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The efficacy of the World Heritage Convention as a planning tool for the rigorous protection of natural… Fraser, Barbara Kristine 1986

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THE EFFICACY OF THE WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION AS A PLANNING TOOL FOR THE RIGOROUS PROTECTION OF NATURAL SITES By BARBARA KRISTINE FRASER B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Apr i 1 , 1986 (c) Barbara K r i s t i n e F r a s e r , 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f (fZ£ftsn/nZ--K> The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V ancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date i i ABSTRACT People i n t e r e s t e d in the p r o t e c t i o n o f some areas o f land from consumptive use and/or resource e x t r a c t i o n have been concerned i n re c e n t years because few new areas have been s e t a s i d e under the p r o t e c t i o n methods a v a i l a b l e . As w e l l , even land which has been d e s i g n a t e d f o r p r o t e c t i o n i s being t h r e a t e n e d with r e d u c t i o n s in the s t r e n g t h o f t h a t p r o t e c t i o n so as t o permit e x t e n s i v e r e s o u r c e use. The need arose f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e method t o ensure the long-term, r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f land. The purpose o f the t h e s i s i s t o ev a l u a t e the e f f i c a c y o f one method which p r o f e s s e s t o o f f e r r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n , t h a t i s , the World H e r i t a g e Convention, i n r e l a t i o n t o the Canadian Rockies r e g i o n . The World H e r i t a g e Convention i s a m u l t i l a t e r a l , i n t e r n a t i o n a l convention which p r o v i d e s i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , and has been a d m i n i s t e r e d under Unesco's a u s p i c e s s i n c e i t s s i g n i n g i n 1972. Each n a t i o n p a r t y t o the Convention r e t a i n s s o v e r e i g n t y over World H e r i t a g e S i t e s on t h e i r t e r r i t o r y , but they are o b l i g e d t o ensure adequate long-term p r o t e c t i o n . The Rockies r e g i o n i s c u r r e n t l y s u b j e c t t o numerous resource t h r e a t s , i n c l u d i n g issues a r i s i n g from the Four Mountain Parks p l a n n i n g p r o cess, the impact o f c o a l , o i l and g a s d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d a c h a n g e i n t h e p o l i c y f o r r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e E a s t e r n S l o p e s . T h e C o n v e n t i o n i s e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t t e n c r i t e r i a w h i c h w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r a t i o n a l e s f o r l a n d p r o t e c t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e r i v e d c r i t e r i a b e c a u s e o f a n e m p h a s i s o n t h e o u t c o m e s o f r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , r a t h e r t h a n o n t h e p r o c e s s e s . T h e c r i t e r i a a r e b r o a d l y c a t e g o r i z e d a s i n c l u d i n g t h e t y p e s o f p e r m i t t e d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i n c l u s i v e n e s s o f t h e p u r p o s e ( s ) f o r w h i c h t h e s i t e i s d e s i g n a t e d , t h e s t r e n g t h o f p r o t e c t i o n , a n d i t s i m p 1 e m e n t a b i 1 i t y . T h e u s e o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n i n t h e G o r d o n - U p o n - F r a n k l i n R i v e r d a m d e v e l o p m e n t t h r e a t b y T a s m a n i a , A u s t r a l i a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s a n e x a m p l e o f h o w t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n m a y b e u s e d t o f o c u s d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n a n d o p p r o b r i u m f o r t h r e a t e n e d a r e a s . O n t h e b a s i s o f t h i s s t u d y s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s c a n b e d r a w n r e g a r d i n g t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ' s e f f i c a c y i n e n h a n c i n g r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s . T h e C o n v e n t i o n d o e s n o t o f f e r t h e l e v e l o f r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n w h i c h i s a r g u e d f o r i n t h e t h e s i s b e c a u s e o f t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f s o m e r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n a n d m o t o r i z e d r e c r e a t i o n a n d t h e l a c k o f a f o r m a l m o n i t o r i n g p r o c e d u r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s i v c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t o f f e r s m o r e a d v a n t a g e s t h a n d i s a d v a n t a g e s . T h e a d v a n t a g e s i n c l u d e t h e c o n f e r r a l o f p r e s t i g e a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h e n a t i o n a n d s i t e n o m i n a t e d , a r e d u c e d s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o p o l i t i c a l / f i n a n c i a l e x p e d i e n c y , t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n f o r m a l m o n i t o r i n g o f s i t e q u a l i t y b y t h e I U C N , a n d t h e u l t i m a t e l e v e r a g e ( a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s ) o f d e l i s t i n g f o r e n s u r i n g t h e o n g o i n g , d u r a b l e , p r o t e c t i o n o f d e f i n a b l e s i t e s . A d d i t i o n a l p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t f o r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s l i k e C a n a d a : p r i n c i p a l l y t h i s r e f e r s t o s u a s i o n a n d l e v e r a g e i n t h e t h i r d w o r l d f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f g l o b a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b i o m e s ( e . g . , t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t s ) . V T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S A u t h o r i z a t i o n A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s i x C h a p t e r 1 : I s I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l A c t i o n W o r t h t h e E f f o r t f o r D e v e l o p e d N a t i o n s ? 1 1 . 0 T h e G e n e r a l P r o b l e m a n d I t s H i s t o r y 1 1.1 M e t h o d o l o g y 14 1 . 2 A r g u m e n t O u t l i n e a n d B a s i c A s s u m p t i o n s 14 C h a p t e r 2 : R a t i o n a l e a n d C r i t e r i a f o r t h e R i g o r o u s P r o t e c t i o n o f L a n d 19 2 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 19 2 . 1 E v a l u a t i o n o f P r o t e c t i o n R a t i o n a l e s 2 0 2 . 2 E v a l u a t i o n C r i t e r i a f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f L a n d 31 2 . 3 S u m m a r y a n d C r i t e r i a L i s t 3 6 C h a p t e r 3 : T h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s P r o b l e m 4 0 3 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 0 3 . 1 T h e S e t t i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s 4 2 3 . 1 . 1 T h e E c o l o g i c a l S e t t i n g a n d i t s S i g n i f i c a n c e 4 2 3 . 1 . 2 T h e H i s t o r y o f U s e a n d P r o t e c t i o n i n t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s 4 8 3 . 2 C o n f l i c t s i n t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s 5 4 3 . 2 . 1 C o n f l i c t s P e r t a i n i n g t o L a n d U n d e r C a n a d i a n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 5 5 3 . 2 . 2 C o n f l i c t s P e r t a i n i n g t o L a n d U n d e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 6 0 3 . 2 . 3 C o n f l i c t s P e r t a i n i n g t o L a n d U n d e r A l b e r t a ' s R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 6 3 3 . 3 C o n c l u s i o n s 6 8 C h a p t e r 4 : A R e v i e w o f M e c h a n i s m s f o r P r o t e c t i o n 7 0 4 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 7 0 4 . 1 D o m e s t i c M e c h a n i s m s f o r P r o t e c t i o n 71 4 . 1 . 1 C a n a d i a n P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s 7 3 4 . 1 . 2 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s 7 9 4 . 1 . 3 A l b e r t a P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s 8 3 4 . 1 . 4 P r i v a t e P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s 8 7 4 . 1 . 5 N a t i v e P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s 9 3 4 . 2 I n t e r n a t i o n a l M e c h a n i s m s f o r P r o t e c t i o n 9 6 4 . 3 S u m m a r y a n d C o n c l u s i o n s 1 0 5 C h a p t e r 5 : T h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a n d i t s A p p l i c a t i o n i n C a n a d a 1 0 7 5 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 0 7 5 . 1 T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n 1 0 8 5 . 2 T h e F e a t u r e s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n 1 1 5 v i C h a p t e r 5 c o n t i n u e d 5 . 3 T h e C a n a d i a n N o m i n a t i o n P r o c e d u r e a n d R e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n 1 3 6 5 . 4 S o , W h a t i s t h e P o t e n t i a l o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ? 1 4 2 C h a p t e r 6 : C a s e s W h e r e W o r l d H e r i t a g e D e s i g n a t i o n M a d e a D i f f e r e n c e 1 4 5 6 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 4 5 6 . 1 T h e T a s m a n i a n Dam C a s e 1 4 8 6 . 2 C o n c l u s i o n s t o b e D r a w n F r o m t h e A u s t r a l i a n C a s e 1 5 5 C h a p t e r 7 : T h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n P a r k s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e a n d a n E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e I m p l i c a t i o n s o f W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e C r e a t i o n f o r C a n a d a a n d O t h e r N a t i o n s 1 5 9 7 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 5 9 7 . 1 T h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n P a r k s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e 1 6 0 7 . 2 E v a l u a t i n g t h e D i f f e r e n c e B e t w e e n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a n d D o m e s t i c P r o t e c t i o n M e a s u r e s w i t h R e s p e c t t o t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n P a r k s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e 1 6 7 7 . 3 T h e A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a t t h e G l o b a l S c a l e a n d i t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r R e s o u r c e P l a n n e r s 1 8 3 B i b l i o g r a p h y 1 9 2 A p p e n d i x 1 : L i s t o f I n t e r v i e w s 2 0 2 A p p e n d i x 2 : D e f i n i t i o n s o f L e v e l s o f I n c l u s i o n i n C o n v e n t i o n s 2 0 4 A p p e n d i x 3 : C r i t e r i a f o r t h e I n c l u s i o n o f N a t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s i n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t 2 0 5 A p p e n d i x 4 : P r o c e d u r e f o r t h e E v e n t u a l D e l e t i o n o f P r o p e r t i e s f r o m t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t 2 0 7 A p p e n d i x 5 : N o m i n a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s b y C a n a d a f o r I n c l u s i o n i n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t a p p e n d e d B i b 1 i o g r a p h i c a 1 f o r m v i i L I S T OF T A B L E S T a b l e I: L i s t o f A b b r e v i a t i o n s U s e d x T a b l e I I : A L i s t o f S o m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l , M u l t i l a t e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a 1 T r e a t i e s t o Wh i c h C a n a d a 1 s P a r t y 7 T a b l e I I I : L i s t o f S t a t e s P a r t y t o t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a n d t h e D a t e o f J o i n i n g t h e C o n v e n t i o n a s o f D e c e m b e r , 1 9 8 5 • • • • 1 1 3 T a b l e I V : L i s t o f 1 9 8 6 W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e M e m b e r S t a t e s 1 2 0 T a b l e V : T h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t ( c u r r e n t t o D e c e m b e r , 1 9 8 5 ) 1 2 4 T a b l e V I : R o l e s a n d R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e 131 T a b l e V I I : L i s t o f W o r l d H e r i t a g e i n D a n g e r ( t o D e c e m b e r , 1 9 8 5 ) 1 3 2 v i i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S F i g u r e 1 : A M a p o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s R e g i o n 41 F i g u r e 2 : T h e C a n a d i a n W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e s 1 3 9 F i g u r e 3 : W o r l d H e r i t a g e E m b l e m 1 4 3 F i g u r e 4 : T h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e . 1 6 3 i x A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S T h e a u t h o r o w e s a d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e t o n u m e r o u s p e o p l e f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s . My s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o N o r m a n D a l e f o r h i s v e r y h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m s a n d s u p p o r t o f my w o r k . T h e c r i t i q u e s o f d r a f t s o f t e n r e c o g n i z e d t h e h o l e s i n my a r g u m e n t s , b u t N o r m a n ' s c o m m e n t s a l w a y s s u g g e s t e d a w a y t o c l i m b o u t o f t h o s e h o l e s . T h a n k s a l s o t o B r a h m W i e s m a n a n d R i c h a r d S t a c e - S m i t h f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e c o m m e n t s a n d s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h e t h e s i s d e f e n s e . M a n y t h a n k s t o t h e p e o p l e I i n t e r v i e w e d a n d t h o s e f r o m whom I s o u g h t r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l . T h e i r n a m e s a r e l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x 1 , b u t s e p a r a t e m e n t i o n s h o u l d b e m a d e o f t h e e x t r a s p e c i a l e f f o r t s m a d e b y J e a n B r o w n a n d R i c h a r d B i l l o f P a r k s C a n a d a . S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o T r e n o r T i l l e y f o r t h e u s e o f h i s c o m p u t e r f o r w o r d p r o c e s s i n g a n d h i s o n g o i n g m o r a l s u p p o r t o f my w o r k . F i n a l l y , m a n y t h a n k s t o K e n a n d K a a r i F r a s e r , t h e l a t e L i i s a M a u n u s , J a n i c e F r a s e r , H e a t h e r a n d B i l l T w a i t e s , E l i z a b e t h R o g e r s a n d S h e l l e y L e a r f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t o f t h e t h e s i s . W i t h o u t a l l t h e p e o p l e n a m e d h e r e i n t h i s t h e s i s j u s t w o u l d n o t e x i s t , s o my s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o y o u a l l . X T A B L E I; L I S T O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S U S E D A b b r e v i a t i o n F u l l T i t l e A R & P a r k s AWA C N P P A C T CWS E & N R F L U Z H C F I B P I C C R O M I C O M O S I C S U I U C N MAB M L P & H P8.Y R e g i o n U n e s c o U . S . A l b e r t a R e c r e a t i o n a n d P a r k s A l b e r t a W i l d e r n e s s A s s o c i a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n o n N a t i o n a l P a r k s a n d P r o t e c t e d A r e a s o f t h e I U C N C o n s e r v a t i o n T e r r e s t r i a l ( s e c t i o n o f I B P ) C a n a d i a n W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e A l b e r t a M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y a n d N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s F o r e s t L a n d U s e Z o n e ( A l b e r t a ) H a b i t a t C o n s e r v a t i o n F u n d ( B . C . ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l P r o g r a m m e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n a n d t h e R e s t o r a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t y i n R o m e I n t e r n a t i o n a 1 S i t e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l N a t u r e a n d M a n a n d t h e M i n i s t r y o f C o u n c i l o n M o n u m e n t s a n d C o u n c i l f o r S c i e n t i f i c U n i o n s U n i o n f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s B i o s p h e r e ( P r o g r a m m e ) L a n d s , P a r k s a n d H o u s i n g ( B . C . ) P a c i f i c a n d Y u k o n R e g i o n ( E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a ) U n i t e d N a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n U n i t e d S t a t e s ( o f A m e r i c a ) S c i e n t i f i c a n d 1 C H A P T E R 1 ; I S I N T E R N A T I O N A L E N V I R O N M E N T A L A C T I O N WORTH T H E  E F F O R T F O R D E V E L O P E D N A T I O N S ? 1 . 0 T h e G e n e r a l P r o b l e m a n d I t s H i s t o r y A w i d e r a n g e o f l e g i s l a t i o n a n d p r o g r a m s h a v e b e e n u s e d b y v a r i o u s n a t i o n s t o p r o t e c t l a n d . I n m o s t c a s e s e a c h n a t i o n h a s i n d e p e n d e n t l y f o c u s s e d o n a r e a s w i t h i n t h e i r o w n b o u n d a r i e s . O n l y a f e w j o i n t l a n d p r o t e c t i o n e f f o r t s ( e . g . , W a t e r t o n - G l a c i e r N a t i o n a l P a r k s a t t h e C a n a d a / U . S . A . b o u n d a r y ) h a d b e e n I n i t i a t e d u n t i l t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 s a n d e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s w h e n t h e e s c a l a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s w a s s p a w n i n g n u m e r o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s a n d c o n v e n t i o n s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n d p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e b u r g e o n i n g o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s d o n o t c h a l l e n g e a n a t i o n ' s s o v e r e i g n t y , a n d t h u s h a v e a c t e d a s I n c e n t i v e s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f m a n y s i t e s c o n t a i n i n g g l o b a l l y v a l u a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . T h e t h e s i s c o n c e r n s o n e o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s , t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n w h i c h w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 7 2 . I t e x a m i n e s t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a s a m e t h o d o f e n s u r i n g t h e r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l l a n d s . T h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s f o c u s s e s o n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d , s o a v e r y b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y o f l a n d p r o t e c t i o n a n d l a n d u s e m a n a g e m e n t c h a n g e s o v e r t h e y e a r s i s n e c e s s a r y t o s e t t h e c u r r e n t l a n d p r o t e c t i o n e f f o r t s i n t h e i r 2 h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . F o l l o w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e h i s t o r y o f l a n d p r o t e c t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s , t h e b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y f r o m w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s i s b a s e d i s e x p l i c a t e d . T h e r a t i o n a l e s f o r t h e r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d a r e f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r 2 . A t t h i s p o i n t , a b r i e f o v e r v i e w i s p r e s e n t e d w h i c h h i g h l i g h t s t h e h i s t o r y o f l a n d p r o t e c t i o n i n E u r o p e a n d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . I t w i l l b e a r g u e d t h a t N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y h a s d e v e l o p e d o v e r t i m e a n i n c r e a s i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n e e d f o r r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f s o m e n a t u r a l s i t e s . T h e r e a d e r s h o u l d b e a r i n m i n d t h a t t h e t h e s i s i s n o t c a l l i n g f o r t h e r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f a l l p r o t e c t e d s i t e s , n o r d o e s i t c a l l f o r t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f a l 1 c u r r e n t l y u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d t o p r o t e c t i o n . T h e f o c u s o f t h e t h e s i s i s o n e n s u r i n g t h e r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i t e s . S o m e o f t h e e a r l i e s t p r o t e c t e d a r e a s w e r e t h e p r i v a t e h u n t i n g o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s . A s H a r t n o t e s , O n l y a s m a l l g r o u p , u s u a l l y i n t h e u p p e r c l a s s , o f t e n s p o r t h u n t e r s o r i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , t u r n e d i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e l a n d s c a p e . T h r o u g h d e d i c a t e d , d i l i g e n t a n d s o m e t i m e s a u t o c r a t i c e f f o r t , t h e y w e r e a b l e t o r e s e r v e , u n d e r o n e g u i s e o r a n o t h e r , s i z e a b l e a r e a s o f l a n d f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s ( H a r t , 1 9 6 6 : 1 6 - 1 7 ) . 3 A s t h e l a n d w a s d e v e l o p e d a n d h a d l o s t a g o o d d e a l o f i t s n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i n E u r o p e b y t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f C r u e l t y t o A n i m a l s a n d t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f B i r d s w e r e d e v e l o p e d a n d t o o k a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f " d e s i r a b l e " ( i . e . , e d i b l e , p r e t t y o r r a r e ) w i l d l i f e , m o s t l y b i r d s , s p e c i e s ( S h e a i l , 1 9 7 6 ) . N o r t h A m e r i c a , h a v i n g a l a r g e r u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d m a s s , f e l t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r e s s u r e m u c h l a t e r . H o w e v e r , J o h n M u i r , t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e S i e r r a C l u b , b e g a n t o l o b b y i n t h e l a t e 1 8 0 0 s a n d e a r l y 1 9 0 0 s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f a r e a s o f t h e S i e r r a M o u n t a i n s i n C a l i f o r n i a f r o m t h e e x t e n s i v e r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t h e a n t i c i p a t e d w o u l d d e s t r o y t h e i r c o n s i d e r a b l e b e a u t y ( T u c k e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . M a n y p e o p l e t h o u g h t M u i r ' s c o n c e r n s w e r e u n f o u n d e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d t h a t h u m a n n e e d s f o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s u p e r c e d e d t h e e s o t e r i c v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s w h i c h M u i r e m p h a s i z e d . N a t i o n a l f o r e s t s ( i n t h e U . S . A . ) a n d n a t i o n a l p a r k s w e r e s e t a s i d e b e g i n n i n g i n t h e 1 8 8 0 s , b u t t h e y w e r e p r o t e c t e d w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f b e i n g u s a b l e i n t h e f u t u r e w h e n r e q u i r e d ( N a s h , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e f i r s t n a t i o n a l p a r k i n C a n a d a w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 8 8 5 w i t h t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f 10 a c r e s . T h a t s i t e w a s l a t e r e x p a n d e d a n d b e c a m e B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k . I n i t i a l l y , B a n f f w a s p r o t e c t e d s o a s t o k e e p p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s f r o m d e v e l o p i n g t h e h o t s p r i n g s : t h e g o v e r n m e n t p l a n n e d t o d e v e l o p t h e h o t s p r i n g s a s a c o m m e r c i a l l y v i a b l e r e s o r t ( M a r t y , 1 9 8 5 ) . I t 4 w a s o n l y m u c h l a t e r , i n t h e p o s t W o r l d W a r I I p e r i o d , t h a t B a n f f w a s p r o t e c t e d f o r i t s n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . I n t h e e a r l y 1 9 0 0 s , p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o w a r d s w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s t e n d e d t o b e b r o a d l y u t i l i t a r i a n : h u m a n u s e s t o o k p r e c e d e n c e . A s a n e x a m p l e , t h e H e t c h H e t c h y d a m c a s e i n n o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a w a s d e c i d e d i n f a v o u r o f d a m d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h i s p e r i o d a l t h o u g h t h e v a l u e s o f w i l d e r n e s s w e r e s t r o n g l y a r g u e d f o r b y M u i r a n d o t h e r s ( N a s h , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n t h e t w o W o r l d W a r s s a w t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m u l t i p l e u s e l a n d m a n a g e m e n t c o n c e p t i n E u r o p e . T h e e s s e n c e o f m u l t i p l e u s e w a s t h a t f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g , r e c r e a t i o n , w a t e r m a n a g e m e n t , a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e u s e s c o u l d a l l b e a c c o m m o d a t e d t o t h e i r h i g h e s t a n d b e s t u s e i n a g i v e n a r e a w i t h a d e q u a t e a d v a n c e p l a n n i n g . B y t h e e n d o f t h e w a r , t h e c o n c e p t w a s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n E u r o p e a n f o r e s t r y c i r c l e s a n d w a s r a p i d l y g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a w i t h s u c h c h a m p i o n s a s G i f f o r d P i n c h o t , f o r m e r h e a d o f t h e U . S . F o r e s t S e r v i c e ( N a s h , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e 1 9 6 0 U . S . M u l t i p l e U s e - S u s t a i n e d  Y i e l d A c t ( 1 9 6 0 , 7 4 S t a t . 2 1 5 ) d e f i n e d t h e m u l t i p l e u s e c o n c e p t a s , ( T ) h e m a n a g e m e n t o f a l l t h e v a r i o u s r e n e w a b l e s u r f a c e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e n a t i o n a l f o r e s t s s o t h a t t h e y a r e u t i l i z e d i n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n t h a t w i l l b e s t m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e m a k i n g t h e m o s t j u d i c i o u s u s e o f t h e l a n d f o r s o m e o r a l l o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s o r r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s o v e r a r e a s l a r g e e n o u g h t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t l a t i t u d e f o r p e r i o d i c a d j u s t m e n t s i n u s e t o c o n f o r m t o c h a n g i n g n e e d s a n d c o n d i t i o n s ; a l l o f t h e r e s o u r c e s ; a n d h a r m o n i o u s a n d c o o r d i n a t e d m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s , o f t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e l a n d , w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n 5 b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f t h e v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s , a n d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f u s e s t h a t w i l l g i v e t h e g r e a t e s t d o l l a r r e t u r n o r t h e g r e a t e s t u n i t o u t p u t ( H a l l , 1 9 6 3 : 2 7 6 - 2 7 7 ) . S o o n a f t e r t h e e n a c t m e n t o f t h e m u l t i p l e u s e l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e r e w a s s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m o f i t s b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s ( B e h a n , 1 9 6 7 ) a n d o f i t s v a l i d i t y a s a c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n m e t h o d ( H a l l , 1 9 6 3 ) . T h e c o n c e p t , h o w e v e r , h a s r e m a i n e d a n d i s f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n f o r e s t r y a g e n c i e s s u c h a s t h e B . C . M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , t o t h e c o n c e r n o f t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s o m e s i t e s o f l a n d . T h e f i e l d o f p l a n n i n g w a s f i r s t a w a r e o f p r o t e c t e d a r e a s t h r o u g h t h e m o v e m e n t f r o m a n e a r l y e m p h a s i s o n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , w a t e r s u p p l y , u r b a n f o r m a n d o t h e r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s s u e s t o p l a n n i n g f o r u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n a l p a r k s i n t h e e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . A k e y l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t o f t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y w a s F r e d e r i c k L a w O l m s t e d , t h e d e s i g n e r o f New Y o r k ' s C e n t r a l P a r k . T h e p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s w i t h C e n t r a l P a r k a s w i t h t h e o t h e r e a r l y u r b a n p a r k s w a s t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e r e s t o f t h e b u i l t c i t y f o r m ( H a r t , 1 9 6 6 ) . L i t t l e v a l u e w a s g i v e n t o u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d , p a r t l y d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e w a s a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s t o c k o f a v a i l a b l e w i l d e r n e s s , a n d w i l d e r n e s s w a s s t i l l a p p r o a c h e d w i t h a p i o n e e r a t t i t u d e , t h a t i s , t h a t i t s h o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d f o r h u m a n u s e . S u b s e q u e n t l y , p l a n n i n g f o r t h e h o u s i n g a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l n e e d s o f r e t u r n i n g s o l d i e r s a n d d e a l i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t i n g b a b y b o o m 6 c o n s u m e d t h e e n e r g y o f p l a n n e r s d u r i n g t h e p o s t W o r l d W a r I I p e r i o d . B y t h e 1 9 6 0 s , a m a n d a t e i n p l a n n i n g f o r c o n c e r n s b e y o n d t h e u r b a n a r e a s w a s d e v e l o p i n g . T h e s p a c e f l i g h t s w e r e e n g e n d e r i n g n e w " w h o l e e a r t h " c o n c e p t s , a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t i o n a n d e x p a n d i n g s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t w e r e b e g i n n i n g t o b e r e c o g n i z e d . S o m a n y o f t h e s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s c r o s s e d n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n s w e r e r a p i d l y g r o w i n g ( T a b l e I I l i s t s s o m e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l , m u l t i l a t e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r e a t i e s t o w h i c h C a n a d a i s p a r t y ) . T h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c w a s b e g i n n i n g t o s w i n g t o w a r d s a s e n s i t i v i t y t o w i l d a r e a s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t s w e r e a l s o b e i n g m a d e o n o t h e r i s s u e s w i t h s t r o n g m o r a l o v e r t o n e s ( e . g . , t h e H e l s i n k i a c c o r d , e t c . ) . W i t h i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , A l d o L e o p o l d ' s c a l l f o r a " l a n d e t h i c " w a s a r a l l y i n g c a l l f o r a g r o w i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t l o b b y . A s L e o p o l d w r o t e , A l l e t h i c s s o f a r e v o l v e d r e s t u p o n a s i n g l e p r e m i s e : t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a m e m b e r o f a c o m m u n i t y o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p a r t s . H i s i n s t i n c t s p r o m p t h i m t o c o m p e t e f o r h i s p l a c e i n t h a t c o m m u n i t y , b u t h i s e t h i c s p r o m p t h i m a l s o t o c o o p e r a t e ( p e r h a p s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e m a y b e a p l a c e t o c o m p e t e f o r ) . T h e l a n d e t h i c s i m p l y e n l a r g e s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y t o i n c l u d e s o i l s , w a t e r s , p l a n t s , a n d a n i m a l s , o r c o l l e c t i v e l y : t h e l a n d . 7 T A B L E I I ; A L I S T OF SOME I N T E R N A T I O N A L . M U L T I L A T E R A L E N V I R O N M E N T A L T R E A T I E S TO W H I C H C A N A D A I S P A R T Y A g r e e m e n t o n a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n e r g y P r o g r a m m e c o n c l u d e d 18 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 4 i n P a r i s . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 17 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 7 5 A g r e e m e n t o n t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f P o l a r B e a r s c o n c l u d e d 15 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 3 i n O s l o . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 16 D e c . 1 9 7 4 C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S a l m o n i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c A r e a c o n c l u d e d 2 M a r c h , 1 9 8 2 i n R e y k j a v i k . C a n a d a w a s a s i g n a t o r y , 18 M a r c h , 1 9 8 2 . C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r t h e E x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e S e a c o n c l u d e d 12 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 4 i n C o p e n h a g e n . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 2 2 J u l y , 1 9 6 8 . C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e W o r l d C u l t u r a l a n d N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e c o n c l u d e d 16 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 i n P a r i s . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 2 3 J u l y , 1 9 7 6 . C o n v e n t i o n o n F i s h i n g a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e L i v i n g R e s o u r c e s o f t h e H i g h S e a s c o n c l u d e d 2 9 A p r i l , 1 9 5 8 I n G e n e v a . C a n a d a w a s a s i g n a t o r y 2 9 A p r i l , 1 9 5 8 . C o n v e n t i o n o n F u t u r e M u l t i l a t e r a l C o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e N o r t h - W e s t A t l a n t i c F i s h e r i e s c o n c l u d e d 2 4 O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 8 i n O t t a w a . C a n a d a w a s s i g n a t o r y 3 0 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 8 . C o n v e n t i o n o n L o n g - R a n g e T r a n s b o u n d a r y A i r P o l l u t i o n c o n c l u d e d 13 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 9 i n G e n e v a . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 15 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 8 1 . C o n v e n t i o n o n t h e C o n d u c t o f F i s h i n g O p e r a t i o n s i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c c o n c l u d e d 1 J u n e , 1 9 6 7 i n L o n d o n . C a n a d a w a s a s i g n a t o r y 2 8 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 7 . C o n v e n t i o n o n t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n b y D u m p i n g o f W a s t e s a n d O t h e r M a t t e r c o n c l u d e d 2 9 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 i n L o n d o n . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 13 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 5 . C o n v e n t i o n o n t h e P r o h i b i t i o n o f M i l i t a r y o r a n y O t h e r H o s t i l e U s e o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l M o d i f i c a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s c o n c l u d e d 10 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 7 6 i n New Y o r k . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 11 J u n e , 1 9 8 1 . C o n v e n t i o n o n W e t l a n d s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l I m p o r t a n c e E s p e c i a l l y W a t e r f o w l H a b i t a t a n d 1 9 8 2 P r o t o c o l c o n c l u d e d 2 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 1 i n R a m s a r . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 15 J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 1 . 8 C o n v e n t i o n P l a c i n g t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o p l a r C o m m i s s i o n W i t h i n t h e F r a m e w o r k o f F A O c o n c l u d e d 19 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 5 9 i n R o m e . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 2 8 N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 2 . I n t e r i m C o n v e n t i o n o n C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N o r t h P a c i f i c F u r S e a l s c o n c l u d e d i n 1 9 5 7 , a m e n d e d a n d e x t e n d e d 1 9 6 3 , 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 6 a n d 1 9 8 0 . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 16 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 5 7 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f A t l a n t i c T u n a s c o n c l u d e d 14 M a y , 1 9 6 6 i n R i o d e J a n e i r o . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 2 0 A u g u s t , 1 9 6 8 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e H i g h S e a s F i s h e r i e s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c O c e a n c o n c l u d e d 9 M a y , 1 9 5 2 i n T o k y o . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 12 J u n e , 1 9 5 3 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f P o l l u t i o n o f t h e S e a b y O i l c o n c l u d e d 12 M a y , 1 9 5 4 i n L o n d o n . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 19 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 5 6 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f P l a n t s a n d P l a n t P r o d u c t s c o n c l u d e d 6 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 5 1 i n R o m e . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 10 J u l y , 1 9 5 3 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e i n E n d a n g e r e d S p e c i e s o f W i l d F a u n a a n d F l o r a c o n c l u d e d 3 M a r c h , 1 9 7 3 i n W a s h i n g t o n . C a n a d a b e c a m e p a r t y 10 A p r i l , 1 9 7 5 . U . N . C o n v e n t i o n o n t h e L a w o f t h e S e a c o n c l u d e d 10 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 8 2 i n M o n t e g o B a y . C a n a d a w a s a s i g n a t o r y o n 10 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 8 2 . ( A d a p t e d f r o m : B o w m a n a n d H a r r i s , 1 9 8 4 ) 9 . . . A l a n d e t h i c o f c o u r s e c a n n o t p r e v e n t t h e a l t e r a t i o n , m a n a g e m e n t , a n d u s e o f t h e s e " r e s o u r c e s ' , b u t i t d o e s a f f i r m t h e i r r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e , a n d , a t l e a s t i n s p o t s , t h e i r c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e i n a n a t u r a l s t a t e . I n s h o r t , a l a n d e t h i c c h a n g e s t h e r o l e o f Homo  s a p i e n s f r o m c o n q u e r o r o f t h e l a n d - c o m m u n i t y t o p l a i n m e m b e r a n d c i t i z e n o f i t . I t i m p l i e s r e s p e c t f o r h i s f e l l o w - m e m b e r s , a n d a l s o r e s p e c t f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y a s s u c h ( L e o p o l d , 1 9 4 9 : 2 0 3 - 2 0 4 ) . C o m b i n e d w i t h a n i n c r e a s i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y d i s p l a y e d b y e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s , a n d t h e w o r l d w i d e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h o s e s y s t e m s , L e o p o l d ' s w o r k ( a n d t h a t o f o t h e r s l i k e H e n r y D a v i d T h o r e a u , J o h n M u i r , a n d R a c h e l C a r s o n t o n a m e a f e w ) a l o n g w i t h t h e w o r k o f o t h e r e c o l o g i s t s l i k e P a u l E h r l i c h p r o v i d e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e e c o - p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 s w h i c h w a s s o v e h e m e n t l y a r g u e d b y m e m b e r s o f t h e c o u n t e r c u l t u r e ( N a s h , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h i s w a s c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e g r o w i n g t r e n d b y u r b a n i t e s t o w a r d s o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s l i k e c a m p i n g , b a c k p a c k i n g , c a n o e t r i p p i n g a n d c y c l e t r i p p i n g a s a n e s c a p e f r o m t h e o v e r c r o w d i n g o f u r b a n a r e a s . M a n y o r d i n a r y p e o p l e b e c a m e p r e d i s p o s e d t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t a r g u m e n t s . A s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e c h a n g e i n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s , t h r e a t s o f d a m d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e G r a n d C a n y o n w e r e f o u g h t u s i n g s i m i l a r a r g u m e n t s t o t h o s e u s e d i n t h e H e t c h H e t c h y d a m c a s e , b u t t h e r e s u l t s w e r e e n t i r e l y o p p o s i t e , d a m d e v e l o p m e n t w a s s t o p p e d ( N a s h , 1 9 7 3 ) . M o r e r e c e n t w r i t i n g s h a v e d e s c r i b e d t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g o f n e w a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a s " d e e p e c o l o g y " ( D e v a l l a n d S e s s i o n s , 1 9 8 5 ) . I n e s s e n c e , d e e p 10 e c o l o g y r e s p o n d s t o L e o p o l d ' s c a l l f o r a l a n d e t h i c . T h e d e e p e c o l o g y a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s . D e e p e c o l o g y m a y b e d e s c r i b e d a s g o i n g b e y o n d t h e s o - c a l l e d f a c t u a l s c i e n t i f i c l e v e l t o t h e l e v e l o f s e l f a n d E a r t h w i s d o m . D e e p e c o l o g y g o e s b e y o n d a l i m i t e d p i e c e m e a l s h a l l o w a p p r o a c h t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s a n d a t t e m p t s t o a r t i c u l a t e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e l i g i o u s a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r l d v i e w . T h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f d e e p e c o l o g y a r e t h e b a s i c i n t u i t i o n s a n d e x p e r i e n c i n g o f o u r s e l v e s a n d N a t u r e w h i c h c o m p r i s e s e c o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . C e r t a i n o u t l o o k s o n p o l i t i c s a n d p u b l i c p o l i c y f l o w n a t u r a l l y f r o m t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . . E c o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d d e e p e c o l o g y a r e i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e d o m i n a n t w o r l d v i e w o f t e c h n o c r a t i c - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s w h i c h r e g a r d s h u m a n s a s i s o l a t e d a n d f u n d a m e n t a l l y s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e r e s t o f N a t u r e , a s s u p e r i o r t o , a n d i n c h a r g e o f , t h e r e s t o f c r e a t i o n . B u t t h e v i e w o f h u m a n s a s s e p a r a t e a n d s u p e r i o r t o t h e r e s t o f N a t u r e i s o n l y p a r t o f l a r g e r c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s . F o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s , W e s t e r n c u l t u r e h a s b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y o b s e s s e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f d o m i n a n c e ; w i t h d o m i n a n c e o f h u m a n s o v e r n o n h u m a n N a t u r e , m a s c u l i n e o v e r t h e f e m i n i n e , w e a l t h y a n d p o w e r f u l o v e r t h e p o o r , w i t h t h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e W e s t o v e r n o n - W e s t e r n c u l t u r e s . D e e p e c o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s a l l o w s u s t o s e e t h r o u g h t h e s e e r r o n e o u s a n d d a n g e r o u s i l l u s i o n s ( D e v a l 1 a n d S e s s i o n s , 1 9 8 5 : 6 5 - 6 6 ) . T h e a u t h o r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d e e p e c o l o g y i s t e m p e r e d b y a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t c h a n g e s i n h u m a n l i f e - s t y l e s i m p l i e d b y t h e d e e p e c o l o g y a p p r o a c h w i l l t a k e t i m e , a n d t h a t a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e a r e t i e d i n t o v a r i o u s p a r t s o f m a n y s y s t e m s . T h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s y s t e m s w a s e x p o u n d e d b y B e e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) a n d S c h u m a c h e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) , t o n a m e a f e w a u t h o r s , b u t t h e d e e p e c o l o g y a p p r o a c h p r o v i d e s t h e m o s t c o m p a t i b l e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e p r e s e n t w o r k . 11 T h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o v e m e n t h a s i d e n t i f i e d n u m e r o u s c r u c i a l s u p r a n a t i o n a l i s s u e s ( e . g . , a i r a n d w a t e r p o l l u t i o n , e t c . ) t h a t d e p e n d o n t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n s t o r e l i n q u i s h s o m e o f t h e i r f r e e d o m t o a c t a s t h e y w i s h . O f i n t e r e s t t o t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r a r e e f f o r t s t o e n s u r e t h e r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d t o e n s u r e a v i a b l e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f o r t s i n l a n d p r o t e c t i o n d e p e n d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g n a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r a c c e p t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s . I n t h i s s e n s e , o p p r o b r i u m f o r l a c k o f c o n f o r m a n c e w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t c e n t r e s a r o u n d m o r a l s u a s i o n i m p o s e d b y o t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g n a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , B a u m o l a n d O a t e s ( 1 9 7 9 ) w h o l o o k e d a t p r o g r a m s f o r e n c o u r a g i n g r e c y c l i n g a n d r e d u c e d r e s o u r c e c o n s u m p t i o n , i n d i c a t e d t h a t m o r a l s u a s i o n w a s o n l y e f f e c t i v e i n e m e r g e n c i e s , w h e r e s u r v e i l l a n c e i s r e q u i r e d , o r w h e n t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e o t h e r w i s e . E f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n m a y r e q u i r e t a n g i b l e i n c e n t i v e s o r b e " n o n - v o l u n t a r y " . W h i l e o p p r o b r i u m h a s a l w a y s h a d s o m e i n f l u e n c e o n g o v e r n m e n t s ' a c t i o n s , t h e l e v e l o f i n f l u e n c e i s d i f f i c u l t t o m e a s u r e . B e c a u s e t h e c u r r e n t f l o o d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g r e e m e n t s d e p e n d o n m o r a l s u a s i o n t o e n s u r e t h e i r e f f i c a c y , i t i s t h u s v a l u a b l e t o a s k w h e t h e r a p r o t e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m b a s e d o n m o r a l s u a s i o n i s w o r t h w h i 1 e . 12 T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s i s t o e v a l u a t e t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ' s e f f i c a c y a s a r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g t o o l i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l s i t e s i n C a n a d a . T o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t o e x a m i n e t h e c o n v e n t i o n ' s e f f i c a c y , t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n P a r k s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e w a s s e l e c t e d . I t w a s c h o s e n f r o m t h e l i s t o f C a n a d i a n W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e s ( s h o w n i n F i g u r e 2 i n C h a p t e r 5) f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : 1 . i t w a s r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d a s a W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e s o t h e h i s t o r y o f i t s d e s i g n a t i o n w a s w i t h i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t m e m o r y o f t h e k e y p a r t i c i p a n t s , 2 . i t i s l o c a t e d r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e t o V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e a u t h o r ' s h o m e b a s e , 3 . r e c e n t r e s o u r c e u s e c o n f l i c t s h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t i n t h e R o c k i e s r e g i o n , c o n t a i n i n g t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e , a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n m i g h t h a v e r e l e v a n c e t o t h o s e c o n f l i c t s , a n d , 4. t h e a u t h o r i s p e r s o n a l l y a w a r e o f t h e a r e a a n d h a s a s e n s e o f c o n c e r n a b o u t i t s f u t u r e . Why s t u d y t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ? D u r i n g a c o n t r a c t p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e ( C W S ) , t h e a u t h o r b e c a m e a w a r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n d p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d s a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y w e r e g i v e n r e l a t i v e l y l o w p r i o r i t y w i t h i n t h e CWS a s l a n d p r o t e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m s . T h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a p p e a r e d t o o f f e r a p o t e n t i a l l y h i g h l e v e l o f p r o t e c t i o n . Q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e w i s d o m o f a s s i g n i n g s u c h a l o w p r i o r i t y t o 13 w h a t m i g h t b e p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e l a n d p r o t e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m s a r o s e . A g r o w i n g s e n s e o f c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e a b i l i t y o f m u l t i p l e u s e a p p r o a c h e s t o l a n d u s e p r o v i d i n g a n y p r o t e c t i o n t o c r i t i c a l a r e a s , a n d a s e n s e t h a t m u l t i p l e u s e w a s e f f e c t i v e o n l y f o r r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n a g e n c i e s ( i . e . , i t l e f t r e c r e a t i o n i s t s a n d t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h n o n c o m m e r c i a l w i l d l i f e f e e l i n g u n s a t i s f i e d ) a l s o l e d t o t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a t l e a s t s o m e p i e c e s o f l a n d m u s t b e r i g o r o u s l y p r o t e c t e d . I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e w o r k e n c l o s e d h e r e i n w i l l b e o f v a l u e t o b o t h g o v e r n m e n t l a n d p r o t e c t i o n d e c i s i o n m a k e r s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d v o c a t e s o r o t h e r n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t a t t e m p t s t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n , w h y s h o u l d C a n a d a ( o r a n y o t h e r n a t i o n ) b o t h e r t o i n v o l v e i t s e l f w i t h t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n w h e n t h e s i t e s a r e a l r e a d y p r o t e c t e d u n d e r d o m e s t i c p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s ? I n d o i n g s o i t w i l l h e l p b o t h g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l b o d i e s t o b e s t a l l o c a t e t h e i r l a n d , p r o t e c t i o n e f f o r t s . A s . w e l l , a m o n g t h e p o s s i b l e s t r a t e g i e s t h a t c o n c e r n e d p l a n n e r s a n d o t h e r s c o u l d p u r s u e t o a c c o m p l i s h s u c h e n d s a s t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t p r e s e r v a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n o f h u m a n r i g h t s , e t c . , t h e t h e s i s q u e s t i o n s w h e t h e r t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t / c o n v e n t i o n i s l i k e l y t o b e a v a l u a b l e t o o l . 1.1 M e t h o d o l o g y 14 T h e r e s e a r c h s t y l e a d o p t e d w a s q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y o f a n e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w a n d p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h k e y a c t o r s . T h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e r v i e w s t y l e w a s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y M u r p h y ' s ( 1 9 8 0 ) d i s c u s s i o n o f i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e s f o r e v a l u a t o r s a n d p o l i c y a n a l y s t s . A l i s t o f i n t e r v i e w s u b j e c t s , t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n s a n d t h e d a t e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w a r e i n c l u d e d a s A p p e n d i x 1 . A s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e , t h e p r i m a r y ( d e c i s i o n m a k i n g b o d i e s w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s . I f i n t e r v i e w s w e r e n o t p o s s i b l e , w r i t t e n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d t e l e p h o n e c a l l s w e r e u s e d , a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e m a i n l y u s e d t o o b t a i n f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( e . g . , r e g a r d i n g t h e u s e o f v a r i o u s f o r m s o f d o m e s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n , e t c . ) . 1 . 2 A r g u m e n t O u t l i n e a n d B a s i c A s s u m p t i o n s T h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f s e v e n c h a p t e r s i n t o t a l . C h a p t e r 2 c r i t i c a l l y e x a m i n e s t h e w e a l t h o f a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d . I t a c c e p t s t e n a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d , a n d u s e s t h o s e a r g u m e n t s t o d e v e l o p t e n c r i t e r i a w h i c h a r e u s e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a s c o m p a r e d w i t h d o m e s t i c p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d s . S t a n d a r d c r i t e r i a u s e d t o e v a l u a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s a r e r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e n e w l y d e v e l o p e d c r i t e r i a d u e t o t h e f o c u s o n p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y o u t c o m e s r a t h e r t h a n o n t h e m o r e u s u a l f o c u s o n t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . C h a p t e r 3 i d e n t i f i e s t h e r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s i n a n d t h r e a t s t o t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s . I t a l s o d e s c r i b e s t h e R o c k i e s e c o s y s t e m a n d t h e h i s t o r y o f u s e a n d p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n . T h e R o c k i e s c a s e p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . M e c h a n i s m s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d a r e r e v i e w e d a n d b r i e f l y e v a l u a t e d i n C h a p t e r 4 w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r r e c e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e l o n g - t e r m p r o t e c t i o n o f w h o l e e c o s y s t e m s . D o m e s t i c p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e u s e d b y t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , t h e B . C . a n d A l b e r t a g o v e r n m e n t s , p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d n a t i v e p e o p l e a r e s e e n t o b e c o m m o n l y i n a d e q u a t e f o r r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l m e t h o d s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f e a t u r e s a n d p r o t e c t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n i s r e s e r v e d f o r C h a p t e r 5. C a n a d a ' s r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d o n g o i n g u s e o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h a t c h a p t e r . C h a p t e r 6 d e s c r i b e s c a s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e A u s t r a l i a n G o r d o n - U p o n - F r a n k l i n d a m c a s e , w h e r e t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n h a s b e e n k n o w n t o m a k e a t a n g i b l e d i f f e r e n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d . T h e A u s t r a l i a n d a m c a s e 1 6 s e r v e s a s a p a r t i c u l a r l y g o o d m o d e l o f t h e w a y t h a t t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n m i g h t b e u s e d i n C a n a d a i f a s i t e w a s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h s e r i o u s r e s o u r c e d e g r a d a t i o n . T h e f i n a l c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n P a r k s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e , a n d c o m p a r e s t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n t o d o m e s t i c p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s i n l i g h t o f t h e t e n c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r 2 . C o n c l u s i o n s l i s t t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n f o r C a n a d a . T h e g l o b a l n a t u r e o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o t h e r n a t i o n s a n d o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t s / c o n v e n t i o n s a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d . S e v e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s a n d d e f i n i t i o n s u n d e r l i e t h e a r g u m e n t s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s , t h e y i n c l u d e t h e c o n c e r n s w h i c h f o l l o w . T h e t e r m " w h o l e e c o s y s t e m s " d o e s n o t r e f e r t o t h e t y p e o f d e f i n i t i o n u s e d b y S p u r r ( 1 9 6 9 : 3 ) , i . e . , A n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e c o s y s t e m i s a n i n t e g r a t e d e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m , o n e e l e m e n t o f w h i c h i s a p r o d u c t o f d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t u s e t o m a n . T h e p r o d u c t m a y b e b i o l o g i c a l a s i n t h e c a s e o f f o r e s t s , r a n g e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s , f i s h , a n d w i l d l i f e ; p h y s i c a l a s i n t h e c a s e o f w a t e r , a i r , a n d s o i l ; o r b o t h . I n a l l c a s e s , t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c e t o f a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e c o s y s t e m i s t h a t m a n h a s a d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e c o m p l e x s e t o f e c o l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . 