Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A nutrient evaluation of selected Nuxalk salmon preparations Kennelly, Anthea Christine 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1986_A6_7 K46_6.pdf [ 7.53MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096715.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096715-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096715-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096715-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096715-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096715-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096715-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096715-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096715.ris

Full Text

A NUTRIENT EVALUATION OF SELECTED NUXALK SALMON PREPARATIONS By ANTHEA CHRISTINE KENNELLY H.E., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1982 •Sc., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D i v i s i o n of Human N u t r i t i o n S c h o o l o f F a m i l y and N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e a u i f d d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1986 (c) Anthea C h r i s t i n e K e n n e l l y , 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f t>iViWo<^ oc (4^KAPJ ^ u r f c i n o ^ . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A ^ C ^ T xi* fjglo ABSTRACT Surveys o f the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of Canadian N a t i v e I n d i a n s have shown t h a t t h i s i s a group a t r i s k n u t r i t i o n a l l y . One o f t h e re a s o n s suggested f o r t h i s f i n d i n g i s the ch a n g i n g f o o d p a t t e r n s which have o c c u r r e d i n t h i s group as a c c u l t u r a t i o n has p r o g r e s s e d . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have found t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l f o ods a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r i n s p e c i f i c n u t r i t i o n a l a s p e c t s than the " w e s t e r n i z e d " foods which r e p l a c e them i n the d i e t . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was conducted as p a r t o f a n u t r i t i o n program i n B e l l a C o o l a , B.C. The n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t of f i v e Nuxalk salmon p r e p a r a t i o n s - canned, barbequed, and barbequed and canned sockeye (Oncorhyncus nerka) and s l u q (a smoked d r i e d p r o d u c t ) and k 1nuum (a half-smoked p r o d u c t ) coho (0. k i u t s c h ) was examined. The n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n (proximate c o m p o s i t i o n , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, v i t a m i n E, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , f r e e and t o t a l f o l a t e , f r e e and t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e , sodium, chromium, manganese, co p p e r , z i n c , i r o n , phosphorous, c a l c i u m and magnesium) was det e r m i n e d f o r t h e f i v e salmon p r e p a r a t i o n s u s i n g s t a n d a r d methods. The n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of each o f the p r o d u c t s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y over the samples s t u d i e d . The g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n t h e v i t a m i n s ( v i t a m i n E and t h i a m i n ) and the m i n e r a l s (sodium and c o p p e r ) . The n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of the p r e p a r e d p r o d u c t s was compared t o t h a t of s i m i l a r raw samples u s i n g a p a i r e d comparison t - t e s t t o de t e r m i n e the e f f e c t o f t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n i q u e s . Few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found. M o i s t u r e was d e c r e a s e d i n the barbequed/canned (p<0.01), the s l u q (p<0.001) and the k 1nuum (p<0.01) samples. Ash and sodium i n c r e a s e d i n the canned (p<0.01, p<0.01) and the barbequed/canned (p<0.05, p<0.01) samples. Manganese i n c r e a s e d i n the s l u q (p<0.01). Both t o t a l and f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e i n c r e a s e d i n the barbequed (p<0.02) samples w h i l e f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e i n c r e a s e d i n the s l u q (0.02) and the k'nuum (p<0.01). Free f o l a t e d e c r e a s e d i n the s l u q (p<0.001). R i b o f l a v i n and n i a c i n b o t h i n c r e a s e d i n the canned (p<0.01) w h i l e v i t a m i n D i n c r e a s e d i n t h e s l u q (p<0.05) and the k'nuum (p<0.01) and v i t a m i n E d e c r e a s e d i n the barbequed (p<0.05). The i n c r e a s e i n m i n e r a l s and ash was p r o b a b l y due t o a d d i t i o n s i n p r o c e s s i n g w h i l e the i c r e a s e s i n o t h e r n u t r i e n t s was p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t o f g r e a t e r l o s s e s of n u t r i e n t s i n the f r o z e n s t r o r a g e o f raw samples compared t o p r e p a r e d samples. The n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f the Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s was compared t o t h a t o f p r o t e i n foods a v a i l a b l e c o m m e r c i a l l y i n B e l l a C o o l a u s i n g the Mann-Whitney U-Test. On the b a s i s o f the p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e Reccommended N u t r i e n t I n t a k e s f o r Canadian women 24-49 y e a r s o f age (R.N.I.) p r o v i d e d by a s t a n d a r d s e r v i n g o f each o f the p r o d u c t s the Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s were ranked e q u a l t o or h i g h e r than the commercial p r o d u c t s . On the b a s i s o f the p e r c e n t a g e of t h e R.N.I. p r o v i d e d by $1.00 worth of each o f the p r o d u c t s , the commercial p r o d u c t s were ranked s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r i r o n (p<0.01) and z i n c (p<0.002). Meat (p<o.002) and c u r e d meats (p<0.001) ranked h i g h e r t h a n t h e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s i n p r o v i d i n g i r o n w h i l e c u r e d meats p<0.01) and d a i r y p r o d u c t s (p<0.001) ranked h i g h e r t h a n the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s i n p r o v i d i n g z i n c . On t h e b a s i s o f the Index o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y (I.N.Q.) (Sorenson and Hansen, 1975) the commercial p r o d u c t s ranked h i g h e r f o r c a l c i u m (p<0.001) and i r o n (p<0.005). A l l the commercial p r o d u c t s e x c e p t meat a l t e r n a t e s ranked h i g h e r than the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s f o r c a l c i u m (Meat p<0.001), c u r e d meats p<0.005), f i s h p<0.05 and d a i r y p r o d u c t s p<0.001) w h i l e meat (p<0.0001), c u r e d meat (p<0.0001) and f i s h (p<0.05) ranked h i g h e r f o r i r o n . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e the n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f t h e salmon p r o d u c t s over a number of seasons and the e f f e c t o f p r o c e s s i n g on n u t r i e n t s . Based on the samples s t u d i e d i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e commercial p r o d u c t s . Low c o s t s o u r c e s o f m i n e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s such as f i s h bones and r o o t f o o d s , s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d and i n c l u d e d i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs a l o n g w i t h the salmon p r o d u c t s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s i x Acknowledgements x I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I L i t e r a t u r e Review 4 N u t r i t i o n a l S t a t u s and Food Consumption P a t t e r n s of Canadian N a t i v e I n d i a n s 4 N u t r i t i o n a l V a l u e o f T r a d i t i o n a l D i e t s 12 C o m p o s i t i o n o f N a t i v e Salmon P r o d u c t s 16 D e s c r i p t i o n of Group and Area I n v o l v e d i n the Study . 20 I I I R a t i o n a l e 24 IV Methods 26 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Study 26 Sampling 27 P r e p a r a t i o n o f Samples 28 Canning 29 Barbequed and K'nuum 3 0 Barbequed/Canned 31 S l u q 32 Shipment o f Samples 32 Treatment o f Samples i n L a b o r a t o r y 33 A n a l y s i s of N u t r i e n t C o m p o s i t i o n 34 M o i s t u r e 34 Ash 35 P r o t e i n 35 L i p i d 36 F o l a c i n and P a n t o t h e n i c A c i d 37 V i t a m i n A and V i t a m i n D 43 V i t a m i n E 43 Th i a m i n , R i b o f l a v i n and N i a c i n 44 M i n e r a l s 44 Car b o h y d r a t e and Energy 44 Food P r i c i n g 45 Salmon Samples 45 Commercial P r o d u c t s 46 E v a l u a t i o n o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y .. 46 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the Data 47 v V R e s u l t s 49 I V a l i d a t i o n of Methods 49 A: L i p i d s 49' B: M o i s t u r e i n S t o r e d F r e e z e - D r i e d Samples. 50 C: E f f e c t o f L i p i d s on F o l a t e and P a n t o t h e n a t e D e t e r m i n a t i o n s 51 I I N u t r i e n t C o m p o s i t i o n 56 I I I E f f e c t o f P r o c e s s i n g on N u t r i e n t s 68 IV E v a l u a t i o n o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y 81 VI D i s c u s s i o n 95 I N u t r i e n t C o m p o s i t i o n 95 I I E f f e c t of P r o c e s s i n g 104 I I I E v a l u a t i o n o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y 108 V I I C o n c l u s i o n 114 B i b l i o g r a p h y 116 v i LIST OF TABLES 1. Summary of P u b l i s h e d N u t r i e n t V a l u e s f o r Salmon P r o d u c t s per 100 g. Wet Weight 19 2. P e r c e n t Recovery o f L i p i d s from the Method o f B l i g h and Dyer (1959) 49 3. P e r c e n t M o i s t u r e i n F r e e z e - D r i e d Samples A f t e r 9 Months and 11 Months S t o r a g e 50 4. Pearso n C o r r e l a t i o n ( t w o - t a i l e d ) Between t h e L i p i d C ontent o f t h e Samples and the F o l a t e and P a n t o t h e n a t e C o n t e n t o f t h e Samples 56 5. D e s c r i p t i o n of Samples A n a l y z e d - S e c t i o n Sampled, P r e p a r a t i o n Method, L o c a t i o n Caught, and Date Sampled 57 6. N u t r i e n t C o m p o s i t i o n o f Sockeye P r e p a r a t i o n s per 100 g. as P r o c e s s e d (Reported as Mean and Range) ... 59 7. P u b l i s h e d N u t r i e n t V a l u e s f o r Sockeye Salmon w i t h V a l u e s f o r S i m i l a r Nuxalk P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r Comparison (Based on 100 g. p o r t i o n s ) 61 8. N u t r i e n t C o m p o s i t i o n o f Coho P r e p a r a t i o n s per 100 g. as P r o c e s s e d (Reported as Mean and Range) ... 64 9. P u b l i s h e d N u t r i e n t V a l u e s f o r Coho w i t h V a l u e s f o r S i m i l a r Nuxalk P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r Comparison (based on 100 g. p o r t i o n s ) 67 10. M o i s t u r e , P r o t e i n , L i p i d , Ash, F o l a t e ( t o t a l and f r e e ) and P a n t o t h e n a t e ( t o t a l and f r e e ) i n Sockeye A: Raw v e r s u s Canned 6 9 B: Raw v e r s u s Barbequed 70 C: Raw v e r s u s Barbequed/Canned 71 11. M o i s t u r e , P r o t e i n , L i p i d , Ash, F o l a t e ( t o t a l and f r e e ) and P a n t o t h e n a t e ( t o t a l and f r e e ) i n Coho A: Raw v e r s u s S l u q 72 B: Raw v e r s u s K'nuum 73 12. V i t a m i n A, V i t a m i n D, V i t a m i n E, T h i a m i n , R i b o f l a v i n , and N i a c i n i n Sockeye A: Raw v e r s u s Canned 75 B: Raw v e r s u s Barbequed 75 C: Raw v e r s u s Barbequed/Canned 76 v i i 13. V i t a m i n A, V i t a m i n D, V i t a m i n E, T h i a m i n , R i b o f l a v i n , and N i a c i n i n Coho A: Raw v e r s u s S l u q 77 B: Raw v e r s u s K' nuum 77 14. M i n e r a l C o m p o s i t i o n o f Sockeye P r e p a r a t i o n s A: Raw v e r s u s Canned 78 B: Raw v e r s u s Barbequed 78 C: Raw v e r s u s Barbequed/Canned 79 15. M i n e r a l C o m p o s i t i o n o f Coho P r e p a r a t i o n s A: Raw v e r s u s S l u q 80 B: Raw v e r s u s K' nuum 80 16. L i s t o f Commercial P r o t e i n P r o d u c t s Used i n Comparison of N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y , w i t h C o s t i n B e l l a C o o l a i n J u l y 1983, E d i b l e P o r t i o n i n G i v e n Purchase U n i t and E d i b l e P o r t i o n i n $1.00 V a l u e o f t h e P r o d u c t 83 17. N u t r i e n t C o m p o s i t i o n o f Commercial P r o t e i n P r o d u c t s Used i n Comparison o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y 84 18. C o s t o f Nuxalk Salmon per K i l o g r a m Dressed Weight and per K i l o g r a m P r e p a r e d Weight w i t h Mean P e r c e n t a g e D i s c a r d and Mean P e r c e n t a g e Loss i n P r o c e s s i n g 85 19. P e r c e n t a g e o f the Recommended N u t r i e n t I n t a k e f o r Canadians P r o v i d e d per P o r t i o n o f Nuxalk Salmon and Commercial P r o d u c t s (based on the R.N.I, f o r females 24-49 y e a r s o f age) 87 20. P e r c e n t a g e o f the Recommended N u t r i e n t I n t a k e f o r Canadians P r o v i d e d per D o l l a r V a l u e o f Nuxalk Salmon and Commercial P r o d u c t s (based on t h e R.N.I, f o r f e m a l e s 24-49 y e a r s o f age) 88 21. I n d i c e s o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y f o r Nuxalk Salmon and Commercial P r o d u c t s 90 22. Comparison o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y Between Nuxalk Salmon P r o d u c t s and C o m m e r c i a l l y A v a i l a b l e P r o t e i n P r o d u c t s U s i n g t h e Mann-Whitney U-Test ( t w o - t a i l e d ) 91 23. Comparison o f Index o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y and P e r c e n t Recommended N u t r i e n t I n t a k e per $1.00 V a l u e f o r C a l c i u m , I r o n and Z i n c , Between Nuxalk Salmon P r o d u c t s and C o m m e r c i a l l y A v a i l a b l e Meats, Cured Meats, F i s h , Meat A l t e r n a t e s and D a i r y P r o d u c t s U s i n g the Mann-Whitney U-Test ( t w o - t a i l e d ) 93 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES 1. Map o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y Showing the L o c a t i o n of t h e Reserve i n the V a l l e y and the L o c a t i o n o f the V a l l e y i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( i n s e t ) 23 2. P l o t o f L i p i d C ontent (mg/g d r y weight) V e r s u s F r e e F o l a t e C o n t e n t (ng/g d r y weight) 52 3. P l o t o f L i p i d C ontent (mg/g d r y weight) V e r s u s T o t a l F o l a t e C ontent (ng/g d r y weight) 53 4. P l o t of L i p i d C ontent (mg/g d r y weight) V e r s u s F r e e P a n t o t h e n a t e Content (ug/g d r y weight) 54 5. P l o t o f L i p i d C ontent (mg/g d r y weight) V e r s u s T o t a l P a n t o t h e n a t e Content (ug/g d r y weight) 55 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o a l l t h o s e who made t h i s p r o j e c t p o s s i b l e : The members o f my g u i d i n g committee - Dr. H a r r i e t V. K u h n l e i n , Dr. M e l v i n Lee, and Dr. John Vand e r s t o e p f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and su p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e c t ; Mrs. V i r g i n i a Green f o r her a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f the d a t a ; Mr. Frank F l y n n f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the computer a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a ; Sandy Moody (Community H e a l t h N u r s e ) , R o s i e Hans (Community H e a l t h R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) and Debbie T a l l i o f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n B e l l a C o o l a ; Members o f t h e Nuxalk N u t r i t i o n P r o j e c t s t a f f - L o u i s e H i l l a n d , Sarah Saunders, E m i l y Schooner, and Aron Hans f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g and p r e p a r i n g samples i n B e l l a C o o l a ; F i n a l l y , and most i m p o r t a n t l y , the p e o p l e o f t h e Nuxalk N a t i o n f o r t h e i r p a r t i c p a t i o n and s u p p o r t w h i c h made t h i s p r o j e c t b o t h p o s s i b l e and e n j o y a b l e . T h i s r e s e a r c h was funded i n p a r t by H e a l t h P r o m o t i o n Grant 5-52010, a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Summer Graduate F e l l o w s h i p and the Hugo E. M e l e i c k e Memorial F e l l o w s h i p . x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION S t u d i e s on the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f Canadian n a t i v e I n d i a n s which were conducted over the l a s t 30-40 y e a r s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i s a t r i s k n u t r i t i o n a l l y . Recent s t u d i e s ( E l l e s t a d - S a y e d e t a l . , 1981; H o f f e r e t a l . , 1981; K u h n l e i n , 1984a) have c o n f i r m e d t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n s p e c i f i c n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s a c r o s s Canada. The 1981 d i e t a r y s u r v e y of women 19-49 y e a r s o l d from the Nuxalk N a t i o n ( K u h n l e i n , 1984a) found f r e q u e n t i n t a k e s o f l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d t h e recommended d a i l y i n t a k e f o r v i t a m i n E, f o l a t e , c a l c i u m , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, a s c o r b a t e , and i r o n . Changing f o o d h a b i t s and a move away from t r a d i t i o n a l d i e t s t o more " w e s t e r n i z e d " d i e t s have been suggested as f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e poor n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . S c h a e f e r (1977 and 1980), and Draper (1977) have b o t h argued t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo d i e t , w hich was s t r o n g l y f i s h o r meat o r i e n t e d , was n u t r i t i o n a l l y adequate and t h a t the e r o s i o n of t h i s d i e t has l e d t o a d e c l i n e i n the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n s . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s (Hoppner e t a l . , 1978; K u h n l e i n e t a l . , 1982a; K u h n l e i n e t a l . , 1982b; C a l l o w a y e t a l . , 1974) have shown t h a t s p e c i f i c t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e f o ods a r e s u p e r i o r , i n some n u t r i e n t a s p e c t s , t o the foods which have r e p l a c e d them i n n a t i v e d i e t s . Smith (1975) suggested s e v e r a l f a c t o r s were i n v o l v e d i n 1 the c h a n g i n g f o o d h a b i t s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s . These i n c l u d e d , a growing dependence on l o c a l s t o r e s and t r a d e - p o s t s over t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d r e s o u r c e s , l a c k of v a r i e t y a v a i l a b l e i n s t o r e s i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s , and l a c k of knowledge about f o o d and n u t r i t i o n on the p a r t of f o o d p r e p a r e r s i n the p o p u l a t i o n . S t e p i e n (1978) c o n f i r m e d t h a t i s o l a t i o n , and the knowledge and a t t i t u d e s of t h e f o o d p r e p a r e r were r e l a t e d t o f o o d p r a c t i c e s i n the Western Canadian n a t i v e groups she s t u d i e d . She found t h a t the h i g h e s t n u t r i t i o n p r a c t i c e s c o r e s , which r e l a t e d t o d i e t a r y adequacy, were a c h i e v e d i n groups who s t i l l r e l i e d h e a v i l y on t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d r e s o u r c e s and who a l s o had a c c e s s t o w e l l - s t o c k e d , r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d f o o d o u t l e t s . I t appears t h a t the use or l a c k o f use o f t r a d i t i o n a l f oods can a f f e c t the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f n a t i v e groups. I t would seem f e a s i b l e , t h e n , t o i n c o r p o r a t e t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d use i n t o programs t o improve the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s , a l o n g w i t h b a s i c n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n . The Nuxalk Food and N u t r i t i o n Program ( K u h n l e i n , 1984a) was conducted i n B e l l a C o o l a , B.C. The purpose of the program was t o improve the f o o d use and the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of the p e o p l e of the Nuxalk N a t i o n by e m p h a s i z i n g t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d s . One of t h e o b j e c t i v e s of the program was t o d e t e r m i n e the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d s , as i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a i s not adequate. T h i s s t u d y was conducted as p a r t of the program. The purpose of the p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e the 2 n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f f i v e common Nuxalk salmon p r e p a r a t i o n s - canned sockeye, barbequed sockeye, barbequed and canned sockeye, coho s l u q (a h a r d , smoke-dried p r o d u c t ) and coho k'nuum ( a half-smoked p r o d u c t ) - and t o compare the n u t r i e n t v a l u e s t o t h o s e o f c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e p r o t e i n foods on the b a s i s o f s t a n d a r d s e r v i n g s i z e , e q u a l c a l o r i c v a l u e , and e q u a l d o l l a r v a l u e . The i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from t h i s s t u d y w i l l be u s e f u l i n a n a l y z i n g d i e t a r y d a t a from the Nuxalk p e o p l e and i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s . 3 CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF CANADIAN  NATIVE INDIANS Most e a r l y s t u d i e s on the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f Canadian n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s , conducted t h r e e t o f o u r decades ago (Moore e t a l . , 1946; C o r r i g a n , 1946; V i v i a n e t a l . , 1948; B e s t and G i r a r d , 1959; B e s t e t a l . , 1961), c o n c e n t r a t e d on p o p u l a t i o n s i n O n t a r i o , M a n i t o b a , and Saskatchewan. Moore e t a l . (1946) s t u d i e d t h e d i e t a r y h a b i t s and n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f over f o u r hundred n o r t h e r n Manitoba I n d i a n s . They examined t r a d e - p o s t r e c o r d s o f food purchases f o r f o o d i n t a k e and performed c l i n i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s . From the d i e t a r y assessment they c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n t a k e s of v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n C, and r i b o f l a v i n were d e f i c i e n t . The c l i n i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s showed marked t i s s u e changes i n the m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s s t u d i e d . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t the t i s s u e changes were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l a c k o f "p r o p e r " f o o d . V i v i a n e t a l . (1948) conducted a s i m i l a r s t u d y w i t h two p o p u l a t i o n s o f James Bay I n d i a n s . Food purchases from l o c a l s t o r e s were examined a l o n g w i t h c l i n i c a l and a n t h r o p o m e t r i c f i n d i n g s . D i e t a r y i n t a k e s o f a l l n u t r i e n t s , e x c e p t c a l c i u m , a s c o r b i c a c i d and v i t a m i n A, were judged t o be adequate. From the c l i n i c a l and a n t h r o p o m e t r i c f i n d i n g s t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s , e s p e c i a l l y of the 10-19 y e a r o l d group, 4 i n b o t h p o p u l a t i o n s , was poor. Between o n e - t h i r d and two-t h i r d s of t e e n a g e r s , i n b o t h p o p u l a t i o n s , were 10-30 pounds underweight f o r t h e i r h e i g h t . B e s t and G i r a r d (1959) s t u d i e d two groups of M e t i s and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n Saskatchewan. The f i r s t group was composed of s i x t o f i f t e e n y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n from P i n e House, a community of 200 M e t i s l o c a t e d 200 a i r m i l e s from the n e a r e s t g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l . The second group i n c l u d e d p r e - s c h o o l e r s (2 months t o 5 y e a r s ) from P e l i c a n Narrows, a community of 600 t r e a t y I n d i a n s w i t h an I n d i a n H e a l t h S e r v i c e s H o s p i t a l and f u l l t ime s t a f f n u r s e . H e i g h t , w e i g h t , haemoglobin, h e m a t o c r i t , serum a s c o r b i c a c i d , serum v i t a m i n A, serum c a r o t e n e , and serum t o t a l p r o t e i n s were measured. No c l e a r d e f i c i e n c i e s were found , but serum v i t a m i n A and c a r o t e n e l e v e l s , and serum a s c o r b i c a c i d l e v e l s were low. Some cases of anemia or h y p o p r o t e i n e m i a were p r e s e n t i n the p r e - s c h o o l e r s from P e l i c a n Narrows but not i n the P i n e House s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The P i n e House group had h i g h l e v e l s of s k i n i n f e c t i o n s and i n f e s t a t i o n s ( l i c e , m i t e s e t c . ) , w hich were a t t r i b u t e d more t o poor s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s and l a c k of m e d i c a l c a r e than t o n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s . The P i n e House group was p r o v i d e d w i t h s c h o o l l u n c h e s f o r one y e a r ( i n c l u d i n g d a i r y p r o d u c t s , v i t a m i n D supplements and f r u i t ) , a n d the two groups were then re-examined (Best e t a l . , 1961). They found t h a t the serum v i t a m i n A and c a r o t e n e l e v e l s were a p p r e c i a b l y b e t t e r i n t h e P i n e House group, but the a s c o r b i c a c i d l e v e l s were l o w e r . T h i s l a t t e r f i n d i n g was 5 a t t r i b u t e d t o a breakdown i n t h e t r a n s p o r t o f the serum f o r a n a l y s i s . S k i n i n f e c t i o n s and i n f e s t a t i o n s were absent i n the P i n e House group on r e - e x a m i n a t i o n , though t h i s was not a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f o o d s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n d i r e c t l y , but t o t h e g e n e r a l impact of t h e p r o j e c t on the awareness o f t h e community, i n terms o f s a n i t a t i o n and g e n e r a l h e a l t h p r a c t i c e s . A l a t e r s t u d y (Dong and Feeny, 1968) compared the d i e t a r y i n t a k e s o f I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n A l e r t Bay, B r i t i s h C o lumbia. From d i e t h i s t o r i e s , t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t the d i e t a r y i n t a k e s o f c a l c i u m and a s c o r b i c a c i d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n the I n d i a n c h i l d r e n than t h e n o n - I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The d i e t a r y i n t a k e s of b o t h groups of c h i l d r e n met the Canadian d i e t a r y s t a n d a r d s f o r a l l n u t r i e n t s , e x c e p t c a l c i u m and v i t a m i n A. V i t a m i n A consumption was c o n s i d e r a b l y below the s t a n d a r d f o r b o t h groups. W h i l e some e a r l i e r s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d b i o c h e m i c a l and d i e t a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s as w e l l as p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , none of them were comprehensive s t u d i e s o f t h e n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f the p o p u l a t i o n s i n q u e s t i o n . In the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's more comprehensive s t u d i e s were conducted on both a r e g i o n a l and a n a t i o n a l l e v e l . I n 1968 a s t u d y o f the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f two groups of B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n s was conducted (Lee e t a l . , 1971; B i r k b e c k e t a l . , 1971; D e s a i and Lee, 1971). T h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d d i e t a r y and b i o c h e m i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s as w e l l as p h y s i c a l and d e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75 per c e n t 6 of the r e s i d e n t s of t h e Ahousat (a c o a s t a l Nootkan community) and Anaham (an i n t e r i o r C h i l c o t i n community). The d i e t a r y s t u d i e s (Lee e t a l . , 1971) found f r e q u e n t low i n t a k e s f o r c a l o r i e s , c a l c i u m , v i t a m i n A and i r o n . C a l c i u m i n t a k e s were ina d e q u a t e i n b o t h communities, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e 9-20 y e a r o l d age group, and was thought t o r e f l e c t i n a d e q u a t e m i l k i n t a k e s . The b i o c h e m i c a l s t u d i e s (Desai and Lee, 1971) found s a t i s f a c t o r y serum c a r o t e n e and v i t a m i n A l e v e l s i n b o t h p o p u l a t i o n s i n s p i t e o f the low i n t a k e s . However, serum l e v e l s do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t l i v e r s t o r e s o f v i t a m i n A. The haemoglobin and h e m a t o c r i t l e v e l s i n b o t h p o p u l a t i o n s were below "normal" f o r Canadians w h i l e the t r a n s f e r r i n s a t u r a t i o n and plasma i r o n l e v e l s were "normal" o v e r a l l , i n s p i t e of a s i g n i f i c a n t number of Ahousat r e s i d e n t s w i t h l e s s than " a c c e p t a b l e " l e v e l s . U r i n a r y r i b o f l a v i n a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 25 per c e n t o f Ahousat c h i l d r e n under 3 y e a r s o l d were d e f i c i e n t . Serum c h o l e s t e r o l l e v e l s were found t o be h i g h i n l a r g e numbers of b o t h p o p u l a t i o n s over 13 y e a r s o l d , w h i l e serum v i t a m i n E l e v e l s were lower than "normal" i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 36 per c e n t of the Anaham p o p u l a t i o n t e s t e d . A l a t e r s t u d y of two p o p u l a t i o n s of Yukon T e r r i t o r y I n d i a n s (Desai and Lee, 1974a; D e s a i and Lee, 1974b) found low serum v i t a m i n E l e v e l s i n 20-26 per c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n s s t u d i e d i n Upper L i a r d and Ross R i v e r . C h o l e s t r o l l e v e l s i n b o t h t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n s were i n t h e low range. S i x t y per c e n t 7 o f the a d u l t s i n b o t h communities had " d e f i c i e n t " o r low l e v e l s of serum a s c o r b i c a c i d . Haemoglobin l e v e l s were low i n a d u l t males i n Upper L i a r d . Other b i o c h e m i c a l f i n d i n g s were g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y d i e t a r y d a t a were not a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s e two p o p u l a t i o n s . The N u t r i t i o n Canada I n d i a n Survey (Bureau of N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s , 1975) was conducted between 1970 and 1972 and i n c l u d e d 1800 p a r t i c i p a n t s from 29 d i f f e r e n t bands (urban and remote) r e p r e s e n t i n g the s i x n a t i v e c u l t u r e a r e a s i n Canada. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , due t o problems c o n t a c t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h i s was o n l y 30 per c e n t o f the s e l e c t e d sample. D i e t a r y and b i o c h e m i c a l assessments showed poor i r o n , c a l c i u m , f o l a t e and v i t a m i n A s t a t u s i n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . Low serum a s c o r b a t e l e v e l s were a l s o found i n p o p u l a t i o n s i n remote a r e a s . S i n c e the N u t r i t i o n Canada Survey, a number of s t u d i e s have been conducted w i t h n a t i v e groups a c r o s s Canada. Coodin e t a l . (1975) and E l l e s t a d - S a y e d e t a l . (1981) have r e p o r t e d some b i o c h e m i c a l , p h y s i c a l and d i e t a r y f i n d i n g s from a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y of p r e s c h o o l I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n M a n i t o b a , begun i n 1972. The two communities s t u d i e d were C r o s s Lake (about 300 m i l e s n o r t h o f W i nnipeg, p o p u l a t i o n 2100) and Garden H i l l (300 m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of Winnepeg, p o p u l a t i o n 1300). Of the 90 per c e n t o f the p r e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the b i o c h e m i c a l and p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s (Coodin e t a l . , 1975), 20-30 per c e n t o f both communities had low h e m a t o c r i t v a l u e s and serum a l k a l i n e phosphatase l e v e l s were i n c r e a s e d i n 8 27.5 per c e n t o f the Garden H i l l s u b j e c t s , where 3 cases of r i c k e t s were c o n f i r m e d . The d i e t a r y d a t a (based on weighed 24-hour i n t a k e s ) were c o l l e c t e d i n 1974 ( E l l e s t a d - S a y e d e t a l . , 1981) from 23 per c e n t o f the C r o s s Lake c h i l d r e n and 28 per c e n t o f t h e Garden H i l l c h i l d r e n , e x c l u d i n g b r e a s t f e d i n f a n t s . I n b o t h communities t h e r e were h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s of low i n t a k e s ( l e s s t h a n t h e Canadian d i e t a r y r e q u i r e m e n t ) o f f o l a t e , p y r i d o x i n e , c a l c i u m and t h i a m i n . More than 50 per c e n t of the Garden H i l l p a r t i c i p a n t s consumed l e s s than t h e d i e t a r y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r v i t a m i n D and i r o n . P r o t e i n and a s c o r b i c a c i d i n t a k e s were good i n b o t h communities. I n 1978, H o f f e r e t a l . (1981) s t u d i e d 82 per c e n t o f the a d u l t (30 y e a r s o l d and over) p o p u l a t i o n o f t h r e e James Bay Cree bands. I n g e n e r a l , the r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e N u t r i t i o n Canada I n d i a n Survey, e x c e p t t h a t t h e r e was a h i g h e r p r e v a l e n c e o f low serum v i t a m i n A and low serum a s c o r b i c a c i d l e v e l s i n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n t h a n i n the I n d i a n Survey as a whole. However, when the r e s u l t s were compared t o t h e I n d i a n Survey r e s u l t s f o r remote a r e a s o n l y , t h e y a r e comparable, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p o p u l a t i o n s i n remote a r e a s may be a t g r e a t e r r i s k t han the urban p o p u l a t i o n s . A program t o stu d y and improve f o o d use and n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s i n the p e o p l e o f the Nuxalk N a t i o n was conducted i n B e l l a C o o l a , B r i t i s h Columbia ( K u h n l e i n , 1981; K u h n l e i n , 1984a). R e s u l t s of a p r e l i m i n a r y d i e t a r y s u r v e y , done i n B e l l a C o o l a i n t h e summer o f 1981, i n v o l v i n g a d u l t women aged 19-49 9 y e a r s o l d , r e s i d e n t on the r e s e r v e a t the time o f t h e s t u d y , i n d i c a t e t h a t more th a n 33 per c e n t o f the group had d i e t a r y i n t a k e s l e s s than o n e - t h i r d o f the Canadian recommended n u t r i e n t i n t a k e s f o r v i t a m i n E, f o l a t e and c a l c i u m , w h i l e 20-33 per c e n t o f t h e group had d i e t a r y i n t a k e s l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f the recommended i n t a k e f o r v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, a s c o r b a t e and i r o n . About 20 per c e n t o f t h e group had i n t a k e s l e s s than o n e - h a l f o f t h e recommended i n t a k e f o r t h i a m i n and n i a c i n . R e s u l t s o f the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s assessment i n 1983 ( K u h n l e i n and Moody, 1984), i n which 66 per c e n t o f the r e s i d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d , i n d i c a t e ' t h a t 30 per c e n t of the women and 29 per c e n t of t h e men s t u d i e d exceeded the Canadian n a t i o n a l 95th c e n t i l e o f w e i g h t f o r h e i g h t . Hemoglobin and h e m a t o c r i t v a l u e s were normal i n a l l but 5 a d u l t s , but f e r r i t i n l e v e l s were low i n 32 per c e n t o f the a d u l t women and 43 per c e n t o f t h e te e n a g e r s t e s t e d . S t u d i e s on serum c h o l e s t e r o l and HDL c h o l e s t e r o l ( B a r r and K u h n l e i n , 1985) i n d i c a t e t h a t a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the stu d y group had e l e v a t e d serum c h o l e s t e r o l l e v e l s when compared t o N a t i v e p e o p l e s t u d i e d by N u t r i t i o n Canada. The s t u d i e s of n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s conducted t o date have been d i v e r s e i n terms o f the da t a c o l l e c t e d and the p o p u l a t i o n s s t u d i e d . However, t h e y a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t the n a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada i s a p o p u l a t i o n a t n u t r i t i o n a l r i s k . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l , economic, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e a s o n s which c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s c o n d i t i o n , i t may be a r e f l e c t i o n of the 10 g e n e r a l f o o d consumption p a t t e r n s of t h i s group. The N u t r i t i o n Canada Food Consumption P a t t e r n s Report (Bureau of N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s , 1976) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e average d a i l y consumption o f foods by Canadian n a t i v e I n d i a n s d i f f e r e d from t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s . I n g e n e r a l t h e y consumed l e s s m i l k , f r u i t s , and v e g e t a b l e s and more meat, f i s h , p o u l t r y , and c e r e a l p r o d u c t s . The average number of s e r v i n g s o f f o o d s , p r i m a r i l y s u g a r , and o f s o f t d r i n k s was s i m i l a r t o t h e n a t i o n a l average. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h many r e p o r t s ( V i v i a n e t a l . , 1948; B e s t and G i r a r d , 1959; Dong and Feeny, 1968; S t e p i e n , 1978; Armstrong, 1980; K u h n l e i n , 1984a) which i n d i c a t e low consumption of m i l k , f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s and a h i g h e r consumption o f c e r e a l p r o d u c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f l o u r . Smith (1975), S c h a e f f e r (1977) and S c h a e f f e r (1980) r e l a t e t h i s g e n e r a l f o o d consumption p a t t e r n t o a move away from t r a d i t i o n a l foods and a growing dependence on the foods a v a i l a b l e i n l o c a l s t o r e s o r t r a d i n g p o s t s . Foods a v a i l a b l e i n remote a r e a s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y d u r a b l e items which w i l l s t a n d t h e r i g o u r s o f t r a n s p o r t . These i n c l u d e f l o u r s , sugars and p r e s e r v e d f o o d s . K u h n l e i n (1984a) has r e p o r t e d t h a t the f i r s t f o ods i m p o r t e d i n t o B e l l a C o o l a i n the 1850's were f l o u r , m o l a s s e s , t e a , su g a r , s a l t , and w h i s k e y , and t h a t even t o d a y , f r e s h f o ods i n t h e markets a r e l i m i t e d depending on t h e season and t h e weekly d e l i v e r y o f s u p p l i e s . Moore e t a l . (1946) found t h a t about 85 per c e n t o f t h e c a l o r i e s p urchased d a i l y from 11 t r a d e - p o s t s i n n o r t h e r n M a n i t o b a , were f l o u r , l a r d , s u g a r , and jam. They e s t i m a t e d t h a t use o f t r a d i t i o n a l game and f i s h f o o d s was low due t o d e c r e a s i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y . On the o t h e r hand, Lee e t a l . (1971) s t r e s s e d the importance o f the t r a d i t i o n a l game and f i s h p r o d u c t s t o the Ahousat and Anaham communities i n meeting t h e i r n u t r i e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s . Smith (1975) a l s o c i t e s l a c k of knowledge about foods a v a i l a b l e , b a s i c n u t r i t i o n , and home-making s k i l l s as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e food h a b i t s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s . S t e p i e n (1978), i n a s t u d y o f the f o o d p a t t e r n s , shopping h a b i t s and f o o d b e l i e f s o f I n d i a n s on i s o l a t e d and n o n - i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e s , found t h a t l o c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n o f the f o o d p r e p a r e r , a t t i t u d e s o f t h e fo o d p r e p a r e r toward n u t r i t i o n , and g e n e r a l h o u s e h o l d f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e were a l l p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o food p r a c t i c e s . However, t h e s i n g l e most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r r e l a t e d t o f o o d consumption was i s o l a t i o n . T h i s c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o the a v a i l a b i l i t y of foods on i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e s as f o o d s e l e c t i o n was p o o r e s t i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s . The items most o f t e n i n s h o r t s u p p l y i n markets were d a i r y p r o d u c t s , f r e s h meats, f r e s h f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e h i g h e s t f o o d p r a c t i c e s c o r e s were a c h i e v e d a t the two r e s e r v e s which s t i l l r e l i e d h e a v i l y on t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d s o u r c e s but a l s o had a c c e s s t o w e l l - s t o c k e d , r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d f o o d o u t l e t s . NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF TRADITIONAL DIETS Many r e s e a r c h e r s have d i s c u s s e d the v a l u e o f i n d i g e n o u s d i e t s o v er " w e s t e r n i z e d " d i e t s . Many emphasize the e f f e c t o f 12 w e s t e r n i z a t i o n on p l a n t based f o o d systems where the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f cash c r o p s has l e d t o a r e d u c t i o n i n a v a i l a b l e f o o d p l a n t s (Doughty, 1979; Dewey, 1979; Robson, 1976; Robson and Wadsworth, 1977; and Behar, 1976). They do, however, make the p o i n t t h a t e a r l y man was a b l e t o s u r v i v e and d e v e l o p w i t h a v a r i e t y of d i e t s which were d e t e r m i n e d by the environment i n w hich he l i v e d . Draper (1977) has suggested t h a t the n a t i v e Eskimo d i e t was a b l e t o s u p p l y a l l the n u t r i e n t s e s s e n t i a l f o r h e a l t h p r o v i d e d i t was a v a i l a b l e i n adequate amounts and p r e p a r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l methods. The meat and s e a f o o d based d i e t p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t v i t a m i n s and m i n e r a l s , as marine o i l s a r e r i c h i n f a t s o l u b l e v i t a m i n s and t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t v i t a m i n C i n f r e s h or f r o z e n raw meat t o p r e v e n t s c u r v y . The low c a l c i u m c o n t e n t o f meat was overcome by u s i n g f i s h bones and the spongy p o r t i o n of sea and l a n d mammal bones. He c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e e r o s i o n o f t h i s d i e t w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i o n has l e d t o a d e c l i n e i n t h e n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n s . S c h a e f e r (1977) argued t h a t the a b o r i g i n a l Eskimo d i e t was not o n l y adequate f o r growth and development of the p o p u l a t i o n but s u p e r i o r i n some r e s p e c t s t o the " t y p i c a l " N o r t h American d i e t . He s t a t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h the d i e t was h i g h i n p r o t e i n i t was lower i n f a t t h a n the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r average f a t consumption by urban Americans i n 1955. He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i e t , w h i l e low i n c a r b o h y d r a t e , was not d e v o i d 13 o f t h i s component. The stomach c o n t e n t s of c a r i b o u and o t h e r a n i m a l s , g l y c o g e n r i c h l i v e r s and g l y c o p r o t e i n s from e p i t h e l i a l t i s s u e s were s o u r c e s o f c a r b o h y d r a t e i n the t r a d i t i o n a l d i e t . These s o u r c e s have been r e p l a c e d by an e x t r e m e l y h i g h consumption of r e f i n e d s u g a r s . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t the e r o s i o n o f t h i s d i e t has not o n l y a f f e c t e d the h e a l t h and n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of the p o p u l a t i o n but a l s o the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e o f the p o p u l a t i o n . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have de t e r m i n e d t h e n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f s p e c i f i c f o o ds i n t r a d i t i o n a l d i e t s and compared them e i t h e r t o a n u t r i e n t s t a n d a r d o r t o the foods which have g e n e r a l l y r e p l a c e d them i n the " w e s t e r n i z e d " d i e t . Toma and C u r r y (1980) c a l c u l a t e d the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f seven t r a d i t i o n a l N o r t h Dakota n a t i v e f o o d s . A N u t r i e n t C a l o r i e B e n e f i t R a t i o (NCBR) was c a l c u l a t e d f o r p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n A, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , a s c o r b i c a c i d , c a l c i u m and i r o n . F i v e o f the seven foods q u a l i f i e d as n u t r i t i o u s by G u t h r i e ' s d e f i n i t i o n (NCBR o f 1 or more f o r a t l e a s t 4 n u t r i e n t s o r an NCBR o f 2 or more f o r a t l e a s t 2 n u t r i e n t s ) . Hoppner e t a l . (1978) d e t e r m i n e d the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n ( p r o x i m a t e c o m p o s i t i o n , p y r i d o x i n e , f o l a t e , B , p a n t o t h e n i c 12 a c i d , a s c o r b a t e , t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , c a l c i u m , phosphorus, sodium, p o t a s s i u m , magnesium, i r o n , z i n c , copper and manganese) f o r e i g h t t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo p r e p a r a t i o n s based on a r c t i c c h a r , c a r i b o u meat, s e a l meat and s e a l l i v e r . The c a r i b o u and s e a l meat were comparable t o beef i n terms o f f a t and p r o t e i n , but 14 had average t o h i g h l e v e l s o f t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , B , 12 f o l a c i n , and p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d i n comparison. The average i r o n c o n t e n t o f t h e e i g h t foods was h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e meat group o f the "mixed Canadian d i e t " . S e a l meat and l i v e r , and a r c t i c c h a r a l l had h i g h l e v e l s of l o n g c h a i n u n s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s . K u h n l e i n e t a l . (1982a) d e t e r m i n e d the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f o o l i g a n g r e a s e , a f i s h o i l used by p e o p l e o f the Nuxalk N a t i o n . The t o t a l u n s a t u r a t e d f a t c o n t e n t was s i m i l a r t o c o r n o i l and i t was found t o be s u p e r i o r t o b o t h l a r d and c o r n o i l i n terms o f t h e f a t s o l u b l e v i t a m i n c o n t e n t . They e s t i m a t e d t h a t 2-3 t a b l e s p o o n s of "g r e a s e " per day c o u l d s a t i s f y t h e a d u l t d a i l y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r v i t a m i n s A and E. In a second s t u d y ( K u h n l e i n e t a l . , 1982b) the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f two r o o t foods used by the Nuxalk peo p l e - s p r i n g b a n k c l o v e r and p a c i f i c s i l v e r w e e d was d e t e r m i n e d . I t was found t h a t t h e foods were h i g h e r i n c a l c i u m , magnesium, i r o n , c o p p e r , manganese and z i n c t h a n p o t a t o which has r e p l a c e d them i n t h e d i e t . The r o o t s were a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r i n s t r o n t i u m than the p o t a t o . C a l l o w a y e t a l . (1974) examined t r a d i t i o n a l Hopi and Papago I n d i a n foods a l o n g w i t h f e d e r a l commodity f o o d s , which have r e p l a c e d them i n the d i e t , f o r n i t r o g e n and f i f t e e n o t h e r m i n e r a l e l e m e n t s . They found t h a t n a t i v e foods from the A r i z o n a r e s e r v a t i o n a r e a s were c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r i n m i n e r a l c o n t e n t t h a n the s u b s t i t u t e d commodity f o o d s . They c o n c l u d e d 15 t h a t the two p o p u l a t i o n groups had a b e t t e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f meeting t h e i r m i n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s from l o c a l l y grown, t r a d i t i o n a l l y p r e p a r e d p l a n t foods than from commodity foods o f e q u a l c a l o r i c v a l u e . T h i s s t u d y a l s o found h i g h e r l e v e l s o f bromine, s t r o n t i u m , r u b i d i u m and l e a d i n t h e l o c a l f o o ds compared t o the commodity f o o d s . The a u t h o r s noted t h a t t h e consequences o f i n c r e a s e d i n t a k e s o f t h e s e elements a r e unknown. T r a d i t i o n a l d i e t s can p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t n u t r i e n t s f o r growth and development o f a p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some c o n c e r n about the t o x i c o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f some t r a d i t i o n a l foods i t has been shown t h a t some elements o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i e t s a r e n u t r i t i o n a l l y s u p e r i o r t o the foods which o f t e n r e p l a c e them i n t h e d i e t . COMPOSITION OF NATIVE SALMON PRODUCTS A s u r v e y o f t r a d i t i o n a l f o o ds s t i l l used by the p e o p l e o f the Nuxalk N a t i o n found t h a t a v a r i e t y o f t r a d i t i o n a l p r o t e i n foods were s t i l l p o p u l a r ( K u h n l e i n , 1981; K u h n l e i n , 1984a). The most p o p u l a r p r e p a r a t i o n s were from the s i x s a l m o n i d s p e c i e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a r e a . These were Oncorhyncus n e r k a ( s o c k e y e ) , 0. k i u t s c h (coho) , 0_^  t s c h a w y t s c h a ( s p r i n g ) , 0_^  k e t a (chum) , 0.  gorbuscha (pink) and Salmo g a i r d n e r i ( s t e e l h e a d ) . The methods of p r e p a r i n g the f i s h i n c l u d e d : b a k i n g , s t e w i n g , b r o i l i n g , f r y i n g and b a r b e q u i n g over an open f i r e . The p r i m a r y t r a d i t i o n a l p r e s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e f o r salmon was smoking u n t i l d r y ( K u h n l e i n , 1984a). In the l a s t c e n t u r y c a n n i n g , f r e e z i n g , 16 and s a l t i n g have become p o p u l a r t e c h n i q u e s f o r p r e s e r v i n g f r e s h o r l i g h t l y smoked p r o d u c t s . P u b l i s h e d n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n v a l u e s f o r the f i s h p r e p a r a t i o n s commonly used by t h e Nuxalk p e o p l e a re s c a r c e . There a r e some v a l u e s f o r canned, raw, or g r i l l e d salmon (Pen n i n g t o n and Church, 1980; Mann, 1962; B a i l e y , 1942; T h u r s t o n , 1958; H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada, 1979; C h a t f i e l d , 1954). Very few v a l u e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n methods (Mann, 1962; C h a t f i e l d , 1954; H e l l e r , 1967; R i v e r a , 1949). The d a t a a v a i l a b l e a r e summarized i n T a b l e 1. Many o f the n u t r i e n t v a l u e s a r e m i s s i n g . The most common n u t r i e n t s d e t e r m i n e d a r e m o i s t u r e , p r o t e i n and l i p i d s , w h i l e the d a t a f o r v i t a m i n s and m i n e r a l s i s the most i n c o m p l e t e . Some v a l u e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e a r e not u s e f u l because t h e s p e c i e s i s not g i v e n (Mann, 1962) or common names a r e used t o i d e n t i f y t he samples ( Z o t t o l a e t a l . , 1983) and t h e s e can v a r y from a r e a t o a r e a making i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d a t a from a s p e c i f i c s p e c i e s d i f f i c u l t . Another problem o f much o f t h e d a t a i s t h a t the s p e c i f i c c u t o f the f i s h used i s not s t a t e d . H i g a s h i (1962), Stansby (1962) and B a i l e y (1942) have a l l noted t h a t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f a sample of f i s h v a r i e s w i t h the a r e a t h e sample was t a k e n from - i . e . c l o s e t o the head i n c o n t r a s t t o the t a i l o r c l o s e t o the s k i n i n c o n t r a s t t o the i n s i d e . The d a t a on t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n s i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o use because the a c t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s i s not documented i n many c a s e s . P r e p a r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d i f f e r among n a t i v e groups and t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d a f f e c t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e 17 p r o d u c t . These d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be s m a l l but even s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s can be s i g n i f i c a n t i f consumption o f a p r o d u c t i s h i g h . There does not appear t o have been any s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y on the e f f e c t o f t r a d i t i o n a l N o r t h American n a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n i q u e s on n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t . The e f f e c t s of s a l t i n g , c u r i n g and smoking on n u t r i e n t s i n f l e s h foods i n g e n e r a l (Daun, 1975) and f i s h p r o d u c t s i n p a r t i c u l a r ( C u t t i n g , 1962; T a r r , 1962) have been r e v i e w e d and i n g e n e r a l i t i s thought t h a t s a l t i n g and smoking do not a p p r e c i a b l y a f f e c t the c o n t e n t of B v i t a m i n s , a l t h o u g h t h i a m i n i s c o n s i d e r e d low i n s a l t e d and smoked f i s h p r o d u c t s w o r l d w i d e . The a u t h o r s note t h a t t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y based on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t w i t h o u t comparing i t t o the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e comparable raw p r o d u c t s . A s t u d y , r e p o r t e d by Z o t t o l a e t a l . (1983), on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and m i c r o b i o l o g y o f some n a t i v e A l a s k a n p r e s e r v e d foods c o n c e n t r a t e d on the pH l e v e l , s a l t c o n t e n t and m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i n terms of r e d u c i n g o r p r e v e n t i n g b a c t e r i a l growth i n t h e s e p r o d u c t s . A g a i n , the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the p r o d u c t was not compared t o a c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw sample. In summary, t h e r e i s much work t o be done on the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l P a c i f i c Northwest n a t i v e f i s h p r o d u c t s t o dete r m i n e the n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s . 18 TABLE 1 Summary of Published Nutrient Values f o r Salmon Products per 100 g Wet Weight Product H20 Energy CHO P r o t e i n Fat V i t A Thiamin R i b o f l a v i n N i a c i n F o l a t e Iron Sodium Potassium Calcium Phosphorous Source % Kcals g g g IU mg mg mg ug mg mg mg mg mg A: nerka (sockeye) raw _ _ _ _ _ 1 5 0 0 _ 1 4 0 0 7 _ 4 3 3 9 1 _ _ p / c canned - 169 - 20. 0 9 t r 0.22 5 .9 - 1.3 - - 231 286 BB canned - 171 - 20 . 3 9 230 0.04 0. 16 7.3 - 1. 2 522 344 259 344 P/C canned 71 203 - 22.2 12 - 0.03 0.15 7.2 27 0.9 - 111 - HW a i r / d r i e d - 47.5 2 5 - - - _ _ _ _ _ 32 840 R B: 0. k i u t s c h (coho) raw raw canned a i r / d r i e d half/smoke 140 123 158 11 29 19.9 20.0 21.0 19.5 36 23 30 0.26 0.22 7.0 1.8 1.5 78 286 212 297 FAO BB BB ADS EZ -3 raw canned canned 0. gorbuscha (pink) 71 73 119 139 141 20.0 19.5 20.5 100 70 0.14 0.05 0.05 0.18 7.0 8.0 1.1 0.8 64 387 306 361 13 187 196 230 264 286 P/C BB P/C D: 0_;_ tschawytscha (spring) raw - 222 - 19 .1 16 310 0. .10 0. ,23 raw - 200 - 20. .0 13 -canned - 210 - 19. .6 14 230 0. .13 0. ,14 a i r / d r i e d 15 - - 37. .5 2 640 0. .15 0. 82 a i r / d r i e d - - - 48. .2 22 _ smoked 14 - 7 56. ,0 25 219 0. .10 0. 22 E: 0. keta (chum) raw 84 65 _ 12. ,0 2 _ 0. ,08 0. 18 canned - 112 - 21. .5 5 -F: Salroo g a i r d n e r i (steelhead) raw - 189 - 21.0 11 P/C values from Pennington and Church (1980) BB values from B a i l e y (1942) HW values from Health and Welfare Canada (1979) R values from Rivera (1949) - - 45 399 - 301 P/C - - - - - 253 BB 7.3 - 0.9 - 366 154 289 P/C 17.5 • - - 28 653 ADS - - - - 41 840 R _ _ _ _ _ 19 - M - 11 283 ADS _ - - - - - - BB 8.4 - - - - - BB FAO values from C h a t f i e l d (1954) ADS values from H e l l e r (1967) EZ values from Z o t t o l a et a l (1983) M values from Mann (1962) DESCRIPTION OF GROUP AND AREA INVOLVED IN STUDY The B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y i s l o c a t e d a t t h e h e a d o f t h e N o r t h B e n t i c k Arm, a b o u t 450 km n o r t h o f V a n c o u v e r and 350 km s o u t h o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , by a i r . The n e a r e s t l a r g e t o wn i s W i l l i a m s L a k e w h i c h i s 480 km e a s t o f t h e v a l l e y v i a H i g h w a y 20. The v a l l e y i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 km l o n g and v a r i e s i n w i d t h f r o m 0.8 km t o 3.0 km ( F i g u r e 1 ) . I t i s s u r r o u n d e d by m o u n t a i n s w h i c h r a n g e i n e l e v a t i o n f r o m 1800 t o 2600 m ( B e l l a C o o l a Museum A s s o c i a t i o n , 1979) The v i l l a g e o f B e l l a C o o l a , l o c a t e d a t t h e mouth o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r , i s t h e l a r g e s t s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e v a l l e y . The p r i m a r y f o o d s t o r e i n t h e v a l l e y i s t h e Co-op i n B e l l a C o o l a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a s m a l l g e n e r a l s t o r e i n H a g e n s b e r g , a b o u t 16 km e a s t o f t h e v i l l a g e o f B e l l a C o o l a . F o o d s u p p l i e s a r e d e l i v e r e d t o t h e v a l l e y o n c e a week and f r e s h p r o d u c e c a n be l i m i t e d i n s u p p l y d e p e n d i n g on t h e s e a s o n and t h e d a y o f t h e week. T h e r e i s a r e l i a b l e s u p p l y o f f r o z e n , c a n n e d and p a c k a g e d f o o d s ( K u h n l e i n , 1 9 8 4 a ) . M e d i c a l s e r v i c e s i n t h e v a l l e y i n c l u d e a f i f t e e n b e d h o s p i t a l w i t h t h r e e p h y s i c i a n s i n B e l l a C o o l a , and a M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s C l i n i c w i t h a p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e on t h e r e s e r v e . The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e v a l l e y i s a b o u t 2 0 0 0 , o f whom, a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d a r e N a t i v e I n d i a n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 675 p e o p l e o f t h e N u x a l k N a t i o n l i v e on t h e r e s e r v e a d j a c e n t t o t h e v i l l a g e o f B e l l a C o o l a . An a d d i t i o n a l 200 p e o p l e l i v e e l s e w h e r e i n t h e v a l l e y o r i n u r b a n a r e a s o f B.C. ( K u h n l e i n , 20 1984). At i t s h e i g h t , the p e o p l e o f what i s now known as the Nuxalk N a t i o n numbered i n t h e thousands and were s p r e a d i n v i l l a g e s a l o n g t h e B e l l a C o o l a r i v e r , t h e Dean Channel and the South B e n t i c k Arm ( M c l l w r a i t h , 1948). Today, th e major r e s e r v e 2 o c c u p i e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 km a d j a c e n t t o t h e v i l l a g e o f B e l l a C o o l a ( F i g u r e 1 ) . The major employers i n the v a l l e y a r e the l o g g i n g and f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s . In 1981 (Census of Canada) the unemployment r a t e on the r e s e r v e was 19.4 per c e n t , compared t o 5.6 per c e n t f o r the p r o v i n c e of B.C. as a whole. The average income of males over 15 on t h e r e s e r v e was $9,892 compared t o the p r o v i n c i a l average of $18,875. Compared t o o t h e r a r e a s o f the p r o v i n c e t h i s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d an e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e a . B o l a n d (1974) e s t i m a t e d t h a t 71 per c e n t o f t h e p e o p l e r e s i d e n t on the r e s e r v e a t t h a t time p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e n a t i v e f o o d f i s h e r y , and t h a t the b e n e f i t s were shared among the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . He e s t i m a t e d t h e v a l u e of the n a t i v e c a t c h , t h a t y e a r , a t $63,200 (based on w h o l e s a l e v a l u e ) which he then c a l c u l a t e d as an income supplement of $105 per p e r s o n per y e a r . K u h n l e i n (1984b) found t h a t use o f t r a d i t i o n a l s e afoods has d e c l i n e d , among the Nuxalk p e o p l e , i n t h e l a s t c e n t u r y a l t h o u g h a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f r e s e r v e r e s i d e n t s g e n e r a l l y f e e l t h e y have enough f i s h ( K u h n l e i n , 1984a). I n c r e a s i n g t h e use o f l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e t r a d i t i o n a l f o ods has been suggested 21 as an e c o n o m i c a l way t o improve n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f t h i s group. 