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The experience of women returning to work after the birth of their first child Hall, Wendy 1986

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The Experience o f Women Returning to Work A f t e r the B i r t h o f T h e i r F i r s t C h i l d By Wendy H a l l B.N. The U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f Nursing) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1986 © Wendy H a l l , 1986 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 n/R'-n i i A b s t r a c t The Experience o f Women Returning to Work F o l l o w i n g the B i r t h o f T h e i r F i r s t C h i l d T h i s study e x p l o r e s the experience of women r e t u r n i n g to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . Grounded theory methodology was used to c o l l e c t , code, c a t e g o r i z e , compare, and c o n t r a s t data gathered i n i n t e r v i e w s with e i g h t women. The s u b s t a n t i v e theory generated from t h i s approach i n d i c a t e d f i r s t - t i m e mothers viewed t h e i r resumption o f the work r o l e as a process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . Role r e d e f i n i t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f three stages: t a k i n g on m u l t i p l e r o l e s , e x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e s t r a i n , and r e d u c i n g r o l e s t r a i n . Each stage evolved from a c e n t r a l concept and was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s p e c i f i c behaviours. The conceptual framework p r o v i d e s d i r e c t i o n f o r n u r s i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s . These are d i s c u s s e d f o r v a r i o u s phases o f the c h i l d b e a r i n g p e r i o d . The process of r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n d i r e c t s nurses to provide f i r s t - t i m e mothers with a n t i c i p a t o r y and concurrent guidance as they take on and manage m u l t i p l e r o l e s . i i i Table of Contents Abstract i i L i s t of Figures v Acknowledgements v i Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Background to the Problem 1 Theoretical Perspective of the Study 2 The Problem 5 The Purpose 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 6 Assumptions . 7 Limitations 7 2 Methodology 8 An Inductive Methodology 8 C r i t e r i a for Selection 9 Selection Procedure 10 Characteristics of Participants 11 Data C o l l e c t i o n 12 Data Analysis 13 E t h i c a l Considerations 15 3 Application of Grounded Theory 17 The Process of Analyzing the Data 17 Stage 1: Creating Analytic Units 18 Stage 2: Concept Formation 19 Stage 3: Concept Development 20 Stage 4: Concept Integration 21 Stage 5: Production of the Research Monograph 21 4 A Descriptive Analysis 25 The Women's Experience of Returning to Work Following the B i r t h of th e i r F i r s t C h ild 25 Taking on Multiple Roles 26 Experiencing Role Strain 42 Reducing Role Str a i n 63 iv Societal R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 93 5 Summary, Conclusions and Implications for Nursing 97 Summary 97 Conclusions 99 Nursing Implications 101 Implications for Nursing Practice 101 Implications for Nursing Education 109 Implications for Nursing Research 110 References 113 Appendices A Introductory Letter 121 B Consent Form 123 V L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 The Process of Role R e d e f i n i t i o n — A T h e o r e t i c a l Framework 23 v i Acknowledgements I wish to thank my committee members, E l a i n e Carty and Connie Canam, f o r a s s i s t i n g me through the q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s , p r o v i d i n g me with c r i t i c a l and i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e , s u p p o r t i n g me when my s p i r i t s were low, and laughing with me when I needed i t most. To the e i g h t women who shared t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , I extend my g r a t i t u d e and my a d m i r a t i o n f o r f i n d i n g the time to f i t me i n t o t h e i r demanding and t i r i n g schedules. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my husband, David, who always b e l i e v e d t h a t I would succeed i n t h i s endeavour, and who supported me i n so many ways. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background to the Problem Between 1976 and 1981 the number o f women i n Canada p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the labour f o r c e rose from 45% to 52% and the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h i s group were married women ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1984). S t a t i s t i c a l trends i n d i c a t e t h a t the numbers of women i n the labour f o r c e who have c h i l d r e n under s i x years o f age are i n c r e a s i n g . In 1981, 47.2% of Canadian women with p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n worked as compared to 34.7% o f these women i n 1975 ( E i c h l e r , 1983). Myami (1980) suggests, t h a t by the year 1990, two-t h i r d s o f a l l mothers with c h i l d r e n under s i x years o f age w i l l be i n the work f o r c e (p. 188). Our s o c i e t y encourages women to seek e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g to be p r o d u c t i v e and to achieve f u l f i l l m e n t through p a i d employment. In a d d i t i o n , married women with c h i l d r e n are encouraged by economic n e c e s s i t y and a need f o r s t a t u s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p a i d employment f o l l o w i n g the a r r i v a l o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Women, however, are a l s o s o c i a l i z e d to be f u l l - t i m e mothers. Consequently, many women i n our s o c i e t y face a double b i n d which becomes apparent f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . In c l i n i c a l experience as an o b s t e t r i c a l nurse, the author has encountered many f i r s t - t i m e mothers concerned 2 about r e t u r n i n g to work. Some o f these mothers expressed concerns r e l a t e d to t h e i r a b i l i t y to combine the work r o l e and the maternal r o l e . Some o f these a n t i c i p a t e d concerns i n c l u d e d : u n c e r t a i n t y about the best type o f i n f a n t c a r e , g u i l t about l e a v i n g t h e i r i n f a n t , d i f f i c u l t i e s with b r e a s t f e e d i n g , and l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e time to manage work and mothering. T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e o f the Study Becoming a mother i s an important event f o r many women. F i r s t - t i m e motherhood i n t r o d u c e s women to a new r o l e . One o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t times f o r a woman i s the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f her i n f a n t (Bebbington, 1973; Mercer, 1981; R o s s i , 1968). Adding a work r o l e to the s t r a i n i n h e r e n t i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d c r e a t e s a c h a l l e n g i n g and complex s i t u a t i o n f o r these women. Th e r e f o r e , to develop an understanding o f the experience o f f i r s t - t i m e mothers r e t u r n i n g to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f t h e i r i n f a n t s , the p s y c h o s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s were examined from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f r o l e theory. Role Theory Contemporary t h e o r i s t s d e f i n e r o l e s as the r i g h t s and d u t i e s a s s i g n e d to a s t a t u s by s o c i e t y as w e l l as the be h a v i o u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s b r i n g to p r e s c r i b e d r i g h t s and d u t i e s (Nye, 1976). Bl<ddl« (1979) d e f i n e s an expected r o l e as the s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r behaviours o f a person t h a t are h e l d c o n s e n s u a l l y by one or more other 3 persons. In part, roles are determined by an individual's culture and c u l t u r a l sanctions for enforcing role behaviour (Nye, 1976). Role t r a n s i t i o n i s the process of moving i n and out of roles i n a s o c i a l system (Burr, 1972). Role tr a n s i t i o n s are p a r t i c u l a r l y evident within the confines of the nuclear family, and one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s i t i o n s i s the t r a n s i t i o n to the parenting role (Dyer, 1963; Hobbs, 1968; LeMaster, 1957; Rossi, 1968). These theorists describe the t r a n s i t i o n period following the b i r t h of a woman's f i r s t c h i l d as a c r i t i c a l period i n a woman's l i f e span. Lederman (1984) characterizes the development of the maternal role as a test that requires growth, and as a challenge. The maternal role i s a complex enti t y that subsumes many complex c u l t u r a l expectations. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , motherhood has i n i t i a t e d changes i n women's l i v e s including the withdrawal of women from the work force. Cultural pressures for women to take on the maternal role remain strong (Devore, 1983; Nye, 1976). Although normative values are changing, women s t i l l r e t a i n the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and care of chil d r e n (Nye, 1976; Rapoport & Rapoport, 1976). Indeed, at no time i s a mother's role considered more important than i n infancy (Maynard, 1985). Women conforming to normative values have been expected to integrate the maternal role and f o r f e i t previous roles considered c o n f l i c t u a l (Rubin, 1967). Increasingly following c h i l d b i r t h , however, women are 4 remaining i n the work f o r c e (Skinner, 1982). A s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s a t present, where s o c i e t y has e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t women w i l l be p r o d u c t i v e , g a i n f u l l y employed members o f s o c i e t y while m a i n t a i n i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t women w i l l f o r f e i t r o l e s which i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r performance o f the maternal r o l e . T h e r e f o r e , a t the time women r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s engendered by these r o l e s p l a c e s them i n a double bind. Contemporary t h e o r i s t s d e f i n e a double b i n d as a meaningful message r e c e i v e d by an i n d i v i d u a l which i s p a r a d o x i c a l . I t i s important f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to comply with the message, but i t i s s t r u c t u r e d so th a t the a s s e r t i o n s i t c o n t a i n s are mutually e x c l u s i v e . In a d d i t i o n , the r e c i p i e n t can n e i t h e r ignore the message nor r e a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y to i t (Bateson, Jackson, Haley, & Weakland, 1956; Watzalwick, Beavin, & Jackson, 1967). In the case o f women embarking on motherhood, s o c i e t y has g i v e n them two c o n f l i c t i n g messages. Mothers cannot be f u l f i l l e d and p r o d u c t i v e members of s o c i e t y without p a i d employment, however, mothers cannot be e f f e c t i v e mothers u n l e s s they remain a t home with t h e i r c h i l d r e n f u l l - t i m e . Working f i r s t - t i m e mothers cannot conform to s o c i e t a l work-motherhood e x p e c t a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , adding the work r o l e to the maternal r o l e f o l l o w i n g maternity leave can c r e a t e a r o l e s e t t h a t is. complex, time consuming, and 5 c o n f 1 i c t u a l . These f a c t s have prompted many t h e o r i s t s to hypothesize t h a t r o l e c o n f l i c t , r o l e s t r a i n , and r o l e o v e r l o a d f o l l o w from combining f i r s t - t i m e motherhood and work (Bebbington, 1973; B i d d l e , 1979; Goode, 1960; Hood, 1983; Poloma & Garland, 1971; Rapoport & Rapoport, 1971). C o n c l u s i o n s F i r s t - t i m e motherhood r e p r e s e n t s an important t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d i n r e l a t i o n to r o l e attainment. Women's p e r c e p t i o n s o f f i r s t - t i m e motherhood and working as two r o l e s subsuming c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s pl a c e them i n a double b i n d . T h e o r i s t s hypothesize t h a t r o l e c o n f l i c t , r o l e s t r a i n , and r o l e o v e r l o a d accompany the combination o f the maternal r o l e and the work r o l e . An i n c r e a s i n g number o f f i r s t - t i m e mothers are r e t u r n i n g to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h of t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . T h i s r e c e n t phenomenon i s r e s u l t i n g i n a unique experience f o r women. The Problem There i s a l a r g e body o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e on working women with c h i l d r e n . Host s t u d i e s , however, do not d i f f e r e n t i a t e f i r s t - t i m e mothers from.mothers with more than one c h i l d . In a d d i t i o n , most s t u d i e s are o r i e n t e d to women with school-age c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than i n f a n t s (Bohen & Viveros-Long, 1981; Michelson, 1983). There i s a p a u c i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n on f i r s t - t i m e mothers r e t u r n i n g to work a f t e r the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t i n f a n t . 6 In the lay l i t e r a t u r e , however, there are many books written to a s s i s t f i r s t - t i m e mothers i n combining their maternal role with paid employment. Authors such as Richardson (1980), Eheart and Martin (1983), and Isbi s t e r (1978) have addressed the needs of women returning to work after the b i r t h of the i r f i r s t infant. These authors suggest that working f i r s t - t i m e mothers need to make changes i n their marital r e l a t i o n s h i p s , standards for household tasks, and standards for work. In addition, the authors indicate that these women need to fin d a r e l i a b l e and safe form of c h i l d care, and they imply t h i s i s not an easy task. F i n a l l y , f i r s t - t i m e working mothers are advised to change thei r friends and find others who are able to understand the i r l i f e s t y l e . These needs have not been addressed by the professional l i t e r a t u r e . Therefore, the question addressed by t h i s study i s : What i s the experience of women returning to work following the b i r t h of their f i r s t infant? The Purpose As a r e s u l t of thi s increasingly common, but ignored phenomenon, the purpose of t h i s study i s to describe the experience of fi r s t - t i m e mothers returning to work following the b i r t h of the i r infant. The study w i l l i d e n t i f y common concepts and core variables from data provided by the women themselves. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms First-time mothers- women who have given b i r t h to their 7 f i r s t i n f a n t . Work- p a i d f u l l time employment o u t s i d e o f the home. F u l l time employment i s d e f i n e d as a t h i r t y to f o r t y hour week. I n f a n t - a male or female c h i l d between one month and one year o f age. Assumptions The author undertakes t h i s study on the assumption t h a t a r e t u r n to work by f i r s t - t i m e mothers i s a s i g n i f i c a n t and unique event i n a woman's l i f e . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s assumed t h a t these women are the most ac c u r a t e and l e g i t i m a t e source o f i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r e x perience. L i m i t a t i o n s The p o p u l a t i o n o f f i r s t - t i m e mothers r e t u r n i n g to work i s l i m i t e d to women who have attended the postpartum r e u n i o n c l a s s e s a t lower mainland h e a l t h u n i t s and under the aus p i c e s o f the Vancouver C h i l d b i r t h A s s o c i a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the study p o p u l a t i o n i s l i m i t e d to those meeting the c r i t e r i a d e l i n e a t e d i n chapter two, and con s e n t i n g to be int e r v i e w e d . As a r e s u l t , t h i s study p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s to a l a r g e e x t e n t o f middle c l a s s women from a l i m i t e d e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n . Chapter two o u t l i n e s an i n d u c t i v e r e s e a r c h methodology, grounded theory and d e s c r i b e s d e t a i l s i n r e l a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a n t s e l e c t i o n , data c o l l e c t i o n , data a n a l y s i s , and e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . 8 CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY An Inductive Methodology As previously stated i n chapter one, there i s a paucity of professional l i t e r a t u r e on f i r s t - t i m e mothers returning to work. Therefore, an inductive methodology was required to explore the experience of these women and to generate substantive theory from*'the descriptive data c o l l e c t e d . Grounded theory, as described by Glaser and Strauss (1967), permits the successive r a i s i n g of descriptive data, through constant comparative analysis, to y i e l d a conceptual framework of th e o r e t i c a l constructs. This approach i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n s o c i e t a l groups where no adequate theory e x i s t s to explain t h e i r psychosocial processes and their behaviour within t h e i r s o c i a l action scene. By means of constant comparative analysis, q u a l i t a t i v e data are co l l e c t e d , coded, and assigned to categories. Conceptual categories are then compared and-contrasted. Data analysis and data c o l l e c t i o n progress simultaneously. Categories are related, integrated, and reduced to generate concepts (Stern & Pyles, 1985). Concepts are integrated and developed to increasing l e v e l s of abstraction u n t i l the evolution of substantive theory, grounded i n and i l l u s t r a t e d by the data. 9 i s complete. Grounded theory i s aimed at the conceptual analysis of s o c i a l r e a l i t y . This chapter presents an overview of the research methodology which includes the se l e c t i o n of participants* data c o l l e c t i o n , data analysis, and e t h i c a l considerations. C r i t e r i a for Selection The ensuing c r i t e r i a directed the se l e c t i o n of possible suitable candidates for admission to the study. In addition, the rationale underlying the c r i t e r i a are included. Participants suitable were: 1) women who have returned to f u l l time employment following the b i r t h of the i r f i r s t c h i l d . Rationale: target population, 2) women married or l i v i n g with a partner. Rationale: the concerns of single mothers might complicate the- experience, 3) women with spouses working f u l l time. Rationale: a spouse serving, as an infant caregiver and homemaker would a l t e r the experience, 4 ) women that had an infant not under hospital care or medical care for any i l l n e s s . Rationale: an i l l infant might complicate the experience, 5) women at work for at l e a s t two months at the time of the f i r s t interview. Rationale: t h i s provided the women with an opportunity to experience work and mothering while ensuring that they 10 were, s t i l l adjusting to the experience, 6) English speaking women. Rationale: t h i s f a c i l i t a t e d communication. Selection Procedure The Vancouver Health Units and the Vancouver C h i l d b i r t h Association provide prenatal classes and postpartum reunion classes for the majority of women i n the lower mainland. Therefore, these two organizations were contacted, and information was provided to them as to the nature of the study. Women, who met t h e - c r i t e r i a , were contacted by the Vancouver Health Department and provided with the contents of the introductory l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g the study (Appendix A). Women, who met the c r i t e r i a , were contacted by the Vancouver Childbirth: Association- and .provided information about the study through telephone conversations or at postpartum reunion classes. Seventeen women were i d e n t i f i e d by the Vancouver Health Department and the Vancouver C h i l d b i r t h Association. The women were provided with the- researcher's phone number. Three women contacted the researcher by telephone. A l l of these women were included i n the study; however, one subsequently refused to pa r t i c i p a t e and gave no reason. Six women were included i n the study by means of a subsequent phone c a l l by the researcher. Six women were precluded from p a r t i c i p a t i o n as they were working less than three days a week or had not returned to work at the time of contact. One 1 1 woman was excluded because her c h i l d had been born with c o n g e n i t a l anomalies and was undergoing c o n t i n u i n g h o s p i t a l c a r e . In t o t a l , e i g h t women were i n t e r v i e w e d f o r the study with seven o f these women i n t e r v i e w e d a second time. T h i s sample s i z e i s c o n s i s t e n t with Grounded Theory methodology. With t h i s methodology, p o p u l a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r data c o l l e c t i o n are based on t h e o r e t i c a l r e l e v a n c e to a ge n e r a l area r e l a t e d t o s u b s t a n t i v e theory. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e o r e t i c a l sampling uses advancement o f emerging theory, as c r i t e r i a f o r d ata c o l l e c t i o n ; r a t h e r than preplanned i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n ( G l a s e r SE S t r a u s s , 1 9 6 7 ) . Some o f the women were concerned about b e i n g audio tape recorded; however, a f t e r b e i n g r e a s s u r e d about c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and- t h e i r r i g h t to request tape e r a s u r e , the women were very comfortable with the e n t i r e process. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the P a r t i c i p a n t s Demographic data were c o l l e c t e d from p a r t i c i p a n t s a t the end o f the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . The women ranged i n age from 25 to 33 years. A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were married and had worked from 4 t o 14 years. The women worked from 35 to 45 hours per week. A l l o f the. women were Caucasian. Combined incomes f o r the women and t h e i r husbands ranged from $30,000 per year to over $60,000 per year. The i n f a n t s ranged i n age from 5 months t o 11 months a t the time o f i n i t i a l c o n t a c t . There were two nurses, one lawyer, two te a c h e r s , one s a l e s s u p e r v i s o r , one manager, and one computer o p e r a t o r . 12 Data C o l l e c t i o n The r e s e a r c h e r conducted a s e r i e s o f s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . The i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' homes wit h one woman i n t e r v i e w e d a t the r e s e a r c h e r ' s home. The i n t e r v i e w s o c c u r r e d over a s i x t e e n week p e r i o d . Each i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d 60 to 90 minutes. E i g h t women were in t e r v i e w e d once, and seven women were r e i n t e r v i e w e d to f u r t h e r e x p l o r e concepts and to v a l i d a t e the emerging core v a r i a b l e . The r e s e a r c h e r p r o v i d e d p a r t i c i p a n t s with i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature o f the study and the r e s e a r c h e r ' s motives f o r d o i ng the study a t the i n i t i a l c o n t a c t . Open-ended q u e s t i o n s were asked and acceptance o f s u b j e c t s ' r e p l i e s and statements was shown. R e f l e c t i o n and s i l e n c e were used t o encourage p a r t i c i p a n t s to e l a b o r a t e on t h e i r thoughts, f e e l i n g s , and remarks. P a r t i c i p a n t s ' e q u i v o c a l or obscure remarks were c l a r i f i e d . An u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f grounded theory i s to d i s c o v e r what i s happening i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r than to assume what i s happening ( G l a s e r , 1978). I t i s , however, n e i t h e r p o s s i b l e to e l i m i n a t e a l l preconceptions nor i s i t d e s i r a b l e , s i n c e p r e c o n c e p t i o n s may be used to s e n s i t i z e the re s e a r c h e r to p o s s i b l e theory ( G l a s e r , 1978). T h e r e f o r e , each i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w opened with the q u e s t i o n : " How has i t been f o r you s i n c e your r e t u r n to work." The r e s e a r c h e r pursued and c l a r i f i e d p a r t i c i p a n t s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s and 13 f e e l i n g s p e r t a i n i n g to the experience. At each subsequent i n t e r v i e w , d i r e c t i o n was r e c e i v e d from p r e v i o u s s e n s i t i z a t i o n to e x i s t i n g theory to e x p l o r e i n i t i a l concepts t h a t had begun to emerge from the data. Data were analyzed and s y n t h e s i z e d from the i n i t i a l t h r ee i n t e r v i e w s , and c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s began to emerge. P a r t i c i p a n t s were encouraged to e x p l o r e t h e i r experience f r e e l y a t the beginning/ o f the f o u r t h and subsequent i n t e r v i e w s , but as the i n t e r v i e w s progressed the r e s e a r c h e r responded to p a r t i c i p a n t s ' statements with q u e s t i o n s designed to c l a r i f y , deepen, and broaden p a r t i c i p a n t s ' remarks. Questions were s t r u c t u r e d to e x p l o r e concepts i d e n t i f i e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n preceeding i n t e r v i e w s . As the conceptual framework emerged, subsequent interviews- were used to develop the framework. T h e o r e t i c a l sampling enabled the r e s e a r c h e r to v e r i f y the emerging conceptual framework by q u e s t i o n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s as to i t s f i t , r e l e v a n c e , and u t i l i t y ( G l a s e r , 1978). In the c o n c l u d i n g second i n t e r v i e w s , the women were p r o v i d e d with the concepts developed from p r e c e d i n g i n t e r v i e w s and questionned as to the v a l i d i t y and u t i l i t y o f the concepts i n order t o advance the emerging s u b s t a n t i v e theory. Data A n a l y s i s The r e s e a r c h e r t r a n s c r i b e d the audio taped i n t e r v i e w s on a word p r o c e s s o r . A n a l y s i s o f the data f o l l o w e d u s i n g 14 Maxwell's and Maxwell's (1980) methodological template o f continuous comparative a n a l y s i s d e r i v e d from G l a z e r and S t r a u s s * s (1967) Grounded Theory. The f i v e stages o u t l i n e d --• below m a i n t a i n a balance between i n d u c t i o n and d e d u c t i o n and operate to d i s c o v e r and e x p l i c a t e b a s i c s o c i a l p rocesses. Stage 1: C r e a t i n g A n a l y t i c U n i t s Data are c o l l e c t e d and i n t i a l l y a l l d a t a are c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t i n continuous comparative a n a l y s i s . Data are examined l i n e by l i n e and coded. Codes symbolize events, p r o c e s s e s , and a c t i o n s and are o f t e n drawn from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' remarks. Stage 2: Concept Formation Coded data are. compared and c o n t r a s t e d . Coded-data c l u s t e r i n c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s . Conceptual c a t e g o r i e s are t e n t a t i v e and undergo a l t e r a t i o n d u r i n g continuous comparative a n a l y s i s . Stage 3 : Concept Development Conceptual c a t e g o r i e s are compared and c o n t r a s t e d i n order to generate new p r o p e r t i e s and account f o r v a r i a t i o n s . Higher- l e v e l concepts subsume l e s s e r c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s i n o r d e r to i n c r e a s e the denseness and the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the concepts. Conceptual c a t e g o r i e s are compared and c o n t r a s t e d to concepts from the l i t e r a t u r e to advance the emerging^ theory. T h e o r e t i c a l sampling of e m p i r i c a l data s u b s t a n t i a t e s and develops emerging concepts. When no new 15 i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to the hypotheses can be e l i c i t e d , the c a t e g o r i e s are s a t u r a t e d and data c o l l e c t i o n ceases. Stage 4; Concept I n t e g r a t i o n Developed concepts are compared. The concept with the g r e a t e s t e x p l a n a t o r y power i s i d e n t i f i e d as the core v a r i a b l e . The core v a r i a b l e i s examined i n r e l a t i o n to other concepts. Examples from the d a t a support the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the core v a r i a b l e and other concepts, and ongoing data c o l l e c t i o n v a l i d a t e s them. Stage 5 ; P r o d u c t i o n o f the Research Monograph The r e s e a r c h r e p o r t p r e s e n t s s u b s t a n t i v e theory. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the core v a r i a b l e and r e l e v a n t concepts i s e x p l i c a t e d . The core v a r i a b l e and r e l e v a n t concepts are interwoven with references- from-the l i t e r a t u r e . Examples from the d e s c r i p t i v e data support the a n a l y s i s . E t h i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s The study consent form ( Appendix B ) p e r t a i n e d to p a r t i c i p a n t e t h i c a l concerns and was reviewed with each p a r t i c i p a n t a t the b e g i n n i n g - o f the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . In a d d i t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r p r o v i d e d p a r t i c i p a n t s with i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the storage and u l t i m a t e d i s p o s i t i o n o f the data i n the form o f audio tapes, computer software, and t r a n s c r i p t s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were r e a s s u r e d by the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t a l l p e r s o n a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n would be excluded from the t r a n s c r i p t s and the f i n a l r e p o r t . 16 I t was not a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the study would be harmful to- the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s would b e n e f i t from d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r e xperience o f combining work and motherhood to the r e s e a r c h e r . Approval o f the r e s e a r c h proposal was o b t a i n e d from the UBC B e h a v i o u r a l Sciences Screening Committee f o r Research and Other S t u d i e s I n v o l v i n g Human S u b j e c t s , the Vancouver He a l t h Department Research P r o j e c t Committee, and a teacher with the Vancouver C h i l d b i r t h A s s o c i a t i o n before the study was i n i t i a t e d . Chapter three develops a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f c o n s t a n t comparative d a t a a n a l y s i s with examples from the r e s e a r c h e r ' s data. In a d d i t i o n , an o u t l i n e o f the emergent conc e p t u a l framework i s presented. 17 CHAPTER 3 APPLICATION OF GROUNDED THEORY The Process o f A n a l y z i n g the Data Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s an important r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y i n n u r s i n g . Nursing i s a p r a c t i c e p r o f e s s i o n with a r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g theory base. Nursing r e s e a r c h " r e q u i r e s new ways of g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n so i t w i l l be t r u l y u s e f u l i n enhancing c l i n i c a l judgement" ( D i e r s , 1979, p. 32). Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h enables nurse r e s e a r c h e r s to ask d i f f e r e n t kinds o f q u e s t i o n s and, u s i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e methodology, to f i n d answers r e q u i r e d to improve the q u a l i t y of n u r s i n g c a r e . Grounded theory seeks e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r e v o l v i n g s o c i a l phenomena. I t i s a q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h methodology t h a t permits nurse r e s e a r c h e r s to extend n u r s i n g theory to new s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s . Although there are i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f f i r s t - t i m e mothers r e t u r n i n g to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d , l i t t l e i s known about t h i s phenomenon. L o f l a n d and L o f l a n d (1984) suggest t h a t "you must p a r t i c i p a t e i n the mind o f another human being to a c q u i r e s o c i a l knowledge" (p. 13). Grounded theory r e q u i r e s i n t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g o f r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s to gather d e s c r i p t i v e data. Through c o n s t a n t comparative a n a l y s i s , s u b s t a n t i v e theory e v o l v e s from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d e s c r i p t i v e data. 18 T h i s chapter o u t l i n e s a process f o r comparing, c o n t r a s t i n g , a b s t r a c t i n g , and c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and con c e p t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . Constant comparative a n a l y s i s transforms d e s c r i p t i v e data i n t o s u b s t a n t i v e theory which i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' views o f t h e i r s o c i a l r e a l i t y . Stage 1 — C r e a t i n g A n a l y t i c U n i t s As data were c o l l e c t e d they were examined l i n e by l i n e and s o r t e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s c a l l e d c onceptual codes. Conceptual codes symbolize events, p r o c e s s e s , and a c t i o n s . G l a z e r (1978) d e s c r i b e s the e s s e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between data and theory as a conc e p t u a l code, and he s t a t e s "conceptual codes transcend the e m p i r i c a l nature o f the data while c o n c e p t u a l l y a c c o u n t i n g f o r the processes w i t h i n the data" (p. 55). In t h i s study there were 54 conceptual codes t h a t v a r i e d i n l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n . Each p i e c e o f datum o f t e n was pl a c e d i n more than one conceptual code, s i n c e the codes were t e n t a t i v e and amenable to change. Some codes common to a l l o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e d t r a n s i t i o n , l o s s , g u i l t , t a k i n g c o n t r o l , adequate c h i l d c a r e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , e x p e c t a t i o n s , c h o i c e , finances,-work (need to work, l i k e to work, have always worked), ca n ' t win, do what i s r i g h t f o r you, l o s s o f s e l f , not enough hours i n the day, p r i o r i z i n g , p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , l e t t i n g go, t i r e d , i g n o r i n g husbands, 19 r e s e n t i n g husbands, n e g o t i a t i n g f o r husband's hel p , no time to meet own needs, support systems, n o t h i n g out t h e r e , and hard. I n each o f the i n t e r v i e w s s t r o n g themes emerged. Each o f the women s t r e s s e d a d i f f e r e n t a spect o f her experience although the women shared s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s . For example, one woman s t r e s s e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered with demands at work, from an unsympathetic boss and a group o f s e v e r e l y handicapped c h i l d r e n . T h i s woman experien c e d e x h a u s t i o n and l o s s o f c o n t r o l r e l a t e d i n l a r g e measure to her d i f f i c u l t i e s a t work as w e l l as a t home. These themes were a l s o expressed by o t h e r women i n t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s , but were shaped by t h e i r v a r y i n g circumstances. Stage 2 — C o n c e p t Formation F o l l o w i n g the c r e a t i o n o f a n a l y t i c u n i t s , c o n s t a n t comparative a n a l y s i s was i n i t i a t e d . . E a r l y e f f o r t s a t a n a l y s i s p e r m i t t e d c a t e g o r i e s to be c o l l a p s e d i n t o h i g h e r l e v e l concepts. Higher l e v e l concepts prompted q u e s t i o n s i n subsequent i n t e r v i e w s designed to broaden, deepen, and c l a r i f y p a r t i c i p a n t s ' remarks. For example, hard, not enough hours i n the day, no time to meet own needs, t i r e d , and r e s e n t i n g husbands became exhaustion. T h i s concept prompted the q u e s t i o n : "How would you d e s c r i b e your s p e c i f i c concerns about r e t u r n i n g to work?" L e t t i n g go, p r i o r i z i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , p l a n n i n g , n e g o t i a t i n g , e s t a b l i s h i n g new 20 e x p e c t a t i o n s , and d e l e g a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s became g e t t i n g i t under c o n t r o l , and the q u e s t i o n became: "What do you do to.manage work, mothering, and being a w i f e ? " C a t e g o r i e s i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d , such as s o c i a l l i f e and support systems, were dropped when subsequent q u e s t i o n i n g evoked i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t responses. Stage 3—Concept Development Conceptual c a t e g o r i e s were compared and c o n t r a s t e d to generate new p r o p e r t i e s and account f o r v a r i a t i o n i n the data. In a d d i t i o n , as conceptual c a t e g o r i e s were being compared among themselves, they were being compared with concepts i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The concepts became denser and more i n t e g r a t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h i s treatment. Three higher l e v e l concepts evolved from these comparisons. The higher l e v e l concepts i n c l u d e d : doing what i s r i g h t f o r me, f e e l i n g overwhelmed, and g e t t i n g i t under c o n t r o l . Rereading o r i g i n a l i n t e r v i e w s confirmed t h a t the concepts were s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the data. In a d d i t i o n , the concepts i n c o r p o r a t e d most o f the a n a l y t i c u n i t s from stage one o f the process. Ongoing t h e o r e t i c a l sampling developed the e v o l v i n g concepts' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u n t i l the concepts approached s a t u r a t i o n . No new concepts were i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g t h i s p rocess. C o n c u r r e n t l y , r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e was i n v e s t i g a t e d to provide concepts f o r comparison and to advance the emerging theory. 