17 T h e d e f i n i t i o n u s e d h e r e i n d o e s n o t n e c e s s i t a t e t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f h u m a n s i n t h e e c o s y s t e m . W h i t t a k e r n o t e s t h a t , A c o m m u n i t y a n d i t s e n v i r o n m e n t t r e a t e d t o g e t h e r a s a f u n c t i o n a l s y s t e m o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d t r a n s f e r a n d c i r c u l a t i o n o f e n e r g y a n d m a t t e r , i s a n e c o s y s t e m ( W h i t t a k e r , 1 9 7 5 : 2 ) . T o e x p a n d t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , A b e r c r o m b i e , H i c k m a n a n d J o h n s o n d e f i n e a n e c o s y s t e m a s , A c o m m u n i t y o f o r g a n i s m s , i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h o n e a n o t h e r , p l u s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e a n d w i t h w h i c h t h e y a l s o i n t e r a c t ; e . g . , a p o n d , a f o r e s t . A s y s t e m c o n s i s t i n g o f p r o d u c e r s , a u t o t r o p h i c o r g a n i s m s ( m a i n l y g r e e n p l a n t s ) , c o n s u m e r s , h e t e r o t r o p h i c o r g a n i s m s ( a n i m a l s ) a n d d e c o m p o s e r s , h e t e r o t r o p h i c o r g a n i s m s ( c h i e f l y b a c t e r i a a n d f u n g i ) l a t t e r b r e a k i n g d o w n d e a d o r g a n i s m s , a b s o r b i n g n u t r i e n t s f o r g r o w t h a n d r e l e a s i n g n u t r i e n t s t o e n v i r o n m e n t f o r u s e b y p r o d u c e r s ; a l l o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d b y p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f e n v i r o n m e n t ( A b e r c r o m b i e , H i c k m a n a n d J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 5 : 9 3 ) . T h e l a t t e r t w o d e f i n i t i o n s a r e a c c e p t e d b y t h e p r e s e n t w o r k . T h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r k b e i n g " e c o s y s t e m a t i c " r e f e r s t o a n a p p r o a c h t h a t p r o t e c t s t h e g i v e n e c o s y s t e m s o t h a t i t m i g h t r e m a i n f r e e t o i n t e r a c t a s i t w o u l d n a t u r a l l y , t h a t i s , w i t h o u t h u m a n i n t e r f e r e n c e . " U n i v e r s a l v a l u e " r e f e r s t o a f e a t u r e w h i c h i s s u f f i c i e n t l y r a r e o r o f s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h q u a l i t y t h a t i t i s o n l y c o m p a r a b l e a t a g l o b a l l e v e l , r a t h e r t h a n a t a l o c a l l e v e l . E x a m p l e s m i g h t i n c l u d e t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y r a r e s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l i n a n u n d i s t u r b e d p o r t i o n o f i t s p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t , o r a r a r e c o l l e c t i o n o f p a i n t i n g s r e p r e s e n t i n g a s i n g l e p e r i o d o f a r t 18 h i s t o r y t h a t i s n o t w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d e l s e w h e r e . T h e d e f i n i t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e w o r d " u n i v e r s a l " , R e l a t i n g t o t h e e n t i r e u n i v e r s e ; o f o r p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i n g s o r p e r s o n s r e g a r d e d c o l l e c t i v e l y o r d i s t r i b u t i v e l y ; b e l o n g i n g t o t h e w h o l e e a r t h o r t o a l l h u m a n b e i n g s ; a l l - e m b r a c i n g ; u n l i m i t e d ; g e n e r a l . . . . ( F u n k ( e d . ) , 1 9 5 1 : 1 4 2 9 ) . U n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a l w a y s p e r t a i n s t o t h e v a l u e h u m a n s p l a c e o n a g i v e n o b j e c t o r c o l l e c t i o n o f o b j e c t s . T h e m a j o r a s s u m p t i o n m a d e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e s e n t w o r k i s t h a t t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d f r o m h u m a n i n f l u e n c e i s v a l u a b l e . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s u c h a n a s s u m p t i o n c o n t a i n s a v a l u e j u d g e m e n t , b u t i t i s t h a t a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t n o p l a n n i n g c a n b e t r u l y v a l u e - f r e e . I t i s c o n t e n d e d t h a t i t b e h o o v e s t h e p l a n n e r t o b e e x p l i c i t a b o u t h i s / h e r b i a s e s i n o r d e r t h a t h i s / h e r c l i e n t ( s ) a r e a w a r e o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r e m i s e s b e h i n d t h e w o r k t h e y r e c e i v e . 19 CHAPTER 2: RATIONALE AND CRITERIA FOR THE RIGOROUS PROTECTION  OF LAND 2.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r I n t r o d u c e d t h e f o c u s o f t h e t h e s i s , t h a t i s , e v a l u a t i n g t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n as a method o f e n s u r i n g t h a t l a n d which i s p r o t e c t e d i s t r u l y e x c l u d e d from d e s t r u c t i v e uses so t h a t t h e s i t e can f u l f i l l t h e g o a l s f o r which i t was o r i g i n a l l y p r o t e c t e d . The purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r i s t o c r i t i c a l l y examine t h e arguments f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d and t o draw up some br o a d c r i t e r i a t o use i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s methods f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 4. The t h e s i s t a k e s t h e n o r m a t i v e s t a n c e t h a t t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d i s a w o r t h w h i l e goal o f a l a n d planner/manager, and t h u s a d v o c a t e s c r i t e r i a d e s i g n e d t o e f f e c t r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f s i t e s . Land i s assumed t o p r o v i d e t h e base on which e c o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s may o c c u r when l e f t a l o n e by humans. P r o t e c t i o n o f marine ecosystems i s more d i f f i c u l t because o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f d i s t a n t a c t i o n s ( e . g . , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e moon on t i d a l a c t i o n , e t c . ) . Marine ecosystems a r e not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p r e s e n t work, and mechanisms f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n c o u l d e a s i l y p r o v i d e a t o p i c f o r an a d d i t i o n a l t h e s i s t r e a t m e n t . The i n f l u e n c e o f management and o t h e r a c t i o n s ( e . g . , a i r and water p o l l u t i o n ) p e r t a i n i n g t o l a n d o u t s i d e t h e s i t e o f 20 i n t e r e s t s h o u l d n o t , b u t w i l l b e i g n o r e d i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r k : o n l y a c t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s p e c i f i c s i t e o f l a n d w i l l b e e x p e c t e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e l a n d t o p e r f o r m i t s f u n c t i o n s i n t h e t o t a l e c o s y s t e m . 2 .1 E v a l u a t i o n o f P r o t e c t i o n R a t i o n a l e s " M u l t i p l e u s e " o f l a n d h a s b e c o m e a c o m m o n b u z z w o r d i n C a n a d i a n r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t i n r e c e n t y e a r s . I t m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e e n t i r e v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e u s e s m a y b e a c c o m m o d a t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s o a s t o a v o i d r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s a n d e n s u r e t h e h i g h e s t a n d b e s t u s e o f t h e e n t i r e r e g i o n . R e c e n t l y t h e i d e a o f b r i n g i n g g r o u p s t o g e t h e r t o " d i v i d e u p t h e p i e " i n a w a y t h a t r e d u c e s r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s h a s c o m e i n t o f a v o u r . O n e e x a m p l e o f t h e u s e o f m u l t i p l e u s e t e c h n i q u e s i s t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t U n i t s o n B . C . p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s p r o v i d e d f o r b y s e c t i o n 4 o f t h e F o r e s t A c t ( R . S . B . C . 1 9 7 9 , C h . 1 4 0 ) ( K e n t A n d e r s , B . C . F o r e s t S e r v i c e , p e r s . c o m m . ) . I n t h e m u l t i p l e u s e s y s t e m , r e s e r v e s f o r e c o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d u n n e c e s s a r y ( c f . K e e n a n , 1 9 8 4 ) a s m o s t " g o o d " w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s ( e . g . , d e e r , e l k , e t c . ) t h r i v e u n d e r m u l t i p l e u s e m a n a g e m e n t a n d r e s e r v e s m e e t t h e n e e d s o f o n l y a s m a l l n u m b e r o f e l i t i s t e c o f r e a k s i n m i d d l e a n d u p p e r i n c o m e g r o u p s . T h e v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e i n t e r e s t s , f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g , h y d r o e l e c t r i c d e v e l o p m e n t , e t c . , a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o m a k e a t 21 v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t o f a l 1 C a n a d i a n s a s h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d b y m u l t i p l e u s e m a n a g e m e n t i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . A s K e e n a n ( 1 9 8 4 ) w r i t e s . T o c o n t e m p l a t e m a i n t a i n i n g g r e a t a r e a s o f w i l d e r n e s s , t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t , i s n o n s e n s e . T h e e c o n o m y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s a l m o s t t o t a l l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f l u m b e r i n g , w o o d p r o c e s s i n g , m i n i n g a n d f i s h i n g . T h i s i s w h y w e a r e h e r e , t o w r e s t o u r l i v i n g f r o m t h e m i g h t y e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h s u r r o u n d s u s . . . ( K e e n a n , 1 9 8 4 : 1 3 6 ) K e e n a n ' s a r g u m e n t s c e n t r e a r o u n d t h e e l e v a t i o n o f h u m a n s a b o v e t h e r e s t o f b i o l o g i c a l c r e a t i o n o n t h e e a r t h , t h a t I s , I f t h e e a r t h d i d n o t h a r b o u r s u c h a h i g h l y I n t e l l e c t u a l s p e c i e s a s m a n , t h e n n o o n e w o u l d , I n t r u t h , d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e i d e o l o g y o f l e a v i n g n a t u r e a l o n e t o w o r k o u t i t s o w n d e s t i n y , j u s t a s i t t o o k c a r e o f t h e d i n o s a u r s a n d t h o s e t h o u s a n d s o f o t h e r e x t i n c t s p e c i e s , l o s t w i t h o u t t h e I n t e r f e r e n c e o f m a n . B u t m a n I s a b r e e d a p a r t a n d b e c a u s e o f h i s i n t e l l e c t , h a s n e e d s o v e r a n d a b o v e t h o s e o f t h e p u r e a n i m a l k i n g d o m . T h e I n e v i t a b l e t r u t h I s t h a t we h a v e a n I n t e l l e c t u a l s o c i e t y a n d i t s n e e d s m u s t b e g i v e n p r i o r i t y o v e r t h e l a w s o f t h e j u n g l e ( K e e n a n , 1 9 8 4 : 1 9 6 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o K e e n a n ' s a r g u m e n t s , t h e p r e s e n t w o r k a s s e r t s t h a t t h e s p e c i e s Homo s a p 1 e n s I s o n l y o n e o f t h e m a n y s p e c i e s w h i c h I n h a b i t t h e c o m p l e x t r o p o s p h e r e o f t h e p l a n e t E a r t h . T h e c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t I s t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f h u m a n s w i t h i n t h e e a r t h ' s t o t a l s y s t e m . H u m a n s , b e c a u s e o f o u r h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d b r a i n c a p a c i t y , d o h a v e a n a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e o u r e n v i r o n m e n t t o a d e g r e e t h a t I s I n c o n g r u o u s w i t h o u r p h y s i c a l s i z e a n d s t r e n g t h . A s w e l l , b e c a u s e o f a l o n g h i s t o r y o f i n f l u e n c e o n o u r e n v i r o n m e n t , h u m a n s h a v e b e c o m e t h e m a n a g e r s o f h u m a n , p l a n t a n d a n i m a l a c t i v i t y o n 22 t h e g l o b e t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e , a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y , a n d t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f r e n e w a b l e a n d n o n r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s . T h e p r e s e n t w o r k a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e s o m e a r e a s o f t h e g l o b e w h e r e h u m a n s p u r p o s e l y a l l o w n a t u r a l e c o s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e s s e s t o h a v e p r i o r i t y . T h o s e a r e a s a r e t h e p r o t e c t e d l a n d s r e f e r r e d t o t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r k . U n l e s s h u m a n s l e a v e s o m e a r e a s t o p e r f o r m t h e i r n a t u r a l r o l e i n t h e e c o s y s t e m , we m a y b e j u s t i f i a b l y a c c u s e d o f t h e a r r o g a n c e o f h u m a n i s m ( E h r e n f e l d , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e m u l t i p l e u s e a p p r o a c h t o l a n d m a n a g e m e n t w h i c h h a s h a d t o b e u s e d i n E u r o p e d u e t o t h e h u m a n i m p a c t o n a l m o s t a l l a r e a s , C a n a d a s t i l l h a s s o m e c h o i c e s l e f t a b o u t h o w l a n d i s t o b e u s e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n s o m e r e l a t i v e l y u n t o u c h e d a r e a s i n t h e R o c k i e s a n d t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f C a n a d a . W i l d e r n e s s a r e a s m u s t b e t r e a t e d a s C a n a d a ' s " c r o w n j e w e l s " . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s h a s p r e v a i l e d I n m a n y a r e a s b e c a u s e t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e a c t i v i t y c a n b e m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f t h e d i r e c t a n d I n d i r e c t e c o n o m i c v a l u e a n d J o b s c r e a t e d . T h e v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d c a n s e l d o m b e t e c h n i c a l l y m e a s u r e d o r e c o n o m i c a l l y J u s t i f i e d . T h e p r i m a r y v a l u e s a r e e c o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i a l . B e c a u s e e c o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i a l v a l u e s a r e v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o m e a s u r e , a l t e r n a t i v e r a t i o n a l e s s u p p o r t t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d . 23 O f c o n c e r n t o w r i t e r s l i k e T u c k e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) i s t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f a r i s t o c r a t i c i d e a l s w h i c h t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f l a n d f r o m r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n a n d c o n c e r n s a b o u t e c o n o m i c g r o w t h c o n t i n u e . T h e p r e s e n t w o r k i s n o t c o n c e r n e d a b o u t w h o s e I d e a l s a r e r e f l e c t e d I n t h e a c t i o n s t o w a r d s l a n d p r o t e c t i o n n o r a b o u t w h e t h e r t h e s o c i a l c l a s s o f t h e d i r e c t r e c i p i e n t s o f b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a s I s t o o h e a v i l y w e i g h t e d t o w a r d s t h e m i d d l e a n d u p p e r i n c o m e l e v e l s , n o r w h e t h e r e v e r y o n e h a s a c c e s s t o t h e e n j o y m e n t o f t h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a . T h e p r e s e n t w o r k m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f h i g h q u a l i t y s i t e s I s a g o a l w h i c h w i l l d i r e c t l y ( e . g . , t h r o u g h v i s i t s ) o r I n d i r e c t l y ( e . g . , t h r o u g h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f s p e c i e s a n d a h i g h q u a l i t y e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h r o u g h " e x i s t e n c e " v a l u e a c c r u i n g f r o m t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p r o t e c t e d a r e a ) b e n e f i t a l l p e o p l e , r e g a r d l e s s o f s o c i a l s t a t u s . ' T h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c n a t u r e i o f m o s t r a t i o n a l e s f o r l a n d p r o t e c t i o n i s a l s o n o t d e b a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r k . T h e c r i t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n I s t h e n o r m a t i v e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e v a l u e t o a l l h u m a n s o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d . E l e v e n a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d a r e i d e n t i f i e d h e r e a f t e r . T h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d a n d c o m m e n t s a r e m a d e a b o u t t h e m i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s e c t i o n . O f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d p r o t e c t i o n r a t i o n a l e s o n l y o n e w i l l b e r e j e c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p r e s e n t w o r k . T h e R e s o u r c e B a n k i n g A r g u m e n t i s f o u n d e d o n t h e b a s i c p r e m i s e t h a t a l l ( o r m a n y m o r e t h a n a t p r e s e n t ) t r e e s , l a n d s , w a t e r s , a n d m i n e r a l s , m a y e v e n t u a l l y h a v e t o b e u s e d b y h u m a n s a s c o m m o d i t y 24 r e s o u r c e s , a n d I t i s t h u s a m a t t e r o f s e n s i b l e , c o n s e r v a t i v e p l a n n i n g t o s e t s o m e a s i d e f o r t h e f u t u r e , o r a t l e a s t f o r t h e p r o v e r b i a l * r a i n y d a y ' ( P e a r s a l l I I I , 1 9 8 4 : 4 ) . A s P e a r s a l l p o i n t s o u t , t h i s a r g u m e n t h a s o f t e n b a c k f i r e d i n t h a t s o o n e r o r l a t e r , t h e r a i n y d a y w i l l c o m e a n d t h e n a t u r e p r e s e r v e b e c o m e s a n o i l - f i e l d , c o b a l t m i n e , o r s o m e t h i n g e l s e i n i m i c a l t o N a t u r e ( P e a r s a l l I I I , 1 9 8 4 : 4 ) . A k e y e x a m p l e i s t h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t R e s e r v e S y s t e m i n t h e U . S . w h e r e i n m i l l i o n s o f a c r e s o f l a n d w e r e s e t a s i d e i n t h e l a t e 1 8 0 0 s a n d e a r l y 1 9 0 0 s a s N a t i o n a l F o r e s t R e s e r v e s f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n , t h a t i s , l o n g t e r m s u s t a i n e d y i e l d f o r e s t r y . B y t h e t i m e t h e l a n d s w e r e u s e d I n t h e 1 9 6 0 s , h o w e v e r , i t w a s u n d e r s t o o d b y m a n y t h a t t h e l a n d h a s b e e n p r e s e r v e d f o r a l l t i m e ( T u c k e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . A l o c a l e x a m p l e o f t h i s s o r t o f s i t u a t i o n I s t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s E n d o w m e n t L a n d s w h i c h w e r e e n d o w e d t o f i n a n c i a l 1 y s u p p o r t t h e u n i v e r s i t y , b u t w h i c h h a v e r e m a i n e d w i l d s o l o n g t h a t t h e y a r e s e e n b y s o m e t o h a v e m o r e v a l u e a s p a r k l a n d . T h e R e s o u r c e B a n k i n g a r g u m e n t I s r e j e c t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r k b e c a u s e t h e n o r m a t i v e e m p h a s i s I s o n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d f o r a l l f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . I f t h e s i t e ' s v a l u e s a r e r e d u c e d b y r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a r e l e f t t o s u f f e r t h e l o s s . T h e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t R e s e r v e c a s e t y p i f i e s t h e c u r r e n t a u t h o r ' s c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h a s i t e i s p r o t e c t e d , a n d t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e o v e r w h i c h t h e p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d i s e f f e c t i v e . M a n y d i f f e r e n t a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d a r e c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s b e c a u s e t h e y r e s u l t i n l i t t l e o r n o d a m a g e t o t h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a . S e v e r a l o f t h e a r g u m e n t s r a i s e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h w i l l b e f o r m u l a t e d I n t o c r i t e r i a I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . T h e c r i t e r i a w i l l b e u s e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e v a r i o u s m e t h o d s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ' s r o l e i n l a n d p r o t e c t i o n i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h d o m e s t i c p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d s . T h e E c o s y s t e m S e r v i c e s f o r H u m a n C o n s u m p t i o n A r g u m e n t i s s o m e w h a t s i m i l a r t o t h e R e s o u r c e B a n k i n g A r g u m e n t , b u t i t i s a c c e p t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t t r e a t m e n t . I t a s s u m e s t h a t , t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t c a n b e d e s c r i b e d i n a n u m b e r o f w a y s , o n e o f t h e m b e i n g i n t e r m s o f n u t r i e n t a n d h y d r o l o g l e a l c y c l e s . T h e s e c y c l e s m a i n t a i n t h e o x y g e n , c a r b o n d i o x i d e , a n d n i t r o g e n , l e v e l s i n t h e a t m o s p h e r e , p r e s e r v e t h e f e r t i l i t y o f t h e s o i l , m a i n t a i n t h e f l o w o f f r e s h w a t e r , a n d s o o n . S u c h c y c l e s f u n c t i o n m o s t e f f i c i e n t l y I n r e l a t i v e l y u n d i s t u r b e d e c o s y s t e m s . S o m e o f t h e a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c v a l u e s o f t h e s e c y c l e s a r e o b v i o u s ( e . g . b r e a t h a b l e a i r , d r i n k a b l e w a t e r ) ( P e a r s a l 1 I I I , 1 9 8 4 : 7 ) . P r o t e c t e d a r e a s a r e t h e " r e l a t i v e l y u n d i s t u r b e d e c o s y s t e m s " . O f c o n c e r n a r e a s p e c t s o f t h e a r g u m e n t s t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f n a t u r a l a r e a s I n a f f o r d . i n g ] t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d u s e o f w i l d a n i m a l s f o r h i g h - p r o t e i n f o o d , t h r o u g h g a m e r a n c h i n g a n d o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s u s i n g o n l y m a r g i n a l l a n d s ( Q u l g g , 1 9 7 8 : 9 ) . T h e a r g u m e n t i s a c c e p t e d b e c a u s e i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e w i l d a n i m a l s r e f e r r e d t o w o u l d p r o v i d e o n l y t h e i n i t i a l b r e e d i n g s t o c k , n o t a n o n g o i n g s o u r c e o f h i g h - p r o t e i n f o o d . T h e 26 E c o s y s t e m S e r v i c e s a r g u m e n t d i f f e r s f r o m t h e r e s o u r c e b a n k i n g a r g u m e n t I n t h a t t h e s e r v i c e s n a t u r a l l y a c c r u e t o h u m a n s w i t h o u t d i s t u r b a n c e / m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e e c o s y s t e m . In t h e R e s o u r c e B a n k i n g r a t i o n a l e , t h e s e r v i c e s a r e o n l y m a d e a v a i l a b l e b y d i s t u r b i n g t h e e c o s y s t e m . In l i g h t o f w h a t h a s b e e n s a i d a b o u t t h e t w o a r g u m e n t s , o n e c r i t e r i o n f o r l o o k i n g a t p r o t e c t i o n p r o g r a m s c o n c e r n s w h e t h e r r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n a p r o t e c t e d a r e a . T h e P u r e S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h A r g u m e n t a n d t h e R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t E x p e r i m e n t A r g u m e n t r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l u e o f s i t e s f o r p u r e s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a n d t o t e s t e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s T h e t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s u a l l y f o r r e p a i r i n g a r e a s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t e d t o h u m a n d i s t u r b a n c e , a n d f o r s t u d i e s o f p o p u l a t i o n d y n a m i c s , p o p u l a t i o n I n t e r a c t i o n s , l o n g - t e r m s u c c e s s i o n , s p e c l a t I o n , e t c . w h i c h r e q u i r e u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s ( P e a r s a l 1 I I I , 1 9 8 4 : 3 ) . T h i s a r g u m e n t r e q u i r e s t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f w h o l e e c o s y s t e m s , n o t t h e p r o t e c t i o n / m a n a g e m e n t o f a n a r e a f o r a s p e c i f i c s p e c i e s ( o r a f e w s p e c i e s ) s u c h a s i s d o n e b y g r o u p s l i k e D u c k s U n l i m i t e d . In a s i m i l a r m a n n e r t h e S c i e n t i f i c B a s e L i n e A r g u m e n t r e c o g n i z e s t h e v a l u e o f p r o t e c t e d s i t e s t o m e a s u r e h u m a n i m p a c t o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d a s t o o l s f o r s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n . A s F r a n s o n w r i t e s , s i m p l y b y p r e s e r v i n g e x a m p l e s o f u n i q u e a n d t y p i c a l e c o s y s t e m s we w i l l b e p r o v i d i n g a b a s e l i n e a g a i n s t w h i c h m a n ' s i m p a c t o n h i s e n v i r o n m e n t c a n b e m e a s u r e d . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s e a r e a s w i l l p r o v i d e c o n t r o l s f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e b u i l d u p o f p e s t i c i d e s a n d o t h e r p o l l u t a n t s . . . . t h e r e s e r v e s m a y s e r v e a n e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n b y p r o v i d i n g f o c i f o r 27 i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o g r a m m e s f o r s t u d e n t s a n d m e m b e r s o f t h e p u b l i c ( F r a n s o n , 1 9 7 5 : 7 - 8 ) . I t i s v a l u a b l e t o q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r w h o l e e c o s y s t e m s o r s i n g l e s p e c i e s o r s m a l l g r o u p s o f s p e c i e s a r e b e i n g p r o t e c t e d b y t h e p r o t e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m . T h e G e n e t i c P o o l A r g u m e n t v a l u e s p r o t e c t e d s i t e s f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e p o o l s o f t h e g e n e t i c m a t e r i a l o f b o t h p l a n t a n d a n i m a l s p e c i e s f o r p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e u s e a s f o o d , p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s o r o t h e r r e s o u r c e s f o r h u m a n u s e . I t h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t s o m e d o m e s t i c s p e c i e s , d u e t o t h e i r h i g h l y m a n i p u l a t e d b r e e d i n g , h a v e a l o w e r c a p a c i t y t o a d a p t t o c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d m a y b e i m p r o v e d b y c r o s s i n g w i t h w i l d s p e c i e s . A n e x a m p l e m i g h t b e t h e d o m e s t i c s t r a i n s o f w h e a t w h i c h h a v e b e e n I m p r o v e d f o r u s e o n m a r g i n a l a r e a s b y c r o s s i n g w i t h w i l d v e r s i o n s . T h i s a r g u m e n t a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e n e e d f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f w h o l e e c o s y s t e m s . T h e A e s t h e t i c / S p i r i t u a l A r g u m e n t r e c o g n i z e s t h e n e e d s a n d d e s i r e s o f h u m a n s f o r a n a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e w i t h u n i n h a b i t e d l a n d a r e a s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n a n u n d i s t u r b e d s t a t e . T h e s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s t o h u m a n s o f u n d i s t u r b e d l a n d a r e v e r y c l o s e t o t h e a e s t h e t i c b e n e f i t s : t h e y a r e a l s o r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e a r g u m e n t . A s P e a r s a l l I I I n o t e s , t h e g r e a t n a t u r a l i s t / w r i t e r s s u c h a s J o h n M u i r ( t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e S i e r r a C l u b i n t h e U . S . A . ) , H e n r y D a v i d T h o r e a u ( 1 8 5 4 ) a n d A l d o L e o p o l d ( 1 9 4 9 ) , e m p h a s i z e d t h e 28 a e s t h e t i c / s p i r i t u a l b e n e f i t s o f l a n d p r o t e c t i o n . P r o t e c t i o n p l a n n e r s s h o u l d a s k w h e t h e r t h e a e s t h e t i c / s p i r i t u a l a t t r i b u t e s o f a s i t e a r e b e i n g t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t a s p e c t t o m e a s u r e . T h e L o w I m p a c t R e c r e a t i o n A r g u m e n t o n l y v a l u e s n o n - m e c h a n i z e d o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . R e l a t e d t o t h e a e s t h e t i c b e n e f i t s , r e c r e a t i o n a l b e n e f i t i s a c o m m o n a r g u m e n t f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s i t e s a s i t m a y b e a s o u r c e o f i n c o m e f o r l o c a l b u s i n e s s ( e . g . , o u t d o o r a c t i v i t y s u p p l y s t o r e s , h i k i n g / h u n t i n g / f l s h l n g g u i d e - o u t f i t t e r s , e t c . ) . A c o m m o n p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e b a t e a r i s e s b e t w e e n t h o s e w h o a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n n o n - m e c h a n i z e d f o r m s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n ( e . g . , h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g , h i k i n g , c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g , b a c k p a c k i n g , c a n o e i n g , s a i l i n g , e t c . ) a n d t h o s e w h o s e e n o p r o b l e m w i t h t h e u s e o f m e c h a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v i c e s ( e . g . , f o u i — w h e e l d r i v e v e h i c l e s , a l l - t e r r a i n c y c l e s , s n o w m o b i 1 i n g , d o w n h i l l s k i i n g , m o t o r b o a t s , e t c . ) i n w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . N o n - m e c h a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n w h i c h h a s a l o w i m p a c t o n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e p r e s e n t a r g u m e n t . I t n e c e s s i t a t e s a s k i n g a b o u t w h i c h f o r m s o f r e c r e a t i o n a r e a l l o w e d i n a p r o t e c t e d a r e a u n d e r d i f f e r e n t p r o t e c t i o n r e g i m e s . T h e I n A b s e n t i a B e n e f i t s A r g u m e n t h a s t h r e e a s p e c t s : a ) r e s i d u a l b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m a s s i m i l a t i v e p r o c e s s e s t h a t b e g i n _ n s i t u o r a f t e r v i s i t o r s h a v e l e f t t h e p r e s e r v e a n d w h i c h h a v e a r e s i d u a l i m p a c t o n t h e b e n e f i c i a r y f o r s o m e t i m e a f t e r h i s o r h e r l e a v i n g ( P e a r s a l l I I I , 1 9 8 4 : 4 ) ; 29 b ) v i c a r i o u s b e n e f i t s o b t a i n e d a s a r e s u l t o f a n o t h e r ' s v i s i t , r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e p e r s o n h a s v i s i t e d t h e s i t e ; a n d , c ) n o n - u s e b e n e f i t s t o a p e r s o n w h o n e e d n o t h a v e v i s i t e d t h e s i t e , o r v i c a r i o u s l y b e n e f i t t e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s , b u t w h o v a l u e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a h a b l t a t / s p e c i e s / s i t e r e g a r d l e s s o f a n y p o s s i b l e u s e b y t h e m s e l v e s o r b y a n y o t h e r h u m a n b e i n g . T h i s a r g u m e n t i s a l s o k n o w n a s " e x i s t e n c e v a l u e " , a n d i n c l u d e s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f " e c o s y s t e m s e r v i c e s " ( d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ) , b u t p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e n o n - h u m a n , n a t u r a l i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e a e s t h e t i c / s p i r i t u a l a r g u m e n t , b u t d i f f e r s f r o m t h a t a r g u m e n t I n t h a t a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s n e e d n o t b e p r e s e n t ( e . g . , t h e v a l u e t o t h e p e r s o n m a y b e a s a r e f u g e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s l u g s p e c i e s w h i c h I s n o t a e s t h e t i c a l l y v a l u e d b y t h a t p e r s o n ) . Q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e v a l u e s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d a r e r a i s e d b y t h e j_n a b s e n t i a a r g u m e n t s . T h e " O n e n e s s " A r g u m e n t w a s d e s c r i b e d b y L i v i n g s t o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) a s d e v e l o p i n g b e t w e e n h u m a n s a n d t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t o n t h e b a s i s o f I n d i v i d u a l h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e . L i v i n g s t o n r e j e c t s a l l o f t h e r a t i o n a l a r g u m e n t s f o r w i l d l i f e p r e s e r v a t i o n , a r g u i n g I n f a v o u r o f a k n o w l e d g e b a s e d o n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f 30 r e a s o n , e x p e r i e n c e a n d e m o t i o n s o t h a t w h e n a w i l d c r e a t u r e ( o r i n t h i s c a s e , l a n d a r e a ) i s e n d a n g e r e d / t h r e a t e n e d by-h u m a n a c t i o n , t h e c r e a t u r e i s s o m u c h a p a r t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t t h e y f e e l a s i f t h e y a r e a l s o b e i n g e n d a n g e r e d . T h i s r e a s o n i s i n t e n d e d t o t r a n s c e n d t h e a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c a r g u m e n t s f o r p r o t e c t i o n a n d a l s o r e c o g n i z e a e s t h e t i c / s p i r i t u a l b e n e f i t s t o t h e p e r s o n . V e r y c l o s e l y a l l i e d , b u t n o t i d e n t i c a l t o , t h e O n e n e s s a r g u m e n t I s t h e B i o t i c R i g h t s A r g u m e n t w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s t h e n e e d t o l e a v e s o m e a r e a s a l o n e b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a n i n t r i n s i c r i g h t t o e x i s t , r e g a r d l e s s o f h u m a n u s e s o r b e n e f i t s ( D e v a l 1 a n d S e s s i o n s , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e p r e v i o u s p a g e s d e s c r i b e n u m e r o u s a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d . E c o n o m i c b e n e f i t a n d j o b c r e a t i o n a r e n o t d i r e c t l y a m o n g t h e a r g u m e n t s , b u t m a y b e a n I n d i r e c t r e s u l t o f l a n d p r o t e c t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , s u p p l y i n g o u t d o o r e q u i p m e n t f o r l o w i m p a c t r e c r e a t i o n . I t i s t h e a u t h o r ' s v i e w t h a t o u r n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t m a y e v e n t u a l l y b e s o i n f l u e n c e d b y h u m a n a c t i v i t y t h a t t h e l o s s e s I n s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y m a y k n o c k t h e e n t i r e e a r t h o u t o f i t s p r e s e n t t e n u o u s , r e l a t i v e e q u i 1 i b r i u m . T h e n e x t s e c t i o n t a k e s t h e a r g u m e n t s p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n a n d a d d s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c u r r e n t l a n d p r o t e c t i o n s i t u a t i o n t o p r o d u c e c r i t e r i a t o e v a l u a t e s c h e m e s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d . 31 2 . 2 E v a l u a t i o n C r i t e r i a f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f L a n d T h e f i e l d o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g h a s s p a w n e d n u m e r o u s e v a l u a t i o n s c h e m e s w h i c h a r e i n s t a n d a r d u s e i n e v a l u a t i n g a w i d e v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t i s s u e s . F o x ( 1 9 7 6 ) r e c o m m e n d s t h e u s e o f f o u r c r i t e r i a i n h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f w a t e r m a n a g e m e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s : 1 . r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s ; 2 . a d e q u a c y o f i n f o r m a t i o n ; 3 . e f f i c i e n c y ; a n d , 4. e f f e c t i v e n e s s . F o x , E y r e a n d M a l r ( 1 9 8 3 ) a s s u m e t h e f o l l o w i n g u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t s i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g a n d m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s f o r Y u k o n w a t e r r e s o u r c e s : 1 . i n a l i e n a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , 2 . r e q u i r e m e n t f o r f a i r t r e a t m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s , 3 . e q u a l m e r i t o f p r e f e r e n c e s / p r i o r i t i e s o f a l 1 a f f e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l s , a n d t h e n e e d f o r i n f o r m e d r e s p o n s e s t o b e c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e a c c o u n t a b l e d e c i s i o n m a k e r . I n e v a l u a t i n g d e c i s i o n m a k i n g m e c h a n i s m s f o r n o r t h e r n C a n a d i a n r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e C o u c h i c h i n g S t u d y G r o u p ( 1 9 7 8 ) u s e d s u c h c r i t e r i a a s t h e o p e n n e s s o f t h e p r o c e s s , b r o a d s c a n n i n g o f a l t e r n a t i v e s , f u l l e c o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t o f o p t i o n s , f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s , p o l i t i c a l 32 a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of" " n o - g o " o p t i o n s . S e v e r a l c o m m o n t h e m e s ( e . g . , a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s , e t c . ) r u n t h r o u g h t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e v a l u a t i v e s c h e m e s l i s t e d a b o v e . H o w e v e r , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p r e s e n t w o r k , a l l t h r e e o f t h e s c h e m e s w i l l b e r e j e c t e d . T h e k e y p r o b l e m w i t h t h e t h r e e e v a l u a t i v e f r a m e w o r k s i s t h a t t h e y f o c u s o n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s w h i l e t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s f o c u s s e s o n t h e o u t c o m e s o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . A s S a m u e l s ( 1 9 7 2 ) n o t e s , T h e p r o b l e m o f d e s i g n a n d m a n a g e m e n t i s t o s e t u p c o n t r o l s y s t e m s t o e f f e c t u a t e e c o l o g i c a l p o l i c y . T h e c o n t r o l s y s t e m s c a n b e d e s i g n e d t o e f f e c t u a t e c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r e c o l o g i c a l e n d s o r t h e y c a n b e d e s i g n e d t o t h e m s e l v e s s e l e c t t h e e c o l o g i c a l e n d s . T h e e n d s w h i c h e a c h d e s i g n e d s y s t e m t e n d s t o p r o d u c e w i 1 1 b e d i f f e r e n t . T h e p r e s e n t w o r k i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e f f e c t u a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r e n d s n o t i n d e s i g n i n g s e l e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m s . T h e t h e s i s t a k e s a p a r t i c u l a r n o r m a t i v e s t a n c e t h a t r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e . A s w e l l , t h e c r i t e r i a m e n t i o n e d a b o v e a r e b e s t s u i t e d t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f b r o a d p o l i c y I s s u e s , a n d w o u l d b e s u i t a b l e I f t h e t h e s i s w e r e e v a l u a t i n g t h e r a n g e o f l a n d m a n a g e m e n t p o l i c i e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a . A g o o d e x a m p l e m i g h t b e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e F o u r M o u n t a i n P a r k s P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s a n d / o r t h e P o l i c y f o r t h e R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t o f t h e E a s t e r n S l o p e s i n A l b e r t a . T h e t o p i c o f t h e p r e s e n t w o r k i s t o o s p e c i f i c i n i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n i n p r o t e c t i n g l a n d . A s a r e s u l t , n e w 33 c r i t e r i a f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f l a n d p r o t e c t i o n s c h e m e s a r e d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e a r g u m e n t s I n S e c t i o n 2.1 a n d f r o m t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e c u r r e n t m e t h o d s u s e d t o p r o t e c t l a n d . T h e E c o s y s t e m S e r v i c e s f o r H u m a n C o n s u m p t i o n A r g u m e n t l e a d s t o t h e q u e s t i o n , i s r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g p l a c e , o r i s i t e x p e c t e d t o t a k e p l a c e ? T h e L o w I m p a c t R e c r e a t i o n A r g u m e n t s i m i l a r l y l e a d s t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y w h i c h w i l l b e p e r m i t t e d i n t h e a r e a a n d t h e i r r e l a t i v e i m p a c t o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e P u r e S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h , R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t E x p e r i m e n t , S c i e n t i f i c B a s e L i n e a n d G e n e t i c P o o l A r g u m e n t s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a s k w h e t h e r c o m p l e t e e c o s y s t e m s o r s i n g l e s p e c i e s ( o r s m a l l g r o u p s o f s p e c i f i c s p e c i e s ) w i l l b e e m p h a s i z e d b y t h e p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d . T h e A e s t h e t i c / S p i r i t u a l , I n A b s e n t i a , " O n e n e s s " a n d B i o t i c R i g h t s A r g u m e n t s p r o m p t q u e s t i o n i n g a s t o w h e t h e r a e s t h e t i c / s p i r i t u a l o r o t h e r h u m a n v a l u e s o c c a s i o n e d b y t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d h a v e b e e n t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e R e s o u r c e B a n k i n g A r g u m e n t r a i s e s a q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d I s o n g o i n g , p r o t e c t i n g l a n d i n p e r p e t u i t y , o r i s i t f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . 34 C o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e a c t u a l u s e o f e x i s t i n g l a n d p r o t e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m s f o r m t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e c r i t e r i a l i s t e d h e r e a f t e r . T h e M a n a n d B i o s p h e r e P r o g r a m m e ( d e s c r i b e d i n m o r e d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 4) d e s i g n a t e s b r o a d s i t e s w h i c h a r e n o t d e s c r i b e d i n s p e c i f i c d e t a i l . T h i s f e a t u r e i s c o n s i d e r e d o n e o f t h e p r o g r a m ' s w e a k n e s s e s b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t p e r m i t l e g a l p u n i t i v e a c t i o n i f t h e s i t e i s d i s t u r b e d o r d e s t r o y e d . I t h a s l e d t o q u e s t i o n i n g w h e t h e r t h e s i t e i s l e g a l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e , t h a t i s , d o e s I t h a v e p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s w h i c h a r e r e c o g n i z e d b y l a w ? S e v e r a l p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d s s e t l a n d a s i d e e n t i r e l y o n t h e b a s i s o f a f e w o f t h e m a n y p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r p r o t e c t i n g l a n d , a n d t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e c h o i c e s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e s i t e . A s a n e x a m p l e , m u n i c i p a l o r c l a s s C p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e s e t a s i d e o n l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , a n d m a n a g e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t t h a t r e a s o n b y e m p h a s i z i n g e x t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p a r k s . T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l P r o g r a m m e a l s o e m p h a s i z e s r e s e a r c h a n d g e n e t i c p o o l a r g u m e n t s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l o w - i m p a c t r e c r e a t i o n , o r o t h e r u s e s o f t h e s i t e . T h e q u e s t i o n t h u s a r i s e s , I s t h e l a n d p r o t e c t e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f t h e r e a s o n s a c c e p t e d I n S e c t i o n 2 .1 , o r i s a s i n g l e ( o r f e w ) r e a s o n ( s ) t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e l a n d . 35 O b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h , A l b e r t a R e c r e a t i o n a n d P a r k s a n d P a r k s C a n a d a , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o v a r i a t i o n s i n f u n d i n g f o r l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t , h a v e l e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n , a r e t h e s i t e s a n d p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d s s u b j e c t t o f i n a n c i a l a n d / o r p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y ? S i m i l a r l y , s i t e s a r e o f t e n s e l e c t e d f o r p r o t e c t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f e c o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . I n m a n y c a s e s t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s o m e a r e a , w h i c h m a y b e r e p r e s e n t e d t o a m i n i m a l d e g r e e b y a n e x i s t i n g p a r k , i s n o t p e r m i t t e d b e c a u s e i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g p a r k o f f e r s s u f f i c i e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h a t s e t o f e c o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . I t i s t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e m e t h o d s t o e n s u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e x a m p l e s o f a l 1 m a j o r e c o l o g i c a l g r o u p i n g s s h o u l d s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e f u l l r a n g e o f e c o s y s t e m s , b u t s h o u l d n o t s e r v e a s a w a y o f e x c l u d i n g a r e a s f r o m b e i n g p r o t e c t e d f o r t h e i r i n t r i n s i c v a l u e . A n e x a m p l e m i g h t i n c l u d e t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s r e g i o n w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y a t l e a s t f i v e n a t i o n a l p a r k s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t e v e n a p r i m e , t h r e a t e n e d a r e a I n t h e R o c k i e s w o u l d b e p r o t e c t e d a s a n a t i o n a l p a r k b e c a u s e t h e r e g i o n i s s e e n t o b e a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m . T h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , i s t h e s i t e p r o t e c t e d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e b a s i s o f i t s i n t r i n s i c v a l u e r a t h e r t h a n e x c l u s i v e l y o n t h e b a s i s o f i t s r e l a t i v e v a l u e o n t h e s c a l e o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d c o n c e r n e d , f o r e x a m p l e , w i t h N a t i o n a l P a r k s , i s t h e s i t e o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a N a t u r a l A r e a o f C a n a d i a n S i g n i f i c a n c e ? 36 T h e n u m e r o u s c r i t e r i a d e s c r i b e d a b o v e p r o v i d e a w a y t o e v a l u a t e t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n i s a f f o r d e d b y v a r i o u s p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d s . C h a p t e r 4 u s e s t h e c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s e c t i o n t o e v a l u a t e t h e r a n g e o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s a v a i l a b l e t o p r o t e c t t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s , w h i c h a r e I d e n t i f i e d a s a s e n s i t i v e a n d s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a w i t h m a n y r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s i n C h a p t e r 3 . T h e e v a l u a t i o n I n C h a p t e r 4 t a k e s p a r t i c u l a r n o t e o f t h e u s e o r l a c k o r u s e o f e a c h p r o t e c t i o n m e t h o d t o p r o t e c t a d d i t i o n a l p o r t i o n s o f l a n d i n t h e l a s t t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s . 2 . 3 S u m m a r y a n d C r i t e r i a L i s t S e c t i o n 2 . 1 r e j e c t s o n l y t h e R e s o u r c e B a n k i n g A r g u m e n t f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d . I t a c c e p t s t h e f o l l o w i n g a r g u m e n t s ; E c o s y s t e m S e r v i c e s f o r H u m a n C o n s u m p t i o n , P u r e S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h , R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t E x p e r i m e n t , S c i e n t i f i c B a s e L i n e , G e n e t i c P o o l , A e s t h e t i c / S p i r i t u a l , L o w I m p a c t R e c r e a t i o n , In a b s e n t i a B e n e f i t s , O n e n e s s a n d B i o t i c R i g h t s . F r o m e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 2 a s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d , a n d f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l a n d p r o t e c t i o n p r o g r a m s a s a w h o l e , f o u r m a i n I s s u e s a r i s e . T h e s e i s s u e s s h o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e ( s ) b e t w e e n 37 d o m e s t i c l a n d p r o t e c t i o n s c h e m e s a n d t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . T h e i s s u e s a r e r e l a t e d t o 1 . t h e t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s p e r m i t t e d u n d e r t h e l a n d p r o t e c t i o n s c h e m e , 2. t h e i n c l u s i v e n e s s o f t h e p u r p o s e ( s ) f o r w h i c h t h e s i t e s a r e d e s i g n a t e d , 3. t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e , a n d 4 . t h e i m p l e m e n t a b i 1 i t y o f t h e l a n d p r o t e c t i o n s c h e m e . T h e I s s u e s p r o v i d e a s i m p l e f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h t h e c r i t e r i a m a y b e o r g a n i z e d f o r r e a d y a c c e s s , a s i n d i c a t e d b e 1 o w . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s p e r m i t t e d u n d e r t h e l a n d p r o t e c t i o n s c h e m e , t w o c r i t e r i a s h o u l d b e e x a m i n e d : C r i t e r i o n 1 : N a t u r e o f P e r m i t t e d R e c r e a t i o n a l  A c t i v i t i e s . B y t h e a r g u m e n t s r a i s e d e a r l i e r , t h e s e s h o u l d b e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e t h a t a r e n o n - m e c h a n i z e d . C r i t e r i o n 2: N a t u r e o f P e r m i t t e d R e s o u r c e E x t r a c t i o n . T h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n r e c o m m e n d s p e r m i t t i n g n o r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n . T h e I n c l u s i v e n e s s o f t h e p u r p o s e ( s ) f o r w h i c h t h e s i t e s a r e d e s i g n a t e d s u g g e s t f o u r c r i t e r i a : C r i t e r i o n 3 : S c a l e a n d S c o p e o f P r o t e c t i o n . E m p h a s i s s h o u l d b e p l a c e d o n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f w h o l e e c o s y s t e m s , i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f a n e c o s y s t e m ' s i n t r i n s i c b i o t i c r i g h t s , o v e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s i n g l e s p e c i e s o r s m a l l g r o u p s o f s p e c i f i c s p e c i e s . 38 C r i t e r i o n 4: I n c l u s i o n o f N o n - U t i l i t a r i a n V a l u e s . R e c o g n i t i o n s h o u l d be made o f a e s t h e t i c / s p i r i t u a l human v a l u e s . C r i t e r i o n 5: B r e a d t h o f Purpose. S i t e s which a r e p r o t e c t e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f t h e reas o n s a c c e p t e d i n S e c t i o n 2.1 a r e p r e f e r r e d o v e r s i t e s which a r e p r o t e c t e d f o r a s i n g l e ( o r a few) r e a s o n ( s ) . C r i t e r i o n 6: I n t r i n s i c V a l u e . S i t e s p r o t e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r i n t r i n s i c v a l u e a r e emphasized ( i . e . , a s i t e p r o t e c t e d f o r i t s own sake r e g a r d l e s s o f whether s i m i l a r ecosystems a r e a l r e a d y p r o t e c t e d ) . W ith r e g a r d t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n measure, t h r e e c r i t e r i a a p p l y : C r i t e r i o n 7: D u r a b i 1 i t y . P r o t e c t i o n methods which a r e o f l i m i t e d d u r a t i o n a r e superceded by methods which a r e o n g o i n g , p r o t e c t i n g l a n d i n p e r p e t u i t y . C r i t e r i o n 8: D e f i n a b i 1 i t y . In l i g h t o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e MAB program d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r (and more f u l l y d e s c r i b e d In Chapter 4 ) , p r e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n t o s i t e s w hich a r e l e g a l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e , t h a t i s , t h e y have g e o g r a p h i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s which a r e r e c o g n i z e d by law. In most cases t h i s i s an u n i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n as t h e s i t e s a r e c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y . C r i t e r i o n 9: S u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o P o l i t l c a l / F i n a n c i a l  E x p e d i e n c y . T h i s c r i t e r i o n w i l l be more f u l l y e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter 4 where t h e v a r i e t y o f p r o t e c t i o n methods a v a i l a b l e i n B.C. and A l b e r t a a r e d e s c r i b e d , and t h e i r use i n r e c e n t y e a r s i s examined. 39 T h e i m p l e m e n t a b i 1 1 t y o f t h e l a n d p r o t e c t i o n s c h e m e b e c o m e s a c r i t e r i o n i t s e l f : C r i t e r i o n 10: I m p 1 e m e n t a b i 1 i t y . P r e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n t o a s c h e m e w h i c h i s m o r e l i k e l y t o e a s i l y s u r m o u n t t h e h u r d l e s o f o p p o s i t i o n w h i c h a n y p u b l i c a c t i o n f a c e s . 40 C H A P T E R 3 : T H E C A N A D I A N R O C K I E S P R O B L E M 3 . 