22 F i g u r e 1. Map of the B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y showing the l o c a t i o n o f t h e r e s e r v e i n the v a l l e y and the l o c a t i o n o f the v a l l e y i n the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( i n s e t ) (from K u h n l e i n 1984a) 23 CHAPTER I I I RATIONALE T h i s s t u d y was done as p a r t o f the Nuxalk Food and N u t r i t i o n Program, which was conducted i n B e l l a C o o l a , B.C. from 1983-1986. The purpose of the program was t o improve the f o o d use and n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f the Nuxalk p e o p l e by e m p h a s i z i n g t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d r e s o u r c e s ( K u h n l e i n 1984). One o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f the program was t o d e t e r m i n e the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n t and a n i m a l foods used by the Nuxalk p e o p l e . The purpose of t h i s p o r t i o n o f the s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f f i v e Nuxalk salmon p r e p a r a t i o n s commonly used, and t o compare th e n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n t o t h a t of c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e p r o t e i n f o o d s . The p r o d u c t s s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d canned sockeye, barbequed sockeye, barbequed and canned sockeye, s l u q (a h a r d - d r i e d , smoked coho p r o d u c t s i m i l a r t o salmon j e r k y ) , and k 1nuum (a half-smoked coho p r o d u c t ) . The comparison between th e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s and the commercial p r o d u c t s was made t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e i n d i g e n o u s Nuxalk p r e p a r a t i o n s s t u d i e d were eq u a l t o or s u p e r i o r t o the commercial p r o d u c t s i n p r o v i d i n g p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , c a l c i u m , i r o n and z i n c when compared on t h e b a s i s o f s t a n d a r d p o r t i o n s i z e , e q u a l c a l o r i c v a l u e o r e q u a l d o l l a r v a l u e . 24 The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y were: 1) t o d e s c r i b e the f i v e salmon p r e p a r a t i o n methods s t u d i e d 2) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n ( p r o t e i n , f a t , c a l o r i e s , m o i s t u r e , v i t a m i n s A, D, E, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , f o l a t e and p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d and m i n e r a l s sodium, chromium, manganese copper, z i n c , i r o n , phosphorous, c a l c i u m and magnesium) of f i s h p r e p a r e d by t h e f i v e t e c h n i q u e s . 3) t o compare the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r e p a r e d samples t o t h a t o f a comparable raw sample from the same f i s h i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e changes i n n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t i n p r o c e s s i n g . 4) t o compare the p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , c a l c i u m , i r o n and z i n c c o n t e n t of the Nuxalk p r e p a r a t i o n s t o the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e p r o t e i n f oods on the b a s i s of s e r v i n g s i z e , c a l o r i c v a l u e and d o l l a r v a l u e . The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be u s e f u l i n a n a l y z i n g d i e t a r y d a t a from t h i s p o p u l a t i o n group and i n d e v e l o p i n g n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s . 25 CHAPTER IV METHODS T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s s t a r t i n g w i t h a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s t u d y , f o l l o w e d by d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s a m p l i n g , t h e h a n d l i n g of samples i n the f i e l d and i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y a t U.B.C., and the methods used i n a n a l y z i n g the samples f o r s p e c i f i c n u t r i e n t s , i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c t s and the n u t r i e n t q u a l i t y o f the p r o d u c t s , and i n a n a l y z i n g the d a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y . DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY Samples of f i v e Nuxalk f i s h p r e p a r a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d i n B e l l a C o o l a . To dete r m i n e the e f f e c t o f the Nuxalk p r e p a r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s on n u t r i e n t s , two samples were t a k e n from each f i s h sampled f o r a g i v e n p r e p a r a t i o n . I n e f f e c t , t h e f i s h was c u t i n h a l f l e n g t h w i s e and a p o r t i o n of one h a l f of the f i s h was p r o c e s s e d by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e . A comparable p o r t i o n , from t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e of the f i s h was f r o z e n raw f o r comparison. The n u t r i e n t s a n a l y z e d were m o i s t u r e , p r o t e i n , a s h , l i p i d , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, v i t a m i n E, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , t o t a l and f r e e f o l a t e , t o t a l and f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e , and m i n e r a l s . C a r b o h y d r a t e was c a l c u l a t e d by d i f f e r e n c e and energy v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g s t a n d a r d c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r s . A t a b l e of food c o m p o s i t i o n was c o m p i l e d f o r the Nuxalk f i s h 26 p r e p a r a t i o n s . The n u t r i e n t q u a l i t y of the f i s h samples was d e t e r m i n e d by comparing the n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t of a p r o d u c t t o the Recommended N u t r i e n t I n t a k e f o r Canadians ( f o r p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , c a l c i u m , i r o n , and z i n c ) on b o t h a s e r v i n g p o r t i o n b a s i s and a d o l l a r v a l u e b a s i s . A l s o , an Index of N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y was c a l c u l a t e d r e l a t i n g t h e amount of a n u t r i e n t i n a g i v e n f o o d t o t h e c a l o r i c v a l u e of t h a t f o o d . The n u t r i e n t q u a l i t y o f the f i s h p r e p a r a t i o n s was compared t o t h a t of commercial p r o t e i n foods (meats, meat a l t e r n a t e s , d a i r y p r o d u c t s and eggs) as d e s c r i b e d i n A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's N u t r i t i o u s Food B a s k e t (Robbins, 1984) and a v a i l a b l e i n B e l l a C o o l a . SAMPLING R e c r u i t m e n t of p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the s t u d y s t a r t e d i n e a r l y June, 1983, p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f the sockeye f i s h i n g season i n B e l l a C o o l a . A n o t i c e d e s c r i b i n g the s t u d y was p r i n t e d i n t h e r e s e r v e b u l l e t i n . P r e v i o u s l y , a l i s t o f households w i t h smokehouses had been c o m p i l e d . T h i s l i s t was used t o i d e n t i f y t h e p e o p l e most l i k e l y t o p r e p a r e t r a d i t i o n a l salmon p r o d u c t s and t h e y were c o n t a c t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . As a r e s u l t o f the b u l l e t i n n o t i c e and the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s v i s i t s , f o u r t e e n f a m i l i e s e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t and s a i d t h a t t h e y might p a r t i c i p a t e . Arrangements were made t o c o n t a c t the f o u r t e e n f a m i l i e s when f i s h became a v a i l a b l e . R e g u l a r v i s i t s were made t o the r i v e r l a n d i n g s i t e , t o observe the f i s h e r m e n ' s c a t c h , t o d e t e r m i n e when s o c k e y e a nd c o h o became a v a i l a b l e . From J u n e 2 9, 1983 t o A u g u s t 3 1 , 1983 t h e f o l l o w i n g s a m p l e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d : SOCKEYE COHO c a n n e d 9 k^nuum 8 b a r b e q u e d 10 s l u q 8 b a r b e q u e d / c a n n e d 10 Of t h e 45 s a m p l e s , f o u r c a n n e d s o c k e y e , two b a r b e q u e d (BBQ) s o c k e y e a nd one b a r b e q u e d / c a n n e d (BBQ/canned) s o c k e y e came f r o m members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . The r e m a i n i n g s a m p l e s w e r e p r e p a r e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and members o f t h e n u t r i t i o n p r o j e c t s t a f f , u s i n g f i s h p u r c h a s e d f r o m members o f t h e N a t i v e F i s h e r m a n ' s C o op, w h i c h w e r e c a u g h t on c o m m e r c i a l l i c e n c e s i n L a b o u c h e r e C h a n n e l , an a r e a u s e d by n a t i v e f i s h e r m e n on one d a y f o o d f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s . S a m p l e s f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y were p r e p a r e d f r o m b o t h r i v e r a n d i n l e t c a u g h t f i s h . PREPARATION OF SAMPLES One c o m m u n i t y member d o n a t e d s a m p l e s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s o c k e y e p r e p a r a t i o n s a n d a l l o w e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and members o f t h e n u t r i t i o n p r o j e c t s t a f f t o u s e h e r smokehouse and c a n n i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o p r e p a r e t h e o t h e r s a m p l e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r a n d t h e p r o j e c t s t a f f u s e d h e r method t o p r e p a r e t h e r e m a i n i n g s a m p l e s . A l l m a t e r i a l s w e r e p u r c h a s e d a t t h e Co-op i n B e l l a C o o l a e x c e p t t h e p r e s s u r e c a n n e r w h i c h was p r o v i d e d by a member o f 28 the community. The canned and barbequed/canned samples were p r o c e s s e d i n K e r r 1 p i n t mason j a r s w hich were s e a l e d a c c o r d i n g t o t he m a n u f a c t u r e r s d i r e c t i o n s . A f t e r p r o c e s s i n g , the j a r s were c o o l e d s l o w l y , washed t o remove any r e s i d u e from the o u t s i d e , wrapped i n Co-op aluminum f o i l and s t o r e d i n a c o o l dark p l a c e p r i o r t o shipment t o Vancouver. The o t h e r samples (prepared and raw) were p l a c e d i n new Co-op 1 p i n t f r e e z e r bags, wrapped i n f o i l t o e x c l u d e l i g h t and f r o z e n a t -18 degrees C i n t h e H e a l t h C l i n i c f r e e z e r . A l l samples were l a b e l l e d w i t h the f i s h number, sample d e s c r i p t i o n and date t h e sample was p r o c e s s e d . P r i o r t o c u t t i n g , the f i s h were s t o r e d o v e r n i g h t i n a tub of f r e s h r u n n i n g water t o ""firm u p ' , i n o r d e r t o make c u t t i n g e a s i e r . To s t a r t c u t t i n g , a s m a l l s l i t was made on one s i d e of the f i s h j u s t f o r w a r d o f the t a i l . T h i s s e r v e d as a g r i p t o h o l d t h e f i s h s t e a d y . F o r a l l f i s h p r e p a r a t i o n s , the head, t h e a n a l and p e c t o r a l f i n s and the t a i l were removed. The d o r s a l f i n was removed f o r c a n n i n g , but was r e t a i n e d i n o t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s and was used t o anchor the f i s h d u r i n g p r o c e s s i n g i n t he barbequed and k'nuum p r e p a r a t i o n s . Canning The f i s h were g u t t e d from g i l l a r c h t o anus and the e n t r a i l s removed. The f i s h were then c u t i n rounds o r t h i c k s t e a k s the l e n g t h o f t h e j a r s t o be used. Each round was c u t i n h a l f l e n g t h w i s e . H a l f o f t h e rounds (250 g) were packed i n t o j a r s w i t h 2 mL of t a b l e s a l t . The j a r s were p r o c e s s e d a t 115 l b s p r e s s u r e f o r 110 minut e s . The o t h e r h a l f of the rounds (250 g) were f r o z e n raw. Barbequed and K'nuum For t he barbequed sockeye and t h e k'nuum t h e f i s h were c u t i n t o " o v e r c o a t s " o r b u t t e r f l y f i l l e t s . Cuts were made on e i t h e r s i d e of the r i b cage of the f i s h so t h a t the backbone, r i b s and e n t r a i l s were removed i n one u n i t and the b o n e l e s s f i l l e t l a y f l a t w i t h the c e n t r e b e i n g the b e l l y and the d o r s a l f i n on one s i d e . For the barbequed samples t h e c u t s were made c l o s e t o the r i b s of the f i s h so the f i l l e t was 2-2.5 cm a t i t s t h i c k e s t p o i n t . For the k'nuum samples the f i l l e t was c u t about 1 cm t h i c k , l e a v i n g f l e s h on the bones which was then c u t i n t o f i l l e t s f o r s l u q . A f t e r c u t t i n g , a 250 g p o r t i o n was t a k e n from one s i d e o f the f i l l e t and f r o z e n . The r e m a i n i n g f i l l e t was soaked i n a b r i n e s o l u t i o n o f 125 mL t a b l e s a l t i n 5 L o f water f o r 20 mi n u t e s . Barbequed The f i l l e t s were hung i n the smokehouse o v e r n i g h t , w i t h o u t a f i r e , f o r t h e s u r f a c e t o d r y . They were then p l a c e d on barbeque " s t i c k s " made of ceda r s t i c k s 2 x 5 cm, 1 m i n l e n g t h . The s t i c k s were s p l i t down the c e n t r e l e n g t h w i s e t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 cm from the end. The uncut end was shaped i n t o a p o i n t and r e i n f o r c e d w i t h w i r e . The i n s i d e of the s t i c k was shaped t o a l l o w room f o r t h e f i s h . The f i s h , s u p p o r t e d by t h i n c e d a r s t i c k s on each s i d e , was then i n s e r t e d , the open end 30 of t he s t i c k was bound w i t h w i r e and the shaped end was i n s e r t e d i n t o the ground 0.5 m from a hot ceda r f i r e . They were r o t a t e d , so the o p p o s i t e s i d e o f t h e f i s h f a c e d t h e f i r e , when the f a t and j u i c e c o n g e a l e d on the s u r f a c e and were c o n s i d e r e d done when "the f a t stopped d r i p p i n g " ( 2 - 3 h o u r s ) . A f t e r c o o k i n g t h e sample was c o o l e d i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r , wrapped, and f r o z e n . K'nuum A f t e r s o a k i n g i n b r i n e f o r 20 m i n u t e s , the " o v e r c o a t s " o r f i l l e t s were hung i n the smokehouse about 2 m above a slow a l d e r f i r e f o r f o u r days. To hang the f i s h , f o u r l e n g t h w i s e s l i t s (about 2 cm long) were made a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 cm from the 2 t a i l of t h e f i l l e t . A 1 cm cedar s t i c k was woven through the s l i t s . Two s m a l l c u t s were made t h r o u g h the s k i n (not t h e f l e s h ) a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e d o r s a l f i n . A s m a l l f o r k e d t w i g was i n s e r t e d between t h e s e c u t s t o h o l d the f i s h f l a t d u r i n g smoking. The f i l l e t was hung between p o l e s s t r e t c h e d a c r o s s t h e smokehouse, s u p p o r t e d by t h e ceda r s t i c k . A f t e r smoking, the sample was f r o z e n . Barbequed/Canned The Barbequed/Canned samples were p r e p a r e d as f o r the barbequed sample. A f t e r c o o k i n g the f i l l e t s were ke p t on the s t i c k s and p l a c e d over p o l e s i n the smokehouse, about 2 m above a s l o w a l d e r f i r e , f o r 2 days. The sample was the n packed i n t o a mason j a r w i t h 1 mL t a b l e s a l t and 32 mL w a t e r , and p r o c e s s e d a t 10 l b s p r e s s u r e f o r 100 minut e s . S l u q F i l l e t s 1 cm t h i c k were c u t l e n g t h w i s e from the f l e s h l e f t on the bones o f the f i s h a f t e r c u t t i n g t h e " o v e r c o a t " f o r k'nuum. These f i l l e t s i n c l u d e d s h o r t l e n g t h s of t h e l a t e r a l r i b s . Two hundred and f i f t y grams o f f i l l e t s from one s i d e of the f i s h were f r o z e n raw. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g 250 g of f i l l e t s from t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o f the f i s h were soaked i n b r i n e (125 mL t a b l e s a l t i n 5 L water) f o r 20 mi n u t e s , t h e n hung on the r a i l s o f t h e smokehouse o v e r n i g h t , o ver a low a l d e r f i r e , t o dr y t he s u r f a c e . The f o l l o w i n g morning the f i l l e t s were removed from the smokehouse and the r i b s were removed w i t h f i n g e r s o r tweezers ( f o r c e p s ) . T o o t h p i c k s were i n s e r t e d t h r o u g h the f i l l e t s t o r e i n f o r c e the upper edge, and t h e f i l l e t s were t h r e a d e d onto a 1/4 i n dowel which was hung between t h e r a f t e r s o f t h e smokehouse a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 m above a slow a l d e r f i r e . The s l u q was smoked f o r f i v e d ays, o r u n t i l d r y . F o l l o w i n g smoking t h e s l u q was removed from the dowel, the t o o t h p i c k s were removed and the samples were f r o z e n . SHIPMENT OF SAMPLES The canned samples were t r a n s p o r t e d t o Vancouver by a u t o m o b i l e i n August, 1983. The f r o z e n s a m p l e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h 4 f r o z e n " C o l d P a c s " , were s h i p p e d by W i l d e r n e s s A i r on September 6, 1983, packed i n a l a r g e s t y r o f o a m c o o l e r which had been c o o l e d o v e r n i g h t i n a home f r e e z e r . Empty space i n the c o o l e r 32 was packed w i t h crumpled newspaper and the l i d was s e a l e d w i t h masking t a p e . The samples were i n the c o o l e r f o r f o u r and one h a l f hours b e f o r e b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d t o a home f r e e z e r i n Vancouver (-18 degrees C ) . On October 15, 1983, the samples were t r a n s f e r r e d t o U.B.C. and s t o r e d i n the main f r e e z e r o f the S c h o o l o f F a m i l y and N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s . The s t o r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e , a t U.B.C., was -20 degrees C w i t h a range from -10 degrees C t o -25 degrees C. In November 1984, the f r e e z e r m a l f u n c t i o n e d and the temp e r a t u r e r o s e t o 10 degrees C. f o r a p e r i o d o f not more than s i x h o u r s . TREATMENT OF SAMPLES IN THE LABORATORY F i v e samples from each p r e p a r a t i o n method, w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples, were thawed and f i n e l y chopped. F o r each p r e p a r a t i o n method, t h r e e of t h e f i v e samples, w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples, were a l l o c a t e d f o r a n a l y s i s as f o l l o w s (based on a 250 g sample): v i t a m i n s A and D - 15 g; v i t a m i n E - 40 g; t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n and n i a c i n - 100 g; f o l a t e and p a n t o t h e n a t e - 40 g; m i n e r a l s - 5 g; and p r o x i m a t e a n a l y s i s - 50 g. For t h e p r e p a r e d samples t h e w e i g h t a l l o c a t e d f o r each a n a l y s i s was a d j u s t e d t o account f o r t h e w e i g h t l o s t i n p r o c e s s i n g . The r e m a i n i n g two samples o f each p r e p a r a t i o n method w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples were d i v i d e d f o r p r o x i m a t e a n a l y s i s and f o r f o l a t e and p a n t o t h e n a t e , o n l y . The a l i q u o t s f o r m i n e r a l and p r o x i m a t e a n a l y s i s were homogenized i n a Sears 14-speed b l e n d e r (Model 34-68061, Sears 33 L t d . V a n c o u v e r ) , w i t h s u f f i c i e n t d i s t i l l e d d e i o n i z e d water (DDW) t o form a smooth homogenate (2-6 t i m e s t h e w e i g h t o f the sample depending on the p r e p a r a t i o n method). The homogenized a l i q u o t s were s t o r e d i n acid-washed Nalgene b o t t l e s w h i l e the a l i q u o t s f o r the r e m a i n i n g a n a l y s e s were s t o r e d i n W h i r l p a c bags (B736, Nasco E d u c a t i o n a l ) . A l l a l i q u o t s of each sample were l a b e l l e d , then r e f r o z e n a t -18 degrees C. The b l e n d e r c o n t a i n e r , c u t t i n g board and k n i v e s were washed i n S u n l i g h t l i q u i d d e t e r g e n t r i n s e d w i t h t a p water and t h e n r i n s e d t h r e e t i m e s w i t h DDW between samples. ANALYSIS OF NUTRIENT COMPOSITION M o i s t u r e A p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 g o f homogenized sample was put i n each of t h r e e f o i l w e i g h i n g b o a t s . These were d r i e d o v e r n i g h t a t 70 degrees C, t h e n p l a c e d i n a Vacuum oven (VWR model 1410) under reduced p r e s s u r e (25 t o r r e s ) f o r 2 hours a t 60 degrees C. The samples were weighed t o a c o n s t a n t w e i g h t (+_ 0.0005 g) on a S a r t o r i u s 2434 A n a l y t i c a l b a l a n c e . P e r c e n t m o i s t u r e was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a : % m o i s t u r e = 100 - % d r y wt (as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e w e i g h t l o s s ) . A f t e r the m o i s t u r e was d e t e r m i n e d t h e r e m a i n i n g homogenate a l l o c a t e d f o r p r o x i m a t e a n a l y s i s was l y o p h y l i z e d and s t o r e d i n a d e s s i c a t o r a t -18 degrees C. 34 Ceramic c r u c i b l e s were soaked i n an a c i d b a t h (5M HCl) o v e r n i g h t and d r i e d f o r 12 hours a t 16 0 degrees C. Between 0.1 and 0.4 g o f d r i e d sample was p l a c e d i n each o f t h r e e c r u c i b l e s . A f t e r a s h i n g f o r 24 hours a t 550 degrees C. i n a Thermolyne 1400 f u r n a c e , t h e samples were removed t o a d e s s i c a t o r t o c o o l f o r 12 hours t h e n weighed t o d e t e r m i n e ash c o n t e n t as m i l l i g r a m s per gram d r y w e i g h t . P r o t e i n T o t a l K j e l d a h l n i t r o g e n was d e t e r m i n e d by the m i c r o K j e l d a h l method of Fukimoto and Chang (1982). A l l r e a g e n t s were made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g : Amonium S u l p h a t e (Sigma A5132) Sodium n i t r o f e r r i c y a n i d e d i h y d r a t e (Western JT3792-4) Sodium s a l i c y l a t e (BDH a s s u r e d l o t #96554/7174) T r i - b a s i c sodium phosphate.12H 0 (NASC) 2 C l o r o x b l e a c h Three d i g e s t s of each sample were done, u s i n g 0.01 g, 0.015 g, and 0.02 g o f d r i e d sample. The samples were d i g e s t e d on a Labconco K j e l d a h l d i g e s t r a c k w i t h a g l a s s m a n i f o l d u n t i l t h e y were c l e a r (at l e a s t 4 h o u r s ) , a n d were assayed w i t h i n e i g h t h o u r s . The a s s a y tubes were i n c u b a t e d 25 minutes a t 45 degrees C i n a M a g n i - w h i r l C o n s t a n t Temperature Bath (MW 1110A-1, C a n l a b ) , c o o l e d 25 minutes i n c o l d t a p water and the absorbance r e a d a t 655 nm on a P e r k i n - E l m e r Coleman 124 Double Beam S p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r . R e s u l t s were p l o t t e d a g a i n s t a s t a n d a r d c u r v e and p r o t e i n was det e r m i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the grams n i t r o g e n by the f a c t o r 6.25 (Watt and M e r r i l l 1963). L i p i d s L i p i d s were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g the method o f B l i g h and Dyer (1959) m o d i f i e d f o r t h e s m a l l sample s i z e . A l l s o l v e n t s used were a n a l y t i c a l g r ade. D r i e d sample (0.2-0.4 g) was weighed i n t o l a r g e t e s t tubes (200 x 40 mL), and DDW was added t o make a t o t a l volume o f 8 mL. The samples were a l l o w e d t o s i t 4 hours i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r t o s o f t e n . C h l o r o f o r m (10.0 mL) and methanol (20.0 mL) were added, and the m i x t u r e was homogenized f o r 60 seconds w i t h a P o l y t r o n homogenizer f i t t e d w i t h a PT-10 g e n e r a t o r / homogenizer b l a d e (Brinkman I n s t r u m e n t s ) . A second 10.0 mL a l i q u o t of c h l o r o f o r m was added, the sample was homogenized f o r 30 seconds, 10.0 mL o f DDW was added and the sample was homogenized a f u r t h e r 30 seconds. The tube was co v e r e d w i t h p a r a f i l m and a l l o w e d t o s i t o v e r n i g h t i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r t o s e p a r a t e . The f o l l o w i n g morning 15-18 mL o f t h e c h l o r o f o r m l a y e r was removed,and e v a p o r a t e d under n i t r o g e n i n a 50 degrees C water b a t h . The r e s i d u e was d i s s o l v e d i n c h l o r o f o r m and t r a n s f e r r e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y t o a 10 mL v o l u m e t r i c f l a s k c o n t a i n i n g 0.2 mL methanol. The samples were brought up t o volume w i t h c h l o r o f o r m . Three 2 mL a l i q u o t s were p l a c e d i n f o i l w e i g h i n g d i s h e s and e v a p o r a t e d under t h e fume hood. They were t h e n d r i e d under reduced p r e s s u r e (15 t o r r e s ) f o r 2 hours a t 60 degrees C b e f o r e b e i n g weighed t o d e t e r m i n e l i p i d s . The d i s h e s were r e t u r n e d t o t h e vacuum oven f o r 1 hour, and then reweighed t o c o n s t a n t w e i g h t . A p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y was done t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r c e n t r e c o v e r y from t h i s method, u s i n g the s m a l l sample s i z e . F o l a c i n and P a n t o t h e n i c A c i d The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b o t h f o l a c i n and p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d i n v o l v e d m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l a s s a y s u s i n g s t r a i n s of L a c t o b a c i l l i b a c t e r i a i n a 22 hour t u r b i d i m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e . The s t r a i n s o f L a c t o b a c i l l i used r e q u i r e d e i t h e r f o l a c i n o r p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d f o r g rowth, depending on t h e a s s a y . I f a b a s a l medium complete i n e v e r y r e s p e c t e x c e p t f o r t h e f o l a c i n o r p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d i s p r o v i d e d , t h e growth of t h e organism w i l l be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount of t h e v i t a m i n i n the t e s t sample and can be measured a g a i n s t the organism's response t o a s t a n d a r d f o l a c i n or p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d s o l u t i o n . For b o t h a s s a y s each f o o d e x t r a c t was p r e p a r e d i n d u p l i c a t e . The e a r l i e s t e x p i r y d a t e on any o f t h e c h e m i c a l s , media o r s t a n d a r d s used i n e i t h e r assay was October 1986. The f i s h samples f o r b o t h f o l a c i n and p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were f r e e z e d r i e d i n June 1984 and s t o r e d i n s e a l e d c o n t a i n e r s , under d e s s i c a t i o n a t -20 degrees C. u n t i l t h e a n a l y s e s were completed. 