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Internationalist in prewar Japan : Nitobe Inazō, 1862-1933 Oshiro, George Masaaki 1985

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1  1  INTERNATIONALIST IN PREWAR JAPAN:  NITOBE INAZO, 1862-1933  by  George Masaaki  Oshiro  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , 1968 M.A., I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y ( T o k y o ,  J a p a n ) , 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES A s i a n S t u d i e s Department  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g tiL t h e r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERS-^TY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J u l y , 1985  ©  George Masaaki  O s h i r o , 1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  gain  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  DK-6  r^/R-n  Columbia  my  It is thesis  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  thesis  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f  understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s financial  further  copying of t h i s  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for  I  written  ABSTRACT  Nitobe  Inazo  (1862-1933)  ranked  among  the  elite  p r e w a r J a p a n . He h a d won e a r l y f a m e , b e f o r e he was f o r t y old, his as  as a s c h o l a r book  Bushido,  and a m a s t e r the  an a d m i n i s t r a t o r  First  Soul of  in  Higher School,  Imperial youth, Nations  later  Taiwan,  a noted  cultural  after  his  know  adorns  who he  the  Japanese  are  of  the  address  career  prestigious  Policy  at  Tokyo  popular l i t e r a t u r e the  Institute  i n the  diverse  for  League of  Pacific  both  public's  of  within  eye,  audiences  on  and  inter-  is,  into  in  obscurity.  except  as  for  the  British  Columbia  Most J a p a n e s e fact  that  his  in  i n 1985  do  p o r t r a i t now  note.  several  his  Victoria,  published  career  they  but thus  biographies far,  of  no one h a s  upon an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  much o f stem  the  facts  mainly  Nitobe,  in  attempted of  primary  concerning his  from anecdotes  life  published  death.  Though Japanese,  to  death  Therefore,  inaccurate, his  of  constantly  and i n E n g l i s h ,  reconstruct  after  his  5000 y e n  materials. are  invited  work f e l l  There  to  Colonial  the  with  topics.  But  not  of  his  ( I P R ) made h i m a w e l l - k n o w n p e r s o n a g e  frequently  1933,  headmaster  writer  Chairman  J a p a n a n d a b r o a d . He was was  Subsequently,  of  years  E n g l i s h language  Under S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l at  and J a p a n e s e  Relations  the  Japan.  a scholar  University, and  of  in  Nitobe  authored  over  twenty  and G e r m a n — a n d h u n d r e d s  ii  of  books--in articles,  English, only  one  work, B u s h i d o , has in  my  s u r v i v e d t h e r a v a g e s o f t i m e . He was  o p i n i o n , a " t h i n k e r " who  profound thoughts. behavior, young.  disagree  many d i s c i p l e s to  thought  the in  misguided  a  still  was  great  t h i s reason,  Scholars  much  R a t h e r , he  influenced  For  h e l d and  many  I deal only on  Nitobe's  adore him  development postwar  and  expressed subtle  and  o f a c t i o n who,  by  his  especially  the  people,  summarily with h i s importance  as a g r e a t  of  But  many  man  who  others  reactionary  who  encountered m i l i t a r i s m w i t h i n h i s country  divided i n t o three  I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t " deals life.  Part  Nitobe  with  I I , "Educator  i n m i d d l e age,  i n the  i n Part  focus last  East  the  I I I , "Diplomat  The  44  It  Making of  the  years of  and  he  of Nitobe.  West," w h i c h  late Meiji  when  a  Nitobe's  focuses  on  charismatic  Taisho  periods;  that Nitobe  engaged i n d u r i n g  the  theme t h a t runs t h r o u g h o u t the d i s s e r t a t i o n i s  the  years of h i s  Conclusion,  life.  I utilize  Except  Introduction  and  a n a r r a t i v e s t y l e . I have r e l i e d  upon  d i v e r s e sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , North America,  p e o p l e who I  "The  as  the  "internationalist."  and  and  him  in International Limelight"  i s upon t h e a c t i v i t i e s 14  first  liberal  1930s.  e x a m i n e s h i s a c t i v i t i e s as a  Japanese educator during and  the  and  buckled  m a i n p a r t s : P a r t One,  His  contributed  see  This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a b i o g r a p h i c a l study is  ideas.  in history.  internationalism  Japan.  moralist  a man  not,  as  knew N i t o b e  portray  Nitobe  well  as  for  the  including archives interviews  and  i n Japan  letters  with  personally. as  a man  who,  early  in life,  o b s e s s e d w i t h a c h i e v i n g h o n o r s f o r h i m s e l f , on t h e one  iii  became hand,  and  a p l a c e o f r e s p e c t among t h e l e a d i n g n a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d  for  h i s c o u n t r y , on t h e o t h e r . He was a h i g h l y i d e a l i s t i c man  who, n e v e r t h e l e s s , a c t e d a l w a y s i n a p r a g m a t i c were  things  t o be w o r k e d  for.  In a world  way.  of  conflicting  v a l u e s a n d demands, N i t o b e knew t h a t i d e a l s r e a l i z e slowly.  His a c t i o n s , thus,  whenever  compromise of h i s higher p r i n c i p l e s , of  the circumstances  that  appear  themselves t o be  a  h a v e t o be s e e n i n l i g h t  surrounded  /  they  Ideals  him.  CONTENTS Abstract  i  Introduction  1  PART I: THE MAKING OF AN INTERNATIONALIST Chapter  1  Childhood,  Morioka: English  Studies  2  i n Germany:  3  Building  Religious  the Path  to America  4  the Launching of a Career  42  Romance and M a r r i a g e Edinburgh:  Sapporo,  51 1891-1897  57 58  Educator  64  and O f f i c i a l  72 78  The R i s e t o P r o m i n e n c e :  Recuperation:  Life  1898-1906  as a S e m i - i n v a l i d  America Again W i t h Kodama and G o t o Bushido  28 33  Crisis! Chapter  28  University  Colonizer  The M o r a l i s t Scholar  17  S t u d i e s A b r o a d : 1883-1890  Mary P . E l k i n t o n :  13  21  a t the Johns Hopkins  Training  Chapter  1872-1876  1877-1883  f o r Fame and H o n o r :  Studies  1862-1883  14  i n Tokyo:  Graduate  Search  and Y o u t h :  1862-1871  Sapporo: Chapter  Boyhood  11  81 81 84  i n Formosa  and t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War  PART I I : EDUCATOR EAST AND WEST v  91 98  110  Chapter  5  Internationalist Circle:  Life  a t Home and A b r o a d :  The  Inner  The  P u b l i c F i g u r e : E d u c a t o r f o r Modern J a p a n  a t K o b i n a t a d a i Machi  C a r n e g i e Endowment f o r P e a c e Exchange Chapter  6 Taisho L i b e r a l :  Colonial  Policy  Heimindo: The  The  Path  8  148  Nitobe,  of Nations:  1919-1926  Travels with  Goto S h i n p e i  195  the G l o r i o u s Years  205  1927-1933  i n Retirement,  213  1927-1931  213  t h e I P R , and t h e M a n c h u r i a n C r i s i s ,  1929-31  Matsuyama I n c i d e n t  Final  220 230  1932-March  Months i n J a p a n and D e a t h  1933  i n Canada  Conclusion  235 249  262  Abbreviations  Used i n t h e N o t e s and B i b l i o g r a p h y  Notes Annotated  183 187  f o r t h e League  Years,  179  181  Secretariat  Emissary to North America, A p r i l The  157 170  International  The F i n a l  135 148  DIPLOMAT I N INTERNATIONAL L I M E L I G H T  i n Geneva:  Activities  The  1913-1919  to the League:  Spokesman  Chapter  Professor  Professor  A t t h e League  Work a t t h e  Life  125  S p i r i t Democracy  7  112 114  t h e Way o f t h e Commoner  PART I I I :  Chapter  1906-1912  278 280  L i s t o f Works C i t e d  vi  352  How many w o r t h y men have we known t o s u r v i v e t h e i r own reputations! Montaigne, Essays Introduction  A map  of the  Pacific  Ocean, b o r d e r e d on  the  edges  J a p a n and N o r t h A m e r i c a , i s i m p r i n t e d on t h e l o w e r l e f t of the  new  5,000 yen  currency  that  s y m b o l i z e s the " t a i h e i y o no h a s h i " metaphor  that  is  associated  by  side  f e a t u r e s N i t o b e Inazo. I t (Bridge a c r o s s  with  the  Nitobe's  Pacific)  name,  and  g r a p h i c a l l y c a p t u r e s h i s i m p o r t a n c e i n Japanese history."'" The Unlike  currency  Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i  10,000 and He had  s e l e c t i o n , however,  1,000  yen  o r Natsume S o s e k i ,  n o t e s , N i t o b e was  been f o r g o t t e n . High s c h o o l  n o t e v e n m e n t i o n him. And Masahiro, the  leading  surprised who  everyone. adorn  unknown t o the p u b l i c .  h i s t o r y t e x t b o o k s today  many J a p a n e s e , s a y s P r o f e s s o r  scholar  on  the  Nitobe,  have  do  Sato  difficulty 2  r e a d i n g h i s name; Outside standard  of  not a few Japan,  write i t incorrectly.  Nitobe  biographical reference  i s a complete  stranger.  book i n E n g l i s h l i s t s  No him,  t h o u g h he r a n k e d among t h e b e s t known J a p a n e s e a b r o a d i n h i s day.  Yet h i n t s of h i s p a s t g l o r y are s t i l l  present.  At  the  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n Vancouver, Canada, a l o v e l y Japanese garden, r e p u t e d l y  the b e s t - c r a f t e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , 3  c o m m e m o r a t e s h i s memory.  In the garden s t a n d s a t a l l 1  grey  lantern  i n s c r i b e d w i t h the  following  Inazo Apostle of  My s t u d y devoted  himself  a place  of  are  is  Good W i l l  a mission  respect  subsumed  Nitobe  a commentary  to  dedication:  Between  on  this  inscription.  t o w i n f o r J a p a n and t h e  and h o n o r i n t h e  under t h i s  Nations  world.  internationalist  *  Details  is  an  Japanese his  life  motif.  *  Internationalism  of  Nitobe  *  ambiguous  concept  that  could  4  pertain  to  one  international Webster  of  several  relations,  New C o l l e g i a t e  cooperation  different  thus,  is  and one  In  a relatively  and e s p .  political  internationalist,  is  Dictionary defines  among n a t i o n s  international  it  ideas.  of  the  it  the  lexicon  new  term.  as  who a d v o c a t e s  The  "a p o l i c y  development  economic  of  of  of  close  relations."^ and s u p p o r t s  An such  policies. B u t when I a p p l y t h e do so  with  its  Japanese  term " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t "  connotation.  translation for internationalist, characteristics  that  the  a  word  fluent  a  abroad,  foreigner  mind t h a t  I use  missing  "positive  in a foreign  connections of  has  are  Japanese  include peculiar  cultural  the  r i n g , " and  language  (usually  1  urge  internationalist  English;  in  Japanese  signifies  a  person  English),  and who p o s s e s s e s  (ga.iJAH) •  I  the  in  Kokusaij i n ,  to Nitobe,  the  my  in this  who has  manners  readers latter,  to  and  strong tastes  keep  in  culture-bound  sense. Historians prefer  the  Nitobe.  Japan,  adjective  Ivan  Hirobumi  of  have  "westernized"  Hall,  who  however,  writing  called  Mori  to  of  a  avoided the label  Mori  "Ninon  Japanese  Arinori, ga  word. They  unda  such  as  quoted  seiyo  Ito  j in"  (a  7  Westerner Japan  born  could  "westernized"  in  of  Japan).  be  not  a t age  a new  of  concern here.  the  Pacific Japanese  League  argue  was  Mori  that  latter Nitobe  he  Nitobe  and s h a r e d  acted  I will  but w i l l  r e t u r n to  This  different  plan's  that Nitobe, later  with  by  the  kind of  some o f  the  He h a r b o r e d a  Nitobe more  r e f r a i n comment  and  again  i n the  3  conclusion.  forcefully  the says  of  a  new Ota, final  interpretation, 9  it  into  And h e r e  Nitobe's  on t h i s  of  idealistic  values  "contradiction,"  here  is  earlier  lived  stage.  is  rules  Institute  advocating  I t d i d . And t h i s  the  association  man f r o m  its  attitudes  while  But  failure  Miwa K i m i t a d a and Yuzo O t a  retained  Meiji  participated in  on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  was b o u n d t o c o l l i d e .  tragedy.  and  early  manner.  emphasized  a different  n a t i o n a l i s t  internationalism.  is  of  years.  and Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i .  p e r s o n a l drama.  Japanese  that  My p o i n t  Inazo  similar  between n a t i o n s .  times,  Moreover,  Nitobe's  Nations  Relations,  contemporary . . 8 visions.  lies his  of  s u c h as  a  world order that  relationship  with  fit  in  fifty-seven,  the  not  The young  described  does  In 1919, creation  of  *  Scholars  *  mention  Nitobe  often.  Tsurumi  and  Taiwan;  D o n a l d Roden s e e s N i t o b e  at  First  the  Samuel  *  Ho meet N i t o b e  Higher  evolution  of  Nitobe  a misguided  judge  as  Nitobe  Burkman, views  the  not  But  no  Nitobe,  an o u t s t a n d i n g Kinmouth,  Miwa K i m i t a d a  diplomacy  League  of  one  w h i c h he  has  the  yet  on t h e  attempted  task  with  Nitobe,  qualities  Nitobe.  Bushido,  his  condemns  Thomas  World and  Iriye  War  overly  I,  Hirakawa  literature,  to  his  life  I  links  glamorized  and  significance  are at  can  work o f  in  of  Japanese  as  it  is  ignored.  out  of  his  l i t e r a r y value,  4  most s c h o l a r s  can  i n more c a s e s t h a n  literary  issue,  left  that  and s t i l l  may be s a f e l y be  whole  *  problems  detail So  the  here.  faced  work.  He c a n n o t sole  grasp  *  biographical  author's  the  and A k i r a  Nations;  considers  properly evaluate  subject's  esthetic  tracing  after  in comparative  in  headmaster  self-development,  h a p p i l y a v o i d . H i s t o r i a n s can o f t e n ,  their  official  inter-cultural activities;  *  overlook  a colonial  E.P.  1  I take  To s t u d y  of  Peattie,  true." ^  and t o  history.  the  an i n t e r e s t  with Bushido,  "perhaps  his  as  international  through  with  ethic  of  as  Earl  moralist.  light  studying  Sukehiro, Nitobe  Japanese  in  Nitobe  School;  Mark  write  accurately  critics.  And  in textual  writings. analyze  of  when  analysis,  This cannot  to  not,  be  done  Even  with  it  apart  from the background c i r c u m s t a n c e s done,  invites  Most  of  its  writing,  as  many have  misunderstanding.  Nitobe  was p r i m a r i l y a "man o f a c t i o n , " n o t a " t h i n k e r . "  of  works  his  hastily  contemporary  and p r o d u c e d a huge  literature's direct books  addressed  sake;  his  amount  of  main purpose  as  lectures  writings. was  a m a n n e r a s he c o u l d . As I w i l l originated  problems.  to  He  But not  instruct  articles,  for  in  s h o w , n o t a few  or magazine  wrote  of  as his  and were  12 only  p r i n t e d as  books  The t i m e l i n e s s appeal  and w i d e  highly  successful  twenty books,  because of  of h i s  message,  r e p u t a t i o n as author  only  readers'  demand.  combined w i t h h i s  a learned scholar,  in his  B u s h i d o has  time.  made N i t o b e a  But t o d a y ,  clearly  personal  of  his  s u r v i v e d the  over  test  of  13 time. For  this  emphasize  reason,  here,  is  not  section,  "Advocate of  writings  chiefly  own  sake.  rather  for  Under  than h i s  intellectual my  main  all  mode o f  is  *  and  is  his  one  Nitobe's  for  their  character,  the  conclusion,  composition  with poignancy a l i f e  *  chronological.  combined with d e s c r i p t i o n , this  throughout  must  for  I used  and n o t  I  thought.  approach  introduction  Except 6,  b i o g r a p h i c a l purposes,  scrutiny  (shiso),  interest.  Democracy" i n C h a p t e r  * My  history  all  I  Except  employ  throughout  the  a  for  narrative,  text.  because only n a r r a t i o n can  being  lived,  5  and t o  depict  an  this  I  chose  capture  individual  changing over I  use  Masahiro life for  a p e r i o d i z a t i o n e m p l o y e d e a r l i e r by  i n h i s e x c e l l e n t w o r k on N i t o b e . He  into: Japan's  sake"  time.  (1) " B e c o m i n g a P e r s o n " sake"  ( S e k a i no  ( N i h o n no t a m e ) ;  tame).  My  P r o f e s s o r Sato  divides  Nitobe's  ( h i t o t o n a r u ) ; (2) "Work (3) "Work f o r t h e  t h r e e major  World's  parts follow,  with  15 slight alterations, In first  this  P a r t I, Making  forty-four  scheme. o f an  Internationalist,  years of Nitobe's  focus of Chapter  1 i s Inazo's  t h a t s p r a n g f r o m h i s two  life  I cover  the  i n four chapters.  The  struggles to resolve a  conflict  c o n t r a r y sets of v a l u e s : f i r s t ,  a t t a i n w o r l d l y fame and g l o r y ; and s e c o n d , t o meet t h e sacrificing I  take  Nitobe's His And  spiritual up  life  the  " s u c c e s s " theme  through  meeting  Philadelphia,  seven  Nitobe  and  the  appears  self-  demands o f C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s . 2 and Study  trace abroad.  plans are presented i n d e t a i l .  courtship  future  i n Chapter  years of Graduate  c o u r s e s , p r o f e s s o r s , and his  to  Mrs.  frequently  with  Mary  Nitobe, are  throughout  Elkinton  of  d e s c r i b e d . Mary  the  rest  of  the  n a r r a t i v e f o r she h a s , f a r more t h a n any b i o g r a p h y o f N i t o b e has life  y e t shown, had and In  earlier  a profound  influence  upon her  husband's  work. Chapter  3,  Nitobe's  Sapporo p r o f e s s o r p e r i o d ,  " s u c c e s s " theme i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o " m o r a l  emphasis  upon work.  But  the  earlier  r e s o l v e d , and N i t o b e s u f f e r s a n e r v o u s 6  conflicts  the  duty," w i t h are not  yet  breakdown. Chapter  4  describes h i s search to r e g a i n health, h i s years i n Taiwan, and  explores the circumstances that lead  r i s e t o fame i n a f e w In from  44  t o 57.  educator. Chapter  his  E a s t and  I n two  West, I r e l a t e N i t o b e ' s  chapters, I develop  life.  prestigious  i n Tokyo i n  e a r l y T a i s h o p e r i o d s . Even i n p r i v a t e , i n  And  as  First  throughout  none.  last  The  Chapter  6,  he  Headmaster  of  established  a  educator  5 i s devoted  leading  from  I expand  p o l i c y and  the as  education an  theme,  educator.  h i s p o s i t i o n as an  In  in  i t s colonizing  constituted  only a fraction  He  was  fully  an  ethic  also  articles him  called and  which  show first  specialty University  as a c o n s u l t a n t t o  work.  of h i s t o t a l  and the  Imperial  I also delve into h i s a c t i v i t i e s  government  Japan  internationist  s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter, I t u r n to Nitobe's academic  Professor.  to  Pacific.  in his various roles  colonial  wide  Nitobe's  Endowment f o r Peace,  Japanese's  the  second  to  Exchange-Professor  of Carnegie  s i d e s of the  Nitobe  i n Chapter  h i s r e p u t a t i o n as  In  School,  as t h e f i r s t  under the a u s p i c e s  on b o t h  attractive  t h e c o u n t r y as an  section  work i n America  enhanced  the  Higher  reputation  the  of  m a g n i f i c e n t K o b i n a t a d a i m a c h i home, N i t o b e l i v e d a v e r y  public  of  life  t h e theme  5 f o c u s e s upon h i s o r n a t e l i f e  t h e l a t e M e i j i and  remarkable  short years.  P a r t I I , Educator age  to h i s  But  academia  w o r k as an  educator.  i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e y e a r s as a p o p u l a r i z e r Heimindo  b o o k s on  ( C o m m o n e r ' s p a t h ) . He  self-cultivation  a leader of e t h i c a l  e d u c a t i o n . And  7  and  ethics  i n the  last  of  wrote  many  which  made  section i n  this  chapter,  subject making his  I  analyze  strong  inroads  into  on  the  when W i l s o n i a n D e m o c r a c y  was  Japan,  Nitobe's  and show  writings  its  connection  to  L i me1ight,  I  work on p o p u l a r m o r a l i t y .  present The  Part the  main  League  theme  of  both  in  Diplomat  that  Nations Nitobe  personage liberal.  III,  mature N i t o b e ,  diplomat.  with  a  private  is  the  8,  57 u n t i l both  of  Geneva.  72.  "At  the the  international  as  an  the  7,  at  Years," is  visible  reputation  a portrait  death  Chapters  "The L a s t  highly  at  his  enlightened  popular  Two  Nitobe,  sections  that  s p a c e — " T r a v e l s w i t h Goto S h i n p e i "  League"—are a l t e r n a t e l y  sections--"Work  i n the  placed  between  Secretariat"  and  i n Geneva." In C h a p t e r 8,  sections  to  throughout  his  here,  narrative In  the  climactic  highlight  allowed  arise  a  public,  geographical  more s t a t i o n a r y  have  Chapter  7 draws  and "Spokesman f o r  "Life  through  now  and  International  f r o m age  runs  and  in  world-wide  Chapter  move a c r o s s  entire  for I  have  chapter,  I utilize  the  internationalist  life.  Though a t o p i c a l  a deeper  analysis  retained,  with  of  the  slight  five  theme  that  treatment  crucial  sub-  issues  modifications,  run  would that the  format. the  first  section  Y e a r s , " I t a k e up t h e the  of  of Democracy at a time  In  two  some  League  in  Japan C o u n c i l  1927  of  Chapter  8,  n a r r a t i v e from Nitobe's  until  he  assumed  i n J u l y 1929.  "The  departure  Chairmanship of  I s u m m a r i z e t h e huge  8  Retirement  the  from IPR's  amount and  diversity period how  of  while  the  work  that  supposedly  duty that  life,  he  that  an i n g r a i n e d  two,  "Nitobe,  use h i s a s s o c i a t i o n conflict  in  East  Conferences  as  I  he  on  in  wish  had  to  this  embraced  in  here  youth,  by t h e  of  end  of  the n a r r a t i v e  in  habit.  the  treatment  IPR and t h e  into  Manchurian  w i t h t h e IPR as a v e h i c l e  Asia.  Then  a stage  wider backdrop of the  two-year  illustrate  l i e s n e a r e s t , " had become,  I incorporate a topical section  carried  "retired."  C a r l y e a n maxim  "doing the his  his  to  I  use  the  and  to i n t r o d u c e  the  1929  show N i t o b e ' s  confrontation  Crisis,"  and  1931  own r o l e  IPR  against  a  b e t w e e n J a p a n and C h i n a  in  Manchuria. The  middle  chronologically head.  This  place  between  Nitobe's  follows.  "The  Here,  "Incident"—rea1ly  life  right-wing  section,  February drama.  Military  and  He  Nitobe's a  series  April  comes  Reserve  Matsuyama problems of  events  1932—is  under  Association  Incident"  the  severe  come  to  that  took  climax  attack  and succumbs  by to  a  in the  their  pressure. He d e c i d e s , to  the  United  America" States and  as a r e s u l t  States.  I follow  In  Nitobe  and Canada to  of the  section on h i s  above three,  one-year  "explain" Japan's  incident,  to  travel  "Emissary to tour  to  actions  the  in  North United  Manchuria  Shanghai. In S e c t i o n  Canada," months  of  I  five,  narrate life.  the  I pay  "The L a s t M o n t h s i n J a p a n a n d D e a t h pertinent particular  9  events  in  attention  his to  last the  in  seven  journey  that  Nitobe  Alberta October  takes  to the F i f t h  i n 1933, and d e s c r i b e s h i s d e a t h  at Banff,  in Victoria in  o f t h a t year.  And  i n the c o n c l u s i o n , I e x p l o r e some of the i s s u e s t h a t  the f i n a l  chapter raised.  intercultural activities, criticism  I address  his liberalism  and h i s  both of which have come under severe  by today's s c h o l a r s . And I summarize N i t o b e as an  educator and as a prewar Japanese *  Poetry life;  IPR C o n f e r e n c e  internationalist.  *  *  i s an a p t way t o h i g h l i g h t  themes  i n Nitobe's  f o r i t c a n c a p t u r e , i n a f l a s h by i n t u i t i v e  what i t t a k e s p r o s e many pages t o a c c o m p l i s h .  insight,  Nitobe loved  p o e t r y . H i s f i r s t book i n E n g l i s h opens, i n f a c t , w i t h a poem about  "Black Ships." 1  poetry." ^ three  " H i s t o r y , " Nitobe wrote, "begins  with  I t a k e h i s s u g g e s t i o n , and i n t r o d u c e each o f t h e  p a r t s of t h i s  dissertation  with  a poem  t o g i v e the  reader a sense o f the o v e r - r i d i n g mood. I a l s o present, a t the head o f each c h a p t e r , an i d e a , i n e p i g r a m i c f o r m ,  that  will  g i v e , I hope, a h i n t o f a theme embedded w i t h i n the chapter.  