21 Stage 4—Concept Integration As a r e s u l t of concept comparison, f i r s t - t i m e working mothers' role r e d e f i n i t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d as the concept with the greatest explanantory power and emerged as the core variable. Maxwell and Maxwell (1980) designate the core variable as that which accounts for the most v a r i a t i o n i n the data (p. 236). The participants described themselves as trying to combine new roles with no previous role models to serve as a template for t h e i r new image of themselves. The participants validated role r e d e f i n i t i o n as the core variable. Role r e d e f i n i t i o n accounted for the greatest v a r i a t i o n i n the behavioural patterns of the women's experiences, and i t enhanced the integration of most of the data c o l l e c t e d . Stage 5—Production of the Research Monograph The research report i s the f i n a l stage of constant comparative analysis and requires the e x p l i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the core variable and the developed concepts. Ongoing data analysis revealed three stages i n the process of r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . Each of the three stages evolved around a central concept which was inherent to the process of role r e d e f i n i t i o n (see figure 1). The stages of the process were sequential and were directed to a s p e c i f i c goal: the management of multiple ro l e s . The process concluded at the f i n a l stage, however; a change i n 22 circumstances r e s u l t e d i n the women r e e n t e r i n g the process. Although core concepts were i d e n t i f i a b l e to some ext e n t i n a l l stages o f the p r o c e s s , a s p e c i f i c a s p e c t o f the e x p e r i e n c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a major concept, dominated each stage o f the process. T h i s t h e s i s i s a w r i t t e n r e p o r t d e s c r i b i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the core v a r i a b l e and the developed concepts. The a p p l i c a t i o n o f continuous comparative a n a l y s i s to e i g h t f i r s t - t i m e mothers' experience o f r e t u r n i n g to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t i n f a n t y i e l d e d a theory o f s o c i a l processes termed working f i r s t - t i m e mothers' r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . 23 F i g u r e 1 The Process o f Role R e d e f i n i t i o n — A T h e o r e t i c a l Framework T A K I N G O N M U L T I P L E R O L E S " W H A T I S R I G H T F O R M E " FACTORS IN DECISION-MAKING 1. societal expectations 2. expectations of work role 3. hu3band '3 response 4. adequate child care 5. finances E X P E R I E N C I N G R O L E S T R A I N " O V E R W H E L M E D " 1. MEETING EXPECTATIONS 2. CARRYING OUT RESPONSIBILITIES 3. RESULTANT FEELINGS a) guilt b) loss c) exhaustion d) ambivalence e) resentment f) anger R E D U C I N G R O L E S T R A I N " G E T T I N G I T U N D E R C O N T R O L ' LETTING GO myths expectations feelings SETTING PRIORITIES ORGANIZING AND PLANNING NEGOTIATING 5. ESTABLISHING NEW EXPECTATIONS AND DELEGATING RESPONSIBILITIES! 24 Chapter four d e s c r i b e s e i g h t f i r s t - t i m e mothers' exper i e n c e of r e t u r n i n g to work a f t e r the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t i n f a n t and r e l a t e s the women's experience to comparable concepts found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . 25 Chapter 4 A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS The Women's Experience o f Returning to Work F o l l o w i n g the B i r t h o f t h e i r F i r s t C h i l d We have both changed. We are both r e d e f i n i n g our r o l e s and r e d e f i n i n g our e x p e c t a t i o n s about o u r s e l v e s and each other. Using grounded theory to e x p l o r e what i t i s l i k e to r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f a f i r s t c h i l d r e s u l t e d i n the - d i s c o v e r y o f a core v a r i a b l e which e x p l a i n e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' common ex p e r i e n c e . Constant comparative a n a l y s i s o f the data r e v e a l e d the study p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n v o l v e d i n a process t h a t changed t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e s as mothers, wives, and workers. The process moved the women from one s e t o f r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s to a new s e t . Role r e d e f i n i t i o n , as the core v a r i a b l e , transcends the data and e x p l a i n s the v a r i a t i o n s i n the data but remains grounded i n the data (Maxwell & Maxwell, 1980). Role r e d e f i n i t i o n was i n i t i a t e d by the b i r t h o f the women's i n f a n t s and the women's assumption o f the maternal r o l e . The f i r s t stage i n v o l v e d the women s o r t i n g through a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s r e s u l t i n g i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n to work; a d e c i s i o n t h a t was " r i g h t f o r them." Once the women had re t u r n e d to work and were i n v o l v e d i n the m u l t i p l e r o l e s o f w i f e . 26 mother, and worker, they r e a l i z e d t h e i r l i v e s were "overwhelming." The women were s u f f e r i n g from r o l e s t r a i n and d e s c r i b e d t h e i r attempts to "get i t under c o n t r o l " or reduce t h e i r r o l e s t r a i n . Not onl y were the women i n v o l v e d i n the process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n f o r themselves; t h e i r husband's r o l e s had to change as a consequence. T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s the process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n as e x p e r i e n c e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study. The stages o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n i d e n t i f y the c o n d i t i o n s under which the process o c c u r r e d . Each stage o f the process evolved around a c e n t r a l concept. The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s s u b s t a n t i a t e the stages o f the pr o c e s s . Relevant l i t e r a t u r e i s used to c h a l l e n g e , c o n f i r m , or expand the concepts presented h e r e i n . Taking on M u l t i p l e Roles I t h i n k t h a t c o l l e c t i v e l y women have been t o l d to do c e r t a i n t h i n g s a t c e r t a i n times, and you have to j u s t say what i s r i g h t f o r me, and what i s r i g h t f o r my f a m i l y and to h e l l with everyone e l s e . Taking on m u l t i p l e r o l e s evolved around the concept o f doing what i s r i g h t f o r me. The b i r t h o f t h e i r i n f a n t s i n i t i a t e d a major change i n the women's l i v e s . The women d e s c r i b e d t h e i r assumption o f the maternal r o l e as a major t r a n s i t i o n i n t h e i r l i v e s l a r g e l y because o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y they had taken on. I'm not sa y i n g i t i s not worth i t because i t i s . 27 I t i s j u s t t h a t i t changes your whole l i f e . I t ' s harder when you get o l d e r , l i k e I am twenty-nine. I was on my own f o r a number of yea r s , and I d i d n ' t get married u n t i l I was twenty-seven. I t was a very, very, very hard adjustment f o r me to make. You've always got someone to answer t o , you've got t h i s l i t t l e person who o n l y depends on you. Sometimes, i t s I don't know how to e x p l a i n the f e e l i n g , you wish i t wasn't always so demanding. Both Hobbs (1968) and R o s s i (1968) view the assumption o f the maternal r o l e as a t r a n s i t i o n . These t h e o r i s t s i n d i c a t e the assumption o f the maternal r o l e r e q u i r e s a change i n r o l e s and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In a d d i t i o n , women are p o o r l y prepared f o r t h i s demanding task and the e x p e c t a t i o n s fo r the maternal r o l e are high (Gecas, 1976; Hobbs, 1968; R o s s i , 1968) These t h e o r i s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the t r a n s i t i o n to the maternal r o l e i s d i f f i c u l t . In a d d i t i o n , the women i n the study had to decide whether or not to r e t u r n to work which many o f them d i d d u r i n g t h e i r m a t ernity l e a v e . P i c k e n s ' (1982) study o f p r i m i p a r a s ' i d e n t i t y r e f o r m u l a t i o n d u r i n g decision-making to r e t u r n to work y i e l d e d a number of stages i n d ecision-making. The women planned i n r e l a t i o n to combining c a r e e r and motherhood r o l e s , determined the c o s t s and rewards o f the maternal r o l e , and c o n s i d e r e d p r i o r i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to the r i g h t d e c i s i o n (Pickens, 1982). 28 P i c k e n s ' f i n d i n g s are congruent with the study f i n d i n g s s i n c e the women c o n s i d e r e d many f a c t o r s while on t h e i r m a t e r n i t y leave before d e c i d i n g t h a t i t was r i g h t f o r them to resume the r o l e o f worker. F a c t o r s i n Decision-making The women's d e c i s i o n was made a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e energy and time was devoted to i n t r o s p e c t i o n . The study women's i n t r o s p e c t i v e and methodical approach i s r e f e r r e d to by J a n i s and Mann (1982) as " v i g i l a n c e . " V i g i l a n c e r e q u i r e s the d e c i s i o n maker to c o l l e c t r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , o b j e c t i v e l y a s s i m i l a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n , and e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s before making a c h o i c e ( J a n i s & Mann, 1982). The women unanimously i d e n t i f i e d f i v e f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e d whether or not t h e i r d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n to work was r i g h t f o r them: 1. s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , 2. e x p e c t a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the work r o l e , 3. t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r husbands' responses to t h e i r work r o l e , 4. t h e i r a b i l i t y to make adequate c h i l d c a r e arrangements, and 5. f i n a n c e s . 1. S o c i e t a l E x p e c t a t i o n s . The women had r e c e i v e d two messages as to s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The f i r s t was t h a t "good" mothers stayed home, because i t was wrong to leave your i n f a n t i n the care o f another and r e t u r n to work. Brown (1984) quotes a number o f fundamentalist "new r i g h t " p r i n t and media sources t h a t espouse t h i s viewpoint. The second was t h a t women were i n f e r i o r i f they stayed a t home a l l day 29 and looked a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Connover and Gray (1983) d e s c r i b e numerous sources o f women's equal r i g h t s views such as j o u r n a l s , n e w s l e t t e r s , labour unions, and media events. Of course i t doesn't matter t h a t f o r years dad has gone o f f to work every morning, and i t was j u s t f i n e because he had mom th e r e . But i f you go o f f to work every morning and j u s t come home and pat the k i d on the head a t n i g h t you are awful, you are t e r r i b l e . T h i s i s the t h i n g t h a t dad has done f o r years, and i t i s t o t a l l y accepted, but i f mom does i t i t i s s a c r i l e g e . On the oth e r hand I have a s i s t e r - i n - l a w , they have f i v e - l i . t t l e _ g . i r l s , and she gets p r e s s u r e from her s i s t e r s f o r s i t t i n g a t home. D a l l y (1982) d i s c u s s e s the s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t to leave your c h i l d and go to work i s c o n s i d e r e d a form o f s a c r i l e g e . D a l l y a t t r i b u t e s s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s to the i d e a l i z a t i o n o f motherhood a r i s i n g from s o c i e t a l economic and p o l i t i c a l motives. She a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t mothering as a s k i l l i s undervalued, and th a t women who are o n l y mothers are d i s p a r a g e d by o t h e r s i n s o c i e t y ( D a l l y , 1982). The women, faced with c o n f l i c t i n g messages from s o c i e t y , reached the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t as f a r as s o c i e t y was concerned they c o u l d not win. T h e r e f o r e , the women decided to ignore s o c i e t y ' s messages and do what seemed r i g h t f o r them, and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . People sometimes say the c r u e l e s t t h i n g s l i k e "how 30 can you come back, to work. How can you leave him, or how can you stay a t home." I t h i n k t h a t you have to f i n d out what i s r i g h t f o r you and know you can' t win, you c a n ' t p l e a s e everyone e l s e . You have to r e a l l y d e c i d e what you want, what you need, and what your baby needs, and t h a t i s not going to be the same f o r everybody. Double bi n d theory suggests i n d i v i d u a l s can n e i t h e r ignore p a r a d o x i c a l messages they are r e c e i v i n g nor r e a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y to them (Bateson, Jackson, Haley & Weakland, 1956). The women i n t h i s study c o u l d and d i d ignore the p a r a d o x i c a l messages they r e c e i v e d from o t h e r s r e g a r d i n g s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , the women were not e x p e r i e n c i n g a double b i n d i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . Goode's (1960) theory a p p l i e s to the study women's exp e r i e n c e , s i n c e he b e l i e v e s the f a m i l y ' s s o l u t i o n s and not s o c i e t y ' s g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n s f o r r o l e d e c i s i o n s are meaningful to i n d i v i d u a l s and, t h e r e f o r e , are guides f o r i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n . 2. E x p e c t a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the Work Role. The women had worked from 4 to 14 years and had the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t they would continue to be workers. I j u s t have never been home. I j u s t don't know what i t i s l i k e not to work. Working a f t e r I got out of u n i v e r s i t y , I have always worked. That i s what I do with my l i f e . I have a c a r e e r . That i s what you do 31 when you grow up, you have a job. The women i n . t h i s study d i d not want to r e s t r i c t themselves to the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o f f u l l time wives and mothers. The l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t c u r r e n t l y there i s a r e v i v a l o f women's i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s : remaining i n the home, having c h i l d r e n , and being supported by t h e i r husbands (Conover & Gray, 1983). Brown's (1984) study i n d i c a t e s many o f the women o p t i n g f o r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s b e l i e v e t h a t they have adopted a p o s i t i o n t h a t w i l l save the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . The study women make no c l a i m s f o r the m o r a l i t y o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n . They are pursuing a d i f f e r e n t course because i t i s r i g h t f o r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . I have no problem with mothers who want to s t a y a t home., but don't g i v e me t h i s h o l y martyr r o u t i n e . The women d i d not want to be t o t a l l y dependent on t h e i r husbands f o r support and, t h e r e f o r e , would work a t l e a s t p a r t time. My money i s important to me. Maybe i t would be d i f f e r e n t i f I had been e i g h t e e n when I got married, l i k e my s i s t e r , and wasn't used to making my own money. I have no t r o u b l e with women who are dependent on t h e i r husbands f o r money. I t i s j u s t t h a t I have worked f o r ye a r s . I put o f f having my c h i l d u n t i l l a t e r i n l i f e , and I wouldn't f e e l r i g h t not having my own money, being dependent on my husband. 32 P a r t o f the women's independence i n c l u d e d c o n t r i b u t i n g to the g o a l s t h a t they shared with t h e i r spouses. I t i s a modest l i t t l e house but we h a r d l y had any down payment, so our mortgage payments are high and i t would be impossible f o r my husband to do i t on h i s own and I wouldn't want him to because t h a t would be too much r e s p o n s i b l i t y on him. Smith and Reid's (1986) study f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l gender d e f i n i t i o n s o f women as dependent i n d i v i d u a l s are inadequate, and t h a t women, e s t a b l i s h i n g r o l e s h a r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , have a new n o t i o n o f sex e q u a l i t y which i n c l u d e s t h e i r choosing whether or not to depend on men f o r economic support. The study women are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f r o l e s h a r i n g women's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f sexual e q u a l i t y through economic independence. Some o f the women equated e a r n i n g t h e i r own money with power i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r husbands. My own money i s r e a l l y important to me. J u s t i n terms o f who c o n t r o l s the money, and the power i n v o l v e d i n a l l t h a t . Money i s power even i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s very important to me t h a t I de a l with my own f i n a n c e s . Make my own d e c i s i o n s separate from my husband's. Smith and Reid (1986) found r o l e - s h a r i n g couples i d e n t i f i e d more e g a l i t a r i a n power r e l a t i o n s h i p s than couples where the wife was not working. Although o n l y women were i n t e r v i e w e d 33 i n t h i s study, they b e l i e v e d t h e i r power r e l a t i o n s h i p s were more e g a l i t a r i a n as a r e s u l t o f their-work r o l e . Scanzoni . (1978) found the more r e s o u r c e s wives possess, the more l i k e l y they are to b a r g a i n on the b a s i s o f s e l f i n t e r e s t , and to be e f f e c t i v e i n g e t t i n g what they want. However, money was not the only reason f o r these women choosing to work. They expected t h a t s t a y i n g a t home f u l l time was not enough f o r them, t h a t they needed an o u t l e t , and t h a t the work r o l e p r o v i d e d t h a t o u t l e t . I f e e l t h a t I don't see e v e r y t h i n g she does. But on the other hand, I know th a t I would t u r n i n t o a f l y i n g f r u i t l o op i f I was a t home and had spent my whole day p i c k i n g up b l o c k s . I would j u s t d i e . I d e a l l y I t h i n k t h a t even if«Jt were t o st a y home on a more f u l l - t i m e b a s i s , I would s t i l l have to do something one or two days a week, work or do something. Be with a d u l t s , because t h a t i s what I f e e l . I f I d i d n ' t have some a d u l t s around me sometimes, t h a t would d r i v e me c r a z y . R a p h a e l - L e f f ' s (1985) f i n d i n g s suggest independent r o l e - s h a r i n g women experie n c e e r o s i o n o f i d e n t i t y , l o s s o f competence, and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n when o n l y i n v o l v e d i n the domestic job o f motherhood. Some o f the comments from the women i n t h i s study support Bernard's (1974) argument t h a t f u l l time motherhood i s o l a t e s women, and c r e a t e s mental and p h y s i c a l s t r e s s . One woman e l o q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e s her sense o f 34 i s o l a t i o n on maternity l e a v e : " l o t s o f times I was s i t t i n g here