UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

More correct ratios of the distribution of the three factors of production on poultry, tree-fruit, and.. Snesarev, Vladimir Nicolas 1931

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! U . B . C .  LJD^^RY ^  j CAT. WO. ¿-C3/37. /n^  ! ^cc. N<5!  !  MORE CORRECT RATIOS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION ON POULTRY, TREE-FRUIT, AND DAIRY FARMS  INBRI-  TISH COLUMBIA.  by Vladimir N i c o l a s  Snesarev,  A T h e s i s submitted f o r the Degree of MA S T E R  0 F  S u i E f! C E  1 A'  i n the Department of  A ^  i u u L T U RE  AC^NO^'LEDGLiENI.  The w r i t e r t a k e s t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y of e x p r e s s i n g h i s  sincere  thanks and g r a t i t u d e to a l l those who have a s s i s t e d so m a t e r i a l l y in supplying information f o r t h i s t h e s i s .  His thanks are due e s -  p e c i a l l y to P r o f e s s o r h.R.Hare f o r h i s kind a d v i c e and to i''.H.Cle ment, Dean of the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e  of the U n i v e r s i t y of J^ri  t i s h Columbia, who made p o s s i b l e t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g .  C 0 f!  T E N T S .  Pages. Introduction I  1 -  7  METHODS OF INVESTIGATION USED l / Assumptions adopted  7 - 10  2/ S t a t i s t i c a l data used  1 1 - 13  3/ D i s t r i c t s chosen  13 - 15  4/ method of s e c u r i n g s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a . 1 6 - 16 3/ .i-etod of determining the degree of p r o f i t a b l e n e s s of the e n t e r p r i s e . . . 6/ Hethod of determining  17 - IK  percentages  of investments in d i f f e r e n t of production  factors 18 - 19  7/ d i v i s i o n of farms i n t o s i z e g r o u p s . . 2 J - 21 II  POULT .Y FARMING  22 - 36  I I I TREE-FRUIT FARMING  37 - 55  IV  DAIRY FARMING  56 - 76  V  YEARLY CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION  VI  3  OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION  77 - H3  APPENDIX  H4 -IO5  Farming i 3 becoming more and more a b u s i n e s s  prooosition.  The ownership of even a l ^ r g e s i z e d farm does not i n mean economic power to the owner. i s an income.  itself  .Tiat does g i v e t h i s power  T h e r e f o r e i t i s the income, a c t u a l or  which determines the v a l u e of the f a r m .  potential,  The c a l l of a p a r t i c u -  lar v a l l e y , the l u r e of a c u r t a i n farming l o c a l i t y ,  doe^ not  aeem to be so s t r o n g or to come so f r e q u e n t l y now-a-days a s was the c a s e two g e n e r a t i o n s a g o .  hy?  Because t h e r e a r e few  farms c o m p l e t e l y s e l f s u s t a i n i n g a t the p r e s e n t t i m e , and b e cause the s a y i n g t h a t "The bones of our f a t h e r s and g r a n d f a thers g r e ; on the produce of t h i s s o i l " does not h o l d t r u e any longer.  People do not want to s t - y on t h e i r farms simply b e -  cause they were born t h e r e .  They a r e w i l l i n g t o abandon the  farm and t o move to a ne^ l o c a l i t y ,  or to a l t e r t h e i r farms  if  saoh a procedure w i l l i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y of the l a b o r or the i n v e s t e d c n n i t a l .  Farmers want t h e i r farms to pay and they  have a p e r f e c t r i g h t to e x p e c t t h i s and t o s t r i v e to a t t a i n  it.  Only the people who share the above s t a t e d b e l i e f might be i n t e r e s t e d in the study t h a t f o l l o w s t h i s  introduction.  There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s are p e c u l i a r l y s u b j e c t to improper c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the economic factory, of p r o d u c t i o n and t h a t economic m i s f i t s are met w i t h more f r e q u e n t l y in a g r i c u l t u r e  than i n  industry.  P r o f e s s o r of Economics i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota John D. Black w r i t e s : " A farm b u s i n e s s i s p e c u l i a r l y s u b j e c t t o m i s f i t s of c a p a c i t i e s .  I t i s l i k e l y t o be e i t h e r too l a r g e  tee s m a l l f o r s e v e r a l of the e l e m e n t s of  production."  Much has been w r i t t e n and s a i d about the law o f iwtnms i n a g r i c u l t u r e .  or  diminishing  A g r i c u l t u r e has been c o n s i d e r e d t o be  a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e a s compared to o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s .  The f a r m e r  has been warned a g a i n s t i n v e s t i n g too h e a v i l y i n equipment a id i a l a b o u r a s the i n c r e a s e d output c o u l d mean d e c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n cy of a l l the i n v e s t e d c a p i t a l .  T h i s warning may l a y undue  amphasis on the p o s s i b i l i t y of an i n a p p r o p r i a t e  apportionment  ef l a b o u r and equipment i n r e s p e c t t o the amount of l a n d . The r e s u l t o f the wrong p o r t i o n i n g o f l a b o u r and c a p i t a l  to  land i s v e r y d i s a p p o i n t i n g b u t the r e s u l t o f wrong p o r t i o n i n g of land t o equipment o r o f l a b o u r t o equipment i s a l s o v e r y disappointing. The i n t e n t i o n of the w r i t e r o f t h i s a r t i c l e i s f a r from being a d e s i r e t o c r i t i c i z e the law o f d i m i n i s h i n g  returns.  Be r e c o g n i s e s the soundness of the law when a l l the m o d i f y i n g tasumptions a r e born i n mind.  The d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s however  when the n e c e s s a r y assumptions a r e n o t remembered and when, t o n e e q u e n t l y , the m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e .  As a m a t t e r  ef f a c t the m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the law of d i m i n i s h i n g i s r a t h e r oommon. ^  returns  One h e a r s the o p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d t h a t w h i l e  * P r o d u c t i o n Economics " by John D. B l a c k , New J o r k , Henry H o l t and Company, page$67.  Ph.D.,  -3-  e a s t o f p r o d u c t i o n o f an a r t i c l e manufactured i n an i n d u s t rial  p l a n t which has adopted an i n t e n s i v e mass p r o d u c t i o n s y s -  tea tends t o he l o w e r than the c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n o f the same g r t i o l e manufactured i n an i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t w i t h s m a l l e r  out-  pat, the c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l commodities f o l l o w the law o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s .  T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s somewhat  spang a s the l a w i s not u n d e r s t o o d p r o p e r l y ;  the assumptions  are not remembered and the law i s made a p p l i c a b l e t o a g r i c u l t u r e paly, w h i l e i t i s v a l i d f o r any p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t y  whatsoever.  Kereover the f i r s t p a r t of the law i s o v e r l o o k e d a s i f i t  did  set e x i s t . * The c o n f u s i o n caused by the above s t a t e d i d e a can be g r e a t iMeed.  I t may r e s u l t i n a d e s i r e on the p a r t of a farmer t o  have more l a n d than i s j u s t i f i e d by t h e amount of c a p i t a l he oaa i n v e s t i n h i s farm o r by the type o f farm he i n t e n d s t o e s tablish.  The i d e a t h a t i f a f a r m e r has a f i x e d a c r e a g e of land  can i n c r e a s e the s i z e o f h i s b u s i n e s s  o n l y by i n c r e a s i n g  the i n t e n s i t y o f c u l t i v a t i o n o f the l a n d , though t r u e , sometimes i s a l s o m i s l e a d i n g .  I t might be u n d e r s t o o d from t h i s  3hat an i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e o f the farm b u s i n e s s w i t h o u t the i  M i l t y t o add new a r e a s of l a n d would a l w a y s mean d e c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y of the c a p i t a l - l a b o u r i n v e s t e d .  Such a s u g g e s t i o n  a&ght prompt a farmer t o " i n s u r e " h i m s e l f a s f a r a s the a c r e a g e As a summary o f the law o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s i n a g r i c u l tare the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from B . C . T a y l o r i s g i v e n : "In a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n the r e t u r n s to s u c c e e d i n g composite u n i t s made up of l a b o r e r s and equipment may be s a i d to f o l lew the law of i n c r e a s i n g r e t u r n s u n t i l a p o i n t has been r e a c h e d a f t e r which the law of d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s per s u c c e e d i n g u n i t eonmences t o o p e r a t e . "  -4-  of h i s farm i s c o n c e r n e d .  He would l i k e l y t r y t o be on thp  ' s a f e * s i d e and t o guarantee a " s u f f i c i e n t " amount of l a n d . , The tendency t o have more l a n d than i s j u s t i f i e d by the  i S capital  and l a b o u r investment on farms i s p l a i n l y s e e n . The w r i t e r d o e s i , \ ' not presume t o say t h a t t h i s tendency i s the r e s u l t of the m i s * ! ^ understanding of the law o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s ; t h e r e a r e mad^ ether economic and s o c i a l r e a s o n s f o r t h i s phenomenon.  The w r i t e :  simply w i s h e s to warn the p o s s i b l e farmer from buying t o o much ^ l a n d , should he be prompted t o do so because of the b e l i e f  that!  the l a n d w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y b r i n g him d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s en e v e ry e x t r a u n i t o f c a p i t a l and l a b o u r i n v e s t e d per a c r e . T h i s l a s t should happen o n l y , l/  i f the p o i n t o f investment should be reached a f t e r which  the l a w o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s per s u c c e e d i n g u n i t commences t o eperate; 2/  i f the m a n a g e r i a l e f f o r t should remain e x a c t l y e q u a l t o the  e f f o r t g i v e n t o the o t h e r combination of the f a c t o r s of production; 3/  i f t h e r e were no o p p o r t u n i t y o f a d o p t i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o r  methods of f a r m i n g ; 4/  if  the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d not be combined i n v a r i -  ants r a t i o s . Seldom a l l t h e s e " i f s " e x i s t i n r e a l l i f e f o r the a c t u a l farmer.  Land i s l e s s s p e c i a l i z e d than most of the e l e m e n t s of duction.  pro-  An i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e i s planned a c c o r d i n g t o the v o l u me o f b u s i n e s s a n t i c i p a t e d and d e s i r e d .  None o f the e l e m e n t s  t f p r o d u c t i o n i s a c t u a l l y f i x e d and t h e i r r a t i o i s chosen d e pending on the k i n d o f the e n t e r p r i s e and on the amount o f vestment d e c i d e d upon o r a v a i l a b l e .  in-  I f any element o f p r o d u c -  t i o n i s f i x e d - f a c t o r y b u i l d i n g s f o r i n s t a n c e - i t becomes u n wise t o s t a r t p l a n n i n g the o r g a n i s a t i o n by a s s i g n i n g the volume of b u s i n e s s t o be h a n d l e d .  The law o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s may  i n t e r f e r e w i t h the e f f i c i e n c y of p r o d u c t i o n .  Even more unwise  would i t be t o s t a r t a p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t h a v i n g two or a l l of the f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n f i x e d .  The e f f i c i e n c y o f  the e n t e r p r i s e i n which the f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n have n o t been co-ordinated i s very problematical.  This i s w e l l understood  by m a n u f a c t u r e r s and t h e y c l o s e l y watch the combination o f the f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n on t h e i r f a c t o r i e s .  Sometimes, due t o  v a r i o u s c a u s e s , the combination c e a s e s t o be e f f i c i e n t  (changes  i n p r i c e s , the i n v e n t i o n o f new m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount i n v e s t e d , e t c . ) .  When t h i s i s  recognised  a reorganisation ueaally takes place. Why should n o t f a r m e r s do the same?  Why should a f a n n e r  bo p e r p l e x e d by the a d v i c e not t o i n v e s t on h i s l a n d more l a b o u r - c a p i t a l u n i t s than the number which has a s i t s l a s t  item  the u n i t producing an output a t l e a s t e q u a l to an o u t p u t a v e rage f o r a l l the p r e v i o u s u n i t s i n v e s t e d ?  T h i s good a d v i c e  presupposes an u n v a r y i n g combination of the two f a c t o r s of  pro-  d u c t i c n . Such a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n can d i v e r t the a t t e n t i o n of the Even t h r e e - i . e . l a b o r , c a p i t a l , and management.  set.  An o r g a n i z e r o f an i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e w a i t s t o  wi-& f l e x i b l e , a d a p t a b l e f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n . ater i s persuaded more o r l e s s t h a t c e r t a i n f a c t o r s o f  The f a r production  a g r i c u l t u r e a r e i n f l e x i b l e and t h a t h i s p o l i c y i s t o do the H i ' best he can w i t h the handicap o f h a v i n g c e r t a i n f a c t o r s beyond § "i his control. Sometimes t h i s i s s o , e s p e c i a l l y on the o l d c o n but by no means i s i t a l w a y s s o . ^  ^ A farmer may f r e q u e n t l y p l a n h i s f u t u r e e n t e r p r i s e Î ^ f e r ^ n t l y fr^m a m a n u f a c t u r e r .  quite  I n many c a s e s a farmer f i r s t  i*es l a n d w i t h o u t c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the be a v a i l a b l e f o r the working* of i t .  resources  This r e s u l t s  in  en i n e f f i c i e n t , sometimes c l u m s y , combination of the e l e m e n t s of p r o d u c t i o n . ajf;  I t i s a u s u a l experience in a g r i c u l t u r e to see  the e f f i c i e n c y o f p r o d u c t i o n hampered by the f a c t of t h e r e b e i n g  a deficient factor.  T h e r e f o r e the adjustment and c o - o r d i n a t i o n  of the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n and the t y p e s of c a p i t a l would W appear t o be very  important.  I t i s not to be presumed t h a t i n a l l i n s t a n c e s  redistribu-  t i o n o f the investment w i l l be the remedy f o r u n p r o f i t a b l e ming.  There a r e c o n d i t i o n which may make r e d i s t r i b u t i o n  fective.  far-  inef-  I t i s understood t h a t i n many i n s t a n c e s f a r m e r s a r e  9 naable t o r e o r g a n i s e t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s owing t o market c o n d i ; t i e n s o r , i t may b e , t o t h e i r own economic w e a k n e s s .  I t i s assumed t h a t the b e s t combination o f the f a c t o r s of r o d u c t i o n i s one which y i e l d s t h e l a r g e s t n e t r e t u r n per d o l l a r Of a l l e l e m e n t s of p r o d u c t i o n i n v e n t e d .  This l a r g e s t net  turn i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e a l i z e d , when the p r o d u c t i o n i s  recarried  en with l a n d , l a b o r and equipment c o - o r d i n a t e d i n such a way a s t o o b t a i n the l e a s t c o s t c o m b i n a t i o n .  A farmer i s n o t  ed i n low c o s t s a s an end i n t h e m s e l v e s . to g e t h i g h p r o f i t s .  Low c o s t s are means  I f the opportunity to obtain s t i l l  p r o f i t presents i t s e l f , accept i t .  interest-  higher  the f a r m e r , s u r e l y , w i l l be w i l l i n g  There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t one combination of  to the  f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n may g i v e the s m a l l e s t c o s t s and t h e r e f o r e the g r e a t e s t p r o f i t per u n i t of the r e s u l t a n t p r o d u c t , but a t the same time i t w i l l n o t r e s u l t i n the g r e a t e s t t o t a l  profit.  T h i s can happen when another combination o f the f a c t o r s o f d u c t i o n w i t h o u t y i e l d i n g t h e h i g h e s t p r o f i t per u n i t of  pro-  product  a l l o w s such an i n c r e a s e i n the number of u n i t s produced t h a t the t o t a l p r o f i t i s g r e a t e r than i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e .  As an i l l u -  s t r a t i o n p u r e l y imagined f i g u r e s are g i v e n i n the t a b l e below: P r i c e of C o s t o f P r o f i t EumberTotal one u n i t , one u n i t . p e r u n i t . u n i t s p r o f i t s L e a s t c o s t combination  90  80  10  200  2000  Higher t o t a l p r o f i t combination  %  82  8  270  2160  I t i s t o be assumed t h a t the p r i c e s on d i f f e r e n t  products  and d i f f e r e n t elements of p r o d u c t i o n a r e n o t s u b j e c t to penaa-  tH c h a n g e s .  F l u c t u a t i o n i n p r i c e s may cause f l u c t u a t i o n s i n  *yawfly r e t u r n s , whieh are l i a b l e  to b a l a n c e eaoh o t h e r .  The  permanent changes i n l e v e l s of p r i c e s can make p r e v i o u s l y  effi-  e n t combination of the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n s t r i k i n g l y  inef-  ficient.  In the l a s t c a s e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the o n l y remedy.  I t i s assumed t h a t the s i z e of an a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e ? i i a determined by the t o t a l i n v e s t m e n t . The a c r e a g e o r t h e v a l u e Of the land i s n e t the c r i t e r i o n o f the s i z e when d i f f e r e n t  ty-  pes of farms a r e compared; n e i t h e r i s a v e r y good measure even when a d j a c e n t farms o f the same type a r e d e a l t w i t h , a s p o s s i b l e s u r p l u s a r e a s may be bare t r a c t s of eubmarginal l a n d w i t h o u t  '  any t a x a b l e v a l u e , or they may be h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e and e x p e n Í  alve f i e l d s l y i n g a s a r e a l burden on the  enterprise.  I t i s not presumed t h a t the t o t a l q u a n t i t a t i v e  investment  i s w h o l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s i n e of an e n t e r p r i s e ;  a poorly  organised and p o o r l y managed u n . t may be f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l t poses a s m a l l e r e n t e r p r i s e  pur-  than the w e l l o r g a n i s e d and w e l l ma-  naged u n i t , w h i l e a t the same time they a r e e q u a l a s jfar a s the f  t o t a l investment i s concerned.  The second e n t e r p r i s e w i l l  show  ^much b e t t e r r e s u l t s and a l a r g e r o u t p u t due to i t s a c t i v i t y and w i l l p l a y a more prominent p a r t i n the economical l i f e of d i s t r i c t than the f i r s t .  the  E f f i c i e n c y of o r g a n i z a t i o n and e f f i -  c i e n c y of o p e r a t i o n are important f a c t o r s i n measuring the )  of an e n t e r p r i s e .  E f f i c i e n c y of o r g a n i s a t i o n and e f f i c i e n c y of  o p e r a t i o n depend on q u a l i t y and the amount of management ted.  size  inves-  T h i s q u a l i t y and t h i s amount r e a l l y should be i n c l u d e d  i n t o t a l investment a s one of i t s compound i t e m s .  