10  PART  THE  MAKING  OF  AN  11  ONE  INTERNATIONALIST  My h e a r t leaps up when I behold A rainbow i n the sky: So was i t when my l i f e began; So i s i t now I am a man; So be i t when I s h a l l grow o l d , Or l e t me d i e ! The C h i l d i s f a t h e r of the Man; And I c o u l d wish my days t o be Bound each t o each by n a t u r a l p i e t y . W i l l i a m Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up  12  Men a r e what make them.  their  Ralph  mothers  W. Emerson, Conduct of L i f e  CHAPTER I  C h i l d h o o d , Boyhood, Youth:  Nitobe  Inazo  was  born  samurai f a m i l y of the Nanbu Nitobes  were p r o m i n e n t  reputedly  went  g r a n d f a t h e r was who  back  in  Morioka  domain  locally,  to  the  1862-1883  to  a  on September 1, 1862. with  twelfth  a  long  a C o n f u c i a n s c h o l a r and  grandfather),  i m a g i n a t i o n , conceived  a and  man  of  carried  lineage  century,^  His  military  served the domain as a r e s p e c t e d o f f i c i a l ;  (Inazo's  high-ranking  that great  strategist  h i s son,  tremendous  The  Tsuto  vitality  and  out, over a p e r i o d of some  twenty y e a r s , a s t a g g e r i n g e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t t h a t i r r i g a t e d dry  uplands  of  the  Lake  Towada  district, 2  thus  the  making  a  s e t t l e m e n t on the Sanbongi p l a i n s p o s s i b l e . Inazo's  father, J u j i r o , also gifted  in ability,  the daimyo as a m i n i s t e r - r e s i d e n t i n Edo where he 3 the  domain's  accused  finances.  But  he  suffered  a  served  administered  tragic  fate;  by e n e m i e s of s c h e m i n g t o s t e a l domain p r o p e r t y ,  was  p l a c e d under house a r r e s t  age  forty-eight.  and  he was  The charges  subsequently  and  died shortly  a g a i n s t him  a c q u i t t e d . Inazo, 13  he  t h e r e a f t e r at  were never v e r i f i e d , who  was  f o u r a t the  time,  mentioned  heart."  4  later  that  his  Morioka;  Jujiro's fashion; growing father.  up,  Inazo  mother,  when  Inazo  was  who  loved  Inazo  personal  ten.  paternal  youngster, pranks  which flowed  "broken  tramatic while  memories  his by a  Tsuto,  who  a happy one;  he  q u i c k i n mind and s t r o n g  in  and  was  of  raised  grandfather,  His childhood  playing  a  i n any  s e v e n c h i l d r e n , he was  engaging  tumble p l a y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n a l o n g the Nakatsu r i v e r ,  of  f r o m w h a t he h a d h e a r d  little  and h i s  active  affect  aside  have  of  Seki,  was an e x t r e m e l y body,  would  died  1862-1871  d i d not  and i n a d u l t l i f e ,  The y o u n g e s t  devoted died  e a r l y death  father  o n l y a few  in  rough  banks o f  meters  the  and  shallow  away f r o m  their  home. The N i t o b e Nanbu d a i m y o ' s now  the  the  Tohoku  flourishing  of  of  section  town o f In  flooding  into  silver  knife  of  great  Meiji  Japan,  Morioka  were a box o f and f o r k  set  matches, that  14  new  Morioka  and i n f l u e n c e s .  his  town  of  Situated  of  the  Morioka,  in  was  inhabitants  distance  f o r the  compounds  and n o r t h e r n t e r m i n u s  line.  Honshu,  its  the  old castle  railway  the c e n t e r  Western a r t i f a c t s  remembered,  i n the  beyond  some f o r t y - t h o u s a n d  spite  of Tokyo,  just  Iwate P r e f e c t u r e  Shinkansen  childhood.  was  lived  residence  capital  Northeastern  bustle  family  from  foreign too  father  far  already in  boom  a  a  Inazo's  culture  received  In t h e i r a small  the  the  for  and that  trickle  household,  Inazo  m u s i c a l box,  and a  had b r o u g h t  home  from  the  capital.  comparatively  Economically,  they  appear  t o have  been  well-off:  As t o o u r f a m i l y , i t may be t a k e n a s a t y p e o f the w e l l - t o - d o c l a s s , p e r h a p s i n s e v e r a l ways above the average. I t b e l o n g e d t o the s a m u r a i o r k n i g h t l y o r d e r , r a t h e r h i g h up t h e s c a l e , a n d t h o u g h t h e s a m u r a i was u s u a l l y p o o r , o u r f a m i l y , thanks to grandfather's f i n a n c i a l abilities, l i v e d i n comparative opulence. T h u s on the p r o v i n c i a l town i t occupied a r a t h e r high position both i n rank and in worldly p o s s e s s i o n s ; but n a t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d , I have no h e s i t a t i o n i n p u t t i n g i t a m o n g t h e m o r e r e s p e c t a b l e of the middle c l a s s .  He  received  Morioka.  his  first  English  lessons  as  A p h y s i c i a n , a f r i e n d o f t h e f a m i l y , who  a smattering of E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n w h i l e  living  late  few  Tokugawa  taught  Inazo  period,  and  across  recollect days,  the  and  who  owned  a  h i s b r o t h e r , M i c h i r o , the  simple vocabulary. ran  a  Inazo  sideways;  had  acquired i n the  English  books,  alphabet  a t the strange  and  t h a t E n g l i s h books were c a l l e d ,  in his  words were read  a  script  later,  b o o k s ... b e c a u s e t h e  in  i n Edo  many y e a r s  "crab  page  marvelled  child  he  few that  would  childhood  horizontally  8 like  the  crawling  apparently instill  possessed  of  a  crab."  pedagogic  talents,  a z e a l f o r t h e c u r i o u s new  Reminiscing  nostalgically  N i t o b e commented i n l a t e r  on  Their  physician-tutor f o r he  managed  l a n g u a g e i n t h e two  boys.  his e a r l i e s t English lessons,  life:  E v e r y s i n g l e w o r d was new and o p e n e d v i s t a s o f a n u n k n o w n l i f e a n d a c t i v i t y . B o t h my b r o t h e r and I g o t more i n t e r e s t e d i n E n g l i s h l e s s o n s t h a n i n Japanese....  15  to  But h i s with  main  English;  him,  the  rather,  core  were c o m p l e t e l y  his  that  he c o m p l e t e l y  works  Five  for  relatives  later,  was  his  that  remembered h i s  of  jujitsu.  the  his  these  before  The C h i n e s e  He c o n f e s s e d  and t h e  in  1867,  Works o f sages  later  arts  lessons  that  he h a d  Mencius without  meant  to  the  1  convey." ^  effect  The  on I n a z o  philosophical writings  Inazo  w o u l d he p e r u s e  a  the  for  banned  worn  in  miniature  him i n t o sword  underwent  Displayed before  (skirt  given  feelings  [W]hen d i d my low i n being a  Until  grandfather  schooling.  Only i n middle-age  hakama  wear  thereafter  and  twiddlings  traditional martial  avoided O r i e n t a l  old  "admitted  not  and the  samurai boys.  in he  father  little  in for  such  1 1  years  ceremony  these  to have had a n e g a t i v e  thereafter.  again.  outfit),  his  early  what  appears  many y e a r s  were n o t  ineffective.  comprehending  experience  part  of  "Confucius' Analects  least  did  like  Chinese C l a s s i c s  comprised the  read  education  samurai  at that  a  his  initiation family  traditional sword  ranks of  long:  an  from  Japanese  which,  he  knighthood."  law  was  passed  bearing  and  arms.  wrote But  he  shortly Inazo  time:  I was t o l d t o d r o p [the s w o r d ] , n o t o n l y l o i n s f e e l l o n e l y , b u t I was l i t e r a l l y s p i r i t . I h a d b e e n t a u g h t t o be p r o u d o f s a m u r a i , whose badge t h e s w o r d was.  s w o r d was  education.  The l a t t e r  banned,  To t h i s was  fencing  were added s p e a r  included in his  16  had been  a regular  exercises  and  childhood training,  he  related,  because  mu-to-ryu samurai  of  (no-sword  "need n o t  his  father's  school),  fight  belief  whose  with a  i n the  principle  school  was  of  that  a  weapon":  [A] t r u e w a r r i o r s h o u l d by s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f h i s w i l l , the f o r c e of h i s s p i r i t , w h i c h f l a s h i n g i n h i s eyes o r r e v e a l i n g i t s e l f i n h i s v o i c e and h i s w h o l e d e m e a n o r , so s t r i k e t e r r o r i n t o h i s o p p o n e n t as t o s u b d u e h i m w i t h o u t s t r i k i n g a blow.  Inazo's study  of  the  early  Chinese  consciousness. fantasies Inazo  of  exposure  the  Classics,  Many  the  to  years  noble  left  an i d e a l i z e d  unlike  an i n d e l i b l e  later,  warrior that  would c o n s t r u c t  martial arts,  reliving he  mark  the  had a s p i r e d  and h i g h l y  his  in  his  childhood to  become,  romanticized  14 version  of  His year. of  Bushido,  carefree  the  Morioka  Seki, anxious  rapid  change,  education.  lent  Michiro there  for  ethic.  days  f o r the  Deciding  opportunities  samurai  lasted  much that  social  thought Tokyo  pursue  his  fortunes  i n the  opened  a  clothing  shop  was  she  Nanbu a f t e r  his  the sent  to  Western-style -  Inazo  Studies  to  continue  i n Tokyo:  i n vogue when 17  Inazo  the  Inazo  and  brother  Restoration  In t h e  sell  period  greatest  A younger the  ninth  subsequent  capital.  -  English  their  offered  Ota T o k i t o s h i .  T o k i t o s h i had l e f t  English  to  advancement,  t o an u n c l e ,  he a d o p t e d  until  f u t u r e of her sons i n t h i s  of J u j i r o ,  Childless,  only  Ginza  district,  to he  outfits. 15  Ota f a m i l y  line.  1872-1876  a r r i v e d i n Tokyo i n  1871.  F o r t h o s e a m b i t i o u s t o r i s e i n t h e w o r l d , i t was c o n s i d e r e d indispensible publicists, Amane,  skill such  as  extolled  prominence  in  of  greatest  practical  Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i ,  the  virtues  society  of  lent  a  value.  Mori  powerful  G a k u m o n no s u s u m e  harshly  criticized  Chinese  curriculum.  Inazo school  that  and  his  was  operated  missionaries Tokitoshi,  the  despising  their  inherent  defects  enrolled  for  also  suspicious  in his  (An E n c o u r a g e m e n t  brother  were  and  profit.  available of  the  r e l i g i o n as  of  of  in  a  their  less  to  its  Learning), the  had  traditional  English  r u n by C h r i s t i a n or  missionaries'  most Japanese  very  best-selling  private  Schools at  and N i s h i  testimony  contemporary worth. Fukuzawa, moreover, book,  Widely-read  Arinori  English,  an  no  cost,  but  motives,  and  then d i d , kept  the  17 boys  away. For  at  Inazo,  first  with  Northeastern merciless  boys  ragging  certain  compensated  up i n Nanbu made  from  brogue,"  home-sickness." him  growing  he  parts  recalled,  and s o m e t i m e s  But  curiously  advantages for his  other  to  initial  his  learn social  friendship  of  the  "was  a cause  country.  "The  provocative  of  Tohoku  difficult  of  real  sorrow  dialect  also  gave  may  have  English,  which  and  ostracism:  I v e r y s o o n f o u n d t h a t , on t h e w h o l e , I , as w e l l a s o t h e r b o y s who came f r o m t h e N o r t h e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , c o u l d c a t c h and i m i t a t e t h £ g t e a c h e r ' s i n t o n a t i o n much b e t t e r t h a n t h e r e s t .  After  studying  i n the  private  18  school  for  about  a year,  he  enrolled was  i n t h e Nanbu  located  Since  the  in  Tsukiji  school  stepfather's dormitories,  domain s c h o o l , at  was  house,  the  former  quite Inazo  the  a  daimyo's  long  was  Kyokan g i j u k u ,  residence.  distance  placed  in  which  from  his  of  the  one  which housed over one-hundred b o a r d e r s . About  same number o f  s t u d e n t s commuted f r o m t h e i r homes  the  daily:  [T]his school was large enough to divide s t u d e n t s i n t o g r a d e s . A l l t h e books u s e d were i n the English language, which the Japanese t e a c h e r s t r a n s l a t e d and e x p l a i n e d . The h i g h e s t c l a s s u s e d Q u a c k e n b o s ' E n g l i s h H i s t o r y . The one b e l o w r e a d P e t e r P a r l e y ' s U n i v e r s a l H i s t o r y . The t h i r d c l a s s had M i t c h e l l ' s G e o g r a p h y . I was p u t i n a l o w e r g r a d e and began w i t h a s m a l l grammar by Q u a c k e n b o s .  Inazo select  class  excel. for  made r a p i d of  In 1875,  the  elite  established  advanced  Tokyo by  gained  obvious  and  could  lessons  nominal, be  government very to  were  and i f  exempted.  D e p a r t m e n t was  promoted to a s m a l l ,  where  Language  stiff,  the  he  continued  second  a needy  School  two  years  since  the  had  been  before.  The  benefits  none;  secondly,  r e o r g a n i z e d as  he  entered,  a separate  even  the  entity,  be the  British,  tuition  f a m i l y made a r e q u e s t ,  Shortly after  to  Firstly,  m o s t l y A m e r i c a n s and to  to  examination  that  many a s p i r a n t s .  were a l l f o r e i g n e r s ,  their  were  students,  Foreign  the  had been  teachers  a n d was  he p a s s e d t h e d i f f i c u l t e n t r a n c e  competition were  progress  fees this  English  the  Tokyo  20  eigo  gakko  (Tokyo E n g l i s h  At t h i s teacher  School).  privileged institution,  Inazo  who t a u g h t h i m many b a s i c E n g l i s h 19  met a r e m a r k a b l e skills:  [N] o t e a c h e r a t whose f e e t I s a t e i t h e r b e f o r e or a f t e r him i n s p i r e d me w i t h such a l o v e o f l e a r n i n g as d i d Mr. M.M. S c o t t . I d a r e say t h a t many of my s c h o o l m a t e s will share w i t h me f e e l i n g s of h e a r t f e l t g r a t i t u d e t o t h i s Kentucky v e t e r a n of e d u c a t i o n . He was an e d u c a t o r i n t h e h i g h e s t sense o f t h e term i n d r a w i n g ouj^of each boy what l a y l a t e n t i n h i s l i t t l e s o u l .  Inazo  was  introduced to E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e  i n Scott's  c l a s s , and read s e l e c t i o n s from Bacon, Shakespeare, M i l t o n and Goldsmith.  This  talented teacher  systematic training youthful  essays,  also  gave  i n E n g l i s h composition;  entitled  "The  C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t o Japan," was  Importance  him and of  his one  first of h i s  Introducing  s e l e c t e d by S c o t t and  sent to  22 the 1876  Centennial E x h i b i t i o n held i n Philadelphia.  While occurred  studying  t h a t proved  The f i r s t was  at  the  pivotal  Tokyo to  eigo  Inazo's  a v i s i t to Sanbongi,  gakko,  two  events  subsequent s c h o o l i n g .  the l i t t l e community t h a t  owed i t s e x i s t e n c e to the p i o n e e r i n g work of h i s g r a n d f a t h e r , by t h e Emperor M e i j i one-night audience  stopover, and  i n 1876. called  presented  s e r v i c e s t h a t Tsuto had  The  Imperial guest,  the Nitobe  them w i t h  on h i s  f a m i l y members  into  money t o commemorate  the  rendered:  I was i n Tokyo and when a l l the p a p e r s w r o t e a b o u t t h e r o y a l v i s i t t o my h o u s e , I f e l t e x a l t e d b o t h by the p a s t o f my f a m i l y ^ n d t h e greatness of my f u t u r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  The  second  incident  government o f f i c i a l ,  was  a  fiery  a Mr. N i s h i m u r a ,  20  who  speech  by  young  had come t o h i s  school  to  recruit  agricultural  college  J a p a n now n e e d e d generalists  in  The t a l k thought  later  the  newly  established  in science  more t h a n i t  that  needed  law.  convinced  he  serving  for  i n H o k k a i d o . N i s h i m u r a u r g e d them  specialists  carefully  classmates,  students  Inazo.  about  his  had vague in  some  Until  that  vocation.  plans  to  branch of  Like  study  the  time,  law,  he h a d  most  not  of  his  w i t h hopes  burgeoning  of  government 24  bureaucracy.  Now  he  reconsidered  family  a l r e a d y had a r e p u t a t i o n  lands.  Perhaps  fresh  goal  he  in  too  should pursue  mind,  Sapporo A g r i c u l t u r a l  Inazo  entered  College  i n the  Sapporo:  The S a p p o r o n o g a k k o  Kuroda  Kiyotaka,  development, American the  United  Agricultural school  i n Japan.  assistants,  of  agricultural  endeavor.  the  second  autumn o f  His  With  class  this  of  the  College)  was  1877.  1877-1883  through  for  College,  this  anew.  (Hokkaido C o l o n i z a t i o n O f f i c e ) .  and M o r i  States,  developers  who had f r o m t h e  arranged  advisor,  choice  (Sapporo A g r i c u l t u r a l  s t a r t e d by the k a i t a k u s h i 1876,  as  his  General  Arinori,  the  the  President  William  very  S.  first  Horace  Capron,  Japanese of  Clark,  the to  guided  In its his  Minister  in  Massachusetts start  a  similar  C l a r k a r r i v e d i n t h e summer o f 1876 w i t h  William  W h e e l e r and D a v i d P e n h a l l o w ,  it  the  to  lay  two the  groundwork.^ Though suggests  a  bore  name  work-orientated  21  "agricultural college," institution,  the  which 1  no g a k k o s  e d u c a t i o n a l aims were f a r more c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n scope.  The  hours devoted to p r a c t i c a l experiences, such as working on  the  college's  the  farm,  were r e l a t i v e l y  a c t u a l time spent And  i n the classroom  even though emphasis was  s c i e n c e s , the h u m a n i t i e s  few  when compared  to  on s o l i d academic s u b j e c t s .  p l a c e d on the n a t u r a l and a p p l i e d  were not n e g l e c t e d . In t h e P l a n f o r  O r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h C l a r k had drawn up, the c o l l e g e ' s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s were t o :  [ Q j u a l i f y i t s students f o r i n t e l l i g e n t and e f f e c t i v e work i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of b u s i n e s s , and i n t h o s e d e p a r t m e n t s o f i n d u s t r y and t e c h n i c a l s c i e n c e p e r t a i n i n g to a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , manufactures, and the maintenance of an advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n ; a l s o t o promote c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to the s t a t e and to s o c i e t y , and o f se 1 f-g£il t u r e b e f i t t i n g t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e stations.  Clark returned month  sojourn  launched behind  its first and  Chemistry.  agricultural  joined  of  core  of  another  the  which  time  the  Brooks,  courses  formerly Englanders,  staff.  The  young a s s i s t a n t s stayed foreign teaching  arrived taught  by  and  took  John C u t t e r and  former,  shortage,  22  staff.  Penhallow,  a  over  C l a r k . The  medical  the l a t t e r , m a t h e m a t i c s and  teacher  college  A m e r i c a n , an Amherst U n i v e r s i t y  William  P h y s i o l o g y , and because  during  m a t h e m a t i c s and e n g i n e e r i n g , and  more New  the  States a f t e r only an e i g h t -  c l a s s . But h i s two  In 1877,  graduate,  two  Sapporo,  formed the  Wheeler taught  year,  in  to the United  a l l these  following  Cecil  doctor,  Peabody, taught  mechanics. yatoi^  the  But  (foreign  employees) their  were  teaching  . . composition Inazo studies  forced  to  and was  rhetoric.  well-prepared for Tokyo e i g o  adequately  for  the  Cutter,  gave  almost  this and  and  foreign the  just  received  Christian  of  Yuzo Ota's  their  this  as  i m p o r t a n t were  the  at  the  Clark  beliefs,  which pervaded the  The  by C l a r k ,  first-year were  in  to  them  to  school's  students,  a proselytizing  (English  of  Inazo's  28  behind  atmosphere  who  in  eased  influences  left  in  English  society.  had  used  are  experience  spiritual  His  English  routinely  exposure  international  nogakko.  speak  aspect  educational  than  B r o o k s and  Nihonj in  unique  overwhelming  on i n t o  to  Inazo  E i g o to  His  in English.  correspondence  highlights  later  arrived.  converted  opportunity  Undoubtedly, this  entry  But  Inazo  tongue.  more  p a r t i c u l a r l y with  classmates,  his  curriculum.  were t a u g h t  teachers,  all  nogakko's  had p r e p a r e d him  that  invaluable  nearly  with  youth.  — Inazo's  he  him  Japanese)  generation their  classes  with his  the  gakko  d a i l y . And w i t h h i s  English;  a n d much  27  the  contact  generalists,  i n v o l v e d h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h E n g l i s h grammar,  at  close  become  had  all  mood and  that his when been  anxious  29 to win the Of  the  Christian Inazo,  to  twenty-two  and r e c e i v e d  Uchimura  Tomitaro, very  newcomers  Fujita  Christ. members their  Kanzo,  over  Miyabe  the  Inazo's c l a s s ,  baptism  Kyuzaburo.  closely-knit  of  Thi.s next 23  seven  i n J u n e 1878.  Kingo, little  Hiroi  four years  of  Among t h e m ,  Isamu,  band o f  became  seven  Takagi became  college;  they  developed  their  own  independent  worship  subculture  of C h r i s t  and  which  centered  the p r a c t i c e s  of  on  the  Christian  living. In s p i t e of h i s outward a l l e g i a n c e , h i s new  f a i t h . His s p i r i t u a l  Inazo  difficulties,  struggled with  w h i c h have been  d e s c r i b e d w i t h g r e a t a c u i t y by Matsukuma T o s h i k o , appear t o 31  have deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l r o o t s . s t u d e n t d a y s , he was honors.  This  him  especially  Uchimura  and  as  for  best  incredible  the  look  upon  Miyabe who grades.  his  fellow  classmates,  were h i s c l o s e s t Inazo  drove  friends,  himself  to  l e n g t h s i n h i s s t u d y i n hopes of g a i n i n g t h e t o p  position in class.  H i s l e t t e r s back home t o h i s s t e p f a t h e r  Tokitoshi describe in great d e t a i l student  i n h i s Sapporo  d r i v e n by an o b s e s s i o n t o g a i n a c a d e m i c  made  rivals  From e a r l y  and  in English,  their  the t e s t  r e s p e c t i v e ranking.  h i s math was  s c o r e s o f each  Though  Inazo  excelled  weak, which p u l l e d h i s t o t a l  average 32  down, and t h i s was  a constant source of a n x i e t y f o r him.  Inazo's burning ambition t o standout among h i s classmates was by  f o s t e r e d i n him his  mother,  from c h i l d h o o d by h i s f a m i l y ; p a r t i c u l a r l y  Seki,  and  his  s t e p f a t h e r . Both  held  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f him and c e a s e l e s s l y admonished him,  high  by word  and demeanor, t h a t they would not be s a t i s f i e d w i t h him  being  33  of second  and  rank.  But  Inazo  also  was  quick  to  risshin  shusse—with  possessed realize  a sensitive,  the  inherent  emotional  nature  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of  i t s s t r e s s on w o r l d l y honor and s t a t u s —  and the e t h i c a l v a l u e s t a u g24h t by C h r i s t i a n i t y .  Inazo  needed  to  resolve  his  own  spent  this  mind h i s long  religion year  at  to  nogakko/ well  himself  for  library to  his  in  sports to  reading  justify  in  recognition.  He  philosophy  inner t u r m o i l .  a n d who  By h i s  and third  f r o m an a c t i v e  "played  first  lad,  base"  a b o o k i s h i n t r o v e r t n i c k n a m e d by  34  Uchimura  -  Kanzo,  How JE Became a C h r i s t i a n ,  troubled  and t o  outward  he h a d t r a n s f o r m e d  "monk."  autobiography,  in  need  the  intramurals,  companions  the  in  seek an answer  the  baseball  dilemma  compelling  hours  who c o m p e t e d  of  painful  in  his  draws a d e f t  in his  early portrait  Inazo:  P a u l ( I n a z o ' s C h r i s t i a n name) was a s c h o l a r . He often suffered from n e u r a l g i a , and was n e a r s i g h t e d . He c o u l d d o u b t a l l t h i n g s , could m a n u f a c t u r e new d o u b t s , and must t e s t and p r o v e e v e r y t h i n g b e f o r e he c o u l d a c c e p t i t . Thomas he ought to have surnamed h i m s e l f . But w i t h h i s s p e c t a c l e s , and a l l h i s assumed s c h o l a r l y a i r s , he was a g u i l e l e s s b o y a t h e a r t ; a n d he c o u l d j o i n w i t h h i s comrades i n a f e t e champetre under the c h e r r y blossoms i n a Sabbath afternoon, a f t e r i n t h a t m o r n i n g he c o o l e d t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f the " c h u r c h " w i t h h i s gloomy and i n t r i c a t e d o u b t s a b o u t P r o v i d e n c e and P r e d e s t i n a t i o n . The vision; would  prolonged he  not  was  hours  plagued  subside.  of  reading  moreover  To r e l i e v e  the  Cutter  who g a v e h i m some p i l l s .  during  which  was  time  he  castigated  " F r a i l " and "Wrack."  which  time  chanced Carlyle,  to  his find  which  rank  in  in  the  struck  he  in  fell  from an chord  visited  his  diary  agonies,  third  to  article in  Inazo's  headaches  depression  midst of h i s  resonant  25  pain,  A mental  Independent a  damaged  severe  himself  In the class  with  had  him.  