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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Francis Turner Palgrave and The golden treasury Nelson, Megan Jane 1985

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FRANCIS TURNER PALGRAVE AND THE GOLDEN TREASURY By MEGAN JANE NELSON M. A., F l i n d e r s U n i v e r s i t y o f South A u s t r a l i a , 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of E n g l i s h )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1985 (^Megan Jane N e l s o n , 1985  )E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  English Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  (3/81)  1  5 April  1985  written  ii  ABSTRACT  In  s p i t e of the enormous resurgence of c r i t i c a l  f i g u r e s of the V i c t o r i a n e r a over the l a s t  interest  twenty y e a r s , almost no  has been p a i d to F r a n c i s Turner P a l g r a v e (1824-1897). r e s p e c t e d as a man  i n minor  of l e t t e r s , e d u c a t o r , a r t c r i t i c ,  In h i s own  attempts of  age, he  p u b l i s h e d i n 1861.  to make good t h a t n e g l e c t i n two ways: f i r s t l y ,  Lyrical  This dissertation through an  h i s l i f e and t i m e s , an assessment of h i s w r i t i n g s as an a r t and  critic,  an examination  comprehensive b i b l i o g r a p h y of h i s own  T h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y i s accompanied by a c h e c k l i s t listing  of secondary m a t e r i a l s about  Secondly,  literary  of manuscript  sources and  s y s t e m a t i c examination of the reception,  T h i s d e t a i l e d study i s accompanied by  g i v i n g b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about  eight  the form and c o n t e n t s of  the f o u r major e d i t i o n s of the T r e a s u r y p u b l i s h e d i n P a l g r a v e ' s  lifetime,  along with a l i s t i n g  reviews.  of sources and a c h e c k l i s t of contemporary  Throughout the d i s s e r t a t i o n , the i n t e l l e c t u a l concerns to  a  Palgrave himself.  the d i s s e r t a t i o n makes the f i r s t  and i t s p u b l i c a t i o n h i s t o r y .  the  publications.  Golden T r e a s u r y , i t s g e n e s i s and e d i t i n g p r i n c i p l e s , i t s c r i t i c a l  appendices  analysis  of h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e corpus of o r i g i n a l p o e t r y , and  c o m p i l a t i o n of the f i r s t  was  poet, f r i e n d of A l f r e d  Tennyson, and e d i t o r of The Golden T r e a s u r y of the Best Songs and Poems i n the E n g l i s h Language, f i r s t  attention  that l e d P a l g r a v e  develop a s e t of f i x e d p r i n c i p l e s f o r j u d g i n g a l l a r t and l i t e r a t u r e are  examined i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t , l i k e h i s f r i e n d Matthew A r n o l d , he was committed H e l l e n i s t , who  insisted  t h a t a l l p o e t r y conform  to what he  p e r c e i v e d as the "Homeric" i d e a l s of s i m p l i c i t y and unadorned language.  The  a  iii Golden T r e a s u r y , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s based P a l g r a v e used  to j u s t i f y  on an i d e a l o f " u n i t y " which  the many e d i t o r i a l e x c i s i o n s and v a r i a n t  readings  which a r e such a f e a t u r e o f the volume's t e x t s . It  i s i m p o s s i b l e t o account  fully  f o r the unprecedented  success of the  Golden T r e a s u r y , which has c o n t i n u e d t o be r e p r i n t e d i n a v a r i e t y of e d i t i o n s from the time of i t s f i r s t important to  publication until  features i s that i t i s the f i r s t  declare i t s e l f  complete:  is  the f i r s t  anthology of E n g l i s h l y r i c  Palgrave i n s i s t e d  best l y r i c s i n the E n g l i s h language.  the p r e s e n t , but one of i t s most poetry  t h a t the book c o n t a i n e d a l l the  J u s t as s i g n i f i c a n t i s the f a c t t h a t i t  anthology by a p r o f e s s i o n a l educator who r e f u s e d t o make h i s  s e l e c t i o n s on the b a s i s of t h e i r m o r a l l y improving  q u a l i t i e s , but r e l i e d  i n s t e a d on p o e t i c e x c e l l e n c e a l o n e . " F r a n c i s Turner P a l g r a v e and The Golden T r e a s u r y , " t h e r e f o r e , attempts to  account  f o r the e x t r a o r d i n a r y s u c c e s s of the Golden T r e a s u r y and t o  examine one of t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y ' s more i n t e r e s t i n g minor f i g u r e s , one who was a f r i e n d of some of the most b r i l l i a n t men of h i s day, i n c l u d i n g Jowett, Browning, A r n o l d , Clough, and Gladstone;  a r e c o g n i s e d minor poet o f  the " c o n t e m p l a t i v e " s c h o o l which i n c l u d e d A r n o l d and Clough; champion of t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e p a i n t e r s .  and a well-known  iv  CONTENTS  Abstract  i  Table o f Contents  i i i  Acknowledgments  v  Chronology  v i i  Introduction  1  Chapter One  L I F E AND ASSOCIATIONS  Two  PALGRAVE AS CRITIC  4  i. ii.  Introduction Art Criticism  .  . . . . . . . . 3 7 51  iii.  Literary Criticism  67  Three  PALGRAVE AS POET  79  Four  PALGRAVE AS TREASURER  i.  Genesis and P u b l i c a t i o n  103  ii. Iii. iv.  Editing Principles C r i t i c a l Reception Subsequent E d i t i o n s  119 144 152  APPENDICES: THE GOLDEN TREASURY Introduction A.  B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n s of S i g n i f i c a n t e d i t i o n s  B. C. D. E. F. G.  S i g n i f i c a n t Textual Variants S i g n i f i c a n t T i t l e Changes A d d i t i o n s and Omissions i n L a t e r E d i t i o n s E d i t o r i a l Errors Sources Reviews  171 . . .175 184 188 198 203 204 210  BIBLIOGRAPHY Introduction  211  I. Primary Materials 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Manuscript Collections Books and Separate Publications Art C r i t i c i s m A r t i c l e s Literary C r i t i c i s m A r t i c l e s Reviews Miscellaneous A r t i c l e s Fugitive Poetry  213 217 231 239 247 254 259  I I . Secondary Materials 1. 2. 3. 4.  Books and A r t i c l e s on Palgrave Obituaries Golden Treasury Bibliography General Bibliography  263 264 264 265  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The  debts  B r i t a i n , and graduate  to f r i e n d s , f a m i l y , and  c o l l e a g u e s i n A u s t r a l i a , Canada, Great  the U n i t e d States t h a t I have i n c u r r e d s i n c e beginning  work are too numerous to mention.  dissertation  I have j u s t i f i e d  I can o n l y hope that i n t h i s  their faith in  me.  For making p o s s i b l e t h i s study of F r a n c i s Turner to thank, f i r s t , J u l i a n and k i n d l y gave me  access  from unpublished  C h r i s t o p h e r Barker,  P a l g r a v e , I should  the c o p y r i g h t owners,  to the Palgrave Family Papers and  letters.  Of the l i b r a r i a n s and  allowed me  c u r a t o r s who  particularly  Dennis Rhodes of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y and Mrs.  L o l a S z l a d i t s of the  York P u b l i c L i b r a r y .  have c o r r e s p o n d e d — P e t e r  their efforts Macmillan,  to thank Charles Cox  Berg  Simon  C o l i n Home, Nowell-Smith,  encouragement.  the f i r m of Bernard  I  Quaritch for  i n s e a r c h i n g out v i t a l Palgrave m a t e r i a l ; Palgrave's p u b l i s h e r ,  who  r e a d i l y s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the p u b l i s h i n g h i s t o r y of  Golden T r e a s u r y ; and, L i b r a r y , who  and  to quote  to thank Dr.  A l l e n , Clarence C l i n e , P h i l i p E l l i o t t ,  S c o t t — I am most g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and  should a l s o l i k e  who  To the many s c h o l a r s with whom I  the l a t e Walter Houghton, C e c i l Y. Lang, Norman K e l v i n , and P h i l i p  like  made m a t e r i a l s  i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , I should l i k e  C o l l e c t i o n of the New  my  e s p e c i a l l y A l i c e McNair and R i t a Penco of the U. B.  were assiduous  The C.  i n t r a c k i n g down r a r e P a l g r a v e items needed i n my  research. I should l i k e of my  dissertation  particularly  committee, P r o f e s s o r s W i l l i a m E. Fredeman, John F.  Hulcoop, and Herbert assessment of my  to acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e of the members  J . Rosengarten,  work and  for their  c a r e f u l r e a d i n g and  critical  f o r t h e i r u s e f u l suggestions f o r r e v i s i o n s .  a d v i s e r , P r o f e s s o r Fredeman has been most generous i n p r o v i d i n g me  for  My  vii  s e v e r a l years w i t h a working area i n h i s house and access  to h i s e x t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l l i b r a r y .  encouragement throughout have been i n v a l u a b l e .  His continued  the l e n g t h y process  Finally,  immeasurably.  of s t y l e and  support  of w r i t i n g t h i s  I must g i v e s p e c i a l  C. Fredeman of the U. B. C. P r e s s , whose e d i t o r i a l a d v i c e on matters  i n g i v i n g me  complete and  dissertation  r e c o g n i t i o n to Dr. Jane skills  and  practical  o r g a n i z a t i o n have improved  the  dissertation  viii  CHRONOLOGY  1824  Born 28 September, Great Yarmouth, N o r f o l k  1838  E n t e r s Charterhouse  1839  Visits  1842  Wins B a l l i o l  1843  Becomes Head of  School  Italy Scholarship Charterhouse  E n t e r s B a l l i o l C o l l e g e i n October a f t e r v i s i t i n g 1846  Withdraws from the u n i v e r s i t y f o r one s e c r e t a r y to W.  E. G l a d s t o n e ,  I t a l y with h i s f a t h e r  term to become a s s i s t a n t p r i v a t e  C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y f o r Robert  Peel's  government 1847  Achieves  f i r s t - c l a s s honours i n C l a s s i c s and  a F e l l o w s h i p at  Exeter  College Publishes f i r s t  a r t i c l e s , on M i c h a e l a n g e l o  and  Dante r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n  Sharpe's London Magazine 1848  V i s i t s P a r i s with Jowett i n A p r i l  1849  Meets A l f r e d Tennyson on 31 March Enters  1850  the E d u c a t i o n  the  Revolution  O f f i c e i n London  Moves to K n e l l e r H a l l near Twickenham as V i c e - P r i n c i p a l of a s c h o o l f o r poorhouse  1852  to witness  Lady Palgrave  training  teachers  dies  Publishes novel, Preciosa 1853  Visits  S c o t l a n d w i t h Tennyson  1854  Publishes f i r s t  1855  Returns to the E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e i n London a f t e r K n e l l e r H a l l c l o s e s  1857  " P r e c i o s a " marries  volume of l y r i c s , I d y l s and  Songs: 1848-1854  ix  1858  P u b l i s h e s second  n o v e l , The  Passionate  Pilgrim  1859  V i s i t s P o r t u g a l w i t h A l f r e d Tennyson  1860  V i s i t s T i n t a g e l i n Cornwall with A l f r e d Tennyson, Thomas Woolner, and W i l l i a m Holman Hunt Begins work on the Golden T r e a s u r y  1861  S i r F r a n c i s Palgrave dies P u b l i s h e s the Golden  1862  W r i t e s memoir of  Treasury  Clough  I s s u e s h i s Handbook t o the f i n e a r t e x h i b i t s i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Exhibition M a r r i e s C e c i l G r e v i l l e M i l n e s on 30 December 1863  Appointed  art c r i t i c  Publishes his f i r s t 1865  of the Saturday  Review  poem; " C a s t e l r o v i n a t o , " i n F r a s e r ' s  Issues h i s Moxon M i n i a t u r e Poets s e l e c t i o n from Wordsworth's p o e t r y E d i t s a b o w d l e r i s e d e d i t i o n of the Songs and Resigns  1866  from  the Saturday  Sonnets of Shakespeare  Review  P u b l i s h e s Essays i n A r t W r i t e s a memoir f o r an e d i t i o n of S c o t t ' s Poems  1867  Issues h i s o r i g i n a l Hymns Withdraws from the c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the Oxford P r o f e s s o r s h i p of P o e t r y  1868  P u b l i s h e s The F i v e Days Entertainments  a t Wentworth Grange, a  c o l l e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s 1869  Produces Gems of E n g l i s h A r t of t h i s  1871  I s s u e s h i s L y r i c a l Poems  Century  1875  Publishes his Children's Treasury  1877  Withdraws again from  the P r o f e s s o r s h i p of P o e t r y  competition  P u b l i s h e s Chrysomela, a s e l e c t i o n from  the works of H e r r i c k  1878  Receives honorary  University  1880  P u b l i s h e s p r i v a t e l y h i s c y c l e of h i s t o r i c a l l y r i c s , England,  1884  LL.D.  from Edinburgh  V i s i o n s of  h i s Gesta Anglorum  Issues second  e d i t i o n of the T r e a s u r y  E d i t s the e a r l y works of R e t i r e s from 1885  The  Keats  the E d u c a t i o n  Wins e l e c t i o n as Oxford  Office  P r o f e s s o r of P o e t r y  E d i t s a s e l e c t i o n of Tennyson's l y r i c s f o r the Golden Treasury S e r i e s 1887  P u b l i s h e s J u b i l e e Ode  f o r Queen V i c t o r i a  1888  Gives L a t i n Creweian O r a t i o n a t Oxford  1889  E d i t s T r e a s u r y of Sacred  1890  P u b l i s h e s t h i r d e d i t i o n of the Golden T r e a s u r y  i n memory of Matthew A r n o l d  Song at the request of Oxford  University  His w i f e , C e c i l , d i e s 1891  Issues f i r s t  officially  1892  Publishes his f i n a l Poems, Sacred and  r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n of the T r e a s u r y  c o l l e c t i o n of o r i g i n a l l y r i c s , Amenophis and  Other  Secular  1895  R e t i r e s from  the Oxford  Poetry C h a i r  1897  P u b l i s h e s the Golden T r e a s u r y "Second S e r i e s , " which i n c l u d e s l i v i n g poets Issues l a s t  s e t of Oxford l e c t u r e s , Landscape i n P o e t r y from Homer t o  Tennyson Dies 24  October  xi  " . . . i n the best and most comprehensive sense of the term [Palgrave] was a man of c l a s s i c a l temper, t a s t e , and c u l t u r e , and...he had a l l the i n s i g h t and discernment, a l l the i n s t i n c t s and sympathies, which are the r e s u l t s of such q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . He had no t a i n t of v u l g a r i t y , of c h a r l a t a n i s m , of i n s i n c e r i t y . He never t a l k e d or wrote the cant of the c l i q u e s or of the m u l t i t u d e . He understood and c l u n g to what was e x c e l l e n t ; he had no t o l e r a t i o n f o r what was common and second r a t e ; he was not of the crowd. He belonged to the same type of men as Matthew A r n o l d and W i l l i a m Cory, a type p e c u l i a r to our o l d U n i v e r s i t i e s before things took the t u r n which they are t a k i n g now. I t w i l l be long b e f o r e we s h a l l have such c r i t i c s a g a i n , and t h e i r l o s s i s i n c a l c u l a b l e . " J . Churton C o l l i n s , "An A p p r e c i a t i o n o f P r o f e s s o r P a l g r a v e , " Saturday Review, 84 (30 Oct. 1897), 487.  1  PREFACE  T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n surveys i n d e t a i l  the l i f e  and w r i t i n g s of F r a n c i s  Turner P a l g r a v e (1824-1897), the compiler of p r o b a b l y the most anthology  famous  of E n g l i s h v e r s e s i n c e " T o t t e l ' s M i s c e l l a n y " and one of the  n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y ' s most p r o l i f i c men of l e t t e r s . c l a s s i c i s t , t r a i n e d a t Oxford  An  accomplished  and b e f r i e n d e d by many of the l e a d i n g minds of  h i s day, P a l g r a v e , l i k e Matthew A r n o l d , John S t u a r t M i l l , and W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i , balanced two c a r e e r s , f u n c t i o n i n g both as a c i v i l  s e r v a n t and as a  p r a c t i s i n g author.  extending  D u r i n g a l o n g and a c t i v e l i t e r a r y l i f e ,  from  1847 u n t i l  h i s death, he p u b l i s h e d two n o v e l s , s i x volumes of p o e t r y , and  some f i f t y  f u g i t i v e poems; f i f t e e n e d i t i o n s and a n t h o l o g i e s ; a volume of  critical  essays on a r t and another on l i t e r a t u r e ;  and dozens of u n c o l l e c t e d a r t i c l e s and reviews arts—all  these i n a d d i t i o n to the capstone  two i l l u s t r a t e d  a r t books;  on l i t e r a t u r e and the f i n e  o f h i s c a r e e r : h i s e d i t i o n of The  Golden T r e a s u r y of the Best Songs and L y r i c a l Poems i n the E n g l i s h Language (1861). Although regarded  he never  a c h i e v e d m a j o r - f i g u r e s t a t u s , P a l g r a v e was w i d e l y  as an i n f l u e n t i a l  critic,  and i n h i s l i f e t i m e the Golden T r e a s u r y  was u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as an anthology without  parallel.  H i s posthumous  r e p u t a t i o n , however, s u f f e r e d i n the g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the V i c t o r i a n s t h a t began s h o r t l y a f t e r the death of the Queen a t the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y . In p a r t , P a l g r a v e , along w i t h the m a j o r i t y of V i c t o r i a n w r i t e r s ,  simply  became u n f a s h i o n a b l e , and i n the wake of the l i t e r a r y r e v o l u t i o n launched by  2  E l i o t , Pound, and  other t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y poets, the Golden Treasury and i t s  author were r e l e g a t e d to temporary o b s c u r i t y . p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s daughter's  memorial biography  w r i t t e n on Palgrave u n t i l  the centenary  h a n d f u l of b r i e f a r t i c l e s  and n o t i c e s appeared  While  Tennyson and  to a p p e a r — w i t h  surprising  frequency.  Farquharson  c a s u a l r e f e r e n c e s to him appear i n b i o g r a p h i e s and  s e r i e s of h i s Oxford  f o c u s s i n g d i r e c t l y on the  in  Treasury.  e d i t i o n of  one  1973.  This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s intended to r e d r e s s the balance o f Palgrave's l i f e ,  the t o t a l  the Golden T r e a s u r y .  The  corpus  of h i s c r e a t i v e and  p r o v i d i n g a schematic  a n a l y s i s of the f o u r e d i t i o n s of the f i r s t  and a complete annotated  critical  b i o g r a p h i c a l chapter draws on manuscript  textual  s e r i e s of the  b i b l i o g r a p h y of w r i t i n g s by and  L i b r a r y , the Berg C o l l e c t i o n of the New  through a c l o s e  study c o n s i s t s of f o u r i n t r o d u c t o r y  chapters f o l l o w e d by a s e r i e s of appendices  initial  s t u d i e s of  l e c t u r e s which he d e l i v e r e d as P r o f e s s o r of P o e t r y ,  e d i t e d by a Japanese s c h o l a r , Mine Okachi  summary and  and  o t h e r V i c t o r i a n w r i t e r s , few s e p a r a t e a r t i c l e s have been w r i t t e n  o n l y book to be p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s century i s an incomplete  w r i t i n g , and  by  been v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d by s c h o l a r s of the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d .  and most of these are short notes  examination  was  kept a l i v e i n the p u b l i c mind  11th e d i t i o n of the E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , NCBEL, K u n i t z  Haycraft—and  on him,  nothing  i n the popular p r e s s .  he i s i n c l u d e d i n the standard r e f e r e n c e s o u r c e s — D N B ,  Sharp, the  The  almost  updated a d a p t a t i o n s of the T r e a s u r y t h a t  a p p e a r e d — a n d , indeed, c o n t i n u e Palgrave has  i n 1899,  the  of the Golden T r e a s u r y , when a  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , however, P a l g r a v e ' s name was the m u l t i p l e r e p r i n t s and  In f a c t , f o l l o w i n g on  sources  Treasury  on P a l g r a v e . i n the  The  British  York P u b l i c L i b r a r y , the Tennyson  3  Research Centre i n L i n c o l n , the Beinecke L i b r a r y a t Y a l e , and other repositories.  Chapter Two  examines P a l g r a v e ' s c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s on a r t and  l i t e r a t u r e , t r a c e s the sources of h i s c r i t i c a l his  s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s as a c r i t i c  literature. though  o p i n i o n s , and assesses both  i n the twin media of a r t and  Chapter Three i s devoted t o P a l g r a v e ' s c r e a t i v e work, which,  u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n i t s q u a l i t y , was  s i d e of h i s t o t a l l i t e r a r y the  background,  the  documentation  identity.  n e v e r t h e l e s s f o r him an important  Chapter Four i s devoted e x c l u s i v e l y to  e d i t i n g , p u b l i c a t i o n , and r e c e p t i o n of the Golden T r e a s u r y , f o r which i s p r o v i d e d i n the appendices mentioned  O v e r a l l , the d i s s e r t a t i o n o f f e r s the most complete life  and work that has ever been undertaken.  preliminary checklist  of manuscript  survey of P a l g r a v e ' s  The b i b l i o g r a p h y i n c l u d e s a  sources f o l l o w e d by a f u l l y  catalogue of a l l P a l g r a v e ' s w r i t i n g s , a secondary l i s t i n g P a l g r a v e and to  the s t u d y .  above.  annotated  of works on  the T r e a s u r y , and a c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n on g e n e r a l works r e l e v a n t For convenience, the primary b i b l i o g r a p h y has been d i v i d e d  i n t o seven s e c t i o n s , w i t h i n which each item i s s e p a r a t e l y numbered, as i n 2.15  Essays on A r t .  For ease of r e f e r e n c e and  to a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n of  b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and an e x c e s s i v e number of page-only f o o t n o t e s , all  citations  to P a l g r a v e ' s work w i t h i n the body of the t e x t are documented  i n t e r n a l l y , p r o v i d i n g i n parentheses the b i b l i o g r a p h y e n t r y number t o g e t h e r with pagination.  References to the Golden T r e a s u r y i n the t e x t are a l s o  documented i n t e r n a l l y : poems by number, p r e f a c e and notes by page numbers. T y p o g r a p h i c a l symbols, in  such as a s t e r i s k s , employed i n a s p e c i a l i z e d way,  the appendices and b i b l i o g r a p h y , are e x p l a i n e d i n the a p p r o p r i a t e  sections.  as  4  CHAPTER ONE:  LIFE AND  ASSOCIATIONS  i When F r a n c i s Turner  Palgrave  p u b l i s h e d the Golden T r e a s u r y of the  Songs and L y r i c a l Poems i n the E n g l i s h Language i n J u l y 1861, unknown. Alfred  His claims to fame were m a r g i n a l  Tennyson; a few  l y r i c s ; and  two  articles  in  h i s spare  time from h i s d u t i e s i n the c i v i l  the circumstances circles  wrote p o e t r y and  the e d u c a t i o n reforms  His success  E q u a l l y important,  fifties,  e d u c a t i o n made him  one  c o n v i c t i o n that the newly educated  t r a d i t i o n a l l y p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s e s to enjoy Translating  time, as a  this perception into p r a c t i c a l  by  the fact  result  a l a r g e popular  audience  poetry.  of a long l i n e of men  However, he d i f f e r e d  by  however, i s the  there e x i s t e d f o r the f i r s t  of the f o r t i e s and  temper i n E n g l i s h l e t t e r s . enduring  special  can be p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d  eager to l e a r n the h i s t o r y of i t s n a t i o n ' s a r t and Palgrave's  criticism  of h i s u p b r i n g i n g , by h i s e d u c a t i o n a t Oxford, and i n which he moved.  be  s e r v i c e , were i t not f o r the  of the Golden T r e a s u r y , which g i v e s him a  that i n m i d - V i c t o r i a n England of  with  His r e p u t a t i o n today would  of l e t t e r s , who  stature i n English l i t e r a r y history.  almost  l i t e r a t u r e ; a volume of minor  u n s u c c e s s f u l romans a c l e f .  e x t r a o r d i n a r y success  literary  at b e s t : h i s f r i e n d s h i p  on a r t and  that of a minor m i d - V i c t o r i a n man  he was  Best  of  "classical"  from h i s predecessors  p u b l i c had  as much r i g h t  the best a r t and  in his  as  the  literature.  terms, he used the l i t e r a t u r e  and  s c u l p t u r e of a n c i e n t Greece and Rome as models of p e r f e c t i o n i n h i s a n a l y s i s of  E n g l i s h poetry and  a r t , and  also provided  which i t c o u l d e v a l u a t e modern works.  t h i s new  audience  criteria  by  5  His  unorthodox  f a m i l y background  those who had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y  made him a c u t e l y aware of the needs o f  i g n o r e d by the i n t e l l e c t u a l  elite:  the f a m i l y was one of the most d e s c r i b a b l e i n a l l England at that day. O l d S i r F r a n c i s , the f a t h e r , had been much the g r e a t e s t of a l l the h i s t o r i a n s of e a r l y England, the o n l y one who was u n - E n g l i s h ; and the reason of h i s s u p e r i o r i t y l a y i n h i s name, which was Cohen, and h i s mind, which was Cohen a l s o , or at l e a s t not E n g l i s h . * Sir  F r a n c i s P a l g r a v e , o r F r a n c i s Cohen as he was known f o r the f i r s t  35 years of h i s l i f e ,  belonged  to that remarkable  which i n c l u d e d Doctor A r n o l d and Mark Roget.  of Victorian  scholars  Born i n J u l y 1788, the son of a  wealthy Jewish s t o c k b r o k e r , he surmounted s o c i a l historian  group  p r e j u d i c e to become an  r e s p e c t e d by some of the g r e a t e s t l i t e r a r y men of h i s day,  i n c l u d i n g S i r Walter S c o t t , Robert Southey,  and Henry Hallam.  As a Jew, the  e l d e r P a l g r a v e was excluded from the e d u c a t i o n a l system a d m i n i s t e r e d by the c h u r c h , but h i s f a t h e r employed t u t o r s to ensure  that he r e c e i v e d a thorough  humanistic education: The key f a c t o r i n moving Palgrave away from the Jewish community—the nature of h i s p e r s o n a l makeup a s i d e — w a s h i s d e s i r e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t u r e o u t s i d e the boundaries of Jewish l i f e . Having been g i v e n the e d u c a t i o n of an E n g l i s h gentleman by an i n d u l g e n t and proud f a t h e r , and having responded to t h i s e d u c a t i o n with enthusiasm and a b i l i t y , he had to look as a consequence, beyond h i s f a m i l y ' s f r i e n d s and acquaintances f o r s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l companionship. For w i t h i n the Jewish community there were no s e c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l c o t e r i e s . ^ Cohen's sense of i s o l a t i o n  i n c r e a s e d when he was f o r c e d at the age o f  22 to l e a v e h i s s t u d i e s and take up an uncongenial o c c u p a t i o n i n order to support h i s parents f o l l o w i n g the l o s s of h i s f a t h e r ' s f o r t u n e i n the Stock Exchange Crash of 1810. articled  Notwithstanding h i s d i s t a s t e f o r the law, Cohen  s u c c e s s f u l l y and continued to p r a c t i s e u n t i l he was almost 50,  6  earning  a knighthood i n 1832  historical  f o r h i s s e r v i c e s to m u n i c i p a l  s t u d i e s were pursued as an  H i s c h i e f i n t e r e s t was l e d him  His  avocation.  i n the Middle Ages, and  to work from the n o w - d i s c r e d i t e d  based on  reform.  his c l a s s i c a l  education  premise t h a t E n g l i s h s o c i e t y  the remnants of i m p e r i a l Roman c i v i l i s a t i o n r a t h e r than on  Germanic democratic s o c i a l  was  a  structure:  T a k i n g up h i s mental e x i s t e n c e , as i t were, i n the p e r i o d of the l o n g - p r o t r a c t e d d i s s o l u t i o n of the Roman empire, he has f o n d l y c h e r i s h e d the h i s t o r y of every r e l i c of t h a t mighty system, and watched w i t h a c o n s e r v a t i v e j e a l o u s y the o r i g i n and p r o g r e s s of those i n n o v a t i o n s i n which the present European system grew. Despite  i t s bias, his pioneering  work f u e l l e d  the V i c t o r i a n p a s s i o n  for  M e d i e v a l i s m , so much a f e a t u r e of the Oxford Movement which he would  later  embrace: He has c a r r i e d the t o r c h i n t o the d a r k e s t r e c e s s e s of the dark ages, and c l e a r e d up t h i n g s which the world b e l i e v e d b u r i e d forever. He has not o n l y shown them to us, but he has found out how they came to be where they were, and what c o n n e c t i o n they have w i t h each o t h e r . Cohen was  one  of the f i r s t m e d i e v a l h i s t o r i a n s to make any  the p r i m a r y p u b l i c r e c o r d s  s u b s t a n t i a l use  of E n g l i s h h i s t o r y r a t h e r than the  of  imaginative  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n popular w i t h h i s t o r i a n s such as Macaulay as the b a s i s of h i s research. cared-for  From 1812,  when he became aware of how  the p u b l i c r e c o r d s  be d i s p e r s e d  and  l o s t , and  documents c o u l d be  of England were, he was  afraid  badly  that they would  so he campaigned f o r a c e n t r a l o f f i c e i n which  s a f e l y housed, catalogued  His dream d i d not become a r e a l i t y u n t i l created  s c a t t e r e d and  1838,  and  made a c c e s s i b l e to  when he was  j o b of Deputy Keeper of Her Majesty's Records and  given a  the  scholars.  the newly  mandate to d e s i g n and b u i l d a P u b l i c Record  O f f i c e , a task which occupied him  u n t i l h i s death i n 1861. The  young F r a n c i s Cohen knew t h a t h i s race was an i n s u p e r a b l e b a r r i e r to  g e t t i n g a permanent post with the r e c o r d s , and he might have waited f o r e v e r for  preferment  He had almost met  i f he had not made a j u d i c i o u s marriage ceased  to be a member of the Jewish  E l i z a b e t h Turner  and r e j e c t e d  community by 1819 when he  (1799-1852) w h i l e working on a h i s t o r y of N o r f o l k with  her f a t h e r , the banker and a n t i q u a r i a n Dawson Turner. r a c e , h i s l a c k of p r o s p e c t s , and h i s d i f f i c u l t  Cohen's p o v e r t y , h i s  temperament made him such a  p o t e n t i a l l y poor c h o i c e as a husband that i t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g took him f o u r years to persuade E l i z a b e t h to accept him. consented  to the marriage  i n 1823, even o f f e r i n g  would become a C h r i s t i a n and adopt Turner's maiden name. the obvious  Judaism.  that i t  Her f a t h e r  to help f i n a n c i a l l y  i f Cohen  the o l d N o r f o l k name "Palgrave," Mrs.  F r a n c i s Cohen accepted e a g e r l y : not o n l y would he l o s e  stigma of h i s name and be more f i n a n c i a l l y s e c u r e , but he would  a l s o be a b l e t o e n l i s t h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w ' s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n the London government  establishment.  He gave up Judaism completely She  immediately,  h i s b i r t h so  t h a t even h i s s i s t e r - i n - l a w d i d not know that he had been a Jew.  s a i d , many years a f t e r h i s death, t h a t " t o us, and f o r upwards of 30  years of h i s m a r r i e d l i f e religion. his  h e n c e f o r t h denying  I w e l l remember the f i r s t  own name (which  Levi."  4  he never a l l u d e d to h i s own p r e v i o u s name o r  signified  time of h i s [speaking] o f h i s f a t h e r and  P r i e s t ) and of h i s being of the t r i b e o f  To h i s c r e d i t , he d i d continue to p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l  support f o r  8  his  parents and  sisters until  t h e i r deaths, but  he  cut o f f a l l other  r e l a t i o n s between them. That F r a n c i s Cohen became F r a n c i s P a l g r a v e o v e r n i g h t knowledge, r e f e r r e d to i n h i s o b i t u a r i e s and learned  of h i s parentage i s u n c l e a r .  Gifford l e f t  he went up  He  to Oxford; c e r t a i n l y he knew by  Cohen."  o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as  "the  himself the  suppressed  was  probably  time h i s  to become a J e s u i t  brother priest  P a l g r a v e ' s contemporaries knew, too, and  sometimes used h i s race a g a i n s t was  e n t r y ; when h i s c h i l d r e n  father.  the I n d i a n Army i n the m i d - f o r t i e s  w i t h the name "Father  common p u b l i c  F r a n c i s Turner's daughter  the f a c t e n t i r e l y i n her biography of her t o l d before  DNB  was  him.  When F r a n c i s Turner was  Jew,"-' as J . A.  Swinburne wrote t o Theodore Watts  they  an a d u l t ,  Symonds c a l l e d him,  and  he  even  that:  It has been my C h r i s t i a n wish and aim to g i v e as much pain and o f f e n c e as p o s s i b l e to f o o l s and quacks of d i v e r s c o l o u r s — e s p e c i a l l y i n O x o n i c u l a r or (as D. G. R o s s e t t i might have s a i d ) Cohenian q u a r t e r s — a n d I humbly but f e r v e n t l y t r u s t that a b l e s s i n g has been g r a c i o u s l y vouchsafed to my attempts.^ Despite when she  the e l e v e n - y e a r d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r ages, E l i z a b e t h , who  m a r r i e d , and  common i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . in  F r a n c i s Cohen were h i g h l y compatible and  had  A f t e r t h e i r marriage i n September 1823,  24  much i n  they s e t t l e d  a s m a l l house near the Houses of P a r l i a m e n t , l a t e r moving to a l a r g e r  house i n Hampstead where the  family lived  u n t i l S i r F r a n c i s ' death i n  When E l i z a b e t h became pregnant a few months a f t e r the wedding, she the  was  custom of the day  have, her  first  September 1824,  and  c h i l d , and the f i r s t  to have d i s t i n g u i s h e d  returned  to her  followed  f a t h e r ' s house i n Great Yarmouth to  F r a n c i s Turner P a l g r a v e was  born there  on  of f o u r s u r v i v i n g c h i l d r e n , a l l sons, who  careers.^  1861.  28 went  on  9  Throughout P a l g r a v e ' s c h i l d h o o d precarious  that the boys had  f a t h e r was  awarded the Deputy Keeper's p o s t .  enabled S i r F r a n c i s  no  the f a m i l y f i n a n c e s  formal  schooling  until  The  new  were always so  1838,  when t h e i r  financial security  to send them to Charterhouse School as day-boys.  t h a t time F r a n c i s and  Until  E l i z a b e t h worked hard to surround t h e i r sons "from  i n f a n c y with c o l l e c t i o n s of books, p i c t u r e s , and  e n g r a v i n g s " and,  t u t o r s , to educate them r i g o r o u s l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n c l a s s i c a l a r t  through and  Q  literature.  The  high  s t o r e which both parents set on e d u c a t i o n  E l i z a b e t h ' s case from the v e r y f o r her, him  and  a way  to surmount the b a r r i e r s of p r e j u d i c e  applying  His few  g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by  i n 1838  constantly  to t h e i r s t u d i e s and  he was  reciting  "The  Lay  He  provided  their  them  began L a t i n at by  education  the burgeoning Oxford Movement.  he was  f o r Roman h i s t o r y extended a l s o to a l o v e of modern commissioned  boys' e a r l y grounding i n c l a s s i c a l  to w r i t e  the  languages was  understanding of c l a s s i c a l a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and When P a l g r a v e f i n a l l y went to s c h o o l already  sons  pressured  "Northern I t a l y " volume In p r e p a r a t i o n  for his  work, S i r F r a n c i s took the f a m i l y t o I t a l y , a t r i p which ensured that  was  given  of the Last M i n s t r e l "  o f Murray's p o p u l a r guidebooks f o r the Grand Tour.  character  in  restricted  that  l e i s u r e hours were spent i n a r e l i g i o u s  His f a t h e r ' s p a s s i o n I t a l y , and  f a t h e r had  escape the  T u r n e r , the e l d e s t , most of a l l .  f o u r , Greek at seven, and at s i x .  and  Both parents worried  themselves s u f f i c i e n t l y  unmercifully—Francis  heart  her  i n S i r F r a n c i s ' from h i s r e c o g n i t i o n that h i s s t u d i e s had  world of the V i c t o r i a n Jew. were not  unwomanly e d u c a t i o n  derived  l a r g e l y formed.  He  balanced by a l o v e  the  and  culture.  at the age  of f o u r t e e n ,  s a i d r u e f u l l y of h i m s e l f  his that  10  " e a r l y going to s c h o o l was  the o n l y remedy f o r p r i g g i s h n e s s , " and  i s o l a t i o n of h i s c h i l d h o o d meant t h a t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y was c l o s e l y modelled  on that of h i s e c c e n t r i c f a t h e r .  