But manage-  -9i t i s such an i n t a g i b l e f a c t o r t h a t i t i s u s e l e s s t o a t t e m p t measure i t w i t h any degree of a c c u r a c y i n terms of  dollars;  t h e r e l e m e n t s of p r o d u c t i o n a r e measured i n such t e r m s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e assumed t h a t the s i z e o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l srpTfise i s determined  by the t o t a l farm i n v e s t m e n t .  In t o -  investment a l l the owned, r e n t e d , and borrowed e l e m e n t s o f production, as w e l l as labour are included.  More p r e c i s e l y ,  in  the t o t a l i n v e s t m e n t i s i n c l u d e d the v a l u e of the l a n d ! / the l a b o r 3/ the machinery the  live-stock  the farm b u i l d i n g s 6/ the f e e d and s u p p l i e s the c a s h i n v e s t e d the h o u s e . A s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y i s immediately c o n f r o n t e d : how should the land be v a l u e d ?  In the market p r i c e f o r l a n d t h e  potential  r e a l e s t a t e p r o f i t and the c a p i t a l i z e d e f f i c i e n c y of the o p e r a t o r are o f t e n i n c l u d e d . v a l u a t i o n can be g i v e n .  present  No r i g i d r u l e s a s to the way of  C o n s e r v a t i v e p r i c e s f o r the l a n d p l u s  the t a x e s paid f o r i t , a r e e n t e r e d under the item of land v a l u e .  For farms of v a r i o u s t y p e s and s i i e s , and f o r d i f f e r e n t districts,  the elements of p r o d u c t i o n must be combined i n d i f -  ferent proportions.  The t y p e s of farms which r e q u i r e but  litt-  -10^ land u s u a l l y demand a l a r g e r investment i n l a b o r and e q u i p n t than the t y p e s of farms which need l a r g e a c r e a g e .  An inc-  r e a s e i n the s i z e of a farm by an a d d i t i o n t o one o f the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n o f t e n demands a d d i t i o n s t o the o t h e r  factors  $f p r o d u c t i o n , b u t n o t a l l of the e l e m e n t s of p r o d u c t i o n should be i n c r e a s e d i n t h e same p r o p o r t i o n . D i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f f a r m i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of erops and l i v e s t o c k demand d i f f e r e n t amounts of  investment,  d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s a r e b e s t s u i t e d f o r v a r i e d combinations o f erops and l i v e s t o c k . S o i l , c l i m a t e , p r i c e s and market c o n d i t i o n s determine most remunerative combination of the f a c t o r s of These c o n d i t i o n s v a r y w i t h the d i s t r i c t s ,  production.  t h e r e f o r e i t i s im-  p o s s i b l e to compare farms o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s , o r of v a r i e d z e s , or those s i t u a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t  the  si-  districts.^*  I t i s p o s s i b l e , t h o u g h , t o compare a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e farm of one group w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e farm of a n o t h e r i n the same d i s t r i c t when the groups are determined by the s i z e of the f a r m s . L i k e l y a c e r t a i n s i z e may prove b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r a g i v e n type of farm o p e r a t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t .  I n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a t h a t was d f o r forming c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s a s t o the b e s t r a t i o s of the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i t proved t o be v e r y d i f f i c u l t to choose the d i s t r i c t s which would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d the s i m i l a r i t y o f methods o f f a r m i n g .  The f a c t t h a t the s a -  me d i s t r i c t s had farms o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e s did n o t cause much d i f f i c u l t y ; farms c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r a f t p r t h e d a t a v;aa g a t h e r e d ,  " i t h the g a t h e r e d  statistical  ; drt'a p r o p e r l y arranged a p o u l t r y farm could be e a s i l y frdm a d a i r y farm.  sizes  separated  But i t would be h a r d l y j u s t i f i a b l e to  classi-  fy,' farms more t h o r o u g h l y by p i c k i n g o u t the farms which seemed to b e l o n g t o the same type a s f a r a s t h e i r methods of c a r r y i n g On the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n was c o n c e r n e d .  The a d o p t i o n of  such a p r a c t i c e would a l l o w too much o p p o r t u n i t y f o r decisions.  arbitrary  Probably the d i v i s i o n s would be made a c c o r d i n g  &he tendency of the s t a t i s t i c a l  data to show the  t o prove s i m i l a r t h i n g s or t o i l l u s t r a t e In d e a l i n g w i t h h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  similar  to  inclination proneiples.  t y p e s of farming such  a s p o u l t r y f a r m i n g , the d i f f i c u l t y was not e x p e r i e n c e d .  Poultry  f a r m i n g i s a s p e c i a l i z e d type of farming which i n o r d e r t o o b atin the b e s t r e s u l t s h a s , more or l e s s , s i m i l a r ways of handl i n g the e n t e r p r i s e .  T r e e - f r u i t farming a l s o h a s methods of  management uniform enough not to p r e s e n t s e r i o u s in summarizing the s t a t i s t i c a l  data.  difficulties  -12D a i r y farming on the o t h e r hand, shows g r e a t v a r i a t o n i n thods of o r g a n i z a t i o n and msnagesent.  V a r i o u s t y p e s of mana-  ent n e c e s s i t a t e d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i s a t i o n s . v e farms managed by d i f f e r e n t methods.  The same d i s t r i c t s h a t i s good f o r one  jltype of d a i r y farm may prove t o be b; d f o r another type of ry farm.  its  dai-  There i s not v e r y much u n i f o r m i t y about d a i r y farm  e n t e r o r i z e s , e s p e c i a l l y when the farm i s  large.  Although knowing beforehand t h a t i n d e a l i n g w i t h d a i r y fcrms ¡*t i s i m p o s s i b l e to e x p e c t to o b t a i n an o r d e r l y and w e l l - d e f i n e d tendency to r e a c t i n a c e r t a i n way on the v a r i a t i o n s i n the d u a t i o n , one can hope, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  that certain  principles  - i l l be found t h a t w i l l a p p l y i n a g e n e r a l way to a l l -farms of a g i v e n  or-  the  dairy  district.  M a t e r i a l s u p p l i e d by the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e  of the Uni-  v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia formed the s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s f o r this study.  Since 1*?20 the Farm Survey work has been c a r r i e d  on by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e of the above-mentioned U n i versity.  Df;iry, f r u i t and p o u l t r y farms of d i f f e r e n t  have been i n c l u d e d i n the S u r v e y .  districts  For the purposes of t h i s  stu-  dy the data was used c o n c e r n i n g : 1/ 68 d a i r y farms of the C o u r t e n a y , Lower F r a a e r , and Upper F r a Ser V a l l e y  districts;  2/ 74 t r e e - f r u i t farms of the Okanagan d i s t r i c t ,  and  3/ 67 p o u l t r y farms of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y d i s t r i c t , Duncan d i s t r i c t on Vancouver  Island.  and the  -13-  The o l i m c t e and s o i l c o n d i t i o n s which p r e v a i l i n the Courtenay d i s t r i c t are t y p i c a l o f c o n d i t i o n s i n the d a i r y i n g t r i c t s on Vancouver I s l a n d and on the Gulf I s l a n d .  dis-  S o i l s vary  from a sedimentary d e p o s i t s of the v a l l e y s t o a g r a v e l l y a l - d r i f t tyne of s o i l of the u p l a n d s . f l u c t u a t e s around 40 i n c h e s .  The annual  glaci-  precipitation  The summer r a i n f a l l i s l i g h t but  i s ample f o r good crop p r o d u c t i o n when proper t i l l a g e i s ced.  A market f o r the m i l k produced i n t h i s a r e a i s  by the Comox Creamery.  practi-  provided  This i s a f a r m e r s C o - o p e r a t i v e  organiza-  t i o n whieh m&kes b u t t e r and, i c e - c r e a m , and which h a n d l e s a c e r t a i n amount o f whole m i l k . The c l i m a t e of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y d i s t r i c t i s v e r y vorable f o r dairy farming.  fa-  This d i s t r i c t includes area located  near the town of L a d n e r , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the D e l t a , Lulu and Sea I s l a n d s , and the Hud Bay a r e a .  The s o i l i s of a sedimentary  o r i g i n formed by d e p o s i t s of the F r a s e r highly productive.  iver.  I t i s r i c h and  The topography of the land i s f l a t which  n e c e s s i t a t e s p r o t e c t i o n from the sea and r i v e r o v e r f l o w , annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n a l s o f l u c t u a t e s around 40 i n c h e s .  ^he But the  summer r a i n f a l l i s l i g h t a s compared to the w i n t e r . The Upper F r a s e r V a l l e y d i s t r i c t i s a d j a c e n t t o the Lower Fraser Valley d i s t r i c t .  I t e x t e n d s from C l o v e r d a l e to R o s e d a l e .  "he s o i l i s of s i l t and c l a y n a t u r e s t r e a k e d w i t h g r a v e l . Upland, of which t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e amount, i^. ^ drift origin  tends toward a g r a v e l y loam.  The  glacial  L o s t of the  ry farms are l o c a t e d on the lower l a n d , which i s b e t t e r  dai-  suited  f o r dairy fanning.  The p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s about 40 i n c h e s .  The  market f o r the m i l k produced both i n the Lower and i n the Upper F r a s e r V a l l e y d i s t r i c t s i s provided m o s t l y by the F r a s e r Milk Producers A s s o c i a t i o n .  Valley  This i s a faimers co-operative  or-  g a n i z a t i o n , which makes b u t t e r , i c e - c r e a m , condensed m i l k , and which s u p p l i e s w i t h f l u i d m i l k the c i t y of  Vancouver.  In g e n e r a l the c l i m a t e , s o i l , and market c o n d i t i o n s are  si-  m i l a r f o r Courtanay, the Lower F r a s e r and the Upper F r a s e r  Va-  l l e y d i s t r i c t s . * * I t ..as found t h a t f o r the puroose of t h i s  stu-  dy the d a i r y farms of a l l the t h r e e d i s t r i c t s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r ed a s e n j o y i n g s i m i l a r economic and c l i m a t i c  conditions.  The c l i m a t e of the Okanagan D i s t r i c t d i f f e r s from the mate of the F r a s e r ' V a l l e y . c l e a r l y defined; and l o n g e r .  cli-  The s e a s o n s of the y e a r a r e more  the summer i s warmer and the w i n t e r i s  The s o i l v c r i e s from a heavy c l a y i n the  colder  vicinity  of Armstrong to a sandy s i l t and g r a v e l y loam a t Vernon and kelowna,.^, The p r e c i p i t a t i o n v a r i e s ;  i t i s h e a v i e r a t Armstrong  and Lumby than a t Vernon end kalowna.  1 Vernon and kelowna  an a v e r a g e annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s about 14 i n c h e s .  In  this  p a r t of the Okanagan d i s t r i c t i r r i g a t i o n i s used to a c o n s i d e rable extent.  Joth d a i r y and f r u i t farms are numerous i n the  Okanagan d i s t r i c t . only.  This paper w i l l d e a l w i t a t r e e f r u i t farms  The n a t u r a l and the n e a r e s t m a r k e t s f o r the Okanagan  f r u i t are Vancouver and tae P r a i r i e  Provinces.  A l l the t r e e - f r u i t farms which s u p p l i e d  the  statistical  data ore l o c a t e d i n the seme d i s t r i c t and have t o adapt them^ the l o s t d i s t r i c t p r a c t i c e s somewhat more i n t e n s i v e methods of d a i r y f a r m i n g t , a n the othc two.  -15-  s e l v e s to the saine market c o n d i t i o n s . P o u l t r y farms au a. r u l e are h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d  enterprises  and t h e i r s u c c e s s and the type of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n does not denend to any g r e a t e x t e n t on the s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n the matic c o n d i t i o n s snd the s o i l f e r t i l i t y .  As f a r a s  cli-  poultry  farming i s c o n c e r n e d , both the Duncan d i s t r i c t on Vancouver I s l a n d and the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y d i s t r i c t may he c o n s i d e r e d as p r o v i d i n g the same o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c a r r y i n g on the b u s i n e s s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  The market c o n d i t i o n f o r p o u l t r y  i s v e r y much the same i n both d i s t r i c t s .  products  I t might be e x p e c t e d  t h a t the e f f i c i e n t type of o r g a n i z a t i o n would prove the same f o r the two d i s t r i c t s .  The d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n as to the methods of s e c u r i n g data by the B r i t i s h Columbia Farm Survey can be found i n "Dairy Farming of B r i t i s h Columbia", B u l l e t i n B o . l o 3 by H.R.Hare " T r e e - f r u i t Farming i n B r i t i s h Columbia", B u l l e t i n N0.I05 by F.M.Clement, and "A Survey of P o u l t r y Farms i n B r i t i s h Columbia", B u l l e t i n '70,102 by N . J . R i l e y , E . A . L l o y d , S h o r t l y the method was a s f o l l o w :  V.S.Asmudson.  A field-man v i s i t e d  d i v i d u a l farms and obtained a c o n f i d e n t i a l statement of and expenses incurred during the y e a r .  in-  receipts  B e s i d e s t h i s , the f i e l d -  man took an i n v e n t o r y of l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , s t o c k , and equipment of the farm.  As a r u l e , c o n s e r v a t i v e v a l u a t i o n s were made.  Information was secured and recorded each y e a r f o r a number of y e a r s , aid the data concerning each farm was recorded on a form s p e c i a l l y p r i n t e d f o r t.,e purpose.  The accumulated data were  then c l a s s i f i e d and t a b u l a t e d on s e p a r a t e  office  sheets.  Thus the s y s t e m a t i z e d data became a v a i l a b l e f o r purposes of research.  So f a r the i n d u c t i v e method was f o l l o w e d .  As the  next s t e p , i n an attempt to a r r i v e a t c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s which could become of some value both to the farmer and to the econom i s t , the d e d u c t i v e method became  justified.  The purpose of t h i s study was, a s a l r e a d y mentioned, the des i r e to come to c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s a s to the more c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of  production  -17i n a g r i c u l t u r e T ^ I t i s agreed t h a t the degree of s u c c e s s w i t h which the p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i s a t i o n of an a g r i c u l t u r a l  enterprise  meets i s measured by the n e t r e t u r n ner d o l l a r of the t o t a l vestment.  The most s u c c e s f u l o r g a n i s a t i o n w i l l  therefore  vide the l a r g e s t net r e t u r n per d o l l a r of the t o t a l  in-  pro-  investment.  In order t o a r r i v e a t the n e t r e t u r n per d o l l a r i n v e s t e d ,  total  expenses are s u b t r a c t e d from t o t a l r e c e i p t s and the r e s u l t tained d i v i d e d by the number of d o l l a r s r e p r e s e n t i n g the  ob-  total  c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the farm e n t e r p r i s e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s method of comparison i n v o l v e s the s i o n of the farms i n t o too many d i f f e r e n t s i z e - g r o u p s .  diviThe  f i n e g r a d a t i o n i n s i n e would become a n e c e s s i t y a s one cannot c o n s i d e r 4% r a t e of r e t u r n per d o l l a r i n v e s t e d i n an e n t e r p r i s e with the t o t a l c a p i t a l i s a t i o n of  3,000 a s d e n o t i n g the same  degree of s u c c e s s when compared w i t ^ the 4/, r a t e of r e t u r n per d o l l a r i n v e s t e d i n an e n t e r p r i s e w i t h the t o t a l of ( 1 3 , 0 0 0 .  capitalization  In order to have the r i g h t t o proclaim the same  degree of s u c c e s s , the s m a l l e r e n t e r p r i s e haa to show h i g h e r r a t e of r e t u r n per d o l l a r  invested.  A c c o r d i n g l y another method of d e t e r m i n i n g the degree of  the  p r o f i t a b l e n e s s of the e n t e r p r i s e by the measurement of the amount of the o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income was a.donted.  The o p e r a t o r  l a b o r income r e p r e s e n t s the farm n e t r e v e n u e , l e s s 7", i n t e r e s t on the investment i n l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , m a c h i n e r y , l i v e s t o c k and ^ not a l l of the a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia were c o n s i d e r e d . Only t h r e e t y p e s of f a r i n g were d e a l t w i t h . I f the c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t w i l l prove of some i n t e r e s t , the same method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be a p p l i e d to o t h e r d i s t r i c t s end f o r o t h e r t y p e s of farm e n t e r p r i s e s .  -18-  ed and s u p p l i e s r T h e o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income r e p r e s e n t s  the  farm o p e r a t o r ' s r e t u r n f o r h i s work and f o r h i s m a n a g e r i a l lity.  abi-  then the i n t e r e s t on investment e x c e e d s the farm n e t r e -  venue, the d i f f e r e n c e becomes a minus o p e r a t o r ' s l i b o r income. The same o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income i n d i c a t e s the same decree of s u c c e s s even when the s i z e s of the farms compared d i f f e r nificantly.  sig-  For the s m a l l e r e n t e r p r i s e the same l a b o r income  would mean g r e a t e r r a t e of r e t u r n s per d o l l a r  invested.  Only the p r a c t i c a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d i v i d i n g the farms i n t o many s i z e groups prompted the a d o p t i o n of the method of measuri n g the p r o f i t a b l i n e s s of the e n t e r p r i s e by i t s o p e r a t o r ' s bor income.  The number of the farms u n ' e r the  la-  consideration  -.-as not l a r g e enough to make a f i n e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by s i z e s ssible.  po-  The t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f i r m s placed  in the same s i z e group v a r i e d too much.  As the f i r s t s t e p each one of t h e 209 sidered i n d i v i d u a l l y .  farms had t o be c o n -  The t c t s l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n ,  operator's  bor income, and the percentage of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z e t i o n  lain-  vested i n l a n d , i n l a b o r , and i n equipment had to be a r r i v e d In order to f i n d out the p e r c e n t a g e s ,  the a b s o l u t e f i g u r e s r e -  p r e s e n t i n g the investment i n the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of had to be f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d ,  at.  production  "he f i g u r e r e s u l t i n g from the sub-  t r a c t i o n of the sum of v a l u e s of land p l u s l a b o r l u e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n ,  from the v a -  was c o n s i d e r e d a s the a b s o l u t e  Farm Net Revenue i s the d i f f e r e n c e between y r o s s and g r o s s e x p e n s e s .  