'es pas contente de ton sort, prends 1'autobus.... Va te f a i r e bercer a i l l e u r s " (p. 111).' Their c o n f l i c t of in t e r e s t s has been made e x p l i c i t . Chateaugue, by the narrator's decree, i s responsible for the elements of r e c i t invading the text, and i n d i s p l a c i n g this function onto her as subject enunciated, the narrator consents to s a c r i f i c e or eliminate her i n order to escape r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for th i s function himself. One may int e r p r e t these three narrative incidents with reference to tension between the text as performance and the novel genre. For Chateaugue to become the hero of a r e c i t i s for her to be s a c r i f i c e d ; hence the b i c y c l e accident. A narrative recounted i n accordance with the norms of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e cannot be undone by a symbolic event l i k e the theft of a mannekin. F i n a l l y , recognizing the consequences attached to the events of a r e c i t , the narrator both wishes to protect Chateaugue and to destroy her i n order to destroy the further i n t r u s i o n of event into text. 195 The Last Textual Interlude At the end of Chapter 19, a r i f t between M i l l e M i l l e s and Chateau-gue becomes manifest. This r i f t puts the suicide pact i n question. However, the following f i v e chapters, i f anything, reinf o r c e the pact, since p r a c t i c a l l y nothing happens at a l l . This period of s o c i a l i n -a c t i v i t y coupled with textual a c t i v i t y could constitute a p u r i f i c a t i o n preparing for death as a t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n : "La v i e , l a v r a i e , est inte-r i e u r e , tout i n t e r i e u r e " (p. 134). However, an expectation of a n t i -climax has been created by Chapter 19 where, as predicted by Chateaugue, " i l va f a l l o i r r e p a r t i r a r i e n " (p. 116). The divergence between M i l l e M i l l e s and Chateaugue i s confirmed by physical separation i n Chapter 26. In the preceding pages there i s a r e s p i t e , as the text makes a f i n a l excursion into the performative mode. The text leads gradually into and out of the performative passages of Chapters 21, 22 and 23, leaving the reader with a sense of completion. In Chapter 20, af t e r the account of h i s day i n bed, the narrator explores a d i f f e r e n t mode of w r i t i n g . In a limpid expository s t y l e he s a t i r i z e s Canada and Canadiens. He posits "Canada" as an e n t i t y of nature rather than society, and assimilates his own existence to that of nature: "6 Canada... 6 t o i qui dors dans tes forets comme 1 1 ours dort dans sa fourrure.... Dors, Canada, dors; je dors avec t o i " (pp. 121-122). His image of passing from s o c i a l existence to nature reinforces the theme of death as t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n . The text has also been associated with nature, i n opposition to a c u l t u r a l norm; thus death as t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n may be interpreted as t e x t u a l i t y . The earnest-ness i n t h i s chapter i s o f f s e t by the absurdities of the following 196 chapter. The directness of Chapter 20 must be made r e l a t i v e i n accord-ance with a tendency of the text to r e l a t i v i z e truth, to question non-ambiguous meaning. Writing i s represented as a process which p u r i f i e s , but as an art e f a c t i t i s c r i t i c i z e d . The narrator addresses someone, apparently Chateaugue, thus: "Que f a i s - t u l a , l a bouche fermee, au-dessus du lavabo? Vomis, que di a b l e ! " (p. 125). The process p u r i f i e s , though the traces i t leaves are impure. In this chapter the narrator goes farther than before i n representing contamination. He evokes sexual contact with Chateaugue, and himself as p u t r i f y i n g and a l i v e with swarming insects (pp. 126-127). In the process of representing, the narrator as enunciating subject transcends his representation and thus he seems less f e a r f u l or disgusted, enjoying a measure of detach-ment: "Je ne suis r i e n du tout" (p. 127). A l i g h t and p l a y f u l tone r e s u l t s i n the following chapter. Cha-teaugue i s assimilated, gently, to "Woman" as fos t e r i n g the narrator's sense of inadequacy: "Ne te donne pas a moi; ne me charge pas les bras" (p. 131). She i s separate from him; the c h i l d she represents elsewhere i s a fading image. Here the narrator invents another self-image, the eagle, exploited i n subsequent chapters: "Quelque chose en nous est prisonnier et etouffe. Seul le branle-bras peut d e l i v r e r ce quelque chose d'attache en nous comme un a i g l e f i x e par une patte...." (p. 134). The eagle i s i n motion within the ambivalent narrator f i g u r e , unlike the dead c h i l d , outside of and beyond him from the beginning. The narrator's s i n i n surviving his goodness i s compensated by Chateaugue; thus the eagle i n s i d e , though suffocating, i s a l i v e . Its l o c a t i o n and his l o c a t i o n s h i f t i n subsequent passages. In evoking t h i s s e l f -197 image, the narrator decenters Chateaugue from p r i m a r i l y s e l f to p r i -marily other. The resume of his childhood with Chateaugue, i n Chapter 24, reads l i k e a funeral t r i b u t e , i n the past tense: "Ce que j'aimais en e l l e , c 1 e t a i t son etonnement.... Ce que j'aimais le plus c ' e t a i t son drole d ' a i r " (p. 139). Chateaugue does not appear i n the following chapter, and i n the chapter following that, i s gone. At the end of his r e t r e a t , M i l l e M i l l e s emerges s o l i t a r y but t r a n q u i l , apparently having come f u l l c i r c l e . In these chapters the performative or parodie mode achieves i t s f i n a l substantial development, through the techniques noted i n Chapters 6-15. Narrative shrinks to a t r i v i a l i z e d p o s s i b i l i t y : "Chateaugue s'est cachee sous le l i t et je ne l ' a i meme pas cherchee. Je l'aura i s trouvee tout de s u i t e , de toute fagon" (p. 133). The narrator fumbles mockingly between the r e a l i t y of Chateaugue and of his l i t e r a r y per-formance: "Que f a i s - t u l a , l a bouche fermee, au-dessus du lavabo? Vomis, que diable! Que ce l a j a i l l i s s e ! . . . Plongeons dans l a debauche, Chateaugue. Donne-moi l a main, Isabelle Rimbaud" (pp. 124-126). The physical presence of language obtrudes into the transfer of meaning. The narrator pauses frequently to i d e n t i f y and c r i t i c i z e his perform-ance. Previous reminiscences gel i n the p o r t r a i t of childhood i n Chapter 24. The ambivalent, contradictory or even perverse q u a l i t i e s of his prose melt away now, leaving a s t a l e and a n t i - c l i m a c t i c q u a l i t y i n the following hundred and f i f t y pages of text. 198 The Narrative Turning Point The portion of the text included i n Chapters 26-30 represents a c r i s i