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Internationalist in prewar Japan : Nitobe Inazō, 1862-1933 Oshiro, George Masaaki 1985

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1 1 INTERNATIONALIST IN PREWAR JAPAN: NITOBE INAZO, 1862-1933 by George Masaaki O s h i r o B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , 1968 M.A., I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y (Tokyo, J a p a n ) , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Asian Studies Department We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g tiL the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERS-^TY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1985 © George Masaaki O s h i r o , 1985 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D K - 6 r^ / R-n ABSTRACT N i t o b e I n a z o (1862-1933) r a n k e d among the e l i t e i n p r e w a r J a p a n . He had won e a r l y fame , b e f o r e he was f o r t y y e a r s o l d , as a s c h o l a r and a m a s t e r o f the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e w i t h h i s book Bush ido , the Soul o f Japan. Subsequent ly , h i s c a r e e r as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n Ta iwan , headmaster o f the p r e s t i g i o u s F i r s t H i g h e r S c h o o l , a s c h o l a r o f C o l o n i a l P o l i c y a t T o k y o I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y , a noted w r i t e r of p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e f o r y o u t h , and l a t e r Under S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l a t t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s and J a p a n e s e C h a i r m a n o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s (IPR) made h im a w e l l - k n o w n p e r s o n a g e b o t h w i t h i n J a p a n and a b r o a d . He was c o n s t a n t l y i n the p u b l i c ' s e y e , and was f r e q u e n t l y i n v i t e d to address d i v e r s e audiences on i n t e r -c u l t u r a l t o p i c s . B u t a f t e r h i s d e a t h i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1933, h i s work f e l l i n t o o b s c u r i t y . Most Japanese i n 1985 do not know who he i s , except f o r the f a c t t h a t h i s p o r t r a i t now adorns the 5000 yen note . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p u b l i s h e d b i o g r a p h i e s o f N i t o b e , i n J a p a n e s e and i n E n g l i s h , b u t t h u s f a r , no one has a t t e m p t e d t o r e c o n s t r u c t h i s c a r e e r upon an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l s . T h e r e f o r e , much o f the f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g h i s l i f e are i n a c c u r a t e , as they stem m a i n l y from anecdotes p u b l i s h e d a f t e r h i s dea th . Though N i t o b e a u t h o r e d o v e r t w e n t y b o o k s - - i n E n g l i s h , J a p a n e s e , and G e r m a n — a n d h u n d r e d s o f a r t i c l e s , o n l y one i i work, B u s h i d o , has s u r v i v e d t h e r a v a g e s o f t i m e . He was n o t , i n my o p i n i o n , a " t h i n k e r " who h e l d and e x p r e s s e d s u b t l e and p r o f o u n d t h o u g h t s . R a t h e r , he was a man o f a c t i o n who, by h i s b e h a v i o r , i n f l u e n c e d a g r e a t many p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e young. For t h i s r e a s o n , I d e a l o n l y s u m m a r i l y w i t h h i s i d e a s . S c h o l a r s d i s a g r e e on Nitobe's i m p o r t a n c e i n h i s t o r y . H i s many d i s c i p l e s s t i l l adore him as a g r e a t man who c o n t r i b u t e d much t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and l i b e r a l t h o u g h t i n p o s t w a r J a p a n . B u t many o t h e r s see h i m as a m i s g u i d e d m o r a l i s t and r e a c t i o n a r y who b u c k l e d when he e n c o u n t e r e d m i l i t a r i s m w i t h i n h i s c o u n t r y i n the 1930s. T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y o f N i t o b e . I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main p a r t s : P a r t One, "The Making of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t " d e a l s w i t h t h e f i r s t 44 y e a r s o f N i t o b e ' s l i f e . P a r t I I , " E d u c a t o r E a s t and West," w h i c h f o c u s e s on N i t o b e i n m i d d l e age, examines h i s a c t i v i t i e s as a c h a r i s m a t i c J a p a n e s e e d u c a t o r d u r i n g t h e l a t e M e i j i and T a i s h o p e r i o d s ; and i n P a r t I I I , " D i p l o m a t i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l L i m e l i g h t " t h e f o c u s i s upon the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t N i t o b e engaged i n d u r i n g the l a s t 14 y e a r s of h i s l i f e . The theme t h a t r u n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t h e " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t . " E x c e p t f o r t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n a n d C o n c l u s i o n , I u t i l i z e a n a r r a t i v e s t y l e . I have r e l i e d upon d i v e r s e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a r c h i v e s i n J a p a n and N o r t h A m e r i c a , as w e l l as i n t e r v i e w s and l e t t e r s w i t h p e o p l e who knew N i t o b e p e r s o n a l l y . I p o r t r a y N i t o b e as a man who, e a r l y i n l i f e , became o b s e s s e d w i t h a c h i e v i n g h o n o r s f o r h i m s e l f , on t h e one hand, i i i and a p l a c e of r e s p e c t among the l e a d i n g n a t i o n s of the w o r l d f o r h i s c o u n t r y , on the o t h e r . He was a h i g h l y i d e a l i s t i c man who, n e v e r t h e l e s s , a c t e d a l w a y s i n a p r a g m a t i c way. I d e a l s were t h i n g s t o be w o r k e d f o r . I n a w o r l d o f c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s and demands, N i t o b e knew t h a t i d e a l s r e a l i z e t h e m s e l v e s s l o w l y . H i s a c t i o n s , t h u s , whenever t h e y a p p e a r t o be a compromise of h i s h i g h e r p r i n c i p l e s , have t o be seen i n l i g h t o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t s u r r o u n d e d h i m . / CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 PART I: THE MAKING OF AN INTERNATIONALIST 11 Chapter 1 C h i l d h o o d , Boyhood and Y o u t h : 1862-1883 13 M o r i o k a : 1862-1871 14 E n g l i s h S t u d i e s i n Tokyo: 1872-1876 17 Sapporo: 1877-1883 21 Chapter 2 Graduate S t u d i e s A b r o a d : 1883-1890 28 Search f o r Fame and Honor: the Path to America 28 S t u d i e s a t the Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y 33 T r a i n i n g i n Germany: the L a u n c h i n g o f a C a r e e r 42 Mary P . E l k i n t o n : Romance and M a r r i a g e 51 Chapter 3 B u i l d i n g E d i n b u r g h : Sapporo , 1891-1897 57 R e l i g i o u s C o l o n i z e r 58 The M o r a l i s t E d u c a t o r 64 S c h o l a r and O f f i c i a l 72 C r i s i s ! 78 Chapter 4 The R i s e to Prominence: 1898-1906 81 R e c u p e r a t i o n : L i f e as a S e m i - i n v a l i d 81 America A g a i n 84 With Kodama and Goto i n Formosa 91 Bushido and the Russo-Japanese War 98 PART II: EDUCATOR EAST AND WEST 110 v Chapter 5 I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t a t Home and A b r o a d : 1906-1912 112 The Inner C i r c l e : L i f e a t K o b i n a t a d a i Machi 114 The P u b l i c F i g u r e : E d u c a t o r f o r Modern Japan 125 C a r n e g i e Endowment f o r Peace Exchange P r o f e s s o r 135 Chapter 6 T a i s h o L i b e r a l : 1913-1919 148 C o l o n i a l P o l i c y P r o f e s s o r 148 Heimindo: the Way of the Commoner 157 The S p i r i t Democracy 170 PART I I I : DIPLOMAT I N INTERNATIONAL LIMELIGHT 179 Chapter 7 At the League o f N a t i o n s : 1919-1926 181 The Path to the League: T r a v e l s w i t h Goto S h i n p e i 183 Work a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t 187 Spokesman f o r the League 195 L i f e i n Geneva: the G l o r i o u s Years 205 Chapter 8 The F i n a l Y e a r s , 1927-1933 213 A c t i v i t i e s i n R e t i r e m e n t , 1927-1931 213 N i t o b e , the IPR, and the Manchurian C r i s i s , 1929-31 220 The Matsuyama I n c i d e n t 230 E m i s s a r y to N o r t h A m e r i c a , A p r i l 1932-March 1933 235 The F i n a l Months i n Japan and Death i n Canada 249 C o n c l u s i o n 262 A b b r e v i a t i o n s Used i n the Notes and B i b l i o g r a p h y 278 Notes 280 Annotated L i s t o f Works C i t e d 352 v i How many worthy men have we known t o s u r v i v e t h e i r own r e p u t a t i o n s ! Montaigne, Essays I n t r o d u c t i o n A map of the P a c i f i c Ocean, bordered on the edges by Japan and N o r t h A m e r i c a , i s i m p r i n t e d on the l ower l e f t s i d e of the new 5,000 yen currency t h a t features Nitobe Inazo. I t symbolizes the " t a i h e i y o no hashi" (Bridge across the P a c i f i c ) m etaphor t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h N i t o b e ' s name, and g r a p h i c a l l y captures h i s importance i n Japanese history."'" The c u r r e n c y s e l e c t i o n , however, s u r p r i s e d everyone. U n l i k e Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i or Natsume S o s e k i , who adorn the 10,000 and 1,000 yen notes, Nitobe was unknown to the p u b l i c . He had been fo r g o t t e n . High school h i s t o r y textbooks today do not even mention him. And many Japanese, says P r o f e s s o r Sato M a s a h i r o , the l e a d i n g s c h o l a r on N i t o b e , have d i f f i c u l t y 2 reading h i s name; not a few w r i t e i t i n c o r r e c t l y . O u t s i d e of Japan, N i t o b e i s a complete s t r a n g e r . No s t a n d a r d b i o g r a p h i c a l r e f e r e n c e book i n E n g l i s h l i s t s him, though he ranked among the b e s t known Japanese abroad i n h i s day. Yet h i n t s of h i s p a s t g l o r y are s t i l l p r e s e n t . At the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n Vancouver, Canada, a l o v e l y Japanese garden, reputedly the b e s t - c r a f t e d i n North America, 3 commemorates h i s memory. In the garden stands a t a l l grey 1 l a n t e r n i n s c r i b e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g d e d i c a t i o n : Inazo N i t o b e A p o s t l e o f Good W i l l Between N a t i o n s My s t u d y i s a c o m m e n t a r y on t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n . N i t o b e devoted h i m s e l f to a m i s s i o n to win f o r Japan and the Japanese a p l a c e of r e s p e c t and honor i n the w o r l d . D e t a i l s o f h i s l i f e are subsumed under t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t m o t i f . * * * I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m i s an a m b i g u o u s c o n c e p t t h a t c o u l d 4 p e r t a i n to one o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t i d e a s . In the l e x i c o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y new t e r m . The Webster New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s i t as "a p o l i c y o f c o o p e r a t i o n among n a t i o n s and esp. o f the development o f c l o s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s . " ^ An i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t , t h u s , i s one who advocates and s u p p o r t s such p o l i c i e s . But when I a p p l y the term " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t " to N i t o b e , I do so w i t h i t s Japanese c o n n o t a t i o n . K o k u s a i j i n , the Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t , i n c l u d e p e c u l i a r c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t are m i s s i n g i n the E n g l i s h ; i n Japanese the word has a " p o s i t i v e r i n g , " and s i g n i f i e s a person f l u e n t i n a f o r e i g n language ( u s u a l l y E n g l i s h ) , who has s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n s a b r o a d , and who possesses the manners and t a s t e s o f a f o r e i g n e r ( g a . iJAH ) • 1 u r g e my r e a d e r s t o k e e p i n mind t h a t I use i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t i n t h i s l a t t e r , c u l t u r e - b o u n d sense . H i s t o r i a n s o f J a p a n , however, have avo ided the word. They p r e f e r the a d j e c t i v e "westernized" to l a b e l Japanese such as N i t o b e . I v a n H a l l , w r i t i n g o f M o r i A r i n o r i , q u o t e d I t o H i r o b u m i who c a l l e d M o r i a "Ninon ga unda s e i y o j i n " (a 7 W e s t e r n e r b o r n o f J a p a n ) . The young I n a z o o f e a r l y M e i j i J a p a n c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d i n a s i m i l a r m a n n e r . B u t "westernized" does not f i t N i t o b e ' s l a t t e r y e a r s . In 1919, a t age f i f t y - s e v e n , N i t o b e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new w o r l d o r d e r t h a t emphasized d i f f e r e n t r u l e s i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n a t i o n s . T h i s p l a n ' s f a i l u r e i s n o t o f c o n c e r n h e r e . My p o i n t i s t h a t N i t o b e , by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s and l a t e r w i t h t h e I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , was a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f man f r o m e a r l i e r Japanese such as M o r i and Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i . N i t o b e l i v e d i n t o c o n t e m p o r a r y t i m e s , and s h a r e d some o f i t s more i d e a l i s t i c . . 8 v i s i o n s . M o r e o v e r , he a c t e d on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a g e . And h e r e l i e s h i s p e r s o n a l drama. Miwa K i m i t a d a and Yuzo Ota f o r c e f u l l y a r g u e t h a t N i t o b e r e t a i n e d t h e a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s o f a J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t w h i l e a d v o c a t i n g t h e n e w i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m . He h a r b o r e d a " c o n t r a d i c t i o n , " s a y s O t a , t h a t was bound t o c o l l i d e . I t d i d . And t h i s i s N i t o b e ' s f i n a l t r a g e d y . I w i l l r e f r a i n comment here on t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , 9 but w i l l r e t u r n to i t a g a i n i n the c o n c l u s i o n . 3 * * * S c h o l a r s m e n t i o n N i t o b e o f t e n . M a r k P e a t t i e , E . P . T s u r u m i and Samuel Ho meet N i t o b e as a c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l i n Ta iwan; Donald Roden sees N i t o b e as an o u t s t a n d i n g headmaster a t t h e F i r s t H i g h e r S c h o o l ; E a r l K i n m o u t h , t r a c i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f the Japanese e t h i c o f s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t , condemns N i t o b e as a mi sgu ided m o r a l i s t . Miwa K i m i t a d a and A k i r a I r i y e judge N i t o b e i n l i g h t o f h i s i n t e r - c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ; Thomas Burkman, s t u d y i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i p l o m a c y a f t e r W o r l d War I , v i e w s N i t o b e t h r o u g h the L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s ; and H i r a k a w a S u k e h i r o , w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n c o m p a r a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e , l i n k s N i t o b e w i t h B u s h i d o , which he c o n s i d e r s o v e r l y g l a m o r i z e d and "perhaps not t r u e . " 1 ^ B u t no one has y e t a t t e m p t e d t o g r a s p t h e w h o l e o f N i t o b e , and to p r o p e r l y e v a l u a t e h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Japanese h i s t o r y . I t a k e on t h e t a s k h e r e . * * * To s tudy N i t o b e , I f a c e d problems t h a t most s c h o l a r s can h a p p i l y a v o i d . H i s t o r i a n s c a n o f t e n , i n more c a s e s t h a n n o t , o v e r l o o k b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l and s t i l l w r i t e a c c u r a t e l y o f t h e i r s u b j e c t ' s w o r k . So c a n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s . And when e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s are a t i s s u e , as i t i s i n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s , t h e a u t h o r ' s l i f e may be s a f e l y i g n o r e d . T h i s c a n n o t be done w i t h N i t o b e . He cannot be l e f t out o f h i s w r i t i n g s . Even w i t h B u s h i d o , h i s s o l e work of l i t e r a r y v a l u e , to a n a l y z e i t a p a r t 4 from the background c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f i t s w r i t i n g , as many have done, i n v i t e s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . N i t o b e was p r i m a r i l y a "man o f a c t i o n , " n o t a " t h i n k e r . " Most o f h i s works addressed contemporary p r o b l e m s . He wrote h a s t i l y and p r o d u c e d a huge amount o f w r i t i n g s . B u t n o t f o r l i t e r a t u r e ' s s a k e ; h i s m a i n p u r p o s e was t o i n s t r u c t i n as d i r e c t a manner as he c o u l d . As I w i l l show, n o t a few o f h i s books o r i g i n a t e d as l e c t u r e s o r m a g a z i n e a r t i c l e s , and were 12 o n l y p r i n t e d as books because o f r e a d e r s ' demand. The t i m e l i n e s s o f h i s message, combined w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l appea l and wide r e p u t a t i o n as a l e a r n e d s c h o l a r , made N i t o b e a h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l author i n h i s t i m e . But today , o f h i s over t w e n t y b o o k s , o n l y B u s h i d o has c l e a r l y s u r v i v e d t h e t e s t o f 13 t i m e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y ( s h i s o ) , I must e m p h a s i z e h e r e , i s n o t my m a i n i n t e r e s t . E x c e p t f o r one s e c t i o n , "Advocate o f Democracy" i n Chapter 6, I used N i t o b e ' s w r i t i n g s c h i e f l y f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l p u r p o s e s , and not f o r t h e i r own s a k e . Under s c r u t i n y a l l t h r o u g h o u t i s h i s c h a r a c t e r , r a t h e r than h i s thought . * * * My a p p r o a c h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l . E x c e p t f o r t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n and t h e c o n c l u s i o n , I e m p l o y a n a r r a t i v e , c o m b i n e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n , a l l t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t . I c h o s e t h i s mode o f c o m p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e o n l y n a r r a t i o n c a n c a p t u r e w i t h po ignancy a l i f e b e i n g l i v e d , and to d e p i c t an i n d i v i d u a l 5 c h a n g i n g over t i m e . I use a p e r i o d i z a t i o n employed e a r l i e r by P r o f e s s o r Sato M a s a h i r o i n h i s e x c e l l e n t work on N i t o b e . He d i v i d e s N i t obe's l i f e i n t o : (1) "Becoming a P e r s o n " ( h i t o t o naru) ; (2) "Work f o r J apan's s a k e " ( N i h o n no t a m e ) ; (3) "Work f o r t h e W o r l d ' s s a k e " ( S e k a i no t a m e ) . My t h r e e m a j o r p a r t s f o l l o w , w i t h 15 s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s , t h i s scheme. In P a r t I , M a k i n g o f an I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t , I c o v e r t h e f i r s t f o r t y - f o u r y e a r s o f Nitobe's l i f e i n f o u r c h a p t e r s . The f o c u s o f Chapter 1 i s Inazo's s t r u g g l e s t o r e s o l v e a c o n f l i c t t h a t s p r a n g f r o m h i s two c o n t r a r y s e t s o f v a l u e s : f i r s t , t o a t t a i