receipts  value of the investment i n equipment.  As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the  method u s e d , an examole of the c a l c u l a t i o n i s g i v e n : P o u l t r y farm No.313 has a t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of I t s land v a l u e plus t a x e s on land amount to -1*1,843.00. bor expenditure amounts to .'¡¡725.00.  ",8,379.70 Its  la-  The sun of investment i n  land p l u s l a b o r e q u a l s ¿2,568.00 ( 1 , 8 4 3 . 0 0 + 725.00 = 2 , 5 6 8 . 0 0 ) . The l a s t f i g u r e when s u b t r a c t e d from the f i g u r e  representing  the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n g i v e s the amount i n v e s t e d i n the e q u i p ment: 8,379.70 - 2,568.00  5,811.70.%  The p e r c e n t a g e s of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n the' d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of production can be e a s i l y worked out now: Total c a p i t a l i z a t i o n  8,379.70  Investment i n land  1,843.00......  "  " labor  725.00...........  "  " equipment..5,811.70....  100% 22.0% 8.7% 69.3%  The weakness of t h i s study l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t too many d i f f e r e n t items are covered by the same f a c t o r of production -namely, the equipment. In equipment a r e included the i n v e s t ments in b u i l d i n g s , i n machinery, i n l i v e s t o c k , i n f e e d and s u p p l i e s , and i n cash used f o r c u r r e n t e x p e n s e s , e x c l u d i n g the expenses i n l a b o r . D i f f e r e n t farms have d i f f e r e n t s h a r e s of t h e i r investment i n equipment r e p r e s e n t e d by l i v e s t o c k , or by machinery, or by b u i l d i n g s , " h i s f a c t does not make the comparison of the d i f f e r e n c e s of the investment i n equipment a c c u rate. The same percentage of the investment i n equipment may mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , however, i t may be considered t h a t the adopted method was the only one p r a c t i c a b l y p o s s i b l e when the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i s d e a l t w i t h . Later on, a s the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s study an attempt may be made to f i n d out the b e s t r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t o t a l investment i n equipment among the d i f f e r e n t items of equipment.  -20  t o r ' s l a b o r income f o r the same farm i s  $2,010.63.  The same procedure was f o l l o w e d f o r each of the 209 f a r m s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o know the amount of the t o t a l  capitalisation  of the farm i n order to be a b l e t o c l a s s i f y farms a c c o r d i n g their sizes;  to  i t was n e c e s s a r y t o know the amount of the o p e r a -  t o r ' s l a b o r income i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o compare the degree the p r o f i t a b l e n e s s o f the s e p a r a t e farms; and i t  of  as necessary  to know the p e r c e n t a g e s of the t o t a l investment r e p r e s e n t e d by the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of  production.  Shen a l l c-f the 20? farms had t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i g u r e s  that  Were needed, the p o u l t r y farms were s e p a r a t e d from the d a i r y farms and from the t r e e - f r u i t f a r m s .  From now on each of  three type groups.were c o n s i d e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y .  Lach of  type groups was a g a i n d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l s i z e Dairy Farms were d i v i d e d i n t o throe s i z e  the the  groups.  groups:  group " I " - i n c l u d i n g the farms w i t h the t o t a l  capitalization  between ^5,000 and ¡¡,18,000; Oup " I I " - i n c l u d i n g the farms with the t o t a l  capitalization  between §18,000 and [¡35,000; Sroup " I l l " - i n c l u d l n g farms w i t h the t o t a l c a p i t a l i s a t i o n b e tween §33,000 and ^110.000. T r e e - f r u i t Farms were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s i z e roup " I "  - i n c l u d i n g the farms with the t o t a l  groups: capitalization  between $3,000 and -¡¡'7,000; Croup " I I " - i n c l u d i n g the farms w i t h the t o t a l between *7,000 and i l 5 , 0 0 0 ;  capitalization  -21-  Sroup " I I I " - i n c l u d i n g the farms w i t h the t o t a l  capitalization  between §13,000 and §23,000; Group " 1 7 "  - i n c l u d i n g the farms w i t h the t o t a l  capitalization  between $23,000 and $120,000. P o u l t r y Farms were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s i z e Group  "I"  groups.  - i n c l u d i n g the farms w i t h the t o t a l  capitalization  between $4,000 and $5,530; Group  " I I " - i n c l u d i n g the farms w i t h the t o t a l  capitalization  between $3,530 and §9,000; Group  " I I I " - i n c l u d i n g the farms w i t h the t o t a l  capitalization  between $9,000 and $16,000; Group  "IV" - i n c l u d i n g the farms w i t h the t o t a l  capitalization  between $16,000 and $25,0u0.  The farms of the d i f f e r e n t s i z e - g r o u p s were n e v e r a g a i n grouped t o g e t h e r ; each of the s i z e - g r o u p s was d e a l t w i t h  separately.  Much c a r e was e x e r c i s e d when l i m i t s of the s i z e groups were d e termined.  These l i m i t s were determined more or l e s s  l y , j u d g i n g by the tendency of the farms t o v a r y i n of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n s b u t l i t t l e .  arbitrarithe.amounts  The f i r s t  division  a c c o r d i n g to s i z e proved to be i n c o r r e c t and o t h e r s i i e .had to be a d o p t e d .  limits  As the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  the s i z e l i m i t s was taken the tendency of the farm e n t e r p r i s e s to be the most remunerative when the same o o r t i o n s of t h e i r t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n were i n v e s t e d i n the same f a c t o r s of tion.  to-  produc-  -22-  P O U L T R Y  F A RH I N G  OF  B. C.  From the f o r e g o i n g i t i s seen t h a t the farms have been c l a r i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to d i s t r i c t s , t y p e s , and s i z e s .  Each farm  3 p l i e s ' t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the amount of i t s  operator's  labor income and concerning the p e r c e n t a g e s of i t s t o t a l t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d , l a b o r , and equipment.  capi-  I t remains  to a s c e r t a i n how the e n t e r p r i s e s r e a c t on the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the above  percentages. P o u l t r y farms o f f e r i n g the l e a s t d i f f i c u l t y Y^ill be f i r s t  considered.  Of the t o t a l of 6? farms i t w i l l be seen t h a t f i v e  farms f a l l i n t o the f i r s t g r o u p , 30 i n t o the s e c o n d , 21 f a l l to the t h i r d , and 1 1 f a l l i n t o the f o u r t h  size-group.  The f i r s t s i z e - g r o u p i s r e p r e s e n t e d by farms which a s are i n the p r o c e s s of development.  in-  jet  These a r e r e c e n t l y begun '  farms which had not time enough t o develop f u l l y and t o accumul a t e needed c a p i t a l .  Puch of t h e i r t o t a l investment i s  represen-  ted by l a b o r , an i n s u f f i c i e n t amount i s r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment, probably too l i t t l e  i s invested in  livestock.  K i t h t h i s f i r s t s i z e - g r o u p of P o u l t r y f a i m s t h i s study w i l l begin i t s  investigation.  The f i r s t s t e p of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e q u i r e s f i n d i n g out the d i f f e r e n t p e r c e n t a g e s of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i s a t i o n  represet-  ed by l a b o r , l a n d , and equipment on the farms w i t h the  largest  o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income, on the farms w i t h the small  operator's  -23-  bor income, and on the farms w i t h the minus o p e r a t o r ' s 'income.  labor  The farms which have the o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income above  +$600.00 w i l l be termed "Above-marginal Farms" ; the farms which have an o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income of from "0" up to +$600.00 w i l l be r e f e r r e d to a s " m a r g i n a l Farms"; and the farms which have a minus o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income w i l l be termed "Submarginal Farms'! The r e s u l t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : AVERAGE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION. GROUP " I " . Land Labor Equipment Above-marginal farms  -  Marginal farms  19.8%  13.1%  67.1%  Sub-marginal farms  36.8%  12.1%  51.1%  There a r e no Above-mar i n a l farms i n the f i r s t group; none of the e n t e r p r i s e s r e a l i s e a.ore than +,¡600.00 o p e r a t o r ' s income.  labor  The more s u c c e s s f u l farms have much s m a l l e r s h a r e s of  their total capitalization  invested in land.  They have  larger  s h a r e s i n v e s t e d i n equipment. In order to be a b l e t o determine what p e r c e n t a g e s of the  to-  t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n should be i n v e s t e d i n l a n d , and whet p e r c e n t a g e s should be i n v e s t e d i n l a b o r , and what p e r c e n t a g e s  should  be i n v e s t e d i n equipment, the farms of t-ne s i :e gro^p w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the p e r c e n t a g e s of tne i n v e s t m e n t i n the d i f f e r e n t elements of p r o d u c t i o n .  The farms are d i v i d e d  into  This does n o t mean t h a t they a c t u a l l y a r e M a r g i n a l or Submarginal. I t should be remembered t h a t 7% r a t e of i n t e r e s t on investment v,as deducted from the f a r m ' s n e t r e v e n u e . Probably 7% r a t e i s too h i g h a r a t e .  -24-  sub-groups a c c o r d i n g t o the p e r c e n t a g e of the i n v e s t m e n t i n land.  A t e n p e r c e n t i n t e r v a l i s a d o p t e d , so t h a t i n the  first  sub-gro-ip a r e i n c l u d e d the farms which have from 10% t o 20% o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d ; i n the second subgroup a r e i n c l u d e d the farms which have from 20% to 30% of  their  t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d , and so on. Tho farms a r e then d i v i d e d i n t o sub-groups a c c o r d i n g to the p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by l a b o r . A two p e r c e n t i n t e r v a l i s  adopted.  The farms a r e f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o sub-groups a c c o r d i n g  to  the percentage of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n e q u i p ment.  A t e n p e r c e n t i n t e r v a l i s here a d o p t e d .  Bach sub-group becomes a s e p a r a t e item which h a s t o be d e a l t with s e p a r a t e l y .  For each sub-group t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  are  found i n order l / To a s c e r t a i n the r e l a t i v e importance of the d i f f e r e n t subgroups the p e r c e n t a g e s of the number of farms of each sub-group to the t o t a l number of the farms i n the s i z e group a r e worked o u t ; the t o t a l number of the farms of the s i z e group i s  taken  a s 100%,- the p e r c e n t a g e s of the r e s p e c t i v e t o each sub-group number of farms i s worked out a c c o r d i n g l y . 2/ To a s c e r t a i n the r e l a t i v e number of f a i l u r e s i n each of the s u b - g r o u p s , the p e r c e n t a g e s of the number of the  sub-marginal  farms i n the sub-group t o the t o t a l number of the farms i n the same sub-group are worked o u t . 3/ To a s c e r t a i n the degree of p r o f i t a b l e n e s s of a c e r t a i n of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i s a t i o n being i n v e s t e d i n d i f f e r e n t  share  factors  -28-  produotion , the average o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income i s worked f o r each of the s u b - g r o u p s . Here i s the r e s u l t of the procedure: POULTRY SURVEY - 1 ? 2 4 . GROUP " I " . Percentage o f Percentage of the investment farms i n the sub-group to i n land the t o t a l No. of farms i n the s i z e - g r o u p , 10% to 20% 20% t o 30% 30% to 40%  20%  Percentage o f submarginai farms to the t o t a l No. of farms i n the same sub-group. 0%  6o%  2 0%  33.3% 1001  20%  100%  Average o p e r a t o r ' s labor income f o r each sub-group.  +432.34  +238.68 - 60.60  in labor 9% to 11% 11% to 13% 13% t o 13%  0%  - 60.60  +424.34  30%  +210.00  100% 50% ot  - 60.60 +210.00  i n equipment 40% to 30%  30% to 6o% 6o% t o 70% 70% to 80%  20% 40% 20% 20%  0%  + 336.13  +492.34  The bulk of the farms of the f i r s t s i s e group have from 20% to 30% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d ,  lie  farms with l e s s land appear as being b e t t e r o f f ; the farms with more land would seem worse o f f .  The tendency to have more land  than i s j u s t i f i e d by the a v a i l a b l e equipment can be r e a d i l y  seen.  The farms which have the l e a s t amount of land have the l a r g e s t o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income and they a l s o have fewer f a i l u r e s . The bulk of the farms have from 5J', to 6.J-, of t h e i r  total  c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d in equipment; one h a l f of such farms  -26sub-marginal. tinly seen.  The tendency to be s h o r t of equipment  The farms which nave the l a r g e s t share of  t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment are b e t t e r  is their off,as  they have l a r g e r o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income and they a l s o have a s m a l l e r number of sub-marginal  farms.  I t would appear t h a t the farms of the f i r s t s i z e group Should endeavour t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r investment i n equipment.  It  has a l r e a d y been mentioned t h a t t h i s group i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the r e c e n t l y s t a r t e d f a r m s .  Sooner or l a t e r a l l t h e s e farms  w i l l move i n t o the second g r o u p .  The m a j o r i t y of the p o u l t r y farms are l o c a t e d i n the second s i z e g r o u p , namely i n the group which i n c l u d e s the farms w i t h the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of from ( 5 , 5 5 0 . 0 0 t o [ 9 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 .  For  the a n a l y s i s of t h i s group the same method was p r a c t i c e d a s the method d e s c r i b e d when d e a l i n g w i t h the f i r s t s i z e g r o u p .  As a  matter of f a c t , the same method of a n a l y s i s i s c a r r i e d on through out a l l  the s t u d y .  For the second s i z e group the r e s u l t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  is  as f o l l o w s : AVERAGE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION. uROUP " I I " . * Land.  Labor.  Above-marginal farms  20.2%  s.y%  70.9%  Marginal f a n a s  28.3%  11.9%  59.81  Sub-marginal farms  24.2%  7.2 *  68.6't  Equipment.  -27-  I n the second s i z e group only one sub-marginal farm i s Consequently, the " a v e r a g e s " f o r the sub-marginal farms ^ef the second s i z e group cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a s b e i n g representative.  strictly  I t would be b e t t e r to d i s r e g a r d them e n t i r e l y .  The more remunerative p o u l t r y farms of the second s i z e group have a much s m a l l e r share o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n e d in land.  They have a g r e a t e r share o f t h e i r t o t a l  z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n equipment.  invest-  capitali-  The d i f f e r e n c e s o f the amounts  of the i n v e s t m e n t s : i n l a b o r do not seem to a f f e c t the a c h i e v e ments of the e n t e r p r i s e s . Hore d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n can be obtained from the  table  which f o l l o w s : POULTRY SURVEY-1924. GROUP " I I " . g  Percentage of Percentage of investment the farms i n the sub-group t o the i n land t o t a l No. of farms i n the s i z e - g r o u p , Less than 10% 10% to 20% 20% to 304 30% t o 40% 40% to 30%  Percentage of Average opesubmarginai rator's lafarms i n the sub- bor income group to the t o t a l f o r each number of farms i n sub-group. the same sub-group.  10% 46.7% 26.7% 10% 6.6%  12.5%  63.3% 20.0%  3.3%  0%  0% 0% 0%  +1716.51  +1171.93 +1309.1$ + 754.37 + 834.01  in labor 7% t o y%  9  - 11%  11% - 13% 15% - 17% 17% - 1?% i n equipment 40% - 30%  0% - 60%  ot - 70% 70^ - 80% 80% - 90%  10.0% 3.3% 3.4%  10.0%  10.0%  23.3% 46.7^ 10.0%  0%  0% 0% 0%  14.3% 0% 0%  +1338.35 +I323.29 + 589.89  +1191.60  +  16.28  + 612.81 + 929.02 +1002.92 +1482.10 +1722.13  -28-  Continning the a n a l y s i s o f the i n v e s t m e n t s i n l a b o r the f a c t be noted t h a t , p r o b a b l y , the p o u l t r y f a r m e r s of the second ze group should g i v e somewhat more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r f l o c k s , amoung a l l t h e f a r m e r s 63.3% o f them have i n v e s t e d i n from 7% to 9% o f the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r !S.  la-  enterpi-  The n e x t group o f the f a r m e r s who have a somewhat l a r g e r  ^Bhare of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a b o r ,  namely,  from 9% t o 1 1 % , r e a l i z e a g r e a t e r o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income. The more c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the i n v e s t m e n t i n the d i f f e r e n t ^ f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n f o r the p o u l t r y farms of the second  size  ¡Lp seem to be around 10% i n l a n d , 10% i n l a b o r , and 80% i n ^equipment.  For t h e t h i r d s i z e group the r e s u l t o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  Is  follows: AVERAGE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION. GROUP " I I I " . Land.  Labor.  Equipment.  Above-marginal farms  21.0%  7.5^  71.5%  -Marginal farms  3?.3%  6.3%  36.2%  Sub-marginal farms  16.2%  8.3%  75.3%  -  In t h i s group t h e r e a r e only two submarginal f a r m s , - c o n s e q u e n t l y a v e r a g e s f o r sub-marginal farms are n o t  reliable.  Comparing the Above-marginal farms w i t h the Sub-marginal f a c t can be seen a g a i n t h a t the more p r o f i t a b l e farms have land and more equipment than have t h e l e s s p r o f i t a b l e See Table N 1 a t the e n d . P a g e  34.  the  less  farms.  -29#  The Above-mar ¡?inal farms have a l i t t l e l a r g e r share of  their  t e l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n Invested in l a b o r . POULTRY SURVEY - 1924. CROUP " I I I " . ^ r e e n t a g e of Percentage of investment f a n a s i n the sub-group t o the t o t a l No. in land. o f farms i n the s i z e group. 