s for M i l l e M i l l e s , prepared by a l u l l , i n Chapter 25: "Aujour-d'hui je n'en a i pas gros a d i r e . Je suis heureux sans cause et j ' a i ete heureux toute l a journee" (p. 140). Chapter 26 begins with a sug-gestive play on words: "Tout a commence avec l a toux de Chateaugue" (p. 143). In the f i r s t chapters of Le Nez qui vogue one notices references to things being over or coming to an end. Here i n Chapter 26, a period has come to an end for the narrator and yet he speaks of "everything beginning." Back i n Chapter 6, everything begins with "tout de Chateau-gue," or "l'atout de Chateaugue": coughing or not coughing Chateaugue's presence i s generally less than i d e a l . To make a long story short: "Chateaugue ne vaut r i e n . E l l e a un sexe f a i b l e " (p. 21). The only accident which has b e f a l l e n the protagonists i s Chateaugue's b i c y c l e accident and inj u r y . Whether one chooses to see her as threatened with c a s t r a t i o n , or quite simply as dead, when she i s dismissed, her impediment i s dismissed without being righted. Although she i s taken home to get we l l , the narrator imagines her dying from the cough: Si c ' e t a i t une pneumonie... s i e l l e en mourait. (p. 143) Chateaugue e t a i t seule et phtisique... E l l e e t a i t en t r a i n de mourir de pneumonie. (p. 143) The ambiguity as to whether she i s a l i v e or dead w i l l be resolved by her return. Chateaugue's second a r r i v a l , i n Chapter 30, i s a mock-heroic return of the repressed: J ' a i ouvert l a porte; je l ' a i vue ressourdre.... - Tu n'as pas l ' a i r surpris de me v o i r ressourdre, 199 a - t - e l l e murmure, le dos rond, les bras combes du corps, l a tete basse, les cheveux pleins de vent, les yeux cernes, le nez morveux et l a bouche noire. (p. 172) Questa has v i s i t e d M i l l e M i l l e s since Chateaugue's departure; one might expect the " l a " to r e f e r to her, but the verb "ressourdre" puts too much emphasis on the idea of return. Chateaugue's return i s more im-pressive than Questa's would be, because of the e f f o r t required to dispose of Chateaugue. At the beginning Chateaugue, as the c h i l d - s e l f , i s atemporal. The narrator played with conventional images of time passing, for ex-ample, "Je les l a i s s e tous v i e i l l i r l o i n devant moi. Je reste d e r r i e r e , avec moi, avec moi 1'enfant, l o i n d e r r i e r e , seul, i n t a c t , i n c o r r u p t i b l e " (p. 9). At t h i s beginning stage the s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l time of the per-formative discourse supplants l i n e a r chronology. The discourse both affirms and denies the p o s s i b i l i t y of change. In mid-text l i n e a r se-quencing becomes more prominent: Tout a coup, l'absence de Chateaugue m'est insupportable... tout a coup l'absence de Chateaugue m'indiffere... Tout a coup, je r i s cyniquement. Tout a coup j ' a i les larmes aux yeux. (pp- 167-168) O s c i l l a t i o n s of f e e l i n g translate into a rapid succession of states. The discourse no longer acts out feelings, but instead t e l l s about them. Like Chateaugue, M i l l e M i l l e s i s becoming the subject of a r e c i t . In Chapter 26 M i l l e M i l l e s leaves the room, goes to a bar and meets Questa, a f a l l e n woman. As he accepts changes i n himself he accepts her and sees her as less degenerate; however, the transformation i s never complete. The narrator's predicament appears to resolve i t -s e l f . F i r s t he describes himself as the d e t r i t u s of an absent c h i l d , 200 and as a corrupt vessel of l i f e . F i n a l l y , the world—not he — i s d e t r i t u s Je vois mon mal sous l a forme d'un a i g l e loge dans mes e n t r a i l l e s ; je vois faux. C'est moi l ' a i g l e ; et les e n t r a i l l e s , c'est le monde... Je suis le poisson force du mal, pas du peche, mais bien du mal, du mal dont on souffre. (p. 159) However, what remains of th i s text i s decentered from the narrator. Chateaugue turns out to be i t s n a r r a t i v e enigma, which has not yet been resolved i n the r e c i t . Exposition Displaces Performance After Chapter 31, and in the l a s t hundred pages of Le Nez, the ma-jor focus of the narrator's discourse i s to explain, i n the expository mode, his thoughts and feelings at the time and i n so doing to analyse r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y and rei n t e r p r e t his previous points of view i n the journa This exposition provides one with an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the performative mode as a therapeutic t a c t i c which the narrator no longer needs, since his discovery of " l a j o i e , " f i r s t mentioned i n Chapter 30 (p. 178), as a f e a s i b l e approach even to unpleasant s i t u a t i o n s . By representing a ludi c point of view to be adopted i n everyday l i f e , " l a j o i e " represents an extension of the textual approach of the journal to everyday l i f e . When knocked down by a single blow by a co-worker, he has the confidence to laugh at himself: " J ' a i apprehende, soudain, d'un seul coup, toute l a richesse de ma honte, et j ' a i lache dans cette richesse, pour q u ' i l l a devore, le l i o n inassouvissable qu'est ma j o i e " (p. 216). As he welcomes inconsistency and t e x t u a l i t y i n his l i f e , h i s s t y l e becomes consequential and coherent. He glosses what h i s discourse has previously performed: 201 Je suis une reaction v i o l e n t e , imprevisible. (p. 198) Mes r e f l e x i o n s sont des i r r e f l e x i o n s . . . e l l e s sont d'un etre humain... ne peuvent pas s'enchainer comme c e l l e s d'un etre logique. (p. 229) He also recounts a number of events i n d i c a t i n g a progressive separation from Chateaugue. He abandons the idea of s u i c i d e . He i n s i s t s that Chateaugue move into her own room. The events he recounts often involve Chateaugue's being hurt. When he t e l l s her to give up the suicide pact, she i s so disappointed that she has a seizure: E l l e c r i a i t avec tellement de force que le sang a com-mence de l u i couler de l a bouche et du nez.... Soudain, e l l e s'est a f f a i s s e e . Recroquevillee, les yeux ouverts et revulses, e l l e ne g e s t i c u l e plus, ne c r i e plus.... E l l e est crispee et roide comme un chien qui vient de mourir. (p. 190) The onset of menstruation, a sign that Chateaugue does not correspond to the i d e a l c h i l d - s e l f , makes her i l l : " J ' a i manque de mourir, t e l l e -ment j ' a i eu peur. Je n'ai jamais eu aussi mai au ventre de ma v i e " (p. 246). The events of the r e c i t of which Chateaugue i s the subject recount the narrator's progressive detachment from her, or merely represent Chateaugue's being p h y s i c a l l y damaged. The separation of the pair may be deduced from his i n i t i a l l y associating her with the r e c i t and his p r e d i l e c t i o n for a textual and l u d i c mode. While