37 F o l a c i n ( f o l a t e ) Both f r e e and t o t a l f o l a t e were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g an a d a p t a t i o n of the methods o f H e r b e r t and B e r t i n o (1967) and Baker and Frank (1967) as used by Hoppner (1971) and Hoppner e t a l . (1972). A c u l t u r e o f L a c t o b a c i l l u s c a s e i i ATCC 7469 was m a i n t a i n e d on B a c t o - L a c t o b a c i l l i Agar A.O.A.C. ( D i f c o ) and t r a n s f e r r e d e v e r y two weeks. P r i o r t o r u n n i n g each a s s a y a s u b c u l t u r e was p r e p a r e d i n B a c t o - M i c r o Innoculum B r o t h ( D i f c o ) , i n c u b a t e d 18 hours a t 37 degrees C. The innoculum f o r the as s a y was p r e p a r e d by washing t h e s u b c u l t u r e seven t i m e s w i t h 0.85% s t e r i l e s a l i n e and sus p e n d i n g the c e l l s i n 0.85% s t e r i l e s a l i n e and s t a n d a r d i z i n g t o 80% t r a n s m i t t a n c e a t 660nm on a P e r k i n Elmer Coleman 124 Double Beam Sp e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r . A s t o c k s t a n d a r d f o l i c a c i d ( p t e r o y l g l u t a m i c a c i d (PGA) -U.S. Pharmacopeal C o n v e n t i o n #2860) s o l u t i o n o f 200 ug f o l a c i n (PGA) per mL was p r e p a r e d and s t o r e d , p r o t e c t e d from l i g h t , a t 4 degrees C. F r e s h s t o c k s t a n d a r d was p r e p a r e d e v e r y s i x months. A w o r k i n g s t a n d a r d o f 0.2 ng f o l a c i n per mL was p r e p a r e d from t h e s t o c k s t a n d a r d e v e r y day p r i o r t o each a s s a y . Each assay r a c k i n c l u d e d d u p l i c a t e s t a n d a r d s w i t h 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 ng o f f o l a c i n per tu b e . P h o s p h a t e - a s c o r b a t e b u f f e r , (0.05M, pH 7.8) was p r e p a r e d and s t o r e d a t 4 degrees C. J u s t p r i o r t o use 5 mg per mL a s c o r b i c a c i d was added and t h e pH was r e a d j u s t e d t o 7.8. 38 The c h i c k e n pancreas enzyme s o l u t i o n was p r e p a r e d each day by e x t r a c t i n g a s u s p e n s i o n of 10 mg d e s s i c a t e d c h i c k e n pancreas ( D i f c o ) per mL s t e r i l e DDW on a v o r t e x mixer and c e n t r i f u g i n g . The s u p e r n a t a n t was s t i r r e d w i t h 1 g Dowex 1-X8 per 10 mL sup e r n a t e f o r 10 mi n u t e s . The s u s p e n s i o n was c e n t r i f u g e d a g a i n and the Dowex d i s c a r d e d . To p r e p a r e t h e f o o d e x t r a c t s 0.25 g o f each d r i e d f i s h sample was mixed w i t h 8 mL o f b u f f e r and a u t o c l a v e d a t 15 l b s p r e s s u r e and 121 degrees C f o r 10 m i n u t e s , then c o o l e d i n a c o l d water b a t h . For f r e e f o l a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s the c o n t e n t s were a d j u s t e d t o 10 mL w i t h b u f f e r , mixed, c e n t r i f u g e d and t h e s u p e r n a t a n t d i l u t e d so t h e f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e assay s o l u t i o n was between 0.1 and 0.2 ng f o l a c i n per mL. For the t o t a l f o l a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s 1 mL o f c h i c k e n pancreas enzyme s o l u t i o n was added t o each tube a f t e r a u t o c l a v i n g . The tubes were s t o p p e r e d and i n c u b a t e d i n a water b a t h a t 37 degrees C f o r 16 h o u r s , the c o n t e n t s were a d j u s t e d t o 10 mL, and t h e f i n a l a s s a y s o l u t i o n p r e p a r e d as f o r f r e e f o l a t e . An enzyme b l a n k was p r e p a r e d i n the same manner as the t o t a l f o l a t e e x t r a c t s by r e p l a c i n g t h e f o o d sample w i t h DDW. Each a s s a y r a c k (72 tubes) i n c l u d e d the s t a n d a r d s i n d u p l i c a t e (12 t u b e s ) , an u n i n n o c u l a t e d b l a n k (3 t u b e s ) , an enzyme b l a n k f o r t o t a l f o l a c i n (3 t u b e s ) , an i n n o c u l a t e d b l a n k (6 tubes) and 8 f o o d samples i n d u p l i c a t e (48 t u b e s ) . E a c h f o o d e x t r a c t was assayed a t 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mL per tu b e . A f t e r a d d i n g e i t h e r s t a n d a r d o r foo d e x t r a c t s t o the a p p r o p r i a t e 39 tubes the volume i n a l l tubes was brought up t o 2.5 mL w i t h s t e r i l e DDW. P r e p a r e d B a c t o - F o l i c A c i d C a s e i i Medium(2.5 mL) ( D i f c o - b a t c h # 704725) was added t o each t u b e . The tubes were a u t o c l a v e d f o r 5 minutes a t 15 l b s p r e s s u r e and 121 degrees C and then c o o l e d i n a c o l d water b a t h . F i f t y m i c r o l i t e r s o f the p r e p a r e d innoculum were added t o a l l tubes e x c e p t the u n i n n o c u l a t e d b l a n k s . The tubes were i n c u b a t e d a t 37 degree C f o r 22 hours and the absorbance was r e a d a t 660 nm on a P e r k i n Elmer Coleman 124 Double Beam Spectophotometer. The s t a n d a r d c u r v e was p l o t t e d on s e m i - l o g a r h y t h m i c paper and the f o l a c i n c o n t e n t o f the t e s t e x t r a c t s r e a d o f f t h e c u r v e . The f o l a c i n c o n t e n t o f the d r i e d samples was d e t e r m i n e d by the f o r m u l a : F o l a t e i n 1 gram = (Amount from Curve / Amount of D i l u t e E x t r a c t ) x D i l u t i o n F a c t o r D r i e d Sample Weight of D r i e d Sample i n E x t r a c t P a n t o t h e n i c A c i d Free and t o t a l p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g an a d a p t a t i o n of the method of Zook e t a l . (1956) as used by Sarwar e t a l . (1985). A c u l t u r e of L a c t o b a c i l l u s p l a n t a r u m ATCC 8014 was m a i n t a i n e d on B a c t o - L a c t o b a c i l l i Agar A.O.A.C. ( D i f c o ) and t r a n s f e r r e d e v e r y week. P r i o r t o each assay a s u b c u l t u r e was pr e p a r e d i n B a c t o - L a c t o b a c i l l i B r o t h A.O.A.C. ( D i f c o ) , i n c u b a t e d 18 hours a t 37 degrees C. The innoculum f o r the a s s a y was p r e p a r e d from the s u b c u l t u r e i n the same manner as the innoculum f o r t h e f o l a c i n a ssay above. A s t o c k p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d s o l u t i o n o f 0.5 mg p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d per mL was p r e p a r e d u s i n g c a l c i u m p a n t o t h e n a t e - U.S. Pharmacopeal C o n v e n t i o n #870. T h i s s o l u t i o n was s t o r e d a t 4 degrees C. Each day a f r e s h w o r k i n g s t a n d a r d c o n t a i n i n g 4 ng p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d per mL was p r e p a r e d from t h e s t o c k s t a n d a r d . Each a s s a y r a c k i n c l u d e d s t a n d a r d s i n d u p l i c a t e w i t h 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 ng o f p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d per t u b e . " T r i s " - b u f f e r (1M, pH 8.3) was p r e p a r e d and s t o r e d a t 4 degrees C. The b u f f e r was k e p t no l o n g e r than 2 weeks. A 10% p i g e o n l i v e r e x t r a c t s o l u t i o n was p r e p a r e d from p i g e o n l i v e r a cetone powder (Sigma) e x t r a c t e d i n 0.02 M KHCO 3 and c e n t r i f u g e d . The r e s u l t i n g s u p e r n a t a n t was t r e a t e d w i t h Dowex r e s i n 1-X8 (pH 8.0) which had been a c t i v a t e d by washing t h r e e t i m e s i n IN HC1 and 11 t i m e s i n s t e r i l e DDW. The e x t r a c t was c e n t r i f u g e d and the s u p e r n a t a n t t r a n s f e r r e d t o s t e r i l e tubes i n 5 mL q u a n t i t i e s . These were s t o r e d a t -20 degrees C u n t i l needed. A l l equipment and r e a g e n t s were k e p t i c e c o l d d u r i n g p r e p a r a t i o n . A 2% water e x t r a c t o f a l k a l i n e phosphatase (E.C. #3.1.3.1.) (Sigma) was p r e p a r e d f r e s h d a i l y . The f o o d e x t r a c t s were p r e p a r e d i n d u p l i c a t e by m i x i n g 0.25 g o f d r i e d sample w i t h 2.5 mL o f DDW and 0.7 mL o f " T r i s " -41 b u f f e r , m i x i n g , a u t o c l a v i n g a t 15 l b s p r e s s u r e and 121 degrees C f o r 15 m i n u t e s , and c o o l i n g i n an i c e b a t h . The samples f o r the f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n were a d j u s t e d t o 5 mL volume w i t h DDW, mixed, c e n t r i f u g e d and the s u p e r n a t a n t d i l u t e d . A f t e r the samples f o r the t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n were a u t o c l a v e d and c o o l e d , 0.4 mL o f the 2% i n t e s t i n a l a l k a l i n e phosphatase s o l u t i o n and 0.4 mL o f the p r e p a r e d l i v e r e x t r a c t were added t o each t u b e . The tubes were i n c u b a t e d i n a hot water b a t h a t 37 degrees C o v e r n i g h t (16 h o u r s ) . The volume was then a d j u s t e d t o 5 mL and the p r e p a r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d as f o r the f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e e x t r a c t s . An enzyme b l a n k was p r e p a r e d as f o r the t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e e x t r a c t s e x c e p t the f o o d sample was r e p l a c e d w i t h DDW. The a s s a y was p r e p a r e d i n the same manner as t h e f o l a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n e x c e p t t h a t the media used was B a c t o - P a n t o t h e n a t e Medium A.O.A.C. (U.S.P.) ( D i f c o b a t c h # 687739). The s t a n d a r d c u r v e was p l o t t e d as f o r the f o l a t e a n a l y s i s and the p a n t o t h e n a t e c o n t e n t of the t e s t e x t r a c t s was r e a d o f f t h e c u r v e . The p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d c o n t e n t o f the d r i e d samples was d e t e r m i n e d by the f o r m u l a : P a n t o t h e n a t e i n 1 gram = (Amount from Curve / Amount of D i l u t e E x t r a c t ) x D i l u t i o n F a c t o r D r i e d Sample Weight of D r i e d Sample i n E x t r a c t 42 V i t a m i n s A and D Samples f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f r e t i n o l and c h o l e c a l c i f e r o l were packed i n d r y i c e and s e n t t o Ottawa v i a E x p i d a i r on October 25, 1983. The a n a l y s e s were done c o u r t e s y o f Dr. J . N e v i l l e Thompson of the N u t r i t i o n Research D i v i s i o n o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada. R e t i n o l was d e t e r m i n e d by f l o u r o m e t r y (Thompson e t a l . , 1978) w h i l e c h o l e c a l c i f e r o l was d e t e r m i n e d by HPLC (Thompson e t a l . , 1982). V i t a m i n E The a n a l y s i s o f ^ - t o c o p h e r o l was done c o u r t e s y of Dr. S. N a k a i of t h e Department o f Food S c i e n c e , U.B.C, u s i n g t e method o f Thompson and H a t i n a (1979). A l l s o l v e n t s were HPLC grade. The <*•- t o c o p h e r o l s t a n d a r d used was a g i f t from Hoffmann LaRoche. L i p i d s were e x t r a c t e d from 5 g o f sample w i t h i s o p r o p a n o l and a c e t o n e . The f i l t e r e d e x t r a c t was s e p a r a t e d w i t h hexane, then washed w i t h DDW and e v a p o r a t e d under reduced p r e s s u r e . The ^ - t o c o p h e r o l c o n t e n t was d e t e r m i n e d by HPLC u s i n g a Shimadzu RF-540 s p e c t r o f l u o r o m e t e r w i t h a f l o w c e l l t o m o n i t o r t h e e f f l u e n t and a Shimadzu C-R3A Chromatopac i n t e g r a t o r . The e x c i t a t i o n was s e t a t 290 nm ( s l i t 5 nm) and the e m i s s i o n a t 330 nm ( s l i t 5 nm). The f l o w r a t e was 2 ml/min. The s o l v e n t system was 1% i s o p r o p a n o l i n m o i s t hexane. An " ^ - t o c o p h e r o l s t a n d a r d was i n j e c t e d a t t h e s t a r t o f d a i l y a n a l y s i s and 43 a p p r o x i m a t e l y e v e r y 10 samples t h r o u g h o u t a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g an A b s o l u t e C a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e . The minimum l e v e l of d e t e c t i o n was 0.003 mg ^ - t o c o p h e r o l per lOOg f r e s h w e i g h t . The a n a l y s e s o f the samples were completed i n June 1985. Th i a m i n , R i b o f l a v i n and N i a c i n The a n a l y s e s o f t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n and n i a c i n were done by Econotech S e r v i c e s L t d . , New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C. Thiamin and r i b o f l a v i n were b o t h a n a l y z e d f l o u r o m e t r i c a l l y by A.O.A.C. (1980) methods 43- 024 (t h i a m i n ) and 43-039 ( r i b o f l a v i n ) . N i a c i n was a n a l y z e d by c o l o r i m e t r y u s i n g A.O.A.C. (1980) method 43-044. Samples were moved t o Econotech i n May 1984 and the a n a l y s e s were completed by t h e end of 1984. M i n e r a l s The a n a l y s i s of t h e m i n e r a l c o n t e n t of t h e samples was performed c o u r t e s y of Dr. P a u l K l u c k n e r , Environment Canada, i n the Environment Canada L a b o r a t o r i e s , N o r t h Vancouver, u s i n g the method o f McQuaker (1976) and McQuaker e t a l . (1979a, 1979b). The method i n v o l v e s t h e a n a l y s i s o f a n i t r i c - p e r c h l o r i c a c i d d i g e s t o f the samples on an i n d u c t i v e l y c o u p l e d plasma-atomic e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r . C a r b o h y d r a t e and Energy C a r b o h y d r a t e and energy c o n t e n t of t h e samples were c a l c u l a t e d f o l l o w i n g the p r o x i m a t e a n a l y s i s on t h e b a s i s o f 44 100 g f r e s h sample. C a r b o h y d r a t e (CHO) was dete r m i n e d by d i f f e r e n c e by t h e f o r m u l a : CHO= 100 - (% m o i s t u r e + % p r o t e i n + % ash + % l i p i d ) Energy was de t e r m i n e d by the f o r m u l a ( k c a l v a l u e s from Watt and M e r r i l l , 1963): Energy ( k c a l s ) = % p r o t e i n x 4.27 k c a l s + % l i p i d x 9.02 k c a l s + % c a r b o h y d r a t e x 4.11 k c a l s FOOD PRICING  Salmon Samples The economic v a l u e o f a p r o d u c t i s g e n e r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d when i t i s o f f e r e d f o r s a l e on the open market, where the p r i c e o b t a i n e d f o r a p r o d u c t i s de t e r m i n e d by s u p p l y and demand ( B e l l a n , 1976). I n 1983, I n d i a n f o o d f i s h c o u l d not be s o l d l e g a l l y i n Canada, t h e r e f o r e the economic v a l u e of t h e foo d f i s h c o u l d not be det e r m i n e d i n t h i s manner. In a r e p o r t t o F i s h e r i e s Canada, B o l a n d (1974) used t h e w h o l e s a l e v a l u e o f c o m m e r c i a l l y caught salmon t o dete r m i n e t h e economic v a l u e o f the n a t i v e f o o d c a t c h . The w h o l e s a l e v a l u e o f t h e c a t c h was thought t o be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t r u e v a l u e o f the c a t c h t h a n the " l a n d e d " v a l u e because the c a t c h went d i r e c t l y from t h e f i s h e r m a n t o t h e consumer. T h i s method has been used i n e s t i m a t i n g the economic v a l u e of t h e n a t i v e c a r i b o u h a r v e s t i n t he Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s as w e l l (Brody, 1981). In t h a t i n s t a n c e t h e w h o l e s a l e v a l u e o f beef was used t o 45 e s t i m a t e t h e v a l u e of the c a r i b o u . F r e s h f i s h a r e not g e n e r a l l y f o r s a l e i n B e l l a C o o l a , however, f r e s h f i s h were purchased from s e v e r a l n a t i v e commercial f i s h e r m e n f o r t he p r o j e c t . The p r i c e agreed upon f o r t h e s e f i s h was the w h o l e s a l e p r i c e from the Canada P a c k e r s ' b oat i n B e l l a B e l l a , B.C. - $1.00 per l b f o r d r e s s e d Coho and $1.15 per l b f o r d r e s s e d Sockeye. The c o s t o f the p r o d u c t i t s e l f was c a l c u l a t e d t a k i n g i n t o account the amount d i s c a r d e d as waste and the l o s s i n w e i g h t d u r i n g p r o c e s s i n g . Commercial P r o d u c t s The commercial p r o d u c t s p r i c e d were t a k e n from t h e d a i r y p r o d u c t s , eggs, meats, and meat a l t e r n a t e s s e c t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's N u t r i t i o u s Food B a s k e t (Robbins, 1984). The p r o d u c t s were p r i c e d a t the B e l l a C o o l a Co-op i n J u l y 1983. The c o s t per e d i b l e p o r t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d from t h e c o s t o f t h e purchase u n i t u s i n g y i e l d f i g u r e s from the American Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n (1980) and T e r r e l l (1979). EVALUATION OF NUTRIENT QUALITY N u t r i e n t q u a l i t y was e v a l u a t e d i n t h r e e ways u s i n g t he n u t r i e n t s p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , c a l c i u m , i r o n and z i n c . The p e r c e n t of t h e Recommended N u t r i e n t I n t a k e f o r Canadians (R.N.I.) f o r women 25-49 ( H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada 1983) f o r each o f the above n u t r i e n t s , p r o v i d e d by one s e r v i n g o f each o f the commercial p r o d u c t s and 46 o f t he f i s h p r o d u c t s was c a l c u l a t e d . The p e r c e n t o f the R.N.I, f o r women 25-49 f o r the above n u t r i e n t s p r o v i d e d by a p o r t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g a $1.00 v a l u e of each of the commercial and o f the f i s h p r o d u c t s was c a l c u l a t e d . F i n a l l y , an Index o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y (I.N.Q.) was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each of the above n u t r i e n t s f o r each p r o d u c t u s i n g the method o f Sorenson e t a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i s method r e l a t e s the % of the R.N.I., f o r a g i v e n n u t r i e n t , p r o v i d e d by a p o r t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r f o o d t o the % of the R.N.I. f o r energy p r o v i d e d by the same p o r t i o n o f t h a t f o o d , u s i n g the f o r m u l a : I.N.Q. = (Amount of N u t r i e n t i n Food Sample / S t a n d a r d f o r N u t r i e n t ) (Amount of Energy i n Food Sample / S t a n d a r d f o r Energy) STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA The d a t a were a n a l y z e d on an Amdahl 5860 computer u s i n g the SPSS-X s t a t i s t i c a l package. A Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n T e s t was used t o dete r m i n e i f t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n between the f a t c o n t e n t o f the d r i e d samples and the t o t a l and f r e e f o l a t e and the t o t a l and f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e c o n t e n t s of t h e d r i e d samples. The s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the e f f e c t o f p r o c e s s i n g on n u t r i e n t s was dete r m i n e d by the P a i r e d Comparison t - T e s t where the p a i r s were the raw sample and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r e p a r e d sample. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t t h e r e was no 47 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two samples. The l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g r e j e c t e d was p< 0.05 u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d . A comparison o f t h e n u t r i e n t q u a l i t y o f t h e f i s h p r o d u c t s and t h a t o f the commercial p r o d u c t s was done u s i n g t h e Mann-Whitney U - t e s t . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups. The l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g r e j e c t e d was p< 0.05. 48 CHAPTER V RESULTS I VALIDATION OF METHODS  A: L i p i d s A p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y was done t o d e t e r m i n e the p e r c e n t r e c o v e r y o f l i p i d s u s i n g the method o f B l i g h and Dyer (1959) w i t h s m a l l sample s i z e s (0.3 g d r y weight) and an e n c l o s e d g e n e r a t o r / homogenizer b l a d e (PT-10) on the P o l y t r o n homogenizer. Corn o i l was added t o 0.3 g samples o f f r e e z e -d r i e d salmon and f r e e z e - d r i e d raw p o t a t o i n i n c r e a s i n g amounts ( t r i a l #1 - 0.025 g, t r i a l #2 - 0.05 g, and t r i a l #3 - 0.1 g ) . F r e e z e - d r i e d salmon and f r e e z e - d r i e d raw p o t a t o ( 0.3 g each) were a s s a y e d as c o n t r o l s . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2. TABLE 2 P e r c e n t Recovery of L i p i d s from the Method of B l i g h and Dyer (1959) Sample g L i p i d per lOOg * % Recovery o f Added L i p i d N u xalk HW T r i a l 1 T r i a l 2 T r i a l 3 Mean n = 3 n=l n=3 n = 3 n=3 + SD p o t a t o <0.01 t r 95.8 96.2 94.5 95.5 + 0.4 + 1.0 + 0.8 + 0.9 salmon 10.0 11 94.6 95.3 95.9 95.3 + 0.9 + 0.5 + 0.2 + 0.7 + 0.7 * f r e s h w e i g h t HW V a l u e s from H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada (1979) The measured v a l u e s f o r b o t h t h e p o t a t o and the canned 49 salmon were comparable t o the v a l u e s p u b l i s h e d by H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada (1979). The p e r c e n t r e c o v e r y of l i p i d s , r e g a r d -l e s s of the l e v e l of o i l added, was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 95% f o r bot h t h e salmon (95.3 +_ 0.7) and the p o t a t o (95.5 + 0.9) samples. B: M o i s t u r e i n S t o r e d F r e e z e D r i e d Samples The f i s h samples used i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the f o l a t e and p a n t o t h e n a t e c o n t e n t were f r e e z e - d r i e d i n August 1984. The a c t u a l a n a l y s e s were not done u n t i l t he summer o f 1985, due t o a s e r i e s o f d e l a y s i n t e s t i n g the methods. There was some con c e r n t h a t t h e m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f t h e f r e e z e - d r i e d samples had i n c r e a s e d over t h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e , even though t h e samples had been s t o r e d under d e s s i c a t i o n a t - 20 degrees C. The m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f the s t a n d a r d salmon sample, which had been p r e p a r e d , d r i e d ( t o c o n s t a n t weight) and s t o r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r samples, was de t e r m i n e d j u s t p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f t h e f o l a t e a n a l y s e s (9 months s t o r a g e ) and a g a i n j u s t p r i o r t o the p a n t o t h e n a t e a n a l y s e s (11 months s t o r a g e ) . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3. TABLE 3 P e r c e n t M o i s t u r e i n F r e e z e - D r i e d Samples A f t e r S t o r a g e f o r 9 Months and 11 Months Length o f S t o r a g e % M o i s t u r e (n=3) 9 months 3.5 + 1.0 11 months 3.1 + 0.6 50 A f t e r 9 months the s t a n d a r d sample had p i c k e d up a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3.5% m o i s t u r e and a f t e r 11 months a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3.1% m o i s t u r e . Both measurements were made r e l a t i v e t o the o r i g i n a l d r y w e i g h t o f t h e sample. C: E f f e c t o f L i p i d s on F o l a t e and P a n t o t h e n a t e D e t e r m i n a t i o n s The methods used i n d e t e r m i n i n g f o l a t e and p a n t o t h e n a t e i n fo o d samples suggested t r i m m i n g v i s i b l e f a t s from meat p r o d u c t s and d e - f a t t i n g t h e f a t t e r meat p r o d u c t s . I t was d e c i d e d not t o d e f a t t h e f i s h p r o d u c t s because the f a t c o n t e n t was low compared t o many meat p r o d u c t s . To check t h a t t h e l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e samples d i d not a f f e c t the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f r e e f o l a t e , t o t a l f o l a t e , f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e or t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e , t h e l i p i d c o n t e n t of t h e samples was p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t h e v i t a m i n c o n t e n t o f t h e samples. F i g u r e s 2, 3, 4, and 5 p r e s e n t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e samples i n mg/g d r y w e i g h t v e r s u s f r e e f o l a t e c o n t e n t (ng/g d r y w e i g h t ) , t o t a l f o l a t e c o n t e n t (ng/g d r y w e i g h t ) , f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e c o n t e n t (ug/g d r y weight) and t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e (ug/g d r y w e i g h t ) . r e s p e c t i v e l y . P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the l i p i d c o n t e n t o f the samples and any o f t h e f r e e f o l a t e c o n t e n t , t h e t o t a l f o l a t e c o n t e n t , the f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e c o n t e n t , and the t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e c o n t e n t . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Ta b l e 4. 51 2601 195 130 65 o W "80- 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 . 440 FREE FOLATE (ng) Figure 2. Plot of L i p i d Content (mg/g dry weight) versus Free Folate Content (ng/g dry weight). • • • • • • • •• • • • H 1-40 120 200 280 360 kkO 520 600 680 760 8^ 0 920 TOTAL FOLATE (ng) gure 3 Plot of L i p i d Content (mg/g dry weight) versus Total Folate Content (ng/g dry weight). 260 195. L I P I D (mg) 13Q. 65-(— 1.2 1.5 2.1 2.4 2.7 3-0 3-3 FREE PANTOTHENATE (ug) 3-6 3-9 4.2 4.5 Figure 4. Plot of Li p i d Content (mg/g dry weight) versus Free Pantothenate Content (ug/g dry weight). 2601 195 L I P I D 130. (mg) 65 1 • •• T% Tfr -J72 jls zrTo O J% 57o 6\k '6.6 TOTAL PANTOTHENATE (ug) Figure 5. Plot of L i p i d Content (mg/g dry weight) versus Total Pantothenate Content (ug/g dry weight), TABLE 4 Pears o n C o r r e l a t i o n s ( t w o - t a i l e d ) Between The L i p i d C ontent and t h e F o l a t e C o n t e n t , and t h e P a n t o t h e n a t e C o n t e n t o f the Samples Component C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t S i g n i f i c a n c e F ree f o l a t e 0.0971 NS T o t a l f o l a t e 0.0012 NS Free P a n t o t h e n a t e -0.1294 NS T o t a l P a n t o t h e n a t e -0.1669 NS NS means not s i g n i f i c a n t None of t h e t e s t s gave a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t , t h e r e f o r e i t was assumed t h a t the l i p i d c o n t e n t o f the samples d i d not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e n u t r i e n t s . I I NUTRIENT COMPOSITION The f i s h sampled i n B e l l a C o o l a i n 1983 a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 5 by t h e sample number, w i t h the s e c t i o n o f t h e f i s h sampled, the p r e p a r a t i o n method, the a r e a i n which the f i s h were caught ( i n l e t o r r i v e r ) and the d a t e on which t h e f i s h were caught. The sockeye were a l l caught i n the i n l e t between J u l y 1, 1983 and J u l y 12, 1983. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e f i s h (26N, 260, 26P, 26Q, 26R, 26S) were t a k e n on J u l y 12, which was a f t e r t h e main r u n of B e l l a C o o l a sockeye ended t h a t y e a r . The coho samples were caught between J u l y 8, 1983 and August 24, 1983. The e a r l i e r samples (31B, 31E, 31F, and 31G) were caught i n the i n l e t w h i l e the two samples from August were caught w i t h i n f o u r m i l e s of the mouth of the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r . 56 TABLE 5 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Samples A n a l y z e d - S e c t i o n Sampled, P r e p a r a t i o n Method, L o c a t i o n Caught and Date Sampled. F i s h Sample S e c t i o n Method L o c a t i o n Date A: Soc k e y e 26D 1/2 Mid Canned I n l e t 7/01/83 •26E 1/3 2/4 T a i l Mid BBQ BBQ/Cnd I n l e t 7/08/83 261 1/3 Mid Canned I n l e t 7/08/83 26N 1/4 2/5 3/6 Head T a i l Mid Canned BBQ BBQ/Cnd I n l e t 7/12/83 260 1/4 2/5 Head T a i l Canned BBQ I n l e t 7/12/83 26P 1/4 2/5 3/6 Head T a i l Mid Canned BBQ BBQ/Cnd I n l e t 7/12/83 26Q 2/4 Mid BBQ/Cnd I n l e t 7/12/83 26R 1/2 T a i l BBQ/Cnd I n l e t 7/12/83 26S 1/3 T a i l BBQ I n l e t 7/12/83 B: Coho 3 IB 1/4 2/3 F i l l e t Head S l u q K'nuum I n l e t 7/08/83 31E 2/4 Head K'nuum I n l e t 8/19/83 3 I F 1/3 2/4 F i l l e t Head S l u q K'nuum I n l e t 8/19/83 31G 1/3 F i l l e t S l u q I n l e t 8/19/83 31H 1/3 2/4 F i l l e t Head S l u q K'nuum R i v e r 8/24/83 311 1/3 2/4 F i l l e t Head S l u q K'nuum R i v e r 8/24/83 57 The barbequed samples were a l l p r e p a r e d u s i n g t h e t a i l s e c t i o n s o f t h e f i s h , t h a t i s , the s e c t i o n o f the body a d j a c e n t t o t h e t a i l . The canned samples were from t h e head s e c t i o n ( i e . a d j a c e n t t o the head) f o r t h r e e of t h e samples (26N, 260, 26P) or t h e m i d - s e c t i o n (26D and 261) . The barbequed/canned samples came from t h e m i d - s e c t i o n o f t h e f i s h e x c e p t f o r sample 26R which came from the t a i l s e c t i o n . A l l f i v e of the samples f o r k'nuum were t a k e n from the head-s e c t i o n o f the f i s h , w h i l e the samples f o r s l u q were f i l l e t s c u t t he l e n g t h o f the f i s h . The n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f 100 g p o r t i o n s o f raw sockeye and the sockeye p r e p a r a t i o n s , (canned, barbequed and barbequed/canned) i s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 6. The v a l u e s f o r m o i s t u r e , p r o t e i n , l i p i d s , a s h , c a r b o h y d r a t e , e n e r g y , t o t a l f o l a t e , f r e e f o l a t e , t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e and f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e r e p r e s e n t t h e mean o f 15 samples o f raw sockeye and 5 samples of each o f t h e o t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s . The v a l u e s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g n u t r i e n t s r e p r e s e n t the mean o f 9 samples of raw sockeye and 3 samples o f each o f t h e r e m a i n i n g p r e p a r a t i o n s . The range i n v a l u e s f o r the n u t r i e n t s f o r any g i v e n p r e p a r a t i o n tends t o be l a r g e . O v e r a l l the barbequed samples t e n d t o show t h e g r e a t e s t range i n v a l u e s f o r any one n u t r i e n t w h i l e t h e v a l u e s f o r v i t a m i n E, t h i a m i n , sodium and copper tend t o show t h e g r e a t e s t range f o r any one p r e p a r a t i o n method. P u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r raw, canned and b r o i l e d sockeye f o r comparison w i t h raw, canned, and barbequed Nuxalk samples a r e 58 TABLE 6 Nutrient Composition of Sockeye Preparations per 100 g as Processed (Reported as Mean and Range) lomponent Units Raw(a) Canned(b) BBQ(b) BBQ/Cnd(b) Moisture % 70 (62-79) 66 (62-73) 60 (31-70) 55 (47-60) Energy Kcals 143 (107-169) 159 (121-176) 190 (150-308) 215 (136-247) P r o t e i n g 20 (16-24) 20 (17-24) 28 (21-47) 28 (22-37) L i p i d g 5 (1-7) 6 (2-6) 5 (4-6) 8 (5-12) Ash g 2 (1-2) 3 (2-4) 3 (2-3) 3 (2-4) CHO g 3 (0-4) 6 (0-12) 4 (3-13) 6 (3-11) Vitamin A IU 167 (93-320) 233 (143-276) 400 (193-723) 486 (200-709) Vitamin D IU 227 (172-298) 211 (171-247) 649 (284-1345) 434 (321-571) Vitamin E mg 0.37 (0.13-0.92) 1.35 (1.0-1.7) 0.08 (0.04-0.12) 1.60 (0.79-2.09) Thiamin mg 0.40 (0.09-1.15) 0.14 (0.06-0.28) 0.19 (0.02-0.28) 0.03 (0.01-0.03) R i b o f l a v i n mg 0.28 (0.13-0.90) 0.16 (0.14-0.18) 0.54 (0.3-0.9) 0.43 (0.38-0.51) Ni a c i n mg 4.6 (3.6-6.1) 4.6 (4.0-5.0) 6.4 (5.9-6.3) 6.1 (4.8-8.2) Folate (Total) ug 7 (3-22) 6 (3-8) 14 (7-27) 7 (3-11) Folate (Free) ug 5 (2-10) 5 (1-8) 12 (8-16) 6 (2-9) Pantothenate ug (Total) 127 (74-174) 138 (115-153) 238 (198-373) 188 (172-208) 59 TABLE 6 (con't) Component Units Raw(a) Canned(b) BBQ(b) BBQ/Cnd(b) Pantothenate (Free) ug 72 (52-96) 88 (82-96) 155 (110-276) 112 (97-149) Sodium mg 58 (26-100) 783 (462-1153) 270 (93-546) 438 (364-493) Chromium ug 44 (12-166) 13 72 (22-109) 28 (22-36) Manganese ug 17 (11-41) 9 (7-13) 67 (49-92) 67 (41-104) Copper ug 665 (217-2272) 166 (143-178) 1390 (760-2380) 624 (440-864) Zinc mg 0.9 (0.7-1.6) 0.5 (0.4-0.8) 1.3 (0.9-1.7) 1.0 (0.8-1.1) Iron mg 0.8 (0.5-1.7) 0.3 (0.3-0.4) 1.3 (0.7-1.9) 0.9 (0.8-1.1) Phosphorus mg 216 (231-387) 238 (216-280) 361 (268-455) 325 (285-381) Calcium mg 52 (30-105) 59 (35-106) 81 (59-93) 70 (51-82) Magnesium mg 25 (24-36) 20 (18-23) 36 (27-44) 33 (29-37) a) n= 15 f o r moisture, energy, p r o t e i n , l i p i d , ash, CHO, t o t a l and free f o l a t e , and t o t a l and free pantothenate. n=9 f o r a l l other n u t r i e n t s . b) n= 5 f o r moisture, energy, p r o t e i n , l i p i d , ash, CHO, t o t a l and free f o l a t e , and t o t a l and free pantothenate. n=3 f o r a l l other n u t r i e n t s . 