n w o r l d l y fame and g l o r y ; and s e c o n d , t o meet t h e s e l f -s a c r i f i c i n g s p i r i t u a l demands of C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s . I t a k e up t h e " s u c c e s s " theme i n C h a p t e r 2 and t r a c e N i t o b e ' s l i f e t h r o u g h s e v e n y e a r s o f G r a d u a t e S t u d y a b r o a d . H i s c o u r s e s , p r o f e s s o r s , and p l a n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n d e t a i l . And h i s m e e t i n g a n d c o u r t s h i p w i t h M a r y E l k i n t o n o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , t h e f u t u r e Mrs. N i t o b e , a r e d e s c r i b e d . Mary N i t o b e a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s t o f t h e n a r r a t i v e f o r she h a s , f a r more t h a n any b i o g r a p h y o f N i t o b e has y e t shown, had a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e upon h e r husband's l i f e and work. In C h a p t e r 3, N i t o b e ' s S a p p o r o p r o f e s s o r p e r i o d , t h e e a r l i e r " s u c c e s s " theme i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o "moral duty," w i t h e m p h a s i s upon work. B u t t h e e a r l i e r c o n f l i c t s a r e n o t y e t r e s o l v e d , and N i t o b e s u f f e r s a n e r v o u s b r e a k d o w n . C h a p t e r 4 6 d e s c r i b e s h i s s e a r c h t o r e g a i n h e a l t h , h i s y e a r s i n T a i w a n , and e x p l o r e s t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t l e a d t o h i s r e m a r k a b l e r i s e t o fame i n a few s h o r t y e a r s . In P a r t I I , E d u c a t o r E a s t and West, I r e l a t e N i t o be's l i f e f r o m age 44 t o 57. I n two c h a p t e r s , I d e v e l o p t h e theme o f e d u c a t o r . C h a p t e r 5 f o c u s e s upon h i s o r n a t e l i f e i n Tokyo i n t h e l a t e M e i j i and e a r l y T a i s h o p e r i o d s . Even i n p r i v a t e , i n h i s m a g n i f i c e n t K o b i n a t a d a i m a c h i home, N i t o b e l i v e d a v e r y p u b l i c l i f e . And a s t h e a t t r a c t i v e H e a d m a s t e r o f t h e p r e s t i g i o u s F i r s t H i g h e r S c h o o l , he e s t a b l i s h e d a w i d e r e p u t a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y as an e d u c a t o r s e c o n d t o none. The l a s t s e c t i o n i n C h a p t e r 5 i s d e v o t e d t o N i t o b e ' s work i n A m e r i c a as t h e f i r s t E x c h a n g e - P r o f e s s o r f r o m J a p a n u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f C a r n e g i e Endowment f o r P e a c e , w h i c h enhanced h i s r e p u t a t i o n as Japanese's l e a d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n i s t on b o t h s i d e s o f the P a c i f i c . I n C h a p t e r 6, I e x p a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n theme, and show N i t o b e i n h i s v a r i o u s r o l e s as an e d u c a t o r . I n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , I t u r n t o Nitobe's academic s p e c i a l t y of c o l o n i a l p o l i c y and h i s p o s i t i o n as an I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y P r o f e s s o r . I a l s o d e l v e i n t o h i s a c t i v i t i e s as a c o n s u l t a n t t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n i t s c o l o n i z i n g w o r k . B u t a c a d e m i a c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f h i s t o t a l work as an e d u c a t o r . He was a l s o f u l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e y e a r s as a p o p u l a r i z e r o f an e t h i c c a l l e d H e i m i n d o (Commoner's p a t h ) . He w r o t e many a r t i c l e s and books on s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n and e t h i c s w h i c h made him a l e a d e r o f e t h i c a l e d u c a t i o n . And i n the l a s t s e c t i o n i n 7 t h i s c h a p t e r , I a n a l y z e some o f N i t o b e ' s w r i t i n g s on t h e s u b j e c t o f D e m o c r a c y a t a t i m e when W i l s o n i a n D e m o c r a c y was making s t r o n g i n r o a d s i n t o J a p a n , and show i t s c o n n e c t i o n to h i s work on p o p u l a r m o r a l i t y . In P a r t I I I , D i p l o m a t i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l L i m e 1 i g h t , I p r e s e n t the mature N i t o b e , from age 57 u n t i l h i s death a t 72. The m a i n theme t h a t r u n s t h r o u g h b o t h C h a p t e r s 7, "At t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s and C h a p t e r 8, "The L a s t Y e a r s , " i s t h e  d i p l o m a t . N i t o b e i s now a h i g h l y v i s i b l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e r s o n a g e w i t h a w o r l d - w i d e r e p u t a t i o n as an e n l i g h t e n e d l i b e r a l . C h a p t e r 7 d r a w s a p o r t r a i t o f t h e p o p u l a r N i t o b e , b o t h i n p r i v a t e and p u b l i c , a t G e n e v a . Two s e c t i o n s t h a t move a c r o s s g e o g r a p h i c a l s p a c e — " T r a v e l s w i t h G o t o S h i n p e i " and "Spokesman f o r the League"—are a l t e r n a t e l y p l a c e d between two more s t a t i o n a r y s e c t i o n s - - " W o r k i n t h e S e c r e t a r i a t " and " L i f e i n G e n e v a . " In Chapter 8, the c l i m a c t i c c h a p t e r , I u t i l i z e f i v e sub-s e c t i o n s t o h i g h l i g h t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t theme t h a t r u n throughout h i s e n t i r e l i f e . Though a t o p i c a l t r e a t m e n t would have a l l o w e d f o r a deeper a n a l y s i s o f the c r u c i a l i s s u e s t h a t a r i s e h e r e , I have r e t a i n e d , w i t h s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s , the n a r r a t i v e f o r m a t . In t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f C h a p t e r 8, "The R e t i r e m e n t Y e a r s , " I t a k e up t h e n a r r a t i v e f r o m N i t o b e ' s d e p a r t u r e f r o m the League i n 1927 u n t i l he assumed C h a i r m a n s h i p o f the IPR's J a p a n C o u n c i l i n J u l y 1929. I s u m m a r i z e t h e huge amount and 8 d i v e r s i t y o f h i s work t h a t he c a r r i e d on i n t h i s t w o - y e a r p e r i o d w h i l e supposed ly " r e t i r e d . " I w i sh to i l l u s t r a t e here how t h e C a r l y e a n maxim t h a t he had e m b r a c e d i n y o u t h , o f " d o i n g t h e d u t y t h a t l i e s n e a r e s t , " had b e c o m e , by t h e end o f h i s l i f e , an i n g r a i n e d h a b i t . I i n c o r p o r a t e a t o p i c a l t r e a t m e n t i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e i n s e c t i o n two, "Nitobe , the IPR and the Manchur ian C r i s i s , " and use h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e IPR as a v e h i c l e t o i n t r o d u c e t h e c o n f l i c t i n E a s t A s i a . Then I use t h e 1929 and 1931 IPR C o n f e r e n c e s as a s t a g e t o show N i t o b e ' s own r o l e a g a i n s t a wider backdrop o f the c o n f r o n t a t i o n between Japan and C h i n a i n M a n c h u r i a . T h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n , " T h e M a t s u y a m a I n c i d e n t " c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w s . H e r e , N i t o b e ' s p r o b l e m s come t o a h e a d . T h i s " I n c i d e n t " — r e a 1 l y a s e r i e s o f e v e n t s t h a t t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n F e b r u a r y and A p r i l 1 9 3 2 — i s t h e c l i m a x i n N i t o b e ' s l i f e d r a m a . He comes u n d e r s e v e r e a t t a c k by t h e r i g h t - w i n g M i l i t a r y Reserve A s s o c i a t i o n and succumbs to t h e i r p r e s s u r e . He d e c i d e s , as a r e s u l t o f t h e above i n c i d e n t , t o t r a v e l t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . In s e c t i o n t h r e e , " E m i s s a r y t o N o r t h A m e r i c a " I f o l l o w N i t o b e on h i s o n e - y e a r t o u r t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a t o " e x p l a i n " J a p a n ' s a c t i o n s i n M a n c h u r i a and Shanghai . In S e c t i o n f i v e , "The L a s t Months i n J a p a n and D e a t h i n C a n a d a , " I n a r r a t e t h e p e r t i n e n t e v e n t s i n h i s l a s t s e v e n months o f l i f e . I pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e j o u r n e y 9 that Nitobe takes to the F i f t h IPR Conference at Banff, A l b e r t a i n 1933, and des c r i b e s h i s death i n V i c t o r i a i n October of that year. And i n the conclusion, I explore some of the issues that the f i n a l chapter r a i s e d . I address h i s l i b e r a l i s m and h i s i n t e r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , both of which have come under severe c r i t i c i s m by today's s c h o l a r s . And I summarize Nitobe as an educator and as a prewar Japanese i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t . * * * Poetry i s an apt way to h i g h l i g h t themes i n Nitobe's l i f e ; f o r i t can capture, i n a f l a s h by i n t u i t i v e i n s i g h t , what i t takes prose many pages to accomplish. Nitobe loved poetry. His f i r s t book i n E n g l i s h opens, i n f a c t , with a poem about "Black Ships." "History," Nitobe wrote, "begins with poetry." 1^ I take h i s suggestion, and introduce each of the three p a r t s of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n with a poem to give the reader a sense of the over-riding mood. I also present, at the head of each chapter, an idea, i n epigramic form, that w i l l give, I hope, a hint of a theme embedded within the chapter. 10 P A R T O N E T H E M A K I N G O F A N I N T E R N A T I O N A L I S T 11 My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow i n the sky: So was i t when my l i f e began; So i s i t now I am a man; So be i t when I s h a l l grow old, Or l e t me die! The Child i s father of the Man; And I could wish my days to be Bound each to each by natural piety. William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up 12 Men are what t h e i r mothers make them. Ralph W. Emerson, Conduct of L i f e CHAPTER I C h i l d h o o d , Boyhood, Y o u t h : 1862-1883 Nitobe Inazo was born i n Morioka to a high-ranking samurai family of the Nanbu domain on September 1, 1862. The Nitobes were prominent l o c a l l y , with a long lineage that rep u t e d l y went back to the t w e l f t h century,^ His great grandfather was a Confucian s c h o l a r and m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g i s t who served the domain as a respected o f f i c i a l ; his son, Tsuto (Inazo's grandfather), a man of tremendous v i t a l i t y and imagination, conceived and carried out, over a period of some twenty years, a staggering engineering feat that i r r i g a t e d the dry uplands of the Lake Towada d i s t r i c t , thus making a 2 settlement on the Sanbongi plains possible. Inazo's f a t h e r , J u j i r o , a l s o g i f t e d i n a b i l i t y , served the daimyo as a minister-resident i n Edo where he administered 3 the domain's finances. But he s u f f e r e d a t r a g i c f a t e ; accused by enemies of scheming to s t e a l domain property, he was placed under house arrest and died shortly thereafter at age forty-eight. The charges against him were never v e r i f i e d , and he was subsequently acquitted. Inazo, who was four at the 13 t i m e , m e n t i o n e d l a t e r t h a t h i s f a t h e r d i e d o f a " b r o k e n h e a r t . " 4 M o r i o k a ; 1862-1871 J u j i r o ' s e a r l y death d i d not a f f e c t Inazo i n any t r a m a t i c f a s h i o n ; and i n a d u l t l i f e , a s i d e f r o m what he had h e a r d w h i l e growing up, Inazo would have l i t t l e p e r s o n a l memories o f h i s f a t h e r . The y o u n g e s t o f s e v e n c h i l d r e n , he was r a i s e d by a devoted mother , S e k i , and h i s p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r , T s u t o , who d i e d when I n a z o was t e n . H i s c h i l d h o o d was a happy one; he was an e x t r e m e l y a c t i v e y o u n g s t e r , q u i c k i n mind and s t r o n g i n b o d y , who l o v e d p l a y i n g p r a n k s and e n g a g i n g i n r o u g h and tumble p l a y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n a l o n g the banks o f the s h a l l o w Nakatsu r i v e r , which f l owed o n l y a few meters away from t h e i r home. The N i t o b e f a m i l y l i v e d j u s t beyond the compounds o f the Nanbu d a i m y o ' s r e s i d e n c e i n t h e o l d c a s t l e town o f M o r i o k a , now the c a p i t a l o f Iwate P r e f e c t u r e and n o r t h e r n t e r m i n u s f o r t h e T o h o k u S h i n k a n s e n r a i l w a y l i n e . S i t u a t e d i n t h e f a r N o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f H o n s h u , M o r i o k a was a l r e a d y a f l o u r i s h i n g town o f some f o r t y - t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s i n Inazo's c h i l d h o o d . In s p i t e i t s g r e a t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e boom and b u s t l e o f T o k y o , t h e c e n t e r f o r t h e new f o r e i g n c u l t u r e t h a t was f l o o d i n g i n t o M e i j i J a p a n , M o r i o k a too r e c e i v e d a t r i c k l e o f Western a r t i f a c t s and i n f l u e n c e s . In t h e i r h o u s e h o l d , Inazo remembered, were a box o f matches , a s m a l l m u s i c a l box, and a s i l v e r k n i f e and f o r k s e t t h a t h i s f a t h e r had b r o u g h t home 14 f r o m t h e c a p i t a l . E c o n o m i c a l l y , t h e y a p p e a r t o have been c o m p a r a t i v e l y w e l l - o f f : As t o o u r f a m i l y , i t may be t a k e n as a t y p e o f t h e w e l l - t o - d o c l a s s , p e r h a p s i n s e v e r a l ways above the average. I t belonged t o the s a m u r a i or k n i g h t l y o r d e r , r a t h e r h i g h up t h e s c a l e , and though the s a m u r a i was u s u a l l y poor, our f a m i l y , t h a n k s t o g r a n d f a t h e r ' s f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t i e s , l i v e d i n c o m p a r a t i v e o p u l e n c e . Thus on t h e p r o v i n c i a l t o w n i t o c c u p i e d a r a t h e r h i g h p o s i t i o n b o t h i n r a n k a n d i n w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n s ; b u t n a t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d , I have no h e s i t a t i o n i n p u t t i n g i t among t h e more r e s p e c t a b l e o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s . He r e c e i v e d h i s f i r s t E n g l i s h l e s s o n s as a c h i l d i n M o r i o k a . A p h y s i c i a n , a f r i e n d o f the f a m i l y , who had a c q u i r e d a s m a t t e r i n g o f E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n w h i l e l i v i n g i n Edo i n the l a t e Tokugawa p e r i o d , and who owned a few E n g l i s h b o o k s , t a u g h t Inazo and h i s b r o t h e r , M i c h i r o , t h e a l p h a b e t and a few s i m p l e v o c a b u l a r y . Inazo m a r v e l l e d a t t h e s t r a n g e s c r i p t t h a t r a n a c r o s s t h e page s i d e w a y s ; many y e a r s l a t e r , he w o u l d r e c o l l e c t t h a t E n g l i s h b o o k s were c a l l e d , i n h i s c h i l d h o o d days, "crab books ... because th e words were r e a d h o r i z o n t a l l y 8 l i k e t h e c r a w l i n g o f a c r a b . " T h e i r p h y s i c i a n - t u t o r a p p a r e n t l y p o s s e s s e d p e d a g o g i c t a l e n t s , f o r he managed t o i n s t i l l a z e a l f o r t h e c u r i o u s new l a n g u a g e i n t h e two b o y s . R e m i n i s c i n g n o s t a l g i c a l l y on h i s e a r l i e s t E n g l i s h l e s s o n s , N i t o b e commented i n l a t e r l i f e : E v e r y s i n g l e word was new and opened v i s t a s o f an unknown l i f e and a c t i v i t y . B o t h my b r o t h e r and I g o t more i n t e r e s t e d i n E n g l i s h l e s s o n s t h a n i n Japanese.... 15 But h i s main e d u c a t i o n were not these l i t t l e t w i d d l i n g s w i t h E n g l i s h ; r a t h e r , l i k e h i s f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r b e f o r e h i m , t h e C h i n e s e C l a s s i c s and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a r t i a l a r t s c o m p r i s e d the c o r e o f h i s e a r l y s c h o o l i n g . The Chinese l e s sons were c o m p l e t e l y i n e f f e c t i v e . He c o n f e s s e d l a t e r t h a t he had read "Confuc ius ' A n a l e c t s and the Works of Mencius w i t h o u t the l e a s t comprehending what these sages meant to convey ." 1 ^ The e x p e r i e n c e a p p e a r s t o have had a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on I n a z o i n t h a t he c o m p l e t e l y a v o i d e d O r i e n t a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s f o r many y e a r s t h e r e a f t e r . Only i n m i d d l e - a g e would he peruse such works a g a i n . 1 1 F i v e y e a r s o l d i n 1867, I n a z o u n d e r w e n t an i n i t i a t i o n c e r e m o n y f o r s a m u r a i b o y s . D i s p l a y e d b e f o r e h i s f a m i l y and r e l a t i v e s i n hakama ( s k i r t w o r n i n t r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e o u t f i t ) , he was g i v e n a m i n i a t u r e s w o r d w h i c h , he w r o t e l a t e r , " a d m i t t e d h i m i n t o t h e r a n k s o f k n i g h t h o o d . " B u t he d i d n o t wear h i s s w o r d f o r l o n g : a law was p a s s e d s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r t h a t banned s a m u r a i f r o m b e a r i n g a r m s . I n a z o remembered h i s f e e l i n g s a t t h a t t i m e : [W]hen I was t o l d to drop [the s w o r d ] , not o n l y d i d my l o i n s f e e l l o n e l y , b u t I was l i t e r a l l y low i n s p i r i t . I had been t a u g h t t o be p r o u d o f b e i n g a s a m u r a i , whose badge the sword was. U n t i l t h e s w o r d was b a n n e d , f e n c i n g had b e e n a r e g u l a r p a r t o f h i s e d u c a t i o n . To t h i s were added spear e x e r c i s e s and j u j i t s u . The l a t t e r was i n c l u d e d i n h i s c h i l d h o o d t r a i n i n g , 16 he r e l a t e d , b e c a u s e o f h i s f a t h e r ' s b e l i e f i n t h e s c h o o l o f m u - t o - r y u ( n o - s w o r d s c h o o l ) , whose p r i n c i p l e was t h a t a samura i "need not f i g h t w i t h a weapon": [A] t r u e w a r r i o r s h o u l d by shear s t r e n g t h o f h i s w i l l , the f o r c e o f h i s s p i r i t , w h i c h f l a s h i n g i n h i s eyes o r r e v e a l i n g i t s e l f i n h i s v o i c e and h i s w h o l e d e m e a n o r , so s t r i k e t e r r o r i n t o h i s opponent as t o subdue h i m w i t h o u t s t r i k i n g a b low. I n a z o ' s e a r l y e x p o s u r e t o t h e m a r t i a l a r t s , u n l i k e h i s s tudy of the Chinese C l a s s i c s , l e f t an i n d e l i b l e mark i n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Many y e a r s l a t e r , r e l i v i n g t h e c h i l d h o o d f a n t a s i e s o f the nob le w a r r i o r t h a t he had a s p i r e d to become, I n a z o w o u l d c o n s t r u c t an i d e a l i z e d and h i g h l y r o m a n t i c i z e d 14 v e r s i o n o f B u s h i d o , the s a m u r a i e t h i c . H i s c a r e f r e e M o r i o k a days l a s t e d o n l y u n t i l h i s n i n t h y e a r . S e k i , a n x i o u s f o r t h e f u t u r e o f h e r sons i n t h i s p e r i o d o f r a p i d c h a n g e , l e n t much t h o u g h t t o t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t e d u c a t i o n . D e c i d i n g t h a t T o k y o o f f e r e d t h e g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l a d v a n c e m e n t , she s e n t I n a z o and M i c h i r o t h e r e t o an u n c l e , O t a T o k i t o s h i . A y o u n g e r b r o t h e r o f J u j i r o , T o k i t o s h i had l e f t Nanbu a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n t o pursue h i s f o r t u n e s i n the c a p i t a l . In the G i n z a d i s t r i c t , he o p e n e d a c l o t h i n g s h o p t o s e l l W e s t e r n - s t y l e o u t f i t s . - - 15 C h i l d l e s s , he adopted Inazo to c o n t i n u e the Ota f a m i l y l i n e . E n g l i s h S t u d i e s i n Tokyo: 1872-1876 E n g l i s h was i n vogue when Inazo a r r i v e d i n Tokyo i n 1871. 