i n v i t i n g i n t erpreta-t i o n , her physical v u l n e r a b i l i t y c l e a r l y foreshadows the denouement. One may ask why Chapters 42-48, the l a s t s i x chapters of Le Nez, are included in the text. The performative mode subsists i n t r i v i a l i z e d form, for example, i n d i r e c t l y , i n the narrator's recounting of playing verbal games (pp. 273-274). Nothing happens with regard to the r e c i t 202 except confirmation of the distance between the protagonists which i s , however, compensated by a l i n g e r i n g s o l i d a r i t y . The most s i g n i f i c a n t single statement i s that the narrator has read his journal: "Je ne suis pas aussi f i d e l e et a t t e n t i f qu'avant a mon cher journal.... i l me degoute. Je n'y reviens plus que par non-chalance" (p. 261). In addition to i n t e r p r e t i n g the lack of d i r e c t i o n of the discourse, these comments j u s t i f y one i n seeing the narrator as betraying the text. The text distances him from the domain of r e c i t and necessity. He no longer requires t h i s distance e i t h e r . He i d e n t i -f i e s himself t o t a l l y with an enunciating subject or t o t a l l y , having changed a f f i l i a t i o n , with a subject of the enunciation. He affirms the former case but i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the denouement and a reexamination of subject i n Le Nez qui voque also allow one to a f f i r m the l a t t e r case. The apparent emptiness of the f i n a l chapters provides a background contrast to the dramatic discovery of Chateaugue's dead body, with which the text ends: II y avait un lac de sang sur le carrelage.... E l l e s'est tuee avec les deux poignards que nous avions voles.... E l l e se les est plantes dans le cou, ou c'est mou, ou i l n'y a pas d'os. L'odeur du sang m'a p r i s a l a gorge.... (pp. 274-275) This v i s i o n may be read as a more extreme version of several previous ones. The r e c i t has two dimensions, one, the gradual separation of the protagonists presented as a l o g i c a l l i n e a r sequence. The second dimen-sion does not respect chronology or a regular incremental gradation, and consists of the repeated representation of Chateaugue's injured and bloody body. The l a s t scene represents a culmination because she i s dead, as opposed to appearing dead, and because of the amount of blood 203 and i t s odour. This dimension of the r e c i t suggests a continuing c a s t r a t i o n anxiety in the narrator; either the cure has f a i l e d or the trauma of Chateaugue's death reactivates the f i x a t i o n . Her death also requires contextualization with respect to her r o l e as subject of the r e c i t . To understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c a s t r a t i o n to the r e c i t i t w i l l be necessary to reexamine the metamorphoses of the subject.in Le Nez. The Other as Locus of Binary Oppositions Since a r e c i t i s an abstract l o g i c a l structure, appropriating the other as subject of the r e c i t i s a manoeuvre not incompatible with appropriating her as a symbol of the Ideal or as a fantasy of the p h a l l i c woman. The " r e a l " other or p o t e n t i a l i n t e r l o c u t o r or enunciating subject, i s transformed into an i d e a l binary structure, an object. The narrator i m p l i c i t l y accepts that i n considering the other even as a highly v a l o r i z e d object he conceives the p o s s i b i l i t y of her as a degraded object: ... Au tout debut, quand j ' a i concu 1 1 idee de l a purete de Chateaugue, j ' a i concu, en meme temps, I'idee de l'impurete de Chateaugue. J ' a i c h o i s i l a purete... Mais 1'idee de l'impurete de Chateaugue continue de se f a i r e v o u l o i r . (p. 94) To return to the textual dimension, a subject associated purely with r e c i t , meaning and c l a r i t y , implies as i t s underpinning ambiguity, the physical presence of language and the i n t e r t e x t . The narrator's function i s to occupy a space between the former and l a t t e r , between r e c i t and nonsense, and to keep them apart. He i d e n t i f i e s with the negative pole of the oppositions, but as narrator he always includes various oppositions i n suspension. The "pure" i s as i n t r i n s i c to him as the "impure," 204 univocal meaning as i n t r i n s i c as polysemy. This i d e n t i f y i n g of the other with a stable reference point f a -c i l i t a t e s h i s exploration of the dark, the repressed, the unconscious, which i s also nonsense, the taboo and the i n t e r t e x t . The outcome of the exploration i s determined by the nature of the o r i g i n a l project: to consolidate one's mastery of language and the s e l f , to reconstruct a more e f f e c t i v e language and s e l f without a l t e r i n g the preconceived conceptual models. The narrator's journal rehearses the project des-cribed by Irigaray for a divided but s t i l l p h a l l o c e n t r i c subject: Comment ma i t r i s e r ces d i a b l e r i e s , fantomes mouvants de 1 1inconscient, quand une longue h i s t o i r e vous a appris a ne chercher et ne desirer que l a c l a r t e , l e bien vu des idees (f i x e s ) ? Peut-etre est-ce le temps de remettre 1'accent sur l a technique? De renoncer momentanement a l a souverainete de l a pensee pour forger les o u t i l s qui amenageront ces ressources encore inexploitees, ces mines inexplorees. Peut-etre f a u t - i l abandonner provisoirement l a contemplation sereine de son empire pour domestiquer ces forces qui pourraient, de(sen)chainees, en f a i r e e c l a t e r l a conception meme.^ The novel ends with the f a i l u r e of the supposed mastery of this " I . " Having neglected the r e a l other for the symbolic Other, the subjec interprets the former's death symbolically, thus the defensive denial of involvement seconded by absence of a coda^ to the na r r a t i v e . In denying any meaning at a l l to the other's death, the " I " ascribes i t with s i g -n i f i c a n c e as a l i m i t i n g factor defining s e l f as castrated. He denies his relatedness to the other, unwittingly submits to the dominance of the symbolic Other, and i s recuperated by phallocentrism: "les formes peuvent v a r i e r , e l l e s comportent toutes ce paradoxe de p l i e r a l a meme representation--celle du meme--ce qui s'impose comme heterogene, autre." E s t a b l i s h i n g the other as the locus of either/or oppositions reaffirms 205 the closed conceptual universe against which the text defines i t s e l f . By e s t a b l i s h i n g other as subject of r e c i t , the narrator does not eliminate himself from that r o l e , even though he tends to i d e n t i f y himself with the process of enunciation rather than the enunciated. Intradiegetic Subject and Text One aspect of the narrator's avoidance of his role.as subject of the r e c i t i s ambivalence toward the concept of author. His projected suicide i s the murder of the author as o r i g i n of text, accomplished by his assuming and rendering incongruous the a u t h o r i a l pose: "Je suis en t r a i n d'ecrire un chef-d'oeuvre de l i t t e r a t u r e frangaise. Dans cent un ans, les enfants d'ecole en apprendront des pages par coeur" (p. 45). The "author" dares to assume that he knows the future, a presumptuous-ness i n keeping with the late nineteenth-century r e a l i s t model of l i t -erature which i s widely i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . The narrator of Le Nez qui  vogue wishes to avoid a consecrated s t y l e reminiscent of that c i t e d by Barthes as u n i v e r s a l l y considered to be l i t e r a r y : Ce que l'ecole admire dans I'ecr i t u r e d'un Maupassant, ou d'un Daudet, c'est un signe l i t t e r a i r e enfin de-tache de son contenu, po-sant sans ambiguite l a L i t -terature comme une categorie sans aucun rapport avec d'autres langages, et i n s t i -tuant par l a une i n t e l l i g i -b i l i t e ideale des choses.