60 TABLE 7 Published N u t r i e n t Values f o r Sockeye Salmon with Values f o r S i m i l a r Nuxalk Preparations (Based on lOOg portions) Nutrient Raw Canned Broiled/BBQ ================== P/C N P/C BB HW N HW N Moisture (%) - 70 - - 71 66 71 60 Energy (kcals) - 143 171 169 203 159 182 190 Pr o t e i n (g) - 20.0 20.3 20.0 22.2 20.0 26.7 28.0 L i p i d (g) - 5.0 9.3 9.3 12.2 6.0 7.7 5.0 Vitamin A (IU) 150 167 230 - - 233 160 400 Vitamin D (IU) - 227 - 440 - 211 - 649 Thiamin (mg) 0.14 0.40 0.04 - 0.03 0.14 0.16 0.19 R i b o f l a v i n (mg) 0.07 0.28 0.16 - 0.15 0.16 0.05 0.54 N i a c i n (mg) - 4.6 7.3 - 7.2 4.6 14.5 6.4 T o t a l Folate (ug) - 7 - - 27 6 27 14 Sodium (mg) 48 58 522 - - 783 116 270 Calcium (mg) - 52 259 - I l l 59 - 81 Phosphorus (mg) - 216 344 253 - 238 - 361 Iron (mg) - 0.8 1.2 - 0.9 0.3 1.2 1.3 Magnesium (mg) - 25 29 - - 20 - 36 P/C values from Pennington and Church (1980) N values f o r Nuxalk Sockeye Samples from Table 6. BB values from B a i l e y (1942) HW values from Health and Welfare Canada (1979) 61 r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 7. The raw Nuxalk sockeye samples were compared t o v a l u e s f o r raw sockeye p u b l i s h e d i n P e n n i n g t o n and Church (1980). The mean v a l u e s f o r t h e Nuxalk samples were g r e a t e r than the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . The p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r v i t a m i n A, t h i a m i n and sodium a l l f e l l w i t h i n the range o f v a l u e s f o r those n u t r i e n t s g i v e n i n T a b l e 6. The l o w e s t v a l u e f o r r i b o f l a v i n r e p o r t e d i n Ta b l e 6, however, was a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e . The canned Nuxalk salmon samples were compared t o v a l u e s f o r canned sockeye from P e n n i n g t o n and Church (1980), B a i l e y (1942) and H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada (1979). The v a l u e s f o r m o i s t u r e , p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n A, r i b o f l a v i n , phosphorus and magnesium were comparable t o the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . The mean energy v a l u e o f the Nuxalk samples was below the range o f p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s r e p o r t e d (169 k c a l s t o 203 k c a l s per 100 g) however, a l l but the H e a l t h and W e l f a r e v a l u e o f 203 k c a l s per lOOg were w i t h i n the range r e p o r t e d i n Ta b l e 4 (121 k c a l s t o 171 k c a l s per 100 g ) . V a l u e s f o r l i p i d s , v i t a m i n D, n i a c i n , t o t a l f o l a t e , c a l c i u m and i r o n were a l l lower i n the Nuxalk samples t h a n the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . Both t h e P e n n i n g t o n and Church and t h e H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada v a l u e s i n c l u d e d the salmon bones i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c a l c i u m . V a l u e s f o r t h i a m i n and sodium i n the Nuxalk samples were g r e a t e r than the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . The n u t r i e n t v a l u e s f o r t h e barbequed Nuxalk samples were compared t o v a l u e s f o r b r o i l e d salmon s t e a k s i n H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada (1979). The v a l u e s f o r energy, p r o t e i n , t h i a m i n and i r o n were comparable t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s , however, the mean m o i s t u r e v a l u e o f t h e Nuxalk samples was l e s s t h a n the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e f o r sockeye s t e a k s , b r o i l e d . V a l u e s f o r l i p i d s , n i a c i n and t o t a l f o l a t e were a l l l e s s than t h e p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . V a l u e s f o r v i t a m i n A, sodium and r i b o f l a v i n were a l l g r e a t e r t h a n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r b r o i l e d salmon s t e a k s . P u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r a p r o c e s s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o barbequed/canned sockeye were not a v a i l a b l e . The n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f 100 g p o r t i o n s of raw ( w i t h and w i t h o u t s k i n ) and p r o c e s s e d Coho i s r e p o r t e d i n Ta b l e 8. The v a l u e s f o r m o i s t u r e , energy, p r o t e i n , l i p i d , c a r b o h y d r a t e , and ash r e p r e s e n t the mean of 5 samples f o r e a c h p r e p a r a t i o n . The v a l u e s f o r f r e e f o l a t e , t o t a l f o l a t e , f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e , and t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e r e p r e s e n t the mean o f 5 samples f o r each p r e p a r a t i o n e x c e p t f o r t h e raw f i l l e t where the mean was c a l c u l a t e d over 4 samples as sample 3111 was not a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s e a n a l y s e s . The v a l u e s f o r the r e m a i n i n g n u t r i e n t s r e p r e s e n t t h e mean of 3 samples each. The range r e p o r t e d f o r most v a l u e s tends t o be l a r g e over a l l t h e p r e p a r a t i o n methods. The v a l u e s f o r v i t a m i n E and t h i a m i n t e n d t o show t h e g r e a t e s t range f o r any g i v e n p r e p a r a t i o n method. TABLE 8 Nutrient Composition of Coho Preparations per 100 g as Processed (Reported as Mean and Range)(a) Component Units Raw(+ skin) K1nuum Raw f i l l e t ( b ) Sluq Moisture % 65 (59-73) 45 (39-51) 75 (73-81) 26 (14-44) Energy Kcals 177 (130-222) 278 (232-325) 111 (82-129) 311 (239-360)^ P r o t e i n g 18 (16-19) 29 (24-32) 23 (16-28) 60 (40-78) L i p i d g 8 (5-12) 11 (7-16) 1 3 (2-4) Ash g 1 (1-2) 2 (2-3) 2 (1-2) 7 (3-5) CHO g 7 (4-10) . 13 (11-19) 1 (0-3) 7 (0-15) Vitamin A IU 87 (47-113) 343 (310-109) 20 (10-33) 246 (130-363) Vitamin D IU 133 (89-169) 343 (311-364) 26 (16-40) 245 • (128-363) Vitamin E mg 0.45 (0.10-1.13) 0.27 (0.16-0.38) 0 .07 (0.03-0.12) 0.26 (0-0.40) Thiamin mg 0.77 (0.14-2.00) 0.09 (0.06-0.11) 0.35 (0.03-0.95) 0.05 (0.01-0.07) R i b o f l a v i n mg 0.22 (0.20-0.23) 0.29 (0.24-0.34) 0.10 (0.06-0.14) 0.25 (0.20-0.33) Nia c i n mg 3.1 (2.4-3.7) 5.4 (4.2-7.3) 4.1 (4.0-4.6) 11. 6 (10.0-13.7) Folate (Total) ug 6 (1-9) 15 (7-24) 5 (3-7) 9 (4-21) Folate (Free) ug 3 (1-8) 5 (2-8) 1 (0-2) ND Pantothenate ug (Total) 117 (65-176) 182 (157-208) 91 (67-102) 230 (184-283) 64 TABLE 8 (con't) Component Units Raw( + skin) K'nuum Raw f i l l e t Sluq Pantothenate ug (free) 63 (51-68) 128 (113-162) 46 (33-58) 147 (100-185) Sodium mg 53 (39-63) 89 (68-106) 35 (21-62) 197 (155-227) Chromium ug 26 (21-36) 32 14 (10-17) 34 (29-39) Manganese ug 20 (14-28) 52 (34-48) 8 (7-11) 73 (51-38) Copper ug 364 (292-495) 158 (127-209) 271 (146-469) 490 (333-676) Zinc mg 0.7 (0.6-0.7) 1.0 (0.8-1.3) 0.4 1.2 (0.9-1.4) Iron mg 0.6 (0.5-0.7) 0.7 (0.6-0.9) 0.4 (0.3-0.5) 0.9 (0.7-1.0) Phosphorus mg 217 (204-243) 407 (356-472) 250 (230-271) 637 (570-773) Calcium mg 66 (37-109) 128 (67-191) 8. (4-13) 21 (15-28) Magnesium mg 24 (19-29) 42 (36-49) 29 (27-31) 84 (69-94) a) n=5 f o r moisture, energy, p r o t e i n , l i p i d , ash, CHO. n=4 f o r free and t o t a l f o l a t e and free and t o t a l pantothenate. n=3 f o r a l l other n u t r i e n t s . b) without ski n . 65 P u b l i s h e d . v a l u e s f o r raw coho and d r i e d coho f o r comparison w i t h the raw ( w i t h and w i t h o u t s k i n ) and the smoked/dried (k'nuum and s l u q ) Nuxalk samples a r e r e p o r t e d i n Tab l e 9. The raw Nuxalk coho samples were compared t o p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s from C h a t f i e l d (1954), B a i l e y (1942) and P e n n i n g t o n and Church (1980). None o f t h e s e r e p o r t s s t a t e d whether the s k i n was i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o r n o t . I n t h e raw Nuxalk sample w i t h s k i n (NI) the mean v a l u e s f o r energy, l i p i d , v i t a m i n A and t h i a m i n were h i g h e r than the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . The mean v a l u e s f o r p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n D, sodium, phosphorous, and magnesium were comparable t o the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . The r i b o f l a v i n and c a l c i u m v a l u e s were comparable t o the C h a t f i e l d v a l u e s but i n comparison t o t h e Pe n n i n g t o n and Church v a l u e s t h e r i b o f l a v i n v a l u e i s g r e a t e r and t h e c a l c i u m v a l u e i s lo w e r . The n i a c i n and i r o n v a l u e s were lower t h a n the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . I n the raw Nuxalk coho sample w i t h o u t s k i n (N2) the mean v a l u e s f o r v i t a m i n A, sodium, and phosphorous were comparable t o t h e p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . The v a l u e f o r r i b o f l a v i n was comparable t o the P e n n i n g t o n and Church v a l u e , but was l e s s than the C h a t f i e l d v a l u e . V a l u e s f o r energy, l i p i d s , v i t a m i n D, n i a c i n , c a l c i u m , i r o n and magnesium were a l l below the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s , w h i l e the v a l u e s f o r p r o t e i n and t h i a m i n were b o t h above the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . The Nuxalk smoke/dried p r e p a r a t i o n s ( k'nuum and s l u q ) 66 TABLE 9 Published Nutrient Values f o r Coho with Values f o r S i m i l a r Nuxalk Preparations f o r Comparison (based on lOOg portions) Nutrient Raw Dried FAO BB P/C NI N2 ADS NI N2 Moisture (%) - - - 65 75 10.7 45 26 Energy (kcals) 140 123 - 177 111 - 278 311 Pro t e i n (g) 19.9 20.0 - 18.0 23.0 - 29.0 60.0 L i p i d (g) 6.1 4.5 - 8.0 1.0 36.5 11.0 3.0 Vitamin A (IU) 30 - - 87 20 - 343 246 Vitamin D (IU) - 154 - 133 26 - 343 245 Thiamin (mg) 0.26 - 0.09 0.77 0.35 - 0.09 0.05 R i b o f l a v i n (mg) 0.22 - 0.11 0.22 0.10 - 0.29 0.25 N i a c i n (mg) 7.0 - - 3.1 4.1 - 5.4 11.6 Sodium (mg) - - 48 53 .35 - 89 197 Calcium (mg) 78 - 175 66 8 - 128 21 Phosphorus (mg) 212 - 231 217 250 1000 407 637 Iron (mg) 1.3 - - 0.6 0.4 1.3 0.7 0.9 Magnesium (mg) - - 29 20 8 FAO Values from C h a t f i e l d (1954) BB Values from B a i l e y (1942) P/C Values from Pennington and Church (1980) NI Values f o r raw with skin or k'nuum from Table 8. N2 Values f o r raw f i l l e t or sluq from Table 8. ADS Values from H e l l e r and Scott (1967) 67 were compared t o a i r / d r i e d coho ( H e l l e r and S c o t t , 1967) . The s k i n was not i n c l u d e d i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . For b o t h o f t h e Nuxalk p r e p a r a t i o n s t h e m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t was g r e a t e r t h a n the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e w h i l e t h e l i p i d , phosphorous and i r o n v a l u e s were l e s s than the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . I l l EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON NUTRIENTS M o i s t u r e , p r o t e i n , l i p i d , a s h , t o t a l f o l a t e , f r e e f o l a t e , t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e , and f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e f o r sockeye and coho samples a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e s 10 and 11 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e 10A i n c l u d e s the v a l u e s f o r canned sockeye and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples, T a b l e 10B i n c l u d e s barbequed sockeye and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples and T a b l e 10C i n c l u d e s the v a l u e s f o r barbequed/canned sockeye and the raw samples. T a b l e 11A and 11B i n c l u d e the v a l u e s f o r K'nuum and s l u q r e s p e c t i v l e y , w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples. M o i s t u r e was s t a t e d as p e r c e n t o f f r e s h w e i g h t . P r o t e i n , l i p i d and ash a r e r e p o r t e d as m i l l i g r a m s per gram d r y w e i g h t . T o t a l and f r e e f o l a t e v a l u e s a r e r e p o r t e d as nanograms per gram d r y w e i g h t and t o t a l and f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e a r e r e p o r t e d as micrograms per gram d r y w e i g h t . L e v e l s o f f r e e f o l a t e i n the p r e p a r e d s l u q samples (Table 11A) were below th e d e t e c t a b l e l i m i t o f 10 ng per g d r y w e i g h t . In comparing the n u t r i e n t v a l u e s o f each of t h e p r e p a r e d samples t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples u s i n g the P a i r e d 68 TABLE 10 Moisture, P r o t e i n , L i p i d , Ash, Folate ( t o t a l and f r e e ) , and Pantothenate ( t o t a l and free) i n Sockeye. (reported as mean _+ SD) A: Raw versus Canned Sample Moisture Protein L i p i d Ash Folate Pantothenate Total Free T o t a l Free % mg mg mg ng ng ug ug r i i J 26D 1 raw 75 .1 781 58 59 125 88 6.2 3.6 + 5 .2 + 18 1 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 1 °-7 + 0.1 2 canned 72 .8 863 81 75 182 173 5 . 6 3.1 + 2 .4 + • 78 1 6 1 4 1 1 7 1 28 + 0.3 + 0 261 1 raw 66 .7 716 172 44 172 189 4.0 2.9 + 0 .8 1 3 1 + 6 + 6 + 44 1 1 3 + 1.0 + 0.1 2 canned 64 .4 602 157 75 106 79 4.2 2.7 1 0 .1 1 4 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 ± 8 +_ 0.4 + 0.1 26N 1 raw 67 .2 451 190 34 130 129 2.3 1.6 1 o . 7 1 2 3 1 8 + 2 1 4 +_ 1 +_ 0.2 +_ 0.1 4 canned 64 .3 539 163 75 222 223 3.6 2.5 1 0 .2 1 2 8 1 1 2 + 2 1 9 + 13 + 0.2 +_ 0.1 260 1 raw 69 .0 524 196 31 253 176 3.0 1.8 +_ 1 .5 +_ 99 1 1 5 + 6 1 1 7 1 2 2 + 0.0 + 0.0 4 canned 62 .0 449 166 85 71 30 3.9 2.2 1 0 .3 1 1 0 + 7 + 2 + 0 ± 4 + 0.3 + 0.1 26P 1 raw 66 .2 586 207 34 98 139 4.0 1.8 1 0 .6 1 1 9 1 1 0 + 2 1 1 4 1 5 + 0.3 +_ 0.1 4 canned 65 .1 548 163 102 217 164 3.3 2.6 + 3 . 6 1 1 8 1 5 + 3 1 3 1 + 28 +_ 0.1 + 0.1 Mean raw 69 .0 612 165 41(a) 157 144 4.1 2.3 1 4 .0 + 132 + 57 1 1]- + 61 1 38 _+ 0.9 + 0.3 canned 65 .7 601 146 83 (a) 159 134 4.3 2.6 + 4 .2 + 152 + 34 + 14 + 65 + 75 + 0.4 + 0.3 6 9 TABLE 10 (con't) B: Raw versus Barbeque (BBQ) Sample Moisture Protein L i p i d Ash Folate Pantothenate To t a l Free T o t a l Free % mg mg mg ng ng ug ug [ per gram dry weight ] 26E 1 raw 78 .7 776 78 55 210 224 4.6 2.5 + 1 .6 1 22 + 1 + 1 + 10 1 14 + 0.6 + 0.1 2 BBQ 31 .0 675 92 47 385 234 5.4 4.0 + 5 .1 + 29 + 2 1 6 1 41 1 12 1 1-1 + 0.1 26N 2 raw 70 .8 562 132 36 273 127 4.3 2.2 + 1 .2 1 34 + 7 + 5 + 3 + 13 _+ 0.1 + 0.2 5 BBQ 70 .3 586 135 • 53 374 403 5.5 4.4 + 1 .8 1 1 5 1 1 8 1 11 + 11 1 22 + 0.8 + 0.1 260 2 raw • 70 .0 634 161 42 379 339 4.2 2.8 + 1 . 4 1 31 + 3 1 12 + 12 + 29 +_ 0.0 + 0.1 5 BBQ 60 .5 769 115 54 376 318 6.1 3.1 ' + 1 .1 1 56 + 1 + 7 1 21 1 22 +_ 0.3 + 0.2 26P 2 raw 71 .4 781 111 46 437 213 4.9 2.5 + 0 .3 1 115 1 9 + 2 + 3 1 15 + 0.1 + 0.1 5 BBQ 62 . 7 652 115 62 190 213 5.3 3.8 1 .5 + 40 + 7 + 3 + 4 1 15 + 0.5 + 0.1 26S 1 raw 67 .2 582 191 36 102 90 5.3 2.2 + 0 .5 1 21 1 24 + 3 + 7 1 29 + 0.1 + 0.1 3 BBQ 67 .3 626 135 54 365 322 6.5 3.4 + 0 .6 1 16 + 7 + 12 + 2 1 16 + 0.4 + 0.1 Mean raw 71 .6 667 135 43 280 199 4.8(b) 2.4(b) + 4 .0 + 108 1 42 1 9 + 125 + 93 0.4 + 0.3 BBQ 58 .3 661 118 54 338 298 5.8(b) 3.7(b) + 14 . 7 + 90 1 17 1 9 + 80 1 73 + 0.7 + 0.5 70 TABLE 10 (con't) C: Raw versus Barbequed/Canned (BBQ/CND) Sample Moisture Protein L i p i d Ash Folate Pantothenate Total Free T o t a l Free % mg mg mg ng ng ug ug [ per gram dry weight ] 26E 2 raw 75 .1 736 70 59 883 331 5.1 3.5 + 2 .0 + 71 + 2 + 2 1 72 1 33 + 0.8 + 0.1 4 BBQ/cnd 46 .6 690 99 65 148 174 3.9 2.8 1 0 .3 + 86 + 8 1 8 + 13 1 ll + 0.7 + 0.1 26N 3 raw 67 .5 694 148 45 106 85 4.2 2.5 1 0 .5 1 27 _+ 7 + 2 + 11 1 14 + 0.2 _+ 0.1 6 BBQ/cnd 54 .2 661 163 55 70 42 3.9 2.2 + 1 .1 + 66 1 11 + 1 _+ 7 + 3 + 0.1 +_ 0.1 26P 3 raw 69 .1 724 152 46 90 98 3.5 2.3 1 0 .2 1 37 1 4 + 7 1 1 14 +_ 0.1 + 0.0 6 BBQ/cnd 52 .7 464 257 42 129 118 3.8 2.1 1 0 .5 1 17 _+ 5 + 3 + 0 1 12 +_ 0.6 + 0.1 26Q 2 raw 69 .5 707 140 45 263 221 3.9 2.4 + 0 .3 1 32 + 5 1 4 +_ 1 1 32 + 0.1 + 0.1 4 BBQ/cnd 58 .6 ' 528 196 53 189 122 4.2 2.6 + 0 .6 1 32 1 9 1 4 1 8 + 1 +_ 0.1 + 0.0 26R 1 raw 71 .5 764 116 71 267 266 5.3 2.6 1 0 .2 1 15 _+ 1 1 8 + 12 1 13 + 0.5 + 0.1 2 BBQ/cnd 60 .3 694 142 65 270 200 5.2 2.7 1 0 .6 i 4 5 1 27 + 1 1 14 1 6 + 0.1 + 0.1 Mean raw 70 -5 (a) 725 125(c) 53 322 196 4.4 2.6 + 2 .8 + 43 + 31 1 ll + 307 1 97 + 0.8 + 0.5 BBQ/cnd 54 .5 (a) 607 161(c) 56 161 131 4.2 2.5 + 5 .0 + 107 + 71 + 10 + 70 + 53 + 0.6 + 0.3 a) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.01 b) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.02 c) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.05 71 TABLE 11 Moisture, P r o t e i n , L i p i d , Ash, Folate ( t o t a l and free) , and Pantothenate ( t o t a l and free) i n Coho. (reported as mean _+ SD) A: Raw versus Sluq Sample Moisture Protein L i p i d Ash Folate Pantothenate Total Free T o t a l Free % mg mg mg ng ng ug ug r I 31B 1 raw 73 .5 10 6 7 42 53 182 60 3.6 1.3 + 0 .9 + 40 + 2 + 9 + 4 + 27 + 0.0 + 0.1 4 sluq 44 .4 713 51 62 185 ND (a) 3.3 1.8 + 10 + 54 + 10 + 13 + 14 + 0.0 +_ 0.1 31H 1 raw 73 .8 874 36 68 191 ND 2.6 1.8 + 1 .1 166 1 4 1 30 + 16 + 0.1 + 0.1 3 sluq 33 .9 876 63 64 83 ND 3.6 2.1 + 3 .4 + 32 + 1 + 6 + 1 + 0.1 + 0.1 311 1 raw(b) 80 .7 835 28 44 + 0 .6 + 139 + S +_ 7 3 sluq 20 .2 823 54 67 261 ND 2.6 1.7 + 4 .9 + 51 + 6 + 12 + 2 + 0.1 + 0.1 31F 1 raw 73 .1 1023 28 65 270 41 3.7 1.7 + 0 .5 + 135 + 3 + 16 1 11 + 0.1 _+ 0.0 3 sluq 14 .2 915 30 61 46 ND 2.3 2.1 + 3 .6 + 126 + 3 + 11 + 8 + 0.1 + 0.0 31G 1 raw 72 .5 765 27 58 97 ND 3.7 2.1 + 0 .5 + 1 + 7 + 12 1 ll +_ 0.1 +_ 0.0 3 sluq 17 .9 732 26 62 47 ND 3.5 2.3 + 0 .6 + 33 + 3 + 4 + 3 + 0.2 +_ 0.1 Mean raw 74 .7(c) 913 31 58 185 25 (c) 3.4 1.7( i + 3 .2 + 153 + 7 + 16 + 66 + 30 + 0.5 + 0.3 sluq 26 • 1(c) 812 45 63 124 ND (c) 3.1 2.0 (. + 12 .6 + 100 + 15 + 3 + 90 + 0.4 + 0.1 72 TABLE 11 (con't) B: Raw versus K'nuum Sample Moisture Pr o t e i n L i p i d Ash Folate Pantothenate Total Free Total Free % mg mg mg ng ng ug ug [ per gram dry weight-31E 2 raw 65 .5 533 196 45 242 220 5.1 1.9 _+ 5 .0 + 59 1 13 1 11 1 27 1 47 + 0.8 + 0.1 4 k'nuum 48 .6 553 200 29 268 131 3.3 2.6 + 0 .3 + 33 + 2 _+ 7 1 28 + 2 + 0.1 + 0.1 3 IF 2 raw 72 . 6 596 167 45 235 31 2.4 1.9 + 2 .9 + 57 + 44 1 4 1 9 + 10 +_ 0.4 + 0.1 4 k'nuum 46 .6 536 171 43 444 157 3.7 2.2 + 2 .9 + 35 1 22 1 9 + 15 + 12 + 0.3 + 0.1 311 2 raw 58 .9 441 281 30 300 36 3.2 1.7 1 0 .7 + 96 1 19 1 4 + 45 + 8 + 0.2 + 0.1 4 k' nuum 38 .8 528 242 41 354 70 3.4 2.0 +_ 1 .4 + 32 1 24 _+ 5 +_ 1 + 21 + 0.0 + 0.1 31B 2 raw 64 .8 481 234 36 253 38 3.2 1.9 + 1 -0 + 31 1 52 + 4 + 25 + 12 +_ 0.1 + 0.1 4 k1nuum 38 .8 396 260 38 137 38 3.0 2.7 + 2 .5 + 9 1 30 1 5 ± 6 + 0 +_ 0.1 + 0.1 31H 2 raw 63 .0 522 256 38 254 34 2.8 1.8 + 0 . 6 + 135 + 48 1 8 + 3 + 13 + 0.2 + 0.1 4 k' nuum 50 .9 551 212 44 145 48 3.2 2.3 1 0 .3 + 93 + 12 + 13 1 6 1 24 + 0.2 +_ 0.0 Mean raw 50 • 0(d) 514 213 39 247 71 3.3 1.8 (< + 5 .1 + 88 1 79 1 8 1 20 + + 1.1 +_ 0.1 k'nuum 44 .7 (d) 513 204 36 270 95 3.3 2.3 (< _+ 5 .5 + 74 1 67 1 13 + 126 + 51 + 0.3 + 0.3 a) ND means not detectable b) a l i q u o t not a v a i l a b l e f o r f o l a t e and pantothenate a n a l y s i s . c) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.001 d) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.01 e) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.02 73 Comparison t - t e s t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n the ash v a l u e s o f the canned sockeye samples (p< 0.01), the t o t a l and f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e v a l u e s o f the barbequed sockeye samples (p< 0.01), t h e l i p i d v a l u e s o f the barbequed/canned sockeye samples (p< 0.05), and the f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e v a l u e s o f t h e s l u q samples (p< 0.02) and the k'nuum samples (p<0.01). There were s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e s i n the m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f the barbequed/canned sockeye samples (p< 0.01), t h e s l u q samples (p< 0.001) and t h e k'nuum samples (p< 0.01). As w e l l , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n the f r e e f o l a t e c o n t e n t o f the s l u q samples. T a b l e s 12 and 13 p r e s e n t t h e v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, v i t a m i n E, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n and n i a c i n c o n t e n t o f the Sockeye and Coho samples r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l v a l u e s a r e r e p o r t e d on a per gram d r y w e i g h t b a s i s . The v i t a m i n E c o n t e n t i s measured as ug «<-tocopherol and was below the d e t e c t a b l e l i m i t o f 0.07 ug per g d r y w e i g h t f o r sample 31B4 ( s l u q , T a b l e 13) . The r i b o f l a v i n and the n i a c i n c o n t e n t o f the canned sockeye samples was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r (p< 0.01) th a n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples as was t h e v i t a m i n D c o n t e n t o f t h e s l u q samples (p< 0.05) and t h e k'nuum samples (p< 0.01). The v i t a m i n E c o n t e n t o f the barbequed sockeye samples was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (p< 0.05) th a n t h a t o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples. The m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f the sockeye and coho p r e -p a r a t i o n s i s shown i n T a b l e s 14 and 15 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l 74 TABLE 12 Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Thiamin, R i b o f l a v i n , and Ni a c i n i n Sockeye. Sample Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Thiamin R i b o f l a v i n N i a c i n IU IU ug(a) mg mg mg [ per gram dry weight ] A: Raw versus Canned 26D 1 raw 4 .41 10 .74 5.04 0 .006 0 .004 0.1125 2 canned 5 .36 6 .49 66.88 0 .010 0 .005 0.1425 26N 1 raw 9 .08 10 .30 6.86 0 .033 0 .004 0.1171 4 canned 7 .80 6 .08 27.50 0 .002 0 .005 0.1441 260 1 raw 5 .80 7 .76 12.53 0 .008 0 .004 0.1171 4 canned 5 .36 6 .53 34.39 0 .002 0 .005 0.1388 Mean raw 6 .43 9 .57 8.14 0 .156 0 .004(b) 0.1156(b) _+ S.D. _+l .41 _+l .59 +_ 3.90 + 0 .015 + 0 .0 +0.003 canned 6 .17 6 .37 42.90 0 .005 0 .005(b) 0.1419(b) +_ S.D. + 1 .41 + 0 .25 ^21.00 1° .005 + 0 .0 +0.003 =: = = = =: = = = = = = = =  = = ====== = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = • = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = B: Raw versus Barbequed (BBQ) 26E 1 raw 7 .42 11 .55 44 .00 0 .005 0 .005 0 .1355 3 BBQ 10 .52 19 .49 17 .83 0 .0004 0 .015 0 .1259 26N 1 raw 7 .32 5 .92 14 . 60 0 .006 0 .006 0 .1906 5 BBQ 9 .56 9 .55 3 .03 0 .008 0 .007 0 .1372 260 1 raw 4 .69 8 .32 12 .76 0 .003 0 .005 0 .1931 5 BBQ 4 .90 8 .06 0 .88 0 .007 0 .11 0 .1500 Mean raw 6 .48 8 . 60 23 . 70(c) 0 .005 0 . 0053 0 .1731 + S.D. + 1 .55 + 2 .82 + 17 .00 + 0 .002 + 0 .0006 1° .0326 BBQ 8 .33 6 .46 7 .25(c) 0 .005 0 .011 0 .1731 + S.D. + 3 .01 + 4 .12 + 9 .23 + 0 .004 + 0 .004 + 0 .0121 ============: = = = = ====== = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ====== : = = ======= = = = = ====== = = = = = = = = 75 TABLE 12 (con't) Sample Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Thiamin R i b o f l a v i n N i a c i n IU IU ug(a) mg mg mg [ per gram dry weight ] C: Raw versus Barbequed/canned (BBQ/cnd) 26E 2 raw 4 .87 7. 06 8 .56 0 .042 0 .007 0 .1556 4 BBQ/cnd 13 .31 10. 72 39 .39 0 .001 0 .008 0 .1673 26N 3 raw 9 .82 6. 73 14 .38 0 .005 0 .004 0 .1515 6 BBQ/cnd 4 .45 7. 07 17 .35 0 .001 0 .012 0 .1209 26P 3 raw 3 .01 5. 60 10 .58 0 .007 0 .006 0 .1419 6 BBQ/cnd 12 .03 8. 65 40 .80 0 .004 0 .008 0 .1403 a) ug <*-tocopherol b) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.01 c) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.05 76 TABLE 13 Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Thiamin, R i b o f l a v i n and N i a c i n i n Coho Sample Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Thiamin R i b o f l a v i n N i a c i n IU IU ug(a) mg mg mg [ per gram dry weight ] A: Raw versus sluq 31B 1 raw 1.21 0. 84 1.27 0 .0026 0 .0024 0 .160 4 sluq 1.44 2. 31 ND (b) 0 .0013 0 .0038 0 .189 31H 1 raw 0.32 1. 51 2.12 0 .0012 0 .0054 0 .170 3 sluq 1.17 3. 70 6.08 0 .0009 0 .0032 0 .152 311 1 raw 0.56 0. 84 6.53 0 .038 0 .004 0 .184 3 sluq 1.85 4. 40 4.42 0 .001 0 . 0043 0 .178 Mean raw + S.D. 0.86 + 0.33 1. + 0. 06 (d) 39 3.31 + 2.82 0 + 0 .0014 .021 0 + 0 .0037 .0015 0 + 0 .171. .021 sluq +_ S.D. 1.49 j-0.34 3. + 1. 47(d) 06 5.25 + 1.17 0 + 0 . 0067 .0006 0 1° .0037 . 0006 0 + 0 .173 .019 B: Raw versus k 1 nuum 31E 2 raw 2.84 4. 89 3.06 0 .598 0 .0065 0 .091 4 k'nuum 3.35 7. 08 5.59 0 .001 0 .0044 0 .089 31F 2 raw 1.64 3 . 23 5.00 0 .0053 0 .0072 0 .115 4 k'nuum 2.45 5. 83 2.98 0 .0026 0 .0067 0 .169 311 2 raw 2.73 3. 43 27.48 0 .0039 0 .0056 0 .067 4 k'nuum 3.01 5. 77 6.15 0 .0018 0 .0057 0 .070 Mean raw _+ S.D. 2.40 + 0.66 3. + 0. 85 (c) 91 10.20 +15.04 0 + 0 .023 .032 0 + 0 . 0067 .0006 0 + 0 .091 .024 k1nuum + S.D. 2.94 + 0.45 6. + 0. 23 (c) 74 4.91 + 1.69 0 + 0 .002 .001 0 + 0 .0057 .0015 0 + 0 .109 .053 a) ug "^-tocopherol b) ND means not detectable c) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.01 d) prepared sample d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.05 77 TABLE 14 Mineral Composition of Sockeye Preparations Sample Na ug Cr ug Mn ug Cu ug Zn ug Fe ug P ug Ca ug Mg ug r L A: Raw versus Canned 26D 1 raw 1830 5.2 1.27 71.0 49 54 12100 6460 1130 2 canned 20800 0.6 0.32 8.0 17 15 9770 1590 828 2 6N 1 raw 1150 1.6 0.55 37.0 33 23 7930 2730 773 4 canned 25000 ND (a) 0.28 6.0 23 10 7360 1270 646 260 1 raw 1020 0.7 0.40 17.0 22 15 7630 3000 705 4 canned 32300 ND (a) 0.37 4.0 22 10 7850 2970 653 Mean raw _+ S.D. 1333(b) 2.5 + 435 +2.3 0.74 + 0.47 42.0 + 27.0 35 + 14 31 + 21 9220 +_2498 4063 + 2080 869 + 228 canned +_ S.D. 25866(b) 0.6 + 6047 _+0.0 0.32 + 0.05 6.0 _+ 2.0 21 + 3 12 + 3 8327 + 1274 1943 + 903 709 + 103 B: Raw versus Barbequed(BBQ) 26E 1 raw 1350 0.5 0.44 7.0 30 23 9350 959 1060 3 BBQ 8980 1.8 0.81 17.0 21 22 7490 1530 730 26N 2 raw 3110 ND (a) 0.37 7.0 24 19 7350 870 815 5 BBQ 1950 1.8 1.94 50.0 35 39 7590 1940 758 260 2 raw 2930 ND (a) 0.47 16.0 26 19 7980 1140 834 5 BBQ 4780 0.6 1.7 21.0 26 19 7450 1630 755 Mean raw + S.D. 2463 _+ 968 0.5 +_0.0 0.42 jMD.05 10.0 + 5.2 27 + 3 20 _+ 2 8227 + 1023 990 + 138 903 + 13 6 BBQ + S.D. 5237 + 3537 1.0 + 0.7 1.48 + 0.59 29.3 + 18.0 27 + 7 27 + 11 7510 + 72 1710 + 214 748 + 15 78 TABLE 14 (con't) Sample Na Cr Mn Cu Zn Fe P Ca Mg ug ug ug ug ug ug ug ug ug [ per gram dry weight ] C: Raw versus Barbequed/canned (BBQ/cnd) 26E 2 raw 1420 0 .6 0 .61 9. 0 28 31 9150 2190 936 4 BBQ/cnd 8980 0 .7 0 .81 17. 0 21 22 7490 1530 730 26N 3 raw 2090 0 .6 0 .41 13 . 0 25 20 6990 820 791 6 BBQ/cnd 11300 0 .5 1 .27 13. 0 21 21 6540 1180 653 26P 3 raw 1730 0 .4 0 .36 8. 0 23 19 7970 1120 862 6 BBQ/cnd 8280 0 .6 2 .36 10. 0 21 17 7020 1860 720 Mean raw 1746(b) 0 . 5 0 .46 10 .0 25 23 8037 1377 863 1  S- D- t 3 3 5 + 0 .1 + 0 .13 + 2 .6 + 3 + 7 + 1081 +_720 + 73 BBQ/cnd 9520(b) 0 .6 1 .48 ' 13 .3 21 20 7017 1523 701 + S.D. + 1580 + 0 .1 + 0 .80 + 3 .5 + 0 + 2 + 475 + 340 + 42 a) ND means not detectable b) prepared samples d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw samples p<0.01 79 TABLE 15 Mineral Composition of Coho Preparations Sample Na Cr Mn Cu Zn Fe P Ca Mg ug ug ug ug ug ug ug ug ug [ per gram dry weight 1 A: Raw versus Sluq 313 1 raw 2610 0.7 0 .29 20.0 17 14 9710 165 1150 4 sluq 2700 0.5 0 .88 8.0 15 12 9920 257 1200 31H 1 raw 910 0.6 0 .43 8.0 15 20 9880 270 1170 3 sluq 2860 0.5 1 .0 9.0 15 13 9250 241 1130 311 1 raw 820 0.4 0 .28 6.0 16 12 10400 511 1190 3 sluq 2480 ND (a) 1 .03 4.0 17 . 