17 F o r t h o s e a m b i t i o u s t o r i s e i n t h e w o r l d , i t was c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i s p e n s i b l e s k i l l o f g r e a t e s t p r a c t i c a l v a l u e . W i d e l y - r e a d p u b l i c i s t s , such as Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i , M o r i A r i n o r i and N i s h i Amane, e x t o l l e d t h e v i r t u e s o f E n g l i s h , and t h e i r v e r y p r o m i n e n c e i n s o c i e t y l e n t a p o w e r f u l t e s t i m o n y t o i t s c o n t e m p o r a r y w o r t h . F u k u z a w a , m o r e o v e r , i n h i s b e s t - s e l l i n g b o o k , Gakumon no susume (An E n c o u r a g e m e n t o f L e a r n i n g ) , had h a r s h l y c r i t i c i z e d t h e i n h e r e n t d e f e c t s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese c u r r i c u l u m . I n a z o and h i s b r o t h e r e n r o l l e d i n a p r i v a t e E n g l i s h s c h o o l t h a t was o p e r a t e d f o r p r o f i t . Schoo l s run by C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s were a l s o a v a i l a b l e a t l e s s o r no c o s t , b u t T o k i t o s h i , s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s ' m o t i v e s , and d e s p i s i n g t h e i r r e l i g i o n as most J a p a n e s e t h e n d i d , k e p t t h e 17 boys away. For Inazo , growing up i n Nanbu made f r i e n d s h i p d i f f i c u l t a t f i r s t w i t h boys f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y . "The N o r t h e a s t e r n b r o g u e , " he r e c a l l e d , "was p r o v o c a t i v e o f m e r c i l e s s r a g g i n g and s o m e t i m e s a c a u s e o f r e a l s o r r o w and home-s i ckness ." But c u r i o u s l y h i s Tohoku d i a l e c t a l s o gave h i m c e r t a i n a d v a n t a g e s t o l e a r n E n g l i s h , w h i c h may have compensated f o r h i s i n i t i a l s o c i a l o s t r a c i s m : I v e r y soon found t h a t , on the whole , I , as w e l l as o t h e r boys who came f r o m t h e N o r t h e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , c o u l d c a t c h and i m i t a t e t h £ g t e a c h e r ' s i n t o n a t i o n much b e t t e r than the r e s t . A f t e r s t u d y i n g i n the p r i v a t e s c h o o l f o r about a y e a r , he 18 e n r o l l e d i n the Nanbu domain s c h o o l , the Kyokan g i j u k u , which was l o c a t e d i n T s u k i j i a t t h e f o r m e r d a i m y o ' s r e s i d e n c e . S i n c e t h e s c h o o l was q u i t e a l o n g d i s t a n c e f r o m h i s s t e p f a t h e r ' s h o u s e , I n a z o was p l a c e d i n one o f t h e d o r m i t o r i e s , which housed over one-hundred b o a r d e r s . About the same number o f s t u d e n t s commuted from t h e i r homes d a i l y : [ T ] h i s s c h o o l was l a r g e e n o u g h t o d i v i d e s tudent s i n t o grades . A l l the books used were i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , w h i c h t h e J a p a n e s e t e a c h e r s t r a n s l a t e d and e x p l a i n e d . The h i g h e s t c l a s s used Quackenbos' E n g l i s h H i s t o r y . The one below read P e t e r P a r l e y ' s U n i v e r s a l H i s t o r y . The t h i r d c l a s s had M i t c h e l l ' s Geography. I was put i n a lower grade and began w i t h a s m a l l grammar by Quackenbos. I n a z o made r a p i d p r o g r e s s and was p r o m o t e d t o a s m a l l , s e l e c t c l a s s o f a d v a n c e d s t u d e n t s , where he c o n t i n u e d t o e x c e l . In 1875, he p a s s e d t h e d i f f i c u l t e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n f o r t h e e l i t e T o k y o F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e S c h o o l t h a t had been e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t t w o y e a r s b e f o r e . T h e c o m p e t i t i o n h a d been v e r y s t i f f , s i n c e t h e b e n e f i t s t o be g a i n e d were o b v i o u s t o t h e many a s p i r a n t s . F i r s t l y , t h e t e a c h e r s were a l l f o r e i g n e r s , m o s t l y A m e r i c a n s and B r i t i s h , and t h e i r l e s s o n s were second t o none; s e c o n d l y , t u i t i o n fees were n o m i n a l , and i f a needy f a m i l y made a r e q u e s t , even t h i s c o u l d be e x e m p t e d . S h o r t l y a f t e r he e n t e r e d , t h e E n g l i s h D e p a r t m e n t was r e o r g a n i z e d as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y , t h e Tokyo 20 e i g o gakko (Tokyo E n g l i s h S c h o o l ) . A t t h i s p r i v i l e g e d i n s t i t u t i o n , I n a z o met a r e m a r k a b l e t e a c h e r who t a u g h t h i m many b a s i c E n g l i s h s k i l l s : 19 [N] o teacher at whose f e e t I sat e i t h e r before or a f t e r him i n s p i r e d me with such a love of l e a r n i n g as d i d Mr. M.M. Scott. I dare say that many of my schoolmates w i l l share with me feelings of h e a r t f e l t gratitude to t h i s Kentucky veteran of education. He was an educator i n the highest sense of the term i n drawing ouj^of each boy what lay latent i n his l i t t l e soul. Inazo was introduced to E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e i n Scott's class, and read selections from Bacon, Shakespeare, Milton and Goldsmith. This t a l e n t e d teacher a l s o gave him h i s f i r s t s ystematic t r a i n i n g i n E n g l i s h composition; and one of h i s y o u t h f u l essays, e n t i t l e d "The Importance of Introducing C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t o Japan," was s e l e c t e d by Scott and sent to 22 the 1876 Centennial Exhibition held i n Philadelphia. While studying at the Tokyo eigo gakko, two events occurred that proved p i v o t a l to Inazo's subsequent schooling. The f i r s t was a v i s i t to Sanbongi, the l i t t l e community that owed i t s existence to the pioneering work of his grandfather, by the Emperor M e i j i i n 1876. The Imperial guest, on h i s one-night stopover, c a l l e d the Nitobe f a m i l y members i n t o audience and presented them with money to commemorate the services that Tsuto had rendered: I was i n Tokyo and when a l l the papers wrote about the r o y a l v i s i t to my house, I f e l t e x a l t e d both by the past of my f a m i l y ^ n d the greatness of my future r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The second i n c i d e n t was a f i e r y speech by young government o f f i c i a l , a Mr. Nishimura, who had come to h i s 20 s c h o o l t o r e c r u i t s t u d e n t s f o r t h e n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e i n H o k k a i d o . N i s h i m u r a u r g e d them t h a t J a p a n now needed s p e c i a l i s t s i n s c i e n c e more t h a n i t needed g e n e r a l i s t s i n l a w . The t a l k c o n v i n c e d I n a z o . U n t i l t h a t t i m e , he had n o t t h o u g h t c a r e f u l l y a b o u t h i s v o c a t i o n . L i k e most o f h i s c l a s s m a t e s , he had vague p l a n s t o s t u d y l a w , w i t h hopes o f l a t e r s e r v i n g i n some b r a n c h o f t h e b u r g e o n i n g g o v e r n m e n t 2 4 b u r e a u c r a c y . Now he r e c o n s i d e r e d h i s c h o i c e anew. H i s f a m i l y a l r e a d y had a r e p u t a t i o n as d e v e l o p e r s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s . Perhaps he too s h o u l d pursue t h i s endeavor . W i t h t h i s f r e s h g o a l i n m i n d , I n a z o e n t e r e d t h e s e c o n d c l a s s o f t h e Sapporo A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e i n the autumn o f 1877. Sapporo: 1877-1883 The S a p p o r o n o g a k k o (S ap p oro A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e ) was s t a r t e d by t h e k a i t a k u s h i ( H o k k a i d o C o l o n i z a t i o n O f f i c e ) . In 1876, Kuroda K i y o t a k a , who had from the v e r y f i r s t gu ided i t s d e v e l o p m e n t , a r r a n g e d t h r o u g h G e n e r a l H o r a c e C a p r o n , h i s A m e r i c a n a d v i s o r , and M o r i A r i n o r i , the Japanese M i n i s t e r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , W i l l i a m S. C l a r k , t o s t a r t a s i m i l a r s c h o o l i n J a p a n . C l a r k a r r i v e d i n t h e summer o f 1876 w i t h two a s s i s t a n t s , W i l l i a m W h e e l e r and D a v i d P e n h a l l o w , t o l a y t h e g r o u n d w o r k . ^ Though i t b o r e t h e name " a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e , " w h i c h s u g g e s t s a w o r k - o r i e n t a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e no g a k k o 1 s 21 educational aims were f a r more comprehensive i n scope. The hours devoted to p r a c t i c a l experiences, such as working on the col l e g e ' s farm, were r e l a t i v e l y few when compared to the actual time spent i n the classroom on s o l i d academic subjects. And even though emphasis was placed on the natural and applied s c i e n c e s , the humanities were not neglected. In the Plan f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n , which Clark had drawn up, the c o l l e g e ' s s t a t e d objectives were to: [ Q j u a l i f y i t s students f o r i n t e l l i g e n t and e f f e c t i v e work i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of business, and i n those departments of i n d u s t r y and technical science pertaining to agriculture and the development of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , manufactures, and the maintenance of an advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n ; a l s o to promote conceptions of t h e i r r elations to the state and to society, and of se 1 f-g£il ture b e f i t t i n g t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e stations. Clark returned to the United States af t e r only an eight-month sojourn i n Sapporo, during which time the c o l l e g e launched i t s f i r s t class. But his two young assistants stayed behind and formed the core of the f o r e i g n teaching s t a f f . Wheeler taught mathematics and engineering, and Penhallow, Chemistry. In 1877, another American, an Amherst U n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e , W i l l i a m Brooks, a r r i v e d and took over the a g r i c u l t u r a l courses formerly taught by Clark. The following year, two more New Englanders, John Cutter and C e c i l Peabody, j o i n e d the s t a f f . The former, a medical doctor, taught Physiology, and the l a t t e r , mathematics and mechanics. But because of t e a c h e r s h o r t a g e , a l l t h e s e yatoi^ ( f o r e i g n 22 e m p l o y e e s ) were f o r c e d t o become g e n e r a l i s t s , and much o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g i n v o l v e d h e l p i n g s tudent s w i t h E n g l i s h grammar, . . 27 c o m p o s i t i o n and r h e t o r i c . Inazo was w e l l - p r e p a r e d f o r the nogakko's c u r r i c u l u m . H i s s t u d i e s a t t h e T o k y o e i g o gakko had p r e p a r e d h i m more t h a n a d e q u a t e l y f o r t h e c l a s s e s t h a t were t a u g h t i n E n g l i s h . H i s c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h h i s t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h Brooks and C u t t e r , gave h i m i n v a l u a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o speak E n g l i s h a l m o s t d a i l y . And w i t h h i s c l a s s m a t e s , I n a z o r o u t i n e l y u s e d E n g l i s h ; and n e a r l y a l l h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o them a r e i n t h i s f o r e i g n t o n g u e . Yuzo O t a ' s E i g o t o N i h o n j i n ( E n g l i s h and t h e J a p a n e s e ) h i g h l i g h t s t h i s u n i q u e a s p e c t o f I n a z o ' s g e n e r a t i o n w i t h t h e i r o v e r w h e l m i n g e x p o s u r e t o E n g l i s h i n t h e i r y o u t h . U n d o u b t e d l y , t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e e a s e d — 2 8 Inazo's e n t r y l a t e r on i n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . But j u s t as i m p o r t a n t were the s p i r i t u a l i n f l u e n c e s t h a t he r e c e i v e d a t t h e n o g a k k o . C l a r k h a d l e f t b e h i n d h i s C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s , which pervaded the s c h o o l ' s atmosphere when I n a z o a r r i v e d . The f i r s t - y e a r s t u d e n t s , who had a l l been c o n v e r t e d by C l a r k , were i n a p r o s e l y t i z i n g mood and anxious 29 to win the newcomers to C h r i s t . Of the twenty- two members o f Inazo's c l a s s , seven became C h r i s t i a n and r e c e i v e d t h e i r b a p t i s m i n June 1878. Among them, I n a z o , U c h i m u r a K a n z o , M i y a b e K i n g o , H i r o i I s a m u , T a k a g i T o m i t a r o , F u j i t a Kyuzaburo. Thi.s l i t t l e band of seven became v e r y c l o s e l y - k n i t o v e r t h e n e x t f o u r y e a r s o f c o l l e g e ; t h e y 23 d e v e l o p e d t h e i r own s u b c u l t u r e which c e n t e r e d on the independent worship of Christ and the practices of Ch r i s t i a n l i v i n g . In spite of his outward allegiance, Inazo struggled with h i s new f a i t h . His s p i r i t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , which have been described with great a c u i t y by Matsukuma Toshiko, appear to 31 have deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l r o o t s . From e a r l y i n h i s Sapporo student days, he was d r i v e n by an obsession to gain academic honors. This made him look upon h i s f e l l o w classmates, es p e c i a l l y Uchimura and Miyabe who were his closest friends, as r i v a l s f o r the best grades. Inazo drove h i m s e l f to i n c r e d i b l e lengths i n h i s study i n hopes of g a i n i n g the top p o s i t i o n i n c l a s s . His l e t t e r s back home to h i s s t e p f a t h e r T o k i t o s h i d e s c r i b e i n great d e t a i l the t e s t scores of each student and t h e i r respective ranking. Though Inazo excelled in English, his math was weak, which pulled his t o t a l average 32 down, and t h i s was a constant source of anxiety for him. Inazo's burning ambition to standout among his classmates was fostered i n him from childhood by his family; p a r t i c u l a r l y by h i s mother, Seki, and h i s s t e p f a t h e r . Both held high expectations of him and c e a s e l e s s l y admonished him, by word and demeanor, that they would not be s a t i s f i e d with him being 33 of second rank. But Inazo also possessed a sensitive, emotional nature and was quick to r e a l i z e the inherent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of r i s s h i n shusse—with i t s stress on worldly honor and s t a t u s — and the e t h i c a l values taught by C h r i s t i a n i t y . Inazo needed 24 to r e s o l v e t h i s p a i n f u l d i lemma i n h i m s e l f and to j u s t i f y i n h i s own mind h i s c o m p e l l i n g need f o r outward r e c o g n i t i o n . He s p e n t l o n g h o u r s i n t h e l i b r a r y r e a d i n g p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n to seek an answer to h i s i n n e r t u r m o i l . By h i s t h i r d y e a r a t t h e n o g a k k o / he had t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m an a c t i v e l a d , who c o m p e t e d w e l l i n s p o r t s and who " p l a y e d f i r s t base" i n b a s e b a l l i n t r a m u r a l s , to a b o o k i s h i n t r o v e r t nicknamed by h i s 3 4 -c o m p a n i o n s "monk." U c h i m u r a K a n z o , i n h i s e a r l y a u t o b i o g r a p h y , How JE Became a C h r i s t i a n , draws a d e f t p o r t r a i t o f the t r o u b l e d Inazo: Pau l (Inazo's C h r i s t i a n name) was a s c h o l a r . He o f t e n s u f f e r e d f r o m n e u r a l g i a , a n d w a s n e a r s i g h t e d . He c o u l d d o u b t a l l t h i n g s , c o u l d manufacture new d o u b t s , and must t e s t and prove e v e r y t h i n g b e f o r e he c o u l d a c c e p t i t . Thomas he o u g h t t o have s u r n a m e d h i m s e l f . B u t w i t h h i s s p e c t a c l e s , and a l l h i s assumed s c h o l a r l y a i r s , he was a g u i l e l e s s boy a t h e a r t ; and he c o u l d j o i n w i t h h i s comrades i n a f e t e champetre under t h e c h e r r y b l o s s o m s i n a S a b b a t h a f t e r n o o n , a f t e r i n t h a t m o r n i n g he c o o l e d t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e " c h u r c h " w i t h h i s g l o o m y and i n t r i c a t e doubts about P r o v i d e n c e and P r e d e s t i n a t i o n . The p r o l o n g e d h o u r s o f r e a d i n g had damaged I n a z o ' s v i s i o n ; he was p l a g u e d m o r e o v e r w i t h s e v e r e h e a d a c h e s t h a t w o u l d n o t s u b s i d e . To r e l i e v e t h e p a i n , he v i s i t e d D o c t o r C u t t e r who gave h i m some p i l l s . A m e n t a l d e p r e s s i o n e n s u e d , d u r i n g which t i m e he c a s t i g a t e d h i m s e l f i n h i s d i a r y t h a t he was " F r a i l " and "Wrack ." In t h e m i d s t o f h i s a g o n i e s , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e h i s r a n k i n c l a s s f e l l f r o m t h i r d t o t e n t h , he c h a n c e d t o f i n d i n t h e I n d e p e n d e n t an a r t i c l e by Thomas C a r l y l e , w h i c h s t r u c k a r e s o n a n t c h o r d i n h i m . S h o r t l y 25 t h e r e a f t e r , he l o c a t e d a copy of C a r l y l e ' s Sartor Resartus, 3 6 which gave him a key to solve h i s t r a v a i l s . Miwa Kimitada d e s c r i b e s Inazo's reading the book "with an urgency of a starved man gobbling up h i s f i r s t decent food i n days." Later i n l i f e , Nitobe would c l a i m that "Sartor Resartus was his patron for l i f e " and that he had perused i t s purple pages 3 7 over "over f o r t y times." In J u l y 1880, Inazo l e f t Hokkaido f o r a short v i s i t to his Iwate home on his way to Tokyo to seek medical treatment fo r h i s eyes. Just a f t e r he had l e f t Sapporo, a telegram reached the nogakko to inform him that he should s p e e d i l y return home, for his mother was c r i t i c a l l y i l l . Inazo, unware of the message, d i d not hurry, and spent some time with a f r i e n d v i s i t i n g Towada before a r r i v i n g i n Morioka a f t e r an 3 8 absence of almost ten years. His aunt, whom he mistook at f i r s t f o r h i s mother, met him at the door. Seeing h i s exuberant face a l l aglow, she could not bear to t e l l him that Seki's f u n e r a l had been held only three days before. Instead, she g e n t l y led him to the f a m i l y a l t e r , which was s t i l l burning f r e s h incense to her memory, and q u i e t l y s a i d " t h i s i s what has happened to your mother." Inazo was stunned and could not utter a word. But his o l d e s t s i s t e r , Mine, r e c a l l e d that she saw him "out i n the garden out of sight of people's eyes leaning against the plum 39 tree and weeping." Mary Nitobe later described her husband's devotion to his mother: 26 He c a r r i e d w i t h h i m t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s o f t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n , t h e l e t t e r s she had w r i t t e n h i m , a n d a f t e r w a r d s r e a d t h e m on e v e r y a n n i v e r s a r y o f h e r G o i n g . I l e a r n e d e a r l y t o r e s p e c t my h u s b a n d ' s d e s i r e f o r a q u i e t a p a r t n e s s on t h i s h a l l o w e d a n n i v e r s a r y , and t o r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s an i n n e r m o s t r e c e s s o f the s t o u t e s t h e ^ r t , t h a t no one can or shou ld t r y to p e n e t r a t e . Inazo never forgave h i m s e l f f o r not b e i n g a t h i s mother's d e a t h b e d . And t h i s deep r e g r e t made h e r e n t r e a t i e s , t h a t he become a g r e a t person worthy o f t h e i r a n c e s t o r s , a l l the more p r e s s i n g i n h i s mind. He r e s o l v e d t h a t he would c a r r y out her w i s h e s . 