with no one to t a l k t o , I c o u l d have been i n a c a b i n i n the Nass V a l l e y i n the w i l d e r n e s s . " Work a l s o met needs f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n and accomplishment. I t h i n k t h a t i t i s good to work. I t pr o v i d e s you with an o u t l e t . I t g i v e s you an excuse to be away. Plu s i t p r o v i d e s you with your own f r i e n d s . Even i f I o n l y see these people a t work, they are mine and mine alone. F i s k e (1980) suggests t h a t deep and l o n g - l a s t i n g d y a d i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s develop i n the work arena, and t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s congruent with the women's perceptions.. In a d d i t i o n to work p r o v i d i n g an o u t l e t , the women expected t h a t t h e i r work r o l e would p r o v i d e the r a t i o n a l e f o r a lower standard f o r household t a s k s . Otherwise, i f they stayed a t home, the women b e l i e v e d t h a t o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r household tasks would be extreme and u n a t t a i n a b l e . I f I am t i r e d I have a reason to be t i r e d . I t was not j u s t because I was p l a y i n g a l l day. I have j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e v e r y t h i n g I do. The house i s a mess because I worked, the baby i s cranky because I was a t work, and he d i d n ' t see me a l l day. We are having macaroni and cheese because I was a t work. Most o f the women enjoyed t h e i r work and expected t h e i r enjoyment o f t h e i r work would c o n t i n u e ; "I l i k e to work. I hope t h a t I w i l l always be abl e to work." 35 3.The Women's P e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r Husband's Responses  to t h e i r Work Role. The women's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f themselves as workers were l i n k e d to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r husband's responses to t h e i r work r o l e . Even though the women had t h e i r own reasons f o r working, t h e i r f i n a l d e c i s i o n s were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r husbands' f e e l i n g s about t h e i r r e t u r n to work. Moore, Spain, and B i a n c h i (1984) r e p o r t e d t h a t m a r i t a l q u a l i t y was a f f e c t e d i f spouses d i s a g r e e d about whether the wife should work. I t h i n k that i n our g e n e r a t i o n , women p l a n to work now more than they ever d i d b e f o r e . Men e x p e c t . t h e i r wives to work more than they ever d i d before and you are s t i l l going to want k i d s . The women expected t h e i r resumption o f the r o l e o f worker to be c o n s i s t e n t with e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t t h e i r husbands had of them as mothers and wives. Otherwise, the women b e l i e v e d t h e i r husbands would not be s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e i r r e t u r n to work and would make them f e e l g u i l t y . Indeed, some o f the women had an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e i r husbands would respond n e g a t i v e l y i f they d i d not make a f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e i r mortgages. With my husband and I, i t was f i n a n c i a l . He always s a i d to me "look i f i t gets to be too much or you f e e l l i k e you can' t stand i t , we can always s e l l the house, or do something, you don't have to do i t . " That was understood a f t e r I went back to work and 36 was f i n d i n g i t r e a l l y hard. Before t h a t and before we had the baby, h i s a t t i t u d e was always t h a t i f two people are going to have a home, they are going to have to work, and so we never d i s c u s s e d i t , i t was always j u s t t h a t I would go back to work. Hood's (1980) study c o n f i r m s the women's concern with t h e i r husband's e x p e c t a t i o n s , s i n c e Hood found t h a t a wife's m o t i v a t i o n to r e t u r n to work i s only one component of her d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n to work, and th a t i f a husband i s not i n favour o f h i s wife working, she w i l l e i t h e r not r e t u r n to work or not stay a t work u n l e s s there i s economic need. One woman had d i f f i c u l t i e s when her husband expressed no o p i n i o n on her d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n to work. Due to her husband's l a c k o f response, t h i s woman d e f e r r e d to her mother-in-law's o p i n i o n . The women's d e s i r e f o r support from some s i g n i f i c a n t other person i n decision-making i s a f f i r m e d by S a u l n i e r ' s (1984) c o n t e n t i o n , taken from her l o n g i t u d i n a l study, t h a t p e r c e i v e d a t t i t u d e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i a l networks toward maternal employment are important to f i r s t time mothers, and shape t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s and a c t i o n s , i n r e l a t i o n to assuming the work r o l e . ^ 4 . T h e i r A b i l i t y to Make Adequate C h i l d Care  Arrangements. Adequate day care arrangements were a major i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n the women's d e c i s i o n s to r e t u r n to work, s i n c e t h e i r d e c i s i o n s to r e t u r n to work were c o n t i n g e n t on the adequacy o f t h e i r c h i l d care arrangements. 37 Most o f the women p e r c e i v e d adequate c h i l d care as having a c a r e t a k e r i n t h e i r homes to care f o r t h e i r i n f a n t s , s i n c e they f e l t t h e i r i n f a n t s needed a f a m i l i a r environment. The whole i s s u e f o r me was I w i l l go back to work but I want the best f o r him. L i k e he has got to be taken care o f r e a l l y w e l l . So I r e a l l y d i d my homework and got what I t h i n k i s the best person to come i n and look a f t e r him here. He. i s too l i t t l e to be taken out. So I worked a few weeks a t g e t t i n g t h a t r i g h t and o n l y then would I do i t or I would have r e s i g n e d otherwise. I don't care about the money. You can't go and work and have a sense o f oh my god what i s happening a t home. The women had the f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y to c o n s i d e r t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n o f adequate c h i l d care i n decision-making, s i n c e the combined incomes o f the households ranged from $30,000 to $60,000 per year. Choice i s a lu x u r y not enjoyed by many lower income f a m i l i e s . L i l l y d a h l (1981) s t a t e s about two - t h i r d s o f employed women work out of n e c e s s i t y , s i n c e they are unpartnered or t h e i r p a r t n e r s e a r n l e s s than $7000 per year. N e v e r t h e l e s s , Maynard (1985) i n d i c a t e s working women i n ge n e r a l worry about o b t a i n i n g adequate c h i l d c a r e . The study women d e f i n e d adequate c h i l d c a r e r i g o r o u s l y , s i n c e they expected adequate c h i l d c a r e to c o n s i s t o f one to one care with a c a r e t a k e r whom they c o u l d t r u s t , and one who shared t h e i r p h i losophy on c h i l d r e a r i n g . 38 I never put my daughter i n t o a r o u t i n e because I don't l i k e t h a t s o r t o f s t r u c t u r e d environment. I t h i n k t h a t when c h i l d r e n get o l d e r they are put i n t o t h a t s o r t o f a s t r u c t u r e d environment soon enough going to sc h o o l and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . My s i t t e r l i k e s i t t h a t way too. I mean we've t a l k e d about i t and she i s very much t h a t way, u n s t r u c t u r e d . The study women's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c h i l d c a r e were very h i g h , and most o f them b e l i e v e d t h a t they had high q u a l i t y c h i l d care o r g a n i z e d f o r t h e i r i n f a n t s . S c h i l l e r ' s (1980) study f i n d i n g s are congruent with the women's views t h a t f o r very young c h i l d r e n s i t t e r s i n the c h i l d ' s home or f a m i l y day care c e n t r e s with minimal c a r e g i v e r turnover are the best care environments. In a d d i t i o n , S c h i l l e r (1981) found t h a t parents are ab l e to choose a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e g i v e r s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n when the o p t i o n o f p r i v a t e arrangements i s a v a i l a b l e . The l i t e r a t u r e i s r e p l e t e i n the area o f a v a i l a b l e c h i l d c a r e , and Maynard's (1985) book, although not a study, d e s c r i b e s a l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e q u a l i t y c h i l d care i n the face o f hig h Canadian consumer demand. The women were f u l l y c o g n i z a n t o f the amount of time and energy r e q u i r e d to f i n d adequate c h i l d c a r e . They approached t h i s task i n the same way they approached the whole decision-making process. The women were c a r e f u l , methodical, and thorough. I c o n t a c t e d a l l the nanny agencies, and I got t h e i r 39 packages. I c o n t a c t e d p u b l i c h e a l t h . I r e a l l y d i d a thorough r e s e a r c h job. I got a l o t o f phone c a l l s to my ads. More phone c a l l s i n response to the l o c a l papers as opposed to the l a r g e r papers... Then I int e r v i e w e d a number o f people, I and my husband both. During the f i r s t time I i n t e r v i e w e d I asked f o r r e f e r e n c e s . . . One o f the women was a b l e to pay her mother to care f o r her i n f a n t . T h i s woman escaped the d i f f i c u l t search f o r adequate c h i l d care and expected t h a t her i n f a n t would r e c e i v e the best p o s s i b l e care i n her absence. She re c o g n i z e d the b e n e f i t s she enjoyed i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . I am a b s o l u t e l y not concerned about my daughter's care d u r i n g the day. I don't have to worry i f she has a s n i f f l e , or t h a t the b a b y s i t t e r i s going to be s i c k , or t h a t the other k i d s t h a t are there are going to be s i c k , because not one o f those t h i n g s a f f e c t s my l i f e . So I am a b s o l u t e l y a l o t l u c k i e r than a l o t o f people who go back to work, because they are concerned about the care o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The r e s t o f the women shared t h i s woman's r e c o g n i t i o n o f the b e n e f i t s o f having f a m i l y a v a i l a b l e to care f o r an i n f a n t and expressed the wish that t h i s o p t i o n had been a v a i l a b l e to them. Provence (1982) i n d i c a t e s t h a t extended f a m i l i e s have had h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n i n f a n t care and 40 t h a t t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y ' s r o l e h a s d i m i n i s h e d due t o t h e i r d i s t a n c e o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e work f o r c e . 5. F i n a n c e s . F i n a n c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s were t h e f i n a l f a c t o r o p e r a t i n g i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . H a l f o f t h e women i n d i c a t e d , w h i l e f i n a n c e s d i d n o t p l a y a m a j o r r o l e i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , t h e y e x p e c t e d t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s w o u l d h a v e c h a n g e d h a d t h e y d e c i d e d n o t t o r e t u r n t o work. T h e r e a r e women t h a t f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e r e a l l y f o r c e d . T h a t t h e y d o n ' t h a v e a d e c i s i o n . W e l l t h a t d i d n ' t h a p p e n t o u s . B u t o f c o u r s e t h e l i f e s t y l e , my l i f e s t y l e , w o u l d h a v e b e e n a f f e c t e d . I was o u t w i t h some o f my f r i e n d s l a s t week a n d one o f my f r i e n d s h a s n ' t b e e n w o r k i n g f o r a b o u t f i v e y e a r s , a n d s h e m i s s e s i t , a n d t h e r e a s o n s h e m i s s e s i t i s t h a t s h e d o e s n ' t h a v e t h e money t o b u y t h e c l o t h e s t h a t s h e u s e d t o . A l t h o u g h t h e o t h e r h a l f i n d i c a t e d t h a t f i n a n c e s were t h e i r m a j o r r e a s o n f o r r e t u r n i n g t o work, i t was c l e a r t h a t money was r e q u i r e d f o r s p e c i f i c f i n a n c i a l g o a l s t h e y c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e . We c o u l d p r o b a b l y a f f o r d f o r me n o t t o work, b u t I mean we w o u l d h a v e t o l i v e i n a n a p a r t m e n t f o r e v e r . Y e s , I mean I am a b s o l u t e l y n o t p r e p a r e d t o do t h a t a n d i f I h a v e t o w o r k . . . . I mean I am m a k i n g a c h o i c e . I am m a k i n g a c h o i c e t h a t we want t o b u y a h o u s e , a n d we a r e g o i n g o n a t r i p a t C h r i s t m a s , a n d 41 these are the th i n g s t h a t I am prepared to work f o r . P i f e r (1979) i n c l u d e s the e f f e c t s o f i n f l a t i o n and changing no t i o n s o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a reasonable standard o f l i v i n g i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the d e c i s i o n to resume- the work r o l e . T i z a r d , Moss, and Perry (1976) i n d i c a t e t h a t n o n - e s s e n t i a l f i n a n c i a l needs h e a v i l y outnumber the e s s e n t i a l ones as reasons to r e t u r n to work f o r the m a j o r i t y o f women. One o f the women i n t h i s study maintained t h a t her d e c i s i o n was made on p u r e l y f i n a n c i a l grounds: "I have to work...I don't know why anyone would go to work f u l l time by c h o i c e , because I c e r t a i n l y wouldn't." T h i s women r e l a t e d her f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y to a bad investment i n a second home th a t r e q u i r e d high mortgage payments. On the b a s i s o f a v a r i e t y o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , the women decided t h a t resuming the r o l e o f f u l l time p a i d worker was r i g h t f o r them. These women.-.were i n t e r v i e w e d about t h e i r d ecision-making r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y . The women's comments suggest t h a t on an i n t u i t i v e l e v e l the decision-making process was i n i t i a t e d f o r some o f them e a r l y i n t h e i r pregnancy. In d i s c u s s i o n , however, many o f the women i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r search f o r adequate c h i l d care and t h e i r acknowledgement of t h e i r d e c i s i o n was l e f t u n t i l t h e i r m a t e r n i t y l e a v e . An examination o f the decision-making process while i n progress would provide b e t t e r i n s i g h t i n t o 42 the p a r t played by the f a c t o r s the women i d e n t i f i e d as a f f e c t i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n - making. On resuming the r o l e o f worker, the women had assumed a l l of t h e i r r o l e s and were wives, mothers, and workers. In the next stage o f the process, the women experienced r o l e s t r a i n which they d e s c r i b e d as f e e l i n g t o t a l l y overwhelmed. E x p e r i e n c i n g Role S t r a i n I have l e s s time, and more t h i n g s to do, I am suddenly...I have a l l o f i t . Yes, I have t h i s wonderful c a r e e r and t h i s wonderful baby, but I a l s o have r o l e s t r a i n . You do get dragged down i n the beginning. I was overwhelmed. I t was a l l the t h i n g s . . . I remember one day my daughter was c r y i n g i n her high c h a i r , and I had a loa d o f laundry going. I was making din n e r and had the vacuum c l e a n e r out... My husband was s i t t i n g down b a l a n c i n g the checkbook, and he s a i d to me: "Why are you doing f i v e t h i n g s a t once?" and I j u s t went bananas. E x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e s t r a i n e v olved around the concept f e e l i n g overwhelmed, which the women found was a new experience f o r them. Meeting E x p e c t a t i o n s and C a r r y i n g Out R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s I n i t i a l l y on t h e i r r e t u r n to work, some o f the women f e l t they were doing t h e i r best i n a l l o f t h e i r r o l e s . One 43 woman d e s c r i b e s meeting a l l o f her r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s more e f f e c t i v e l y than she d i d on maternity l e a v e . When I f i r s t went back to work, i t was very good. The f i r s t month back to work I f e l t r e a l l y good. I was a b e t t e r mom a t home, I was a b e t t e r wife and I was r e a l good a t work. Now I have been back f o r four and a h a l f or f i v e months and I am t i r e d a l l the time. S l e i g h t h o l m (1985) supports t h i s study f i n d i n g o f an i n i t i a l "rosey" stage where i n d i v i d u a l s assuming new r o l e s encounter many r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and attempt to meet them a l l . In a d d i t i o n , one of the women i n d i c a t e d she had shown h e r s e l f t h a t she c o u l d do i t a l l . I am a b i t b e t t e r than the average woman th a t I can work f u l l time and have a baby. However, other women found t h e i r experience with m u l t i p l e r o l e s overwhelming from the very beginning. I t was b a s i c a l l y m i s e r a b l e . My f i r s t month was j u s t going through the motions and h a t i n g every minute o f i t . Well t h a t i s not t r u e . Not being very happy i n my work or my home l i f e which i s rough. The women maintained t h e i r p r e v i o u s s e t s o f r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s ; consequently, these e x p e c t a t i o n s d i c t a t e d the s i t u a t i o n f o r them. The women were overwhelmed and expe r i e n c e d r o l e s t r a i n , s i n c e they d i d not have enough 44 energy and resources to meet the demands placed on them. Johnson and Johnson (1980) conclude women experience high normative expectations to continue performing domestic functions i n addition to the i r work ro l e s . This conclusion is congruent with the women's description of role s t r a i n . A l l of the study women but one had a simi l a r experience. One woman had a d i f f e r e n t set of maternal role expectations from the outset, and, as a r e s u l t , was not t o t a l l y overwhelmed. She did not maintain t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c h i l d care and expected her husband would accept the majority of her daughter's care. Her expectations of her role as a wife and a worker did not d i f f e r from the other women. However, maintaining those expectations did not pose the same l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y for her as for the other women. This woman's process of role r e d e f i n i t i o n started with expectations that were more r e a l i s t i c than those of the other study women. I am happy about i t . I can't say I have any complaints. B a s i c a l l y what we were talking about previously, about my husband and do I have to get him to do things. I t i s not with our daughter. It has not got anything to do with her. B a s i c a l l y i t i s just me around the house. She i s fine. My husband i s good with her. As I said any problem i s just about the housework, which i s l i k e I said I w i l l do i t a l l , and then I w i l l get mad at him for not doing anything. 