^ J ' e c r i s mai et je suis assez vu l g a i r e . Je m'en r e j o u i s . Mes paroles mai tournees et outrageantes eloigneront de cette table, ou des personnes imaginaires sont reunies pour entendre, les amateurs et les amatrices de f l e u r s de rhe-torique. (p. 10) In addition to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r model, the man of l e t t e r s to be assassinated by the narrator i s the narrator himself to the extent that 206 he i s recuperated by an academy. This problem of the prince turning into a frog i s broached in Le Degre zero de l ' e c r i t u r e : "Chaque e c r i -vain. . . puvre en l u i le proces de l a l i t t e r a t u r e ; mais s ' i l l a condamne, i l l u i accorde toujours un s u r s i s . . . i l a beau inventer un langage l i b r e , on le l u i renvoie f a b r i q u e . . . . T h e autochthonous l i t e r a r y model i n Le Nez qui voque, aside from Cremazie and F e l i x L e c l e r c , i s Emile Nelligan. Nelligan's l i f e suggests the model of the self-consuming a r t e f a c t , and the narrator laments not being programmed i n the same manner. The underlying problem with l i t e r a r y models i n Le Nez qui voque i s of course also that of autochthony. As Patrick Imbert writes regarding several generations i n Quebec: II n'est pas besoin de commenter longuement les i n c e r t i -tudes qui a s s a i l l e n t les ecr i v a i n s des annees quarante, cinquante ou soixante encore... pour qui le langage f a i t d i f f i c u l t e . Ceci t i e n t a des raisons h i s t o r i q u e s : d'une part... 1'univers anglais, d'autre part 1'impossibilite de m a l t r i s e r un langage, un discours qui ne sont pas d ' i c i , mais qui prennent racine dans une culture d i f f e r e n t e , c e l l e de l a France ou de 1 1 Europe.H Thus, as l a t e as the 1960s, class d e f i n i t i o n of the l i t e r a r y audience i n Quebec i s grotesquely underlined by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with European culture: II y en a qui essaient tres f o r t de devenir Canadiens, des durs a americaniser.... Que je hais ces Francais manques, ces especes de pyromaniaques qui ont honte d'etre nes sur ces r i v e s , . . . qui regrettent de ne pas avoir plutot echoue. (p. 123) On the other hand, the space defined by the subject of Le Nez qui  voque i n his self-immolating, textual phase evokes a p r e c l a s s i c a l stage i n the evolution of a national t r a d i t i o n , comparable to the p r e c l a s s i c a l 207 European t r a d i t i o n . This textual space i s also that of contemporary metafiction. Both ex p l o i t the l i n g u i s t i c indeterminacy Barthes asso-cia t e s with p r e c l a s s i c a l language: Tant que l a langue hesite sur sa structure meme, une morale du langage est impossible; I'ecriture n'apparait qu'au moment ou l a langue constitute nationalement de-vient une sorte de n e g a t i v i t e , un horizon qui separe ce qui est defendu et ce qui est permis, sans plus s 1 i n t e r -roger sur les origines ou les j u s t i f i c a t i o n s de ce tabou.12 The recourse to the l i t e r a l and corporeal i n Le Nez qui vogue does not respect c l a s s i c a l e s t h e t i c s : "Je m'etends, je m'etire, je m'allonge; je ne vous epargne aucun d e t a i l . Je ne f e r a i s pas un bon e c r i v a i n , mais je f e r a i s une bonne ecrevisse" (p. 146). This " I , " as bahktinien image of the text, i d e n t i f i e s , focuses, organizes meaning; thus i n "ecrevisse" one finds "ecrou," " v i s . " Associating t h i s license with the p r e c l a s s i c a l mode i s i n keeping with the narrator's passion for pre-conguest h i s t o r y : Je suis, en ce pays, de l a race des Seigneurs, des seigneurs en raguettes seuls au fond du Minnesota, des seigneurs a l a rame seuls entre les rives de l'Ohio, des seigneurs a l a v o i l e seuls dans 1'Atlantigue, des seigneurs a l a beche seuls sur un continent. (p. 19) However, the solitude as well as the indeterminacy of the encoder suggest a problem i n i d e n t i f y i n g a decoder. The Second Person Raoul's i n t e r n a l communication model for the f i c t i o n a l journal shows narrator as " j e , " " i l , " and "tu," repeating the extradiegetic 13 roles of author, character, reader. She points out that i n a sense the narrator reads himself as he writes: "the d i a r i s t must 'register' what he writes, and he i s the 'addressee' i n so far as i t i s his own 208 14 reaction which determines the encoding of his account." M i l l e M i l l e s acknowledges this function by his frequent r e l f e x i v e comments; for ex-ample: "Tout ce que je dis est insense, i n s i g n i f i a n t , mai d i t , message de haine aux automobiles" (p. 100). He continues because the discourse has an emotive function. At the i n t r a d i e g e t i c l e v e l , i s t h i s discourse communicative? Talking to oneself may be intermediary between a com-mumcative and non-communicative speech act. That M i l l e M i l l e s would l i k e an audience i s not s u r p r i s i n g since Raoul maintains that even s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y introverted d i a r i s t s do not want to write just for themselves: The d i a r i s t , often having Je n'ai r i e n a vous d i r e , nothing p a r t i c u l a r to say, races. Vous p a r l e r est and no one to whom to say i t , f u t i l e . S i je te parle, ce may write to reassure himself n'est pas parce que j ' a i that the channel of communi- quelque chose a te d i r e ; cation i s s t i l l open, that c'est parce que j ' a i envie he could convey something to de p a r l e r . (p. 103) someone i f the opportunity arose.16 The narrator also i n v i t e s the reader to respond to him as a clown at ce r t a i n moments: "Je suis le r o i de l a b e t i s e " (p. 105). By denegrating himself he gives himself permission, and asks the reader's permission, to continue and to recontextualize his performance as play. He iden-t i f i e s his utterances as r i d i c u l o u s , and as such s t i l l worth hearing. He has other t a c t i c s for showing that he i s not opting out of the com-municative act; for example, he f l a t t e r s the reader by i d e n t i f y i n g a common outgroup: "automobiles," meaning those intimately involved with cars (p. 12); and "amateurs et amatrices de f l e u r s de rhetorique" (p. 10). His assertion (p. 10) that he dare not confront humanity d i r e c t l y 209 p a r t i a l l y disguises a ruse i n that the hyperprotected l i t e r a r y speech act can assure an audience for t h i s complex verbal behaviour."