well-known f o r h i s arrogance, audience  his i r a s c i b i l i t y ,  with h i s l e a r n i n g , and h i s son was  i n h e r i t e d many of the same t r a i t s . pedantry,  which Clough  Treasury.^  complained  S i r Francis  was  and h i s d e s i r e to impress  w i d e l y r e c o g n i s e d as  F r a n c i s Turner was was  unfortunately  a shortcoming  visit  to a f r i e n d ' s new  a l s o known f o r h i s  of the Golden  "Queen Anne" s t y l e house.  host opened the f r o n t door, P a l g r a v e g r e e t e d him t h r e e anachronisms on your f r o n t An i n s e n s i t i v i t y  was  i s obvious  P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood.  a l t e r n a t e l y obsequious f l e e , but as he drove  counted  i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , most  n e a r l y d r i v e n to d i s t r a c t i o n by  Palgrave's  as Holman Hunt r e l a t e s i n P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m and  first  When h i s  to the f e e l i n g of o t h e r s , compounded by h i s proud  v i v i d l y w i t h Tennyson, who  the T r e a s u r y was  by a s s e r t i n g , "I've  of  doorstep."^  a s s e r t i o n of h i s p e r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s ,  of him,  his  having  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n s t a n c e r e l a t e d by Henry Adams t e l l s  Palgrave's f i r s t  treatment  9  the  On  the t r i p  to Cornwall d u r i n g which the i d e a of  mooted, Tennyson became so enraged and  the  arrogant behaviour  by  that he f i n a l l y  away i n h i s dogcart to the s t a t i o n ,  Palgrave's attempted  to  Palgrave  jumped up beside Tennyson, g r e a t l y to the poet's s u r p r i s e . He p r o t e s t e d , but the remonstrance was met by Palgrave a p p e a l i n g to us to come too, and d e c l a r i n g that he was under promise to Mrs. Tennyson never to l e a v e him on the j o u r n e y , and as the p a i r were d r i v e n away we heard the two a r g u i n g as to whether such w a t c h f u l n e s s were n e c e s s a r y . ^ All  these c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s are e v i d e n t i n h i s w r i t i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s  art criticism.  Henry Adams records that P a l g r a v e was  famous f o r the  11  v i o l e n c e of h i s a t t a c k s , "which were always i n t e l l i g e n t and when these f a i l e d , he r e a d i l y descended to meaner If  s u c c e s s f u l , thanks  to the thorough  t h a t he concluded  s c h o l a r s h i p i n 1842 him  levels."^  they do not seem to have a m e l i o r a t e d the unpleasant  p e r s o n a l i t y , P a l g r a v e ' s f o u r years at Charterhouse  him,  i f not always k i n d ,  were so a c a d e m i c a l l y  academic grounding  h i s s c h o o l c a r e e r by winning  aspects of h i s  h i s parents had  the coveted  and becoming Head of the s c h o o l i n 1843.  to I t a l y f o r a second  t r i p i n the summer of 1843,  and  given  Balliol  His f a t h e r took  i n October  of that  year he went up t o Oxford. ii At p r e - r e f o r m Oxford importance,  academic work was  of c o m p a r a t i v e l y  a l t h o u g h t h a t would soon change under the reforms  the course of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  Balliol,  however, had  i t s e l f w e l l ahead of the r e s t of the c o l l e g e s , and brilliant  i n the u n i v e r s i t y .  The  c u r r i c u l u m was  his  a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge o f L a t i n and Greek.  understanding in  begun to change  nevertheless s t i l l  Palgrave spent  the f o u r years of h i s undergraduate  p a s s i o n f o r Roman h i s t o r y and  introduced i n  i t s t u t o r s were the most  and  c l a s s i c i s t view of modern l i f e ,  little  career c o n s o l i d a t i n g Predisposed  h i s own  l o v e of I t a l y , Palgrave deepened h i s  of c l a s s i c a l works and became committed to the q u a l i t i e s he  c u r r e n t s a t B a l l i o l a l s o a f f e c t e d him  art.  But  saw  other  profoundly.  When Palgrave e n t e r e d B a l l i o l , he must have been aware t h a t he  c o l l e g e was  to a  l i t e r a t u r e , and a r t c o l o u r e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s  them as the models of p e r f e c t i o n f o r modern l i t e r a t u r e and  e n t e r i n g one  narrow,  was  of the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the u n i v e r s i t y . a microcosm of the t h e o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l  The  12  c o n t r o v e r s i e s sweeping through powerful adherents Tractarians.  the u n i v e r s i t y , a t the same time  of the Broad  harbouring  Church movement and i t s o p p o s i t i o n , Newman's  The most powerful T r a c t a r i a n at B a l l i o l , W. G. Ward, had been  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n a d v e r t e n t l y d e s t r o y i n g the f a i t h of A r t h u r Hugh Clough i n the process of p r e s s u r i n g him to j o i n e x p e l l e d from  Such Broad  w i t h i n the c o l l e g e , dominating  Church adherents  i t from  of the e f f o r t s of a c l a s s i c s  came under the i n f l u e n c e o f Jowett Balliol,  In 1845 Ward was  the u n i v e r s i t y as the r e s u l t of an a c t i o n brought  B a l l i o l man, A. C. T a i t .  result  the Oxford Movement.  the Decade Club, almost  by a f e l l o w  were a s t r o n g f o r c e  the m i d - f o r t i e s onwards, mainly  t u t o r named Benjamin Jowett.  as t h e  Palgrave  and h i s f o l l o w e r s i n a s e c r e t s o c i e t y a t  as soon as he entered  the c o l l e g e .  Palgrave had been r a i s e d as a s u p p o r t e r of t h e Oxford Movement, r a t h e r than the opposing Broad  Church, and h i s parents d o u b t l e s s hoped t h a t he would  be guided by t h e T r a c t a r i a n s ' c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r , John Henry Newman. But f a t e d i c t a t e d otherwise.  Newman, who had been s t r u g g l i n g f o r a long  time  w i t h the dilemma of r e c o n c i l i n g h i s f a i t h w i t h h i s i n c r e a s i n g doubts about the v a l i d i t y of A n g l i c a n d o c t r i n e , r e s i g n e d h i s post as p a r i s h p r i e s t of S t . Mary's Church i n Oxford  and r e t i r e d  p r e p a r a t o r y to "going over" t o Rome a few  weeks b e f o r e P a l g r a v e went up to Oxford. atmosphere o f Oxford  changed r a d i c a l l y .  c e r e b r a t i o n , t h e o l o g i c a l debate, to a c t i v e involvement k i n d advocated  With Newman's removal, the The young men, worn out by years o f  and c o n s c i e n c e - s e a r c h i n g , turned w i t h  relief  i n p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i s s u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y of the  by the "muscular C h r i s t i a n s " of the Broad  Church movement.  They a l s o turned to r a d i c a l i s m and r e p u b l i c a n i s m i n the years l e a d i n g up t o the C h a r t i s t R i o t s and the French R e v o l u t i o n of 1848.  13  Palgrave appeared thus  as the changeover was  found h i m s e l f i n the c e n t r e of the Broad  B a l l i o l was of  i n Oxford j u s t  the Broad Jowett,  Church r e a c t i o n .  a s s e r t i n g i t s e l f as a s t r o n g h o l d f o r the Broad  e x p r e s s i n g f a i t h through Church p a r t y , both  good works. through  I t a l s o had  of the f i r s t  In  through  reformed  headmaster, Doctor Thomas A r n o l d , had  and  1843,  Church p r i n c i p l e  s t r o n g formal l i n k s  t h e o l o g i a n s i n the c o l l e g e  T a i t , and F r e d e r i c k Temple) and  w i t h Rugby S c h o o l , one  taking place  with  (particularly  the c o l l e g e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p  public schools.  Rugby's  sent h i s best students to B a l l i o l :  Ralph L i n g e n , l a t e r P a l g r a v e ' s s u p e r i o r i n the E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e ;  Arthur  S t a n l e y , l a t e r Dean of Westminster; Doctor A r n o l d ' s sons, Thomas and Matthew; and A r t h u r Hugh Clough. Rugby: T a i t  succeeded  In r e t u r n , B a l l i o l  Doctor A r n o l d , who  s u p p l i e d two  d i e d suddenly  headmasters f o r  i n 1842,  and  Temple,  P a l g r a v e ' s mentor i n the E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e , r e p l a c e d T a i t . But  i t was  Oxford, who Palgrave.  Benjamin Jowett,  later  the a r c h i t e c t of e d u c a t i o n a l reform at  e x e r t e d the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on the i m p r e s s i o n a b l e young Although  s e n i o r , Jowett  was  a newly appointed  t u t o r s c a r c e l y ten years  a powerful i n f l u e n c e at  Palgrave's  Balliol:  There was a l i t t l e i n n e r c i r c l e , whose r e l a t i o n to him, p a r t l y because they most needed h i s support, was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t i m a t e . C h i e f among these were W i l l i a m Y. S e l l a r , Alexander Grant, T. C. Sandars, W. S. Dugdale, F. T. P a l g r a v e , Theodore Walrond, R. B. D. M o r i e r , and H. J . S. Smith. I t was w i t h i n t h i s group that there sprang up what o u t s i d e r s d e s i g n a t e d a s o r t of "Jowett-worship." Jowett  has a l s o been p r a i s e d by B a l l i o l  bringing  h i s t o r i a n s f o r almost  singlehandedly  the c o l l e g e out of the doldrums which the Oxford Movement had  as i t s l e g a c y :  left  14  F o r some years a f t e r 1841 t h e best minds of the C o l l e g e seemed to be s m i t t e n with a k i n d o f p a r a l y s i s . They had l o s t t h e i r most fundamental c o n v i c t i o n s , and had found n o t h i n g to r e p l a c e them. They had been plunged i n t o a l a b y r i n t h o f vexed q u e s t i o n s without the semblance of a c l u e . They had l o s t a l l i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d p u r s u i t s , and had no heart to s t r i k e out others f o r themselves. T h e i r u n f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n has been most g r a p h i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d by Clough and Matthew A r n o l d , who were themselves among the s u f f e r e r s . . . . With such a malady of the i n t e l l e c t Jenkyns [ t h e Master] was q u i t e unable to d e a l . . . . There was need of a younger man who had h i m s e l f f e l t the c r i s i s , and who had won h i s own b a t t l e b e f o r e he was c a l l e d upon to arm o t h e r s f o r i t . Such a man the C o l l e g e found i n Jowett. He had been e l e c t e d to a F e l l o w s h i p i n 1838; he succeeded to a t u t o r s h i p i n 1842, d i r e c t l y a f t e r T a i t ' s r e t i r e m e n t ; and, i n s p i t e of h i s youth, he became almost immediately the mainstay of the t u t o r i a l body. Jowett  i n f l u e n c e d h i s e a r l i e s t group of students i n two important  F i r s t , as a r e p u b l i c a n who b e l i e v e d s t r o n g l y i n s o c i a l reform, through  the medium of popular e d u c a t i o n , he gave substance  ways.  particularly  to h i s b e l i e f not  o n l y by campaigning w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y f o r a r e l a x a t i o n of the entrance requirements  to a l l o w women and working men access  a l s o by sending h i s best students  to the u n i v e r s i t i e s , but  to c a r e e r s i n the E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e of the  C i v i l Service.  B a l l i o l men, i n c l u d i n g Temple, L i n g e n , P a l g r a v e , A r n o l d , and  Clough, helped  to s e t up the e n t i r e system o f f r e e s t a t e s e c u l a r e d u c a t i o n i n  England.  Second, he was convinced  that e d u c a t i o n should be f i r m l y based  knowledge of Greek l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y P l a t o , whom he t r a n s l a t e d popular e d i t i o n because he wanted to make c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as many people  as p o s s i b l e .  Jowett  campaigned throughout  on a  i na  accessible to  his l i f e  to extend  the b e n e f i t s o f c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n to the p r e v i o u s l y e d u c a t i o n a l l y d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d , and h i s c o n v i c t i o n that the Greek w r i t e r s had much to teach the modern world shaped P a l g r a v e ' s b e l i e f based  on Greek i d e a l s .  that modern l i t e r a t u r e must a l s o be  15  At O x f o r d , under Jowett's t u t e l a g e and b u t t r e s s e d by the  political  f e r v o u r of two of h i s f r i e n d s , Clough and Froude, Palgrave became an a r d e n t , if  temporary,  r e p u b l i c a n , as Clough wrote  to Tom  Arnold i n  1848:  P a l g r a v e too you w i l l have heard has become, under Froude's guidance p a r t l y and p a r t l y by r e v o l u t i o n a r y sympathy, a v e r y suspect person at Oxford and next to myself i s I suppose accounted the w i l d e s t and most e c e r v e l e r e p u b l i c a n g o i n g . I myself apropos of a l e t t e r of Matt's which he d i r e c t e d to C i t i z e n Clough, O r i e l Lyceum, Oxford, bear that t i t l e par e x c e l l e n c e . J . A. Froude, author of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l document of s c e p t i c i s m , Nemesis of F a i t h , and d e f e c t o r from T r a c t a r i a n i s m , was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p u b l i c l y a t Oxford. about  twenty years a f t e r  He and Palgrave remained  man  to be  friends for  they l e f t O x f o r d , Froude p r o v i d i n g a short but  glowing review of the T r e a s u r y i n 1861, d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h Froude's  radicalism.  but Palgrave g r a d u a l l y became By the time Froude  scandalous biography of the C a r l y l e s i n 1882, that  a dangerous  The  produced h i s  Palgrave d i s l i k e d him  so much  the same year he p u b l i s h e d a l i b e l l o u s L a t i n poem, " I n s c r i p t i o n f o r a  Statue i n C h e l s e a , " i n Blackwood's Magazine ( 7 . 3 ) , a t t a c k i n g both C a r l y l e h i s biographer.  and  But at O x f o r d , Froude j o i n e d w i t h Jowett, Clough, and other  members of the Decade i n encouraging P a l g r a v e ' s r e p u b l i c a n  enthusiasms.  The Decade C l u b , one of the many s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s which f l o u r i s h e d at Oxford and Cambridge i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y — a n d which l a s t e d a l o n g e r than i t s name i m p l i e s — w a s Lake and Benjamin  formed  i n 1838 by two B a l l i o l  B r o d i e , as an a l t e r n a t i v e  the Oxford Union, which was  little  t u t o r s , W.  to the d e b a t i n g forum o f f e r e d  going through a p a r t i c u l a r l y rowdy p e r i o d .  C. by  The  s o c i e t y i n i t i a l l y c o n s i s t e d of ten members—hence the name—and f o r i t s e n t i r e e x i s t e n c e the Decade had a s e r i o u s and i n t e l l e c t u a l  tone, u n l i k e , f o r  16  example, the Cambridge A p o s t l e s , who gathered as much f o r c o n v i v i a l as intellectual  reasons.  The c l u b a l s o d i f f e r e d  societies i n rejecting  from other  contemporary  theology, the most c o m p e l l i n g t o p i c of those y e a r s , i n  f a v o u r of s u b j e c t s such as p o l i t i c s , economics, s o c i a l  reform, and  l i t e r a t u r e , a l l w i t h a markedly r e p u b l i c a n and r a d i c a l f l a v o u r : "For a l l these young men, the February blowing  the tang of s a l t  R e v o l u t i o n [of 1848] broke  and sunshine through  i n l i k e a sea wind  the musty c o n s e r v a t i s m of  Europe."^ The Decade Club a t t r a c t e d  to i t s meetings some of the b r i g h t e s t young  men i n the U n i v e r s i t y , and i t s members went on to become e d u c a t i o n a l reformers i n both s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , l e a d i n g members of the Church of England, important  civil  s e r v a n t s and p o l i t i c i a n s ,  Lord C o l e r i d g e , a L o r d C h i e f J u s t i c e of England. two  of the most important  A r t h u r Hugh Clough.  and even, i n the person of The Decade a l s o  produced  poets of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y — M a t t h e w A r n o l d and  Both men are l i n k e d  to Palgrave i n l i t e r a r y  A r n o l d because he and Palgrave shared a view of l i t e r a r y an a d m i r a t i o n f o r c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y and on p o p u l a r i s t  history,  c r i t i c i s m based on  p r i n c i p l e s , and Clough  because Palgrave had a powerful i n f l u e n c e on h i s posthumous p o e t i c reputation. Matthew A r n o l d ' s c a r e e r p a r a l l e l e d  P a l g r a v e ' s i n many ways.  a Roman h i s t o r i a n , A r n o l d had won a s c h o l a r s h i p to B a l l i o l P a l g r a v e ; he was a poet and a c r i t i c ; he l e f t Oxford O f f i c e ; and he spent  The son of  two years before  to e n t e r the E d u c a t i o n  two terms as P r o f e s s o r o f Poetry a t Oxford.  But the  c r u c i a l p o i n t of c o n t a c t between the two men was t h e i r common b e l i e f  that  E n g l i s h p o e t r y g r e a t l y needed reform i n order f o r i t to p l a y a more powerful  r o l e i n the c u l t u r e of what both men p e r c e i v e d to be an i n c r e a s i n g l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c middle-class society.  Moreover, both agreed  c o u l d be achieved by c l o s e study of Greek p o e t r y — t h e lyric  f o r Palgrave.  both as a c r i t i c  Palgrave was compared  that such  reform  e p i c f o r A r n o l d and the  t o A r n o l d throughout  and as a poet who wrote q u a s i - A r n o l d i a n e l e g a i c  his lifetime, poetry.  P a l g r a v e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A r n o l d , which began w i t h t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s o f l i t e r a t u r e and s o c i a l i s s u e s a t the Decade Club and which d i d not end u n t i l A r n o l d ' s death i n 1888, i s perhaps the most u s e f u l key to understanding the success o f the Golden T r e a s u r y , the e d i t o r i a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r which are based on the same impulses  as those of A r n o l d ' s p r e f a c e to h i s 1853 Poems.  Palgrave and A r n o l d a l s o shared a common a f f e c t i o n f o r another Club member, A r t h u r Hugh Clough. Clough  failed  Doctor A r n o l d ' s most b r i l l i a n t  to l i v e up to h i s r e p u t a t i o n a t O x f o r d .  i n t o a p a s s i v i t y which f o s t e r e d the Decade Club's  him as both a s a i n t and a m a r t y r . involvement inability  pupil,  Worn out by  t h e o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n and the p r e s s u r e s of h i s own c o l l a p s i n g retired  Decade  faith,  tendency  Clough's b i o g r a p h e r s agree  Clough  to regard  that h i s  i n the Decade Club was one of the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to h i s  to make a g r e a t e r impact  on V i c t o r i a n  culture:  Clough's c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Decade set might v e r y w e l l provide a c l u e to h i s f i n a l i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p u b l i c l i f e , and to h i s extraordinary d i f f i c u l t y i n finding a f i t t i n g vocation f o r himself. The d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the age which Clough shared, of a l l h i s f r i e n d s , most f u l l y with Tom A r n o l d was a d i s c o n t e n t too a m b i t i o u s l y g e n e r a l , too d i f f u s e d i n i t s scope to be e a s i l y c h a n n e l l e d i n t o c l e a r and e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . Yet Clough was the w i d e l y acknowledged l e a d e r . * ^ Clough  r e a d i l y accepted  i n g e n e r a l , they c l o s e d ranks  the a d u l a t i o n of the Decade Club members, and, to s h i e l d him from o u t s i d e c r i t i c i s m .  Palgrave  18  was  one  of the most assiduous  his  O r i e l F e l l o w s h i p f o r reasons  e v e n t u a l l y going l e t t e r s , and, him  of conscience  to America, P a l g r a v e  i n 1853,  i n 1861.  and  When Clough r e s i g n e d  drifted  paid his b i l l s ,  from j o b to j o b ,  took care of h i s  w i t h the h e l p of Temple and A r n o l d , arranged a job f o r  i n the E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e , where he spent  death him,  i n p r o t e c t i n g the poet.  When he d i e d , A r n o l d and  the former i n " T h y r s i s " and  the few years t i l l  Palgrave were quick to  the l a t t e r i n an  1862  posthumous e d i t i o n of Clough's p o e t r y i n England p r e f a c e appealed  Clough's widow, who  then as now  memorialise  memoir i n F r a s e r ' s  Magazine (4.6) which e v e n t u a l l y appeared as the p r e f a c e to the  The  h i s premature  first  (2.9).  to the g e n e r a l r e a d e r , but  removed i t a f t e r o n l y two  impressions  i t angered  of the E n g l i s h  e d i t i o n (the American e d i t i o n c o n t a i n e d a p r e f a c e by C h a r l e s E l i o t and  r e p l a c e d i t with one  with more r e v e r e n c e .  of her own,  Palgrave's  f u e l l e d by the appearance i n 1869  which t r e a t e d the man  and  to i g n o r e i n h i s own  memoir.  p u b l i s h i n g a s p l e n e t i c a t t a c k on Mrs. Symonds, i n a poem e n t i t l e d He d i e s : he  "Pro  c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r u n f i n i s h e d or  He  which  responded to the new  edition  Clough and her c o l l a b o r a t o r , J . A.  Mortuis":  leaves the deed or name,  A g i f t f o r e v e r to h i s l a n d , In t r u s t to F r i e n d s h i p ' s guardian hand, Bound ' g a i n s t a l l adverse shocks to keep h i s fame, Or to the world p r o c l a i m . But The The  was  of an expanded e d i t i o n of Clough's Poems  too r e v e a l i n g of the s c e p t i c a l , c y n i c a l s i d e of Clough's nature tried  h i s poetry  f u r y at having h i s v e r s i o n r e j e c t e d  which i n c l u d e d a number of works Palgrave had  he had  Norton)  the i m p e r f e c t t h i n g , or t h o u g h t , — f e r v i d y e a s t i n e s s of youth, dubious doubt, the t w i l i g h t t r u t h ,  by  19  The The  work that f o r the p a s s i n g day was schemes that came to nought.  wrought,  And c r u d i t i e s of j o y and g l o o m : — In k i n d o b l i v i o n l e t them be! Nor has the dead worse foe than he Who rakes these sweepings of the a r t i s t ' s And  piles  them on h i s tomb.  "Pro M o r t u i s " sums up both Palgrave's  (7.16) a b o r t i v e attempt to shape Clough's  image by demanding the s u p p r e s s i o n of poems he that image, and  i n h i s other e d i t i o n s and  always put h i s chosen image of the poet a b r i d g e or omit anything he and  p o l i t i c a l and  undertaking  considered u n f l a t t e r i n g  a l s o h i s g e n e r a l approach as an e d i t o r .  the work of f r i e n d s and  life  room,  thought  first.  reflected  In h i s e d i t i o n s o f  anthologies, Palgrave  He d i d not h e s i t a t e to badly on the poet's  personal  r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , a p r a c t i c e which culminated  to d e s t r o y Tennyson's p e r s o n a l papers a f t e r h i s death  order to a i d Tennyson's widow and Tennyson, an a c t i o n which has  to  in his  i n 1892  in  son i n c r e a t i n g an i d e a l i z e d image of  immensely complicated  the task of subsequent  biographers. Palgrave's  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Clough,  the most f r u i t f u l classical reform  poetry and  through  only B a l l i o l political  of h i s B a l l i o l y e a r s . a r t and h i s new  popular e d u c a t i o n  The  Jowett  were  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of h i s love of  sense of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  shaped the course  i n f l u e n c e which he a b j u r e d  extremism.  A r n o l d , Froude, and  of h i s a d u l t l i f e .  in later l i f e  L i k e many young i d e a l i s t s who  for social  was  had  The  his youthful  been d i s i l l u s i o n e d  by  the c o l l a p s e of the r a d i c a l movements of the l a t e f o r t i e s , P a l g r a v e became a t r u e - b l u e Tory and  an ardent monarchist,  poems on r o y a l events  show.  as h i s subsequent  Indeed, as h i s f r i e n d  G. D.  semi-official  Boyle  s a i d , he  "grew  20  g r a d u a l l y to d i s l i k e many of the p r o j e c t s of h i s more l i b e r a l Oxford" and But  even became disenchanted w i t h Jowett  the love of l i t e r a t u r e and  a r t which had  i n c r e a s i n g preoccupation i n l a t e r  f r i e n d s at  h i m s e l f ( L i f e , p. 37).  s u s t a i n e d him  became an  life. iii  P a l g r a v e began to put h i s i d e a s about a r t and he was  a t Oxford.  I t a l i a n engraving  His f i r s t and  e x p r e s s i o n and  conviction  p o e t r y , appeared  i n 1847 when he was  " u n i t y " of s u b j e c t matter  that l i t e r a t u r e and  p o s s i b l e audience. next  impact  and  treatment  into art c r i t i c i s m  23 (3.1 and  to the  His f i r s t  p u b l i s h e d , with  International Exhibition.  That book, which c o n t a i n s v i o l e n t  circulation.  Although  the p o p u l a r i t y of the one instantaneous  and  i n both  collection,  I d y l s and  verses a l l his l i f e ,  unable  different,  him  he p u b l i s h e d h i s  Songs, 1848-1854, when he was  but h i s poetry never had  Indeed, because he was  markedly  from  areas.  Palgrave began w r i t i n g l y r i c s while at Oxford, and first  the  a t t a c k s on  the n o t o r i e t y of the other brought  r e c o g n i t i o n as a c r i t i c  venture  1862  q u i c k l y withdrawn  the r e c e p t i o n of the two works was  the  he made  important  Handbook to the f i n e a r t e x h i b i t s of the  a p u b l i c o u t c r y and was  widest  i n 1861,  appearance of h i s o f f i c i a l  n e a r l y every work, caused  "clarity"  i n both f i e l d s over  the Golden Treasury appeared  came a year a f t e r the T r e a s u r y was  4.1).  and h i s l i f e l o n g  a r t should be made a v a i l a b l e  i n e i t h e r a r t or l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s .  about  " s i m p l i c i t y " and  He p u b l i s h e d a number of a r t i c l e s  f o u r t e e n y e a r s , but u n t i l  little  on paper while  published a r t i c l e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  These e a r l y w r i t i n g s e v i n c e both h i s i n s i s t e n c e on of  literature  30.  He wrote  the success of h i s c r i t i c i s m .  to p l a c e h i s poems i n p e r i o d i c a l s , h i s work  21  r e c e i v e d no c r i t i c a l  attention until  the Treasury made him an o v e r n i g h t  a u t h o r i t y on p o e t r y . U n l i k e many of h i s f r i e n d s , P a l g r a v e d i s t r a c t i o n s o f Oxford  life  d i d not a l l o w the c o n t r o v e r s i e s and  to a f f e c t h i s work.  His f i r s t - c l a s s  honours  degree i n 1847 was rewarded w i t h a f e l l o w s h i p a t Exeter C o l l e g e , but by then, along with the m a j o r i t y of the Decade, he was a l r e a d y t h i n k i n g about l e a v i n g the U n i v e r s i t y , and he stayed a t E x e t e r only a y e a r . of  many of h i s contemporaries,  After vetoing h i s f i r s t  decided  to enter the c i v i l s e r v i c e .  s e r v i c e by i n s i s t i n g  that he take  work as a p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y f o r W. E. Gladstone,  time o f f i n 1846  who was then an  up-and-coming young C o l o n i a l M i n i s t e r i n the Peel government. was  a t r a d i t i o n a l way i n t o the c i v i l  apparently Oxford  found  s e r v i c e or i n t o p o l i t i c s , but P a l g r a v e  Matthew A r n o l d h e l d an e q u i v a l e n t p o s i t i o n  Lord Lansdowne a l i t t l e l a t e r and found  p o l i t i c a l views.  Palgrave  Arnold's  f o r many  severed by  chose a post i n the  Committee o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l where there was a s t r o n g  connection. of  however, l a s t e d  l o v e o f Homer, though i t was f i n a l l y  their increasingly differing  with  i tsimilarly unsatisfying.  personal r e l a t i o n s h i p with Gladstone,  y e a r s , owing to a shared  Education  Such a post  i t not t o h i s t a s t e , f o r a f t e r one term he returned to  to take h i s degree.  Palgrave's  the example  c a r e e r c h o i c e , a r c h i t e c t u r e , h i s f a t h e r had t r i e d to  i n t e r e s t him i n the c i v i l to  Palgrave  Following  Balliol  t u t o r , Ralph L i n g e n , had a l r e a d y gone to head the s t a f f  s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r s at the o f f i c e , and one o f Palgrave's mentors, F r e d e r i c k  Temple, had been r e c r u i t e d  to head an experimental  A r n o l d and Clough e v e n t u a l l y became P a l g r a v e ' s The  Committee on E d u c a t i o n  training  school.  Both  colleagues.  of the P r i v y C o u n c i l , as i t was  initially  22  c a l l e d , had been formed i n 1838 to dispense government grants to the church-run school system.  Gradually, over the next 30 years, i t removed  control of education from the hands of the churches, and, by the time Palgrave r e t i r e d i n 1884, a new and e n t i r e l y secular system of elementary state education had been established. Palgrave began work at the beginning of 1849 as Temple's v i c e - p r i n c i p a l at Kneller H a l l i n Twickenham, an experimental training school for teachers who were to l i v e and work with children i n the workhouses.  One of the e a r l i e s t government experiments in  teacher t r a i n i n g , i t was never successful, both because workhouse teaching was  so unpleasant and badly paid that few could be induced to take i t up and  because i t engendered so much controversy.  The churches argued that i t  infringed on their legal right to t r a i n teachers, and Parliament of i t s high cost.  After five years the school was  complained  closed, and Palgrave  returned to the London o f f i c e . Palgrave remained at the Education Office for the whole of his working l i f e , r i s i n g to the l e v e l of assistant secretary by the time he r e t i r e d i n 1884.  His work was not i l l u s t r i o u s — h e certainly produced nothing as  s i g n i f i c a n t as the reports and studies that Matthew Arnold wrote for the same o f f i c e — b u t he was involved i n the setting up of the basic education system which s t i l l exists i n England and throughout her former colonies. no formal s p e c i f i c contribution to the history of education, he  If he made  was  profoundly influenced by his awareness of that vast i l l i t e r a t e audience which the Education Office was  trying to reach.  Probably his years at Kneller Hall as a teacher helped Palgrave to define the audience he would address i n his c r i t i c i s m , for he taught "English  23  History,  and E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , and E n g l i s h Composition" to young men whose  o n l y e d u c a t i o n had been l a b o r i o u s l y a c q u i r e d by working as p u p i l poor elementary earliest Office,  schools.^  While t h e r e ,  l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i n 1853  he p u b l i s h e d some of  i n the house j o u r n a l of  teachers  in  his  the E d u c a t i o n  The E d u c a t i o n a l E x p o s i t o r , i n c l u d i n g "A Method of L e c t u r e s on E n g l i s h  L i t e r a t u r e , " an examination of the c r i t i c a l t h e o r i e s Wordsworth w r i t t e n as a c o n v e r s a t i o n between the experience  of C o l e r i d g e and  two men ( 4 . 2 ) .  His  teaching  w i t h young w o r k i n g - c l a s s men served to u n d e r l i n e h i s b e l i e f  p o e t r y and the f i n e  arts  should take a c e n t r a l r o l e i n popular e d u c a t i o n .  a l s o campaigned f o r the a d d i t i o n of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e to s c h o o l even i n some cases as a replacement not everyone  from exposure  the c l a s s i c s ,  all  He  curricula,  f o r L a t i n and Greek, i n s i s t i n g  c o u l d l e a r n enough to a p p r e c i a t e  would b e n e f i t  that  that  while  students  to the best a r t and l i t e r a t u r e of t h e i r own  country. While P a l g r a v e was at K n e l l e r H a l l ,  two of h i s c l o s e s t  emotional  t i e s — o n e r e a l and one r e a l o n l y to him—were a b r u p t l y s e v e r e d .  He was  i n t o a melancholy mood when h i s dreams of marriage w i t h the s i s t e r of c h i l d h o o d f r i e n d were s h a t t e r e d w i t h the  sudden death of h i s mother i n 1852.  seems to have healed P a l g r a v e ' s emotional  tie,  inevitably, vehicle  by her r e j e c t i o n ,  filial  formed i n a d o l e s c e n c e ,  grief,  a sorrow which  persisted  for expressing  h i s f e e l i n g s i n the wake of  r e t u r n i n g to the same genre f o l l o w i n g r e w r i t i n g P r e c i o s a as The P a s s i o n a t e  that  i n t o e a r l y manhood.  he chose the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o v e l — P r e c i o s a  (1852,  the l a d y ' s  a  deepened  The n a t u r a l course of but the p a i n of  cast  time unspoken Perhaps  [2.2])—as a  rejection,  the trauma of her m a r r i a g e i n 1857 and P i l g r i m (1858,  [2.6]).  24  Nowhere i n the wealth  of v e r s e s that document the r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n the  n o v e l s P r e c i o s a and The P a s s i o n a t e P i l g r i m , or i n e x i s t i n g does Palgrave h i m s e l f i d e n t i f y h i s inamorata, Arnold's of  "Marguerite."  Although  correspondence  but she i s l e s s e l u s i v e  than  no one has p o s i t i v e l y r e v e a l e d the i d e n t i t y  " P r e c i o s a " i n p r i n t , R. B r i m l e y Johnson, e d i t o r of a 1926 r e p r i n t  P a s s i o n a t e P i l g r i m , claimed she was a long-time  f r i e n d of C e c i l  of The  Greville  Milnes, Palgrave's future wife: When, j u s t upon f i v e years a f t e r t h i s book was p u b l i s h e d , that i s i n 1862, F r a n c i s Palgrave f i r s t met the l a d y d e s t i n e d . . . t o become h i s w i f e , who had, c u r i o u s l y enough, l o n g been her f r i e n d , the i n t i m a c y was not d i s t u r b e d , nor was i t broken save by the hand of death (2.6, 2nd. ed, v i i i ) . But Johnson's coyness  served o n l y to t a n t a l i z e .  s u r f a c e d about " P r e c i o s a " ' s i d e n t i t y .  In 1984, however, evidence  On the f l y l e a f  of her copy of  P r e c i o s a , E l e a n o r L e i g h t o n , s i s t e r o f Palgrave's f r i e n d ,  the poet Lord de  T a b l e y , names " P r e c i o s a " as Lady S a l i s b u r y , or Georgina A l d e r s o n , who married Sir  Robert  C e c i l i n 1857.  This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  June 1857 found among P a l g r a v e ' s papers  i s confirmed  by a l e t t e r o f 20  i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  In i t , her  b r o t h e r , another o f P a l g r a v e ' s f r i e n d s , C h a r l e s , Baron A l d e r s o n w r i t e s : I f e e l s u r e , t h a t however deeply you are f e e l i n g the events of l a s t Saturday week, i t i s not a s u b j e c t which w i t h me you would wish t a b o o e d — a n d t h a t however p a i n f u l , you must n e v e r t h e l e s s f e e l a terrible interest i n a l l relating...to i t . And so, as I promised, I w r i t e to you now to t e l l you that e v e r y t h i n g went o f f as e a s i l y and q u i e t l y , and t h e r e f o r e as p l e a s a n t l y , as p o s s i b l e , under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Indeed to you, who know w e l l what Georgie has been to the house, ever s i n c e i t was a house, I need not speak of what the s o c i a l l o s s i s . . . . And now, my dear Frank, I have again to express my sympathy f o r you i n t h i s heavy t r i a l . . . . Not but that I do f i r m l y b e l i e v e t h a t a time must come when the sharp  25  edge of t h i s sorrow must be b l u n t e d — a n d like peace.  