4 1 He g r a d u a t e d f r o m t h e n o g a k k o i n J u l y 1881 and e n t e r e d t h e k a i t a k u s h i . G r e a t c h a n g e s were t h e n t a k i n g p l a c e . The k a i t a k u s h i was b e i n g d i s m a n t l e d and i t s f u n c t i o n s t r a n s f e r r e d - . - 42 t o t h e n o r m s h o ( M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y ) . B e c a u s e o f t h i s s t r e a m l i n i n g , t h e r e was l i t t l e t o do i n t h e Sapporo o f f i c e , and Inazo spent most of h i s work hours r e a d i n g h i s own b o o k s . R e a l i z i n g t h a t h i s c a r e e r was n o t g o i n g anywhere, he p e t i t i o n e d the n o r i n s h o i n May 1883 to r e l e a s e 43 him from h i s c o n t r a c t . H i s r e q u e s t was g r a n t e d . 27 The d i r e c t i o n i n which educa-tion starts a man w i l l determine his future l i f e . Plato, The Republic CHAPTER I I Graduate S t u d i e s Abroad: 1883-1890 _ * _ Almost twenty-one, Ota Inazo, l e f t Hokkaido i n the summer of 1883 f o r Tokyo. In h i s s i x years of residence i n Sapporo, he had grown i n t o manhood and had acquired a deep a f f e c t i o n f o r the l i t t l e town and i t s people. He h e l d high hopes that he would one day return to help the i s l a n d develop. But before he could do t h i s , he h i m s e l f needed to grow and l e a r n s k i l l s to become a great leader. Beckoned by t h i s " f l i c k e r before h i s eyes," he made plans to prepare f o r greater things. 1 Search for Fame and Honor: the Path to America Ota got h i s s t e p f a t h e r ' s a p p r o v a l to f u r t h e r h i s s c h o o l i n g "for two more years" at Todai (Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y ) . In t h i s quest for graduate education, he appears to have been moved i n part by what h i s Sapporo f r i e n d s and r i v a l s were doing. Miyabe Kingo was already studying Botany at Todai; * _ _ I use Ota,_ Inazo's surname at t h i s time, f o r most of t h i s chapter. Ota becomes Nitobe again i n A p r i l 1889, and the circumstances behind t h i s change are explained on page 47-48. 28 Uchimura Kanzo was a l s o p l a n n i n g to do advanced work i n the F i s h e r y l a b o r a t o r y t h e r e ; H i r o i I s a m u , who p o s s e s s e d an e n g i n e e r i n g b e n t , was p r e p a r i n g t o go t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; and an o l d e r f r i e n d , S a t o S h o s u k e , was a l r e a d y a t t h e J o h n s 2 Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y . O t a e n r o l l e d i n t h e F a c u l t y o f L i t e r a t u r e i n S e p t e m b e r 1883, though he was s t i l l commit ted to pursue a g r i c u l t u r e as a v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d . He had found w h i l e s t u d y i n g a t the nogakko t h a t he l i k e d the h u m a n i t i e s much more than he d i d the n a t u r a l o r a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s . In t h e l a t t e r , m o r e o v e r , h i s i n e p t n e s s w i t h numbers had k e p t h i m f r o m a t t a i n i n g good m a r k s . He was caught i n a b i n d s i n c e a g r i c u l t u r e , as a p r a c t i c a l d i s c i p l i n e , was e v o l v i n g i n t o a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y employed new t e c h n o l o g y and thus r e q u i r e d some m a t h e m a t i c a l a p t i t u d e . B u t he f o u n d a way o u t o f h i s d i l e m m a by s e l e c t i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l E c o n o m i c s as h i s m a j o r . By d o i n g so he c o u l d c o n t i n u e the f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n and s t i l l s tudy l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y . A t T o d a i , i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s o n e c o u r s e i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E c o n o m i c s , he t o o k S t a t i s t i c s , E n g l i s h 3 L i t e r a t u r e , and E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n . T o k y o U n i v e r s i t y i n 1883 was s t i l l a young i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t had n o t y e t a t t a i n e d t h e p r e s t i g e t h a t w o u l d l a t e r endowed i t s p r o f e s s o r s l a t e r w i t h a c h a r m e d m y s t i q u e ; i t s f a c u l t y c o n s i s t e d o f a number o f y a t o i and young J a p a n e s e i n s t r u c t o r s who had j u s t r e t u r n e d f r o m o v e r s e a s s t u d y . O t a ' s p r o f e s s o r s were a German named R h a t g e n , an A m e r i c a n , 29 Cox, and two Japanese, Toyama S h o i c h i and T a j i r i I n a j i r o , b o t h o f whom had s t u d i e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Though O t a made e x c e l l e n t grades i n h i s f i r s t s e m e s t e r , he c o m p l a i n e d o f poor i n s t r u c t i o n : I am g e t t i n g d i s g u s t f u l [ s i c ] o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y . I t h o u g h t I c a n l e a r n v e r y much i n i t [ s i c ] ; b u t n o l T h e r e a r e p l e n t y o f b o o k s , b u t n o t p l e n t y o f good t e a c h e r s , [ s i c ] Toyama c a n ' t t e a c h E n g l i s h v e r y w e l l . We a r e s t u d y i n g H a m l e t : he j u m p s o v e r many p l a c e s as t o o d i f f i c u l t . Cox i s s i m p l y an o l d f a s h i o n e d t r u e -t o - r u l e s - o f - s y n t a x g r a m m a r i a n . I don't t h i n k v e r y h i g h l y o f h i s c o r r e c t i o n s o f our e s s a y s . He i s a man o f n o t much i d e a , [ s i c ] Toyama's h i s t o r y i s a l s o v e r y p o o r . He knows s c a r e l y a n y t h i n g b e s i d e s w h a t i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e t e x t b o o k i t s e l f ; he may know b e t t e r o f p h i l o s o p h y [ s i c ] b u t t h a t i s n o t my s u b j e c t o f s t u d y . I l i k e Mr. T a j i r i ' s Economy; b u t [ t h e ] hours f o r Economy a r e t o o l i t t l e and s e l f - s t u d y a l o n e ^ c a n s u p p l y what [the] c l a s s - r o o m l e c t u r e s l a c k . By e a r l y 1 8 8 4 , he d e c i d e d t o l e a v e t h e u n i v e r s i t y a t t h e e n d o f t h e s e c o n d t e r m ; he h a d h a d e n o u g h o f i n c o m p e t e n t t e a c h i n g . But many y e a r s l a t e r , i n one o f h i s c o l o r f u l a n e c d o t e s p u b l i s h e d i n K i g a n no a s h i (Reeds o f t h e R e t u r n e d G o o s e ) , a book t h a t s o l d w e l l d u r i n g h i s r e i g n as H e a d m a s t e r o f t h e F i r s t H i g h e r S c h o o l , he gave a d i f f e r e n t 5 a c c o u n t o f h i s m o t i v e s . R a t h e r t h a n "poor t e a c h e r s , " he p l a c e d blame upon the "backwardness" of Japanese academics a t t h a t t i m e . T h i s w e l l - k n o w n s t o r y goes as f o l l o w s . H a v i n g come e a r l y f o r one o f Toyama's c l a s s e s , he s a t i n t h e c o r n e r o f t h e room and was r e a d i n g H e n ry George's P o v e r t y and  P r o g r e s s , w h i c h a f r i e n d (most l i k e l y Sato) had s e n t him from 30 the United States. Toyama asked him the t i t l e of the book, and Ota t o l d him. The p r o f e s s o r was i mpressed. "That," he s a i d , " i s an i m p o r t a n t book. A f t e r you f i n i s h i t , you s h o u l d w r i t e an a r t i c l e f o r one of the j o u r n a l s . " But n o t i c i n g t h a t the book had been p u b l i s h e d some e i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e , Ota was shocked; Japanese s c h o l a r s h i p , he concluded, was e i g h t years behind t h a t of the West. That experience prompted him to q u i t 6 Todai and go to America. Unlike Sato Shosuke, whose t r i p was being financed by the M e i j i government, Ota had t o fend f o r h i m s e l f . F o r t u n a t e l y T o k i t o s h i had some government bonds that he cashed to o b t a i n money. 7 I t was not a l a r g e amount, but s u f f i c i e n t t o get Ota s t a r t e d . J u s t how l o n g the funds would h o l d out he d i d not know; he would e n t r u s t h i s f a t e to the kindness of Providence. By l a t e summer Ota's p r e p a r a t i o n was done; and b e f o r e embarking on h i s voyage, he wrote a l o n g l e t t e r t o h i s i n t i m a t e f r i e n d , Miyabe Kingo, which i l l u m i n a t e c l e a r l y h i s circumstances: I s h a l l l e a v e T o k i o [ s i c ] f o r America. I go o f f u n p r o v i d e d w i t h ample funds. I run a r i s k : i t may be too b o l d . But t h i n k i n g t h a t l i f e i s a t b e s t but a b o l d a t t e m p t a t a dventure, I d e c i d e t o go. Some d i s s u a d e me from the p l a n on the score that my h e a l t h (eyes) may give way. Others s t r o n g l y recommend me to be s e t t l e d here w i t h a w i f e - - t o c o n f e s s the t r u t h , the b r i d e was even s e l e c t e d — f r o m a f a m i l y of an i n f l u e n t i a l S e c r e t a r y of [the] Dai Jo Kwan; but I r e j e c t e d [the m a r r i a g e ] ...at p r e s e n t I have no o b s t a -c l e s ...father & mother are h e a l t h y : they can e a t and d r i n k : I have no o b l i g a t i o n s : my h e a l t h i s sound: my eyes are b e t t e r . L e t me go. Good-bye, o l d F r i e n d ... Pray f o r me as o f t as thou rememberest me. I w i l l be t r u e and f a i t h f u l to 31 my f r i e n d s and endeavor to be so to myself. Ota l e f t without a w e l l - d e f i n e d study plan; although he "wanted to do economics," he chose, s t r a n g e l y , a s m a l l c o l l e g e i n Western P e n n s y l v a n i a t h a t d i d not have t h a t type of . . 9 t r a i n i n g . He had s e l e c t e d A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e , i t appears, at the a d v i c e of F l o r a H a r r i s or her husband Merriman H a r r i s , m i s s i o n a r i e s i n Japan f o r many y e a r s , whom he had known i n Sapporo. They were i n Tokyo d u r i n g h i s l a s t year a t T o d a i i n 1884. In March th a t year, H a r r i s had o f f i c i a t e d at Uchimura's wedding, which Ota a t t e n d e d . 1 ^ The H a r r i s e s were A l l e g h e n y 11 C o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s , and had met each o t h e r on campus. M e a d v i l l e , P e n n s y l v a n i a , the l o c a t i o n of the s c h o o l , was F l o r a ' s hometown. Her f a m i l y , the B e s t s , s t i l l r e s i d e d t h e r e when Ota a r r i v e d on October 30, 1884 w i t h another Japanese 12 l a d , Okami Yoshiharu. Founded i n 1798, A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e was a f o u r - y e a r l i b e r a l a r t s c o l l e g e w i t h an e x c e l l e n t l o c a l r e p u t a t i o n . But i t s backwoods l o c a t i o n , some eig h t y m i l e s north of P i t t s b u r g h i n the A l l e g h e n y f o o t h i l l s a m i d s t s m a l l farms and p a s t u r e s , foredoomed any p r o s p e c t s t h a t i t might dev e l o p i n t o a major u n i v e r s i t y . I t was too i s o l a t e d from the c u l t u r a l s t i m u l a t i o n of the E a s t e r n m e t r o p o l i s e s t o a t t r a c t top f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s . In s p i t e of t h i s d i s a d v a n t a g e , the people of the c o l l e g e and town s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the a f f a i r s of the w i d e r w o r l d . M e a d v i l l e ' s p o p u l a t i o n of t e n thousand su p p o r t e d t h r e e newspapers and s e v e r a l weekly and 32 monthly j o u r n a l s t h a t s e r v e d the town and the s u r r o u n d i n g 13 county. The C r a w f o r d Journa1 c a r r i e d the f o l l o w i n g i t e m a few days a f t e r Ota and Okami a r r i v e d : Japanese Students—Two students, Messrs. Ota and Akami, [ s i c ] from the most progressive empire of the O r i e n t , have come to A l l e g h e n y C o l l e g e d i r e c t from Japan. I f everything i s s a t i s f a c t o r y they w i l l be m a t r i c u l a t e d . Ota d i d not d e l a y h i s b u s i n e s s . On h i s second day i n town, he v i s i t e d President Benjamin Wheeler at the c o l l e g e f o r an i n t e r v i e w ; and the f o l l o w i n g day he began h i s c l a s s e s . He was a d m i t t e d t o the Freshman c l a s s , and took c o u r s e s i n 15 German, H i s t o r y of Philosophy and the A r t of Discourse. But a f t e r only a week, Ota received a l e t t e r from Sato urging him to the Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y ; s t u d i e s t h e r e , s a i d S a t o , would be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s a s p i r a t i o n s . A f t e r a s h o r t 16 d e l i b e r a t i o n , he l e f t M e a d v i l l e f o r Baltimore. Studies at The Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Sato Shosuke occupies a prominent place i n Hokkaido's h i s t o r y as an educator. He took over as a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the Sapporo nogakko during i t s years of s t r u g g l e to s u r v i v e budget c u t b a c k s i n the l a t e 1880s through the 1890s, and l a t e r became Dean of the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e when the nogakko was incorporated i n t o the Tohoku Im p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y ; and w i t h the f o u n d i n g of the Hokkaido I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1918, Sato became i t s f i r s t President. For h i s long a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work, 17 he was granted Peerage as a baron. L i k e Ota, Sato t o o was from a h i g h - r a n k i n g Nanbu s a m u r a i f a m i l y . As c h i l d r e n , he and O t a had f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d e a c h o t h e r ' s home; t h e y a t t e n d e d t h e K y o k a n g i j u k u t o g e t h e r and eve n l i v e d t o g e t h e r f o r a few months; T o k i t o s h i , who was a f r i e n d o f S a t o ' s f a t h e r , v i e w e d S h o s u k e , who was s i x y e a r s o l d e r t h a n O t a as a t r u s t w o r t h y c o m p a n i o n f o r h i s s t e p s o n . Sato e n t e r e d t h e nogakko, and gr a d u a t e d as the t o p s t u d e n t i n 1880. Soon t h e r e a f t e r he was a p p o i n t e d i n s t r u c t o r a t t h e 18 s c h o o l , and s e n t abroad t o A m e r i c a i n 1883. W h i l e i n New York, Sato w r o t e t o P r e s i d e n t G i l m a n o f the Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y e x p r e s s i n g h i s d e s i r e t o a t t e n d the i n s t i t u t i o n ; he l i k e w i s e w r o t e t o P r o f e s s o r H.B. Adams who 19 headed t h e H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e D e p a r t m e n t . The Department a c c e p t e d him as a Graduate Student i n t h e autumn of 1883. He worked h a r d and won t h e a d m i r a t i o n o f b o t h G i l m a n and Adams. The f o l l o w i n g O ctober, when Ota a r r i v e d , Sato was a l r e a d y a " " F e l l o w - b y - C o u r t e s y " ; h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , c a r r i e d g r e a t w e i g h t w i t h G i l m a n and Adams when 2 0 O t a s o u g h t e n t r a n c e t o t h e same d e p a r t m e n t . On h i s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m , he w r o t e , as h i s purpose a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y , t h a t he w i s h e d " t o com p l e t e my e d u c a t i o n and t o q u a l i f y m y s e l f 21 f o r t e a c h i n g on my r e t u r n t o Japan." O t a and S a t o were n o t t h e o n l y J a p a n e s e a t t h e J o h n s Hopkins. The same semester t h a t Ota a r r i v e d , a n o t h e r Japanese s t u d e n t , M o t o r a Y u j i r o , e n r o l l e d t o s t u d y P h i l o s o p h y and P s y c h o l o g y w i t h P r o f e s s o r S t a n l e y H a l l . M o t o r a e x c e l l e d and 34 won a U n i v e r s i t y F e l l o w s h i p i n h i s second y e a r , and o b t a i n e d h i s P h . D . i n 1 8 8 9 . L a t e r a t T o d a i , he i n t r o d u c e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n t o J a p a n . In t h e s c i e n c e s , two J a p a n e s e had a l r e a d y won t h e i r H o p k i n s P h . D ' s : K u h a r a M i t s u r u had comple ted h i s i n C h e m i s t r y i n 1881; and M i t s u k u r i K a k i c h i i n 1883 had r e c e i v e d a Z o o l o g y d e g r e e . B o t h became p r o f e s s o r s a t t h e I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y upon t h e i r r e t u r n t o 22 J a p a n . The J o h n s H o p k i n s was i n i t s f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d when O t a e n t e r e d ; i t had opened i t s d o o r s o n l y e i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e as t h e f i r s t A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y d e v o t e d t o t h e p r o m o t i o n o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s . I n O t a ' s f i r s t y e a r , i t h a d a t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t o f 290 s tudents—174 Graduate Students and F e l l o w s , 69 M a t r i c u l a t e s ( u n d e r g r a d u a t e s ) , and 47 S p e c i a l S t u d e n t s . They were t a u g h t by 52 t e a c h e r s . In i t s s h o r t e x i s t e n c e , t h e s c h o o l had p r o d u c e d 54 P h . D . s - - t h e g r e a t e s t number i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 2 3 I t s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , D a n i e l C o i t G i l m a n , was s u i t e d p e r f e c t l y f o r t h e t a s k o f c r e a t i n g a m o d e r n , r e s e a r c h -o r i e n t a t e d u n i v e r s i t y . "His one thought ," wrote a f e l l o w , "is t h e J o h n s H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y f o r i t s g l o r y and p e r f e c t i o n . " L i k e h i s c o l l e a g u e , C h a r l e s E l i o t a t H a r v a r d , Andrew White a t C o r n e l l , and James A n g e l l a t M i c h i g a n , G i l m a n had g r e a t power 2 4 a n d knew how t o u s e i t . A l t h o u g h a b u s y a d m i n i s t r a t o r , G i l m a n had t i m e f o r s t u d e n t s . He s e t a s i d e a p a r t o f h i s m o r n i n g h o u r s so t h a t they c o u l d come and t a l k w i t h him about problems they had; he 35 knew each one p e r s o n a l l y and t h o u g h t f u l l y extended h e l p such as g i v i n g a room i n h i s home t o a needy s t u d e n t who had j u s t a r r i v e d i n B a l t i m o r e ; o r l e n d i n g money t o t h e m i n e m e r g e n c i e s — s i m p l e a c t s w h i c h Hugh H a w k i n s s a y s "bespeak a 25 g e n e r o s i t y beyond the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f h i s p o s i t i o n . " O t a saw G i l m a n f r o m t i m e t o t i m e and had c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h him about Japan . When he was i n Germany, i n 1889, G i l m a n s e n t h i m an a r t i c l e he had w r i t t e n i n t h e N a t i o n on t h e p r o m u l g a t i o n o f t h e J a p a n e s e C o n s t i t u t i o n . O t a w r o t e b a c k s a y i n g t h a t he was "deeply g r a t e f u l f o r -the i n t e r e s t " t h a t the 2 6 P r e s i d e n t had shown i n Japan. H i s p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h