11 9050 324 1143 Mean raw 1447 0.6 0 .33(b)11.3 16 16 9996 315 1170 + S.D. + 1008 + 0.2 + 0 .08 + 7.5 + 1 j+4 + 359 + 177 1 20 sluq 2680 0.5 0 .98(b) 7.0 16 12 9407 274 1143 + S.D. + 191 +0.0 + 0 .09 + 2.6 + 1 + 1 + 456 + 44 + 51 = = ~ — = — — — — = : = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =  =3 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = - = -= = B: raw versus k'nuum 3 IE 2 raw 1110 0.6 0 .80 8.0 20 15 5870 3130 532 4 k'nuum 1810 ND 0 .66 3.0 16 11 7030 1340 810 31F 2 raw 1840 0.7 0 .44 10.0 21 16 6540 1200 739 4 k'nuum 1970 0.6 1 .37 4.0 25 17 8790 3460 909 311 2 raw 1590 0.9 0 .45 12.0 18 18 6100 1280 718 4 k'nuum 1230 ND 0 .86 3.0 18 12 7100 3440 644 Mean raw 1513 0.7 0 .56 10.0 20 16 6170 1870 663 + 371 + 0.2 1° .21 +_2.0 + 2 +_2 + 340 + 1092 + 114 k'nuum 1670 0.6 0 .96 3.3 20 13 10973 2747 788 + 389 + 0.2 + 0 .37 + 0.6 + 5 +_3 + 5312 + 1218 +_134 - - - - - - i :i - - - — = = :_ : = :_:=_ = = = _ : = = = - _ = - _ = = : = = = -= = = : ___________ = _ _ = = _ _ _=___=._=__•=_ = r =_ = = = = 2 : = = = = = a) ND means not detectable b) prepared samples d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from raw p< 0.01 80 v a l u e s a r e on a per gram d r y w e i g h t b a s i s . There were s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s (p< 0.01) i n the sodium c o n t e n t of the canned sockeye and barbequed/canned sockeye samples over the c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples. There was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e (p< 0.01) i n t h e manganese c o n t e n t o f the s l u q samples compared t o t h a t o f the raw samples. Chromium l e v e l s i n 26N4 and 2604 (canned s o c k e y e ) , 26N2 and 2602 (raw of barbequed s o c k e y e ) , 3113 ( s l u q ) and 3114 (k'nuum) were a l l below t h e d e t e c t a b l e l i m i t o f 0.4 ug per g d r y w e i g h t . IV EVALUATION OF NUTRIENT QUALITY The n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f t h e Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s was compared t o t h e p u b l i s h e d n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e p r o t e i n foods (meat, meat a l t e r n a t e s , d a i r y p r o d u c t s and e g g s ) . The two groups o f p r o d u c t s were compared on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f the Recommended N u t r i e n t I n t a k e s (R.N.I.) f o r p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , c a l c i u m , i r o n , and z i n c , p r o v i d e d by one s e r v i n g o f t h e p r o d u c t , and by $1.00's worth o f the p r o d u c t and by the Index o f N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y (Sorensen e t a l . , 1976) f o r each o f t h e above n u t r i e n t s . The l i s t of the commercial p r o d u c t s used i n the comparison i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 16 w i t h the c o s t o f the g i v e n purchase u n i t , i n B e l l a C o o l a , i n J u l y 1983, t h e e d i b l e p o r t i o n i n the g i v e n purchase u n i t and t h e e d i b l e p o r t i o n per $1.00 v a l u e o f 81 the p r o d u c t . The p r o d u c t s i n c l u d e d a r e from A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's N u t r i t i o u s Food B a s k e t (Robbins, 1984). Beef l i v e r and t u r k e y were e x c l u d e d as t h e y were not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a t the B e l l a C o o l a Co-op on a week t o week b a s i s . The c o s t per g i v e n purchase u n i t r e p r e s e n t s the l o w e s t n o n - " s a l e ' c o s t f o r t h a t p r o d u c t a t t h e Co-op i n J u l y 1983. The e d i b l e p o r t i o n per purchase u n i t was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the p e r c e n t a g e y i e l d v a l u e s i n A.H.E.A (1980). The n u t r i e n t v a l u e s used i n comparison o f t h e commercial p r o d u c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 17. A l l v a l u e s e x c e p t v i t a m i n D and z i n c a r e from H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada (1979) . V i t a m i n D and z i n c v a l u e s a r e from P e n n i n g t o n and Church (1980) . • The e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f the Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 18. The c o s t was based on the w h o l e s a l e c o s t o f the d r e s s e d f i s h , the mean p e r c e n t a g e d i s c a r d e d f o r t h e f i s h p r e p a r e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , and t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e l o s s o f w e i g h t i n p r o c e s s i n g . These v a l u e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n the t a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e . The p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. f o r p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n , c a l c i u m , i r o n , and z i n c , f o r Canadian women aged 24-49 y e a r s , p r o v i d e d by a s e r v i n g o f each o f t h e salmon and the commercial p r o d u c t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 19. V i t a m i n A and v i t a m i n D v a l u e s were not a v a i l a b l e f o r s e v e r a l meat p r o d u c t s . Except f o r peanut b u t t e r and b o l o g n a , a l l the p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d a t l e a s t 10% o f the 82 TABLE 16 L i s t of Commercial Protein Products Used i n Comparison of Nutrient Q u a l i t y , with Cost i n B e l l a Coola i n J u l y , 1983 with E d i b l e Portion i n Given Purchased Unit and E d i b l e P o r t i o n i n $1.00 Value of the Product Product Purchase Unit Cost E d i b l e P o r t i o n E d i b l e P o r t i o n (p.u.) i n p.u.* per $1.00 Round Steak 1000 g $8. .19 563 g 69 g Blade Roast 1000 g 8, .39 563 g 67 g Stewing Beef 1000 g 3, .29 563 g 171 g Ground Beef 1000 g 4, .39 750 g 171 g Loin Pork Chops 1000 g 5, .59 563 g 101 g Pork Butt Roast 1000 g 3. .16 375 g 119 g Sausage 500 g 2. .29 160 g 70 g Bacon 500 g 2. .99 180 g 60 g Weiners 1000 g 3. .49 1000 g 287 g Bologna 1000 g 3 . 29 1000 g 304 g Luncheon Meat 340 g 2. .14 340 g 159 g Chicken (fryer) 1000 g 4. .35 231 g 53 g Canned Tuna 198 g 1. .53 198 g 129 g Canned Salmon 220 g 2. .29 220 g 96 g Canned Sardines 100 g .63 100 g 159 g Froz.Fish F i l l e t s 350 g 2. .37 350 g 148 g Froz. F i s h S t i c k s 680 g 2. .91 680 g 234 g Peanut Butter 500 g 2. .13 500 g 235 g Canned Baked Beans 398 mL 1. .01 398 mL 394 mL White Beans (dry) . 907 g 1. .14 2100 g 1842 g Cottage Cheese 500 g 1. .60 500 g 313 g 2% Milk 2000 mL 2. .19 2000 mL 913 mL Powdered Skim Milk 1500 g 7. .85 1500 g 191 g Cheddar Cheese 450 g 4. .31 450 g 104 g Process Cheese 250 g 1. .78 250 g 140 g Yogurt 500 g 1. .25 500 g 400 g Eggs 12 1. .69 12 7 * from A.H.E.A. (1980) 83 TABLE 17 Nutrient Composition of Commercial Protein Products Used in Comparison of Nutrient Quality* Product Portion Energy Protein Vitamins Minerals  A D Thia Rib Nia Ca Fe Zn Size kcals g RE IU mg mg mg mg mg mg MEAT PRODUCTS Round Steak 90g 235 26 8 0 0. .07 0. .19 10. ,2 11 3.1 6. .8 Blade Roast 90g 285 22 11 0 0. .05 0. .17 8. .2 10 2.7 4. .9 Stewing Beef 90g 339 22 16 0 0. .03 0. .17 7. .7 9 2.8 5. .1 Ground Beef 90g 257 22 11 0 0, .08 0. .18 9. .0 10 2.9 3. ,8 Loin Pork Chops 66g 260 16 - 0 0, .63 0 . 18 5. .5 8 2.2 2. .6 Pork Butt Roast 99g 336 20 - 0 0, .45 0. .20 9. .0 9 2.6 3. .2 Pork Sausage 40g 190 8 - 0 0. .32 0. .14 2. .6 2 1.0 1. .2 Bacon 30g 184 10 - 0 0. .16 0. .10 3. .0 4 0.8 Weiners 50g 124 7 - 11 0. .08 0. .09 2. .2 3 0.6 0. .7 Bologna 13g 226 2 - - 0. .02 0. .02 0. .5 1 0.2 0. ,5 Luncheon Meat 60g 176 9 - - 0. .19 0, .13 3. .2 5 1.3 Chicken 90g 122 21 24 - 0. .05 0. .17 11. .6 8 1.5 0. .9 Canned Tuna 90g 177 26 72 - 0. .04 0. .10 14. .9 7 1.7 1. .0 Canned Salmon 90g 183 20 63 - 0. .03 0. .14 6. .5 100 0.8 0. .9 Canned Sardines 90g 183 22 59 - 0. .02 0. .18 8. .2 393 2.6 Fish Fillets(Frozen) 90g 75 16 - - - - 5 -Fish Sticks (Frozen) 90g 170 11 - - - - 6 — MEAT ALTERNATES Peanut Butter 16g 95 4 - 0 0. .02 0. .02 3. .4 9 0.3 0. .5 Canned Baked Beans 250mL 385 20 35 - 0. .18 0. .15 99 5.0 White Beans (cooked) 190g 222 15 0 0 0. .26 0. .13 3. .8 95 5.2 5. .3 Cottage Cheese 237g 213 36 47 5 0. .06 0. .44 6. .4 161 0.4 1. .0 DAIRY PRODUCTS 2% Milk 250mL 129 9 106 100 0. .10 0. .43 2. .3 315 0.1 0. .9 Skim Milk Powder 25g 90 9 106 - 0. .10 0. .43 2. .2 308 0.1 1. .1 Cheddar Cheese 45g 181 11 136 - 0. .01 0. .17 2. .6 324 0.3 1. .7 Process Cheese 45g 169 10 114 - 0. .05 0. .16 2. .4 142 0.3 1. .4 Yogurt 125g 85 6 16 - 0. .10 0. .15 1. .1 203 - 1. .1 Eggs 1 79 6 78 38 0. .04 0. .15 1. ,8 28 1.1 0. .5 =====================: ======== ========= . . . . = = = = = ; = = = : = _ = : = = = : = ====== ======== = = = =  = : * A l l values are from Health and Welfare Canada (1979) except for vitamin D and Zinc which are from Pennington and Church (1980) TABLE 18 Cost of Nuxalk Salmon, Dressed Weight, and Prepared Weight with Mean Percentage Discard and Mean Percentage Loss i n Processing Preparation Cost (Dressed) Discard Loss (Process) Cost (Prepared) per kg Mean % Mean % per kg Sockeye $2.53 22 Canned 0 $3.24 Barbeque 43 5.68 Barbeque/canned 43 5.68 Coho 2.20 25 k'nuum 42 5.05 sluq 70 9.76 85 R.N.I f o r p r o t e i n f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group. The two groups (Nuxalk salmon and commercial p r o d u c t s ) were compared u s i n g the Mann-Whitney U T e s t ( t w o - t a i l e d ) . The r e s u l t s o f the t e s t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 22. As a group, the Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f the R.N.I. f o r p r o t e i n (p<0.001), v i t a m i n A (p<0.005), v i t a m i n D (p<0.001), t h i a m i n (p<0.005), r i b o f l a v i n (p<0.001), n i a c i n (p<0.002) and c a l c i u m (p<0.001). There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups i n terms of t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f the R.N.I, f o r i r o n o r z i n c p r o v i d e d . The p e r c e n t a g e o f the R.N.I. f o r women (24-49 y e a r s o f age) f o r t h e n i n e n u t r i e n t s examined, p r o v i d e d by a $1.00 v a l u e of t h e p r o d u c t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 20. For t h e m a j o r i t y o f the p r o d u c t s $1.00 w o r t h of t h e p r o d u c t p r o v i d e d more th a n one s e r v i n g , however, f o r round s t e a k , b l a d e r o a s t and c h i c k e n l e s s t han one s e r v i n g was p r o v i d e d . The two groups (Nuxalk salmon and commercial p r o d u c t s ) w e r e , a g a i n , compared u s i n g the Mann-Whitney U T e s t (two-t a i l e d ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s comparison a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 22. A $1.00 p o r t i o n o f t h e Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f the R.N.I. f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group f o r p r o t e i n (pO.OOl), v i t a m i n A (p<0.02), v i t a m i n D (p<0.001), r i b o f l a v i n (p<0.001), n i a c i n (p<0.001) and c a l c i u m (p<0.001). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the p e r c e n t a g e of t h e R.N.I. f o r t h i a m i n p r o v i d e d by e i t h e r group. The commercial p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r 86 TABLE 19 Percentage of the Recommended Nutrient Intake f o r Canadians Provided Per Portion of Salmon and Commercial Products (based on the R.N.I, f o r females 24-49 years of age) % of RNI Provided Product Portion P r o t e i n Vitamins Minerals A D Thia Rib Nia Ca Fe Zn SOCKEYE Canned 90g 41 7 190 16 14 29 7 2 7 BBQ 90g 57 14 581 22 49 40 11 8 14 BBQ/Cnd 90g 57 16 391 4 39 38 9 5 12 COHO Sluq 90g 122 8 309 5 23 68 3 5 14 K'nuum 90g 59 12 221 10 26 34 16 5 12 COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Round steak 90g 59 1 0 9 19 71 2 22 85 Blade Roast 90g 50 1 0 6 17 57 1 19 61 Stewing Beef 90g 50 2 0 4 17 53 1 20 64 Ground Beef 90g 50 1 0 10 18 63 2 21 48 Loin Pork Chops 90g 36 - 0 79 18 38 1 16 33 Pork Butt Roast 90g 45 - 0 56 20 63 1 19 40 Pork Sausage 40g 18 - 0 40 14 18 1 8 16 Bacon 30g 22 - 0 20 10 18 1 6 -Weiners 50g ' 16 - 11 10 9 10 . <1 4 9 Bologna 13g 5 - - 3 2 3 <1 1 6 Luncheon Meat 60g 20 - - 24 13 22 1 9 -Chicken 90g 48 3 - 6 17 80 1 11 11 Canned Tuna 90g 59 9 - 5 10 103 1 12 13 Canned Salmon 90g 45 8 - 4 14 45 14 6 11 Canned Sardines 90g 50 7 - 3 18 . 57 56 19 -F i s h F i l l e t s 90g 36 F i s h S t i c k s 90g 25 Peanut Butter 16g 9 _ 0 3 2 24 1 2 6 Canned Baked Beans 250mL 45 4 - 23 15 - 14 36 -White Beans 190g 34 0 0 33 13 21 14 37 66 Cottage Cheese 237g 82 6 5 8 44 44 23 3 13 2% Milk 250mL 20 13 100 13 43 16 45 1 11 Skim Milk Powder 25g 20 13 - 13 43 15 44 1 14 Cheddar Cheese 45g 25 17 - 1 17 18 46 2 21 Process Cheese 45g 23 14 - 6 16 17 20 2 18 Yogurt 125mL 14 2 - 13 15 8- 29 - 14 Eggs 1 14 10 38 5 15 13 4 8 6 87 TABLE 20 Percentage of the Recommended Nutrient Intake f o r Canadians Provided Per D o l l a r Value of Nuxalk Salmon and Commercial Products (based on the R.N.I, for females 24-49 years of age) % of RNI Provided Product Portion P r o t e i n Vitamins Miner, als A D Thia Rib Nia Ca Fe Zn = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = === = : = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ===== = = = = = = = = = = = = = = : = = = = = = = = SOCKEYE Canned 308 g 141 24 653 54 50 99 26 7 39 BBQ 176 g 112 26 1144 5 13 43 21 14 46 BBQ/Cnd 176 g 63 18 434 4 43 42 10 6 13 COHO Sluq 102 g 136 9 343 6 25 76 3 6 15 K'nuum 198 g 66 13 245 11 29 38 18 5 13 COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Round steak 69 g 45 1 0 7 15 54 1 17 65 Blade Roast 67 g 37 1 0 5 13 43 1 14 46 Stewing Beef 171 g 95 4 0 7 32 101 2 38 121 Ground Beef 171 g 95 3 0 19 . 34 119 3 39 90 Loin Pork Chops 101 g 56 - 0 96 28 58 2 32 73 Pork Butt Roast 119 g 55 - 0 67 24 75 2 22 48 Pork Sausage 70 g 32 - 0 70 25 32 <1 13 26 Bacon 60 g 46 - 0 40 20 42 1 11 -Weiners 287 g 91 - 63 57 51 88 2 25 50 Bologna 304 g 106 - - 58 47 81 3 33 146 Luncheon Meat 159 g 54 - - 63 34 59 2 25 -Chicken 53 g 29 2 - 4 10 48 1 6 7 Canned Tuna 129 g 85 13 - 7 14 149 1 18 18 Canned Salmon 96 g 49 8 - 4 15 48 15 6 12 Canned Sardines 159 g 88 13 - 4 32 100 99 33 -F i s h F i l l e t s 148 g 60 - - - - - - - -F i s h Sticks 234 g 65 - - - - - - - -Peanut Butter 235 g 133 _ 0 37 29 346 19 31 92 Canned Baked Beans 394 mL 72 7 - 36 24 - 22 56 -White Beans 1842 g 330 0 0 315 126 256 132 360 642 Cottage Cheese 313 g 108 8 7 10 58 59 30 4 16 2% Milk 913 mL 75 48 365 46 157 58 164 3 41 Skim Milk Powder 191 g 156 101 - 96 329 117 336 5 105 Cheddar Cheese 104 g 58 39 - 3 39 43 107 5 49 Process Cheese 140 g 71 45 - 19 50 52 63 7 55 Yogurt 400 g 44 6 - 40 48 24 93 - 44 Eggs 7 97 69 270 36 106 88 28 56 44 88 p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. f o r i r o n (p<0.002) and z i n c (p<0.002) i n $1.00 worth t h a n t h e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s . An Index of N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y (I.N.Q.) was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the salmon p r o d u c t s and the commercial p r o d u c t s . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Ta b l e 21. The r e s u l t s o f t h e Mann-Whitney U T e s t t o compare t h e two groups (Nuxalk salmon and commercial p r o d u c t s ) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 22. The I.N.Q. of t h e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r p r o t e i n (p<0.001), v i t a m i n D (p<0.001), r i b o f l a v i n (p<0.001), n i a c i n (p<0.005), and z i n c (p<0.002). There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the I.N.Q. o f the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s and the commercial p r o d u c t s f o r v i t a m i n A, and t h i a m i n . The I.N.Q. o f the commercial p r o d u c t s ranked s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s f o r c a l c i u m (p<0.001) and i r o n (p<0.005). To check i f any s p e c i f i c t y p e of commercial p r o d u c t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h i g h e r r a n k i n g s i n the comparison of % R.N.I, per $1.00 v a l u e and t h e I.N.Q. f o r t h e m i n e r a l s c a l c i u m , i r o n and z i n c , the commercial p r o d u c t s were broken i n t o f i v e g r oups. These groups were: meats ( i n c l u d i n g b e e f , pork and c h i c k e n but e x c l u d i n g bacon and s a u s a g e ) , c u r e d meats (sausage, bacon, b o l o g n a , luncheon meat), f i s h ( canned t u n a , salmon, s a r d i n e s , f r o z e n f i s h f i l l e t s and f i s h s t i c k s ) , meat a l t e r n a t e s (peanut b u t t e r , beans, c o t t a g e cheese) and d a i r y p r o d u c t s ( m i l k , cheese, y o g u r t , e g g s ) . The Mann-Whitney U T e s t was r u n comparing the p e r c e n t R.N.I, per $1.00 v a l u e p r o v i d e d by the Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s and each o f the groups and t h e I.N.Q. o f 89 TABLE 21 Indices of Nutrient Quality for Nuxalk Salmon Products and Commercial Protein Foods Product Protein Vitamins Minerals o A D Thiamin R i b o f l a v i n Niacin Ca Fe Zn ==================== ====== = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ======= = = = = = = = = = = : ====== : = = = • ====== = = = = = = = • SOCKEYE Canned 5, .43 0. .93 25 .20 2. 09 1 .91 3. 82 1 .01 0 .25 1 .49 BBQ 6, .36 1. .50 64 .90 2. 38 5 .40 4. 44 1 .15 0 .92 1 .63 BBQ/Cnd 5, .62 1. .61 38 .30 0. 33 3 .80 3. 74 0 .88 0 .56 1 .10 COHO Sluq 8, .33 0. .56 14 .90 0. 38 1 .22 4. 92 0 .18 0 .39 0 .92 K'nuum 4. .50 0. .88 23 .40 0. 77 1 .98 2. 56 1 .25 0 .34 0 .85 COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Round steak 4, .77 0. .08 0 .0 0. 71 1 .54 5. 73 0 .13 1 .79 6 .87 Blade Roast 3, .33 0. .09 0 .0 0. 42 1 .13 3. 79 0 .09 1 .29 4 .08 Stewing Beef 2. .80 0. .11 0 .0 0. 21 0 .95 2. 99 0 .07 1 .12 3 .50 Ground Beef 3. .69 0. .10 0 .0 0. 73 1 .33 4. 62 0 .11 1 .53 3 .51 Loin Pork Chops 2. .66 0 .0 4. 60 1 .32 2. 79 0 .08 1 .50 3 .47 Pork Butt Roast 2, .57 0 .0 3. 18 1 .13 3. 53 0 .07 1 .05 2 .26 Pork Sausage 1. .82 0 .0 4. 00 1 .40 1. 80 0 .03 0 .71 1 .50 Bacon 2. .30 0 .0 2. 00 1 .03 2. 15 0 .06 0 .59 -Weiners 2. .40 1 .60 1. 53 1 .37 2. 30 0 .07 0 .65 1 .30 Bologna 0. .38 - 0. 21 0 .17 12. 54 0 .01 0 .12 0 .53 Luncheon Meat 2. .21 - 2. 56 1 .40 11. 10 0 .08 1 .00 Chicken 7. .40 0. .46 - 0. 97 2 .65 4. 69 0 .17 1 .67 1 .75 Canned Tuna 6. .30 0. ,97 0. 54 1 .07 5. 90 0 . 10 0 .01 1 .34 Canned Salmon 4. .70 0. .82 0. 35 1 .45 - 1 .48 0 .59 1 .16 Canned Sardines 5. .19 0. .76 - 0. 26 1 .87 5 .80 1 .93 Fish F i l l e t s 9. .20 - 0 .18 Fish Sticks 2. .79 - - 0 .09 Peanut Butter 1. .82 0 .0 0. 50 0 .40 4. 70 0 .26 0 .43 1 .25 Canned Baked Beans 2. .20 0. ,21 - 0 .74 - 0 .69 1 .76 White Beans 2. .92 0. .00 0 .0 2. 78 1 .11 2. 20 1 .16 3 .17 5 .67 Cottage Cheese 7. .30 0. ,52 0 .45 0. 67 3 .92 3. 96 2 .05 0 .25 1 .11 2% Milk 3. .01 1. .95 14 .70 1. 84 6 .30 2. 30 6 .60 0 .10 1 .65 Skim Milk Powder 4. .32 2. ,79 2. 63 9 .08 3. 23 9 .29 0 .15 2 .90 Cheddar Cheese 2. .62 1. .78 0. 13 1 .78 1. 89 4 .86 0 .22 2 .20 Process Cheese 2. .55 1. .60 0. 70 1 .80 1. 87 2 .28 0 .24 1 .96 Yogurt 3. .05 0. .44 - 2. 79 3 .35 1. 71 6 .48 - 3 .07 Eggs 3. .28 2. .34 9 .14 1. 20 3 .61 3. 01 0 .96 1 .89 1 .50 TABLE 22 Comparison of Nutrient Q u a l i t y between Nuxalk Salmon Products (N) and Commercially A v a i l a b l e P r o t e i n Products (C) by the Mann-Whitney U Test (2-tailed) Nutrient % R.N.I Mean Rank % R.N.I./$ value S i g . Mean Rank Sig. I.N.Q. Mean Rank Sig. P r o t e i n N 62.8 p<0.001 62.4 p<0.001 61.0 p<0.001 C 20.1 21.2 25.1 Vitamin A N 51.6 p<0.005 50.8 p<0.02 49.2 N.S.* C 31.3 34.5 40.8 Vitamin D N 52.0 p<0.001 51.6 p<0.001 52.0 p<0.001 C 7.5 9.6 7.5 Thiamin N 56.8 p<0.005 51.8 N.S.* 51.8 N.S.* C 36.8 50.7 50.8 R i b o f l a v i n N 61 .0 p<0 .001 57 .4 p<0 .001 59 .4 p<0 .001 C 25 .1 35 .1 29 .6 Ni a c i n N 57 .0 p<0 .002 56 . 4 p<0 .001 56 .4 p<0 .005 C 36 .2 37 .9 37 .9 Calcium N 57 .3 p<0 .001 56 .8 p<0 .005 39 .0 p<0 .001 C 34 .0 36 .3 82 .4 Iron N 48 .8 N .S.* 46 .2 p<0 .01 45 .4 p<0 .005 C 55 .6 63 .4 65 .8 Zinc N 48 .6 N .S.* 43 .8 p<0 .002 57 .0 p<0 .002 C 48 .1 65 .3 36 .2 * N.S. means not s i g n i f i c a n t p>0.05 91 t h e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s and each o f the groups. The r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 23. The Nuxalk p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I f o r c a l c i u m than the meat p r o d u c t s (p<0.001), the c u r e d meats (p<0.001), and f i s h (p<0.005), but t h e d a i r y p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c a l c i u m (p<0.0005) th a n the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s and t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the meat a l t e r n a t e s and the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s . In terms o f the p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I, f o r i r o n p r o v i d e d by a $1.00 p o r t i o n , the meats (p<0.002) and c u r e d meats (p<0.001) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n the salmon p r o d u c t s , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e f i s h and a l t e r n a t e s and t h e salmon p r o d u c t s . The d a i r y p r o d u c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (p<0.01) th a n t h e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s . In terms o f z i n c t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. met by $1.00 worth o f t h e meat or meat a l t e r n a t e s and the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s , but the c u r e d meats (p<0.01) and d a i r y p r o d u c t s (p<0.001) ranked s i g n i f c a n t l y h i g h e r than the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s . The commercial f i s h p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s z i n c (p<0.05) per $1.00 v a l u e t h a n t h e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s . In terms o f the Index of N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y f o r c a l c i u m , t h e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s ranked s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t h a n meat (p<0.0001), c u r e d meats (p<0.005), f i s h (p<0.05) and d a i r y (p<0.001). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the meat a l t e r n a t e s and the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s . Meat (p<0.0001), c u r e d meats (p<0.0001), and f i s h (p<0.05) ranked h i g h e r than the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s i n terms o f the I.N.Q. f o r i r o n . The d a i r y TABLE 23 Comparison of I.N.Q. and % R.N.I, per $1.00 Value f o r Calcium, Iron, and Zinc, Between Nuxalk Salmon Products and Commercially A v a i l a b l e Meats, Cured Meats, F i s h , Meat Alternates and Dairy Products, by the Mann-Whitney U Test (2-tailed) Group Calcium Mean Rank Sig. Iron Mean rank Sig. Zinc Mean rank S i g . % R.N.I./$1.00 VALUE Meat Nuxalk 4.0 p<0.001 45.0 68.3 p<0.002 56.0 39.0 39.8 N.S. Cured Meats 6.0 p<0.001 Nuxalk Fis h Nuxalk 42.8 3.0 p<0.005 43.0 75.0 38.2 52.0 39.0 p<0.001 N.S* 77.0 38.0 12.0 40.0 p<0 .01 p<0.05 Alternates Nuxalk 47.5 39.6 N.S.* 58.8 39.0 N.S.* 57.0 38.8 N.S.* Dairy 73.5 p<0.0005 16.0 p<0.01 71.0 p<0.001 Nuxalk 38.4 43.0 38.6 I.N.Q. Meat 76.0 p<0.0001 Nuxalk 3 8-2 Cured Meat 77.0 p<0.005 Nuxalk 38.0 79.0 p<0.0001 4.0 p<0.0001 38.0 45.0 79.0 p<0.0001 3.0 p<0.001 38.6 43.0 Fish Nuxalk 67.0 p<0.05 38.4 67.0 p<0.05 38.4 3.0 p<0.001 43.0 Alternates Nuxalk 57.0 38.8 N.S.* 51.3 43.0 N.S. 36.3 38.6 N.S.* Dairy Nuxalk 78.5 p<0.001 38.0 16.0 p<0.01 71.0 p<0.001 43.0 38.6 * N.S. means not s i g n i f i c a n t p>0.05 Alternates means Meat Alternates Nuxalk means Nuxalk Salmon Products 93 p r o d u c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (p<0.01) and t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the meat a l t e r n a t e s and the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s . The I.N.Q f o r z i n c o f the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t of the commercial meat (p<0.0001), c u r e d meat (p<0.001) and f i s h p r o d u c t s (p<0.001), but was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n t h a t o f the d a i r y p r o d u c t s (p<0.001). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the meat a l t e r n a t e s and t h e Nuxalk p r o d u c t s i n terms o f t h e I.N.Q. f o r z i n c . 94 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION _I NUTRIENT COMPOSITION The p r e s e n t s t u d y found a wide range o f v a l u e s f o r the n u t r i e n t s a n a l y z e d i n t h e Nuxalk f i s h samples. Stansby (1962), H i g a s h i (1962) and Mann (1958) a l l r e p o r t g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n the p r o x i m a t e c o m p o s i t i o n , v i t a m i n c o m p o s i t i o n , and m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f f i s h . Stansby (1962) comments t h a t p r o x i m a t e c o m p o s i t i o n can v a r y immensely, even between i n d i v i d u a l s o f the same s p e c i e s o f f i s h , so t h a t average v a l u e s f o r p r o x i m a t e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t e n have v e r y l i t t l e meaning and t h a t ranges o f v a l u e s would be more u s e f u l . The ranges of v a l u e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 6 and 8 o f t h i s s t u d y , however, r e p r e s e n t t h e range over a s m a l l number o f samples. In some ca s e s ( m i n e r a l s and some v i t a m i n s ) the range i s g i v e n over t h r e e samples o n l y . The g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n i s r e p o r t e d t o be i n the o i l c o n t e n t o f t h e f i s h . S tansby (1962) r e p o r t s a 300 f o l d d i f f e r e n c e between the h i g h e s t and l o w e s t v a l u e s f o r o i l c o n t e n t i n c e r t a i n s p e c i e s of f i s h . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e r e was o n l y a 2 t o 7 f o l d d i f f e r e n c e between the h i g h and low v a l u e s f o r l i p i d c o n t e n t o f the samples. The g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n s were seen i n the v i t a m i n s ( v i t a m i n E and t h i a m i n ) and the m i n e r a l s (sodium and c o p p e r ) . A number o f f a c t o r s have been found t o a f f e c t the n u t r i e n t 95 c o m p o s i t i o n of f i s h . These i n c l u d e the food i n t a k e o f the f i s h , t h e s e c t i o n o f the f i s h sampled and the g e n e t i c makeup o f the f i s h . Food i n t a k e o f t h e f i s h i s c o n s i d e r e d the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r (Stansby 1962). T h i s i s governed i n p a r t by the season o f the y e a r and the a r e a the f i s h i s f e e d i n g i n a t the time o f h a r v e s t . These two f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n salmon because o f the changes which o c c u r i n t h e i r spawning m i g r a t i o n . Season of the y e a r i s i m p o r t a n t i n terms o f the foods a v a i l a b l e and a c t i v i t y l e v e l of the f i s h . A l l the f i s h sampled i n t h i s s t u d y were h a r v e s t e d i n a s h o r t time p e r i o d , d u r i n g the spawning m i g r a t i o n so t h e s e two f a c t o r s were p r o b a b l y s i m i l a r f o r a l l t h e f i s h h a r v e s t e d from the i n l e t (Table 5 ) . The two p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n s would be t h e coho which were h a r v e s t e d from the r i v e r on August 24, 1983, as th e y were f u r t h e r a l o n g on the spawning m i g r a t i o n r o u t e than t h o s e caught i n the i n l e t . The a r e a o f h a r v e s t i s i m p o r t a n t i n terms o f t h e p o i n t reached i n t h e spawning m i g r a t i o n . Duncan and T a r r (1958) , Kukuez (1962) and Stansby (1962) have a l l r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i o u s n u t r i e n t components o f f i s h , over the d u r a t i o n o f the spawning m i g r a t i o n . Major changes o c c u r once the f i s h have e n t e r e d f r e s h water due t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n s t o the f r e s h water and, i n salmon, c e s s a t i o n of f e e d i n g on e n t e r i n g f r e s h w a t e r , so t h a t s t o r e s a r e c a l l e d upon. The two coho samples from the r i v e r were h a r v e s t e d w i t h i n f o u r m i l e s of the mouth of the r i v e r . A l t h o u g h the changes o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s d i s t a n c e may be s m a l l , they c o u l d account f o r some of the 96 v a r i a t i o n i n the v a l u e s f o r t h e coho. Two of the t h r e e samples a n a l y z e d f o r m i n e r a l s , v i t a m i n s A, D, E, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n and n i a c i n f o r t h e coho s l u q came from the r i v e r caught f i s h and, t h e r e f o r e the mean v a l u e s w i l l be skewed toward the r i v e r caught f i s h w h i l e t h e mean v a l u e s f o r the r e m a i n i n g n u t r i e n t s i n t he s l u q r e p r e s e n t a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n between r i v e r and i n l e t h a r v e s t e d f i s h . The s e c t i o n of the f i s h sampled i s i m p o r t a n t because the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the f i s h v a r i e s a l o n g the l e n g t h o f the f i s h and i n t he d i f f e r e n t t i s s u e s . Mann (1958) s t u d i e d the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of the head s e c t i o n , m i d s e c t i o n , and t a i l s e c t i o n of S p r i n g salmon ( 0 ^ t s c h a w y t s c h a ) . On the b a s i s of 100 g wet w e i g h t , he found t h a t the ash c o n t e n t v a r i e d from 0.9 g toward t h e t a i l t o 2.5 g toward the head and f a t v a r i e d from 3.3 g toward the head t o 8.4 g toward the t a i l , w h i l e t h i a m i n v a r i e d from 105 ug i n the m i d s e c t i o n t o 219 ug i n the t a i l s e c t i o n and r i b o f l a v i n v a r i e d from 108 ug i n the m i d s e c t i o n t o 46 ug i n the t a i l s e c t o n . In p i n k salmon ( 0 ^ g o r b u s c h a ) , Stansby (1962) found the p e r c e n t a g e o f o i l d e c r e a s e d from the head s e c t i o n t o the t a i l s e c t i o n w h i l e t h e p e r c e n t a g e of p r o t e i n i n c r e a s e d . The c o m p o s i t i o n a l s o changes w i t h the t i s s u e s t u d i e d . (Stansby, 1962; Braekken, 1962). The dark muscle (which o c c u r s i n salmon a l o n g t h e l a t e r a l l i n e and i n a l a y e r below the s k i n ) can be s i m i l a r t o the l i v e r i n c o m p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of v i t a m i n s . Braekkan (1962) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e B v i t a m i n c o n t e n t of dark muscle can be 10 times g r e a t e r than t h a t of 97 l i g h t muscle. Stansby (1962) compared l i g h t and dark muscle t i s s u e i n p i n k salmon (0^ gorbuscha) and found t h a t the m o i s t u r e , p r o t e i n and ash were s l i g h t l y lower i n the dark muscle but the f a t c o n t e n t was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r (12.5% i n dark muscle compared t o 2.1% i n l i g h t m u s c l e ) . In t h i s s t u d y , o n l y t h e samples f o r canned sockeye and canned, barbequed sockeye were t a k e n from d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l f i s h . The amount of dark muscle i n c l u d e d i n i n d i v i d u a l samples c o u l d v a r y , however, as t h e samples were t a k e n on the b a s i s o f w e i g h t n ot measured s i z e . T h i s c o u l d a ccount f o r some o f the v a r i a t i o n seen i n the v i t a m i n c o n t e n t of the samples. G e n e t i c s c o u l d p l a y a major r o l e i n the degree o f v a r i a t i o n seen i n the samples a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The sockeye samples were a l l h a r v e s t e d from the i n l e t (Table 5) as were a l l but two of t h e coho used i n the s t u d y . The a r e a o f the i n l e t where t h e s e f i s h were caught (Labouchere Channel) i s o f t e n used by n a t i v e commercial f i s h e r m e n when f i s h i n g on "day f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s " (a l i c e n c e e n a b l i n g n a t i v e commercial f i s h e r m e n t o use t h e i r commercial f i s h i n g gear t o o b t a i n f i s h f o r f a m i l y consumption from the i n l e t which i s n o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r commercial f i s h i n g ) . I n t h i s a r e a s e v e r a l " r u n s " of salmon pass on t h e i r way t o spawning r i v e r s emptying i n t o t h e N o r t h B e n t i c k Arm and the Dean Channel. These " r u n s " do not i n t e r b r e e d and, t h e r e f o r e , may d i f f e r g e n e t i c a l l y . A n e c d o t a l e v i d e n c e ( M c K e r v i l l , 1967), i n d i c a t e s t h a t some 98 sockeye runs (most n o t a b l y the Adams R i v e r r u n ) , w i l l c o n g r e g a t e p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g f r e s h water and th e n make the spawning r u n "en masse". I f t h i s i s t r u e o f a l l salmon r u n s , t h e n i t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t f i s h h a r v e s t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the season would be from a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n than the f i s h h a r v e s t e d a t the end o f the season and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d d i f f e r g e n e t i c a l l y . I n t h i s s t u d y more f i s h were h a r v e s t e d l a t e i n the season r a t h e r than over t h e e n t i r e season; t h e r e f o r e , the r e s u l t s may be skewed toward t h a t segment of the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. At b e s t , the r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the sockeye and coho p o p u l a t i o n s of the B e l l a C o o l a watershed because s a m p l i n g was r e s t r i c t e d t o one ye a r c l a s s . Sockeye g e n e r a l l y r u n on a f o u r t o s i x y e a r c y c l e , w h i l e coho r u n on a t h r e e t o f o u r y e ar c y c l e ( C h i l d e r o s e and T r i m , 1979). In 1983, t h e r e f o r e , o n l y o n e - q u a r t e r t o o n e - s i x t h o f the sockeye p o p u l a t i o n and o n e - t h i r d t o o n e - q u a r t e r o f the coho p o p u l a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e f o r s a m p l i n g . In a d d i t i o n , as i n t e r b r e e d i n g i s r e s t r i c t e d between t h e year c l a s s e s t h e r e c o u l d be g e n e t i c d i f f e r e n c e s which c o u l d a f f e c t the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t y e ar c l a s s e s . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e needed t o de t e r m i n e the n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n among y e a r c l a s s e s . To summarize, the wide range i n n u t r i e n t v a l u e s seen i n t h i s s t u d y were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by Stansby (1962) , H i g a s h i (1962) and Mann (1958). The range i n v a l u e s r e p o r t e d i s based on a s m a l l number o f samples which may, due t o the a r e a and t i m i n g o f s a m p l i n g be w e i g h t e d toward s m a l l segments of t h e p o p u l a t i o n under s t u d y . F u r t h e r s t u d y i s r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e s e v a l u e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. In comparing the n u t r i e n t v a l u e s o f the Nuxalk samples t o p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s , two major problems a r e e n c o u n t e r e d . F i r s t , t h e p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s do not i n c l u d e ranges of v a l u e s so one cannot d e t e r m i n e whether the e x p e r i m e n t a l v a l u e s a r e w i t h i n the p u b l i s h e d range. S e c o n d l y , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the p r e p a r a t i o n methods and samples a r e not g i v e n w i t h the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . Both t h e s e p o i n t s a r e i m p o r t a n t g i v e n t h e degree of v a r i a t i o n p o s s i b l e i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o f f i s h . O f t e n d a t a f o r the s p e c i f i c p r e p a r a t i o n method a n a l y z e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , was not a v a i l a b l e f o r comparison. In t h i s case p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r p r e p a r a t i o n s which might be c o n s i d e r e d comparable t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s were used. For i n s t a n c e , b r o i l e d salmon was compared t o barbequed salmon and a i r - d r i e d coho compared t o s l u q and k'nuum. A major d i f f e r e n c e between th e p u b l i s h e d n u t r i e n t v a l u e s and t h e Nuxalk v a l u e s r e p o r t e d here was i n the c a r b o h y d r a t e v a l u e s . The p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s g i v e the c a r b o h y d r a t e c o n t e n t as z e r o w h i l e t h e v a l u e s f o r the Nuxalk samples from t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ranged from z e r o t o t h i r t e e n per c e n t i n sockeye and z e r o t o n i n e t e e n per c e n t f o r coho. In g e n e r a l , f i s h c o n t a i n v e r y s m a l l amounts of c a r b o h y d r a t e - a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.3 per c e n t on average (Jacquot 1962) a l t h o u g h t h e dark muscle can c o n t a i n up 100 t o 1 per c e n t ( I k e d a , 1979). The v a l u e s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , a r e e x t r e m e l y h i g h . C a r b o h y d r a t e was d e t e r m i n e d by d i f f e r e n c e , w h i c h by d e f i n i t i o n , means t h a t any component not i n c l u d e d i n t h e m o i s t u r e , p r o t e i n , l i p i d o r ash measurements w i l l be counted as c a r b o h y d r a t e . I t a l s o means t h a t any e r r o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g any of the p r o x i m a t e components w i l l a f f e c t t h e c a l c u l a t i o n . The assumption t h a t a l l the m o i s t u r e , p r o t e i n , ash and l i p i d s a r e measured by the s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e ( H a r r i s , 1962). M o i s t u r e may be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d because the a s s a y does not measure bound water which can be p r e s e n t i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts even a f t e r the sample has been d r i e d t o c o n s t a n t w e i g h t . The l i p i d c o n t e n t may a l s o be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d because some l i p i d s a re combined w i t h p r o t e i n s or c a r b o h y d r a t e s and bound i n c e l l membranes. The m e t h a n o l / c h l o r o f o r m e x t r a c t i o n system ( B l i g h and Dyer, 1959) i s more e f f i c i e n t i n e x t r a c t i n g bound l i p i d s t han the e t h y l e t h e r / p e t r o l e u m e t h e r system used i n o t h e r methods ( H a r r i s 1962) but p r o t e i n bound l i p i d s w hich may not be s o l u b l e i n the c h l o r o f o r m l a y e r o r which l i e a t t h e i n t e r f a c e and are not t a k e n w i t h the c h l o r o f o r m l a y e r w i l l n o t be measured. The ash c o n t e n t may a l s o be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d as v o l a t i l e compounds such as a l k a l i -c h l o r i d e s , p o t a s s i u m and sodium may be l o s t . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n s the c a r b o h y d r a t e v a l u e of t h e samples i s p r o b a b l y an o v e r e s t i m a t e . . Methods measuring c a r b o h y d r a t e d i r e c t l y would g i v e a more r e l i a b l e v a l u e . 101 The energy v a l u e s , i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y were c a l c u l a t e d from the c a r b o h y d r a t e , p r o t e i n and l i p i d v a l u e s d e t e r m i n e d . As a r e s u l t the v a l u e s a r e s u b j e c t t o e r r o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the use o f the c a r b o h y d r a t e v a l u e s . I f t h e h i g h c a r b o h y d r a t e v a l u e s a r e the r e s u l t o f an u n d e r e s t i m a t e of the m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o r t h e ash c o n t e n t o f the samples o r due t o the presence o f o t h e r non c a l o r i c b y p r o d u c t s the energy v a l u e w i l l be o v e r e s t i m a t e d . I f t h e c a r b o h y d r a t e v a l u e s a r e the r e s u l t of an u n d e r e s t i m a t e o f the l i p i d v a l u e s the energy v a l u e w i l l be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . The mean energy v a l u e f o r canned Nuxalk sockeye i n t h i s s t u d y was l e s s than the t h r e e p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s (Table 7 ) , however, two o f t h e t h r e e v a l u e s ( P e n n i n g t o n and Church, 1980; B a i l e y , 1942) were w i t h i n t h e range found i n t h i s s t u d y . I t was t h e r e f o r e assumed t h a t they were comparable. The mean energy c o n t e n t o f the barbequed Nuxalk samples appears t o be comparable t o t h a t of the b r o i l e d sockeye (Table 7 ) . Based on t h e s e two s e t s of comparisons i t appears t h a t t h e use of t h e h i g h c a r b o h y d r a t e v a l u e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the energy c o n t e n t o f the samples has not s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d t h a t c a l c u l a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o compare the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r coho w i t h the v a l u e s d e t e r m i n e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y because the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s do not i n d i c a t e whether t h e s k i n i s i n c l u d e d i n t he e s t i m a t i o n . A l a y e r of f a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s k i n so i t s i n c l u s i o n can make a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e t o the l i p i d c o n t e n t o f the samples. I n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the s k i n was 102 i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s o f a l l the samples e x c e p t the s l u q . These p r e p a r a t i o n s a re o f t e n used i n soups and stews where the s k i n i s i n c l u d e d . When barbequed salmon i s ea t e n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r p r e p a r a t i o n , the s k i n i s not ea t e n but i s s c r a p e d c l e a n of f l e s h and sometimes chewed o r sucked ( i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n ) so t h a t the l a y e r o f f a t under the s k i n i s consumed and t h e r e f o r e adds t o t h e energy v a l u e of t h e f i s h . The t o t a l f o l a t e v a l u e s i n the Nuxalk p r e p a r a t i o n s were lower t h a n the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r comparable p r e p a r a t i o n s (Table 7 ) . T h i s may be due t o l o s s e s d u r i n g f r o z e n s t o r a g e . The samples f o r f o l a t e and p a n t o t h e n a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were h e l d f r o z e n f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y one y e a r p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s . The e f f e c t o f f r e e z i n g on f o l a t e s i n foods does n ot appear t o have been s t u d i e d . I n g e n e r a l though, f o l a t e i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o o x i d a t i o n , l i g h t , and h e a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t n e u t r a l o r a c i d pH ( H a r r i s , 1975). Some s t u d i e s on the e f f e c t o f f r e e z i n g have i n c l u d e d p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d which appears t o be more s t a b l e than f o l a c i n i n terms o f o x i d a t i o n and s e n s i t i v i t y t o l i g h t . Schroeder (1971) r e p o r t e d t h a t 45 per c e n t o f t h e p a n t o t h e n i c a c i d i n raw salmon was l o s t i n f r e e z i n g . I f t h i s i s t r u e f o r f o l a t e as w e l l then i t would e x p l a i n t h e low v a l u e s found i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The c a l c i u m v a l u e s f o r t h e canned Nuxalk sockeye and t h e raw coho were lower than t h e p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r the comparable p r o d u c t . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y the bones were not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s of the canned salmon w h i l e t h e y were 103 i n the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s f o r raw coho i n c l u d e d bones, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e work was done on s t e a k s , which c o u l d account f o r t h e h i g h e r p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s . The sodium c o n t e n t of b o t h the raw sockeye and the raw coho samples i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y were comparable t o the p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o d u c t s . The h i g h e r sodium l e v e l s i n the p r e p a r e d Nuxalk p r o d u c t s a r e due t o the amount of s a l t added i n p r e p a r a t i o n , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n t h e b r i n e s o l u t i o n . The sodium c o n t e n t o f the p r e p a r e d s l u q samples i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t of the p r e p a r e d k'nuum samples even though b o t h s e t s of samples were soaked f o r the same l e n g t h o f time i n the same c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b r i n e . T h i s may be due t o t h e l a c k of s k i n on t h e s l u q samples. The s k i n c o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e d i f f u s i o n o f sodium i n t o t h e f l e s h o f the k'nuum samples. Other d i f f e r e n c e s between the n u t r i e n t v a l u e s f o r t h e Nuxalk samples and t h e p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s a r e p r o b a b l y due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n methods, s e c t i o n s sampled, amount of dark f l e s h v e r s u s l i g h t f l e s h i n the sample and the g e n e r a l v a r i a t i o n found between f i s h o f t h e same s p e c i e s . I I EFFECT OF PROCESSING Few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the n u t r i e n t v a l u e s f o r t h e p r o c e s s e d Nuxalk samples and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples i n t h i s s t u d y . One major f a c t o r was 104 t h a t t h e comparisons were a c t u a l l y made between s t o r e d , f r o z e n , raw samples and s t o r e d , f r o z e n , p r o c e s s e d samples. The f r e e z i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f can a f f e c t n u t r i e n t s , a l t h o u g h i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e l e a s t d e s t r u c t i v e p r o c e s s i n g method. Changes t h a t o c c u r d u r i n g f r e e z i n g which can a f f e c t n u t r i e n t s i n c l u d e damage t o c e l l s t r u c t u r e s , c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s o l u t e s i n the r e m a i n i n g l i q u i d w a t e r , and a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f enzymes and t h e i r s u b s t r a t e s ( L o v e r n , 1962). At -10 degrees C. about 10-15 per c e n t o f t o t a l m o i s t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e as l i q u i d water w h i l e 5-10 per c e n t i s a v a i l a b l e as l i q u i d water a t -20 degrees C. (Dyer and D i n g l e , 1961; L o v e r n , 1962). T h i s i s s u f f i c i e n t water f o r enzymes t o be a c t i v e , so enzy m a t i c d e g r a d a t i o n may c o n t i n u e t o o c c u r a f t e r f r e e z i n g . The raw samples may be more s u s c e p t i b l e t o en z y m a t i c a c t i v i t y t han the p r o c e s s e d samples because the p r o c e s s i n g may i n a c t i v a t e o r de n a t u r e the enzymes, thus d e c r e a s i n g o r s t o p p i n g t h e i r a c t i o n . A d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t o f f r e e z i n g between t h e raw and p r o c e s s e d samples may mask the e f f e c t s o f p r o c e s s i n g on c e r t a i n n u t r i e n t s . M o i s t u r e was d e c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the canned, barbequed sockeye samples, the s l u q samples, and the k'nuum samples. The average v a l u e s f o r m o i s t u r e f o r t h e s e p r o d u c t s were not low enough t o s t o p b a c t e r i a l growth, t h e r e f o r e the s l u q and k'nuum p r e p a r a t i o n s would r e q u i r e f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g f o r s t o r a g e , i . e . c a n n i n g o r f r e e z i n g . The sodium c o n t e n t of b o t h t h e canned sockeye and the canned barbequed sockeye i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y as d i d t h e ash c o n t e n t o f the canned sockeye. T h i s i n c r e a s e can be r e l a t e d t o 105 t h e a d d i t i o n o f s a l t d i r e c t l y t o t h e s e p r o d u c t s i n p r o c e s s i n g . The n i a c i n c o n t e n t o f the canned sockeye was found t o i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y over th e c o n t e n t o f t h e raw sockeye samples. Fennema (1975), i n a r e v i e w o f t h e e f f e c t s o f f r o z e n s t o r a g e on n u t r i e n t s , c i t e s t h r e e s t u d i e s which showed an a p p a r e n t i n c r e a s e i n n i a c i n a f t e r s i x months f r o z e n s t o r a g e . A l l t h r e e s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d meat p r o d u c t s -beef s t e a k s , pork chops and lamb chops. N i a c i n i s one o f the more s t a b l e v i t a m i n s ( H a r r i s , 1975), b e i n g s t a b l e t o b oth h e a t and l i g h t o v e r a wide range i n pH, however i t can be degraded e n z y m a t i c a l l y . In t h e Nuxalk samples s t u d i e d , e n z y m a t i c d e g r a d a t i o n may have o c c u r r e d i n the f r o z e n raw samples w h i l e , i n t h e canned samples, the enzymes were i n a c t i v a t e d and the n i a c i n was l e f t i n t a c t . T h i s would g i v e t h e appearance of an i n c r e a s e i n the n i a c i n c o n t e n t w i t h c a n n i n g . A s i m i l a r mechanism may be i n v o l v e d i n the i n c r e a s e s i n f r e e and t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e i n t h e barbequed samples, and the v i t a m i n D i n b o t h the s l u q samples and the k'nuum samples. I n t h e s e c a s e s , the d e g r a d a t i o n i n the f r e e z i n g of t h e raw sample would be g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g and f r e e z i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s e d sample t o g i v e t h e appearance of an i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u t r i e n t . The i n c r e a s e i n l i p i d s i n the canned barbequed sockeye samples may a l s o be due t o t h i s phenomenon. L o v e r n (1962) r e p o r t s t h a t l i p o l y s i s can o c c u r a t a f a s t e r r a t e i n f r o z e n raw f i s h t h a n raw f i s h k e p t i n c o l d s t o r a g e , he a t t r i b u t e s t h i s t o the " f r e e z e - c o n c e n t r a t i o n " which can 106 i n c r e a s e the a c t i v i t y o f enzymes. The d e c r e a s e i n v i t a m i n E i n t h e barbequed samples and f r e e f o l a t e i n the s l u q samples were e x p e c t e d as t h e s e v i t a m i n s a r e u n s t a b l e t o a i r , l i g h t and heat ( H a r r i s , 1975). What was u n u s u a l was t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s d i d n ot o c c u r i n the o t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s which may be due t o t h e e f f e c t o f f r e e z i n g on t h e n u t r i e n t s i n the raw samples. The i n c r e a s e i n the f r e e p a n t o t h e n a t e i n b o t h t h e s l u q and t h e k'nuum samples may a l s o be due t o g r e a t e r d e g r a d a t i o n i n t h e raw sample. As t h e r e i s no i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l p a n t o t h e n a t e i n t h e samples,however, i t may be due t o a r e l e a s e o f the bound p a n t o t h e n a t e i n p r o c e s s i n g . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s may a l s o be a t work. The i n c r e a s e i n the manganese c o n t e n t o f t h e s l u q samples over t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g raw samples i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t m i n e r a l s are g e n e r a l l y s t a b l e i n p r o c e s s i n g u n l e s s l e a c h e d out of t h e p r o d u c t ( H a r r i s , 1975). The m i n e r a l may have been added t o t h e p r o d u c t t h r o u g h t h e water used i n the b r i n e s o l u t i o n , t h e ash o r smoke i n the smoking p r o c e s s or from t h e s t i c k s the s l u q i s s t r u n g on d u r i n g smoking. A m i n e r a l a n a l y s i s o f the water from B e l l a C o o l a would be u s e f u l i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . In summary t h e r e were few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f the p r o c e s s e d and the raw samples. The f i n d i n g s may have been a f f e c t e d by the f a c t t h a t a l l the samples - raw and p r o c e s s e d - were f r o z e n f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . Loss o f n u t r i e n t s from b o t h groups of samples may not have been 107 e q u a l as p r o c e s s i n g may have d e s t r o y e d enzymes which would s t i l l be a b l e t o a c t i n the raw samples. F u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e needed t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t of t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n i q u e s a l o n e . I l l EVALUATION OF NUTRIENT QUALITY The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e o f the Recommended N u t r i e n t I n t a k e (R.N.I.) f o r Canadian women 24-49 y e a r s o l d p r o v i d e d by a " s e r v i n g " o f the Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s was a t l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t p r o v i d e d by a " s e r v i n g " o f t h e commercial p r o t e i n f o o d s . A s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. f o r c a l c i u m , and t h e v i t a m i n s A, D, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n and n i a c i n f o r t h i s group was p r o v i d e d by t h e Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s than was p r o v i d e d by the commercial p r o d u c t s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e n t a g e of t h e R.N.I. f o r i r o n o r z i n c p r o v i d e d by e i t h e r o f the two groups. These f i n d i n g s a r e based on s t a n d a r d s e r v i n g s i z e s and may not r e l a t e t o t h e a c t u a l s e r v i n g s i z e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s group. In 1981, t h e unemployment r a t e o f the Nuxalk N a t i o n was a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e t i m e s t h a t o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f B.C. and t h e average income was a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f t h a t o f the p r o v i n c e as a whole. B o l a n d (1974) c o n s i d e r e d t h e n a t i v e f o o d c a t c h t o be an income supplement w h i c h , a t t h e time o f h i s r e p o r t , p r o v i d e d $105 per p e r s o n per y e a r , based on the w h o l e s a l e v a l u e o f t h e e q u i v a l e n t commercial c a t c h a t t h a t t i m e , s p r e a d over t h e e n t i r e r e s e r v e p o p u l a t i o n . I f the n a t i v e f o o d f i s h e r y 108 i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n economic terms, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o compare the n u t r i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s per d o l l a r v a l u e o f the t r a d i t i o n a l f o ods t o t h a t o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e foods which may s u b s t i t u t e f o r them. When compared on t h e b a s i s o f e q u a l d o l l a r v a l u e , the pe r c e n t a g e o f the R.N.I, p r o v i d e d by the Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s was a t l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e commercial p r o d u c t s f o r a l l the n u t r i e n t s s t u d i e d , e x c e p t i r o n and z i n c . When the commercial p r o d u c t s were broken i n t o s p e c i f i c groups and t h e pe r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I, p r o v i d e d per d o l l a r v a l u e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l groups compared t o t h a t p r o v i d e d by t h e Nuxalk salmon samples, . i t was found t h a t one d o l l a r ' s w o r t h o f the meat and c u r e d meats group p r o v i d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. f o r i r o n t h a n d i d one d o l l a r ' s worth of t h e Nuxalk salmon samples. One d o l l a r ' s w o r t h o f the c u r e d meat and t h e d a i r y p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. f o r z i n c t h a n the same v a l u e o f the Nuxalk salmon samples. The d o l l a r v a l u e o f t h e Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s was not det e r m i n e d by t h e f r e e exchange o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s as s e l l i n g n a t i v e f o o d f i s h o r f i s h p r o d u c t s was i l l e g a l a t the time o f the s t u d y . As a r e s u l t , t he v a l u e of the salmon p r o d u c t s was det e r m i n e d u s i n g the w h o l e s a l e p r i c e of commercial f i s h as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . The Nuxalk p e o p l e do not a s s o c i a t e a c o s t w i t h f o o d f i s h . They p e r c e i v e t h e f i s h as b e i n g f r e e and, i n f a c t , t h e r e i s no d i r e c t c a s h o u t l a y f o r them. In an a r e a 109 where ready c a s h can be l i m i t e d as i t might be i n B e l l a C o o l a , where annual incomes a r e low, t h i s c o u l d be an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g the n u t r i e n t v a l u e o f t h e s e f o o d s . Two a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s c o m p a r i s o n . F i r s t , the " c o s t " o f the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s was d e t e r m i n e d by a d j u s t i n g the w h o l e s a l e v a l u e f o r the amount d i s c a r d e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n , t o g i v e the c o s t per e d i b l e p o r t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e e n t i r e f i s h was used i n t h e d i e t ( M c l l w r a i t h , 1948). Some members of t h e community c o n t i n u e t o smoke the heads and t a i l s o f salmon and s a l t the backbones, f o r use i n soups and stews ( K u h n l e i n , 1981) I f t h i s p r a c t i s e o c c u r s , t h e amount d i s c a r d e d i s lower and t h e " c o s t " o f the Nuxalk p r o d u c t s would be c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y l e s s . T h i s would improve th e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I, met per d o l l a r v a l u e f o r t h e s e p r o d u c t s . S e c o n d l y , t h e c o s t of the commercial p r o d u c t s was d e t e r m i n e d i n J u l y when t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t o t h e v a l l e y i s r e l a t i v e l y easy. In w i n t e r , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f some p r o d u c t s may be r e s t r i c t e d due t o weather, and t h e p r i c e o f the p r o d u c t s a v a i l a b l e may i n c r e a s e . A s t u d y o f the n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of the Nuxalk p e o p l e found t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e a d u l t s s t u d i e d were above th e 95th c e n t i l e f o r w e i g h t f o r h e i g h t ( K u h n l e i n and Moody, 1984) . I n a d d i t i o n , an e a r l i e r s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i e t a r y i n t a k e s o f a d u l t women on the r e s e r v e were low f o r many n u t r i e n t s i n c l u d i n g c a l c i u m , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, i r o n , t h i a m i n and n i a c i n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e f o r e , t o i d e n t i f y 110 n u t r i e n t dense foods f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . R e c e n t l y , many a t t e m p t s have been made t o d e f i n e , q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , a " n u t r i t i o u s " f o o d ( G u t h r i e , 1977) f o r use i n b o t h n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n and i n d i e t a r y e v a l u a t i o n . The Index of N u t r i e n t Q u a l i t y (I.N.Q.) (Sorensen and Hansen, 1975) can be used t o e v a l u a t e s i n g l e foods as w e l l as e n t i r e d i e t s . The r a t i o c a l c u l a t e d i s t h e same as the N u t r i e n t C a l o r i e B e n e f i t R a t i o (N.C.B.R.) ( G u t h r i e , 1977) which was used t o e v a l u a t e t r a d i t i o n a l foods o f the N o r t h Dakota I n d i a n s (Toma and C u r r y , 1980). T h i s r a t i o r e l a t e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f the R.N.I. f o r a g i v e n n u t r i e n t met by a f o o d t o the pe r c e n t a g e o f the energy r e q u i r e m e n t p r o v i d e d . When compared on t h e b a s i s of eq u a l c a l o r i c v a l u e (I.N.Q.), t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. p r o v i d e d by the Nuxalk salmon samples was a t l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e commercial p r o d u c t s f o r a l l t h e n u t r i e n t s s t u d i e d e x c e p t c a l c i u m and i r o n . When t h e comparison was r e p e a t e d a f t e r d i v i d i n g t h e commercial p r o d u c t s i n t o s p e c i f i c groups i t was found t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e of t h e R.N.I. f o r c a l c i u m p r o v i d e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c a l o r i e s p r o v i d e d was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n a l l the commercial p r o d u c t s , e x c e p t meat a l t e r n a t e s , than t h a t p r o v i d e d by the Nuxalk salmon samples. The p e r c e n t a g e o f the R.N.I. f o r i r o n p r o v i d e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c a l o r i e s p r o v i d e d was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n the meat p r o d u c t s , c u r e d meats, and commercial f i s h t han t h a t p r o v i d e d by the Nuxalk salmon samples. The low p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. f o r c a l c i u m p r o v i d e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the c a l o r i e s i n t h e Nuxalk samples i n t h i s s t u d y may be due t o t h e bones b e i n g o m i t t e d from the canned samples. The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e bones i n t h e canned sockeye would p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e the r a t i o o f c a l c i u m t o c a l o r i e s found i n the Nuxalk canned sockeye t o a l e v e l t h a t would be comparable t o the commercial canned f i s h p r o d u c t . F i s h bones a r e a t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f c a l c i u m i n the Nuxalk d i e t ( K u h n l e i n , 1984a). The use o f d a i r y p r o d u c t s i n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n may be a problem as some r e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s e x h i b i t a h i g h degree o f l a c t o s e i n t o l e r a n c e ( L e i c h t e r and Lee, 1971; E l l e s t a d - S a y e d and Haworth, 1977) . D a i r y p r o d u c t s such as skim m i l k powder which can be used i n s m a l l amounts i n c o o k i n g and y o g u r t which i s c u l t u r e d and lower i n l a c t o s e t h a n m i l k i t s e l f a r e low c o s t a l t e r n a t i v e s which may be t o l e r a t e d , i f c a l c i u m needs cannot be met by o t h e r means." F i s h t e n d t o be lower i n i r o n than meat p r o d u c t s such as b e e f . The s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. f o r i r o n p r o v i d e d by the commercial f i s h p r o d u c t s may be due t o t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n f i s h . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of t h e Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s may show t h a t t h e y a r e comparable t o the commercial f i s h p r o d u c t s i n terms o f i r o n c o n t e n t . I n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i e t game would have supplemented f i s h on o c c a s i o n ( M c l l w r a i t h , 1948) , and s t i l l c o u l d p r o v i d e a low c o s t a l t e r n a t i v e t o commercial meat p r o d u c t s , s u b j e c t t o a v a i l a b i l i t y o f game and a c c e s s t o h u n t i n g . 112 Other s o u r c e s of m i n e r a l s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e Nuxalk p e o p l e would be r o o t foods such as the p a c i f i c s i l v e r w e e d and s p r i n g b a n k c l o v e r ( K u h n l e i n e t a l . , 1982b). The m i n e r a l s such as c a l c i u m and i r o n may not be as r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o the body as t h o s e found i n d a i r y p r o d u c t s and meats but the t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n t foods can make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f m i n e r a l s t o t h e d i e t ( K u h n l e i n e t a l . , 1982b) which c o u l d supplement t h o s e m i n e r a l s found i n the f i s h . 113 CHAPTER V I I CONCLUSION The Nuxalk f i s h samples compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h the commercial p r o d u c t s i n terms o f n u t r i e n t s s t u d i e d - p r o t e i n , v i t a m i n s A, D, t h i a m i n , r i b o f l a v i n , and n i a c i n , and the m i n e r a l s i r o n , c a l c i u m and z i n c . I n terms of the p e r c e n t a g e o f the R.N.I, met per s t a n d a r d s e r v i n g , t h e Nuxalk salmon p r o d u c t s s t u d i e d p r o v i d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e s o f the R.N.I. ( f o r Canadian women 24-49 y e a r s o f age) f o r c a l c i u m , v i t a m i n A, v i t a m i n D, t h i a m i n , r e b o f l a v i n and n i a c i n . On a d o l l a r t o d o l l a r b a s i s the commercial meat and c u r e d meat p r o d u c t s , and the commercial c u r e d meat and d a i r y p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I. f o r Canadian women 24-49 y e a r s o f age f o r t h e n u t r i e n t s i r o n and z i n c , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a c t u a l cash o u t l a y f o r the commercial p r o d u c t s compared t o the salmon p r o d u c t s the salmon p r o d u c t s may s t i l l be a b e t t e r v a l u e f o r many o f the members o f the Nuxalk N a t i o n , g i v e n t h e low annual incomes o f r e s e r v e r e s i d e n t s (Census o f Canada, 1981). On t h e b a s i s o f e q u a l c a l o r i c v a l u e t h e commercial meat, c u r e d meat, f i s h and d a i r y p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e R.N.I^ f o r c a l c i u m and the commercial meat, c u r e d meats and f i s h p r o d u c t s p r o v i d e d a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f the R.N.I. f o r i r o n . F i s h p r o d u c t s a r e g e n e r a l l y low i n i r o n 114 i n comparison t o meat p r o d u c t s so one would e x p e c t them t o rank lower t h a n meat p r o d u c t s i n p r o v i d i n g t h i s n u t r i e n t . E n c o u r a g i n g the use o f f i s h bones from canned f i s h and o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n s c o u l d improve the c a l c i u m c o n t e n t of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i e t . The v a r i a t i o n i n n u t r i e n t v a l u e s o f the f i s h p r o d u c t s and the s m a l l number of samples l i m i t s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h ' c o u l d be drawn about t h e n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f Nuxalk f i s h p r o d u c t s as a whole. F u r t h e r work i s needed t o d e t e r m i n e b o t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f the salmon p r o d u c t s among d i f f e r e n t y e a r c l a s s e s and the a f f e c t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n i q u e s on n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t . In terms of n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n programs, e n c o u r a g i n g t h e use of t r a d i t i o n a l salmon p r o d u c t s c o u l d be an e f f e c t i v e means of i m p r o v i n g n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s i n t h i s group. The use o f the f i s h bones s h o u l d be emphasized and o t h e r good, l o w - c o s t s o u r c e s o f m i n e r a l s - e s p e c i a l l y z i n c and i r o n s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d . 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY American Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n . 1980. Handbook of food  p r e p a r a t i o n . 8 t h e d i t i o n . AHEA, Washington, D.C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l A n a l y t i c a l C h e m i s t s . 1980. O f f i c i a l  methods o f a n a l y s i s . 13th e d i t i o n . A.O.A.C., Washington,D.C. Ar m s t r o n g , J . 1980. Food h a b i t s and n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f Canadian I n d i a n c h i l d r e n : A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t . Fed.  P r o c . 39 (3) : 551 A1500. B a i l e y , B.E. 1942. N u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f salmon p r o d u c t s . P r o g r e s s R e p o r t s . F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada, P a c i f i c C oast S t a t i o n s , pp 9. Bak e r , H. and Frank 0. 1967. A m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l a s s a y f o r f o l a t e a c t i v i t y . i n The v i t a m i n s : C h e m i s t r y ,  p h y s i o l o g y , p a t h o l o g y , methods v o l . I l l . 2nd e d i t i o n . Gyorgy, P. and P e a r s o n , W.N., eds. Academic P r e s s , New York and London, pp 243. B a r r , S . I . and K u h n l e i n , H.V. 1985. High d e n s i t y l i p o p r o t e i n and t o t a l serum c h o l e s t e r o l l e v e l s i n a group of B r i t i s h Columbia n a t i v e I n d i a n s . N u t r i t i o n R esearch 5: 827. Behar, M. 1976. European d i e t s v s . t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d s . Food  P o l i c y : 432. B e l l a C o o l a Museum Asso c . 1979. B e l l a C o o l a T o u r i n g Guide. Mimeographed m a n u s c r i p t . B e l l a n , R.C. 1976. P r i n c i p l e s o f economics and the Canadian  economy. 5 t h e d i t i o n . M c G r a w - H i l l Ryerson L t d . To r o n t o . B e s t , S.C. and G e r r a r d , J.W. 1959. P i n e House (Saskatchewan) n u t r i t i o n p r o j e c t . J_^ Cdn. Med. Asso c . 81: 915. B e s t , S . C , G e r r a r d , J.W. , I r w i n , A.C , K e r r , D. , F l a n a g a n , M. and B l a c k , M. 1961. The P i n e House (Saskatchewan) . n u t r i t i o n p r o j e c t I I . J_^ Cdn. Med. A s s o c . 85: 412. B i r k b e c k , J.A., Lee, M., Myers, G.S., and A l f r e d , B.M. 1971. N u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n s I I . A n t h r o p o m e t r i c measurements, p h y s i c a l and d e n t a l e x a m i n a t i o n s a t Ahousat and Anaham. Cdn. J . P u b l .  H e a l t h 62: 403. B l i g h , E.G. and Dyer, W.J. 1959. A r a p i d method of t o t a l l i p i d e x t r a c t i o n and p u r i f i c a t i o n . Cdn. J . B i o c . 116 and B i o p h y s . 37: 911. B o l a n d , J.P. 1974. The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c importance of f i s h e r y  r e s o u r c e s t o the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . T e c h n i c a l Report S e r i e s No.PAC/T-74-12 NOB/ECON 7-74 N o r t h e r n O p e r a t i o n s B r a n c h , P a c i f i c R e g i o n , Environment Canada, F i s h e r i e s and Marine S e r v i c e , Ottawa. B r a e k k a n , O.R. 1962. B - v i t a m i n s i n f i s h and s h e l l f i s h . i n F i s h i n n u t r i t i o n Heen, E. and K r e u z e r , R. eds. F i s h i n g News (Books) L t d . London, pg 132. Brody, H. 1981. Maps and Dreams. Douglas and M c l n t y r e Vancouver. Bureau o f N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s . 1975. N u t r i t i o n Canada; The  I n d i a n s u r v e y r e p o r t . Dept. o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , Ottawa. Bureau o f N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s . 1976. Food consumption  p a t t e r n s r e p o r t . A r e p o r t from N u t r i t i o n Canada. H e a l t h P r o t e c t i o n B r a n c h , Dept. o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , Ottawa. C a l l o w a y , D.H., Giauque, R.D., and C o s t a , F.M. 1974. The s u p e r i o r m i n e r a l c o n t e n t of some American I n d i a n f o ods i n comparison t o f e d e r a l l y donated c o u n t e r p a r t commodities. E c o l . Fd. and N u t r . 3_: 203. Census o f Canada. 1981. Enumeration a r e a m i c r o f i s c h e . A v a i l a b l e from S t a t i s t i c s Canada. C h a t f i e l d , C. 1954. Food c o m p o s i t i o n t a b l e s - m i n e r a l s and  v i t a m i n s - f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l use. FAO, Rome. C h i l d e r o s e , R.J. and T r i m , M. 1979. P a c i f i c salmon and  s t e e l h e a d t r o u t . Douglas and M c l n t y r e , Vancouver and To r o n t o . C o o d i n , F . J . , D i l l i n g , L.A. and Haworth, J.C. 1975. The C r o s s Lake s t u d y . i n N u t r i t i o n i n I n d i a n and Eskimo  C h i l d r e n , R e p o r t of t h e 2nd Canadian Ross C o n f e r e n c e  on P a e d i a t r i c R e s e a r c h . Haworth, J.C. ed., Ross L a b o r a t o r i e s , M o n t r e a l pp 62. C o r r i g a n , C. 1946. S c u r v y i n a Cree I n d i a n . J^_ Cdn. Med. As s o c . 54: 380. C u t t i n g , C.L. 1965. Smoking. i n F i s h as f o o d v o l I I I . Bor g s t r o m , G. ed. Academic P r e s s , New York and London pp 55. Daun, H. 1975. E f f e c t s o f p r o c e s s i n g by a d d i t i v e s on n u t r i e n t s . P a r t I : E f f e c t s o f s a l t i n g , c u r i n g and 117 smoking on n u t r i e n t s o f f l e s h f o ods e v a l u a t i o n of f o o d p r o c e s s i n g . 2nd e d i t i o n . R.S. and Karmas, E. eds. We s t p o r t , Conn, pp 355. i n N u t r i t i o n a l H a r r i s , The A v i P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . D e s a i , I.D. and Lee, M. 1971. N u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n s I I I . B i o c h e m i c a l s t u d i e s a t Ahousat and Anaham r e s e r v e s . Cdn. J . P u b l . H e a l t h 62; 526. D e s a i , I.D. and Lee, M. 1974a. N u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f Canadian I n d i a n s I . B i o c h e m i c a l s t u d i e s a t Upper L i a r d and Ross R i v e r , the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . Cdn. J . P u b l . H e a l t h 65: 369. D e s a i , I.D. and Lee M. w e s t e r n Canada. 1974b. V i t a m i n E s t a t u s o f I n d i a n s o f Cdn J . P u b l . H e a l t h 65: 191. Dewey K.G. 1979. Commentary: A g r i c u l t u r a l development, d i e t and n u t r i t i o n . E c o l . of Fd. and N u t r . J8: 265. Dong, A. and Feeny, M.C. 1968. The n u t r i e n t i n t a k e of I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Cdn. J . P u b l . H e a l t h 59: 115. Doughty, J . 1979. Commentary: Danger o f r e d u c i n g the range of f o o d c h o i c e i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . E c o l . of Fd. and N u t r . 8: 275. D r a p e r , H.H. 1977. The a b o r i g i n a l Eskimo d i e t i n modern p e r s p e c t i v e . American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 79: 309. Duncan, Duncan, D.W. and T a r r , H.L.A. 1958. B i o c h e m i c a l s t u d i e s on Sockeye salmon d u r i n g spawning m i g r a t i o n I I I . Changes i n p r o t e i n and n o n - p r o t e i n n i t r o g e n f r a c t i o n s i n muscles o f m i g a t i n g Sockeye salmon. Can. J . B i o c h .  P h y s i o l 36: 799. I . and S c o t t , E.M. 1972. A l a s k a n I n d i a n s and Eskimos. 867. L a c t o s e i n t o l e r a n c e i n Am. J . C l i n . N u t r . 25: Dyer, W.J. and D i n g l e , J.R. 1961. F i s h p r o t e i n s w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o f r e e z i n g . i n F i s h as f o o d v o l JE. Borgs t r o m , G. ed. Academic P r e s s , New York and London, pp 275. E l l e s t a d - S a y e d , J . J . and Haworth, J . C. 1977. D i s a c c h a r i d e consumption and m a l a b s o r p t i o n i n Canadian I n d i a n s . Am.  J . C l i n . N u t r . 30: 698. E l l e s t a d - S a y e d , J . J . , Haworth, J . C , C o o d i n , F . J . and D i l l i n g L.A. 1981. Growth and n u t r i t i o n o f p r e s c h o o l I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n Manitoba I I . N u t r i e n t i n t a k e s . Cdn. J . P u b l . H e a l t h 72: 127. 118 Fennema, 0. 1975. E f f e c t s o f f r e e z e p r e s e r v a t i o n on n u t r i e n t s . i n N u t r i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f f o o d  p r o c e s s i n g . 2nd e d i t i o n . H a r r i s , R.S. and Karmas, E. eds. The A v i P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , W e s t p o r t , Conn. Fukumoto, H.E. and Chang, G.W. 1982. Manual s a l i c y l a t e -h y p o c h l o r i t e p r o c e d u r e f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f amonia i n K j e l d a h l d i g e s t s . A s s o c . O f f . A n a l . Chem. 65: 1076. G u t h r i e , H.A. 1977. Concept o f a n u t r i t i o u s f o o d . Am.  D i e t e t . A s s o c . 71; 14. H a r r i s , R.S. 1962. R e l i a b i l i t y o f n u t r i e n t a n a l y s e s and food t a b l e s . Am. J . C l i n . N u t r . 11; 377. H a r r i s , R.S. 1975. G e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n on the s t a b i l i t y o f n u t r i e n t s . i n N u t r i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f f o o d  p r o c e s s i n g . 2nd e d i t i o n . H a r r i s , R.S. and Karmas E. eds. The A v i P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , W e s t p o r t , Conn, pp 1. H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada. 1979. N u t r i e n t V a l u e o f Some  Common Foods. H e a l t h S e r v i c e s and P r o m o t i o n Branch and H e a l t h P r o t e c t i o n B r a n c h , Ottawa. H e l l e r , C A . and S c o t t , E.M. 1967. The A l a s k a D i e t a r y  Survey 1956-1961. U.S. Dept. H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e P u b l i c a t i o n No. 999-AH-2, Washington, D.C. H e r b e r t , V. and B e r t i n o , J.R. 1967. F o l i c a c i d . i n The  V i t a m i n s : C h e m i s t r y , P h y s i o l o g y , P a t h o l o g y , Methods V o l . V I I . 2nd e d i t i o n . Gyorgy, P.and P e a r s o n , W.N. eds. Academic P r e s s , New York and London, pp 245. H i g a s h i , H. 1962. R e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n i q u e s and the amount o f v i t a m i n s and m i n e r a l s i n p r o c e s s e d f i s h . i n F i s h i n n u t r i t i o n . Heen, E. and K r e u z e r , R. eds. F i s h i n g News (Books) L t d . , London, pp 125. H o f f e r , J . , Ruedy,J. and V e r d i e r , P. 1981. N u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f Quebec I n d i a n s . Am. J . C l i n . N u t r . 34: 2784. Hoppner, K. 1971. Free and t o t a l f o l a t e a c t i v i t y i n s t r a i n e d baby f o o d s . Can. I n s t . Food S c i . T e c h n o l . J . 4: 51. Hoppner, K., Lampi, B., and P e r r i n , D.E. 1972. The f r e e and t o t a l f o l a t e a c t i v i t y i n foods a v a i l a b l e on the Canadian market. Can. I n s t . Food S c i . T e c h n o l . J . 5: 60. 119 Hoppner, K., McLaughlan, J.M., Shah, B.G., Thompson, J.N., Beare-Rogers, J . , E l l e s t a d - S a y e d , J . and S c h a e f e r , 0. 1978. N u t r i e n t l e v e l s o f some foods o f Eskimos from A r c t i c Bay, N.W.T., Canada. C__. A m > D i e t e t . A s s o c . 73: 257. I k e d a , S. 1979. Other o r g a n i c components and i n o r g a n i c components. i n Advances i n f i s h s c i e n c e and  t e c h n o l o g y . Papers p r e s e n t e d a t t h e J u b i l e e C o n f e r e n c e of t h e T o r r y Research S t a t i o n , Aberdeen, S c o t l a n d , 23-27 June, 1979. C o n n e l l , J . J . ed. F i s h i n g News (Books) L t d . Farnham S u r r e y , E n g l a n d . pp 111. J a c q u o t , R. 1962. O r g a n i c c o n s t i t u e n t s o f f i s h and o t h e r a q u a t i c a n i m a l f o o d s . i n F i s h as f o o d V o l I I . Borg s t r o m , G. ed. Academic P r e s s , New York and London, pp 145. K u h n l e i n , H.V. 1981. N u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n and use of n a t i v e  I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d s . F i n a l p r o j e c t r e p o r t , H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada, H e a l t h P r o m o t i o n D i r e c t o r a t e , Ottawa. K u h n l e i n , H.V. 1984a. T r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary Nuxalk f o o d s . N u t r i t i o n R esearch £: 789. K u h n l e i n , H.V. 1984b. Use and t a s t e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l s e afoods by t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s of Nuxalk women. Fed. P r o c . 43; 991. K u h n l e i n , H.V., Chan, A.C., Thompson, J.N. and N a k a i , S. 1982a. O o l i g a n g r e a s e : A n u t r i t i o u s f a t used by n a t i v e p e o p l e o f c o a s t a l B r i t i s h C o lumbia. J .  E t h n o b i o l . 2: 154. K u h n l e i n , H.V. and Moody, S.A. 1984. Nuxalk n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s : S t u d i e s on anthopometry, i r o n and gamma-g l u t a m y l t r a n s f e r a s e (GGT). Cdn. Fed, of B i o l . Soc.  P r o c . 27: 89. K u h n l e i n , H.V., T u r n e r , N.J. and K l u c k n e r , P.D. 1982b. N u t r i t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f two i n p o r t a n t r o o t foods (Springbank c l o v e r and P a c i f i c s i l v e r w e e d ) used by n a t i v e p e o p l e on the c o a s t of B r i t i s h C o lumbia. E c o l .  o f Fd. and N u t r . 12: 89. Kukuez, J.T. 1962. E f f e c t s o f b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , (sex, s e a s o n a l r a c e s , spawning m i g r a t i o n s ) on f a t , p r o t e i n and w a t e r , t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Sea T r o u t (Salmo t r u t t a L . ) . i n F i s h i n n u t r i t i o n . Heen, E. and K r e u z e r , R. eds. F i s h i n g News (Books) L t d . London, pp 76. 120 Lee, M., Reyburn, R., and Carrow, A. 1971. N u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n s I . D i e t a r y s t u d i e s a t Ahousat and Anaham r e s e r v e s . Cdn. J . P u b l . H e a l t h 62: 285. L e i c h t e r , J . and Lee, M. 1971. L a c t o s e i n t o l e r a n c e i n Canadian west c o a s t I n d i a n s . Am. J . D i g e s t . P i s . 16: 809. L o v e r n , J.A. 1962. The l i p i d s o f f i s h and changes o c c u r r i n g i n them d u r i n g p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r a g e . i n F i s h i n  n u t r i t i o n . Heen, E. and K r e u z e r , R. eds. F i s h i n g News (Books) L t d . London, pp 86. M c l l w r a i t h , T.F. 1948. The B e l l a C o o l a I n d i a n s V o l . J. and I I . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o . M c K e r v i l l , H.W. 1967. The salmon p e o p l e . Gray's P u b l i s h i n g L t d . S i d n e y , B.C. McQuaker, N.R. 1976. Chemical A n a l y s i s o f Waters, Wastewaters,  Sediments, and B i o l o g i c a l M a t e r i a l s . 2nd e d i t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M i n i s t r y o f the Environment, E n v i r o n m e n t a l L a b o r a t o r y , Vancouver. McQuaker, N.R., Brown, D.F. and K l u c k n e r , P.D. 1979a. D i g e s t i o n o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l M a t e r i a l s f o r A n a l y s i s by I n d u c t i v e l y Coupled Plasma-Atomic E m i s s i o n S p e c t r o m e t r y . A n a l . Chem. 51; 1082. McQuaker, N.R., K l u c k n e r , P.D., and Chang, G.N. 1979b. C a l i b r a t i o n of an I n d u c t i v e l y Coupled Plasma-Atomic E m i s s i o n S p e c t r o m e t e r f o r the A n a l y s i s o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l M a t e r i a l s . A n a l . Chem 51; 888. Mann, G.V., S c o t t , E.M., Hursh, L.M., H e l l e r , C.A., Youmans, J.B., C o n s o l a z i o , C.F., B r i d g f o r t h , E.B., R u s s e l l , A.L. and S i l v e r m a n , M. 1962. The h e a l t h and n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f A l a s k a n Eskimos. A s u r v e y o f t h e I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l Committee on N u t r i t i o n f o r N a t i o n a l Defense - 1958. Am. J . C l i n . N u t r 11; 31. Moore, P.E., K r u s e , H.O., T i s d a l l , F.F. and C o r r i g a n , R.S.C. 1946. M e d i c a l s u r v e y or n u t r i t i o n among the n o r t h e r n Manitoba I n d i a n s . J_L. Cdn. Med. A s s o c . 54 : 223. P e n n i n g t o n , J.A.T. and Church, H.N. 1980. Food V a l u e s of  P o r t i o n s Commonly Used. 13th E d i t i o n , L i p p i n c o t t , P h i l d e l p h i a . R i v e r a , T. 1949. D i e t of a f o o d g a t h e r i n g p e o p l e w i t h c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f salmon and s a s k a t o o n s . i n I n d i a n s o f the urban n o r t h w e s t . S m i t h , M.W. ed. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T o r o n t o . 121 R o b b i n s , L.G. 1984. The r e v i s e d A g r i c u l t u r e Canada n u t r i t i o u s f o o d b a s k e t . Food Market Commentary 6^: 30. Robson, J.R.K. 1976. Changing f o o d h a b i t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . E c o l . o f Fd. and N u t r . 4^ : 251. Robson, J.R.K. and Wadsworth, G.R. 1977. H e a l t h and n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s o f p r i m i t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . E c o l o f  Fd. and N u t r . 6: 187. Sarwar, G., Shah, B.G., Mongeau,R., and Hoppner, K. 1985. N u c l e i c a c i d , f i b e r and n u t r i e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n a c t i v e d r i e d f o o d y e a s t p r o d u c t s . Food S c i . 50: 353. S c h a e f e r , 0. 1975. Food r e s o u r c e s and chan g i n g d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s o f the Eskimo c h i l d . i n N u t r i t i o n i n I n d i a n  and Eskimo C h i l d r e n , Report o f the 2nd Canadian Ross  Confer e n c e on P a e d i a t r i c R e s e a r c h . Haworth, J.C. ed. Ross L a b o r a t o r i e s , M o n t r e a l pp 4. S c h a e f e r , O. 1977. Changing d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s i n the Canadian n o r t h : H e a l t h , s o c i a l and economic consequences. J .  Cdn. D i e t e t . A s s o c . 38: 17. S c h a e f e r , 0. Timmermans, J.F.W., E a t o n , R.D.P. and Matthews, A. R. 1980. G e n e r a l and n u t r i t i o n a l h e a l t h i n two Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Cdn. J . P u b l . H e a l t h 71: 397. Sc h r o e d e r , H.A. 1971. L o s s e s o f v i t a m i n s and t r a c e m i n e r a l s r e s u l t i n g from p r o c e s s i n g and p r e s e r v i n g of f o o d s . Am. J . C l i n . N u t r . 24: 562. Sm i t h , M.C. 1975. Food r e s o u r c e s and ch a n g i n g d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s o f the Canadian I n d i a n c h i l d . i n N u t r i t i o n  o f I n d i a n and Eskimo c h i l d r e n , Report of t h e 2nd  Canadian Ross c o n f e r e n c e on p a e d i a t r i c r e s e a r c h . Haworth, J.C. ed. Ross L a b o r a t o r i e s , M o n t r e a l , pp 12. Sorenson, A.W., and Hansen, R.G. 1975. Index o f f o o d q u a l i t y . Jj_ N u t r . Ed. 7_: 53. St a n s b y , M.E. 1962. P r o x i m a t e c o m p o s i t i o n o f f i s h . i n F i s h  i n N u t r i t i o n . Heen, E. and K r e u z e r , R. eds. F i s h i n g News (Books) L t d . London, pp 55. S t e p i e n , Y.Z. 1978. "Food p a t t e r n s , shopping h a b i t s and f o o d b e l i e f s o f I n d i a n f a m i l i e s on s e l e c t e d i s o l a t e d and n o n - i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e s i n B.C." M.Sc. T h e s i s i n Human N u t r i t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, B. C., u n p u b l i s h e d . 122 T a r r , H.L.A. 1962. Changes i n n u t r i t i v e v a l u e t h r o u g h p r o c e s s i n g p r o c e d u r e s . i n F i s h as f o o d V o l I I . B o r g s t r o m , G. ed. Academic P r e s s , New York and London, pp 235. T e r r e l l , M.E. 1979. P r o f e s s i o n a l Food P r e p a r a t i o n . 2nd e d i t i o n . John W i l e y and Sons, P h i l a d e l p h i a . Thompson, J.N., Erdody,P., M a x w e l l , W.B., and Murray,T.K. 1978. The F l o u r o m e t r i c D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f V i t a m i n A i n D a i r y P r o d u c t s . H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada Amended B u l l . VT-5, Ottawa. Thompson, J.N., H a t i n a , G., M a x w e l l , W.B., and D u v a l , S. 1982. High performance l i q u i d c h r o m o t o g r a p h i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f v i t a m i n D i n f o r t i f i e d m i l k s , m a r g a r ine and i n f a n t f o r m u l a s . J ^ A s s o c . O f f . A n a l .  Chem. 65: 624. Thompson, J.N. and H a t i n a , G. 1979. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t o c o p h e r o l s and t o c o - t r i e n o l s i n foods and t i s s u e s by h i g h performance l i q u i d chromotography. J_^ _ L i q u i d  Chromotography 2: 327. T h u r s t o n , C E . 1958. Sodium and p o t a s s i u m c o n t e n t o f 34 s p e c i e s o f f i s h . J_^ Am. D i e t e t . Assoc. 34: 396. Toma, R.B. and C u r r y , M.L. 1980. N o r t h Dakota I n d i a n s ' t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d s . J . Am. D i e t e t . A s s o c . 76: 589. V i v i a n , R.P., M c M i l l a n , C , Moore, P.E., R o b e r t s o n , E . C , S e b r e l l , W.H., T i s d a l l , F.F. and M c i n t o s h , W.G. 1948. The n u t r i t i o n and h e a l t h o f t h e James Bay I n d i a n . Cdn. Med. A s s o c . 59: 505, Watt, B.K. and M e r r i l l , A. L. 1963. C o m p o s i t i o n o f  foods...raw, p r o c e s s e d , p r e p a r e d . U.S. Dept. A g r i c u l t u r e , A g r i c u l t u r a l Handbook 8 ( r e v ) , Washington, D.C. pp 161. Zook, E.G., M c A r t h u r , M.J., and T o e p f e r , E.W. 1956. P a n t o t h e n i c A c i d i n Foods. USDA Handbook 97, USDA, Washington, D.C. Z o t t o l a , E.A., Wagner, M.K. and Z o l t a i , P.T. 1983. C o m p o s i t i o n and m i c r o b i o l o g y o f some n a t i v e A l a s k a n p r e s e r v e d f o o d s . J . Food P r o t e c t i o n 46: 441. 123 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096715/manifest

Comment

Related Items