45 That has nothing to do with our daughter. The r e s t of the women recognized f e e l i n g overwhelmed resulted from their u n r e a l i s t i c expectations. You can't do everything, and I end up doing everything half-assed so what i s the point. I feel l i k e I am trying to juggle i t a l l . I am trying to be a wife, and I am trying to be a teacher and.I am tryin g to be a mother and I don't feel l i k e I am doing a good job at any of them. Burr (1972) suggests the amount of a c t i v i t y that i s normatively prescribed i n a person's l i f e , p o s i t i v e l y influences their role s t r a i n (p. 412). Scarato and S i g a l l (1979) characterize women's attempts to manage competing expectations as being "superwomen", i . e . trying to do i t a and do i t a l l pe r f e c t l y . The Women's Resultant Feelings With the recognition of the women that they were overwhelmed and, therefore, unable to meet a l l the expectations and carry a l l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s came feelings of (a) g u i l t , (b) loss, -(c) exhaustion,, (d) ambivalence, (e) resentment, and (f) anger. Several theorists describe what the women said of their negative feelings, such as g u i l t , anxiety, and ambivalence, associated with role s t r a i n , and relate those feelings to sex role stereotypes and women's expectations of themselve for nurturant behaviours (Shaevitz, 1984; Rapoport and 46 Rapoport, 1971). Loss, exhaustion, resentment, and anger are not w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Those f e e l i n g s , however, were c e n t r a l to the study women's experience of r o l e s t r a i n . G u i l t . The primary area o f g u i l t f o r the women was i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r r o l e s as mothers. The women had d i f f i c u l t i e s l e a v i n g t h e i r i n f a n t s , because most of them had the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t they alone were t o t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r i n f a n t s . For the f i r s t few weeks, maybe even months, I c e r t a i n l y had the f e e l i n g t h a t t h i s baby was mine and I had to care f o r him. Nobody c o u l d do as good a job. I t was t i e d i n t o f e e d i n g and j u s t l e a r n i n g and being a mom. Those new f e e l i n g s , a tremendous r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and dad sure came c l o s e but no... Chodorow (1978) suggests a mother must make t o t a l environmental p r o v i s i o n f o r her i n f a n t and th a t her care i n v o l v e s more than meeting p h y s i c a l needs and s a t i s f y i n g - d r i v e s , since,, i t i n c l u d e s f o s t e r i n g the i n f a n t ' s a b i l i t y to dea l with a n x i e t y . LeMasters (1977) compares maternal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with p a t e r n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t about 70-30 or 80-20. The women were r e f l e c t i n g on t h e i r s o c i a l r e a l i t y when they i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r overwhelming sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The working mother, e v e r y t h i n g i s s t r e s s e d toward mothers, i t i s only l a t e l y t h a t there has been 47 anything that the fathers have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y too. I think that a l o t of women when they read these things, you think I should be thi s super mom, my kids have to turn out r i g h t . I think that i t places a l o t of stigma, causes a l o t of pressure. Bernard (1974), Dally (1982), and LeMasters (1977) indicate mothers have assumed almost t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for parenting their c h i l d r e n and experience feelings of g u i l t when they do not f u l f i l l that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The women's g u i l t resulted i n them spending almost a l l of their time away from work with their children. I think I have also become very cl i n g y to my daughter. There are times when she i s just exhausted, she i s f a l l i n g asleep i n my arms, and I won't put her down because I fe e l that I haven't been with her enough. The women's g u i l t was fostered by others: friends, coworkers, and family. The women f e l t g u i l t y about leaving their c h i l d i n another's care, because other members of society supported the women's expectations that mothering meant twenty-four hours a day r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Bernard (1974) suggests society's impossibly high demands of mothers breed g u i l t , and thereby, supports the study women's perceptions. Johnson and Johnson (1980) suggest working mothers appear more a f f l i c t e d by self-imposed g u i l t than by objective evidence from empirical research (p. 153). The study women 48 r e c o g n i z e d some s u b j e c t i v e s e l f - i m p o s e d g u i l t as w e l l as g u i l t imposed by other s o c i e t a l members. Three o f the women had not accepted the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t they were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r i n f a n t s ' twenty-four hours a day. These women re c o g n i z e d from the o u t s e t t h a t they c o u l d share t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r i n f a n t s with t h e i r husbands and t h e i r c a r e t a k e r s , and the women f e l t n e i t h e r the same l e v e l s o f g u i l t as the other women nor the compulsion to spend a l l o f t h e i r time a t home with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I don't f e e l g u i l t y . When I get home I want to p i c k her up and hug her and p l a y with her but I don't do i t a l l n i g h t . I put her down. My husband l o v e s to pl a y with her. He would p l a y with her a l l the time. I go and f i x d i n n e r , and then I w i l l go and see what she i s doing. I don't f e e l l i k e I have to spend every minute o f my time when I am home from work with her. Bardwick's (1979) work supports these study women by f o c u s i n g on the needs o f the mother and the young c h i l d to develop r e l a t i o n s h i p s beyond the e x c l u s i v e bond to each other i n order to mai n t a i n t h e i r h e a l t h . The women a l s o experienced g u i l t i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r r o l e s as wives. Some women f e l t they were n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r husbands as a r e s u l t o f the amount o f time spent with t h e i r i n f a n t s . 49 I t i s very hard on marriages... because I always have something to do...I say to my husband, I never have a minute I can c a l l my own when I come home because I have to pick, up my daughter and p l a y with her ... Hoffman's (1963) study f i n d i n g s suggested t h a t working womens' g u i l t c r e a t e s a need f o r them to overcompensate i n the time spent i n the care o f younger c h i l d r e n and, thereby, n e g l e c t other a c t i v i t i e s . The women who d i d not spend a l l of t h e i r time a t home with t h e i r c h i l d r e n d i d not f e e l they were n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r husbands. So f a r there have been no problems so I have noth i n g to d e a l with. My husband i s happy. Our r e l a t i o n s h i p i s good. My daughter has not caused us any problems. I don't f e e l l i k e I am spending every second s t a n d i n g by the c r i b and t a k i n g care of her and my husband i s l a c k i n g , because i t i s j u s t not l i k e t h a t . Nye (1974) proposes t h a t f u l l - t i m e employment does not c o n t r i b u t e to m a r i t a l t e n s i o n s and a r e d u c t i o n i n m a r i t a l happiness. In a d d i t i o n , he suggests a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on m a r i t a l happiness f o r women who enjoy t h e i r work and whose husbands have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r work (Nye, 1974). 50 The women recognized that their g u i l t was neither a healthy nor desirable way of experiencing t h e i r return to work, and that they would be better o f f without i t . You can't hold on to the g u i l t , you have to move on and l e t i t go. Loss. "For me there was a sense of loss . Not so much a mourning type of los s . . . because there i s a physical separation and probably for the f i r s t time because I don't think I was separated from him for twelve hours before." I n i t i a l l y , the women experienced a loss of their primary re l a t i o n s h i p with their infant. Mercer (1977) relates loss to aspects of the assumption of the maternal r o l e . The study women experienced a v a r i a t i o n of t h i s , since they had assumed the t r a d i t i o n a l maternal r o l e , and, as a r e s u l t of the resumption of the work r o l e , they were faced with competing expectations and, therefore, the loss of t o t a l intimacy with their infants. The women's l o s s was associated with their expectation, that without exclusive intimate contact with their infants, t h e i r infants would not remember them. In a way I f e l t some loss. I was saying she i s not going to remember who her mom i s after she has been with a s i t t e r a l l day. Hoffman (1983) l i n k s the dimunition of women's emotional t i e s with their c h i l d r e n to a sense of loss for mothers 51 involved i n shared parenting. Hoffman (1983) hypothesizes about the loss of maternal-child intimacy that occurs when women share chi l d r e a r i n g a c t i v i t i e s with their husbands. The women i n the study did not experience loss i n sharing c h i l d r e a r i n g a c t i v i t i e s with their husbands but did experience loss when sharing chi l d r e a r i n g with their s i t t e r s . The feelings of loss were most pronounced for the women who had the expectation that no one could meet their c h i l d ' s needs the way they could; however, some of the women did not share that expectation. Consequently, these women expected a good caretaker could meet their infants' needs as e f f e c t i v e l y as themselves and experienced less pronounced feelings of loss. If you want to be at work someone else i s going to take care of your c h i l d . They are not going to do things exactly the way that you would, but as long as- they are nice, and they are loving, and you know that they are doing a good job, then the minor l i t t l e things that come up, you w i l l work those things out as they come along. Skard (1968) believes young infants are p a r t i c u l a r l y well suited to short periods of maternal absence due to their acceptance of mothering from any constant adequate caretaker. Belsky and Steinberg (1978) indicate available day care research suggests l i t t l e i s known about the 52 consequences of v a r i o u s kinds of day care on c h i l d outcomes. In a d d i t i o n , Anderson (1980) s t r e s s e s the importance of the q u a l i t y and s t a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e c a r e g i v i n g arrangements. These t h e o r i s t s do not s u p p o r t t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t no one but a mother can meet an i n f a n t s * needs; however, the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s a l s o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s about the adequacy of a l t e r n a t e c a r e g i v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Exhaustion. "There are not enough hours i n the day. Somebody r e a l l y screwed up as f a r as time and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , whoever made t h i s world. L i f e i s too s h o r t and working f i v e days a week there i s never enough time. Everybody i s s t r i v i n g f o r more, and everyone i s p u t t i n g so much s t r e s s on themselves. I t i s l i k e you are never s a t i s f i e d , and you j u s t d r i v e y o u r s e l f i n t o the ground." The women d e s c r i b e d e x h a u s t i o n as the f e e l i n g there were not enough hours i n the day and always f e e l i n g t i r e d . The women d i d not have enough energy to meet a l l of the e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h e i r r o l e s e n t a i l e d and; consequently, they were exhausted by t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d c a r e , housework, shopping, and cooking. Model (1978) found women's labour f o r c e a c t i v i t y c r e a t e s s u b s t a n t i a l o v e r l o a d with s t r a i n connected to domestic work. In a d d i t i o n , women perform f i v e times as much domestic work as t h e i r husbands and must reduce working hours, commuting d i s t a n c e , and overtime demands ( Model, 1978). 53 F e e l i n g s o f exha u s t i o n were l i n k e d to r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t work. These women r e c o g n i z e d t h e i r work r o l e s demanded a gr e a t d e a l o f t h e i r mental and p h y s i c a l energy. I went back to c l a s s , and I knew t h a t I c o u l d n ' t s t a y i n that c l a s s . I was a l r e a d y burned out. I had a c l a s s o f s e v e r e l y handicapped c h i l d r e n between e i g h t and twelve. The c h o i c e had been mine to take the c l a s s , but there was nothin g e l s e a t th a t p o i n t . I knew t h a t I c o u l d n ' t do i t . P h y s i c a l l y i t was exhausting. I have worked with k i d s l i k e t h a t f o r years and I was f i n e , but t h i s year I knew i n my guts and my he a r t t h a t i f I stayed there I was going to have a breakdown. Kantrowitz e t a l (1986), i n a re c e n t a r t i c l e i n Newsweek, c i t e e x h a u s t i o n as one o f the major d i f f i c u l t i e s o f working women. Goode's (1960) concept o f r o l e s t r a i n suggests a f i n i t e amount of time, energy, and re s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l s attempting to meet r o l e o b l i g a t i o n s . Marks (1977), on the other hand, proposes t h a t human en e r g i e s are i n f i n i t e l y expandable g i v e n a high l e v e l o f r o l e commitment. Two o f the women had never taken on a l l o f the f a m i l i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s before they r e t u r n e d to work. These women had d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as wives and mothers. They never d e s c r i b e d themselves as exhausted. I c e r t a i n l y wasn't prepared to do i t a l l by myself 54 and I didn't have that f e e l i n g ever. So i t wasn't r e a l l y just my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . My husband was involved i n a l l that s t u f f , the laundry, the cooking, everything. So I f e l t l i k e i t wasn't r e a l l y a big issue for me. Sometimes i t drives me nuts I admit, you f e e l God, but i t r e a l l y wasn't a big issue for me. Hood (1983) found that generally husbands take on added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the home; however, there i s no norm that household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s be equally shared. Hood (1983) relates these findings to a double standard which includes both partner's expectations of higher contributions by wives to housework. While experiencing role s t r a i n , even those women whose husbands had taken on added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were not sharing housework equally with th e i r husbands. Most of the women described not meeting their own needs, because they had no energy or time l e f t to do so. Everyone else and everything else came f i r s t . The thing that I miss most about going to work i s time for yourself. Because you never get a spare moment. I love to read and I don't read anymore, except on the bus going to work or coming back from work. You never have a minute that you can c a l l your own. ...my mother had f i v e , and we always came f i r s t , and I watched her deny her own feelings and her 55 own needs. So of course I did i t too. Bardwick (1979) analyzes women's, past s o c i a l i z a t i o n as dependent, reactive, s e l f l e s s , and stereotypic of the helpmate. This th e o r i s t supports the women's perceptions of their needs as being t o t a l l y subjugated due to the demands of others. Rapoport and Rapoport (1971) found working mothers had a lack of available time for themselves, and that lack contributed to exhaustion. The women i n the study recognized that they were s t a r t i n g to resent their husbands and th e i r children as a r e s u l t of ignoring t h e i r own needs. Bardwick (1979) analyzed the requirements of women for self-respect and i d e n t i f i e d a healthy l e v e l of egocentricity as a basic requirement. Bardwick concurs that women need to recognize that their needs are important. In comparing themselves with their husbands, most of the women f e l t they were doing double the work their husbands were doing, although the women f e l t their husbands were helpful compared with other men they knew. I have a husband who r e a l l y , as men go, i s good i n the sense that he w i l l do a l o t of things. But s t i l l I work thirty-seven hours a week at work and t h i r t y hours a week at home, so close to seventy hours a week. My husband works t h i r t y - f i v e hours a week at work and maybe ten hours a week at home. So I am working close to double what he i s . 56 P i f e r (1979) d e s c r i b e s immense p h y s i c a l and emotional burdens p l a c e d on women combining t h e i r home and work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . He r e f e r s to s i x t y - s i x hour weeks with l i t t l e time f o r simple r e l a x a t i o n ( P i f e r , 1979, p.20). The women f e l t the reasons t h a t t h i s i n e q u i t y e x i s t e d were t h e i r husband's d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the women b e l i e v e d t h e i r husbands had changed n e i t h e r t h e i r behaviours nor t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s when the women had re t u r n e d to work. The women d e s c r i b e d themselves as having radar and t h e i r husbands as l a c k i n g r a d a r . The t e r r i b l e t h i n g i s t h a t there i s not a woman I know th a t doesn't have e x a c t l y the same problem. Women have radar t h a t i s on a l l the time. They are always t h i n k i n g o f i s there enough bread; should I buy milk; should t h a t f l o o r be washed; d i d I mend t h a t ; have I s e t th a t out f o r supper; d i d I get the r e s e r v a t i o n s f o r t h a t ; d i d I buy the p a r t f o r the t h i n g t h a t i s broken. Men don't have radar. They never developed i t . T h e i r mother d i d n ' t l e t them develop i t because she d i d a l l those t h i n g s and they go i n t o a d u l t l i f e having c l e r i c a l people t h a t do a l l those t h i n g s or wives. P i f e r (1979) r e l a t e s husbands' maintenance o f p r i o r behaviours to p e r s i s t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l ideas about sex r o l e s 57 and women's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Carter (1981) summarized research l i t e r a t u r e on men's s o c i a l i z a t i o n and i d e n t i f i e d strong parental sanctions applied to boys who participated i n "feminine" a c t i v i t i e s . These theorists confirm p e r s i s t i n g differences in men's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The study women had the underlying expectation that household maintenance was their r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The women had to acknowledge that expectation. You are responsible for everything at the beginning, a l l of the housework, everything. Rapoport and Rapoport (1980) linked the a l t e r a t i o n of a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to sex role change and thereby support the association between women's sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and exhaustion from "women's work." Ambivalence. The women had feelings of ambivalence as a re s u l t of the i r role s t r a i n . The women related their ambivalence to being overwhelmed, contrasting with their desire to be f i n a n c i a l contributors, and to have an outlet through work. It kind of f l i p f l o p s . . . you go to work the f i r s t day, and you can say the baby was crying and my husband was mad, and i t was great to get out of there. By the fourth day you are knowing that you are coming o f f , and you have to do t h i s , a-nd-> you have to do that. You r e a l l y wish that you didn't have to work because you are t i r e d and the baby i s going to be grumpy. 