G i l m a n w o u l d l a t e r s t r o n g l y a f f e c t and c o l o r h i s own s t y l e as a s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r ; i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h h i s own s t u d e n t s many y e a r s l a t e r , he would e x h i b i t t h e same c h a r i t a b l e n e s s a n d p e r f o r m a c t s o f t h o u g h t f u 1 n e s s t h a t he h i m s e l f h a d e x p e r i e n c e d i n h i s 27 r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y P r e s i d e n t . Though O t a , l i k e t h e o t h e r J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s , r e s p e c t e d G i l m a n , he was c l o s e s t t o P r o f e s s o r H e r b e r t Baxter Adams whose c l a s s e s he a t t ended r e g u l a r l y f o r s i x s t r a i g h t s emes ter s . He t o o k Adams' c o u r s e s i n H i s t o r y o f P o l i t i c s , C h u r c h H i s t o r y , The R e n a i s s a n c e , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, Germanic I n s t i t u t i o n s , and 2 8 t h e S e m i n a r y i n H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c s . Adams was o n l y t h i r t y - s i x when O t a f i r s t met h i m , b u t a l r e a d y commanded a wide r e p u t a t i o n as a h a r d worker among h i s c o l l e a g u e s . He had come to the Johns Hopkins i n 1876 as an A s s o c i a t e , and r a n the 36 d e p a r t m e n t w h i l e G i l m a n s e a r c h e d f o r a s e n i o r p r o f e s s o r ; he w o r k e d w i t h " p r o d i g i o u s e n e r g i e s " t u t o r i n g , l e c t u r i n g , and c o n d u c t i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h o r e s , a n d b y 1881 h a d c o n v i n c e d G i l m a n t h a t an e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o l a r was not needed. He was promoted to A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head, w i t h a s a l a r y 29 of $2750. Adams's major c o n t r i b u t i o n s a t the Johns Hopkins i n t h i s p e r i o d were the H i s t o r i c a l Seminary f o r Graduate Students and a monograph s e r i e s , The J o h n s H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e s . P r o f e s s i o n a l l y , he s erved f r o m 1882 as S e c r e t a r y o f t h e n e w l y f o u n d e d A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , and c a r r i e d out the n e c e s s a r y l a b o r to l a u n c h i t . L a t e r h i s work as an i n s p i r i n g t e a c h e r and s u p e r b e d i t o r were commended by many who knew and s t u d i e d w i t h h i m . Some of h i s many Graduate S tudents l a t e r . w o n g r e a t fame; among t h e most r enown were Woodrow W i l s o n , J . F r a n k l i n J a m e s o n , 30 A l b e r t Shaw, and F r e d e r i c k Jackson T u r n e r . When Adams d i e d a t age f i f t y - o n e i n 1901, W i l s o n wrote the f o l l o w i n g g l o w i n g t r i b u t e : I f I were t o sum up my i m p r e s s i o n o f D r . Adams , I s h o u l d c a l l him a g r e a t C a p t a i n o f I n d u s t r y , a c a p t a i n i n the f i e l d o f s y s t e m a t i c and o r g a n i z e d s c h o l a r s h i p . I t h i n k a l l h i s p u p i l s would a c c o r d h i m m a s t e r y i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h , i n t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f methods and i d e a l s . H i s head was a v e r i t a b l e c l e a r i n g house o f i d e a s i n t h e f i e l d o f h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y , and no one e v e r s e r i o u s l y s t u d i e d under him who d i d not g e t , i n i t s most s e r v i c e a b l e f o r m , the modern i d e a l s o f w o r k u p o n t h e s o u r c e s ; a n d n o t t h e i d e a l s m e r e l y , b u t a l s o a v e r y d e f i n i t e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n c r e t e a p p l i c a t i o n i n d a i l y s tudy . The t h e s i s work done upon h i m may f a i r l y be s a i d t o have 37 s e t t h e pace f o r u n i v e r s i t y work i n h i s t o r y throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s . That i s the whole t h i n g i n a n u t s h e l l ; and i t makes ,a r e p u t a t i o n which can never be j u s t l y o b s c u r e d . Ota s t u d i e d a l s o w i t h the two o t h e r young i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t , R i c h a r d E l y and J . F r a n k l i n J a m e s o n . E l y had come to the Johns Hopkins i n 1881 a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a Ph.D. from H e i d e l b e r g . H i s c a n d i d c r i t i c i s m o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e e c o n o m i c s and b i g b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e s soon b r o u g h t h i m i n t o d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h E . L . G o d k i n , e d i t o r o f t h e i n f l u e n t i a l N a t i o n , who s h a r p l y a t t a c k e d h i m . E l y a l s o became e m b r o i l e d w i t h a c o l l e a g u e , t h e a s t r o n o m e r S i m o n N e w c o m b , w h o s e 32 c o n s e r v a t i v e v iews on economics he opposed. B u t i n s p i t e o f h i s c o n t r o v e r s i e s , E l y was a p r o m i s i n g s c h o l a r and an i n s p i r i n g t e a c h e r who a t t r a c t e d many s t u d e n t s . He had a t a l e n t , " a k i n t o t h a t o f H . B . Adams , t o s t i m u l a t e 3 3 them and s e t them t o w o r k . " He d i d t h i s p a r t l y by h i s own e x a m p l e o f l a b o r , t h e 1880s b e i n g one o f h i s most p r o d u c t i v e d e c a d e s . O t a t o o k n i n e o f h i s c o u r s e s i n c l u d i n g F i n a n c e and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , H i s t o r y o f P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m y , S t u d i e s i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and A d v a n c e d P o l i t i c a l Economy; he a l s o had 3 4 h i s f i r s t a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h s o c i a l i s m i n E l y ' s c l a s s . T w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r , N i t o b e r e m i n i s c e d on h i s s t u d i e s a b r o a d and w r o t e o f E l y ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n a i r i n g h i s own v i e w s and h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e o f j u d g e m e n t i n c r i t i c i z i n g even t h e m a s t e r s o f p o l i t i c a l economy s u c h as H e r b e r t S p e n c e r , F e r d i n a n d L a s a l l e and J . S . M i l l . From E l y , p e r h a p s , N i t o b e l e a r n t t o d a r e t h e c r i t i c i s m o f h i s c o l l e g u e s by s t e p p i n g 38 o u t s i d e t h e i v o r y t o w e r s o f a c a d e m i a t o w r i t e f o r m a g a z i n e s 35 and newspapers r e a d by the masses. Ota a l s o took Jameson's H i s t o r i c a l C r i t i c i s m c l a s s f o r two y e a r s . J ameson had been h i r e d as an i n s t r u c t o r i n 1881 a f t e r o b t a i n i n g h i s H o p k i n s Ph.D., w i t h a o n e - y e a r c o n t r a c t t h a t was r e n e w e d e a c h y e a r . He r e m a i n e d a t t h e J o h n s H o p k i n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d Ota was t h e r e , and l e f t f o r a permanent j o b a t C o r n e l l i n 1888, where he c a r v e d o u t a d i s t i n g u i s h e d 36 c a r e e r . I n h i s f i r s t y e a r , O t a c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s r e s e a r c h on a g r a r i a n problems. But i n t h e w i n t e r o f h i s second y e a r , a t a s u g g e s t i o n by Adams, he made a d e c i s i v e s w i t c h and changed h i s 3 7 t h e s i s t o p i c t o U.S.-Japan r e l a t i o n s . T h i s t o p i c h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e contemporary i n t e r e s t s i n c e many Americans were f o l l o w i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the Japanese government c l o s e l y , w h i c h was t h e n i n t r o d u c i n g W e s t e r n i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e t h e c a b i n e t s y s t e m and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l a w . Japan's s t r i d e n t a t t e m p t s t o r e v i s e t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s t o o was a s u b j e c t 3 8 f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h e newspapers. S w i t c h i n g h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t o p i c a t t h i s j u n c t u r e i n h i s t r a i n i n g i s b a f f l i n g , a n d t h u s f a r no n e o f N i t o b e ' s b i o g r a p h e r s have p o i n t e d t o t h i s c r u c i a l p o i n t . The common v i e w i s t h a t h i s U.S.-Japan r e l a t i o n s s t u d y was j u s t a p a r t o f a b r o a d e r , w e l l - c o n c e i v e d p l a n i n w h i c h A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics 3 9 was t h e p r i m a r y a i m . B u t t h e e v i d e n c e show o t h e r w i s e ; i t i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t Ota had, i n f a c t , abandoned h i s e a r l i e r g o a l o f "wanting t o do a g r i c u l t u r e " i n f a v o r o f a Ph.D. degree 39 i n history. Ota plunged i n t o h i s new t o p i c with great z e a l , and h i s correspondence to Adams r e f l e c t s much enthusiasm and m o t i v a t i o n . Using the h i s t o r i c a l seminary's mode of d i s c o v e r i n g new knowledge by a r e l i a n c e upon p r i m a r y documents, he gathered his data from many sources: he hunted through o l d and new j o u r n a l s , newspapers and magazines; he even sent queries to people i n Japan l i k e Kimura Kyo, captain of the Kanrin Maru, who had played an a c t i v e r o l e i n shaping the events between the United States and Japan during the f i r s t years of formal encounter.^ He also wrote to a number of people i n the United States whose careers had some connection with Japan. One such person was William G r i f f i s whose book Mikado's Empire, published i n 1876, had e s t a b l i s h e d him as the f o r e m o s t American a u t h o r i t y on Japan. G r i f f i s was not of much help; rather i t was Ota who gave him v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l that he used and acknowledged i n h i s L i f e of Perry, which was published i n 1888. But G r i f f i s would not forgot the debt; years l a t e r , he would play an instrumental role i n getting Bushido published 41 by the George Putnam's Sons. The established scholars i n the United States were not of much help to Ota e i t h e r . They appeared more concerned to f u r t h e r t h e i r own careers than to a i d a young novice get s t a r t e d . Charles Lanman of Harvard wrote Ota i n Germany f o r m a t e r i a l s . Lanman had already published two books on Japan; 40 the f i r s t i n 1872 w i t h c o o p e r a t i o n from M o r i A r i n o r i , e n t i t l e d J a p a n e s e i n A m e r i c a ; t h e s e c o n d , L e a d i n g Men i n J a p a n , appeared i n 1886 w h i l e 5ta s t u d i e d a t the Johns Hopkins . Busy w i t h o t h e r m a t t e r s , Ota asked Miyabe , who was then a t H a r v a r d s t u d y i n g Botany w i t h I sa G r a y , t o a i d Lanman,. s a y i n g "he does i m p o r t a n t work f o r our c o u n t r y . " ^ 2 In B a l t i m o r e , O t a had many c l o s e t i e s w i t h t h e Q u a k e r group t h a t met near the Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y campus, and 4 3 f o r m a l l y j o i n e d them i n D e c e m b e r , 1885. B u t h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d s were i n P e n n s y l v a n i a ; p a r t i c u l a r l y i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , where he f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d f o r extended s t a y s . H i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Quaker S t a t e a p p a r e n t l y came through Uchimura Kanzo, who had a r r i v e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s two months a f t e r O t a f l e e i n g h i s d i s a s t r o u s m a r r i a g e t h a t had l a s t e d o n l y a few months. Uchimura w h i l e work ing a t a mental h o s p i t a l i n E lwyn was b e f r i e n d e d by the W i s t a r M o r r i s e s o f Overbrook , P h i l a d e l p h i a , who t o o k a keen i n t e r e s t i n h i m and o t h e r J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s l i v i n g a r o u n d t h e c i t y . O t a d u r i n g summer v a c a t i o n i n 1885 v i s i t e d U c h i m u r a who t o o k h i m t o one o f t h e m o n t h l y p r a y e r m e e t i n g s w h i c h t h e M o r r i s e s h e l d f o r J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s . O t a , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e he was a Q u a k e r h i m s e l f , f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h h i s A m e r i c a n h o s t s ; m o r e o v e r h i s o u t g o i n g p e r s o n a l i t y and e x c e l l e n t command o f E n g l i s h made s o c i a l i z i n g 44 easy f o r h i m . A l t h o u g h O t a had a f u l l s o c i a l l i f e , h i s f i n a n c i a l p r e d i c a m e n t was g r a v e . By 1886, the funds t h a t T o k i t o s h i had 41 p r o v i d e d him were n e a r l y d e p l e t e d , and t h i s made c o n c e n t r a t i o n on h i s s t u d i e s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . H i s eyes , a g a i n , began to g i v e h i m t r o u b l e . He v i s i t e d a s p e c i a l i s t f o r t r e a t m e n t and was charged an enormous m e d i c a l b i l l t h a t taxed h i s d w i n d l i n g 45 r e s o u r c e s . The p r e s s u r e s t o l i v e on l i t t l e money c o m b i n e d w i t h overwork took t h e i r t o i l , and he f e l l i l l . To r e c u p e r a t e , he headed n o r t h t o P e n n s y l v a n i a and s p e n t t h e w h o l e summer t h e r e . W a n d e r i n g f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e , O t a s p e n t a few weeks a t the home of f r i e n d s i n I n g l e s i d e , a suburb i n P h i l a d e l p h i a ; t h e n a n o t h e r few weeks i n O v e r b r o o k ; and June and J u l y i n Penn V a l l e y w i t h a group o f Japanese s t u d e n t s . F o r t u n a t e l y , Adams had g i v e n h i m summer work t o i n d e x p a p e r s f o r t h e A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , to supplement h i s income f o r the F a l l t e r m , he was p r o m i s e d p a r t - t i m e work c l i p p i n g and f i l i n g newspapers a t the s e m i n a r y . ^ O t a r e t u r n e d t o t h e J o h n s H o p k i n s i n O c t o b e r 1886 t o b e g i n h i s l a s t year o f Graduate Work. In s p i t e o f poor h e a l t h and l i t t l e money, he w o r k e d d i l i g e n t l y on h i s t h e s i s and had f i n i s h e d some t h r e e c h a p t e r s by March 1887, when welcome news a r r i v e d f r o m t h e n o g a k k o ; he had been a p p o i n t e d A s s i s t a n t 47 P r o f e s s o r o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics i n a b s e n t i a . T r a i n i n g i n Germany: the L a u n c h i n g o f a C a r e e r " K a b o , " he w r o t e t o M i y a b e u p o n r e c e i v i n g h i s a p p o i n t m e n t , " r e j o i c e w i t h me!" I t was a G o d - g i v e n b l e s s i n g 42 beyond h i s most o p t i m i s t i c dreams; a t one s t r o k e , i t r e s o l v e d a t l e a s t f i v e o f h i s m a j o r w o r r i e s : f i r s t l y , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t , i t meant s u c c e s s t o h i s f a m i l y ; s e c o n d l y , i t i r o n i c a l l y put him back upon h i s o r i g i n a l academic course o f s t u d y i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l E c o n o m i c s ; t h i r d l y , i t p r o v i d e d f o r f u n d s t o be s e n t t o h i m i m m e d i a t e l y to c o n t i n u e h i s s t u d i e s u n i n t e r r u p t e d ; f o r t h l y , i t a s s u r e d him of a s e l e c t p l a c e among t h e f a c u l t y o f h i s a l m a m a t e r ; and f i f t h l y , i t w o u l d a l l o w f o r h i s r e t u r n t o h i s b e l o v e d S a p p o r o . An e a r l i e r l e t t e r o f h i s p r o v i d e s a c l u e to h i s deep e m o t i o n a l a t tachment to the town: when I a t t e n d t h e s e m i n a r y . . . a n d t h e l e c t u r e s a f f e c t me s t r o n g l y , I wh i sper to my own e a r s , ' C a n ' t I make s u c h an i n s t i t u t i o n i n S a p p o r o ? ' The o t h e r day, Dr . Adams l e c t u r e d on Dr . Thomas A r n o l d ( f o r we a r e s t u d y i n g Roman I n s t i t u t i o n s a t p r e s e n t and D r . A r n o l d i s a a u t h o r i t y ) a s t r o n g f e e l i n g came o v e r me, ' A h , c a n ' t I be a d o c t o r [ s i c ] A r n o l d o f S a p p o r o ? ' You see t h a t my t h o u g h t s a r e i n v a r i a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S a p p o r o . I t i s , i n d e e d , my e a r n e s t d e s i r e and s i n c e r e p r a y e r t h a t I may one day be a b l e t o do s o m e t h i n g f o r my God & f o r my c o u n t r y i n Sapporo. S a t o S h o s u k e , who roomed w i t h O t a f o r two y e a r s i n B a l t i m o r e , l a u g h e d a t t h e s e n t i m e n t a l i t y and c a l l e d them " U t o p i a n i d e a s . " B u t S a t o r e m e m b e r e d h i s young c o h o r t ' s w i s h e s , a n d was i n s t r u m e n t a l t o g e t O t a t h e p r i z e d a p p o i n t m e n t . A f t e r S a t o f i n i s h e d h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a t t h e Johns Hopkins i n 1886, which was i m m e d i a t e l y p u b l i s h e d i n the monograph s e r i e s as The Land Q u e s t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , he r e t u r n e d t o S a p p o r o t o r e s u m e h i s a c a d e m i c d u t i e s . In March 1887, he was made a c t i n g D i r e c t o r a f t e r the d e p a r t u r e 43 of W i l l i a m Brooks, who had served the nogakko f o r ten years. Sato's f i r s t act i n h i s new c a p a c i t y was to persuade the Hokkaido cho to increase the teaching s t a f f and recommended 49 Ota and H i r o i for the newly approved positions. Sato exaggerated Ota's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as a student of agriculture. "Ota," he wrote i n the report formally proposing his f r i e n d for the position, "had been studying A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics i n the United States." The appointment was made, and Ota was ordered to leave the Johns Hopkins immediately and 50 proceed to Germany for t r a i n i n g . A g r i c u l t u r a l economics was already a s p e c i a l i z e d subject there i n the 1880s, whereas i n the United States i t would not be so u n t i l a f t e r the t u r n of the century. Takaoka Kumao, who l a t e r succeeded Nitobe as p r o f e s s o r at Sapporo, and who became the t h i r d president at Hokkaido University, expressed dismay when he v i s i t e d the exhibitions at the St. L o u i s A g r i c u l t u r a l F a i r i n 1904 and saw the "primitive state of the f i e l d " i n America. In t h i s subject, as i n most other f i e l d s of research, German u n i v e r s i t i e s were f a r more advanced. From America, thousands of students between 1850 and 1880 had s t u d i e d the l a t e s t s c h o l a r s h i p there; many of f a c u l t y at Johns Hopkins, i n c l u d i n g Gilman h i m s e l f , had been t r a i n e d i n Germany; Ota's own 51 Professors, Adams and Ely, had Prussian Ph.D's. Ota's study i n Germany was d i r e c t e d with a c l e a r sense of purpose. Though i n s t r u c t e d to s t u d y A g r i c u l t u r a l 44 Economics , he had the freedom to choose h i s u n i v e r s i t y and to deve lop h i s own course p l a n s . The o n l y c o n d i t i o n imposed was t h a t he r e t u r n t o H o k k a i d o , a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s , t o commence t e a c h i n g and re sume o t h e r d u t i e s . S i n c e t h e German s y s t e m a l l o w e d f o r e a s y