^ Since the f i c t i o n a l narrator never projects the actual p u b l i c a t i o n of his journal, one might also apply t h i s remark e x t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y . Toward the end of the novel where he i s more detached from the text, he also appears rather lukewarm toward the prospect of being read: "Mes amis les hommes.... Je leur parle, mais je n'ai pas besoin d'etre vraiment entendu. Je parle en faisant semblant d'etre entendu et f a i r e semblant d'etre entendu me s u f f i t " (p. 248). The diary form accompanies f a i l u r e of a s a t i s f a c t o r y intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p with an other. In t h i s case, Chateaugue i s a barred or taboo narratee because the narrator r e j e c t s her function as r e a l i n favour of imaginary and symbolic functions: "II ne faut r i e n d i r e avec e l l e . . . . II faut l a l a i s s e r e t r e " (p. 56). Temporal Location of " I " and "You" i n the Text In the journal, says Raoul, i t i s the subject's "here and now" 18 which dominates. "You" i s absent; hence the delayed communication form. The narrator i n s i s t s on associating Chateaugue with an edenic past in spite of her physical presence. The absolute present of Le  Nez qui voque i s that of r i t u a l play as set o f f from goal-oriented a c t i v i t y , and that of the l i m i n a l subject's impurity and i n v i s i b i l i t y : "Qu'est-ce que le present? V o i c i l e present: je suis a s s i s , bien a s s i s , et tout ce que j ' a i est f i n i " (p. 79); "Je ne suis r i e n . Je ne suis meme pas v r a i " (p. 80). In t h i s present the subject has only his past as i t i s reduced to an objective c o r r e l a t i v e i n Chateaugue. 19 210 Though i s o l a t e d i n the present, M i l l e M i l l e s does not project him-s e l f into the future. His narrator, persona remains i n the text without r e l a t i o n s h i p to a future s e l f , f i r s t because he intends to commit suicide and then because he wants to divest himself of the narrator persona. I r o n i c a l l y , the character projected beyond the end of the r e c i t i s condemned by the past to repeat i n d e f i n i t e l y the representation of cas t r a t i o n . The narrator remains alone i n his l i m i n a l condition of textual subject. Possible readers are i n the future, i n r e l a t i o n to the narrator. The message-in-a-bottle presentation of the text depicts the circum-stances of readership i n Quebec i n the 1960s: "Le Canada est un vaste pays vide.... Restons couches, Canada, jusqu'a ce qu'un s o l e i l qui en v a i l l e l a peine se leve" (pp. 121-122). The Extradiegetic Problem: Readership The f i c t i o n a l narrator's a t t i t u d e toward Chateaugue r e f l e c t s t r a d i t i o n a l messianism and Ultramontanism i n Quebec, as analyzed by Denis Moniere: Le discours ultramontain est essentiellement axe sur l a denonciation et sur 1'affirmation d'absolus. Dans ce contexte, l e doute n'est pas permis, 1'analyse des s i t u a -tions nouvelles y est absente et 1'innovation est i n u t i l e , car l e dogme est l a qui fournit une i n t e r p r e t a t i o n toute f a i t e de l a r e a l i t e . ^ 0 In t h i s context the text functions to restate dogma and straying from th i s function i s reprehensible. The French Canadian t r a d i t i o n of i s o -l a t i o n i s v a l o r i z e d i n Le Nez qui vogue as a counterweight to accultura-t i o n , but not unconditionally. The f i c t i o n a l narrator's s e l f - a t t r i b u t e d 211 impurity may be interpreted as hi s permeability to an i n t e r t e x t , rep-resented i n the performative mode of his journal. The deconstruction of the narrator as Cartesian subject i s the deconstruction of the reader as subject. That the contemporary reader, represented by Chateaugue, i s too innocent or f r a g i l e to endure the text conceals suspicion that t h i s reader i s inadequate to the task: "Le monde de Chateaugue est... s i f r a g i l e q u ' i l sera emporte- par un coup de vent, comme huppe de p i s -s e n l i t " (p. 202). Imbert discerns a problem of readership for writers l i k e Ducharme: Le lecteur est done vu par les ecriv a i n s qui refusent de reprendre une ec r i t u r e datee... comme un etre ayant des besoins de securite t e l s q u ' i l risque d'empecher l e dyna-misme necessaire a 1 1 elaboration de nouvelles formes.... i l [ l ' e c r i v a i n ] est deja en t r a i n d'elaborer l ' i d e o l o g i e du depassement, alors que l a grande p a r t i e de l a societe est toujours dans l a tradition.21 Unlike M i l l e M i l l e s who hides the journal from Chateaugue, the author published his manuscript. By i t s existence the text defends i t s readers against a s s i m i l a t i o n as the most d i s t a s t e f u l a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The Extradiegetic Subject The reader of Le Nez qui voque i s forced to question the narrator's self-proclaimed cure, and reconstruct his discourse; i n other words, to rei n t e r p r e t the i n t r a d i e g e t i c subject. One p o s s i b i l i t y i s to read into the repeating structure of the r e c i t , as i t concerns Chateaugue's death, the structure known as a traumatic amnesia. In th i s l i g h t , the death i s an a p r i o r i of the r e c i t , which represents the process of curing the amnesia caused by "an increase of stimulus too powerful to be dealt with 212 or worked off i n the normal way." Chateaugue's adventures represent the mind's a s s i m i l a t i n g the f i n a l i t y of death. The narrator's denial of g r i e f i n the f i n a l scene triggers the r e c i t but i s represented as i t s r e s o l u t i o n ; thus narrator and r e c i t are a closed and self-propagating structure. The trauma reactivates a ca s t r a t i o n complex whose endless cure i s the text as r e c i t . To i d e n t i f y Chateaugue as subject of the r e c i t i s i n i t s e l f to i d e n t i f y her as dead, to s a c r i f i c e her to the endless cure which condemns the "I".of the text to be functional but neurotic. The s a c r i f i c e of the other s t a b i l i z e s but also l i m i t s the s e l f i n an unproductive way. The structure of the traumatic amnesia i s not located e x p l i c i t l y within the narrator by the text. A s i g n i f i c a n t motive to recontextualize the narrator i s provided by his ultimate repudiation of the text, which i s nonetheless a published novel. The r e c i t requires i n t e r p r e t a t i o n but makes the reader's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for i t e x p l i c i t , by sabotaging the narrator's authority without superimposing clear a u t h o r i a l i n t e r -pretation. The " I " of Le Nez thus reveals i t s e l f to be as empty as that of L'Avalee. The subject of the discourse figures as a space to be occupied by the act of reading. In reading a r e c i t into the text, the reader consummates the endogamous union of M i l l e M i l l e s and Chateaugue, of enunciating and enunciated subject, triumphant though divided. 