58 You feel almost l i k e you are having bad hormone swings a l l of the time. Feeling that I should be with him when I wasn't and when I was that I should be out making the bucks. Rapoport and Rapoport (1971) characterize ambivalence r e s u l t i n g from past experiences with s o c i a l i z a t i o n and sex-role stereotyping as part of the role s t r a i n experienced by working women. The women did not i d e n t i f y sex-role stereotyping as contributory to their ambivalence, but they did i d e n t i f y their s o c i a l i z a t i o n as, a factor. To a c e r t a i n degree women have demanded a l l they have done instead of lightening the other expectations, to put more on top of themselves, and I don't think that i t i s u n t i l our children are older that things w i l l change a l i t t l e b i t . It i s a real d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n that people have put themselves into. Hopefully s o c i a l standards w i l l change, but I don't think that i t w i l l be a fast change, and I don't think that i t i s going to be an easy one. The women, who f e l t t h e i r decision to resume their work role was unrestricted, had less ambivalence about returning to work than the women who f e l t their finances r e s t r i c t e d _ the i r decision-making process.-. This i s your s i t u a t i o n . You are working. Deal with 59 your a n x i e t i e s , accept i t , and get on with your l i f e . The women who re t u r n e d to work seeking accomplishment, independence, and companionship were more s a t i s f i e d and, t h e r e f o r e , l e s s ambivalent than the women who i d e n t i f i e d p r i m a r i l y f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n f o r r e t u r n i n g to work. Meissner (1977) l i n k s ambivalence about work to women's a n t i c i p a t i o n o f s o c i a l worth and work s a t i s f a c t i o n and, i n c o n t r a s t , t h e i r experience o f a l i f e of wage and labour. Burr (1972) proposes the degree t h a t r o l e s f a c i l i t a t e goal attainment p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e s the ease of t r a n s i t i o n i n t o those r o l e s . The women expected to maintain c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s , and when they were unable to meet t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n , f e l t ambivalent about themselves. I f e l t l i k e I needed to go through t h i s by myself and come out s o r t o f st r o n g e r and f e e l i n g l i k e I can do both. I can work and be a mom because you are t a k i n g on more r o l e s . I found i t r e a l l y p a i n f u l at times. A r a k e l i a n d e s c r i b e s R o t t e r ' s (1975) theory o f l o c u s of c o n t r o l , wherein, i n d i v i d u a l s b e l i e v e what happens to them i s p r i m a r i l y due to t h e i r a c t i o n s or a t t r i b u t e s (1980, p.26). The women i n the study a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s to t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and had d i f f i c u l t i e s when they were unable 60 to get t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s under c o n t r o l . These women appeared to have an i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . Resentment. The women found themselves r e s e n t i n g t h e i r husbands because t h e i r husbands were l e s s aware of what needed to be done, (no r a d a r ) , and; consequently, they took on l e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than t h e i r wives. I spend more time doing t h i n g s . I f e e l some days l i k e I have two jo b s , and sometimes you f e e l resentment because he goes out to the garage and does h i s own t h i n g , and I f e e l l i k e why can't I j u s t walk out and go to my room and do my own t h i n g and not have anyone bother me. Men don't seem to understand. I don't know why. Schl o s s b e r g (1980) h y p o t h e s i z e s , t h a t r o l e changes with gains and l o s s e s p l a c e couples i n t r a n s i t i o n , and that s i t u a t i o n s where the women r e t a i n major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , engender the women's resentment of t h e i r husbands. In resuming the working r o l e , the women were e x p e r i e n c i n g a r o l e change with gains and l o s s e s . T h i s h y p othesis supports the study f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n to the women's f e e l i n g s o f resentment. The women's f e e l i n g s of resentment and anger were very c l o s e l y l i n k e d . Anger. "I do make an attempt at being a very good mom and we do eat w e l l on the days t h a t I am o f f , but I f i n d t h a t there i s n ' t much time f o r me and i t gets r e a l l y a g g r a v a t i n g . " 61 The women i n the study were f e e l i n g g u i l t , l o s s , exhaustion, and ambivalence and these f e e l i n g s made the women angry. In a d d i t i o n , demands on t h e i r time r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to meet t h e i r own needs and l e f t the women angry. However, the study women were aware anger from women i n general i s not w e l l accepted. S e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s do not i n c l u d e anger or a g g r e s s i o n i n a c h e c k l i s t of female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Bardwick, 1979). A l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n of anger from women i s r e f l e c t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Despite the l a c k o f acceptance o f anger from women, the women b e l i e v e d t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r anger was a step forward and a requirement f o r t h e i r h e a l t h . I guess what I r e a l l y needed from the group that I j o i n e d was to be t o l d t h a t I was O.K. to f e e l t h a t way. That i t was O.K. to f e e l very angry t h a t my whole l i f e was upside down, and I had to make a l l these d e c i s i o n s , and I r e a l l y wanted to know that t h a t anger, l o s s , a sense of d e s p a i r , j u s t r e a l l y overwhelmed was normal. Some of the women f e l t angry because of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r l a c k o f ch o i c e to r e t u r n to work due to f i n a n c i a l need. These same women i n d i c a t e d , however, t h a t they had made a c h o i c e about the way they wanted to l i v e t h e i r l i v e s , i . e . as f i n a n c i a l l y independent i n d i v i d u a l s . I am not say i n g f o r my g i r l f r i e n d t h a t i s a t home f u l l time, and her husband i s s u p p o r t i n g her, and 62 she i s r a i s i n g a k i d , and that i s very v a l u a b l e , and you can't take that:-away from her... I am j u s t s a y i n g that f o r me t h a t would not be o.k., I don't f e e l comfortable with t h a t . However, these same women were angry, although they had made a c h o i c e to be f i n a n c i a l l y independent, because they f e l t they had no c h o i c e but to r e t u r n to work. Those women's f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n s appeared to overwhelm t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r d e c i s i o n s to r e t u r n to work. I had those f e e l i n g s . That I had to do t h i s and t h a t j u s t made me angry. F e e l i n g l i k e I was boxed i n and d i d n ' t have any c h o i c e s . Whether a l l of the women a c t u a l l y had a c h o i c e i s not the i s s u e . The i s s u e i s some of them f e l t they d i d not have a c h o i c e . S c h l o s s b e r g (1980) suggests i n d i v i d u a l s adapt more e a s i l y to t r a n s i t i o n s when the source of the change i s i n t e r n a l r a t h e r than e x t e r n a l . The study women, who d i d not p e r c e i v e the source of change as i n t e r n a l , experienced more anger than the other women and that anger r e t a r d e d t h e i r movement through the process of r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . The women rec o g n i z e d t h e i r need to deal with t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f anger. That i s r e a l l y what happens when you l e t i t s l i d e and i t b u i l d s up, and i t comes f l y i n g out one day and gets overblown. 63 The women's experience o f r o l e s t r a i n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t , l o s s , exhaustion, ambivalence, resentment, and anger. The women re c o g n i z e d that they had to deal with t h e i r f e e l i n g s to stop being overwhelmed. To stop being overwhelmed, they had to take c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n , and move on i n the process. The women b e l i e v e d only t h e i r e f f o r t s and a t t r i b u t e s would enable them to s o l v e t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . They f e l t the need to examine and to change t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s so th a t they c o u l d d e a l with t h e i r f e e l i n g s , and the need to examine and change t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The women's e f f o r t s were, t h e r e f o r e , d i r e c t e d a t g e t t i n g t h e i r l i v e s under c o n t r o l again. Reducing Role S t r a i n The women had exerted c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s by making methodical, informed d e c i s i o n s to r e t u r n to work. The women rec o g n i z e d , to reduce t h e i r r o l e s t r a i n , they had to get t h e i r l i v e s under c o n t r o l once again. I guess t h a t you j u s t have to f i n d a happy medium i n your l i f e and t r y to be r e a l i s t i c about i t . How you do th a t I am not sure. I guess I f e e l t h a t i t i s my problem, and so i t i s my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to get i t under c o n t r o l . The women i d e n t i f i e d a number of s e q u e n t i a l steps t h a t were necessary to g a i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r l i v e s . The women were 1. l e t t i n g go of the myths, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and f e e l i n g s 64 t h a t were c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The women i d e n t i f i e d myths and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to (a) g u i l t , (b) l o s s , (c) exhaustion, (d) ambivalence, (e) resentment, and ( f ) anger. I don't t h i n k anyone out there makes me t h i n k t h a t I have to do i t a l l . I f anything, I t h i n k t h a t i t i s me t h a t puts those p r e s s u r e s or e x p e c t a t i o n s on myself. I thin k o.k. you have to do th i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y , or you have to change t h i n g s . I haven't been a wife or a mother f o r th a t long so now i s the time to change t h i n g s , because you can't keep up such a f r e n z i e d pace f o r very long. The next steps the women i d e n t i f i e d were: 2. s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s , 3. o r g a n i z i n g and p l a n n i n g , 4. n e g o t i a t i n g , and 5. e s t a b l i s h i n g new e x p e c t a t i o n s and d e l e g a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The women had to move through these steps s e q u e n t i a l l y : they had to e s t a b l i s h what was important before they c o u l d o r g a n i z e and p l a n ; they had to n e g o t i a t e with t h e i r husbands f o r d e l e g a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .before they c o u l d e s t a b l i s h new e x p e c t a t i o n s ; and they had to e s t a b l i s h new e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r themselves and husbands, mothers, and b a b y s i t t e r s before they c o u l d delegate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to o t h e r s . I had to say what are the op t i o n s here? Then I had to s e t p r i o r i t i e s . . . w h a t i s r e a l l y important here ... I had to get more org a n i z e d and I had to do 65 more pl a n n i n g and then I seemed to have more time, because I p l a n i t . You have to d i s c u s s , so we d i s c u s s e d who i s going to do what... I had decided to take c o n t r o l o f my l i f e . 1. L e t t i n g go of the myths, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and f e e l i n g s The study women s t a r t e d to get t h e i r l i v e s under c o n t r o l by l e t t i n g go of t h e i r c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e myths, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and f e e l i n g s r e l a t i n g to being overwhelmed. Rapoport and Rapoport (1980), i n reexamining t h e i r r e s e a r c h , l i n k e d a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to sex r o l e change. These t h e o r i s t s suggested not o n l y behaviours r e q u i r e a l t e r a t i o n but a l s o maps of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n people's heads. The maps are not merely c o g n i t i v e but are complicated by l a y e r s o f f e e l i n g . The women were p r e p a r i n g themselves to change the maps of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e i r heads. They had to r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r o l d e x p e c t a t i o n s and the myths u n d e r l y i n g those e x p e c t a t i o n s before they c o u l d e s t a b l i s h new e x p e c t a t i o n s . Gould (1980) suggests mythic ideas are major o b s t a c l e s to t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s (growth and change). I t h i n k t h a t women are r e a l l y hard on themselves, and t h a t t h i s g e n e r a t i o n has r e a l l y been screwed and have screwed o u r s e l v e s up. There i s one p a r t of us t h a t wants to be Suzy Homemaker and do a l l these t h i n g s f o r our man. We want to go to e x e r c i s e c l a s s . We want to st a y i n shape. We want to have our c a r e e r s . We worked hard f o r them. The other s i d e of 66 us, we want to have our babies. We want to have the house a l l n i c e . We are i d i o t s . We want to do e v e r y t h i n g . (a) G u i l t . The women i n t h i s study had acknowledged t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t a mother, and no one e l s e was r e s p o n s i b l e fo r her c h i l d . Now, i n order to f e e l l e s s g u i l t y , the women had to l e t go of those e x p e c t a t i o n s . There was a c e r t a i n amount of g u i l t i n v o l v e d i n me going back to work, because I f e l t , w e l l my r o l e i s here. You can't h o l d on to the g u i l t . You have to l e t go of i t and move on i n order to be a p r o d u c t i v e person. Bernard (1974) acknowledges women's need to give up t h e i r g u i l t f e e l i n g s . Bernard (1974), a we l l known t h e o r i s t , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r women and working women i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r g u i l t . She suggests working women have an e a s i e r time i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r r o l e s , s i n c e meeting c h i l d r e n ' s needs through f i n a n c i a l support i s c o n s i d e r e d an e x t e n t i o n o f the maternal r o l e , which makes working e a s i e r (Bernard, 1974). T h i s concept i s probably outdated, s i n c e many women are choosing to work to meet t h e i r needs, f o r independence r a t h e r than to meet t h e i r i n f a n t ' s needs f o r f i n a n c i a l support. T h i s study does not support t h a t h y p o t h e s i s , s i n c e the women who f e l t they had a l a c k of cho i c e due to f i n a n c e s had more d i f f i c u l t y with g u i l t f e e l i n g s not l e s s as suggested. 67 F e e l i n g s of g u i l t r e s u l t e d i n the women spending a l l o f t h e i r f r e e time with t h e i r i n f a n t s , and, as a r e s u l t , they experienced g u i l t about t h e i r l a c k of a v a i l a b l e time f o r t h e i r husbands. Once the women c o u l d f r e e themselves o f t h e i r maternal f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t , they were able to change t h e i r behaviour toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n , to stop being compulsive about spending time with t h e i r c h i l d r e n , to spend more time with t h e i r husbands, and to stop f e e l i n g g u i l t y i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r r o l e as a wife. I don't f e e l l i k e I am p u r p o s e f u l l y hoarding time with him now, because I g e n e r a l l y f e e l t h a t he gets enough of me, and t h a t there i s l o t s of me around. We are going out t o n i g h t and the b a b y s i t t e r i s coming at s i x . (b) Loss. The women had to work through the l o s s they were e x p e r i e n c i n g by l e t t i n g go of t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t no one c o u l d meet t h e i r i n f a n t s ' needs the way that they c o u l d . The women r e c o g n i z e d the myth r e l a t e d to t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s ; i n f a n t s s u f f e r i f t h e i r mothers are absent. There i s a myth out th e r e , t h a t no one can take care o f your baby the way that you can, and your baby w i l l s u f f e r i f you are not the r e . Bowlby (1966) suggests even p a r t i a l maternal d e p r i v a t i o n can r e s u l t i n i n f a n t s e x p e r i e n c i n g acute a n x i e t y , e x c e s s i v e needs f o r l o v e , and f e e l i n g s o f revenge, g u i l t , and 68 d e p r e s s i o n . This t h e o r i s t supports the women's acceptance of the myth t h a t without a mother's care her baby w i l l s u f f e r . The study women had to r e j e c t the myth to surrender t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . I had to leave, and I had to miss him. I had to go through a l l o f the t e a r s and r e a l l y m i s s i n g him at work, and phoning the b a b y s i t t e r a l o t . I had to go through l e t t i n g go of my son a l i t t l e b i t and t r u s t i n g t h a t someone e l s e c o u l d take care o f him and meet h i s needs. I had to l e t go of the myth t h a t gets f o i s t e d on us. How can you leave your baby because only a mother can take care o f her baby. Rutter (1981) i n d i c a t e s maternal s e p a r a t i o n cannot be equated with m a t e r n a l - i n f a n t bond d i s r u p t i o n , and the sequelae o f bond d i s r u p t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , Rutter (1981) r e f u t e s Bowlby's c l a i m t h a t the m a t e r n a l - c h i l d bond i s unique and, t h e r e f o r e , the s t r o n g e s t bond the i n f a n t w i l l form. Rutter (1981) agrees we should r e j e c t the myth that a mother's care i s unique. The women's e x p e c t a t i o n s , t h a t t h e i r i n f a n t s - w o u l d not remember them a f t e r being with a s i t t e r a l l day, c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r l o s s . T h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s were based on the myth th a t i n f a n t s are i n d i s c r i m i n a t e due to t h e i r l a c k of n e u r o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y . They