you a t t a i n  something  2 0  Both novels d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l h i s u n r e c i p r o c a t e d p a s s i o n and  the  spiritual  anguish which the hero e x p e r i e n c e s , P r e c i o s a i n a simple, r e a l i s t i c and  The  P a s s i o n a t e P i l g r i m i n a more d e c o r a t i v e , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y  i n t e l l e c t u a l manner, l a r d e d with q u o t a t i o n s from Goethe and was  style,  p u b l i s h e d anonymously, the second  authorship.  The  The  first  under the pseudonym, "Henry J .  Thurstan," but P a l g r a v e ' s contemporaries admitted  Dante.  r e c o g n i s e d h i s hand and  Palgrave  p e r s i s t e n t m e l a n c h o l i a p o r t r a y e d i n these two  a p p a r e n t l y became a permanent p a r t of P a l g r a v e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , and  books  Diana  Holman-Hunt r e p o r t s t h a t her g r a n d f a t h e r , W i l l i a m Holman Hunt, f o r e s t a l l e d s u i c i d e attempt  by Palgrave two  years a f t e r The P a s s i o n a t e P i l g r i m  a  was  21 published. to  The  success of the T r e a s u r y and  have assuaged h i s mental s t r e s s , but he was  d e p r e s s i o n throughout Palgrave was  the remainder  of h i s  h i s marriage  i n 1862  seemed  s u b j e c t to a t t a c k s of  life.  38 when he m a r r i e d C e c i l G r e v i l l e M i l n e s (1834-1890), the  n i e c e of h i s o l d f r i e n d R i c h a r d Monckton M i n e s , Lord Houghton, and of  A r t h u r Hallam's f r i e n d James M i l n e s G a s k e l l .  daughters to  and  a son (a second  son d i e d i n i n f a n c y ) , and  have p r o v i d e d the s t a b i l i t y and  c h o l e r i c temperament had P a l g r a v e ' s domestic  C e c i l bore him  peace which h i s own  daughter  four  t h e i r marriage melancholy  seems  and  l a c k e d f o r so many y e a r s . crises,  p e r s o n a l i t y , d i d not l e a d him K n e l l e r H a l l c l o s e d i n 1855,  though p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y damaging to h i s  to r e t i r e from s o c i a l l i f e . he r e t u r n e d t o London eager  Indeed, when to r e - e n t e r the  26  l i t e r a r y world which he had London o f f i c e .  Palgrave was  poets, p o l i t i c i a n s , and biography.  tasted b r i e f l y  The man  i n 1849 while working at the  a great l i o n i s e r ; he l o v e d to meet the  a r i s t o c r a t s whose names f i l l  the pages of h i s  he most wanted to meet, however, was  Alfred  whose work he had admired s i n c e h i s e a r l y days a t Oxford. debate P a l g r a v e had w i n n i n g l y argued  that "Tennyson i s a g r e a t e r poet  h i m s e l f , a c c o r d i n g to a f r i e n d , on the f a c t  March 1849, marriage,  and  daughter  at f i r s t  s a i d , remained  the former's  not yet won  death  flattered  i n s e n s i t i v e nature.  sixties,  ( L i f e , p. 40).  t a k i n g a number of summer walking  goes with Mr.  31  of In Memoriam, h i s  a year away.  But Tennyson was irritated  They remained f r i e n d s  seems to have engineered.  of the  Tennyson on  most u t t e r l y l o y a l and  embarrassed by Palgrave's e f f u s i v e n e s s and and  than  by P a l g r a v e ' s a d m i r a t i o n , which, as h i s  "a hero-worship  i n 1892  met  Club  He p r i d e d  been one  r e n o w n — t h e success  the L a u r e a t e s h i p were s t i l l  Tennyson was  that he had  of Tennyson's work, and when he f i r s t  Tennyson had  Tennyson,  In a Decade  Wordsworth" a g a i n s t that g r e a t Wordsworthian, Matthew A r n o l d .  e a r l i e s t admirers  artists,  true" u n t i l  a shy  man,  by h i s o f t e n a b r a s i v e  throughout  the f i f t i e s  and  tours together which Palgrave  As Emily Tennyson wrote to Edward L e a r ,  Palgrave t o B r i t t a n y , or s c a r c e l y goes but w i l l  be  "Alfred  taken  22  perhaps."  Tennyson's p a t i e n c e was  unique mixture trying On  of deference  arrogance,  Palgrave's  and he e v e n t u a l l y sought  less  companionship. one  of these summer tours Palgrave suggested  T r e a s u r y t o Tennyson, who project  and  t e s t e d c o n s t a n t l y by  encouraged the younger man  the i d e a of the Golden to proceed with  before he cut the h o l i d a y s h o r t i n order to f l e e  the  from what S i r  27  C h a r l e s Tennyson, perhaps with too much f i l i a l pertinacious d e v o t i o n . F o r  loyalty, called  Palgrave's  P a l g r a v e , however, the r e l a t i o n s h i p held  a c e n t r a l p l a c e even a f t e r Tennyson had l a r g e l y withdrawn h i s f r i e n d s h i p , and he continued  to a c t and w r i t e p u b l i c l y as i f they were s t i l l  many of the other l e s s - t a l e n t e d younger men  who  close.  L i k e so  formed Tennyson's  "entourage," P a l g r a v e was not unaware of the h e l p which a connection with the Laureate  c o u l d be to h i s c a r e e r , and h i s a n t h o l o g i e s and c r i t i c i s m echo w i t h  r e f e r e n c e s to h i s t a l e n t e d f r i e n d . involvement and helped In reasons  By making known Tennyson's  with the T r e a s u r y , Palgrave c a p i t a l i z e d  Tennyson severed  their relationship altogether f o r  which r e v e a l as much about P a l g r a v e ' s d i s t i n c t i v e  about Tennyson h i m s e l f .  Tennyson had t o l e r a t e d  f r i e n d s h i p i n P a l g r a v e ' s w r i t i n g s , but the poet  to  on Tennyson's r e p u t a t i o n  to ensure the success of the book.  the l a t e s i x t i e s ,  Palgrave  editorial  to aggrandise  outsiders.  s t y l e as they do  the many r e f e r e n c e s to t h e i r drew the l i n e at a l l o w i n g  h i m s e l f by showing Tennyson's unpublished  manuscripts  In 1849, P a l g r a v e had succeeded Coventry Patmore, who  d i s m i s s e d f o r showing the manuscript Tennyson's express  had been  o f In Memoriam to s t r a n g e r s a g a i n s t  o r d e r s , as Tennyson's a c o l y t e , so i t was  only f i t t i n g  that  Palgrave should h i m s e l f be r e p l a c e d i n 1868 by W i l l i a m A l l i n g h a m when he not o n l y showed the manuscript  of the new  unpublished  M u l l e r , but a l s o wrote t o Tennyson d e t a i l i n g poems, to which he added h i s own regarded l e n t him. a man  Idylls  to an o u t s i d e r , Max  the s t r a n g e r ' s c r i t i c i s m s of the  c o m p l a i n t s , l e c t u r i n g Tennyson on what he  as the p o e t i c shortcomings of the manuscripts  which Tennyson had  Tennyson had a n o t o r i o u s l y t h i n s k i n f o r c r i t i c i s m , and only  of monumental i n s e n s i t i v i t y would have f l o u t e d Tennyson's orders and  28  then presumed to a t t a c k u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l l e n t i n c o n f i d e n c e . Tennyson was  understandably  reluctant  to a l l o w Palgrave  to c r i t i c i s e h i s  work i n p r i n t , and he vetoed h i s i n c l u s i o n i n the T r e a s u r y , a d e c i s i o n which led  Palgrave to omit  a l l l i v i n g authors.  a l l o w P a l g r a v e to review any  He a l s o a p p a r e n t l y d e c l i n e d to  of h i s volumes, and no Tennyson poems  i n any o f P a l g r a v e ' s c o l l e c t i o n s u n t i l Tennyson's move to P a l g r a v e ' s own justified:  on  p u b l i s h e r , made r e f u s a l d i f f i c u l t . 18 January  1884,  appeared  Macmillan,  Tennyson's s u s p i c i o n s seem  three days a f t e r Tennyson's c o n t r a c t w i t h  Kegan P a u l e x p i r e d and he decided to s i g n a c o n t r a c t with M a c m i l l a n , wrote t o Macmillan Treasury Series. illustrates In  p l a n n i n g a s e l e c t i o n from Tennyson's l y r i c s i n the Golden That e d i t i o n , d i s c u s s e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y below, c l e a r l y  the l i m i t a t i o n s o f P a l g r a v e ' s assessment of Tennyson's l y r i c s .  p a r t i c u l a r , h i s s e l e c t i o n s from In Memorlam c o n f i r m h i s i n t e n s e a n t i p a t h y  to mannered language and  o b s c u r i t y which, though c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  c r i t i c a l views expressed  elsewhere,  reveals a serious i n a b i l i t y  the t r u e nature of Tennyson's d i s t i n c t i v e When Tennyson d i e d at the end token one  to suggest  He was  son Hallam  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p had immediately  been a  to Tennyson's  to o f f e r h e l p i n d e a l i n g w i t h Tennyson's  never  m a t e r i a l , but who  private l i f e  papers planning.  and  been a b l e to achieve d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e .  g r a t e f u l l y accepted by the Tennysons, who  says:  to comprehend  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the memoir which he knew Hallam was  f e e l i n g s t h a t he had  Martin  of 1892,  thus a b l e to g a i n an access to the Laureate's  o f f e r was  Palgrave's  genius.  f o r many y e a r s , yet P a l g r a v e wrote almost  widow Emily and and  Palgrave  were s e l e c t i v e i n choosing  His  were swamped w i t h  t h e i r h e l p e r s because, as  Robert  29  The process of making Tennyson's memory respectable was w e l l i n hand, and i t was so successful that i t took another half-century before the world began to suspect that behind the bland features of the Watts p o r t r a i t s and Hallam Tennyson's biography was the complicated mind and awkward p e r s o n a l i t y of one of England's greatest poets. They recognised i n Palgrave a man with p a r a l l e l aims. Palgrave always took a p a r t i c u l a r l y strong i n t e r e s t i n the l i t e r a r y memorials erected to h i s f r i e n d s — h e had been involved by t h i s time with the memoirs of Clough, Shairp, and E a s t l a k e — a n d i n each case, as has already been noted i n reference to Clough, he was w i l l i n g to make whatever concessions were necessary to ensure that no u n f l a t t e r i n g s t o r i e s or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y poems appeared i n p r i n t .  His work on Tennyson's reputation  was made considerably easier by the fact that Emily and Hallam were already united i n t h e i r desire to protect and i d e a l i s e the Laureate. Palgrave's f i r s t act consisted of an o f f e r to read and, where necesary, destroy Tennyson's papers. incoming correspondence  The Tennysons sent him large batches of unread  which he had absolute a u t h o r i t y to destroy as he saw  fit: Palgrave and Henry Sidgwick helped him [Hallam Tennyson] to read and sort out some 40,000 l e t t e r s , then to destroy three-quarters of them, i n c l u d i n g p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of Tennyson's l e t t e r s to Emily before t h e i r marriage and those he had received from Arthur Hallam, as w e l l as anything else Hallam and Emily Tennyson had decided was unworthy of the tame, s a i n t l y character whose image they wanted to perpetuate. He d i d t h i s unsupervised, but on t h e i r d i r e c t orders, and many of h i s comments show that he took an almost malicious pleasure i n destroying the l e t t e r s of those who had replaced him as Tennyson's intimates:  30  P a l g r a v e ' s o n l y s e r i o u s f a u l t as an a d v i s o r was h i s j e a l o u s y of o t h e r w r i t e r s : Stedman i s "a U. S. A. nobody," James Spedding's s t y l e i s "very unequal," K i n g s l e y ' s s t y l e i s "always i n t o l e r a b l e , " Sidgwick's l e t t e r about In Memoriam i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , "The only l i g h t i t throws i s not on the poem, but on the p r o f e s s o r , " Lowell's d e s c r i p t i o n of Maud as "the a n t i p h o n a l v o i c e t o In Memoriam" i s a "nonsensical expression." The  f a m i l y was  thus able to ensure that the o f f i c i a l  e r e c t e d i n the Memoir c o u l d be permanently p r o t e c t e d .  image which  Palgrave  not  only  a s s i s t e d by d e s t r o y i n g documents i n i m i c a l to the f a m i l y ' s o f f i c i a l he a l s o subedited may  they  portrait,  the memoir e x t e n s i v e l y , c o r r e c t i n g Hallam's grammar, and  even have suggested the t i t l e  Tennyson, a Memoir by h i s Son.  f o r the p u b l i s h e d  record: A l f r e d ,  Lord  He wrote a number of t r a v e l memoirs and  a  memorial l e t t e r on Tennyson's l a t e son, L i o n e l , f o r i n c l u s i o n , but,  while  these appeared i n the p r i n t e d M a t e r i a l s f o r a L i f e o f A. T.  they were  subsequently All  r e j e c t e d by Hallam i n the  that remains o f Palgrave's  f i n a l proof  similar and  before p u b l i c a t i o n .  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the Memoir i s h i s  R e c o l l e c t i o n s of A l f r e d Tennyson...(Including placed  stage  i n an appendix at the end  Some C r i t i c i s m s by  death, has  few  (1911), e d i t e d by Hallam and references  to him,  f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Tennyson was  one  "Personal Tennyson)"  of the second volume along with a number of  r e c o l l e c t i o n s by other f r i e n d s , such as Froude and  h i s Friends  (2.48),  but  published  there i s no  long a f t e r  question  of the most important  Jowett.  Tennyson Palgrave's  that h i s  events i n h i s  life.  iv When Palgrave have dreamt how capitalized  began work on the Golden Treasury  much impact the l i t t l e  on h i s newly gained  i n 1860,  he could  not  green book would have on h i s l i f e .  s t a t u s as a r e c o g n i s e d  man  of  letters  He  31  following the publication of the Golden Treasury to place his own poetry and to secure commissions for other editions and "Treasuries," such as the Children's Treasury (1875) and the Treasury of Sacred Song (1889).  But while  he published nearly 50 separate volumes of poetry, art and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , anthologies,  hymns, and lectures  in the years between 1861 and his  death, none of these came remotely close to r i v a l l i n g the success of the Treasury.  That he himself was f u l l y cognizant of the book's c e n t r a l i t y i n  his l i f e and reputation is reflected i n his continuing e d i t o r i a l involvement with i t throughout his  life.  The Golden Treasury made Palgrave's name a household word in the eighteen s i x t i e s , and his reputation was sure enough by 1867 for him to consider standing as a candidate for Professor of Poetry at Oxford when Matthew Arnold r e t i r e d .  He withdrew from the contest in favour of his uncle,  Sir Francis Doyle, but stood again i n 1877, when his opponents included Walter Pater, J . A. Symonds, and J . C. Shairp, his old B a l l i o l f r i e n d .  After  an acrimonious contest, during which the old animosity with Symonds over the Clough memoir resurfaced, he withdrew again from the competition. after his retirement, i n 1884, Shairp, died unexpectedly,  Shortly  the incumbent Professor of Poetry, J .  C.  and Palgrave was prompted once again to put his  name forward, this time successfully.  His four lecture s e r i e s , on l i t e r a t u r e  and the fine a r t s , on neglected English poets, on the Renaissance i n English l i t e r a t u r e , and on landscape i n poetry, were widely regarded as both d u l l and u n o r i g i n a l , but he was after a l l 61 and already a i l i n g when he was  elected,  and by the time he r e t i r e d after two five-year terms he was only two years from death.  He f i n a l l y persuaded Macmillan to publish his l a s t series of  32  l e c t u r e s as Landscape i n P o e t r y from Homer to Tennyson, but he d i e d , f o r t u i t o u s l y , b e f o r e the g e n e r a l l y u n f a v o u r a b l e Thus, the 36 years between 1861  and h i s death  u n e v e n t f u l , however a n t i - c l i m a c t i c they may successes and life-long  recognition.  reviews  appeared.  i n 1897 were c e r t a i n l y  have been i n terms of P a l g r a v e ' s  The T r e a s u r y has been noted  as an ongoing  e n t e r p r i s e , but P a l g r a v e ' s other a c t i v i t i e s were many and  Between 1862  and  1865,  he was  not  engaged p r i n c i p a l l y  as an a r t c r i t i c .  and  varied. In  c o n n e c t i o n with h i s p o s i t i o n on the Saturday Review, which engaged him on  the  s t r e n g t h of h i s Handbook to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n , he c o n t r i b u t e d articles  r e g u l a r l y on c u r r e n t a r t i s t s  and e x h i b i t i o n s .  While much of h i s  c r i t i c a l work can be d e s c r i b e d as journeyman t a s k s — e s p e c i a l l y h i s e d i t o r i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the l i v e s of Clough,  S h a i r p , and  Tennyson—his  own  p u b l i c a t i o n s were s u f f i c i e n t l y numerous and  frequent to keep h i s name b e f o r e  the p u b l i c , and  o p p o r t u n i t i e s opened to  as h i s r e p u t a t i o n grew, new  Throughout these y e a r s , Palgrave maintained c o u n t i n g among h i s f r i e n d s and w r i t e r s and  artists.  and  he was  While  f r i e n d s were Thomas Woolner,  was  married  to Palgrave's  cousin  he moved o n l y on the f r i n g e of Tennyson's l i t e r a r y c i r c l e ,  a c q u a i n t e d w i t h Browning and R i c h a r d Monckton M i l n e s , and,  w i t h Swinburne, who a l l o w him  life,  S i r C h a r l e s E a s t l a k e , p r e s i d e n t of the Royal Academy  d i r e c t o r of the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , who  Elizabeth.  a highly active social  a s s o c i a t i o n s a wide range of s u c c e s s f u l  His p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t i c  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt, and  him.  later  took a g r e a t d i s l i k e  to Palgrave and  f r i e n d s h i p s with  those  time,  r e f u s e d to  to i n c l u d e any of h i s poems i n the Second S e r i e s of the  At the same time, P a l g r a v e c u l t i v a t e d  for a  Treasury.  33  members of h i s o l d B a l l i o l  c i r c l e who  had entered the church,  particularly  F r e d e r i c k Temple and A. C. T a i t , both of whom became Archbishops Canterbury,  and with A r t h u r S t a n l e y , Dean of Westminster.  As he became o l d e r and l o s t h i s y o u t h f u l reforming z e a l , he his  t i e s w i t h members of the a r i s t o c r a c y and p o l i t e  Duke of A r g y l l , whose p o e t r y appears Treasury.  one  the  i n the Second S e r i e s of the Golden  a member of the l i t e r a r y , p o l i t i c a l ,  and  social  1885,  establishment,  of the c r i t i c i s m s of h i s Second S e r i e s of the Golden T r e a s u r y of the  works of l i v i n g p o e t s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1897,  that i t was r e a c t i o n a r y ,  the t a s t e of a man  of  g e n e r a t i o n , n o t a b l y W i l l i a m M o r r i s , but who  h i s own the new  not o n l y r e j e c t e d much of the work of poets a l s o had  little  taste  poets of the n i n e t i e s , such as Wilde, Yeats, Symons, and Dowson.  P a l g r a v e ' s marriage, happy one.  who  was  reflecting  for  strengthened  society, including  By the time of h i s e l e c t i o n as P r o f e s s o r o f Poetry i n  P a l g r a v e was and  of  which l a s t e d u n t i l h i s w i f e ' s death  i n 1890,  was  a  Ten years younger than he, h i s wife knew of h i s long unhappy  o b s e s s i o n w i t h h i s " P r e c i o s a , " and  she  seems to have t r e a t e d him w i t h great  k i n d n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g h i s r e c u r r e n t p e r i o d s of d e p r e s s i o n . he addressed  her i n many poems as h i s  In r e t u r n ,  "Eugenia":  What p e a r l of p r i c e w i t h i n her l a y I c o u l d not know when f i r s t I met her So l i t t l e s t u d i o u s f o r h e r s e l f , Almost she ask'd we should f o r g e t her. A f t e r C e c i l ' s death, concern. of and  (2.29)  t h e i r f i v e c h i l d r e n took care of him w i t h equal care  His f i n a l years were spent working on Tennyson's Memoir and a  Benjamin Jowett, e d i t o r i a l help.  whose biographers  and  life  c a l l e d upon Palgrave f o r r e m i n i s c e n c e s  A f t e r a l o n g , slow d e t e r i o r a t i o n of h i s h e a l t h , Palgrave  34  d i e d on 24 October 1897, having  o u t l i v e d almost  a l l h i s o l d and c l o s e  friends. P a l g r a v e was a t y p i c a l V i c t o r i a n man of l e t t e r s , amateur a r t c r i t i c , and minor poet.  He was a l s o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the B a l l i o l men of the e i g h t e e n  f o r t i e s and f i f t i e s translated education.  who were swept up i n a r e f o r m i n g enthusiasm  i n t o a c o n v i c t i o n that the best changes would come through  popular  He summed up the best and the worst of h i s times: he was an  o u t s i d e r , and he knew i t , but h i s Oxford to  t h a t was  t r a i n i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m  l e d him  want to r a i s e o t h e r s to h i s l e v e l of l e a r n i n g and p l e a s u r e i n the a r t s and  p o e t r y , r a t h e r than to look down on the l e s s f o r t u n a t e .  He had been a  p a s s i o n a t e young r e p u b l i c a n , and i n l a t e r l i f e he became a j i n g o i s t i c o l d Tory, but he never l o s t h i s f a i t h t h a t , i f the best poetry and a r t were made available  to the widest  p o s s i b l e audience,  even the most u n c i v i l i s e d and i g n o r a n t . old  they would educate and i n s p i r i t  His g r e a t e s t enthusiasm  was, as h i s  f r i e n d G. D. Boyle s a i d , "the high e l e v a t i o n o f p o e t r y , a r t , and  music...as the g o a l f o r a l l r i g h t l y d i r e c t e d human e f f o r t " His v i o l e n t l y him heard  expressed  ( L i f e , p . 39).  o p i n i o n s and h i s a b r a s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y helped  to make  i n that s t r i d e n t age, but underneath h i s b l u s t e r and arrogance l a y  the s t r o n g b e l i e f , which he shared w i t h h i s f r i e n d Matthew A r n o l d , that the s u r v i v a l of poetry and the f i n e a r t s was fundamental to the s a l v a t i o n of what he p e r c e i v e d as an i n c r e a s i n g l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c and s o u l l e s s s o c i e t y . q u a l i t y of the Golden T r e a s u r y sprang  from that c o n v i c t i o n .  The  35  NOTES  Henry Adams, The E d u c a t i o n of Henry Adams, ed. Ernest Samuels (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1974), p. 214. 2  Todd M. Endelman, The Jews of Georgian England, 1714-1830: T r a d i t i o n and Change i n a L i b e r a l S o c i e t y ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Jewish P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y of America, 1979), pp. 259-60. J . H. Burton, " S i r F r a n c i s P a l g r a v e and h i s Books," Magazine, 81 (June 1857), 731.  Blackwood's  ^ Quoted i n Lewis Edwards, "A Remarkable F a m i l y : the P a l g r a v e s , " i n Remember the Days: Essays on Anglo-Jewish H i s t o r y , ed. John S h a f t e s l e y (London: the Jewish H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of England, 1966), p. 306. 5  To C h a r l o t t e Symonds Green, 24 Feb. 1877, L e t t e r 1037, The L e t t e r s of J . A. Symonds, ed. H. M. S c h u e l l e r and R. L. P e t e r s , 2 v o l s . ( D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), 2, p. 460. 6  vols.  10 Aug. 1891, L e t t e r 1570, The Swinburne L e t t e r s , ed. C e c i l Lang, 6 (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962), 6, p. 16.  ^ W i l l i a m G i f f o r d Palgrave (1826-1888) was a J e s u i t p r i e s t , Arabian t r a v e l l e r , spy f o r Napoleon the T h i r d , and d i p l o m a t . Robert Harry I n g l i s Palgrave (1827-1919) e n t e r e d the f a m i l y bank and became the e d i t o r of The Economist magazine and o f P a l g r a v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y of P o l i t i c a l Economy. R e g i n a l d F r a n c i s Douce P a l g r a v e (1829-1904) was C l e r k of the House of Commons and e d i t e d s e v e r a l e d i t i o n s of the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Standing Orders. The two youngest boys were both k n i g h t e d . 8  J . W.  M a c k a i l , " F r a n c i s Turner  P a l g r a v e , " DNB  (1921-2).  G w e n l l i a n F. P a l g r a v e , F r a n c i s Turner P a l g r a v e : His J o u r n a l s and Some Memories of h i s L i f e (London: Longmans Green, 1899), p. 5. Henceforth r e f e r r e d to as L i f e and documented i n t e r n a l l y .  (Nov.  *° P. G. S c o t t , "Tennyson and Clough," 1969), 68. H I  The E d u c a t i o n of Henry Adams, p.  Tennyson Research  Bulletin, 1 ~~"  215.  o  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt, P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m and The Brotherhood, 2 v o l s . (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1905), 2, p.  Pre-Raphaelite 214.  '36 13  The E d u c a t i o n of Henry Adams, p. 215.  ^ E v e l y n Abbott and Lewis Campbell, The L i f e and L e t t e r s o f Benjamin Jowett, M. A., Master of B a l l i o l C o l l e g e , O x f o r d , 2 v o l s . John Murray, 1897), 1, p. 126. 1  (London:  5  H. W. C a r l e s s D a v i s , e t a l . , A H i s t o r y of B a l l i o l C o l l e g e , ed. (1899; r p t . Oxford: B l a c k w e l l , 1963), p. 188.  2nd.  1 6  16 J u l y [1848], L e t t e r 181, The Correspondence of A r t h u r Hugh Clough, ed F r e d e r i c k L. Mulhauser, 2 v o l s . (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), 1, p. 216. Note: c o n t r a c t i o n s i n q u o t a t i o n s such as t h i s have been s i l e n t l y expanded. ^ K a t h a r i n e C h o r l e y , A r t h u r Hugh Clough: the Uncommitted (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n , 1962), pp. 143-4. 1  Mind  Q  Robindra Biswas, A r t h u r Hugh Clough: Towards a R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), p. 195. 1 9  F r e d e r i c k Temple to A r t h u r Hugh Clough, 10 May The Correspondence of A r t h u r Hugh Clough, 2, p. 364. 2  MS.  1853, L e t t e r  0  C h a r l e s A l d e r s o n , l e t t e r to F. T. P a l g r a v e , 20 J u l y 1857, 45741, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , London.  364,  Add.  21 Diana Holman-Hunt, My G r a n d f a t h e r , His Wives and Loves (London: Hamish H a m i l t o n , 1969), pp. 211-2. 22 August 1860, quoted i n C h a r l e s Tennyson, A l f r e d Tennyson (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1949), p. 327. 2 3  A l f r e d Tennyson, p. 327. 23 December 1868, L e t t e r 6074, Tennyson Research C e n t r e , L i n c o l n ,  England. 25 See John 0. W a l l e r , " F r a n c i s Turner P a l g r a v e ' s C r i t i c i s m s of Tennyson's In Memoriam," V i c t o r i a n N e w s l e t t e r , 52 ( F a l l 1977), 13-17, and Marion Shaw, " P a l g r a v e ' s In Memoriam," V i c t o r i a n P o e t r y , 18 ( F a l l 1980), 199-201. Robert M a r t i n , Tennyson: the Unquiet Heart ( O x f o r d : Clarendon, 1980), p . 583. 2  7  P h i l i p L. E l l i o t t , The Making of the Memoir ( G r e e n v i l l e , C a r o l i n a : p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d , 1978), p. 18.  South  37  CHAPTER TWO:  PALGRAVE AS  CRITIC  I t would be absurd t o p l a c e him b e s i d e Matthew A r n o l d — t o whose g e n i u s , to whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c accomplishments, to whose a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e , he had no p r e t e n s i o n . And yet i t may be questioned whether, a f t e r A r n o l d , any o t h e r c r i t i c of our time c o n t r i b u t e d so much to educate p u b l i c t a s t e where, i n t h i s c o u n t r y , i t most needs such e d u c a t i o n . I f , as a nurse of poets and i n p o e t i c achievement, England stands second t o no n a t i o n i n Europe, i n no n a t i o n i n the world has the standard of popular t a s t e been so low, has the i n s e n s i b i l i t y to what i s e x c e l l e n t , and the p e r v e r s e p r e f e r e n c e of what i s mediocre to what i s of the f i r s t o r d e r , been so s i g n a l l y , so d e p l o r a b l y , c o n s p i c u o u s . *  i:  Introduction  L i k e a number of h i s V i c t o r i a n contemporaries, R o s s e t t i and Walter P a t e r , P a l g r a v e was fine arts.  to the emerging g e n e r a l audience  s t a t e e d u c a t i o n system had  his  or no c r i t i c a l  helped t o c r e a t e .  t r a i n i n g and almost  commentaries tend t o be narrowly  didactic. poets and  of both l i t e r a t u r e and  the  From the l a t e f o r t i e s onward, he wrote a r t i c l e s and gave p u b l i c  l e c t u r e s addressed  little  a critic  such as W i l l i a m M i c h a e l  Notwithstanding  which h i s work i n the  Because t h i s audience  no exposure to a r t and  literature,  f o c u s s e d , r e p e t i t i v e , and h i g h l y  P a l g r a v e ' s l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h many of the best  l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h i s c r i t i c a l  i s d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from the f i n e a r t s .  Unlike his c r i t i c a l  p o e t r y , which depend too e x c l u s i v e l y on unsupported a s s e r t i o n s about poets and  had  vocabulary  articles  on  impressionistic  h i s t o r i c a l eras, with i n s u f f i c i e n t  r e f e r e n c e s to  p a r t i c u l a r poems or i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s , h i s w r i t i n g s on p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , and  a r c h i t e c t u r e are informed  d i s c u s s i o n s b u t t r e s s e d by ample documentation.  As a r e s u l t , h i s a r t c r i t i c i s m i s i n v a r i a b l y s u p e r i o r to h i s l i t e r a r y  38  c r i t i c i s m , which i s too dependent on a l l u s i o n s to and art  and  p o e t r y of a n c i e n t Greece.  s c u l p t u r e and  comparisons w i t h  the  Although Palgrave c l e a r l y l o v e d Greek  p o e t r y , i n which he was  h i g h l y versed, regarding  classical  works as the g r e a t e s t achievements of a r t and l i t e r a t u r e , the examples p r o v i d e s as c r i t i c  he  are o f t e n too vague to support h i s g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s , which  r e v e a l more about h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the f a u l t s of modern a r t than they about h i s understanding The obscures  of the  Greeks.  l a c k of s p e c i f i c i t y i n h i s c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s on a r t and even the l i m i t e d s e t of c r i t i c a l  e x p l a i n e d , and,  except  Palgrave's  persistent  i n comparison to the  repeated  can o n l y  classics.  r e f e r e n c e s to the u n i t y , s i m p l i c i t y , and t h a t E n g l i s h a r t and  c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t h i s aim  o b j e c t i v i t y of  p o e t r y should emulate  to make a r t and  more widely a c c e s s i b l e , and w h i l e t h i s commitment may his  really  of works i n which these p r o p e r t i e s are  or d e f i c i e n t  Greek p o e t r y , and h i s i n s i s t e n c e these v i r t u e s , almost  " p r o p r i e t y " are never  f o r " f i n i s h , " most of h i s d e f i n i t i o n s  be d e r i v e d n e g a t i v e l y from h i s reviews e i t h e r , i n h i s view, absent  literature  terms he employs to i n d i c a t e h i s  a p p r o v a l of works i n the f i n e a r t s : " u n i t y " and fully  do  literature  appear to c o n t r a d i c t  d i s a p p r o v a l of d i d a c t i c i s m among a r t i s t s , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  c e n t r a l to a l l h i s c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s . Most of P a l g r a v e ' s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses as a c r i t i c were by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . he l e f t Oxford  His r i g i d  a p p l i c a t i o n of c r i t e r i a  l e d W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i to complain  identified  formed by the  time  that  Mr. P a l g r a v e remains somewhat too much of a Greek when he passes to the contemplation of other c y c l e s and developments of a r t ; and t h a t , not e n t e r i n g i n t o the motives of these phases of a r t with q u i t e the same a s s i m i l a t i v e thoroughness which he commands when the Greek a r t i s i n q u e s t i o n , he i s too anxious to f i n d i n them a  39  c e r t a i n s o r t of f i n i s h , of which a k i n d of i d e a l or echo abides i n h i s mind from the models o f G r e c i a n p e r f e c t i o n , but which does n o t , and h a r d l y can, assume a l i k e shape i n modern a r t . Hence Mr. Palgrave appears to have a somewhat e x c e s s i v e c r a v i n g f o r " f i n i s h " i n work of our own d a y — f o r a c e r t a i n completeness of e x e c u t i o n which, were modern a r t as harmonious a concrete as the Greek, would r i g h t l y be demandable, and would indeed c o n s t i t u t e the o u t e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n of i t s harmony, but which i s not e q u a l l y i n t r i n s i c to the i d e a of modern a r t , and may be i n s i s t e d upon by the c r i t i c beyond the expedient p o i n t . F o l l o w i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Golden T r e a s u r y , Palgrave found a market f o r the promulgation  of h i s c r i t i c a l  i d e a s , and  his  i n s i s t e n c e on the use of simple language,  and  the s u p e r i o r i t y of the s h o r t poem have s i n c e found  ready  some of these, such as  the f u s i o n of form and  But h i s i n f l u e n c e d e r i v e d p r i n c i p a l l y , i n d i r e c t l y , from  popular  content,  acceptance.  the Golden T r e a s u r y  itself. As a c r i t i c , P a l g r a v e was those who  d i s a g r e e d with him  best known f o r h i s v i o l e n t d e n u n c i a t i o n s of  or who  a b s o l u t e l y to h i s narrow c r i t i c a l partly reflects  the c r i t i c a l  development as a c r i t i c and  produced  principles.  works which d i d not Although  conform  h i s vehement  style  c l i m a t e i n which he wrote, i t impeded h i s even provoked  an a t t a c k by Matthew A r n o l d i n  "The  L i t e r a r y I n f l u e n c e of Academies": Thus i n the famous Handbook, marks of a f i n e power of p e r c e p t i o n are everywhere d i s c e r n i b l e , but so, too, are marks of the want of sure b a l a n c e , of the check and support a f f o r d e d by knowing one speaks b e f o r e good and severe j u d g e s . . . . Mr. P a l g r a v e , on the o t h e r hand, f e e l s h i m s e l f to be speaking before a promiscuous m u l t i t u d e , with the few judges so s c a t t e r e d through i t as to be powerless; t h e r e f o r e , he has no calm c o n f i d e n c e and no s e l f - c o n t r o l ; he r e l i e s on the s t r e n g t h of h i s l u n g s ; he knows t h a t b i g words impose on the mob, and t h a t , even i f he i s outrageous, most of h i s audience are a p t to be a g r e a t d e a l more s o . 3  The  salient  l i m i t a t i o n o f P a l g r a v e ' s c r i t i c i s m , however, i s h i s repeated  a s s e r t i o n t h a t there are "immutable laws of a r t " which a l l a r t i s t s  and  40  c r i t i c s must acknowledge, a view which he a r t i c u l a t e s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n Essays on  to  Art: The main o b j e c t of the book i s , by examples taken c h i e f l y from the works of contemporaries, to i l l u s t r a t e the t r u t h s , that a r t has f i x e d p r i n c i p l e s , of which any one may a t t a i n the knowledge who i s not wanting i n n a t u r a l t a s t e , and that t h i s knowledge adds g r e a t l y to our p l e a s u r e , by g i v i n g i t depth, permanence, and intelligibility. (2.15, v - v i )  In h i s w r i t i n g s , he makes constant r e f e r e n c e fact,  they are at best  of the  ideal traits  article  "On  the  eccentric generalisations  possessed by  His most e x p l i c i t  to such a set of laws, when, i n  attempt  the  based on h i s own  perceptions  Greeks.  to d e f i n e  these t r a i t s  i s contained  S c i e n t i f i c Study o f P o e t r y , " i n which he  argues  in his  that  i n the Greek p o e t r y , the words come nearer to the thought than i n any o t h e r ; the d r e s s or e x p r e s s i o n i s a more simple and a more f a i t h f u l r e n d e r i n g of the s o u l ; the form and the matter are i n a c l o s e r and more v i t a l u n i o n . You w i l l recognise at once that these c o n d i t i o n s c r e a t e a more p e r f e c t work of a r t . Hence, i r r e s p e c t i v e of i t s s i n g u l a r charm and power, the Greek p o e t r y , not i n i t s e x t e r n a l s nor as a mode f o r c o p y i s t s , but i n i t s f u l f i l m e n t of the immutable laws of a r t , i s i n v a l u a b l e as a study f o r those who would use a modern language to i t s f u l l e s t e x t e n t . And, as a n a t u r a l consequence, i t i s worth remarking t h a t , with h a r d l y one c l e a r e x c e p t i o n , no E n g l i s h w r i t e r , but those who have been acquainted w i t h Greek l i t e r a t u r e , out of the hundreds who have attempted p o e t r y , have succeeded i n i t . (4.12, 172) "Unity" tenet.  