213 NOTES Val e r i e Raoul, The French F i c t i o n a l Journal: F i c t i o n a l Nar- cissim / N a r c i s s i s t i c F i c t i o n (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980), p. 26. 2 Roland Barthes, Le Degre zero de l ' e c r i t u r e (Paris: S e u i l , 1953), p. 53. J u l i a K r i s t e v a , Le Texte du roman (The Hague: Mouton, 1970), p. 65. 4 J u l i a K risteva, Semeiotike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris: S e u i l , 1969), p. 116. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Vol. XI, 1933; r p t . London: Oxford University Press, 1961. Luce Irigaray, Speculum: de l'autre femme (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1974), p. 169. ^ See Mary Louise Pratt, Toward a Speech Act Theory of L i t e r a r y  Discourse (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1977), p. 46. 8 Irigaray, p. 170. 9 Barthes, Le Degre zero de 1 e c r i t u r e , p. 25. ^ Barthes, Le Degre zero de l ' e c r i t u r e , p. 28. ^ Patrick Imbert, Roman quebecois contemporain et c l i c h e s (Ottawa: Editions de 1'Universite d'Ottawa, 1983), p. 64. 12 Barthes, Le Degre zero de l ' e c r i t u r e , pp. 80-81. 13 Raoul, p. 72. 14 Raoul, p. 40. 214 See Eli z a b e t h Closs Traugott and Mary Louise Pratt, L i n g u i s t i c s  for Students of L i t e r a t u r e (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980), p. 268, note 4. ^ Raoul, p. 65. 1 7 Pratt, p. 215. 18 Raoul, p. 38. 19 See V i c t o r Turner, The Forest of Symbols (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1967), p. 90. 20 Denis Moniere, Le Developpement des ideologies au Quebec (Montreal: Editions Quebec/Amerique, 1977), p. 223. 21 Imbert, p. 70. Sigmund Freud, "Fixation to Traumas: the Unconscious," Standard  E d i t i o n of the Complete Psychological Works (London: Hogarth Press, 1963), XXV, pp. 280-281. CONCLUSION This discussion has encompassed three d i s t i n c t attempts to under-stand the representation of subject i n two novels by Rejean Ducharme. In the f i r s t place, "subject" has been interpreted as a s e l f or character from a psychological viewpoint. This approach finds i t s i n s p i r a t i o n in the i n t r a d i e g e t i c representation of subject i n each novel, and v i r t u a l l y ignores the writing or reading of the texts, except i n that to reconstruct a character of a r e c i t i s to execute a t r a d i t i o n a l model of reading. The subject of L'Avalee des avales represents h e r s e l f as a vacuum into which others who threaten to incorporate her also threaten to intrude. She proclaims the necessity of c o n t r o l l i n g others i n order to f o r e s t a l l being destroyed by them. She does not influence her father, who determines the p r i n c i p a l events of her biography and disrupts the continuity of her r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others, evoking the extradiegetic o r i g i n of the text. However, the rehearsing by the events of the r e c i t of the narrator's fantasies suggests the former as not d i s t i n c t from the l a t t e r . The murder which closes the narrative implies that the inner s e l f both destroys and assumes the f a l s e s e l f . It i s thus possible to project that the integration of the subject i s portrayed as more undesirable than the schizoid condition. Indeed, the i n t e g r a t i o n of s e l f may be evoked as a schizophrenic hypostasis rather than cure: " I " d e f i n i t i v e l y becomes "the Other." Le Nez qui vogue also evokes a neurotic personality i n the process of becoming integrated. A g u i l t attached to sexual desire paralyses 215 216 the narrator, but he finds respite i n journal w r i t i n g . While he writes he becomes unstable, ungraspable and immune to the d e f i n i t i v e judgment of s e l f which plagues him. Halfway through the book, he begins to f e e l pleased with himself, but his in t e r e s t i n the journal abates, as i t i s associated with the obsession of impurity. He integrates himself into the mainstream by accepting a job, and detaches himself from his constant companion, ostensibly because she must f i n d a husband and he a wife. He terminates the journal when she k i l l s h e r s e l f , at the same time proclaiming his indiff e r e n c e to her death. However, recurrent imagery as well as the presentation of minor events i n the r e c i t suggest that the narrator's paralysing g u i l t r e s u l t s from fear of ca s t r a t i o n and of women as castrated. His abandoning of Chateaugue proceeds from unwillingness to accept her as a woman and the decision to cleave to her as an asexual but hermaphroditic symbol. Her death imposes i t s e l f i n the r e c i t as an image of woman castrated, evoking a recrudescence of the obsession. In this case the r e c i t i s c i r c u l a r , the denouement evoking a cure and a cure aborting i n the denouement. The presentation of secondary characters implies a s o c i a l l y func-t i o n a l narrator i n Le Nez qui voque but not necessar i l y i n L'Avalee  des avales. In the former text, the narrator's companion i s psycho-l o g i c a l l y readable whereas Berenice's entourage possesses l i t t l e coherence without reference to her. The former subject uses " I " and "you" appro-p r i a t e l y , but the l a t t e r uses the terms i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y also. The second stage i n the study of each novel turns to s t y l i s t i c and s t r u c t u r a l aspects of the texts to confirm the o r i g i n a l reading and i n so doing n e c e s s a r i l y q u a l i f i e s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of subject as 217 character, without always acknowledging t h i s manoeuvre other than as the t r a d i t i o n a l appeal to the text i t s e l f . It becomes apparent how ready an opportunity the two novels provide for examining the text as an instance of enunciation or reading. The enunciating subject con-tributes to the representation of a narrator-character but also i s assumed e x t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y by the reader who activates the instance of discourse containing " I . " In L'Avalee des avales pervasive semantic incongruity heightens the indeterminacy of f i c t i o n a l discourse, evoking a m e t a f i c t i o n a l status for the " I , " and also