r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s was untrue and were able to change t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . My mom's g e n e r a t i o n thought t h a t babies were j u s t 69 l i t t l e b l o bs, and one of the most amazing t h i n g s f o r me i s how t h i s nine month o l d baby i s so smart and I never had any thought of t h a t . The women watched t h e i r i n f a n t s f o r cues and r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e i r i n f a n t s d i d know them. No and she knows my husband and I as her mother and f a t h e r as opposed to her s i t t e r who i s j u s t her s i t t e r . My daughter hasn't any problem with t h a t a t a l l . She knows e x a c t l y who we are and i s g l a d to see us when we come home and enjoys the time t h a t she spends with us. The study women's p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r i n f a n t s as r e s p o n s i v e , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s as e a r l y as one month of age f i t s with B r a z e l t o n ' s (1985) work. As a r e s u l t o f l e t t i n g go of the myths and t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , the women were able to work through t h e i r l o s s . The more I l e f t him on a r e g u l a r k i n d of b a s i s , the e a s i e r i t got. I t was o.k., he was happy when I phoned. He was e a t i n g w e l l , he was c l e a n and dry and presented w e l l when I came home. The more t r u s t you put i n your s i t t e r and the more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t she g i v e s you, i t i s a process. I s a i d f i n a l l y , o.k. t h i s lady i s a good care g i v e r f o r my k i d . Yes, i t was r e a l l y p a i n f u l , the whole is s u e of l e a v i n g him. I know th a t i t i s good, and e v e r y t h i n g w i l l be g r e a t as long 70 as I j u s t do i t . (c) Exhaustion. The women had to reduce the e x h a u s t i o n they were e x p e r i e n c i n g . Three e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d to the women's exhaustion: 1) They were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l of the household t a s k s , 2) T h e i r needs were l a s t a f t e r those o f a l l the other members o f the f a m i l y , and 3) They had to be t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r work. The women re c o g n i z e d the myth u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l of the household t a s k s , i . e . men's primary r o l e s are as breadwinners. My dad had to have h i s dinner a t f i v e f i f t e e n every day r e g a r d l e s s i f the moon f e l l out of the sky. Even when she went to work f u l l time, when I was e l e v e n , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was passed on to us. The rooms had to be c l e a n e d , and the d i n n e r had to be ready when my dad got home and i f i t wasn't we a l l got i t . I can remember t h i n k i n g t h a t those t h i n g s were so u n f a i r and yet I would expect the same t h i n g f o r myself. Pleck (1981) i n d i c a t e s a husband's job makes d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t demands on t h e i r wives and, as a r e s u l t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h whether a wife i s more dominated by her husband or h i s job. The women's acceptance of the myth th a t t h e i r husbands' had primary r o l e s as breadwinners, are confirmed by t h i s t h e o r i s t . 71 The women had to d i s c a r d the myth to r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The poor men have always worked i n the s a l t mines and have come home a t n i g h t and s a i d no n o i s e , d i n n e r , a c l e a n house, and what have you been doing a l l day, t h i s p l a c e i s a mess. That i s the ki n d of cr a p p o l a t h a t women-do - c o n s t a n t l y see i n t h e i r l i v e s and hear i n t h e i r l i v e s . Once the women had d i s c a r d e d the myth, they were able to l e t go of t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l o f the household t a s k s . P a r t o f s u r r e n d e r i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , was r e f u s i n g to excuse t h e i r husbands' l a c k of s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r doing "women's work." Yes, I got th a t way too and I f e l t l i k e why the h e l l am I the only one who ever sees t h i s or who ever does i t . But I had to s p e c i f i c a l l y t e l l my husband to do i t . B e l l (1981) suggests the movement of women i n t o the work fo r c e w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r men to d e f i n e themselves i n l e s s job o r i e n t e d and i n s t r u m e n t a l ways and to i n c r e a s e t h e i r range of nu r t u r a n t behaviours (p. 321). G i e l e (1980) b e l i e v e s c r o s s o v e r i n sex r o l e s i n c r e a s e s the domain of shared consciousness between men and women. The women i n the study f e l t they p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d t h i s shared c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Chafe (1972) r e l a t e s the women's l a c k o f p u r s u i t o f c a r e e r s to the maintenance o f an e x p e c t a t i o n that women's 72 primary r o l e s are i n the home. Chafe adds, that i f women are to s u s t a i n a commitment to a c a r e e r , demand f u l l e q u a l i t y i n the home, and ensure t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n do not i n h e r i t i n v i d i o u s sexual s t e r e o t y p e s , they must be guided by a high degree o f i d e o l o g i c a l energy and awareness (1972, p. 252). The study women were s t r u g g l i n g to f u l f i l l themselves through c a r e e r s i n s o c i e t y . In a d d i t i o n as a r e s u l t of t h e i r m u l t i p l e r o l e s , the women were attempting to r e d e f i n e t h e i r sex r o l e s w i t h i n t h e i r n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s . However, the women would not c h a r a c t e r i z e themselves as having a high degree o f i d e o l o g i c a l energy and awareness. I t i s hard when you want to broaden your i n t e r e s t s and get i n v o l v e d because there are some r e a l f e m i n i s t r a d i c a l s out ther e , t h a t j u s t want to a l i e n a t e themselves from men and e v e r y t h i n g , and th a t only makes the gap deeper because they g i v e i t a bad name i n a sense. They make feminism f r i g h t e n i n g . The^-women had to come to terms with the myth u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t t h e i r needs should come l a s t a f t e r a l l the other members of the f a m i l y ; t h a t women, and p a r t i c u l a r l y mothers, should be s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g . Then the women had to r e j e c t the myth and to renounce t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t t h e i r needs came l a s t . I t h i n k we have been able to do... and gi v e to us ... r i g h t . . . a n d I t h i n k that we get i n t o problems when we deny our f e e l i n g s . We say no I can't have a 73 break, no I can't go shopping, I can't have a shower r i g h t now, because he comes f i r s t always. I t h i n k t h a t i t i s important to recog n i z e t h a t we have needs and t r y not to deny our needs so much. My husband, he takes care of h i m s e l f , and he always managed to get h i s run i n and do what he needed f o r h i m s e l f . The women rec o g n i z e d the myth u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t they c o u l d remain t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r work. The myth was t h a t women had to gi v e i t a l l to t h e i r jobs to f e e l f u l f i l l e d . Come to work and don't t h i n k about your k i d . Be prepared to be t o t a l l y d e d i c a t e d to your work a t a l l t i m e s . . . t h a t i s what you need f o r your c a r e e r . The women had to abandon t h a t c o n c e p t i o n o f a ca r e e r and of t o t a l work involvement. I f you only work, you become i n s e n s i t i v e . I know people t h a t say l i f e as a co r p o r a t e e x e c u t i v e i s incompatible with f a m i l y l i f e , which i s j u s t b u l l s h i t . Because i t i s not th a t i t i s incompatible i t i s t h a t you have s o l d y o u r s e l f . You have s o l d your s o u l and don't have any f a m i l y l i f e . F i s k e (1980) suggests p a r t o f adulthood i n c l u d e s changing h i e r a r c h i e s of commitment and r e l a t e s i n c r e a s i n g commitments i n i n t r a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s to a l e s s e n i n g commitment i n occup a t i o n s . 74 The women had l e t go o f the myths and e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t were c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f exhaustion. The women a l s o had to l e t go of t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f ambivalence so tha t they c o u l d reduce t h e i r r o l e s t r a i n . (d) Ambivalence. The women were overwhelmed, i n p a r t , by t h e i r ambivalence. L e t t i n g go of t h e i r f e e l i n g s of g u i l t and l o s s enabled the women to r e l i n q u i s h some of t h e i r ambivalence. Piotrkowski»s and C r i t s - C h r i s t o p h ' s (1982) study f i n d i n g s supported t h e i r hypothesis that s a t i s f a c t i o n with work i n f l u e n c e s f a m i l y adjustment through the women's job r e l a t e d mood. These t h e o r i s t s q u e s t i o n whether a s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e flows from f a m i l y to work ( P i o t r k o w s k i & C r i t s - C h r i s t o p h , 1982). The study women's r e d u c t i o n i n ambivalence, f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e d u c t i o n i n f e e l i n g s of g u i l t and l o s s , suggest f o r t h i s group t h e i r g r e a t e r happiness a t home c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r g r e a t e r happiness with work. B r a z e l t o n (1985) r e f e r s to f i r s t - t i m e mothers r e t u r n i n g to work as women without a c u l t u r e . B r a z e l t o n (1985) i m p l i e s these women have no r o l e models to i m i t a t e on r e t u r n i n g to work, because women r e t u r n i n g to work with i n f a n t s i s such a new phenomenon. T h i s view i s s u p p o r t i v e o f the study f i n d i n g s . The women had no pre v i o u s experience with t h i s s i t u a t i o n and had not encountered others with p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , the women had to t r u s t t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and management of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . I t i s hard. I j u s t wish there was more out there 75 f o r the type o f person, you know the working person t h a t i s going back. The women's a b i l i t i e s to d i s m i s s c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e myths and d i s c a r d u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s decreased t h e i r ambivalence. (e) Anger. Once the women had r e l i n q u i s h e d some of t h e i r g u i l t , l o s s , and ambivalence, they were able to surrender some o f t h e i r anger. In a d d i t i o n , by r e c o g n i z i n g they were e x e r c i s i n g some c o n t r o l i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s to r e t u r n to work, i n s p i t e o f t h e i r f i n a n c e s , the women reduced t h e i r anger. But they know what the s i t u a t i o n i s . Mind you, they would probably tend to thin k t h a t i t was s t r i c t l y f i n a n c i a l . But I don't t h i n k t h a t my parents would be s u r p r i s e d i f I s a i d I j u s t don't want to stay home f u l l time even i f I had the chance. I would l i k e to work three days a week or something. S c h l o s s b e r g (1980) suggests a d a p t a t i o n to t r a n s i t i o n s occurs more e a s i l y when the source o f a d e c i s i o n to change i s i n t e r n a l . The women were moving from a view o f t h e i r d e c i s i o n s as e n t i r e l y e x t e r n a l l y induced to p a r t i a l l y i n t e r n a l l y induced. Consequently, the women f e l t an i n c r e a s i n g sense o f c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s and c o u l d l e t go o f some of t h e i r anger. Although the women had re c o g n i z e d myths and e x p e c t a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r exhaustion, they 76 were s t i l l e x p e r i e n c i n g some anger and resentment l i n k e d to t h e i r exhaustion. ( f ) Resentment. The women were unable to reduce t h e i r resentment and t h e i r anger stemming from t h e i r e xhaustion u n t i l they completed the process o f re d u c i n g t h e i r r o l e s t r a i n by moving through the other steps o f r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n . Exhaustion was not merely an i n t e r n a l s t a t e . I t was a r e f l e c t i o n o f the r e a l i t y o f the women's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s scary to go back. You are going as a d i f f e r e n t person, as a mother. I t h i n k that t h a t i s e x a c t l y what happens, there has been a l o t o f anger and a l o t of mixed f e e l i n g s , you get to the p o i n t where you have to say, I have to del e g a t e thi-s and th a t or I am only going to do t h i s every two weeks i n s t e a d o f every one week and you have to do th a t and i f you don't i t i s your f a u l t . The women had completed the f i r s t s t e p , 1. l e t t i n g go of the myths, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and f e e l i n g s . T h e r e a f t e r , 2. S e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s , 3. p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z i n g , 4. n e g o t i a t i n g , and 5. e s t a b l i s h i n g new e x p e c t a t i o n s and d e l e g a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s allowed the women to r e g a i n a sense o f c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s . 2. S e t t i n g P r i o r i t i e s . Before the women c o u l d e s t a b l i s h new e x p e c t a t i o n s , they had to examine what was important i n t h e i r l i v e s and s e t p r i o r i t i e s to r e g a i n a sense of c o n t r o l . 77 The l a s t t i m e y o u w e r e h e r e , I f e l t h y s t e r i c a l a b o u t t h i n g s t h a t I h a d t o g e t d o n e . I h a d t o do t h i s . I h a d t o do t h a t . T h e r e w e r e n o t e n o u g h h o u r s i n t h e d a y . B u t a s t i m e g o e s o n , y o u t h i n k , w h a t i s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t , a n d wha t h a s t o be d o n e . I t h i n k t h a t I am g e t t i n g l e s s h y s t e r i c a l . I was p u t t i n g a l l t h e t h i n g s i n o n e b a s k e t a n d i t was o v e r f l o w i n g . Now I j u s t p u t t h e t h i n g s i n t h e r e t h a t a r e r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t , l i k e s p e n d i n g t i m e w i t h my d a u g h t e r , s p e n d i n g t i m e w i t h my h u s b a n d , a n d d o i n g t h e t h i n g s t h a t we e n j o y . S e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s h e l p e d t h e women r e d u c e t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f e x h a u s t i o n . The women f e l t t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e came f i r s t a n d c h o s e t o h i e r a r c h i z e t h e i r t i m e a c c o r d i n g l y . P l a c i n g t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e f i r s t mean t i f t h e i r c a r e e r s w e r e n o t w o r k i n g o u t w i t h t h e i r f a m i l y l i v e s , t h e women ' s c a r e e r s w o u l d be p l a c e d o n h o l d . I t t a k e s a l o t o f f y o u r s h o u l d e r s when y o u p r i o r i z e . I t h i n k t h a t y o u c a n r e l a x a l o t m o r e . I f i t d o e s n ' t g e t d o n e , i t w i l l g e t d o n e some d a y . F o r me r i g h t now, we come f i r s t o v e r my c a r e e r , w h i c h i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o r me, b e c a u s e I am w o r k i n g a n d I r e a l l y l i k e n u r s i n g . What I do h a s a l w a y s b e e n v e r y i m p o r t a n t . I g o t my d e g r e e a n d t h a t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t , b u t t h a t i s s e c o n d a r y now. 78 Hunt and Hunt (1982) suggest, for many women in the 1980's, all-consuming careers are undesirable and the family remains the primary source of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . The study findings would appear to support Hunt and Hunt's findings since at this point i n time the women were placing their families f i r s t and the i r careers second. In addition, the women's statements indicate their nuclear families provided them with s o c i a l and emotional support. Bott (1971) l i n k s lack of extended family support networks to onerus domestic and c h i l d care r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , which require consideration of mutual r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s within the nuclear family. Bott's (1971) statements support the study women's perceptions of the importance of their nuclear family. In s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s , the women put thei r needs f i r s t . As a r e s u l t , the women were able to deal with their anger and resentment r e l a t i n g to th e i r lack of need s a t i s f a c t i o n . I am putting my needs f i r s t , and I think that I am a l i t t l e happier for i t , and I think that makes me a better person, and i t i s r e a l l y important. Bernard (1974) and Dally (1982) stress the importance of women recognizing boundaries between the i r needs and those of t h e i r infant and meeting their own needs i n a mothering s i t u a t i o n . Bardwick (1979) indicates resentment leads to martyred mothers. These authors confirm the women's l i n k 79 between the importance of meeting their needs and their a b i l i t y to pa r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Role s t r a i n was reduced through se t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s and further reduced through organization and planning. 3. Organizing and Planning. Through organizing and planning the women reduced t h e i r exhaustion and, consequently, their role s t r a i n . The women i d e n t i f i e d what they could manage and what they could not. The a c t i v i t i e s that the women could not manage were open to negotiation and delegation. The women organized and planned their l i v e s so that not a minute was wasted and, they ensured that everything that could be done while they were away at work was done during that time. I mean I take over a box of clothes on Monday, and my daughter has a dresser. My mother throws her things i n there, and i f they are d i r t y they go i n a laundry basket. I do the laundry on Thursday before I go to work. Friday, I bring the diapers over, and the diaper service picks them up. I have had to get more organized. Z have dinner always on the timer or i n the slow cooker. I fin d that I have to do more planning, and I seem to have more time. I find I have to do more things simultaneously and more things while I am gone. Holmstrom (1972) found the women i n her study responded to the pressure of time by c a r e f u l l y organizing and budgeting 80 time the way they would budget money. Holmstrom's (1972) findings are congruent with the study findings of the women's management of exhaustion through organizing and planning. Negotiating unmanageable expectations and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was another strategy required to reduce the i r r o l e s t r a i n . 