i s thus the  I t i s the  T r e a s u r y , and, editorial  first  of these laws, and  c e n t r a l g u i d e l i n e he  i t i s Palgrave's  adopted i n compiling  the  basic  Golden  i n i t s name, Palgrave made h i s most c o n t r o v e r s i a l and  excisions.  In the T r e a s u r y , he d e f i n e s  the l y r i c  sweeping  i n terms of  u n i t y of s u b j e c t m a t t e r — " s o m e s i n g l e thought, f e e l i n g , or s i t u a t i o n " d e f i n i t i o n which i l l u m i n a t e s h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r the  short  likely  narrative.  to d e a l with a s i n g l e i d e a  than i s a lengthy  (ix)—a  poem, which i s more In  the  41  d e f i n i t i o n quoted above, however, Palgrave extends the meaning of " u n i t y " t o include  "words," "metre," and " s t y l e " ; and i t a l s o encompasses other  from h i s c r i t i c a l v o c a b u l a r y : " s i m p l i c i t y , " "moderation." the  "clearness,"  What P a l g r a v e means by u n i t y i s best  elements  "conciseness,"  and  expressed n e g a t i v e l y as  absence of extremes: no obscure or ornate language, no "commonplaces" o r  c l i c h e s of language or s i t u a t i o n s , and no c o m p l e x i t i e s  o f form or c o n t e n t .  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s supported by a l a t e r d e f i n i t i o n of u n i t y i n one of h i s Oxford l e c t u r e s where he d i s c u s s e s  the i n f l u e n c e of the f i n e a r t s on p o e t r y :  I t i s through U n i t y and Beauty that the s e v e r i t y , s i m p l i c i t y , repose, s e l f - r e s t r a i n t , which are t h e i r t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r s , f i n d t h e i r s p i r i t u a l and emotional e x p r e s s i o n . And t h i s beauty w i l l , n e c e s s a r i l y , at once be of the most impressive and the most inward n a t u r e : the most r e s e r v e d , and hence the most permanently powerful. (4.18, 360) U n i t y here means that  the a r t i s t must r e f u s e  r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , and i t i n c o r p o r a t e s  to "decorate"  poetry  with  i n l a r g e measure the essence of h i s  second term, " p r o p r i e t y . " Borrowed from s c u l p t u r e  c r i t i c i s m , "propriety" describes  an a r t i s t ' s  mastery of the t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s of h i s a r t , which enables him to s u s t a i n not o n l y mastery over the m y s t e r i e s of curve and plane, t r u t h f u l n e s s i n s u r f a c e , and the s p e c i a l a d a p t a t i o n s or c o n v e n t i o n a l i t i e s which separate s c u l p t u r e from the a r t s of d e s i g n , but a l s o the sense o f beauty i n g e n e r a l o u t l i n e , of l i g h t and shade i n mass, and a l l that belongs to s c u l p t u r a l p r o p r i e t y . (2.15, 296) It i s a l s o an immutable law t h a t , inasmuch as the p a i n t e r ' s m a t e r i a l s , however admirably handled, w i l l never reach the e x p r e s s i o n of the face or i t s c o l o u r or t e x t u r e , i n t h e i r a c t u a l i n t e n s i t y , we l e a r n that a nearer i m i t a t i o n of s u b o r d i n a t e m a t t e r s , as of d r e s s , or f u r , or s m a l l implements, i s an e r r o r which throws the whole p i c t u r e , so to speak, out of s c a l e . (3.37, 174)  42  Therefore, the central figure deserves closer and more careful painting than the background.  In less technical terms, "propriety" refers also to a  general sense of balance i n sculpture and poetry, which Palgrave defines as one of the admirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Greek a r t , which, from i t s singular balance and perfection i n a l l the essentials of excellence may always a s s i s t us greatly i n learning how to judge, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful from the marvellous observance of propriety i n every work, whether i n i t s wholeness or i n i t s d e t a i l s . And the lesson i t teaches thus i s of peculiar value, because propriety i s the same i n a l l ages, and applies as much to Gothic or modern art as to that of ancient Athens. It i s an essential touchstone of goodness and of the a r t i s t ' s right comprehension of his work; and the constant reference to i t as a law i s of more use than any other test of judging i n architecture. (3.37, 174-5) This quotation also makes clear his concern with the whole form rather than with i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l s or, i n poetry, purple passages, highlighted at the expense of overall unity.  Such a lack of propriety he finds p a r t i c u l a r l y  evident i n the modern decorative a r t s : Turn now to modern decorative art i n this sphere. We find at once that these simple p r i n c i p l e s of propriety have disappeared. So f a r from that adherence to form as the f i r s t law...it i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a form, beautiful i n i t s e l f , i n any eminent or exquisite degree, among the thousands of costly vases produced by Chelsea or Sevres, Dresden or Vienna. On the contrary, the ambition of the makers seems always to have been to produce, not new forms of appropriate beauty, but new forms anyhow, and at any price. (3.38, 441) Closely linked with "propriety" i s another term from the fine a r t s , " f i n i s h , " which Palgrave uses i n both his art and his l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . Technically, " f i n i s h " refers to the f i n a l , careful polishing which a sculptor must give his work, and Palgrave finds i t lacking i n both English art and poetry, e s p e c i a l l y i n the contemporary poets' i n a b i l i t y to balance "matter"  43  and  "workmanship," as i n the p o e t r y of Clough, which he f i n d s wanting i n a r t ; t h e language and the thought are o f t e n unequal and i n c o m p l e t e ; the p o e t i c a l f u s i o n i n t o a harmonious whole, imperfect. Here, and i n h i s other w r i t i n g s , one f e e l s a doubt whether i n v e r s e he chose the r i g h t v e h i c l e , the t r u l y n a t u r a l mode of u t t e r a n c e . H i s p o e t r y , i n a word, belongs to that uncommon c l a s s i n which the matter everywhere f a r outruns the workmanship. (4.6, 530) In h i s a r t c r i t i c i s m , P a l g r a v e a p p l i e s the term most o f t e n  as a q u a l i t y  too o f t e n m i s s i n g i n E n g l i s h s c u l p t u r e .  Thackeray i n Westminster Abbey, f o r example, A l l i n the other l i k e as we have because he  Of M a r o c h e t t i ' s bust o f  he s a y s ,  bust are smooth, rounded s u r f a c e s , which f o l l o w each the waves i n a bad s e a - p i e c e . This i s j u s t the q u a l i t y , s a i d , of an amateur's work; he suppresses and smooths cannot model and f i n i s h . (3.35, 759)  Palgrave complains that what he c a l l s lost  negatively,  "working the marble" i s an a r t almost  i n England: Very few, we b e l i e v e , s i n c e the f l i m s y manufacturing system was e s t a b l i s h e d by Chantrey, have been thorough masters i n f i n i s h i n g the marble. Some well-known a r t i s t s h a r d l y even attempt i t . No f i r s t - r a t e s c u l p t u r e i s , however, to be had without i t . I t was the touch of P h i d i a s which gave the true and consummate e x p r e s s i o n of the d e s i g n of P h i d i a s . (3.18, 136)  Palgrave's contemporaries found h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h f i n i s h a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n of h i s c r i t i c i s m . Palgrave's f a i l u r e  F o r example,  to acknowledge  the f a c t  William Michael Rossetti that "the Greek f i n i s h ,  cited so s u b t l e  and e l u s i v e i s i t , may almost be regarded as one of the animating and informing p r i n c i p l e s executive  of that form of a r t , r a t h e r than as a d i s t i n c t l y  quality."^  P a l g r a v e ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to f o r c e  " f i n i s h " on E n g l i s h p o e t r y i s  r e f l e c t e d i n the unscrupulous e x c i s i o n s he made i n many of the poems which he anthologised  i n the Golden T r e a s u r y .  The e x t r a c t from M a r v e l l ' s "The Nymph  Complaining of the Death of her p r i n t e d without any h i s note on the  Fawn" i n the  acknowledgment that  poem can  be  construed  third  e d i t i o n , f o r example, i s  the poem i s not  as b o r d e r i n g  on  complete, and  indeed,  deception:  Perhaps no poem i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s more d e l i c a t e l y f a n c i e d , more e x q u i s i t e l y f i n i s h e d . . . . The poet's i m a g i n a t i o n i s j u s t i f i e d i n i t s seeming extravagance by the i n t e n s i t y and u n i t y with which i t invests i t s picture. (425) Only by c o n s c i o u s l y artist  striving  f o r s i m p l i c i t y and  a c h i e v e u n i t y , p r o p r i e t y , and  finish.  c o n c e i t s and  T r e a s u r y by  the v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n of M e t a p h y s i c a l  led  the o b s c u r i t y and  the  P a l g r a v e opposed the use  "far-sought  that  a l l u s i o n s " (4.5,  o b j e c t i v i t y can  449),  a bias mirrored poetry  " f r o s t w o r k i n g e n u i t i e s " (4.5,  456)  i n the  i n Book I I .  of Golden He  felt  of poets l i k e Donne  to a " l o s s of power more than equal to the g a i n i n grace or v i v a c i t y "  (4.5,  444),  but  there  i s a l s o a moral i s s u e  involved:  what are c a l l e d c o n c e i t s or f a n c i e s became so engrossing as to have p r a c t i c a l l y ruined the works of many men of true g e n i u s ; Cowley perhaps being the most d i s t i n g u i s h e d example. Now the poetry o f Donne and of Herbert i s i t s e l f thoroughly pervaded by these f o r c e d , o v e r - i n g e n i o u s turns of thought and language. (4.24, 193) When he does i n c l u d e a M e t a p h y s i c a l "Wishes f o r the  (Supposed) M i s t r e s s , " f o r e x a m p l e — h e cuts i t so savagely  bring i t "within conceits  the l i m i t s of l y r i c a l u n i t y " (309)  that the  to c o n v e n t i o n a l a l l e g o r y and  work i n the Golden T r e a s u r y — C r a s h a w ' s  poem i s almost u n r e c o g n i s a b l e .  language extends beyond c o n c e i t s  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , and  and  But  to  to remove i t s  Palgrave's  opposition  to such p o e t i c techniques as  to forms such as  labels  " i n h e r e n t l y f e e b l e " because i t i s , as i n the  of the  Rose,  the p a s t o r a l .  Allegory  he  case of Chaucer's Romaunt  45  a vehicle so e l a s t i c that anything may be poured into i t ; and i n the Middle Ages the fine sense of poetical form and poetical unity, i n which the great writers of Greece and Rome are supreme, had l i t t l e existence. (4.22, 344) Personification, i n such poems as Drayton's "Polyalbion," he condemns i n his a r t i c l e on "The Growth of English Poetry": whilst c i t i e s and v i l l a g e s are f a i n t l y traceable on the vast canvas, every brook and r i v e r between Hayle and Eden i s made the subject of awkward p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , and county contends with county, mountain with mountain, l i k e the monstrous struggles of the Indian mythology, through t h i r t y tedious cantos. (4.5,447) In the same a r t i c l e he also rejects the pastoral, a dismissal c l o s e l y related to his view of landscape discussed i n Chapter Four on the Golden Treasury, as creating a "mirage" (4.5, 446)  and replacing the natural description he  admired i n Wordsworth's poetry with t i r e d conventions. Just as the Pre-Raphaelites,  i n Palgrave's view, provided a healthy  reaction against worn-out conventions i n painting, so the non-Metaphysical seventeenth-century poets, led by Dryden, provided a welcome revolution i n English poetry after the "prodigal power" of the Elizabethan poets, of whom he says that i t was their defect that, l i v i n g i n an inexperienced age, they were not only unable to discover i n a l l cases the f i t form and s t y l e for each subject, but that—hampered by models not f u l l y understood, and led away by f a l s e foreign l i g h t s and the desire to display ingenuity and l e a r n i n g — t h e y f e l l into the graver f a u l t s of conceit in expression and caprice of thought; that they were unable f u l l y to break i n the language to poetry, and are hence f u l l of obscurity; l a s t l y , that their own prodigal power led them to neglect that f i n e f i n i s h and perfection of work which, l i k e the polish on marble, at once sets off and gives duration to A r t . (4.7, 151) Guilty of "obscurity" and the "neglect" of " f i n e f i n i s h , " the Elizabethans—even  Shakespeare, of whom Palgrave says, "no one can be simpler  when he chooses; the only regret l e f t , i s that he has not oftener preferred  46  simplicity"  (4.20, 2 1 2 ) — a r e  their prodigality. critical  condemned because they are unable  to r e i n i n  However, the Golden Treasury does not r e f l e c t  Palgrave's  p r e f e r e n c e f o r Dryden's works over those of the E l i z a b e t h a n s .  P a l g r a v e p r a i s e s Dryden and h i s f o l l o w e r s f o r t h e i r success i n being able To g i v e c l e a r n e s s to language and p l a i n n e s s to thought; to i n s i s t on the v a s t importance of Form and of F i n i s h ; to b r i n g down p o e t r y , as S o c r a t e s was s a i d to have attempted f o r p h i l o s o p h y , from heaven to e a r t h ; to make her capable of r e p r e s e n t i n g not o n l y common l i f e , but a l s o the i n t e r e s t s of the day i n s c i e n c e , and s p e c u l a t i o n , and p o l i t i c s ; to t r y what moderation and subdued c o l o u r might do f o r t h i s a r t , as the former age what c o u l d be e f f e c t e d by glow and enthusiasm: t h i s was t h e i r v o c a t i o n . . . . So f a r from being a g a i n s t the s p i r i t of p o e t r y , the q u a l i t i e s which they sought to i n t r o d u c e had d i s t i n g u i s h e d almost a l l g r e a t w r i t e r s . (4.7, 151-2) P a l g r a v e l a t e r found  i n the E l i z a b e t h a n m a d r i g a l p o e t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Thomas  Campion, p l a i n e r language and more r e s t r a i n e d imagery, but not widely known or r e p r i n t e d  i n 1861,  e d i t i o n s of the Treasury t h a t he was  and  i t was  the m a d r i g a l s  were  o n l y i n the expanded  a b l e to i n c l u d e more than twenty  such  lyrics. Related borrowing  to P a l g r a v e ' s d i s t a s t e f o r o b s c u r i t y i s h i s d i s a p p r o v a l of what,  from  the terminology of the f i n e a r t s a g a i n , he r e f e r s  "mannerism," where "the f e e l i n g of n o v e l t y i n the w o r d — i . e .  the manner of  speech  or e x p r e s s i o n u s e d — a p p e a r s more prominent and impresses  deeply  than i t s f o r c e or s i g n i f i c a n c e . " ^  r e s e r v a t i o n s about Tennyson's use of language are obvious to a copy of the f i r s t  Tennyson Research  Centre.  the mind more  His use of the term becomes  c l e a r e r i n h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of i t to the work of Tennyson.  annotations  to as  Palgrave's s e r i o u s i n h i s copious  e d i t i o n o f In Memoriam p r e s e r v e d i n the  In h i s n o t e s , he c o n s i s t e n t l y draws Tennyson's  a t t e n t i o n to words which he argues  the poet uses i n a " p e c u l i a r " way,  giving  47  them a p r i v a t e or p e r s o n a l  significance:  The main words, a c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t y i n the use of which does not appear to me a l t o g e t h e r counterbalanced by t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s — a n d which may hence be considered m a n n e r i s m s — a r e ' l a r g e , ' ' s k i r t , ' 'quick,' 'the v a s t , t o 'sphere, 'orb,' ' r o u n d , ' a l l mathematical or a s t r o n o m i c a l . ( W a l l e r , p. 17) 1  Simplicity  1  i n d i c t i o n , then, i s one of the major components of a u n i f i e d  poem, and P a l g r a v e l i s t s  i tfirst  i n one of h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s  of the c h i e f  m e r i t s o f Greek p o e t r y : What are the f i r s t or s a l i e n t q u a l i t i e s of the Greek, and, above a l l , of the Athenian poetry? S i m p l i c i t y and e x q u i s i t e n e s s i n the use of words, v a r i e t y and beauty i n metre, c l e a r n e s s of s t y l e , c o n c i s e n e s s i n p h r a s e , moderation i n c o l o u r , avoidance o f commonplace, c l o s e and v i t a l i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of the scene d e s c r i b e d or the i l l u s t r a t i o n s employed with the sentiments of the p o e t — i n one word, p o e t i c a l u n i t y . (4.10, 303) But  achieving  that  " c l o s e i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of the scene...and the sentiments"  also requires o b j e c t i v i t y . P a l g r a v e argued f o r a change i n the s u b j e c t p o e t r y , and he f e l t  strongly  English history—should subject  that  matter of E n g l i s h a r t and  two s u b j e c t s — l a n d s c a p e and i n c i d e n t s  take a c e n t r a l p l a c e .  from  In h i s view, such a change i n  matter would improve both a r t and p o e t r y by making them l e s s  "subjective."  Central  to P a l g r a v e ' s c r i t i c i s m i s the concept of the  s u p e r i o r i t y of " o b j e c t i v e " p o e t r y , which he admits borrowing from Goethe,*' whom he quotes i n h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y  l e c t u r e as P r o f e s s o r  o f Poetry  thus:  A l l eras i n a s t a t e of d e c l i n e and d i s s o l u t i o n are s u b j e c t i v e ; on the other hand, a l l p r o g r e s s i v e eras have an o b j e c t i v e tendency. Our present time i s r e t r o g r a d e , f o r i t i s s u b j e c t i v e ; we see t h i s not merely i n p o e t r y , but a l s o i n p a i n t i n g and much b e s i d e s . Every h e a l t h y e f f o r t , on the c o n t r a r y , i s d i r e c t e d from the inward to the outward w o r l d , as you w i l l see i n a l l great e r a s , which have been i n a s t a t e of p r o g r e s s i o n , and a l l of an o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e . (4.15, 344-5)  48  Both Browning and A r n o l d had but Palgrave  s e r i o u s r e s e r v a t i o n s about s u b j e c t i v e  condemned " s u b j e c t i v i t y " out  an anodyne to what he p e r c e i v e d English  sharply c r i t i c i s e d  "personal p a s s i o n "  o f the c a r d i n a l shortcomings o f  the s e n t i m e n t a l i s m  c r e a t e d by outpourings o f  i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y , both i n h i s own age  and  i n the  past,  he hoped to promote a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t o v e r l y " s u b j e c t i v e " works by  proposing who  of hand, p r a i s i n g " o b j e c t i v i t y " a s  poetry.  Palgrave  and  as one  poetry,  impersonal  eschewed any  m o r a l i t y and  topics.  expression  He found i n W i l l i a m Barnes, the Dorset of p e r s o n a l emotion and  s o c i a l commentary, a model worth  poet,  a l l r e f e r e n c e s to  emulating:  In a " s u b j e c t i v e age," as Goethe d e s c r i b e d i t s i x t y years s i n c e , Barnes has been o b s t i n a t e i n h i s o b j e c t i v i t y . He i s i n d i f f e r e n t t o c o l o u r e d d i c t i o n , t o sensuous metaphor, to a l l u s i o n s and ornaments added f o r d e c o r a t i o n ' s sake. P o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , e t h i c s , are o n l y implied. He avoids a l l d i s p l a y o f p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g , a l l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s c o n f e s s i o n , a l l inward c o n f l i c t , and, keeping h i s eye always on h i s s u b j e c t , l e a v e s the reader to be moved or not by i t s simple p r e s e n t a t i o n . (4.17, 838) The major p o e t i c form t h a t best conforms t o Palgrave's p r e s c r i p t i v e standards  f o r poetry  i s the b a l l a d , and  the b a l l a d form, both t r a d i t i o n a l and  the Golden T r e a s u r y  Romantic.  But  he a l s o found  of h i s i d e a l s i n Wordsworth's s h o r t e r d e s c r i p t i v e poems. says, poetry  i s dominated by examples  In such works, he  returns to  her true n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n o f t r a n s l a t i n g ideas and f e e l i n g s i n t o s e n s i b l e images; when, i n the o l d - f a s h i o n e d phrase, she works as an i m i t a t i v e a r t , r e a l i z i n g thus and embodying i n l i v i n g words the s u b j e c t or i d e a g i v e n to the Maker's mind by the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n — p u t t i n g t h i n g s before us o b j e c t i v e l y : when, i n s h o r t , P o e t r y i s most at home, most h e r s e l f . (4.18, 354)  Applying  similar principles  Pre-Raphaelites;  i t was  paintings i l l u s t r a t i n g Keats—and him  praised  the  as much t h e i r choice of new s u b j e c t s — e s p e c i a l l y scenes from Shakespeare's p l a y s and  their interest  to support  to a r t , Palgrave  them d u r i n g  i n landscape the  the p o e t r y  as t h e i r p a i n t i n g techniques  of that l e d  sixties:  The f o u r or f i v e men of genius whose doings began to c r e a t e such a s t i r f i f t e e n years ago s e t out, as genius must e t e r n a l l y do, w i t h an e n e r g e t i c p r o t e s t a g a i n s t c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y . The " r e s p e c t a b l e sham," as the g r e a t b e l l i g e r e n t of the day i n t h i s warfare might have c a l l e d i t , which the young a r t i s t s f i r s t encountered was that c a r e l e s s s t y l e of working and that commonplace s e l e c t i o n of i n c i d e n t which had become r a t h e r prominent i n the E n g l i s h s c h o o l . Art i s always, and i n a l l c o u n t r i e s , apt to get away from Nature, and to t r y to persuade h e r s e l f that the comparatively f a c i l e a r t i f i c e s of the s t u d i o — f a l s e l i g h t s , and t h e a t r i c a l a t t i t u d e s , and showy c o l o u r , and g e n e r a l i s e d d e t a i l s , — a r e her l e g i t i m a t e methods. (3.26, 750) Because they  r e b e l l e d against  t r a d i t i o n a l views of a r t , he was  forgiving  even  when he d i d p e r c e i v e shortcomings, as i n the case of Ford Madox Brown: In the v i g o u r and success of h i s p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the f a l s e l i g h t and f a l s e c o l o u r i n g , the f a c i l e sentimentalisms and c o n v e n t i o n a l i t i e s , to which weaker men are compelled to have r e s o r t , a b r i e f l a p s e i n t o c r u d i t y and q u a i n t n e s s , an o c c a s i o n a l want of ease and of charm, may be here and there remarked, and forgiven. (3.30, 346) The  intense concentration  of a p a i n t i n g l i k e Palgrave  on d e t a i l and  c a r e f u l f i n i s h which i s the  strength  Brown's Work,', i s so t y p i c a l of the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s  elsewhere r e l u c t a n t l y p r o t e s t s that another P r e - R a p h a e l i t e ,  Holman Hunt, puts too much e f f o r t  and  that William  care i n t o h i s p a i n t i n g s :  there has been an a i r of almost too strenuous and p e r f e c t e l a b o r a t i o n about some of h i s g r e a t e s t p i c t u r e s . I t i s true t h a t the f i n i s h was never what the i g n o r a n t supposed i t , photographic or m i c r o s c o p i c i n i t s c h a r a c t e r , and that every added i n c i d e n t and touch i n c r e a s e d the t o t a l e f f e c t through the i m a g i n a t i v e i n t e n s i t y of the p a i n t e r ' s mind; yet we have wished that he would not always c o n c e n t r a t e so much on a s i n g l e canvas, but g i v e the r e i n s more  f r a n k l y to h i s i n v e n t i o n , and employ h i s f o r c e of i d e a and h i s mastery over a r t on more numerous, i f l e s s h i g h l y wrought, productions. (3.26, 751) P a l g r a v e ' s c r i t i c i s m i s unashamedly d i d a c t i c . the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , he found l i t t l e  However much he admired  to p r a i s e i n most of the a r t and p o e t r y  of h i s own age.  But the p a s s i o n w i t h which he a t t a c k e d what he regarded as  the shortcomings  of contemporary  poets and a r t i s t s was based on two l i f e l o n g  c o n v i c t i o n s , one a e s t h e t i c , the o t h e r s o c i a l w i t h moral o v e r t o n e s : f i r s t , that the v i s u a l and l i t e r a r y a r t s are c e n t r a l second, that the attempts  to improve  to a n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r e ; and,  the populace of England  through  e d u c a t i o n depended not o n l y on s c h o o l s b u t , e q u a l l y , on making p o e t r y and a r t a c c e s s i b l e to the widest p o s s i b l e audience.  To t h i s end, P a l g r a v e f e l t  i t was i m p e r a t i v e that a r t i s t s and poets adopt compatible w i t h the p r e s c r i p t i o n s o u t l i n e d p r i n c i p l e s he advances too vaguely grounded  s u b j e c t s and techniques  i n his criticism.  are too narrow i n scope, too r i g i d  i n naive assumptions  critics  I f the  i n application, or  about the v a l u e s of H e l l e n i c  models, h i s motives were, a t l e a s t , u n a s s a i l a b l e . not f i n d  that  Palgrave's d i d a c t i c i s m may  ready adherents today, but i t was shared by many of the l e a d i n g and a e s t h e t i c i a n s of the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d who were i n t e n t on imposing  t h e i r own reforms on a r t and l i t e r a t u r e .  H i s p a r t i c u l a r v i s i o n of a r t  b o r d e r s , to some degree, on the s p i r i t u a l ,  i n i t s assumptions  elevated role  about the  that the a r t s should p l a y i n the molding of p e r s o n a l and  n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , and i n t h i s view he i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a man of h i s age.  H i s 1886  i n a u g u r a l l e c t u r e as Oxford P r o f e s s o r of P o e t r y p r o v i d e s h i s  most u n e q u i v o c a l statement  on the r o l e of p o e t r y , which he saw as "a high and  h o l y A r t , as a motive power over m e n — i n o p p o s i t i o n to the sentiment  which  51  regards i t as the c r e a t i o n and the r e c r e a t i o n of an i d l e d a y , — a s a mere source of t r a n s i e n t or sensuous p l e a s u r e " (4.15, 333).  He would have  a s s i g n e d a no l e s s noble p o s i t i o n to p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , and a r c h i t e c t u r e .  ii:  Palgrave's f i r s t  Art C r i t i c i s m  l o v e was not p o e t r y but the f i n e a r t s , and from  c h i l d h o o d he had pored over engravings Even a f t e r efforts  the unexpected  and p r i v a t e l y s t u d i e d a r c h i t e c t u r e .  success of the Golden Treasury r e d i r e c t e d h i s  i n t o l i t e r a t u r e , he continued f o r s e v e r a l years to w r i t e a c t i v e l y  about the f i n e a r t s , and when he was P r o f e s s o r o f Poetry a t Oxford, a f t e r he had ceased  years  s e r i o u s p u b l i s h i n g on a r t , one of h i s best-known l e c t u r e  s e r i e s was on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o e t r y to the f i n e a r t s .  Indeed, h i s f i n a l  s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1897, was Landscape i n P o e t r y from Homer t o Tennyson. Palgrave's i n t e r e s t  i n the f i n e a r t s began e a r l y , i n the summers of h i s  c h i l d h o o d spent i n h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s house behind Yarmouth.  the f a m i l y bank i n Great  Dawson Turner was a well-known and wealthy  a c q u i s i t i o n s i n c l u d e d a T i t i a n , a Rubens, a B e l l i n i , John Crome, who had t u t o r e d the Turner  daughters  had a l a r g e number of r a r e and expensive  c o l l e c t o r whose and s e v e r a l p a i n t i n g s by  i n painting.  books of e a r l y  Italian  Turner  also  engravings,  which the young F r a n c i s Turner examined so c a r e f u l l y t h a t i n l a t e r l i f e he was known as something of an a u t h o r i t y on t h i s s u b j e c t . in  the b i o g r a p h i c a l c h a p t e r , P a l g r a v e ' s e a r l i e s t  architect.  As i n d i c a t e d a l r e a d y  ambition was to become an  Thwarted i n t h i s d e s i r e , he maintained  his interest i n  52  architecture designing and  only  by d i s c u s s i n g  a number of s m a l l  the  projects  Balliol  his  first  In 1847,  Sharpe's London Magazine p u b l i s h e d  b e l i e f i n the  among the  uneducated  fully  formed.  t a s t e and  His  G h i l d , with which he  still  at the  the  earliest  hung  he made  university.  h i s "Michaelangelo's  G a l l e r y , " which i s a l s o  natural  house  the nickname of "Madonna" P a l g r a v e , and  venture i n t o a r t c r i t i c i s m while he was  L a z a r u s ' i n the N a t i o n a l  by  family.  time Palgrave reached Oxford, h i s t a s t e was  rooms, earned him  also  f o r f r i e n d s , i n c l u d i n g a school  of e a r l y I t a l i a n engravings of the V i r g i n and  his  his  i t i n h i s c r i t i c i s m , but  a number of gravestones f o r members of h i s By  love  not  'Raising  expression  i n s t i n c t i v e a t t r a c t i o n f o r the  of of  fine arts  classes:  We have sometimes amused o u r s e l v e s on the a f t e r n o o n of a f i n e summer's day, w h i l s t we accompanied round the eloquent w a l l s of the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y some chance p a r t y of rough v i s i t o r s — a n d l i s t e n e d to the remarks which t h e i r n a t u r a l t a s t e gave b i r t h to at the s i g h t of the s e v e r a l p i c t u r e s . (3.1, 121) This  "natural  subjects, w i l l not An  t a s t e " should not,  such as  incidents  he  argues, be  impeded by  choosing  from c l a s s i c a l mythology, which "rough v i s i t o r s "  recognize. important  r e s u l t of h i s p o p u l a r i s m i s h i s f a s c i n a t i o n with  contemporary " p u b l i c " a r t s — s c u l p t u r e  and  condemns as a e s t h e t i c a l l y inadequate and examples f o r improving the galleries  t a s t e of the  or read c r i t i c i s m of any  kind.  architecture—both because they f a i l  p u b l i c , few  to Form a Good Taste i n A r t "  of which  to p r o v i d e i d e a l  Much of P a l g r a v e ' s career  (3.37), and  he  of whom ever enter a r t  devoted to r e a c h i n g t h i s a u d i e n c e : through h i s c r i t i c i s m "How  artists  in articles  was such  i n books, such as Gems of  as  53  E n g l i s h A r t o f T h i s Century art  (2.23, [1869]), which p r o v i d e s examples of g r e a t  from e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e n a t i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n s along w i t h b r i e f  He a l s o addressed  critiques.  the p u b l i c i n h i s Handbook to the f i n e a r t e x h i b i t s of the  I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n of 1862 (2.28) and through  l e c t u r e s to students at  the newly formed government s c h o o l s o f d e s i g n , and he l e c t u r e d and conducted gallery visits  f o r the Working Men's C o l l e g e s .  In h i s own way, Palgrave was  f o l l o w i n g the example of h i s f r i e n d John Ruskin, who had f i r s t  p o i n t e d out  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the workman's s e n s i b i l i t y and good d e s i g n i n The Stones  o f Venice and who had h i m s e l f begun the p r a c t i c e of t e a c h i n g a r t  criticism  at the Working Men's C o l l e g e s .  P a l g r a v e was p a r t i c u l a r l y v i r u l e n t restrict tried  i n h i s a t t a c k s on those who wished to  the access of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c  to the a r t s .  When the government  ( u n s u c c e s s f u l l y ) i n 1864 to pass a b i l l which would have permitted the  removal of the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y from T r a f a l g a r Square on the grounds that too many working people were walking  over from Charing Cross  S t a t i o n to spend  time and even to eat buns i n the G a l l e r y , Palgrave entered the l i s t s , insisting  a r t should not be r e l e g a t e d to a dim r e l i g i o u s grove, from which a l l profane persons should be r i g i d l y e x c l u d e d , and to which access should be g i v e n , even to the c o g n o s c e n t i , o n l y a f t e r pious l u s t r a t i o n s and purifying rites. The simple f a c t i s , that educated a p p r e c i a t o r s o f o l d p i c t u r e s are about one i n t e n thousand. But whether they understand them or not, works of the h i g h e s t a r t can do no harm, and may do the g r e a t e s t good, even to the most t h o u g h t l e s s and ignorant. The v u l g a r do g a i n , whether they know i t or n o t , by b e i n g brought i n t o the presence of the mighty achievements of a r t ; and even the s o l d i e r s , and housemaids, and bun-eaters are a l l the b e t t e r f o r M i c h a e l Angelo and R a f f a e l l e . (3.25, 716)  While  i n f u r i a t e d by the government's r e f u s a l to educate  a p p r e c i a t i o n , o r even to g i v e them easy e n t r y to n a t i o n a l Palgrave was  a l s o angry with the Royal Academy.  P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s had r e b e l l e d  the poor i n a r t  collections,  Ruskin and  the  a g a i n s t the Academy a decade e a r l i e r .  e i g h t e e n s i x t i e s , i t continued to e x e r c i s e a v i r t u a l monopoly on and  c o u l d s t i l l make or break any a r t i s t  contemporary  i n England.  In the  exhibitions,  Along w i t h many  c r i t i c s , Palgrave never t i r e d of p o i n t i n g out the nepotism  and  b i g o t r y which made the Academy the s u b j e c t of a number of Royal Commissions d u r i n g those y e a r s .  The  c o n t i n u i n g r e f u s a l of Royal Academy members to  r e c o g n i s e the q u a l i t y of the work of many of the younger men, the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e p a i n t e r s , made Palgrave p e r s i s t  i n a t t a c k i n g the Academy,  both i n h i s reviews of the annual summer e x h i b i t i o n s , and "An R. A. P a i n t e d by H i m s e l f , " which quotes academicians, F r i t h , who excluded because  particularly  in articles  the testimony of one of the  claimed that the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s were  "the members of the Academy have a r i g h t  to a s c h o o l which they t h i n k m i s c h i e v o u s . "  such as  rightly  to show d i s f a v o u r  P a l g r a v e comments:  T h i s i s not the p l a c e f o r e n t e r i n g i n t o a c r i t i c i s m of Mr. F r i t h ' s works, on which, moreover, the o p i n i o n of t h i s j o u r n a l has been r e c e n t l y expressed. But, whatever may be t h e i r t r u e q u a l i t y , i t was c e r t a i n l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t , when the p a i n t e r s of the "Huguenot," the "Order of R e l e a s e , " the " L i g h t of the World," and many o t h e r works which might be named with these i n fame and e x c e l l e n c e , were to be v i r t u a l l y d i s p o s e d of as a "mischievous s c h o o l , " the p a i n t e r of the "Railway S t a t i o n " should b r i n g forward some b e t t e r backer f o r h i s o p i n i o n than even h i s own i p s e d i x i t . (3.17, 727) In h i s review of the Royal Academy i n 1 8 6 3 — a p a r t i c u l a r l y low p o i n t e x h i b i t i o n ' s h i s t o r y — h e begins by c a s t i g a t i n g t h e i r own younger  mediocre men:  the Academicians  works prominently w h i l e r e j e c t i n g  who  i n the hung  s u p e r i o r works by  55  We have a l r e a d y , i n common w i t h most o f our contemporaries, drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the mode i n which the Hanging Committee have t h i s year e x e r c i s e d t h e i r always u n g r a c i o u s , though n e c e s s a r y , function. T h i s has not o n l y proved an u n u s u a l l y l a r g e stone o f stumbling to the p r o m i s i n g younger occupants o f our s t u d i o s , but has, i n a v e r y s i n g u l a r manner, and one l i k e l y t o t e l l upon the r e c e i p t s , a f f e c t e d the aspect o f the E x h i b i t i o n i t s e l f . We do not mean t h a t a l l t h e p i c t u r e s which people n a t u r a l l y crowd t o see have been e x i l e d from the c e l e b r a t e d l i n e . But the Academy, l i k e the Empire, has i t s Cayenne; and t h e r e can, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , be no doubt t h a t Messrs. F r i t h , A. Cooper, and C. L a n d s e e r — t h e p e t t y Napoleons of the s e a s o n — h a v e , w i t h i m p e r i a l i m p a r t i a l i t y , consigned t o the h i g h e s t o r t h e lowest limbo a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f works by men possessed o f an i n c o n v e n i e n t f a c u l t y of r i s i n g , w h i l s t they have f i l l e d the space w i t h canvasses which, except t h a t they happen to be t h e i r own, would never have o c c u p i e d any post which c o u l d be c a l l e d a post o f honour. (3.11, P a r t 1, 627) P a l g r a v e ' s disappointment  w i t h the a u t h o r i t i e s extends  also to  e d u c a t o r s , as he shows i n h i s a r t i c l e "Women and the F i n e A r t s . " his  fearsome r e p u t a t i o n as a c r i t i c  art  of a thousand—or  growled  f o r whom, as Henry Adams s a i d , " a l l the  ten thousand—years  P a l g r a v e and Woolner brayed  had brought  i n t h e i r mortars,  England  t o s t u f f which  derided, tore i n t a t t e r s ,  a t , and howled a t , and t r e a t e d i n terms beyond l i t e r a r y  P a l g r a v e i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y sympathetic arts.  