movement b e t w e e n u n i v e r s i t i e s , O t a d e c i d e d t h a t he would s tudy a t d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s w i t h the b e s t p r o f e s s o r s . He c h o s e Bonn U n i v e r s i t y f i r s t ; P r o f e s o r R e i n , who was w o r k i n g on a p r o j e c t on J a p a n t h e r e , had u r g e d h i m t o come. L e a v i n g New Y o r k on May 15, 1887, he a r r i v e d i n Bonn on June 2 4 t h . A l o n g t h e way, he v i s i t e d I r e l a n d , E n g l a n d , S c o t l a n d , and H o l l a n d and w r o t e t o M i y a b e t h a t "the j o u r n e y has been v e r y i n s t r u c t i v e , & I s h a l l u t i l i z e t h e l e s s o n s 52 t h e r e - - o n my r e t u r n to Sapporo." He s p e n t two s e m e s t e r s i n Bonn and t o o k a f u l l l o a d o f l e c t u r e c o u r s e s and t h e P o l i t i c a l Economy S e m i n a r w i t h P r o f e s s o r Max S e r i n g . And he v i s i t e d R e i n " r e g u l a r l y o n [ c ] e a week, i n o r d e r t o h e l p h i m and be h e l p e d by ." O t a a l s o g o t a c h a n c e t o see t h e a c t u a l w o r k i n g s o f P r u s s i a n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n as h i s c l a s s t o o k f r e q u e n t f i e l d t r i p s 53 to nearby f a c t o r i e s . D e s p i t e h i s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h German, Ota p r e s e n t e d a seminar paper on a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n J a p a n , which S e r i n g t h o u g h t g o o d e n o u g h f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . On t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s a d v i c e , he sent the m a n u s c r i p t to a j o u r n a l , E x p o r t , which p r i n t e d i t . O t a , f i l l e d w i t h p r i d e a t h i s f i r s t academic p u b l i c a t i o n , sent two c o p i e s to Adams s a y i n g "I c a n ' t w r i t e German w e l l , b u t I am g l a d t o s a y i t 45 has been w e l l received." In the Kigan no a s h i he recounted the t h r i l l he r e c e i v e d when a postman stopped by to present him w i t h a check f o r the a r t i c l e from the p u b l i s h i n g company. A f t e r fourteen months i n Bonn, u n t i l mid-August 54 1888, he transferred to the prestigious B e r l i n University. At B e r l i n U n i v e r s i t y , Ota attended l e c t u r e s on Finance and S o c i a l i s m by Adolph Wagner, Agrarian H i s t o r y by Gustov Schmoller. He a l s o took the S t a t i s t i c s Seminar with Professor Meitzen. He worked part-time i n a d d i t i o n at the Prussian Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Although h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with his German- professors at Bonn and B e r l i n was not as c l o s e as that with Adams, he wrote that "Schmoller and Meitzen are very kind to me." In the latter's seminar, Ota worked v e r y hard, and "read f o u r times." Ota took Schmoller's course i n Agrarian H i s t o r y and enjoyed the l e c t u r e s immensely; a f t e r h i s r e t u r n to Sapporo, he would lecture on the same subject, and publish his f i r s t books 55 i n Japanese on themes Schmoller had discussed. Schmoller, when Ota sat i n his lectures, had already established a reputation as one of the best German economists of h i s day. He was the leader of a School of H i s t o r i c a l Economics which contrasted sharply to the English C l a s s i c a l School whose "timeless abstractions and rules" he vehemently objected to. Schmoller emphasized that the economic l i f e of a n a t i o n could be understood only i n the context of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , s o c i a l p a t t e r n s , and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s . 46 Along w i t h Wagner and Lujo Bretano, two other g i a n t s i n German economic s c h o l a r s h i p , he helped to form, i n the 1880s, the S o c i a l P o l i c y A s s o c i a t i o n where academics 56 sought to provide input f o r governmental p o l i c i e s . The s o c i a l problems th a t these German schol a r s were w r e s t l i n g w i t h may have seemed wholly t h e o r e t i c a l and academic to Ota and a f e l l o w compatriot, Kanai Noburu, who was a l s o s t u d y i n g Economics w i t h these same p r o f e s s o r s . But a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n t o Japan, both of them would f a c e s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s . In the f i r s t decade of the t w e n t i e t h century, when r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n threatened to r i p apart Japan's s o c i a l f a b r i c , Kanai, as an academic at Todai, would play a major r o l e i n i n t r o d u c i n g S o c i a l Planning P o l i c y i n t o Japan. And as C o l o n i a l P o l i c y P r o f e s s o r , Nitobe would l a t e r propose measures f o r d e a l i n g w i t h c o l o n i z a t i o n on the E a s t 57 Asian Continent. Ota d i d not l i k e B e r l i n . The c l i m a t e d i d not agree w i t h him; but more important, he f e l t t h a t the "moral l e v e l " of the c i t y was too low. " [ T ] h i s sodom of Germany" where " H a r l o t s without number s t a l k about i n the s t r e e t s " outraged him; he was i n d i g n a n t too of the "50 or more" Japanese s t u d e n t s who a p p a r e n t l y patroned these women of the n i g h t . They were, he f e l t , g i v i n g Japan a bad name; "I have never heard a n y t h i n g complimentary of them," he complained to Miyabe. W h i l e O t a made p r e p a r a t i o n s t o l e a v e f o r H a l l e U n i v e r s i t y , he r e c e i v e d j o l t i n g news from home. H i s e l d e s t brother, S h i c h i r o , who was the h e i r to the Nitobe f a m i l y , died 47 s u d d e n l y l e a v i n g no s u c c e s s o r . O t a ' s o t h e r b r o t h e r , M i c h i r o , w i t h whom he had s t u d i e d i n Tokyo as a c h i l d , had d i e d f i v e years e a r l i e r w h i l e Ota was a s tudent a t T o d a i . Arrangements were made f o r h i m t o r e t u r n t o t h e N i t o b e f a m i l y as i t s h e i r i n A p r i l 1889. From h e r e o n , he w o u l d be known t o a l l as - 5 8 N i t o b e Inazo. The H a l l e U n i v e r s i t y t h a t N i t o b e e n t e r e d , u n l i k e B e r l i n ' s t r a d i t i o n o f a b s t r u s e s c h o l a r s h i p , had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r i t s p r a g m a t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . To "advance t h e w o r l d l y p r a c t i c a l purposes o f men and the b e n e f i t s o f s o c i e t y , " as one H a l l e l e a d e r had put i t , was i t s m i s s i o n . Many P r u s s i a n o f f i c i a l s had p a s s e d t h r o u g h i t s g a t e . I t s a g r i c u l t u r a l f a c u l t y , m o r e o v e r , was c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e b e s t i n t h e c o u n t r y . N i t o b e s t u d i e d w i t h P r o f e s s o r s Conrad and Kuhn. But a f t e r s p e n d i n g a s h o r t t i m e t h e r e , he r e a l i z e d t h a t Bonn o f f e r e d h i m a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n t h e P h . D . , so he l e f t H a l l e f o r Bonn and a r r i v e d i n O c t o b e r i n t i m e f o r t h e W i n t e r Semester o f 1 8 8 9 - 1 8 9 0 . 5 9 But f o r some r e a s o n , N i t o b e d i d n o t g e t h i s P h . D . f r o m B o n n ; why t h i s i s so r e m a i n s a b l a n k page i n h i s s t u d i e s i n G e r m a n y . H i s d e a d l i n e t o r e t u r n t o J a p a n was f a s t a p p r o a c h i n g , and he had o n l y f i v e more months o f s t u d y l e f t . The P h . D . exams a t B e r l i n , he had j u d g e d , were f a r t o o d i f f i c u l t , so he c o n s i d e r e d o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s . The U n i v e r s i t y a t J e n a , whose p r o f e s s o r had taken an i n t e r e s t i n N i t o b e ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , was a p o s s i b i l i t y ; b u t J e n a ' s 48 d o c t o r a t e , he s a i d , "has no e n v i a b l e r e p u t a t i o n . " D e t e r m i n e d a t a l l c o s t t o g e t h i s Ph .D . b e f o r e g o i n g home, N i t o b e r e t u r n e d t o H a l l e f o r h i s e x a m i n a t i o n s . A f t e r p r e s e n t i n g h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n U b e r d e n J a p a n i s c h e n G r u n d b e s i t z , d e s s e n Y £ £ t ® i i H I l E u n d l a n d w i r t s c h a f t l i c h e V e r w e r t u n g ; E i n e h i s t o r i s c h e und s t a t i s i s c h e S t u d i e (Land o w n e r s h i p i n J a p a n ; i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e : a h i s t o r i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y ) . N i t o b e t o o k t h e o r a l e x a m i n a t i o n . I t w a s , he s a y s , a " s i m p l e a f f a i r , tho . . . I d i d n o t do as w e l l as I had e x p e c t e d . " F o r h i s major s u b j e c t , he was t e s t e d i n n a t i o n a l economy i n the f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s : (a) t h e o r i e (b) w i r t h s c h a f t s p o l i t i k , (c) f i n a n z w i s s e n s h a f t , and (d) s t a t i s t i k ; and i n t h e two m i n o r s , he q u a l i f i e d i n p h i l o s o p h i e and p o l i t i k . In t h e f o r m e r , he c h o s e " g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f p h i l o s o p h y and l o g i c " and " S p e n c e r , Hume and S o c r a t e s ; " and f o r t h e l a t t e r , he was q u i z z e d i n "States r i g h t s . " He passed i n a l l areas and 61 wrote Adams o f h i s ach ievements . N i t o b e d e s i r e d r e c o g n i t i o n f o r h i s work a t t h e J o h n s H o p k i n s t o c o m p l i m e n t h i s German A . M . and P h . D . d e g r e e s . H e a r i n g t h a t M o t o r a and Watase S h o , who had e n r o l l e d i n t h e J o h n s H o p k i n s i n 1886, had b o t h g r a d u a t e d w i t h d i s t i n c t i o n , N i t o b e l a m e n t e d t h a t " o n l y I d i d n o t g e t h o n o r s . . . . " He w r o t e Adams to ask f o r a degree: My r e a s o n s f o r w i s h i n g i t i s [ s i c ] t h i s - - I h a v e b e e n f o r 3 y e a r s i n J . H . U a n d am perhaps the o n l y Japanese , who had won no honor . I worked, as you know, under many d i s a d v a n t a g e s , 49 and c o u l d n o t do as much as o t h e r s . Y e t i n my c o n s c i e n c e I c a n s a y I have done my b e s t — t h a t i s t o say , as much as my means and h e a l t h a l l o w e d . S t i l l , w i t h o u t a v i s i b l e m a r k , I must seem as t h o ' I had done n o t h i n g d u r i n g my 3 y e a r s s t a y i n t h e U.S . I d o n ' t l i k e t o seem s o , [ s i c ] e s p e c i a l l y t o my own r e l a t i v e s , who have e n a b l e d me t o s t u d y i n A m e r i c a . F a r be i t f r o m me, h o w e v e r , t o beg f o r a d e g r e e o r h o n o r . I f t h e r e i s [ the ] l e a s t o b j e c t i o n t o my a c q u i r i n g A . B . h o n o r i u s (or w h a t e v e r i t be) I w i l l n o t a sk f o r y w r k i n d o f f i c e s t o have i t c o n f e r r e d upon me. G i v i n g N i t o b e a degree had been on Adams's mind as e a r l y as 1887. In a memorandum to G i l m a n , he expressed "hope [ that N i t o b e ] be ' d o c t o r e d ' by m e r i t and g r a c e i f n o t by t h e new r u l e s . " Upon r e c e i v i n g N i t o b e ' s l e t t e r , Adams went d i r e c t l y to the academic board and then to Gi lman—who was not one who gave h o n o r a r y d e g r e e s f r e e l y - - t o p u t f o r w a r d N i t o b e ' s r e q u e s t . N i t o b e i n t h e m e a n w h i l e h a d some u n f i n i s h e d b u s i n e s s . He w r o t e t h e H o k k a i d o cho f o r an e x t e n s i o n o f "three to f i v e months" to "do r e s e a r c h on c o l o n i a l p o l i c y i n E a s t P r u s s i a and C a n a d a . " He g o t h i s e x t e n t i o n , and s p e n t a few weeks i n E a s t Germany g a t h e r i n g d a t a on J u n k e r c o l o n i z a t i o n ; t h e n he r e t u r n e d t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s on J u l y 64 16, 1890 a f t e r an absence o f n e a r l y t h i r t y - e i g h t months. He wrote Adams to thank him f o r h i s h e l p i n g e t t i n g h i s A.B . degree (Honorary) , which was g r a n t e d i n June and sent t o a P h i l a d e l p h i a f r i e n d ' s a d d r e s s . In m i d - A u g u s t , N i t o b e r e c e i v e d an l e t t e r f r o m Adams e x p r e s s i n g i n t e r e s t t o p u b l i s h h i s J o h n s H o p k i n s t h e s i s . I n t e r e s t i n J a p a n had 50 g r o w n i n A m e r i c a a f t e r t h e r e c e n t p r o m u l g a t i o n o f t h e J a p a n e s e C o n s t i t u t i o n , and t h i s was a f a v o r a b l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i n c o m e f r o m t h e b o o k ' s s a l e s m i g h t pay f o r i t s own p u b l i s h i n g c o s t s . Adams t o l d N i t o b e to prepare the m a n u s c r i p t f o r the p r e s s . N i t o b e r e v i s e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t i n t h e autumn and send i t t o Adams who i n c l u d e d i t as an e x t r a v o l u m e i n The J o h n s H o p k i n s S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e s . To c o v e r p r i n t i n g c o s t s , Adams l o a n e d N i t o b e $440. The book appeared i n 1891 under the t i t l e : The I n t e r c o u r s e Between the U n i t e d S t a t e s and J a p a n : a H i s t o r i c a l S k e t c h . In t h e p r e f a c e , N i t o b e t h a n k e d "my f r i e n d , M a r y P. E l k i n t o n , o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , " who gave " v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e " i n t h e p r o o f -6 6 r e a d i n g o f the book. Mary P . E l k i n t o n : Romance and M a r r i a g e M a r y P a t t e r s o n E l k i n t o n was t h e e l d e s t c h i l d and o n l y daughter o f Joseph S c o t t u s E l k i n t o n , a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d Quaker b u s i n e s s m a n who owned, i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h a b r o t h e r , a prosperous soap and c a n d l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i r m i n P h i l a d e l p h i a . She was born i n 1857 and grew up i n c o m f o r t a b l e s u r r o u n d i n g s ; h e r u p b r i n g i n g , t y p i c a l f o r m i d d l e - c l a s s f e m a l e c h i l d r e n o f h e r g e n e r a t i o n , i n c l u d e d a good e d u c a t i o n w i t h L a t i n and F r e n c h a t the F r i e n d s S e l e c t Schoo l i n the c i t y . She a c q u i r e d t h e r e s o m e t h i n g o f a t a s t e f o r l i t e r a t u r e . B u t t h r o u g h o u t , emphasis was p l a c e d upon the manners and e t i q u e t t e o f a p r o p e r 6 7 w e l l - b r e d n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a d y . 51 I n a z o met M a r y j u s t p r i o r t o h i s d e p a r t u r e f o r G e r m a n y . He had s p o k e n a b o u t J a p a n t o t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a Q u a k e r Women's F o r e i g n M i s s i o n a r y A s s o c i a t i o n a t t h e W i s t a r M o r r i s e s home. M a r y was i n t h e a u d i e n c e . I n h e r own w a y , s h e was an a t t r a c t i v e woman, w i t h l a r g e eyes and dark h a i r worn i n b r a i d s and t w i r l e d i n t o a bun o v e r h e r h e a d . Her f a c e , r o u n d and f u l l , r e f l e c t e d a ca lm i n n e r d i s p o s i t i o n , but a l s o suggested f i r m s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . I n a z o met h e r b r i e f l y d u r i n g t h e s e r v i n g o f t e a and c o o k i e s a f t e r h i s t a l k , and t h e y c h a t t e d a b o u t J a p a n , i n w h i c h she showed g r e a t i n t e r e s t . They p a r t e d a f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l mee t ing , and he s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r boarded h i s s h i p . * ^ In s p i t e o f t h i s one b r i e f e n c o u n t e r , and now s e p a r a t e d by g r e a t p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e , Inazo wanted to s t a r t some k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r . B u t u n c e r t a i n o f t h e p r o p r i e t i e s i n v o l v e d , he wrote to Mrs . M o r r i s a s k i n g f o r her p e r m i s s i o n to c o r r e s p o n d w i t h Mary. Mrs . M o r r i s , g r e a t l y s u r p r i s e d a t h i s s t r a i g h t - l a c e d f o r m a l i t y , a d v i s e d h i m t o w r i t e d i r e c t l y t o M a r y h e r s e l f . N i t o b e d i d , a n d t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e commenced .^ From G e r m a n y , he t o l d h e r o f h i s s t u d i e s , h i s t r a v e l s , and h i s a s p i r a t i o n s ; s h e , f o r h e r p a r t , k e p t h i m p o s t e d on s u b j e c t s p e r t a i n i n g t o c u r r e n t J a p a n e s e - A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s . And when I n a z o ' s f r i e n d , Iwamoto Z e n j i , who p u b l i s h e d t h e J o g a k u z a s s h i (Women's J o u r n a l ) , a s k e d h i m f o r an a r t i c l e on 70 Amer ican women, Mary wrote the p i e c e f o r h i m . Over the next 52 t h r e e y e a r s , a l o v e - a f f a i r b l o o m e d , w h i c h was f o r g e d and s u s t a i n e d e n t i r e l y by l e t t e r s sent a c r o s s the A t l a n t i c Ocean. S h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s s t u d i e s were c o m p l e t e d , Inazo had r e s o l v e d 71 t h a t he would make Mary h i s b r i d e . He w r o t e t o T o k i t o s h i a b o u t h e r and t o g e t h i s a p p r o v a l f o r t h e m a r r i a g e . A f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f s i l e n c e , T o k i t o s h i r e p l i e d w i t h a f i f t y - p a g e l e t t e r vehement ly o p p o s i n g ; he had gone o u t and i n v e s t i g a t e d as many o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r r i a g e s among Japanese l i v i n g i n Tokyo t h a t he c o u l d f i n d , and had o b t a i n e d d e t a i l e d d a t a s u p p o r t i n g h i s a r g u m e n t t h a t such m a r r i a g e s , w i t h r a r e e x c e p t i o n s , were u l t i m a t e l y doomed to f a i l u r e . Inazo was downhearted , and d e c i d e d to c o n s u l t w i t h h i s two J a p a n e s e f r i e n d s i n G e r m a n y , H i r o i Isamu and S a e k i R i i c h i r o . He t o l d S a e k i t h a t " i f you and H i r o i oppose t h e m a r r i a g e , I w i l l g i v e i t up" A f t e r a week o f c a r e f u l d e l i b e r a t i o n , S a e k i t o l d I n a z o t h a t he was i n f a v o r ; H i r o i , l i k e w i s e , gave a s i m i l a r answer, and Inazo proceeded w i t h the 72 m a r r i a g e p l a n s . But among Mary's f a m i l y and r e l a t i v e s , the p r o t e s t s were e v e n s t r o n g e r . J o s e p h S c o t t u s , l i b e r a l t h o u g h he was i n o u t l o o k , would not l i s t e n . At Mary's i n s i s t e n c e , however, her b r o t h e r , W i l l i a m , was d i s p a t c h e d to Germany to i n t e r v i e w the p r o s p e c t i v e g r o o m . And M a r y ' s s i s t e r - i n - l a w , S a r a h , s e n t I n a z o a l o n g l e t t e r o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t g i v i n g h i m h e r s u p p o r t . B u t M a r y ' s f a t h e r w o u l d n o t change h i s m i n d . When I n a z o r e t u r n e d to P h i l a d e l p h i a i n J u l y 1890, he was not p e r m i t t e d to e n t e r the E l k i n t o n home. A f t e r months o f f r u i t l e s s e f f o r t to 53 persuade Joseph S c o t t u s , Inazo and Mary took m a t t e r s i n t o t h e i r own hands and s u b m i t t e d on October 30th t o the F r i e n d s 73 Group Meeting i n P h i l a d e l p h i a t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to marry. The M e e t i n g h