Doctor ensued, that  he  during  tenth, by  that  he  Thomas Shortly  t h e r e a f t e r , he l o c a t e d a copy o f C a r l y l e ' s S a r t o r R e s a r t u s , 36  w h i c h gave him describes starved  a key t o s o l v e h i s t r a v a i l s .  Inazo's man  r e a d i n g the  g o b b l i n g up  book  "with  his f i r s t  Miwa K i m i t a d a an  decent  urgency food  of  i n days."  L a t e r i n l i f e , N i t o b e would c l a i m t h a t " S a r t o r R e s a r t u s his  patron f o r l i f e " and t h a t he had perused  a  was  i t s p u r p l e pages  37  over  "over f o r t y In  July  times."  1880,  Inazo  his  Iwate home on h i s way  for  h i s eyes.  reached  Just  t h e nogakko  l e f t Hokkaido f o r a s h o r t v i s i t to Tokyo t o seek  after  he  left  t o i n f o r m him  r e t u r n home, f o r h i s mother was of  had  friend visiting  Sapporo,  that  he  critically  t h e message, d i d n o t h u r r y , and  medical  Towada b e f o r e a r r i v i n g  treatment  a  telegram  should  speedily  ill.  spent  to  Inazo, unware  some t i m e  i n Morioka  with a  after  an  38  absence  of almost ten years.  His him  aunt, whom he m i s t o o k a t f i r s t  a t the door.  Seeing h i s exuberant  c o u l d n o t b e a r t o t e l l him  f o r h i s mother,  met  f a c e a l l aglow,  she  t h a t S e k i ' s f u n e r a l had been h e l d  o n l y t h r e e days b e f o r e . I n s t e a d , she g e n t l y l e d him family alter, memory,  w h i c h was  b u r n i n g f r e s h i n c e n s e t o her  and q u i e t l y s a i d " t h i s i s what has happened t o your  mother." Inazo was oldest sister, garden  still  to the  stunned and c o u l d not u t t e r a word. But h i s  Mine, r e c a l l e d  out of s i g h t  that  of people's eyes  she  saw  him  "out i n t h e  l e a n i n g a g a i n s t the plum  39  t r e e and weeping."  Mary Nitobe l a t e r d e s c r i b e d her husband's  d e v o t i o n t o h i s mother:  26  He c a r r i e d w i t h h i m t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s o f t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n , t h e l e t t e r s she had w r i t t e n him, and afterwards read them on every a n n i v e r s a r y of her Going. I l e a r n e d e a r l y to respect my h u s b a n d ' s desire for a quiet a p a r t n e s s on t h i s h a l l o w e d a n n i v e r s a r y , and t o r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s an i n n e r m o s t r e c e s s o f t h e s t o u t e s t h e ^ r t , t h a t no one c a n o r should t r y to penetrate.  Inazo never deathbed. become  And t h i s  a great  pressing wishes.  forgave  deep r e g r e t  person worthy of  in his  mind.  kaitakushi.  the  Great  was  being  .  -  normsho  Because  of  this  Sapporo o f f i c e , his  his  made h e r e n t r e a t i e s , their  ancestors,  that  all  mother's that the  he w o u l d c a r r y  he  more  out  her  4 1  kaitakushi  to  f o r not being at  He r e s o l v e d  He g r a d u a t e d f r o m the  himself  own  anywhere,  books. he  him f r o m h i s  the  nogakko  changes  in July  were  dismantled  then  and i t s  1881  and  taking  functions  entered  place.  The  transferred 42  (Ministry  of  streamlining, and I n a z o s p e n t Realizing  petitioned contract.  Agriculture t h e r e was most  that  the  his  norinsho  His request  27  of  was  his  and  little  t o do i n  work h o u r s  career in  Forestry).  was  May 1883 43 granted.  not to  the  reading going release  The d i r e c t i o n i n tion starts a man his future l i f e .  which educaw i l l determine  P l a t o , The  Republic  CHAPTER I I Graduate S t u d i e s Abroad: _ Almost  twenty-one,  summer o f 1883  *  _  Ota  Inazo,  left  Hokkaido  f o r the  little  manhood and  town and  had  But b e f o r e he c o u l d do skills  "flicker  the  a c q u i r e d a deep  i t s p e o p l e . He  held high  hopes t h a t he would one day r e t u r n to h e l p the i s l a n d  learn  in  f o r Tokyo. In h i s s i x y e a r s of r e s i d e n c e i n  Sapporo, he had grown i n t o affection  1883-1890  t o become  before  greater things.  his  this,  he h i m s e l f needed t o grow  a great  eyes,"  develop.  he  leader. made  Beckoned  plans  to  by  prepare  and this for  1  Search f o r Fame and Honor: the Path to America Ota schooling In  got  his  " f o r two  t h i s quest  stepfather's approval more y e a r s " a t T o d a i  f o r graduate  moved i n p a r t by  * this the 47-48.  education, he appears  already  studying  further  his  (Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y ) .  what h i s Sapporo f r i e n d s  doing. Miyabe Kingo was  to  and  Botany  t o have been rivals at  were  Todai;  _ _ I use Ota,_ Inazo's surname a t t h i s t i m e , f o r most of chapter. Ota becomes Nitobe again i n A p r i l 1889, and c i r c u m s t a n c e s behind t h i s change are e x p l a i n e d on page  28  Uchimura  Kanzo  Fishery  laboratory  engineering  was  also  bent,  a n d an o l d e r  p l a n n i n g to  there;  was  friend,  Hiroi  do  Isamu,  p r e p a r i n g to  Sato  advanced  Shosuke,  who  go t o was  the  work i n  the  possessed  an  United  already at  States;  the  Johns  2 Hopkins  University.  Ota 1883,  enrolled  t h o u g h he was  vocational that or  i n the  field.  still  Literature in  humanities  sciences.  nogakko  much more t h a n he d i d t h e  natural  latter,  was  in a bind  evolving  employed  into  new  aptitude.  moreover,  a  agriculture,  as  specialized  field  technology  and t h u s  B u t he f o u n d a way o u t  Agricultural continue  since  Economics  the  history.  family  At  his  tradition  Todai,  Agricultural  as  in  of his major. still  addition  Economics,  he  to  took  good  his  ineptness  m a r k s . He was  a practical  required  and  at  a  the  In the  studying  w i t h numbers had k e p t h i m f r o m a t t a i n i n g caught  September  c o m m i t t e d t o p u r s u e a g r i c u l t u r e as  He had f o u n d w h i l e  he l i k e d t h e  applied  F a c u l t y of  discipline,  that  increasingly  some  mathematical  d i l e m m a by  selecting  By d o i n g  he  study his  so  could  literature one  course  Statistics,  and in  English  3 Literature,  and E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n .  T o k y o U n i v e r s i t y i n 1883 that  had  not  yet  endowed  its  faculty  consisted  instructors Ota's  attained  professors  who  professors  of had were  was  the  later  a young  prestige  with  a number o f just  still  that  a charmed yatoi  returned  would  from  later  mystique;  and young  an  its  Japanese  overseas  a G e r m a n named R h a t g e n ,  29  institution  study.  American,  Cox, of  and  two  whom h a d  J a p a n e s e , Toyama S h o i c h i and s t u d i e d i n the  United  Tajiri  Inajiro,  S t a t e s . Though Ota  e x c e l l e n t grades i n h i s f i r s t semester,  he  complained  both made  of  poor  instruction:  I am g e t t i n g d i s g u s t f u l [ s i c ] o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y . I t h o u g h t I c a n l e a r n v e r y much i n i t [ s i c ] ; but nol There are p l e n t y of books, b u t n o t p l e n t y o f good t e a c h e r s , [ s i c ] Toyama c a n ' t t e a c h E n g l i s h v e r y w e l l . We a r e s t u d y i n g H a m l e t : he j u m p s o v e r m a n y p l a c e s a s too d i f f i c u l t . Cox i s s i m p l y an o l d f a s h i o n e d t r u e t o - r u l e s - o f - s y n t a x g r a m m a r i a n . I don't t h i n k v e r y h i g h l y o f h i s c o r r e c t i o n s o f o u r e s s a y s . He i s a man o f n o t much i d e a , [ s i c ] Toyama's h i s t o r y i s a l s o v e r y p o o r . He k n o w s s c a r e l y a n y t h i n g b e s i d e s what i s c o n t a i n e d i n the textbook itself; he may know b e t t e r of p h i l o s o p h y [ s i c ] b u t t h a t i s n o t my s u b j e c t o f s t u d y . I l i k e Mr. T a j i r i ' s E c o n o m y ; b u t [ t h e ] h o u r s f o r Economy a r e t o o l i t t l e and s e l f - s t u d y a l o n e ^ c a n s u p p l y what [the] c l a s s - r o o m l e c t u r e s lack.  By at  the  early end  incompetent  1884,  of  the  he  decided  second  teaching.  But  to  term;  leave he  Returned  Goose), a book t h a t s o l d  account  of  his  motives.  p l a c e d blame upon t h e that  time.  Higher 5  no  well  School,  Rather  than  he  his  a s h i (Reeds of  the  gave a  different  he  "backwardness" of Japanese academics  at  T h i s w e l l - k n o w n s t o r y goes as f o l l o w s .  was  and  as  teachers,"  of  Progress,  i n one  of  of  "poor  o f T o y a m a ' s c l a s s e s , he  room  enough  during his reign  c o m e e a r l y f o r one the  university  had  later,  anecdotes published i n Kigan  First  had  many y e a r s  colorful  Headmaster of the  the  which a f r i e n d  reading  Henry  (most l i k e l y 30  sat i n the  George's S a t o ) had  Having corner  Poverty sent him  and from  the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Toyama asked him Ota  t o l d him.  The  " i s an i m p o r t a n t an a r t i c l e book had  p r o f e s s o r was  the t i t l e of the book, and  i m p r e s s e d . "That," he  said,  book. A f t e r you f i n i s h i t , you s h o u l d  write  f o r one  of the  been p u b l i s h e d  j o u r n a l s . " But  noticing that  some e i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e ,  shocked; Japanese s c h o l a r s h i p , he  c o n c l u d e d , was  b e h i n d t h a t of the West. That e x p e r i e n c e  Ota  eight  prompted him  the was  years  to q u i t  6  T o d a i and go t o America. U n l i k e Sato Shosuke, whose t r i p was M e i j i g o v e r n m e n t , O t a had T o k i t o s h i had money.  7  I t was  started.  b e i n g f i n a n c e d by  to fend f o r h i m s e l f .  some government bonds t h a t he  cashed t o  late  summer O t a ' s p r e p a r a t i o n  embarking  on  obtain  l o n g t h e f u n d s w o u l d h o l d o u t he d i d  know; he would e n t r u s t h i s f a t e t o the k i n d n e s s of By  Fortunately  n o t a l a r g e amount, b u t s u f f i c i e n t t o g e t  J u s t how  h i s voyage,  he  wrote  was a  done; long  the  Ota not  Providence. and  letter  before to  his  i n t i m a t e f r i e n d , Miyabe Kingo, which i l l u m i n a t e c l e a r l y h i s circumstances: I s h a l l l e a v e T o k i o [ s i c ] f o r A m e r i c a . I go o f f u n p r o v i d e d w i t h ample funds. I run a r i s k : i t may be t o o b o l d . But t h i n k i n g t h a t l i f e i s a t b e s t but a b o l d a t t e m p t at adventure, I decide t o go. Some d i s s u a d e me f r o m t h e p l a n on t h e s c o r e t h a t my h e a l t h (eyes) may g i v e way. Others s t r o n g l y recommend me t o be s e t t l e d here w i t h a w i f e - - t o c o n f e s s t h e t r u t h , t h e b r i d e was e v e n selected—from a f a m i l y o f an i n f l u e n t i a l S e c r e t a r y o f [ t h e ] D a i Jo Kwan; b u t I r e j e c t e d [ t h e m a r r i a g e ] ...at p r e s e n t I have no o b s t a c l e s ...father & mother are h e a l t h y : they can e a t and d r i n k : I have no o b l i g a t i o n s : my h e a l t h i s s o u n d : my e y e s a r e b e t t e r . L e t me go. Goodbye, o l d F r i e n d ... P r a y f o r me as o f t as t h o u r e m e m b e r e s t me. I w i l l be t r u e and f a i t h f u l t o 31  my Ota  f r i e n d s and endeavor t o be so t o  l e f t without  myself.  a w e l l - d e f i n e d study p l a n ;  although  he  "wanted t o do economics," he chose, s t r a n g e l y , a s m a l l c o l l e g e in  Western . . 9  training.  Pennsylvania  that  did  not  have  that  type  of  He had s e l e c t e d A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e , i t a p p e a r s , a t  the a d v i c e of F l o r a H a r r i s or her husband M e r r i m a n H a r r i s , m i s s i o n a r i e s i n J a p a n f o r many y e a r s , whom he had known i n S a p p o r o . They w e r e i n Tokyo d u r i n g h i s l a s t y e a r a t T o d a i i n 1884.  In March t h a t y e a r , H a r r i s had o f f i c i a t e d a t Uchimura's 1  wedding, w h i c h Ota a t t e n d e d . ^ College  graduates,  Meadville,  and  had  Pennsylvania,  the  The H a r r i s e s were met  each  location  other of  on  the  Allegheny 11 campus.  school,  was  F l o r a ' s hometown. Her f a m i l y , t h e B e s t s , s t i l l r e s i d e d t h e r e when Ota a r r i v e d on O c t o b e r 30, 12 lad,  Okami  its  w i t h another  in  1798,  Allegheny  a r t s c o l l e g e w i t h an  backwoods l o c a t i o n ,  College  was  excellent local  a  some e i g h t y m i l e s n o r t h of P i t t s b u r g h  f o r e d o o m e d any p r o s p e c t s t h a t i t m i g h t d e v e l o p  of  the  I t was  Eastern  students.  metropolises  to  attract  In s p i t e of t h i s d i s a d v a n t a g e ,  of the wider  thousand supported  pastures,  i n t o a major  too i s o l a t e d from the c u l t u r a l s t i m u l a t i o n  c o l l e g e and t o w n s t i l l affairs  four-year  r e p u t a t i o n . But  i n t h e A l l e g h e n y f o o t h i l l s a m i d s t s m a l l f a r m s and  university.  Japanese  Yoshiharu.  Founded liberal  1884  maintained world.  top  faculty  the people  of  and the  an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e  M e a d v i l l e ' s p o p u l a t i o n of  ten  t h r e e n e w s p a p e r s and s e v e r a l w e e k l y 32  and  monthly j o u r n a l s t h a t served 13 county.  t h e t o w n and  the  surrounding  The C r a w f o r d J o u r n a 1 c a r r i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m a  few days a f t e r Ota and Okami a r r i v e d : Japanese S t u d e n t s — T w o s t u d e n t s , Messrs. Ota and Akami, [ s i c ] from the most p r o g r e s s i v e empire of t h e O r i e n t , have come t o A l l e g h e n y College d i r e c t from Japan. I f e v e r y t h i n g i s s a t i s f a c t o r y they w i l l be m a t r i c u l a t e d . Ota  d i d not  delay  his business.  On  h i s s e c o n d day  in  town, he v i s i t e d P r e s i d e n t Benjamin Wheeler a t the c o l l e g e f o r an i n t e r v i e w ; and was  admitted  the f o l l o w i n g day he began h i s  to the  Freshman c l a s s ,  and  c l a s s e s . He  took  courses 15  in  German, H i s t o r y of P h i l o s o p h y and the A r t of D i s c o u r s e .  But  a f t e r o n l y a week, Ota r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from Sato u r g i n g  him  to  the Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y ; s t u d i e s t h e r e , s a i d  Sato,  w o u l d be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s a s p i r a t i o n s . A f t e r a s h o r t 16 d e l i b e r a t i o n , he l e f t M e a d v i l l e f o r B a l t i m o r e . S t u d i e s a t The Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Sato Shosuke o c c u p i e s h i s t o r y as an educator.  a  prominent place  i n Hokkaido's  He took over as a d m i n i s t r a t o r of  the  Sapporo nogakko d u r i n g i t s y e a r s of s t r u g g l e t o s u r v i v e budget cutbacks  i n the  late  1880s  t h r o u g h t h e 1 8 9 0 s , and  later  became Dean of the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e when the nogakko  was  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the Tohoku I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y ; and w i t h  the  founding  o f t h e H o k k a i d o I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1918,  became i t s f i r s t he was  granted  Sato  P r e s i d e n t . For h i s long a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work, 17 Peerage as a baron.  L i k e O t a , S a t o t o o was f r o m a h i g h - r a n k i n g Nanbu s a m u r a i f a m i l y . A s c h i l d r e n , he a n d O t a h a d f r e q u e n t l y  visited  o t h e r ' s home;  t o g e t h e r and  even  lived  friend  they a t t e n d e d t h e Kyokan g i j u k u  t o g e t h e r f o r a few months; T o k i t o s h i ,  o f Sato's f a t h e r ,  viewed  Shosuke,  each  who w a s a  who w a s s i x y e a r s  o l d e r t h a n O t a as a t r u s t w o r t h y companion f o r h i s s t e p s o n . Sato e n t e r e d t h e nogakko, 1880.  Soon t h e r e a f t e r  and g r a d u a t e d as t h e t o p s t u d e n t i n he was a p p o i n t e d  instructor  at the  18 school,  and  sent abroad t o America  W h i l e i n New Y o r k , S a t o Johns  Hopkins  University  institution;  i n 1883.  wrote t o P r e s i d e n t Gilman of the  expressing h i s desire to attend the  he l i k e w i s e w r o t e t o P r o f e s s o r H.B. Adams 19  headed t h e H i s t o r y  and P o l i t i c a l  Science Department.  Department a c c e p t e d h i m as a Graduate  Student  who The  i n t h e autumn  o f 1883. He w o r k e d h a r d a n d won t h e a d m i r a t i o n o f b o t h  Gilman  and Adams. The f o l l o w i n g O c t o b e r , when O t a a r r i v e d , S a t o was already a ""Fellow-by-Courtesy"; h i s recommendation, t h e r e f o r e , c a r r i e d g r e a t w e i g h t w i t h G i l m a n a n d Adams when 20 Ota  sought  application  entrance  t o t h e same  f o r m , he w r o t e ,  t h a t he w i s h e d  "to complete  department.  as h i s purpose  On h i s  at the university,  my e d u c a t i o n a n d t o q u a l i f y 21  myself  f o r t e a c h i n g on my r e t u r n t o Japan." Ota Hopkins. student,  and Sato  were  not the o n l y Japanese  The same s e m e s t e r Motora  Yujiro,  t h a t Ota a r r i v e d , enrolled  to study  another  Japanese  P h i l o s o p h y and  Psychology w i t h Professor Stanley H a l l . Motora 34  a t t h e Johns  e x c e l l e d and  won a his  University Ph.D.  in  1889.  psychological Japanese Mitsuru  Fellowship  studies  had  in  1883  professors  at  his  Later  at  Todai,  Japan.  In  into  already  had c o m p l e t e d  Kakichi  in  won  his  their  year,  and  he  the  sciences,  Hopkins  Imperial  a Zoology  University  obtained  introduced  Ph.D's:  i n C h e m i s t r y i n 1881;  had r e c e i v e d  the  second  and  degree.  Kuhara  Mitsukuri  Both  upon t h e i r  two  became  return  to  22 Japan. The J o h n s entered; the  it  first  had opened  Studies.  enrollment  of  290  Matriculates  school  had  United  States.  Its  In  produced  54  eight  devoted  to  first  year,  years  before  as  the  promotion  of  it  had  and  47  In i t s  Ph.D.s--the  a  and  Special  total  Fellows, Students.  short existence,  greatest  number  the  in  the  2 3  first  president,  orientated  university.  the  task  Daniel of  colleague,  Cornell,  and James  " H i s one  a n d k n e w how t o u s e Although  a  He s e t  t h e y c o u l d come  Gilman, a  thought,"  for  Charles E l i o t Angell at 24  Coit  creating  Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y  his  students.  Ota's  only  b y 52 t e a c h e r s .  for  Like  doors  p e r i o d when O t a  students—174 Graduate Students  perfectly  Johns  its  formative  (undergraduates),  They were t a u g h t  the  in its  American university  Graduate  69  H o p k i n s was  its at  modern, wrote  glory  suited  research-  a fellow,  and  Harvard,  Michigan,  was  "is  perfection."  Andrew W h i t e  G i l m a n had g r e a t  at  power  it.  busy  administrator,  aside and t a l k  a part  of  his  w i t h him about 35  Gilman  had  morning hours problems  time so  for that  they had;  he  knew  each  one  personally  as g i v i n g a room i n h i s arrived  in  and  home t o  Baltimore;  emergencies—simple  thoughtfully  or  extended  a needy  student  lending  money  help  such  who h a d  just  to  them  in  a c t s w h i c h Hugh H a w k i n s s a y s " b e s p e a k  a  25 generosity  beyond  the  requirements  O t a saw G i l m a n f r o m t i m e with  him about  sent  him  an  that  President His affect his  of  he  the  he was  in  dealings  exhibit  with  the  thoughtfu1ness  in  Nation  Constitution.  grateful 26  with  f o r -the  Gilman on  Ota wrote  interest"  Gilman would  own s t u d e n t s  the back  that  he  later  the  himself  and had  strongly  administrator;  many y e a r s  charitableness  that  conversations  the  own s t y l e a s a s c h o o l  his  same  and had  Japan.  contact  and c o l o r h i s  position."  i n G e r m a n y , i n 1889,  written  Japanese  "deeply  had shown personal  had  his  time  When he was  article  promulgation saying  Japan.  to  of  later,  he  perform  would  acts  experienced  in  of  in  his 27  relationship  w i t h the  Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y  Though O t a , l i k e the  other Japanese  Gilman,  he was c l o s e s t t o P r o f e s s o r  classes  he  took  attended  Adams' c o u r s e s  The R e n a i s s a n c e ,  the  Seminary  thirty-six  to  the  for  International  History  and  students,  respected  H e r b e r t B a x t e r Adams whose six  i n H i s t o r y of  when O t a f i r s t  wide r e p u t a t i o n come  in  regularly  President.  straight  Politics,  semesters.  Church  History,  Law, Germanic I n s t i t u t i o n s , 28 Politics.  met h i m , b u t  Adams  as  was  and  only  a l r e a d y commanded a  as a h a r d w o r k e r among h i s  Johns Hopkins i n 36 1876  He  colleagues.  an A s s o c i a t e ,  He had  and r a n  the  department  while  Gilman searched  worked w i t h  "prodigious  conducting  the  convinced He was  for a senior  energies"  tutoring,  administrative  Gilman  that  an  chores,  established  promoted to A s s o c i a t e  he  lecturing,  and  scholar  Professor  professor;  by  was  and H e a d ,  and  1881  not  had  needed.  with a  salary  29 of  $2750. Adams's  period  were  major c o n t r i b u t i o n s the  at  the  H i s t o r i c a l Seminary f o r  Johns  Hopkins i n  this  Graduate Students  and  a monograph s e r i e s , The J o h n s H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e s . Professionally, he s e r v e d from  1882  as  Secretary  Historical  Association,  launch i t .  Later his  editor  the  newly  and c a r r i e d o u t  work as  most  many G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t s  renown  were  the  founded  American  necessary  an i n s p i r i n g t e a c h e r  were commended by many who knew  Some o f h i s the  of  Woodrow W i l s o n ,  J.  to  and s u p e r b  and s t u d i e d  later.won great  labor  with  fame;  Franklin  him. among  Jameson,  30 Albert  Shaw,  at  fifty-one  age  and  Frederick in  1901,  Jackson Turner. W i l s o n wrote  the  When Adams following  glowing  tribute: I f I w e r e t o sum up my i m p r e s s i o n o f D r . A d a m s , I s h o u l d c a l l him a g r e a t C a p t a i n of I n d u s t r y , a c a p t a i n i n t h e f i e l d o f s y s t e m a t i c and o r g a n i z e d s c h o l a r s h i p . I t h i n k a l l h i s p u p i l s would a c c o r d him mastery i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h , i n the c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f methods and i d e a l s . His head was a v e r i t a b l e c l e a r i n g house o f i d e a s i n t h e f i e l d o f h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y , a n d no one e v e r s e r i o u s l y s t u d i e d u n d e r h i m who d i d n o t g e t , in i t s most s e r v i c e a b l e f o r m , t h e modern i d e a l s o f work upon the s o u r c e s ; and not the ideals merely, but a l s o a v e r y d e f i n i t e p r i n c i p l e of c o n c r e t e a p p l i c a t i o n i n d a i l y s t u d y . The t h e s i s w o r k d o n e u p o n h i m may f a i r l y be s a i d t o h a v e  37  died  set the pace f o r u n i v e r s i t y work i n h i s t o r y throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s . That i s the whole thing in a nutshell; and i t m a k e s , a r e p u t a t i o n w h i c h c a n n e v e r be j u s t l y o b s c u r e d .  Ota  studied  the d e p a r t m e n t , come  to  the  also  with  the  two  other  big  J o h n s H o p k i n s i n 1881  business  confrontation Nation, with  who  instructors  in  R i c h a r d E l y and J . F r a n k l i n J a m e s o n . E l y had after  H e i d e l b e r g . His c a n d i d c r i t i c i s m of and  young  practices  with  soon  E . L . Godkin,  sharply  attacked  a colleague,  the  receiving  laissez-faire brought  editor  him.  a Ph.D. f r o m  him  of  astronomer  into  the  Ely also  economics  influential  became  Simon  direct  embroiled  Newcomb,  whose  32 conservative  v i e w s on e c o n o m i c s  But i n s p i t e of h i s scholar  them and s e t  decades.  of  "akin to  them  l a b o r , the  Administration,  first  History  of  of  courses  students.  to  stimulate  p a r t l y by h i s most  own  productive  i n c l u d i n g F i n a n c e and  Political  Economy,  socialism  Nitobe  political Lasalle  learnt  dare  the  of  judgement economy  and J . S .  