0 I n t r o d u c t 1 o n T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e a p a r t i c u l a r e c o s y s t e m ( t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n s ) a n d r e c e n t t h r e a t s t o t h a t e c o s y s t e m ' s i n t e g r i t y . I t p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . V a r i o u s m e c h a n i s m s f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n a r e r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r 4, a n d t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t p r o t e c t i o n i s e v a l u a t e d i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e t h e s i s . T h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s a s d e f i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s t h e a r e a b e t w e e n t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n T r e n c h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d w h e r e t h e f o o t h i l l s g r a d e i n t o t h e p r a i r i e i n A l b e r t a a n d n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f r o m t h e b o r d e r w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s n o r t h t o t h e 6 0 t h p a r a l l e l . F i g u r e 1 o u t l i n e s t h e a r e a i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e s t o f C a n a d a . I n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e a r e a i s m o r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n t h e r e g i o n , b u t t h e w h o l e r e g i o n i n o f i n t e r e s t . S e c t i o n 3 . 1 d e s c r i b e s t h e e c o l o g i c a l a n d p r o t e c t i o n h i s t o r y s e t t i n g i n w h i c h t h e t h r e a t s t o t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s r e g i o n , o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 3 . 2 , o c c u r . 41 FIGURE 1: A MAP OF THE CANADIAN ROCKIES REGION 42 3 . 1 T h e S e t t i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s 3 . 1 . 1 T h e E c o l o g i c a l S e t t i n g a n d i t s S i g n i f i c a n c e T h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n s w e r e c r e a t e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l p l a t e s b y t e c t o n i c f o r c e s . T h e f o r c e s p u s h e d u p a r e a s t h a t w e r e o n c e a n c i e n t s e a b e d s t h r o u g h c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f a u l t i n g , f o l d i n g a n d u p l i f t i n g . S u b s e q u e n t g l a c i a l a c t i o n r e m o l d e d , a n d i s c o n t i n u i n g t o r e m o l d b y e x i s t i n g r e m n a n t g l a c i e r s , t h e r o c k i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c U - s h a p e d v a l l e y s a n d g l a c i a l f o r m a t i o n s ( e . g . , m o r a i n e s , e s k e r s , c a v e s , e t c . ) . T h e r o c k t y p e s r e m a i n i n g c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f s h a l e , s a n d s t o n e , d o l o m i t e , l i m e s t o n e , q u a r t z i t e a n d s l a t e d a t i n g f r o m t h e P r e - C a m b r i a n t o r e c e n t t i m e s . T h e C a s t l e g u a r d C a v e s a n d M a l i g n e R i v e r k a r s t s y s t e m a r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s o f k a r s t ( w a t e r e r o s i o n o f t h e l i m e s t o n e ) . T h e s e d i m e n t a r y a r e a s c o n t a i n a n e x t e n s i v e f o s s i l r e c o r d , o f w h i c h t h e s o f t - b o d i e d f o s s i l s o f t h e B u r g e s s S h a l e l a y e r f o u n d i n Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t a b l e . T h e B u r g e s s S h a l e s , w i t h t h e i r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f M i d d l e C a m b r i a n e v o l u t i o n , w e r e r e c o g n i z e d a s o n e o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t f o s s i l s i t e s i n t h e w o r l d b y d e s i g n a t i o n a s a W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e i n 1 9 8 1 ( E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , P a r k s C a n a d a , n o d a t e ) . I t I s h o p e d t h a t N a t i o n a l P a r k a n d W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e p r o t e c t i o n w i l l s a v e t h e m f r o m r e m o v a l b y r a n d o m f o s s i l h u n t e r s . T h e R o c k i e s a s a w h o l e p r o v i d e g o o d e x a m p l e s o f e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r y a n d g e o l o g i c a l 43 p r o c e s s e s , o f w h i c h f e w e x a m p l e s i n t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d h a v e b e e n l e f t u n t o u c h e d . T h e C o n t i n e n t a l D i v i d e , w h i c h b i s e c t s t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s a n d c o n t a i n s m o s t o f t h e h i g h e s t p e a k s i n s o u t h e r n C a n a d a , f o r m s t h e h e a d w a t e r s o f m o s t w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n w a t e r s h e d s . W a t e r s f l o w i n g w e s t s u p p l y t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r s y s t e m b e f o r e r e a c h i n g t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n ; n o r t h a n d e a s t f l o w i n g r i v e r s u s e t h e A t h a b a s c a R i v e r s y s t e m a n d t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n R i v e r s y s t e m t o s u p p l y H u d s o n B a y a n d t h e A r c t i c O c e a n . T h e e a s t f l o w i n g w a t e r s i n t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n R i v e r s y s t e m f o r m t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f s u r f a c e w a t e r f o r t h e C a n a d i a n p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e d r o u g h t s o f t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n R i v e r w a t e r s h e d h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d . Dam p r o j e c t s o r e x t e n s i v e l o g g i n g i n t h e R o c k i e s c o u l d s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t t h e w a t e r f l o w r e g i m e i n t h e r i v e r . 1 T h e R o c k i e s e x p e r i e n c e l o n g , c o l d w i n t e r s a n d s h o r t , c o o l s u m m e r s w i t h i n t e r m i t t e n t h o t s p e l l s . T h e W e s t e r n S l o p e s a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e m o i s t e r m a r i t i m e c l i m a t e o f t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t , r e s u l t i n g i n g e n e r a l l y h e a v i e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n l e v e l s . T h e e a s t e r n f o o t h i l l s p r e v e n t a r c t i c a i r f r o m t h e p r a i r i e s f r o m h i t t i n g t h e m o u n t a i n s , a n d o c c a s i o n a l c h i n o o k s ( w a r m , d r y w i n d s w h i c h d e s c e n d t h e e a s t e r n s l o p e s o f t h e R o c k i e s i n w i n t e r w h e n a w a r m l o w p r e s s u r e f r o n t f r o m t h e P a c i f i c o c e a n 44 m o v e s o v e r t h e m o u n t a i n s t o r e p l a c e a c o l d h i g h p r e s s u r e f r o n t o n t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e R o c k i e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y ) a l s o y i e l d a m o r e m o d e r a t e c l i m a t e o n t h e E a s t e r n S l o p e s . T h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d t o s u p p o r t f o u r m a j o r e c o l o g i c a l g r o u p s k n o w n a s e c o r e g i o n s ( E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 3 ; S c h a r f f , 1 9 6 6 ; P a t t o n , 1 9 7 5 ; L y o n s , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h e A s p e n P a r k l a n d e c o r e g i o n c o m p r i s e s t h e l o w e r p a r t s o f t h e e a s t e r n f o o t h i l l s a n d g r a d e s i n t o t h e P r a i r i e Z o n e i n t h e e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n . T r e m b l i n g A s p e n ( P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s ) a n d B a l s a m P o p l a r ( P o p u l u s b a l s a m i f e r a ) a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r e e s o f t h e A s p e n P a r k l a n d . A b o v e t h e A s p e n P a r k l a n d t o a h e i g h t o f 1 3 0 0 t o 1 4 0 0 m , t h e M o n t a n e e c o r e g i o n d o m i n a t e s w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c L o d g e p o l e P i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a ) , W h i t e S p r u c e ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) a n d D o u g l a s F i r ( P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i ) f o r e s t s a n d g r a s s l a n d a r e a s . B e t w e e n 1 4 0 0 m a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 2 0 0 m t h e S u b a l p i n e e c o r e g i o n g r a d e s f r o m d e n s e E n g e l m a n n S p r u c e ( P i c e a e n g e l m a n n i i ) a n d S u b a l p i n e F i r ( A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a ) f o r e s t s , w i t h L o d g e p o l e P i n e p r e s e n t i n y o u n g e r s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s , t o o p e n f o r e s t s w i t h s t u n t e d s p r u c e s a n d f i r s k n o w n a s k r u m m h o l z . A b o v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 2 0 0 m , t h e h a r s h c l i m a t e d o e s n o t p e r m i t t r e e g r o w t h , s o t h e A l p i n e e c o r e g i o n s u p p o r t s a w i d e v a r i e t y o f a l p i n e s h r u b s a n d f l o w e r s , u s u a l l y f o u n d i n m e a d o w s d u r i n g t h e s h o r t s u m m e r s e a s o n . T h e b r o a d v a r i e t y o f e c o r e g i o n s a n d s p e c i e s d e m a n d p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e t y p e s o f r e a s o n s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r 2 o f t h e p r e s e n t w o r k , a n d e s p e c i a l l y , t o s u p p o r t 45 t h e w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t d e p e n d o n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a p p r o p r i a t e h a b i t a t s . T h e n u m b e r s a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s i n t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s h a v e r e f l e c t e d c h a n g e s i n h u m a n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w i l d a n i m a l s . I n t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y a n d e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r y t h e r e g i o n ' s u n g u l a t e s f e d t h e m a n y r a i l w a y a n d e x p l o r a t i o n w o r k e r s a n d p r e d a t o r s w e r e k i l l e d t o k e e p g a m e s p e c i e s a b u n d a n t . S u b s e q u e n t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e n a t u r e a n d r e a s o n s f o r d e c l i n e s i n w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s l e d t o t h e c e s s a t i o n o f p r e d a t o r h u n t i n g a n d l a t e r t o t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f a l 1 h u n t i n g i n t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( M a r t y , 1 9 8 5 ) . P r e s e n t l y , E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 3 : 1 0 , a n d M c T a g g e r t C o w a n a n d G u i g e t , 1 9 7 5 ) i s a w a r e o f 5 6 mammal s p e c i e s i n B a n f f , J a s p e r , K o o t e n a y a n d Y o h o P a r k s . T h e y r a n g e f r o m u n g u l a t e s , s u c h a s m o o s e ( A l c e s a l c e s ) , w a p i t i ( o r e l k , C u r v u s c a n a d e n s i s ) , m o u n t a i n g o a t s ( O r e a m n o s a m e r l c a n u s ) , b i g h o r n s h e e p ( O v i s c a n a d e n s i s ) , w o o d l a n d c a r i b o u ( R a n g i f e r  t a r a n d u s m o n t a n u s ) , w h i t e - t a i l e d d e e r ( O d o c o i 1 e u s v i r g i n i a n u s  o c h r o u r u s ) , a n d m u l e d e e r ( O d o c o i 1 e u s h e m i o n u s h e m i o n u s ) , t o c a r n i v o r e s , s u c h a s c o y o t e s ( C a n i s l a t r a n s ) , g r e y w o l v e s ( C a n i s 1 u p u s s p . ) , a m e r i c a n b l a c k b e a r s ( U r s u s a m e r i c a n u s ) , a n d , g r i z z l y b e a r s ( U r s u s a r c t o s h o r r i b i l i s ) , a n d t o s m a l l m a m m a l s s u c h a s t h e s n o w s h o e h a r e ( L e p u s a m e r i c a n u s ) , r o c k p i k a ( O c h o n t o n a p r i n c e p s s p . ) , a n d p y g m y s h r e w ( M i c r o s o r e x  h o y i i n t e r v e c t u s ) . T h e b i g h o r n s h e e p ( o f w h i c h t h e r e i s a h e r d o f 2 5 0 0 ) a n d t h e g r e y w o l f a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s v u l n e r a b l e i n t h e I U C N R e d B o o k o f E n d a n g e r e d S p e c i e s . 46 T h e a b u n d a n c e a n d v a r i e t y o f 1 a r g e mamma I s i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p o n e n t o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n r e g i o n ' s o v e r a l l v a l u e b o t h b i o l o g i c a l l y a n d a s a n a t t r a c t i o n f o r t h e m i l l i o n s o f a n n u a l v i s i t o r s t o t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n r e g i o n . M a n y o f t h e a n i m a l s ( e . g . , g r e y w o l f , g r i z z l y b e a r ) r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f u n d i s t u r b e d l a n d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . E s p e c i a l l y d u e t o t h e g l o b a l r a r i t y o f s o m e s p e c i e s ( e . g . , g r e y w o l f , b i g h o r n s h e e p ) , e f f e c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e e c o s y s t e m i s c r i t i c a l . T h e v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e m o u n t a i n s ( e . g . , g r a s s l a n d , d e c i d u o u s f o r e s t , m i x e d f o r e s t , w e t l a n d s , a l p i n e m e a d o w s , e t c . ) p r o v i d e s s e a s o n a l h a b i t a t f o r o v e r 2 8 0 s p e c i e s o f b i r d s , m o s t l y d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r m o n t h s . T h e g o l d e n e a g l e ( A q u i 1 a c h r y s a e t o s ) a n d b a l d e a g l e ( H a l i a e e t u s 1 e u c o c e p h a 1 u s ) , b o t h d e c l i n i n g I n n u m b e r s o n a c o n t i n e n t a l b a s i s , a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e a r e a . A m p h i b i a n s a n d r e p t i l e s a r e p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d ( e . g . , o n e t o a d s p e c i e s , t h r e e f r o g s p e c i e s , o n e s a l a m a n d e r s p e c i e s a n d t h r e e s n a k e s p e c i e s ) , a n d f i s h a r e p r e s e n t , b u t n o t o v e r l y p r o d u c t i v e d u e t o t h e c o l d , l o w - n u t r i e n t w a t e r s . T h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l 1 o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d e c o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s y i e l d s o n e o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s , t h e b r e a t h t a k i n g b e a u t y o f t h e a r e a . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e , a n d p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s a l m o s t 47 n e c e s s a r y . T h e s e e m i n g l y u n t o u c h e d b e a u t y o f t h e R o c k i e s a r e a h a s b e c o m e a c o m m o n s y m b o l i n t h e m a t e r i a l u s e d b y C a n a d i a n t o u r i s m o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a d v e r t i s i n g o u t s i d e C a n a d a . I t h a s b e e n a n d i s u s e d f o r a e s t h e t i c p u r p o s e s b y m a n y p e o p l e i n t h e a r t i s t i c f i e l d s . S u c h p a i n t e r s a s G r o u p o f S e v e n a r t i s t A . Y . J a c k s o n , J a m e s B . S p e n c e r ( T h u r s t o n , 1 9 8 4 ) a n d C a r l R u n g i u s ( W h y t e a n d H a r t , 1 9 8 5 ) , h a v e u s e d t h e R o c k i e s a s a s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n . M a n y p e o p l e i n t h e a r t i s t i c f i e l d s o f p a i n t i n g / d r a w i n g / s c u l p t u r e , m u s i c , d r a m a , a n d d a n c e a n n u a l l y m a k e u s e o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e B a n f f S c h o o l o f F i n e A r t s a n d i t s s e t t i n g f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r t a l e n t s . A s C h a p t e r 2 a r g u e s , t h e n e c e s s i t y t o p r o v i d e s o m e a r e a s f o r a e s t h e t i c p u r p o s e s i s a d m i t t e d b y e v e n s o m e o f t h e s t r o n g e s t o p p o n e n t s o f p r o t e c t e d a r e a s . T h e R o c k i e s p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e m a n a g e r s w i t h a n u n c o m m o n o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e a l w i t h l a n d t h a t i s , i n l a r g e m e a s u r e , u n d a m a g e d b y h u m a n a c t i o n . T h e c l e a n l i n e s s o f t h e s u r f a c e w a t e r s o u r c e s , t h e w i d e v a r i e t y o f p l a n t a n d a n i m a l s p e c i e s w h i c h u s e t h e a r e a , t h e p r e s e n c e o f m a m m a l s w h i c h r e q u i r e l a r g e a r e a s o f u n d i s t u r b e d l a n d , a n d t h e b e a u t y o f t h e m o u n t a i n o u s t e r r a i n a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s p e c i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e n t i n t h e R o c k i e s . 48 3 . 1 . 2 T h e H i s t o r y o f U s e a n d P r o t e c t i o n i n t h e C a n a d i a n  R o c k i e s L u x t o n ( 1 9 7 5 ) n o t e s t h a t s e v e r a l t r i b e s o f n a t i v e p e o p l e i n h a b i t e d t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n a r e a b e f o r e c o n t a c t b y e x p l o r e r s a n d t r a d e r s b e g a n i n t h e m i d 1 8 t h c e n t u r y . L i t t l e i s k n o w n o f t h e n a t i v e ' s w a y o f l i f e e x c e p t t h a t w h i c h h a s b e e n p a s s e d o n o r a l l y . T h e S i o u a n n a t i o n w a s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e S t o n e y I n d i a n s ( a l s o k n o w n a s t h e A s s i n l b o i n e ) w h o w e r e p u s h e d w e s t w a r d f r o m t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y , w h i c h s p r e a d f r o m t h e R e d R i v e r t o t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e N o r t h a n d S o u t h S a s k a t c h e w a n R i v e r , b y t h e B l a c k f o o t ( o f t h e A l g o n q u i n n a t i o n ) t o t h e a r e a n e a r J a s p e r N a t i o n a l P a r k . T h e B l a c k f o o t , a l o n g w i t h t h e B l o o d a n d t h e P i e g a n ( a l s o A l g o n q u i n p e o p l e ) , i n h a b i t e d t h e a r e a s o u t h o f t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n R i v e r t o t h e M i s s o u r i R i v e r a n d f r o m t h e R e d R i v e r t o t h e R o c k i e s . T h e S a r s i , o f t h e A t h a p a s c a n s , w e r e B l a c k f o o t a l l i e s . T h e C r e e s , a l s o o f t h e A l g o n q u i n n a t i o n , b u t u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t a n d i n h a b i t i n g t h e a r e a f r o m H u d s o n ' s B a y a n d A t h a b a s c a L a k e t o t h e R o c k i e s , s i d e d w i t h t h e S t o n e y p e o p l e a g a i n s t t h e B l a c k f o o t a n d t h e i r a l l i e s . T h e K o o t e n a y a n d S h u s w a p ( o f t h e S a l i s h p e o p l e ) w e r e p u s h e d t o s h a r e t h e a r e a o n t h e w e s t w a r d s i d e o f t h e R o c k i e s . A l l t h e s e t r i b e s w e r e n o m a d i c p e o p l e , t h e i r t i p i s a n d f e w p o s s e s s i o n s e a s y t o m o v e . T h e b u f f a l o s u p p l i e d a l l t h e i r n e e d s , f o o d , t i p i s , c l o t h e s , m o c a s s i n s a n d r o b e s . O r i g i n a l l y , t h e I n d i a n s h u n t e d b u f f a l o o n f o o t w i t h b o w s a n d a r r o w s . . . . A f t e r h o r s e s c a m e , t h e r e w a s a r u n n i n g h u n t , w h e r e t h e I n d i a n k i l l e d f r o m h o r s e b a c k . O t h e r t i m e s a l a r g e g r o u p o f I n d i a n s w o u l d s t a m p e d e t h e b u f f a l o o v e r c l i f f s o r h i g h r i v e r b a n k s . S o m e a n i m a l s d i e d i n t h e f a l l o r w e r e t r a m p l e d b y 49 o t h e r s , a n d I n d i a n s a t t h e b o t t o m k i l l e d i n c a p a c i t a t e d a n i m a l s . T h o u g h p o p u l a r , i t w a s a w a s t e f u l w a y t o k i l l ( L u x t o n , 1 9 7 5 : 2 2 ) . O n c e d r i v e n w e s t , t h e K o o t e n a y a l s o f i s h e d a n d h u n t e d f o r d e e r , m o o s e , m o u n t a i n s h e e p , m o u n t a i n g o a t s a n d g a m e b i r d s , a n d t r a p p e d f o r s m a l l e r m a m m a l s . A l l t r i b e s u s e d r o o t s , b e r r i e s , m o s s e s a n d b a r k s a s f o o d a n d / o r m e d i c i n e . S o m e l o c a l m u d s w e r e u s e d a s 1 s o r b u r n e d t o p r o d u c e v a r i o u s c o l o u r s o f b o d y a n d f a c e p a i n t . T h e n a t i v e p e o p l e u s e d t h e h o t s p r i n g s f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e m o u n t a i n s f o r b a t h i n g a n d p o s s i b l y f o r c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s . I t w a s o n e o f t h o s e s p r i n g s , w h i c h w a s d i s c o v e r e d b y f u r t r a d e r s W l l l a r d B u r r l l l ( P e t e r ) Y o u n g e a n d B e n j a m i n P e a s e I n D e c e m b e r , 1 8 7 5 o n a d v i c e f r o m t h e S t o n e y I n d i a n s . I t w a s f i r s t u s e d ( b y E u r o p e a n s ) b y t h r e e r a i l w a y w o r k e r s , F r a n k l i n M c C a b e , W i l l i a m M c C a r d e l 1 a n d T h o m a s M c C a r d e l 1 o n N o v e m b e r 8 , 1 8 8 3 , w h i c h l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f i r s t n a t i o n a l p a r k i n C a n a d a ( t h e t h i r d i n t h e w o r l d a f t e r p a r k s i n t h e U . S . A . a n d A u s t r a l l a ) ( M a r t y , 1 9 8 4 ) ) . N o t a b l e s l i k e S i r S a n f o r d F l e m i n g a n d W i l l i a m C o r n e l i u s V a n H o m e c a m e t o t h e a r e a d u e t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , a n d a d v o c a t e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p a r k s a s " a s o u r c e o f g e n e r a l p r o f i t " , e n v i s a g i n g a C a n a d i a n S w i t z e r l a n d ( M a r t y , 1 9 8 4 : 3 2 ) . F o l l o w i n g a b u y - o u t s e t t l e m e n t w i t h M c C a b e a n d t h e M c C a r d e l l s , w h o h a d b e e n a t t e m p t i n g t o s t a k e a m i n e r a l c l a i m o r h o m e s t e a d t h e s p r i n g s s i t e w h i l e c a t e r i n g t o n u m e r o u s b a t h e r s , t h e C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t p l a c e d a 5 0 p a r k r e s e r v e o n t h e l a n d . O r d e i — i n - C o u n c i l N o . 2 1 9 7 o n N o v e m b e r 2 8 , 1 8 8 5 r e s e r v e d a t e n s q u a r e m i l e a r e a , i n c l u d i n g t h e s p r i n g s , u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : H i s E x c e l l e n c y b y a n d w i t h t h e a d v i c e o f t h e Q u e e n ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l f o r C a n a d a h a s b e e n p l e a s e d t o o r d e r , a n d i s h e r e b y o r d e r e d , t h a t w h e r e a s n e a r t h e s t a t i o n o f B a n f f o n t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , i n t h e P r o v i s i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f A l b e r t a , N o r t h W e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , t h e r e h a v e b e e n d i s c o v e r e d s e v e r a l h o t m i n e r a l s p r i n g s w h i c h p r o m i s e t o b e o f g r e a t s a n i t a r y a d v a n t a g e t o t h e p u b l i c , a n d i n o r d e r t h a t p r o p e r c o n t r o l o f t h e l a n d s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s e s p r i n g s m a y b e v e s t e d i n t h e C r o w n , t h e s a i d l a n d s i n t h e t e r r i t o r y i n c l u d i n g s a i d s p r i n g s a n d i n t h e i r i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r h o o d , b e a n d t h e y a r e h e r e b y r e s e r v e d f r o m s a l e o r s e t t l e m e n t o r s q u a t t i n g ( M a r t y , 1 9 8 4 : 4 1 - 4 2 ) . T h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s P a r k A c t ( 1 8 8 7 , 5 0 - 51 V i c . C . 3 2 ( 1 8 8 7 ) ) r e c e i v e d R o y a l A s s e n t o n J u n e 2 3 , 1 8 8 7 , t h e r e b y e s t a b l i s h i n g R o c k y M o u n t a i n s N a t i o n a l P a r k , " a s a p u b l i c p a r k a n d p l e a s u r e g r o u n d f o r t h e b e n e f i t , a d v a n t a g e a n d e n j o y m e n t o f t h e p e o p l e o f C a n a d a ( E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 3 : 3 ) . O v e r t i m e , n o t o n 1y t h e n a m e a n d b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s N a t i o n a l P a r k ( n o w B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k ) c h a n g e d , b u t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h o s e p e o p l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r k s c h a n g e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l e m p h a s i s o n r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o f i t s t o t h e c u r r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e s o u r c e p r o t e c t i o n w i t h i n p a r k s . T h e f i r s t d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e c h a n g e w a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s w i l d l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y a s i t w a s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f w i l d l i f e i n t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s . A s F o s t e r n o t e s i n h e r 51 h i s t o r y o f t h e c h a n g e s i n w i l d l i f e p o l i c y o v e r t i m e , T h e r e w a s n o f o r m a l c o n c e r n f o r w i l d l i f e p r e s e r v a t i o n e x p r e s s e d b y t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , y e t , d u r i n g t h e c l o s i n g y e a r s 1 o f t h a t c e n t u r y a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i r s t t w o d e c a d e s o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , a n a w a r e n e s s b e g a n t o e v o l v e a n d t a k e s h a p e i n g o v e r n m e n t t h i n k i n g . T h e r e a l i z a t i o n w a s d a w n i n g t h a t C a n a d a ' s w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s w e r e n o t u n l i m i t e d a n d t h a t c e r t a i n s p e c i e s , f a r f r o m b e i n g s u p e r a b u n d a n t , w e r e d e c l i n i n g i n t o e x t i n c t i o n . W i t h t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n c a m e a g r o w i n g s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o p r e s e r v e a n d p r o t e c t C a n a d a ' s w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s . T h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w a s v o i c e d a n d d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e C o n f e r e n c e , c o n v e n e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t , i n 1 9 1 9 . T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w a s f o r m a l l y a s s u m e d a n d w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n b e c a m e p a r t o f r e g u l a r g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y ( F o s t e r , 1 9 7 8 : 1 3 ) . T h e n e w f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y w a s f i r s t i n i t i a t e d i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s , a n d s e v e r a l f e d e r a l p a r k s p e o p l e w e r e a m o n g t h o s e w h o w e r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e f f e c t i n g t h e k e y a t t i t u d e c h a n g e n o t e d a b o v e . T h e y i n c l u d e d : H o w a r d D o u g l a s , a p p o i n t e d S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R o c k y M o u n t a i n s P a r k i n 1 8 9 7 , w h o r e c o g n i z e d w i l d l i f e b o t h a s a t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n a n d a s a v a l u a b l e n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e ( F o s t e r , 1 9 7 8 ) ; J a m e s H a r k i n , a p p o i n t e d C o m m i s s i o n e r o f D o m i n i o n P a r k s i n 1 9 1 2 , w h o " h a d a c l e a r a n d u n f a i l i n g v i s i o n o f w h a t w i l d e r n e s s , p a r k s a n d w i l d l i f e s i g n i f i e d f o r t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e i n t e r m s o f b o t h a e s t h e t i c a n d e c o n o m i c i m p o r t a n c e ( F o s t e r , 1 9 7 8 : 1 3 ) " ; a n d , M a x w e l l G r a h a m , " s e l f - a p p o i n t e d c h i e f o f p a r k s ' t h r e e - m a n " A n i m a l D i v i s i o n ' " , w h o w o r k e d h a r d t o p r e s e r v e t h e p r o n g h o r n a n t e l o p e a n d w o o d b u f f a l o ( F o s t e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e 1 8 8 7 P a r k s A c t h a d a c l a u s e r e l a t i n g t o t h e " p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d p r o t e c t i o n o f 52 f i s h a n d g a m e , [ a n d ] w i l d b i r d s g e n e r a l l y " , b u t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y e m p h a s i s o n t o u r i s t u s e o f t h e a r e a t o o k p r e c e d e n c e ( F o s t e r , 1 9 7 8 : 1 6 ) . A s e r i o u s c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t p r e d a t o r s r a g e d u p u n t i l t h e m i d 1 9 3 0 s . W i t h t h e c u r r e n t N a t i o n a l P a r k A c t w r i t t e n i n 1 9 3 0 , H a r k i n p u s h e d f o r a n d s u c c e e d e d i n e x c l u d i n g t h e i n d u s t r i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f p a r k s . I t w a s n o t e x p l i c i t l y e x c l u d e d i n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e 1 9 3 0 a c t s t a t e s t h a t . T h e P a r k s a r e h e r e b y d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p e o p l e o f C a n a d a f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n a n d e n j o y m e n t , s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t a n d t h e R e g u l a t i o n s , a n d s u c h P a r k s s h a l l b e m a i n t a i n e d a n d m a d e u s e o f s o a s t o l e a v e t h e m u n i m p a i r e d f o r t h e  e n j o y m e n t o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . ( S e c t i o n 4 ) ( e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k , o n c e 2 5 9 0 h a ( 1 0 s q u a r e m i l e s ) , n o w c o v e r s 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 h a . B y a n o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i 1 o f O c t o b e r 1 0 , 1 8 8 6 , 2 5 9 0 h a ( 1 0 s q u a r e m i l e s ) n e a r M o u n t S t e p h e n w a s s e t a s i d e : i t n o w c o m p r i s e s t h e 1 3 1 , 3 0 0 h a Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k . W a t e r t o n N a t i o n a l P a r k f o l l o w e d i n 1 8 9 5 w i t h a n o r i g i n a l r e s e r v e o f 1 3 , 9 8 6 h a ( 5 4 s q u a r e m i l e s ) n e a r K o o t e n a y L a k e , n o w a 5 2 , 0 0 0 h a a r e a . C a n a d i a n a n d A m e r i c a n l e g i s l a t i o n I n 1 9 3 2 c r e a t e d t h e W a t e r t o n - G l a c i e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l P e a c e P a r k , o n e o f t h e f i r s t o f i t s k i n d . 1 9 0 7 s a w t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e 1 , 0 8 7 , 8 0 0 h a J a s p e r N a t i o n a l P a r k , n a m e d a f t e r J a s p e r H a w s e ' s N o r t h w e s t C o m p a n y t r a d i n g p o s t o n t h e A t h a b a s c a R i v e r . T h e s p r i n g s i n t h e p r e s e n t K o o t e n a y N a t i o n a l P a r k h a d b e e n u s e d b y t r a v e l l e r s f r o m t h e m i d 1 8 0 0 s , b u t i t t o o k u n t i l 1 9 2 0 t o e s t a b l i s h t h e n o w 1 4 0 , 6 0 0 h a p a r k . 53 P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s f o l l o w e d b y e s t a b l i s h i n g p a r k s i n t h e r e g i o n . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c r e a t e d t h e 2 1 9 , 8 2 9 h a M o u n t R o b s o n P r o v i n c i a l P a r k i n 1 9 1 3 , t h e 3 9 , 0 5 2 h a M o u n t A s s i n i b o i n e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k i n 1 9 2 2 , a n d , t h e 2 4 , 5 1 8 h a H a m b e r P r o v i n c i a l P a r k i n 1 9 4 1 . A l b e r t a c r e a t e d t h e 4 5 9 , 7 2 3 h a w i l l m o r e W i l d e r n e s s P a r k i n 1 9 7 0 ( a m e n d e d f r o m t h e 5 5 6 , 5 8 9 h a a r e a e s t a b l i s h e d o r i g i n a l l y i n 1 9 5 9 ) , a n d t h e 5 0 , 3 0 9 h a K a n a n a s k i s P r o v i n c i a l P a r k i n 1 9 7 7 . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n d p r o t e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m s f o r t h e w h o l e o f C a n a d a t h u s b e g a n i n t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s r e g i o n . A s n o t e d a b o v e , b o t h f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l l a n d r e s e r v a t i o n s c h e m e s ( d e s c r i b e d a n d b r i e f l y e v a l u a t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r e c e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n C h a p t e r 4 ) h a v e b e e n u s e d o v e r t h e y e a r s . I n t o t a l 2 , 9 0 5 , 1 3 1 h a o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s a r e p r o t e c t e d u n d e r v a r i o u s f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n s , s o o n e m i g h t a s k w h y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o w o r r y a b o u t t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g S e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e r e a s o n s f o r w o r r y a b o u t t h e R o c k i e s r e g i o n f r o m a p r o t e c t i o n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e . 54 3 . 2 C o n f l i c t s i n t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s T h e r i c h n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e v a l u e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 3 . 1 h a v e l e d t o t h e m a n y c o n f l i c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e u s e o f t h e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n . P r o v i s i o n s u n d e r S e c t i o n s 91 a n d 9 2 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t ( 1 8 6 7 ) p l a c e m o s t o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s o u r c e s i n t h e h a n d o f t h e p r o v i n c e s : t h e R o c k i e s a r e s h a r e d b y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d A l b e r t a . T h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n t h e r e g i o n g i v e s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a g r e a t e r r o l e i n t h e R o c k i e s r e g i o n t h a n i t h a s i n m a n y o t h e r r e g i o n s o f C a n a d a s o u t h o f 6 0 d e g r e e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e c o n f l i c t s i n t h e r e g i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s e c t i o n u n d e r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e d o m i n a n t g o v e r n m e n t ( I . e . , t h e C a n a d i a n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n a n d A l b e r t a n g o v e r n m e n t s ) . C o n f l i c t s i n t h e e n t i r e R o c k i e s r e g i o n a r e r e v i e w e d i n o r d e r t o s e t t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n P a r k s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e I n i t s r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . C o n f l i c t s o n l a n d n o t s u b j e c t t o p r o t e c t i v e s t a t u s a r e i n c l u d e d a s p a r t o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y r e f l e c t t h e l a n d m a n a g e m e n t i s s u e s i n t h e r e g i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s h a r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s u n d e r C a n a d i a n l a w , t h e c l i m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 3 . 1 h a v e l e d t o s o m e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s i n t h e t w o p r o v i n c e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e R o c k i e s . T h e c l i m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s h a v e y i e l d e d s o m e 55 s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r i n g h a b i t a t t y p e s . A s a n e x a m p l e , t h e l o w e r w e s t e r n s l o p e s o f t h e R o c k i e s r a n g e r e c e i v e a g r e a t d e a l o f m o i s t u r e s o t h e y s u p p o r t a l u x u r i a n t c o n i f e r o u s t r e e g r o w t h , w h i l e t h e e a s t e r n s l o p e s , b e i n g i n a r a i n s h a d o w a n d Chinook b e l t , r e c e i v e l e s s m o i s t u r e a n d t h u s p r e f e r e n t i a l l y p r o d u c e e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f g r a s s l a n d a n d p a t c h y deciduous t r e e s t a n d s . T h e d i f f e r e n c e r e s u l t s I n t h e p r e s e n c e o f c o n f l i c t s w i t h r a n c h i n g a n d w i l d l i f e u s e o f g r a s s l a n d a r e a s i n t h e A l b e r t a p a r t s o f t h e R o c k i e s , a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f f o r e s t r y r e l a t e d c o n f l i c t s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a r t s o f t h e R o c k i e s . F u r t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e x p l i c a t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l s u b s e c t i o n s b e l o w . 3 . 2 . 1 C o n f l i c t s P e r t a i n i n g t o L a n d U n d e r C a n a d i a n  R e s p o n s i b i 1 1 t y A c t i o n s b y P a r k s C a n a d a r e s p e c t i n g t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s h a v e b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y I n r e c e n t y e a r s . T h e F o u r M o u n t a i n P a r k s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , w h i c h w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 8 0 s t o p r o v i d e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e , l o n g - t e r m g u i d e t o a c t i v i t y w i t h i n B a n f f , J a s p e r , K o o t e n a y , a n d Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k s , h a s b e e n s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e c r i t i c i s m b y e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s . T h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w a s I n t e n d e d t o c o u n t e r a c t p r o b l e m s w i t h p r o v i s i o n a l p l a n s w r i t t e n i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r k s . T h e p r o b l e m s w e r e g e n e r a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f o u r p a r k s 56 t e n d e d t o f u n c t i o n a s a b l o c k m o r e t h a n a s s e p a r a t e i n d i v i d u a l p a r k s ( D o n P i k e , p e r s . c o m m . ) . T h e e f f o r t s o f t h e F o u r M o u n t a i n P a r k s p l a n n i n g s t a f f h a v e b e e n s e e n b y e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a s i n i t i a l l y l i s t e n i n g t o a w i d e p u b l i c v i e w w h i c h w a s s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s , b u t s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c o m m e n d i n g a p l a n o f a c t i o n t h a t w o u l d r e s u l t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p a r k s t o p r i m a r i l y m e e t t o u r i s m n e e d s f o r f a c i l i t i e s d e v e l o p m e n t . C r i t i c s o f t h e p r o c e s s a r e c o n c e r n e d t h a t f a c i l i t i e s d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l r e d u c e t h e w i l d e r n e s s v a l u e s f o r w h i c h t h e a r e a i s r e n o w n e d . E a r l y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p l a n n i n g t e a m i n c l u d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r m a l a n d i n f o r m a l c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c b y t e a m m e m b e r s , a n d f r e e d o m f o r t h e t e a m m e m b e r s t o a d j u s t m a n a g e m e n t o p t i o n s t o t h e p e r c e i v e d c o n s e n s u s o n p r e f e r r e d a c t i o n s . A c h a n g e i n s e n i o r m a n a g e m e n t i n t h e W e s t e r n r e g i o n o f P a r k s C a n a d a r e s u l t e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h r e e o p t i o n s i n e a c h s u b - a r e a , w h e t h e r t h e p l a n n i n g t e a m c o n s i d e r e d i t a p p r o p r i a t e o r n o t . I n J u l y o f 1 9 8 4 , p r i o r t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l a s t r o u n d o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , a d o c u m e n t l e a k e d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e s p i t e t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s w i t h s t r o n g p u b l i c c o n s e n s u s o n s o m e a c t i o n s , t h e P a r k s C a n a d a m a n a g e r s i n t e n d e d t o r e c o m m e n d a p l a n o f a c t i o n w h i c h w a s i n s o m e c a s e s d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n t r a r y t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , i n v i t a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s w i t h a s t r o n g e m p h a s i s o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b y t h e t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y w e r e h e l d i n N o v e m b e r 57 a n d D e c e m b e r o f 1 9 8 4 . T h e m a j o r i t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s i n v i t e d t o t h e i n v i t a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s b o y c o t t e d t h e m e e t i n g s d u e t o t h e p e r c e i v e d m o t i v e s o f t h e P a r k s C a n a d a s e n i o r s t a f f . T h e s e w e r e t h e o n l y p u b l i c m e e t i n g s w h e r e s e n i o r P a r k s C a n a d a s t a f f w e r e p r e s e n t : p r e v i o u s p u b l i c m e e t i n g s h a d b e e n a t t e n d e d b y p l a n n i n g t e a m m e m b e r s w h o w e r e s e e n b y s e n i o r s t a f f t o b e " f i l t e r i n g " t h e p u b l i c r e s p o n s e s t o w a r d s a p r o t e c t i o n i s t b i a s . T h e p u b l i c o u t c r y e n g e n d e r e d b y t h e I n v i t a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s f o r c e d t h e p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t p r o c e s s t o b e e x t e n d e d i n t o a n e w s e t o f g e n e r a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 8 5 . T h e p l a n i s a s y e t i n c o m p l e t e , b u t t o d a t e i t i s s e e n b y e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s t o b e h i g h l y s l a n t e d t o w a r d s a n e m p h a s i s o n i n c r e a s e d v i s i t o r u s e o f b o t h b a c k c o u n t r y a n d f r o n t c o u n t r y a r e a s i n t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s t o t h e c o n s i s t e n t d e t r i m e n t o f w i l d l i f e . T w o r e p o r t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e e v a l u a t e d i n d e t a i l t h e v a r i o u s o p t i o n s p r o d u c e d b y t h e p l a n n i n g t e a m a n d r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e m o r e d e v e l o p m e n t o r i e n t e d o p t i o n s w o u l d h a v e m a j o r n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s o n w i l d l i f e ( B . B r i s c o e ( C W S ) t o S . K u n ( P a r k s C a n a d a ) , J u l y 2 4 , 1 9 8 4 a n d N . T y w o n i u k ( C W S ) t o S . K u n , J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e l a t t e r l e t t e r w a s t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y a s i t w a s f i r s t m a d e p u b l i c b y a c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t g r o u p a n d w a s c l a i m e d t o b e f a k e . L a t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y ( M . L o w e y , " P h o n e y ' l e t t e r p r o v e s t o b e r e a l , C a l g a r y H e r a l d . F e b r u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 8 5 ) a n d t h e s a m e a r t i c l e n o t e s t h a t , i t a l s o p r o v i d e s s i t e - s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s t h a t c o r r o b o r a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s ' v i e w t h a t P a r k s C a n a d a ' s e m p h a s i s o n d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d d a m a g e t h e p a r k e n v i r o n m e n t a n d h a r m w i l d l i f e . 58 T w o a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n s t h a t a f f e c t t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s a n d a r e a s l e a d i n g i n t o t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s a r e t h e t w i n t r a c k i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y a n d t h e w i d e n i n g o f t h e T r a n s C a n a d a H i g h w a y t o f o u r l a n e s t h r o u g h B a n f f a n d Y o h o N a t i o n a l P a r k s . T h e r a i l w a y t w i n t r a c k i n g a n d t h e w i d e n i n g o f t h e h i g h w a y a r e d e s t r o y i n g v a l l e y b o t t o m h a b i t a t o f o v e r w i n t e r i n g w i l d l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y u n g u l a t e s ( S t e v e H e r r e r o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , S c h o o l o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n : p e r s . c o m m . ) . I t i s h o p e d , t h o u g h , t h a t r o a d k i l l s , a c o m m o n p r o b l e m i n t h e p a r k s , m a y b e r e d u c e d b y t h e p l a c e m e n t o f h i g h f e n c e s o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e w i d e n e d h i g h w a y . T h e r e m o v a l o f c a b o o s e s , f r o m w h i c h r a i l w a y s t a f f m a y s p o t s p a r k s t h r o w n f r o m t h e t r a i n w h i c h m a y i g n i t e f o r e s t f i r e s , h a s a l s o b e e n t h r e a t e n e d b y t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n y . N u m e r o u s a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s ( S . H e r r e r o , p e r s . c o m m . ) a f f e c t t h e n a t u r a l c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e m o u n t a i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s . N a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s l i k e f i r e a n d I n s e c t i n f e s t a t i o n a r e s u p p r e s s e d t o p r o t e c t h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d f o r e s t s t a n d s . T h e l o s s o f t h e C a n a d i a n W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e r e s e a r c h s t a f f p e r p e t u a t e s t h e i n a d e q u a t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e w i l d l i f e r e l a t i o n s t o f i r e , i n s e c t s , e t c . W i l d l i f e p o a c h i n g i s c o m m o n a t t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e p a r k s , p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r s o f w a r d e n s t o p a t r o l t h e a r e a s t h o r o u g h l y . T h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t d a m a g e t o m o n i t o r h a s b e e n t h e i n c r e m e n t a l l o s s o f p r i s t i n e w i l d l a n d a r e a s c a u s e d b y s m a l l d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d i n c r e a s e s i n v i s i t o r u s e o f t h e 59 b a c k c o u n t r y a r e a s . T h e p l a c e m e n t o f a l p i n e h u t s i n t h e h a n d s o f p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a s b e e n s e e n b y s o m e a s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s c o n c e r n ( D i c k L a t t a , p e r s . c o m m . ) . M a n y e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s h a v e t a k e n a n e n t h u s i a s t i c v i e w o f t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f f o r m e r E n v i r o n m e n t M i n i s t e r S u z a n n e B l a i s - G r e n i e r b y T o m M c M i l l a n , a s e l f - a v o w e d " e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t " . S i n c e h i s a p p o i n t m e n t , h e h a s a n n o u n c e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n e w n a t i o n a l p a r k o n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d a n d e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o p l a c e t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e S o u t h M o r e s b y a r e a a s a t o p p r i o r i t y . H i s p r e v i o u s c a b i n e t p o s t , h o w e v e r , w a s a s T o u r i s m M i n i s t e r , u n d e r w h i c h a u s p i c e s s t r o n g s u p p o r t w a s g i v e n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f a c i l i t i e s t o s u p p o r t i n c r e a s e d v i s i t o r u s e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s i n t h e d o c u m e n t T o u r i s m T o m o r r o w — T o w a r d s a C a n a d i a n T o u r i s m S t r a t e g y ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e f i n a l f o r m o f t h e F o u r M o u n t a i n P a r k s P l a n i s q u e s t i o n a b l e i n l i g h t o f M c M i l l a n ' s s e n s i t i v i t i e s t o t h e t o u r i s m p e r s p e c t i v e . C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l p a r k s ( a n d p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s t o s o m e e x t e n t ) a r e s e e n t o b e t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f o u r n a t i o n ' s e f f o r t s a t t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f o u r n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e ( S t e p h a n F u l l e r , p e r s . c o m m . ) . W h a t i s o f c o n c e r n t o t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r i s t h e u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e s t r e n g t h o f f e d e r a l p r o t e c t i v e m e a s u r e s o c c a s i o n e d b y t h e d i s c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y h e l d b y t h e f e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t M i n i s t e r . F o r m e r E n v i r o n m e n t M i n i s t e r B l a i s - G r e n l e r ' s c o m m e n t s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p o s s i b l e a c c e p t a n c e o f r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h 60 m i n i s t e r i a l i n t e r e s t s c a n u n d e r m i n e t h e i n t e n t o f 1 e g i s1 a t i o n . 3 . 2 . 2 C o n f l i c t P e r t a i n i n g t o L a n d U n d e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s  R e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y N u m e r o u s c o n f l i c t s e x i s t i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n R o c k i e s . O f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e a r e t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f c o a l w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e d i r e c t a 1 i e n a t i o n o r d e g r a d a t i o n o f f i s h a n d w i 1 d 1 i f e h a b i t a t s a n d w a t e r a n d a i r q u a l i t y , a s w e l l a s t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e e x p a n s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t o s u p p l y l a b o u r f o r t h e m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s . E x i s t i n g c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e s o u t h e a s t c o a l b l o c k i n c l u d e d ( J o h n D i c k , p e r s . c o m m . ) ; W e s t S t a r ( H a r m e r R i d g e ) , F o r d i n g C o a l , C r o w s N e s t R e s o u r c e s ( L i n e C r e e k ) , B y r o n C r e e k C o l l i e r i e s , a n d S a g e C r e e k . T h e f i r s t f o u r a r e p l a n n i n g e x p a n s i o n s i f o r w h e n t h e m a r k e t b e c o m e s m o r e f a v o u r a b l e t o c o a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e E l k o s i t e i s a s y e t d o r m a n t , b u t i t h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e n o r t h e a s t c o a l b l o c k h a s t h e e x i s t i n g T e c h a n d Q u i n t e t s i t e s ( t h e l a t t e r o f . w h i c h i s e x p a n d i n g ) a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g a p p r o v e d p o t e n t i a l s i t e s ; P e t r o c a n ( M o n k m a n ) , U t a h M i n e s ( C a r b o n C r e e k ) , B r i t i s h P e t r o l e u m ( S u k u n k a ) a n d t h r e e o t h e r s i t e s t h a t m i g h t b e d e v e l o p e d . 