disrupting the reader's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the subject as enunciated. For one thing, the inappropriateness of a c h i l d as o r i g i n of l i t e r a r y discourse p r o f i l e s an author-father e x i l i n g the character from d i r e c t access to that discourse. Like the secondary characters, the r e c i t i s overtly t a u t o l o g i c a l , thus a l l u d i n g to the closed structure of the conceptual universe. As enunciating subject "Berenice" i s a c a r n i v a l mask for the writer-reader who, taking pleasure i n the text, p a r t i c i p a t e s equally i n the barbaric world of Berenice's mocking Saint Paul and the c l a s s i c a l world of Berenice's renouncing T i t u s . Paronomasia, word play and bad jokes which disrupt the trans-mission of information i n the discourse also disrupt the i d e n t i t y of the enunciating subject as reader, who must recontextualize the d i s -course. The " I " as a t a c t i c becomes p l u r a l . To sum up, a cursory examination of composition and s t y l e i n L'Avalee des avales leads one to appreciate Leduc-Park's contention that i n Ducharme the subject triumphs by embracing i t s destruction. This point of view inverts that of discourse i n the service of r e c i t . It does not preclude the 218 representation of unhappy consciousness i n the r e c i t , though i n L'Avalee  des avales a coherent mimesis of schizoid consciousness also s i g n i f i e s the m u l t i p l i c i t y of texts implicated in a m u l t i p l i c i t y of readings. I n i t i a l l y such a reading of L'Avalee des avales may seem more extravagant than any reading one could j u s t i f y of Le Nez qui voque, which represents the composition of a text i n t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y . Analysis of non-narrative passages suggests that i n the w r i t i n g process as he rep-resents i t , the narrator submits his i d e n t i t y to ambiguity and di s p e r s a l with therapeutic r e s u l t s . One might see for the reader no representa-t i o n i n the text, no role as enunciating subject, other than the narra-tor character. The performative aspect of the text displays the shape of the conceptual universe, and provides the reader as enunciating sub-jec t with an e x h i l a r a t i n g sense of loosening i t s constraints. In spite of this euphoric dimension of performance, the narrator abandons i t when his neurosis goes into remission. His d e v a l o r i z a t i o n of writing implies a d e v a l o r i z a t i o n of reading which distances the reader from him. The narrator's role as subject of the text i s c a l l e d into question by Chateaugue 1s r o l e as motor of the r e c i t . As s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e external to the narrator, Chateaugue e f f e c t s a m e t a f i c t i o n a l reference to the writer-reader as enunciating subject. The narrator's neglect of the text p a r a l l e l s his neglect of Chateaugue. Her suicide as denoue-ment of the r e c i t evokes the disappearance of a text which l i t e r a l l y i s not read. In abdicating Chateaugue-text, the narrator denies her ( i t s ) p l u r a l i t y , namely, of Chateaugue as other than univocal symbol and of text as other than determined by narrator as o r i g i n . The c a s t r a t i o n motif evokes the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of maintaining control over Chateaugue-219 text. Because he renounces nonsense and recourse to the Other of the discourse, the narrator experiences the t a u t o l o g i c a l structure of mean-ing as a ca s t r a t i o n . Both texts parody the image of an integrated subject. L'Avalee  des avales g l o r i f i e s the p l u r a l i t y of a lu d i c enunciating subject whose reference i s m e t a f i c t i o n a l . Le Nez qui vogue presents a d e f i n i t i v e l y neurotic subject who undertakes a cure i n order to preserve the equi-l i b r i u m of his neurosis, and s a t i r i z e s the writer-reader who attempts to e x p l o i t t e x t u a l i t y as entertainment or therapy, without r e l a t i o n to the assumptions of the everyday l i f e w o r l d . In e f f e c t , the psychological image of problematic subject has prepared the r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of subject as text and text as reader which i s a premise of th i s conclusion. In L'Avalee des avales, the incongruous portrayal of the narrator-character represents the r e c i t as f i c t i o n a l instead of natural. Within the r e c i t , the presentation of c h i l d , of female subject and of schizoid subject, a l l explore the l i m i t s of a conventionally defined subject of the discourse. The schizoid subject i s interpreted as a deferred schizophrenic, a deferred non-subject for whom " I " does not t o t a l i z e consciousness, just as the " I " of L'Avalee does not t o t a l i z e an image of the subject without at the same time making the image problematic. For Irigaray, the subject of the discourse i s male; the female must speak through the male. This premise sheds l i g h t on the unspontaneous r e l a t i o n of Berenice to the discourse i n L'Avalee. A more concrete image of the p l u r a l i t y of the text inheres i n the representation of the c h i l d as always already a s p l i t subject i n whom s e l f does not predate Other. The ch i l d ' s t r a d i t i o n a l purity 220 i s reduced to the Other as a destructuring force repressed i n the con-s o l i d a t i n g of the r e c i t , • but the loss of which e n t a i l s loss of the function of s u b j e c t i v i t y , which again may be interpreted as schizophrenia. The hyperbolic discourse evokes the distended body of a c h i l d , an image which lingers as the iconographic representation of a l u d i c and poly-semic text. The loss of s e l f i n L'Avalee may be related extradiegetic-a l l y to the loss of composer i n the act of w r i t i n g , as conceived of by Blanchot. In the r e c i t of Le Nez qui voque the composer as narrator seeks only to f i n d but not lose s e l f , a project which culminates i n a s e l f cut o f f from i t s other. The narrator's avoidance of other as i n t e r -locutor i n t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y i s reversed e x t r a d i e g e t i c a l l y by the i n t e r -pretation of Chateaugue as a s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e of the r e c i t and as the Other of the discourse. Avoidance of the i n t e r l o c u t o r i s also un-done by the fact of reading. To the extent that the reader associates with the self-conscious narrator, the text may appear more d i d a c t i c and less euphoric than L'Avalee. The text invokes a reader who w i l l negate the closure in the r e c i t , keeping the " s i g n i f i e r a f l o a t , " as suggested by the t i t l e . At the term of this i n v e s t i g a t i o n one may see the two texts as complementary text-subjects. In i t s m e t a f i c t i o n a l phase neither negates or r i d i c u l e s i t s representation of s p l i t consciousness as s u f f e r i n g . Each i l l u s t r a t e s the functioning of the text, including i n the mimesis of s u f f e r i n g , as pleasurable. The two constitute a h o l i s t i c series of female/male, ot h e r / s e l f , nonsense/meaning a l t e r c a t i o n s , i n which an element which claims to dominate i s dominated by i t s other. 