10%  38,1% 47.6% 4.8% 9.5%  20%  20% 38%  10% $0%  Percentage o f sub-marginal farms i n subgroup to t o t a l No. of farms i n the same subgroup. I2.3?"  10.0% 0% 0%  s'u o p e r a t o r ' s labor ineome f o r each sub-group.  +I547.63  +1416.98 + 445*07 + 295.34  in l a b o r 3% 7% 9% 11%  9.3% 38.1% 33.3% 14.3^ 4.8%  - 7% - 9% - 11% - 13%  0% 0%  28.i  + 332.15 +1602.09 +1152.75  +1562.12  +1230.05  i n equipment 40% 30% 6o% 70%  -  50% 6o% 70% 80%  2*3% 38.1%  47.6%  0%  0% 20%  + 304.71 + 3&5.52 +I553.82 +1410.42  The l a r g e s t number of the p o u l t r y farms of the t h i r d group have from 20% t o 30% o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n ed i n l a n d .  invest-  The farms which have from 10% t o 20% of t h e i r  t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by land have l a r g e r l a b o r income.  to-  operator's  The d e s i r a b l e thing f o r the t h i r d s i z e group  would be the i n c r e a s e of the number of the farms i n i t s sub-group.  size  first  The more c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the investment i n the d i -  f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of production f o r the p o u l t r y farms of the  third  Size group seem to be around 13% i n l a n d , 10% i n l ^ b o r , and 73%  -SOi n equipment.  For the f o u r t h group of the p o u l t r y farms  the r e s u l t of the  I n v e s t i g a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : AVERAGE PE.iCENT^GE DISTRIBUTION OF TRE 'TiRËK FACTORS OF PRODUCTION. GROUP " I V " . 'Land.  Labor.  Above-marginal farms  17.3%  7.6%  73.1%  Marginal farms  33.0%  6.0%  61.0%  Sub-marginal farms  48.0%  7*9%  44.1%  J u s t as i t was i n the e a s e of the p r e v i o u s l y  Equipment.  considered  g r o u p s , i t can be seen t h a t the most p r o f i t a b l e farms have the s m a l l e s t share of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d  in  their  l a n d , a s compared with the l e s s p r o f i t a b l e f a r m s , which have a much l a r g e r share of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d land.  in  The l a r e s t share of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the  most p r o f i t a b l e farms i s r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment. p r o f i t a b l e the farm i s  , the l e s s equipment i t h a s .  The l e t s More d e -  t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s provided by the t a b l e which f o l l o w s : POULTRY SURVEY - 1 9 2 4 . GROUP " I V " . P e r c e n t of P e r c e n t a g e of investment farms i n the sub-group t o in land t o t a l No. o f farms i n the s i z e group. L e s s than 10% 10% - 20% 20% - 30% 30% - 40% 40% - 30%  30% - 60%  18.1% 34.3% 9.1% 18.1%  9.1%  9.11  Percentage of sub-marginal f a r m s i n subgroup to t o t a l No. of farms i n the same sub-group. S 0% 0% 0%  100%  100%  Average o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income f o r each s u b - g r o u p .  +2867.43 +2094.10 + 992.23  + 36I.68 - 396.96  -  63.96  -31labor. -  + 955.34  9.1% 27.2%  g  - 9% -11% L -13%  + 606.20 +1854.29  9.1%  0%  +1866.26  9.1% 9.1% 9.1%  100%  63.96 — 396.96 + 935*34 + 380.13  equipment 30% - 40% 40% - 50% - 60% - 70% - 80% g0% - 90%  ^  18.2%  27.3% 27.2%  0% 0% 0% 0%  +2050.09 +2653.67  The b u l k of the farms of the f o u r t h s i z e group have from  ,10% to 20% o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d .  The  farms which have l e s s land have l a r g e r one a t o r ' s l a b o r income; the f a n n s which have more land have s m a l l e r o p e r a t o r ' s inoome.  With the i n c r e a s e of the share of the t o t a l  labor  capitali-  z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n equipment, the o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r inco:ae i n ereases.  The farms which have l e s s than h a l f of t h e i r  c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment have minus l a b o r income.  total  operator's  The b u l k of the farms have from 5% t o 9% of  their t o t a l c a p i t a l i s a t i o n invested in labor.  This percentage  does not seem to be l a r g e enough. The more c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the investment i n the t h r e e f a c tors of production  f o r the p o u l t r y farms of the f o u r t h  size  group seem to be 10% i n l a n d , 10% i n l a b o r , and 80% i n e q u i p -  -32-  Locking e v e r a i l the f o u r  -roups of the p o u l t r y f a r m s ,  it  would appear t h a t t h e r e i s no tendency f o r the l a r g e r f a n n s to r e q u i r e a l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n to be r e p r e s e n t e d by l a n d .  There i s no tendency f o r the l a r g e r farms  t o r e q u i r e a s m a l l e r p o r t i o n of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n be r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment. size  to  What i s good f o r the farm of one  , seems to be b e n e f i c i a l f o r the farm of a n o t h e r  size.  The more c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the i n v e s t m e n t i n the d i f f e r e n t f a c § t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n are the same f o r the  ¡arms of a l l the  sizes.  These more c o r r e c t r a t i o s a r e - 10% i n l a n d , 10% i n l a b o r , and 80% i n equipment.  The b u l k of the farms appear t o have more land than seems t o be the most remunerative amount, and the b u l k o f the farms have l e s s equipment than i s j u s t i f i e d  by the b u s i n e s s .  Fur-  *; thermore, the b u l k of the f a r m e r s appear to p r o v i d e t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h somewhat an i n s u f f i c i e n t amount of  labor.  A l l t h i s amounts t o the s t a t e m e n t t h a t the p o u l t r y b u s i n e s s of B r i t i s h Columbia h a s n o t reached the l i m i t of  intensity  which would f o r b i d f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n of l a b o r and equipment to the same a r e a s of l a n d .  I n o t h e r words. P o u l t r y of  British  Columbia h a s not reached the p o i n t of decrea&ing r e t u r n s a s  jet.  Among the number of the farms of the group which i n c l u d e s the e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h the l a r g e s t t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n ,  18.2%  are sub-marginal farms; among the farms of the n e x t s i z e group  which I n c l u d e s the e n t e r p r i s e s with somewhat s m a l l e r t o t a l  ca-  p i t a l i z a t i o n , the p e r c e n t a g e o f the s u b - m a r g i n a l farms i s  9.5%;  t h i s p e r c e n t a g e f o r the s t i l l  s m a l l e r s i z e group i s o n l y 3.3%.  I t may be concluded t h a t among l a r g e r farms t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r number of f a i l u r e s than among s m a l l e r f a r m s .  B a t t h i s does  not o f n e c e s s i t y mean the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the s m a l l e r the farm i s the more chances to succeed i t h a s . the mentioned tendency:  There i s the l i m i t  the farms o f t h e f i r s t s i z e  to  group,  namely the farms w i t h the t o t a l c a p i t a l i s a t i o n under $5,550.00 have 40% of t h e i r t o t a l number a s submarginal f a r m s .  It  seems  t h a t i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n an economical s u c c e s s the p o u l t r y  en-  t e r p r i s e o f B r i t i s h Columbia should be c a p i t a l i z e d f o r a t  least  §5*530.00.  -34TABLE  "I"*  P O U L T R Y  S U R V E Y .  1 9 2 4.  Capitalization.  Number of farms.  Bumber o f sub-marginal farms.  %% of submarginal farms.  $ 4,000 - 5,550  3  2  Group " 1 1 " $ 3,550 - 9.000  30  1  3.3%  Group " H i " § 9,000 -16,000  21  2  9.5%  §16,000 -26,800  11  2  18.2%  Group " 1 "  Group "IV"  40%  AVERAGE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION. 1 9 2 4 . Land. GROUP Above-marginal farms M a r g i n a l farms Sub-marginal farms  Above-marginal farms Marginal farms Sub-marginal farms  67.1% 51.1%  "II".  20.2%  8.9%  11.9% 7.2%  59^3%  68.6%  "III".  21.0%  7.3%  16.2%  8.5%  37.3%  GROUP Above-marginal farms Marginal farms Sub-marginal farms  13.1% , 12.1%  28.3% 24.2% GROUP  Above-marginal farms Marginal farms Sub-marginal farms  Equipment.  "I".  19.8% 36.8% GROUP  Labor.  6.3%  71.5%  36.2% 73.3%  "IV".  17.3% 33.0% 48.0%  7.6%  6.0% 7.9%  61.0% 44.1%  -38-  CORRELATION OF THE PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL CAPITALIZATION OF THE FARMS INVESTED IN LAND AND THE OPERATOR'S LABOUR INCOME. P O U L T R Y SURVEY. 1 9 2 4. Percent o f the total capital i z a t i o n of the farm i n v e s t e d  Number o f farms i n the subgroup.  operator'] l a b o u r income.  i n land 17- 10% 20% 30%*-40% -  io% 20% 30% 40%  30% 30% - 60%  22 7 6 1  +2+284.38 +1,400.99 +1+273.26 + 646.36 + 300.1? 63.96  i n equipment 30% 40% - 50%  30% - 6o% 60% - 70%  70% - 80% 80% - 90%  1 6  8 18 28  6  +  63.96 280.93  + 611.6?  +1,163.73 +1,482.02 +2,188,23  37 TREE-FRUIT FARMING.  There a r e 74 farms d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s i z e g r o u p s .  The f i r s t  group c o n s i s t s of farms w i t h the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of from §3,000 t o $7,000; the second group i n c l u d e s farms w i t h the c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of from $7,000 t o §13,000;  the t h i r d group has  farms w i t h the c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of from „15,000 to ^25,000; and the f o u r t h group c o n s i s t s of farms w i t h the c a p i t a l i s a t i o n of from (25,000 to  ^120,000.  In the y e a r 1928 which i s the y e a r under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  16  farms belonged to the f i r s t g r o u p , 38 farms belonged to the s e cond g r o u p , 14 farms belonged to the t h i r d g r o u p , and s i x farms belonged t o the f o u r t h g r o u p , TREE-FRUIT  SURVEY, 1328.  Capitalization.  No.of No.of s u b - %% o f subfarms. marg.farms, marg.farms.  Group M^t!  * 3,000 to $ 7,000  16  2  12.3%  Group " 1 1 "  § 7,000 to $15,000  38  11  28.9%  Group " I I I "  §13,000 to ^25,000  14  5  35.7%  Group 'tgyn  §25,000 to$120,000  6  3  50.0%  AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION.GROU?"n Land.  Labor.  Above m a r g i n a l farms  72.8%  14.8%  12.4%  Marginal farms  67.1%  21.9%  11.0%  Sub-marginal farms  69.1%  17.1%  13.8%  Equipment  -38-  As compared t o t h e m a r g i n a l and s u b - m a r g i n a l f a r m s , the above-marginal farms have a l a r g e r share of t h e i r t o t a l  invest-  ment r e p r e s e n t e d by l a n d ; t h e y i n v e s t a s m a l l e r share of t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n in labor; l i t t l e  their  or no v a r i a t i o n of the  Investment i n the equipment i s seen* U n f o r t u n a t e l y the v a l u e of the t r e e s i s i n c l u d e d i n the l a n d value.  This f a c t i s a p t t o d i s t o r t the p i c t u r e of the  t i o n of the t h r e e f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n .  distribu-  The orchard i s  really  the equipment of a t r e e - f r u i t f a r m , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t cannot be s o l d s e p a r a t e from the l a n d .  it  More t r e e s per a c r e and  i n the e a s e o f t h e t r e e s of b e t t e r q u a l i t y a l a r g e r e x p e n d i t u r e of c a p i t a l i s made per a c r e .  This means the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  of  f a n n i n g i n the rame sense a s when on a p o u l t r y farm the number of the b i r d s per a c r e and the q u a l i t y of the f l o c k a r e ed and improved.  For the f i v e y e a r s of the s u r v e y ( 1 ? 2 1 - 1925)  b e a r i n g orchard land was v a l u e d per a c r e .  increas-  a t from $700.OJ t o $1,000.00  In the same d i s t r i c t (Okanagan) the a v e r a g e land v a -  l u e per t i l l a b l e a c r e was $ 1 5 9 . 1 0 . i ^ * I t i s t r u e t h a t the l?nd of the orchard n e c e s s i t a t e s more e x p e n d i t u r e f o r i t s improvement than the a r e a of l a n d under g r a i n c r o p s o r under p a s t u r e .  Orohards need i r r i g a t i o n i n the  most of the f r u i t growing d i s t r i c t s o f the  est.  Certainly  o r c h a r d s o f the Okanagan d i s t r i c t need the improvements, not c l u d i n g the t r e e s  the in-  themselves.  h a t i s the v a l u e of the t r e e s ?  Kfhen and to what e x t e n t the  i n c r e a s e of the investment i n land i s due to the i n c r e a s e d munBased on I925 c r o p - n u r v e y y e a r .  -39-  t * r of c o r e s o f land on the farm, and when and to what e x t e n t i s i t due to the i n c r e a s e d number of the b e a r i n g t r e e s ? U n f o r t u n a t e l y f i g u r e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e do not a l l o w c o n c l u s i o n s to be reached i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . h i s b e s t with the f i g u r e s t h a t a r e a t h i s  The w r i t e r w i l l do disposal.  THEE-FRUIT a U R V R Ï - i 9 2 S . GROUP " I " .  Percent o f the i n v e s t ment in land.  P e r c e n t of farms i n the sub-group t o the t o t a l Bo. o f farms i n the s i z e group.  P e r c e n t of sub- Average o p e r a t o r m a r g i n a l farms labor income.for to the t o t a l No. each sub-group, o f f a n a s i n the same sub-group.  12.5% 31.3%  30%  6*2%  100%  0%  16% - 18%  12.3% 12.3% 12.3% 31.3%  20% - 22%  18.7%  301  60%  80%  60% 70% 80% 90%  in labor  10% - 12%  12% - 14% 1 4 t - 16% 18% - 20?,  22% - 24% - 26%  i n equipment H - 10%  10% - 20%  20% - 30%  30.0%  + + -  0% 0%  +1264.7? + 869.38 + 868.47  40%  + 123.31 + 598.62 + 264.96  12.3%  0%  43.73% 31.23%  14.3%  23.O %  0%  309.39 816.40 743.34 461.7H  25.0%  + 469.62 + 738.27 + 467.34  This t a b l e g i v e s u s more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e a c t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e s on the v a r i a t i o n s o f the of the t h r e e f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n .  distribution  Both the farms which heve  from 60% to 70% and the farms which have from 70% to 80% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d a r e Above-marginal f a r m s , i . e . e i t h e r sub-group r e a l i z e s more than +$600.00 opera-  t a r ' 8 l a b o r income.  The "60% - 70%" sub-group h a s a g r e a t e r  #voratge o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income (+816.40) a s compared w i t h the o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income of the "70% - 8o%" sub-group  (+743.34).  And j e t t h e r e a r e more farms i n t h e sab-group which i n c l u d e s the e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h the 70% t o 80% o f t h e i r t o t a l  capitaliza-  t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by l a n d . There are 31.3% o f the farms of the f i r s t s i z e group i n the sub-group which i n c l u d e s  the e n t e r p r i -  s e s w i t h the 60% t o 7J% o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n  represen-  ted by l a n d ; t h e r e a r e $0% of the farms of t h e f i r s t s i z e group i n the sub-group which i n c l u d e s t h e e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h the 70% to 80% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by l a n d . I t a p p e a r s t h a t the t r e e - f r u i t farms of the f i r s t group would do b e t t e r i f  size  they i n v e s t e d a somewhat s m a l l e r share  of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n l a n d . S t u d y i n g the f i g u r e s which d e a l w i t h the i n v e s t m e n t i n l a b o r , i t can be p l a i n l y seen t h a t most of the farms were o v e r burdened i n t h a t r e s p e c t ; p a r t of the share of the c a p i t a l  in-  v e s t e d i n l a b o r c o u l d be u t i l i z e d t o a g r e a t e r advantage i f v e s t e d i n equipment.  However i t must n o t be f o r g o t t e n  in-  that  probably the o p e r a t o r o f the farm s u p p l i e d most of the l a b o r h i m s e l f and had no chance t o a p p l y h i s work i n o t h e r  directions.  In c o n s i d e r i n g the i n v e s t m e n t i n equipment t h e r e i s no d i f f i c u l t y t o see t h a t more equipment would prove advantageous f o r many of the f a r m e r s .  43.75% o f t h e farms have l e s s  10% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n equipment, farms which have from 10% t o 20  of t h e i r t o t a l  than lie  capitalization  i n v e s t e d i n equipment r e a l i z e a g r e a t e r o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r  in-  -41-  do the fanms which have l e s s than t e n p e r c e n t  invest-  i n equipment* For the f i r s t s i z e group o f the t r e e - f r u i t farms of the Okad i s t r i c t the more c o r r e c t r a t i o s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n seem t o be  6 % in land,  i n l a b o r , and 20% i n equipment. The g e n e r a l tendency o f the farms i s t o have somewhat more EanA, more l a b o r , and l e s s equipment*  I f the v a l u e o f the  a l s o p l a c e d under the item of equipment, the s t a t e d would appear even more pronounced.  A c c o r d i n g to the  Lt s u r v e y , i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t about 85% of the i i p t s o f the t r e e - f r u i t farms come from the s a l e s of  trees  tendentreetotal fruit,  '43.4% o f the a r e a o f the farms h a s n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the f r u i t  AVRRAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION  GROUP  "II"-  1%8*  Land*  Labor*  Above-marginal farms  72.3%  12.0%  13.7%  Marginal f rms  70*2%  11.3%  18*3%  Sub-marginal farms  65*7%  16*9%  17.4%  .  Equipment.  As compared w i t h the s u b - m a r g i n a l f a r m s , the m a r g i n a l and the a b o v e - m a r g i n a l farms have more l a n d , l e s s l a b o r , and the same amount of equipment. I t i s a g a i n n e c e s s a r y t o emphasize the f a c t t h a t the v a l u e Of the t r e e s i s i n c l u d e d i n the l a n d v a l u e , w h i l e from t h i s study the c o n c l u s i o n i s made t h a t the v a l u e of the t r e e s should be  -42-  included in equipment.  I t i s necessary also to point out, that  under nc c i r c u m s t a n c e s should the average f i g u r e s of the t a b l e above be taken a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a c t u a l p e r c e n t a g e s of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n s of the M a r g i n a l , Sub-marginal, and Above-marginal farms i n v e s t e d i n t h e i r f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n . The tendency to have a s m a l l e r or a g r e a t e r share of the  total  investment r e p r e s e n t e d by a c e r t a i n f a c t o r of production alone can be shown by the above a v e r a g e s . The more c o r r e c t or the l e s s c o r r e c t p e r c e n t a g e s of the i n vestments i n the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of production from the f o l l o w i n g  may be seen  table:  T R E E - F R U I T SURVEY. G R O U P "11". Percentage o f investment i n land 40% - 30% ^ - 60% 6o% - 70% 70% - 8o% 8o% - ?o% in labor 4% - 6% 6% - 8%  8% - 10%  10%-12% 14% 16* 18% 24% 26% -  12% 14% 16% 18H 20% 26% 28% 33.2%  P e r c e n t o f farms i n the sub-group to the t o t a l S o . of farms i n the size-group.  