61 F o r e s t r y e f f e c t s on f i s h , w i l d l i f e and water q u a l i t y through the dumping o f e f f l u e n t i n the water sources are somewhat abated by the slow economy i n the p r o v i n c e and the slow wood products markets (Linda F o u b i s t e r , pers. comm.). An e x c e p t i o n may be areas o f i n s e c t a t t a c k . In the l a t t e r a r e a s , which a r e q u i t e widespread, salvage o p e r a t i o n s a re r e c o v e r i n g as much from areas a t t a c k e d by mountain p i n e b e e t l e and mountain spruce b e e t l e as p o s s i b l e , but are prematurely h a r v e s t i n g the areas and denuding the f o r e s t (John Dick, p e r s . comm.). As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , a g r i c u l t u r e i s not a major problem on the western s l o p e s o f the Rockies due t o the dense f o r e s t growth. A dam has been proposed f o r the K i c k i n g Horse R i v e r near F i e l d t o r e p l a c e the use o f d i e s e L generators and i t would e l i m i n a t e w i n t e r flows o f the r i v e r t o . t h e detriment o f f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s . Petroleum and n a t u r a l gas development i s going on In many areas and s p e c i f i c s i t e s a re too numerous t o l i s t ( J . Dick, p e r s . comm.). The e x p l o r a t i o n and d r i l l i n g p r ocesses r e s u l t i n the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f unmanaged access t o areas and a f f e c t s f i s h i n g , hunting and water q u a l i t y due t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f access roads and the lack o f c o n t r o l o f those roads. It i s expected (John Dick, p e r s . comm.) t o a f f e c t n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s o f D o l l y Varden and Yellowstone C u t t h r o a t , moderately p r o d u c t i v e s p o r t s f i s h which are very s u s c e p t i b l e t o o v e r f i s h i n g . While e x p l o r i n g f o r petroleum and n a t u r a l gas, a major carbon d i o x i d e r e s e r v e was found i n 62 south e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. S h e l l Resources has proposed sending the carbon d i o x i d e t o A l b e r t a f o r use i n o i l w e l l s . One drawback may be the r e f i n i n g o f the product near the r e s e r v e s , which c o u l d r e s u l t i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f sulphur d i o x i d e , a source o f a c i d r a i n , or hydrogen s u l p h i d e , a t o x i c gas (Ken H a l l , p e r s . comm.) as by-products. I n f r a s t r u c t u r e development t o support i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y has been a major problem because o f d i r e c t h a b i t a t a l i e n a t i o n and because o f the problems (e.g., bear a t t r a c t i o n ) a s s o c i a t e d with sewage and garbage d i s p o s a l through the development o f " i n s t a n t " communities (e.g., Tumbler Ridge). As w e l l , the i n h a b i t a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y u n i n h a b i t e d areas tends t o lead t o i n c r e a s e s i n f i s h i n g and hunting i n the ar e a , thus a f f e c t i n g f i s h and w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s . The in c r e a s e s i n f o u r season r e c r e a t i o n a l developments i n the Rocky Mountain Trench are expected t o have a severe impact on e l k and mountain sheep winter range, due t o t h e i r l o c a t i o n on south f a c i n g s l o p e s which support the most winter range f o r large u n g u l a t e s . The major d e t e r r e n t t o i n c r e a s e d human and i n d u s t r i a l development i n the r e g i o n i s the c u r r e n t economic scene which i s not conducive t o i n d u s t r i a l development. Should the economic s i t u a t i o n improve f o r business purposes, the i n d u s t r i a l impact on the Rockies r e g i o n c o u l d be expected t o i n c r e a s e d r a m a t i c a l l y . The c o n f l i c t s with w i l d l i f e and water 63 q u a l i t y c o u l d a l s o be expected t o e s c a l a t e . As D.E. Phelps o f the B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch wrote ( l e t t e r , September 12, 1985) o f the Rockies r e g i o n : The most s i g n i f i c a n t problem i s lack o f any o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g mechanism f o r land use d e c i s i o n s and resource a l l o c a t i o n s . T h i s amounts t o inadequate c o o r d i n a t i o n not o n l y between P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r i e s but a l s o with other r e g u l a t o r y b o d i e s . The day t o day s i t e s p e c i f i c c o n f l i c t s a r e p r i m a r i l y symptoms. P o l i t i c i a n s , b ureaucrats and the people have not yet come t o g r i p s with the myth o f super abundance or the f r a g i l i t y o f the land base. 3.2.3. C o n f l i c t s P e r t a i n i n g t o Land Under A l b e r t a ' s  Respons i b i 1 i t y The primary i s s u e o f the e a s t e r n s l o p e s o f the Rockies a r i s e s out o f p r o v i n c i a l land use p o l i c y a c t i o n s . U n l i k e B r i t i s h Columbia which does not have a comprehensively a p p l i e d land use p o l i c y or p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , A l b e r t a began t o develop an e a s t e r n s l o p e s p o l i c y i n the e a r l y 1970s, c u l m i n a t i n g i n the p u b l i c a t i o n o f A P o l i c y f o r Resource  Management o f the E a s t e r n Slopes i n 1977. The 1977 p o l i c y p l a c e d primary emphasis on the management o f resource use a c t i v i t y so as t o p r o t e c t the area's c r i t i c a l n a t u r a l values o f f i s h , w i l d l i f e and scenery. Most environmental groups were g e n e r a l l y p l e a s e d with the p o l i c y and o n l y c r i t i c i z e d the misuse o f areas s u b j e c t t o p r o t e c t i v e zoning u n t i l the r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f the p o l i c y was p u b l i s h e d i n 1984. But, the new p o l i c y has been seen by environmental groups l i k e the 64 A l b e r t a Wilderness A s s o c i a t i o n (AWA) t o emphasize the economic development o f the r e g i o n through such statements as : The p o l i c y i s s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e so t h a t a l l f u t u r e p r o p o s a l s f o r land use and development may be co n s i d e r e d . No l e g i t i m a t e p r o p o s a l s w i l l be c a t e g o r i c a l l y r e j e c t e d . Should a proposal not be in keeping with the p r o v i s i o n s o f the p o l i c y f o r t h a t a r e a , a l t e r n a t i v e means w i l l be ex p l o r e d f o r accommodating the proposal i n a more a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n i n the r e g i o n . The ongoing i n t e g r a t e d resource p l a n s w i l l make the p o l i c y work - t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s t i m u l a t e economic growth and s e c u r i t y w hile m a i n t a i n i n g the key watershed and r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s o f the area ( A l b e r t a Energy and Natural Resources, 1984: i l l ) . It i s not c l e a r whether lobbying by groups l i k e the AWA w i l l r e s u l t i n movement away from the emphasis on economic deve1opment. A government p o l i c y a c t i o n which i s expected t o have an impact on the Rockies r e g i o n i s the Canada/A1berta Economic and Regional Development Agreement signed June 8, 1984. Under the agreement a $56 m i l l i o n grant was made a v a i l a b l e by the f e d e r a l government t o the A l b e r t a t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y . Combined with the Tourism Canada s t r a t e g y r e f e r r e d t o p r e v i o u s l y , the agreement i s expected t o i n c r e a s e the In c e n t i v e t o develop t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s i n a l l o f A l b e r t a , i n c l u d i n g the Rockies, a popular t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n . As i t i s , t o u r i s m and r e c r e a t i o n a l development i n areas such as Kananaskis Country, Willmore Wilderness Area and Panthers Corners t h r e a t e n w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s and water q u a l i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , the development o f an a l p i n e v i l l a g e and g o l f 65 course i n the Mount A l l e n area f o r the 1988 Winter Olympics, and the use o f the nearby Wind V a l l e y area f o r p r i v a t e l y owned r e c r e a t i o n a l development i s t h r e a t e n i n g mountain sheep, mountain goat and g r i z z l y bear h a b i t a t . H e l i c o p t e r use o f areas d e s i g n a t e d as s t r o n g l y p r o t e c t e d areas in the 1977 E a s t e r n Slopes P o l i c y f o r h e l i - s k i i n g and h e l i - h i k i n g (AWA D r a f t P o s i t i o n Paper f o r A l b e r t a ' s Environmental Groups on the use o f H e l i c o p t e r s f o r Access i n t o A l b e r t a ' s East Slopes Zone 1 (Prime P r o t e c t i o n ) and Zone 1 and 2 ( C r i t i c a l W i l d l i f e ) Lands: 28 June, 1984) permits u n c o n t r o l l e d access and d i s t u r b s w i l d l i f e . Use o f l o g g i n g and o i l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n roads by o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e s i s a c r i t i c a l problem due t o the e x t e n s i v e system o f minor roads pres e n t i n the Rockies r e g i o n . O f f - r o a d v e h i c l e use may r e s u l t i n damage t o water sources and u n c o n t r o l l e d f i s h i n g and hunting as well as road bed damage, e s p e c i a l l y on steep s l o p e s , caused by the v e h i c l e s . S i t e s r e c o g n i z e d t o be o f concern with r e s p e c t t o access by o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e s by the AWA i n c l u d e ; Whaleback and North Porcupine H i l l s , South Ghost, White Goat, Oldman R i v e r , Kakwa ( i n B.C. and A l b e r t a ) , South C a s t l e , Panthers Corners, and Job Lake t o name a few s i t e s . Numerous e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i a l developments have been proposed or i n i t i a t e d . New dam development i n the r e g i o n i s proposed f o r the Three R i v e r s Dam a t the c o n f l u e n c e o f the Crows Nest, C a s t l e and Oldman R i v e r s . The water would be used t o i r r i g a t e the area near L e t h b r i d g e , but i t would have 66 t o be p r e s s u r i z e d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The Environmental Council o f A l b e r t a has i n d i c a t e d i t s view t h a t the Three R i v e r s s i t e i s a very poor l o c a t i o n f o r a dam s o c i a l l y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y (AWA Newsletter, 1984: 14(3): 4 ) . D r i l l i n g f o r o i l and gas i s p e r m i s s i b l e i n even the most p r o t e c t e d areas under the 1977 E a s t e r n Slopes P o l i c y as long as the s i t e was proven b e f o r e J u l y , 1979. O i l and n a t u r a l gas d r i l l i n g with i t s a n c i l l a r y road development i s c r e a t i n g problems in the f o l l o w i n g areas; White Goat, Porcupine, South C a s t l e , Panthers Corners, Novalta, areas surrounding the Oldman R i v e r , and p o s s i b l e problems a t Harold Creek/Upper Red Deer R i v e r and Torrens R i v e r . A l i e n a t i o n o f w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t due t o coal mining i s a problem a t F o l d i n g Mountain and p o s s i b l y a t the Torrens R i v e r . The Kakwa ar e a In B r i t i s h Columbia, a C l a s s A p r o v i n c i a l park p r o p o s a l , i s being t h r e a t e n e d by a q u a r t z i t e mine which would a l s o a f f e c t A l b e r t a ' s use o f the area so i s o f i n t e r e s t t o the AWA. As w e l l , the development o f a hydrogen s u l p h i d e p l a n t which has been proposed by C a n t e r r a i n the Panthers Corners area may c r e a t e env1ronmenta1 prob1 ems. F o r e s t r y a f f e c t s the r e g i o n not o n l y by the removal o f the t r e e s , but a l s o by the p r o v i s i o n o f access t o otherwise i n a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s . It c r e a t e s problems p a r t i c u l a r l y i n ; Wi1lmore Wilderness Area, South C a s t l e , Upper Oldman R i v e r , • 67 Whaleback and North Porcupine H i l l s , Upper Highwood Pass, White Goat, F o l d i n g Mountain and p o s s i b l y from the Chalco V a l l e y i n B.C. Grazing by domestic stock reduces winter range a v a i l a b l e t o w i l d ungulates p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the South C a s t l e and other undeveloped areas o f the f o o t h i l l s where g r a s s l a n d i s a v a i l a b l e f o r winter f o r a g e . The winter opening o f the Upper Highwood Pass, expected t o begin i n 1985-1986, i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o s e v e r e l y a f f e c t o v e r w i n t e r i n g e l k . A few p o s i t i v e a c t i o n s have been taken. The r e c l a m a t i o n o f an o i l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n area by S h e l l i n the Panthers Corners area was h i g h l y a c c l a i m e d by environmental groups (AWA Newsletter 1984: 14(4): 10-11). The establishment o f F o r e s t Land Use Zones (FLUZs) a l l o w s c o n t r o l over r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f backcountry areas with r e s p e c t t o horse/backcountry camping, use o f snowmobiles and o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e s by t r a p p e r s , e t c . FLUZs have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Kakwa, Wapiabi-Blackstone, Job Lake, Sc a l p - F o r b i d d e n - C l e a r w a t e r , Panthers Corners, Ram-White Rabbit and White Goat. Drawbacks o f the FLUZ d e s i g n a t i o n i n c l u d e the lack o f c o n t r o l over the r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f h e l i c o p t e r s i n backcountry a r e a s , the temporary nature o f the d e s i g n a t i o n ( i t i s o n l y a one year t r i a l d e s i g n a t i o n ) , and the r e g u l a t i o n o n l y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . 68 3.3 C o n c l u s i o n s The p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the d i v e r s i t y o f t h r e a t s which immediately a f f e c t the Rockies r e g i o n . F e d e r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d lands are s u b j e c t t o the p o t e n t i a l damage t o w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s which may a r i s e from the Four Mountain Parks p l a n n i n g process, the twin t r a c k i n g o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, the widening o f the Trans Canada Highway, and i n c r e a s e d r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f the n a t i o n a l parks. In B.C. f o r e s t r y , coal development, new town development, and r e c r e a t i o n a l development have major impacts on the r e g i o n , but t h e i r I n f l u e n c e i s somewhat slowed by the c u r r e n t b u s i n e s s investment scene. Integrated p l a n n i n g o f resource a c t i v i t i e s i s l a c k i n g . Despite the e f f o r t s towards land use p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t e d by A l b e r t a , many c o n f l i c t s remain due t o changed p o l i t i c a l p r i o r i t i e s which i n f l u e n c e the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Both in B.C. and A l b e r t a , the e c o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s o f the Rockies r e g i o n have been gi v e n a low p r i o r i t y by the government agencies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r land use management. It would seem t h a t d e s p i t e the v i v i d images o f the Rockies presented i n t o u r i s t brochures o f Canada, and r e l a t i v e l y , f o r t h i s c o n t i n e n t , long r e c o r d o f c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t a c t i v i t y , the Rockies r e g i o n needs something more t o ensure i t s r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . The next chapter examines the p r o v i s i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n the Rockies r e g i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f some 69 p a r t s o f the land base from the types o f c o n f l i c t s d e s c r i b e d i n the present chapter i n order t o maintain the g l o b a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t values o f the r e g i o n . 70 CHAPTER 4: A REVIEW OF MECHANISMS FOR PROTECTION 4.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f the present chapter i s t o examine domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l land p r o t e c t i o n mechanisms a v a i l a b l e t o Canadian resource managers and b r i e f l y e v a l u a t e t h e i r r e c e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s in accomplishing long-term p r o t e c t i o n o f whole ecosystems. Numerous leg a l p r o v i s i o n s e x i s t in western Canada f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l areas (e.g., as documented in van Hees, 1983; Theberge, et a l . , 1980; and P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing) and the extent o f land p r o t e c t e d under the v a r i e t y o f p r o v i s i o n s in B.C. and the Yukon might be c l a s s i f i e d as s u b s t a n t i a l ( F r a s e r , 1983). The present chapter e v a l u a t e s the methods on the b a s i s o f the c r i t e r i a developed in Chapter 2 and examines t h e i r use by the r e l e v a n t agency or group in the l a s t t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s . Throughout the review o f land p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s no c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s made o f the v a r i o u s review processes f o r p e rmit/1icence a p p l i c a t i o n s or other land use p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making procedures which are p r o v i d e d f o r by government p o l i c i e s . They are reviewed in van Hees (1983) as nodes o f i n f l u e n c e f o r h a b i t a t p r o t e c t i o n . The c u r r e n t work r e j e c t s them as u s e f u l mechanisms f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f whole ecosystems as they assume t h a t i n d u s t r i a l or other 71 development w i l l occur, o n l y i t s impact on ecosystems w i l l be s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y . S e c t i o n 4.1 reviews n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , p r i v a t e , and n a t i v e forms o f land p r o t e c t i o n t h a t c o u l d be used t o p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n i n the Canadian Rockies and e v a l u a t e s them in l i g h t o f t h e i r use in r e c e n t y e a r s . Threats t o the e n t i r e Rockies r e g i o n and t o the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World He r i t a g e S i t e are o u t l i n e d in order t o set the t h r e a t s t o the s i t e i n i t s r e g i o n a l c ontext. I n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions and programs t h a t r e l a t e t o land p r o t e c t i o n are evaluated in S e c t i o n 4 . 2 i n r e l a t i o n t o the World H e r i t a g e Convention. It w i l l show t h a t in comparison t o them, the World Heritage Convention has b a s i c p o t e n t i a l advantages. These are o u t l i n e d in s e c t i o n 4.3 and e l a b o r a t e d in the next chapter. The fundamental q u e s t i o n in the two s e c t i o n s f o l l o w i n g w i l l be: what are the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the c o n s t r a i n t upon each mechanism as a process f o r r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n . 4.1 Domestic Mechanisms f o r P r o t e c t i o n The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n b r i e f l y reviews f i v e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f domestic p r o t e c t i o n ; measures under the f e d e r a l government, p r o v i n c i a l measures in B r i t i s h Columbia, p r o v i n c i a l measures in A l b e r t a , measures a v a i l a b l e t o the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and measures a v a i l a b l e t o n a t i v e people. Measures which might be used by Canada's indigenous peoples are b r i e f l y r e f e r r e d t o although n a t i v e people are not c u r r e n t l y d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d in land p r e s e r v a t i o n f o r e c o l o g i c a l purposes: through t h e i r land c l a i m n e g o t i a t i o n s they are a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e use o f t h e i r land. Many leg a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r the r e s e r v a t i o n o f land, p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , a re not i n c l u d e d in the present review as on l y those p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r long-term, r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f a whole ecosystem are reviewed. Each o f the mechanisms reviewed i s ev a l u a t e d in terms o f i t s recent use. As mentioned i n Chapter 3, areas p r o t e c t e d by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments are i n f l u e n c e d by the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l s p l i t between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n s e c t i o n s 91 and 92 o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n  A c t s , 1867 t o 1982. Due t o the s p l i t , primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r land, w i l d l i f e , f r e s h water and other resources r e s t s with the p r o v i n c i a l government. Federal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o n c e n t r a t e s on n a t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r esources (e.g., marine f i s h and mammals, parkland o f n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , e t c.) and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y shared resources (e.g., m i g r a t o r y b i r d s and mammals, e t c . ) . 73 4.1.1 Canadian P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s ' Environment Canada, through i t s agencie s , the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e f o r the Canada W i1d1i f e Act (S.C. 1973, c. 21) and the M i g r a t o r y B i r d s Convention.Act (R.S.C. 1970, Ch. M-12), and Parks Canada f o r the National Parks Act (R.S.C. 1970, Ch. N-13), i s the f e d e r a l agency most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r environmental land p r o t e c t i o n . Land may be a c q u i r e d f o r the establishment o f National W i l d l i f e Areas through s e c t i o n 10 o f the Canada W i l d ! i f e Act, Migratory B i r d S a n c t u a r i e s through s u b s e c t i o n 3(1) o f the M i g r a t o r y B i r d Sanctuary Regulations (C.R.C. 1978, Ch. 1036) pr o v i d e d f o r in the Migr a t o r y B i r d s Convention Act, and National Parks through s e c t i o n 6 o f the National Parks Act. The Canada W i l d l i f e Act and the Migratory B i r d s Convention Act pr o v i d e f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f h a b i t a t s used by s p e c i f i c s p e c i e s (although a l l s p e c i e s are p r o t e c t e d i n the p r o t e c t e d a r e a ) , while the National Parks Act p r o v i d e s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f whole ecosystems. The l e v e l o f p r o t e c t i o n i n National Parks depends on how they are "zoned" w i t h i n the Parks Canada p l a n n i n g schemes. Parks Canada P o l i c y (Environment Canada, Parks Canada, 1983) allo w s f o r v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f a c t i v i t y i n f i v e National Park zones: Zone I ( S p e c i a l P r e s e r v a t i o n ) areas r e s t r i c t or deny access t o a r e a s / f e a t u r e s d e s e r v i n g s p e c i a l p r e s e r v a t i o n because o f the unique, r a r e or endangered f e a t u r e s ; Zone II 74 (Wilderness) l i m i t numbers o f users and pro v i d e only-p r i m i t i v e w i l d e r n e s s a c t i v i t y and non-motorized t r a n s p o r t ; Zone III (Natural Environment) can s u s t a i n low-density outdoor a c t i v i t i e s and l i t t l e motorized t r a n s p o r t ; Zone IV (Outdoor Recreation) permit motorized access f o r a broad range o f ed u c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; and Zone V (Park S e r v i c e s ) c o n t a i n towns and v i s i t o r c e n t r e s . Areas desi g n a t e d as n a t i o n a l parks must f i r s t be i d e n t i f i e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Natural Areas o f Canadian S i g n i f i c a n c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p o r t r a y a l o f g e o l o g i c a l , p h y s i o g r a p h i c , oceanographic and b i o l o g i c a l themes o f a na t u r a l r e g i o n a t a n a t i o n a l s c a l e and have experienced l i t t l e human m o d i f i c a t i o n (Parks Canada P o l i c y , Environment Canada, Parks Canada, 1983). In sum, though, National Park, Mi g r a t o r y B i r d Sanctuary and National W i l d l i f e Area d e s i g n a t i o n s potent i a l 1 y o f f e r s t r o n g p r o t e c t i o n t o areas. However, p r o t e c t i o n o f land under the aforementioned l e g i s l a t i o n has not been t a k i n g p l a c e a t a gre a t r a t e i n recent y e a r s . With regard t o the Parks Canada a c q u i s i t i o n s , the P a c i f i c Rim s i t e , which has been the most r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d land in B.C. or A l b e r t a , i s on l y d e s i g n a t e d as a "National Park Reserve" pending land use agreements with B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r e s t companies and other i n t e r e s t s which might i n c l u d e n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s (Wayne Crossen, Parks Canada, pers. comm.). Recent a c q u i s i t i o n s have c e n t r e d on the northern r e g i o n s o f Canada (e.g., the establishment o f a new n a t i o n a l park r e s e r v e a t Ellesmere I s l a n d i n September, 1985). Areas such as South Moresby 75 I s l a n d , w h i c h h a s b e e n p r o p o s e d f o r N a t i o n a l P a r k s t a t u s , a n d f i t s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e P a r k s C a n a d a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a s a N a t i o n a l A r e a o f C a n a d i a n S i g n i f i c a n c e , h a v e n o t b e e n p r o t e c t e d a s p a r k s ( d e s p i t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h r o u g h i t s p r o p o s a l a s a W o r l d H e r i t a g e N a t u r a l S i t e ) . C a n a d i a n s u p p o r t f o r p a r k s t a t u s f o r S o u t h M o r e s b y I s l a n d e a r l y i n 1 9 8 5 c a m e n o t o n l y f r o m e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s b u t a l s o f r o m t h e t h e n F i s h e r i e s M i n i s t e r J o h n F r a s e r ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , F e b r u a r y 7 , 1 9 8 5 , A 1 8 ) , y e t t h e t h e n f e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t M i n i s t e r , S u z a n n e B l a i s - G r e n i e r , i n a g e n e r a l l e t t e r a b o u t t h e S o u t h M o r e s b y I s l a n d p a r k p r o p o s a l w r o t e , G i v e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t r e s t r a i n t p r o g r a m , we w i l l n o t b e a b l e t o t a k e i m m e d i a t e m e a s u r e s t o s e c u r e t h e a r e a . We a r e , h o w e v e r , c o n t i n u i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a m a r i n e p a r k p o l i c y a n d p l a n s f o r a m a r i n e p a r k i n s o u t h M o r e s b y . A s w e l l , s h e p r o p o s e d r e m o v i n g t h e a r e a f r o m t h e t h r e a t o f l o g g i n g b y g i v i n g t h e c o m p a n y h o l d i n g l o g g i n g r i g h t s i n S o u t h M o r e s b y a s u m o f $ 6 m i l l i o n , o f w h i c h $ 2 m i l l i o n w o u l d c o n s i s t o f p r i v a t e d o n a t i o n s ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 8 5 , F 7 ) . T h e l a t t e r s t a t e m e n t e n g e n d e r e d a g o o d d e a l o f n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e b y a w i d e v a r i e t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l a d v o c a t e s a n d g r o u p s , w i t h c a l l s o f " e n v i r o n m e n t a l b l a c k m a i l " , e t c . L a t e r , t h e M i n i s t e r e m p h a s i z e d t h e f a c t t h a t s h e w a s n o t s e t t i n g n e w p o l i c y , j u s t l e a v i n g t h e o p t i o n s o p e n , " t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g . . . i s t o k e e p a n o p e n m i n d " ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 8 5 , F 7 ) . A s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 3 , t h e n e w E n v i r o n m e n t M i n i s t e r , T o m M c M i l l a n , i s 76 moving towards the p r o t e c t i o n o f South Moresby, but the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f n a t i o n a l parks and park a c q u i s i t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o m i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n must remain o f grave concern, f o r one can ask what w i l l be the next M i n i s t e r ' s a t t i t u d e s . Events have a l r e a d y shown how s u s c e p t i b l e t o p o l i t i c a l winds South Moresby i s . C o n s i d e r i n g the s u b s t a n t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Canadian Rockies in the National Parks system, i t i s very un1i ke1y t h a t the National Parks Act wouId be a s i gn i f i cant t o o l in d e a l i n g with c u r r e n t land use problems o u t s i d e the e x i s t i n g parks in the r e g i o n . Jim H a r t l e y (Parks Canada, pers. comm.) noted t h a t parks are being a c q u i r e d p r i m a r i l y in areas not c u r r e n t l y represented i n the Parks Canada system, which in B.C. and A l b e r t a would i n c l u d e the Okanagan, Upper Cariboo and marine a r e a s . The p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e has not been conducive t o park c r e a t i o n u n t i l very r e c e n t l y even in the areas mentioned: South Moresby I s l a n d , a djacent t o the marine environment, i s a good example. The Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e (CWS) i n B.C. and A l b e r t a i s a d m i n i s t e r e d under two r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s , the P a c i f i c and Yukon Region (P&Y Region) which a l s o i n c l u d e s the Yukon, and the Western and Northern Region which a l s o i n c l u d e s Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the migratory b i r d s a n c t u a r i e s were mostly e s t a b l i s h e d f i f t e e n t o twenty years ago. National W i l d l i f e Areas have a l l been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l a s t t e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s , but i n the l a s t f i v e years the CWS i n the P a c i f i c and Yukon Region have not u t i l i z e d f e d e r a l money f o r land a c q u i s i t i o n except in a c o o p e r a t i v e program with the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia (who hold the land t i t l e ) in the Sturgeon Bank area ( L a s z l o R e t f a l v i , CWS, P&Y Region, pers. comm.). Land a c q u i s i t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n has become the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e groups, e s p e c i a l l y the Nature T r u s t and Ducks U n l i m i t e d (which does not a c q u i r e land, but i s a c t i v e in h a b i t a t p r o t e c t i o n ) , which subsequently j o i n t l y manage the areas with the CWS or the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Environment's F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. Examples i n c l u d e a 99 ha a d d i t i o n t o the Spi11imacheen National W i l d l i f e Area, a 263 ha s i t e on the P i t t R i v e r a t the Addington P o i n t Marsh, and many other s i t e s t o a t o t a l o f over 3100 ha i n 1983 (For al1 o f us  Forever, a brochure, National Second Century Fund o f B.C., 1983). Federal a c t i v i t y in A l b e r t a shows a s i m i l a r lack o f recent land a c q u i s i t i o n . Olynyk (1978) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the most r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d migratory b i r d sanctuary was a c q u i r e d in 1949, while Environment Canada (CWS, 1983) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the most recent National W i l d l i f e Area was a c q u i r e d without c o s t from Parks Canada's excess h o l d i n g s . Previous t o t h a t , land was most r e c e n t l y purchased i n 1979. 78 The CWS experienced a cutback of 84 o f 384 s t a f f p o s i t i o n s (22%) A p r i l 1, 1985 (Estabrook, 1985). As w e l l , an Internal review committee announced in the Throne Speech a t the f i r s t s e s s i o n o f the 33rd s e s s i o n o f Parliament, November 5, 1984 (Mike McNeil, John Turner, M.P. C o n s t i t u e n c y O f f i c e , p e r s . comm.). Chaired by Deputy Prime M i n i s t e r E r i c N e i l son, i t i s known as the Nei l son Task Force and has charged study groups with the ta s k o f reviewing a l l government programs. The o b j e c t i v e o f the committee i s t o reform and s i m p l i f y the o p e r a t i o n s o f government and make government more understandable, a c c e s s i b l e and s e n s i t i v e from a c i t i z e n ' s s t a n d p o i n t . Government r e a l e s t a t e h o l d i n g s w i l l a l s o be reviewed and i t i s expected t h a t the task f o r c e wi11 c r i t i c a l l y review both n a t i o n a l parks and CWS h o l d i n g s . The c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l response o f the f e d e r a l government towards land p r o t e c t i o n i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t s on the a c q u i s i t i o n and management o f e c o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s . For the r e s o l u t i o n o f c u r r e n t land use c o n f l i c t s in the Canadian Rockies, l e g i s l a t i o n a d m i n i s t e r e d by CWS i s dubious as any concerns f o r b i r d s in the area would be s u b j e c t t o the c o n s t r a i n t s on funding t o purchase needed hab i t a t . 79 4.1.2 B r i t i s h Columbia P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s Several a c t s which p r o v i d e f o r the r e s e r v a t i o n o f land a r e excluded from the present review. The F o r e s t Act (R.S.B.C. 1980, c. 140) and the Park (Regional) Act (R.S.B.C. 1979, c. 310) have a very s t r o n g o r i e n t a t i o n towards r e c r e a t i o n r a t h e r than p r o t e c t i o n . The Creston Va11ey  Wi1d1ife Act (R.S.B.C. 1979, c. 82) and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land  Commission Act (R.S.B.C. 1979, c. 9 ) , do a f f o r d some p r o t e c t i o n f o r r e s t r i c t e d areas and purposes, but they do not p r o v i d e the k i n d o f r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n which has been argued here t o be e s s e n t i a l . S i t e s have not been s e t a s i d e under the Greenbelt Act (R.S.B.C. 1979, c. 157) or the Env i ronment  and Land Use Act (R.S.B.C. 1979, c. 110) f o r a number o f years, and they are not a d m i n i s t e r e d by agencies a c t i v e i n h a b i t a t or other land p r o t e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The Land Act (R.S.B.C. 1979, c. 214) a l l o w s f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n o f map r e s e r v e s , o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i 1 r e s e r v e s and n o t a t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t f o r v a r i o u s uses (e.g., e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s , g r e e n b e l t r e s e r v e s , park r e s e r v e s , w i l d l i f e and f i s h management r e s e r v e s , e t c . ) but the r e s e r v e s t a t u s o n l y r e q u i r e s a p r o s p e c t i v e land user t o engage in a process o f c o n s u l t a t i o n with the M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing, which reviews the proposal with the a p p r o p r i a t e a n c i l l a r y agency, before proceeding with development, thus c o n f e r r i n g a low l e v e l o f land p r o t e c t i o n . 80 T h e M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s a n d H o u s i n g ( M L P & H ) i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e P a r k A c t ( R . S . B . C . 1 9 7 9 , c . 3 0 9 ) a n d t h e E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e A c t ( R . S . B . C . 1 9 7 9 , c . 1 0 1 ) . T h e l a t t e r a c t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e s C o m m i t t e e , b u t m a n a g e m e n t o f d e s i g n a t e d s i t e s r e s t s w i t h t h e P a r k s a n d O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f M L P & H ( J o h n W a l t e r , p e r s . c o m m . ) . T h e P a r k A c t ( s e c t i o n 5 ) p r o v i d e s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p a r k s a n d r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s a s w e l 1 a s n a t u r e c o n s e r v a n c y a r e a s , w h i c h m a y b e e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n p a r k s o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s " i n a n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f [ t h e i r ] e c o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d s c e n i c f e a t u r e s " ( P a r k A c t , s e c t i o n 1 ) . P a r k s m a y b e o f t h r e e c l a s s e s ( A , B , o r C i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f p r o t e c t i o n ) d e p e n d i n g o n t h e d e g r e e o f r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n p e r m i t t e d , a n d o f s i x c a t e g o r i e s ( w i t h c a t e g o r y o n e b e i n g t h e m o s t p r o t e c t e d ) d e p e n d i n g o n t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p a r k . T h e p r o t e c t i o n p o t e n t i a l i s v e r y h i g h , b u t p e r u s a l o f t h e a n n u a l " S u m m a r y o f A l l P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s f r o m D e c e m b e r 3 1 , 1 9 7 0 t o t h e p r e s e n t " i n d i c a t e s t h a t c h a n g e s i n t h e t o t a l a m o u n t o f l a n d h e l d b y t h e m i n i s t r y h a v e r e s u l t e d i n a n a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o n s t a n t t o t a l ( a n d l a n d a r e a d e s i g n a t e d a s c l a s s A p a r k s ) s i n c e 1 9 7 5 d e s p i t e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s o m e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e a r e a s ( e . g . , V a l h a l l a P r o v i n c i a l P a r k ) . A s w e l l , t h e t o t a l a r e a o f l a n d d e s i g n a t e d a s n a t u r e c o n s e r v a n c y a r e a s h a s r e m a i n e d e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s t a n t s i n c e 1 9 7 4 . T h e P a r k s a n d O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n a l s o 81 s u f f e r e d a r e d u c t i o n i n s t a f f f r o m 9 9 t o 4 9 s t a f f m e m b e r s i n t h e 1 9 8 4 p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f c h a n g e s . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e A c t i s t o r e s e r v e c r o w n l a n d ; f o r r e s e a r c h , a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e x a m p l e s , a s s t u d y a r e a s f o r r e s p o n s e t o h u m a n m o d i f i c a t i o n , f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f r a r e a n d e n d a n g e r e d n a t i v e p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s , a n d , t o p r o t e c t u n i q u e b i o l o g i c a l a n d g e o l o g i c a l e x a m p l e s ( E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e A c t , s e c t i o n 2 ) . I t h a s a s t r o n g c a p a b i l i t y f o r p r o t e c t i n g l a n d , b u t t h e E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e s C o m m i t t e e , w h i c h i s a v e r y s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s b e e n i n v o l v e d i n a r e c e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s h u f f l e w h i c h l e f t t h e c o m m i t t e e w i t h o u t a d i r e c t o r f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y a y e a r . A s a r e s u l t , o n l y t w o a r e a s w e r e s e t a s i d e i n 1 9 8 2 , n o n e i n 1 9 8 3 a n d t w o s m a l l ( i . e . , 7 . 5 a n d 1 7 . 5 h a ) a r e a s i n 1 9 8 4 . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c o m m i t t e e m u s t c i r c u l a t e p r o p o s a l s f o r d e s i g n a t i o n t o m o s t o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s a n d i n t e r e s t b y a n y o t h e r a g e n c y r e s u l t s i n a n i m m e d i a t e v e t o o f t h a t s i t e a s a n e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e . T h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f v e r y s m a l l s i t e s e s t a b l i s h e d a s e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s . T h e r e i s a l i t e r a t u r e ( D i a m o n d , 1 9 7 5 ) t h e o r e t i c a l l y b a s e d i n w o r k o n i s l a n d b i o g e o g r a p h y , t h a t e m p h a s i z e s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a r g e s i t e s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e d i v e r s i t y o f e x i s t i n g s p e c i e s w h e n s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s a r e s u b j e c t t o h u m a n i n f l u e n c e ( e . g . , f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t , e t c . ) . S i m b e r l o f f a n d A b e l e ( 1 9 7 6 a a n d 1 9 7 6 b ) d e n i e d t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t t h e 82 s p e c i e s - a r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e m a n d e d l a r g e r e f u g e s , b u t t h e i r a r g u m e n t s w e r e s t r o n g l y c o u n t e r e d b y D i a m o n d ( 1 9 7 6 ) , T e r b o r g h ( 1 9 7 6 ) , a n d W h i t c o m b , L y n c h , O p l e r a n d R o b b i n s ( 1 9 7 6 ) w h o m a i n t a i n e d t h a t l a r g e r e f u g e s o f f e r l o w e r e x t i n c t i o n r a t e s a n d h i g h e r i m m i g r a t i o n r a t e s t h a n s m a l l a r e a s , a n d c a n p r e s e r v e e n t i r e e c o l o g i c a l c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h a l l t r o p h i c l e v e l s a n d t h e o r i g i n a l s p e c i e s m i x . T h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t ' s F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e W i I d l i f e A c t ( R . S . B . C . 1 9 8 2 , c . 5 7 ( I n d e x C h . 4 3 3 . 1 ) ) . C h a n g e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d t h e p r e s e n t a c t n o w p e r m i t l a n d t o b e h e l d a s w i l d l i f e m a n a g e m e n t a r e a s ( u n d e r s e c t i o n 4 ) , c r i t i c a l w i l d l i f e a r e a s , o r w i l d l i f e s a n c t u a r i e s ( s e c t i o n 5 ) , w h e r e a s l a n d c o u l d n o t b e h e l d u n d e r t h e p r e v i o u s a c t . I n a d d i t i o n , s e c t i o n 11 e s t a b l i s h e s t h e H a b i t a t C o n s e r v a t i o n F u n d ( H C F ) w h i c h m a y b e u s e d t o a c q u i r e l a n d f o r w i l d l i f e m a n a g e m e n t a r e a s . M r . W i l l i a m s o n ( F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , p e r s . c o m m . ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e H C F i s v e r y m u c h i n f l u x a n d m o s t p r o j e c t s a l s o i n c l u d e m o n e y f r o m p r i v a t e b o d i e s s u c h a s t h e N a t u r e T r u s t a n d D u c k s U n l i m i t e d . H e a l s o n o t e d t h a t p r o t e c t i o n o f a r e a s c r i t i c a l f o r f i s h i s u s u a l l y e f f e c t i v e d u e t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s A c t ( S . C . 1 9 7 0 , F - 1 4 C . 1 9 9 s . 1 ) . H a b i t a t c r i t i c a l f o r w i l d l i f e d o e s n o t h a v e t h e a d v a n t a g e o f s u c h s t r o n g l e g i s l a t i o n , t h u s t h e F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h t e n d s t o g e t a r e a s t h a t n o o t h e r a g e n c y e l s e w a n t s , s o t h a t w i l d l i f e s i t e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r h i g h v a l u e f o r w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , a r e s u b j e c t t o o t h e r u s e s f i r s t . 83 B.C.'s l a n d p r o t e c t i o n measures a r e deemed t o be p o t e n t i a l l y s t r o n g , but t h e y a r e i n e f f e c t i v e due t o t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s used t o d e s i g n a t e s i t e s ( i . e . , a l l o t h e r uses t e n d t o t a k e precedence o v e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s i t e s f o r ecosystem r e a s o n s ) . A l s o , as w i t h t h e P a r k s and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n , s t a f f i n g i s so minimal as t o make e f f e c t i v e management o f p r o t e c t e d a r e a s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . 4.1.3. A l b e r t a P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s S e v e r a l a c t s which p r o v i d e f o r t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f la n d a r e e x c l u d e d from t h e p r e s e n t r e v i e w as a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t w i t h r e s o u r c e managers i n A l b e r t a t h a t a r e knowledgeable about t h e use o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d . The Department o f Environment A c t (R.S.A. 1980, c. D-19) has an emphasis on m i l i t i a s purposes t h r o u g h i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r h y d r o e l e c t r i c r e s e r v o i r s , i r r i g a t i o n , a i r and water q u a l i t y , waste management, e t c . The H i s t o r i c a l Resources A c t (R.S.A. 1980, c. H-8) and t h e A l b e r t a E n v i r o n m e n t a l Research  T r u s t A c t (R.S.A. 1980, c. A-20) a r e e x c l u d e d because o f t h e i r emphasis on h i s t o r i c a l m a t t e r s and r e s e a r c h r e s p e c t i v e l y . The F o r e s t s A c t (R.S.A. 1980, c. F-16) and F o r e s t R eserves A c t (R.S.A. 1980, c. F-15) c o n c e n t r a t e on r e c r e a t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l o r commercial uses o f r e s e r v e s . And f i n a l l y , t h e A l b e r t a H e r i t a g e T r u s t Fund i s i g n o r e d because monies f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d , i f monies a r e used f o r t h i s p urpose, would be a d m i n i s t e r e d by e x i s t i n g l a n d 84 a c q u i s i t i o n programs which are a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d h e r e i n elsewhere. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f land i s s p l i t between the M i n i s t r y o f Energy and Natural Resources (E&NR), which a l s o a d m i n i s t e r s p u b l i c land g e n e r a l l y , and A l b e r t a R e c r e a t i o n and Parks (AR&Parks). It i s important t o note t h a t o f al1 the d e s i g n a t i o n s l i s t e d , o n l y s i t e s s p e c i f i e d as wil d e r n e s s areas exclude the placement o f o i l or gas w e l l s on p r o t e c t e d lands. Energy and Natural Resources a d m i n i s t e r the Wi1dli f e Act (R.S.A. 1980, Ch. W-9), which was r e c e n t l y r e v i s e d through B i l l 84 (1984). Through the W i l d l i f e S a n c t u a r i e s , B i r d S a n c t u a r i e s and W i l d l i f e Management Unit Regulations (A.R. 162/74) p r o v i d e d f o r under the a c t , w i l d l i f e and b i r d s a n c t u a r i e s a re e s t a b l i s h e d , but hunting i s the o n l y a c t i v i t y p r o h i b i t e d from those s i t e s . Passage o f B i l l 84 i s expected t o r e s u l t in the t r a n s f e r o f some areas from sanctuary s t a t u s , wherein o n l y hunting i s p r o h i b i t e d , t o a more p r o t e c t i o n i s t model f o r p r o t e c t e d areas and the use o f easements, l e a s e s , e t c . (Jim S t r u t h e r s , F i s h and W i l d l i f e D i v i s i o n , E&NR, per s . comm.). Doug C u l b e r t ( F i s h and W i l d l i f e D i v i s i o n , E&NR, pers. comm.) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the A l b e r t a government budget f o r land a c q u i s i t i o n has remained e s s e n t i a l l y constant in recent y e a r s , so with c o n t r i b u t i o n s from W i l d l i f e H a b i t a t Canada, Ducks U n l i m i t e d , e t c . , the r a t e 85 o f l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , h a s r e m a i n e d h i g h a n d m a y e v e n h a v e i n c r e a s e d . T h e W i 1 d 1 i f e A c t p r o v i d e s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e H a b i t a t F u n d ( s e c t i o n 9 : t o b e c a l l e d t h e F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e T r u s t F u n d i n s e c t i o n 6 o f B i l l 8 4 ) a l s o k n o w n a s t h e " B u c k f o r W i l d l i f e F u n d " . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e f u n d h a s n o t b e e n u s e d f o r l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n b u t o p i n i o n v a r i e s o n i t s p o t e n t i a l u s e f o r l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e . E & N R a l s o a d m i n i s t e r s t h e W i l l m o r e W i l d e r n e s s P a r k A c t ( R . S . A . 1 9 8 0 , c . W - 1 0 ) w h i c h d e s i g n a t e s t h e l a r g e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 6 0 , 0 0 0 h a ) W i l l m o r e W i l d e r n e s s P a r k , w h i c h i s c o n t i g u o u s w i t h t h e n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y o f B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k . S e c t i o n 6 o f t h e a c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t , N o t h i n g i n t h i s A c t a f f e c t s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l o f m i n e s a n d m i n e r a l s w i t h i n t h e a r e a s o f t h e P a r k . T h a t s e c t i o n s e r i o u s l y r e d u c e s t h e r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n t h e a c t o t h e r w i s e p r o v i d e s . A l b e r t a R e c r e a t i o n a n d P a r k s a d m i n i s t e r s t h e P r o v i n c i a 1  P a r k s A c t ( R . S . A . 1 9 8 0 , C h . P - 2 2 ) i n w h i c h l a n d m a y b e d e s i g n a t e d a s a p a r k o r p r o v i n c i a l r e c r e a t i o n a r e a u n d e r s e c t i o n 7 . T h e s i t e s , w h i c h c o m p r i s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 17. o f t h e l a n d a r e a i n A l b e r t a , a r e n o t z o n e d f o r s p e c i f i c u s e s a n d t h e d i s p o s i t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s p e r m i t o i l a n d g a s w e l l s . K e n E r d m a n ( H e a d , L a n d s U s e C o o r d i n a t i o n , A R & P a r k s , p e r s . c o m m . ) n o t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s e x p a n s i o n o f t h e A l b e r t a p a r k s s y s t e m u n t i l 1 9 8 1 , b u t i n t h e l a s t t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s t h e r e h a s b e e n a m a r k e d d e c r e a s e i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . T h e 86 R e c r e a t i o n , P a r k s and W i l d l i f e (RPW) F o u n d a t i o n , which i s an independent f o u n d a t i o n c r e a t e d May 16, 1976 by an a c t o f t h e A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t u r e , a l s o r e p o r t s t o t h e AR&Parks m i n i s t r y . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 4.1.4 o f t h e p r e s e n t work, t h e RPW F o u n d a t i o n g r a n t s s u p p o r t r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , development/maintenance o f p a r k s , o r management/conservation o f f i s h and w i l d l i f e , and do not p r o v i d e f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p a r c e l s o f l a n d (Doug C u l b e r t , p e r s . comm.). The W i l d e r n e s s A r e a s , E c o l o g i c a l Reserves and N a t u r a l  Areas A c t (R.S.A. 1980, c. W-8) i s j o i n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d by E&NR and AR&Parks. To d a t e , no E c o l o g i c a l Reserves ( o r E c o l o g i c a l Areas as t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d i n d a t a sent by E&NR) have been e s t a b l i s h e d . Of t h e 95 N a t u r a l Areas d e s i g n a t e d , 45 a r e o f t h e park t y p e c l a s s i f i e d as " c o n s e r v a t i o n " as opposed t o " r e c r e a t i o n a l " o r " e d u c a t i o n a l " . Only one N a t u r a l A r e a , however, has been d e s i g n a t e d i n t h e 1980s ( T h r e e p o i n t Creek, 62 ha i n 1985), t h e remainder were d e s i g n a t e d i n 1979 o r e a r l i e r , w i t h t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y (over t w o - t h i r d s ) d e s i g n a t e d i n 1971. Three W i l d e r n e s s Areas have been e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e y a r e each r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e (between 40,000 and 50,000 h a ) . T h e i r d a t e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t has not been p r o v i d e d i n d a t a s e n t by E&NR, but t h e s i t e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e A c t , so must have been e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e t h e s t a t u t e r e v i s i o n i n 1980. Wi1derness Area d e s i g n a t i o n p r o v i d e s s t r o n g p r o t e c t i o n , even from o i l and gas w e l l s , but appears not t o have been used i n r e c e n t y e a r s . 87 4.1.4. P r i v a t e P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s A movement t o g r e a t e r p r i v a t e s e c t o r involvement i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d , e i t h e r w i t h o r w i t h o u t a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o c a l government a g e n c i e s ( e . g . , f o r management o f t h e s i t e ) , i s seen by some r e s o u r c e managers as t h e "wave o f t h e f u t u r e " i n l a n d p r o t e c t i o n ( e . g . , S t r o u p and Baden, 1983). As w e l l , r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e e x amining o p t i o n s f o r government a g e n c i e s i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a b l e mention o f l e g a l mechanisms o t h e r than f e e s i m p l e o w n e r ship ( e . g . , McCallum, 1985). C e r t a i n l y , p r i v a t e groups w i t h p r o t e c t i o n i s t m o t i v e s h o l d i n g t i t l e t o s p e c i f i c p a r c e l s o f l a n d o f f e r a s t r o n g l e v e l o f p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e l a n d . However, t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s r e j e c t s t h i s mechanism as a v a l i d method f o r p r o t e c t i n g l a n d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. t h e p r o t e c t i o n i s t groups r a r e l y t a k e a complete ecosystem approach, t h u s g e n e r a l l y p r o t e c t i n g s i t e s due t o t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s p e c i f i c s p e c i e s ( e . g . , Ducks U n l i m i t e d c o n c e n t r a t e s t h e i r e f f o r t s on t h e improvement o f game b i r d s p e c i e s ) ; 2. s o u r c e s o f funds f o r a c q u i r i n g lands a r e v a r i a b l e ; and, 3. p r i v a t e schemes p l a c e an undue f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o t e c t i n g t h e environment on s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s and groups, w h i l e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s c l e a r l y an i m p o r t a n t , i f n e g l e c t e d , one f o r t h e Canadian government. 88 Thompson n o t e s , H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e E n g l i s h s o v e r e i g n was a p e r s o n a l owner o f a l l u n a l i e n a t e d lands i n a t h i r d d i m e n s i o n a l sense t h a t i n c l u d e d a l l t h e r i g h t s t o r u n n i n g water and t o a i r space t h a t c o u l d be humanly e x e r c i s e d and c o n t r o l l e d . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i n modern Canada i s t h a t t h e ownership by t h e Queen o f u n a l i e n a t e d p r o p e r t y r i g h t s i s not f o r p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t but f o r purposes a u t h o r i z e d by l e g i s l a t u r e s . These p u r p o s e s , s t a t e d e x p r e s s l y and i m p l i e d l y i n f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s , do not de c r e e a u n i v e r s a l common p r o p e r t y o r f r e e good. ... N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e seems t o be an enormous weight o f p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t t h e l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l l y c o r r e c t p r i n c i p l e t h e government-owned n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ought t o be managed by government l i k e p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d p r o p e r t y . The b a s i s o f t h i s p r e j u d i c e , f o s t e r e d by common p r o p e r t y t h e o r i s t s , i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t pub 1ica11y-owned r e s o u r c e s shou1d be f r e e goods and t h a t government's r o l e shou1d be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h a t o f r e g u l a t o r . ... For p o l i t i c i a n s and c i v i l s e r v a n t s i t i s l i k e l y more c o m f o r t a b l e t o wear t h e robes o f r e g u l a t o r t h a n t h o s e o f manager because t h e r e g u l a t o r can blame someone e l s e f o r f a i l u r e whereas t h e manager has o n l y h i m s e l f t o blame (Thompson, 1981: 16-17). An example o f t h e f e d e r a l government p l a c i n g a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d w i t h t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r came w i t h former F e d e r a l Environment M i n i s t e r B1 a i s - G r e n i e r ' s p r o p o s a l t o have p r i v a t e s e c t o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s s e r v e as an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f funds t o buy-out l o g g i n g r i g h t s on South Moresby I s l a n d . In a Vancouver Sun a r t i c l e , K e v i n McNamee o f t h e N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s A s s o c i a t i o n i s quoted as s a y i n g . She's [ B l a i s - G r e n i e r ] s a y i n g Canadians now have t o buy back l a n d t h a t i n most cases i s a l r e a d y owned by t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, but was l e a s e d t o i n d u s t r y f o r next t o n o t h i n g . The a r t i c l e c o n t i n u e s , 89 The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s say t h e i r minds have been opened and t h e y have v i s i o n s o f Canadians b e i n g a s k e d t o f o r k o u t m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s e v e r y t i m e t h e y want a new p a r k , i m p o v e r i s h e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups s c r a m b l i n g t o r a i s e t h e money and a park system t h a t would be beholden t o t h e c o r p o r a t i o n s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e money (Vancouver Sun, F e b r u a r y 21, 1985, F 7 ) . The f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l groups t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d i n p r i v a t e forms o f p r o t e c t i o n . I t w i l l p r o v i d e an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e f u l l range o f p r o t e c t i o n measures a v a i l a b l e t o r e s o u r c e managers. As w e l l , a l i s t o f o t h e r t y p e s o f p r i v a t e l e g a l arrangements, which may be used by both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s t o p r o t e c t s p e c i f i c h a b i t a t s , and t h o u g h t s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a n d p r o t e c t i o n and i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . The Nature T r u s t ( f o r m e r l y known as t h e N a t i o n a l Second C e n t u r y Fund o f B r i t i s h Columbia) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1971 t o commemorate t h e b e g i n n i n g o f B.C.'s second c e n t u r y as a p r o v i n c e . I n t e r e s t from a t r u s t f u n d o f $4.5 m i l l i o n i s supplemented by g i f t s o f la n d and money. The money i s used t o a c q u i r e c r i t i c a l w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t s i n B.C. f o r t h e " p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r e a s , s p e c i e s and o b j e c t s o f s i g n i f i c a n t e c o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t " ( F r a s e r , 1983: 100). S i t e s a r e l e a s e d t o an a p p r o p r i a t e f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l agency f o r management. A l b e r t a does not have any s p e c i a l p r i v a t e l a n d p r o t e c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b a r r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s l y mentioned R e c r e a t i o n , P a r k s and W i l d l i f e F o u n d a t i o n , l i k e t h e Nature T r u s t . The management o f h a b i t a t s i t e s p urchased by t h e 90 Nature Conservancy o f Canada (NCC) may be v e s t e d w i t h t h e r e l e v a n t f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l government a u t h o r i t i e s . Funds f o r l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n a c r o s s Canada by t h e NCC have been ' p r o v i d e d by p r i v a t e donors s i n c e i t s b e g i n n i n g s i n 1963. A r e c e n t a d d i t i o n t o t h e n a t i o n a l l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n scene i s W i l d l i f e H a b i t a t Canada, an independent f o u n d a t i o n begun i n 1984, which a d m i n i s t e r s a t r u s t f u n d o f $3.0 m i l l i o n from a f e d e r a l government g r a n t , from proceeds from t h e s a l e o f mandatory h a b i t a t c o n s e r v a t i o n stamps t o m i g r a t o r y game b i r d p e r m i t h o l d e r s , and o p t i o n a l s a l e s o f p r i n t s and stamps by Canadian a r t i s t Robert Bateman. In a d d i t i o n t o i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a c t i n g as a watchdog o v e r and c a t a l y s t o f improvement i n w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t a c r o s s Canada, W i l d l i f e H a b i t a t Canada has c o o p e r a t e d w i t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f f o u r w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t a r e a s ( i . e . , whole ecosystems) i n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a i n i t s f i r s t y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n . Ducks U n l i m i t e d (Canada) does not purchase l a n d , but s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1937, i t has e f f e c t i v e l y p r o t e c t e d l a n d f o r w a t e r f o w l t h r o u g h l o n g - t e r m management agreements and f l o o d i n g easements e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h e x i s t i n g owners. Funds a r e o b t a i n e d from American and Canadian p r i v a t e donors f o r t h e h a b i t a t enhancement and l e g a l c o s t s i n c u r r e d . Other l e g a l arrangements o f a s i m i l a r l y f l e x i b l e n a t u r e ( i . e . , o t h e r t h a n f e e s i m p l e o w n e r s h i p ) , but which may be used by 91 p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c b o d i e s t o p r o t e c t l a n d i n c l u d e (adapted from van Hees, 1983): 1. l i f e e s t a t e - t h e l a n d i s purc h a s e d , but t h e o r i g i n a l landowner r e t a i n s t h e r i g h t t o l i v e on t h e p r o p e r t y f o r th e d u r a t i o n o f h i s / h e r l i f e ; 2. purchase and leaseback - t h e la n d i s p u r c h a s e d , but i s s u b s e q u e n t l y l e a s e d o u t f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose ( u s u a l l y t o o f f s e t purchase c o s t s ) , y e t management r i g h t s a r e r e t a i n e d ; 3. o p t i o n t o purchase - a l e g a l agreement t o s e l 1 a p r o p e r t y a t a p r e d e t e r m i n e d p r i c e b e f o r e a s p e c i f i e d d a t e ; 4. j o i n t agreement f o r a c q u i s i t i o n and management - s e t s out t h e r e l a t i v e r o l e s o f t h e v a r i o u s a g r e e i n g p a r t i e s i n a p a r t n e r s h i p arrangement; 5. l e a s e h o l d e s t a t e - la n d l e a s e d t o t h e t e n a n t becomes th e e x c l u s i v e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e t e n a n t f o r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n ( i . e . , r e n t ) ; 6. d o n a t i o n s o f la n d - may be f e e s i m p l e , o r c o n d i t i o n a l ( i . e . , arrangements o f c o n d i t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o t h e t r a n s f e r o f t i t l e ) ; 7. b a r g a i n s a l e - a s a l e o f p r o p e r t y f o r l e s s t h a n t h e f a i r market v a l u e ( o f t e n used f o r s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g p a r t i a l s a l e and p a r t i a l c h a r i t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n ) ; 8. easement - a c e r t a i n r i g h t a l l o w e d t o one person/body o v e r t h e land o f a n o t h e r which i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e t i t l e o f t h e l a n d and b i n d s subsequent owners; 92 9. r e s t r i c t i v e covenant - a charge on t h e l a n d t i t l e w hich r e s t r i c t s a c t i v i t y on t h e l a n d ; 10. f i r s t r i g h t o f r e f u s a l - a l e g a l c a u t i o n r e q u i r i n g n o t i c e o f impending s a l e and f i r s t r i g h t s t o a c q u i r e t h e p r o p e r t y a t t h e t h e n d e t e r m i n e d s e l l i n g p r i c e ; 11. landowner agreement - an agreement t o a l l o w s p e c i f i e d t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y , but not a t t a c h e d t o t h e t i t l e o f t h e l a n d ; and, 12. t r a d e / e x c h a n g e / t r a n s f e r - may r e s u l t i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r p a r c e l o f l a n d i n exchange f o r a n o t h e r p r o p e r t y and need not i n v o l v e t h e t r a n s f e r o f money. P r i v a t e p r o t e c t i o n l a c k s some major i n s t r u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r . For example, van Hees (1983) i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l mechanisms which a r e a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o p u b l i c b o d i e s : 1. zon i ng; 2. o f f i c i a l p l a n s ; 3. d e d i c a t i o n - whereby a s p e c i f i e d p r o p o r t i o n o f l a n d i n a d e v e l o p e d a r e a must be r e t a i n e d i n a n a t u r a l s t a t e ; 4. s p e c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n - g i v e s s p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n t o landowners who a l l o w t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and management o f h a b i t a t on t h e i r p r o p e r t y ; 5. t r a n s f e r o f crown lands - between p u b l i c a g e n c i e s ; 6. crown l a n d r e s e r v e s - a r e s e r v e g i v e n t o p r i v a t e l a n d h o l d e r s by t h e government body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r crown 1 and d i spos i t i on; 7. p r o p e r t y t a x i n c e n t i v e s ; 93 8. income t a x i n c e n t i v e s ; 9. e x p r o p r i a t i o n ; and, 10. t r a n s f e r o f t i t l e due t o nonpayment o f t a x e s . As McCallum (1985) n o t e s , f e e s i m p l e o w n e r ship s h o u l d not be t h e o n l y mechanism used by government a g e n c i e s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d . The p r e s e n t a u t h o r , however, q u e s t i o n s t h e v a l u e o f methods o t h e r t h a n f e e s i m p l e o w n e r ship i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f whole ecosystems, and contends t h a t non-fee s i m p l e methods a r e more s u i t e d t o s m a l l s i t e s . 