Mill.  c r i t i c i38 sm  of  in  reminisced  of E l y ' s c o n f i d e n c e  Ferdinand to  his  many  H.B. Adams,  He d i d t h i s  with  later,  independence  masters  of  a promising  Studies  in  a n d A d v a n c e d P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m y ; he a l s o h a d 34  years  a b r o a d and w r o t e  was  1 8 8 0 s b e i n g one o f h i s  acquaintance  Twenty  and h i s  work."  Ely  who a t t r a c t e d  that 33  Ota took nine of  Administration,  his  to  opposed.  controversies,  and an i n s p i r i n g t e a c h e r  He h a d a t a l e n t ,  example  he  Ely's on h i s  in airing his in c r i t i c i z i n g  such  as  From  Ely,  his  class. studies  own v i e w s even  Herbert perhaps,  collegues  by  the  Spencer, Nitobe stepping  outside the i v o r y towers of academia t o w r i t e f o r magazines and  35 newspapers r e a d by t h e masses. Ota  two  also  years.  after  took  Jameson's  Historical  Criticism  class for  Jameson had been h i r e d as an i n s t r u c t o r  i n 1881  o b t a i n i n g h i s H o p k i n s Ph.D., w i t h a o n e - y e a r  contract  t h a t w a s r e n e w e d e a c h y e a r . He r e m a i n e d a t t h e J o h n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d O t a was t h e r e ,  Hopkins  and l e f t f o r a permanent  j o b a t C o r n e l l i n 1 8 8 8 , w h e r e he c a r v e d  out a distinguished  36 career. In  his first  year,  Ota concentrated  a g r a r i a n problems. But i n t h e w i n t e r suggestion  thesis  considerable  which  t o U.S.-Japan  contemporary  the a c t i v i t i e s  was t h e n  cabinet attempts  o f h i s second year,  system  relations.  interest  Western  and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  t o r e v i s e the unequal  Switching training biographers  since  o f t h e Japanese  introducing  frequently discussed  was  at a  h i sdissertation  have p o i n t e d  well-conceived 39 aim.  t o p i c had  many A m e r i c a n s government  were  closely, like the  l a w . Japan's  strident  treaties 38  t o o was a  subject  i n t h e newspapers.  i s baffling,  the primary  This  institutions  and  topic at this thus  juncture  f a r none  to this crucial  v i e w i s t h a t h i s U.S.-Japan r e l a t i o n s s t u d y a broader,  on  b y Adams, he made a d e c i s i v e s w i t c h a n d c h a n g e d h i s 37  topic  following  h i s research  point.  of  in his  Nitobe's  T h e common  was j u s t  a part of  plan i n which A g r i c u l t u r a l  Economics  B u t t h e e v i d e n c e show o t h e r w i s e ; i t  i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t O t a had, i n f a c t , abandoned h i s e a r l i e r 39 g o a l o f " w a n t i n g t o do a g r i c u l t u r e " i n f a v o r o f a Ph.D. d e g r e e  in  history. Ota p l u n g e d i n t o h i s new  correspondence  to  motivation.  Adams  Using  reflects  the  discovering  new  documents, he  gathered  t h r o u g h o l d and  knowledge  new  was  United  from  many sources:  States  and  a l s o wrote to a number of people  had  some connection  Ota  who  gave him  would p l a y  an  he  hunted  magazines;  he  captain  Japan d u r i n g  i n the United  w i t h Japan. One  as was  valuable  in his Life  But G r i f f i s  primary  the  such  States person  book Mikado's Empire, p u b l i s h e d i n  e s t a b l i s h e d him  acknowledged 1888.  r e l i a n c e upon  of  encounter.^  a u t h o r i t y on Japan. G r i f f i s was  a  mode  i n Japan l i k e Kimura Kyo,  W i l l i a m G r i f f i s whose  1876,  seminary's  and  had p l a y e d an a c t i v e r o l e i n s h a p i n g  between t h e  whose c a r e e r s had  enthusiasm  j o u r n a l s , n e w s p a p e r s and  f i r s t years of formal He  by  h i s data  o f t h e K a n r i n Maru, who events  much  historical  even sent q u e r i e s to people  the  t o p i c w i t h g r e a t z e a l , and h i s  the  foremost  n o t o f much h e l p ; r a t h e r i t material  of P e r r y ,  that  w h i c h was  would not f o r g o t the debt;  instrumental  role  American  he  used  published  years  i n g e t t i n g Bushido  later,  and in he  published  41 by the George Putnam's Sons. The  e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o l a r s i n the United S t a t e s were not of  much h e l p t o Ota further  their  own  either.  They a p p e a r e d  careers  than  more c o n c e r n e d  t o a i d a young  s t a r t e d . C h a r l e s Lanman o f H a r v a r d  w r o t e Ota  m a t e r i a l s . Lanman had a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d two 40  novice  to get  i n Germany f o r books on Japan;  the  first  i n 1872  Japanese  in  appeared with  in  America; 1886  other  studying  with cooperation  while  matters,  i m p o r t a n t work f o r  5ta s t u d i e d  Isa  our  In B a l t i m o r e , met  second,  Ota asked  Botany w i t h  group t h a t  the  to  country."^  the  Leading  at  the  Men  in  Japan,  then  at  Busy  Harvard  a i d Lanman,. s a y i n g  "he  does  2  many c l o s e  Johns  entitled  Johns H o p k i n s .  M i y a b e , who was  Gray,  O t a had  near  from Mori A r i n o r i ,  ties  with  the  Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y  Quaker  campus,  and  43 formally friends where with who  joined  them  in  December,  were i n P e n n s y l v a n i a ;  he  frequently  the  Quaker S t a t e  had  arrived  fleeing  visited  his  in  for  United  disastrous  But  his  closest  particularly in Philadelphia, extended  apparently  the  1885.  came  through  States  marriage  stays.  that  two had  His  connection  Uchimura Kanzo,  months lasted  after only  a  Ota few  months. Uchimura w h i l e befriended who t o o k living  a keen  Wistar  city.  U c h i m u r a who  meetings  which  probably  comfortable personality  Morrises of  interest  around the  visited  Ota,  by t h e  working at a mental h o s p i t a l  the  him to  because  he  one  held was  for  a  command o f  students  vacation  the  in  monthly  Japanese  Quaker  American hosts;  and e x c e l l e n t  of  was  Philadelphia,  Japanese  O t a d u r i n g summer  Morrises  with his  Overbrook,  i n him and o t h e r  took  i n Elwyn  prayer  students.  himself,  moreover  his  E n g l i s h made  1885  felt  outgoing  socializing  44 easy  for  him.  Although predicament  was  Ota  had  grave.  a  full  By 1886, 41  social the  life,  funds  that  his  financial  Tokitoshi  had  p r o v i d e d h i m were n e a r l y d e p l e t e d , on h i s  studies  extremely  give him t r o u b l e . was  and t h i s  difficult.  He v i s i t e d  c h a r g e d an enormous  made  His eyes,  a specialist  medical b i l l  that  concentration  again,  began  for treatment taxed  his  to and  dwindling  45 resources. The overwork  pressures  to  took  toil,  their  headed n o r t h to there. at  the  live  on  and he  Pennsylvania  Wandering from place home o f  little  friends  in  fell  money ill.  and  with  To r e c u p e r a t e ,  spent the whole  to p l a c e ,  Ingleside,  combined  he  summer  O t a s p e n t a few  weeks  a suburb i n P h i l a d e l p h i a ;  t h e n a n o t h e r few weeks i n O v e r b r o o k ; and J u n e and J u l y i n Penn Valley  with  had g i v e n  the  filing  at  returned  begin his  last  and l i t t l e  students.  index  Fortunately,  papers  Furthermore, to  for  the  supplement  Adams  American his  income  t e r m , he was p r o m i s e d p a r t - t i m e work c l i p p i n g and  newspapers  year  money,  of  arrived  from of  "Kabo," appointment,  the  he  Johns  Hopkins  G r a d u a t e Work.  chapters  nogakko;  Agricultural  Training  seminary.^  he  "rejoice  with  42  of  thesis  appointed 47 absentia.  me!" I t  upon  was  a  to  health and had  when welcome  Launching of  Miyabe  1886  poor  had been  Economics i n  to  October  on h i s  by M a r c h 1887,  i n Germany: t h e  wrote  in  In s p i t e  he w o r k e d d i l i g e n t l y  some t h r e e the  the  to  finished  Professor  Japanese  Association.  Fall  Ota  of  h i m summer work t o  Historical for  a group  news  Assistant  Career  receiving  a God-given  his  blessing  beyond h i s at  most  least  five  important, ironically studying funds  optimistic of  it  his  meant  put  major success  him back  Agricultural  to  dreams;  at  to  his  upon h i s  it  assured  family;  thirdly,  r e t u r n to h i s  provides  a clue  beloved  to his  Sapporo.  it  it  course  provided his  a select  attachment  of for  studies  place  among  i t would a l l o w  An e a r l i e r  deep e m o t i o n a l  most  secondly,  to c o n t i n u e  him of  resolved and  academic  the f a c u l t y o f h i s a l m a m a t e r ; and f i f t h l y , his  it  firstly,  original  Economics;  forthly,  stroke,  worries:  be s e n t t o h i m i m m e d i a t e l y  uninterrupted;  one  for  letter  of  to  town:  the  his  when I a t t e n d t h e s e m i n a r y . . . a n d the lectures a f f e c t me s t r o n g l y , I w h i s p e r t o my own ears, ' C a n ' t I make s u c h a n i n s t i t u t i o n i n S a p p o r o ? ' The o t h e r d a y , D r . Adams l e c t u r e d on D r . Thomas A r n o l d ( f o r we a r e s t u d y i n g Roman I n s t i t u t i o n s a t p r e s e n t and D r . A r n o l d i s a a u t h o r i t y ) a s t r o n g f e e l i n g c a m e o v e r me, ' A h , c a n ' t I be a d o c t o r [ s i c ] A r n o l d o f S a p p o r o ? ' You see that my t h o u g h t s are invariably associated with S a p p o r o . I t i s , i n d e e d , my e a r n e s t d e s i r e a n d s i n c e r e p r a y e r t h a t I may one d a y be a b l e t o do something f o r my G o d & f o r my c o u n t r y in Sapporo.  Sato  Shosuke,  Baltimore,  laughed  who at  roomed the  with  ideas."  But  wishes,  and  instrumental  appointment.  After  Johns Hopkins i n  1886,  monograph  as  he  series  returned  March  1887,  to he  Sato  Sato  w h i c h was  Sapporo was  remembered  finished  The  made  to his  resume  acting  43  his  two  and  his  get  years  called  young  Ota  in  the  United  academic  Director after  them  prized  published  the  at in  the the  States,  duties. the  in  cohort's  dissertation  immediately  Land Q u e s t i o n to  for  sentimentality  "Utopian  was  Ota  In  departure  of W i l l i a m B r o o k s , who Sato's f i r s t  act  Hokkaido cho  had  s e r v e d the nogakko f o r t e n  i n h i s new  c a p a c i t y was  to i n c r e a s e the t e a c h i n g  years.  to persuade  staff  and  the  recommended 49  Ota and  Hiroi  f o r the newly approved p o s i t i o n s .  Sato e x a g g e r a t e d agriculture.  Ota's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as a s t u d e n t  "Ota," he  wrote i n the  h i s f r i e n d f o r the p o s i t i o n , "had Economics i n the United Ota was  ordered  report been  States." The  formally  of  proposing  studying A g r i c u l t u r a l  appointment was  made, and  t o l e a v e the Johns H o p k i n s i m m e d i a t e l y 50  and  proceed to Germany f o r t r a i n i n g . Agricultural s u b j e c t there  economics  i n the  1880s,  was  already  whereas i n the  a  specialized  United  States i t  wo u l d n o t be so u n t i l a f t e r the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . Kumao, who and  who  became the  expressed the  l a t e r s u c c e e d e d N i t o b e as p r o f e s s o r  St.  dismay Louis  third  president  when  he  at  Sapporo,  Hokkaido U n i v e r s i t y ,  visited  Agricultural Fair  at  Takaoka  in  the  exhibitions  1904  and  saw  the  " p r i m i t i v e s t a t e of the f i e l d " i n America. In t h i s s u b j e c t , i n most o t h e r far  more  between there;  f i e l d s of r e s e a r c h ,  advanced.  1850  and  many o f  himself,  Professors,  had  From  1880  had  America,  Adams and  E l y , had  Ota's s t u d y i n Germany was of  purpose.  thousands  studied  trained  Though  as  German u n i v e r s i t i e s were  the  latest  f a c u l t y a t Johns H o p k i n s , been  at  in  of  students  scholarship  i n c l u d i n g Gilman  Germany; 51  Ota's  own  P r u s s i a n Ph.D's. directed with a c l e a r  instructed 44  to  sense  study A g r i c u l t u r a l  Economics, to  he  develop  was  had t h e  his  that  he  freedom  own c o u r s e return  to  plans.  allowed  The  his  only  other  three  duties.  different  c o m e . L e a v i n g New Y o r k on May 1 5 ,  Scotland, has  Along  the  and H o l l a n d  been  very  way,  schools  instructive,  1887,  he  and w r o t e  years,  to  German  between u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  He c h o s e B o n n U n i v e r s i t y f i r s t ;  24th.  and  imposed  Since the  who was w o r k i n g on a p r o j e c t on J a p a n t h e r e ,  on J u n e  university  condition  after  f o r e a s y movement  d e c i d e d t h a t he w o u l d s t u d y a t professors.  choose  Hokkaido,  commence t e a c h i n g and r e s u m e system  to  visited to  & I  w i t h the  Profesor had  he  best Rein,  urged him to  arrived  Ireland,  Miyabe t h a t  shall  Ota  i n Bonn England,  "the  journey  the  lessons  utilize  52 there--on  my r e t u r n t o  He s p e n t lecture  on[c]e  two s e m e s t e r s i n Bonn and t o o k  courses  Professor a  Ota a l s o  and  Max  in  nearby  Sering  first "I  see  Economy  visited  help the  him  full  Rein and  took  load  Seminar  be  with  helped  frequent  of  "regularly  a c t u a l workings of  class  difficulty  on  good  advice,  he  which p r i n t e d  write  with  German,  agricultural conditions  thought  academic  can't  to  to  as h i s 53  his  paper  professor's Export,  A n d he  a  by."  Prussian  field  trips  factories.  Despite seminar  Political  order  a chance  industrialization  to  the  Sering.  week, got  Sapporo."  enough sent it.  publication, German  the  in  Japan,  manuscript to filled  sent  two but  with  copies I  a  On  at  Adams  am g l a d  to  the  journal,  pride to  a  which  publication.  Ota,  well,  45  for  Ota presented  his  saying  say  it  has  been  w e l l r e c e i v e d . " In the K i g a n no a s h i he  recounted  the t h r i l l he r e c e i v e d when  a postman s t o p p e d by t o  him  article  with  a  company.  check  After  for  the  fourteen  from  the  present  publishing  months i n Bonn, u n t i l  mid-August 54  1888,  he  t r a n s f e r r e d to the p r e s t i g i o u s B e r l i n U n i v e r s i t y .  At B e r l i n U n i v e r s i t y , Ota and  Socialism  by  A d o l p h Wagner,  G u s t o v S c h m o l l e r . He Professor Prussian  a l s o t o o k the  Meitzen.  He  Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s .  c l o s e as t h a t w i t h Meitzen are very very  Schmoller's  kind  course  to  in  l e c t u r e s immensely; lecture  in  on  the  Japanese  on  He  Economics which  was  to.  a  could  nation  institutions,  History  and  publish  sat i n h i s  as one  the  and  Ota  Ota took  enjoyed  his  first 55  the would books  discussed.  lectures,  had  already  of the best German economists  leader  contrasted  School whose " t i m e l e s s objected  "Schmoller  times."  Schmoller had  Ota  as  l a t t e r ' s seminar,  four  Agrarian  themes when  day.  that  the  not  a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o Sapporo, he  established a reputation his  "read  with  relationship  B e r l i n was  In the  by  i n a d d i t i o n at  and  same s u b j e c t , and  Schmoller,  of  me."  and  Seminar  Although h i s  he w r o t e  Finance  History  Statistics  a t Bonn  Adams,  hard,  Agrarian  worked p a r t - t i m e  w i t h h i s German- p r o f e s s o r s  worked  a t t e n d e d l e c t u r e s on  of  sharply  a School to  abstractions  the  and  of  English  Historical Classical  r u l e s " he vehemently  Schmoller emphasized t h a t the economic l i f e be  understood  social  only  patterns, 46  and  i n the  context  cultural  of  of i t s  attitudes.  A l o n g w i t h Wagner and in  German  the  Lujo  Bretano,  economic s c h o l a r s h i p ,  1880s,  the  Social  Policy  two  he helped  other  giants  to form,  in  A s s o c i a t i o n where academics 56  sought  to provide  The  social  i n p u t f o r governmental problems  w r e s t l i n g w i t h may t o Ota  that  German  s c h o l a r s were  have seemed w h o l l y t h e o r e t i c a l and  and a f e l l o w c o m p a t r i o t ,  studying  these  policies.  Economics  Kanai  Noburu,  who  w i t h t h e s e same p r o f e s s o r s .  t h e i r r e t u r n to Japan,  b o t h o f them w o u l d f a c e  similar  questions.  the  century,  when r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n t h r e a t e n e d  In  Japan's s o c i a l f a b r i c ,  Kanai,  first  decade of  academic was  also  But a f t e r strikingly  the  twentieth  to r i p apart  as an academic a t T o d a i ,  would  p l a y a major r o l e i n i n t r o d u c i n g S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  Policy into  Japan.  would  And  as C o l o n i a l P o l i c y P r o f e s s o r , N i t o b e  later  p r o p o s e m e a s u r e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h c o l o n i z a t i o n on t h e 57 Asian  East  Continent. O t a d i d n o t l i k e B e r l i n . The  c l i m a t e d i d not agree w i t h  him; but more i m p o r t a n t , he f e l t t h a t the "moral l e v e l " of c i t y was without he was  too  the  low. " [ T ] h i s sodom o f Germany" w h e r e " H a r l o t s  number  stalk  about  in  the  s t r e e t s " outraged  him;  i n d i g n a n t t o o o f t h e "50 o r more" J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s  a p p a r e n t l y p a t r o n e d t h e s e women o f t h e n i g h t . f e l t , g i v i n g J a p a n a bad  who  They w e r e , he  name; " I have n e v e r h e a r d  anything  c o m p l i m e n t a r y of them," he c o m p l a i n e d t o Miyabe. While  Ota  made  for  Halle  U n i v e r s i t y , he r e c e i v e d j o l t i n g news f r o m home. H i s  eldest  b r o t h e r , S h i c h i r o , who  preparations  was  to  leave  the h e i r t o the N i t o b e 47  family, died  suddenly  l e a v i n g no s u c c e s s o r .  w i t h whom he h a d s t u d i e d years  earlier  while  Ota's other b r o t h e r ,  i n T o k y o as  O t a was  a student  w e r e made f o r h i m t o r e t u r n t o t h e in  April  1889.  The  Halle  Berlin's  of  pragmatic  practical  purposes  one H a l l e  leader  officials  had  faculty,  offered  Nitobe  Halle  for  Semester for  be  five  Arrangements  f a m i l y as known  its  to  heir  all  a  approaching,  To  was  as  of  o p p o r t u n i t y to  1889-1890. reason, so  remains  had  University Nitobe's  at  he  Jena,  to  of  worldly  society,"  as  Many P r u s s i a n agricultural  the  best  in  the  C o n r a d and Kuhn. he  realized  obtain  the  October  in  d i d not  return  only  five  get  But  that  Ph.D., time  was  to more  his  Bonn so  for  he the  other  a  Ph.D. from  in his  studies  Japan  fast  of  study  were f a r  universities.  had t a k e n  possibility;  in  was  months  he h a d j u d g e d ,  whose p r o f e s s o r  48  of  Its  a b l a n k page  considered  dissertation,  one  reputation  5 9  Nitobe  deadline  gate.  unlike  the  mission.  there,  Bonn and a r r i v e d i n  a n d he  so  its  its  The P h . D . exams a t B e r l i n ,  difficult,  benefits  Professors  time  had a  "advance  considered  with  short  is  His  it,  was  entered,  scholarship,  through  studied  Nitobe  men and t h e  had p u t  some  why t h i s  Germany.  left.  of  him a b e t t e r  But Bonn;  would  that  abstruse  passed  spending  Winter  Todai.  Nitobe  he  orientation.  moreover,  country.  left  on,  University  tradition  its  after  here  at  had d i e d  - 58 Inazo.  Nitobe  for  From  a child,  Michiro,  The  an i n t e r e s t but  too  in  Jena's  doctorate,  he  said,  Determined home,  Nitobe  at  "has  no  all  cost  returned  presenting  his  to  enviable to  get  Halle  dissertation  Verwertung;  Eine  use:  a  historical  and  oral  examination.  It  tho  ...  I  major  did  subject,  following (c)  not  do  he  as was  fields:  (a)  minors,  he  former,  he  he  well  After  in  Japanischen  statisische  study).  says,  as  I  Nitobe  a  Studie  had  (d)  took  "simple  expected."  tested in national  and  qualified  examinations.  d i s t r i b u t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l  theorie  finanzwissenshaft,  going  landwirtschaftliche  und  statistical was,  before  den  und  historische its  Ph.D.  Uber  dessen Y££t ®iiHIlE  i n Japan;  his  for his  Grundbes i t z ,  (Land o w n e r s h i p  reputation."  (b)  affair, For  his  in  the  economy  wirthschaftspolitik,  statistik;  philosophie  and  and  in  the  politik.  In  c h o s e " g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f p h i l o s o p h y and  and  "Spencer,  Hume a n d S o c r a t e s ; "  was  quizzed  "States  in  rights."  the  and f o r  He p a s s e d  the  in  the  logic"  latter,  all  two  areas  he and  61 wrote  Adams Nitobe  Hopkins Hearing  to  of  his  desired  achievements. recognition  compliment  that  German  M o t o r a and Watase  Johns H o p k i n s i n 1886, Nitobe  lamented  Adams  to  ask  his  for  that a  for  Sho,  his  work  A . M . and  Ph.D.  the  I d i d not get  with  Johns  degrees.  who h a d e n r o l l e d  had b o t h g r a d u a t e d "only  at  in  distinction,  h o n o r s . . . . " He w r o t e  degree:  My reasons for wishing i t is [sic] this--I have been for 3 years in J.H.U and am p e r h a p s t h e o n l y J a p a n e s e , who had won no h o n o r . I w o r k e d , as you know, u n d e r many d i s a d v a n t a g e s ,  49  the  and c o u l d n o t do a s much a s o t h e r s . Y e t i n my c o n s c i e n c e I c a n s a y I h a v e d o n e my b e s t — t h a t i s to say, as much as my means and health allowed. S t i l l , without a v i s i b l e mark, I m u s t seem a s t h o ' I h a d d o n e n o t h i n g d u r i n g my 3 y e a r s s t a y i n the U.S. I d o n ' t l i k e t o seem s o , [ s i c ] e s p e c i a l l y t o my own r e l a t i v e s , who h a v e e n a b l e d me t o s t u d y i n A m e r i c a . F a r be i t f r o m me, h o w e v e r , t o beg f o r a d e g r e e or honor. If there is [the] least objection t o my acquiring A . B . h o n o r i u s (or whatever i t be) I w i l l not ask for y w r k i n d o f f i c e s to have it c o n f e r r e d upon me.  Giving as  1887.  Nitobe  a degree  had b e e n on Adams's mind as  In a memorandum t o G i l m a n ,  Nitobe]  be  rules."  Upon r e c e i v i n g N i t o b e ' s  to  he e x p r e s s e d  ' d o c t o r e d ' by m e r i t and g r a c e letter,  if  honorary  degrees  freely--to  put  [that  by t h e  went  t h e a c a d e m i c b o a r d a n d t h e n t o G i l m a n — w h o was  gave  "hope  not  Adams  early  new  directly  n o t one who  forward  Nitobe's  request. Nitobe business. "three in  to  East  spent  in  the  meanwhile  He w r o t e five  months"  Prussia  a few  the  Hokkaido to  cho  some  for  an  unfinished extension  "do r e s e a r c h on c o l o n i a l  and C a n a d a . "  weeks i n  had  He g o t  his  of  policy  extention,  and  E a s t Germany g a t h e r i n g d a t a on J u n k e r  colonization;  t h e n he r e t u r n e d t o  16,  an a b s e n c e  the  United  States  on  July  64 1890  after  He w r o t e Adams t o A.B. to  degree  received publish  an his  nearly t h i r t y - e i g h t  thank him f o r h i s  (Honorary),  a Philadelphia  of  w h i c h was  friend's  granted  address.  letter  from  Adams  Johns  Hopkins  50  help  In  in getting in  J u n e and  mid-August,  expressing  thesis.  months.  Interest  his sent  Nitobe  interest  to  i n Japan had  grown  in  America  Japanese that  income  the  from  costs.  the  book's  Adams t o l d  revised  the  promulgation  was  sales Nitobe  a favorable might  to  pay  of  the  indication for  prepare the  m a n u s c r i p t i n the  Adams who i n c l u d e d i t  Hopkins cover  recent  its  own  manuscript  press.  Nitobe to  the  C o n s t i t u t i o n , and t h i s  publishing for  after  Studies  in  United  States  preface,  1891  Adams  under the and  Nitobe  volume  loaned  title:  Japan:  thanked  P h i l a d e l p h i a , " who g a v e  a  "my  Nitobe  Sciences.  $440.  The I n t e r c o u r s e Historical  friend,  "valuable  The  P.  assistance"  To book  Between  Sketch.  Mary  it  i n The J o h n s  i n H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i t i c a l  printing costs,  appeared  as a n e x t r a  autumn and send  the  In  the  Elkinton, i n the  of  proof-  66 reading  of  the  book.  Mary P . E l k i n t o n :  Mary daughter  Patterson  of  prosperous She was  Elkinton  Joseph Scottus  businessman  who  owned,  1857  her  generation,  French there  at  the  was  a  a taste  with  a  School for  and  in  the  literature.  Quaker  brother,  a  surroundings;  female  education  only  in Philadelphia.  