2.6%  3+% 39.3% 47.3% 3.3%  2.6  334.2% 13.2% 10.7%  13.8% 2.6% 3.3%  2.6%  3.2% 2.3%  Percent o f s a b m a r g i n a l farms t o the t o t a l No. o f farms i n the same sub-group.  0%  100%  22Ì2Ì 0% 0%  30%  Average operator's labor income f o r each sub-group. + 443.51 - 954.26 + 839.47 + 584.83 +1273.59 +1080.45 - 361.12 + 650.34  30 J 20%  + 800.71  0%  + 445.51  100% 100% 100%  +1370.28 +1129.33  + 838.30 - 648.95 - 731.28 -1241.84  i n equipment 3% - 13% 10% - 20% 33% - 30% 33% - 40%  21+0% 30.0% 23.7% 3.%  + + + -  30%  174.SL 733.24 968.70 110.38  Mast o f the t r e e - f r u i t farms have from 60% t o 80% o f t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n invested in land.  their  The farms which have  from 70% to 80% r e a l i z e s m a l l e r o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income than the farms which have from 60% t o 7J%, and j e t i t w i l l be seen t h a t the number of the farms i n the "70% - 80%" sub-group  is  l a r g e r than the number of the farms i n the "60% - 70*" g r o u p . The o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income of the farms T?hich have from 80% t o 90% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i s a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n land i s  the  l a r g e s t of a l l the s u b - g r o u p s , but the number of the farms i n t h i s sub-group i s too small (3.3%) to make the f i g u r e  reliable.  In the second group of the t r e e - f r u i t farms 71.0% of  the  t o t a l number of the farms have l e s s than 20% of t h e i r t o t a l  in-  vestment r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment, and j e t the most s u c c e s s f u l farms have from 20% to 30% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n  inves-  ted i n equipment. As a w h o l e , the second s i z e group a p p e a r s t o have too much investment i n l a n d .  The f a r m e r s of t h i s group m i g h t do b e t t e r  i f they a l l o w e d a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n of t h e i r t o t a l investment to go i n t o equipment, and a s m a l l e r p o r t i o n of i t  to go i n t o l a n d .  The most c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n  f o r th^ second s i z e group  of the  tree  f r u i t farms appears t o be: 63% i n l a n d , 13% i n l a b o r , and 22%" i n equipment.  -44AUERAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THESE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION. S R OUP  "III". Laad.  3ve-marglnal f a ^ a s  Labor. 10.4%  r g i n a l farms  "* ?2.7%  ** 13.3%  Equipment. 16.0% * 14.4%  The above-marginal f a n a s have more land than have the submarginal farms; the above-marginal farms have l e s s l a b o r , and they have more equipment than the sub-marginal f a r m s .  T R ^ E - F R U I T GROUP Percentage o f the investment in land.  in labor 4% -  6% - 8%  8% - 13% 14% - 16%  2 0% --  i n equipment  1% - 10%  10% - 20% 20% - 30%  "3  Percent o f farms i n t h e sub-group t o the t o t a l No. o f farms i n the s i z e group.  28.6%  0% - 90%  S U R V E Y ,  P e r c e n t of sub-  Average operator's lat o the t o t a l No. b o r income o f farms i n the f o r each same sub-group, sub-group.  50%  37+1% 14.3%  23%  21.4% 14.3% 28.7% 21.4% 7.1%  33.3%  28.i 37.3 14.:  73*0% 12.5i  0%  + 382.05 + 360.87  +1221.02  +1100.79 - 492.26  +1289.60  +1973.91  -2882.02  -3058.81  30.0%  - 654.64 +1277.05 + 429.80  I t w i l l be seen t h a t , a l t h o u g h the l a r g e s t o p e r a t o r ' s  labor  income i s r e a l i z e d by the farms which have from 80% t o 90% of  -45t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d , h a l f of the number of t h e s e farms a r e s u b - m a r g i n a l .  T h i s sub-group a p p e a r s to  have an o r g a n o z a t i o n t h a t seems to be on the whole too r i s k y . The group which i n c l u d e s the farms w i t h from 70^ to 80,L of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by land may be c o n s i d e r ed a s bein^- i n the most s a t i s f a c t o r y p o s i t i o n .  The c o r r e c t n e s s  o f t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s confirmed by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  vari-  ed i n v e s t m e n t s i n equipment, and i n l a b o r . I t seems t h a t the farms should have a t l e a s t 12 t of  their  t o t a l investment r e p r e s e n t e d by l a b o r , and a t l e a s t 13% r e p r e sented by equipment.  12 + 13 makes 2 7 , and o n l y 73% i s l e f t  for  the share of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n which could be i n v e s t e d in land. The f a c t must be a l w a y s borne i n mind t h a t , under t h i s  sys-  tem o f s u r v e y r e c o r d s , the l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e of investment i n land may mean a g r e a t e r share of the t o t a l a r e a of the f a r m ' s land under the f a r m ' s o r c h a r d , or i t may mean a b e t t e r  orchard  with a l a r g e r number of t r e e s per a c r e , or i t r a y mean a b i g t r a c k of land which h a s n o t h i n g to do with the o r c h a r d .  THE AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ""EREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION . G R 0 U P  " i ? " - 1928. Land.  Above-mar i n a l farms  -  Labor.  Equipment.  -  Marginal farms  69.4%  12.1%  18.3%  Sub-marginal farms  36.9%  13.3%  29.8%  —46**  As i ê t h e case' o f the t h r e e p r e v i o u s g r o u p s , the sab-margifarms have l e s s land and more l a b o r than have the marginal is.  None o f the farms o f the f o u r t h s i z e group r e a l i z e d  3re than +$600*00 o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income.  As w i l l be seen  the t a b l e t h a t f o l l o w s , some o f the sub-marginal farms owe t h e i r minus o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income t o the e x c e s s i v e  investment  i n the equipment, probably i n the unproductive equipment, such -.as too e x p e n s i v e o r o b s o l e t e b u i l d i n g s , TREE  - F R U I T  etc.  S U R V E Y ,  1728*  G R 0 U F Percentage o f P e r c e n t o f farms the investment i n the sub-group t o the t o t a l No* of farms i n the s i z e group* land. 30% - 40% 40% - 50% 30% - 6o%  10% -  12% - 14 14% - 16 , 18% - 20% i n equipment  1% - 10% 10% - 20%  20% ? 30% 30% - 40% 40% - 30%  Average o p e r a t o r ' s labor income f o r each sub-group.  16.?% 16*7% 16.6%  lOi 10( 3%  33. S%  01  + 293.33 -1338*30  16*7% 33*3% 16*?% 16*7% 16.6%  100% 0%  -1338.50 + 132.47 -4648*54 + 361.7? -6434.30  16.7% 33.3%  100%  33.4% 16*6%  100%  16*7% in labor L 8% - 10'  P e r c e n t o f subm a r g i n a l farms to- the t o t a l Bo. of farms i n the  )0%  0%  -6434.30  -4648.54  + 239*04  -1338.50  + 293.83 -2304.73 -6454.50  Although few farms e n t e r i n t o the f o u r t h s i z e group,  this  group g i v e s the same answer t o the q u e s t i o n a s t o what c o n s t i -  -4?-  t n t e s the moat s a t i s f a c t o r y r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of production.  the  The l a r g e s t o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r  income i s r e a l i z e d by the farms which have from 70% t o 80% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d ; which have from 14% t o 16% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a b o r , and which have from 10% to 20% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n ted i n equipment.  The b e s t r a t i o s ,  inves-  t h e n , may be s t a t e d a s b e i n g  70% i n l a n d , 1$% i n l a b o r , and 15% i n equipment.  T r e e - f r u i t farms a r e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d e n t e r p r i s e s .  Con-  s e q u e n t l y i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t s i z e groups do n o t v a r y much a s f a r a s the b e s t methods o f t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n are c o n cerned.  At the same time however the l a r g e r farms should show  c e r t a i n o p e r a t i n g and m a t e r i a l e x p e n s e s f o n a i n g a s m a l l e r p o r t i o n of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n .  B e s i d e s t h i s , c e r t a i n ma-  c h i n e r y and c e r t a i n b u i l d i n g s cannot be a s f u l l y u t i l i z e d on a s m a l l e r farm a s t h e y can be u t i l i z e d on a l a r g e r farm; the machinery can be used each season f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d of time on a l a r g e r farm than on a s m a l l e r f a r m , and so o n .  The b e s t  ratios  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n the t r e e - f r u i t farms of the d i f f e r e n t s i z e s are a s f o l l o w s : Land. For Group  Labor.  Equipment.  "I"  69%  11%  20%  For Group " I I "  65%  15%  22%  For Group " I I I "  73%  12%  15t  For Group "IV"  70%  15%  15%  on  These f i g u r e s c o n f i r m e i t h e r of the e x p e c t a t i o n s : l / the b e s t r a t i o s o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n do n o t d i f f e r much w i t h the v a r i a t i o n s of the  si-  z e s of the t r e e - f r u i t farms; 2/ the l a r g e r farms need a s m a l l e r share o f t h e i r t o t a l l i z a t i o n t o be i n v e s t e d i n equipment, e x c l u d i n g the  capita-  trees.  Thus l a r g e r farms seem to have a d i s t i n c t advantage o v e r the s m a l l e r farms i n t h a t t h o i r overhead c h a r g e of o p e r a t i n g , mat e r i a l , and f i x e d e x p e n s e s can be made s m a l l e r than the o v e r head charge on a s m a l l e r f a r m .  At the same time however the  l a r g e r farms as compared w i t h the s m a l l e r farms have a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r number of the s u b - m - r g i n a l T R E B - F RU I T  farms,  S U R V E X - 1928.  PERCENT OF 3UBHARJINAL FARMS IN DIFFERENT SI'^E GROUPS. Group " I "  12.3%  Group " I I "  28.9%  Group " I I I "  35.7%  Group " 1 7 "  30.0%  The f a c t t h a t among l a r g e r farms t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r number of f a i l u r e s than among s m a l l e r farms i s n o t i n h e r e n t to the ze of the e n t e r p r i s e .  The proper combination of the t h r e e  t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n on a l a r g e farm i s l i a b l e  fac-  to be more e f f i c i -  e n t than the proper combination of the t h r e e f a c t o r s of t i o n on a s m a l l e r f a r m .  si-  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , or f o r t u n a t e l y  producperhaps,  t h e r e i s a w e l l d e f i n e d tendency f o r the l a r g e r farms to be more l i a b l e to have an improper combination o f the t h r e e  fac-  t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n .  The s m a l l e r farms seem to he mere a b l e  to  o r g a n i z e t h e i r f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n a more remunerative way; the range of the r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e i r  fac-  t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n i s n e a r e r to the s t a n d a r d r a t i o .  The range  of the r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s of  production  of the l a r g e r fcrrae i s more s c a t t e r e d , has g r e a t e r  deviations,  and v a r i e s v e r y muoh from Hie s t a n d a r d . In coming back to the t a b l e s d e a l t w i t h p r e v i o u s l y ,  it  wdll  be seen t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e of the f - r m s which have more than 80% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d For Group " I "  6.2%  For Group " I I "  3.3%  For Group " I I I "  14.3%  For Group "IV"  IG.7%  is  The p e r c e n t a g e of the farms which have l e s s than t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n invested i n land For Group " I "  of  is  12.3%  For Group " 1 1 " For Group "IV"  34.4%  The p e r c e n t a g e of the f a ms which have more than 33% of t h e i r t o t a l investment For Group " I "  0%  For Group " 1 1 "  5.3%  For Group " I I I "  0%  For Groun "IV"  50%  r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment  is  -50-  Tbe range o f the p e r c e n t a g e s o f the t o t a l  capitalization  i n v e n t e d i a land l a a s f o l l o w s : For Group " I "  ^P t o 80.3%  (23.4)  For Group " I I "  48.4% up to 83.1%  (34.1)  For Group " I I I "  64.1% up to 85.4%  (21.3)  For Group " I ? "  38.2% up to 83,1%  (44.9)  The range of the p e r c e n t a g e s i n v e s t e d i n equipment i s a s follows: For Group " I "  '  2.8% up t o 24.7%  (21.9)  For Group " I I "  7.2% up t o 35.6%  (28.4)  For Group " I I I *  6.6% up t o 29.7%  (23.1)  For Group " I V '  7+9% np t o 43.6%  (35.7)  As compared to s m a l l e r f o r m s , a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r number of the l a r g e r farms do n o t seem t o be c a p a b l e of  distributing  t h e i r f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n t o the b e s t a d v a n t a g e . usual experience in a g r i c u l t u r e  It is a  t h a t the e f f i c i e n c y o f produc-  t i o n i s hampered by the d e f i c i e n t f a c t o r .  In the c a s e of  large  s i z e d f a r - ; s , adequate management seems t o be the d e f i c i e n t tor.  fac-  The investment i n l a n d , i n l a b o r , and i n equipment seems  t o i n c r e a s e more r a p i d l y than the i n v e s t m e n t i n management. The same i n a b i l i t y t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e i r f a c t o r s of  production  i n the most e f f i c i e n t way i s pronounced s t r o n g e r on the  poultry  farms of a l a r g e r s i z e a s compared t o the p o u l t r y farms of a smaller s i z e .  P o u l t r y a s w e l l a s t r e e - f r u i t farming i s a h i g h l y  specialized business.  I t s standard type of o r g a n i z a t i o n  be a p p l i c a b l e with b e n e f i t to p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y f a r m .  should  I t has  —31** been found t h a t the standard d i s t r i b u t i o n of the three  factors  Of p r o d u c t i o n f o r p o u l t r y farms of B r i t i s h Columbia i s : 10% i n l a n d , 10% i n l a b o r , and 50% i n equipment*  The n e a r e r to  this  standard d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n a p p r o a c h e s , the b e t t e r i t seems t o be f o r any p o u l t r y f a r m .  The s m a l l e r the s i x e of  a p o u l t r y f a r m , the s m a l l e r a r e the d e v i a t i o n s from the  stan-  dards. The spread of t h e p e r c e n t a g e s of the t o t a l invested i n land i s  capitalization  this:  P 0 U L T 3 Y  F A RM  S U R 7 E Y , 1924.  For Group " I "  from 10% to 40%  (30%)  F o r Group " I I "  from 10% to $0%  (40%)  For Group " I I I "  from 10% t o 50%  (40%)  For Group "IV"  from 10% t o 60%  (30%)  The spread of the p e r c e n t a g e s o f the t o t a l i n v e s t e d i n equipment  capitalization  is:  For Group " I "  from 40% t o  (40%)  For Group " I I *  from 40% to 90?.  (30%)  For Group " I I I "  from 40% t o H0%  (40%)  For Group "IV"  from 30% to 90%  (60%)  The inadequacy of the i n c r e a s e of the management i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the i n c r e a s e of the i n v e s t m e n t s i n o t h e r t h r e e of p r o d u c t i o n i s w e l l R e f i n e d .  factors  The f a c t t h a t i n the c a s e of the  p o u l t r y farms the s m a l l e s t s i 3 0 group p r o v i d e s the  relatively  l a r g e s t number o f sub-marginal f^rms does not c o n t r a d i c t  this  The d e f i c i e n t f a c t o r o f t h e p o u l t r y farms of the s i z e gronp i s the equipment,  t h i s i s p l a i n l y seen a n d ,  i e r e f o r e , the managM&ent cannot p o s s i b l y be blamed f o r the l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f s u b - m a r g i n a l farms d a r i n g the few y e a r s of the farm e x i s t e n c e .  re-  first  P r o b a b l y the management c o u l d  be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n a b i l i t y t o move the farm from the f i r s t s i z e group i n t o the s e c o n d .  J e t , s u r e l y , a c e r t a i n time  ought t o be a l l o w e d f o r such a t a s k .  Summarising t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the t r e e - f r u i t farms o f the Okanagan D i s t r i c t , i t may be s a i d t h a t a s a whole the farms should i n c r e a s e the share o f t h e i r t o t a l  capitalisation  i n v e s t e d i n equipment, and they should d e c r e a s e the share o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d . As i n the c a s e o f the p o u l t r y f a r m , t h e t r e e - f r u i t farm o f the Okanagan D i s t r i c t has n o t a s j e t reached the p o i n t of d e c r e a s i n g r e t u r n s .  For  the t r e e - f r u i t farm o p e r a t o r s t h e r e s t i l l r e g a i n s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e n s i f y the u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r l e n d a r e a s .  In c o -  mmon l a n g u a g e the meaning o f t h i s l a s t paragraph amounts t o the f o l l o w i n g recomendation:  more b o x e s of a p p l e s should be grown  per a c r e , and the q u a l i t y of the b u l k o f the a p p l e grown should be improved.  The above c o n c l u s i o n s were a r r i v e d a t a f t e r a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a o b t a i n e d from the 74 farms under the s u r v e y o f 1*?28. Though the above d e s c r i b e d t e n d e n c i e s of the farms to have more  -53^  t^an they should and t o have l e s s equipment than i s the  M a t profitable for them to have seemed t o be w e l l d e f i n e d , the figures did not all follow the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f the d a t a . In order t o check on the c o r r e c t n e s s o f the c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t , Hie analysis was r e p e a t e d , working w i t h data obtained from the same farms b u t gathered during the y e a r 1927.  The r e s u l t s  o b t a i n e d from the a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a of 1927 e r e i d e n t i c a l the r e s u l t s obtained from the d a t a of 1928.  to  In f a c t i n some  r e s p e c t s the l a t t e r (1927) more c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the same t h i n g t h a t had been i l l u s t r a t e d by the data of 1928. s t a n c e , the d e v i a t i o n s from the standard r a t i o s of the  For i n distri-  b u t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of production on the farms of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s a r e as f o l l o w s : THE RANGE OF THE PERCENTAGES OF THE TOTAL CAPITALIZATION INVESTED IN LAND: According to 1 9 2 7 .  According to 1928.  Group " I "  from 50% t o 80% (30%)  from 30% to 90% (40?,)  Group " I I "  from 30% to 80% (30%)  from 40'. to 90% (30%)  Group " I I I "  from 30% t o 90% (40%)  from 60* to 90% (30%)  Group "IV"  from 40% t o 90% (30%)  from 3J% to 90% (60^)  THE RANGE OF THE PERCENTAGES OF THE TOTAL CAPITALI'^TION INVESTED IN EQUIPMENT: Group " I "  from 1% t o 30%  (30%)  from 1% to 30% (30%)  Group " I I "  from 1% to 40%  (40%)  from 1% to 40% (4J%)  Group " I I I "  from 1% to 40%  (40%)  from 1', to 30t (30*.)  