In d i s c u s s i n g the reasons  I n s p i t e of  usage,"  7  to the p l a c e o f women i n the f i n e  f o r the l a c k of women among major  artists,  P a l g r a v e r e f u s e s t o accept the common o p i n i o n t h a t women were i n c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g g r e a t works, a r g u i n g , i n s t e a d , That i t i s a l t o g e t h e r premature t o d e c i d e whether women a r e n o t intended f o r such success by n a t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n u n t i l they have, f o r a s u f f i c i e n t p e r i o d , r e c e i v e d i n t e l l e c t u a l advantages equal t o those r e c e i v e d by men.... That t h e i r non-success i s the r e s u l t n o t of e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o r want o f endeavour, but o f d e f i c i e n t g e n e r a l t r a i n i n g , and the absence o f a f a i r judgment on men's part. (3.32, P a r t 1, 119) H i s s o l u t i o n i s t o r e v o l u t i o n i s e women's e d u c a t i o n and put i t on a p a r w i t h t h a t o f men because " e d u c a t i o n p a r t l y g i v e s us m a t e r i a l s and, p a r t l y , to  use them.  skill  So f a r as i t g i v e s s k i l l , by c u l t i v a t i n g and t r a i n i n g the mind,  56  women's e d u c a t i o n i s o r d i n a r i l y a r r e s t e d a t the p o i n t before which cannot s e r i o u s l y be g i v e n " (3.32, P a r t His commitment t o improving  career.  121).  the l e v e l of p u b l i c t a s t e was t o t a l , but h i s  d e s i r e to expose what he regarded V i c t o r i a n a r t world  1,  skill  as the widespread c h a r l a t a n i s m of the  d i d g e t Palgrave  into serious trouble early i n h i s  In 1862, with o n l y a h a n d f u l of a r t i c l e s on a r t to h i s c r e d i t ,  Palgrave managed, by a g r e a t s t r o k e of l u c k , to be awarded the commission t o w r i t e the guidebook to the f i n e a r t e x h i b i t s , i n c l u d i n g not o n l y p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e , but even the ironwork, Exhibition. his  i n the g i g a n t i c I n t e r n a t i o n a l  I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the age that the i m b r o g l i o generated by  h i g h l y intemperate,  even l i b e l l o u s ,  remarks s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  s c a n d a l and e s t a b l i s h e d him as a f o r m i d a b l e Palgrave's Pre-Raphaelite  critic.  l u c k came i n the form of h i s f r i e n d Thomas Woolner, the s c u l p t o r , who e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y recommended him to the  Commissioners of t h e E x h i b i t i o n and thus for  caused a  the book, the o n l y o f f i c i a l  secured  him the j o b .  The commission  a r t guidebook s o l d on the s i t e , was a  l u c r a t i v e one, and i t a l s o p r o v i d e d P a l g r a v e , as he was quick to p e r c e i v e , w i t h an unprecedented o p p o r t u n i t y to i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c t a s t e .  I g n o r i n g the  Commissioners' s t a t e d wish that the book be a simple, non-judgmental guide t o the e x h i b i t s , he wrote r u t h l e s s c r i t i q u e s of a l l the works shown, f i r s t stipulating  p r u d e n t l y to the Commissioners " t h a t he should express h i s Q  p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n on the whole q u e s t i o n . "  Unsuspecting,  they  agreed.  When t h e E x h i b i t i o n was opened by Queen V i c t o r i a on 1 May 1862, Commissioners had not read the red-covered and  the  handbook, p r i c e d a t one s h i l l i n g ,  i t went on s a l e i n the e x h i b i t i o n grounds and was bought by thousands of  people  i n the course of the next  Times on  15 May  over  two weeks, u n t i l a l e t t e r appeared  the s i g n a t u r e " J . 0.,"  i n The  beginning:  I d e s i r e to c a l l the a t t e n t i o n of the Commissioners of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n to an i n d e c e n t and d i s c o u r t e o u s act which i s being p e r p e t r a t e d w i t h i n the w a l l s of the E x h i b i t i o n with t h e i r avowed s a n c t i o n , and, I am a s s u r e d , to t h e i r p r o f i t . ^ The  f o l l o w i n g day,  " J . 0."  continued h i s a t t a c k :  Mr. P a l g r a v e i s a c l e r k i n the P r i v y - C o u n c i l O f f i c e , and one of the Government Examiners connected with the E d u c a t i o n Department. He has t r i e d h i s hand at n o v e l - w r i t i n g and as a poet, with moderate success. He now comes forward as an a r t c r i t i c , whose d i c t a are to be accepted as f i n a l , supported as they are by the patronage of the Royal C o m m i s s i o n e r s — f o r no dog of that breed may bark w i t h i n the E x h i b i t i o n but Mr. P a l g r a v e . He c l a i m s i n h i s p r e f a c e a s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e f o r c r i t i c i z i n g s c u l p t u r e , "an a r t to which he has g i v e n many y e a r s ' c l o s e a t t e n t i o n . " * 0  " J . 0." almost  c o r r e c t l y s t a t e s t h a t P a l g r a v e ' s Handbook i n f a c t heaps abuse on every item on d i s p l a y , and  p a r t i c u l a r l y on the s c u l p t u r e , c i t i n g  P a l g r a v e ' s t i r a d e a g a i n s t Munro's s t a t u e , " C h i l d ' s P l a y , " as  typical:  these vague w r i t h i n g forms have not even a good d o l l ' s l i k e n e s s to human c h i l d r e n . We must c l a s s them M o l l u s c a not V e r t e b r a t a . . . . Gaps, s c r a t c h e s , lumps, and s w e l l i n g s stand here, a l a s ! f o r the masterpieces of Nature's m o d e l l i n g ; the eyes are s q u i n t i n g c a v i t i e s , the toes i n a r t i c u l a t e knobs; w h i l s t the v e r y d r e s s e s of the poor c h i l d r e n , — i n r e a l i t y so f u l l of charm and p r e t t i n e s s , — become c l i n g i n g cerements of no nameable t e x t u r e , and thrown i n t o no p o s s i b l e f o l d s . We should not have thought i t worthwhile to s c r u t i n i z e work of an ignoramus so grotesque and babyish as a l l we have ever seen by Munro with any d e t a i l , i f i t d i d not appeal i n s u b j e c t to popular i n t e r e s t s , and i f we had not some f a i n t hope t h a t — a r d u o u s as are the steps from C h i l d ' s P l a y to marble i n a r t , — t h e author of these works may r e t r i e v e h i m s e l f by recommencing h i s a r t before i t i s too l a t e . (2.8, 99-100) Palgrave can c e r t a i n l y be f a u l t e d a show to which a r t i s t s had they found,  to t h e i r  f o r a t t a c k i n g most of the e x h i b i t s i n  been i n v i t e d  to c o n t r i b u t e and where by doing  s u r p r i s e , they had exposed themselves  c a s t i g a t i o n by the E x h i b i t i o n ' s o f f i c i a l  c r i t i c , but  to  so  intemperate  i t must i n f a i r n e s s  be  58  pointed  out  art  and  f a i r p l a y as h i s f i r s t  May  reveals  Higgins,  that  the  " J . 0."  truth.  was  not  a c t i n g out  l e t t e r suggests.  " J . 0.,"  His follow-up  "Jacob Omnium," was  an i n v e t e r a t e w r i t e r of l e t t e r s  s o c i a l f i g u r e who  of a p u r e l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d love  the  targets attack  fashionable  only  Thackeray—who  as an a r t c r i t i c .  Higgins'  j u s t of a t t a c k i n g M a r o c h e t t i  crime of f a v o u r i n g  Woolner's f l e d g l i n g c a r e e r :  the work of Thomas Woolner i n order "the  object  that Woolner's work r e p r e s e n t s  the height  s c u l p t u r e , j u s t as he  nadir.  In support of h i s charge, Higgins  protested By  this  his  Mr.  his  Palgrave  sincere  of achievement i n modern  argues that M a r o c h e t t i ' s p o i n t s out  work r e p r e s e n t s t h a t Palgrave  a f a c t which suggests that P a l g r a v e had  its  and  written  the  the  following  innocence.  time, the  p u b l i c i t y had  brought the book to the a t t e n t i o n  only of e x h i b i t o r s , but  a l s o of the  P a l g r a v e the  S e v e r a l more l e t t e r s from v a r i o u s  against  to f u r t h e r  In f a c t ,  book under Woolner's d i r e c t i o n , a l t h o u g h Woolner, i n a l e t t e r day,  of the more  of t h i s e v i d e n t l y i s to f i l l  British  Woolner shared l o d g i n g s ,  to  letter  u n j u s t l y , but  the Handbook, as elsewhere i n h i s c r i t i c i s m , i s e x p r e s s i n g  belief  primary  second  Woolner's pockets at the expense of h i s f e l l o w l a b o u r e r s . " in  the  of P a l g r a v e ' s wrath i n h i s Handbook—whom P a l g r a v e continued  accuses P a l g r a v e not serious  s c u l p t o r , Baron M a r o c h e t t i — o n e of the  throughout h i s c a r e e r  16  a well-known  wrote "Jacob Omnium's Hoss" i n h i s h o n o u r — b u t , more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , wealthy and  of  pen-name of Matthew  to the e d i t o r and  numbered among h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d s not  letter  contract.  the book, and  Commissioners who  from P a l g r a v e h i m s e l f ,  f o l l o w i n g anonymous comic d o g g e r e l was  of  had  originally artists  appeared i n The  even w r i t t e n on the  given  for  Times, and  topic:  not  and the  59  I p o s i t i v e l y shudder when I l o o k W i t h i n the pages of t h i s crimson book, For a l l that once seemed l o v e l y , g r a c e f u l , Is shown to be i n e x e c r a b l e t a s t e  chaste,  On r e a d i n g f u r t h e r on, I l e a r n w i t h p a i n That Baron M a r o c h e t t i t r i e s i n v a i n , " L i k e other men of s i m i l a r p r e t e n s i o n s , To p u f f and blow h i m s e l f to B u l l dimensions." I'm sure that Woolner, who's r e f i n e d and modest, Although h i s f e l l o w - l o d g e r ' s of the oddest, Must b l u s h at eulogy so coarse and s t u p i d , And own t h e r e ' s something i n the t i n t e d C u p i d . ^ A f t e r s e v e r a l days, Palgrave announced i n The had  ordered  the book withdrawn under the p o l i t e  misunderstood  that he  around the E x h i b i t i o n s i t e , and  Palgrave  throughout  suggest  the  that he was  had elicited  Unabashed, P a l g r a v e immediately  a h e a v i l y e d i t e d v e r s i o n to be p u b l i s h e d by Macmillan  bookstores did  fiction  Commissioners  the nature of the commission, even though he had  c r e a t i v e p e r m i s s i o n at the o u t s e t . for  Times that the  and  arranged  s o l d i n the  n e i t h e r then nor ever  a n y t h i n g but c o r r e c t i n h i s  full  afterwards  behaviour  affair.  P a l g r a v e ' s f r i e n d s h i p with Woolner s u r v i v e d the d e b a c l e , as d i d Woolner's c a r e e r , the apparent n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , and enhanced by  i m p r o p r i e t y o f Palgrave's  Palgrave's c r i t i c a l  the whole e p i s o d e .  r e p u t a t i o n was,  His book brought  him  criticism i f anything,  to the a t t e n t i o n of  the  Saturday Review of P o l i t i c s , L i t e r a t u r e , Science and A r t , whose e d i t o r i a l s t y l e tended  to the same intemperance  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e d P a l g r a v e ' s work. resident art c r i t i c ,  and The  r e c u r r e n t sense Saturday  of moral  h i r e d him  and he r e i g n e d there f o r more than two  i n 1863  outrage as i t s  years,  d e v e l o p i n g , i n the p r o c e s s , as Henry Adams s a i d , a r e p u t a t i o n that "as an a r t critic  he was  too f e r o c i o u s to be l i k e d ; even Holman Hunt found  h i s temper  60  humorous; among many r i v a l s , he may  perhaps have had a r i g h t  to c l a i m the 12  much-disputed  rank of being the most unpopular man  As a c r i t i c , Palgrave wrote age, even  though h i s c r i t i c a l  almost e x c l u s i v e l y about the a r t of h i s  p r i n c i p l e s were based on c l a s s i c a l a r t .  from a l e n g t h y e a r l y "Essay on the F i r s t p u b l i s h e d as an appendix  own  Apart  Century o f I t a l i a n Engraving" ( 3 . 3 ) ,  to F. T. K u g l e r ' s Handbook of I t a l i a n A r t i n  and w e l l - r e c e i v e d by the c r i t i c s , critical  i n London."  even by Ruskin h i m s e l f ,  1855  Palgrave's  a r t i c l e s d e a l t w i t h the a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and s c u l p t u r e of h i s  time, and p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h E n g l i s h examples.  His c r i t i c i s m  i s divided  own into  f o u r broad t y p e s : defences of the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e p a i n t e r s ; a t t a c k s on the debased to  s t a t e of s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e i n England  the a r t e s t a b l i s h m e n t ; and g e n e r a l synopses In  h i s r o l e as c r i t i c  P a l g r a v e was  perhaps  and Europe; c h a l l e n g e s  of h i s c r i t i c a l  principles.  f o r the Saturday Review between 1863 and  1865,  best known f o r h i s defence of the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , whose  cause had been espoused  from the b e g i n n i n g by the Saturday.  As h i s p r a i s e of  Woolner i n the Handbook a t t e s t s , Palgrave regarded the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s as the most t a l e n t e d a r t i s t s  of the day, and never missed an o p p o r t u n i t y to f u r t h e r  t h e i r cause c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y : h i s annual reviews of the Royal Academy summer e x h i b i t i o n , f o r example, always  have the theme of the poor  treatment of the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s threaded through them.  Whether t h e i r works  were hung p r o m i n e n t l y or not, P a l g r a v e always gave good space i n h i s column to  such works as Holman Hunt's The L i g h t of the World, M i l l a i s ' Huguenot and  Order of R e l e a s e , and Ford Madox Brown's Work. It was  not p a i n t i n g , however, but s c u l p t u r e that provoked  c o n t r o v e r s y , and P a l g r a v e ' s intemperance  the Handbook  on the s u b j e c t came from h i s  61  c o n v i c t i o n that s c u l p t u r e c e r t a i n l y the  i s , i f not  "most d i f f i c u l t "  the  the h i g h e s t  of the a r t s , " then  to master (3.28, 118),  knowledge of form, the most e x t e n s i v e d i s c i p l i n e , and  "noblest  talent.  and  varied  r e q u i r i n g the  t r a i n i n g , the  greatest  P a l g r a v e argues that i t should  most admired of the f i n e a r t s , but  that i t has  the more e a s i l y enjoyed e f f e c t s of  painting:  been n e g l e c t e d  greatest  be  the  i n favour  of  i t i s of p a i n t i n g t h a t we have been speaking h i t h e r t o — a n a r t to the comprehension of which the p u b l i c had educated i t s e l f up to a c e r t a i n c r e d i t a b l e p o i n t , and over which the p u b l i c e x e r c i s e s consequently a v e r y wholesome i n f l u e n c e , p r o f i t i n g i t s e l f i n t u r n by the l e s s o n s i n good a r t which the p a i n t e r s , encouraged and upheld by n a t i o n a l t a s t e , g i v e i t . In s c u l p t u r e , u n h a p p i l y , the same comprehension and the same check appear to be s t i l l almost w h o l l y wanting. (3.31, P a r t 1, 601) Angry at the n e g l e c t  of h i s f a v o u r i t e a r t and  England remains mainly an a f f a i r ,  not  of W i l l i a m The  i n our  imaginative  poetry  and Mary" (3.31, P a r t  present  4,  ability,  time w i l l  by Mr.  concentrate  probably  of be  the reign  much o f  Palgrave's  i n the Saturday Review are  sculpture  A number  commissioned  through  the waste of government money on expensive s c u l p t u r a l f o l l i e s .  a time when c r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t was sums of money were being  pointed  to be  almost e n t i r e l y devoted to p a i n t i n g ,  expended on commissions f o r l a r g e p u b l i c  monuments such as Nelson's Column and too  but  Hallam to the  many more d e a l w i t h i t i n p a s s i n g .  on p a r t i c u l a r examples of bad  patronage and  in  698).  O n e - f i f t h of h i s a r t i c l e s  devoted to s c u l p t u r e , and  i r o n y was  i s assigned  debased s t a t e of E n g l i s h s c u l p t u r e occupied  a t t e n t i o n as a c r i t i c .  great  t h a t "the  "sculpture  on i n f u t u r e years as the n a d i r of E n g l i s h s c u l p t u r e , j u s t as  lowest p o i n t  At  that  of p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i s e d  p o l i t e patronage," P a l g r a v e p r e d i c t e d looked  the f a c t  ignored:  the A l b e r t Memorial.  For P a l g r a v e ,  the  62  The modern p r a c t i c e of p u t t i n g up p u b l i c s t a t u e s and monuments, w i t h the demand f o r p o r t r a i t - b u s t s , has c a l l e d i n t o a c t i v i t y a number of patrons who commission s c u l p t u r e without having taken the pains to l e a r n i t s f i r s t elements, and a number of p r a c t i t i o n e r s whose work shows more or l e s s incompetence f o r the d i f f i c u l t a r t they p r o f e s s . Want of knowledge of n a t u r a l form, want of e f f e c t i n m o d e l l i n g , want of mind and of c u l t i v a t i o n , are c o n s p i c u o u s l y marked upon n i n e t e e n out of twenty works e x h i b i t e d . (3.18, Part 4, 698) I n "Landseer  among the L i o n s , " P a l g r a v e examines the causes  l e n g t h y d e l a y i n the d e l i v e r y of the stone l i o n s f o r the base of  f o r the Nelson's  column, the commission f o r which had been awarded to the Royal Academy's most famous animal p a i n t e r , S i r Edwin Landseer:  "people are now  b e g i n n i n g to pass  T r a f a l g a r Square w i t h e j a c u l a t i o n s of d e s p a i r as they see the v i v a c i o u s ragamuffins  of London p e l t i n g each other on the p a r a l l e l o g r a m s where the  l i o n s should be"  (3.28, 118).  P a l g r a v e i s c e r t a i n t h a t the d e c i s i o n t o g i v e  the j o b to a p a i n t e r r a t h e r than a s c u l p t o r caused  the d e l a y : "we  have made i t c l e a r t h a t f o r an a r t i s t , be he never  so s k i l l e d  take up s e r i o u s s c u l p t u r e , i s l i k e l y to be a t a s k of no s l i g h t (3.28,  1863  i n p a i n t i n g , to difficulty"  119).  Palgrave also c r i t i c i s e d G i l b e r t in  t h i n k we  S c o t t ' s p l a n s f o r the A l b e r t  on the grounds of expense, t a s t e , and  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  Memorial  of e n s u r i n g  that such an ambitious d e s i g n c o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l c a r r i e d o u t .  He  uses the A l b e r t Memorial as an example of the p a r t i c u l a r l y low s t a t e of a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e which has produced  "the f i g u r e s which, manufactured  by the dozen as they t u r n out i d o l s f o r the A f r i c a n t r a d e i n Birmingham, d e c o r a t e the Houses of P a r l i a m e n t " (2.15, 287).  He  c o n t r a s t s the  a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e of the present u n f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h a t of a n c i e n t Greece:  63  Let the reader t h i n k f o r a moment of the thought and l a b o u r which P h i d i a s bestowed on every square i n c h of the Parthenon M a r b l e s , — h o w he summed up here the l e a d i n g r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s of the c o u n t r y , — w i t h what e x q u i s i t e care he c a r r i e d out e v e r y d e t a i l ; and then t u r n to the d o l l s i n stone which f i l l the n i c h e s of the P a l a c e , without t r u t h , or i n t e r e s t , or c h a r a c t e r . I t w i l l a u s e f u l l e s s o n i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e . (2.15, 287) In h i s f i n a l  article  f o r the Saturday,  nemesis, Baron M a r o c h e t t i . Thackeray's,  Palgrave  turns once more on h i s  F u r i o u s t h a t M a r o c h e t t i , an o l d f r i e n d of  had been commissioned  to do the n o v e l i s t ' s bust  f o r Westminster  Abbey, P a l g r a v e was f u r t h e r enraged by the h i g h fees which M a r o c h e t t i demanded and which were a p p a r e n t l y a f e a t u r e o f that a r t i s t ' s  practice:  And we l a s t l y drew a t t e n t i o n to the enormous sum, twice or three times that commonly asked, which was, o r seemed to be, r e q u i r e d on the p a r t of Mr. M a r o c h e t t i ; being a k i n d of m i n i a t u r e r e p r o d u c t i o n , as i t were, of the v i g o r o u s absorbing powers with which t h i s a r t i s t has f a m i l i a r i s e d every one i n the case of the S c u t a r i Memorial, the Clyde Memorial, and the Nelson Memorial. (3.35, 758) In a d d i t i o n , Palgrave was concerned i n e v i t a b l y add y e t another Abbey, which Palgrave c u l t u r e as B r i t a i n ' s  that M a r o c h e t t i ' s  p r o d u c t i o n would  poor specimen to the e x i s t i n g  regarded  as having  bad a r t works i n the  special significance i n English  "Pantheon": "the i n t r i n s i c badness of the s c u l p t u r e  w i t h i n the Abbey, and i t s i n j u r i o u s e f f e c t on the look of the b u i l d i n g , a r e grievances  of long s t a n d i n g and p u b l i c n o t o r i e t y . "  bust as an i n s u l t  Palgrave  regarded the  t o Thackeray, of whom "no more thorough specimen of the  Englishman of our century e x i s t e d , " and he was incensed by M a r o c h e t t i ' s t e c h n i c a l incompetence.  His r e n d i t i o n o f Thackeray, Palgrave  o n l y i n c r e a t i n g "a f a i r  s u p e r f i c i a l l i k e n e s s of those p o i n t s i n h i s face  which would be remembered by a c a s u a l v i s i t o r "  (759).  says, succeeds  64  Palgrave's  essay on the Thackeray memorial amply i l l u s t r a t e s  intemperance of h i s c r i t i c i s m patronised  and  h i s impatience with a system which  a "charlatan" l i k e Marochetti  and  neglected  a far greater  l i k e W i l l i a m Behnes, whose o b i t u a r y he wrote f o r the Saturday. p o i n t s out  that Behnes d i e d i n poverty  memorial was papers had greatest with  being  sculptural gift  a "modelling  just  h i s death.  of " p o e t i c a l i n v e n t i v e n e s s , "  of e x q u i s i t e t r u t h and  a great  rendering  performed one  s e r v i c e to s c u l p t u r e : he  great  s e v e r a l of whom—most n o t a b l y t r u e " whom Palgrave  reverse low  While he d i d not  willing And  he  i n t o the  "good men  and  sculpture. hoped  to  recognised  of the r e s u l t s f o l l o w i n g upon a long s e r i e s of Marochetti  c r e d i t e d , by the end about s c u l p t u r e and  some of the more f l a g r a n t examples of jobbery  i n the name of B r i t i s h  was  was  the  compensated"  (3.18, 135).  succeed i n d e - t h r o n i n g  r a i s e d p u b l i c consciousness  Palgrave  "almost  f u n c t i o n s of judgment during  r e p l a c i n g him w i t h Woolner, P a l g r a v e  reverse  says, l a c k e d  of c r i t i c a l n e g l e c t : "the  s c u l p t u r e . . . i s s i n g u l a r proof  (3.34, 661).  with having  that these same  opened h i s s t u d i o to p u p i l s ,  Woolner—were d e v e l o p i n g  e f f e c t s of years  Palgrave  power (when he was  of s u r f a c e "  hoped would redeem B r i t i s h  a comparative abeyance of the years"  of t e x t u r e and  he  sculptor  Thackeray  so much of h i s energy to s c u l p t u r e , Palgrave  the n e g a t i v e  s t a t e of our  time the  Although Behnes, he  to e x e r t i t ) i n the  By d e v o t i n g  at the  debated at l e n g t h i n the newspapers, and  v i r t u a l l y ignored  the  and  of h i s  having  bad  taste  and  life,  tried  to  erected  sculpture.  a l s o reserved  a s p e c i a l enthusiasm f o r a r c h i t e c t u r e , and  a committed f o l l o w e r of Ruskin's views on  the importance o f Gothic  n a t u r a l s t y l e f o r V i c t o r i a n b u i l d i n g s , l a r g e and  small:  he as  the  65  Modern G o t h i c was, i n i t s b e g i n n i n g , l i k e the Lombard i t s e l f from which i t was o r i g i n a l l y developed, e s s e n t i a l l y an i m i t a t i v e style. In the hands of Woodward, B u t t e r f i e l d , S t r e e t , Burges, Waterhouse, and o t h e r s not yet so w e l l known, i t i s r a p i d l y p a s s i n g from t h i s f i r s t phase i n t o an a r c h i t e c t u r e as c l o s e l y adapted to our wants as that of the t h i r t e e n t h century to mediaeval requirements. (2.15, 285) He  also followed  restoration.  Ruskin i n h i s condemnation of the V i c t o r i a n passion  In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Taste i n France," he  French government's wholesale d e s t r u c t i o n of r e s t o r i n g them: "new the sky,  but  Rouen and  of medieval b u i l d i n g s  Amiens w i l l present the  nearer approach w i l l  (3.5,  his  s p e c i a l anger f o r the e l i t i s m of a r c h i t e c t s who  any  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for designing  586).  divorced  houses f o r the g e n e r a l  to spend t h e i r time d e s i g n i n g  of But  the  i n the name  ancient  show the hard, c o l d labour  working i n a s t y l e dead f o r f i v e hundred y e a r s "  preferring  attacked  for  outlines  to  artists he  reserved  themselves from  p u b l i c and  the  poor,  large public buildings i n a variety  of dead r e v i v a l s t y l e s : And, d u r i n g the whole p e r i o d [ a f t e r the Renaissance and b e f o r e the G o t h i c r e v i v a l ] the I t a l i a n , Renaissance, or M o d e r n - c l a s s i c a l s t y l e s were never able to f u l f i l ' the f i r s t duty of A r c h i t e c t u r e , — t h e y never produced one s i n g l e p l e a s i n g o r a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n f o r the d w e l l i n g s of the poor, h a r d l y even of the m i d d l e - c l a s s c i t i z e n . (3.9, 1160) Palgrave's i n d i g n a t i o n would be those who poor men  appropriate had  over a l a c k of d i s t i n c t i v e n a t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r e  f o r even the humblest d w e l l i n g ,  h i s resentment  allowed a r c h i t e c t u r e to degenerate i n t o a r i c h man's toy,  lived  i n slums, was  f u e l l e d by h i s b e l i e f that a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  s c u l p t u r e , would be a p a i n l e s s way general  and  public.  to encourage good a r t i s t i c  taste i n  which of while  like the  66  In h i s c a p a c i t y  as a r t c r i t i c  a v a r i e t y of m i s c e l l a n e o u s of Parliament  at the Saturday  topics, including  i n "Mr. Herbert's and Other  (3.13), about which he was e n t h u s i a s t i c ,  Palgrave a l s o wrote about  the f r e s c o e s  F r e s c o e s ' " (3.27), "Japanese A r t " and what he regarded  i r r e s p o n s i b l e a c q u i s i t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s "The And  Farnese A n t i q u e s "  (3.29) and "Lost  as the  of the B r i t i s h Museum i n  T r e a s u r e s " (3.20),  respectively.  i n a l l these a r t i c l e s , he m a n i f e s t s an a b s o l u t e commitment to the  s u r v i v a l of a r t as a c u l t u r a l f o r c e the t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s of p a i n t i n g After  the p u b l i c a t i o n  and a good grasp of both a r t h i s t o r y and  and s c u l p t u r e .  of Essays on A r t i n 1866, P a l g r a v e  c r i t i c a l e n e r g i e s to p o e t r y , but h i s love i n t e n s i t y , and he d i d p u b l i s h This  f o r the new Houses  Century  transferred his  of the a r t s l o s t none of i t s  two i l l u s t r a t e d  books, Gems o f E n g l i s h A r t of  (2.23) i n 1869, and The L i f e of Jesus C h r i s t I l l u s t r a t e d from  the I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s  (2.39) i n 1885, both f o r popular audiences.  continued  on the a r t s and to p u b l i s h  for  to l e c t u r e  a l l intents  over by 1866. publishing  and purposes  his active  influence  People were somewhat s u r p r i s e d ,  i n the world  therefore,  a r t i c l e , but of a r t was  to f i n d him  one more a r t i c l e , "The D e c l i n e of A r t , " (3.40) i n 1888, e i g h t e e n  years a f t e r h i s "Some Notes on t h e Louvre 1870  the o c c a s i o n a l  He a l s o  C o l l e c t i o n s " i n the P o r t f o l i o i n  (3.39). The  surprise  turned to s u s p i c i o n ,  however, when a monograph by S i r Wyke  B a y l i s s e n t i t l e d The P r o f e s s o r o f Poetry a t Oxford and the Witness o f A r t , A C u r i o s i t y o f Modern L i t e r a t u r e , appeared  l a t e r i n that  Palgrave of p l a g i a r i s i n g the e n t i r e a r t i c l e (1877). and  B a y l i s s marshalled  printed  year, accusing  from h i s book The Witness o f A r t  i l l u s t r a t i o n s and q u o t a t i o n s from Palgrave's work  p a r a l l e l passages i n order to demonstrate that " i f  we do not say the t h i n g i n the same words, a t l e a s t we c o n t r i v e t o say the same t h i n g i n the same p l a c e . H i s  evidence  i s convincing,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the common use of a b s t r u s e A b y s s i n i a n and E g y p t i a n r e f e r e n c e s , and i n the e x t r a o r d i n a r y p a r a l l e l s i n the complex arguments developed  i n the two works.  P a l g r a v e d i d not respond  he had t o Jacob Omnium's complaints a c c u s a t i o n s out of hand.  to Bayliss'  charges as  i n 1862, a p p a r e n t l y d i s m i s s i n g B a y l i s s '  But I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t  t h a t he r e t i r e d  permanently from p u b l i s h i n g a r t c r i t i c i s m . Despite this f i n a l and  understanding  s c a n d a l and h i s intemperate  o f the f i n e a r t s m a n i f e s t  s t y l e , Palgrave's  love  themselves i n every p i e c e o f  w r i t i n g which he produced d u r i n g h i s c o l o u r f u l and c o n t r o v e r s i a l  career.  Paramount i n h i s a r t c r i t i c i s m a r e h i s concern w i t h e d u c a t i n g the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n the f i n e a r t s and h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the stamp of a n a t i o n o r s o c i e t y c o u l d be gauged by t h e q u a l i t y of i t s a r t and the way i t t r e a t e d i t s artists.  H i s complaints  about the u n n a t u r a l d i v o r c e between " n a t i o n a l  f e e l i n g " and the f i n e a r t s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and s c u l p t u r e and about the r e f u s a l of a r t i s t s t o e x p l o i t d i s t i n c t i v e l y E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r work, a l o n g w i t h h i s encouragement of these same t o p i c s as a means of r e f o r m i n g E n g l i s h p o e t r y a r e major themes i n h i s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m and h i s own poetry.  iii:  Palgrave's l i t e r a r y  Literary  Criticism  c r i t i c i s m conspicuously lacks v i o l e n t l y  expressed  o p i n i o n s , but i t i s e q u a l l y s e r i o u s I n i t s commitment t o a r t and l i t e r a t u r e  68  as c i v i l i s i n g  agents i n E n g l i s h  society.  Above a l l , i t uses the  " H e l l e n i c " c r i t e r i a which dominate h i s a r t c r i t i c i s m and But  i n s p i t e of the number of works he  critic  does not  published piece  produced, h i s career  reviews from 1847  as a  onwards, he  The  produced only  appear  e d u c a t o r , P a l g r a v e was  T r e a s u r y , by  the  curricula.  As  until  a  p a r t l y m o t i v a t e d , i n producing the  need to ensure that a q u a l i t y t e x t of E n g l i s h l y r i c s  a v a i l a b l e f o r school  major  of h i s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i s h i s  English l i t e r a t u r e into school  professional  use,  and  his l a t e r Children's  intended to expose younger c h i l d r e n to the his introductory  one  he  1897.  s i n g l e most d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e  campaign to i n t r o d u c e  literary  Although  of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , Landscape i n P o e t r y , which d i d not  the month of h i s death i n  be  the Golden T r e a s u r y .  have landmarks comparable to h i s work on a r t .  a r t i c l e s and  same  l e c t u r e as P r o f e s s o r  T r e a s u r y (1875)  same e x c e l l e n c e .  As  he  Golden would was  claims i n  of P o e t r y at O x f o r d :  E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e c a l l s l o u d l y f o r f u l l and f r e e r e c o g n i t i o n as one of the s t u d i e s of an E n g l i s h U n i v e r s i t y . If ever so r e c o g n i z e d , I c l a i m f o r L i t e r a t u r e , — A r t though i t b e , — t h e whole r i g h t s and methods of s c i e n t i f i c p u r s u i t . And f o r those thus who may pursue i t , I c l a i m a l s o , i n the h i g h e s t measure, a l l that S c i e n c e , i n the l a t e s t and widest sense of the word, o f f e r s i n the way of i n t e l l e c t u a l advance, of moral i n v i g o r a t i o n and p l e a s u r e , as the reward of her v o t a r i e s . (4.15, 334) Palgrave a l s o foresaw that accepted i n t o s c h o o l s and be  the o n l y way  u n i v e r s i t i e s would be  i n some measure d i s p l a c e d .  benefit  to the  i n which E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e would  He  argues that  be  f o r h i s beloved c l a s s i c s to  the  change would i n f a c t be  a  e d u c a t i o n system because  The amount of t r o u b l e and time which i s spent i n d r i v i n g i n t o men a s o r t of knowledge they d e t e s t would i n e v i t a b l y produce more f r u i t , i f spent i n teaching them something i n behalf of which t h e i r t a s t e s and f e e l i n g s were e n l i s t e d . We would y i e l d to no one i n r e v e r e n t a d m i r a t i o n of the poetry of Greece, but we regard as u s e l e s s and f o o l i s h the attempt to make those minds a p p r e c i a t e i t who never could do so a f t e r a l i f e t i m e ' s work with a d i c t i o n a r y and a grammar.  69  English l i t e r a t u r e the Greek, and, accessible  could p r o v i d e the same p l e a s u r e and  as P a l g r a v e says, E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e  than the  the same l e s s o n s as  i s i n n a t e l y more  classics:  I t s genius i s a bond to l i n k i t with the s o u l of every Englishman. I t s authors were men of l i k e minds and p a s s i o n s w i t h o u r s e l v e s . . . . The thoroughly E n g l i s h c h a r a c t e r of our l i t e r a t u r e , b r e a t h i n g f o r t h the mountain a i r of freedom and the f r e s h e s t odours of the morning, w i l l i n f a l l i b l y reach the h e a r t , and through i t , the i n t e l l e c t of every Englishman who seeks to understand i t . (4.9, 83) There are b e n e f i t s on both s i d e s to be gained from a s t r o n g between a c u l t u r e and and  i t s literature.  