up i n c o m f o r t a b l e  good  century 51  child  a well-established  manufacturing firm  p l a c e d upon t h e  well-bred nineteenth  eldest  for middle-class  included  of  the  partnership  Friends Select  something  emphasis  in  and grew  her u p b r i n g i n g , t y p i c a l  was  Elkinton,  s o a p and c a n d l e  born i n  Romance and M a r r i a g e  c h i l d r e n of  with  city. But  Latin  She  and  acquired  throughout,  manners and e t i q u e t t e o f 67 lady.  a proper  Inazo  met M a r y j u s t p r i o r t o h i s d e p a r t u r e f o r  He h a d s p o k e n a b o u t J a p a n t o t h e Foreign Mary  was  in  audience.  a bun o v e r  a calm  inner  self-determination.  serving  of  tea  about Japan, after  this  her  her  own  way,  i n w h i c h she  head.  she  Her f a c e ,  disposition,  Inazo  and c o o k i e s  initial  was  an  met  after  her  his  and he  also  briefly  talk,  showed g r e a t  meeting,  but  round  shortly  suggested  during  and t h e y  interest.  and  the  chatted  They p a r t e d  thereafter  boarded  ship.*^ In s p i t e  of  this  one b r i e f  by g r e a t p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e , relationship involved,  with  he w r o t e  correspond  with  straight-laced Mary  In  w i t h l a r g e e y e s and d a r k h a i r worn i n b r a i d s  into  reflected  firm  his  the  woman,  twirled  full,  P h i l a d e l p h i a Q u a k e r Women's  M i s s i o n a r y A s s o c i a t i o n a t t h e W i s t a r M o r r i s e s home.  attractive and  Germany.  her. to  Mary.  a n d now  Inazo wanted t o But  uncertain  start  of  the  separated  some k i n d  Mrs. M o r r i s ,  Nitobe  advised did,  greatly him to  and  surprised at  write  their  of  proprieties  Mrs. M o r r i s a s k i n g f o r her p e r m i s s i o n  formality,  herself.  encounter,  to his  directly  to  correspondence  commenced.^ From and h i s subjects And  when  Germany,  he  aspirations;  t o l d her of she,  for  her  his  studies,  part,  kept  his him  travels, posted  on  p e r t a i n i n g to c u r r e n t Japanese-American r e l a t i o n s . Inazo's  Jogaku z a s s h i  friend,  Iwamoto  Zenji,  who  published  the  (Women's J o u r n a l ) , a s k e d h i m f o r a n a r t i c l e  on  70 A m e r i c a n women,  Mary w r o t e  the p i e c e  52  for him.  Over t h e  next  three  years,  sustained Shortly  a  love-affair  entirely  before  by  his  bloomed,  letters  studies  sent  which  across  was  the  were c o m p l e t e d ,  forged  and  A t l a n t i c Ocean.  Inazo  had  resolved  71 that  he w o u l d make Mary h i s He w r o t e  for  the  replied gone  to  T o k i t o s h i a b o u t her and t o g e t  marriage. After with  out  marriages  among  Japanese  to  marriages,  failure.  his  two  Inazo  rare  was  Japanese  many  Riichiro.  He t o l d  Saeki  marriage,  I  give  data  that it  up"  a s i m i l a r answer, 72  marriage  plans.  would not  brother,  William,  prospective Inazo But  returned to enter  was  groom.  the  father  And M a r y ' s  liberal  to  home.  After  53  to  months  of  Saeki the  Hiroi,  with  protests  though  he  the  were  was  in  however,  her  interview  the  mind. not  with  careful  proceeded  he was of  doomed  in favor;  the  that  oppose  Sarah,  g i v i n g him her his  find,  consult  sister-in-law,  1890,  could  Isamu and  Germany t o  change  had  argument  insistence,  of encouragement not  he  week  was  and I n a z o  At Mary's  dispatched  would  a  and r e l a t i v e s ,  Philadelphia in July  Elkinton  he  he  international  and H i r o i  After that  Scottus,  listen.  a long l e t t e r  Mary's  family  Joseph  outlook,  Inazo  you  Tokitoshi  ultimately  and d e c i d e d  "if  gave  stronger.  were  i n Germany, H i r o i  likewise,  even  the  Tokyo t h a t  exceptions,  Saeki t o l d  among M a r y ' s  of  approval  opposing;  supporting his  deliberation,  But  in  downhearted,  friends  will  as  his  silence,  vehemently  living  detailed with  p e r i o d of  letter  investigated  and had o b t a i n e d such  a long  a fifty-page  and  bride.  sent  support.  When  Inazo  permitted  fruitless  effort  to to  persuade Joseph Scottus, t h e i r own  I n a z o and  Mary t o o k m a t t e r s  hands and s u b m i t t e d on O c t o b e r 3 0 t h t o t h e  into  Friends 73  Group M e e t i n g i n P h i l a d e l p h i a t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o marry. The  Meeting hesitated  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h i n the Thanksgiving  Day, 74  marriage request.  to give  i t s approval  without  f a m i l y . They c o u n s e l e d d e l a y .  the  Meeting  again  deliberated  The  P h i l a d e l p h i a Inquirer reported  on  a On  the  on  the  d e l i b e r a t i o n s w h i c h , by t h i s t i m e , had a t t r a c t e d much unwanted publicity:  After considerable discussion, Mr. E l k i n t o n , f a t h e r of the p r o s p e c t i v e b r i d e , a r o s e i n t h e m e e t i n g and e m p h a t i c a l l y d e c l a r e d h i s o p p o s i t i o n to the marriage t a k i n g p l a c e . He d e c l a r e d t h a t he had no o b j e c t i o n w h a t e v e r t o Mr. N i t o b e as a man, and c o n s i d e r e d him t o be a g e n t l e m a n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c u l t u r e . But he d i d o b j e c t t o h i s daughter b e i n g c a r r i e d away t o Japan, where she would be v i r t u a l l y c u t - o f f from h e r f a m i l y and f r i e n d s and s u r r o u n d i n g s w i t h w h i c h she has been f a m i l i a r a l l her l i f e . As a r e s u l t o f Mr. E l k i n t o n ' s a r g u m e n t s , t h e a f f i a n c e d l o v e r s d i d n o t "pass m e e t i n g . " ... T h i s l e f t t h e c o u p l e i n a p r e d i c a m e n t , Mr. Nitobe having arranged to r e t u r n to h i s native country...  They p e r s i s t e d .  Finally,  Group gave t h e i r a p p r o v a l . Day  at the F r i e n d s  on C h r i s t m a s 1890,  The  w e d d i n g was  the  h e l d on New  Meeting Years  M e e t i n g House on F o r t h and A r c h S t r e e t i n  downtown P h i l a d e l p h i a . Mary's p a r e n t s d i d not a t t e n d ,  and  was  Rendell  given  away by  an  u n c l e and  H a r r i s from Haverford C o l l e g e , while  at the  parents.  J o h n s H o p k i n s , and  aunt. P r o f e s s o r  a Quaker whom I n a z o had his wife,  On t h e m o r n i n g o f t h e 1 2 t h , 54  J.  represented  I n a z o and  she  met his  Mary v i s i t e d  her  father  blessings, reads  and to  in  mother,  say  who  goodbye.  had  Joseph  s t i l l  not  Scottus'  given  diary  for  their  that  day  part:  T h i s d a y o u r d a u g h t e r l e f t u s f o r J a p a n . On p a r t i n g , the o n l y e x p r e s s i o n to which I c o u l d g i v e u t t e r a n c e w a s "Thou a r t my d a u g h t e r , and I love thee 7  The  couple  steamship journey  crossed  from  country  by  railway  S a n F r a n c i s c o on J a n u a r y  across  Yokohama,  the  the  they spent  Pacific  to  Japan.  17th  and t o o k  for  After  the  members and f r i e n d s . Then i n m i d - F e b r u a r y ,  they  long  arrival  t h r e e weeks i n T o k y o v i s i t i n g w i t h left  a  in  family  for  their  77 new home i n  Hokkaido.  Inazo's conclusion. this  graduate  honors;  had  the he  accomplished  training had  sophisticated  he  acquired  gentleman; family.  were  established.  solidly  these  preliminaries. achieve also  the  second  a  years  he  acutely  largest  won  and  of  that  into  his  he  his  a  saw,  of  a  respected  were  only  h i m ; he had  he h a r b o r e d i n h i s grave  academic  internationalism  l a y ahead o f  his  in  He h a d  mannerisms  had m a r r i e d  work s t i l l  sensed  and f o u r m o n t h s ;  had  speech  accomplishments,  His real  a dramatic  r e m a r k a b l e amount.  The f o u n d a t i o n s  b r i n g an A m e r i c a n w i f e the  the  many h i g h i d e a l s  probably  six  sought;  and he  Philadelphia  But  a b r o a d h a d come t o  He had been away f o r  period  received  studies  to  m i n d . He  responsibility  to  from m e t r o p o l i t a n P h i l a d e l p h i a , then  city  in  55  America,  to  a  little  town  on  Japan's n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r .  He had a deep o b l i g a t i o n t o i n s u r e  78 her  happiness here. The P h i l a d e l p h i a  a nobleman o f h i g h follow  newspapers had c h a r a c t e r i z e d  birth."  h i s l a b o r s ; he 79 e x p e c t a t i o n s of him.  Many eyes  must  56  Nitobe "as  i n America  not d i s a p p o i n t  would  their  now high  A l l work, even c o t t o n - s p i n n i n g , is noble; work is alone noble....A l i f e o f ease i s not for any man, nor f o r any God. Thomas C a r l y l e , Past and  Present  CHAPTER I I I  B u i l d i n g Edinburgh: Sapporo, 1891-1897 Nitobe began work on March 1, to Sapporo. Everywhere he be done.  1891  looked, he  Mary wrote to her  soon a f t e r h i s r e t u r n  saw  t h i n g s t h a t needed to  f a m i l y of h i s z e a l :  Busy he w i l l a l w a y s be; but t o t h i s what can one do but r e s i g n one's s e l f and t r y to h e l p keep up the v i t a l i t y of one who s e e m i n g l y must b^e a v i c t i m to h i s own energy and aspirations....  His affairs  diverse  involving religion,  w e l f a r e . One and  activities  spanned  the  education,  can i d e n t i f y t h r e e  spectrum  economics,  of human and  social  m a j o r themes w h i c h u n d e r l i e  c h a r a c t e r i z e Nitobe's labors a t t h i s stage i n h i s  life:  (1) H i s hope t o i m p l a n t w i t h i n the community a t l a r g e a spiritual  idea  based upon C h r i s t i a n i t y ;  mind, he expended much time and reading  materials  this  end  in  money to make a v a i l a b l e Quaker  f o r Hokkaido's c o l o n i s t s .  (2) His c o n v i c t i o n t h a t moral education for  with  was  indispensible  y o u t h ; w h o l e h e a r t e d l y c o m m i t t e d t o t h i s g o a l , he  spent  many h o u r s t e a c h i n g  e t h i c s c l a s s e s i n s c h o o l , and engaged i n  the c r e a t i o n of two  p r i v a t e schools  that stressed  character  development. (3) the  His desire  various  instructor These mind:  duties at  the  his  fulfill,  to the best of h i s  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s nogakko  themes  that  to  are  and as  unified  w o r k was  placed  advisor  by  to  upon h i m as  the  a central  the  an  Hokkaido cho.  vision  c o n t r i b u t i n g to  abilities,  in  Nitobe's  f o r m a t i o n of  a  2 higher  material  But his  and s p i r i t u a l c u l t u r e on t h e  i n the  health.  possessed,  process  "building Edinburgh," Nitobe  Though he w o r k e d w i t h enormous and a c c o m p l i s h e d  inward s a t i s f a c t i o n work  of  until,  he  energy,  like  much, he a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t  from h i s  finally,  island.  labors.  drove  ruined a man derive  He t o o k on more and more  himself  to  physical  and  mental  collapse.  Religious  Settling Meiji  H o k k a i d o became  government's  agenda  new a r a b l e  lands  made  available  them  hungry people life. over  fourfold 1877  from  and  Hokkaido's the  divided  to  from the  The i s l a n d ' s  between  After  on t h e  the  Restoration.  Ishikari plain, colonists.  priority  north  191,000  to  item It  of  786,000  in  in  opened  the up  S a p p o r o , and  Thousands of  p o p u l a t i o n zoomed u p w a r d s ,  1897.  them,  land-  t o s e e k a new and ^increased  the  twenty  years  3  government  three  a high  mainland, flocked there  dissolution  into  after  Colonizer  of  underwent the  kaitakushi,  administrative  58  significant  districts  the and  changes  too.  island  was  controlled  from  Tokyo by  the  norinsho.  H o k k a i d o cho i n 1886, were  integrated  the  But  with  functions  under t h i s  single  the  formation  of the  entity  local  with  of  the  governments  headquarters  in  4 Sapporo. While  studying  developments  "Sapporo," expressed  through  he  friends,  regular  wrote,  feelings Miyabe,  sentiments.  "will  and  Carlyle. evergreen  were  kept  track  correspondence  be  not  Uchimura  While studying  intellectual  lakes,  Nitobe  a  great  of  with  city  these  friends. 5  someday."  He  h i s longing to r e t u r n : t h e f u r t h e r I come f r o m S a p p o r o , t h e greater g r o w s my a t t a c h m e n t f o r i t . How I w i s h t o go t h e r e and do s o m e t h i n g t o i m p r o v e i t .  Such  Sapporo  abroad,  identified heroes:  The  forests,  and  at  it  the  high  Nitobe each  nogakko,  John  S.  had b r o u g h t a r o m a n t i c  image  of  home  and  the  idealized of  their  and  with  his  similar  had  Mill,  position,  mountain ranges,  alone;  held  they  Edinburgh,  Hume,  northern  to  Hiroi,  with  David  town's  unique  Thomas  its  lush  crysta1-clear  Scottish  city  to  north  of  7 their  adolescent  London  paralleled,  These y o u t h f u l to  the  minds. Nitobe  Scotland's  location  imagined,  Hokkaido v i s - a - v i s  ideas remained with him;  venerated  city  on  his  way  to  to  i n 1887, Germany,  the  after he  Tokyo. a  visit  wrote  Miyabe: [ W ] h e n I was i n E d i n b u r g h , m o s t a p t l y c a l l e d ' t h e A t h e n s o f t h e N o r t h , ' my h e a r t b e a t h i g h f o r t h e f u t u r e o f S a p p o r o . C a n ' t we do s o m e t h i n g w i t h i t f o r Him? My i d e a i s t h a t we (disciples)  59  to  s h a l l buy t h e A g r ' l C o l l e g e some t i m e i n ^he l o n g f u t u r e and c o n s e c r a t e i t t o H i s s e r v i c e . Sapporo's g r o w t h depended on H o k k a i d o ' s economy, w h i c h looked Hard  promising. work  and  The  l a n d abounded i n n a t u r a l  vision,  Nitobe  felt,  were  i n g r e d i e n t s needed t o r e a l i z e i t s p o t e n t i a l . before  e n t e r i n g the nogakko, he had  classmates,  the  key 1877,  s i g n e d , as d i d a l l of h i s  a c o n t r a c t t h a t bound him t o work a f t e r  Nitobe continued  two  In J u l y  f o r f i v e y e a r s i n Hokkaido. Though the c o n t r a c t i n 1883,  resources.  graduation  was  rescinded  t o f e e l a moral commitment t o  serve  9  the  island. But  he  standpoint  viewed of  foundation,  Hokkaido's  future  i t s m a t e r i a l advancement. A  he  believed,  had  to  1  Q u a k e r s as men  o f s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r who,  faith,  spiritual  i t s economic read  had  It depicted  an  his  i n . t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t of the new studies  at  the  Johns  the  t h r o u g h t h e power o f  o v e r c a m e numerous o b s t a c l e s and  success  During Nitobe  a  " E a r l y Quakers i n America," w h i c h appeared i n the i s s u e of Harpers M o n t h l y . ^  achieve  firm  from  a f t e r he had  November 1882  their  only  undergird  d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s i d e a had come t o him article  not  hardships  to  continent.  Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y ,  purchased many books on Quaker h i s t o r y and  thought  w h i c h he brought back t o Sapporo.  W i l l i a m Penn's c o l o n i z a t i o n  exploits  him;  particularly  impressed  he  l e s s o n f o r Hokkaido's c o l o n i s t s i n the "Holy had  become  visualized  1  Pennsylvania. ''"  In h i s  saw  a  historical  Experiment" that  imagination,  Nitobe  the b r i n g i n g of o r d e r t o an untamed w i l d e r n e s s 60  in  a  similar  fashion  civilization the  to the  that  the  English  Quaker  had  brought  lands west of the Delaware r i v e r ;  same p h e n o m e n o n ,  at  a later  it  d a t e and i n a d i f f e r e n t  was part  12 of  the  globe,  In the  of  the  newspaper.  and  work o f  used  them  These  Nitobe  collected  colonists."  own c h a p t e r s  had t h e s e pen  den  to  volumes  to  loaned  Two  write  of  articles  form.  privately  William  of  he  the  William  the  for life  settling  into  work and added two In December  his  of  pamphlets  compiled  under the  Penn),  on  of  articles  on t h e  later,  the  of  i n Japanese  i n a two-volume  published  (Biography  these  editor  books  a series  years  round out  the  some o f h i s  p a r t i c u l a r emphasis  arranged these pamphlets his  Nitobe  were r e n d i t i o n s  Penn w i t h  Pennsylvania. the  1891,  Progress.  (North Gate D a i l y )  The e d i t o r  "for  march of  summer o f  Hokumon s h i m p o Penn.  the  1894  title  and of he  Uiriamu  first  book  in  Japanese. While shimpo,  the  busy  The book had been  arranged  with  prior  to  Philadelphia Tract  appearing  -translating,  f r o m Thomas Cope's  translation  to  was  were  in  i n t h e Hokumon  his  work on G e o r g e  spare  Fox and  printed in Philadelphia in  Two H u n d r e d t h A n n i v e r s a r y o f  Nitobe  the  Penn a r t i c l e s  Nitobe  selections Penn.  the  the  Pennsylvania's  author  leaving Society  the for  to  61  William 1882,  founding,  undertake  the  United States.  on and  Japanese  He w r o t e  M i s s i o n a r y Work  h e l p i n t h i s p r o j e c t . The work was c o m p l e t e d W h i l e w o r k i n g on t h e a b o v e , an u n e x p e c t e d  hours,  for  to  funds 14  i n 1894. occurrence  led  Nitobe  to  author  summer o f  1893,  Hartshorne,  a  third  a f r i e n d from  and  his  Biography  translate he  let  this  Sasai  of  too  William  Anna,  William  Penn,  Japanese.  a young  Penn.  arrived  a m a n u s c r i p t copy of  into  Shu,  on  In  the  P h i l a d e l p h i a , Doctor Charles  daughter,  H a r t s h o r n e gave N i t o b e Short  volume  woman who  Sapporo.  Lucy Roberts' A  hoping  But N i t o b e  in  that was  was  he  too  would  busy,  so  teaching  at  the  asked  revise,  15 Friends G i r l s But  school,  Sasai's  disappointed  carry  work,  him  realized,  to  information  that  by  be  out  the  task.  which Nitobe its  "stiffness."  supplemented was n o t  had been  needed  by  It  also  original  American audience.  He d e c i d e d t o  redo the  save  resorted  a  time,  Nitobe  successfully  used  earlier  continue  hired  a " y o u n g man w i t h a f l u e n t  work;  written  when  the  Kenkoku  bidan  added  the  draft,  months,  employ  from  to  Nitobe  made  (Tales name as  of a  time  style"  man r e t u r n e d t h e  t r a n s l a t i o n was  Sasai's  time  his  to  a Beautiful  profit  or  literary  Kenkoku b i d a n w o u l d s e l l financial it  at  half  burdens the  to  1 6  To  he  had he  week  with  Within  a  p u b l i s h e d the  Country) ,  in  He  dictated a  few book,  Tokyo  and  1  co-author. ^  N i t o b e d i d not e x p e c t h i s W i l l i a m Penn v o l u m e s him  an  and w h i c h  whom he  revisions. he  for  thereafter.  following  completed;  meant  that  articles,  he  background  entire book.  technique  magazine  would  the  to  for  to  needed,  additional  i n the  to  fame. poorly,  He  knew,  62  bring  example,  that  b u t he w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t e d  p u b l i s h and d i s t r i b u t e  publishing cost,  for  to  and  the  book;  gave many c o p i e s  he  the sold  away  to  hotels  i n and a r o u n d S a p p o r o w i t h hopes  visitor  would read i t .  reader  the  religious  exemplified enough  i n the  life  he  and of  could  instill  ethical  William  some c o l o n i s t in  some  teachings  Penn,  that  or  unknown  that  w o u l d be  were reward  1  for  him. ^  Nitobe's spiritual Mary.  If  that  a l t r u i s m to  leader  Her  influence  was  close  greatly  ties  on h i s  serve  to  the  H o k k a i d o c o m m u n i t y as  r e i n f o r c e d by h i s  her  activities.  family  marriage  exerted  a  a to  constant  The E l k i n t o n s w e r e  active  in  19 missionary  and  grandfather, Friends York.  justice  see  to  Western A l b e r t a While  minority  had  among t h e  spent  Seneca  Scottus,  and became  the  for  man,  Joseph  Canada.  that  work  a young  father,  immigrate to  as  schoolteacher  Her  social  social  a  Joseph,  Russian  sixteen  Indians  leader Mary's  to  help  Mary's  years  as  i n western  continued  the the  brother,  also  group 20  settle  pacifist  and B r i t i s h  groups.  work  a  New for  Doukhobors worked safely  hard in  Columbia.  in Philadelphia,  Nitobe  had s t r u c k  up a  friendship  21 with Joseph. letters  about  projects. that  These  Mary w r o t e  strong  From H o k k a i d o , his  letters  and  to  and  would prove  often  Joseph,  to her f a m i l y ,  spiritual  connection  work  Nitobe wrote asked added t o  relatives  intellectual invaluable  work.  63  help  detailed with  hundreds of  and f r i e n d s ,  link for  for  Joseph  to  others  formed a  America;  Nitobe's  his  this  educational  The M o r a l i s t E d u c a t o r  Nitobe  j o i n e d the  professors.  Among  classmates their  the  faculty  recent  Stuttgart.  in  1889;  Nitobe's  Director.  on  Sato, the  who  were  being  were  slowly  as  were  they  old  received from  professor  two  and  foreigners,  were the  replaced  nine  his  Both had  served  staff  A r t h u r B r i g h a m and M i l t o n H a i g h t ; yatoi,  Isamu.  numbered  M i y a b e f r o m H a r v a r d and H i r o i  mentor, Also  which  appointees  M i y a b e K i n g o and H i r o i  doctorates  acting  nogakko  last  by J a p a n e s e  of  the  trained  22 abroad. In h i s three  in  first  Political  German,  one  courses  were  had  a  year,  few  Nitobe  Economy,  taught four  in  xn E n g l x s h c o m p o s i t i o n , mainly  hours  i n the  i n the  honka  yoka  fifteen  the  22  or  f o r m e r . Among t h e s e 23,"  he  development,  lecturxng  xn hxs  lecture  a n d one i n e t h i c s .  (regular  college),  the  hall  it  this  to  academic  i n the  He was 25  be  in  though  more  in  and by  charge  of 24  of  a challenge  1894  had f o u r  the  to  moral  He r e q u e s t e d  of  he  Nitobe  f r o m 14 up  areas  specialty.  yoka,  put  His  m o r e t h a n he d i d  " y o u t h r a n g i n g i n age influence  in  than  for  history  weekly  ethics  well.  Nitobe carried  hours  there.  as  own  six 23  (preparatory department).  exert  and found  more t e a c h i n g classes  could  a week;  Agralpolitik,  f o u n d t h a t he e n j o y e d t e a c h i n g i n t h e l a t t e r in  hours  gave the  ethics course his  highest p r i o r i t y ,  out w i t h remarkable e a r n e s t n e s s : before  [ l e c t u r i n g64 ]  I  kneel  in  "Each t i m e  I  my m i n d b e f o r e  and enter his  throne  to b l e s s  my w o r d s  a n d p e r s o n a n d s p i r i t , " he w r o t e  his  brother-in-law.  Mary,  too,  and  told  her  that,  before  to  the  library  family  for  noticed  his  ethics  moments  of  religious  classes,  quiet  to  devotion  Nitobe  "went  solitude  and  26 meditation." s h o u l d be  is  His  conception  revealed  i n one  of  of  what  his  ethical  instruction  letters:  [To] r e n e w i n some m e a s u r e t h e o l d r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n a t e a c h e r and h i s pupils ... a relation o f m u t u a l r e s p e c t and r e f l e c t i o n s ...whereby a t e a c h e r i s r e g a r d e d as a f o r m a t i v e ^ i n f l u e n c e and n o t a mere i n f o r m a t i o n r e s e r v o i r .  His  stress  history Nitobe  on c h a r a c t e r  courses  as  conducted  "talks."  The  well.  class  text  was  development  Instead  of  discussions,  Guizot's  was  in  on  Feudal  medieval  System,  to  which  described  H i s t o r y of  society  for  raised  example,  questions  in  lecturing  he f o u n d " r i c h i n s u g g e s t i o n s " f o r t o p i c s chapter  reflected  students,  Civilization,  allusion  led  to  "the  as  which  to e x p l o r e .  the  that  he  his  On t h e to  women subject  28 of  the  progress  of  emphasize  quantity  students  learn  primarily  concerned  female  status  in reading,  historical  in general."  n o r was  facts  with history's  or  he  interested  theories;  ethical  He d i d that  Nitobe  not the was  lessons:  I t i s my d e s i r e e s p e c i a l l y w i t h y o u n g e r b o y s (16-20 y e a r s o l d ) to see i n t h e i r historical r e a d i n g s , n o b i l i t y of c h a r a c t e r , g r e a t n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l s : f o r t h e y won't u n d e r s t a n d t h e "laws o f s o c i a l p r o g r e s s " t h e e v o l u t i o n o f s o c i e t y and the like--if i n d e e d a n y b o d y even B u c k l e and Spencer r e a l l y understood i t !  