Group "IV"  from 1% to 30%  (50%)  from 1% to 50% (30%)  , a s the d a t a g a t h e r e d i n 1<?2? prove the same t h i n g and b r i n g u s to the same c o n c l u s i o n s a s the d a t a g a t h e r e d i n 1 9 2 8 , i t may be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the r e s u l t s of the  investiga-  t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the f i g u r e s o b t a i n e d d u r i n g the s u r v e y of 1928 a r e c o r r e c t and v a l i d a s l o n g , a s t h e r e i s no r a d i c a l and permanent change  i n the p r i c e s of the commodities produced or  i n the p r i c e s of t h e d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of  production,  T a b l e s d e a l i n g w i t h the data of 1<?27 are a t the end page  84.to  -58Tree F r u i t Survey, 1928. C o r r e l a t i o n of the percentage of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n t f farms i n v e s t e d i n land and the o p e r a t o r ' s 1 . i n c o m e .  30%  Percentage of the t o t a l c a p i talization invested in land.  Average o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o u r income.  Number of farms.  30% 40% 50%  -6,434.30 -2,101.32  1 2 5 2A 36 5  50%  -  60%  80% - 90%  + + +  50% Invei  ient i n l a n d .  70% 80%  60%  437.63  758.42 398.56 397.79  70%  90%  -56-  B.C.  DA I R Y  F A RM I N G .  How l e t u s c o n s i d e r the Dairy f a r m s .  For the y e a r 1926  t h e r e a r e 68 farms d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s i z e g r o u p s .  The f i r s t  s i z e group i n c l u d e s the farms w i t h the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n from .¡¡4,000 t o $18,030;  of  the second s i z e group i n c l u d e s the  farms w i t h the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of between $18,000 to $35,000; and the t h i r d s i z e group i n c l u d e s *the farms with the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f between $35,000 t o § 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 . There a r e 33 farms i n the f i r s t g r o u p , 21 farms i n the  se-  cond group and t h e r e are 14 farms i n the t h i r d g r o u p . DAIRY FA3HING, 1926. Capitalization.  No. o f f a r m s .  No. o f submarginal farms.  %% of submarginal farms.  Group " I "  33  3  9.1%  Group " 1 1 "  21  3  23.8%  Group " I I I "  14  6  42.9%  THE AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION OF TEE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION . G R 0 U P  "I*.  <and.  Labor.  Equipment  Above-marginal farms  46.7%  8.5%  44.8%  M a r g i n a l farms  cn T'?  7.3%  42.6%  Sub-marginal farms  47*3%  3.8%  43.9%  As compared w i t h the m a r g i n a l and sub-marginal f a r m s , the a b o v e - m a r g i n a l farms have a s m a l l e r share of t h e i r t o t a l  invest-  -57ment r e p r e s e n t e d by l a n d ; they have a g r e a t e r share of  their  t o t a l i n v e s t m e n t r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment; t a e y have the same s h a r e o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by 1 b o r . The a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a g e s o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the t h r e e f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the a b o v e - m a r g i n a l , marg i n a l , and s u b - m a r g i n a l farms show o n l y the tendency of t h r e e k i n d s o f farms to have r e l a t i v e l y more o r l e s s i n a o e r t a i n f a c t o r of p r o d u c t i o n .  The a e r a g e  the  invested  percentages  c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the a b o v e - m a r g i n a l f r r m s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a s the b e s t t o f o l l o w .  They are b e t t e r t o f o l l o w than the p e r -  c e n t a g e s of the o t h e r two k i n d s of f a r m s , but by no means should they be looked upon a s an i d e a l  standard.  The more d e t a i l e d t a b l e below r e v e a l s more a c c u r a t e l y the c o r r e c t p e r c e n t a g e s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t h r e e f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n f o r the farms i n c l u d e d i n the f i r s t s i z e g r o u p . T h i s t a b l e s e t s f o r t h the i n f o r m a t i o n which makes i t  possible  t o determine the standard p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the three f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n f o r the d a i r y farms of the f i r s t  group.  When a d o p t e d , the standard d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l probably prove b e n e f i c i a l f o r the dairymen who adopt B A 1 R X  it.  S U R VE Y -  I926.  G R 0 U p "I". P e r c e n t of the investment in land. 20? - 301 30% - 40% 40% - 50% - 6ot b0% - '70%  P e r c e n t of farms i n the sub-group t o the t o t a l No. of farms i n the s i z e group.  P e r c e n t of s u b m a r g i n a l farms to the t o t a l No. of farms i n the same s u b - g r o u p ,  Average operator's labor income f o r each sub-group.  + 610.02  + 1039.43 + 539.15 + 592.26 4- 7 7 1 . 7 3  -58-  in labor. 3t - 5% 3% - 7% 7% 9% ?% - 11% 11% - 13% - 15%  12.1% 30.3% 30.3% 18.2% 0% 3.0%  0% 0% 10% 3 3 0% 0%  i n equipment. 20%.- 30% 30% - 40% 40% - 50% 30% - 63%  9*1% 18.2% 48.3% 18.2t  0% 16.7% 12.5% 0%  13% - 17%  6.1%  60% - 70%  .  o%  6.0%  0%  +  +1031.61 + 716.40 + $84.32 363.86 + 406.88  +1235.93  + + + +  894.13 538.68 592.15 933.07  + 610.02  For the f i r s t s i z e group the more a c c u r a t e p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d seems to be around 35%. The "30% - 40%" sub-group r e a l i z e s the l a r g e s t a v e r a g e l a b o r income.  operator'  The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t i s t h s t 81.7% of the  total  number of the f s r m s of the f i r t s i z e group have a much l a r g e r share o f t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n  invested inland.  dency t o have more l a n d than i s j u s t i f i e d by the t o t a l c e s o f the e n t e r p r i s e i s q u i t e In the f i r s t group  The t e n resour-  evident.  75.8% o f the ferms have l e s s than 30%  of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i s a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment.  Yet,  farms which i n v e s t from 50% to 60% i n the equipment a r e a b l e  to  g e t a l a r g e r o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r Income than the farms which i n v e s t i n t h e i r equipment l e s s than 50% of the t o t a l  capitalization.  The tendency t o be s h o r t i n equipment i s a s p l a i n l y seen a s the tendency to have an e x c e s s of l a n d .  The g r e a t l y needed equi  pment c a p i t a l i s i n v e s t e d i n the u n n e c e s s a r y a c r e a g e which b e comes burdensome f o r the  enterprise.  The two extreme sub-groups are n o t l a r g e enough t o make the averages  reliable.  Up t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t the farms which have a s m a l l e r share of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by l a b o r seem to be a t an advantage when compared to the farms which have a l a r g e r share of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a b o r .  The  o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income i n c r e a s e s with the decrease of the i n vestment i n l a b o r .  But t h e n , when the farms have more than  %  of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a b o r , the tendency reverses:  the farms which have t h e i r l a b o r investment equal to  14% r e a l i z e a l a r g e r o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income than the farms ?hich have t h e i r investment i n l a b o r e q u a l to 12%; the farms with 16% a r e b e t t e r o f f than the farms with 14%. When c o n s i d e r i n g the investments i n l a b o r , one should be very c a r e f u l indeed. the same t h i n g .  Labor and equipment sometimes mean r e a l l y  The pay to a h i r e d man who h a u l s p o t a t o e s to  the s t a t i o n i s considered a. l a b o r expense, but the nay to a t r u c k owner who h a u l s the p o t a t o e s u s i n g h i s t r u c k i s  consider-  ed an equipment expense; a h i r e d man on a b i n d e r i s a l a b o r e x pense, a man h i r e d with a binder i s an equipment expense;  the  h o r s e - s h o e i n g i s sometimes a l ? b o r e x p e n s e , but sometimes i t  is  an equipment expense - a l l depends on the person who does the shoeing. Probably the s a f e s t nay to f i n d out which percenta/e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n when i n v e s t e d i n l a b o r may be considered the standard p e r c e n t a g e , i s by f i n d i n g out the standard percent a g e s of the investments i n land and of the investments i n e q u i pment.  100% minus the sixn of the standard p e r c e n t a g e s of  inves-  tments i n land and i n equipment may be considered the standard  -6o-  p e r c e n t a e of i n v e s t m e n t i n l a b o r .  The more a c c u r a t e r a t i o s of  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n f o r the d a i r y farms of the f i r s t s i z e group a r e : 35% i n l a n d , 55% i n equipment, and 10% i n l a b o r .  The a v e r a g e s f o r the above-margi-  nal f a u n s o f the same f i r s t group are:46.7% i n l a n d , 44.8% i n equipment, and 8.5% i n l a b o r . THE AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION . D A I R Y S U R V E Y,l?26. G R O U P "II". Land.  Labor.  Equipment.  Above—average farms  53.2%  3.7%  41.1%  Marginal farms  56.0%  5+8%  SR.2%  Sub-marginal farms  66.0%  6.0%  28.0%  As i n the c a s e o f the f i r s t g r o u p , the above-marginal farms o f the second group have a s m a l l e r share o f t h e i r t o t a l l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d ; they have a l a r g e r share o f  capitatheir  t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n equipment; and they have a l most the same share of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n labor.  As compared t o the above-marginal farms and to the mar-  g i n a l f a r m s , the sub-marginal farms have the most of the land and the l e a s t o f the equipment. The r e a c t i o n of the v a r i a t i o n s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the t h r e e f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n on the p r o f i t a b l i n e s s of the farm can be observed from the t a b l e t h a t f o l l o w s :  -61D A I R Y  S UR VE Y -1926.  GR 0 U P "II*. Percent o f investment in land. 30% 40% 30% 6ol  -  40% 30% 60%  70% 70% - 80%  P e r c e n t o f farms i n the sub-group t o the t o t a l No. Of farms i n the s i z e group.  P e r c e n t o f sub- Average o p e r a t o r ' m a r g i n a l farms l a b o r income f o r t o t h e t o t a l No. e a c h s u b - g r o u p . of farms i n the same s u b - g r o u p .  0% 0%  9.3% 42.?% 19.1% 19.0%  11.1%  33.3t 47.6% 9.6% 9.3%  28,6% 20.0%  23.8% 42.9% 23.8% 9.3%  60% 22.2%  +520.89 +361.84 +732.34 -193.16  30 30%  -267.31  in labor. 3% - 3% 3% - 7% 7% - % 9% -11%  +$44.05 +299.09 +290*00 -231.31  0%  50.0%  i n equipment. 20% 30% 40% 30%  -  30% 40% 30% 60%  -436.20 +351*70 +617.91 +320.89  2% 0%  The l a r g e s t o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r inoomeis r e a l i z e d by the s u b group which i n c l u d e s farms w i t h the i n v e s t m e n t s i n l a n d o f from 30% t o 60% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n .  A f t e r having s t u d i e d  the f i g u r e s c a r e f u l l y one comes t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e of investment i n land f o r t h i s second group of farms i s n e a r e r t o 30% r a t h e r than t o 60%.  dairy  '¿hen s u b d i v i d e d  in  two p a r t s , the "30% to 60%" s u b - g r o p g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g r e sults: Percent of investment in land:  Operator's labor income:  30% - 55%  +949.24  33% - 601  +339.22  -62-  In o r d e r t o see t h a t the more c o r r e e t p e r c e n t a g e i s n e a r e r t o 50% than t o 60%, i t was not n e c e s s a r y to s u b d i v i d e the subgroup.  The t a b l e shows q u i t e c l e a r l y t h a t the farms w i t h the  investment i n land s m a l l e r than 50% are much b e t t e r o f f than the farms w i t h the i n v e s t m e n t i n l a n d g r e a t e r  than 60%.  As a m a t t e r  o f f a c t the f a n n s which have more than 60* of t h e i r t o t a l t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by l a n d could n o t pay 7% r a e  of  capi-  interest  on t h e i r c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t - they y i e l d on the a v e r a g e a minus o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r Income. The more a c c u r a t e p e r c e n t a g e  of t h e t o t a l  t o be i n v e s t e d i n l a n d i s approximately 30%. the farms have more land than t h i s s t a n d a r d  capitalization About one h a l f  of  percentage.  The l a r g e s t o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income i s r e a l i z e d by the s u b group which i n c l u d e s the f a n n s w i t h the i n v e s t m e n t i n equipment of from 40% t o 50%.  In the second s i z e group 66.7% of the farms  have l e s s than 40% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d equipment.  in  I n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t a c c o r d i n g to the f i g u r e s  i t seems to be w i s e r to have too much of equipment r a t h e r than t o have too l i t t l e  of i t ,  t h e r e a r e more farms which have an  i n s u f i c i e n t amount of equipment than t h e r e a r e farms which have an e x c e s s of  it.  The l a r g e s t o o e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income 3fas r e a l i z e d by the sub-group which i n c o r p o r a t e s the farms w i t h the s m a l l e s t of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a b o r .  share  This f a c t  may be taken a s proof t h a t l a b o r s a v i n g d e v i c e s when adonted on the d a i r y farms of B r i t i s h Columbia i n c r e a s e the economic c i e n c y of  the e n t e r p r i s e and, t h e r e f o r e , w e l l j u s t i f y  effi-  their  -63-  applieation. The mare c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n f o r the d a i r y f r m s of the second s i z e group a r e :  i n l a n d , 4 % i n equipment, and $.1. i n l a b o r .  THE AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE THREE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION . D A I R Y S U R V E Y - 1 9 2 6. 3 R 0 U P "III". Lsnd.  Labor.  Above-marginal farms  63.2%  3.2%  M a r g i n a l farms  36.1%  Sub-marginal f r r m s  62.3%  Equi pment. 29.6% 36.9%  3.1%  32.4%  Not l i k e the a b o v e - m a r g i n a l ferms of the two p r e c e d i n g g r o u p s , the a b o v e - m a r g i n a l farms of the t h i r d s i z e group have a g r e a t e r share of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d than have the m a r g i n a l and the sub-marginal f a r m s . two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s of t h i s f a c t .  There a r e  Here are the e x p l a n a -  tions: l / For d a i r y farms of l a r g e s i z e a h i g h degree of  specializa-  t i o n can be p r o f i t a b l e when an e x t e n s i v e method of farming  is  practiced; 2/ In o r d e r to be p r o f i t a b l e the h i g h l y i n t e n s i v e d a i r y farms of a l a r g e s i z e f i n d i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have a w e l l side l i n e ,  developed  " h i s means t h a t the l a r g e and h i g h l y i n t e n s i v e  r y farms should 'iot be too s p e c i a l i z e d .  Their dairy  index should not b e , l e t u s s f y , above 60 .  dai-  diversity  Such farms should  have a secondary p r o j e c t or p r o j e c t s y i e l d i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e  -64-  p a r t of t h e i r t o t a l r e c e i p t s .  Sueh secondary p r o j e c t s ,  cash  c r o p s or s i d e l i n e s may he s e l e c t e d from a l o n g l i s t and comp r i s e c r o p s such a s p o t a t o e s , p e a s , c e r e a l s , h a y , or they can be o t h e r b r a n c h e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s a s the r a i s i n g of pure bred c a t t l e , h o r s e s , p i g s and numerous of  others.  The s i d e l i n e s p r e f e r a b l y should be those which w i l l  uti-  l i z e b y - p r o d u c t s of the d a i r y b u s i n e s s and supply the d a i r y c a t t l e w i t h the n e c e s s a r y  feed.  From what has been s a i d i t i s a l r e a d y understood t h a t  there  a r e s e v e r a l t y p e s of d a i r y f a r m s , d i f f e r e n t l y o r g a n i z e d to s u i t the v a r i o u s methods of c a r r y i n g on the b u s i n e s s .  The o p e r a t o r s  of l a r g e s i z e d farms are p a r t i c u l a r l y prone t o v a r y i n the methods of the management of t h e i r farms and i n the ways of organization.  their  They f r e q u e n t l y a l t e r t h e i r methods when the  changes i n the market c o n d i t i o n s take p l a c e .  Consequently the  standard d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n f o r the d a i r y farms of the t h i r d s i z e group should be h e l d a s such only f o r the y e a r s s i m i l a r t o the y e a r 1^26.  This i s the y e a r which  provided the s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a upon which t h i s t r e a t i s e i s  based.  D A I R Y S U R 7 3 Y - 1926. ORO U P "III". Percent of investment in land. 50?, - 60%  6o% - 70% - 80/,  P e r c e n t of farms i n the sub-group to the t o t a l B o . of farms i n the s i z e group. 21.4% 57.lt  21.5%  P e r c e n t of s u b m a r g i n a l farms t o the t o t a l 3 o . o f farms i n the same s u b - g r o u p .  50.0^ 33.3%  Avera-;e o p e r a t o r ' s labor income f o r each sub-group,  + 57.64 -201.48 +445.63  -63** in labor 42.9% 301,3% 7.1%  33.3% 57.3%  +728.30 -7&O.I5 +847.98  35,7% 57.1% 7.2%  20% 30%  + 990.74 .519.31 -901.24  0%  i n equipment 20% - 30-, 30% - 40% 40% - 30%  100%  According t o the above t a b l e 75% i s the more c o r r e c t share of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n to be i n v e s t e d i n land by the d a i r y farm o p e r a t o r s of the t h i r d g r o u p .  The farms of the t h i r d  group which have a s m a l l e r share of t h e i r t o t a l  capitalisation  r e p r e s e n t e d by lend r e a l i z e d - a much s m a l l e r o p e r a t o r ' s income.  size  labor  But "75%" i s a somewhat e x a g g e r a t e d p e r c e n t a g e .  The  e x a g g e r a t i o n i s due to the l a r g e n e s s of the s i z e of the adopted class intervals.  Hone o f the farms i n c l u d e d i n the s u r v e y had  more than 72.9% i n v e s t e d i n l a n d .  The "70% - 80%" sub-group  r e a l l y i s the "70% - 72.9%" s u b - g r o u p .  T h i s l a s t sub-group r e a -  l i z e d +443.63 d o l l a r s a s the o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income.  The  "65% - 70%" sub-group ( t h e upper h a l f o f the "60% - 70%") r e a l i z e d +949.62 d o l l a r s a s o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income.  Therefore  the more c o r r e c t share o f the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d  in  land i s n o t 73%, but i s c l o s e t o 68't.*%* According t o the t a b l e the more c o r r e c t share o f the  total  c a p i t a l i z a t i o n t o be i n v e s t e d i n equipment f o r the t h i r d group i s from 20% to 30%.  As i n the e a s e of the i n v e s t m e n t i n l a n d ,  the f i g u r e i s somewhat m i s l e a d i n g due to the wide c l a s s  inter-  The f i g u r e s of 1927 i n d i c a t e t h a t G5% i s the more c o r r e c t .  -66-  v a l adopted.  The "20% - 30%" sub-group when f u r t h e r  subdivided  g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : P e r c e n t o f investment i n equipment  Operator's income  20% - 25%  + 443.63  2$% - 30%  +1808.39  labor  The more c o r r e c t p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n  to  be i n v e s t e d i n equipment i s around 28%. The v a r i a t i o n s of the i n v e s t m e n t s i n l a b o r a r e i n c l u d e d b e tween the 3% and 9%. the l o w e r l i m i t .  The upper l i m i t seems t o be a s good a s  In d e t e r m i n i n g the standard p e r c e n t a g e of  is the  investment i n l a b o r i t i s w i s e to p r a c t i c e the p r e v i o u s l y u s ' d method: The more c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the t h r e e f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n f o r the d a i r y farms of the t h i r d  si^e  group a r e : 68% i n l a n d , 28% i n equipment, and 100% - (68% + 28%) ss  4% i n l a b o r .  D a i r y farms a r e not adapted t o e x t r e m e l y h i g h degree of spe cialization.  One should not e x p e c t t o f i n d t h a t the most a c c u -  r a t e organization i s s i m i l a r f o r a l l d a i r y farms.  Dairy f a r m i n  d i f f e r s v e r y much i n i t s methods of o r g a n i z a t i o n and management That o r g a n i z a t i o n which i s good f o r one type of a d a i r y farm may be bad f o r a n o t h e r  type.  -67-  For the d i f f e r e n t s i z e groups of d a i r y farms the more c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t h r e e f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n appear to be a s f o l l o w s :  Group " 1 1 "  Land. 33% 30%  Group " I I I "  68%  Group " 1 "  Labor.  Equipment.  10%  33%  5% 4%  43%  28%  For the a b o v e - m a r g i n a l farms of the d i f f e r e n t s i z e groups the a v e r a g e r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t h r e e f a c t o r s of production are: Land.  Labor.  Equipment  33.2%  8.3% 3.7%  41.1%  65.2%  3.2%  29.6%  Group " 1 *  46.7%  Group " 1 1 " Group " I I I "  44.8%  The l a r g e r i s the f a m - the l a r g e r the p o r t i o n o f i t s  total  c a n i t a l i z a t i o n which should be and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by land;  the  l a r g e r i s the farm - the s m a l l e r the p o r t i o n of i t s t o t a l  capi-  t a l i z a t i o n which should be and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by l a b o r ; g e r i s the farm - the s m a l l e r the p o r t i o n of i t s t o t a l  the  lar-  capitali-  z a t i o n which should be and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment. These c o n c l u s i o n s i n v o l v e v e r y s e r i o u s  consequences.  The o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income i s the farm n e t revenue minus 7% i n t e r e s t on investment i n l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , m a c h i n e r y , s t o c k , and f e e d and s u p p l i e s .  live-  The farms which r e a l i z e " p l u s " o p e -  r a t o r ' s l a b o r jncome y i e l d 7% r a t e of i n t e r e s t on t h e i r  invest-  -68-  ment i n l a n d , t h e y y i e l d 7% r a t e o f i n t e r e s t on p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e i r investment i n equipment, and they y i e l d the wages f o r t h e i r h i r e d and f a m i l y l a b o r . The farms which have the same o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income may be c o n s i d e r e d a s p r o v i d i n g the same r a t e of r e t u r n s on the t a l investment of the e n t e r p r i s e ; - o r , the e f f i c i e n c y of  tothe  a p p l i c a t i o n of the l a b o r and of the equipment to l a n d may be c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l , when the e n t e r p r i s e y i e l d s the same o p e r a t o r ' l a b o r Income.  THE AVERAGE OPERATOR'S LABOR INCOME OF THE DIFFERENT SITE GROUP  DAIRY  Group " I "  +679.38  Group " I I "  +329.36  Group " I I I "  -  S U R V E X -I926.  7.29  With the i n c r e a s e of the s i z e of the farms the a v e r a g e oper a t o r ' s l a b o r income f o r the group d e c r e a s e s .  I t h a s been  shown, however, t h a t w i t h the i n c r e a s e o f the s i z e of the farm the l a r g e s t t o t a l p r o f i t combination of i t s f a c t o r s of product i o n demands a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the f a r m ' s t o t a l  capitali-  z a t i o n to be r e p r e s e n t e d by equipment and l a b o r . The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h i s :  to a g i v e n a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a more  They do not y i e l d i n t e r e s t on t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s i n l a b o r and i n c a s h f o r c u r r e n t e x p e n s e s . T h i s i s not s t r i c t l y c o r r e c t , but the m i s t a k e i s i n f a v o r of the s m a l l e r f a r m s . The same o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income on a s m a l l e r farms means a g r e a t e r r a t e of r e t u r n s per e v e r y d o l l a r i n v e s t e d i n the & n t e r o r i s e .  6? l a b o r and mere equipment can be e f f i c i e n t l y a p p l i e d ^ when the a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s are r e l a t i v e l y small i n  size.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the d i s t r i c t s which have an i d l e s u r p l u s of  labor,  and the d i s t r i c t s which are a n x i o u s to a p p l y e f i c i e n t l y the a c c u mulated e x c e s s of equipment ( i f  such an e x c e s s e x i s t s )  should  t r y to make t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n size.  From the p o i n t of view of nn i n d i v i d u a l who i s about t o e s t a b l i s h a new a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e , i t seems t o be wise n o t t o undertake an o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l a r g e s i z e d farm. more chance f o r s u c c e s s on a r e l a t i v e l y  There  is  small farm than t h e r e  i s on a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e f a r m . D¿ I R Y  F A HR I N G - 1926 . %% of sub-marginal farms,  Average f o r the group o p e r a t o r ' i a b o r income.  Group " I "  9.1%  + 679.38  Group " I I "  2 3.8%  + 329.36  Group " I I I  42.9%  -  7.29  When d e a l i n g w i t h h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d t y p e s of f a r m i n g , namely w i t h p o u l t r y and w i t h t r e e - f r u i t f a n n i n g , the f a c t  that  the l a r g e r farms have a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e of sub-marginal farms was e x p l a i n e d a s an i n a b i l i t y of the o p e r a t o r s of the l a r g e farms to i n c r e a s e t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s i n management i n a needed p r o p o r t i o n w i t h the i n c r e a s e s o f i n v e s t m e n t s i n l a n d , i n e q u i p ment, and i n l a b o r .  The d e c r e a s e d adequacy of the management  with the i n c r e a s e of the s i z e of farm was i l l u s t r a t e d by showi n g t h a t the range of the r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n on  l a r g e r farms i s more  scatter-  e d , and h a s g r e a t e r d e v i a t i o n s from the standard r a t i o s than on the s m a l l e r f a r m s .  Such an i l l u s t r a t i o n i s v a l i d only when  d e a l i n g w i t h the t y p e s of farming which have uniform methods of management and of o r g a n i z a t i o n independent of the s i n e of the enterprise.  The more c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  t h r e e f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n are the same f o r the p o u l t r y o r f r u i t farm of any s i z e .  The more c o r r e c t r a t i o s of the  b u t i o n of the t h r e e f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n  tree-  distri-  are not the same f o r  d a i r y farms of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s ; more c o r r e c t method  of  organi-  z a t i o n f o r a s m a l l e r d a i r y farm i s d i f f e r e n t from the more c o r r e c t method of o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l a r g e r d a i r y farm.  Various  methods of o r g a n i z a t i o n do not p r o v i d e the same o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e v i a t i o n from the c o r r e s p o n d i n g to each method standard  type  of o r g a n i z a t i o n ; - on a ranch type of d a i r y f a n a the s h r e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n l a n d cannot v a r y from 2J% to 7 0 ^ on a small d a i r y farm t h i s i s a p o s s i b l e  variation.  The f r e t t h a t among the l a r g e r d a i r y farms t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e of sub-marginal farms should be e x p l a i n e d i n the same way a s i n the c a s e of p o u l t r y and i n the c a s e of  tree-fruit  farms: i t i s due to the i n c r e a s e d d e f i c i e n c y of management. But the i l l u s t r a t i o n which was s a t i s f a c t o r y when d e a l i n g w i t h two p r e v i o u s t y p e s of farming cannot be used when d e a l i n g w i t h the d a i r y f a r m s .  -71TEE AVERAGE OPERATOR'S LABOR INCOME FOR TEE THREE BEST FARMS OF THE DIFFERENT SIZE GROUPS . DAIRY SURVEY - 192b. Average o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o r income f o r the t h r e e b e s t f a r m s . Group " I "  +1986.02  Group " I I *  +1573.4$  Group " I I I "  +1914.08  The farms of the t h i r d s i z e group can be managed i n such a f a s h i o n a s t o y i e l d an income e q u a l i n g t h a t of the farms of b o t h o f the o t h e r groups which on the a v e r a g e proved more s u c cessful.  There are however more sub-marginal farms i n the t h i r d  s i z e group than t h e r e a r e i n the second or i n the f i r s t group.  size  The r e s o u r s e a of the farms of the t h i r d s i z e group when  compared to the r e s o u r s e e of the farms o f the second o r of the f i r s t s i z e groups a r e g r e a t e r ae f a r a s the amount of the i n vestment i n l a n d , i n equipment, and i n l a b o r are c o n c e r n e d . The farms b e l o n g to the t h i r d group because t h e i r c a p i t a l  resourses  a r e g r e a t e r than a r e the c a p i t a l r e s o u r s e s of the farms of f i r s t or of the second s i z e g r o u p .  the  The amount of the manage-  ment i n v e s t e d i n farms of any of the s i z e groups i s a l o n e u n known.  The e f f i c i e n c y of p r o d u c t i o n i s hampered by tne d e f i c i e -  ncy of one or the o t h e r f a c t o r .  As compared to the farms o f a  s m a l l e r s i z e , l a r g e r farms do not s u f f e r because o f the e n t amount o f l a n d , o r o f l a b o r , or of equipment.  It is  deficithe  i n e f f i c i e n c y of the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the t h r e e above s t a t e d t o r s which e r a e t e s the i n e f f i c i e n c y of the p r o d u c t i o n on the  fee-  -72large sized agricultural enterprises.  The inadequate management  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n e f f i c l e n c o - o r d i n a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , r e f e r i n g back t o the i n d i v i d u a l farmer who i s about to e s t a b l i s h a new a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e , the g e n e r a l recomendation t h a t  there i s more chance f o r s u c c e s s on a s m a l l e r  farm presumes t h a t the m a n a g e r i a l a b i l i t y of the new o p e r a t o r i s not above the average m a n a g e r i a l a b i l i t y of the f a r m e r s o f the d i s t r i c t .  I f the m a n a g e r i a l a b i l i t y of the new o p e r a t o r be  above the a v e r a g e , by a l l means l e t him e s t a b l i s h a l a r g e f a r m . There i s no i n h e r e n t weaknesses i n the d a i r y farms of  British  Columbia even when t h e y approach the l a r g e s t s i z e t h a t has been yet  established.  As the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s study a n d , a t the same t i m e , a s i t s summary the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s seem t o be appropriate: l / The tendency t o have more land than i s j u s t i f i e d by the c a p i t a l I n v e s t e d on farms i s p l a i n l y s e e n .  Farmers of  British  Columbia should n o t be a f r a i d to i n v e s t more c a p i t a l per u n i t of land they p o s s e s ;  t h i s i s not l i k e l y t o b r i n g them d i m i n i s h -  i n g r e t u r n s on e v e r y e x t r a u n i t of c a p i t a l  invested.  2/ Among t h e i r number,the l a r g e r farms have a. g r e a t e r  percentage  of sub-marginal e n t e r p r i s e s than have the s m a l l e r f a r m s .  Far-  mers do n o t seem to be a b l e to i n c r e a s e t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s i n management c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y to the i n c r e a s e d i n v e s t m e n t s i n l a n d , i n l a b o r , and i n equipment.  -733/ I f the P r o v i n c e d e s i r e s to i n v e s t i n i t s a g r i c u l t u r e  effici-  e n t l y a s much of l a b o r and of equipment a s i t i s p o s s i b l e ,  it  should adopt the p o l i c y of f a v o u r i n g s m a l l e r a g r i c u l t u r a l u n i t s of  production.  UBC Scanned by UBC Library  -74D A I R Y  S U R V E Y, 1926. G R 0 U P "1".  a  C o r r e l a t i o n of the p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l investment of the farms r e p r e s e n t e d by land and the o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o u r income. +$2,000.'  + §1,000..  20%  30%  40% 50% Investment i n l a n d .  60%  70%  C o r r e l a t i o n of the p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the farms i n v e s t e d i n equipment and the o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o u r income. g  +$2,000.  o a -H M O n) <D O  .,000.  20%  30%  40% 50% 60% Investment i n equipment.  70%  -78D A I R Y  S U R V E Y,  1926.  G R 0 U P "II".  C o r r e l a t i o n of the p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the farms i n v e s t e d i n l a n d and the o p e r a t o r ' l a b o u r income. p2,000.  §1,000. /  30%  40%  50%  60%  ^ —  80%  Investment i n land.  §1,000. C o r r e l a t i o n of the p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the farms i n v e s t e d i n equipment and the t o r ' s l a b o u r income. $1,000.  30%  40%  50%  I n v e s t m e n t i n equipment.  $1,000.  60%  opera  -76-  DA I R Y  S U R V E Y , 1926.  G R 0 U P "III".  C o r r e l a t i o n of the p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the farms i n v e s t e d i n land and the o p e r a t o r ' s l a b o u r income.  +$1,000.  A  o a  /  \  H m o {6 <P O  8070 Investment i n l a n d . -$1,000.  C o r r e l a t i o n of the p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n /* of the farms i n v e s t e d i n equipment and the ope/ ^ r a t o r ' s l a b o u r income.  +§1,000.  /  /\ ^ / \ S  §o /  K)  2 0%  o a3  )L< <0 a. o  ^  -^1,000.  30;', \  40%  50%  Investment i n equipment.  -77-  Tables s i m i l a r to those worked out oil the b a s i s of the r e cords of the y e a r 1<?2& have been worked out f o r the d a i r y farms of B r i t i s h Columbia u s i n g the f i g u r e s f o r each of the y e a r s 1 9 2 7 , 1928, and 1929.  The number of the farms under the survey  v a r i e d from y e a r to y e a r D A I R Y  slightly. S U R V E Y , B. C.  ¿ 3 , j 1927 ! 1728 1<?29 A n Ei'Bt SQ * * ! co * *i S E ^g s ' s d - &K s a ' t 4-) 8 J§ t g^ ^ ?! ) 3 ^ a a 9-)3-t O'^ttw a catsu a a t g o * ^ OC9 O d o O T^t O O O Otg ^(3 tgtw &;a ^ . a ' ^ m s-R-tSa: !.<<=H B ! ! t ) ! ' ! t ' 33 3 9.1%33 3 l5.14jo 2 5 . 0 { 3 3 3 9.1% -n  -1926 *t'M  . ). . !*  Group " I "  <  !  !  Group " I I "  21  3  23.8%2{3  7 30.42.4 10 4 1 . 7  Group"III"  14  6  42.%1;? )  9 47.31{9 !  ! ! !  ! ! '  ^  9 47.4 ¡L6 t  4  19.1%  2  12.5%  ! ( '  According to the t a b l e s the b e s t r a t i o s of the  distribution  of the three f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n vary s l i g h t l y from y e a r Lo y e a r , but the v a r i a t i o n s are not too g r e a t to negate the conc l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t a f t e r having analyzed the f i g u r e s of the 1926.  l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s should e x i s t because of f l u c t u a t i o n s  i n p r i c e s on the farm cocrnodities s o l d as w e l l as on the com^nod i t i e s bought.  I f the n r i c e s on d i f f e r e n t products and on d i -  f f e r e n t elements of production are s u b j e c t to peimanent c h a n r e s , the b e s t r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s  -78-  of p r o d u c t i o n a s determined by 1926 w i l l c e a s e  bo be c o r r e c t .  A i t a s l o n g a s the p r i c e s f l u c t u a t e w i t h o u t any marked tendency to s h i f t i n the same d i r e c t i o n , the y e a r l y v a r i a t i o n s i n the b e s t r a t i o s of the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n w i l l tend to b a l a n c e . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the l a s t s t a t e m e n t one may use the data provided by the r e c o r d s of the y e a r I 9 2 9 .  In B r i t i s h Co-  lumbia during the y e a r 1929 the p r i c e s of f i e l d c r o p s rose v e r y markedly: Average p r i c e per b u s h e l of wheat i n I929 was ^ 1 . 3 9 a s compared t o the f i v e y e a r a v e r a g e p r i c e (1924-1928) which was #1.33; Average p r i ' j e of o a t s i n 1929 was §0.72 per b u s h e l a s compared to the f i v e y e a r a v e r a g e of $0.64; Average p r i c e p e r c w t . of p o t a t o e s i n 1929 was ; 2 . 6 0 a s compared to f i v e y e a r s a v e r a g e of  $1.33.  As the r e s u l t of such a r i s e of p r i c e s of the f i e l d  crops  i n 1929 the f a r m s , which had a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of c r o p s f o r g a i n e d , while the farms which had to buy them became the  sale,  loosers.  The b e s t r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s  of  p r o d u c t i o n during the y e a r 1929 were not i d e n t i c a l w i t h the b e s t r a t i o s of the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g the y e a r I 9 2 6 .  For  the farms o f the f i r s t and the second s i z e groups during the I929 i t was more p r o f i t a b l e to have a l a r g e r shart  of t h e i r  to-  t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by l a n d , a s the f i e l d cro^s grown on t h a t l a n d y i e l d e d a handsome r e t u r n .  For the farms of the  t h i r d s i z e group i t became more p r o f i t a b l e to have a s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n to be i n v e s t e d i n l a n d .  -79-  a s t h i s meant more f i e l d c r o p s which y i e l d e d a l a r g e  profit.  The l a r g e farms which have too much l a n d b e l o n g to the range type.  They have n o t equipment enough to c u l t i v a t e  their lands  and they a r e not engaged i n the growing of the f i e l d c r o p s to a great extend.  The l a r g e farms which have r e l a t i v e l y l e s s  land,  have s u f f i c i e n t equipment w i t h which t o work t h e i r f i e l d s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , they b e n e f i t e d from the s a l e of the p o t a t o e s and of the o a t s t h e y g r e w . The b e s t r a t i o s of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n ted w i t h the s h i f t of the p r i c e s .  