Not  o n l y i s there a " n a t i o n a l v i g o u r  h e a l t h concurrent with a l i t e r a t u r e which stands  sympathy to the n a t i o n " (5.5, 501), but  and  feeling  i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s of  "as the r i v e r shapes the v a l l e y ,  the v a l l e y g i v e s the r i v e r i t s b i a s , so the poet g e n e r a l c u r r e n t of thought  relationship  i s at once moulded by  p r e v a l e n t i n each a g e , — a n d  and  the  then  h i m s e l f a i d s i n moulding them" (4.15, 338).  P a l g r a v e ' s work as a l i t e r a r y  critic  t h a t E n g l i s h p o e t r y must be  and e d i t o r i s a l l based  "read much, and  by many" i n "the i n t e r e s t s of a l i v i n g  i n e v i t a b l y , he admits, obtain t h i s " are based  on h i s b e l i e f  "something must...be j u s t l y  (4.8, 779-800).  literature."  s a c r i f i c e d , i f n e e d f u l , to  P a l g r a v e ' s c r i t i c i s m and  on t h a t r e a d i n e s s to make whatever adjustments  make p o e t r y a t t r a c t i v e and His c r i t i c a l from Wyatt and  And  the Golden T r e a s u r y are necessary  to  accessible.  a r t i c l e s and  reviews  c o n c e n t r a t e on E n g l i s h l y r i c  poetry  Surrey onwards, although as Oxford P r o f e s s o r o f Poetry,  gave a l e c t u r e s e r i e s on the Renaissance  movement i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y , w i t h "Chaucer and  the  he  one  lecture—later  p u b l i s h e d as 4 . 2 2 — d e a l i n g  Italian  Renaissance."  I t i s , i n f a c t , p r i m a r i l y a survey of Chaucer's works, but i t  70  also l i n k s  Chaucer t o Dante and Boccaccio and  regards as the d i s t i n c t i v e  shortcomings  f i n d s i n Chaucer what Palgrave  of E n g l i s h p o e t r y .  Palgrave  t h a t , while exposure t o I t a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e had a s a l u t a r y e f f e c t Chaucer, the poet's work has  fatal  argues  on  limitations:  I t was, i n s h o r t , i n the r e g i o n of a r t t h a t he p r o f i t e d most [but] he i s wanting i n form. The a r t of c o n c e a l i n g a r t has not dawned on him. There i s l i t t l e p e r s p e c t i v e i n h i s work...his sense of p o e t i c a l u n i t y i s i n some degree immature. Hence he does not succeed i n s h o r t p i e c e s ; he has no command over the pure l y r i c : d e s p i t e h i s knowledge o f P e t r a r c h , he does not attempt sonnet or canzone. Chaucer stands thus between the o l d world and the new; but on the whole, to use again a phrase of the day, he i s r e a c t i o n a r y i n temperament; he i s s i n g u l a r l y wanting i n enthusiasm. (4.22, 354) E n g l i s h p o e t r y , i n P a l g r a v e ' s view, begins with the E l i z a b e t h a n l y r i c . Palgrave's best known a r t i c l e , p u b l i s h e d f o u r months a f t e r  "The  Growth of E n g l i s h Poetry"  the Treasury appeared, b e g i n s , a f t e r a b r i e f  d i s m i s s a l of Chaucer as a " r e t r o s p e c t i v e " poet who middle lyric  ages r a t h e r than forward  s h o r t of h i s i d e a l s of u n i t y , f i n i s h , and  article  i n the t h r e e - p a r t m a n i f e s t o ,  Poetry from Dryden to Cowper" ( 4 . 7 ) , and  the "extravagance"  of p o e t r y and  the Romantics and  second  deals with " E n g l i s h  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y poets f o r  p r o v i d i n g , i n many cases,  of the E l i z a b e t h a n s .  the t r i l o g y , " D e s c r i p t i v e Poetry i n England Palgrave f i n a l l y  The  terms,  uses s i m i l a r l y d i s m i s s i v e terms,  a l t h o u g h Palgrave p r a i s e s the s e v e n t e e n t h - and  from  simplicity.  p u b l i s h e d i n 1862,  the  with an a n a l y s i s of  I t i s a l l wanting i n Palgrave's  falling  the s u b j e c t matter  looks backward toward  toward the Renaissance,  p o e t r y from Wyatt t o Dryden.  widening  (4.5)  Only i n the f i n a l  relief  article  of  from Anne to V i c t o r i a , " does  reach the era i n which he f e e l s most c o m f o r t a b l e — t h a t o f the p o e t r y of Wordsworth:  71  Hence i n Wordsworth more of the modern elements and tendencies appear to be u n i t e d than i n h i s contemporaries; and u n i t e d a l s o w i t h g r e a t e r balance and moderation than i n any one of them. Less so i n appearance, he i s thus more e s s e n t i a l l y Greek than they...on the whole, I t h i n k the v o i c e s of the best judges would reckon Wordsworth as the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e man among h i s contemporary p o e t s — a s the man who has done f u l l e s t j u s t i c e to h i s powers, and had l e f t us the most v a l u a b l e and d e l i g h t f u l l e g a c y i n song which has f a l l e n to England d u r i n g the l a s t two c e n t u r i e s . That which i s here g i v e n to Wordsworth, i f he deserves i t , i s the best p r a i s e , as i t i s the r a r e s t : — T o have the h i g h e s t powers, and to b r i n g them a l l i n t o harmony; t o combine them i n j u s t u n i t y . (4.10, 317) These three a r t i c l e s c o v e r i n g the h i s t o r y of modern E n g l i s h p o e t r y sum Palgrave's c r i t i c a l  up  a r t i c l e s of f a i t h : h i s focus on the l y r i c , h i s i n s i s t e n c e  on a narrow range of p o e t i c laws and what he regards as "Greek" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and h i s r i g i d v i s i o n of E n g l i s h p o e t r y . articles  reiterate  (4.11) and  these views i n r e l a t i o n  E l i z a b e t h a n m a d r i g a l poets  to s u b j e c t s such as E n g l i s h hymns  (4.19).  As a r e v i e w e r , Palgrave t a c k l e d a wider  range of s u b j e c t s , though he  o b v i o u s l y f e l t most at home d e a l i n g w i t h p o e t r y . with the v e r s d ' o c c a s i o n o f Praed i n i t Palgrave f a i l s  A l l h i s subsequent  A r e v e a l i n g review d e a l s  and M i l n e s , the l a t t e r a c l o s e f r i e n d ,  and  to hide h i s contempt f o r o c c a s i o n a l v e r s e :  Lamentable as the c o n f e s s i o n may be, we are bound to make i t : — E x c e p t s a t i r i c a l l y (when the i d e a i s to p o i n t out that the t h i n g i s u n p o e t i c a l ) , as i n some of the i n d i g n a n t phrases of 'Maud,' Poetry pure can h a r d l y e n t e r a 'good' house, or j o i n i n a v a l s e ; — s h e can accept k i d g l o v e s and t a r l a t a n , suppers and dowagers, but i n s i l e n c e o n l y ; i f she has to speak of them, i t i s too l i k e l y to be with something of the white and serene scorn which might wreathe the l i p s of the P r a x i t e l e a n A p h r o d i t e . (5.15, 417) Palgrave c o n c e n t r a t e d a l s o on biography, a r t i s t s , and he reviewed  particularly  the l i v e s  of  G i l c h r i s t ' s L i f e of Blake e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t w i c e , at  l e a s t p a r t l y from the baser motive of h e l p i n g Macmillan r e l a t i v e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l volume.  get r i d of the  H i s l o v e of Blake's e n g r a v i n g s , which he  72  c o l l e c t e d , was  j o i n e d by an a d m i r a t i o n f o r Blake's Songs of Innocence,  but  he  condemned B l a k e ' s m y s t i c a l experiments u n r e s e r v e d l y : U n h a p p i l y f o r h i m s e l f and f o r us, that o b s t i n a t e element which i s r a r e l y absent from g e n i u s , and from which n a t u r a l quickness of mind combined w i t h i m p e r f e c t mental c u l t u r e always i n t e n s i f y to the u t t e r m o s t , l e d Blake i n t o that unsafe p r o p h e t i c r e g i o n , where, w h i l s t we sympathise throughout w i t h the noble nature and unworldly l o f t i n e s s of the man, and are amazed at the i m a g i n a t i v e power of h i s work, we have to lament that so much grandeur and so much s k i l l s h o u l d be wasted on the u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . (5.8, 13) L i k e so many of h i s contemporaries, Palgrave d i d not h e s i t a t e p o s i t i o n as a reviewer to f u r t h e r the r e p u t a t i o n s of h i s f r i e n d s . reviews of The Roman Poets o f the R e p u b l i c (5.6) and a b a l l a d V i r g i l ' s Aeneid  (5.18) p r a i s e books by h i s Oxford f r i e n d s W.  to use h i s His  t r a n s l a t i o n of Y.  Sellar  John Conington, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a l t h o u g h he takes the o p p o r t u n i t y i n the  and latter  review to a t t a c k Matthew A r n o l d f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n i n "On T r a n s l a t i n g Homer" that the q u a n t i t a t i v e hexameter should be used f o r such  translations.  P a l g r a v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y makes h i s a t t a c k p e r s o n a l : Mr. A r n o l d . . . l o v e s a good unbroken l e v e l of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n upon which to b u i l d h i s argument, and, l i k e the French, the convenience of the argument i s o c c a s i o n a l l y d i s p o s e d to o v e r l o o k or to l e v e l away the f a c t s . (5.18, P a r t 2, 406) These remarks may views  have been sparked by A r n o l d ' s r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d n e g a t i v e  on P a l g r a v e ' s Handbook and notes to the Golden T r e a s u r y i n Essays i n  Criticism, first  series  D e s p i t e h i s own interest  attempts  i n the n o v e l .  unsympathetic  (1865).  to the man  i n the genre, P a l g r a v e had  An e a r l y survey of Thackeray's  viewing l i f e  and  critical  works i s so  that Macmillan's Magazine r e f u s e d to p u b l i s h i t .  Palgrave o b j e c t s t o Thackeray's of  little  novels f i r s t l y  f o r the author's " e a r l y h a b i t  r e p r o d u c i n g i t w i t h an impassive and m i r r o r - l i k e  fidelity  [which] i s a q u a l i t y which, under the name C y n i c i s m , i s f a m i l a r to a l l h i s  73  r e a d e r s " (5.5, 507).  Secondly, he condemns Thackeray  because he d e a l s  e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h p o l i t e s o c i e t y and does not c o n s i d e r "the common people" (517).  On that ground, P a l g r a v e compares him u n f a v o u r a b l y w i t h S c o t t : the d i f f e r e n c e we f e e l i s wider than the d i f f e r e n c e between the atmosphere of a t h e a t r e and the atmosphere of Freshwater; of a b a l l supper-room and t h e " u n c o r r u p t i b l e sea." We c l o s e "The B r i d e of Lammermoor" w i t h a sense of h e a l t h y p a i n and h e a l t h y p l e a s u r e ; Pendennis w i t h a " V a n i t a s Vanitatum." (512)  P a l g r a v e ' s l o v e o f S c o t t ' s n o v e l s , among t h e e a r l i e s t he read as a c h i l d , i s paralleled  by a l o v e of h i s p o e t r y , so e v i d e n t i n the generous s e l e c t i o n i n  the Golden T r e a s u r y .  H i s o n l y o t h e r n o v e l review i s an e a r l y one e v a l u a t i n g  A l f r e d de Musset's works ( 5 . 3 ) .  The a r t i c l e c o n c e n t r a t e s on h i s p o e t r y and,  where i t c o n s i d e r s t h e n o v e l s at a l l c o n s i s t s mainly of p l o t Given  the narrow range o f P a l g r a v e ' s views,  outlines.  i t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g that  h i s i n f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h c r i t i c i s m has been l a r g e l y i n d i r e c t , d e r i v i n g  from  the Golden T r e a s u r y and h i s f i f t e e n other e d i t i o n s and a n t h o l o g i e s , i n c l u d i n g the Second S e r i e s of poets a l i v e i n 1850, t h e two books by h i s b r o t h e r G i f f o r d , Hermann Agha (2.30) and A V i s i o n of L i f e  (2.45), and h i s two  T r e a s u r i e s , The C h i l d r e n ' s T r e a s u r y of E n g l i s h Song (2.32) i n 1875 and The T r e a s u r y of Sacred Song (2.44) i n 1889, which both f o l l o w the e d i t o r i a l p a t t e r n of the o r i g i n a l , though w i t h l e s s s u c c e s s .  The C h i l d r e n ' s T r e a s u r y  i s e s s e n t i a l l y and i n t e n t i o n a l l y a s c h o o l textbook, which P a l g r a v e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r t e x t s a l r e a d y on the market, as he p o i n t e d out to Macmillan,  by the f a c t  t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n s were made on t h e b a s i s of  " p o e t i c a l m e r i t " r a t h e r than t h e i r " s u i t a b l e n e s s t o c h i l d r e n "  (Macmillan  Papers,  2 Oct. 1874).  Treasury.  Although  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p with the  compiled  with the hope of "being able to show our  'sacred' p o e t r y i n a much b e t t e r l i g h t ,  qua  the way  3 May  of t h i n k i n g " (Macmillan Papers,  Song f a i l s  to a v o i d the s t u m b l i n g - b l o c k  the p r e f a c e , he t r i e d  original  p o e t r y , than people  have been i n  1887), the T r e a s u r y of  Sacred  of d i d a c t i c i s m which, as he s t a t e s i n  to a v o i d i n p r e p a r i n g the anthology,  hymns being  " s u b j e c t to the common p e n a l t y , the i n f e r i o r i t y i n a r t , i n h e r e n t i n a l l d i d a c t i c verse" ( v i i ) .  The  selection relies  Oxford Movement, from whom about h a l f unevenness of the T r e a s u r y of Sacred  too h e a v i l y on poets  the s e l e c t i o n s are taken. Song i s apparent  of the The  critical  i n the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of  s i n g u l a r l y poor hymns such as C h r i s t o p h e r Wordsworth's "Hark, the sound of h o l y v o i c e s , c h a n t i n g at the c r y s t a l sea" far-superior in  "Qui Laborat O r a t "  (no. 398), with  (no. 346), which i s t h e m a t i c a l l y d i s c o r d a n t  terms of the Treasury's avowed purpose,  Children's Hospital"  and  and w i t h Tennyson's "In the  (no. 423), which i s c l e a r l y not a hymn at a l l .  His e d i t i o n s of l y r i c articles  poets m i r r o r h i s t a s t e , as expressed  i n the Golden T r e a s u r y , c l o s e l y : he produced  Shakespeare, Wordsworth, S c o t t , H e r r i c k , and The  Clough's  Keats  in his  selections  between 1865  and  from 1884.  Shakespeare s e l e c t i o n , e v e n t u a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n the Golden T r e a s u r y  S e r i e s , i s the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l because i t i s so h e a v i l y b o w d l e r i s e d . Leaning of  on the a u t h o r i t y of Henry Hallam,  the sonnets  (2.11,  242)  and  s i l e n t l y omitted  sequence to hide the omission and Passionate P i l g r i m c o l l e c t i o n a l s o omitted  P a l g r a v e condemned the  adding  seven  five,  "idolatry"  renumbering  inferior  poems from  the the  to p r o v i d e a more a c c e p t a b l e c o n c l u s i o n .  the Venus and Adonis  He  and The Rape of Lucrece because they were  75  "too h i g h l y c o l o u r e d f o r mamas and parsons"  (Macmillan Papers,  1864), even though a l l of Shakespeare's work was  30 March  readily available  The Wordsworth s e l e c t i o n of l y r i c s , i n the Moxon M i n i a t u r e Poets i n essence  elsewhere.  Series,  commissioned by the Wordsworth f a m i l y which, as P a l g r a v e  Macmillan, have "expressed  a wish  Poems f o r Moxon—Payne's new  was  told  t h a t I should make the S e l e c t i o n from h i s  series"  (Macmillan Papers, 3 Dec.  [1865]).  Palgrave used h i s e d i t i o n s , l i k e h i s reviews, to f u r t h e r the f o r t u n e s of  h i s f r i e n d s , such as J . C.  S h a i r p , and  to make h i s f a v o u r i t e  p o e t s — W o r d s w o r t h , Shakespeare, H e r r i c k , and K e a t s — m o r e p o p u l a r , but h i s most r e v e a l i n g  s e l e c t i o n i s the one  b r i e f l y mentioned i n Chapter  One  and  from  the l y r i c s of A l f r e d  Tennyson,  i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y below, which  Palgrave intended to compensate f o r Tennyson's o r i g i n a l v e r s e s to appear i n the Golden T r e a s u r y .  r e f u s a l to a l l o w h i s  The volume, however, r e v e a l s  P a l g r a v e ' s l i m i t e d a p p r e c i a t i o n of Tennyson's work, p a r t i c u l a r l y In Memoriam, which Palgrave cut s e v e r e l y , from e n t i r e l y new  sequence, without  " p e r s o n a l l o v e and connected Palgrave's  131 to 42 s e c t i o n s , and  into  sorrow" f o l l o w e d by the same theme " i n f i g u r e s , or  w i t h aspects of nature and r e a d i n e s s to cut and  sequence i t s e l f , one  religious  rearrange  thought"  (2.37,  the poem suggests  262).  that he d i d not  no development w i t h i n the  of many examples of h i s l i m i t a t i o n s as a  s p i t e of the T r e a s u r y ' s s u c c e s s , i t was  critic.  n e a r l y 30 y e a r s  before  Palgrave achieved h i s ambition of being e l e c t e d P r o f e s s o r o f Poetry at O x f o r d , a l a r g e l y nominal Golden T r e a s u r y was  an  the p r o l o g u e , which presents the theme of  see In Memoriam as a s i n g l e u n i t , and hence saw  In  rearranged  p o s i t i o n which Matthew A r n o l d had h e l d when the  published.  Palgrave was  eager  to be granted  the same  76  honour, but although he stood f o r e l e c t i o n f i r s t he had to wait u n t i l  when A r n o l d r e t i r e d i n 1867,  1885, when, on h i s t h i r d nomination,  he was  finally  elected. F o l l o w i n g A r n o l d ' s example, P a l g r a v e chose to l e c t u r e i n E n g l i s h , r a t h e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l L a t i n , although he gave the Creweian O r a t i o n i n L a t i n a t Convocation  i n a l t e r n a t e y e a r s , d e v o t i n g the 1888 o r a t i o n to Matthew A r n o l d ,  who had d i e d suddenly a few months p r e v i o u s l y . responsibilities  Palgrave  took h i s  s e r i o u s l y , and, again f o l l o w i n g A r n o l d , he p u b l i s h e d as many  of h i s l e c t u r e s as he c o u l d i n Macmillan's The N i n e t e e n t h Century.  Magazine, The N a t i o n a l Review, and  These l e c t u r e s d e a l with h i s d i s t i n c t i v e  interests.  Of the f o u r known s e r i e s , two d e a l with p o e t r y and the a r t s —  poetry's  relationship  the other two  to the f i n e a r t s , and landscape  d e a l w i t h the Renaissance felt one  i n poetry—while  movement i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y and poets who Palgrave  had been n e g l e c t e d by the c r i t i c s .  The l a t t e r are not i d e n t i f i e d , but  of them i s probably Henry Vaughan, f o r whose p o e t r y Palgrave had  developed lyric  a taste i n l a t e r l i f e  tradition.  Although  on the b a s i s of Vaughan's p l a c e i n the Welsh  h i s own Welsh blood must have been  minimal,  P a l g r a v e was an e n t h u s i a s t i c member of the Cymmrodorion S o c i e t y ; he spoke Welsh and named one of h i s daughters His f i n a l literary  s e t o f Oxford  Gwenllian.*^  l e c t u r e s formed the b a s i s of h i s o n l y book o f  c r i t i c i s m , Landscape i n P o e t r y from Homer t o Tennyson.  d i s c u s s i o n of landscape  The  i s by no means new: not o n l y does i t r e i t e r a t e  P a l g r a v e ' s Wordsworthian concept  of E n g l i s h p o e t r y , f i r s t m a n i f e s t e d  T r e a s u r y and repeated throughout  h i s c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s , but i t a l s o  ground a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d , f i r s t  of a l l by Ruskin and then by h i s  i n the covers  77  P r o f e s s o r i a l p r e d e c e s s o r , J . C. S h a i r p , i n h i s On the P o e t i c a l of  Nature,  p u b l i s h e d twenty years p r e v i o u s l y .  The c r i t i c s  Interpretation  disliked  the book,  f i n d i n g i n i t "much which i s I r r e l e v a n t , and much which i s s u r p r i s i n g l y defective."^ expressed  They condemned h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s o f Greek and L a t i n and  t h e i r disappointment  t h a t h i s survey o f E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e was so  s e l e c t i v e : "Mr. P a l g r a v e h u r r i e s over the E l i z a b e t h a n poets w i t h too much e x p e d i t i o n , and the poets of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y f a r e even worse. i n j u s t i c e i s done to Thomson."*  Great  7  Palgrave's only other c o n t r i b u t i o n to l i t e r a t u r e i s a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s in  Chambers C y c l o p e d i a o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e on K e a t s , Sidney, A l f r e d and  C h a r l e s Tennyson, and Wordsworth (4.25-29). literary  critical  By the end of h i s l i f e , h i s  powers, which had h a r d l y developed  beyond the f i x e d  p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i e d i n the Golden T r e a s u r y , were l a r g e l y o v e r l o o k e d by the new g e n e r a t i o n of c r i t i c s .  His c r i t i c a l  r e c e p t i o n i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i s  e p i t o m i z e d by George S a i n t s b u r y i n h i s H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h C r i t i c i s m , who s a y s , i n d i s c u s s i n g the Oxford c h a i r of p o e t r y : The great achievement of Mr. S h a i r p ' s s u c c e s s o r , F r a n c i s Turner P a l g r a v e , i n r e g a r d to l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , i s an i n d i r e c t one, and had been m o s t l y done years and decades b e f o r e he was e l e c t e d t o the C h a i r . L i t t l e i n d e e d , though something, was g i v e n to the world as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f h i s p r o f e s s o r i a l work. As an a c t u a l c r i t i c or reviewer, P a l g r a v e was no doubt d i s t i n g u i s h e d not o v e r - f a v o u r a b l y by that tendency to " s p l a s h " and tapage o f manner which he shared w i t h K i n g l a k e and some other w r i t e r s o f the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and which has been r e c e n t l y r e v i v e d . But h i s r e a l t a s t e was i n a manner warranted by h i s f r i e n d s h i p s ; and h i s f r i e n d s h i p s must almost have kept him r i g h t i f he had had l e s s t a s t e . He may have p r o f i t e d l a r g e l y by these f r i e n d s h i p s i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of t h a t r e a l l y Golden T r e a s u r y , which, i f i t does not a c h i e v e the i m p o s s i b l e i n g i v i n g everybody what he wants, a l l he wants, and n o t h i n g that he does not want, i s by g e n e r a l c o n f e s s i o n the most s u c c e s s f u l attempt i n a q u i t e a p p a l l i n g l y d i f f i c u l t k i n d .  78  NOTES * J . Churton C o l l i n s , "An A p p r e c i a t i o n of P r o f e s s o r P a l g r a v e , " Saturday Review, 84 (30 O c t . 1897), 487. o  W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i , review of Essays on A r t , F i n e A r t s Q u a r t e r l y , NS 1 (1866), 309. Matthew A r n o l d , "The L i t e r a r y I n f l u e n c e of Academies," i n Essays i n C r i t i c i s m (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1865), pp. 71-3. 4  W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i , 309.  ^ John 0. W a l l e r , " F r a n c i s Turner P a l g r a v e ' s C r i t i c i s m s of Tennyson's In Memoriam," V i c t o r i a n N e w s l e t t e r , 52 (1977), 13.  and  ^ Palgrave i s quoting from The C o n v e r s a t i o n o f Goethe w i t h Eckermann S o r e t , t r a n s . J . Oxenford (London: B e l l , 1850). 7  The E d u c a t i o n of Henry Adams, p. 220.  Q  W i l l i a m Holman Hunt, P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m and The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood, 2, p . 225. 9  1  " J . 0.," L e t t e r to The Times, 15 May 1862, p. 9. 0  , L e t t e r to The Times, 16 May 1862, p. 12.  ^ Anonymous poem, quoted i n Holman Hunt's P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m and The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood, 2, p. 233. 1 2  The E d u c a t i o n o f Henry Adams, p. 214.  1 3  John R u s k i n , l e t t e r of 22 March [1855], C o l l e c t e d Works, ed. E. T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1892), 36, pp. 193-4: " i t i s a most v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the h i s t o r y of p a i n t i n g . I s h a l l use i t f o r r e f e r e n c e when I come to the s u b j e c t o f e n g r a v i n g . " ^ Wyke B a y l i s s , The P r o f e s s o r o f Poetry a t Oxford and the Witness of A r t , a C u r i o s i t y o f Modern L i t e r a t u r e (London: W. H. A l l e n , 1888), p . 7.  ^ F o r a f u l l e r c h e c k l i s t of P a l g r a v e ' s l e c t u r e s as P r o f e s s o r of Poetry, i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c a t i o n d e t a i l s , see the Appendix t o Part 1, S e c t i o n 4, o f the b i b l i o g r a p h y . l fi  Critica 1 7  1  J . Churton C o l l i n s , review of Landscape i n P o e t r y , Ephemera (London: C o n s t a b l e , 1901), p. 237. C o l l i n s , p. 247.  Q  George S a i n t s b u r y , A H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h C r i t i c i s m London: Blackwood's, 1911), pp. 538-9.  (Edinburgh and  i  79  CHAPTER THREE: PALGRAVE AS POET  But never was there seen so strange an i n s t a n c e of a mind, e x q u i s i t e l y j u d i c i o u s i n regard to the compositions of o t h e r s , powerless to c r i t i c i z e i t s own p r o d u c t i o n s . Thought, and even f a n c y were.often present i n P a l g r a v e ' s v e r s e , but melody never. His m e t r i c a l i n f e l i c i t i e s were i n c o r r i g i b l e . I t may be s a i d without e x a g g e r a t i o n that he has l e f t behind him not a s i n g l e l i n e of good p o e t r y . * Of a l l P a l g r a v e ' s l i t e r a r y w r i t i n g s , h i s p o e t r y was s u c c e s s f u l , never  a t t a i n i n g e i t h e r the c l a s s i c a l u n i t y and  of  the E n g l i s h l y r i c  of  l e t t e r s , Palgrave f e l t  and  least  f i n i s h he demanded  or the r e c o g n i t i o n that he d e s p e r a t e l y sought. that w r i t i n g v e r s e was  as time went on he devoted  Moreover, he l i v e d his  the  As a  man  part of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  more and more a t t e n t i o n  to p u b l i c v e r s e .  i n an age of g r e a t poets and numbered many of them among  f r i e n d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Tennyson, but a l s o Browning and  poets, R o s s e t t i , Patmore, Woolner, and A l l i n g h a m .  the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e  But Palgrave was  both  i n s u f f i c i e n t l y able to t r a n s f e r the c o n s c i o u s p r i n c i p l e s he employed i n shaping  the T r e a s u r y to h i s own  r e c o g n i s e h i s own was  p o e t i c shortcomings.  insufficiently  While  lyrics,  s a l e s or adverse  self-critical  his innate t a l e n t  o b v i o u s l y s l i g h t , he composed v e r s e s most of h i s l i f e ,  d i v e r t e d by l i m i t e d  his  p o e t r y and  criticism.  The  t h u s , l i e s not i n h i s p o e t i c achievements,  r e p u t a t i o n as a minor member of the " c o n t e m p l a t i v e "  f o r poetry  r e f u s i n g to be  interest  of P a l g r a v e ' s  but i n the extent  p o e t i c p r a c t i c e m i r r o r s h i s c r i t i c a l t h e o r i e s and  to  to which  i n h i s contemporary  s c h o o l to which Edmund  2 Stedman a l s o r e l e g a t e d A r n o l d and  Clough.  Palgrave p u b l i s h e d s i x volumes of p o e t r y between 1854 and  and  1892:  Songs ( 1 8 5 4 ) H y m n s (1867), L y r i c a l Poems (1871), A Lyme Garland  Idyls (1874),  80  The V i s i o n s of England (1880), and Amenophis (1892); i n a d d i t i o n he p u b l i s h e d some 40 poems i n p e r i o d i c a l s and an e q u a l number i n contemporary a n t h o l o g i e s and c o l l e c t i o n s .  In a l l , he composed more than 250 poems, I n c l u d i n g  t r a n s l a t i o n s , on a wide range of s u b j e c t s , many of which i l l u s t r a t e s i m i l a r to those emphasised  concerns  i n h i s c r i t i c a l prose, e s p e c i a l l y E n g l i s h  history  and l a n d s c a p e . I d y l s and Songs shows h i s e a r l y and enduring enthusiasm f o r the c l a s s i c a l Greek and L a t i n l y r i c s I n the number of t r a n s l a t i o n s from Sappho, C a t u l l u s , and Horace, an enthusiasm l a t e r extended c l a s s i c a l forms and s u b j e c t s i n L y r i c a l Poems.  i n experiments w i t h  It also contains early  commemorative v e r s e s , works modelled on the b a l l a d , and p e r s o n a l l y r i c s of l o v e and l o s t  c h i l d h o o d , e a r l y examples of the s t r o n g e l e g a i c s t r a i n  runs through h i s v e r s e . Darwinism  which  H i s Hymns d e a l s l a r g e l y w i t h the c h a l l e n g e of  t o c o n v e n t i o n a l f a i t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c o n t e x t of the Oxford  Movement.  The Lyme G a r l a n d , a pamphlet  o f f o u r t e e n poems w r i t t e n to a i d a  s c h o o l c h a r i t y i n h i s adopted town of Lyme R e g i s , g a t h e r s a number of h i s experiments  i n d e s c r i b i n g landscape and r e v e a l s h i s t a l e n t f o r w r i t i n g  s i m p l e r hymns and the s t i r r i n g s of h i s i n t e r e s t finds i t s f u l l e s t  development  i n The V i s i o n s of England, a sequence  on events from the c o u n t r y ' s p a s t . of  which of  lyrics  Amenophis, h i s l a s t volume, a s e l e c t i o n  m a i n l y r e p r i n t e d poems, i l l u s t r a t e s  Interests.  i n English history,  the v a r i e t y of P a l g r a v e ' s p o e t i c  The ambitious and l e n g t h y t i t l e poem, "Amenophis,"  u n s u c c e s s f u l , c o n s i d e r s "the E g y p t i a n , Greek,  though  and Jewish i d e a s of the  e x i s t e n c e of God b e f o r e such i d e a s had been ' c o n s c i o u s l y a n a l y s e d ' " ( L i f e , 228).  p.  81  His f i r s t volume, I d y l s and  Songs, c o n t a i n s  83 poems, n e a r l y  o f h i s p o e t i c canon, d e a l i n g w i t h most of the s u b j e c t s above.  His  i n t e r e s t i n the Greek and  "On  Reading T h e o c r i t u s . "  to 44 l i n e s .  Occasionally,  capturing  simple,  the  The  themes mentioned  L a t i n l y r i c , a mainstay of h i s  c r i t i c i s m , i s shown i n t r a n s l a t i o n s and and  and  one-third  i n poems l i k e  "The  ten t r a n s l a t i o n s are  as i n "The  Fall  of Paganism"  a l l b r i e f , from e i g h t  B r i d a l , " Palgrave succeeds i n  d i r e c t images of the o r i g i n a l Sapphic poem, as i n t h i s  example of the meeting of the b r i d e and  bridegroom:  High l i f t the beams of the chamber, Workmen, on h i g h ; L i k e Ares i n step comes the Bridegroom; L i k e him of the song of Terpander, L i k e him i n majesty. — 0 f a i r — 0 sweet! As the sweet apple blooms h i g h on the bough, High on the h i g h e s t ; f o r g o t of the g a t h e r e r s : So T h o u : — Yet not so: nor f o r g o t of the g a t h e r e r s ; High o'er t h e i r reach i n the golden a i r , — 0 sweet—O f a i r ! But  more o f t e n , by  adopting tetrameter  with an i n t r u s i v e metre and Aphrodite"  rhyme, as  c o u p l e t s , P a l g r a v e s p o i l s the  sense  these l i n e s from Sappho's "Hymn to  show: Come, as once to Love's i m p l o r i n g Accents of a maid's a d o r i n g , Wafted 'neath the golden dome Bore thee from thy f a t h e r ' s home.  The  l i m i t e d capacity  m e t r i c a l and poems and  of the E n g l i s h language to render a c c u r a t e l y  s y l l a b i c values  of Greek poetry  i s evident  t r a n s l a t i o n s ; i t a l s o accounts f o r much of the  i n Palgrave's  the own  confusion  s u r r o u n d i n g h i s a e s t h e t i c demands that E n g l i s h poets should  emulate  classical  poetry.  In h i s d e d i c a t o r y  poem to L y r i c a l Poems, "To  Free Athens," P a l g r a v e c l e a r l y r e c o g n i s e s espouses, but critical  this dedication,  writings, defines Where are  the  the  the Immortal Memory of  f u t i l i t y of the i d e a l  perhaps more c l e a r l y than any classical  the f l a w l e s s  values  he  comment i n h i s  towards which he  aspires:  form,  The sweet p r o p r i e t y of measured phrase, The words that c l o t h e the i d e a , not d i s g u i s e , Horizons pure from haze, And calm c l e a r v i s i o n of H e l l e n i c eyes? Strength ever v e i l ' d by g r a c e ; The mind's anatomy i m p l i e d , not shown; No g r a s p i n g s f o r the vague, no f r u i t l e s s f i r e s ; — Y e t , heard 'neath a l l , the tone Of those f a r realms to which the s o u l a s p i r e s . Upon l i f e ' s f i e l d they look'd With f e a r l e s s gaze, t r u s t i n g t h e i r s i g h t , — t h e w h i l e Conscious the God's whole scheme they could not see; But smiled a manly s m i l e , And  the  sane song spoke the h e a r t ' s  That u n f a n t a s t l c  sanity.  strain,  V o i d of weak f e v e r and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s c r y , — T r u t h bold and pure i n her own n a k e d n e s s , — What modern hand can t r y , T r a c i n g the d e l i c a t e l i n e 'twixt More and Less? Yet as one who, aiming h i g h , Must aim f a r o'er the mark that he can g a i n , — 0 s h i n i n g C i t y of the Maiden S h r i n e . — I name not thee i n v a i n , If these l a t e Northern l a y s be k i n to t h i n e . In h i s o r i g i n a l verse  and  experiments he urged on other examining h i s poetry t e c h n i q u e and  in detail  t r a n s l a t i o n s , Palgrave conducted many of p o e t s , and  one  of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n s  for  i s to i d e n t i f y those changes i n p o e t i c  s u b j e c t matter which he f e l t  would improve E n g l i s h  Besides t r a n s l a t i o n s , I d y l s a l s o c o n t a i n s a r t s , such as "The  the  B i r t h of A r t , " d e d i c a t e d  poetry.  poems d e a l i n g w i t h the  to Benjamin Jowett, which  fine  s p e c i f i c a l l y p o i n t s t o past "happy days" when We h e l d d i s c o u r s e , dear F r i e n d , on a r t and v e r s e : What s t y l e , what metre, f i t t i n g as a robe The naked thought beneath, endraping i t In t h o u s a n d - f o l d e x p r e s s i o n — a d d i n g grace Where i t r e c e i v e d i t — b e s t might s u i t the modes And giddy-paced i n v e n t i o n of our age. In  i t , P a l g r a v e imagines a r t "from the p r i n c i p l e s / And  b e a u t i f u l , deduced" which now,  canons of the  "by need / Of a l l - i n v e n t i n g man,  and fond  requirement" are "faded" under the " f e v e r ' d weight" of man's "busy l i f e " day-long c a r e . "  and  Others i n c l u d e o c c a s i o n a l sonnets addressed t o h i s f a t h e r ' s  f r i e n d Henry Hallam; h i s Oxford f r i e n d s , l i n g u i s t Max  M u l l e r and diplomat  Burnet M o r i e r ; and two women, h i s " P r e c i o s a , " Georgina A l d e r s o n , and "Childhood's I n t e r p r e t e r , " E. V. B o y l e , whose c h i l d r e n ' s books he was to  p r a i s e a g a i n i n M a c m i l l a n ' s Magazine ( 5 . 2 0 ) .  addressed visit  to " L o u i s Napoleon  More p u b l i c a r e a poem  Bonaparte," w r i t t e n i n December 1848  to the French R e p u b l i c and p r a i s i n g France as "The F i r s t  F r e e , " and an e l e g y f o r Robert P e e l , k i l l e d  later  i n a sudden f a l l  after a  among the  from h i s h o r s e .  The l o n g e r poems i n the volume i n c l u d e a remarkably bad one i n blank v e r s e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h l y r i c s and e n t i t l e d  "Blanche and Ada: an O p e r e t t a . "  Among the more i n t e r e s t i n g poems i n I d y l s and Songs are those i n which the h i g h l y s e n t i m e n t a l , " s u b j e c t i v e " s i d e of P a l g r a v e ' s n a t u r e i s g i v e n f u l l r e i n I n l y r i c s on the " P r e c i o s a " theme of u n r e q u i t e d l o v e , i n a number of poems addressed t o l i t t l e Morning"  g i r l s , and i n a group  of b a l l a d s .  