e s i t a t e d t o g i v e i t s a p p r o v a l w i t h o u t a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y . They c o u n s e l e d d e l a y . On T h a n k s g i v i n g Day, the M eeting a g a i n d e l i b e r a t e d on the 74 marriage request. The P h i l a d e l p h i a I n q u i r e r reported on the d e l i b e r a t i o n s which, by t h i s time, had a t t r a c t e d much unwanted p u b l i c i t y : A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n , Mr. E l k i n t o n , f a t h e r of the prospective b r i d e , arose i n the meeting and e m p h a t i c a l l y d e c l a r e d h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o the m a r r i a g e t a k i n g p l a c e . He d e c l a r e d t h a t he had no o b j e c t i o n whatever t o Mr. N i t o b e as a man, and c o n s i d e r e d him t o be a gentleman of i n t e l l i g e n c e and c u l t u r e . But he d i d object to h i s daughter being c a r r i e d away to Japan, where she would be v i r t u a l l y c u t - o f f from her f a m i l y and f r i e n d s and s u r r o u n d i n g s w i t h which she has been f a m i l i a r a l l her l i f e . As a r e s u l t of Mr. E l k i n t o n ' s arguments, the a f f i a n c e d l o v e r s d i d not "pass meeting." ... T h i s l e f t the c o u p l e i n a p r e d i c a m e n t , Mr. N i t o b e h a v i n g arranged t o r e t u r n t o h i s n a t i v e c o u n t r y . . . They p e r s i s t e d . F i n a l l y , on Christmas 1890, the Meeting Group gave t h e i r a p p r o v a l . The wedding was h e l d on New Years Day a t the F r i e n d s M e e t i n g House on F o r t h and Arch S t r e e t i n downtown P h i l a d e l p h i a . Mary's parents d i d not attend, and she was g i v e n away by an u n c l e and aunt. P r o f e s s o r J . R e n d e l l H a r r i s from H a v e r f o r d C o l l e g e , a Quaker whom Inazo had met w h i l e a t the Johns Hopkins, and h i s w i f e , r e p r e s e n t e d h i s p a r e n t s . On the morning of the 12th, Inazo and Mary v i s i t e d 54 h e r f a t h e r a n d m o t h e r , who h a d s t i l l n o t g i v e n t h e i r b l e s s i n g s , to say goodbye. Joseph S c o t t u s ' d i a r y f o r t h a t day reads i n p a r t : T h i s day o u r d a u g h t e r l e f t us f o r J a p a n . On p a r t i n g , t h e o n l y e x p r e s s i o n t o w h i c h I c o u l d g i v e u t t e r a n c e 7 w a s "Thou a r t my d a u g h t e r , and I l o v e t h e e The c o u p l e c r o s s e d t h e c o u n t r y by r a i l w a y and t o o k a s t e a m s h i p f r o m San F r a n c i s c o on J a n u a r y 1 7 t h f o r t h e l o n g j o u r n e y a c r o s s t h e P a c i f i c t o J a p a n . A f t e r a r r i v a l i n Yokohama, they spent t h r e e weeks i n Tokyo v i s i t i n g w i t h f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s . Then i n m i d - F e b r u a r y , they l e f t f o r t h e i r 77 new home i n Hokkaido . I n a z o ' s g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s a b r o a d had come t o a d r a m a t i c c o n c l u s i o n . He had been away f o r s i x y e a r s and f o u r months; i n t h i s p e r i o d had a c c o m p l i s h e d a r e m a r k a b l e amount . He had r e c e i v e d t h e t r a i n i n g he s o u g h t ; he had won h i s a c a d e m i c h o n o r s ; he had a c q u i r e d t h e s p e e c h and m a n n e r i s m s o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d gent leman; and he had m a r r i e d i n t o a r e s p e c t e d P h i l a d e l p h i a f a m i l y . The f o u n d a t i o n s of h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m were s o l i d l y e s t a b l i s h e d . B u t t h e s e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s , he s a w , w e r e o n l y p r e l i m i n a r i e s . H i s r e a l work s t i l l l a y ahead of h i m ; he had to a c h i e v e the many h i g h i d e a l s t h a t he h a r b o r e d i n h i s mind. He a l s o p r o b a b l y a c u t e l y s e n s e d h i s g r a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to b r i n g an A m e r i c a n w i f e f r o m m e t r o p o l i t a n P h i l a d e l p h i a , t h e n t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t c i t y i n A m e r i c a , t o a l i t t l e town on 55 Japan's northern f r o n t i e r . He had a deep obligation to insure 7 8 her happiness here. The Philadelphia newspapers had characterized Nitobe "as a nobleman of high b i r t h . " Many eyes i n America would now f o l l o w h i s l a b o r s ; he must not d i s a p p o i n t t h e i r h i g h 79 expectations of him. 56 A l l work, even cotton-spinning, i s n o b l e ; work i s a l o n e noble....A l i f e of ease i s not for any man, nor for any God. Thomas Carlyle, Past and Present CHAPTER III Building Edinburgh: Sapporo, 1891-1897 Nitobe began work on March 1, 1891 soon aft e r his return to Sapporo. Everywhere he looked, he saw things that needed to be done. Mary wrote to her family of his zeal: Busy he w i l l always be; but to t h i s what can one do but resign one's s e l f and try to help keep up the v i t a l i t y of one who seemingly must b^ e a v i c t i m to his own energy and aspirations.... His d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s spanned the spectrum of human a f f a i r s involving r e l i g i o n , education, economics, and s o c i a l w elfare. One can i d e n t i f y three major themes which u n d e r l i e and characterize Nitobe's labors at t h i s stage i n his l i f e : (1) His hope to implant w i t h i n the community at large a s p i r i t u a l idea based upon C h r i s t i a n i t y ; with t h i s end i n mind, he expended much time and money to make available Quaker reading materials for Hokkaido's colonists. (2) His conviction that moral education was indispensible f o r youth; wholeheartedly committed to t h i s goal, he spent many hours teaching e t h i c s c l a s s e s i n school, and engaged i n the c r e a t i o n of two p r i v a t e schools that s t r e s s e d character development . (3) H i s d e s i r e t o f u l f i l l , t o t h e b e s t o f h i s a b i l i t i e s , the v a r i o u s d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p l a c e d upon him as an i n s t r u c t o r a t the nogakko and as a d v i s o r to the Hokkaido cho. These themes are u n i f i e d by a c e n t r a l v i s i o n i n N i t o b e ' s m i n d : t h a t h i s work was c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a 2 h i g h e r m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l c u l t u r e on the i s l a n d . But i n the p r o c e s s o f " b u i l d i n g E d i n b u r g h , " N i t o b e r u i n e d h i s h e a l t h . Though he worked w i t h enormous energy , l i k e a man p os se s sed , and a c c o m p l i s h e d much, he a p p a r e n t l y d i d not d e r i v e inward s a t i s f a c t i o n from h i s l a b o r s . He took on more and more work u n t i l , f i n a l l y , he drove h i m s e l f t o p h y s i c a l and mental c o l l a p s e . R e l i g i o u s C o l o n i z e r S e t t l i n g H o k k a i d o became a h i g h p r i o r i t y i t e m i n t h e M e i j i government's agenda a f t e r the R e s t o r a t i o n . I t opened up new a r a b l e lands on the I s h i k a r i p l a i n , n o r t h o f Sapporo , and made them a v a i l a b l e t o c o l o n i s t s . T h o u s a n d s o f t h e m , l a n d -h u n g r y p e o p l e f r o m t h e m a i n l a n d , f l o c k e d t h e r e t o seek a new l i f e . The i s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n zoomed u p w a r d s , and ^ i n c r e a s e d o v e r f o u r f o l d f r o m 191,000 t o 786,000 i n t h e t w e n t y y e a r s between 1877 and 1897. 3 Hokkaido's government underwent s i g n i f i c a n t changes too . A f t e r t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e k a i t a k u s h i , t h e i s l a n d was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s and c o n t r o l l e d 58 f r o m T o k y o by t h e n o r i n s h o . B u t w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e H o k k a i d o cho i n 1886, t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s were i n t e g r a t e d under t h i s s i n g l e e n t i t y w i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s i n 4 Sapporo . W h i l e s t u d y i n g a b r o a d , N i t o b e k e p t t r a c k o f t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s t h r o u g h r e g u l a r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h f r i e n d s . 5 " S a p p o r o , " he w r o t e , " w i l l be a g r e a t c i t y someday." He expressed h i s l o n g i n g to r e t u r n : t h e f u r t h e r I come f r o m S a p p o r o , t h e g r e a t e r grows my a t t a c h m e n t f o r i t . How I w i s h t o go t h e r e and do something to improve i t . Such f e e l i n g s were n o t u n i q u e t o N i t o b e a l o n e ; h i s f r i e n d s , M i y a b e , U c h i m u r a and H i r o i , e a c h h e l d s i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s . W h i l e s t u d y i n g a t the nogakko, they had i d e a l i z e d S a p p o r o and i d e n t i f i e d i t w i t h E d i n b u r g h , home o f t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l h e r o e s : D a v i d Hume, J o h n S. M i l l , and Thomas C a r l y l e . T h e t o w n ' s n o r t h e r n p o s i t i o n , w i t h i t s l u s h e v e r g r e e n f o r e s t s , h i g h m o u n t a i n r a n g e s , and c r y s t a 1 - c l e a r l a k e s , had b r o u g h t a r o m a n t i c image o f t h e S c o t t i s h c i t y t o 7 t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t minds. S c o t l a n d ' s l o c a t i o n to the n o r t h of London p a r a l l e l e d , N i t o b e i m a g i n e d , Hokkaido v i s - a - v i s Tokyo. These y o u t h f u l ideas remained w i t h h i m ; i n 1887, a f t e r a v i s i t t o t h e v e n e r a t e d c i t y on h i s way t o G e r m a n y , he w r o t e t o Miyabe: [W]hen I was i n E d i n b u r g h , most a p t l y c a l l e d ' t h e A t h e n s o f t h e N o r t h , ' my h e a r t b e a t h i g h f o r the f u t u r e o f Sapporo. Can' t we do something w i t h i t f o r Him? My i d e a i s t h a t we ( d i s c i p l e s ) 59 s h a l l buy the A g r ' l C o l l e g e some tim e i n ^he long f u t u r e and consecrate i t to His s e r v i c e . Sapporo's growth depended on Hokkaido's economy, which lo o k e d p r o m i s i n g . The l a n d abounded i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Hard work and v i s i o n , N i t o b e f e l t , were t h e two key i n g r e d i e n t s needed t o r e a l i z e i t s p o t e n t i a l . In J u l y 1877, before e n t e r i n g the nogakko, he had signed, as d i d a l l of h i s classmates, a c o n t r a c t that bound him to work a f t e r graduation f o r f i v e years i n Hokkaido. Though the c o n t r a c t was rescinded i n 1883, Nitobe continued to f e e l a moral commitment to serve 9 the i s l a n d . But he v i e w e d H o k k a i d o ' s f u t u r e not o n l y f r o m a s t a n d p o i n t of i t s m a t e r i a l advancement. A f i r m s p i r i t u a l f o u n d a t i o n , he b e l i e v e d , had t o u n d e r g i r d i t s economic development. T h i s i d e a had come to him a f t e r he had read an a r t i c l e " E a r l y Quakers i n America," which appeared i n the November 1882 i s s u e of Harpers M o n t h l y . 1 ^ I t d e p i c t e d the Quakers as men of s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r who, through the power of t h e i r f a i t h , overcame numerous o b s t a c l e s and h a r d s h i p s t o achieve success i n . t h e i r settlement of the new continent. During h i s s t u d i e s a t the Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y , Nitobe had purchased many books on Quaker h i s t o r y and thought which he brought back to Sapporo. W i l l i a m Penn's c o l o n i z a t i o n e x p l o i t s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r e s s e d him; he saw a h i s t o r i c a l lesson f o r Hokkaido's c o l o n i s t s i n the "Holy Experiment" that had become P e n n s y l v a n i a . 1 ' ' " In h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , N i t o b e v i s u a l i z e d the b r i n g i n g of order to an untamed wilderness i n 60 a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t h a t t h e E n g l i s h Q u a k e r h a d b r o u g h t c i v i l i z a t i o n t o t h e l a n d s w e s t o f t h e D e l a w a r e r i v e r ; i t was t h e same phenomenon , a t a l a t e r d a t e and i n a d i f f e r e n t p a r t 12 of the g l o b e , o f the march of P r o g r e s s . In t h e summer o f 1891 , N i t o b e l o a n e d t h e e d i t o r o f t h e Hokumon shimpo (North Gate D a i l y ) some of h i s books on W i l l i a m Penn. The e d i t o r used them to w r i t e a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s f o r the newspaper. These were r e n d i t i o n s i n Japanese o f the l i f e and work of Penn w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the s e t t l i n g o f P e n n s y l v a n i a . N i t o b e c o l l e c t e d these a r t i c l e s i n t o pamphlets " f o r t h e c o l o n i s t s . " Two y e a r s l a t e r , he c o m p i l e d a n d a r r a n g e d these pamphlets i n a two-volume work and added two of h i s own c h a p t e r s t o r o u n d o u t t h e f o r m . In December 1894 he had these volumes p u b l i s h e d p r i v a t e l y under the t i t l e U i r i a m u p e n d e n ( B i o g r a p h y o f W i l l i a m P e n n ) , h i s f i r s t b o o k i n Japanese . W h i l e t h e Penn a r t i c l e s were a p p e a r i n g i n t h e Hokumon s h i m p o , N i t o b e was b u s y - t r a n s l a t i n g , i n h i s s p a r e h o u r s , s e l e c t i o n s from Thomas Cope's work on George Fox and W i l l i a m Penn . The book had been p r i n t e d i n P h i l a d e l p h i a i n 1882, on the Two Hundredth A n n i v e r s a r y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ' s f o u n d i n g , and N i t o b e a r r a n g e d w i t h t h e a u t h o r t o u n d e r t a k e t h e J a p a n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n p r i o r t o l e a v i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . He w r o t e t o the P h i l a d e l p h i a T r a c t S o c i e t y f o r M i s s i o n a r y Work f o r funds 14 to h e l p i n t h i s p r o j e c t . The work was comple ted i n 1894. W h i l e work ing on the above, an unexpected o c c u r r e n c e l e d 61 N i t o b e t o a u t h o r a t h i r d v o l u m e on W i l l i a m Penn . In t h e summer o f 1893, a f r i e n d f r o m P h i l a d e l p h i a , D o c t o r C h a r l e s H a r t s h o r n e , and h i s d a u g h t e r , A n n a , a r r i v e d i n S a p p o r o . H a r t s h o r n e gave N i t o b e a m a n u s c r i p t c o p y o f L u c y R o b e r t s ' A S h o r t B i o g r a p h y o f W i l l i a m P e n n , h o p i n g t h a t he w o u l d t r a n s l a t e t h i s too i n t o Japanese . But N i t o b e was too busy , so he l e t S a s a i S h u , a young woman who was t e a c h i n g a t t h e 15 F r i e n d s G i r l s s c h o o l , c a r r y out the t a s k . But S a s a i ' s work, which N i t o b e had been asked to r e v i s e , d i s a p p o i n t e d h i m by i t s " s t i f f n e s s . " I t a l s o n e e d e d , he r e a l i z e d , t o be s u p p l e m e n t e d by a d d i t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was not needed i n the o r i g i n a l meant f o r an A m e r i c a n a u d i e n c e . He d e c i d e d t o r e d o t h e e n t i r e b o o k . 1 6 To s a v e t i m e , N i t o b e r e s o r t e d t o a t e c h n i q u e t h a t he h a d s u c c e s s f u l l y used e a r l i e r f o r magazine a r t i c l e s , and which he w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o e m p l o y f r o m t i m e t o t i m e t h e r e a f t e r . He h i r e d a "young man w i t h a f l u e n t s t y l e " t o whom he d i c t a t e d the w o r k ; when t h e man r e t u r n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g week w i t h a w r i t t e n d r a f t , N i t o b e made h i s r e v i s i o n s . W i t h i n a few months, the t r a n s l a t i o n was comple t ed ; he p u b l i s h e d the book, Kenkoku b i d a n ( T a l e s o f a B e a u t i f u l C o u n t r y ) , i n T o k y o and added S a s a i ' s name as a c o - a u t h o r . 1 ^ N i t o b e d i d n o t e x p e c t h i s W i l l i a m Penn v o l u m e s t o b r i n g h i m p r o f i t or l i t e r a r y f a m e . He knew, f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t Kenkoku b i d a n would s e l l p o o r l y , but he w i l l i n g l y accepted the f i n a n c i a l burdens to p u b l i s h and d i s t r i b u t e the book; he s o l d i t a t h a l f the p u b l i s h i n g c o s t , and gave many c o p i e s away to 62 h o t e l s i n and around Sapporo w i t h hopes t h a t some c o l o n i s t or v i s i t o r w o u l d r e a d i t . I f he c o u l d i n s t i l l i n some unknown r e a d e r t h e r e l i g i o u s a n d e t h i c a l t e a c h i n g s t h a t w e r e e x e m p l i f i e d i n the l i f e o f W i l l i a m Penn, t h a t would be reward enough f o r h i m . 