4.1.5 N a t i v e P r o t e c t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s N a t i v e p e o p l e i n Canada have not e x p l i c i t l y made e f f o r t s towards t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f la n d f o r e c o l o g i c a l purposes i n r e c e n t t i m e s . N a t i v e p e o p l e , however, t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e t s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f l a n d a s i d e f o r r e l i g i o u s purposes and i n some cases t h e r e s e r v a t i o n lands on which t h e y l i v e s e r v e t o a c c o m p l i s h ecosystem p r o t e c t i o n . Common arguments i n la n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s r e l a t e t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a t i v e p e o p l e and t h e n a t u r a l environment. B r o w n r i g g (1985: 36) notes t h a t G i v e n ... t h e c l o s e u n i o n o f t h e g o a l s o f n a t i v e p e o p l e t o p r e s e r v e t h e environment i n p e r p e t u i t y w i t h t h e g o a l s o f t h e a d v o c a t e s o f p r o t e c t e d a r e a s , a l l i a n c e i s a l o g i c a l s t e p . 94 C l a d (1985: 47) c i t e s B r o w n r i g g as n o t i n g t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e s t a n d t o g a i n " l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l l y - s o u n d t r a d i t i o n a l land-use p r a c t i c e s , a p p r o p r i a t e employment o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s , and new a d v o c a t e s a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l " w h i l e r e s o u r c e managers s t a n d t o g a i n "an a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t i t u e n c y , r e c r u i t i n g p e r s o n n e l w i t h p r o f o u n d knowledge o f l o c a l a r e a s and l e a r n i n g about l o n g - t e r m r e s o u r c e s t r a t e g i e s which have proven t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y f o r thousands o f y e a r s " . C l a d n o t e s , however, t h a t I f n o t h i n g more t h a n v l i f e - s t y l e p a t t e r n s ' o r " p r a c t i c e s ' d i s a s s o c i a t e d from l i v i n g c u l t u r e s r e c e i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t endorsement, t h e convergence o f i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s ' and c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s ' i n t e r e s t s w i l l remain a t t h e l e v e l o f p r i n c i p l e o n l y ( C l a d , 1985: 4 8 ) . He a l s o sees n a t i v e p e o p l e p r i m a r i l y concerned about t h e l o s s o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l s t a t u s , w h i l e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s a r e concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e ecosystem r e s o u r c e s o f an a r e a . N a t i v e p e o p l e may not see any c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t w i t h commercial development where c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s would be g r e a t l y c o n c e rned. N a t i v e s may see p r o t e c t e d a r e a s t a t u s as removing something from them due t o i t s p e r c e i v e d e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , w h i l e t h e y may not make e c o l o g i c a l l y sound use o f t h e r e s o u r c e s . I f common ground t o a c c o m p l i s h l a n d p r o t e c t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i s t o be d i s c o v e r e d i n c o n c e r t w i t h n a t i v e use o f a r e a s , i t may be d e s i r a b l e t o : 1. use t h e model e s t a b l i s h e d i n New Z e a l a n d ( C l a d , 1985: 54) w h e r e i n park lands were g i v e n t o t h e s t a t e by t h e Maori p e o p l e ; 95 2. choose t h e form o f p r o t e c t i o n f o r i t s c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h t h e purposes o f t h e r e s e r v e (per B r o w n r i g g , 1985); and, 3. i n c l u d e n a t i v e p l a n n i n g and management as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e proposed p r o t e c t e d a r e a ( M i s h r a , 1984; J e f f r i e s , 1984; Nietschmann, 1984; and Dasmann, 1984). A u s t r a l i a c o n t a i n s t h r e e examples o f s i t e s where t h e a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e were g r a n t e d f r e e h o l d t i t l e t o t h e la n d o n l y on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t i t be l e a s e d back t o t h e government as a n a t i o n a l park. In Kakadu, U l u r u and G u r i g N a t i o n a l P a r k s , t h e management o f t h e p a r k s i s e f f e c t e d by c o o p e r a t i v e management by t h e r e l e v a n t government agency and t h e n a t i v e l a n d owners: i n U l u r u N a t i o n a l Park a t l e a s t (no i n f o r m a t i o n has been r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e o t h e r p a r k s ) , t h e managing board has a m a j o r i t y o f a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e (Ma r i a n Genner, p e r s . comm.). The i s s u e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e and p r o t e c t e d a r e a s was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t enough t o be d i s c u s s e d i n numerous papers a t t h e World Congress on N a t i o n a l P a r k s h e l d i n B a l i , I n d o n e s i a , 1 1 - 2 2 Oct o b e r , 1982 (e . g . . C h i l d , 1984; S a h a r i a , 1984; M i s h r a , 1984; Fox, 1984; Neitschmann, 1984; J e f f r i e s , 1984; S a k u r a i , 1984; Dasmann, 1984; e t c . ) . D e s p i t e t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s between n a t i v e s and c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s w i l l s ucceed a t p r o t e c t i n g l a n d i n Canada u n t i l t h e l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s a r e s e t t l e d . 96 4.2 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Mechanisms f o r P r o t e c t i o n The present s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the range o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o l o g i c a l conventions and programs o f which the World H e r i t a g e program i s a p a r t , and b r o a d l y compares them t o the World H e r i t a g e program. It emphasizes examination o f schemes t h a t o f f e r long-term p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l ecosystems s u p p o r t i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f s p e c i e s through i n t e r n a t i o n a l means. I n t e r n a t i o n a l methods o f land p r o t e c t i o n o f f e r an a l t e r n a t i v e t o domestic forms o f land p r o t e c t i o n t h a t may reduce some o f the concerns r e g a r d i n g the changeable p o l i c i e s o f government bod i e s , t h a t i s , once a s i t e Is d e s i g n a t e d i t would not be i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y p o l i t i c a l l y expedient f o r a government agency t o remove It from t h a t d e s i g n a t i o n . As w e l l , Canada, l i k e other n a t i o n s i n t e g r a t e d a t the g l o b a l l e v e l , dares not r i s k i n t e r n a t i o n a l opprobrium f o r i t s i n f l u e n c e on t r a d e and o t h e r key a s p e c t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n Canada w i l l be r e s e r v e d f o r the next chapter. Canada i s p a r t y t o numerous i n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions p e r t a i n i n g t o b i o l o g i c a l and environmental i s s u e s ranging from f i s h e r i e s and m i g r a t o r y b i r d s t o endangered s p e c i e s and p o l l u t i o n . A p a r t i a l l i s t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l environmental t r e a t i e s t o which Canada i s s i g n a t o r y i s presented i n Table II (Chapter 1). Of the conventions l i s t e d , o n l y the convention f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f m i g r a t o r y b i r d s i n the United S t a t e s and Canada (the M i g r a t o r y B i r d s Convention), the convention on wetlands o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l importance e s p e c i a l l y as waterfowl h a b i t a t (the Ramsar Convention), and the convention concerning the p r o t e c t i o n o f the world c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e (the World H e r i t a g e Convention) p r o v i d e f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f s i t e s o f land. With the M i g r a t o r y B i r d s Convention, Canadian s u p p o r t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n the M i g r a t o r y B i r d s Convention Act, enables the d e s i g n a t i o n o f s i t e s as M i g r a t o r y B i r d S a n c t u a r i e s . S i t e d e s i g n a t i o n or removal from d e s i g n a t i o n i s thus made a Canadian r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , unconnected t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community. As w e l l , the M i g r a t o r y B i r d s Convention and the Ramsar Convention p l a c e t h e i r emphasis on the p r o t e c t i o n o f m i g r a t o r y b i r d s , waterfowl, and t h e i r h a b i t a t . In e f f e c t some whole ecosystems a r e p r o t e c t e d , but sometimes management o f the areas so d e s i g n a t e d i s so s p e c i f i c a l l y b e n e f i c i a l t o the b i r d s p e c i e s t h a t i t i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o o t h e r non-bird s p e c i e s . The present work c o n c e n t r a t e s on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f complete ecosystems, not j u s t s p e c i f i c groups such as m i g r a t o r y b i r d s or waterfowl, thus the Ramsar and M i g r a t o r y B i r d conventions can be excluded from d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The World H e r i t a g e Convention a l l o w s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f whole ecosystems and the s i t e s a re s u b j e c t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c r u t i n y on the b a s i s o f the n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s o f the s i t e over time. 98 Two i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs with which the World H e r i t a g e Convention i s o f t e n compared are the I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l Programme (IBP) and the Unesco Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme. In each o f the t h r e e programs, whole ecosystems ar e s e t a s i d e through the r e s e r v a t i o n o f the land base, but the purpose and c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f s i t e s f o r r e s e r v a t i o n vary g r e a t l y between the programs. Worthington (1975) w r i t e s t h a t f o l l o w i n g the s u c c e s s f u l I n t e r n a t i o n a l Geophysical Year (1957-1958) and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l a r Years (1882-1883 and 1932-1933), b i o l o g i s t s were encouraged t o t h i n k about the advantages o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . From 1959 t o 1964, S i r Rudolph P e t e r s , P r e s i d e n t o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r S c i e n t i f i c Unions (ICSU), and G. Montalenti and C H . Waddington o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union o f B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , worked t o develop the I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l Programme (IBP). E a r l y c o n t a c t s were made with the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) which had been launched s h o r t l y a f t e r World War II by S i r J u l i a n Huxley i n h i s c a p a c i t y as f i r s t D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f Unesco. The IUCN supported the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f w i l d nature and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s f o r c u l t u r a 1 / s c i e n t 1 f i c and long-term economic/social w e l f a r e reasons (Franson, 1975: 9 ) . Although i t d i d not i n i t i a t e the IBP, the IUCN helped f a c i l i t a t e the ICSU's work in c r e a t i n g the IBP, and the Unesco General Assembly which e s t a b l i s h e d the IBP was h e l d i n P a r i s i n J u l y 99 o f 1964. What was t o be an e i g h t year program became a t e n year program (1964-1974) t o study "The B i o l o g i c a l B a s i s o f P r o d u c t i v i t y and Human Wei f a r e . . . [ t h r o u g h ] . . . B a s i c s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y and human w e l f a r e , which were c a l c u l a t e d t o b e n e f i t from i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n , and were urgent because o f the r a p i d r a t e o f the changes t a k i n g p l a c e In a l l environments throughout the world" (Worthington, 1975: 18). F i f t y - e i g h t c o u n t r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d n a t i o n a l committees and an a d d i t i o n a l 32 c o u n t r i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n f o r m a l l y (CCIBP, 1971). The IBP was broken i n t o seven s e c t i o n s , o f which Cons e r v a t i o n T e r r e s t r i a l (CT) was the s e c t i o n t h a t examined land p r o t e c t i o n i s s u e s and recommended the c r e a t i o n o f " e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s " ( e n t i t l e d " e c o l o g i c a l " t o emphasize the type o f s c i e n c e most l i k e l y t o be p r a c t i s e d and " r e s e r v e s " so t h a t the land was seen t o be s e t a s i d e i n a n o n - s t a t i c way)(Cameron and B i 1 1 i n g s l y , 1975: 132). E. M. N i c h o l s o n , head o f the CT s e c t i o n , never f e l t t h a t the CT s e c t i o n was f u l l y endorsed by the r e s t o f the b i o l o g i c a l community (Worthington, 1975), but the r e s u l t s o f the IBP-CT were i n some cases q u i t e n o t a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia where the E c o l o g i c a l Reserves Act (1971) and the E c o l o g i c a l Reserves Committee grew out o f the IBP. The IBP d i d not l e g a l l y " d e s i g n a t e " e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s , but examined areas f o r p r o t e c t i o n and s t u d i e d methods f o r p r o t e c t i o n . As Worthington (1975: 33) w r i t e s . 100 As a r e s u l t o f IBP the extent and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d t o ecosystems, s p e c i e s and s i t e s o f o u t s t a n d i n g s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t w i l l be i n c r e a s e d . The CT s e c t i o n i s not d i r e c t l y concerned with the measures t h a t t h i s process r e q u i r e s , but with p r o v i d i n g the s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s on which implementation i n the form o f enforcement, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and l e g i s l a t i o n , must depend. The IBP s e l e c t i o n o f " r e c o g n i z e d and proposed r e s e r v e s was governed by the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : (a) the areas should, taken t o g e t h e r , c o n t a i n adequate and manageable samples o f the e n t i r e range o f major e c o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n or ecosystems i n the world and i l l u s t r a t e the degree o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n each; (b) the s e r i e s should i n c l u d e s i t e s which, although they do not q u a l i f y f o r I n c l u s i o n under the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n , support s p e c i e s o f p l a n t s and animals o f o u t s t a n d i n g i n t e r e s t or g r e a t r a r i t y ; (c) the s e r i e s should i n c l u d e s i t e s which are o f s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t because o f the human management t o which they have been s u b j e c t e d , even i f t h i s has in some cases led t o more or l e s s f a r - r e a c h i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the b i o t a ; (d) the s e r i e s should Include s i t e s which are important because they have been the scene o f deta i1ed and we11-documented research...(N i cho1 son, 1968: 17). The procedure by which s i t e s were t o be i d e n t i f i e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n - i n c l u d e d : c o m p i l i n g a worldwide i n v e n t o r y l i s t (check sheets) o f h a b i t a t s , based on t h e i r i n t e r e s t t o b i o l o g y and c o n s e r v a t i o n ; a review o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these h a b i t a t s i n c u r r e n t l y p r o t e c t e d n a t u r a l areas throughout the world, showing the l o c a t i o n , area p r o t e c t e d , and degree o f p r o t e c t i o n ; and a review o f h a b i t a t s t h a t a r e unprotected, or i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o t e c t e d and w i t h i n which a d d i t i o n a l p r o j e c t s f o r s u i t a b l e p r o t e c t i o n need t o be developed, t o ensure t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples a r e conserved. (Cameron and B i 1 1 i n g s l e y , 1975: 137-138). 101 Subsequent t o t h i s procedure, the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t a t e was made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n a c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n . In western Canada both B r i t i s h Columbia, through the E c o l o g i c a l  Reserves Act (1971), and A l b e r t a , under a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t a c t s (Franson, 1975:20) were enabled t o c r e a t e e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s . The t e r m i n a t i o n o f the IBP i n 1974 meant t h a t i f the i n t e n t o f the IBP was t o be continued i n Canada, domestic l e g i s l a t i o n t o accomplish t h a t o b j e c t i v e was necessary. As a r e s u l t the i n f l u e n c e o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community was removed from t h i s program and i t became i n some areas (e.g., B.C. under the E c o l o g i c a l Reserves Act) a domestic r e s p o s i b i 1 i t y . As such, the IBP was, but i s not c u r r e n t l y , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l process f o r encouraging land p r o t e c t i o n by s t a t e s . By comparison, World H e r i t a g e S i t e d e s i g n a t i o n i s an ongoing i n t e r n a t i o n a l t o o l o f p r o t e c t i o n and d e s i g n a t e s s i t e s , r a t h e r than j u s t p romotional, as IBP was. U n l i k e the IBP which was an independent program o f s e t d u r a t i o n , the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program was i n i t i a t e d i n 1970 by the General Conference o f Unesco t o focus on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and the b i o s p h e r e i n a continuous manner. Areas d e s i g n a t e d under MAB are e n t i t l e d "biosphere r e s e r v e s " and may i n c l u d e p r i v a t e or p u b l i c lands t h a t may or may not be p r e v i o u s l y p r o t e c t e d . As Taschereau (1982: 11-12) notes, 102 L i k e E c o l o g i c a l Reserves, Biosphere Reserves f u n c t i o n t o conserve g e n e t i c r e s o u r c e s . The emphasis, however, i s on a c t i v e use o f the r e s e r v e s f o r m o nitoring and r e s e a r c h , education and t r a i n i n g . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ecosystems are p r e f e r r e d t o those which are r a r e or unique. T h i s f a c i l i t a t e s the e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s t o b r o a d l y comparable s i t e s i n oth e r p a r t s o f the world. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v i t a l p a r t o f the MAB programme. M a n i p u l a t i v e as well as non-manipulative r e s e a r c h takes p l a c e i n Biosphere Reserves as a means o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s o f human i n t e r f e r e n c e upon ecosystems and the recover y o f degraded ecosystems. T h i s use o f a r e s e r v e i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o t h a t o f an E c o l o g i c a l Reserve where human i n f l u e n c e i s kept t o a minimum and o n l y non-manipulative r e s e a r c h i s p e r m i t t e d . I d e a l l y , however, the Biosphere Reserve c o n t a i n s one or more core ecosystems which a r e l e f t u n d i s t u r b e d and serve as a r e f e r e n c e a g a i n s t which t o assess the e f f e c t s o f human use. The biosphere r e s e r v e s i n c l u d e one o r more o f the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f land (from Canada/MAB, 1975: 4 and Canada/MAB, 1977: 4 ) : 1. Natural areas o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Canadian b i o g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o v i n c e s - d e f i n e d as those s i t e s having a minimum o f human d i s t u r b a n c e , e.g., t r a n s i t i o n zones, unique f e a t u r e s , and/or l o c a l p l a c e s o f e x c e p t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t such as a south f a c i n g slope north o f t r e e l i n e with a s p e c i a l i z e d b i o t i c community. 2. Harmonious landscape - d e f i n e d as n a t i o n a l l y important examples o f ecosystems i n which landscapes are i n harmonious balance with long e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s o f land-use. These s i t e s have r e s u l t e d from human a c t i v i t i e s and a r e dependent upon them f o r t h e i r p e r p e t u a t i o n ; Within t h i s category i t i s t h e r e f o r e ' important t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the 103 development o f the harmonious landscape continue and t h a t a c t i v i t i e s which tend t o d i s r u p t the harmonious landscape be r e s t r i c t e d . Examples i n c l u d e some Quebec and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d r u r a l landscapes. 3. Degraded ecosystems - d e f i n e d as n a t i o n a l l y important examples o f ecosystems degraded by the a c t i v i t i e s o f man, with an accompanying l o s s o f p r o d u c t i v i t y . The purposes o f d e s i g n a t i o n o f such s i t e s would be m o n i t o r i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Examples o f areas ranging i n s e v e r i t y from s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n t o extreme d e g r a d a t i o n i n c l u d e : (a) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r a i r i e lands s u b j e c t e d t o s l o w l y i n c r e a s i n g s a l i n i z a t i o n brought about by c u l t i v a t i o n ; and (b) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e areas near heavy i n d u s t r y where denudation o f v e g e t a t i o n has been p a r t i a l o r complete. As w e l l , areas s e t a s i d e a t the commencement o f new major e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s c o u l d a c t as benchmarks t o measure the impact o f the p r o j e c t . Attempts are made t o ensure t h a t , Each biosphere r e s e r v e i s made up o f a p r o t e c t e d 'core' o f u n d i s t u r b e d landscape t o g e t h e r with nearby areas showing some o f the ways i n which once s i m i l a r landscapes are being managed t o meet human needs ( F r a n c i s , 1982: 1). By 1982, 700 p r o j e c t s and 150 biosphere r e s e r v e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n 40 c o u n t r i e s (Taschereau, 1982: 13). In Canada the MAB program began i n 1972, and t o 1983 two s i t e s had been de s i g n a t e d as biosphere r e s e r v e s . Because the MAB program f o l l o w e d so c l o s e l y on the h e e l s o f the IBP program, 1 0 A the Canadian government f e l t the IBP-CT work was enough and i t p r o v i d e d no s p e c i a l money f o r MAB. For the past two years, the UNESCO-MAB S e c r e t a r i a t f o r Canada has been i n a c t i v e and s e r v i n g merely as a h o l d i n g o p e r a t i o n (Taschereau, 1982: 13). The c o n t i n u i n g lack o f Canadian i n t e r e s t i n MAB reduces i t s v i a b i l i t y as an ongoing p r o t e c t i o n mechanism f o r n a t u r a l a r e a s . It may be argued t h a t p a r t o f the lack o f c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t i n MAB arose because the MAB program was not a s s i g n e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n s i b l e agency a t i t s i n c e p t i o n , l i k e l y due t o i t s p r o x i m i t y i n time t o the e x t e n s i v e IBP program. As wel1, the MAB program keeps i t s focus 11mited t o r e s e a r c h and n a t u r a l areas are i n c l u d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o areas s u b j e c t t o human Impact. D e s i g n a t i o n o f s i t e s i s e f f e c t e d r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p r e v i o u s p r o t e c t i o n s t a t u s o f the s i t e s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i t e s Imply comparison between areas r a t h e r than the r e c o g n i t i o n o f inherent s i t e v a l u e s . In c o n t r a s t , the World H e r i t a g e Convention arose Independently and a t an opportune time, i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a s s i g n e d t o a s p e c i f i c government agency, and i t m aintains a broad f o c u s , i n c l u d i n g g e n e t i c banking, r e s e a r c h / e d u c a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n o f endangered s p e c i e s , e t c . Natural areas are the t a r g e t o f the World H e r i t a g e S i t e d e s i g n a t i o n s : the n a t u r a l areas are r e c o g n i z e d f o r t h e i r i n t r i n s i c v alue and must be assured o f p r o t e c t i o n by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t a t e b e f o r e they are i n c l u d e d on the World H e r i t a g e L i s t . 105 From the preceding review o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , p r i v a t e and o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions and programs, the World H e r i t a g e Convention stands out i n having the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : 1. ongo i ng; 2. s u b j e c t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c r u t i n y ; 3. concerned with many types o f n a t u r a l ecosystems (e.g., not j u s t i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s ) ; 4. concerned about ecosystems f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f reasons (e.g., not j u s t f o r r e s e a r c h ) ; 5. capable o f d e s i g n a t i n g l e g a l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e s i t e s o f land (as opposed t o promotion o f d e s i g n a t i o n ) ; and, 6. r e c o g n i z i n g a s i t e ' s i n t r i n s i c values over i t s r e l a t i v e values i n comparison with o t h e r s i t e s . The above a l l o w the World H e r i t a g e program t o p r o v i d e f o r the long-term p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l ecosystems s u p p o r t i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f s p e c i e s through i n t e r n a t i o n a l means. 4 . 3 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s The v a r i e t y o f methods f o r land p r o t e c t i o n i s s t a g g e r i n g as the p r e s e n t review i n d i c a t e s , however, the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the methods a t the l o c a l l e v e l i s f r a u g h t with problems. Budgets f o r land p r o t e c t i o n management have been s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d w i t h i n the Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e and the B.C. government. The p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e towards the e s t a b l i s h m e n t 106 o f N a t i o n a l P a r k s i s v a r i a b l e , e v e n w h e n t h e s i t e m e e t s t h e c r i t e r i a t o b a l a n c e t h e n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a r e a s . O t h e r l a n d u s e s s u c h a s o i l a n d g a s w e l l s i n A l b e r t a a n d m o s t e x t r a c t i v e u s e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a v e v e t o p o w e r o v e r p r o v i n c i a l p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . P r i v a t e p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s a r e s u b j e c t t o v a r i a b l e f u n d i n g a n d o f t e n d o n o t t a k e a w h o l e e c o s y s t e m a p p r o a c h . N a t i v e p e o p l e a r e n o t l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o l a n d p r o t e c t i o n u n t i l t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s a r e s e t t l e d . I n t e r n a t i o n a l l a n d p r o t e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m s , a l t h o u g h o f t e n n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n r e v i e w a n d e v a l u a t i o n s o f p r o t e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m s ( e . g . , v a n H e e s , 1 9 8 3 ) , a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s o v e r c o m i n g s o m e o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f C a n a d i a n p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s a n d t h e i r r e c e n t a p p l i c a t i o n ( e . g . , t h e c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f p o l i c y d u e t o p o l i t i c a l w h i m ) . T h e R a m s a r a n d M i g r a t o r y B i r d C o n v e n t i o n s a r e t o o s p e c i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d t o b i r d s , t h e I B P e n c o u r a g e d l a n d p r o t e c t i o n , b u t i t i s o v e r , a n d MAB i s i n a d e q u a t e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n C a n a d a , e m p h a s i z e s r e s e a r c h a n d d o e s n o t e n s u r e p r o t e c t i o n . T h e n e x t c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n t h a t m a k e i t a t h e o r e t i c a l l y v a l u a b l e l e g a l m e c h a n i s m f o r p r o t e c t i o n l a n d . S u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s w i l l e v a l u a t e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o r e a l s i t u a t i o n s a n d i t s u s e i n t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s . 107 C H A P T E R 5 : T H E WORLD H E R I T A G E C O N V E N T I O N AND I T S A P P L I C A T I O N  I N C A N A D A 5 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r b r i e f l y n o t e d s o m e o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h d o m e s t i c a n d o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r m s o f l a n d p r o t e c t i o n . T h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a n d i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e l a n d p r o t e c t i o n g o a l s e s t a b l i s h e d i n C h a p t e r 2 . M a n y r e s o u r c e m a n a g e r s , w h e n s e l e c t i n g a m e c h a n i s m f o r p r o t e c t i n g l a n d , h a v e b e e n r e s t r i c t e d b y t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a g e n c y t h e y a r e e m p l o y e d b y , o r i n c a s e s w h e r e v a r i o u s o p t i o n s w e r e r e v i e w e d , t h e y h a v e r a t e d t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a s c o n f e r r i n g a l o w l e v e l o f p r o t e c t i o n ( e . g . , F r a s e r , 1 9 8 3 ) o r e v e n a s u n w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n ( e . g . , v a n H e e s , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s p r o p o s e s t o a n a l y z e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d i n C a n a d a . T h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a n y l a n d p r o t e c t i o n a p p r o a c h , s u c h a s t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n , i s b e s t t e s t e d i n i t s r e s p o n s e t o t h r e a t s t o t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e l a n d p r o t e c t e d u n d e r i t . I n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ' s i m p a c t , b o t h p r o v e n a n d p r e d i c t e d , w i l l b e e x a m i n e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s e v e r a l c a s e s . T h e p r e s e n t 108 c h a p t e r i n i t i a l l y d e s c r i b e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ( S e c t i o n 5 . 1 ) . S e c o n d , t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n ( e . g . , t h e p r o c e s s , t h e c o m p o n e n t s , a n d t h e p u r p o s e ) a s w e l l a s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s a r e p r e s e n t e d ( S e c t i o n 5 . 2 ) . T h i r d , t h e p r o c e d u r e u s e d b y C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s t o n o m i n a t e s i t e s p u r s u a n t t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d ( S e c t i o n 5 . 3 ) . F i n a l l y , t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n t h a t a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e o n g o i n g , r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f w h o l e e c o s y s t e m s a r e s u m m a r i z e d f o r e a s y r e f e r e n c e ( S e c t i o n 5 . 4 ) . 5 . 1 T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n How d i d t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n c o m e t o b e a s i t n o w e x i s t s ? A s e x p l a i n e d t o t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r b y R o b e r t G a r v e y ( E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , U . S . A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l f o r H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n ) , i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s t h e U n e s c o I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o n u m e n t s C o m m i t t e e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t m a n y u n i v e r s a l l y i m p o r t a n t s i t e s w e r e e n d a n g e r e d a n d w a n t e d t o d e v e l o p a s y s t e m t o p r o t e c t e n d a n g e r e d m o n u m e n t s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a s s i s t w i t h t h e m o n u m e n t s , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o n M o n u m e n t s a n d S i t e s ( I C O M O S ) , a n i n d e p e n d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i n 1 9 6 5 . 109 N u m e r o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a m p a i g n s t o p r o t e c t c u l t u r a l a r e a s ( e . g . , a s a r e s u l t o f f l o o d s i n F l o r e n c e , r i s i n g w a t e r i n V e n i c e , t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f t h e A s w a n Dam o n t h e N u b i a n m o n u m e n t s , e t c . ) h a d b e e n l a u n c h e d , b u t t h e y m e t w i t h v a r i a b l e r e s p o n s e s b y o t h e r n a t i o n s . T h e D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f U n e s c o w a n t e d t o c o o r d i n a t e e f f o r t s w i t h i n t h e U n e s c o f r a m e w o r k . T h e U . S . a r g u e d t h a t t h e e f f o r t s s h o u l d b e m a d e b y a t r u l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d y w h i c h w a s i n d e p e n d e n t o f U n e s c o . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e U . S . a r g u m e n t s , a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e e t i n g o f e x p e r t s w a s h e l d i n P a r i s i n 1 9 6 9 . T h e e x p e r t s s t u d i e d v a r i o u s s y s t e m s t o h e l p e n d a n g e r e d c u l t u r a l p l a c e s . A s y s t e m o f p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d i n t h e U . S . w a s r e j e c t e d b y t h e U . S . a s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e n e e d s o f t h e g r o u p . T h e U . S . s t r o n g l y e n c o u r a g e d a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w o f s i t e s t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e b u i l d i n g , r a t h e r t h a n t h e u s u a l f o c u s o n t h e b u i l d i n g a l o n e . C o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e c e n t r e d a r o u n d w h e t h e r a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n w h i c h o f f e r s r e l a t i v e l y w e a k p r o t e c t i o n , o r a c o n v e n t i o n w h i c h o f f e r s r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g p r o t e c t i o n s h o u l d b e p r o p o s e d . T h e d i s c u s s i o n l e d t o t h e d r a f t c o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e " I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e c t i o n o f M o n u m e n t s , G r o u p s a n d B u i l d i n g s a n d S i t e s o f U n i v e r s a l V a l u e " ( S l a t y e r 1 9 8 4 : 5 ) w h i c h w a s t h e n s e n t f o r r e v i e w b y m a n y n a t i o n s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e s c i e n t i f i c w i n g s o f U n e s c o w e r e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e M a n a n d B i o s p h e r e P r o g r a m m e a n d w e r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g a n e w s y s t e m o f p r o t e c t e d 110 a r e a s . H o w e v e r , i n t h e U . S . , a W h i t H o u s e C o n f e r e n c e o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n h e l d i n 1 9 6 5 c a l l e d f o r . . . a t r u s t f o r t h e w o r l d h e r i t a g e t h a t w o u l d b e r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e w o r l d c o m m u n i t y f o r t h e s t i m u l a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n e f f o r t s t o i d e n t i f y , e s t a b l i s h , d e v e l o p a n d m a n a g e t h e w o r l d ' s i m p o r t a n t n a t u r a l a n d s c e n i c a r e a s a n d h i s t o r i c s i t e s f o r t h e p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e b e n e f i t o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i t i z e n r y ( S l a t y e r , 1 9 8 4 : 5 ) . T h e i d e a o f a w o r l d h e r i t a g e t r u s t w a s a c t i v e l y p r o m o t e d b y R u s s e l l E . T r a i n a n d L e e T a l b o t , b o t h o f whom w e r e i n k e y p o s i t i o n s i n t h e U . S . C o u n c i l o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y . T h e i r a c t i v e l o b b y i n g l e d t o N i x o n ' s 1 9 7 1 P r e s i d e n t i a l s t a t e m e n t c a l l i n g f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a w o r l d h e r i t a g e t r u s t . T a l b o t w a s a l s o t a k i n g i n i t i a t i v e s t o s e t u p a w o r l d h e r i t a g e t r u s t t o b e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e I U C N . T h i s l e d t o t h e I U C N p r e p a r i n g a d r a f t " C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e W o r l d ' s H e r i t a g e " ( S l a t y e r , 1 9 8 4 : 5 ) w h i c h w a s a i m e d a t n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e , b u t i g n o r e d c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . T h e c o n v e n t i o n w a s t o b e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e 1 9 7 2 S t o c k h o l m C o n f e r e n c e o n t h e E n v i r o n m e n t . A t a S e p t e m b e r , 1971 m e e t i n g t o d r a f t a p r e p a r a t o r y U . S . p a p e r f o r t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n f e r e n c e , H i r o s h i D a i f u k i o f t h e U . S . , r e p r e s e n t i n g U n e s c o , p r e s e n t e d t h e U n e s c o p r o p o s a l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c u l t u r a l c o n v e n t i o n . R o b e r t G a r v e y , w h o w a s a w a r e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s b e c a u s e o f s h a r i n g a n o f f i c e w i t h t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s S e r v i c e , u r g e d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s t o p r e s e n t a r e o r g a n i z e d U n e s c o c u l t u r a l c o n v e n t i o n t o t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n f e r e n c e . T h e m a j o r I l l reason behind i t was the f e e l i n g t h a t i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o get both the d r a f t conventions e n t i t l e d " I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e c t i o n o f Monuments, Groups and B u i l d i n g s and S i t e s o f U n i v e r s a l Value" and the "Convention f o r the C o n s e r v a t i o n o f the World's H e r i t a g e " r a t i f i e d and t h a t they would be unwieldy t o manage i f kept separate. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were not convinced. L a t e r , the Stockholm Conference was not a b l e t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s r e g a r d i n g the methods f o r p u t t i n g t e e t h i n the proposed convention, so n o t h i n g on World H e r i t a g e came out o f t h a t meeting. At the A p r i l , 1972 intergovernmental meeting i n P a r i s (under the broad a u s p i c e s o f Unesco) t o examine the n a t i o n s responses t o the d r a f t c u l t u r a l convention which had been proposed i n 1969, the U.S. proposed a major amendment t h a t would r e s u l t i n the development o f a new document t h a t would i n c l u d e n a t u r a l as well as c u l t u r a l elements. The p a r t i c i p a t i n g n a t i o n s were caught unprepared t o d i s c u s s n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e , so r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e a l i n g with n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e were q u i c k l y sought. A f t e r a week o f determining whether the U.S. proposal c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d , i t was accepted and the next two weeks were spent d r a f t i n g the new c o n v e n t i o n . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Convention Concerning the P r o t e c t i o n o f the World C u l t u r a l and Natural H e r i t a g e (known commonly as the World H e r i t a g e Convention) was adopted by the General Conference o f Unesco i n P a r i s on the 16th o f November, 1972. 112 C a n a d a p l a y e d a n i n t e g r a l r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n b y s e n d i n g P e t e r B e n n e t t ( f o r m e r h e a d o f t h e N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c P a r k s a n d S i t e s B r a n c h ) a n d o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e P a r i s m e e t i n g . I C O M O S a n d U n e s c o s t a f f f u l l y s u p p o r t e d t h e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s a n d t h e I U C N s u p p o r t e d t h e n a t u r a l a s p e c t s . L i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n p r i o r t o t h e a d o p t i o n d e a l t w i t h t h e s u b s t a n t i v e d e t a i l s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n , h o w e v e r t h e r e w a s a g o o d d e a l o f d i s c u s s i o n o n t h e i s s u e o f v o l u n t a r y v e r s u s c o m p u l s o r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e F u n d . A s r e s o l v e d , n a t i o n s c o u l d o p t f o r e i t h e r s c h e m e a n d t h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n s o m e p r o b l e m s ( P e t e r B e n n e t t , p e r s . c o m m . ) : s o m e " v o l u n t a r y " c o u n t r i e s h a v e n o t a c c e p t e d t h e " g e n t l e m a n ' s a g r e e m e n t " t h a t v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s m u s t t o t a l a t l e a s t \% o f t o t a l U n e s c o c o n t r i b u t i o n s ( i . e . , a s u m g r e a t e r t h a n o r e q u a 1 t o t h a t u n d e r c o m p u 1 s o r y c o n t r 1 b u t 1 o n s ) . U p o n r e c e i p t b y U n e s c o i n 1 9 7 5 o f t h e d o c u m e n t s o f r a t i f i c a t i o n f r o m t h e t w e n t y s t a t e s , t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n b e c a m e e n f o r c e a b l e . M a n y s t a t e s h a v e b e c o m e p a r t y t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n , a n d I t I s c o n s i d e r e d a p o p u l a r c o n v e n t i o n b y m a n y n a t i o n s ( P e t e r B e n n e t t , p e r s . c o m m . ) . T a b l e I I I l i s t s t h e s t a t e s p a r t y t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a n d t h e d a t e o f j o i n i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a s o f D e c e m b e r , 1 9 8 5 . 1 1 3 TABLE I I I : LIST OF STATES PARTY TO WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION AND  THE DATE OF JOINING THE CONVENTION AS OF DECEMBER, 1985 S t a t e s R a t i f i c a t i o n Date United S t a t e s o f America Egypt I raq B u l g a r i a Sudan A1ger i a A u s t r a l i a Za i re N i ger i a N i ger Iran ( I s l a m i c Republic o f ) Tun i s i a Jordan Yugos1av i a Ecuador France Ghana S y r i a (Arab Republic of) Cyprus Swi tzer1 and Morocco Senegal Pol and Pak i s t an Canada Germany (Federal Republic o f ) Bo1i v i a Mai i Norway Guyana Eth i op i a Tanzania (United Republic o f ) Costa R i c a Brazi1 I nd i a Panama Nepal I t a l y Saudi A r a b i a Argent i na Libyan Arab J a m a h i r i y a Monaco Malta Guatema1 a Gu i nea Afghan i stan Honduras 7 December, 1973 7 February, 1974 5 March, 1974 7 March, 1974 6 June, 1974 24 June, 1974 22 August, 1974 23 September, 1974 23 October, 1974 23 December, 1974 26 February, 1975 10 March, 1975 5 May, 1975 26 May, 1975 • 16 June, 1975 27 June, 1975 4 J u l y , 1975 13 August, 1975 14 August, 1975 17 September, 1975 28 October, 1975 13 February, 1976 29 June, 1976 23 J u l y , 1976 23 J u l y , 1976 23 August, 1976 4 October, 1976 5 A p r i 1 , 1977 12 May, 1977 20 June, 1977 6 J u l y , 1977 2 August, 1977 23 August, 1977 1 September, 1977 14 November, 1977 3 March, 1978 20 June, 1978 23 June, 1978 7 August, 1978 23 August, 1978 13 October, 1978 7 November, 1978 14 November, 1978 16 January, 1979 18 March, 1979 20 March, 1979 8 June, 1979 114 Denmark N i caragua Ha i 11 C h i l e Seychel1es S r i Lanka Portuga1 Yemen (Democratic Republic o f ) Cen t r a l A f r i c a n Republic Ivory Coast M a u r i t a n i a Cuba Greece Oman Ma 1 aw i Peru Spa i n Burundi Ben i n Z i mbabwe Holy See Mozambique Cameroon (United Republic o f ) Lebanon Turkey Co1omb i a Jama i ca Madagascar Bangladesh Luxembourg Antigua et Barbuda Yemen (Arab Republic o f ) Mex i co Zamb i a United Kingdom Qatar New Zealand Sweden Dom i n i can Repub1i c Hungary Ph111i pines Ch i na 25 J u l y , 1979 17 December, 1979 18 January, 1980 20 February, 1980 9 Apr 11, 1980 6 June, 1980 30 September, 1980 7 October, 1980 22 December, 1980 9 January, 1981 2 March, 1981 24 March, 1981 17 J u l y , 1981 6 October, 1981 5 January, 1982 24 February, 1982 4 May, 1982 19 May, 1982 14 June, 1982 16 August, 1982 7 October, 1982 27 November, 1982 7 December, 1982 3 February, 1983 16 March, 1983 24 May, 1983 14 June, 1983 19 J u l y , 1983 3 August, 1983 28 September, 1983 1 November, 1983 25 January, 1984 23 February, 1984 4 June, 1984 29 June, 1984 12 September, 1984' 22 November, 1984 21 January, 1985 12 February, 1985 15 J u l y , 1985 19 September, 1985 12 December, 1985 115 5 . 2 T h e F e a t u r e s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n A s y s t e m f o r r i g o r o u s l y p r o t e c t i n g n a t u r a l a r e a s m u s t i n c l u d e a p r o c e s s o f d e s i g n a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g c l e a r c r i t e r i a a n d e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , a m e a n s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a n d e n f o r c i n g c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s y s t e m , a n d a c o o r d i n a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t s t r u c t u r e . T h i s s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t h e s e a n d r e l a t e d e l e m e n t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . I t d e l i n e a t e s w h i c h a g e n c i e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a n d w h a t f u n c t i o n s t h e y p e r f o r m . I t i t e m i z e s w h i c h c r i t e r i a a n d e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r e u s e d t o s e l e c t s i t e s f o r i n c l u s i o n o n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t a n d / o r f o r s u p p o r t b y t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e F u n d . M o n i t o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r s i t e s o n c e t h e y a r e e s t a b l i s h e d a s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e s a r e r e v i e w e d . T h e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f e a c h n a t i o n a n d t h e c r i t e r i a u s e d t o d e l i s t s i t e s f r o m t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t a r e a l s o e x a m i n e d . N a t i o n s w i s h i n g t o j o i n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n m a y e i t h e r r a t i f y , a c c e p t o r a c c e d e t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n t h r o u g h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n a t i o n a l a g e n c y / a g e n c i e s ( m o r e t h a n o n e a g e n c y m a y b e i n v o l v e d w h e r e c u l t u r a l a n d n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d s e p a r a t e l y , b u t i n C a n a d a , P a r k s C a n a d a i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b o t h f o r m s o f h e r i t a g e ) . D e f i n i t i o n s o f r a t i f i c a t i o n , a c c e p t a n c e , a n d a c c e s s i o n w e r e p r o d u c e d b y P a r k s C a n a d a s t a f f f o r t h e i r o w n c l a r i f i c a t i o n a n d a r e i n c l u d e d a s A p p e n d i x 2 . E a c h n a t i o n , t h r o u g h b e c o m i n g a s i g n a t o r y t o t h e C o n v e n t i o n , m a k e s t h e s e c o m m i t m e n t s : 116 1 . h o l d i n g i n t r u s t f o r t h e r e s t o f m a n k i n d t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e t h a t a r e f o u n d w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s ; 2. s u p p o r t i n g o t h e r n a t i o n s i n d i s c h a r g i n g t h i s t r u s t ; 3 . e x e r c i s i n g t h e s a m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o w o r k s o f n a t u r e a s t o w o r k s o f h u m a n k i n d ; a n d , 4 . g r a n t i n g t o i t s c o s i g n a t o r i e s t h e r i g h t t o o b s e r v e t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h i t m e e t s i t s o b l i g a t i o n s u n d e r t h e c o n v e n t i o n . ( p r i n c i p l e s a d a p t e d b y t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r f r o m U n e s c o , 1 9 8 0 ) . M e m b e r s t a t e s a r e o b l i g e d t o s u p p o r t t h e c r e a t i o n o f W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e s o n t h e i r o w n t e r r i t o r y w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e l e g a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s c i e n t i f i c , t e c h n i c a l a n d f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n s w h e r e p o s s i b l e , a n d k e e p t h e p u b l i c I n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . A s H a l e s ( 1 9 8 4 : 7 4 5 ) n o t e s , s i g n a t o r i e s a d d i t i o n a 1 1 y r e c o g n i z e a n a f f i r m a t i v e o b l i g a t i o n t o h e l p i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e s i t u a t e d o u t s i d e o f t h e i r o w n t e r r i t o r y , a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y a g r e e " n o t t o t a k e a n y d e l i b e r a t e m e a s u r e s w h i c h m i g h t d a m a g e d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t h e c u l t u r a l a n d n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e s i t u a t e d o n t h e t e r r i t o r y o f o t h e r S t a t e s P a r t i e s t o t h i s C o n v e n t i o n . I t m u s t b e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n s t a t u s f o r a r e a s n o m i n a t e d a s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e s r e s t s w i t h e a c h s t a t e a n d i s n o t p r o v i d e d b y d e s i g n a t i o n a s a W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e . W o r l d H e r i t a g e d e s i g n a t i o n o n a s i t e p r o v i d e s o n l y a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s i t e ' s u n i v e r s a l v a l u e . F a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n i n a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e p e r i o d m a y b e j u s t c a u s e f o r r e m o v i n g a s i t e f r o m W o r l d H e r i t a g e s t a t u s . T h e r e i s n o l i m i t t o the t o t a l number o f World H e r i t a g e S i t e s which any nat i on may estab1i sh. There are s i x i d e n t i f i a b l e agencies t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e i n the management o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention. They i n c l u d e the World H e r i t a g e Committee, the World H e r i t a g e Bureau, the World H e r i t a g e S e c r e t a r i a t , and t h r e e a d v i s o r y bodies, the IUCN, the ICOMOS, and the ICCROM, i d e n t i f i e d more f u l l y below. The World H e r i t a g e Committee c o n s i s t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f 21 o f the s t a t e s p a r t y t o the Convention ( t h i s was i n c r e a s e d from 15 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s upon the r a t i f i c a t i o n o f 40 s t a t e s ) from d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s and c u l t u r e s o f the world. Each n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e serves a term o f 6 y e a r s , but the terms a r e staggered so t h a t o n l y one t h i r d o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s leaves every two y e a r s . The World H e r i t a g e Committee i s appointed by the General Conference o f Unesco, and i s a s s i s t e d i n i t s s i t e s e l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s by t h r e e independent, p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Council on Monuments and S i t e s (ICOMOS), the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Centre f o r the Study o f the P r e s e r v a t i o n and the R e s t o r a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t y i n Rome (ICCROM), and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) (through i t s appointed Commission on National Parks and P r o t e c t e d Areas (CNPPA)). The f i r s t two o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e l p e v a l u a t e c u l t u r a l p r o p e r t y nominations w h i l e the l a t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n does the same f o r n a t u r a l p r o p e r t y nominations. 