Nitobe a l s o used E n g l i s h  65  literature  as  a means  to  implant  moral  ideas  faith  into  his  students,  since  "our p e o p l e  have  lost  i n B u d d h i s m and i n C o n f u c i a n i s m " :  I f o u n d f r o m my own e x p e r i e n c e a n d o b s e r v a t i o n as w e l l as f r o m t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s , t h a t t h e b e s t m e t h o d o f w o r k i n g on t h e h e a r t o f t h e y o u n g i s at preseri^ t h r o [ s i c ] the avenue of E n g l i s h literature. 1  Soon a f t e r  arrival  in  Sapporo,  kyokai  (English Association).  mainly  of  students  interest  and  classes,  the  popular  ability.  Nineteenth  focused  summer,  Paradise  "will  capital  truths." But  classes  were  Eigaku  started,  and d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g  took  charge  American  their  of  he  took  Lost.  author,  attention charge  Century Writers,  Milton's be  yoka,  Nitobe  nineteenth-century  that  Twelve  form the  two  of  of  and  on E n g l i s h two  the  opportunities  [these to  conversation.  other  classes:  classes],"  enforce  and  he  religious  (1) (2)  writes,  and m o r a l  3 1  ethical  classroom  especially  instruction  lessons  opportunities  for  or such  i n everyday  relationship  with he  moral  students,  regularly  not  only  a  exhortations.  lessons school  was  in  every  activities. he  went  to  Nitobe  aspect  of  To b u i l d  a  volunteered out  matter  the  for field  life, closer  librarian  and  baseball  w i t h t h e m ; a n d i n w i n t e r t i m e , he b r o u g h t o u t h i s 32  w h i c h he had b r o u g h t b a c k f r o m Germany.  66  of saw  duties;  skates,  the  "mastery  ( C a r l y l e , C h a r l e s Lamb)  "Both  to  these  " L o n g f e l l o w Group," which read the works of  group," which Later  from the  he h e l p e d  to  play ice  Nitobe's  enthusiasm  won h i m t h e  respect  of  his  a n d he s o o n b e c a m e o n e o f t h e m o s t p o p u l a r t e a c h e r s In  March  1892,  lecture, to  Nitobe's  consulted  promote  the  yoka s t u d e n t s ,  h i m on s t a r t i n g  fired  on c a m p u s .  up by h i s  a campus-wide  cultural activities.  students,  ethics  organization  Two y o k a g r o u p s  joined  to  33 form  the  Gakugeikai  (Academic  The a s s o c i a t i o n ' s mostly  of  yoka  (Beautiful regular  articles.  a year,  became  They  Magazine)  a forum f o r  role  It in  also  the  played,  "school  not  s p i r i t " at  development  hinder  Nitobe's  secondary  school  system,  it  affairs  worried  children  of  It  an  educators among  to  them.  no of  community  discuss  ideas  identity  on a  and a  middle the age  was  leader,  a scheme t h a t 67  did  school;  he  the the  wider  town s u f f e r e d  schools.  citizens  In t h e  3 5  of  students  since  growing  lack  elementary  This  state  of  the  number  of  an r a p i d  rate.  t h e s e y o u t h be g i v e n  local  summer o f called he  at  Sapporo  from a  had a f o u r - y e a r  imperative that  opportunities.  influential  education  Though i t  post-elementary  was a p r e s s i n g  educational  i n the  had  many  times  Toshiyuki,  nogakko  outside  e a r l y 1890s, the  schools.  four  their  Akizuki student  w i t h the  activities  actively  In the  or  nogakko.  deep i n v o l v e m e n t  community. of  the  of  contributed  three  express  zasshi  - 34  But h i s  participated  says  consisting  Keirin  Nitobe  published to  160,  the  which  students  -  over  began  to  The m a g a z i n e ,  topics.  significant  membership t o t a l e d  students.  Forest  different  Association).  1891,  Hori  a meeting  had i n  mind.  of  Motoi, local  Nitobe  was  Hori  Motoi  was  born  participated  i n the  established  i n 1869 , he was  from  government  President  of  Meiji  he  service  and  Cabinet."  planned  ages o f  as  a  he  said,  if  the  to  principal  of  Nitobe  He  He l a t e r in  had was  retired  Hokkaido. Hori  had s a i d  could  and  kaitakushi  company,  As  numbered  of  have  an academy  him  been  that  in  the  between  which would serve  Sapporo  the  the  for  financial  resources,  administrative  tasks.  b e t w e e n June and A u g u s t , p l a n s  school  i n September. N i t o b e  newly e s t a b l i s h e d  was  Hokumei gakko  were  selected (Northern  3 7  three  much  like  presented  improvement  suggested  assumed  meetings,  taught  he  boys  He w o u l d p r o v i d e  others  this  course  lectures, moral  he  b u i l d i n g of  open t h e  School),  ethics  the  school.  several  finalized  Call  office,  it.  down  Nitobe  s i x t e e n and t w e n t y f o u r ,  middle  After  settled  men.  1844  3 6  Hori the  in  to  railway  in  when t h e  assigned  a coal-mining  remained  Choshu  Restoration;  among H o k k a i d o ' s w e a l t h i e s t "had  in  that  the  that  he  they  classes  there,  which  the  at  nogakko.  one  students himself  "keep  a  e x a m i n a t i o n . " A n o t h e r method t h a t  the with  had diary  included  concrete  adopted as  a  he a d v i s e d  At  these  methods  years means  was  an  earlier. of  "the  of  self-  practice 38  of  c o l d bathing" to Nitobe  manage allow  the time  help develop  arranged  his  daily  endurance schedule  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , conduct to  meet w i t h s t u d e n t s . 68  and w i l l so  classroom  that  power. he  could  teaching,  He r e s e r v e d one n i g h t  and  a week  for  students  from  the  they c o u l d d i s c u s s Later,  in his  School,  school  visit  him; during  w i t h h i m any p r o b l e m s t h a t  tenure  Nitobe  to  as  would  the  Headmaster of  utilize  many  of  this  time,  might  have.  they the  First  these  same  Higher  personal  39 counseling The March  techniques.  Hokumei  1895,  sponsored students  the  Nitobe  when  school  passed  through the  served  the  as  forty-two  doors;  a  nearby,  During  its  new and  school's  the  Hokumei some  a n d he  in  Hokkaido.  left  a strong  o f t h e y o u t h who h a d come i n t o  prior own  need  to  the  school for  in  an  outside  closing the  of  the  evenings.  institution of  Hokumei g a k k o , He h a d  that  regular school  long  this  a r e common t o d a y 4  revolutionary Nitobe  1885.  would  channels,  i n Japan,  it  was  at  Nitobe  give  an  study  particularly  that  schools time  a  1  innovation. " " had  a school  for  Two y e a r s  conviction. start  contact  felt  y o u t h who h a d t o w o r k d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e . T h o u g h  start  on  4  his  s u c h as  110  Many p r o c e e d e d  settlers  Principal  until  government-  existence,  Hokumei's g a t e s . became  months  there. ^  opportunities  gave  built  others  lives  for  its  there.  while  Just  for  been  nogakko,  w i t h him  urgent  operated  closed  had  i n f l u e n c e on t h e  began  it  transferred  students to  gakko  After  first  mentioned  the  disadvantaged  later his  he  repeated  r e t u r n to  the  idea  in a  the  letter  idea,  Sapporo,  of  he  but  wanting to  Miyabe  with  urged the  to in  greater YMCA  to  a n i g h t s c h o o l b u t t h e y d i d n o t h i n g , t o h i s c h a g r i n ; he up h o p e  and c a l l e d  the 69  YMCA  a  "sleepy  a f f a i r . " But  in  1893,  a  strange  event  provided  Nitobe  with  the  funds  to  42 realize  his  dream.  Mary r e c e i v e d  an a n i n h e r i t a n c e  from a P h i l a d e l p h i a f r i e n d . T h i s been  taken  with  love  into  the  she  Mary,  for her p a r t ,  start  willed  the  that  poorest  Mary, to  lot  on  of  it.  dollars  a young o r p h a n , had father  this  and  kindness.  raised  When she  the E l k i n t o n s ' e l d e s t let  her husband use  so  some  section  building  forgot  he had f o r  a  as  home by M a r y ' s  decided  purchased  i n the  two-story  money t o  school  Nitobe yards  woman,  and w a r m t h . She n e v e r  died,  to  Elkinton  o f one t h o u s a n d  long thought  thirty-six  Sapporo.  This  he  It used  the  gift 43  about.  by  had  child.  sixty-five  an o l d  wooden  his  little  for  44 school.  Though t h e  the  "ragged  was  the  "Enyu"  Nitobes  school"  Enyu meant  to  their  yagakko. "far  school  foreign  to  friends"  such  as  A huge  and  Joseph  portrait  of  affectionately its  formal  characters  in  the  David  resources  to  name the Scull,  make  Abraham L i n c o l n ,  as name  commemorated  Elkinton,  H a r t s h o r n e — w h o had p r o v i d e d t h e possible.  it  friends,  The C h i n e s e  off  Philadelphians—people Doctor  referred  the  which  a d o r n e d t h e w a l l o f t h e m a i n r o o m , was s e n t b y M a r y ' s a u n t , S a r a h S m i t h . S t u d e n t s f r o m t h e n o g a k k o , v o l u n t e e r e d an h o u r o r 45 two  a week t o Nitobe's  time  on h i s  administer worked  as  s e r v e as busy  teachers.  schedule  new e n d e a v o r . the a  school. minor  d i d not  allow  F r i e n d s i n the  70  work  full-  community h e l p e d  One young C h r i s t i a n , governent  him to  official,  him  a M r . Sugamura who and  his  wife,  contributed publicize  many h o u r s . A l o c a l  the  school  nurse,  and g a t h e r  Hoshi Honami,  students'  on  her  helped  rounds  to  among  46 the  recent  colonists.  Nitobe  found  the  venture  deeply  satisfying: It is a blessed work . . . and t h e r e I come b a c k w i t h a h e a r t s y m p a t h y and a s e n s e o f d i v i n e  In the the  first  classes  to  volunteers classes  curriculum  nights  found  met  consisted  In  the  such  established  to  a shortage  e a c h week. teach,  the  r e g u l a r l y every of  former,  E n g l i s h were t a u g h t ; skills  months,  a few  were  that  course."  few  as  every t i m e I go aglow^^with human love.  of teachers B u t by 1897  school  evening  limited when  began  to  more offer  f o r two h o u r s .  Its  a "regular course"  and a " p r a c t i c a l  academic  such  i n the  nursing,  subjects  latter,  students  etiquette  a Sunday s c h o o l ,  with  its  as  learned  and  math  practical  sewing.  lectures  and  It  also  on s p i r i t u a l  48 living,  as  a  educational, the  early  part  of  though  years.  brother-in-law  the  girls  curriculum. from poor  A happy N i t o b e  i n J a n u a r y 1896  The s c h o o l  families  was  able  was  co-  predominated to  report  to  in his  that:  [The s c h o o l ] c o n t i n u e s to prosper . . . [t]he a t t e n d e n c e i s so l a r g e — n e a r s e v e n t y — t h a t the t h r e e l i t t l e rooms we have b a r e l y g i v e u_^ s p a c e t o w a l k among them when t h e y a r e s e a t e d .  When yagakko two  Nitobe  was  years  left  firmly  later.  Sapporo  established  Though i t  in and  never  71  October graduated  attained  1897, its  formal  the first  Enyu class  recognition  as  an a c c r e d i t e d  forty-five  years  Sapporo's youth. function  to  cater  In t h i s  of  designated passing,  the  school  second  school  the  it  it  needs  served  continued  of  a  for  the  Hanzawa M a k o t o ,  f o r many d e c a d e s ,  of  an i m p o r t a n t c o m m u n i t y  rest  upon h i s  for  segment  i m p a c t . N i t o b e r e m a i n e d as  Principal  i n 1938,  institution, to  way,  and h a d a l a s t i n g  Principal  the  educational  of  his  death  in  Honorary  life; 1933;  Mary  was  after  her  who had b e e n a s s o c i a t e d  became the  with  third Principal.  The  50 school  closed  in  1940.  Scholar  T h e n o g a k k o was Nitobe's budget were  first  was  people  years  in  kaitakushi,  few  passing as  some  with  controlled  that  of  they  justify  best  of  still  The  its  the  whole  primitive  school  of  early  the the  was  the  of  snow,  to  demise  were  in  of  not 51  most J a p a n e s e ? as  were  now a dim  How c o u l d  that  A majority of  a wasteland—a  and b e a r s — w i t h o u t  a  h a d made  m a i n l a n d who h e l d  a college  the  over.  1890  strings  Its  entirely  associated,  Diet  continue  Hokkaido  during  1890s.  school  usefulness  purse's  times  Hokkaido c o l o n i z a t i o n venture.  image  people,  days  men f r o m  p u b l i c funds  the  the  After  newly-created  dubious value to  held  in  abolishing  government  by e l e c t e d  view  of  whose name t h e  thought  worse.  through d i f f i c u l t  quarters.  The o p e n i n g o f t h e things  Official  instructor  r e d u c e d and t a l k  heard  and  much u s e  was  at  Japanese land  of  to  the  52 country. The  prevailing  mood w i t h i n 72  the  country,  moreover,  1  contributed  to  the  nogakko s  promulgation  of  the  Meiji  issuance year,  of  the  Imperial  Japanese  institutions identity. college.  This  from  their  nationalism  the  in  town  all  Christianity  in  and  aspects  own  unique  ran  1889  following ideas and  legacy  American  school's  t h a t had been f o s t e r e d  the  and  selfof  the  p a r t i n f o u n d i n g and  and  the  the  the  and  the  values  against  college, of  After  imported western  A m e r i c a n s had p l a y e d a c r u c i a l  developing appeared  seek  Constitution  R e s c r i p t on E d u c a t i o n  t u r n e d away to  unpopularity.  there  influences  curriculum. was  The  now s e e n  in a  53 negative  light.  Within exerted  this  to  climate,  replace  the  there  was  steady  original  political  broadly  based  pressure academic  c u r r i c u l u m w i t h a program t h a t emphasized s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g of  immediate  orientated After  applicability.  type  Nitobe  of  curriculum  arrived,  this  and ended i n a c o m p l e t e Nitobe  Since  s e r v e d as  the  late  had been  trend  curriculum  was  slowly  pushed  reform  chairman of t h i s  in  i n the  w h i c h he h i m s e l f  had r e c e i v e d d u r i n g the  he c o u l d n o t c o u n t e r  oriented curriculum. specialize,  but  in  the  World E x p o s i t i o n t h a t  to  first for a  nogakko  asked to  "interference  of  politics 73  in  for  write,  55 the  education."  further,  1895.  He d i d n o t s p e a k i n g a g a i n s t  he had b e e n  work-  introduced.  even 54  train  advocates  a r e p o r t on t h e  this  committee.  strongly believed  college,  academic course  1880s,  Though'he  generalists, years  of  the  technicallythe  need  to  the  Chicago  he  lamented  In  retrospect,  government  in  centralization Education). nation's  one  the  can  the  school's  process  i n t r u s i o n of  affair  under  the  as  schools.  Throughout  M i n i s t e r between  pertaining  to  nogakko  technical  was  placed  its  Inoue  1894  and  education under the  a  the  in  the  (Ministry  c o n t r o l over  Kowashi's 1895,  tenure  many  appeared. complete  national  phase  Monbusho  I t had g r a d u a l l y t i g h t e n e d  Education  the  see  of the as  ordinances  As p a r t o f  them,  j u r i s d i c t i o n of  the  Monbusho.^ Though relating  to  Nitobe's  neglect his  for  his  the  H i s t o r y of  that  classes  lectures, though  great  own a c a d e m i c in  specialty;  Agriculture in he  says,  was  books  Agricultural  not  "silent  He  worked  hard  on and  youth,  Economics,  task .for  political  such  peaceful  completed  n o t e s . They formed the backbone of  he  a  did  diligently  Countries.  an e a s y  described  were  age  activities  he p r e p a r e d  Different  they  agriculture].  were h i s  of p r e - c o l l e g e  Agralpolitik,  history  depth,  lecture  interests  moral development  not  these  primary  and  Writing he  found  affairs  in  arts"  [as  full  two b o o k s  set  of  that  he  57 w o u l d p u b l i s h e d a few In  common  Economics  was  training)  after  jisshu,  Nitobe  universities, own this  research seminar,  with  years the  alloted the  other  courses,  afternoon  curriculum  introduced where  topic  later.  the  74  to  seminar,  interested  Kumao,  hours  reforms  independently.  Takaoka  Nitobe's j isshu  Agricultural (practical  of  1895.  In p l a c e  the  first  in  Japanese  students could pursue One o f  following  his  his  best  their  students  footsteps,  of  in  studied  i n Germany and r e t u r n e d t o Policy,  a topic  which Nitobe  Sato  had a l s o  Although prestigious the  that  he  the  college  Shosuke  later  had f i r s t  taught  nogakko,  in  far-off  Nitobe  "Three S c h o l a r s and t h e i r  and  Mail,  mentions  describes  Colonial  i n t r o d u c e d and  taught. Sapporo at  attracted  some  c o u n t r y a young s c h o l a r w i t h g r e a t  Japan  to teach  not  attention  potential.  academic  doctoral  accomplishment  dissertation  very  within  An a r t i c l e  W o r k s , " d a t e d J a n u a r y 1893,  Nitobe's  his  the  on  in  the  abroad  Japanese  59 agriculture  i n great  His academic Hokkaido between  detail.  work a p p e a r s  and a l r e a d y the  scholars  shows  t o have been c o n f i n e d  his  and t h e  interest  intelligent  to  mainly  bridge  laymen.  the  to gap  He h e l p e d  to  start the Economic A s s o c i a t i o n i n Sapporo and r e a d his t e c h n i c a l p a p e r s a t i t s m e e t i n g s . A n d he h e l p e d g e t a d a i l y column i n a l o c a l  newspaper  for  the  faculty  at  the  nogakko  to  60 write  about  publisher Thesis also  in  their Morioka  magazine,  Nitobe while  he  for  the  submitted  for p r i n t i n g "in a monthly  contributed  Soho's  work  in  several the  d i d not  Sapporo.  agricultural  short  Far E a s t . publish Aside  villages  wider  public.  parts  of  serial  pieces  in  his  And t o  Johns  a  Hopkins  i n my h o m e l a n d . " He E n g l i s h to  Tokutomi  6 1  much o n A g r i c u l t u r a l  from  two  statistical  in a Tokyo-based j o u r n a l ,  Economics studies  on  he p r o d u c e d  62 little. other  This paucity.resulted activities.  He w o r e  two 75  from h i s  many i n v o l v e m e n t  official  hats:  both  with  professor  and  technical  latter  advisor  often  to  required  the  Hokkaido cho.  him  to  The  undertake  duties  of  the  time-consuming  63 projects.  For example,  investigate for  the  and d r a f t ,  Imperial  i n November  with  several  Agricultural  1894,  he  others,  was  asked  a technical  Society  on  the  frequent  sale  to  paper  following  questions: (1)  measures  (2)  to  prevent  too  procedures for s t a r t i n g  (3)  methods i n h o r s e s and  Agricultural  s u p p l y i n g the cattle;  (4)  measures  to  prevent  the  (5)  means  facilitating  of  farm  lots;  co-operatives;  farming population  importation of  with  sugar; 64  Working duties.  of  i n the  In o r d e r t o  Hokkaido  cho  two  i n 1893.  on  abandoned  not  began  at  this  the  Kotona  revealed  that  projects  were  seeds.  cultivable  research  Nitobe  in  July  economic  was  Nitobe's land,  stations  1893.  assigned This  but another  Sapporo i n  m a r g i n a l , they  40,000 h e c t a r e s ,  of  1910.  benefits  the  the soil work  project  later  derived  d i d lead to  to  similar  Though  the  in  They aimed to r e c l a i m p e a t - b o g  thereafter,  near the  area of  peat-bog  project  long  exchange  comprised a p a r t of  a g r i c u l t u r a l development.  full-time  over  also  increase  started  Ishikari valley for  field  the  was  project studies  from  these  development  mainly i n Western Hokkaido,  the  of  greater  65 part  of  it  i n the  Takakura  Ishikari  plain.  Shin'ichiro writes  s u r v e y i n g p r o j e c t at the r e q u e s t 76  that Nitobe also of the  engaged  in a  l o c a l government.  It  was  being  inundated  submitted  a paper,  regulating of  land  landlord-tenant  Hokkaido kosaku  cultivation  land-tenancy  various  by  in  disputes.  jorei  Hokkaido),  soan  changes.  But h i s  upon  In i t  recommendations  A c c o r d i n g to Takakura, N i t o b e ' s  (A p r o p o s a l  based  l a w s i n E u r o p e and A m e r i c a .  he  the  studies  suggested  were not  d r a f t was  Nitobe  adopted.  first  i n Japan  66 t o d e a l i n t h i s way w i t h t h e s e t e n a n c y Nitobe's about  a d v i s o r y work a t  twenty a f f i l i a t i o n s  S a p p o r o . He was such  as  the  various  Red C r o s s ,  member o f saddled  his  faculty  with  the  Director  of  Nitobe welcoming  librarian,  task out  of  of  was  constantly  something  already densely In signs  spite that  of  In the  on t h e  whenever  else.  was  and  Mary  move,  for  offered  nogakko p l a c e d to  was  regardless  a full  teaching  groups, 1895,  And i n  always  when  seeking  asking  to  was  Acting-  for  o f how b u s y he  managed  and  he  1896,  appointed  came  the  fit  it  and his  might  into  an  schedule.  busyness,  something  he  work  and s u p p o r t  summer o f  requests  He a l w a y s  overcrowded his  addition  Hokkaido, 67  he i n v a r i a b l y o b l i g e d ,  be w i t h  But the  dormitory advisor.  school.  work;  he  of  i n and a r o u n d  a d v i s o r to student  committees.  the  new  In  home,  b u t one  social-service  reform work,  own  upon h i m .  as  travelled  help,  prison  And a t  demands  he s e r v e d  Sato  organizations  i n B i b l e S t u d y and E n g l i s h .  greatest load,  with  H o k k a i d o cho was  involved with different  schools.  classes  the  laws.  however,  wrong.  As  there early  were as  ominous  1892,  he  c o m p l a i n e d of a " p a i n i n the r i g h t arm" t h a t d i d not have 77  any  physiological years.  cause.  T h i s grew p r o g r e s s i v e l y  Hanzawa Makoto r e c a l l e d  a chalk  steady  to  trouble  sleeping.  write  that  on t h e  Nitobe  worst  c o u l d not  blackboard.  And he  over  the  even h o l d was  having fi  But N i t o b e  struggled  to  keep  8  on w o r k i n g .  Crisis!  Nitobe's 1897  health  steadily  he was b a r e l y a b l e  August  19th  succinctly  deteriorated  to get  out  of bed.  captures  his  mental  and by  late  Mary's  summer  letter  of  anguish:  [We] a r e a g a i n p a s s i n g t h r o u g h deep waters; . . . I t h i n k t h e h e a v i e s t p a r t o f i t t o me i s that I n a z o ' s h o u l d have such h a r d , h a r d s t r u g g l e s to l a y down a l l w o r k a n d do w h a t s e e m s t o h i m a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g . . . A . H . [Anna H a r t s h o r n e ] has j u s t put i n t o h i s hands f o r the a f t e r n o o n a b r u s h & box o f p a i n t s t o " p l a y " w i t h , as it o c c u r e d t o h i m t h a t was s o m e t h i n g he c o u l d do w i t h o u t t h i n k i n g too hard over i t .  Mary's long i l l n e s s 1892,  Mary gave b i r t h  after  only  after  compounded h i s  to  a week,  a son the  to have been an a g o n i z i n g Her age probably for back  of  34 and t h e  several to  months  whom t h e y  to  7  and t r a m a t i c  her  medical  she  recuperated.  she  returned to  Sapporo i n  regained  her  health  suffered  ^ and  nervousness.  71  78  She  1894,  frequent  but  Mary.  i n Sapporo  was  bedridden  accompanied  After she  attacks  But  appears  for  facilities  i n June, Nitobe  absence,  and  experience  difficulties.  thereafter;  P h i l a d e l p h i a where  named T h o m a s .  baby d i e d . ^ The d e l i v e r y  inadequate  contributed  p r o b l e m s . In J a n u a r y  a period never of  her of  fully fatigue  Her  poor  problem  health  only  aggravated  that  appears  to  psychological  makeup.  Studying his  we a r e s t r u c k by t h e in  his  student  achieve. have  been  His e a r l y  hunger  for  have u n d e r s t o o d .  for  good  his  felt.  Hokkaido.  Wasn't  the  1891  pattern that  country,  and more  He f u l f i l l e d incredible  In h i s  the  1897  we have  seen  need  own m i n d ,  drive  to  seems  to  which  he  he  worked  specifically  moral duty that  quantity  of  his  own  and  and h o n o r  psychological  may n o t  good o f  in Nitobe's  between  recognition  an u n s a t i s f i e d  of  life  deeply-rooted  an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y p o w e r f u l  himself the  more  embedded  same c o m p u l s i v e  years:  remained  have  a  for  he had  work p r o o f  the long  of  his  72 devotion  and  Work,  sincerity?  the  earnestness, in  this;  "doing  formulated for  it  he  the  V i c t o r i a n s have is  its  that  answer  was  lies  to h i s  he  so  obsessively  contentment;  it  d i d not  done  religiously  with  believed  e m b r a c e d Thomas C a r l y l e ' s m a x i m — nearest" —as  an  intellectually  problem of r e c o n c i l i n g h i s  w o r l d l y fame w i t h s p i r i t u a l r e p o s e .  