1 ^ N i t o b e ' s a l t r u i s m t o s e r v e t h e H o k k a i d o c o m m u n i t y as a s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r was g r e a t l y r e i n f o r c e d by h i s m a r r i a g e to M a r y . H e r c l o s e t i e s t o h e r f a m i l y e x e r t e d a c o n s t a n t i n f l u e n c e on h i s a c t i v i t i e s . The E l k i n t o n s were a c t i v e i n 19 m i s s i o n a r y and s o c i a l work f o r m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . M a r y ' s g r a n d f a t h e r , as a young man, had s p e n t s i x t e e n y e a r s as a F r i e n d s s c h o o l t e a c h e r among the Seneca Ind ians i n wes tern New Y o r k . Her f a t h e r , J o s e p h S c o t t u s , c o n t i n u e d t h e work f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e and became a l e a d e r t o h e l p t h e D o u k h o b o r s i m m i g r a t e to Canada. J o s e p h , Mary's b r o t h e r , a l s o worked h a r d t o see t h a t t h e R u s s i a n p a c i f i s t g r o u p s e t t l e s a f e l y i n 20 Western A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W h i l e i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , N i t o b e had s t r u c k up a f r i e n d s h i p 2 1 w i t h J o s e p h . From H o k k a i d o , N i t o b e w r o t e J o s e p h d e t a i l e d l e t t e r s a b o u t h i s work and o f t e n a s k e d f o r h e l p w i t h h i s p r o j e c t s . These l e t t e r s to J o s e p h , added to hundreds o f o t h e r s t h a t Mary wrote to her f a m i l y , r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s , formed a s t r o n g s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i n k t o A m e r i c a ; t h i s c o n n e c t i o n w o u l d p r o v e i n v a l u a b l e f o r N i t o b e ' s e d u c a t i o n a l work. 63 The M o r a l i s t E d u c a t o r N i t o b e j o i n e d t h e n o g a k k o f a c u l t y w h i c h numbered n i n e p r o f e s s o r s . Among t h e r e c e n t a p p o i n t e e s w e r e h i s o l d c l a s s m a t e s M i y a b e K i n g o and H i r o i I samu. B o t h had r e c e i v e d t h e i r d o c t o r a t e s i n 1889; Miyabe from H a r v a r d and H i r o i from S t u t t g a r t . N i t o b e ' s m e n t o r , S a t o , s e r v e d as p r o f e s s o r and a c t i n g D i r e c t o r . A l s o on t h e s t a f f were two f o r e i g n e r s , A r t h u r B r i g h a m and M i l t o n H a i g h t ; t h e y were t h e l a s t o f t h e y a t o i , who were b e i n g s l o w l y r e p l a c e d by J a p a n e s e t r a i n e d 22 a b r o a d . In h i s f i r s t y e a r , N i t o b e t a u g h t f i f t e e n h o u r s a week; t h r e e i n P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m y , f o u r i n A g r a l p o l i t i k , s i x i n 2 3 G e r m a n , one xn E n g l x s h c o m p o s i t i o n , and one i n e t h i c s . H i s courses were m a i n l y i n the honka ( r e g u l a r c o l l e g e ) , though he had a few hours i n the yoka ( p r e p a r a t o r y department ) . N i t o b e f o u n d t h a t he e n j o y e d t e a c h i n g i n t h e l a t t e r more t h a n he d i d i n the f o r m e r . Among these "youth r a n g i n g i n age from 14 up to 22 o r 2 3 , " he c o u l d e x e r t i n f l u e n c e i n a r e a s o f m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and f o u n d t h i s t o be more o f a c h a l l e n g e t h a n 24 l e c t u r x n g xn hxs own academic s p e c i a l t y . He r e q u e s t e d f o r more t e a c h i n g hours i n the y o k a , and by 1894 had f o u r h i s t o r y c l a s s e s t h e r e . He was p u t i n c h a r g e o f t h e w e e k l y e t h i c s 25 l e c t u r e as w e l l . N i t o b e gave t h e e t h i c s c o u r s e h i s h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , and c a r r i e d i t out w i t h r e m a r k a b l e e a r n e s t n e s s : "Each t i m e I e n t e r t h e h a l l b e f o r e [ l e c t u r i n g ] I k n e e l i n my m i n d b e f o r e h i s 64 t h r o n e t o b l e s s my words and p e r s o n and s p i r i t , " he w r o t e t o h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w . Mary , t o o , n o t i c e d h i s r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n and t o l d her f a m i l y t h a t , b e f o r e e t h i c s c l a s s e s , N i t o b e "went t o t h e l i b r a r y f o r m o m e n t s o f q u i e t s o l i t u d e a n d 2 6 m e d i t a t i o n . " H i s c o n c e p t i o n o f what e t h i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n shou ld be i s r e v e a l e d i n one o f h i s l e t t e r s : [To] renew i n some measure t h e o l d r e l a t i o n s between a t e a c h e r and h i s p u p i l s . . . a r e l a t i o n o f m u t u a l r e s p e c t and r e f l e c t i o n s . . . w h e r e b y a t e a c h e r i s r e g a r d e d as a f o r m a t i v e ^ i n f l u e n c e and not a mere i n f o r m a t i o n r e s e r v o i r . H i s s t r e s s on c h a r a c t e r development was r e f l e c t e d i n h i s h i s t o r y c o u r s e s as w e l l . I n s t e a d o f l e c t u r i n g t o s t u d e n t s , N i t o b e c o n d u c t e d c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d as " ta lks ." The t e x t was G u i z o t ' s H i s t o r y o f C i v i l i z a t i o n , which he f o u n d " r i c h i n s u g g e s t i o n s " f o r t o p i c s t o e x p l o r e . On t h e c h a p t e r on Feuda l System, f o r example , the a l l u s i o n to women i n m e d i e v a l s o c i e t y r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s t h a t l e d to "the s u b j e c t 2 8 o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f f e m a l e s t a t u s i n g e n e r a l . " He d i d n o t emphasize q u a n t i t y i n r e a d i n g , nor was he i n t e r e s t e d t h a t the s t u d e n t s l e a r n h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s o r t h e o r i e s ; N i t o b e was p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h h i s t o r y ' s e t h i c a l l e s s o n s : I t i s my d e s i r e e s p e c i a l l y w i t h y o u n g e r boys (16-20 y e a r s o l d ) t o see i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l r e a d i n g s , n o b i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r , g r e a t n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s : f o r they won't unders tand the "laws of s o c i a l progres s" the e v o l u t i o n o f s o c i e t y and t h e l i k e - - i f i n d e e d a n y b o d y even B u c k l e and Spencer r e a l l y unders tood i t ! N i t o b e a l s o used E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e as a means to i m p l a n t 65 m o r a l i d e a s i n t o h i s s t u d e n t s , s i n c e "our p e o p l e have l o s t f a i t h i n Buddhism and i n C o n f u c i a n i s m " : I f o u n d f r o m my own e x p e r i e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n as w e l l as f r o m t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s , t h a t t h e b e s t method o f w o r k i n g on t h e h e a r t o f t h e young i s a t p r e s e r i ^ t h r o 1 [ s i c ] t h e avenue o f E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . Soon a f t e r a r r i v a l i n Sapporo , he h e l p e d form the E i g a k u  k y o k a i ( E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n ) . T w e l v e c l a s s e s were s t a r t e d , m a i n l y o f s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e y o k a , and d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y . N i t o b e t o o k c h a r g e o f two o f t h e s e c l a s s e s , t h e " L o n g f e l l o w G r o u p , " w h i c h r e a d t h e w o r k s o f t h e p o p u l a r n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y A m e r i c a n a u t h o r , and the "mastery group," which focused t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on E n g l i s h c o n v e r s a t i o n . L a t e r t h a t summer, he t o o k c h a r g e o f two o t h e r c l a s s e s : (1) N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y W r i t e r s , ( C a r l y l e , C h a r l e s Lamb) and (2) M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e L o s t . "Both [ t h e s e c l a s s e s ] , " he w r i t e s , " w i l l be c a p i t a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to e n f o r c e r e l i g i o u s and moral t r u t h s . " 3 1 B u t e t h i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n was n o t o n l y a m a t t e r o f c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s o r m o r a l e x h o r t a t i o n s . N i t o b e saw o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u c h l e s s o n s i n e v e r y a s p e c t o f l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y i n e v e r y d a y s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . To b u i l d a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t u d e n t s , he v o l u n t e e r e d f o r l i b r a r i a n d u t i e s ; and he r e g u l a r l y went o u t t o t h e f i e l d t o p l a y b a s e b a l l w i t h them; and i n w i n t e r t i m e , he b r o u g h t o u t h i s i c e 32 s k a t e s , which he had brought back from Germany. 66 N i t o b e ' s en thus iasm won him the r e s p e c t o f h i s s t u d e n t s , and he soon became one o f t h e most p o p u l a r t e a c h e r s on c a m p u s . In March 1892, N i t o b e ' s yoka s t u d e n t s , f i r e d up by h i s e t h i c s l e c t u r e , c o n s u l t e d him on s t a r t i n g a campus-wide o r g a n i z a t i o n to promote the c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . Two yoka groups j o i n e d to 33 form the G a k u g e i k a i (Academic A s s o c i a t i o n ) . The a s s o c i a t i o n ' s membership t o t a l e d over 160, c o n s i s t i n g m o s t l y o f y o k a s t u d e n t s . They began t h e K e i r i n z a s s h i ( B e a u t i f u l F o r e s t M a g a z i n e ) t o w h i c h N i t o b e c o n t r i b u t e d r e g u l a r a r t i c l e s . The magazine , p u b l i s h e d t h r e e or f o u r t imes a y e a r , became a forum f o r s t u d e n t s to express t h e i r i d e a s on d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s . I t a l s o p l a y e d , s a y s A k i z u k i T o s h i y u k i , a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the development o f s tudent i d e n t i t y and a - - 34 "school s p i r i t " a t the nogakko. B u t h i s deep i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e n o g a k k o s t u d e n t s d i d n o t h i n d e r N i t o b e ' s a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l ; he p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e w i d e r S a p p o r o c o m m u n i t y . In t h e e a r l y 1890s , t h e town s u f f e r e d f r o m a l a c k o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . Though i t had a f o u r - y e a r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s y s t e m , i t had no m i d d l e s c h o o l s . T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w o r r i e d many o f t h e c i t i z e n s s i n c e t h e number o f c h i l d r e n o f p o s t - e l e m e n t a r y age was growing a t an r a p i d r a t e . I t was a p r e s s i n g i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e s e y o u t h be g i v e n l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In the summer o f 1891, H o r i M o t o i , an i n f l u e n t i a l c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r , c a l l e d a m e e t i n g o f l o c a l e d u c a t o r s to d i s c u s s a scheme t h a t he had i n mind. N i t o b e was among t h e m . 3 5 67 H o r i M o t o i was b o r n i n C h o s h u i n 1844 a n d h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n ; when the k a i t a k u s h i was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1869 , he was a s s i g n e d t o i t . He l a t e r r e t i r e d f r o m g o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e and s e t t l e d down i n H o k k a i d o . As P r e s i d e n t o f a c o a l - m i n i n g r a i l w a y c o m p a n y , H o r i numbered among Hokkaido's w e a l t h i e s t men. N i t o b e had s a i d o f him t h a t "had he r e m a i n e d i n o f f i c e , he c o u l d h a v e b e e n i n t h e C a b i n e t . " 3 6 H o r i p lanned the b u i l d i n g o f an academy f o r boys between the ages o f s i x t e e n and twenty f o u r , which would serve Sapporo as a m i d d l e s c h o o l . He would p r o v i d e the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , he s a i d , i f t h e o t h e r s a s sumed t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s . A f t e r s e v e r a l m e e t i n g s , b e t w e e n June and A u g u s t , p l a n s were f i n a l i z e d to open the s c h o o l i n September. N i t o b e was s e l e c t e d p r i n c i p a l o f t h i s n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d H o k u m e i gakko ( N o r t h e r n C a l l S c h o o l ) , 3 7 N i t o b e t a u g h t t h r e e c l a s s e s t h e r e , w h i c h i n c l u d e d an e t h i c s c o u r s e much l i k e t h e one a t t h e n o g a k k o . A t t h e s e l e c t u r e s , he p r e s e n t e d the s tudent s w i t h c o n c r e t e methods o f moral improvement t h a t he h i m s e l f had adopted y e a r s e a r l i e r . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y "keep a d i a r y as a means o f s e l f -e x a m i n a t i o n . " Another method t h a t he a d v i s e d was "the p r a c t i c e 3 8 of c o l d b a t h i n g " to h e l p deve lop endurance and w i l l power. N i t o b e a r r a n g e d h i s d a i l y s c h e d u l e so t h a t he c o u l d manage t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c o n d u c t c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g , and a l l o w t i m e to meet w i t h s t u d e n t s . He r e s e r v e d one n i g h t a week 68 f o r s t u d e n t s from the s c h o o l to v i s i t h im; d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , they c o u l d d i s c u s s w i t h him any problems t h a t they might have. L a t e r , i n h i s t e n u r e as t h e H e a d m a s t e r o f t h e F i r s t H i g h e r S c h o o l , N i t o b e w o u l d u t i l i z e many o f t h e s e same p e r s o n a l 39 c o u n s e l i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The Hokumei gakko o p e r a t e d f o r f o r t y - t w o months u n t i l M a r c h 1895, when i t c l o s e d i t s d o o r s ; a new g o v e r n m e n t -s p o n s o r e d s c h o o l had been b u i l t n e a r b y , and t h e Hokumei s t u d e n t s t r a n s f e r r e d t h e r e . D u r i n g i t s e x i s t e n c e , some 110 s tudents passed through the Hokumei's ga te s . Many proceeded on t o t h e n o g a k k o , w h i l e o t h e r s became s e t t l e r s i n H o k k a i d o . N i t o b e s e r v e d as t h e s c h o o l ' s P r i n c i p a l and he l e f t a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e l i v e s o f t h e y o u t h who had come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h him t h e r e . 4 ^ J u s t p r i o r t o t h e c l o s i n g o f t h e H o k u m e i g a k k o , N i t o b e began h i s own s c h o o l i n t h e e v e n i n g s . He had l o n g f e l t an u r g e n t n e e d f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t w o u l d g i v e s t u d y o p p o r t u n i t i e s o u t s i d e o f r e g u l a r s c h o o l c h a n n e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r y o u t h who had t o work d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e . Though s c h o o l s such as t h i s are common today i n J a p a n , i t was a t t h a t t i m e a r e v o l u t i o n a r y innovation. 4 " 1 " N i t o b e h a d f i r s t m e n t i o n e d t h e i d e a o f w a n t i n g t o s t a r t a s c h o o l f o r the d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n a l e t t e r to Miyabe i n 1885. Two y e a r s l a t e r he r e p e a t e d the i d e a , but w i t h g r e a t e r c o n v i c t i o n . A f t e r h i s r e t u r n to Sapporo , he urged the YMCA to s t a r t a n i g h t s c h o o l b u t t h e y d i d n o t h i n g , t o h i s c h a g r i n ; he gave up hope and c a l l e d t h e YMCA a " s l e e p y a f f a i r . " But i n 69 1893, a s t r a n g e e v e n t p r o v i d e d N i t o b e w i t h t h e f u n d s t o 42 r e a l i z e h i s dream. M a r y r e c e i v e d an an i n h e r i t a n c e o f one t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s from a P h i l a d e l p h i a f r i e n d . T h i s woman, as a young o r p h a n , had been taken i n t o the E l k i n t o n home by Mary's f a t h e r and r a i s e d w i t h love and warmth. She never f o r g o t t h i s k i n d n e s s . When she d i e d , she w i l l e d money t o M a r y , t h e E l k i n t o n s ' e l d e s t c h i l d . M a r y , f o r h e r p a r t , d e c i d e d t o l e t h e r h u s b a n d use t h e g i f t 43 to s t a r t the s c h o o l t h a t he had f o r so long thought about . N i t o b e p u r c h a s e d a l o t some t h i r t y - s i x by s i x t y - f i v e y a r d s i n the p o o r e s t s e c t i o n o f Sapporo. I t had an o l d wooden t w o - s t o r y b u i l d i n g on i t . T h i s he u s e d f o r h i s l i t t l e 44 s c h o o l . Though the N i t o b e s r e f e r r e d to i t a f f e c t i o n a t e l y as the "ragged schoo l" to t h e i r f o r e i g n f r i e n d s , i t s f o r m a l name was t h e E n y u y a g a k k o . The C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e name " E n y u " m e a n t " f a r o f f f r i e n d s " a n d c o m m e m o r a t e d t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a n s — p e o p l e such as Joseph E l k i n t o n , Dav id S c u l l , Doc tor Hartshorne—who had p r o v i d e d the r e s o u r c e s to make the s c h o o l p o s s i b l e . A huge p o r t r a i t o f Abraham L i n c o l n , w h i c h a d o r n e d t h e w a l l o f t h e m a i n r o o m , was s e n t by M a r y ' s a u n t , Sarah S m i t h . S tudents from the nogakko, v o l u n t e e r e d an hour or 45 two a week to serve as t e a c h e r s . N i t o b e ' s b u s y s c h e d u l e d i d n o t a l l o w h i m t o work f u l l -t ime on h i s new endeavor . F r i e n d s i n the community h e l p e d him a d m i n i s t e r the s c h o o l . One young C h r i s t i a n , a Mr. Sugamura who w o r k e d as a m i n o r g o v e r n e n t o f f i c i a l , a n d h i s w i f e , 70 c o n t r i b u t e d many hours . A l o c a l n u r s e , Hosh i Honami, h e l p e d to p u b l i c i z e the s c h o o l and ga ther s tudents ' on her rounds among 4 6 the r e c e n t c o l o n i s t s . N i t o b e f o u n d t h e v e n t u r e d e e p l y s a t i s f y i n g : I t i s a b l e s s e d work . . . and every t i m e I go t h e r e I come back w i t h a h e a r t aglow^^with human sympathy and a sense o f d i v i n e l o v e . In t h e f i r s t few m o n t h s , a s h o r t a g e o f t e a c h e r s l i m i t e d the c l a s s e s to a few n i g h t s each week. But by 1897 when more v o l u n t e e r s were f o u n d t o t e a c h , t h e s c h o o l began t o o f f e r c l a s s e s t h a t met r e g u l a r l y e v e r y e v e n i n g f o r two h o u r s . I t s c u r r i c u l u m c o n s i s t e d o f a " r e g u l a r c o u r s e " and a " p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e . " In t h e f o r m e r , a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s s u c h as math and E n g l i s h were t a u g h t ; i n the l a t t e r , s tudent s l e a r n e d p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s s u c h as n u r s i n g , e t i q u e t t e a n d s e w i n g . I t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a Sunday s c h o o l , w i t h i t s l e c t u r e s on s p i r i t u a l 4 8 l i v i n g , as a p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . The s c h o o l was c o -e d u c a t i o n a l , though g i r l s from poor f a m i l i e s predominated i n the e a r l y y e a r s . A happy N i t o b e was a b l e t o r e p o r t t o h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w i n January 1896 t h a t : [The s c h o o l ] c o n t i n u e s t o p r o s p e r . . . [ t ] h e a t tendence i s so l a r g e — n e a r s e v e n t y — t h a t the t h r e e l i t t l e rooms we have b a r e l y g i v e u_^  space to walk among them when they are s ea ted . When N i t o b e l e f t S a p p o r o i n O c t o b e r 1897, t h e Enyu -yagakko was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d and graduated i t s f i r s t c l a s s two y e a r s l a t e r . Though i t never a t t a i n e d f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n 71 as an a c c r e d i t e d e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , i t c o n t i n u e d f o r f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s to c a t e r t o t h e needs o f a segment o f Sapporo's y o u t h . In t h i s way, i t s erved an i m p o r t a n t community f u n c t i o n and had a l a s t i n g i m p a c t . N i t o b e remained as Honorary P r i n c i p a l o f t h e s c h o o l f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e ; M a r y was d e s i g n a t e d second P r i n c i p a l upon h i s death i n 1933; a f t e r her p a s s i n g , i n 1938, Hanzawa Makoto, who had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l f o r many d e c a d e s , became t h e t h i r d P r i n c i p a l . The 50 s c h o o l c l o s e d i n 1940. S c h o l a r and O f f i c i a l The n o g a k k o was p a s s i n g t h r o u g h d i f f i c u l t t i m e s d u r i n g N i t o b e ' s f i r s t y e a r s as i n s t r u c t o r i n t h e e a r l y 1890s . I t s budget was reduced and t a l k o f a b o l i s h i n g the s c h o o l e n t i r e l y w e r e h e a r d i n some q u a r t e r s . A f t e r t h e d e m i s e o f t h e k a i t a k u s h i , w i t h whose name the s c h o o l was a s s o c i a t e d , not a 51 few people thought t h a t i t s days o f u s e f u l n e s s were over . The o p e n i n g o f t h e n e w l y - c r e a t e d D i e t i n 1890 had made t h i n g s w o r s e . T h e g o v e r n m e n t p u r s e ' s s t r i n g s w e r e now c o n t r o l l e d by e l e c t e d men f r o m t h e m a i n l a n d who h e l d a d i m v i e w o f t h e w h o l e H o k k a i d o c o l o n i z a t i o n v e n t u r e . How c o u l d t h e y j u s t i f y p u b l i c f u n d s t o c o n t i n u e a c o l l e g e t h a t was a t b e s t o f dubious v a l u e to most Japanese? A m a j o r i t y o f Japanese s t i l l h e l d t h e image o f H o k k a i d o as a w a s t e l a n d — a l a n d o f p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e , snow, and b e a r s — w i t h o u t much use t o t h e 52 c o u n t r y . T h e p r e v a