118 T h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . A s s u c h i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h r e e m a j o r t a s k s , t h e s e a r e : 1. e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t , c o m p r i s i n g t h e l i s t o f s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d u n d e r t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ; 2. e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e L i s t o f W o r l d H e r i t a g e i n D a n g e r , c o m p r i s i n g e n d a n g e r e d s i t e s w h i c h a r e o n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t , o r w h i c h a r e s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n , b u t a r e s t i l l I n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d a s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e s ; a n d , 3. a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e F u n d , w h i c h p r o v i d e s i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s i t e s o n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t ( s ) , o r s i t e s s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s t u d i e s , p r o v i s i o n o f e x p e r t s , s t a f f t r a i n i n g , e q u i p m e n t s u p p l y , l o w - i n t e r e s t l o a n s , o r ( r a r e l y ) s u b s i d i e s . T h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d b y i t s S e c r e t a r i a t , w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f t w o p a r t - t i m e p e o p l e a p p o i n t e d b y t h e D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f U n e s c o , a n d t h e i r s e c r e t a r i e s . T h e s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d b y s u c h a s m a l l n u m b e r o f s t a f f d o e s n o t p e r m i t a c t i v e p u b l i c i t y a n d / o r r e c r u i t i n g o f n a t i o n s b y t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e r e g a r d i n g t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . 119 T h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e B u r e a u , d o e s t h e i n i t i a l r e v i e w o f s i t e n o m i n a t i o n s a n d p r e p a r e s p r e l i m i n a r y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e . T h e B u r e a u c o n s i s t s o f 6 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m w i t h i n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e , 4 - 5 U n e s c o s t a f f , 1 I U C N r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a n d 2 - 3 I C O M O S r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . B u r e a u r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y , a l t h o u g h n o t a l w a y s , a c c e p t e d b y t h e C o m m i t t e e a s a w h o l e t h u s t h e B u r e a u h a s a p o w e r f u l r o l e i n t h e s i t e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . T a b l e I V l i s t s t h e 1 9 8 6 C o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s . T h e p r o c e s s u s e d f o r d e s i g n a t i n g s i t e s u n d e r t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n c o m p r i s e s s e v e r a l s t e p s w h i c h a r e c o n d u c t e d o v e r a n a n n u a l c y c l e o f e v e n t s . W i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e , m e m b e r s t a t e s i d e n t i f y n a t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l s i t e s s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n o n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t o r t h e L i s t o f W o r l d H e r i t a g e i n D a n g e r . S i t e s s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t a s " n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e " h a v e a t l e a s t o n e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : - n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s c o n s i s t i n g o f p h y s i c a l a n d b i o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n s o r g r o u p s o f s u c h f o r m a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e o f o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l u e f r o m t h e a e s t h e t i c o r s c i e n t i f i c p o i n t o f v i e w ; - g e o l o g i c a l a n d p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t i o n s a n d p r e c i s e l y d e l i n e a t e d a r e a s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e h a b i t a t o f t h r e a t e n e d s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l s a n d p l a n t s o f o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l u e f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s c i e n c e o r c o n s e r v a t i o n ; [ o r , ] - n a t u r a l s i t e s o r p r e c i s e l y d e l i n e a t e d n a t u r a l a r e a s o f o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l u e f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s c i e n c e , c o n s e r v a t i o n o r n a t u r a l b e a u t y ( W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n , A r t i c l e 2 ) . 120 TABLE IV: LIST OF 1986 WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE MEMBER STATES  Execut i ve Chairman, 1986: Mr. Amini Aza M t u r i , T a n z a n i a R a p p o r t e u r : Mr. A.T. Dav i d s o n , Canada V i c e Chairmen: A l g e r i a , B u l g a r i a , I n d i a , Mexico, Norway L i s t o f a l l 1986 Committee member s t a t e s : A1ger i a LebanonA u s t r a l i a L i b y a n Arab J a m a h i r i v a h B r a z i 1 Ma 1 aw i Bui gar i a Mex i co Canada Norway Cyprus S r i Lanka Germany T a n z a n i a Greece Turkey Gu i nea Yemen I nd i a Za i r e J o r d a n 121 N o m i n a t i o n s t o t h e l i s t s a r e d r a w n u p b y t h e m e m b e r s t a t e . T h e S e c r e t a r i a t r e g i s t e r s a n d r e v i e w s t h e n o m i n a t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t e n e s s a n d a u t h e n t i c i t y , t h e n d i s t r i b u t e s t h e m t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( I U C N f o r n a t u r a l s i t e s ) f o r r e v i e w a n d t e c h n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e c r i t e r i a i n t h e " O p e r a t i o n a l G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ( U n e s c o I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l C o m m i t t e e f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e W o r l d C u l t u r a l a n d N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e , 1 9 8 4 ) , w h i c h a r e i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x 3 . N a t u r a l s i t e s a r e e v a l u a t e d b y t h e I U C N . J a m e s T h o r s e l 1 , c u r r e n t E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r o f t h e I U C N ' s C o m m i s s i o n o n N a t i o n a l P a r k s a n d P r o t e c t e d A r e a s , p r e p a r e s a n a n n u a l r e p o r t t o t h e W o r 1 d H e r i t a g e B u r e a u wh i c h c o n t a i n s e v a 1 u a t i o n s o f t h e y e a r ' s n o m i n a t e d s i t e s ( J a m e s T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . c o m m . ) . H e m a k e s u s e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e I U C N S e c r e t a r i a t a n d t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e f r o m a w o r l d w i d e n e t w o r k o f m e m b e r s a n d c o u n s e l l o r s . T h o r s e l 1 m e n t i o n e d t h a t r e c e n t e f f o r t s w i t h i n t h e I U C N h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o m a k e s i t e e v a l u a t i o n m o r e e m p i r i c a l u s i n g a d e f i n e d r a t i n g s c h e m e w i t h q u a n t i f i e d r e s u l t s . H e r e c o g n i z e s t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r a t i n g s c h e m e s f o r r e l a t i v e l y u n q u a n t i f i a b l e d a t a , a n d w i l l t h u s g i v e t h e s c h e m e a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l r o l e i n e v a l u a t i n g s i t e s . 122 • The World H e r i t a g e Bureau examines t h e n o m i n a t i o n s and t h e t e c h n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s and d r a f t s recommendations t o t h e Committee. I t was James T h o r s e l l ' s i m p r e s s i o n ( p e r s . comm.) t h a t t h e IUCN e v a l u a t i o n s a r e t r u s t e d and u s u a l l y a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h e IUCN's power i n t h e n o m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s . The r e l a t i v e l a c k , t o d a t e , o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on b oth t h e Bureau and t h e Committee w i t h t r a i n i n g i n t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s has a l s o l e d t o t h i s g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f IUCN recommendations. F o l l o w i n g t h e Bureau m e e t i n g , t h e S e c r e t a r i a t d i s t r i b u t e s summaries o f n o m i n a t i o n s and Bureau recommendations t o a l 1 member s t a t e s . Any a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d by t h e Bureau i s sought by t h e S e c r e t a r i a t from t h e s t a t e and t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e Committee members, IUCN, ICOMOS, and ICCROM. At t h e Committee meeti n g a l l n o m i n a t i o n s a r e r e v i e w e d , but t h e n o m i n a t i o n s a r e a l r e a d y c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r 1. recommended by t h e Bureau f o r i n c l u s i o n on t h e World Her i t a g e L i s t , 2. d e f i n i t e l y not recommended f o r t h e L i s t , o r 3 . w i t h problems o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c r i t e r i a . From t h e n o m i n a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d , some may be a c c e p t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n on t h e L i s t , some may be r e j e c t e d , and some may be s e n t back t o t h e member s t a t e f o r f u r t h e r background work, l e g i s l a t i o n t o b e t t e r ensure p r o t e c t i o n , e t c . The d e c i s i o n s o f t h e Committee and t h e new World H e r i t a g e L i s t a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y p u b l i s h e d and c i r c u l a t e d t o a l 1 member s t a t e s . 123 In emergency s i t u a t i o n s , t h e annual p r o c e d u r e i s bypassed f o r s i t e s w h i c h , would u n q u e s t i o n a b l y meet t h e c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t and which have s u f f e r e d damage from d i s a s t e r caused by n a t u r a l e v e n t s o r by human a c t i v i t i e s (Unesco I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l Committee f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e World C u l t u r a l and N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e , 1984: 17). In t h o s e c a s e s t h e n o m i n a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d as r e c e i v e d , and emergency a s s i s t a n c e may be f o r t h c o m i n g i f r e q u e s t e d by t h e s t a t e c o n c e rned. T a b l e V c o n t a i n s t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t c u r r e n t t o December, 1985. A l o n g w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s l y mentioned a c t i v i t i e s , t h e Committee p r o v i d e s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r s a f e g u a r d i n g World H e r i t a g e S i t e s t h r o u g h a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e World H e r i t a g e Fund. In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r c h o i c e a t r a t i f i c a t i o n , member s t a t e s make e i t h e r compulsory o r v o l u n t a r y f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s ( e q u i v a l e n t t o 1% o r more o f t h e i r d o n a t i o n t o Unesco) t o t h e World H e r i t a g e Fund. A d d i t i o n a l p r i v a t e o r c o r p o r a t e d o n a t i o n s a r e combined w i t h s t a t e monies t o s u p p l y needy c o u n t r i e s w i t h , 1. p r e p a r a t o r y a s s i s t a n c e i n e v a l u a t i n g and i n v e n t o r y i n g s i t e s proposed f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e L i s t , 2. t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e x p e r t s and t e c h n i c i a n s o r equipment f o r p a r t i c u l a r c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s , 3. emergency a s s i s t a n c e " f o r work i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s i n c l u d e d o r s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t and which a r e i n immediate danger o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n o r t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n " , a n d / o r , 4. t r a i n i n g o f s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l t h r o u g h s t u d y c o u r s e s h e l d e i t h e r l o c a l l y o r abroad (adapted from Unesco, 1982: 8-10). 124 TABLE V: THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST ( c u r r e n t t o December, 1985) A l g e r i a Al Qal'a o f Beni Hammad T a s s i 1 i n ' A j j e r The M'Zab V a l l e y D j em i1 a Ti p a s a T i mgad Arge n t i n a Los G l a c i a r e s National Park J e s u i t M issions o f the Gauranis ( j o i n t nomination with Sao Miguel das Missoes, B r a z i l , as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t e ) Iguazu National Park A u s t r a l i a Kakadu National Park The Great B a r r i e r Reef W i l l a n d r a Lakes Region Western Tasmania Wilderness National Parks Lord Howe Is l a n d Group Bangladesh The h i s t o r i c mosque c i t y o f Bagerhat Ruins o f the Buddhist V i h a r a a t Paharpur Benin Royal p a l a c e s o f Abomev B r a z i l H i s t o r i c town o f Ouro Preto H i s t o r i c c e n t r e o f O l i n d a Sao Miguel das Missoes ( j o i n t nomination with the Jesuit. M issions o f the Guaranis, A r g e n t i n a , as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t e ) H i s t o r i c c e n t r e o f Salvador de Behia Sanctuary o f Bom Jesus do Congonhas B u l g a r i a Boyana Church Madara Rider T h r a c i a n tomb o f Kazanlak Rock-hewn churches o f Ivanovo The Ancient C i t y o f Nessebar Srebarna Reserve P i r i n R i1 a Monastery T h r a c i a n tomb o f S v e t c h a r i Canada Nahanni National Park L'Anse aux Meadows National H i s t o r i c Park Dinosaur P r o v i n c i a l Park Kluane National Park ( j o i n t nomination with Wrangell-St. E l i a s National Monument, U.S., as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t e ) Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks ( i n c l u d e s The Burgess Shale F o s s i l S i t e , Yoho National Park) 125 Co1umb i a Cartagena C o s t a R i c a Cuba Cyprus Ecuador Egypt E t h i o p i a France Anthony I s l a n d P r o v i n c i a l Park Head-Smashed-In B u f f a l o Jump Wood B u f f a l o N a t i o n a l Park Quebec ( H i s t o r i c a r e a ) P o r t , F o r t r e s s e s and Group o f Monuments Talamanca Range - La Amistad O l d Havana and i t s f o r t i f i c a t i o n s Paphos P a i n t e d churches i n t h e Troodos r e g i o n Galapagos I s l a n d O l d c i t y o f Q u i t o Sangay N a t i o n a l Park Abu Mena Memphis and i t s N e c r o p o l i s - t h e pyramid f i e l d s from G i z a t o Dahshur A n c i e n t Thebes w i t h i t s N e c r o p o l i s The Nubian monuments from Abu Simbel t o P h i l a e Is1 am i c Ca i r o Simi en N a t i o n a l Park Rock-hewn churches o f L a i i b e l a F a s i 1 Ghebbi, Gondar Region v a l l e y o f t h e Omo v a l l e y o f t h e Awash Lower Lower T i ya Aksum Mont S t . M i c h e l and i t s bay C h a r t r e s c a t h e d r a l P a l a c e and park o f V e r s a i l l e s V e z e l a y , c h u r c h and h i l l D e c o r a t e d g r o t t o e s o f t h e Vezere v a l l e y P a l a c e and park o f F o n t a i n e b l e a u Chateau and e s t a t e o f Chambord Amiens c a t h e d r a l The Roman T h e a t r e and i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s and t h e "Triumphal A r c h " o f Orange Roman and romanesque monuments o f A r i e s C i s t e r c i a n abbey o f Fontenay Royal s a l t w o r k s o f Arc and Senans P l a c e S t a n i s l a s , P l a c e de l a C a r r i e r e and P l a c e d ' A l 1 i a n c e , Nancy Church o f S a 1 n t - S a v i n - s u i — G a r t e m p e Cape G i r o l a t a , Cape P o r t o and S c a n d o l a Nature Reserve ( C o r s i c a ) Pont du Gard (Roman aqueduct) Germany Aachen c a t h e d r a l 126 ( F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f ) Speyer c a t h e d r a l Wurzburg r e s i d e n c e w i t h t h e c o u r t gardens and r e s i d e n c e square The P i l g r i m a g e Church o f Wies The C a s t l e s o f Augustusburg and Fa 1 ken l u s t a t B r u h l S t . Mary's C a t h e d r a l and S t . M i c h a e l ' s Church a t H i l d e s h e i m Ghana F o r t s and c a s t l e s o f V o l t a , A c c r a and western and c e n t r a l r e g i o n s Ashante t r a d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s Guatemala T i k a l N a t i o n a l Park A n t i g u a Guatemala A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Park and r u i n s o f Q u i r i g u a Guinea Nimba S t r i c t Nature Reserve ( j o i n t l y w i t h t h e p a r t o f Nimba s i t u a t e d i n I v o r y Coast) H a i t i N a t i o n a l H i s t o r y P a r k - C i t a d e l "San S o u c i " , Ramiers Holy See Honduras V a t i c a n C i t y Maya s i t e o f Copan R i o P l a t a n o B i o s p h e r e Reserve I nd i a A j a n t a Caves E 1 1 o r a Caves Agra F o r t T a j Mahal The Sun Temple, Konarak Group o f Monuments a t Mahabalipuram K a z i r a n g a N a t i o n a l Park Manas W i l d l i f e S a n c t u a r y Keoladeo N a t i o n a l Park I r a n Tchogha Z a n b i 1 P e r s e p o l i s Meidan-e Shah I s f a h a n I r a q I t a l y H a t r a Rock drawings i n V a l c a m o n i c a The h i s t o r i c c e n t r e o f Rome The c h u r c h and Dominican convent o f Santa M a r i a d e l l a G r a z i e w i t h t h e " L a s t Supper" by Leonardo da V i n c i H i s t o r i c c e n t r e o f F l o r e n c e I v o r y Coast Tai N a t i o n a l Park Comoe N a t i o n a l Park J o r d a n P e t r a 127 Q u s a i r Amra Lebanon An j a r Baalbek B y b l o s Tyr L i b y a n Arab Jamah i r i yah A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A r c h a e o l o g i c a l R o c k - a r t s i t e s s i t e o f L e p t i s Magna s i t e o f S a b r a t h a s i t e o f Cyrene o f T a d r a r t Acacus Malawi Lake Malawi N a t i o n a l Park M a l t a Hal S a f l i e n i Hypogeum C i t y o f V a l e t t a G g a n t i j a Temples Morroco The Medina o f Fez The Medina o f Marradesh Nepal Sagarmatha N a t i o n a l Park Kathmandu v a l l e y Royal Chitwan N a t i o n a l Park Norway Urnes Stave c h u r c h Bryggen Roros Rock drawings o f A l t a P a k i s t a n A r c h a e o l o g i c a l r u i n s a t Mohenjodaro Tax i 1 a B u d d h i s t r u i n s a t T a k h t - i - B a h i and n e i g h b o u r i n g c i t y remains a t S a h r - i - B a h l o l T h a t t a , h i s t o r i c a l monuments F o r t and S h a l i m a r gardens a t Lahore Panama The f o r t i f i c a t i o n s on t h e C a r i b b e a n s i d e o f Panama: Portobe1o-San Lorenzo D a r i e n N a t i o n a l Park P e r u C i t y o f Cuzco S a n t u a r i o h i s t o r i c o do Machu P i c c h u C h a v i n ( A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e ) Huascaran N a t i o n a l Park P o l a n d W i e l i c z k a s a l t mine H i s t o r i c c e n t r e o f Cracow A u s c h w i t z c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp B i a 1owi eza Nat i ona1 Park H i s t o r i c c e n t r e o f Warsaw P o r t u g a l C e n t r a l Zone o f t h e Town o f Angra do Herolsmo ( A z o r e s ) 128 Senegal S e y c h e 1 1 e s Spa i n The monastery o f t h e H i e r o n y m i t e s and t h e Tower o f Bel em ( L i s b o n ) The monastery o f B a t a l h a The convent o f C h r i s t (Tomar) I s l a n d o f Goree Djoud j N a t i o n a l B i r d S a n c t u a r y N i o k o l o - K o b a N a t i o n a l Park A l d a b r a A t o l 1 V a l 1 e e de Mai Nature Reserve Granada I n The Mosque o f Cordoba The Alhambra and t h e General i f e , The Burgos C a t h e d r a l Monastery and s i t e o f t h e E s c u r i a l , M a d r i d Parque G u e l 1 , P a l a c i o G u e l l and Casa Mi l a , B a r c e l o n a A l t a m i r a Cave o f S e g o v i a and i t s aqueduct o f t h e Kingdom o f t h e A s t u r i a s do Compostela ( O l d town) o f A v i l a w i t h i t s extra-muros churches O l d town Churches Sant i ago O l d town S r i Lanka S w i t z e r 1 and S y r i a n Arab Repub1i c Tanzan i a ( U n i t e d R e p u b 1 i c o f ) S a c r e d c i t y o f Anuradhapura A n c i e n t c i t y o f P o l o n n a r u v a Anc i ent c i t y o f S i g i r i ya The convent o f S t . Gal 1 The B e n e d i c t i n e Convent o f S t . The O l d C i t y o f Berne John a t M u s t a i r Anci ent Anc i ent S i t e o f c i t y o f c i t y o f Pa 1myra Damascus Bo s r a Ngorongoro c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a Ruins o f K i l w a K i s i warn" and r u i n s o f Songa Mnara S e r e n g e t i N a t i o n a l Park S e l o u s Game Reserve Tun i s i a Medina o f T u n i s A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e o f Carthage A m p h i t h e a t r e o f E l Jem I c h k e u l N a t i o n a l Park P u n i c town o f Kerkouane Turkey Un i t e d S t a t e s o f Amer i ca H i s t o r i c a r e a s o f I s t a n b u l Goreme N a t i o n a l Park and t h e r o c k s i t e s o f Cappadoc i a G r e a t Mosque and H o s p i t a l o f D i v r i g i Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l Park Mesa Verde N a t i o n a l Park Grand Canyon N a t i o n a l Park 129 E v e r g l a d e s N a t i o n a l Park Independence H a l l W r a n g e l l - S t . E l i a s N a t i o n a l Monument ( j o i n t n o m i n a t i o n w i t h Kluane N a t i o n a l P a r k , Canada, as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t e ) Redwood N a t i o n a l Park Mammoth Cave N a t i o n a l Park Olympic N a t i o n a l Park C a h o k i a Mounds S t a t e H i s t o r i c S i t e G r e a t Smoky Mountains N a t i o n a l Park La F o r t a l e z a and San Juan H i s t o r i c S i t e ( P u e r t o R i co) The S t a t u e o f L i b e r t y Yosemite N a t i o n a l Park Yemen (Peop1e's Democrati c R e p u b l i c o f ) O l d w a l l e d c i t y o f Shi bam Y u g o s l a v i a O h r i d r e g i o n K o t o r r e g i o n O l d c i t y o f Dubrovnik S t a r i Ras and Sopocani H i s t o r i c a l complex o f S p l i t w i t h t h e p a l a c e o f D i oc1et i an P l i t v i c e Lakes N a t i o n a l Park D u r m i t o r N a t i o n a l Park Za i r e V i r u n g a N a t i o n a l Park Garamba N a t i o n a l Park K a h u z i - B i e g a N a t i o n a l Park Salonga N a t i o n a l Park Z i mbabwe Mana P o o l s N a t i o n a l S a f a r i Areas Park, Sapi and Chewore The f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n was made a t t h e p r o p o s a l o f t h e Hashemite Kingdom o f J o r d o n : The o l d c i t y o f J e r u s a l e m and i t s w a l l s . 130 The World H e r i t a g e Committee's a c t i v i t i e s a r e T a b l e V I . summar i zed i n I t must be remembered t h a t i n o r d e r t o d e s i g n a t e and p r o t e c t s i t e s under t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n , t h e onus i s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s i n v o l v e d . The maintenance o f t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f each s t a t e p a r t y t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n i s noted e x p l i c i t l y i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n , but i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i 1 f t y i s a1 so i mp1i ed: W h i l s t f u l l y r e s p e c t i n g t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e S t a t e s on whose t e r r i t o r y t h e c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e ... i s s i t u a t e d , and w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e t o p r o p e r t y r i g h t s p r o v i d e d by n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e S t a t e s P a r t i e s t o t h i s C o n v e n t i o n r e c o g n i z e t h a t such h e r i t a g e c o n s t i t u t e s a w o r l d h e r i t a g e f o r whose p r o t e c t i o n i t i s t h e d u t y o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l community as a whole t o c o - o p e r a t e (World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n , A r t i c l e 6 ( 1 ) ) . The c o n v e n t i o n does not p r o v i d e f o r a f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r s i t e s on t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t . S i t e s may o n l y be p l a c e d on t h e L i s t o f World H e r i t a g e i n Danger ( T a b l e V I I ) a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e s t a t e on whose t e r r i t o r y t h e s i t e i s l o c a t e d . P e t e r B e n n e t t ( p e r s . comm.) noted t h a t a t t h e t i m e t h e c o n v e n t i o n was b e i n g d r a f t e d , m o n i t o r i n g was not d i s c u s s e d i n depth as i t was (and i s s t i l l ) t o o p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e an i s s u e . I t was d i s c u s s e d a t t h e 1983 m e e t i n g o f t h e World H e r i t a g e Committee, but t h e Committee p r e f e r r e d not t o e s t a b l i s h a f o r m a l r e p o r t i n g system a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e and r a t h e r encouraged IUCN, ICOMOS and ICCROM t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r e x p e r t s . The Committee w i l l c o n t i n u e t o seek i n f o r m a t i o n f rom S t a t e s P a r t i e s on an ad hoc b a s i s whenever t h i s i s Responsi b i 1 i t i es Act i v i t i e s Bui Id awareness of p r o t e c t i o n of u n i v e r s a l h e r i t a g e , and World He r i t a g e S i t e s P u b l i s h annual 1y Nominations of s i t e s by member s t a t e s are r e c e i v e d by Unesco Si t e s are eval u a t e d by the World H e r i t a g e Bureau, S e c r e t a r i a t and a d v i s o r s (e.g. IUCN, ICOMOS, and ICCROM) against c r i t e r i a i n "Operational G u i d e l i n e s ..." World Heritage S i t e s are safeguarded World H e r i t a g e Fund monies are c o l l e c t e d and fu n d i n g requests are reviewed by the World H e r i t a g e Committee R e s u l t s World H e r i t a g e L i s t ( c r e a t e s World H e r i t a g e S i t e s ) L i s t of World H e r i t a g e i n Danger World H e r i t a g e Committee approves, r e j e c t s or r e q u e s t s f u r t h e r i nformati on on s i t e s Money i s d i s b u r s e d t o needy c o u n t r i e s f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n i 1) nomi nat i on p r e p a r a t i on 2) t r a i n i n g 3) t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n 4) emergencies n H o > CD r~ * m H H < m i — i m x> O rn 01 > z o X) m u> O z cn CD r~ » H m cn O ~n TH m X. o X) r D X m XI —i > m 132 TABLE V I I : LIST OF WORLD HERITAGE IN DANGER ( t o December, 1985) C o n t r a c t i ng S t a t e  h a v i n g s u b m i t t e d  t h e n o m i n a t i o n o f  t h e p r o p e r t y i n  ac c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e Convent i on Name o f P r o p e r t y Date o f i n s c r i p t i o n Hashemi t e o f J o r d a n K i ngdom O l d C i t y o f J e r u s a l e m and Wal Is 17 December, 1982 i t s ( P a r i s , 6 t h s e s s i o n o f t h e Committee) Senega Djoudj N a t i o n a l B i r d S a n c t u a r y 2 November, 1984 ( B u e n o s - A i r e s , 8 t h s e s s i o n o f t h e Committee) T a n z a n i a ( U n i t e d Ngorongoro Conser-R e p u b l i c o f ) v a t i o n Area 2 November, 1984 ( B u e n o s - A i r e s , 8 t h s e s s i o n o f t h e Commi t t e e ) Y u g o s l a v i a N a t u r a l and C u l -t u r o - H i s t o r i ca 1 Region o f K o t o r 26 O c t o b e r , 1979 (L u x o r , 3 r d s e s s i o n o f th e Committee) Za i r e Garamba N a t i o n a l Park 2 November, 1984 ( B u e n o s - A i r e s , 8 t h s e s s i o n o f t h e Committee) N a t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s i d e n t i f i e d f o r p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n i n t h e L i s t o f World H e r i t a g e i n Danger a t t h e December, 1985 meeting o f t h e World H e r i t a g e Committee i n c l u d e : Tai N a t i o n a l P a r k , I v o r y Coast Ic h k e u l N a t i o n a l P a r k , T u n i s i a 133 n e c e s s a r y f o r m a k i n g i t s d e c i s i o n s ( U n e s c o W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e , R e p o r t o f t h e R a p p o r t e u r , S e v e n t h O r d i n a r y S e s s i o n , F l o r e n c e ( I t a l y ) 5 - 9 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 8 3 : 1 5 ) . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d m e n t i o n e d t h a t a l l U n i t e d N a t i o n s a g e n c i e s h a v e t o b e c a r e f u l n o t t o b e s e e n t o i n t e r f e r e i n d o m e s t i c a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e r e b y t h r e a t e n t h e s t a t e ' s s e n s e o f s o v e r e i g n t y . N o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( e . g . , t h e I U C N ) w e r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d f o r m o n i t o r i n g , n o t e s B e n n e t t , a s t h e y a r e s e e n t o b e s e m i g o v e r n m e n t a l i n n a t u r e d u e t o t h e i r c o n t r a c t s w i t h U n e s c o ( e . g . , t h e I U C N i s c o n t r a c t e d b y U n e s c o t o p r o v i d e t h e t e c h n i c a l r e v i e w s o f s i t e n o m i n a t i o n s , J a m e s T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . c o m m . ) . I n e s s e n c e , h o w e v e r , t h e w o r l d w i d e n e t w o r k o f s p e c i a l i s t s r e g u l a r l y c o n t a c t e d b y t h e I U C N s e r v e t o i n f o r m a l l y m o n i t o r W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e s . A n y p r o c e s s s u c h a s t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n p r o c e s s l a c k s t e e t h u n l e s s t h e r e i s a w a y o f e n s u r i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f s i t e s p r o t e c t e d u n d e r i t . T h e m a j o r t o o l t h e w o r l d c o m m u n i t y c a n w i e l d t o e n s u r e t h a t W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e s a r e p r e s e r v e d f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s i s t h e " P r o c e d u r e f o r t h e e v e n t u a l d e l e t i o n o f p r o p e r t i e s f r o m t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t " p r o v i d e d i n t h e O p e r a t i o n a l G u i d e l i n e s ( U n e s c o I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l C o m m i t t e e f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e W o r l d C u l t u r a l a n d N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e , 1 9 8 4 ) , a n d i n c l u d e d a s A p p e n d i x 4 . T h e p r o c e d u r e i s i n t e n d e d f o r a p r o p e r t y t h a t " h a s d e t e r i o r a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t h a s l o s t t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h 134 d e t e r m i n e d i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t " , o r where needed c o r r e c t i v e measures ag r e e d t o by t h e s t a t e a t t h e t i m e o f i n c l u s i o n on t h e l i s t have not been a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h e t i m e proposed. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e f o r d e l e t i n g s i t e s i s r e l a t i v e l y complex. The S e c r e t a r i a t f i e l d s c o n c e r n s by t h e s t a t e i n v o l v e d (which i s t h e o n l y body t h a t can a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e q u e s t a r e v i e w ) o r o t h e r s o u r c e s , a t t e m p t s t o v e r i f y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h IUCN, ICOMOS, o r ICCROM, and pa s s e s on any comments t o t h e annual m e e t i n g o f t h e Bureau. The Bureau examines t h e s i t u a t i o n i n d e t a i l and recommends a c t i o n s t o t h e Committee. The s t a t e p a r t y Is informed o f t h e Bureau recommendation and may a l s o send comments t o t h e annual m e e t i n g o f t h e Committee f o r i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The Committee d e c i d e s whether t h e s i t e i s t o be 1. r e t a i n e d on t h e l i s t , but g i v e n a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e 1 i m i t f o r r e s t o r a t i o n a c t i o n , 2. d e l e t e d from t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t , o r , 3. s u b j e c t t o f u r t h e r s t u d y as t o i t s c o n d i t i o n and t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r r e s t o r a t i o n . "The Committee was p a r t i c u l a r l y c oncerned t h a t a l l p o s s i b l e measures s h o u l d be t a k e n t o p r e v e n t t h e d e l e t i o n o f any p r o p e r t y from t h e L i s t " (Unesco I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l Committee f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e World C u l t u r a l and N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e , 1984: 11). To d a t e no s i t e s have been d e l i s t e d , but s e v e r a l s i t e s on t h e L i s t o f World H e r i t a g e i n Danger a r e c l o s e t o b e i n g d e l e t e d because developments a d j a c e n t t o t h e 135 s i t e s a r e s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n i n g t h e s i t e s . T h i s i s r a i s i n g a d i f f i c u l t dilemma f o r t h e Committee because d e l e t i o n o f a s i t e was seen by a l l p e rsons i n t e r v i e w e d as a v e r y s e r i o u s a c t i o n w i t h heavy p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s t a t e i n v o l v e d , y e t t o m a i n t a i n t h e i n t e g r i t y and q u a l i t y o f s i t e s p r o t e c t e d under t h e C o n v e n t i o n , some s i t e s may have t o be d e l e t e d (Jane R o b e r t s o n , p e r s . comm.). In summarizing t h e key f e a t u r e s o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ' s p r o c e d u r e s , c r i t e r i a and enforcement t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s a r e c r i t i c a l : 1 . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o t e c t i o n s t a t u s on s i t e s nominated as World H e r i t a g e S i t e s r e s t s w i t h t h e n o m i n a t i n g s t a t e , a l t h o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i s a 1 so i m p 1 i e d . 2. The World H e r i t a g e Committee i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e C o n v e n t i o n , but c o n s i d e r a b l e d e c i s i o n making power r e s t s w i t h t h e World H e r i t a g e Bureau and t h e IUCN f o r n a t u r a l s i t e s . The World H e r i t a g e Committee S e c r e t a r i a t c o n s i s t s o f a s m a l l s t a f f and t h u s i s u n a b l e t o a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t new n a t i o n s t o j o i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n . 3 . C r i t e r i a from t h e " O p e r a t i o n a l G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e Implementation o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n " a r e used i n an annual c y c l e o f e v e n t s t o d e s i g n a t e s i t e s on t h e Wor1d Her i t a g e L i s t and L i s t o f Wor1d Her i t a g e i n Danger, and f o r f u n d i n g by t h e World H e r i t a g e Fund. 136 4. No f o r m a l m o n i t o r i n g p r o c e s s i n i s p l a c e , but i n f o r m a l m o n i t o r i n g i s conducted by t h e IUCN. 5. The major t o o l o f o p p r o b r i u m f o r s i t e s which a r e s e r i o u s l y d e t e r i o r a t e d i s t h e "Procedure f o r t h e e v e n t u a l d e l e t i o n o f p r o p e r t i e s from t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t . " To d a t e , no s i t e s have been d e l i s t e d , p a r t l y due t o t h e p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f such an a c t . P r e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n t o improvement o f t h e s i t e u s i n g monies from t h e World H e r i t a g e Fund. 5.3 The Canadian N o m i n a t i o n P r o c e d u r e and R e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e  World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . Canada became p a r t y t o t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n on t h e 23rd o f J u l y , 1976. P e t e r B e n n e t t was t h e p r i m a r y i n s t i g a t o r o f Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a f t e r a t t e n d i n g t h e P a r i s d r a f t i n g m e e t i n g . In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h A r t i c l e 34(b) o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f e d e r a l government t o i n f o r m t h e p r o v i n c i a l governments o f t h e recommendation t o become p a r t y t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n . Then m i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s (which a d m i n i s t e r e d P a r k s Canada), Jean C h r e t i e n , was s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n and wrote t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l governments f o r t h e i r a p p r o v a l . A l l p r o v i n c e s and b o t h t e r r i t o r i e s approved. A problem a r o s e w i t h Quebec as t h e y d i d not w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f 137 n o m i n a t i o n t h r o u g h P a r k s Canada, w a n t i n g i n s t e a d t o nominate s i t e s d i r e c t l y ( P e t e r B e n n e t t , p e r s . comm.). That was i m p o s s i b l e as t h e c o n v e n t i o n i s s i g n e d w i t h t h e n a t i o n . The problem w i t h Quebec seems t o be somewhat r e c t i f i e d as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e r e c e n t n o m i n a t i o n o f t h e w a l l s o f Quebec C i t y as a World H e r i t a g e S i t e . W i t h i n a n a t i o n p a r t y t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n , n o m i n a t i o n s o f World H e r i t a g e S i t e s may o r i g i n a t e from any q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n , but t h e s i t e must meet World H e r i t a g e c r i t e r i a . " A p p l i c a t i o n s a r e p r e p a r e d by t h o s e owning t h e l a n d , u s u a l l y p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l governments" (Jean Brown, p e r s . comm., A p r i l 4, 1985). A l t h o u g h p r i v a t e and n a t i v e groups a r e e l i g i b l e t o nominate s i t e s , t h e y have not done so t o d a t e . Nominations must be t r a n s m i t t e d t o Unesco t h r o u g h t h e Canadian f e d e r a l government as s i g n a t o r y t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n . W i t h i n t h e f e d e r a l government, Environment Canada, i n which P a r k s Canada has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b o t h n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i o n , implements t h e c o n v e n t i o n on b e h a l f o f Canada. Any n e c e s s a r y l i a i s o n w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e s , t h e U.S., o r t h e Canadian Commission f o r Unesco i s p r o v i d e d by t h e Program P o l i c y Group o f P a r k s Canada under t h e a e g i s o f H a r o l d E i d s v i k , t h e c u r r e n t S e n i o r P o l i c y A d v i s o r (Jean Brown, p e r s . comm.). 138 The p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e n o m i n a t i o n depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e x p e r t a d v i c e t o t h e s i t e ' s l a n d owner t o ensure t h a t t h e s i t e t r u l y meets t h e s t r i c t c r i t e r i a o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n , and i s compared t o o t h e r s i t e s on a g l o b a l l e v e l . On p r o v i n c i a l l a n d s , once t h e n o m i n a t i o n i s co m p l e t e , i t must be approved by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r . A l l a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e t h e n r e v i e w e d by t h e f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r o f t h e Environment. When approved, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i s sen t t h r o u g h t h e Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s t o Unesco h e a d q u a r t e r s i n P a r i s where i t i s passed on t o t h e World H e r i t a g e Committee S e c r e t a r i a t f o r t h e p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e p r e v i o u s l y . An example o f t h e Canadian p r o c e d u r e f o r World H e r i t a g e S i t e d e s i g n a t i o n w i l l emerge i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Canadian Rocky Mountain P a r k s World H e r i t a g e S i t e . Canada has had n i n e World H e r i t a g e S i t e n o m i n a t i o n s a c c e p t e d t o d a t e ( e x c l u d i n g t h e Burgess S h a l e s World H e r i t a g e S i t e which i s now i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h e Canadian Rocky Mountain P a r k s World H e r i t a g e S i t e ) . They a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e V s complete World H e r i t a g e L i s t and t h e i r l o c a t i o n s a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n F i g u r e 2. The t e n t h s i t e , t h e h i s t o r i c w a l l s o f Quebec C i t y , was d e l a y e d a y e a r f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a l l o w ICOMOS t o r e d e v e l o p t h e i r c r i t e r i a f o r " h i s t o r i c c i t i e s and towns" (Jean Brown, p e r s . comm.). Of t h e t e n s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d , f o u r a r e c u l t u r a l and s i x a r e n a t u r a l which c o n s t i t u t e s a r e l a t i v e l y r e a s o n a b l e b a l a n c e when compared w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s (as a whole, t h e emphasis @ World Heritage Site 140 has been s t r o n g l y w e i g h t e d towards t h e n o m i n a t i o n and d e s i g n a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l s i t e s ) . The combined a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f b o t h t y p e s o f r e s o u r c e s under one agency i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e b a l a n c e . P r o v i n c i a l s i t e s ( e . g . , D i n o s a u r P r o v i n c i a l P a r k ) as w e l l as n a t i o n a l s i t e s have been d e s i g n a t e d under t h e c o n v e n t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l s i t e s a r e b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r n o m i n a t i o n , a l t h o u g h no c u r r e n t n o m i n a t i o n s a r e b e i n g f o r m a l l y p r o c e s s e d . Canada has p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Her l e a d i n g r o l e i n t h e o r i g i n a l d r a f t i n g o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n i n 1972 r e s u l t e d i n e l e c t i o n t o t h e o r i g i n a l Committee f o r two y e a r s b e g i n n i n g i n 1976, however, Canada had not had a s e a t s i n c e 1978 u n t i l her e l e c t i o n i n December o f 1985 (Jean Brown, p e r s . comm.). "The $76,000 (Cdn.) c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e World H e r i t a g e Fund i s compulsory and r e p r e s e n t s 1% o f Canada's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Unesco. The e x a c t amount f l u c t u a t e s w i t h t h e exchange r a t e s and i n 1984/85 was a c t u a l l y $67,064 (Cdn.)" (Jean Brown, p e r s . comm., A p r i l 4, 1985). The c o n t r i b u t i o n ensures Canada's c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e World H e r i t a g e Convent i on. Canadian p e r s o n n e l have f i l l e d numerous i m p o r t a n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . Some examples i n c l u d e , 141 — H a r o l d E i d s v i k , S e n i o r P o l i c y A d v i s o r w i t h P a r k s Canada i s t h e c u r r e n t Chairman o f t h e IUCN Commission on N a t i o n a l P a r k s and P r o t e c t e d Areas (CNPPA) and spent 3 y e a r s as t h e E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r o f t h e CNPPA. — James T h o r s e l 1 , f o r m e r l y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , i s now t h e E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r o f t h e CNPPA. — P e t e r B e n n e t t , f o r m e r D i r e c t o r o f t h e N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c P a r k s and S i t e s B r anch, h e l p e d d r a f t t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n from t h a t p o s i t i o n . — R i c h a r d B i l l , o f P a r k s Canada's P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n spent 2-3 y e a r s seconded t o t h e Unesco D i v i s i o n o f E c o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s . — D a v i d Munro, f o r m e r l y o f t h e Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e was t h e D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f IUCN a t one t ime. — F r a n c o i s L e b l a n c o f H i s t o r i c S i t e s , Quebec R e g i o n , P a r k s Canada, spent 2-3 y e a r s as C h i e f E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r o f ICOMOS. — R i c h a r d H e r r i n g o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museums C o r p o r a t i o n went t o t h e IUCN F i n a n c e and Adm1n i s t r a t i on Comm i t t e e . 142 Canada even a s s i s t e d i n t h e c h o i c e o f t h e World H e r i t a g e Emblem, which i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3: i t i s t h e o n l y c o u n t r y t o d a t e which has c o p y r i g h t e d t h e emblem. 5.4 So, What i s t h e P o t e n t i a l o f t h e World H e r i t a g e  Convent ion? S e v e r a l p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n i n d i c a t e i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r lon g - t e r m p r o t e c t i o n o f ecosystems. The c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i e s t o l e g a l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e "areas o f o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l u e " when e v a l u a t e d from a w o r l d w i d e p e r s p e c t i v e . I t s e r v e s t o p r o t e c t whole ecosystems f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . S o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e l a n d l i s t e d i n t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t i s r e t a i n e d by t h e s t a t e , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f each s i t e a l s o r e s t s w i t h t h e s t a t e p a r t y t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n . Nominations o f p o s s i b l e s i t e s f o r t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t o r t h e L i s t o f World H e r i t a g e i n Danger a r e i n i t i a t e d by t h e s t a t e s but a r e s e l e c t e d t h r o u g h an on g o i n g annual p r o c e s s by t h e World H e r i t a g e Committee i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e World H e r i t a g e Bureau, and w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e World H e r i t a g e S e c r e t a r i a t and t h e non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s , IUCN, ICOMOS, and ICCROM. 143 FIGURE 3; WORLD HERITAGE EMBLEM P r e p a r e d by Mr. M i c h e l O l y f f o f B e l g i u m ( S l a t y e r , 1984), The World H e r i t a g e Emblem s y m b o l i z e s t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s : t h e c e n t r a l s q u a r e i s a f o r m c r e a t e d by man and t h e c i r c l e r e p r e s e n t s n a t u r e , t h e two b e i n g i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d . The emblem i s rou n d , l i k e t h e w o r l d , but a t t h e same t i m e i t i s a symbol o f p r o t e c t i o n (Unesco, 1 9 7 8 ) ( t a k e n f r o m Unesco, 1982). 144 The w o r l d community m a i n t a i n s i n f o r m a l s c r u t i n y o ver t h e management o f t h e s i t e s , and d e l i s t i n g i s a p o s s i b l e form o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l opprobrium w i t h s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s . As long as a s i t e ' s i n t e g r i t y r e m a i n s , s i t e s p r o t e c t e d under t h e World H e r i t a g e d e s i g n a t i o n a r e not s u b j e c t t o p o l i t i c a 1 e x p e d i e n c y r e g a r d i n g t h e i r c o n t i n u e d i n c l u s i o n on t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t . F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o ensure t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e q u i t a b l e c o n s e r v a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e World H e r i t a g e Fund, and can s e r v e t o p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t a s s i s t a n c e t o d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r (James T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . comm.). The performance o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n as compared w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be examined In Chapter 6 f o r s i t e s ( p r i m a r i l y one s i t e i n A u s t r a l i a ) where World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s made a d i f f e r e n c e i n how t h e l a n d was managed. The p o t e n t i a l o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n i s e v a l u a t e d i n Chapter 7 i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e s o u r c e management co n c e r n s f o r t h e Canadian R o c k i e s and p r o t e c t i o n c o n f e r r e d by t h e Canadian Rocky Mountain P a r k s World H e r i t a g e S i t e . 145 CHAPTER 6; CASES WHERE WORLD HERITAGE DESIGNATION MADE A  DIFFERENCE 6.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n The t r u e t e s t o f the p o t e n t i a l o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 5 Is i t s a b i l i t y t o Influence d e c i s i o n making. C r i t i c a l t e s t i n g o c c u r s when s i t e s are threatened by demands f o r the use o f the land which would r e s u l t i n de g r a d a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l v a l u e s f o r which the s i t e was de s i g n a t e d i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The purpose o f the present chapter i s t o review s i t u a t i o n s throughout the world i n which s i t e s p r o t e c t e d under the World H e r i t a g e Convention have been under the t h r e a t o f damaging re s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n . No examination i s made o f resource use which does not fundamentally damage the value o f the s i t e . For example, non-motorized r e c r e a t i o n or s u b s i s t e n c e uses o f some World He r i t a g e S i t e s by the area's indigenous peoples may not endanger the value s o f the s i t e , (e.g., Saragmatha National Park, Ngorongoro National Park, Nahanni National Park, Kluane National Park-Wrangel1/St. E l l a s N a t i onal Reserve, e t c . (see Ambio 12(3-4). 1983)). In the next chapter the experiences i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y a re taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Adding i n f o r m a t i o n gained from w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l and personal i n t e r v i e w s , an assessment i s made o f the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention t o land use c o n f l i c t s i n the Canadian Rockies and t o s p e c i a l Canadian s i t e s . 146 Very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g cases o t h e r than the A u s t r a l i a n s i t u a t i o n where d e s i g n a t i o n o f a s i t e under the World H e r i t a g e Convention made a d i f f e r e n c e . A b r i e f i n t e r o f f i c e memorandum from the D i r e c t o r o f the UN Information Centre i n Belgrade dated 11 J u l y , 1985 I n d i c a t e d t h a t f o l l o w i n g concern i n 1984 about the p o s s i b l e d e s t r u c t i o n o f the Tara R i v e r Canyon by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a h y d r o e l e c t r i c dam, a Tanjug News Agency Report dated 4 J u l y , 1985 i n d i c a t e d t h a t the dam would not be c o n s t r u c t e d . The r e p o r t a l s o notes t h a t , the announcement o f the power s t a t i o n p r o j e c t s t a r t e d an e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c polemic i n Y u g o s l a v i a on whether economic u s e f u l n e s s should be the o n l y c r i t e r i o n , and Unesco experts and the Yugoslav p u b l i c came out i n favour o f p r e s e r v i n g the canyon and the n a t i o n a l park (Tanjug News Report 4 J u l y , 1985 Belgrade pp. 1-2). No a d d i t i o n a l Information i s pr o v i d e d on the nature and s t r e n g t h o f the " p u b l i c polemic" d e s c r i b e d above, but i t may be expected t h a t the World H e r i t a g e S i t e s t a t u s f i g u r e d prominently i n the debate. A d d i t i o n a l s i t e s known t o be i n v o l v e d i n resource use c o n f l i c t s wherein World H e r i t a g e S i t e s t a t u s i s expected t o f i g u r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the r e s o l u t i o n o f the c o n f l i c t i nc1ude: 1. an are a o u t s i d e Durmitor National Park (Yugoslavia) c o n t a i n i n g an o v e r f l o w i n g lead p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t waste d i s p o s a l pond (James T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . comm.); 147 2. the Doudjf area o f the Senegal, which i s being c o n s i d e r e d f o r a h y d r o e l e c t r i c dam (James T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . comm.); 3. the Ichkeul National Park In T u n i s i a , t h r e a t e n e d by resource uses (James T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . comm.); and, 4. the t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t s o f New South Wales, A u s t r a l i a being proposed f o r World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s i n 1985 (James T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . comm.). Due t o the s i m i l a r i t y o f Canada's par 1iamentary government and f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o A u s t r a l i a ' s government and f e d e r a l / s t a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , as well as the approximately e q u i v a l e n t l e v e l o f raw w i l d e r n e s s and I n d u s t r i a l development, and s p a r s e l y populated land bases, the Tasmanian dam case may be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o the Canadian s i t u a t i o n . As w e l l , A u s t r a l i a and Canada share a common B r i t i s h Common Law h e r i t a g e . It must be remembered t h a t land use c o n f l i c t s on s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d as World H e r i t a g e S i t e s must be r e s o l v e d w i t h i n the s t a t e s i g n a t o r y t o the convention (see Chapter 5 h e r e i n ) . In some cases the de g r a d a t i o n o f s i t e s has r e s u l t e d i n the s t a t e r e q u e s t i n g t h a t they be p l a c e d on the L i s t o f World H e r i t a g e i n Danger, however, concerns about m a i n t a i n i n g n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y have made i t impossible f o r oth e r n a t i o n s t o i n t e r f e r e i n domestic a f f a i r s because the request t o p l a c e a s i t e on the L i s t o f Wor1d Her 1tage 1n Danger must come from the s t a t e i n which the s i t e i s l o c a t e d . F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e 148 from the World H e r i t a g e Fund has been used as a way t o encourage s i t e Improvement. The i n f l u e n c e o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention must be l e v i e d , t h e r e f o r e , through the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the response o f the s t a t e t o I t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n when becoming s i g n a t o r y t o the World H e r i t a g e Convention. Various people Interviewed c o n s i d e r e d A u s t r a l i a and Canada as both having a s t r o n g commitment t o the World He r i t a g e Convention. Thus the A u s t r a l i a n case c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n f o r m a t i v e and s u g g e s t i v e o f how Canada might r e a c t In a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . 6.1 The Tasmanian Dam Case The Tasmanian dam case i s a documented s i t u a t i o n i n which d e s i g n a t i o n o f an area as a World H e r i t a g e S i t e made a d i f f e r e n c e In a c o n f l i c t where, resource development i n t e r e s t s want[ed] t o e x p l o r e and e x p l o i t the r e g i o n ... [ w h i l e ] ... c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s ... be1ieve[d] t h a t i t should be p r e s e r v e d i n t a c t (Bosworth, 1982: 268). It i n v o l v e s an area o f south west Tasmania o f 1,435,000 ha which i s managed under the e q u i v a l e n t o f IUCN Category VIII M u l t i p l e Use Management Area. IUCN Category VIII p r o t e c t s o n l y w i l d l i f e and a l l o w s economic development. Of t h i s a r e a , 644,000 ha are s t r o n g l y p r o t e c t e d under the e q u i v a l e n t o f C a t e g o r i e s II and IV National Parks, Nature Reserves and H i s t o r i c S i t e s (Bosworth, 1982). I n i t i a t i o n o f a dam p r o j e c t on the Gordon and F r a n k l i n R i v e r s which would i n c l u d e p a r t s 149 o f the s t r o n g l y p r o t e c t e d p o r t i o n c r e a t e d the source o f c o n f l i c t i n the case. The area has both b i o l o g i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l v a l u e : i t c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t two t h i r d s o f the 32 mammal s p e c i e s known in Tasmania, o f which 2 are r a r e and endangered; i t supports 159 b i r d s p e c i e s o f which 2 are r a r e and endangered; i t i s o f "major s c i e n t i f i c value both because i t i s und i s t u r b e d , and because i t c o n t a i n s a d i v e r s e t e r r e s t r i a l and freshwater i n v e r t e b r a t e fauna o f g r e a t importance t o world blogeography" (Bosworth, 1982: 269); and, It c o n t a i n s "eleven p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s now known i n the w i l d r i v e r s areas o f the South West, c o n f i r m i n g i t as one o f the most important a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e g i o n s i n A u s t r a l i a " (Bosworth, 1982, 270). Development i n the area has been r e c e n t : save a b r i e f mineral e x p l o r a t i o n p e r i o d a t the t u r n o f the century, the development o f the Upper Gordon h y d r o e l e c t r i c scheme and the r e s u l t i n g a n c i l l a r y development o n l y began i n the 1960s and 1970s (Bosworth, 1982). Nature c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a r e the most e x t e n s i v e land uses a t pre s e n t , f o l l o w e d by f o r e s t r y a c t i v i t i e s , water power developments, and mineral e x p l o r a t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n (Bosworth, 1982: 270-271). Development o f the proposed e l e c t r i c power p r o j e c t on the Gordon and F r a n k l i n R i v e r s was a n t i c i p a t e d t o r e s u l t i n se v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s e s : 24 r a r e s p e c i e s o f p l a n t s ; one, o f two, m e t e o r i t e c r a t e r s i n A u s t r a l i a ; many important cave and k a r s t f e a t u r e s ; h a b i t a t f o r 2 endangered s p e c i e s o f b i r d s 150 and 1 mammal; n a t i v e f r e s h w a t e r f i s h from upstream catchments. The p r o j e c t would a l s o r e s u l t i n t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a ( i . e . , by p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s ) . Not o n l y t h e l o c a l A u s t r a l i a n s saw t h e a r e a as v a l u a b l e : t h e South West w i l d e r n e s s has been r e c o g n i z e d by t h e IUCN as one o f t h e w o r l d ' s t h r e e l a r g e s t t emperate w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s , and t h e r e f o r e an a r e a o f w o r l d s c i e n t i f i c and c o n s e r v a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t has a l s o been r e c o g n i z e d by UNESCO's I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l Programme ( P r o j e c t Aqua) as a unique w i l d e r n e s s o f incomparable s i g n i f i c a n c e and v a l u e (Bosworth, 1982: 268). A u s t r a l i a , a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e s t a t e o f Tasmania, had nominated t h e Western Tasmanian W i l d e r n e s s N a t i o n a l P a r k s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Gordon-Frank1 i n a r e a , as a World H e r i t a g e S i t e and i t had been l i s t e d (Lane, 1983: 555). A problem a r o s e when, [ f ] o r t h e purpose o f g e n e r a t i n g e l e c t r i c i t y a t low c o s t i n o r d e r t o s t i m u l a t e economic development and i n c r e a s e employment, Tasmania a u t h o r i z e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a dam on t h e Gordon R i v e r i n s o u t h w e s t e r n Tasmania ... t o be b u i l t by t h e H y d r o - E l e c t r i c Commission o f Tasmania ...(Commonwealth v. S t a t e o f Tasmania, e t . a l . , 1983: 625). I t was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e t h a t would engender a g r e a t d e a l o f p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n and in v o l v e m e n t . At t h e t i m e t h e Tasmanian government was headed by Pr e m i e r Robin Gray o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y which i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e p a r t y f o r t h o s e o f c o n s e r v a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y i n A u s t r a l i a . Malcolm F r a s e r , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r o f A u s t r a l i a a t t h e t i m e , was a l s o from t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y . F r a s e r became aware o f t h e 151 I n c r e a s i n g l y s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l movement a g a i n s t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e dam and was aware o f t h e Commonwealth's ( i . e . , t h e A u s t r a l i a n t erm f o r t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l o f government) power t o s t o p t h e dam because o f t h e s i t e ' s d e s i g n a t i o n under t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n (which had t o have been s i g n e d w i t h t h e Commonwealth government), bu t he was u n w i l l i n g t o pursue t h e n e c e s s a r y l e g a l a c t i o n due t o t h e L i b e r a l p h i l o s o p h y on s t a t e r i g h t s ( K e l l y , 1984), and due t o t h e p o l i t i c a l t i e s w i t h Gray's government. The p o l i t i c a l group opposed t o t h e dam c o n s i s t e d o f a wide v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s from e v e r y walk o f l i f e , but p r i m a r i l y p e o p l e i n t h e i r mid t o l a t e t w e n t i e s w i t h an e n v i r o n m e n t a l bent (The W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y , 1983). The p r o t e s t e r s began t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n August o f 1981, but t h e most p u b l i c a c t i o n s were conducted d u r i n g t h e c l o s i n g months o f 1982 and t h e e a r l y months o f 1983. The c h i e f s p o k e s p e r s o n f o r "The B l o c k a d e r s " o r " G r e e n i e s " , as t h e y were known, was Bob Brown, an a c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r u s a d e r . Not o n l y were t h o s e p e o p l e who p r o t e s t e d a t t h e dam s i t e l o c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o t e s t , but many p e o p l e a c t i v e l y marched and demonstrated i n o t h e r p a r t s o f A u s t r a l i a . The p r o t e s t d e f i n i t e l y r a i s e d t h e p u b l i c awareness o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a . 152 Late 1982 and e a r l y 1983 a l s o saw the c l o s i n g months o f the F r a s e r government's terms o f o f f i c e . In d e s c r i b i n g the p o l i t i c a l scene a t the time, K e l l y w r i t e s , F r a s e r announced on 19 January [1983] h i s $500 m i l l i o n thermal power s t a t i o n o f f e r t o Tasmania as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the Gordon-be low-Frank 1 in dam. Given the " s t a t e s r i g h t s ' parameters accepted by the Prime M i n i s t e r , t h i s was an e x c e l l e n t t a c t i c a l move. F r a s e r was hoping t o t r a n s f o r m the focus o f the dam debate from the environment t o f e d e r a l i s m . The o f f e r was intended t o demonstrate h i s bona  f i d e s ; c e r t a i n l y i t was generous. The $500 m i l l i o n was the b i g g e s t grant ever o f f e r e d by any f e d e r a l government t o Tasmania f o r a s i n g l e p r o j e c t and one o f the l a r g e s t o f f e r s f o r a p r o j e c t anywhere i n A u s t r a l i a ( K e l l y , 1984: 360). The $500 m i l l i o n o f f e r was one o f s e v e r a l l a r g e programs o f f e r e d or i n i t i a t e d t h a t summer in the p r e l u d e t o the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . Gray r e j e c t e d the o f f e r , but, t h e o f f e r was designed t o show F r a s e r ' s concern; i t was hoped Gray's r e j e c t i o n would leave Tasmania, not F r a s e r , with the p o l i t i c a l b a c k l a s h . The o f f e r was now meant t o prove t o Tasmania t h a t the F r a s e r Government would not o v e r r i d e Tasmania's d e c i s i o n and i t was thereby intended t o c o n f i r m t h a t s t a t e ' s support f o r F r a s e r In the forthcoming f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n ( K e l l y , 1984: 360). At the same time, the A u s t r a l i a n Labour P a r t y was undergoing an i n t e r n a l r e v o l t which saw the replacement o f B i l l Hayden by Bob Hawke as t h e i r Prime M i n i s t e r i a l c a n d i d a t e . They s e t t l e d on Hawke as leader j u s t 24 hours b e f o r e the e l e c t i o n was c a l l e d , but the change gave them a p o l i t i c a l edge which they maintained f o r the whole e l e c t i o n campaign ( K e l l y , 1984). The Labour P a r t y campaigned s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Gordon-below-Frank 1 i n dam, and the s i t u a t i o n became a major is s u e i n the e l e c t i o n campaign. 153 A c c o r d i n g t o a prominent A u s t r a l i a n o f f i c i a l who w i s h e s t o remain anonymous, t h e Gordon-be low-Frank1 i n dam s i t u a t i o n was one o f t h e f i r s t i s s u e s d e a l t w i t h by t h e Hawke government a f t e r t h e i r m a j o r i t y win i n t h e March 5, 1983 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . The newly pa s s e d World H e r i t a g e P r o p e r t i e s C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t (1983) a l o n g w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s and W i l d l i f e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t (1975) and r e g u l a t i o n s t h e r e u n d e r p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y p r o h i b i t i o n s which were used i n t h e High C o u r t o f A u s t r a l i a case o f t h e Commonwealth a g a i n s t t h e S t a t e o f Tasmania. As t h e r e p o r t o f t h e c a s e s t a t e s , t h e Commonwealth p u r p o r t e d t o s t o p t h e Gordon below F r a n k l i n Scheme i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e o f t h e a r e a , by p r o h i b i t i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e dam, and c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e r e l e v a n t Commonwea1th M i n i s t e r (Commonwealth v. S t a t e o f  Tasman i a, e t . a 1 . , 1983: 625). The c a s e was d e c i d e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e Commonwealth by seven judges by a v o t e o f 4 t o 3. Arguments i n t h e l e g a l c a s e c e n t r e d around t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e Commonwea1th's 1 e g i s 1 a t i o n and regu1 a t i o n s i n re1 a t i o n t o Tasmania's s t a t e s o v e r e i g n t y . The Commonwealth had t h e power under t h e World H e r i t a g e P r o p e r t i e s C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t t o p r o h i b i t c l e a r i n g , e x c a v a t i o n and b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o p r o p e r t y s u b m i t t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t , but i t had t o demonstrate i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e s t a t e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s i s s u e , because, l i k e Canada's p r o v i n c e s , s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r most l a n d use i n A u s t r a l i a r e s t s w i t h t h e s t a t e . 154 The c r i t i c a l i s s u e s on which the case was d e c i d e d were the powers o f the f e d e r a l government in terms o f c o r p o r a t e and e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s . The c o r p o r a t e powers p r o v i d e d f o r i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e t h a t "the Commonwealth may r e g u l a t e [ c o r p o r a t i o n s ] a c t i v i t i e s , i n so f a r as they are " f o r the purposes o f t r a d e " (Wilcox, 1983: 34). Wilcox goes on t o note t h a t t h i s g i v e s the Commonwealth government a wide scope f o r environmental c o n t r o l . The c o r p o r a t e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e , however, t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d t o World H e r i t a g e S i t e d e s i g n a t i o n . The e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s powers r e l a t e d t o the f a c t t h a t by being p a r t y t o the World H e r i t a g e Convention, t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d an "ext e r n a l a f f a i r ' so t h a t the Commonwealth Parliament c o u l d pass l e g i s l a t i o n t o implement w i t h i n A u s t r a l i a the o b l i g a t i o n (Wilcox, 1983: 33). Wilcox a l s o notes t h a t , the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the dam case, i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l terms i s t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was r e s o l v e d by c l e a r - c u t statements by the m a j o r i t y t o the e f f e c t t h a t the q u e s t i o n whether a g i v e n matter i s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l concern, so t h a t a convention upon t h a t s u b j e c t matter may be an "external a f f a i r ' must be determined by the judgement o f the (Commonwealth) Ex e c u t i v e and Parliament (Wilcox, 1983: 33). Thus, A u s t r a l i a c o u l d s t o p the Gordon-upon-Franklin dam. The Hawke government d i d stop the dam, but some compensation was p a i d t o Tasmania, the amount o f which has not, as y e t , been f u l l y determined a c c o r d i n g t o an A u s t r a l i a n o f f i c i a l . 155 A u s t r a l i a n o f f i c i a l s deemed t h a t the c o u r t case was o f s u f f i c i e n t importance and p o s s i b l e i n t e r e s t t o other n a t i o n s p a r t y t o the World H e r i t a g e Convention t h a t i t produced a b r i e f r e p o r t on the case and made i t a v a i l a b l e t o the E i g h t h O r d i n a r y S e s s i o n o f the World H e r i t a g e Committee which met i n Buenos A i r e s (Argentina) i n l a t e 1984. The r e p o r t concludes: The d e c i s i o n o f the A u s t r a l i a n High Court i s very s i g n i f i c a n t f o r two reasons. F i r s t , the d e c i s i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the f i r s t t e s t o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention i n a c o u r t o f law. Secondly, most o f the judges were o f the c l e a r view t h a t each P a r t y t o the Convention has an o b l i g a t i o n t o do al1 i t can t o p r o t e c t s i t e s on the World H e r i t a g e L i s t which a r e s i t u a t e d w i t h i n I t s own n a t i o n a l boundaries. Although d e c i s i o n s o f the High Court o f A u s t r a l i a are not, o f course, b i n d i n g on o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the Tasmanian Dam case and judgement w i l l be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e importance and r e l e v a n c e as and when oth e r P a r t i e s t o the Convention encounter a s i m i l a r problem (Unesco, World H e r i t a g e Committee, E i g h t h O r d i n a r y S e s s i o n , 1984: Item 10). 6.2 C o n c l u s i o n s To Be Drawn From the A u s t r a l i a n Case Examination o f the Tasmanfan dam case can lead t o i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the key i s s u e s surrounding the use o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention as a t o o l f o r land p r o t e c t i o n . It a l s o can draw a t t e n t i o n t o components necessary f o r a c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n o f s i t e s , and p o t e n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h a t p r o t e c t i o n which may be encountered. Due t o the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the A u s t r a l i a n and Canadian P a r l i a m e n t a r y and legal systems, the A u s t r a l i a n lessons would be well heeded by Canadian land p r o t e c t i o n planner. 156 The Tasmanian dam case r a i s e s f i v e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s : 1. t h e importance o f a d v o c a t e s and a c t i v i s t s i n i n i t i a l l y r a i s i n g t h e i s s u e t o a h i g h p o l i t i c a l s t a t u r e and i n i n c r e a s i n g g e n e r a l p u b l i c awareness; 2. t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a s t r o n g , w e l l o r g a n i z e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s t i t u e n c y a t t h e Commonwealth l e v e l t o c a r r y t h e argument t h r o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l / l e g a l c h a n n e l s ; 3. t h e importance o f t h e n a t u r e o f commonwealth/state r e l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e breakdown o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s o v er l a n d ; 4. t h e importance o f l e g i s l a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g t h e commonwealth government's e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s power; and, 5. t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e commonwealth government t o ensure c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ' s i n t e n t , i n c l u d i n g t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o spend money t o comp1y. The f i f t h p o i n t r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f t h e use o f Commonwealth e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s a u t h o r i t y t o overpower s t a t e paramountcy i n l a n d management. I t a l s o r e l a t e s t o t h e s e r i o u s n e s s w i t h which A u s t r a l l a a c c e p t s her i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b i i g a t i o n s as s i g n a t o r y t o t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . C l e a r l y t h e s e i s s u e s a l s o r a i s e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s f o r Canada i n her r o l e as s i g n a t o r y t o t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . When t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e Tasmanian case a r e compared w i t h Canada's r e l a t i o n s between t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n d p r o t e c t i o n , s e v e r a l p o i n t s 157 a r i s e . The r o l e o f a d v o c a t e s / a c t i v i s t s and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s t i t u e n c y i n government i s l i k e l y t o be s i m i l a r t o t h e A u s t r a l i a n s i t u a t i o n . F e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r l a n d a r e s i m i l a r . L e g i s l a t i o n t o s u p p o r t t h e f e d e r a l government's e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s under t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n has not been e s t a b l i s h e d , a l t h o u g h World H e r i t a g e S i t e s on p r o v i n c i a l crown l a n d a r e nominated o n l y w i t h t h e agreement o f t h e r e l e v a n t p r o v i n c i a l government. The w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e f e d e r a l government t o ensure c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n under s t r e s s has not been t e s t e d i n Canada. In g e n e r a l , a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e a u t h o r , Canada i s seen t o be s e r i o u s about her i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g World H e r i t a g e S i t e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , however, t o a n t i c i p a t e Canada's w i l l i n g n e s s t o spend money t o comply on e x i s t i n g s i t e s w i t h World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s . P o t e n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f World H e r i t a g e S i t e s may a r i s e i n Canada as a r e s u l t o f t h e l a c k o f s u p p o r t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o s u p p o r t t h e s i t e s f i n a n c i a l l y . As w e l l , t h e p r o v i n c i a l governments a r e l i k e l y t o be c o n cerned about t h e use o f f e d e r a l paramountcy o v e r p r o v i n c i a l l a n d s . C l e a r l y , a c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n o f World H e r i t a g e S i t e s w i l l r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c t o r s . 158 One c o n c e r n t h a t a r i s e s from t h e Tasmanian c a s e , but which i s not one o f t h e key i s s u e s o f t h e c a s e , i s t h a t t h e problem a r o s e from a s i n g l e , l a r g e t h r e a t . The q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d , how would b o t h A u s t r a l i a and Canada respond t o s l o w , i n c r e m e n t a l damage o f a World H e r i t a g e S i t e ? I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a n t i c i p a t e e i t h e r n a t i o n ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h a t t y p e o f s i t e d e g r a d a t i o n . I t i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l c o n c e r n f o r t h e Canadian Rocky Mountain P a r k s World H e r i t a g e S i t e w i t h r e g a r d t o damage from t o u r i s m development. The same i s s u e o f i n c r e m e n t a l damage i s a r i s i n g In many undeveloped n a t i o n s . The n e x t c h a p t e r examines t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Canadian Rocky Mountain P a r k s World H e r i t a g e S i t e and e v a l u a t e s t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o Canadian d o m e s t i c p r o t e c t i o n measures u s i n g t h e c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d i n Chapter 2. I t a l s o o f f e r s some recommended a c t i o n s t o improve Canada's Implementation o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n . I 159 CHAPTER 7: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CANADIAN ROCKY MOUNTAIN PARKS WORLD HERITAGE SITE AND AN EVALUATION OF THE  IMPLICATIONS OF WORLD HERITAGE SITE CREATION FOR  CANADA AND OTHER NATIONS 7.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n Planners concerned with the r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n o f undeveloped land have, as has been d e s c r i b e d In Chapter 4, a wide a r r a y o f p o t e n t i a l p r o t e c t i o n mechanisms a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l . Although Banff, Jasper, Kootenay and Yoho National Parks are d e s i g n a t e d under the National Parks Act, i t has been argued i n Chapter 3 t h a t although the p r o t e c t i o n o f f e r e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n i s s t r o n g , t he parks a r e s t i l l s u b j e c t t o many a c t i o n s which t h r e a t e n t h i s unique biome. Parks Canada planners have gone t o the t r o u b l e o f purs u i n g World H e r i t a g e d e s i g n a t i o n f o r the f o u r n a t i o n a l parks o f the Rockies r e g i o n . Why they bothered t o have the a r e a d e s i g n a t e d under the World H e r i t a g e Convention and what the gains are l i k e l y t o be, i n terms o f en s u r i n g r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n , i s the focus o f t h i s f i n a l c h a p ter. As these q u e s t i o n s a r e addressed, the more general i s s u e o f the e f f i c a c y o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention t o any p a r t i c i p a t i n g n a t i o n w i l l be c o n f r o n t e d . The present chapter d e s c r i b e s the estab l i s h m e n t o f the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World H e r i t a g e S i t e i n S e c t i o n 7.1. In S e c t i o n 7.2, an e v a l u a t i o n o f the World H e r i t a g e 160 Convention's c o n f o r m i t y with the c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d i n S e c t i o n 2.2 i n comparison with domestic p r o t e c t i o n methods i s presented i n r e l a t i o n t o the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World H e r i t a g e S i t e . The e v a l u a t i o n addresses why Parks Canada s t a f f bothered with e s t a b l i s h i n g the area as a World H e r i t a g e S i t e when the land Is a l r e a d y p r o t e c t e d under the National Parks A c t . Broad c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn concerning t h e World H e r i t a g e Convention's s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses In acc o m p l i s h i n g the goal o f r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n In the Rockies and i n Canada g e n e r a l l y . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention a t the worldwide s c a l e , i n S e c t i o n 7.3, extends the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the present work and p r o v i d e s some p o s s i b l e reasons behind the advantages and disadvantages o f the Convention o u t l i n e d in S e c t i o n 7.2. As w e l l , the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Convention f o r resource p r o t e c t i o n planners are d i s c u s s e d i n c o n c l u d i n g the s e c t i o n . 7.1 The Establishment o f the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks  World H e r i t a g e S i t e As Chapter 3 I n d i c a t e d , w h i l e the Canadian Rockies are c o n s i d e r e d t o be adequately p r o t e c t e d , they a r e s t i l l s u b j e c t t o t h r e a t s f o r which e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and land use p o l i c y may be i n s u f f i c i e n t t o ensure r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n . Even the 161 n a t i o n a l parks, through the Four Mountain Parks P l a n n i n g Process, a re thr e a t e n e d with i n c r e a s e d t o u r i s m f a c i l i t y development. Es t a b l i s h m e n t o f a World H e r i t a g e S i t e i n the Canadian Rockies was d i s c u s s e d as e a r l y as 1973/74 (Harold E i d s v i k , p e r s . comm.) when the area was i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f an i n i t i a l i n d i c a t i v e i n v e n t o r y o f p r o s p e c t i v e World H e r i t a g e S i t e s . P r o p o s a l s were made a t f i r s t f o r a j o i n t Canada-U.S. s i t e r e p r e s e n t i n g the Rocky Mountain complex. The Americans were pushing t o propose the Watert o n - G l a c i e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace Park, but the Canadians f e l t t h a t Waterton d i d not r e p r e s e n t the f i n e s t f e a t u r e s o f the Rockies, and wanted Banff N a t i o n a l Park d e s i g n a t e d f i r s t (Harold E i d s v i k , p e r s . comm.). At the March 15-16, 1983 meeting o f the Canada-U.S. J o i n t A d v i s o r y Committee on National Parks, Parks Canada b r i e f i n g notes i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were "convinced t h a t the complexity o f the n a t u r a l systems and the p o l i t i c a l J u r i s d i c t i o n s would make i t d i f f i c u l t t o ensure the i n t e g r i t y o f a s i n g l e Rocky Mountain World H e r i t a g e S i t e i n any meaningful manner". The Rocky Mountain area's complex a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c o n t r a s t e d with the Great B a r r i e r Reef World H e r i t a g e S i t e which, although i t spans 1200 m i l e s o f A u s t r a l i a n c o a s t l i n e , i s under a s i n g l e p l a n n i n g body, the Great B a r r i e r Reef Marine Park A u t h o r i t y . As w e l l , the Americans were concerned t h a t World H e r i t a g e d e s i g n a t i o n would l i m i t the use o f n a t i o n a l parks (Peter Bennett, p e r s . 162 comm.). At the same March, 1983 meeting, the Canadian d e l e g a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h e i r plans t o nominate the B a n f f / J a s p e r complex f o r d e d i c a t i o n d u r i n g the n a t i o n a l park c e n t e n n i a l In 1985. The task o f drawing up the World H e r i t a g e S i t e nomination, I n c l u d i n g e s t a b l i s h i n g the boundaries and r e l a t i o n s with B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a , was l e f t t o s t a f f In the Western Regional O f f i c e o f Parks Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y Jim H a r t l e y and h i s s t a f f . The r e s u l t i n g nomination Is Included as Appendix 5. Over the summer o f 1983 d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d with the A l b e r t a Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and Parks and the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing r e g a r d i n g the a d d i t i o n o f some areas under p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n t o the World H e r i t a g e nomination. The p r o v i n c i a l agencies i n i t i a l l y responded n e g a t i v e l y (Harold E i d s v l k , p e r s . comm.), so the nomination was forwarded t o the World H e r i t a g e S e c r e t a r i a t i n l a t e 1983 with o n l y B a n f f , Jasper, Kootenay and Yoho ( i n c l u d i n g the Burgess Shale World H e r i t a g e S i t e ) N a t ional Parks i n the proposed s i t e (see F i g u r e 4 ) . During the review o f the Rockies nomination 1n 1984 by the IUCN, James T h o r s e l 1 , E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r o f the Commission on N a t i o n a l Parks and P r o t e c t e d Areas o f the IUCN, wrote t o the Canadian p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the importance o f the i n c l u s i o n o f Mount Robson (B.C.), Mount A s s i n i b o i n e 163 FIGURE 4: THE CANADIAN ROCKY MOUNTAIN PARKS WORLD HERITAGE SITE 0 100 _oo I 1 1 1 1 1 I I • • • km BRITISH COLUMBIA ALBERTA 1 B a n f f N a t i o n a l P a r k 2 J a s p e r N a t i o n a l P a r k 3 Kootenay N a t i o n a l P a r k 4 Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k 5 B u r g e s s S h a l e s World H e r i t a g e S i t e # 6 Mount Robson P r o v i n c i a l P a r k (B.C.) 7 Hamber P r o v i n c i a l P a r k (B.C.) 8 Mount A s s i n i b o i n e P r o v i n c i a l P a r k (B.C.) 9 K a n a n a s k i s (Lougheed) P r o v i n c i a l P a r k ( A l b e r t a ) C a n a d i a n Rocky Mountain P a r k s World H e r i t a g e S i t e H 164 (B.C.), Hamber (B.C.) and Kananaskls ( A l b e r t a ) P r o v i n c i a l Parks i n the nomination. The World H e r i t a g e Bureau, meeting June, 1984 t o g i v e p r e l i m i n a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the World H e r i t a g e nominations, made the f o l l o w i n g statement t o the Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the Rockies nomination: The Bureau noted t h a t t h i s nomination Includes the Burgess Shale S i t e , i n s c r i b e d on the World H e r i t a g e L i s t under c r i t e r i o n ( i ) . The Bureau requested the Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s t o c o n s i d e r adding Mt. Robson, Mt. A s s i n i b o i n e , Kananaskls, F o r t r e s s and Cummins Lake and a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the Columbia i c e f i e l d t o the nominated a r e a . The Bureau furthermore I n v i t e d the Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s t o c o n t i n u e t o ensure t h a t u r b a n i z a t i o n and heavy t o u r i s m d i d not j e o p a r d i z e the n a t u r a l I n t e g r i t y o f the s i t e . Environment M i n i s t e r Suzanne B l a i s - G r e n 1 e r wrote t o the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s 1n e a r l y November, 1984, encouraging t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n nominating p a r t s o f the World H e r i t a g e S i t e . She r e c e i v e d the f o l l o w i n g responses (see F i g u r e 4 i n t h i s Chapter f o r an i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n o f s i t e s ) : My M i n i s t r y i s p r e s e n t l y r e v i e w i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f having Mount Robson, Hamber, and Mount A s s i n i b o i n e P r o v i n c i a l Parks Included In the nomination. I expect t o be a b l e t o a d v i s e you o f the outcome o f our review e a r l y In the new year (Anthony Brummet, then B.C. M i n i s t e r o f Lands, Parks and Housing t o Suzanne B l a i s - G r e n I e r : November 16, 1984). Our p a r t i c i p a t i o n In the Canadian Rockies s i t e nomination would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s i d e r i n g the high q u a l i t y and e x t e n s i v e a r e a o f the r e s o u r c e a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t nomination (Peter Trynchy, A l b e r t a M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n and Parks t o Suzanne B l a i s - G r e n i e r : November, 24, 1984). 165 T o d a t e n o a r r a n g e m e n t s h a v e b e e n m a d e f o r t h e I n c l u s i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l s i t e s i n t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n P a r k s W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o m m i t t e e , i n a c c e p t i n g t h e R o c k i e s s i t e a s a W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e , r e q u e s t e d , . . . t h e C a n a d i a n a u t h o r i t i e s t o c o n s i d e r a d d i n g t h e a d j a c e n t P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s o f M o u n t R o b s o n , H a m b e r , M o u n t A s s i n i b o i n e a n d K a n a n a s k l s t o t h i s p r o p e r t y . T h e C o m m i t t e e c o m m e n t s c o n t i n u e : F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e C o m m i t t e e a g r e e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e B u r g e s s S h a l e s i t e i n t h i s p r o p e r t y , w h i c h h e n c e f o r t h w o u l d n o t b e s e p a r a t e l y i n d i c a t e d o n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t . F i n a l l y , t h e C o m m i t t e e d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s i t e b e d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e " C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n P a r k s " t o s p e c i f y t h e p r e c i s e b o u n d a r y o f t h e p r o p e r t y w i t h i n t h e e n t i r e c h a i n o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s . T h e n a m e o f t h e s i t e w a s a p o i n t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e w i t h i n t h e C o m m i t t e e ( J a m e s T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . c o m m . ) , a n d r e f l e c t s a d e s i r e t o i n c l u d e m o r e t h a n j u s t t h e p a r k s o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n c o m p l e x o n t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e L i s t . A s w e l l , t h e e s s e n t i a l " d e l i s t i n g " o f t h e B u r g e s s S h a l e W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e b y i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e R o c k i e s s i t e c a u s e d o n l y a s m a l l a m o u n t o f c o n c e r n , d u e t o C a n a d a ' s p e r c e i v e d s i n c e r i t y r e g a r d i n g f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e W o r l d H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ( J a m e s T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . c o m m . ) . A f t e r t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e C a n a d i a n R o c k y M o u n t a i n P a r k s s i t e a s a W o r l d H e r i t a g e S i t e I n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 8 4 , t h e n E n v i r o n m e n t M i n i s t e r S u z a n n e B l a l s - G r e n i e r l e f t t h e d o o r o p e n 1 6 6 f o r p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the s i t e i n a communication t o B r i t i s h Columbian and A l b e r t a n a u t h o r i t i e s announcing the acceptance o f the s i t e by the World H e r i t a g e Committee: Should you wish t o amend t h i s nomination t o i n c o r p o r a t e p r o v i n c i a l f e a t u r e s o f world h e r i t a g e s i g n i f i c a n c e , my o f f i c i a l s would be p l e a s e d t o o f f e r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e a t your convenience. Responses t o the more r e c e n t l e t t e r have i n d i c a t e d t h a t B.C. may be i n t e r e s t e d i n i n c l u d i n g Mount Robson P r o v i n c i a l Park, but i s not as y e t ready t o proceed with n e g o t i a t i o n s (Harold E i d s v i k , p e r s . comm.). Other s i t e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia are s t i l l b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r i n c l u s i o n as p a r t o f the World He r i t a g e S i t e . A l b e r t a i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n i n c l u d i n g Kananaskis P r o v i n c i a l Park as i t i s a l r e a d y f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t i n g e x t r a management c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d with the Dinosaur P r o v i n c i a l Park World H e r i t a g e S i t e (Harold E i d s v i k , p e r s . comm.). A l b e r t a ' s concern about e x t r a management c o s t s i s the o n l y concern about a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t the present author has heard. It was understood by the author from i n t e r v i e w s with v a r i o u s p a r t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with the convention t h a t management c o s t s would not d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the c o s t s t o p r o t e c t the land under the domestic p r o t e c t i o n method. 167 7.2 E v a l u a t i n g the D i f f e r e n c e Between the World H e r i t a g e  Convention and Domestic P r o t e c t i o n Measures with Respect t o  the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World H e r i t a g e S i t e An e v a l u a t i o n r e q u i r e s the use o f c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which the v a r i o u s items being compared may be e v a l u a t e d . The c r i t e r i a f o r the present e v a l u a t i o n were developed i n Chapter 2 and i n c l u d e , Types o f A c t i v i t i e s C r i t e r i a C r i t e r i o n 1: Nature o f Perm i t t e d R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s C r i t e r i o n 2: Nature o f Perm i t t e d Resource E x t r a c t i o n I n c l u s i v e n e s s o f Purpose C r i t e r i a C r i t e r i o n 3: S c a l e and Scope o f P r o t e c t i o n C r i t e r i o n 4: I n c l u s i o n o f N o n - U t i l i t a r i a n Values C r i t e r i o n 5: Breadth o f Purpose C r i t e r i o n 6: I n t r i n s i c Value Strength o f P r o t e c t i o n C r i t e r i a Cr i t e r i on 7: Durab i 1 i t y C r 1 t e r i on 8: Def1 nab111ty Imp1ementab11i t y Cr i t e r i a C r i t e r i o n 9: S u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o P o l i t l c a l / F i n a n c i a l Exped i ency Cr1ter1on 10: Imp1ementab i111y. The purpose o f the e v a l u a t i o n i s the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the Incremental d i f f e r e n c e which use o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention may o f f e r i n comparison with e x i s t i n g domestic p r o t e c t i o n measures. It should answer why Canada bothers t o 168 i n v o l v e h e r s e l f with the Convention when she a l r e a d y has a broad v a r i e t y o f domestic p r o t e c t i o n measures. It a l s o w i l l address the r o l e o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention In r e s o l v i n g the many resource c o n f l i c t s i n the Canadian Rockies. F o l l o w i n g the d i r e c t e v a l u a t i o n u s i n g the c r i t e r i a from Chapter 2, t h e r e i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention's use i n Canada in a c c o m p l i s h i n g the goal o f r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n . Types o f A c t i v i t i e s C r i t e r i a The types o f a c t i v i t i e s p e r m i t t e d by a land p r o t e c t i o n scheme suggested two c r i t e r i a , the Nature o f Permit t e d R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s and the Nature o f Pe r m i t t e d Resource E x t r a c t i o n . Domestic p r o t e c t i o n measures vary i n t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n o f motorized versus non-motorized r e c r e a t i o n . Chapter 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t both types o f r e c r e a t i o n a re per m i t t e d In Banf f , Jasper, Kootenay and Yoho National Parks, and i n oth e r p a r t s ( p r o t e c t e d and non-protected) o f the Canadian Rockies r e g i o n , t o the concern o f those i n t e r e s t e d i n r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n . The World H e r i t a g e Convention permits motorized r e c r e a t i o n and resource e x t r a c t i o n as long as they do not degrade the resource s u f f i c i e n t l y t o e l i m i n a t e the reasons which p e r m i t t e d establishment o f the s i t e as a World H e r i t a g e S i t e i n the f i r s t p l a c e . No p a r t i c u l a r requirement f o r mon i t o r i n g Is Implied by the p e r m i t t i n g o f those forms o f res o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n or r e c r e a t i o n . Resource 169 e x t r a c t i o n , i n the senses i m p l i e d by mining, f o r e s t r y , h y d r o e l e c t r i c dam development, e t c . , were conducted i n the p a s t , but are not commonplace a t present In the n a t i o n a l p a r k s . However, o i l and gas well development i s p e r m i t t e d under p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n on a l l A l b e r t a p r o v i n c i a l lands except Wilderness Areas, so t h i s i s an ongoing problem i n most areas o f the Canadian Rockies. The c r i t i c a l r e s ource "development" which p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t s a l l d o m e s t i c a l l y p r o t e c t e d areas i s development f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. The development o f r e s o u r c e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes has been done and may be expected t o continue in the Rockies r e g i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f the Four Mountain Parks p l a n o p t i o n s . The World H e r i t a g e Bureau warned a g a i n s t the e f f e c t s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and t o u r i s m on the n a t u r a l i n t e g r i t y o f the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks s i t e , but t h e i r warnings have gone unheeded. A l e t t e r by former Environment M i n i s t e r C h a r l e s C a c c i a t o Peter Trynchy, head o f A l b e r t a R e c r e a t i o n and Parks, o f February 24, 1984 r e g a r d i n g the Four Mountain Parks "management p l a n s " notes, With regard t o your concern t h a t World H e r i t a g e S i t e s t a t u s c o u l d r e s u l t i n a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o f u t u r e development in these n a t i o n a l parks, I should mention t h a t the Parks Canada pla n n e r s i n our Western Regional O f f i c e who were i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r i n g the management plans a l s o prepared the World H e r i t a g e nomination. I am c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no c o n f l i c t with v i s i t o r use o f the management p l a n s . The key f e a t u r e which have been h i g h l i g h t e d i n the nomination r e l a t e t o ongoing n a t u r a l processes which in any case are well p r o t e c t e d as p a r t o f the mandate o f Parks Canada. 179" C a c c i a ' s comments a r e cause f o r concern f o r people with a land p r o t e c t i o n b i a s , and i t i s s t i l l u n c l e a r how the c u r r e n t Environment M i n i s t e r w i l l deal with t h i s i s s u e as the Four Mountain Parks Plan i n s t i l l b eing c o n s i d e r e d . Within the e x i s t i n g p r o t e c t e d a r e a s , even the Four Mountain Parks Plan's o p t i o n with the g r e a t e s t development o r i e n t a t i o n Is a l l o w a b l e (James T h o r s e l 1 , p e r s . comm.) under t h e Convention and c o u l d lead t o s e r i o u s l o s s e s o f h a b i t a t through d i r e c t a l i e n a t i o n , incremental l o s s e s and the f o r e c l o s u r e o f f u t u r e o p t i o n s . However, the Four Mountain Parks p l a n n i n g process was c o n s t r a i n e d i n the development o f o p t i o n s by the presence o f World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s on the f o u r parks, and was s u b j e c t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l comment (Jim H a r t l e y , Parks Canada Western Regional Planner, p e r s . comm.), probably due t o i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The World H e r i t a g e Convention o f f e r s l i t t l e hope i n combatting the t h r e a t o f r e c r e a t i o n a l development i n the Canadian Rockies. I n c l u s i v e n e s s o f Purpose C r i t e r i a Four c r i t e r i a a r e suggested by the 1nc1 usiveness o f the purpose(s) f o r which s l t e ( s ) are de s i g n a t e d : the S c a l e and Scope o f P r o t e c t i o n ; the I n c l u s i o n o f N o n - U t i l i t a r i a n Values; the Breadth o f Purpose; and, the I n t r i n s i c Value. With r e g a r d t o the s c a l e and scope o f p r o t e c t i o n , some domestic p r o t e c t i o n measures p r o t e c t whole ecosystems while o t h e r measures (e.g., the Mig r a t o r y B i r d s Convention Act, the 171 Canada W11d11fe Act, and numerous p r i v a t e land p r o t e c t i o n bodies) focus t h e i r e f f o r t s on the p r o t e c t i o n o f a few s p e c i e s . The World H e r i t a g e Convention takes an ecosystematic approach t o the p r o t e c t i o n o f land: i n c l u d e d i n i t s c r i t e r i a t o e s t a b l i s h whether a s i t e should be on the World H e r i t a g e L i s t i s the ecosystematic c r i t e r i o n ( i v ) h a b i t a t s (from the World H e r i t a g e c r i t e r i a l i s t e d i n Appendix 3 ) . It i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether the domestic p r o t e c t i o n measures use n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n values as p a r t o f t h e i r d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . C e r t a i n l y the World H e r i t a g e Convention's c r i t e r i o n ( i i i ) , e x c e p t i o n a l beauty, h i n t s a t the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the a e s t h e t i c / s p i r i t u a l values o f a s i t e t o humans. Domestic p r o t e c t i o n measures vary In t h e i r breadth o f purpose. Some s i t e s a re p r o t e c t e d f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f reasons, o t h e r s a re p r o t e c t e d o n l y f o r one o f many reasons (e.g., r e s e a r c h , r e c r e a t i o n , o r resource banking). Reasons behind the World H e r i t a g e Convention, given In Chapter 5, i n d i c a t e the broad p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s o f the Convention. The emphasis on the g l o b a l value o f a s i t e and the allowance o f a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s on World H e r i t a g e S i t e s (e.g., r e s e a r c h , r e c r e a t i o n , s p e c i e s p r o t e c t i o n , e t c .) r e f l e c t the many reasons f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f land under the conven t i o n . The Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks S i t e i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a s i t e p r o t e c t e d f o r many reasons as i t i s p r o t e c t e d under a l l f o u r o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention's s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a , o f which o n l y one i s r e q u i r e d f o r d e s i g n a t i o n as a World H e r i t a g e n a t u r a l p r o p e r t y : i t i s 172 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f ; ( i ) e a r t h ' s e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r y , ( i i ) o n g o i n g g e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , ( i i i ) e x c e p t i o n a l n a t u r a l b e a u t y , and, ( i v ) h a b i t a t s . P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f a s i t e may be p r e c l u d e d by p r e v i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s i m i l a r ecosystem i n many d o m e s t i c p r o t e c t i o n measures ( e . g . , i f t h e N a t u r a l Area o f Canadian S i g n i f i c a n c e i s r e p r e s e n t e d , an i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e s i t e may not be c o n s i d e r e d f o r p r o t e c t i o n as a n a t i o n a l p a r k ) . The World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n measures s i t e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r " u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " and t h e r e f o r e uses a c o m p a r a t i v e s c a l e . The s c a l e , however, i s so broad t h a t i t may be seen t o p r o t e c t s i t e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r i n t r i n s i c v a l u e . The World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s emphasis on u n i v e r s a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i t e s , but I t i s t h e c u r r e n t a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e s c a l e used by t h e c o n v e n t i o n Is not r e s t r i c t i v e ( e . g . , t h e R o c k i e s c o u l d be f u r t h e r p r o t e c t e d d e s p i t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e Canadian Rocky Mountain P a r k s World H e r i t a g e S i t e ) . The e x i s t i n g Canadian Rocky Mountain P a r k s World H e r i t a g e S i t e may s e r v e as a c o r e , t o which a d d i t i o n a l a r e a s i n t h e R o c k i e s r e g i o n ( i f o f u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ) may be added. The World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n t h u s o f f e r s a v a l u a b l e t o o l i n p r o v i d i n g b road ( I . e . , f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s ) p r o t e c t i o n o f whole ecosystems, I n c l u d i n g t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e s , i n t h e R o c k i e s r e g i o n . 173 S t r e n g t h o f P r o t e c t i o n C r i t e r i a P r o t e c t i o n s t r e n g t h r e f e r s t o the D u r a b i l i t y , the D e f i n a b i l i t y , and the S u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f the P r o t e c t i o n Method t o Pol i t i c a l / F i n a n e i a l Expediency. Most domestic p r o t e c t i o n measures are ongoing, but some are o f l i m i t e d d u r a t i o n (e.g., the IBP) or a r e r a r e l y used (e.g., the Greenbelt Act and Environment and Land Use Act i n B.C. and the Wilderness  Areas, E c o l o g i c a l Reserves and Natural Areas Act i n A l b e r t a . As w e l l , the s t a t u s o f some p r o v i n c i a l parks i n B.C. has r a t h e r suddenly changed, from a h i g h l y p r o t e c t e d s t a t u s ( C l a s s A) t o a s t a t u s which permits r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n ( C l a s s B), thus r e d u c i n g the ongoing p r o t e c t i o n o f the s i t e s from resource e x t r a c t i o n . The d e s i g n a t i o n o f s i t e s , I n c l u d i n g the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks s i t e , under the World H e r i t a g e Convention i s i n p e r p e t u i t y , s u b j e c t o n l y t o maintenance o f the values f o r which they were d e s i g n a t e d . T h i s f e a t u r e i s o f Importance In l i g h t o f the concerns about the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f s i t e s t o l o c a l change i n response t o m i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n . As noted i n Chapter 4 ( S e c t i o n 4 .2 ) , the l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n o f s i t e s has been a problem with the MAB program ( a l l other p r o t e c t i o n mechanisms have d e f i n e d geographical c o o r d i n a t e s ) . S i t e s under the World H e r i t a g e Convention must a l s o be l e g a l l y d e f i n e d . In the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks case, they are d e f i n e d as Banff, Jasper, Kootenay, and 174 Yoho National Parks which are d e f i n e d i n the schedule t o the N a t i o n a l Parks A c t . The problems encountered due t o the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f p r o t e c t i o n measures t o p o l i t i c a l / f i n a n c i a l expediency a r e reviewed i n Chapters 3 and 4. The p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l environment m i n i s t e r s have a g r e a t deal o f p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e as t o whether a g i v e n s i t e i s p r o t e c t e d or not (and t o what e x t e n t ) . As w e l l , f u n d i n g t o ensure ongoing p r o t e c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s i t e s o r t o p r o t e c t new s i t e s , i s a t the m i n i s t e r s ' d i s c r e t i o n . I t i s with r e g a r d t o the p o l i t i c a l expediency is s u e s t h a t the World H e r i t a g e Convention o f f e r s a g r e a t deal t o s i t e s such as the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks s i t e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l support f o r Canadian s i t e s i s u n l i k e l y due t o Canada's r e l a t i v e wealth on a world s c a l e , but the maintenance o f the convention I t s e l f r e q u i r e s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e f i n a n c i a l backing as the s t a f f i n g and o t h e r c o s t s d i f f e r l i t t l e from those encountered without World H e r i t a g e S i t e s t a t u s . A s s i s t a n c e in d e a l i n g with p o l i t i c a l expediency is s u e s i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y Important advantage o f the convention. A c t i v i t y which i s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t In d e l i s t i n g o f the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks s i t e i s u n l i k e l y t o occur due t o the severe p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s t o Canada o f such an a c t . It would be very p o l i t i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t , as an example, f o r Canada t o t r y t o change the borders o f the parks i n the f u t u r e . The TasmanIan s i t u a t i o n i s a good example o f the value o f World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s in b r i n g i n g an area t o p o l i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n and i n r e d u c i n g the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o p o l i t i c a l expediency. 