work  a virtue;  own r e w a r d . N i t o b e  had e a r l i e r  Duty  said,  pursued  solve his  did  Yet not  innermost  he  desires  found t h a t  bring  him  desires  to  the  inward act  out  a r o l e on a w i d e r a n d m o r e p r o m i n e n t s t a g e . In Nitobe  spite  his  appears  to  deep have  piety  and e x p r e s s i o n s  vacillated  in his  i n the backwoods  of Hokkaido f o r the  expressed  dissatisfaction  a vague  his  earlier  idealistic  the  longing  in his  expressions.  heart  for 79  sincerity,  commitment  rest  with  of  of h i s  life  to  remain  life.  He h a d  there,  Sapporo c o u l d  more t r a v e l  and  more  in spite not  of  satisfy  experience  i n a w i d e r w o r l d . As e a r l y as 1892, he had s e n t a f e e l e r  out  to h i s Johns Hopkins p r o f e s s o r , H e r b e r t Adams, t o i n q u i r e  into  73 possibilities  f o r f u r t h e r study  i n America.  And  to h i s  b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , J o s e p h , he a d m i t t e d t o a l o n e l i n e s s t h a t he f e l t w o r k i n g i n Sapporo where t h e r e was no one "at whose f e e t 74 he c o u l d s i t a t . " And i n a moment o f c a n d o r , t o h i s s t u d e n t s , he had r e v e a l e d t h a t he was n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n 75 s t a y i n g a t Sapporo f o r v e r y long. exacerbated these  Mary's i l l n e s s  probably  feelings.  But thoughts o f w a n t i n g t o l e a v e c r e a t e d s t r o n g g u i l t i n him; he r e c o g n i z e d and  people  appointment.  like 76  the debt t h a t he owed t o the Hokkaido Sato,  had  helped  him  get  him  He c o u l d not abandon them. And he c o u l d not  u n f a i t h f u l t o h i s own to  who  cho his  be  quest t o b u i l d Edinburgh. He had t o s t a y  c o n t i n u e h i s e a r l i e r vow.  Exerting strong w i l l  power  and  t h i n k i n g t h a t t h i s would s u f f i c e , N i t o b e immersed h i m s e l f w i t h more and more work. B u t a f t e r s i x and a h a l f y e a r s he c o u l d t a k e no more. He s u f f e r e d a nervous  80  breakdown.  To be b o r n t h u s empty i n t o t h i s modern age, . t h i s m i x t u r e o f good and i l l , and y e t t o s t e e r through l i f e on an honest course to the s p l e n d o r s of success — this is a feat reserved f o r paragons of our k i n d , a t a s k beyond t h e n a t u r e of the normal man. I h a r a S a i k a k u , The Japanese F a m i l y Storehouse CHAPTER I V The  R i s e t o P r o m i n e n c e : 1897-1906  Hokkaido's c o l d l o n g , grey Bedridden,  w i n t e r was  months ahead promised Nitobe's  mind  fast  approaching,  little  invariably  and  the  hopes f o r r e c o v e r y .  turned  to  his  work.  D e c i d i n g t h a t a change o f l o c a t i o n w o u l d be t h e b e s t way r e g a i n h i s h e a l t h , N i t o b e asked the nogakko  On  October  f o r a leave of absence  to  from  2nd, he l e f t w i t h h i s f a m i l y f o r a 2  warmer c l i m a t e i n Shonan. They s t a y e d t h e r e b r i e f l y and went on t o K a m a k u r a , w h e r e t h e y s p e n t t h e n e x t few months i n a 3  r e n t e d beach house i s o l a t e d from the town. R e c u p e r a t i o n : L i f e as a S e m i - I n v a l i d Their household  now  i n c l u d e d a t h r e e - y e a r o l d nephew,  Y o s h i o , and Mary's p e r s o n a l n u r s e , a young p h y s i c i a n , R a c h e l Read. Y o s h i o was  N i t o b e ' s f a v o r i t e s i s t e r K i s a ' s son. N i t o b e  had brought Y o s h i o t o Sapporo when he r e t u r n e d from a t r i p t o  81  w e s t e r n Japan. had graduated 1892  from  Anna Hartshorne's c o u s i n .  She  t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a C o l l e g e o f Osteopathy  in  and accompanied Mary t o Japan  her f a m i l y about 1900  "on  Rachel Read was  i n 1893.  a f t e r the l o n g v i s i t  with  w i t h the Nitobes  until  Read r e m a i n e d  when she began a p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e i n Tokyo.  Her s p e c i a l t y , o s t e o p a t h y , was  a system  a theory  due  structural involved  that diseases  integrity."  of  limbs  measures, i n c l u d i n g  chiefly  d i n n e r , morning 7 bedtime. Nitobe l a t e r  baths,  commented  for  loss  of  patients by  other For  l i k e an hour's  nap  or s u r g e r y .  a body to  based  6  medicine  and  to  supplemented  N i t o b e , Read p r e s c r i b e d f r e q u e n t r e s t s , before  of t h e r a p y  Prescribed treatment  manipulation  therapeutic  are  5  massage  an  before  acquaintance  in  g  P h i l a d e l p h i a t h a t "osteopathy i s d o i n g much." In  T o k y o , N i t o b e had  seen s e v e r a l  leading specialists  a b o u t h i s i l l n e s s . They i n c l u d e d a D o c t o r H a s h i m o t o and r e n o w n e d German p h y s i c i a n , who Imperial  University,  Edwin  the  was t e a c h i n g m e d i c i n e a t t h e 9 Baeltz.  him  a  r i g o r o u s p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . F i n d i n g no o r g a n i c d i s o r d e r ,  he  c o n c l u d e d t h a t the problem  He  stemmed from  Baeltz  gave  e m o t i o n a l causes.  asked N i t o b e t o e x p l a i n h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . N i t o b e thought t h a t perhaps his  h i s heavy work was  many  activities.  r e s p o n s i b l e , and r e l a t e d i n d e t a i l  Baeltz,  unimpressed,  retorted  that  " o v e r w o r k was n o t t h e cause." The t r i g g e r f o r t h e b r e a k d o w n , the German d o c t o r s a i d , had t o be something  1  else. ^  B a e l t z ' s minute q u e s t i o n i n g r e v e a l e d a r e c e n t death of a young nogakko s t u d e n t from Kyushu. N i t o b e had spent much t i m e 82  n u r s i n g t h e i l l s t u d e n t and was d e e p l y moved by t h e s i g h t o f t h e dead s t u d e n t ' s f i a n c e e w e e p i n g a t t h e  burial.  Baeltz  felt  f o r the  nervous  that this  breakdown.  was  the  immediate  reason  N i t o b e needed t o r e s t c o m p l e t e l y , the d o c t o r s a i d .  Furthermore,  he warned t h a t i t would t a k e perhaps t h r e e , and  as much as s e v e n , y e a r s f o r N i t o b e t o c o m p l e t e l y r e c o v e r h i s health.  1 1  N i t o b e was  w e l l enough by December t o take s h o r t s t r o l l s  a l o n g the Kamakura s e a c o a s t . He took Y o s h i o on the to  visit  the  famous D a i b u t s u  jinrikisha  ( G r e a t Buddha) o r t h e  nearby  Hachiman s h r i n e a s h o r t d r i v e away. And on c l o u d l e s s days, the e n t i r e f a m i l y went f o r o u t i n g s w i t h p i c n i c b a s k e t s t o v i e w . . 12 Mount F u j i . work.  As he g o t s t r o n g e r , N i t o b e t u r n e d b a c k t o h i s  H i s f i r s t t a s k was  to complete  t h e Nogyo h a t t a t s u s h i  ( H i s t o r y of a g r i c u l t u r a l development).  For s h o r t p e r i o d s -  twenty  t o a young  to t h i r t y  graduate,  minutes—he  Kotani Takeji,  from  dictated  his lecture  t e c h n i q u e , which he had used t o complete  notes.  nogakko 13 This  the Kenkoku b i d a n and  some magazine a r t i c l e s , a l l o w e d him t o work w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o w r i t e . The  manuscript  was  complete 14  by e a r l y December, and  he  They moved t h e i r household a g a i n , on January 12, 1899,  to  submitted i t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n .  Numazu, a c o a s t a l town i n Shizuoka. N i t o b e c o u l d now  work f o r  two o r t h r e e h o u r s e v e r y day. He began p l a n s f o r a s t u d y t h a t he e n v i s i o n e d as h i s magnum opus. The  whole p r o j e c t e n t a i l e d  t h r e e major s e c t i o n s : a one-volume P r i n c i p l e s of A g r i c u l t u r e ; 83  a two-or-three  v o l u m e H i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e ; and a  two-volume  15 Agralpolitik. After  publishing  the  Nogyo  hattatsu  s.h_i,  which  he  d e s c r i b e d as "a r o u g h o u t l i n e o f of the g r o u n d I have i n v i e w , "  300 p a g e s , c o v e r i n g one t h i r d he c o n c e n t r a t e d o n d r a f t i n g  the  Nogyo  first  of  the  series,  the  honron  (Principles  of  16 agriculture). completed Ikaho  For the  the  Tokyo  the  six  resort  out  Sapporo sosho, - 17 nogakko.  his  1898  the  book  completely  continue  had s u g g e s t e d t h a t Nitobe  adopted  submitted nogakko.  his In  as  the  and d e d i c a t e d  the  first  Shokabo  volume at  he,  in  the  of the  Sapporo  Again  Nitobe  decided  would h e l p  obtained  resignation  July,  and  at  The p u b l i s h e r  their  well,  climate  Empress of  in  the  their  to  the  speed  A doctor  his  travel  summer  recovery.  papers,  H o k k a i d o cho  and  and the  Mary and Y o s h i o e m b a r k e d f o r N o r t h Japan-- Nitobe's  third  voyage  across  1 8  Travelling from  its  preface  recuperation in California.  Yoshio,  late  Pacific.  his  formal  A m e r i c a on t h e the  the  a g r o u p of works by p r o f e s s o r s  not  to  He w r o t e  mother.  America  of  he w o r k e d s t e a d i l y  i n Gunma P r e f e c t u r e ,  memory o f  brought  Still  months  manuscript i n July.  hotspring  work to  next  with  Hokkaido,  them  Kawai  was  a talented  Michi,  whom  they  twenty-year had  old  befriended  girl in  - 19 Sapporo going  while  she  studied  at  t o B r y n Mawr C o l l e g e , 84  the  Keisen jogakko.  where  she  h a d won a  Kawai  was  scholarship  that  had  been  established  a few  years  earlier  through  the  Concerned  for  20 efforts  of  Kawai's  safety,  and d o n ' t s to  Tsuda  of  Umeko  the  Nitobes  travel  where  they  Alice  Bacon.  c a r e f u l l y i n s t r u c t e d h e r on t h e  abroad;  do  went t h r o u g h much p a i n s 21 reached P h i l a d e l p h i a . destination was V a n c o u v e r , British  see t h a t she s a f e l y Their immediate  Columbia,  and  spent  and t h e y  the  late  summer i n B . C . ' s c r i s p and  22 cool  climate.  disembark  In  from  Elkinton  their  Victoria, ships.  had welcomed  they  Earlier  the  first  watched that  the  year,  group  from  Doukhobors  Joseph Europe  Scottus in  Nova  23 Scotia.  Upon  arrival  westward.  Mary  later  i n Canada,  sent  a sketch  the to  Doukhobors  her b r o t h e r  dispersed  that  Yoshio 24  had drawn o f The moved  some D o u k h o b o r s a t  Nitobes  inland  spent  to  visit  Park.  After  train  east  final  destination:  ninety  a few to  miles  days  Toronto.  to  the  M o n t e r e y was  time  British there,  in  waterfront.  Victoria  before  Columbia's Glacier  they  They t h e n  saw  Kawai  proceeded  Michi  south of  off  southward to  its  n a t u r a l beauty  when t h e of  on  the  their some  San F r a n c i s c o .  Mexican C a l i f o r n i a ' s o l d c a p i t a l .  had ended  they  National  Monterey Peninsula i n C a l i f o r n i a , 25  boom d a y s quiet  some  the V i c t o r i a  c a p i t a l was tall  moved t o  Though  its  Sacramento,  t r e e s and w h i t e b e a c h e s made 26 i t an i d e a l h a v e n f o r r e c u p e r a t i o n . I t h a d a t t r a c t e d many 27 a r t i s t s i n i t s e a r l y days. In 1879, i t was t e m p o r a r y home t o a consumptive twenty-nine-year-old S c o t t i s h w r i t e r from 28 Edinburgh, Robert Louis Stevenson. A t t h a t t i m e , some 350  85  denizens  lived  i n M o n t e r e y , many o f  whom w e r e  of  S p a n i s h or  29 Mexican descent. story  about  While  the  there,  firebrand  W h e t h e r N i t o b e knew t h i s •donated  in  later  life  Stevenson  Japanese  wrote  patriot,  a remarkable  Yoshida  Shoin.  i s n o t k n o w n ; b u t t h e l i b r a r y t h a t he  to  the  T o k y o Women's C o l l e g e  left,  the  town had begun t o  contains  30  Stevenson'  book.  When S t e v e n s o n tourist  spot.  A new  railroad  and s t a t i o n  change  into  had r e c e n t l y  a  been  31  b u i l t t o s e r v e t h e b r a n d new H o t e l D e l M o n t e . The h o t e l had achieved a well-established r e p u t a t i o n when t h e Nitobes 32  arrived  seventeen years  They College the  spent  Park  months.  several  in  Pacific.  There  Nitobe  they  could In  congealed  into  rested  home o f  reflect  peaceful  book  and  that  would  short  Nitobe Griffis,  did  not  have  he had e x p r e s s e d  the  soul  specific the  the  moved  wish  of  plans "to  try  to  U n i v e r s i t y of  for  the  next  meditate  win  in  Bushido,  they  his  him  few  without creative  he had l o n g c a r r i e d  l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y and p r o p e l h i m t o years:  1898.  atmosphere  Japanese a few  of  before  quietly  Ideas t h a t a  winter  there  County,  now  the  energies burst forth.  i n the  weeks  Santa C l a r a  interruption.  and  later  a  upwelled place  international  in fame  Japan. write  Bushido.  my hand i n  To  writing  33  something had been  with a professional  written short Though  strong  view."  some E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e pieces. he  interest  While  articles,  in Sapporo,  but  they  had  he all  3 4  lacked in  the  time  for  them,  Eng1ish-language 86  Nitobe  writings  retained  and  a  followed  c l o s e l y t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f Uchimura. The l a t t e r , a f t e r he had gained  notoriety  Imperial favor  through  his refusal  t o bow  before the  R e s c r i p t , had s t a r t e d t o w r i t e . Mary N i t o b e ,  as a  t o h e r husband's f r i e n d , h e l p e d e d i t some o f Uchimura's 35  works.  I n a l e t t e r t o G r i f f i s , N i t o b e had s p o k e n  favorably  36 o f them. from  Now, f r e e o f d i s t r a c t i o n and i s o l a t e d by d i s t a n c e  visitors  popularize  and s e l f - i m p o s e d d u t i e s ,  f o r an E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e  Nitobe too decided t o  audience.  W h i l e i n Canada, N i t o b e had w r i t t e n an essay, 37 of America."  "Expansion  Though i t no l o n g e r e x i s t s , i t was p r o b a b l y  w r i t t e n as a r e s p o n s e t o r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s of the United States:  t h e Spanish-American  the a n n e x a t i o n o f H a w a i i  and t h e P h i l i p p i n e s .  perhaps  written,  n o t have  been  except  War and  Bushido  for a  would  fortuitous  o c c u r r e n c e . To G r i f f i s he w r o t e : At t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f M i s s H a r t s h o r n e , who by t h e way h a s come t o j o i n us f r o m P h i l a d e l p h i a , I have begun a p a p e r on B u s h i d o - P r e c e p t s o f Knighthood, as an e s s e n t i a l o f J a p a n e s e c h a r a c t e r , i n f a c t a key t<g understand t h e moral s e n t i m e n t s o f h e r people. H i s s t r o n g memory s e r v e d him w e l l as he wrote. Though he d i d n o t have many b o o k s w i t h h i m , he p r o b a b l y r e l i e d on t h e University  of P a c i f i c l i b r a r y  t o check  many s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s  39  within the text.  Though no r e c o r d  of the a c t u a l d r a f t i n g of  t h e m a n u s c r i p t e x i s t s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t he d i c t a t e d t h e 40  w h o l e o f i t , as one dictated  biographer states.  some s e c t i o n s  Nitobe  o f i t t o Anna H a r t s h o r n e , 87  may have but the  balanced  r h y t h m and s m o o t h  worked and r e w o r k e d the polish  of  the  on t h e  draft  to  d i d not  Japan. Sato 41  Sapporo.  the that  Nitobe  of  left  the  nogakko.  wrote  Adams t e l l i n g of  prose  suggests  many t i m e s  to  issue their  wrote of  achieve  return  sensei.  to  he  he  the  returned  urge h i s  They  Sapporo  appears  from the  he  he w o r k e d  . . . Gakugeikai zasshi  beloved  He h a d o t h e r  Tokyo,  w o u l d do a f t e r r e g u l a r l y to  the  him t h a t  that  California. he  B u t he h i m s e l f  about  University  he  Shosuke  would  professorship.  the  materials  know w h a t  Every  whereabouts  of  p r o d u c t . And more t h a n l i k e l y ,  even a f t e r  Nitobe home t o  final  flow  to  more  have  Noble's  repeatedly  resume  been  lucrative  had " r e c e i v e d  reported  say  to  his  ambivalent offers.  a call  School,  return  as  He  from  well  as  the from  43 a Department  of A g r i c u l t u r e . "  In s p i t e promises of  for  Tokyo  obligation  committee  much  flattering  may d r a w  old  Sapporo  Adams  in California,  sought At  this  fulfill  the  to  academic 45  ties  which h e l d out mention were  the  the  old  In  March,  a nogaku  prestigious  qualifications  that  he  moral  recommendation from the this  and  and 44  place."  became  bright  amenities  strong,  "friendship  Nitobe  Todai. E l e c t e d to  impeccable  to  that  me b a c k  A g r i c u l t u r e ) on a at  offers  advancement—not  Herbert  was  (Doctor of  had  future  to  he  these  life--the  confided  while  of  hakushi academic  circle,  made  his  he  now  talents  after. critical  juncture  moral o b l i g a t i o n ,  88  in his  career,  w h i c h he  felt  Nitobe he  opted  owed  to  to the  college,  before  recovered,  he  his  was  own  anxious  personal to  get  advancement.  back  to  work.  Nearly  He s e n t  his 46  family  to  But f a t e  P h i l a d e l p h i a i n J u n e and l e f t once a g a i n s t e p p e d  an u n e x p e c t e d to  appointment  investigate  yen to  carry  Nitobe  out  the  the  he  norinsho  as  east  where  Senator  wrote  Bushido.  He was  asked  and g i v e n  1500  continent.  This  project.  went.  the  field  reports  By autumn he had r e j o i n e d h i s  1899,  the  visited  New  last  he s p e n t a f e w  He  Griffis  to  asked  month  England. days  J o s e p h C h a l c e , whose w i f e  Nitobe  when  to  family  coast.  Nitobe  Island,  alone.  Hawaii  norinsho.  U n i t e d S t a t e s and f i l e d  December  century,  came f r o m t h e  b a c k t r a c k e d and r e t u r n e d t o the  In  He h a d r e a c h e d  American a g r i c u l t u r a l products 47  t i m e he c r o s s e d  on t h e  in.  f o r Sapporo  explain  Griffis  if  From  at  the  was  of  the  nineteenth  Providence,  home o f  f o r m e r U.S.  an o l d f r i e n d o f  that he  he  knew  Rhode  Mary's,  had c o m p l e t e d of  any  his  suitable  48 publishers. publishing  The firm  Leeds  in  While received norinsho, 5  office. ^ Bureau  Nitobe  an u r g e n t  prepared letter  which o f f e r e d  Chief  (minseibu  by e a r l y  Sone  came  the  Arasuke,  of  the  little In  late  copies 49  of  1900. printers,  he  M i n i s t e r of  the  Formosan c o l o n i z a t i o n  from Goto S h i n p e i ,  chokan) 89  Governor-General's Office).  first  January  for  him a job i n the  a  selected.  and t h e  Bushido  from  Company,  was  were s t a r t e d  booksellers  The r e q u e s t  Biddle  Philadelphia,  December p r e p a r a t i o n s  B u s h i d o were i n t h e  and  Civil  Taiwan sotokufu  Goto d e s p e r a t e l y  sought  Affairs (Taiwan trained  N  personnel  to  fill  nnsho  he  had  twice,  but .Goto  key p o s i t i o n s .  Through a f r i e n d i n the  no  51 heard  of  Nitobe.  persisted.  Nitobe  Finally,  refused  after  the  three  offer  insistent  52 letters  new  and a l o n g t e l e g r a m ,  He a s k e d  for  position  so  a one-year he  in  tropical  request.  10  February  Philadelphia  with  The i t i n e r a r y he  the  areas.  appointed  delegation which  to  World  was. o p e n i n g  commisioners,  In the  Fall,  in  Nitobe  for  east to  of  Kong,  the  Suez  and t h e n c e  healthy  and h a l e ,  family  in  26th,  Tokyo,  1901.  Also  In  St. Petersburg 55 Now h i s  Canal, to  Nitobe  present  Kan'in,  as  one  four  independent 54  of  months. studies  career. Asia--his  student  days,  first he  far  had  south  j o u r n e y t o o k him t o E g y p t and  as at  were 90  for  he  Japanese  Prince  i n R u s s i a , and as  I n d i a n O c e a n up t o  His uncle,  and s e r v i n g  England,  in Paris,  the  by  jobs  his  his  around the  Japan.  met  in  in  Gilbraltar.  He w o r k e d ,  of  in his  five.  for  arrival  his  family  France,  Japan from Europe v i a  as A u s t r i a - H u n g a r y . through  resume  granted  his  Spain,  summer.  a new phase  returned to  left  headed  his  colonization,  embarked  Exposition,  P a r i s to  round-the-world-trip travelled  and  on a m i s c e l l a n y  he l e f t  preparation  he  commissioner  that  t a k i n g up  sotokufu  But upon h i s  there  twenty  The  1900,  temporary  the  before  European  Miyabe i n c l u d e d 53  West Germany, and I t a l y . was  study  Elkintons  sent  relented.  extention  could  particularly On  Nitobe  Ota T o k i t o s h i ,  ward f o r  the  Nambu  Hong still  daimyo's  Y o k o h a m a h a r b o r on J a n u a r y a  crowd  of  Nitobe's  former  students,  who had come t o welcome  their sensei  home.^  W i t h Kodama and G o t o i n F o r m o s a  His Kodama  forthcoming Gentaro  colony  was  and  trip Goto  formal  Formosa  Shinpei  now u p p e r m o s t  received his  to  to  i n Nitobe's  appointment  to  join  develop mind.  as  the  team  of  Japan's  first  On F e b r u a r y  2nd he  a specialist  i n the  so-  tokufu.^ The J a p a n e s e h a d o b t a i n e d F o r m o s a i n A p r i l the  Treaty  of  settlement and  the  Shimonoseki.  that  taels;  i n c l u d e d the  Pescadores  independence;  It  an  to  was  cession  Japan;  indemnity  and an e x t e n s i o n  to  part of  Chinese payment  Japan of  of  a  1895  comprehensive  the Liaotung recognition  of  two  privileges  through  peninsula of  Korean  hundred m i l l i o n granted  earlier  58 to  the  Western  powers.  Contrary  to  acquisition  by  "Infamous  its  writes place first  for  high the  Japanese,  Formosa,  became  deadly epidemics  E.P. Tsurumi, i n the heard  expectations,  a  great  and f e r o c i o u s  after  its  liability. inhabitants,"  "[it]  was v i e w e d a s a n u n h e a l t h y e n o u g h 59 times." N i t o b e w r o t e t h a t when he island, he was " f r i g h t e n e d by its  best of of the  60 oppressive  climate."  colonizing colony  the  lent  for they f e l t But the promises.  island  them  But  the  d i d not  prestige.  difficulties  deter  And t h i s  the was  entailed  Japanese.  To own  a powerful  in a  motive, 61  t h e e y e s o f t h e W e s t e r n powers upon t h e m . first  three  years  of  The m i l i t a r y g o v e r n o r s 91  Japanese c o u l d not  rule belied bring  earlier  order out  of  the  internal  with  the  new  highlands of  the  chaos.  Nationalist  rulers;  aboriginal  had t o be p a c i f i e d ;  island;  and  d i s e a s e s — s u c h as  groups tribes  bandits  most  d i d not in  the  controlled  intractable  of  cooperate interior  large all  m a l a r i a — w h i c h " k i l l e d perhaps  regions  were  more  the  Japanese  63 soldiers  than the  military  Contributing Japanese  to  these d i f f i c u l t i e s  themselves  management  campaigns."  brought  to  administration."  disrupted  The  administrative  stone to  frequent  the  Staff was  postings."  run o r g a n i z a t i o n  seems t o have a t t r a c t e d  who f o u n d s h e l t e r  there  to  enjoy  the  in  the poor  attitude  changes  assignment  more a t t r a c t i v e  through  "Indifference  a fundamental  continuity.  Among c i v i l i a n o f f i c i a l s , stepping  colony  and b u r e a u c r a t i c i n e f f i c i e n c y .  i g n o r a n c e a p p e a r e d to have been 64 the  the  were t h o s e t h a t  and with  personnel  morale  was  low.  s e e n m e r e l y as "a 6 5  And t h e  many  benefits  poorly  incompetents,  of  civil  service  employment. The  Japanese  maintain  the  colonization was b e i n g  parliament,  island,  attempt.  was  which  losing  Many saw  it  s u c k e d down a d r a i n .  voted  its  the  subsidy  patience  as a s i n k h o l e  with  i n which  T h e r e were v o i c e s  that  to the  money argued fi  that  the  island  budget  had been  yen  1898,  in  the c o l o n y . financially  the Their  be  sold  slashed year  to  France for  20,000,000 yen.  from 6,000,000,000  yen  to  Kodama a n d G o t o a r r i v e d t o  immediate 67 independent.  task  92  was t o  make t h e  The  3,900,000 administer  island  become  Kodama G e n t a r o , a p p o i n t e d G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n F e b r u a r y 1898,  immediately reorganized  the m i n s e i b u ( C i v i l  Affairs  —  68  Section) to g i v e more power t o h i s l i e u t e n a n t , Goto S h i n p e i . I t was the  s t r e a m l i n e d f r o m f o u r t e e n t o f i v e b u r e a u s , a l l under  direct  control  of Goto,  whose o f f i c i a l  title  was  changed  from minseibucho ( C i v i l A f f a i r s S e c t i o n Chief) t o minseichokan 69  (Civil  A f f a i r s Bureau C h i e f ) .  