shif-  The p r i c e o f the f i e l d c r o p s  dropped d u r i n g the y e a r 1 9 3 0 , r e t u r n i n g to and even below the 1926 p r i c e l e v e l .  The f i g u r e s of the farm s u r v e y of 1930 are  n o t a v a i l a b l e a s y e t , but i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t  tie  s h i f t o f the b e s t r a t i o s of the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n i n the o p p o s i t e t o the 1929 y e a r ' s  direction.  I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o compare farms of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s , or of v a r i e d s i z e s , or s i t u a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s , i n g under d i f f e r e n t market c o n d i t i o n s .  or those work-  This s t a t e m e n t i s  t i c u l a r l y t r u e when d e a l i n g w i t h the farms which have  par-  several  l i n e s of p r o d u c t i o n w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of s t r e s s i n g one l i n e during one y e a r and s t r e s s i n g a n o t h e r l i n e d u r i n g a n o t h e r y e a r . Each y e a r p r o v i d e s somewhat d i f f e r e n t market c o n d i t i o n s . as  As Ion??  - p r i o e s f l u c t u a t e about the I92& p r i c e s , the more c o r r e c t  r a t i o s of the combination of the t h r e e f a c t o r s of may be c o n s i d e r e d s i m i l a r to those of I 9 2 6 .  production  The f i g u r e s worked out from the s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a o b t a i n e d d u r i n g the y e a r s 1 9 2 7 , 1 9 2 8 , and 1929 p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e the changes i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t h r e e  factors  of p r o d u c t i o n which took p l a c e on B r i t i s h Columbia Dairy f a r m s . ' A f t e r h a v i n g c a r e f u l l y studJed the t a b l e s which d e a l w i t h the f i r s t g r o u p . o f the d a i r y farms ( T a b l e s ' 1 6 , 1 7 , and 18) s i g n i f i c a n t tendency i s n o t i o e d :  the farms a d j u s t  themselves  t o the most e f f i c i e n t c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the f a c t o r s of tion.  the  produc-  The number of farms r h i c h had too e x c e s s i v e amount of  land d e c r e a s e s ;  the number of farms which had been low i n e q u i p -  ment c a p i t a l d e c r e a s e s a s w e l l .  In I92&  21.2% of the farms  b e l o n g i n g to the f i r s t s i z e group had from 30% t o 60%  invested  i n l a n d ; 13% of the f a ms had from 60 * t o 70 ' i n v e s t e d i n l a n d . In the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r i t was found t h a t about 35% of the  total  c a p i t a l i s a t i o n i s the optimum p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l c a p i t a l t o be r e p r e s e n t e d by l a n d .  I t i s seen from the t a b l e 16 t h a t i n 1927  o n l y 9.1% of the farms b e l n g i n g to the f i r s t s i z e grouo had from 30% to 60% i n v e s t e d i n l a n d , and t h a t 9.1% had from 60% to 70% i n v e s t e d i n l a n d .  At the same time the number of  which had from 40% t o 50% i n v e s t e d i n l a n d i n c r e a s e s :  arms i n 1926  t h e r e were 43.3% i n t h a t sub-group,, i n I927 t h e r e were 5 1 . 5 ? , . The number of farms which have from 30% to 40% investment land i n c r e a s e s a s w e l l : t h e r e were 24.2%.  in  i n 1926 t h e r e were 12.2% , but i n 1927  The f a n n e r s had i n c r e a s e d t h e i r share of  in-  vestment i n the l a n d . T h i s p r o c e s s g o e s on during the f o l l o w i n g y e a r 1928.  From  the 9.1% o f the f a u n s o f the sub-group w i t h  - 60%" of  their  t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n land only 7.5;, a r e l e f t .  The  sub-group of the farms which had from 40% to $0% d e c r e a s e d b e cause some of i t s farms moved i n t o the n e x t more r a t i o n a l l y  or-  ganized sub-group of the farms which have from 301 t o 40% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i s a t i o n invested in land.  In 1927 the "40%  t o 30%" sub-group had 51.3% o f the f x r n s of the f i r s t s i z e i n I928 i t had o n l y 42.5%.  group,  On the c o n t r a r y , the number of the  farms i n the "30% - 40%" sub-group i n c r e a s e d from 24.2% i n 1927 t o 33% i n 1928. quite  The r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n of the f a n n i n g b u s i n e s s  is  noticeable.  The f i g u r e s d e a l i n g w i t h the equipment of the f i r s t  size  group of d a i r y f a n s s ( Table 18 ) show a s i m i l a r tendency to r a tionalize.  From the sub-group of farms which have from 30% to  40% i n v e s t e d i n equipment some o f the farms were moved i n t o the "40% - 50%" s u b - g r o u p .  In I926 there were 18.2% of the farms of  the f i r s t s i z e group i n the "30% - 40%" sub-group; i n 1927 t h e r e were l e f t only 3.0%.  In 1926 t h e r e were 48.3%  there  the farms  of the f i r s t s i z e group i n the "40% - 50'." s u b - g r o u p , i n 1927 t h e r e were 54.5%.  In the "50% - 60%" sub-group i n 1926 t h e r e  were 1 8 . 2 % , i n 1927 t h i s f i g u r e became 24.3%, and i n 1928 p e r c e n t a g e became 50.0%.  this  In I92S t h e r e were l e s s farms i n the  "40% - 50%" sub-group because some of them moved i n the n e x t more e f f i c i e n t "50% - 60*." s u b - g r o u p , and so on. The f i g u r e s i l l u s t r a t e a g a i n the same tendency of the l i z a t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l  community.  rationa-  -82-  The second group of d a i r y farms ( T a b l e s 1 9 , 2 0 , and 21 ) h a s the same tendency t o r a t i o n a l i z e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of farms i n the g r o u p .  the  The optimum r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  the t h r e e f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n f o r the d a i r y farms of the s e cond s i z e group were: 30% i n l a n d , 4$% i n equipment, and 5% i n labor.  The sub-group of the f a r a s which have from 3J  t o 6J%  of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n land i n c r e a s e d from 42.9% i n 1926 to 32.4% i n 1 9 2 9 .  The sub-group of the farms  which had from 401 t o 50% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n ed i n equipment grew as the y e a r s passed: i n 1926 the  invest-  percentage  was 23.8%, i n 1 ? 2 ? i t was 30.4%, i n 1929 i t was 42.9% (Table Both the "20% - 30%" and the "30% - 40%" sub-groups l o s t relative  21).  their  importance i n 1929 a s compared w i t h the y e a r 1 9 2 6 .  The " 2 0 ' - 30%" sub-group i n 1929 had 19.1% of the f i r m s of the second s i z e g r o u p , w h i l e i t had 23,8% i n 1 9 2 6 .  The "30% - 4o%"  sub-group i n 1929 had 23.8% of the farms of the second g r o u p , w h i l e i t had 42.9% i n 1926.  The r e l a t i v e number of the  poorly  o r g a n i z e d farms d i m i n i s h e s , and t h e r e l a t i v e number of the w e l l o r g a n i z e d farms i n c r e a s e s . The optimum r a t i o s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t h r e e  factors  of p r o d u c t i o n f o r the d a i r y farms of the t h i r d s i z e g r o p a r e : 68% i n l a n d . 28% i n equipment, and 41 i n l a b o r .  The w e l l  defin-  ed tendency of the f i r s t and of the second s i z e groups of the d a i r y farms t o r a t i o n a l i s e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i& not to w e l l i n d i c a t e d by the t a b l e s - d e a l i n g w i t h the t h i r d s i z e group of the d' i r y farms ( T a b l e s 2 2 , 2 3 , and 24 ) .  The b e s t "60 '- - ?0%"  -85of investment i n l a n d sub-group had 57*1% of the t o t a l number of the farms o f the t h i r d s i z e group i n 1 9 2 6 , i t had o n l y 47.4% i n 1 9 2 7 , and 32.7% i n 1928.  I t i s t r u e t h a t i n 192? the p e r c e n -  t a g e r o s e up t o 6 2 . 5 % . ^ T h e "70% - 80%" d e c r e a s e d from 21.5% i n 1926 t o 6.3% i n 1 ? 2 9 .  Tiie "40% - 30%" sub-group i n c r e a s e d  .  The management of farms of the t h i r d s i z e group does n o t appear to be c o r r e c t a s f a r a s the r e - a d j u s t m e n t of t h e i r vestments i s concerned.  I n s t e a d of d a c r e a s i n  in-  the number of  the farms w i t h the e x c e s s i v e amount of equipment, t h e i r number was i n c r e a s e d .  The number of farms which have more than 40% of  t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n equipment i n c r e a s e d from y e a r t o y e a r : i t was 7.2% i n 1 5 2 6 , 10.5% i n 1 9 2 7 , 2 1 . 1 % i n 1928, and 25.Of, i n 1 9 2 9 .  The o p e r a t o r s o f the farms of the t h i r d  size  group t r y t o i n t e n s i f y t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n , w h i l e i t seems t h a t t h e i r p o l i c y should be j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e - t h e y should not  in-  t e n s i f y t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n t o a g r e a t e r degree than h a v i n g 32% of t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n v e s t e d i n equipment and l a b o r . A l l s a i d i l l u s t r a t e s a g a i n the f a c t t h a t the farms of the l a r g e r s i z e s u f f e r more from the l a c k of an adequate management than do the s m a l l e r f a r m s .  While o p e r a t o r s of s m a l l e r farms r e -  a d j u s t the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h o i r e n t e r p r i s e s approaching thaLt type which seems to be the boat f o r thorn to a d o p t , the l a r g e r farms are a d j u s t e d more s l o w l y or adopt an i n c o r r e c t method of re-adjustment. ^The f i g u r e s of 1929 do not f o l l o w the d i r e c t i o n of the f i g u r e s of the y e a r s b e f o r e i t ; t h i s may be e x p l a i n e d by the r a t h e r d r a s t i c change i n the p r i c e s which made the i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n of f i e l d c r o p s i n B r i t i s h Columbia v e r y p r o f i t a b l e f o r the season i n q u e s t i o n .  B tL. C0[ Mi Olì t-t r-t! r-t a! C¡ M t^ a: E n! m t^ O M Ol '¿S. r-t ta E ^ c9 <t-t r-t (tg3 M g ^ a m <n o o is;  lASiSAR. tooitr-^ M  c o LO t í )  r-t M  to w w H  ÍT) o  co O CO M Ol Mr-t MS r-t r-t r-t r-t  O *  r-t  O -  *  r-t  tO Œ M <-t r-t r-t  co to to ¡o r-t CO r-t M<M  r-t r-t r-t M r-t  o to as M r-t tO  o* < n*  toe's)'r-co  O f) to OO M  CDO tO 03 M) r-t  C-t OtDOM] . * * Cl) Mr^r-t r-t) r-t r-t M  w S M H  CO O l  r-t  r-t  r-t r-t  r-) r-t r-t  <D ea &  to ^ to ^ r-t r-t  E-¡ ¡H  co <-tr-t ME- Ol co M t0 to Oi <-t  M MrMO to C-- ta  to  e o  OOO O OOO O OO O O t- to ta o r-t Ott:  m M  13 o a a r- MO l t- O ¡-3 M to  MtO Oi M r- r-t r- f-  si- Oi to to r-t t- 'O  <3 P< ai c:  < t t  r-t M M t^  O  O t-1 t- M r- M o M r-t E-t & M H) e co Et M r-t ^ r-t ta Oi tw r-t tw O fC  aM  to ai) t co en ,-t M  O m S A a H  M C- M  C O M r-t tO M m r-t  f) -=f to co r-t r-t r-t  M >  m E a Ps H r-t ^ ta si B Pu  o o o o o o o o o o o o M P- to tO r-t M  ... *  r-t M tO ^ A ac s s o ti c5  r-t P 3 O t< G!  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TR. o 'O o  O to  )  o  o to  <  a 0) n <6 o W B a 43 4* a &0 <B a a o .a O a p^ 4^ 4* 4* a  to M  o to PS  a  V t S A o a O 4* o o t< <B -H  M to + PM <T<  M OS o  to M  )  )  m C-  a 8 m t3 <D M ë ^ tg ^ t< r-t H) <c a o tam ^ B ¡a B t t) ^ r-t c a? o0 m a) a! -n 4-t o ^ ^ a ^  SA M  9 oo  o M  <-<  o  M r-t M  '  ni t^a 4) t E tC o O o o P. O  ^  O ta -=< j tO  tO r-t M M  <  O m ¡E! {M M M  et S3 ¡s  r-¡ E-< P C3 O M ti a M M {M &t  fB  M r-t 4O * O r-t  **<  < t a t) m m o <p t M a ^ M œ ta s-t ta r-t ta &t 4* o ta a ta &<  O r-t o  o o M 00  t ta  tt to a E o ^  O M Et R M K CE! At  a * m ! 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O M o  n< a 0) ta r-t <B o <o S 4ai* E <s H) H)o .g O O 4-t 4* 4* a  S3. co r-t  !  H) ta <t) t* ) a Pt 4O * *-< O  V B o o  ) t a 0 to <9 o c ) s h ^ c ai ^ a te <-t ai CL) o <9 B a) )  S3. <30 <-) O SA <o  CK os <0 o T* h  to M <-t Os -d* M 4-  O M M t-t M sO  !  S3. M O 4. S3. M M  O  )  O  O  ^  )  a a ta <0 «-< o m t R ti M 0 a ^ 3 r-t ai ¡a &) O Ci  &<  ^  tO M ß S3. ^ M  )  C m a w o m t Ë* a t< to JO V M Ma a! <-t ai Oa Bo^ t a 9) m <-4 <B Oa a Ci -O M m4* S O .a <C Oo 4* 4* 4* 4* t)  O M  O  o  a <-< < V ta e o S w ti V M S 3) 4* E o ja O a H! 4* M 4* 4* 4* a a) h <n ) 3 Ca P) O*-< o O 4* o t< a) o >4  rto  M f-t M tO  SS. M M O -tJ SS. O M  +  M M to O <-t  M <a co (A tA 4-  )  O M M r-t  t^ co <-t  ss. O M O 4* S3. CO r-t  )  +  pM Os r-t  ao M Os r-t  a a <B ta o 4 ) ) S O a *< 6 tL. 0 a ä r-t R) 4) a CLt4* 44 o ta a a t a V m t< r-t tD o <B S M t, ^ ^ E <¡j 4*o n O 3 <3^ pi ^ 3a )  ? <f t. t g p< o 3 o O 4^ ^ e;  o ¡o o  a a -w ta <c O 4) t SO tt t- 60 e a S4 a a a M Ck o B a <n  to M) M  to M  t< h r-t <c 4 < r t o <c a a 3 ^ SO ^ C S m a aO 43O a 4* 4* 4* 4* a  O O M  O to M  O r-t r-t to M  to f-  -sA o M  )  a ta t) <C ^t < a P< Oa o O 4^-r-t o  h-t ^ t> o M H <-<  &  M.  r-( P ao t* Ü  n ùT  .  t ! a a ta f O 4) so a t< so 43 a a <-<a 4> a ^ta 4* o a a Et  M &< O n o: E-t M Ci M P3  SsS. O M O  t< a) a; ta <-) 4) O <B S a 4=) h 6aK 4) 4* a V a a O 4 3 O3 P-t 4* 4* 4* 4* a  SA o  4o*  )  a <" o  PtO  O  r-t 4-  t  a a ta O 4) ) so E ^ sc ^ ^ a a <-) a 4ì a PL, 4* o ta a a Po 'SA o  r-t  o M to  a ^ m m 4) ^ ) a P^ Oa o O 4"-w o  )  tO  *<  t* r-t 4) m ga -rt a -o t. sot* m 4* s a; a ta O 43o 3 4^ 4* 4* 4* a  +  O to M r-t tO t*  M CO to P* +  to o  to to to  M tO M  <3*  r-t to  r-  to  M <o  r-t  3  t-M Os  <30  M en  e .3 ta ) M 8 -e B ^ t. t< M Si <-t ai a) <a ^ a CL, ** o m B Si 4-t t tu 3 Œ ta H<r-t a; O a) B tu e) -o ^ 60 B 3 & ai si Pi 4^ 4-t .3 4O *3 -  O to to Ol to to pM r-t  -  )  ai ta ^ at ) p<O 3 O 4^  te B o o  t 3 3 ta a; o m ) 6 3 B ^ 43 t< ^ o ai 44 3 ta <-4 ai P4 4* o m B ai 44 )  a ^ <B <a r4 <B o o S —' n) ^ 6C ^ v 4* B a at a o .a o a (i, ** ** a <  )  g „ C^) p< o a O -K* -W  a O <C t M E M ^O <D 04 44 3O<-< g p4 +* Ota E ai 44 t a<D " r-t o te a 60 *** 9) (K <3 ai O .3 o 3 On 3 )  ta ta m C^ !E Pt O 3 o O --t O 3 3 o c t 0 {g ^4 a a r-t ai 4* o ta a ta ^t 3 ^ V ta t< r-t <H OWE ^ ca ^ &c E e ^ B e ai ta o ^a o 3 p^ 4# 4< 4f 4* 4* a t ai ^ m ) <p m ^3 a A o --t o O 4- O 3 3 a) *-t o P ) h¡) m ^ CC t -o ^ B ta 44 3 g ,-t ^ a, 4* O ta a g ai 44 ! 3 ^ M O oca -w ta ^ ttc ^ o 4* a te a! ai o <3 o 3 pt, 4* 44 4* 4* 4* 3  Oi t<-4  M M M  f3 to to  to  ti* <-t o  to to  Ol M  Ol  o%  fi SP Oü  -y  tO tí) <-)  to  to  CO  o o ^t  to  M  tô M  CO  to M <-t  to ? o to M to to tf  w $ Si B P<4*o ^3-t ot) O m  M CO ^ co g) M  )  ai  e-  M oí  CO  M Ol  t o ta ) he a O 43 <U ai 3 tO r-t m CL, 4* 8 ta a o) )  as. M  a 8 <p e ^^ 60 K (P ^ C tC O o o t! 4* 4* 4* 4" O )  s  s t a0 p, o o o O 4* O a 0 m «-< <p t) <p t &o a M 0) a! 44a ta ri ta 4* o ta a ai 44 )  O S3. O  a te ta f4 o <p a -4 ^ M %4 te a) ai O 43 P4 44 4* 4* !  a)  M ! P) Oa O 4**-<  h w M <3 M M n P oa fr! f^ M W a) n  Í4 <-)<B ta43 a O3 4*a  o a o o  t ta  ta 4) t* A o ia E O 4*-4 o o  !  S3.  TA to  O  O O M  <-t <-t tO M  ... -  M tQ r-t r^ C^ O O CO  r-t  CO O to  O M OS CO Os  M O tO to  tO M  o to  M Os  M  )  M a r-t <3 a! 44  O <p ) t* 6C 0 3 44 3 P4 4* o ta a)  CO M O t<S  <D tn r-4 <D g g *g < c st n i o .ct o pLf 4" 4* 4* 4*ao  co  S3,  M tj) 00 tO  r-l  H -aw a) o o M t< a^ ^ ta a) a! 44a ta <-4ai Pu 4* o ta a a! 44 SA o  CO  a <p <a omB ^ e <a a ^ 4* 44  t< m <w g <9 ^ 4* a o o g 4* 4* 4* o  )  a ta w <P K ! a P< o a o O 4* -4 t) H W- O<0 -4 m h *ta ja*4 t M h a 6 ^ a 44 3 ca r-t at O O ta a O 44 ) O! ^ a ta $4 <-t te 6* a <a 43 H&h g*a <th a at o o a at+*4i<*4*4*a t ^ H) 0 ^ t a p< o a o O 4*  o a) 4)  OS Os M O  M tO M  tO M to to ta r-t tO M  tM  Os  tO O CD O CO  M  Os  SA M SA  M M  Et * C Om O <D t -w E (D y ti 'S ^ r-t n? PL, 4^ o ta o á si e â ^ <t H ^ r-t O <D E -rt " ^ 60 ^ m *B c a) <ü o 43 o 3 p, 4* 4* 4* 4* a S ¡n (p < p,u o^ at oa O 4* *-t O a a o te t çn a ^ 60 43 ^ H a? ai a ta r-t a! Pt 4* o ta B ai 4-t  SA M M O  M P 3 O & m t< M W w M et  w H cl  o m <3 -s n M M M Pt  SA o M TA ta  os  to OS  to  SA tO M  00 M  r-t "3 t--  )  'O M O  t ^ m (D <9 !<' a P< O O 4* a o --t o  SA ty M  a ta <c o m ) H ë )Li 60 a; ta st 3 a rt ta P, 4* O m a Ci S-t  M tí)  os  03 tO o to  )  a ^ <D M t-< ,-] <t) o ai^ 43 ' <B ^B <D 4 a a) c3 O 43 o a Pt 4* s^ ^ a O to co M co  OS) t M ^ 6o 4) L !< VO . . ai Pt 4* Sow--aS-a)a)  o to  )  a tp ta r-t te ta 43 o <p a a 4* s tC c3 ta o ^3 Oa Pi 4* S-< 4* 4? a t ai ^ m <p **) a P< Oa o O 4*v-t o )  SA  M  O  o o  Pt o a  SA <3  co M  íO to c^r-t  sm *t )  SA to  r-t  4*  t  SA oo r-t  O O  o to  a ta ^ i-) <t O <D S Ci 43 ^ 60 a? 4* g m m ta o 43 o 3 4^ 4* 4* a  O M  ¡M ë & co n  o  Ol -sí* Ol er* M pM  to  !  a at — ta te o a) ë 6c 9) <3 ta <-t ta P4 o Btpst a <D ta r-t < B o m B -rt ai *t 60 ^ <B 4*s te ta a O 4S o a Pl 4* ^ 4* 4* 4a*  N M tO tO t-  ew ta Q) ta ^ t a a, o a o O 4* ^t O ta a>  to M to EM  o  o <o to SA <-t M to to to to OS M  CO  M o  00  M tm M os  'A o  o  ) t a a <C o 4) ) 6s B ^ a a r-t a en 4*" 4O-t m s a Et t a r-t <D <p o )L. y60 s 4) 4*a 4a3 c a a O 43O 3 Pt 4* <H 4* 4* 4* a  M t  a m ^ a 4) ^O s c. a o o 4* o  a ta o a ) 60 B *< 6 0 a a a a r-t a 4* O < aa a  te, O M  â <D O t< S)  P)  r-t $ tü¡ te B a 4) 4* B a a O 43O a 4* 4* a  !  gw fr{ C3 C/3 M K t-t P a [Y! o ta M M E-'  a^ 4) ?  4)  t a  ) a s o 4?  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Lf\  to  C-Ot-tCO cd^jc=t-. T^c—-3-0 O M W P)  rW ' + ++  tO ^o CM  r-< W [-4 tr-  -^f.OCCM CM CJ <-)  c—C? CM to f-co xC + * + xO OxO C xD  r t < !  tOco Lf-\ <-4 W ^-O C—CO  C\J CM <\l CM Ox OX OX Ox r-) r-t t-t <-]  r-{ SO OX u \ o^co C^r-t to CO -!- ' + + Our\t\jO ^ c—st-cot^  t !  to  to to  x o t — œ ox CM C M CM CM o - a x ox ox  -103DAI3Y ATE^UCE  SURVEY  PERCENTAGE D I S T R I B U T I O N FACTO I S O F P 3 0 D U C T I 3 N . GROUP  OF  THE  THREE  1.  LANp Yea? 1926 1927 1928 1929  Above  Marsi nal  Sab-martrinal  46.7 45.9 41.6 43.1  50.1 40.4 47.2 46.8  47.3 50.3 43.9 39.3  8.5 8.7 8.6 8.8  7.3 8.4 8.3 6.9  8.8 10.0 5.3 9.1  44.8 46.3 49.8 48.1  42.6 51.2 44.5 46.3  43.9 39.7 50.8 51.6  53.3 57.9 t 58.5  53.0 57.2 61.1 57.5  36.0 59.2 57.3 47.2  5.7 5.1 6.1 5.6  5.8 5.4 5.2 5.5  marginal  LABOR 1926 1927 1928 1929  EQUIPMENT 1926 1927 1928 1929  LAND 1926 1927 1328 1929  (230UP  2  tAppR 1926 1927 1928 1 9 29  3.0 6.3 5.9 6. 2  EQUIPMENT 1926 1927 1928 1 9 29  41.1 37.0 39.8 35.9  38.2 37.4 33.7 37.0  28.0 34.5 36.8 43.6  TABLE  25  ^  -104-  (?E3UR ,3.  LMR 1926 1927 1928 1929  66.2 64.2 63.3 58.6  66.1 59.8 62.4 66.3  62.5 64.9 60.0 67.9  1926 1927 1928 1929  5.2 5.7 4.7 5.3  7.0 4.5 4.4 4.9  5.1 5.1 5.6 4.5  1926 1927 1928 1929  29.6 30.1 32.0 36.1  36.9 35.7 33.2 28.8  32.4 30.0 34.4 27.6  ijLaoR  -105  ox *O CM x ¡a r-t ! Ëc3 ¿3 e! CM Í3CHC-m f-t r-t C— o e cM -W Ox -SA òu<-t c!xO S Sx r-t  r-! r-t Ox CM <-t r-t O tr-t tr-M t—  H  O r-t to H co Ox Ox to CM CM st  Mx - CO t r-t ¿3 CE ^ SCO H m H tu (M a: ox n H M <O SsH cf-t ai CM LT\ H cr, <D-ri g &0r-t Cj CM tQ e  -3- CM O r-t  Ox  E— Ox xD  Ox xO (M M m ox M CM r-t M 3 !=< ^ M t-4  xo CM PO  ci CO CM ex S-t H o cf-< CM r-t ts; CM ox r-t O O -H c: N -W r-t ta +3 -r) ai c?  O -sf  Ox CM r-)  tC to  to Ox CM r-t  M r-t te CM H o o o co r-t  O O  0 c 0  to  H r-t O O  Ci 43 O O n O M OD r-t ^  -  O O O "A to Mt r-t t-t  t-t  t-t &  &  S !-) M  O  O fLl Ü¡  

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