175 The r o l e o f the p u b l i c as watchdog was c r i t i c a l , and was based h e a v i l y on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f the s i t e (The Wilderness S o c i e t y , 1983). The World H e r i t a g e Convention i s a s u f f i c i e n t l y popular convention t h a t i t i s very u n l i k e l y t o become ignored by Canada or a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . It a l s o o f f e r s the Canadian Rockies ongoing p r o t e c t i o n o f a d e f i n e d area o f land. Implementabi1ity C r i t e r i a Domestic p r o t e c t i o n measures r e g u l a r l y encounter o p p o s i t i o n and are t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o implement. The problems surrounding the P a c i f i c R1m National Park Reserve and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a s s i g n i n g i t f u l l n a t i o n a l park s t a t u s are good examples o f o p p o s i t i o n surrounding p r o t e c t e d area c r e a t i o n . Because World H e r i t a g e S i t e s t a t u s Is p l a c e d o n l y on p r e v i o u s l y p r o t e c t e d a r e a s , the types o f problems with boundary est a b l i s h m e n t encountered by P a c i f i c Rim w i l l not happen with World H e r i t a g e S i t e s . As w e l l , because World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s c o n f e r s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e on the a r e a , i t Is the author's o p i n i o n t h a t i n most cases the d e s i g n a t i o n o f World H e r i t a g e S i t e s g e n e r a l l y lacks s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n , and may i n some areas be e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d . It i s d i f f i c u l t , however, t o gauge the r e a c t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l governments t o e f f o r t s t o Include p r o v i n c i a l l y p r o t e c t e d s i t e s In j o i n t f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l World H e r i t a g e S i t e s . I f B r i t i s h Columbia's and A l b e r t a ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o get 176 i n v o l v e d in the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World H e r i t a g e S i t e Is any I n d i c a t i o n , Implementation o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l may be d i f f i c u l t . In g e n e r a l , though, f t may be expected t h a t due t o p r e v i o u s p r o t e c t i o n on the s i t e s , the World H e r i t a g e Convention may be c o n s i d e r e d a very implementable land p r o t e c t i o n mechanism. General Observations on Strengths and Weaknesses o f the World  H e r i t a g e Convention The p r i n c i p a l advantage t o the Rockies r e g i o n and Canada o f the World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s i s the p r e s t i g e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n which i s brought t o t h e a r e a . Without e x c e p t i o n the people Involved with the World H e r i t a g e Convention t h a t were interv i e w e d by the present author emphasized the r o l e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e as the q u i n t e s s e n t i a l b e n e f i t o f the Convention t o developed n a t i o n s such as Canada. Most n a t i o n s c o n s i d e r t h a t they w i l l o b t a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l advantage through t h e i r involvement i n nominating s i t e s and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the World H e r i t a g e Convention. As L y s t e r (1985: 210) a l s o notes, wealthy c o u n t r i e s a d d i t i o n a l l y get the s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i l l be spent on the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f some o f the most o u t s t a n d i n g n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l s i t e s o f the world. F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f the d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e n e f i t s between r i c h and poor n a t i o n s i s r e s e r v e d t o S e c t i o n 7.3. 177 The necessary i n t e r n a t i o n a l leverage/opprobrium t o ensure p r o t e c t i o n o f s i t e s may be l e v i e d by n a t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l awareness r a i s e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g the s i t e as a World H e r i t a g e S i t e . Parks Canada personnel o b t a i n e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l comment on the Four Mountain Parks P l a n n i n g Process, l i k e l y due t o the s i t e ' s World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s (Jim H a r t l e y , p e r s . comm.). From a n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the l e g i s l a t i o n enacted by the A u s t r a l i a n Commonwealth government pla y e d an important r o l e i n g i v i n g i t the a b i l i t y t o f u l f i l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s . The World H e r i t a g e Convention may be p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e t o s e n i o r governments t h a t are c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y f e d e r a l due t o the leverage i t can p r o v i d e in matters p e r t a i n i n g t o the p r o v i n c e s , s t a t e s , cantons, e t c . Canada would be well a d v i s e d t o s o l i d i f y her involvement i n the World H e r i t a g e Convention with f e d e r a l 1 eg i s1 a t i on. The primary problems with the convention are the acceptance o f some forms o f resource e x t r a c t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g motorized r e c r e a t i o n ) and the lack o f a formal m o n i t o r i n g process t o ensure t h a t s i t e s are not p r o t e c t e d when degraded t o the p o i n t t h a t the values f o r which they were de s i g n a t e d a r e e l i m i n a t e d . The Informal IUCN network may i n e f f e c t adequately monitor World H e r i t a g e S i t e s : c e r t a i n l y the IUCN and World H e r i t a g e S e c r e t a r i a t are g e n e r a l l y well informed o f problems p e r t a i n i n g t o World H e r i t a g e S i t e s ( J . Thorsel1 and J . Robertson, p e r s . comm.). The e x i s t e n c e o f a d e l i s t i n g 178 p r o c e d u r e has been a r e a s o n a b l y s t r o n g d e t e r r e n t t o s e v e r e s i t e d e g r a d a t i o n because most n a t i o n s a r e u n w i l l i n g t o f a c e t h e p o l i t i c a l consequences which would r e s u l t from d e l i s t i n g . As P a r k s Canada no t e s i n i t s "Unesco World H e r i t a g e B r i e f i n g Book", t h e p r o v i s i o n i n t h e Committee's O p e r a t i n g G u i d e l i n e s f o r d e l i s t i n g a s i t e w hich ceases t o p o s s e s s t h e q u a l i t i e s f o r which i t was put on t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n and w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y g i v e added p r o t e c t i o n , l e g a l and o t h e r w i s e , t o World H e r i t a g e S i t e s , i n t h a t i f a c o u n t r y a l l o w s a World H e r i t a g e S i t e t o d e t e r i o r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i t i s , i n e f f e c t , b r e a k i n g an I n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t y and anyhow, no c o u n t r y would want t o be In t h e e m b a r r a s s i n g p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g one o f i t s World H e r i t a g e S i t e s " d e f r o c k e d " by t h e World H e r i t a g e Committee. The c u r r e n t l a c k o f d e l i s t e d s i t e s means t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d e l i s t i n g a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . C l e a r l y t h e p o l i t i c a l r e s p onse i n A u s t r a l i a t o t h e F r a s e r government's l a c k o f enforcement o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n was s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e i n 1983. The Hawke government's e x p e n d i t u r e s t o a c h i e v e p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e Gordon-Upon-Frankl1n a r e a r a i s e an i s s u e o f c o n c e r n : i f l a r g e compensation payments a r e needed t o respond t o s e r i o u s t h r e a t s o f d e g r a d a t i o n t o a World H e r i t a g e S i t e , how w e l l p r o t e c t e d a r e World H e r i t a g e S i t e s ? G e t t i n g s p e c i a l funds from p e r p e t u a l l y s t r a p p e d f e d e r a l budgets w i l l be a f u n c t i o n o f t h e environment m i n i s t e r ' s commitment t o t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n and h i s o r her p o l i t i c a l power w i t h i n t h e government as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o 179 o b t a i n f u n d s . B l a i s - G r e n i e r ' s a c t i o n s under t h a t s o r t o f s i t u a t i o n might have been e a s i e r t o a n t i c i p a t e t h a n t h o s e o f t h e c u r r e n t Environment M i n i s t e r . I t i s hoped t h a t Canada t a k e s her i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b i i g a t i o n s s e r i o u s l y enough t h a t she would be w i l l i n g t o f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d under t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n , bu t u n t i l a s e r i o u s t h r e a t i s imposed on a s i t e , i t i s anyone's guess as t o how Canada w i l l r e s p o n d . Some might argue t h a t a l a n d p r o t e c t i o n method t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e s p r e v i o u s p r o t e c t i o n b e f o r e a s i t e can be nominated, and which p e n a l i z e s t h r e a t o r damage t o t h e s i t e ' s i n t e g r i t y w i t h not c o n t i n u i n g t o p r o t e c t them, would be a s t r a n g e and i n e f f e c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n method. Because t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l community has no J u r i s d i c t i o n t o l e g a l l y e n f o r c e t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l a n d on a p a r t i c u l a r s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e n a t i o n i t s e l f r e c o g n i z e s t h e s i t e as v a l u a b l e and commits i t s e l f t h r o u g h i n t r a n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t i n g t h a t s i t e . In t h e Canadian R o c k i e s , t h e Canadian government i s committed t o p r o t e c t i n g t h e t e r r i t o r y encompassed by B a n f f , J a s p e r , Kootenay and Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k s . By I n s i s t i n g on t h e n a t i o n d e s i g n a t i n g t h e s i t e b e f o r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a World H e r i t a g e S i t e , i n t r a n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s r e g a r d i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e p a r k s have been c o n c l u d e d and a r e not debated i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . The c o n f e r r a l o f World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s a l s o s e r v e s t o a d v e r t i s e t h e e x i s t i n g n a t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n on t h e s i t e which 180 may i n c r e a s e n a t i o n a l p r i d e and concern f o r the ar e a . The p u b l i c i t y surrounding the o f f i c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n o f the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World H e r i t a g e S i t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t o f His Royal Highness P r i n c e P h i l i p ' s attendance, put the f o u r n a t i o n a l parks i n a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t w i t h i n Canada. The implementation o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention, though, must keep a d e l i c a t e balance between the d e s i r e t o ensure the s t r o n g p r o t e c t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i t e s and m a i n t a i n i n g the s o v e r e i g n t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g n a t i o n s . By d e f i n i t i o n , maintenance o f s o v e r e i g n t y makes more d i r e c t methods o f e v a l u a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n o f ne g a t i v e changes i n s i t e s d i f f i c u l t i f not im p o s s i b l e . The d e l i s t i n g s a n c t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d the o n l y o p t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o an I n t e r n a t i o n a l convention such as the World H e r i t a g e Convention. D e l i s t i n g i s a form o f opprobrium which i s l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the e r o s i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s p e c t f o r the d e l i s t e d n a t i o n and may n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e n e g o t i a t i o n s on other n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i s s u e s (e.g., the estab l i s h m e n t o f f i s h i n g l i m i t s ) . When one looks a t the f u l 1 range o f b e n e f i t s o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention (In comparison with Canadian p r o t e c t i o n methods), they can be seen as outweighing the problems a s s o c i a t e d with the convention f o r the purposes f o r which i t 181 was developed. The World H e r i t a g e Convention's advantages are numerous, they i n c l u d e , 1. c o n f e r r a l o f p r e s t i g e and I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n on the n a t i o n and s i t e nominated 2. reduced s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o p o l i t i c a l / f i n a n c i a l expedi ency 3. p r o t e c t i o n o f whole ecosystems 4. r e c o g n i t i o n o f n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n values 5. a wide breadth o f purpose 6. p r o t e c t i o n o f s i t e s f o r t h e i r i n t r i n s i c value on a u n i v e r s a l s c a l e o f comparison 7. d u r a b l e p r o t e c t i o n 8. the extent o f s i t e s i s d e f i n a b l e 9. r e l a t i v e l y low p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t 10. informal m o n i t o r i n g by the IUCN and d e l i s t i n g procedures p r o v i d e leverage f o r e n s u r i n g ongoing s i t e p r o t e c t i o n . The key disadvantages, and they a r e s e r i o u s ones i n the present author's o p i n i o n , t o the World H e r i t a g e Convention a r e the p e r m i s s i o n o f resource e x t r a c t i o n and motorized r e c r e a t i o n , and the lack o f a formal m o n i t o r i n g procedure. As noted p r e v i o u s l y , the lack o f a formal m o n i t o r i n g procedure may be c o n s i d e r e d I n e v i t a b l e i n e n s u r i n g n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y . The p e r m i s s i o n o f resource e x t r a c t i o n and motorized r e c r e a t i o n may a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n e v i t a b l e In e n s u r i n g the p r o t e c t i o n o f areas which are l e s s developed than North America, Europe, e t c . When people a r e hungry, i t 182 i s d i f f i c u l t t o argue f o r s e t t i n g a s i d e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w hich might i n t h e s h o r t t e rm a l l e v i a t e t h e i r immediate hunger, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e lon g t e r m p r o d u c t i v i t y o f a r e g i o n depends on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f some a r e a s which a r e l e f t u n developed. S e c t i o n 7.3 d i s c u s s e s some o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . 183 7.3 The A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n a t t h e G l o b a l S c a l e and I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Resource P l a n n e r s . When e v a l u a t i n g t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n ' s e f f i c a c y In t h e Canadian l a n d p r o t e c t i o n scene, many o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a r e not r e l e v a n t , y e t i n a comprehensive assessment o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n ' s b e n e f i t s t h o s e a s p e c t s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . The p r e s e n t s e c t i o n examines Canada's r o l e i n comparison w i t h t h e r o l e o f l e s s d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s . . Enforcement mechanisms i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law a r e examined t o g i v e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e re a s o n s b e h i n d t h e l a c k o f a f o r m a l m o n i t o r i n g system. Two p o l i t i c a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l s i t u a t i o n s a r e a l s o r e v i e w e d and both g i v e examples o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o v e r e i g n t y q u e s t i o n s . Some reaso n s b e h i n d t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f r e s o u r c e use under t h e c o n v e n t i o n a r e r e v i e w e d b r i e f l y . The purpose o f b r i n g i n g up t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n i s t o s e t t h e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o Canada i n c o n t e x t . I t must be remembered t h a t when c o n s i d e r e d from a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e , which t h e World H e r i t a g e Committee does, t h e t h r e a t s t o B a n f f , J a s p e r , Kootenay and Yoho N a t i o n a l P a r k s a r e not as u r g e n t an i s s u e as l o s s e s o f whole biomes, s p e c i e s and v a s t a r e a s o f w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t which a r e b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d by o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h r a i n f o r e s t m i n i n g , f l o o d i n g due t o massive dam c o n s t r u c t i o n , l o s s e s o f ground c o v e r i n a r i d a r e a s , a c i d r a i n e f f e c t s , e t c . 184 As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y the b e n e f i t s o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention d i f f e r between r i c h and poor n a t i o n s . During Interviews both Jane Robertson o f the World H e r i t a g e S e c r e t a r i a t and James Thorsel1 o f the IUCN b e l i e v e d t h a t the p r i o r i t y i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g In the World H e r i t a g e Convention f o r wealthy n a t i o n s l i k e Canada should be p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r l e s s we 11-endowed n a t i o n s r a t h e r than j u s t p r o t e c t i n g domestic s i t e s . L y s t e r d e s c r i b e s the reason f o r the broad appeal o f the Convention: ( I ) t p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e f o r a l l P a r t i e s t o g a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r areas o f o u t s t a n d i n g n a t u r a l or c u l t u r a l value s i t u a t e d w i t h i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s ; i t p r o v i d e s the poorer P a r t i e s with the prospect o f r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f these s i t e s ; and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d by the Convention p r o v i d e s an assurance t o the w e a l t h i e r P a r t i e s , whose c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the World H e r i t a g e Fund are l i k e l y t o exceed the value o f any f i n a n c i a l or t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e which they may r e c e i v e , t h a t t h e i r money w i l l be e f f e c t i v e l y spent on the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f some o f the most o u t s t a n d i n g c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l s i t e s In the world ( L y s t e r , 1985: 210 - 211). The r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g involvement o f Canadian o f f i c i a l s and s i n c e r e Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the World H e r i t a g e Convention i s seen by Parks Canada o f f i c i a l s t o be a c a t a l y s t f o r encouraging the involvement o f other n a t i o n s , both r i c h and poor i n the Convention's a c t i v i t i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Convention a l s o demands the p r o v i s i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e p r o t e c t i o n measures f o r s i t e s . L y s t e r (1985) uses the Darien N a t i o n a l Park i n Panama as an example o f the r o l e o f the Convention i n encouraging p r o t e c t i o n . He quotes the IUCN 185 recommendation t o the World H e r i t a g e Committee as s t a t i n g t h a t the a r e a i s under powerful p r e s s u r e s from north and south f o r a wide range o f purposes, many o f them i n i m i c a l t o the n a t i o n a l park's i n t e r e s t s (and the i n t e r e s t s o f Panama as a whole) ... Awarding World  H e r i t a g e s t a t u s t o t h i s unique and p a r t i c u l a r l y  important area w i l l p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l leverage f o r  long-term p r o t e c t i o n o f the a r e a . . . Panama 1s very concerned t o e s t a b l i s h p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l over the a r e a . The e a r l y awarding o f support t o the newly e s t a b l i s h e d n a t i o n a l park w i l l h e l p ensure i t s proper management and development, with p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o boundary demarcation and t o i n t e g r a t i o n o f the area i n t o o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l development plans (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) ( L y s t e r , 1985: 216). The concerns about the formal m o n i t o r i n g o f s i t e s and the r e l u c t a n c e t o d e l i s t s i t e s r a i s e d i n S e c t i o n 7.2 a r e inherent i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l l e g a l arrangements. L y s t e r (1985) o u t l i n e s the d i f f e r e n c e s in enforcement mechanisms a v a i l a b l e under i n t e r n a t i o n a l law when compared with domestic law. Disputes which p e r s i s t d e s p i t e n e g o t i a t i o n may be brought t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Court o f J u s t i c e a t the Hague but r e q u i r e the consent o f the p r o s p e c t i v e defendant. As a general r u l e s t a t e s are r e l u c t a n t t o take each o t h e r t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Court, p a r t l y because i t i s seen as a p o l i t i c a l l y u n f r i e n d l y a c t t o be avoided i f p o s s i b l e and p a r t l y because i t Is o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o a c h ieve a s a t i s f a c t o r y remedy by t h i s means ( L y s t e r , 1985: 11). A l t e r n a t i v e measures more commonly used t o ensure compliance with I n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s and conventions i n c l u d e " r e q u i r i n g i t s P a r t i e s t o meet r e g u l a r l y t o review i t s implementation, ... the e stablishment o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body t o oversee and a s s i s t i n the implementation" ( L y s t e r , 1985: 12), and the establishment o f r e p o r t i n g requirements. 186 Other measures which can help enforcement Include observer schemes, systems o f i n s p e c t i o n , f i n a n c i a l s a n c t i o n s , a s c r i b i n g t r a d i n g disadvantages t o S t a t e s which do not comply with a t r e a t y ' s terms and o f f e r i n g f i n a n c i a l l u r e s f o r those which do ( L y s t e r , 1985: 13). The World H e r i t a g e Convention makes use o f r e g u l a r (annual) meetings, an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body, and informal IUCN o b s e r v a t i o n s t o ensure each n a t i o n ' s compliance. At the Informal l e v e l I t Is not known whether inducements and/or d i s b e n e f i t s a r e used by i n d i v i d u a l n a t i o n s t o ensure compliance by oth e r I n d i v i d u a l n a t i o n s , but some o f these types o f p o l i t i c a l t r a d e - o f f s a r e expected t o occur a c c o r d i n g t o R i c h a r d B i l l o f Parks Canada (pers. comm.). The p r o v i s i o n o f n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n by each s i g n a t o r y n a t i o n i s the most l e g a l l y e n f o r c e a b l e method o f e n s u r i n g compliance with i n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions. In most cases some form o f n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n supports s i t e s under the World H e r i t a g e Convention but o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the World H e r i t a g e Convention i s the c a t a l y s t f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g such l e g i s l a t i o n . In Canada's case both p r o v i n c i a l l y and f e d e r a l l y l e g i s l a t e d s i t e s a re i n c l u d e d In t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t . In the Tasmanian s i t u a t i o n , domestic p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n was a d d i t i o n a l l y supported by a n a t i o n a l a c t d e a l i n g with A u s t r a l i a ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the World H e r i t a g e Convention. I t was the l a t t e r l e g i s l a t i o n which p e r m i t t e d ongoing p r o t e c t i o n o f the Gordon-Upon-Franklin a r e a . As L y s t e r notes, the o v e r r i d i n g f a c t o r e n s u r i n g compliance i s t h a t 187 It i s i n the i n t e r e s t s o f almost every S t a t e t h a t o r d e r , and not chaos, should be a governing p r i n c i p l e o f human l i f e ; and i f t r e a t i e s were made and f r e e l y ignored chaos would soon r e s u l t ( L y s t e r , 1985: 14). Implementation o f the World H e r i t a g e Convention has not been without c o n t r o v e r s y . The "Old C i t y o f Jerusalem and i t s W a l l s " were nominated by the Hashimlte Kingdom o f Jordan f o r i n s c r i p t i o n on the World H e r i t a g e L i s t . In an e x t r a o r d i n a r y s e s s i o n ( i . e . , c a l l e d s e p a r a t e l y from the o r d i n a r y s e s s i o n s ) o f the World H e r i t a g e Committee h e l d i n P a r i s , September 10 and 11, 1981, the nomination was accepted by a vote o f 14 f o r , 1 a g a i n s t and 5 a b s t e n t i o n s . Quotes are used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the present d i s c u s s i o n t o ensure a c c u r a t e r e p o r t i n g o f t h i s p o l i t i c a l i s s u e . As noted i n the r a p p o r t e u r ' s r e p o r t , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e was widespread support t h a t a p r o p e r t y as o u t s t a n d i n g as the Old C i t y should be i n s c r i b e d on the World H e r i t a g e L i s t . The m a j o r i t y o f speakers had no r e s e r v a t i o n s about Jordan's competence t o make the p r o p o s a l . A few speakers expressed r e s e r v a t i o n s about Jordan's l e g a l r i g h t t o present the nomination and about the p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i n s c r i p t i o n t o q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the s t a t u s o f Jerusalem and t o q u e s t i o n s o f s o v e r e i g n t y and j u r i s d i c t i o n . Although i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t A r t i c l e 11(3) o f the Convention e x i s t e d t o cover these matters, these speakers were concerned t h a t t h e r e should be no i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s o v e r e i g n t y o f any S t a t e a s s o c i a t e d with the i n s c r i p t i o n . The U n i t e d S t a t e s D e l e g a t i o n o b j e c t e d e x p l i c i t l y t o the nomination by Jordan as not conforming with the a r t i c l e s o f the Convention with p r o v i d e t h a t the nominating S t a t e submit o n l y those s i t e s which a r e " s i t u a t e i n i t s t e r r i t o r y " , which r e q u i r e t h a t the consent o f "the S t a t e concerned" be o b t a i n e d and which r e q u i r e t h a t the nominating S t a t e p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e p l a n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and management o f the s i t e (Report o f the Rapporteur, World H e r i t a g e Committee. F i r s t 188 E x t r a o r d i n a r y S e s s i o n , P a r i s , 10 and 11 September, 1981 4 - 5 ) . As L y s t e r notes. There was a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e argument f o l l o w i n g A r g e n t i n a ' s nomination o f Los G l a d ar e s National Park. At the f i f t h o r d i n a r y s e s s i o n o f the World H e r i t a g e Committee, h e l d i n October 1981, C h i l e s t a t e d t h a t i t would study the p o s s i b i l i t y o f nominating "the s e c t o r o f the G l a c i e r s Region l o c a t e d w i t h i n i t s n a t i o n a l J u r i s d i c t i o n " , t o which A r g e n t i n a r e p l i e d t h a t "the whole a r e a o f the "National Park Los G l a c i a r e s ' i s unquestionably s i t u a t e d i n A r g e n t i n i a n t e r r i t o r y " . Again, the A r g e n t i n i a n nomination was e v e n t u a l l y approved ( L y s t e r , 1985: 220). L y s t e r b r i n g s out an important p o i n t when he mentions t h a t A r t i c l e 11(3) makes It c l e a r t h a t the l i s t i n g o f a s i t e over which s o v e r e i g n t y o r j u r i s d i c t i o n i s claimed by more than one S t a t e " s h a l l In no way p r e j u d i c e the r i g h t s o f the p a r t i e s t o the d i s p u t e " . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some S t a t e s may b e l i e v e t h a t p o l i t i c a l b e n e f i t can be d e r i v e d from nominating a d i s p u t e d s i t e . Whatever the m e r i t s o f the arguments In r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s o f Jerusalem and Los G l a c l a r e s , t h e r e Is c l e a r l y a danger t h a t such nominations might so aggravate p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the convention as a leg a l instrument t o promote the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the world's c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e would be s e r i o u s l y reduced ( L y s t e r , 1985: 220). The a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with the World H e r i t a g e Convention must walk a t i g h t r o p e between c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the p r o t e c t i o n o f the i n t r i n s i c and g l o b a l values o f a s i t e and the p o s s i b l e use o f the Convention f o r s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l g o a l s as d e s c r i b e d above. It i s the o p i n i o n o f the present author t h a t t o date the World H e r i t a g e Committee has focu s s e d so d i r e c t l y on i n t r i n s i c s i t e v a l u e s t h a t i t has s e t I t s e l f up f o r c r i t i c i s m o f p o l i t i c a l f a v o u r i t i s m which may i n the f u t u r e damage i t s a b i l i t y t o accomplish i t s fundamental g o a l s . The Jerusalem and Los 189 G l a d ares s i t u a t i o n s p r o v i d e good examples o f the t a k i n g o f p o l i t i c a l stances i n favour o f p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e s by the World H e r i t a g e Committee. C a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be made o f each d i f f i c u l t p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and i t would be recommended t o e r r on the s i d e o f p o l i t i c a l c o nservatism through r e q u e s t i n g J o i n t nominations f o r s i t e s on d i s p u t e d t e r r i t o r y . The use o f World H e r i t a g e S i t e s f o r some forms o f resource use, i n c l u d i n g the presence o f and performance o f t r a d i t i o n a l uses by a b o r i g i n a l people o f the ar e a (e.g.. In Ngorongoro N a t i o n a l Park, Sagarmatha National Park, e t c . ) , r a i s e s the d i f f i c u l t dilemma between the need f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f World H e r i t a g e s i t e s and the cor r e s p o n d i n g needs o f the l o c a l people. As many authors note, i t Is very d i f f i c u l t t o ensure the p r o t e c t i o n o f land and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t s when the l o c a l people have inadequate s u p p l i e s o f food, c l o t h i n g , f u e l and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . For t h i s reason, the use o f p r o t e c t e d areas i s p e r m i t t e d , and management e f f o r t s must con c e n t r a t e on mi n i m i z i n g the human impact on the n a t u r a l environment, and r e t a i n i n g the values f o r which the s i t e was des i g n a t e d i n the f i r s t p l a c e . In examining the key q u e s t i o n o f the t h e s i s , should the World H e r i t a g e Convention be c o n s i d e r e d an important t o o l f o r r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n , It i s the c o n t e n t i o n o f the present author t h a t i t should be c o n s i d e r e d an important t o o l f o r 190 p r o t e c t i o n . Although the convention does not o f f e r t he same l e v e l o f r i g o r o u s p r o t e c t i o n argued f o r i n the e a r l y p a r t s o f the t h e s i s , nonetheless, the advantages o f the convention may be seen t o outweigh the disadvantages. The many b e n e f i t s o f the convention are enumerated a t the end o f S e c t i o n 7.2. In Canada, d e s i g n a t i o n under the World H e r i t a g e Convention i s expected t o have an important r o l e i n p r e v e n t i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a dam which would d e s t r o y the i n t r i n s i c v alue o f Wood B u f f a l o National Park (Harold E l d s v i k , p e r s . comm.). S i m i l a r l y , the c u r r e n t concern r e g a r d i n g the South Moresby r e g i o n o f the Queen C h a r l o t t e Islands i s p a r t l y f u e l e d by the proposal t h a t the area i s worthy o f World H e r i t a g e s t a t u s . The World H e r i t a g e Convention has been g i v e n s h o r t s h r i f t by resource p r o t e c t i o n planners i n the p a s t . Planners should take the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n : 1. The World H e r i t a g e Convention takes a g l o b a l view, so r e l a t i v e l y small r e g i o n a l Issues a r e u n l i k e l y t o be a s s i s t e d by the Convention, but l a r g e r r e g i o n a l i s s u e s (e.g., the Tasmanian dam s i t u a t i o n , and the damming o f the Slave R i v e r near Wood B u f f a l o National Park) can be a i d e d through the Convention; 2. The Convention p r o v i d e s a co n c r e t e r e c o g n i t i o n o f the ear t h ' s n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l t r e a s u r e s , i n a way t h a t a l s o p r o v i d e s f u n d i n g and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r 191 r e s t o r a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n o f the t r e a s u r e s when necessary; 3. The advantages and disadvantages o f the Convention, l i s t e d i n S e c t i o n 7.2, bear s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n even when a s i t e i s a l r e a d y p r o t e c t e d under o t h e r 1 eg1s1at 1on. In c o n c l u s i o n , although the World H e r i t a g e Convention i s a r e l a t i v e l y young I n t e r n a t i o n a l convention i t i s a a l r e a d y a v a l u a b l e land p r o t e c t i o n t o o l . C r i t i c a l i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g i t s e f f i c a c y a re be g i n n i n g t o a r i s e and be c o n f r o n t e d by the World H e r i t a g e Committee. It may be expected t h a t the f i n a l t a s t o f the e f f i c a c y o f the Convention w i l l be seen In the h e a l t h and p r o t e c t i o n o f the many World H e r i t a g e n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l s i t e s throughout the world over time. 192 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abercrombie, M., C.J. Hickman, and M.L. Johnson. 1975. A  D i c t i o n a r y o f B i o l o g y , ( s i x t h e d i t i o n ) . Penguin Books. Middlesex, England. 311 pp. A l b e r t a Energy and Natural Resources. 1977. A P o l i c y f o r the  Resource Management o f the E a s t e r n Slopes. 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Cambridge. 268 pp. 202 APPENDIX 1: L i st of Interv i ews Date May 16, 1985 May 20, 1985 and September, 1985 May 23 and 24, 1985 May 23, 1985 May 23 and 24, 1985 Name and Aff11iat ion Jean Brown, Chief, Intergovernmental A f f a i r s , Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario James Thorsel1, Executive Off icer , Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland Richard B i l l , Parks Canada planner, seconded to the World Heritage Secretariat, Paris, France Margaret Van V l i e t , former World Heritage Secretariat representative on cultural heritage, Paris, France Jane Robertson, World Heritage Secretariat representative for natural heritage, Paris , France May 24, 1985 June 10, 1985 September, 1985 June 13, 1985 August 13, 1985 August 13, 1985 August 13, 1985 David Maclntyre, Australian Permanent Delegation to Unesco, Paris, France Harold Eidsvik, Chairman, Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, IUCN, and Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario Peter Bennett, former director of National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, met in Vic tor ia , B.C. Phi l ip Dearden, National and Provincial Parks Association of Canada, Br i t ish Columbia sector, and Department of Geography, University of Vic tor ia , V i c torla , B.C. John Dick, B.C. Ministry of Environment's Assessment and Planning Division, Vic tor ia , B.C. Linda Foubister, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Wildlife Branch, Habitat Spec i a l i s t , V i ctor i a, B.C. August 14, 1985 Stephan Ful ler , Federation of Mountain Clubs of Br i t ish Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 2 0 3 September 7, 1985 S t e v e H e r r e r o , School o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a September 9, 1985 Herb K a r i e l , S i e r r a C l u b Geography, U n i v e r s i t y o f A 1 b e r t a and Department o f Ca1gary,Ca1gary, September 9, 1985 V i v i a n P h a r i s , A l b e r t a W i l d e r n e s s A s s o c i a t i o n C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a September 10, 1985 Don P i k e , f o r m e r p l a n n e r w i t h t h e P a r k s Canada Four Mountain P a r k s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , c u r r e n t l y w i t h Ducks U n l i m i t e d , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a October 11, 1985 Robert Garvey, E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , C o u n c i l f o r H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n , Washington, D.C. (met i n S e a t t l e , Washington) N Adv i s o r y 204 APPENDIX 2 : D e f i n i t i o n s o f L e v e l s o f I n c l u s i o n In C o n v e n t i o n s R a t i f i c a t i o n : t h e a c t o r p r o c e s s o f f o r m a l l y r a t i f y i n g , a d o p t i n g o r c o n f i r m i n g a c o n t r a c t , t r e a t y o r o t h e r t r a n s a c t i o n by t h e p a r t i e s , which t h e y were not l e g a l l y bound by o r i g i n a l l y . A c c e p t a n c e : t h e t a k i n g and r e c e i v i n g o f a n y t h i n g i n good p a r t and as i t were a t a c i t agreement t o a p r e c e d i n g a c t , which might have been d e f e a t e d o r a v o i d e d i f such a c c e p t a n c e had not been made. A c c e s s i o n : t h e a b s o l u t e o r c o n d i t i o n a l a c c e p t a n c e by one o r s e v e r a l n a t i o n s o f a t r e a t y a l r e a d y c o n c l u d e d between o t h e r s o v e r e i g n t i e s . I t may be o f two k i n d s : f i r s t , t h e f o r m a l e n t r a n c e o f a t h i r d s t a t e i n t o a t r e a t y so t h a t such n a t i o n becomes a p a r t y t o i t , and t h i s can o n l y be w i t h t h e consent o f t h e o r i g i n a l p a r t i e s ; second, a n a t i o n may accede t o a t r e a t y between o t h e r n a t i o n s s o l e l y f o r t h e purpose o f g u a r a n t e e , i n which c a s e , though a p a r t y , i t i s a f f e c t e d by t h e t r e a t y o n l y as a g u a r a n t o r . (Produced by P a r k s Canada s t a f f f o r t h e i r e d i f i c a t i o n f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s , agreements, and t r e a t i e s ) . 205 APPENDIX 3 C r i t e r i a f o r t h e I n c l u s i o n o f N a t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s i n t h e World  H e r i t a g e L i s t 23. In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h A r t i c l e 2 o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d as " n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e " : " n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s c o n s i s t i n g o f p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n s o r groups o f such f o r m a t i o n s , which a r e o f o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l u e from t h e a e s t h e t i c o r s c i e n t i f i c p o i n t o f view; g e o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t i o n s and p r e c i s e l y d e l i n e a t e d a r e a s which c o n s t i t u t e t h e h a b i t a t o f t h r e a t e n e d s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l s and p l a n t s o f o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l u e from t h e p o i n t o f view o f s c i e n c e o r c o n s e r v a t i o n ; n a t u r a l s i t e s o r p r e c i s e l y d e l i n e a t e d n a t u r a l a r e a s o f o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l u e from t h e p o i n t o f view o f s c i e n c e , c o n s e r v a t i o n o r n a t u r a l b e a u t y . " 24. A n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t y - as d e f i n e d above - which i s s u b m i t t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l u e f o r t h e purposes o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n when t h e Committee f i n d s t h a t i t meets one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a and f u l f i l s t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f i n t e g r i t y s e t out below. S i t e s nominated s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e : ( i ) be o u t s t a n d i n g examples r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e ma .lor  s t a g e s o f t h e e a r t h ' s e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r y ; o r ( i i ) be o u t s t a n d i n g examples r e p r e s e n t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t  o n g o i n g g e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n  and man's i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h i s n a t u r a l environment; as d i s t i n c t from t h e p e r i o d s o f t h e e a r t h ' s development, t h i s f o c u s e s upon o n g o i n g p r o c e s s e s i n t h e development o f communities o f p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , landforms and marine a r e a s and f r e s h water bod i e s ; o r ( i i i ) c o n t a i n s u p e r l a t i v e n a t u r a l phenomena, f o r m a t i o n s o r  f e a t u r e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , o u t s t a n d i n g examples o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t ecosystems, a r e a s o f e x c e p t i o n a l n a t u r a l b e auty o r e x c e p t i o n a l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l e l e m e n t s ; o r ( i v ) c o n t a i n t h e most i m p o r t a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t n a t u r a l  h a b i t a t s where t h r e a t e n e d s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l s o f p l a n t s  o f o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s a l v a l u e from t h e p o i n t o f view o f s c i e n c e o r c o n s e r v a t i o n s t i l l s u r v i v e . 206 25. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e above c r i t e r i a , t h e s i t e s s h o u l d a l s o f u l f i l t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f i n t e g r i t y : ( i ) The s i t e s d e s c r i b e d i n 2 4 ( i ) s h o u l d c o n t a i n a l l o r most o f t h e key i n t e r r e l a t e d and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t elements i n t h e i r n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; f o r example, and " i c e age" a r e a would be e x p e c t e d t o i n c l u d e t h e snow f i e l d , t h e g l a c i e r i t s e l f and samples o f c u t t i n g p a t t e r n s , d e p o s i t i o n and c o l o n i z a t i o n ( s t r l a t i o n s , m o r a i n e s , p i o n e e r s t a g e s o f p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n , e t c . ) . ( i i ) The s i t e s d e s c r i b e d i n 2 4 ( i i ) s h o u l d have s u f f i c i e n t s i z e and c o n t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y elements t o demonstrate t h e key a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o c e s s and t o be s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g . For example, an a r e a o f t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t may be e x p e c t e d t o I n c l u d e some v a r i a t i o n i n e l e v a t i o n above sea l e v e l , changes i n t o p ography and s o i l t y p e s , r i v e r banks o r oxbow l a k e s , t o demonstrate t h e d i v e r s i t y and c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e system. ( i i i ) The s i t e s d e s c r i b e d i n 2 4 ( i i i ) s h o u l d c o n t a i n t h o s e eco-system components r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e s p e c i e s o r o f t h e o t h e r n a t u r a l elements o r p r o c e s s e s t o be c o n s e r v e d . T h i s w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s ; f o r example, t h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a o f a w a t e r f a l l would i n c l u d e a l l , o r as much as p o s s i b l e , o f t h e s u p p o r t i n g upstream wa t e r s h e d ; o r a c o r a l r e e f a r e a would i n c l u d e t h e zone n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l s i 1 t a t i o n o r p o l l u t i o n t h r o u g h t h e s t r e a m f l o w o r ocean c u r r e n t s which p r o v i d e i t s n u t r i e n t s . ( i v ) The a r e a c o n t a i n i n g t h r e a t e n e d s p e c i e s as d e s c r i b e d i n 2 4 ( i v ) s h o u l d be o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e and c o n t a i n n e c e s s a r y h a b i t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e s p e c i e s . (v) In t h e case o f m i g r a t o r y s p e c i e s , s e a s o n a b l e s i t e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l , wherever t h e y a r e l o c a t e d , s h o u l d be a d q u a t e l y p r o t e c t e d . The Committee must r e c e i v e a s s u r a n c e s t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r y measures be t a k e n t o ensure t h a t t h e s p e c i e s a r e a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r f u l l l i f e c y c l e . Agreements made i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , e i t h e r t h r o u g h adherence t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s o r i n t h e form o f o t h e r m u l t i l a t e r a l o r b i l a t e r a l arrangements would p r o v i d e t h i s a s s u r a n c e . (Taken from t h e O p e r a t i o n a l G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e Implementation o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n produced by t h e I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l Committee f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e World C u l t u r a l and N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e , r e v i s e d , J a n u a r y , 1984: pp. 8-9) . 207 APPENDIX 4 P r o c e d u r e f o r t h e E v e n t u a l D e l e t i o n o f P r o p e r t i e s from t h e  World H e r i t a g e L i s t 26. The Committee adopted t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e d e l e t i o n o f p r o p e r t i e s from t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t i n c a s e s : a) where t h e p r o p e r t y has d e t e r i o r a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t has l o s t t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d e t e r m i n e d i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t ; and b) where t h e i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s o f a w o r l d h e r i t a g e s i t e were a l r e a d y t h r e a t e n e d a t t h e t i m e o f i t s n o m i n a t i o n by a c t i o n o f man and where t h e n e c e s s a r y c o r r e c t i v e measures as o u t l i n e d by t h e S t a t e P a r t y a t t h e t i m e have not been t a k e n w i t h i n t h e t i m e proposed. 27. When a p r o p e r t y i n s c r i b e d on t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t has s e r i o u s l y d e t e r i o r a t e d , o r when t h e n e c e s s a r y c o r r e c t i v e measures have not been t a k e n w i t h i n t h e t i m e p r o p o s e d , t h e S t a t e P a r t y on whose t e r r i t o r y t h e p r o p e r t y i s s i t u a t e d s h o u l d so i n f o r m t h e S e c r e t a r i a t o f t h e Committee. 28. When t h e S e c r e t a r i a t r e c e i v e s such I n f o r m a t i o n from a so u r c e o t h e r t h a n t h e S t a t e P a r t y c o n c e r n e d , i t w i l l , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , v e r i f y t h e so u r c e and t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e S t a t e P a r t y concerned and r e q u e s t i t s comments. The S e c r e t a r i a t w i l l i n f o r m t h e Chairman o f t h e Committee o f t h e r e s u l t s o f i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and t h e Chairman w i l l d e c i d e whether t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be a c t e d upon. I f t h e Chairman d e c i d e s t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s not t o be a c t e d upon, no a c t i o n w i l l be t a k e n . 29. In a l l c a s e s e x c e p t t h o s e on which t h e Chairman d e c i d e d t h a t no f u r t h e r a c t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n , t h e S e c r e t a r i a t w i l l r e q u e s t t h e competent a d v i s o r y o r g a n i z a t i o n ( s ) , (ICOMOS, IUCN o r ICCROM), t o f o r w a r d comments on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d . 30. The i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e comments o f t h e S t a t e P a r t y and t h e a d v i s o r y o r g a n i z a t i o n ( s ) , w i l l be brought t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e Bureau o f t h e Committee. The Bureau may t a k e one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : a) i t may d e c i d e t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y has not s e r i o u s l y d e t e r i o r a t e d and t h a t no f u r t h e r a c t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n ; b) when t h e Bureau c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y has s e r i o u s l y d e t e r i o r a t e d , but not t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t s r e s t o r a t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e , i t may recommend t o t h e Committee t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y be m a i n t a i n e d on t h e 208 L i s t , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e s t a t e P a r t y t a k e s t h e n e c e s s a r y measures t o r e s t o r e t h e p r o p e r t y w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e . The Bureau may a l s o recommend t h a t t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n be p r o v i d e d under t h e World H e r i t a g e Fund f o r work co n n e c t e d w i t h t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t y , i f t h e S t a t e P a r t y so r e q u e s t s ; c) when t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y has d e t e r i o r a t e d t o t h e p o i n t where i t has i r r e t r i e v a b l y l o s t t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d e t e r m i n e d i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e L i s t , t h e Bureau may recommend t h a t t h e Committee d e l e t e t h e p r o p e r t y from t h e L i s t ; b e f o r e any such recommendation i s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Committee, t h e S e c r e t a r i a t w i l l i n f o r m t h e S t a t e P a r t y concerned o f t h e Bureau's recommendation; any comments which t h e S t a t e P a r t y may make w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e recommendation o f t h e Bureau w i l l be brought t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e Committee, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Bureau's recommendation; d) when t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e Is not s u f f i c i e n t t o e n a b l e t h e Bureau t o t a k e one o f t h e measures d e s c r i b e d i n a ) , b) o r c) above, t h e Bureau may recommend t o t h e Committee t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r i a t be a u t h o r i z e d t o t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y a c t i o n t o a s c e r t a i n , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e S t a t e p a r t y c o n c e r n e d , t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t y , t h e dangers t o t h e p r o p e r t y and t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f a d e q u a t e l y r e s t o r i n g t h e p r o p e r t y , and t o r e p o r t t o t h e Bureau on t h e r e s u l t s o f i t s a c t i o n ; such measures may i n c l u d e t h e s e n d i n g o f a f a c t - f i n d i n g m i s s i o n o r t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l i s t s . In c a s e s where emergency a c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , t h e Bureau may i t s e l f a u t h o r i z e t h e f i n a n c i n g from t h e World H e r i t a g e Fund o f t h e emergency a s s i s t a n c e t h a t i s r e q u i r e d . 31. The Committee w i l l examine t h e recommendation o f t h e Bureau and a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e and w i l l t a k e a d e c i s i o n . Any such d e c i s i o n s h a l l , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h A r t i c l e 13(8) o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n , be t a k e n by a m a j o r i t y o f t w o - t h i r d s o f i t s members p r e s e n t and v o t i n g . The Committee s h a l l not d e c i d e t o d e l e t e any p r o p e r t y u n l e s s t h e S t a t e P a r t y has been c o n s u l t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n . 32. The S t a t e P a r t y w i l l be informed o f t h e Committee's d e c i s i o n . 33. I f t h e Committee's d e c i s i o n e n t a i l s any m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t , t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e next updated l i s t t h a t i s p u b l i s h e d . The r e a s o n s f o r t h e d e l e t i o n o f any p r o p e r t y from t h e L i s t w i l l a l s o be g i v e n i n t h e pub1i c a t i on. 34. In a d o p t i n g t h e above p r o c e d u r e , t h e Committee was p a r t i c u l a r l y c oncerned t h a t a l l p o s s i b l e measures s h o u l d be t a k e n t o p r e v e n t t h e d e l e t i o n o f any p r o p e r t y from t h e L i s t and was ready t o o f f e r t e c h n i c a l c o - o p e r a t i o n as f a r as 209 p o s s i b l e t o S t a t e s P a r t i e s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e Committee w i s h e s t o draw t h e a t t e n t i o n o f S t a t e s P a r t i e s t o t h e s t i p u l a t i o n s o f A r t i c l e 4 o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n which r e a d s as f o l l o w s : "Each S t a t e P a r t y t o t h i s C o n v e n t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e d u t y o f e n s u r i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n , p r e s e n t a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e r e f e r r e d t o i n A r t i c l e s 1 and 2 and s i t u a t e d on i t s t e r r i t o r y , b e l o n g s p r i m a r i l y t o t h a t S t a t e . . . " . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e Committee recommends t h a t S t a t e s P a r t i e s c o - o p e r a t e w i t h IUCN which has been asked by t h e Committee t o c o n t i n u e m o n i t o r i n g on i t s b e h a l f t h e p r o g r e s s o f work un d e r t a k e n f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t i e s i n s c r i b e d on t h e World H e r i t a g e L i s t . (Taken from t h e O p e r a t i o n a l G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e Implementation o f t h e World H e r i t a g e C o n v e n t i o n produced by t h e I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l Committee f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e World C u l t u r a l and N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e , r e v i s e d , J a n u a r y , 1984 pp. 9-11). 210 APPENDIX 5 UNESCO, Nomination of the Canadian Rockies by Canada  f o r I n c l u s i o n i n the World Heritage L i s t , prepared by Parks Canada s t a f f (Ottawa? Published by author-i t y of the M i n i s t e r of the Environment,@ M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1983. QS-8806-OOO-EE-A1) Booklet not f i l m e d ; u n s u i t a b l e f o r f i l m i n g . 

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