r e p r i s e s the " P r e c i o s a " theme of romantic d e s p a i r : In  dreams I heard thy mother say  'She yet i s ours at dawn of day, And h i s b e f o r e the s e t t i n g ' : — And thou wast by thy mother's s i d e ,  "Night  and  And And  gav'st a s i g h of happy p r i d e , sweetness past a l i f e ' s f o r g e t t i n g .  — I wake to know the v i s i o n has f l e d ; The slumberous sweetness v a n i s h e d , And d r e a r y d a y l i g h t gleaming. — A n d i s the h a n d — t h e s m i l e — t h e s i g h — Love, a l l thy tokens v a n i t y ? And a r t thou Love alone i n dreaming? Not  u n r e l a t e d i n i t s e l e g a i c tone, but i n a d i f f e r e n t view, i s "The  C h i l d , " lamenting —And  the death of a l i t t t l e  around my  Dream  girl:  neck  Her l i t t l e arms she f l u n g : then on my l i p s Press'd t r e a s u r e d s o f t c a r e s s e s : more than o f t R e g a r d l e s s Childhood l a v i s h e s : sure p r o o f , Sweet, undesign'd, of l o v e that knew no s t i n t , No l o o k i n g back, or forward: the pure l o v e Of s e l f - u n c o n s c i o u s c o n f i d e n c e . Apart  from  the b a r e l y suppressed  s e x u a l i t y of t h i s s t a n z a , the language,  with  the c o n v e n t i o n a l p h r a s i n g so commmon i n P a l g r a v e ' s p o e t r y , i s hackneyed, and its  syntax i s so d i s r u p t e d as to be almost  "more than o f t / Regardless  Childhood  incomprehensible  in a line  like  lavishes."  Images of c h i l d h o o d , coupled w i t h sublimated e r o t i c i s m , appear f r e q u e n t l y i n P a l g r a v e ' s p o e t r y , sometimes even i n poems seemingly unrelated  to the theme.  Reynolds,"  In "The  Age  of Innocence: Sonnet t o S i r J .  f o r example, P a l g r a v e expresses  h i s admiration f o r  p a i n t i n g s of c h i l d r e n , which he h i m s e l f c o l l e c t e d , and which he  f o r the  s e m i - c o n s c i o u s l y p e r c e i v e d i n the p a i n t i n g s : Reynolds,  totally  thou a r t a l i v e i n c h i l d r e n  yet—  Where'er t h e i r s m i l e s are gay, t h e i r t r e s s e s b r i g h t , Where'er the young eyes g l a n c e , the f e e t t r i p l i g h t , Thine a l l - p r e s a g i n g s k i l l i t s stamp hath s e t . On l i t t l e A l i c e l a t e one morn I gazed, D a r l i n g of many h e a r t s , h a l f r i s e n from s l e e p : The long l o o s e l o c k s , the moist f u l l eyes set deep  Reynolds' eroticism  85  In c h i s e l l ' d shade: t r a n s l u c e n t hands u p r a i s e d From s l e e p - f l u s h ' d cheeks the wavy stream to p a r t : C o r a l l i n e l i p s , and curved i n wakening g l e e : — I s i g h ' d to t h i n k thou were not there to see The g r a c i o u s i n c a r n a t i o n of t h i n e a r t : — — S o t h i s f a i n t s k e t c h upon thy s h r i n e I p l a c e , Pleased thy s u g g e s t i o n w i t h thy name to g r a c e . Palgrave,  as noted i n Chapter Two,  mannerist v o c a b u l a r y , but conventional,  condemned Tennyson f o r h i s use  Palgrave himself  relied  upon the same  even c l i c h e d , p o e t i c d i c t i o n that he  " t r e s s e s , " f e e t which " t r i p , " locution i n his verse.  The  and  the use  condemns i n h i s  of the a r c h a i c  "thou," a p e r s i s t e n t  Shakespearean forms, but  awkward, as, f o r example, i n l i n e s 2 and  "Thine a l l - p r e s a g i n g s k i l l  and  that a l l b e a u t i f u l g i r l - c h i l d r e n  the  compression of the  and  i n l i n e 4 rather  i t s stamp hath s e t " i s  to convey t h a t , as Oscar Wilde s a i d l a t e r , l i f e  art  the metre i s  3, where the heavy caesuras  endstopped l i n e s draw a t t e n t i o n away from Reynold's " s k i l l "  intended  criticism:  rhyme scheme of the Reynolds' sonnet i s  i r r e g u l a r , c o n f l a t i n g the I t a l i a n and  than emphasizing i t .  of  had  come to  imitate  resemble Reynold's p a i n t i n g s ,  i d e a i n t o a s i n g l e l i n e weakens the  f o r c e of  but  the  statement. P a l g r a v e ' s admiration the T r e a s u r y i s e v i d e n t "Cospatrick,"  "The  L o c h l e v e n , " and stilted  "Amy  "literary"  f o r the  i n the  b a l l a d form so s t r o n g l y represented  s i x b a l l a d s i n I d y l s and  L a s s of Lochroyan," Robsart."  language, such as  self-consciously archaic  " p l a s h " and  " r o o f - t r e e " and  Lass of Lochroyan" seems almost  Songs: "Romance,"  "Redbreast's D i r g e , "  Palgrave's ballads r e l y  parodic:  the  in  "Mary of  too h e a v i l y  on  " s a l t - s e a b i l l o w s " and  rhyme "groaning-moaning" i n  the "The  86  Lord Gregory He heard the He heard the But he heard Palgrave's f i r s t  heard the r a i n d r o p s p l a s h , r o o f - t r e e groaning; salt-sea billows crash: not h i s true l o v e moaning. volume e p i t o m i z e s both h i s l i f e - l o n g p o e t i c  p r e o c c u p a t i o n s with s u b j e c t and  form  compounded i n h i s l a t e r volumes. limitations and  i s apparent,  and  those  That he was  t e c h n i c a l d e f i c i e n c e s that are h i m s e l f aware of h i s p o e t i c  i f o n l y t a n g e n t i a l l y , i n h i s poem d e d i c a t i n g I d y l s  Songs t o Tennyson, from whose work he acknowledges u n a u t h o r i z e d  borrowings  ("grace-conferring t h e f t s " ) .  Tennyson c l e a r l y was,  the model of p o e t i c p e r f e c t i o n , the i d e a l a s p i r e d — " A s o u l i n f r i e n d s h i p and  f o r Palgrave,  towards which he unashamedly  i n song"; and  P a l g r a v e ' s volume  intended as an i m p e r f e c t t r i b u t e to the L a u r e a t e , whom he regarded " r o y a l " judge.  Yet, i n the d e d i c a t i o n , he  patronage  nor p r o t e c t i o n from h o s t i l e  poems and  acceptance  last  r e s o r t , / And  solicits  critics;  was as a  n e i t h e r Tennyson's  Tennyson's approval of the  of the d e d i c a t i o n are a l l he seeks: " I h o l d you judge i n  to your v e r d i c t y i e l d  me":  When to the Gods our prayers we b r i n g , 'Tis with t h e i r names we grace them: I d e d i c a t e the songs to you, As on your knees I p l a c e them. Tennyson's response Songs appears That for  review  to the d e d i c a t i o n has not been recorded and  to have a t t r a c t e d no  i n j o u r n a l s of the day deluged  w r i t t e n by p o e t i c n o n e n t i t i e s . and  i t was  competition  w i t h minor volumes of verse  But, with a l l i t s obvious weaknesses,  Songs i s n e i t h e r t o t a l l y devoid of m e r i t nor the worst  poems ever i s s u e d — a n d  and  reviewers.  the book went unnoticed i s not s u r p r i s i n g , g i v e n the space  Idyls  first  Idyls  volume of  p u b l i s h e d r a t h e r than p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d as a  87  vanity publication.  In f a c t , a l l o f Palgrave's p o e t r y was  the e x c e p t i o n of the V i s i o n s of England, P a l g r a v e ' s expense, but was commercially, by a c h a r i t y .  and  initially  q u i c k l y p i c k e d up by Macmillan  the Lyme G a r l a n d , e x p r e s s l y produced  While  p r i n t e d at  and p u b l i s h e d  by P a l g r a v e f o r s a l e  o f t e n clumsy i n e x p r e s s i o n and h i g h l y s e n t i m e n t a l , h i s  e a r l y poems have at l e a s t contrast  which was  published, with  the v i r t u e s of s i m p l i c i t y and  to the a r t i f i c i a l  and  i n t e l l e c t u a l experiments  many poems i n the l a t e r volumes.  sincerity, in that c h a r a c t e r i z e so  T h e i r v a l u e f o r contemporary readers i s  perhaps best summarized i n an i n s c r i p t i o n made i n the volume by a owner of P r o f e s s o r Fredeman's copy, one 1855  former  James G a l b r a i t h P o r t e r , who  i n March  composed the f o l l o w i n g endorsement on the pasted-down endpaper: Mr. P a l g r a v e ' s s t r e n g t h does not l i e i n i n v e n t i o n , but i n the f e e l i n g he throws i n t o what he w r i t e s . He i s e s p e c i a l l y a Poet of the A f f e c t i o n s and h i s h e a r t f u r n i s h e s him w i t h h i s best inspirations. Few d e p i c t b e t t e r a f a t h e r ' s or a husband's l o v e — f e w s i n g sweeter or more a e r i a l d i r g e s over the d e a d — t h a n the author of t h i s s c h o l a r l y , tender l i t t l e volume of Poems. In  1867,  the t h i r t e e n years between I d y l s and  P a l g r a v e was  Songs and h i s volume of Hymns i n  c h i e f l y engaged i n h i s work f o r the E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e ,  p r e p a r a t i o n of the Golden T r e a s u r y , and  his fine art c r i t i c i s m .  P a l g r a v e ' s p o e t r y d u r i n g the f o r t i e s and  fifties  d e a l t with s e c u l a r  i s s u e s , but w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Darwin's O r i g i n of Species i n 1859, he not o n l y read h i m s e l f but a l s o urged  on Tennyson's a t t e n t i o n ,  s c i e n c e of e v o l u t i o n to c o n v e n t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , and  Oxford  response  to h i s involvement  i n the m i d - f o r t i e s which a s s a i l e d  which  Palgrave  p e r c e i v e d a need f o r poetry which d e a l t with the c h a l l e n g e s of the  Hymns i s a delayed  the  new  t h i s volume of  i n the t h e o l o g i c a l debates  at  the f a i t h of so many of h i s f r i e n d s  88  with c r i p p l i n g doubts. Hymns (1867),  address  The twelve  religious verses, f i r s t  the c h a l l e n g e s to r e l i g i o u s  collected  f a i t h i n two d i s t i n c t ways.  Many of them, such as "A L i t t l e C h i l d ' s Hymn f o r Night and Morning," a trusting faith  i n simple c h i l d - l i k e  language.  in his  express  T h i s s t a n z a has a  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n e s s of s t y l e which made the hymns popular f o r s i n g i n g : Be beside me i n the l i g h t , Close by me through a l l the n i g h t ; Make me g e n t l e , k i n d , and t r u e , Do what mother b i d s me do; Help and cheer me when I f r e t , And f o r g i v e me when I f o r g e t . Seven o f them were popular enough to be s e t to music, and the " C h i l d ' s Hymn" was s e p a r a t e l y p u b l i s h e d as a s c h o o l "Broad  Sheet" f o r that v e r y  purpose.  But Palgrave was b e t t e r known f o r h i s complex, p h i l o s o p h i c a l  lyrics  d e a l i n g w i t h the c h a l l e n g e s of Huxleyan s c e p t i c i s m that dominated the dialectical  p o e t r y of the V i c t o r i a n s .  verses i n this volume—obviously  never  Palgrave's s p e c u l a t i v e t h e o l o g i c a l intended  s u n g — a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by weak reassurances overwhelming evidence  t h a t , i n the face of a p p a r e n t l y  to the c o n t r a r y , man should continue to b e l i e v e .  e v o c a t i o n s of the landscape  than  In these two stanzas of  Reign o f Law," i n the t h i r d e d i t i o n , perhaps the r e l i g i o u s poem by  P a l g r a v e most admired by h i s contemporaries, h e l p l e s s n e s s and then attempts his  His  o f d e s p a i r are much more v i v i d l y expressed  the s u b j e c t s of h i s simple hymns of a f f i r m a t i o n . "The  to be s e t to music or  he f i r s t  evokes man's  to r e a s s u r e by a s s e r t i n g  thought": We may not hope to read Nor comprehend the whole Or of the law of t h i n g s Or of the law of s o u l :  that "God may  fulfil  89  E'en in the eternal stars Dim perturbations r i s e ; And a l l the searchers' search Does not exhaust the skies; He who has framed and brought us hither Holds i n his hands the whence and whither. Then, though the sun go up His beaten azure way, God may f u l f i l his thought And bless his world to-day; Beside the law of things The law of mind enthrone, And, f o r the hope of a l l , Reveal Himself in One; Himself the way that leads us t h i t h e r , The A l l - i n - a l l ,  the Whence and Whither.  The repetition of the conditional "may" possibility  i n the passage suggests the  that God may not "bless his world to-<iay," which tends to subvert  the affirmation the poem i s intended to stress.  As Edmund Stedman says i n  the course bf comparing Palgrave with Arnold, "Palgrave's 'Reign of after a l l , i s but making the best of a dark matter.  Law,'  It reasons too closely  to be highly p o e t i c a l . " That readers should make comparisons between Palgrave and other poets writing on similar themes was inevitable, and i n his l i f e t i m e Palgrave  was  perhaps best known as a lesser s a t e l l i t e of a constellation that included, according to Henry Adams, Arnold and Clough: "Among the minor poets of our own day and generation, there have been three i n England who most e a s i l y and naturally into a single group.  seem to f a l l  These are Clough, Matthew  Arnold, and Palgrave."^ Palgrave was  thus part of an established poetic t r a d i t i o n which  counselled, as Tennyson did i n In Memoriam (section 55),  that i n the absence  of s c i e n t i f i c proof, man's only recourse i s to "trust the larger hope."  Even  90  c l o s e r to the mood o f P a l g r a v e ' s poems such as "The Reign o f Law" V o i c e s of Nature," which asks "Who statement  i n "What we,  i s man  or  "The  and what h i s p l a c e ? , " i s Clough's  when face to face we  see" (1850) that  S t i l l what we hope we must b e l i e v e , And what i s g i v e n us r e c e i v e ; Must That What Will  s t i l l b e l i e v e , f o r s t i l l we hope i n a world of l a r g e r scope, here i s f a i t h f u l l y begun be completed, not undone.  But, w h i l e mid-century  critics  p r a i s e d Palgrave f o r attempting to a t t a c k such  i s s u e s head on, by the time Amenophis appeared his  i n 1892,  the c r i t i c s  found  work dated and n a i v e : There have been r e l i g i o u s poets l i k e Dante, M i l t o n , and even Keble, and i n h i s own way Browning, whose f a i t h i n t e r p r e t e d the world to them. There are no such poets now. There are poets s t i l l , and Mr. P a l g r a v e i s one of them, whose f a i t h enables them to l i v e above the world as a stout s a i l o r i n a t i g h t boat may l i v e above a rough sea, without a c h a r t , under the s t a r s .  Palgrave had u n q u e s t i o n a b l y addressed the q u e s t i o n of f a i t h h o n e s t l y i n the c o n t e x t of the i n t e l l e c t u a l had  faced the r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y of God's "disappearance,"  a pillar in  ferment of the day, but where A r n o l d and  P a l g r a v e became  of the e s t a b l i s h e d church, e d i t i n g a T r e a s u r y of Sacred Song l a t e r  the c e n t u r y and  c o n t i n u i n g to p u b l i s h h i s hymns f o r c h i l d r e n .  By the time the t h i r d e d i t i o n o f Hymns was w e l l advanced  i n experiments  l a t e r he produced above.  Clough  w i t h "Greek"  printed  i n 1870,  Palgrave  was  s t y l e and s u b j e c t matter and a year  h i s L y r i c a l Poems w i t h i t s d e d i c a t i o n to Athens  noted  In s p i t e of h i s i n s i s t e n c e on the use of E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s i n p o e t r y ,  many of h i s "Greek"  experiments  use c l a s s i c a l s u b j e c t s which were u n f a m i l i a r ,  as he had h i m s e l f s a i d , to a g e n e r a l audience.  This c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s  91  compounded by h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt to copy the e x t e r n a l s o f Greek form. As Henry Adams p o i n t e d out about P a l g r a v e ' s  "Alcestis":  N e i t h e r E u r i p i d e s nor Sophocles would have cared to throw t h e i r treatment of A l c e s t i s i n t o a mould which was d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e i r countrymen to a p p r e c i a t e , and i f they had done so, the sense of e f f o r t would have taught them and t h e i r audience that they were f o l l o w i n g an u n n a t u r a l p r o c e s s . . . . [The] study of Greek a r t i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y the s t e p p i n g - s t o n e to s u c c e s s , and Mr. P a l g r a v e , a f t e r showing, as i n " A l c e s t i s , " how c a r e f u l h i s study had been, was yet to f i n d h i s n a t u r a l v e i n and to prove the q u a l i t y of h i s genius. That t h i s i s r e f i n e d i s obvious enough. That i t i s generous i n i t s sympathies, i s e v i d e n t . Palgrave's  e f f o r t s were of n e c e s s i t y i n a u t h e n t i c because he r e f u s e d , as h i s  review "On  a T r a n s l a t i o n of V i r g i l ' s Aeneid"  (5.18) d i s c u s s e d above  e x p l a i n s , to employ the Greek q u a n t i t a t i v e hexameter which h i s f r i e n d A r n o l d had  been u r g i n g on modern t r a n s l a t o r s of Homer.  f i v e - l i n e iambic  pentameter s t a n z a s , rhyming a b c c b , bears  m e t r i c a l r e l a t i o n to i t s Greek model. the woman who  "Alcestis," written in  sacrifices herself  "Alcestis"  retells  little  the Greek legend  to the underworld to save her husband:  So her young days upon her s o u l came b a c k : — I o l k o s : the white w a l l s : the p u r p l e c r e s t Of P e l i o n hung above them, whence a c r y Of c l a n g i n g eagles vex'd the summer sky, And loosen'd crags s c a r r ' d the dark mountain b r e a s t : — And how A p o l l o o'er the p u r p l e c r e s t Came w i t h the morn, and sent h i s golden beam S l a n t on the dancing waves: and how she f e a r ' d , That day, when by the e c l i p s e h i s l o c k s were shear'd, U n t i l the God shot f o r t h a s w o r d - l i k e gleam. These v e r s e s read l i k e awkward l i t e r a l phrases  t r a n s l a t i o n s , and  i n the Homeric s t y l e , such as "purple c r e s t " and  together with b a l d language and  they c o n t a i n weak "sword-like,"  r e s t r i c t e d word c h o i c e , intended  approximate to the Greek " f i n i s h " and  s i m p l i c i t y Palgrave  to  so much admired.  of  92  The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n , as Henry Adams says i n h i s review, i s one  of  subdued tone and c a r e f u l f i n i s h ; a s u b o r d i n a t i o n of p a s s i o n to form; a s e l f - r e s t r a i n t which i s not t i m i d i t y , but the r e s u l t of the e f f o r t to r e a l i z e a Greek i d e a l . The drawback i s o b v i o u s l y i n the too g r e a t sense of e f f o r t which such a task i n e v i t a b l y c a r r i e s w i t h it. (440) Most c r i t i c s  agreed w i t h Adams that P a l g r a v e ' s  "Greek" experiments  were  u n s u c c e s s f u l because they were n e i t h e r c r e a t i v e nor o r i g i n a l , but r a t h e r an attempt  to copy s l a v i s h l y the e x t e r n a l s of a dead l i t e r a t u r e .  G r e e k - s t y l e poems over which Palgrave laboured so long and out such hopes i n h i s c r i t i c i s m as a way  i n f l u e n c e , and  new  s u b j e c t matters  these experiments  the E n g l i s h l y r i c ,  chiefly  least  little  the a d o p t i o n of  which he promoted i n h i s c r i t i c i s m , landscape  E n g l i s h h i s t o r y , were more f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d and may at  had  Palgrave e v e n t u a l l y abandoned them, h i s other  p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r improving two  f o r which he h e l d  of s a v i n g E n g l i s h p o e t r y from i t s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c excesses were f a i l u r e s . While apparent  The  indirectly, Kipling  century.  He had  landscape  i n the a r t s , and,  and  and  w e l l have i n f l u e n c e d ,  the other "Empire" poets at the end  long s u b s c r i b e d t o Ruskin's  the  of the  p a s s i o n f o r the use of  as has a l r e a d y been shown, he both  supported  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y P r e - R a p h a e l i t e p a i n t i n g s and admired i n t e n s e l y Wordsworth's and  Tennyson's a b i l i t i e s  admits  to d e s c r i b e landscape  E n g l i s h h i s t o r y has  (2.34, v i i ) ,  realistically.  "from days v e r y remote...supplied  But, while matter  o n l y the p l a y s of Shakespeare and Tennyson's v e r s e s on  m y t h i c a l g l o r y and  f o r song" "the  gloom of the A r t h u r i a n Epos," i n h i s view, c r e a t e  p i c t u r e s of our m a g n i f i c e n t h i s t o r y " His a t t r a c t i o n f o r the "matter  he  "living  (viii). of England"  l e d him  consequently,  next b r i e f volume, the p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d Lyme G a r l a n d , to produce h i s  in his  93  earliest  attempts to employ these "objective" subjects.  In "A Summer Sunset,  Wooton from Westover," for example, Palgrave tries to combine carefully drawn d e t a i l with metaphorical phrasing, but his d i c t i o n is strained and overly "mannerist," i n his own terms: Upon the green slope sward The hedgerow elms l i e p e n c i l l ' d by the sun In greener greenness: and, athwart the sky, Dotted l i k e a i r y dust, the rooks Oar themselves homeward with a distant cry. His metaphors are more v i v i d than is customary i n his work, but the rooks "dotted l i k e a i r y dust" which "oar themselves homeward" seem more l i k e a stage effect than r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l ; rooks, after a l l , are by no means "airy." Yet in spite of this clumsiness,  Palgrave's attempts at "pure" description,  though prone to plagiarism—as in his "Autumn," whose personified figure owes much to Keats—are satisfying  in a way that his more consciously  didactic  verses are not. S i m i l a r l y , his f i r s t l y r i c based on English history, "A Danish Barrow," r e l i e s largely on description for i t s  effect:  Lie s t i l l , old Dane, below thy heap! —A sturdy-back and sturdy-limb, Who'er he was, I warrant him Upon whose mound the single sheep Browses and tinkles in the sun, Within the narrow vale alone. Lie s t i l l , old Dane! This r e s t f u l scene Suits well thy centuries of sleep: The soft brown roots above thee creep, The lotus flaunts his ruddy sheen, And,—vain memento of the spot,— The turquoise-eyed forget-me-not. This largely descriptive style was quickly superseded by the more ponderously didactic approach which dominates The Visions of England, his  94  1880 l y r i c  c o l l e c t i o n which gathers 70 cameo scenes, from the a r r i v a l of  J u l i u s Caesar to the death of the P r i n c e C o n s o r t .  From h i s t e a c h i n g and  r e a d i n g and the e d i t i n g of h i s f a t h e r ' s works, Palgrave had a s t r o n g grasp o f the d e t a i l s of E n g l i s h h i s t o r y , and he approached the s u b j e c t enthusiasm.  with  L i k e h i s f a t h e r and Henry Hallam, to both of whom h i s V i s i o n s of  England i s d e d i c a t e d , " i n devoted l o v e of J u s t i c e , T r u t h and England," Palgrave had decided h i s t o r i c a l views, and he propounded  them w i t h v i g o u r  both i n the poems themselves and i n the l e n g t h y notes which accompany them. P a l g r a v e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f E n g l i s h h i s t o r y dominates the volume: h i s dislike in  of Cromwell and p r a i s e of the monarchy are u n e q u i v o c a l ,  particularly  "The Mourning Muses," which laments Cromwell's d e s t r u c t i o n of the a r t and  a r c h i t e c t u r e of England; i n "Dunnottar C a s t l e , " where Cromwell's f o r c e s are d e s c r i b e d as " i r o n power, f a n a t i c , c o a r s e , / The unheavenly kingdom s a i n t s " ; and i n "The Return of Law,"  of the  i n which Cromwell h i m s e l f i s "The  monster below, f o u l s c a l e s of the serpent and s l i m e , — c o u l d we gaze / On Tyranny s t r i p t  of her t i n s e l , what v i s i o n of dool and dismay!"  He  evokes  England's c e l e b r a t i o n of the r e t u r n of C h a r l e s I I to the throne i n glowing terms which bear l i t t l e  relation  to the f a c t s :  Peace i n her car goes up; a rainbow curves f o r her road; Law and f a i r Order b e f o r e her, the r e i n l e s s courses o f G o d ; — P l e n t y i s with them, and Commerce; a l l g i f t s  of a l l lands from her horn  R a i n i n g on England p r o f u s e . These l i n e s  a l s o i l l u s t r a t e P a l g r a v e ' s penchant f o r a l l e g o r y and  poetic d i c t i o n — b o t h  c o n t r a r y to h i s c r i t i c a l  stylized  b e l i e f s and c o n t r a d i c t i n g h i s  95  stated  i n t e n t i o n i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n  to the  volume:  to w r i t e . . . w i t h a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d eye to the s u b j e c t a l o n e ; not s t u d i o u s of ornament f o r ornament's sake; a l l o w i n g the l e a s t p o s s i b l e overt i n t r u s i o n of the w r i t e r ' s personality...and convinced that the t r u e s t pathos l i e s i n the s i t u a t i o n , not i n the p a t h e t i c s e t t i n g f o r t h , — t h e t r u e s t p o e t r y , not i n the d e c o r a t i v e o v e r l a y , but i n the form and matter, (x) V i s i o n s had  a tepid reception  P a l g r a v e had  from the  c r i t i c s , who  undertaken the volume more out  of a d e s i r e  poetry by s e t t i n g an example f o r other poets and about E n g l i s h h i s t o r y than from any  suspected, r i g h t l y , to reform  to pass on h i s  that  English  prejudices  true p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n :  Without any i n j u s t i c e to the v i v i d n e s s and f e l i c i t y of much i n Mr. P a l g r a v e ' s h i s t o r i c a l v e r s e , i t s f i n e q u a l i t i e s cannot h i n d e r a r e g r e t that i t has preoccupied l e i s u r e which might e l s e have been f r e e to c o n s t r u c t twenty o t h e r e x q u i s i t e r e l i e f s of gold-green h i l l s i d e s s t a n d i n g out a g a i n s t mellowed memories of V i r g i l , and T h e o c r i t u s , P i n d a r , and Homer. 8  P a l g r a v e ' s i n a b i l i t y , or r e f u s a l , to d e c i d e whether the d i d a c t i c or p o e t i c  i s f u r t h e r evidenced by the  volume, notes which f o l l o w the P a l g r a v e added almost a f u l l explaining  abstruse points  was  notes attached  to  the  format of those i n the Golden T r e a s u r y .  page of e x p l a n a t o r y notes f o r most poems,  or s u g g e s t i n g f u r t h e r r e a d i n g .  Poet's Repentance," about Cromwell i n I r e l a n d , Palgrave's e p i t h e t  lengthy  book's purpose  f o r example,  f o r Cromwell, " C a e s a r - A t t i l a "  A note to  "The  glosses  thus:  The d i s c r e d i t a b l e attempt made r e c e n t l y by more than one w r i t e r , i n d e f i a n c e of h i s t o r y and common human f e e l i n g , to whitewash or g l o r i f y the misdeeds committed by the E n g l i s h government on the I r i s h between 1642 and 1658 renders i t n e c e s s a r y to p l a c e the t r u t h b e f o r e r e a d e r s , who may have been thus d e c e i v e d . (348) He  apparently  d i d not  see  any  i r o n y i n the  f a c t that he  could  not  convey h i s  96  ideas i n the poems themselves, but had to r e l y on lengthy glosses. s u f f e r s u l t i m a t e l y from Palgrave's mixed motives.  Visions  The obvious d i d a c t i c i s m of  the poems m i l i t a t e s against the book as poetry, and Palgrave's r e l i a n c e on blank verse and experimental stanza forms and the borrowings of the subjects and language of other poets further weaken i t s e f f e c t , as, f o r example, i n "The Death of S i r John Moore," i n which Palgrave borrows openly and at length from Wolfe's "The B u r i a l of S i r John Moore at Corunna," a poem anthologised i n the Golden Treasury.  The verbal echoes i n many of these poems are  s t a r t l i n g : "They bore him toward the ramparts, while the f a i n t e r , f a r t h e r , gun," recycles Wolfe's "Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note,/ As h i s corpse to the rampart we hurried."  "The V a l l e y of Death," a poem about the  war i n Afghanistan, borrows i t s t i t l e from Tennyson's "Light Brigade"; and "Crossing Solway," beginning "Blow from the North, thou b i t t e r North Wind," d i r e c t l y parrots Shakespeare's "Blow, blow, thou winter wind" (Golden Treasury, no. 42). The concluding poem of the s e r i e s , "England Once More," with i t s patent dependency on the o l d song, "Hearts of Oak," r e f l e c t s both h i s simple p a t r i o t i s m and h i s lack of o r i g i n a l i t y : Old k e e l , o l d heart of oak, Though round thee roar and chafe A l l storms of l i f e , thy helmsman Shall make the haven safe! Then with Honour at the head, and F a i t h , And Peace along the wake, Law blazon'd f a i r on Freedom's f l a g , Thy s t a t e l y voyage t a k e : — While now on Him who long has bless'd To bless thee as of yore Once more we cry f o r England, England once more!  97  Macmillan  was  Palgrave i n i t i a l l y own  not sanguine  about the book's chances f o r s u c c e s s ,  and  p u b l i s h e d i t p r i v a t e l y i n an e d i t i o n of 50 c o p i e s at h i s  expense; however, the volume a t t r a c t e d a s u f f i c i e n t number of readers f o r  Macmillan year.  to r e p r i n t  i t commercially  i n a r e v i s e d and  P a l g r a v e ' s f e a r s t h a t "the V i s i o n s . . . w i l l  expanded form w i t h i n a  soon be ready f o r a p u b l i c  which w i l l not, I f e a r , be very ready f o r them" proved  groundless  and  the  volume d i d s e l l ,  as he p r e d i c t e d i t might, as a s c h o o l p r i z e book (Macmillan  Papers,  1881).  26 Sept.  i n c l u d e d i t i n a textbook Queen V i c t o r i a . f o l l o w e r s who  E i g h t years l a t e r , C a s s e l l ' s N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y S e r i e s e d i t i o n which a l s o r e p r i n t e d h i s j u b i l e e Ode  Some c r i t i c s  hoped that P a l g r a v e ' s experiment  would open up a whole new  Ward s a i d i n a review i n Macmillan's  would  s c h o o l of p a t r i o t i c p o e t r y .  for  inspire As A.  W.  Magazine:  an experiment i n p o e t i c l i t e r a t u r e , which i f not a b s o l u t e l y new, i s at a l l e v e n t s , made under t o t a l l y new c o n d i t i o n s , these V i s i o n s of England may be d e s t i n e d to occupy and i n t e r e s t c r i t i c i s m when much of the v e r s e that i s now popular or f a s h i o n a b l e has f l u t t e r e d away with the l e a v e s of the season.... Should h i s book, i n an ampler and f u l l e r form, achieve an enduring s u c c e s s , i t can h a r d l y f a i l to become the beginning of a new s p e c i e s of p a t r i o t i c p o e t r y . Should i t happen o t h e r w i s e , the age too may i n some measure be i n fault. 9  V i s i o n s was  P a l g r a v e ' s most ambitious  experiment  i n p o e t r y , but i t was,  h i s f r i e n d Henry James p o i n t e d out i n a l e t t e r of 7 February final  a n a l y s i s a work of "commemoration" by a c r i t i c  1881,  as  i n the  of the h i s t o r y of  E n g l i s h p o e t r y , r a t h e r than an o r i g i n a l work: I t seems to me v e r y much the p o e t r y of r e f l e c t i o n , of a s s o c i a t i o n — r a t h e r than of whatever t ' o t h e r t h i n g i s that makes l y r i c verse. I t s t r i k e s one as begotten v e r y much by the l o v e of p o e t r y and the knowledge and study of i t , and as being f u l l of echoes and r e v e r b e r a t i o n s of p o e t i c l i t e r a t u r e . I don't accuse you  98  of ' l i f t i n g , ' but you w r i t e from such a l e t t e r e d mind that your s t r a i n i s a k i n d of c o i l of memories. A l l t h i s to me i s a m e r i t , and I suppose the merit you aimed a t — t h a t of commemoration. ( L i f e , pp. 163-4) James' acute comment a p p l i e s g e n e r a l l y to the whole of P a l g r a v e ' s his  own  poetry:  l i m i t e d o r i g i n a l i t y seems to have been swamped by h i s e n c y c l o p e d i c  reading. One  of the more d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of P a l g r a v e ' s l a t e r p o e t i c career  i s h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r p u b l i c ceremonial  p o e t r y , an i n t e r e s t  e x p l a i n e d by h i s d e v o t i o n to the Poet L a u r e a t e , whose o f f i c i a l events  poems on  i n the l i v e s of the Royal Family seem to have been the models f o r  P a l g r a v e ' s two Prothalamion  J u b i l e e Odes and  f o r s e v e r a l other such poems, i n c l u d i n g a  f o r the Duke o f York.  The Golden T r e a s u r y enhanced  s t a n d i n g i n E n g l i s h p o e t i c c i r c l e s , but  the a u t h o r i t y acceded  do with h i s work as an e d i t o r than with h i s a b i l i t y as a p o e t . e d i t o r of what one  reviewer  Palgrave a s p e c i a l  s t a t u s , and he seems to have f e l t  called  "our n a t i o n a l a n t h o l o g y " ^  semi-official Laureate-like position. anything, reinforced 1885,  partly  and  i n 1887  by h i s e l e c t i o n  he persuaded  T h i s sense  Palgrave's  him had more to To be gave  that he h e l d a  of a u t h o r i t y was, i f  to the c h a i r of Poetry at Oxford i n  Clarendon  press to p u b l i s h h i s J u b i l e e Ode  Queen V i c t o r i a i n a l i m i t e d e d i t i o n of 50 copies as a s e m i - o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t i n g the U n i v e r s i t y as a whole. distinctive It  the  T h i s Ode  for  document  i s perhaps h i s most  " p u b l i c " poem.  covers the course of V i c t o r i a ' s l i f e  i n eight 17-line stanzas, a l l  with the same e l a b o r a t e rhyme scheme, the c o n c l u d i n g c o u p l e t of each s t a n z a ending i n the word "QUEEN."  He  attempts  to survey the h i s t o r y of the  99  monarchy through important events i n V i c t o r i a ' s l i f e ,  such as the death o f  P r i n c e A l b e r t , b e f o r e p r a i s i n g V i c t o r i a e x t r a v a g a n t l y f o r her f e a t s of Empire: 0 much e n d u r i n g , much r e v e r e d !  To thee  B r i n g sun-dyed m i l l i o n s l o v e more sweet than fame, And happy r o l e s that s t a r the p u r p l e sea Homage;—and c h i l d r e n at the mother's knee With her's [ s i c ] u n i t e the name; And f a i t h f u l h e a r t s that t h r o b 'neath palm and p i n e , From East to West are t h i n e . The  d i c t i o n c l e a r l y v i o l a t e s P a l g r a v e ' s own c r i t i c a l  language  principles:  cliched  such as " f a i t h f u l h e a r t s " and "purple seas" combines with a syntax  so clumsy that i n an e x p r e s s i o n l i k e  " C h i l d r e n a t the mother's knee / With  her's u n i t e the name," the i d e a i s so compressed as to be v i r t u a l l y unintelligible. phrases throb  like  He a l s o contravenes  h i s own r u l e s on p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  "happy i s l e s , " w h i l e a l i n e  like  'neath palm and p i n e , " i s i n f e l i c i t o u s  "And f a i t h f u l - h e a r t s , that at best.  Any d i s c u s s i o n of P a l g r a v e ' s p o e t r y must address metrist.  that  "metrical i n f e l i c i t i e s , "  "the thought  and a reviewer of Amenophis p o i n t e d  i s more to him than i t s m e t r i c a l  P a l g r a v e o b v i o u s l y shared what he regarded p o e t i c p r e f e r e n c e f o r content over form. restricted lyricist lines.  h i s a b i l i t y as a  As the e p i g r a p h to t h i s chapter shows, he had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r  "incorrigible" out  with  setting.  as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c H i s experiments  English  are almost a l l  to changes i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r , h i s t o r i c a l and p u b l i c , and as a  he r e l i e d  h e a v i l y upon the n a t i v e iambic  He e x p l i c i t l y r e j e c t e d  t e t r a m e t e r and pentameter  the hexameter being urged on t r a n s l a t o r s o f  Homer by A r n o l d , and, with the e x c e p t i o n of a few e x c u r s i o n s i n t o v e r s e , he g e n e r a l l y employed rhyme.  blank  The l e n g t h of h i s stanzas does vary  from  100  a common q u a t r a i n (a b a_ _b) and a favoured f i v e - l i n e  s t a n z a w i t h an embedded  c o u p l e t (a b c c b) t o the e l a b o r a t e l y c o n s t r u c t e d s e v e n t e e n - l i n e form i n the Ode  for Victoria's jubilee.  