a r r i v e d , Goto sent 1080 a c t i v e l y began  officials  to r e c r u i t  p o s i t i o n s under him.  In June, t h r e e months a f t e r he back to the mainland. And he  qualified  men  to f i l l  high-level  Kodama gave Goto a f r e e hand t o s e l e c t 70  and choose a p p r o p r i a t e s t a f f .  Soon Goto had under h i s d i r e c t  control  h i s program.  men  loyal  t o him  eleven top o f f i c i a l s section functioned: all  linked  and  one  of  i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , w r o t e o f how h i s  "although I r e l y  together  Nitobe,  on a c h a i n ,  on s p e c i a l i s t s ,  and  i f I pull  they are  the  master 71  s t r i n g the l i n k s a l l come together i n the r i g h t  order."  When Nitobe j o i n e d the Kodama-Goto team i n February many of the problems t h a t plagued e a r l i e r been s o l v e d , or a l l e v i a t e d  1901,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s had  to a degree so  t h a t the main  task  72  of  economic  development  could  I n d u s t r i a l Bureau, Nitobe was  proceed.  As  Chief  of the  given r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to create a  b l u e p r i n t f o r the sugar i n d u s t r y . I t became the c e n t e r p i e c e i n 73  the  plan  f o r the  colony's  Formosan  sugar i n d u s t r y ,  Japan's  own  needs,  development.  Sam  and  The  Ho observes, was not  93  produce  role  of t h e  mainly to serve  for a  world-wide  marketplace. Between 1896-1904, an average of 22 m i l l i o n yen of Japan's f o r e i g n exchange was used t o f i n a n c e i t s s u g a r  i m p o r t s . T h i s accounted  f o r over 50% of i t s t r a d e d e f i c i t s i n  74 this  period. To reduce t h i s huge c u r r e n c y o u t f l o w , N i t o b e f o l l o w e d the  c a m e r a l i s t p o l i c i e s of F r e d e r i c k the Great t h a t he had s t u d i e d i n German u n i v e r s i t i e s .  He d r a f t e d a t e c h n i c a l paper e n t i t l e d  "Togyo k a i r y o i k e n sho" sugar  ( O p i n i o n on t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f  the  i n d u s t r y ) , which o u t l i n e d a p l a n to r e i n v i g o r a t e the 75  i n d u s t r y w i t h modern p r o d u c t i o n methods.  N i t o b e proposed the  creation  distinct  of  a  temporary  sugar  bureau,  from  the  i n d u s t r i a l b u r e a u , t o be s e t up f o r a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s . I n September 1901,  he s u b m i t t e d a p l a n t o Kodama w h i c h the l a t t e r 76 q u i c k l y adopted and executed. N i t o b e was a p p o i n t e d c h i e f of 77 the sugar bureau, c o n c u r r e n t w i t h h i s o t h e r p o s i t i o n . H i s p l a n s f o r the development of the sugar i n d u s t r y bore immediate f r u i t . tripled,  imports.  and 78  W i t h i n a few  Japan  no  longer  y e a r s , sugar depended  production  on  foreign  O t h e r e c o n o m i c p r o g r a m s , s u c h as t h e  had  sugar  monopolies  p l a c e d on c a m p h o r , s a l t , and o p i u m , and t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e latest  technology  to process  oolong  tea  leaves  proved  so  p r o f i t a b l e t h a t the c o l o n y no l o n g e r needed government s u b s i d y 79 a f t e r 1 9 0 4 - - f i v e y e a r s ahead o f p r o j e c t i o n s . these f i n a n c i a l f e a t s , the s o t o k u f u had  Along  with  l a y e d down much of the  n e c e s s a r y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r the subsequent development of the i s l a n d . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , h o s p i t a l s , and s c h o o l s 80 b e n e f i t t e d Japanese c o l o n i s t94s and n a t i v e peoples as w e l l . In s p i t e h i s t a l e n t s as a c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , N i t o b e  had no d e s i r e t o t o make i t a c a r e e r . He longed t o get back t o the  c l a s s r o o m . W h i l e w o r k i n g i n Formosa, he p r o b a b l y c o n f i d e d  to  Goto t h a t he would r e m a i n f o r a few y e a r s a t most and t h a t  his  h e a r t l a y i n e d u c a t i o n . By 1903, c o n d i t i o n s i n Formosa had  i m p r o v e d so t h a t Goto c o u l d a l l o w N i t o b e t o r e t u r n t o t h e u n i v e r s i.t.y . 81 From h i s days as a S a p p o r o p r o f e s s s o r , N i t o b e e x p r e s s e d much i n t e r e s t Motosada,  i n meeting  eminent  men.  a f e l l o w nogakko g r a d u a t e who  s e c r e t a r y to I t o Hirobumi, Nitobe wrote Hokkaido  and  cannot  even  see  To a f r i e n d  Zumoto  i n 1887 had become a " w h i l e I'm s t u c k i n  those persons  who  rule  our  c o u n t r y , you, as Ito's s e c r e t a r y , have a chance t o m i n g l e w i t h 82 prominent  p e o p l e . How  I envy  you."  In t h i s  same  N i t o b e asked Zumoto whom he thought, among the e l i t e had met,  t o be t h e men  letter, that  he  o f h i g h e s t i n t e g r i t y . Zumoto's r e p l y  c o n s i s t e d o f two names: H o s h i T o r u and G o t o S h i n p e i . N i t o b e r e c a l l e d l a t e r t h a t t h i s was _  t h e f i r s t t i m e he had h e a r d o f  go  Goto's name. At t h e i r f i r s t his  meeting, i n January 1901, Goto l a y i l l i n  Tokyo home w i t h i n f l u e n z a and a f e v e r o f over 40 degrees. 84 -  They d i s c u s s e d N i t o b e ' s a p p o i n t m e n t  and  salary.  Goto  p e r c e i v e d Nitobe's w o r t h i n s t a n t l y : over the s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s of  t h e n a i m u s h o (Home M i n i s t r y ) , G o t o saw t o i t t h a t N i t o b e  r e c e i v e a f i r s t r a n k ' s s a l a r y o f 2500 y e n p e r y e a r , s t a n d a r d for in  an o f f i c i a l  of the f i r s t rank, d e s p i t e h i s low f i f t h  rank  8  the b u r e a u c r a c y . ^ In  origins,  e x p e r i e n c e95 s and a s p i r a t i o n s , Goto and N i t o b e  had  much i n common. B o t h  the  Sat-cho  family Iwate  government  i n Mizusawa prefecture,  clique.  city, Goto  were f r o m Tohoku and " o u t s i d e r s " t o Born  i n 1857 to a  samurai  t h e n i n t h e S e n d a i d o m a i n b u t now i n  chose  medicine  r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g i nFukushima,  as a v o c a t i o n .  After  he w e n t t o N a g o y a w h e r e he  became d i r e c t o r o f t h e A i c h i P r e f e c t u r a l H o s p i t a l .  In 1 8 8 2 ,  he  whom h e  met I t a g a k i  treated  Taisuke, the Liberal  f o r an i n j u r y .  Though  Party  Itagaki's  leader,  connections,  e n t e r e d t h e Home M i n i s t r y a s a s p e c i a l i s t . I n t h e n e x t years,  he s k i l l f u l l y  worked  Goto  eight  h i s way up t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c  il a *A d d e r . 87  Goto  was s e n t a b r o a d  returned  t o s t u d y i n Germany i n 1 8 9 1 and  the following  year  t o head  t h e Bureau  of  88  Sanitation. and  head  war.  During  t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War, he h e l p e d c r e a t e  a S a n i t a t i o n Bureau  In this  for soldiers  returning  from t h e  c a p a c i t y , h e m e t K o d a m a G e n t a r o , who w a s t h e n  t h e Army's V i c e M i n i s t e r  i n t h e G e n e r a l S t a f f . The l a t t e r ,  had  extraordinary  noticed  Goto's  administrator,  a b i l i t i e s  made h i m h i s c h i e f o f c i v i l  as  affairs  who an  when he  89  became G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f F o r m o s a . Kodama G e n t a r o  was f i v e  years older  than Goto  and t e n  y e a r s N i t o b e ' s s e n i o r . He t o o w a s o f s a m u r a i b a c k g r o u n d . H i s father  had been  a  low-ranking samurai  from  t h e Tokuyama  90  domain w i t h a s t i p e n d o f twenty koku. the  average  superior,  Japanese," he  made  up  recalled  Though " s h o r t e r Nitobe  of h i s former  the disadvantage 96  than  by  a  quick  intelligence. formal  eduction,  He had an u n c a n n y a b i l i t y , d e s p i t e a l a c k o f t o g r a s p t h e c o r e o f c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s . And  without v a c i l l a t i o n mind.  o r i n d e c i s i o n , he q u i c k l y made up h i s  H i s was a "man 92  of a c t i o n , " a doer  rather  than  a  thinker. During the fought  Restoration,  on t h e s i d e  Kodama, s t i l l  of the Imperial  i n h i s teens,  forces  against  Tokugawa. I n August 1868, he j o i n e d t h e newly c r e a t e d army and s e r v e d quickly  the  Japanese  i n t h e S a t s u m a R e b e l l i o n o f 1876-77. R i s i n g  i n r a n k , he became H e a d m a s t e r o f t h e Army  College  93 (rlkugun daigaku) a t t h i r t y f i v e .  I n 1892, a f t e r a g e n e r a l  t o u r o f Europe t o examine m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s , he served as j i k a n (Vice M i n i s t e r ) o f t h e Army M i n i s t r y and C h i e f o f i t s M i l i t a r y A f f a i r s Bureau. D i s t i n g u i s h e d s e r v i c e i n t h e Sino-Japanese War l e d t o an appointment as a l i e u t e n a n t g e n e r a l 1896.  and a barony i n  He became G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f Formosa i n F e b r u a r y 1898, 94  a p o s i t i o n he h e l d u n t i l A p r i l 1906. The  spectacular  contributed  s u c c e s s e s i n Formosa, t o w h i c h N i t o b e had  i n no s m a l l  measure, won Kodama and Goto l a u r e l s  f r o m t h e M e i j i g o v e r n m e n t and e n h a n c e d t h e i r s t a t u r e i n t h e eyes o f t h e i r p o w e r f u l c o l l e a g u e s . Kodama was n e a r t h e p i n n a c l e o f h i s p o w e r ; G o t o-' s s t a r was r i s i n g . 9 5 For Nitobe's important, two  subsequent  career,  t h e Formosan  interlude  was  f o r i t brought him i n t o i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t w i t h these  prominent leaders. The  e x p e r i e n c e u n d e r t h e s e t w o men and t h e i r  b r o u g h t N i t o b e t h e n e c e s s a97 ry contacts  approval  t h a t a s s u r e d h i s own  entry  into  the  educational government Education. Kyoto.  inner  elite. and  In 1903,  made  Goto,  circle  Kodama  of  the  Meiji  political  Katsura Taro formed his  the  M i n i s t e r of  introduced Nitobe  With these connections,  to  both  the  university  Nitobe  became  and  second  Army and  officials  in  a professor  in  t h e Law F a c u l t y a t K y o t o I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y  i n the  Fall  of  96 1903. B u s h i d o and t h e  After  recovery  from  continued  the  while  Sapporo.  He  types  work  in  different  of  had  the  one  day,  had l e f t  carefully  and  took  caution  to  have  appears  nervous  the  War  breakdown,  activities  become  in  into  he  his  multi-dimensional  d r i v i n g compulsiveness, work  Russo-Japanese  he  accustomed  same  space  him.  In F o r m o s a ,  against  continued  his  to  of  i r r a t i o n a l need t o  had  time.  But  s q u e e z e as he p a c e d  of  started  radically  over-exertion.  practice  Nitobe  the much  himself  Moreover,  short  naps  after  dinner. Soon a f t e r  beginning  his  job w i t h  the  sotokufu,  Nitobe 98  conceived one some  of  his old  Umeko,  to  a p l a n to frequent  trips  friends,  Anna  discuss  occupied 99 women.  with The  English  was  a  start  the  new  back t o  Tokyo,  Hartshorne, idea.  The  venture:  institute its  an E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e  was  chief  three  the  Bacon were  launching  called  gathered  Alice  subject.  98  he  journal.  a  new  Tsuda The  together  and  then  On  Tsuda busily  school jogakko,  three  for and  women  enthusiastically native  Japanese  shinpo late  [it  was  endorsed speaker,  Nitobe  other  four  idea.  Sakurai  brought out  served  They e n l i s t e d  the  Eigaku  The E n g l i s h S t u d e n t ]  their  first  issue  on  as G e n e r a l E d i t o r and A d v i s o r ,  conducted  another  O s o n , and began t h e  concurrently called  1 9 0 1 . T h e y  15th.  the  administrative  in  November while  and  the  editorial  , .. 101 duties. The E i g a k u English  shinpo's  language  issues  notes  i n Japanese  Editorials,  stories,  examinations,  changed  to  most  the  of  Eibun  to  Its  a i d and s t i m u l a t e  pages.  shinshi  students of  test  the  with  novice.  questions  and a g o s s i p y  In June 1903,  [The S t u d e n t ] ,  the  biweekly  of English-language a r t i c l e s  from n o t a b l e s , its  was  schools.  se1f-1essons,  letters  occupied  audience  i n m i d d l e and h i g h e r  carried a miscellany  copious  file  intended  for  editor's  t h e name  but  the  staff  was and 102  the  contents The  the  Eibun  express  his  importance helped  of  to  j o u r n a l remained e s s e n t i a l l y  shinshi  ideas of  to  provided youth  ethical  initiate  on  Nitobe religion,  development.  a student  with  unchanged. an  outlet  morality  At the  and  the  he  had  nogakko,  j o u r n a l i n w h i c h he had  to  expressed  103 such and  ideas. the  His views  means  that  he  English  language—also  scale.  He  throughout  now  employed  remained  wrote 104  changed  for  an  the  to  much o v e r  spread  same.  audience  his  the  years,  i d e a s — the  The d i f f e r e n c e widely  was  scattered  Japan.  But N i t o b e ethics  had n o t  d i d not  and r e l i g i o n .  limit  He u s e d99 i t s  his  Eibun  pages t o  shinshi discuss  articles a wide  to  range  of  subjects that dealt  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s wrote  in  present  odd a  were  hours.  deeply  w i t h a l l a s p e c t s o f human short  But  and n o t  they  personal  bore  vision  which appeared almost  the  for almost  magazine  they  were  translated  and p r i n t e d  •  ~  developed,  strong  as  imprint  Nitobes'  inner  world.  p r o v e d so p o p u l a r  in a separate  of  that  volume,  by S a k u r a i O s o n . I t  he and  r e g u l a r l y i n each i s s u e  seven y e a r s ,  those unable to read E n g l i s h , r,  his of  These e s s a y s ,  well  experience.  for  was  called  a  modest  105  l  Zuisoroku. Bushido,  the  reputation  for  publication  by  caught  the  digests,  exception, enough  of  Nitobe Leeds  attention  the  of  Soul  reviews  in  and of  edition,  attract  the  edition was  the  in  book and  of  the  its  had  not  literary  almost  importantly, attention  after  without  book  Shokabo,  made which  Nogyo h o n r o n . Ten months a f t e r appeared,  all  Shokabo p r i n t e d a  respects  the  same  book,  the  Japanese but  of  publication  in  p a p e r and b i n d i n g . edition  1901. Its  created and  sold  Over the sales  J a p a n as a m a s t e r  ethics  Though  which d i d appear were, 10 6  an i m p a c t t o  printings.  also  States  major book r e v i e w s  more  This October  established  United  But,  which  inferior  the  favorable.  and B i d d l e  had  Biddle.  the  had e a r l i e r p u b l i s h e d h i s Leeds  Japan  r  Oriental  in  Japan a f t e r  next three helped  of the  an image  well  of  years,  elevate  it  Nitobe's 10 8  E n g l i s h language. h i m as  philosophy. 100  ran through  a learned  reputation  in  Curiously,  it  scholar  Established  nine  of  scholars  Japanese such  as  Inoue T e t s u j i r o were bothered by the p u b l i c i t y and that  amateurs  such  as  Nitobe  were  complained  t r e s p a s s i n g on  their  109 turf.  And  prominent  Christians,  such  as  Uemura  quickly  expressed m i s g i v i n g s over Nitobe's attempt  Masahisa, to seek an  i n t e l l e c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between Japan's f e u d a l v a l u e s and the u n i v e r s a l i t y  1 1  of C h r i s t ' s t e a c h i n g s . ^  Though the, Shokabo e d i t i o n of Bushido helped t o e s t a b l i s h Nitobe's fame i n Japan, him  after  1904  when  i t a l s o c r e a t e d many d i f f i c u l t i e s he  tried  to  put  out  an  for  expanded  r e v i s e d e d i t i o n of the work from the w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d New  and York  p u b l i s h i n g f i r m , George Putnam's Sons. Mary r e f e r r e d many Ill years l a t e r t o the Shokabo e d i t i o n as p i r a t e d . The company, however,  i n i t s f i r s t advertisements  mentions  that  they  "obtained  the  of the book, author's  explicitly  and  American  112 p u b l i s h e r ' s p e r m i s s i o n to r e p r i n t  i t i n Japan."  I t seems  t h a t N i t o b e had worked out an a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h Shokabo t h a t they s e l l broken  by  burgeoning  t h e i r e d i t i o n o n l y i n Japan. the  company  when  i n t e r e s t abroad 113  R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War. p r i v a t e s e a l and  sell  was  from  the  i n Japan a f t e r the outbreak of the Nitobe's  c o n t r a c t e d w i t h the North P a c i f i c T r a d i n g MarshalIs and Company, r e s p e c t i v e l y , 114  the book i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and G r e a t  When N i t o b e f o u n d o u t , he was p u b l i s h e r to h i s Koishikawa daughter  to p r o f i t  Shokabo's p u b l i s h e r f o r g e d  Company and the Simpkins,  to  i t tried  T h i s understanding  Kotoko r e c a l l s , 115 house to shake."  f u r i o u s ! He c a l l e d  the e r r a n t  home and y e l l e d a t t h e man,  i n a v o i c e t h a t caused 101  Britain.  the  his  "whole  N i t o b e ' s r e p u t a t i o n grew s t e a d i l y i n J a p a n f r o m 1901 t o 1904--through articles.  l a r g e s a l e s o f B u s h i d o and t h e E i b u n  Other  mass-circulated  magazines  also  shinshi  sought p i e c e s 1  from him on a d i v e r s i t y o f s u b j e c t s . He w i l l i n g l y obliged."''' ' At  Sapporo,  he e a r n e d r e s p e c t f o r h i s w i d e  knowledge  6  and  t a l e n t s among p e o p l e w i t h whom he had p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . H i s r e p u t a t i o n e x t e n d e d t o t h o s e who knew h i m o n l y i n p r i n t ; he had become a n a t i o n a l c e l e b r i t y w i t h a f o l l o w i n g ,  t o h e r f a m i l y , t h a t "embrace[d] The R u s s o - J a p a n e s e Nitobe  literally  War s t a r t e d  wrote 117  Mary  thousands."  i n F e b r u a r y 1904 w h i l e  l e c t u r e d p a r t - t i m e a t Kyoto U n i v e r s i t y .  Though N i t o b e  f o r e s a w war some months e a r l i e r as he s e r v e d i n F o r m o s a , he d i d n o t r e a l i z e t h e r e p e r c u s s i o n s t h a t i t would have f o r him. On t h e one hand, t h e war f u n d a m e n t a l l y c h a l l e n g e d h i s avowed Quaker b e l i e f s ; on t h e o t h e r , i r o n i c a l l y , i t s p r e a d h i s fame 118 around t h e w o r l d as an a u t h o r o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  distinction.  D u r i n g t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War, he and Mary " k e p t q u i e t . " I t was u s e l e s s ,  he  said,  to  argue  pacifist  principles  a g a i n s t t h e war a m i d s t t h e j i n g o i s t i c p r o n o u n c e m e n t s o f t h e 119 time.  But N i t o b e d i d n o t speak o u t f o r t h e war, nor d i d he  t r y t o j u s t i f y the nation's p o s i t i o n — o r e x p l a i n the issues a t s t a k e — t o h i s Quaker r e l a t i v e s . Rather he and Mary s u p p o r t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as t h e Red C r o s s i n Hokkaido.  He a t t e n d e d  r a l l i e s t o h e l p r a i s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s and other  material  comforts  for soldiers  fighting  i n the  12 0 front.  W i t h Mary he u s e d102money f r o m t h e i r "baby f u n d , "  a  savings account, purchase  s e t up i n memory o f t h e i r s o n Thomas, t o  m u s l i n t o make b a n d a g e s . The b o y s a t t h e Hokumei  gakko made s e v e r a l hundred t o send w i t h v o l u n t e e r nurses Sapporo- who t r a v e l l e d  from  t o the M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l i n Hiroshima 121  t o nurse t h e wounded. N i t o b e ' s s t a n c e on w a r s h i f t e d d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s . When t h e f i g h t i n g w i t h R u s s i a n t r o o p s began, he d i d n o t a p p e a r t o have any m i s g i v i n g s a b o u t w h a t h i s u l t i m a t e position  would  be as v i s - a - v i s  the c o n f l i c t .  Japan  was  f i g h t i n g a r i g h t e o u s w a r : h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a n e c e s s a r y 122  e v i l f o r the s u r v i v a l of the nation. N i t o b e ' s c i r c u m s t a n c e s had c o m p l e t e l y a l t e r e d f r o m t h e Hokkaido  period.  In Formosa,  he  had worked  f o r the  c o l o n i z a t i o n e f f o r t , and t h i s e x p e r i e n c e had made him aware o f t h e need t o s e c u r e t h e c o u n t r y ' s b o r d e r s . He h a d a l s o come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and was a b l e t o see t h e p r o b l e m His former resigned  of n a t i o n a l defense from t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e .  s u p e r i o r , Kodama, a t t h e o n s e t o f t h e w a r , had  from  posts  i n the Katsura  g o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e on 123  m i l i t a r y d u t i e s on t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f . N i t o b e , i n h i s w r i t i n g s and l e c t u r e s , against  the Russians.  I n an a r t i c l e  spoke o u t s h a r p l y  "Slav P e r i l ,  Yellow  P e r i l , " he a t t a c k e d t h e i d e a t h a t Japan and t h e O r i e n t a l  race  menaced E u r o p e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . " [ T ] h e S l a v s a r e t h e d a n g e r , " he  argued.  To M a r y ,  he e x p r e s s e d  the view  that  Russian 124  b e h a v i o r i n E a s t A s i a resembled a " s l o w l y moving g l a c i e r . " Mary N i t o b e h e r s e l f , 103 b o r n and b r e d a Q u a k e r , w i t h a  father  and b r o t h e r  position  and the  family,  she  active  pacifists,  defended  need f o r w a r . In l e t t e r  wrote  with  sympathy of  the  after  the  Japanese  letter  people's  to  her  sacrifices 12 5  and the  heroism  observed press  with  of  the  soldiers  concern  presented  to  the  the  she  to r e c t i f y  former's  the  image  world.  whose c o n t e n t s  felt  on t h e of  Japan that  A piece  discredited  battlefront.  She  the  foreign  by a man named  Willett,  the Japanese,  prompted her  e r r o r s i n an a r t i c l e  f o r the  Outlook  the  of  the  war.  after  the  Shimonoseki  126 magazine. Nitobe was,  understood  he k n e w ,  Treaty,  Peninsula  to  underdog.  Earlier,  J a p a n had been h u m i l i a t e d by t h e  French i n the  insult  the  significance  to  place  Triple  and  Intervention  injury,  the  Russians  denied her the  claim  Arthur.  To w i n  her  security,  Russians  and c o n t r o l  the  their  But N i t o b e  the  region  J a p a n had  Korean p e n i n s u l a , 127  vital  felt  on  that  Liaotung  And t o add  had moved i n s h o r t l y  own  for  Germans and  a f o o t h o l d on t h e A s i a n c o n t i n e n t .  their  necessary  that  Russians,  Japan  thereafter  and  fortify  to  dislodge  which they  Port the  felt  was  interests. Japan's second-class  status  in  the  w o r l d was n o t w i t h o u t  r e a s o n . She was s t i l l n o t t h e e q u a l o f 12 8 the European n a t i o n s . To become s t r o n g , J a p a n had to s t a b i l i z e h e r b o r d e r s . C h i n e s e c i v i l i z a t i o n , N i t o b e saw, was 129 crumbling  and  the  The K o r e a n s t o o , and  Manchus c o u l d vexed  independence.  Nitobe;  He w r o t e o f 104  not  in his their  cope  with  eyes,  the  they  l a n d as  crises.  lacked  one  of  vigor "decay  and  death."  130  i n the next  But h i s  twenty  views  years,  toward  Korea  would  and he w o u l d a d v o c a t e  change  an  much  enlightened  131 colonial  policy  Though earlier  there.  Nitobe  writings  broad questions his  opinions  conventional Unlike  were  But  concerned  himself  often  in  not  scholarly; of  Kanzo,  and a d v o c a t e d 13 2  newspaper who  in  rather  pacifism,  Uchimura wrote  they  editorials  1903  stood  the  his  he c o m m e n t e d now on  p o l i t i c a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s .  opinions  pro-government. following  not  with p o l i t i c a l issues, of  Uchimura  principles  had  reflected or  religious  were