221 This study has lead from the consideration of the subject repre-sented i n the text as o r i g i n of the text, to an inverse point of view considering the representation of subject as produced by the text and dependent on i t . This s p l i t subject i s a textual constant of L'Avalee  des avales and Le Nez qui voque, inseparable from both r e c i t and d i s -course. The psychological s p l i t i n the subjects represented i n these texts constitutes a mise en abyme of two points of view, mimetic and m e t a f i c t i o n a l , which one may adopt as reader. BIBLIOGRAPHY I. Works by Rejean Ducharme 1. Novels L'Avalee des Avales. Paris: Gallimard, 1966. Les Enfantomes. Paris: Gallimard (Montreal: Lacombe), 1976. La Fille de Christophe Colomb. Paris: Gallimard, 1969. L'Hiver de force. Paris: Gallimard, 1973. Le Nez qui vogue. Paris: Gallimard, 1967. L'Oceantume. Paris: Gallimard, 1968. 2. Translations into English: The Swallower Swallowed, trans. Barbara Bray. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1968. Wild to Mild, trans. Robert-Guy Scully. Saint-Lambert, Quebec: Editions Heritage, c 1980. 3. Plays: Le Cid maghane. (Unpublished play, 1968). Ha Ha!... Paris: Gallimard (Montreal: Lacombe), 1982. Ines Peree et Inat Tendu. Montreal: Lemeac/Parti Pris, 1976. Le Marquis qui perdit. (Unpublished play, 1970). 4. Film Scenarios: Les Beaux Souvenirs. (Film directed by Francis Mankiewicz), 1981. Les Bons Debarras. (Film directed by Francis Mankiewicz), 1980. 222 223 II. Works on Rejean Ducharme 1. Book: Leduc-Park, Renee. Rejean Ducharme: Nietzsche et Dionysos. Quebec: Les Presses de l'Universite Laval, 1982. 2. Theses and Dissertations: Antonio, Jean. "Rejean (regent du charme) Ducharme et mon desir." Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 1978. Barberis, Robert. "La Critique de la religion dans L'Avalee des avales." Universite de Montreal, 1973. Brais, Pierre. "Lecture des Enfantomes de Rejean Ducharme." Universite du Quebec, 1981. Chadwick, Paulette. "Les Themes des romans de Rejean Ducharme." University of Western Ontario, 1970. Chasse, Dominique. "Aspects de l a dynamique enonciative dans Les Enfantomes de Rejean Ducharme." Universite de Montreal, 1979. Finnell, Susanna. "Les Enfant.6mes de Rejean Ducharme: espaces de lectures." University of British Columbia, 1985. Fortier, Danielle. "Les Syntagmes figes dans L'Avalee des avales de Rejean Ducharme." Universite de Montreal, 1969. Gerols, Jacqueline. "L'Invention verbale chez Rejean Ducharme." Universite de Montreal, 1969. Harger, Virginia A. "Alienation and the Search for Self in the 'nouveau roman' of France and of Quebec." (sur Robbe-Grillet, Butor et Sarraute en France et Jean Basile, Gerard Bessette et Rejean Ducharme au Quebec). University of British Columbia, 1973. Kerneau, Jean-Paul. "Solitude, amour et liberte dans L'Avalee des avales de Rejean Ducharme." University of Manitoba, 1970. Langlois-Benghozi, Marielle. "La Volonte de puissance dans l'oeuvre romanesque de Rejean Ducharme." M c G i l l , 1976. Lacombe, Francois. "L'Evolution du personnage principal et ses repercussions sur les techniques romanesques dans Le Nez qui voque." Universite Laval, 1969. 224 Larose, Jean. "Rejean Ducharme: etude du theme de l'avalement dans L'Avalee  des avales." Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, 1970. Maillet, Marguerite. "Le Projet dans l'oeuvre romanesque de Rejean Ducharme." Universite de Moncton, 1970. Mocquais, Pierre-Yves. "Les Narrateurs-enfants dans les romans de Rejean Ducharme." University of Western Ontario, 1974. Prescott, Henri J. E. "Le Suicide dans Le Nez qui vogue de Rejean Ducharme." University of Manitoba, 1975. Poirier, Eric. "L'Oceantume de Rejean Ducharme ou l'Amertume du reve dechu." Universite Laval, 1979. Saheb, Arlette. "Ironie, dire et vouloir dire chez Roch Carrier, Marie-Claire Blais, Rejean Ducharme." Universite de Montreal, 1979. Sauvageau-Bertrand, Claudine. "Elements pour une lecture de L'Avalee des avales." Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 1976. Scully, Robert-Guy. "L'Ideologie de Rejean Ducharme d'apres L'Hiver de force. M c G i l l , 1974. Smart, Patricia. "L'Ironie et ses techniques dans les romans de Jacques Godbout, Hubert Aquin et de Rejean Ducharme." Queen's, 1976. Stockmeyer-Morcos, Lore. "Production du sens dans L'Oceantume de Rejean Ducharme." Universite de Sherbrooke, 1976. Vigiant, Louise. "Temps et signification dans Le Nez qui vogue de Rejean Ducharme." Laval, 1977. Waller, Myriam. "Les Manifestations du discours chez Rejean Ducharme et Hubert Aquin." Universite de Montreal, 1976. 3. Articles on Rejean Ducharme: Arnette, Jacques-Pierre. "L'Oceantume." La Nouvelle Revue Frangaise, 32 (1968), 828. Aury, Dominique. "Vive le Canada." Nouvelle Revue Frangaise, 168 (1966), 1066-70. Barberis, Robert. "De L'Exil au royaume." Maintenant, n° 64 (avril 1967), 122-24. . "Litterature quebecoise et Religion." Maintenant, n° 74 (fev-rier-mars 1968), 57-60. 225 Barberis, Robert. "Rejean Ducharme: l'Avale de Dieu." Maintenant, n° 75 (mars-avril 1968), 80-83. Basile, Jean. "Les Enfantomes de Rejean Ducharme." Le Devoir, 17 avril 1976, p. 12. . "Les Evenements: Litterature." Le Devoir, 14 Janvier 1967, p. 14. . "Y aurait-il trop de lecteurs pour Rejean Ducharme?" Le Devoir, 11 octobre 1969, p. 12. Beaulieu, Ivanhoe. "Amarante, fleur imperissable." Le Devoir, 3 novembre 1973, p. 13. Beaulieu, Michel. "L'Oceantume de Ducharme." Digeste eclair, novembre 1968, p. 24. Beauregard, Hermine. "J'ai rencontre Rejean Ducharme." Chatelaine, mars 1968, pp. 23, 54. Belanger, Georges et James de Finney. "Le Nez qui voque de Rejean Ducharme oeuvre ouverte, sans norme, ou la quete de la verite...." Revue de l'Univer- site Laurentienne, fevrier 1968, pp. 34-40. Berube, Renald. "Le Cid et Hamlet: Corneille et Shakespeare lus par Ducharme et Gurik." Voix et Images, 1, n° 1 (septembre 1975), 35-56. Blouin, Jean and Jean-Pierre Myette. "A l a Recherche de Rejean Ducharme." L'Actualite, juillet 1982, pp. 44-49, 55. Bond, D. J. "Search for Identity in the Novels of R. Ducharme." Mosaic, n° 9 (Winter 1976), 31-44. Bornstein, Josiane. "Antagonisme ethnique ou le Complexe de Cain dans l'oeuvre de Rejean Ducharme." Etudes Canadiennes, n° 4 (1978), 11-18. Bosco, Monique. "La Moisson de mots de Ducharme." Europe, fevrier-mars 1969, pp. 71-76. . "Rejean Ducharme, romancier." Europe, n° 478-479 (1973), 72-77. Bosquet, Alain. "La F i l l e de Christophe Colomb." Le Monde, 6 septembre 1969, p. 111. . "La F i l l e de Christophe Colomb et R. Ducharme vus de Paris. 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