used  D e s p i t e h i s concern w i t h form, the  s c a n s i o n of many l i n e s r e v e a l s i n a p p r o p r i a t e emphasis, and  syntax i s  f r e q u e n t l y d i s t o r t e d or d i c t i o n f o r c e d to conform to the rhyme scheme. the V i s i o n s of England,  f o r example, P a l g r a v e says t h a t he attempted  g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of stanza forms i n order to r e f l e c t matter  In  a  the wide-ranging  subject  of the volume: As t h e r e f o r e Horace, even i n h i s impersonal l y r i c s , went back to the s i m p l e r A e o l i c models which preceded the c h o r a l ode, so here r e s o r t has been made, i n g e n e r a l , to n a t i v e forms of s t a n z a : — a l t h o u g h where the s u b j e c t seemed of i t s e l f i m p e r a t i v e l y to r e q u i r e some p e c u l i a r , perhaps n o v e l , arrangement i n metre and rhyme, or even the (symmetrical) use of more than one system, I have ventured upon essays which are commended to the reader's k i n d l y judgment, ( x i i i )  Where h i s c r i t i c i s m i n s i s t s on " f i n i s h , " h i s p o e t r y c o n c e n t r a t e s s u b j e c t matter  or t r i e s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y to r e v i v e a long-dead  where h i s c r i t i c i s m demands " o b j e c t i v e " p o e t r y , h i s own w i t h p e r s o n a l emotion and  religious faith.  e d i t i o n s and much of h i s v e r s e was  contemporary r e p u t a t i o n t h a t he was  p o e t i c form; and  poetry deals  collected in  Stedman, h i s p r o l i f i c output  And  largely  h i s Hymns went to three  p u b l i s h e d i n magazines and  a n t h o l o g i e s such as those by M i l e s and g e n e r a l l y i g n o r e d by the r e v i e w e r s .  Although  on  was  i t i s probably a s i g n of h i s  excluded  from both e d i t i o n s o f Kegan  Paul's L i v i n g E n g l i s h Poets (1882, 1893). P a l g r a v e ' s reasons  f o r p e r s e v e r i n g i n the w r i t i n g and  p u b l i s h i n g of  p o e t r y l i e i n h i s c o n v i c t i o n that p o e t r y must remain a c e n t r a l f o r c e i n E n g l i s h c u l t u r e , and h i s own  v e r s e s are a testimony  to h i s f a i t h i n the  101  powers of p o e t r y . standards, Palgrave little  While h i s poetry d i d not  rise  to meet h i s e x a c t i n g  h i s i n t e n t i o n s cannot be f a u l t e d f o r , as Henry Adams  had  e l e c t e d to embark upon a p e r i l o u s course  promise of popular  recognised,  as a poet, which h e l d  recognition:  H i s h i g h e s t ambition would be to o f f e r the c l a s s i c a l beauty of Greek form to an age and g e n e r a t i o n which has h a r d l y a n o t i o n o f form at a l l ; which l o v e s roughness and extravagance f o r i t s own sake r a t h e r than f o r what i t i s pleased to t h i n k these e x t e r i o r s c o n c e a l ; or which loves o n l y such beauty of form as the time has to o f f e r . . . . Such a poet can expect no l a r g e audience and few warm admirers. He must c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f s u f f i c i e n t l y rewarded i f by any chance some verse or stanza of h i s s h a l l l i n g e r long enough on the ear of the p u b l i c to v i n d i c a t e h i s c l a i m to a p l a c e , as Mr. Palgrave has elsewhere s a i d , above the v a s t and p a t h e t i c a r r a y o f s i n g e r s now s i l e n t , who have been honoured w i t h the name of poet, and among the s m a l l e r and more f o r t u n a t e body of those who f o r some moment at l e a s t have a t t a i n e d e x c e l l e n c e . * 2  102  NOTES  1  Obituary of F. T. Palgrave, Saturday Review, 84 (30 Oct. 1897),  457. 2  E. K. Stedman, The V i c t o r i a n Poets, 13th ed. (1875; r p t . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1899), pp. 24-6. J  Stedman, p. 247.  ^ Henry Adams, review of L y r i c a l Poems, Hymns, and The Lyme Garland, North American Review, 120 (1875), 438. G. A. Simcox, review of Amenophis, Bookman, 3 (3 Jan. 1893), 29. ^ J . H i l l i s M i l l e r , The Disappearance of God (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963). 7  Adams, 440.  o  Anon., review of The Visions of England, The Times, 6 Dec. 1881, p. 3. o  A. W. Ward, review of The Visions of England , Macmillan's 6 (Dec. 1881), 430.  Magazine,  1 0  Anon., "An Authority i n Poetical C r i t i c i s m , " Saturday Review 82 (19 Sept. 1896), 312. ** E. K. Chambers, review of Amenophis, Academy, 43 (14 Jan. 1893), 123. 1 2  Adams, 439.  103  CHAPTER FOUR: PALGRAVE AS TREASURER  I t was to impose a s p e c i a l k i n d of f i n e , e c l e c t i c , c i v i l i z e d , romantic t a s t e on g e n e r a t i o n s of E n g l i s h r e a d e r s ; so t h a t a c u l t i v a t e d mind would f o r ever be conscious of echoing n o t e s : h e r o i c and m a r t i a l (through Campbell and S c o t t ) ; p e n s i v e and c i v i l i z e d ( t h r o u g h Cowper and M i l t o n ) ; p l a i n t i v e and moving (through S c o t t i s h laments and b a l l a d s ) . I t would a l s o f i x i n the E n g l i s h i m a g i n a t i o n — n o t l e a s t through W o r d s w o r t h — t h a t v e r d a n t , p r e - i n d u s t r i a l , p a s t o r a l scene which many urban d w e l l e r s to t h i s day h a z i l y t h i n k i s the England i n which they l i v e . At the same time i t was to g i v e the odd i m p r e s s i o n t h a t what was not i n i t s pages simply d i d not e x i s t at a l l . Nothing i n i t , by the terms of the t h i n g , i s t o p i c a l , s a t i r i c a l , o r argumentative. Nothing i s i n blank v e r s e or the h e r o i c c o u p l e t — t h e s e are not the metres f o r l y r i c and song. As a r e s u l t , the c l a s s i c a l E n g l i s h e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was t o d i s a p p e a r underground w e l l i n t o our own day. So, f o r more complex reasons of time and t a s t e , d i d the m e t a p h y s i c a l poets of the seventeenth c e n t u r y .  i:  Genesis and  P a l g r a v e ' s Golden T r e a s u r y has had  Publication  a unprecedented  a n t h o l o g y , as i t s p u b l i c a t i o n h i s t o r y makes abundantly never been out of p r i n t  since i t f i r s t  appeared  success as  c l e a r : the book has  i n 1861,  and  reprints  modern a d a p t a t i o n s c o n t i n u e to be p u b l i s h e d w i t h g r e a t f r e q u e n c y , P a l g r a v e h i m s e l f oversaw o n l y the f i r s t circumstances T r e a s u r y was  an  f o u r e d i t i o n s of the book.  although The  of I t s i n c e p t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , were r e l a t i v e l y humble. n o t , as I s r e p e a t e d l y s a i d , c o n c e i v e d by Tennyson, who  1860  The  then  d r a f t e d P a l g r a v e as an e d i t o r i a l amanuensis, but by P a l g r a v e h i m s e l f . Woolner r e p o r t e d to E m i l y Tennyson on 8 October  and  Thomas  t h a t " P a l g r a v e . . . i s busy  r e a d i n g a l l the Poets f o r the purpose of making a c o l l e c t i o n t o p u b l i s h which 2  he i n t e n d s to beat V a l l e y , had  t h a t of A l l i n g h a m .  appeared  Allingham's  anthology, N i g h t i n g a l e  i n the p r e v i o u s year under the pseudonymous a u t h o r s h i p  104  of  " G i r a l d u s , " and i n c o m p i l i n g a competing  a n t h o l o g y , P a l g r a v e was  at l e a s t  p a r t l y m o t i v a t e d by h i s j e a l o u s y of A l l i n g h a m ' s i n t i m a c y w i t h the L a u r e a t e , whom P a l g r a v e wished  to r e g a r d as h i s s p e c i a l f r i e n d and p a t r o n .  involvement, then, may  Tennyson's  have been even l e s s i n t e n t i o n a l than i s g e n e r a l l y  thought, and h i s r o l e may  even have been i n i t i a l l y  something  of an  embarrassment, owing t o Palgave's obvious indebtedness to A l l i n g h a m ' s collection. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two books begins w i t h p a r a l l e l s between the titles.  "A C o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d i n g a g r e a t number of the c h o i c e s t L y r i c s  and  Short Poems i n the E n g l i s h Language," as " G i r a l d u s " s u b t i t l e d N i g h t i n g a l e V a l l e y , i s a c l e a r model f o r the T r e a s u r y ' s "Best Songs and L y r i c a l Poems i n the E n g l i s h Language." to  In e x t e n d i n g A l l i n g h a m ' s mandate from " g r e a t number"  " b e s t , " P a l g r a v e examined a wider range of p o e t r y i n the cause of  assembling a narrower  but more d e f i n i t i v e c o m p i l a t i o n , but h i s borrowings  from A l l i n g h a m a r e f a r more e x t e n s i v e than e i t h e r he acknowledged or have h e r e t o f o r e r e c o g n i s e d , e s p e c i a l l y I n terms of a common canon.  critics The  two  works share 51 t i t l e s — r o u g h l y o n e - q u a r t e r of the c o n t e n t s of N i g h t i n g a l e Valley.  However, when the 60 poems by l i v i n g poets ( i n c l u d i n g seven by  h i m s e l f ) are s u b t r a c t e d f rom A l l i n g h a m ' s t o t a l to  over o n e - t h i r d .  rises  P a l g r a v e c i t e s h i s r i v a l ' s anthology as the c o p y - t e x t  source f o r o n l y one poem—Wotton's "The in  (211), the common t o t a l  C h a r a c t e r of a Happy L i f e "  (no.  72)—  the T r e a s u r y , but N i g h t i n g a l e V a l l e y must f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n any  critical  examination of i n f l u e n c e s on P a l g r a v e ' s work.  f l o u r i s h e d and N i g h t i n g a l e V a l l e y was  That the T r e a s u r y  r e l e g a t e d to a mere f o o t n o t e In  105  p u b l i s h i n g h i s t o r y i s one single explanation.  of those l i t e r a r y  Palgrave's p e r s o n a l t a s t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s i n c l u s i o n  a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of poems new living  w r i t e r s , and  of  to h i s r e a d e r s , h i s d e c i s i o n to exclude  the a c t i v e involvement  p r e s t i g e and fame of the Golden The  a c c i d e n t s f o r which there i s no  of Tennyson a l l c o n t r i b u t e d to the  Treasury.  s t o r y of the T r e a s u r y begins w i t h P a l g r a v e ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the  need f o r a good l y r i c anthology w i t h A l f r e d Tennyson w h i l e the two men on a w a l k i n g tour o f Cornwall i n the summer of 1860.  were  Tennyson had p u b l i s h e d  the f i r s t f o u r I d y l l s of the King the p r e v i o u s y e a r , and hoping  to gather  atmosphere f o r the next i n s t a l l m e n t , they set out f o r T i n t a g e l ,  accompanied  by V a l P r i n s e p and Holman Hunt and  two members of the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e Brotherhood, W i l l i a m  Thomas Woolner.  These f a c t s are well-known, but c o n s i d e r a b l e c r i t i c a l c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s about who  was  a c t u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i d e a of the book.  modern c r i t i c s  already alluded  c o m p i l e r , " i s founded  to above, t h a t P a l g r a v e was  on the assumption  nineteenth-century l e t t e r s  The view of  o n l y the  "nominal  t h a t P a l g r a v e ' s minor s t a t u s i n  i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o n s i d e r a b l e achievement  3 of  the Golden  article  Treasury.  C h r i s t o p h e r C l a u s e n , f o r example, i n a long  on the T r e a s u r y e n t i t l e d  t h a t "because Tennyson suggested anthology and c o l l a b o r a t e d  "The  Palgrave V e r s i o n , " s t a t e s  categorically  to P a l g r a v e the i d e a of p r o d u c i n g  an  i n making the s e l e c t i o n s , the book has o f t e n been  4 regarded  as a monument to o f f i c i a l V i c t o r i a n t a s t e . "  on both c o u n t s .  Not o n l y was  but contemporary c r i t i c s  Clausen i s mistaken  Tennyson not the prime mover behind  and f r i e n d s of the two men  a s s e r t i n g t h a t Palgrave h i m s e l f suggested  the book,  are q u i t e adamant i n  the i d e a of the anthology  and,  106  encouraged by the o l d e r man, Palgrave s a y s , " I had a walk near to  confirmed  began to c o n s i d e r i t s e r i o u s l y .  put the scheme of my  the Land's End  Golden T r e a s u r y before him  i n the l a t e summer of 1860,  proceed, b a r r i n g o n l y any  whose t i t l e is  immediately  poems by h i m s e l f from  during  and he encouraged  i n s e r t i o n i n an  claimed e x c e l 1 ence f o r i t s c o n t e n t s " (2.49, 500).  As  me  anthology  This v e r s i o n  by Holman Hunt i n h i s memoirs:  P a l g r a v e was a man of s o l i d c u l t u r e , and was engaged at the time on h i s u n r i v a l l e d forthcoming s e l e c t i o n The Golden T r e a s u r y . . . . P a l g r a v e r e f e r s i n h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y g r a c e f u l acknowledgement i n the d e d i c a t i o n to h i s volume to the a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e he had g a i n e d from the great poet i n these c r i t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ; they were at times continued throughout the day, at times on the h e i g h t s of a c l i f f or on the shore below, w h i l e we p a i n t e r s were l o i t e r i n g over notes of f e a t u r e s of the scene which f a s c i n a t e d us.^ Even i f contemporary accounts not e x i s t , an examination  g i v i n g Palgrave c r e d i t  of the T r e a s u r y ' s e d i t o r i a l  f o r the i d e a d i d  theory and  practice  r e v e a l s not o n l y t h a t Palgrave made the b a s i c s e l e c t i o n of poems before c o n s u l t i n g Tennyson and  d i d not always d e f e r to Tennyson i n making the  final  e d i t o r i a l d e c i s i o n s , but a l s o t h a t Tennyson perhaps undertook to help with the p r o j e c t  "originally  through  thoroughly understandable  a combination  w i l l i n g n e s s to f a l l  of g e n e r o s i t y to P a l g r a v e and  a  i n with anything that would  keep him q u i e t . On  t h e i r r e t u r n from Cornwall  went immediately  to London i n l a t e September 1860,  to h i s house on the I s l e of Wight; he d i d not see  a g a i n u n t i l C h r i s t m a s , which P a l g r a v e was Tennysons.  By the end of October,  invited  Palgrave had  completed  p l a n n i n g on the T r e a s u r y , and he began s o l i c i t i n g two  a d v i s e r s , Thomas Woolner and George M i l l e r ,  the E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e . 1860  letter  The  to spend w i t h  Tennyson  Palgrave  the  his preliminary  a s s i s t a n c e from h i s other  the l a t t e r a c o l l e a g u e  tone of the c l o s i n g sentence  of P a l g r a v e ' s  t o Tennyson makes c l e a r t h a t Tennyson intended h i s  initial  from October  107  encouragement to be h i s o n l y c o n t r i b u t i o n to the  anthology: A  Since I r e t u r n e d I have worked s t e a d i l y f o r two or three hours a day at making the c o l l e c t i o n of E n g l i s h L y r i c a l Poems which we d i s c u s s e d i n C o r n w a l l ; and I have spoken about i t to Macmillan, who g i v e s a c o n d i t i o n a l consent to act p u b l i s h e r . I have gone through the whole of Chalmers' C o l l e c t i o n , and through s e v e r a l of the w r i t e r s not i n c l u d e d i n i t , and have thus made a p r e l i m i n a r y l i s t of c o n t e n t s , which I am going over with Woolner. Whenever t h i s i s i n o r d e r I hope you w i l l l e t me go through i t w i t h you. ( L i f e , p. 64) Under p r e s s u r e from P a l g r a v e , however, Tennyson agreed c h o i c e of poems, and he l e f t Palgrave Throughout the f a l l lyric.  His contemporaries  ensure that he had of  of 1860,  missed  the  Palgrave  read e x t e n s i v e l y i n the E n g l i s h  nothing of importance.  the house of Macmillan,  says 7  final  to complete h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n .  agree t h a t he went to e x t r a o r d i n a r y l e n g t h s  compiler w i t h immense l a b o u r , " to  to a r b i t r a t e  t h a t the book was  to  C h a r l e s Morgan, h i s t o r i a n "gathered  together by  and Thomas Woolner wrote on 9 December  the 1860  Emily Tennyson t h a t Palgrave has n e a r l y f i n i s h e d making h i s S e l e c t i o n s from the Poets, and has throughout shown the most e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n t e r e s t i n h i s work; i n f a c t he s c a r c e l y seems to t h i n k of anything e l s e than the work he i s engaged upon. He c e r t a i n l y has an a s t o n i s h i n g l y acute and q u i c k mind i n r e a d i n g an enormous amount and e x t r a c t i n g the best t h i n g s . 8  While P a l g r a v e examined almost nineteenth-century  every major e i g h t e e n t h - and  c o l l e c t i o n of l y r i c p o e t r y i n the course  p r e p a r a t i o n s , the i s s u e of h i s sources fully both  or f i n a l l y  resolved.  the f i r s t and  f o r the Golden T r e a s u r y  cannot  be  F o r t u n a t e l y , however, P a l g r a v e ' s manuscripts  second s e r i e s of the T r e a s u r y are e x t a n t , and  m a r g i n a l i a make i t p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y p o s i t i v e l y percent  of h i s  of the poems i n the f i r s t s e r i e s of  1861.  their'  the copy t e x t s f o r 20  for  108  Bound i n two is  separate f o l i o volumes—whether by Palgrave or someone e l s e  u n c e r t a i n — t h e manuscripts were presented to the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y i n  by P a l g r a v e ' s daughter, Margaret  (Add. MS.  i n s c r i p t i o n by P a l g r a v e i n the f i r s t M.  S."  42126).  an e a r l i e r o r g a n i s a t i o n p r i n c i p l e , and manuscript  and  According to an  volume, "the book was  However, s i n c e the poems i n the manuscript  1930  printed  from  this  are numbered a c c o r d i n g to  the sources i d e n t i f i e d  i n the  the m a r g i n a l i a were not i n c l u d e d i n the p r i n t e d  volume,  P a l g r a v e must have made e x t e n s i v e r e v i s i o n s i n proof s t a g e , but no p r o o f s of the T r e a s u r y are known to have s u r v i v e d . The manuscript  t e x t s are of two main s o r t s .  Holograph  m o s t l y P a l g r a v e ' s , but some i n the hand of an u n i d e n t i f i e d  f a i r copies, amanuensis  (perhaps George M i l l e r ) , c o n s t i t u t e by f a r the g r e a t e s t number; but the volume a l s o c o n t a i n s  many p a s t e d - i n c u t t i n g s , p r i n c i p a l l y of poems by  Wordsworth and M i l t o n , both of whom are l a v i s h l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the volume, s e l e c t e d presumably  from r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , but u n s p e c i f i e d ,  Because the manuscript  c o n t a i n s so l i t t l e  editions.  evidence of t e x t u a l r e v i s i o n or  correction—the  t e x t s of the poems have a l r e a d y l a r g e l y been e x c i s e d or  rearranged—and  little  indication—other  r e s t r u c t u r i n g , i t seems l i k e l y  than the number c h a n g e s — o r  internal  t h a t P a l g r a v e ' s p r e l i m i n a r y e d i t i n g was  done  p r e v i o u s to the c o m p i l a t i o n of the m a n u s c r i p t . The p r i n c i p a l worth of the manuscript, main v a l u e l i e s  t h e r e f o r e , i s not t e x t u a l .  Its  i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of sources and i n the m a r g i n a l i a , the  d e t a i l s of which w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  There i s no  e v i d e n c e , however, that the three " c o l l a b o r a t o r s " ever a c t u a l l y handled m a n u s c r i p t ; i n d e e d , the f a c t s  the  that the m a r g i n a l i a are a l l i n Palgrave's hand,  109  that the manuscript  r e c o r d s e d i t o r i a l assessments  every i n s t a n c e f o l l o w , and that  which P a l g r a v e d i d not i n  the f i n a l p r i n t e d o r d e r i n g departs i n some  cases from the m a n u s c r i p t — a l l t e s t i f y  to the e d i t o r i a l  control  that he  exerted i n compiling the Treasury. Notwithstanding  the breadth of h i s r e a d i n g and r e s e a r c h e s , P a l g r a v e does  not seem to have c o n s u l t e d f i r s t e d i t i n g of n o n - c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a r y 1860,  e d i t i o n s or manuscript  sources.  Scholarly  t e x t s was, of course, i n i t s i n f a n c y i n  and t h a t P a l g r a v e r e l i e d e n t i r e l y on r e p r i n t s , c o l l e c t i o n s , and  a n t h o l o g i e s f o r h i s c o p y - t e x t s f o r p o e t r y , even f o r e d i t i o n s of the Romantic poets, i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g .  The r e s u l t of t h i s p r a c t i c e i s that the text of  v i r t u a l l y every one of the 288 poems In the f i n a l suspect  published version i s  i n one way or another by modern s t a n d a r d s .  The  copy t e x t s f o r 64 p o e m s — o n e - f i f t h  the manuscript,  of the t o t a l — a r e  and they come from s i x t e e n separate s o u r c e s .  identified in A f u r t h e r 74  poems have been cut out of u n i d e n t i f i a b l e p r i n t e d sources and pasted i n t o the manuscript, with s e v e r a l poems made up from two or more d i f f e r e n t versions.  Palgrave also r e f e r r e d  printed  to a wide v a r i e t y of works of the E n g l i s h  poets which he borrowed from Macmillan although he d i d not cut poems from those t e x t s , r e t u r n i n g a l l the volumes i n t a c t . he asked  In a l e t t e r  f o r u n s p e c i f i e d e d i t i o n s of Wordsworth, Campbell,  to h i s p u b l i s h e r , Milton,  Burns,  Gray, C o l l i n s , H a r t l e y C o l e r i d g e , M o t h e r w e l l , Thomas Moore, and Joanna B a i l l i e and a l s o f o r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r "good c o l l e c t i o n s of Scotch Songs: b e s i d e s S c o t t and Burns:  I mean, c o l l e c t i o n s i n which I s h o u l d f i n d  Cunninghams [ s i c ] or such as The Land o' t h e L e a l . " same l e t t e r he a l s o asked  Allan  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i n the  f o r c o l l e c t i o n s by American poets on the grounds  110  t h a t " I wish  t h a t no one whom I can o v e r h a u l s h a l l go by d e f a u l t : however  u n l i k e l y , " although no works by Americans a c t u a l l y appear i n the  final  9 edition. ready  In s p i t e of h i s thorough  to accept any  and he was  saw  c a r e f u l preparation, Palgrave  to " o v e r h a u l " any  poems which he regarded  L a c k i n g the modern reverence  About o n e - t h i r d of the poems whose d i r e c t  (1810).  he  creative.  source can be i d e n t i f i e d come  Chalmers' h i g h l y u n r e l i a b l e expanded e d i t i o n of  Johnson's Works of the E n g l i s h Poets  as  f o r the a u t h o r i t y of t e x t ,  the e d i t o r ' s r o l e as being i n a v e r y r e a l sense  from Alexander  was  a v a i l a b l e r e a d i n g , however u n r e l i a b l e , f o r h i s c o p y - t e x t ,  equally w i l l i n g  having p o t e n t i a l .  and  Doctor  Twenty-four known c o p y - t e x t s  f o r Golden T r e a s u r y poems d e r i v e from Chalmers, p r i m a r i l y the l y r i c s of the s e v e n t e e n t h - and e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y poets who poems had hence not been r e p r i n t e d . w i t h B e l l ' s Annotated  Palgrave supplemented Chalmers'  E d i t i o n of the E n g l i s h Poets  Specimens of the B r i t i s h Poets L i t e r a t u r e (1843-4),  were out of f a s h i o n and whose  (1819), and  (1845-7),  coverage  Campbell's  Chambers' C y c l o p e d i a of E n g l i s h  a l l l a r g e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o l l e c t i o n s and a l l  f r a u g h t w i t h i n a c c u r a c i e s and m i s a t t r i b u t e d poems.  Even w i t h t h e i r  faults,  though, they d i d p r o v i d e t e x t s f o r the h a r d - t o - f i n d l y r i c s of those  earlier  periods. F o r the E l i z a b e t h a n s , P a l g r a v e was  f o r c e d to r e l y on b a d l y e d i t e d  r e p r i n t s of the g r e a t E l i z a b e t h a n a n t h o l o g i e s , such as England's (1600) and  Davison's  A P o e t i c a l Rapsody (1602), b o t h of which had  r e i s s u e d e a r l y i n the century i n e d i t i o n s by S. W.  Helicon been  Singer (1810, 1812).  need f o r r e p u t a b l e modern t e x t s of the E l i z a b e t h a n poets was  met  The  soon a f t e r  the p u b l i c a t i o n of the T r e a s u r y by good, cheap r e p r i n t s not o n l y of the  Ill  mainstream l y r i c i s t s  but a l s o of the E l i z a b e t h a n song-book poets,  p a r t i c u l a r l y Thomas Campion, whom Palgrave p r e f e r r e d to the better-known poets.  He i n c l u d e d more than twenty poems by m a d r i g a l poets  e d i t i o n s of t h e T r e a s u r y . lesser-known  i n the l a t e r  In f a c t , t h e Treasury's r e v i v a l of some of the  E l i z a b e t h a n s , such as Nash, L y l y , and Lodge, was at l e a s t  partly  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a t e r popular r e p r i n t s by B u l l e n , Arber, and G r o s a r t , a l l of  whom P a l g r a v e acknowledged i n the p r e f a c e to the expanded e d i t i o n s .  a l s o used E l l i s '  He  Specimens o f the E a r l y E n g l i s h P o e t r y (1790) f o r the b a l l a d s  which p l a y such a l a r g e r o l e i n the c o l l e c t i o n . The  prominence of the b a l l a d i n t h e Golden Treasury r e f l e c t s  a d m i r a t i o n f o r the g r e a t b a l l a d  Palgrave's  c o l l e c t i o n s of the e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y : Percy's R e l i q u e s (1765),  S c o t t ' s M i n s t r e l s y (1802),  B l a c k i e ' s c o l l e c t i o n of S c o t t i s h songs (1843), and R i t s o n ' s b a l l a d c o l l e c t i o n s (1783-94), a l l of which are sources f o r the Golden T r e a s u r y . However, h i s emphasis on the b a l l a d s p r i n g s a l s o from h i s d i s t a s t e f o r much, i f not most, of the l y r i c  p o e t r y of p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d s ; r a t h e r than i n c l u d e  p o e t r y he d i s l i k e d , he f l e s h e d out the f i r s t  three books of the T r e a s u r y  with  ballads. P a l g r a v e ' s e d i t o r i a l p r a c t i c e was q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . e n c y c l o p e d i c r e a d i n g , he gathered assembled  a t e n t a t i v e l i s t of poems.  From h i s He then  the poems i n t o a p r e l i m i n a r y order e i t h e r by c u t t i n g the t e x t s from  p r i n t e d s o u r c e s , copying the poems d i r e c t l y h i m s e l f , or a l l o w i n g an unidentified  amanuensis to do so, probably without  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s f o r accuracy.  Although  checking the  he worked alone d u r i n g the c o m p i l a t i o n  s t a g e , he w i s e l y took the work to Woolner and M i l l e r f o r a p p r o v a l .  The three  112  men—Tennyson was calls  not p r e s e n t — c o n v e n e d  i n the manuscript  o f t e n that f a l l  " c o u r t s of p o e t r y , " d u r i n g which the poems under  c o n s i d e r a t i o n were read a l o u d and  d i s c u s s e d at l e n g t h .  M i l l e r d i s c u s s e d t h e i r v e r d i c t s , P a l g r a v e noted of the manuscript, they used  a l o n g with t h e i r f i n a l  "p "  "not d e c i d e d l y ; "P" f o r " p r i n t " : " p -  "0,"  Woolner  f o r each poem.  and  The  code  f o r " p r i n t d e c i d e d l y " ; "p?"  for print  "on the whole"; and  though not r e c o r d e d , o b v i o u s l y stands f o r "omit."  o m i t t e d at t h i s s t a g e , and  While  t h e i r comments i n the margins  "grade" x  i s set out i n the manuscript: o w  for  f o r what Palgrave  Only a few poems were  even poems which the c o l l a b o r a t o r s agreed  on  d i s m i s s i n g were sometimes i n c l u d e d i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n on Palgrave's authority. of the  A l l but a h a n d f u l of the poems were commented upon by one  from Palgrave and to r e j e c t liked. "on  from one  another, but a l s o how  t h e i r o p i n i o n s a l t o g e t h e r and  Poem 127, Logan's "Braes  differed  o f t e n Palgrave was  to p u b l i s h a poem he  prepared  particularly  o f Yarrow," f o r example, r a t e s only \  the whole," the lowest of the f o u r " a c c e p t a b l e " c a t e g o r i e s , from  Tennyson and Woolner and  an  anyway, along w i t h poem 104, received  "omit" from M i l l e r , but Palgrave p r i n t e d i t F l e t c h e r ' s "Hence, a l l you v a i n d e l i g h t s , " which  "omits" from Woolner and M i l l e r and  an "on  Yet i n s p i t e of h i s e x t e n s i v e p r e p a r a t i o n s and Woolner and M i l l e r , Palgrave d i d not f e e l had  or more  collaborators.  These a n n o t a t i o n s r e v e a l not o n l y how much the c o l l a b o r a t o r s  an  own  o b t a i n e d Tennyson's a p p r o v a l .  him when he went to spend Christmas 22 December 1860,  the whole" from  Tennyson.  the hours spent working with  that the book was  complete u n t i l  A c c o r d i n g l y , he took the manuscript  with  w i t h the Tennysons at F a r r i n g f o r d , and  Emily Tennyson's j o u r n a l records t h a t " A l f r e d  reads  he  the  by  113  poems to us chosen  by Mr. P a l g r a v e f o r h i s 'Golden  Palgrave and Tennyson spent  the days around  Treasury'."  Christmas  going over the e n t i r e  c o l l e c t i o n , which Tennyson read aloud to t e s t every poem's e x c e l l e n c e . Palgrave a l s o read poems aloud to h i s a d v i s e r s , but, u n l i k e Tennyson, who found  r e c i t a t i o n an i n v a r i a b l e guide  to q u a l i t y , P a l g r a v e g i v e s no s i g n  he c o n s i d e r e d r e a d i n g aloud an important e d i t o r i a l g u i d e l i n e . commented on almost occasion.  Tennyson a l s o  every poem, d i s a g r e e i n g v i o l e n t l y with P a l g r a v e on  P a l g r a v e i n c l u d e d s i x poems a g a i n s t Tennyson's express  wishes—Wyat's fell  that  "And w i l t  thou l e a v e me thus" (no. 3 3 ) , B a r n e f i e l d ' s "As i t  upon a day" (no. 34), and Wither's  103), remained  " S h a l l I, wasting i n d e s p a i r " (no.  i n a l l the e d i t i o n s , but three o t h e r s , Constable's  "Diaphenia"  (no. 15), Sewell's "The Dying Man i n h i s Garden" ( n o . 163), and S h e l l e y ' s " L i f e of L i f e "  (no. 271), were dropped  later editions  (2.49, 500).  Tennyson c o u l d be adamant about m a r g i n a l i a to the manuscript u n l e s s i t had t h i s  i n deference  to Tennyson's o p i n i o n i n  h i s c h o i c e s , and Palgrave notes i n the  o f " L y c i d a s " that  "he would not hear of the book  [poem and] A l l e g r o , P e n s e r o s o — G r a y ' s  E l e g y , " but although  Palgrave d e f e r r e d to him i n t h i s case, he was not e n t i r e l y convinced, in  the p r e f a c e to the T r e a s u r y that  Penseroso, perhaps  "poems, as Gray's  Wordsworth's Ruth o r Campbell's  equal j u s t i c e  stating  E l e g y , the A l l e g r o and  Lord U l l i n , might be claimed w i t h  f o r a n a r r a t i v e or d e s c r i p t i v e s e l e c t i o n "  (ix-x).  Tennyson's most i n t e r e s t i n g c h o i c e s , apart from h i s p r e d i c t a b l e fondness f o r S c o t t , Byron,  S h e l l e y , and Wordsworth, were from the s e v e n t e e n t h - and  eighteenth-century poets.  He g r e a t l y admired  Vaughan's " R e t r e a t " (no. 75),  W a l l e r ' s "Go, l o v e l y r o s e " (no. 89), which, P a l g r a v e notes i n the manuscript,  114  Tennyson "read...aloud Lyly's  twice from  sheer a d m i r a t i o n to Mrs.  "Cupid and Campaspe" (no. 51), which he c a l l e d  elegant  t h i n g s i n E n g l i s h , " and L o v e l a c e ' s "On  (no. 83), of which Tennyson " s a i d w i t h p e r f e c t have w r i t t e n t h i s hearted  tone  than a l l I have w r i t t e n — h e  so g r e a t l y . "  poems by Cowper and  o b v i o u s l y broader  and  to the Wars"  s e r i o u s n e s s , I would r a t h e r  to i n c l u d e more  see, r i g h t l y .  less rigid  than P a l g r a v e ' s own:  " g r e a t l y pleaded  lover  or two  this  h i s Coy M i s t r e s s " ] — b u t I thought  Collins'  some of h i s o t h e r Odes."  d i s c u s s i n g M a r v e l l , as Palgrave a l s o r e c o r d s , he ["To  high  P a s s i o n s " (no. 141), of which  on t h i s , as I now  us with g r e a t r e g r e t to omit  Tennyson's t a s t e was  L u c a s t a , on Going  admired i t s g a l l a n t  C o l l i n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y "The  me,"  of the most  Tennyson a l s o encouraged Palgrave  Palgrave s a y s , Tennyson " i n s i s t e d o b s c u r i t y caused  "one  Tennyson and  one  lines  in  f o r the  too s t r o n g f o r  age." Tennyson was  tampering  l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s attempts  with the t e x t s of the poems.  "Tennyson and  As B.  to i n f l u e n c e the book by  I f o r Evans says i n h i s  the O r i g i n s of the Golden T r e a s u r y , "  "Tennyson had one  that must have been d i s c o n c e r t i n g to h i s c o l l a b o r a t o r s . which appeared  to him  flat  or meaningless  foible  When he found a  line  he sometimes 'improved' i t without  a p p a r e n t l y c o n s u l t i n g any a u t h o r i t y beyond the d i c t a t e s of h i s t a s t e . I n  article,  own  h i s " R e c o l l e c t i o n s " f o r Tennyson's Memoir, P a l g r a v e g i v e s  an example of t h i s h a b i t : And the i n f e l i c i t o u s "mermaid's song c o n d o l e s " of the " B a t t l e of the B a l t i c " tempted him to a "How e a s i l y c o u l d a l i t t l e b l o t l i k e t h i s be cured! I f we had but Tom Campbell i n the room to p o i n t i t out to him"; adding, however, a t a l e how Rogers had done the same o f f i c e f o r another poem; and how Campbell had bounced out of the  115  room w i t h a "Hang i t ! dare to c o r r e c t me!"  I s h o u l d l i k e to see the man (2.49, 502-3)  The manuscript  a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t Tennyson t r i e d  L o v e l a c e ' s "To  L u c a s t a , On Going  h o r s e , a s h i e l d , " the new  who  would  to have Palgrave  adapt  to the Wars" by s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r "A sword, a  l i n e "A sword, a l a n c e , a s h i e l d , " but  Palgrave  comments t h a t " u n h a p p i l y the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n g i v e s no warrant  for this  improved r e a d i n g of h i s . "  "improving"  the l y r i c s  Evans d e s c r i b e s Tennyson's h a b i t of  i n the T r e a s u r y w e l l , but he does not r e v e a l that w h i l e  f a i t h f u l l y r e c o r d e d Tennyson's proposed  "improvements" i n the  Palgrave  manuscript,  none of them appear i n the f i n a l p u b l i s h e d t e x t s .  Palgrave's  a d m i r a t i o n of Tennyson d i d not extend  h i s a c t u a l r e w r i t i n g s of  t e x t s , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g h i s own transpositions.  to condoning  r e a d i n e s s to a l l o w s i l e n t  personal  omissions  and  Tennyson d i d , however, encourage Palgrave to make the  e d i t o r i a l e x c i s i o n s which are the h a l l m a r k of the Golden T r e a s u r y . suggested, "The  f o r example, t h a t Palgrave cut the two  Death Bed,"  "Alexander  (no. 235) and  Selkirk"  (no.  the f o u r t h to l a s t  after  s t a n z a of Cowper's  i n r e w r i t i n g the t e x t s of the poems i n  the Golden T r e a s u r y , he i n f l u e n c e d the f i n a l  h i s own  c e n t r a l stanzas of Hood's  160).  Although Tennyson d i d not succeed  s i g n i f i c a n t ways. The  first  form of the book i n  and more important  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Samuel Rogers, who  o r i g i n a l l y intended to f o l l o w Allingham's  i n c l u d e work by contemporary p o e t s , but one  to a l l o w  a l l work by poets  alive  i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n Book  I I I , the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , although he d i d not d i e u n t i l had  two  i s that by r e f u s i n g  p o e t r y to appear, he l e d Palgrave to exclude  1850,  He  1855.  Palgrave  plan i n Nightingale V a l l e y  of the weaknesses of the  and  earlier  116  book was  the l a r g e number of second-rate poems by Patmore, Landor, and  A l l i n g h a m h i m s e l f , which j e o p a r d i s e d the q u a l i t y of the whole book. P a l g r a v e ' s t a s t e i n the work of h i s contemporaries  was  equally f a l l i b l e ,  h i s Second S e r i e s of the Golden T r e a s u r y of l y r i c s by l i v i n g poets shows; by t e r m i n a t i n g h i s coverage Romantics, P a l g r a v e brought into play.  i n the i n i t i a l  Treasury with  i n d i r e c t l y ensured  the T r e a s u r y ' s  judgm