4. Neootiatinq. Before the women could e s t a b l i s h new expectations and delegate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to reduce t h e i r role s t r a i n , the women had to negotiate with their husbands for what r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s they were w i l l i n g to take on. Negotiating i s c a l l e d bargaining by Hood (1983) and Goode (1960). These theorists imply there i s some sort of exchange occuring. The women did not view negotiating as an exchange. They saw negotiating for shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a way of maintaining t h e i r marital r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I think that my husband and I w i l l work things out. Ve w i l l have to. But I think that we w i l l work out jobs and routines and giving and taking and that sort of s t u f f . He w i l l either work i t out or we won't stay together. Simpson and England's (1982) findings are congruent with the women's e f f o r t s at negotiation. They associated marital s o l i d a r i t y i n dual earner couples with s i m i l a r home and socioeconomic roles for each spouse (1982). 81 Before the women could begin to negotiate with their husbands, they had to get over th e i r feelings that they managed f a m i l i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s better, and therefore, that those r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s had to be t h e i r s . One of the things that used to get to me was that I used to do things because I f e l t that my husband could not do i t . I also f e l t that I could do things better, and I had to get over that. Bardwick (1979) describes sex roles as e x i s t e n t i a l anchors and adds that women's i d e n t i t i e s have been anchored i n the stereotyped ideal of the i r family roles. The study women had linked t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s to the work role i n addition to family r o l e s . The women's broader sense of id e n t i t y assisted them to d i f f e r e n t i a t e themselves from their t r a d i t i o n a l tasks and to negotiate with their husbands to share household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . That made the difference. I sat down with my husband and said I have a f u l l time job, you have a f u l l time job, and he said what would you l i k e me to do and I thought go for broke here, so I asked him to do the housework. He went for i t , the bathroom i s s t i l l a scunge dump. I s a i d vacuum, dishes, laundry, and bathroom. Many of the professional couples i n Holmstrom's (1972) study negotiated to have a high percentage of household tasks 82 performed by paid employees. Only one of the women i n thi s study negotiated for paid employees. The re s t of the women negotiated only with their husbands. Also negotiated were child; care r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . This i s our c h i l d . I got a l o t of negative flack. I got you are leaving your c h i l d with your husband for a month in Germany, and I said yes. I am the mother, and he i s the father. He has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y too. People w i l l say do you think he can manage. Hell I think that i t i s r i d i c u l o u s to assume that my husband cannot look aft e r her or doesn't want to look a f t e r her. Brazelton (1985) l i n k s the additive nature of women's maternal and work roles to the need for their husbands to take over more nurturing of the i r infants. In addition, Brazelton (1985) l i n k s father involvement with infants to a better self-image for infants. These associations support the study women's attempts to reduce role s t r a i n by negotiating with t h e i r husbands to assume more c h i l d care r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Following negotiation with th e i r husbands to es t a b l i s h what was to be shared, the women examined whether or not they were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r r o l e s t r a i n reduction. I went back and I could see i t escalating and then i t stopped and I thought I am not getting back on thi s treadmill. Because I f e l t that my husband and 83 I hadn't r e a l l y worked out our roles. Ves, i f you didn't l e t go you would die. I was overwhelmed. So yes, you have to get your husband to do some of i t and i t improved the quali t y of my l i f e immensely. The women recognized their need to es t a b l i s h new expectations and delegate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to complete th e i r role s t r a i n reduction. 5. Establishing Mew Expectations and Delegating  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Establishing new expectations and delegating r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s allowed the women to regain a sense of control over their l i v e s . The women had to redefine t h e i r expectations of- themselves and, as a r e s u l t , t h e i r expectations of their husbands and of both of their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s had to change. I am changing his expectations as much as changing his l i f e s t y l e , what he sees his role as, and what he does as part of his r o l e , and what he sees as my ro l e . I am tryin g to do i t i n my own way. The l i t e r a t u r e defines esta b l i s h i n g new expectations i n a variety of ways; Goode (I960) defines i t as changing r o l e performance and suggests a continuing process of se l e c t i o n among alternate r o l e behaviours i s part of the process of role s t r a i n reduction. Hood (1983) refe r s to the outcome of role bargaining as establ i s h i n g new expectations-and suggests that families are bargaining about ground rules governing th e i r relationships to each other. Biddle (1979) 84 r e f e r s to restructuring expectations for r o l e s . A l l of these d e f i n i t i o n s r e l a t e to the study findings, since the women were changing the ground rules and establ i s h i n g d i f f e r e n t kinds of ro l e performances i n establishing new expectations. Establishing new expectations, as defined i n the l i t e r a t u r e , leads inexorably to delegation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , since new role performance behaviours require delegation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and without delegation new ground rules could not be made operational. In r e l a t i o n to t h e i r - r o l e s as mothers, the women decided they were equally responsible for c h i l d care with their husbands and the i r s i t t e r s . The women came to feel that their sharing of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y led to a better psychological environment for t h e i r infants? development and a better father-infant r e l a t i o n s h i p , which improved their family s i t u a t i o n s . He i s growing and needs other stimulation i n his l i f e . He needs other people and that i s part of his developmental process...My husband's father was not involved with my husband's parenting the way that my husband i s involved with my son's parenting... Mow the roles aren't as defined. There i s more overlap, and t h i s i s seen as men's work, and i t c e r t a i n l y i s o.k. for a man to change a diaper, and i t won't emasculate him. I think that i t would be sad otherwise. You can't just look at a kid from across a room and 85 smile and think that you have a r e l a t i o n s h i p with him. Dally (1982) suggests past generations ensured the healthy development of mother and c h i l d by sharing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c h i l d care among a variety of people. She relat e s the recent trend for mothers to spend a l l day, every day, with th e i r infants to increasing psychological and psy c h i a t r i c i l l n e s s for mothers and infants (Dally, 1982). This author supports the women's perceptions that t h e i r infants were healthier due to their absences. Daloz (1981) suggests many men are ready, w i l l i n g , and able to take over some of the nurturing of the family. Giele (1980) indicates that the ideal adult blends masculine and feminine - t r a i t s of nurturance and independence. These theorists are i n agreement with the women's perspectives that delegating parental r e s p o n s b i l i t y added a new dimension to their family's r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In r e l a t i o n to their roles as wives, the women established an expectation that they were not responsible for a l l of the household tasks and, consequently, delegated some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for household tasks to the i r husbands. My husband can't cook. He can't cook a scrambled egg. But that i s fine. He does the vacuuming, and the laundry and cleans the bathroom and hey you don't ever have to cook anything around here. 86 Hood (1983) found very few couples shared household tasks equally. The study findings do not support Hood's findings, since following delegation, the women f e l t they and their husbands were sharing household tasks equally. Johnson and Johnson (1980) suggest most two career families are competent i n working out methodical arrangements for domestic work (p. 147). They suggest, however, backup resources are minimal, and the family can e a s i l y become overextended by their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (Johnson & Johnson, 1980). The women i n the study recognized the potential for a l l family members' relationships to suffer as a r e s u l t of d a i l y demands. The women i d e n t i f i e d a need for t h e i r families to have lei s u r e time together. A l l but one of the women were uncomfortable with h i r i n g someone to do the housework to ensure l e i s u r e time, since they had been s o c i a l i z e d to believe those tasks should be managed by those i n the home. Goode (1960) suggests that persons' a b i l i t i e s to bargain for d i f f e r e n t role obligations depend on th e i r previous normative commitment. The women i n the study are congruent with Goode's suggestion, since those women who were more committed to their sex role behaviours, had a more d i f f i c u l t time s h i f t i n g the ob l i g a t i o n to perform those behaviours to others outside of their nuclear family. The women's i n a b i l i t y to delegate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to paid employees resulted i n more pressure for them to change their husband's 87 expectations. Hunt and Hunt (1982) support t h i s hypothesis, since they suggest that i n the past dual-career couples have used the labour of other women to reduce the women's load and that strategy required l i t t l e modification of the male ro l e . The women f e l t delegating household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s had improved the qu a l i t y of their l i v e s and made them feel less overwhelmed. Oh d e f i n i t e l y I f e l t l i k e that before, I would come home and have to do a l l these things and never have any time to relax. Now i t i s so much nicer because I come home and dinner i s ready and I just have to s i t down and eat and he has done the laundry and the cleaning. He i s r e a l l y something because he t r i e s so hard and he says he ju s t can't get things the way that I do. But he i s n ' t used to i t and he i s learning the hard way. Johnson and Johnson (1980) indicate no study evidence e x i s t s to substantiate a symmetrical r e l a t i o n s h i p where both partners a l t e r n a t e l y perform roles and share them on an equal basis. The study findings, as indicated i n the preceding quote, refute the suggestion that there are no symmetrical relationships i n existence. Pearl i n (1980) suggests, during l i f e s t r a i n s , behaviours that change circumstances can help people manage d i s t r e s s and not be overwhelmed by i t . _ 88 The women established another new expectation; that of confining t h e i r work to a small part of t h e i r l i v e s . I don't volunteer for anything. I w i l l do lunch hour supervision. I w i l l do the things that f i t into my day. I try to do some marking before school, af t e r school, at lunch time, and I w i l l take some home. I think I am redefining my r o l e . I am not that d i f f e r e n t i n the classroom, but I am not spending that much extra time around school. I don•t volunteer to drive the kids around. I am treating i t more as a nine to fi v e job. I don't bring my work home with me which you do as teachers, you bring a l l of your job home and that does not come home with me. Goode (1960) refe r s to compartmentalization i n r e l a t i o n to s i t u a t i o n and context. Najewski (1986) found that f i r s t - t i m e mothers with careers experienced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o n f l i c t than f i r s t - t i m e mothers with jobs. She rela t e s t h i s f inding to the women's career commitment (Majewski, 1986). An alt e r n a t i v e explanation i s that those women were unable to compartmentalize t h e i r careers because of inherent demands. The study women were able to compartmentalize their work ro l e s so that they were working 100% at work, but they did not allow their work to intrude on their time at home. 89 The women were delegating their work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to others i n th e i r work settings. The women expected younger, single individuals should assume their duties. I would never consider doing a l o t that was over and above my job now, l e t the teachers that were l i k e me, l e t the young single teacher do that; Gould (1980) indicates, with accelerated transformational processes, individuals engineer better f i t s between the i r requirements and current job a c t i v i t i e s . Some of the women derived comfort from the expectation that work was not inevitably a permanent state of a f f a i r s . I r e a l i z e that I am working, that we have p a r t i c u l a r goals i n l i f e and i n order to meet them, both of us are going to have to work for a few more years...So i t i s not a big disapointment or a major c r i s i s that I am working. I t i s a fact of l i f e . Schlossberg (1980) indicates, a change viewed as temporary, may be easier to tolerate when i t i s associated with increased stress and s t r a i n . Most of the study women were working for s p e c i f i c goals, i.e. paid mortgages, at thi s point i n time and viewed t h e i r work as a temporary state of a f f a i r s that was dependent on their future l i f e circumstances. A l l of the women found i t d i f f i c u l t to project to their futures. Although the women imagined changes would occur when th e i r c h i l d r e n were i n school; they 90 tended to focus on the change that would occur with their next pregnancy. The women, working for s p e c i f i c goals, expected they would not work f u l l time with two children, since they believed i t would be more d i f f i c u l t than with one c h i l d . Hall (1975) i s congruent with the women's concerns, since he found with r i s i n g numbers of c h i l d r e n home pressures increase. Two women, that returned:to work by choice, did not view their f u l l time employment as a temporary state of a f f a i r s . "I r e a l l y want to be at work, sometimes that i s hard to admit too, I think oh maybe that i s not very nice and maybe I should be g u i l t y but I am not..." Although they found i t d i f f i c u l t , these women admitted their desire to remain i n f u l l time employment. Chessler and Goodman (1976) suggest women are supposed to be at home, and i f they are not must act as i f they want to be or at l e a s t regret not being there. This suggestion implies that the remaining study women may have suffered from an i n a b i l i t y to a r t i c u l a t e f r e e l y t h e i r desire to return to work f u l l time. The women, returning to work by choice, expected they would be able to work f u l l time with two children. I would l i k e to work with two children. I don't know. I don't know. I think that i f they were i n the home with a s i t t e r that I could manage i t with help. 91 The process of role r e d e f i n i t i o n entailed the women redefining themselves as mothers, wives, and workers. A l l of the women, even the women o r i g i n a l l y returning to work for f i n a n c i a l reasons, participated i n t h i s process. The women had. assumed multiple roles because i t was r i g h t for them. The women had experienced r o l e s t r a i n and had been overwhelmed by their expectations, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and feelings. The women had reduced t h e i r r o l e s t r a i n by l e t t i n g go of the myths, expectations and feelings, s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s , organizing and planning, negotiating, estab l i s h i n g new expectations, and delegating r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The women, by changing t h e i r set of rol e expectations and behaviours, had i n large part changed t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s as women. One of the women sums up the process of role r e d e f i n i t i o n . You have to keep yourself happy. You are s t i l l an ind i v i d u a l . You can't allow your baby to take over your l i f e and make you unhappy. I f you don't keep your i n d i v i d u a l i t y i t w i l l come through somehow. You w i l l resent your c h i l d a l i t t l e b i t . You have to meet your own needs f i r s t . You have to l i v e your own l i f e . You can't j u s t be someone else's mother and someone else's wife. You have to keep your own i n d i v i d u a l i t y . I think that I have done that by going to work. 92 Gould (1980) suggests a transformation, i . e . growth and change, i s an expansion of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . Gould (1980) believes women search for ways for their careers to complement t h e i r expanding selves i n r e l a t i o n to f a m i l i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s evident, for these women, the process of role r e d e f i n i t i o n did not terminate at reducing role s t r a i n . The women's l i v e s were i n a de l i c a t e balance and any major factor introduced into t h e i r situations could put them back, into r o l e s t r a i n . This was a r e a l i t y the women dealt with on a d a i l y basis. I have had a t e r r i b l e time these two weeks before Christmas, because I was f e e l i n g i l l at work, and my work was t e r r i b l e , and things were ho r r i b l e at home, because I was bringing things here. I just f e l t exhausted and t e r r i b l e , and l i k e I couldn't handle anything. But by the time I go back to work, and I am rested again, I w i l l be fi n e . Sometimes you f e e l l i k e you have l o s t control of what i s going on and t o t a l l y overwhelmed. Johnson and Johnson (1980) found r o l e s t r a i n could be s i t u a t i o n a l l y induced when additional demands are suddenly placed on the family. These theorists support the study findings by implying an ongoing movement i n and out of role s t r a i n and i n and out of the process of ro l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . The women's potential movement in and out of role 93 r e d e f i n i t i o n , with changing circumstances, caused them to id e n t i f y some s o c i e t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Societal R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s The study women f e l t that society had some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a s s i s t them to restructure t h e i r s o c i a l environments to deal with the process of role r e d e f i n i t i o n . P e a r l i n (1980) suggests l i f e changes, with th e i r accompanying psychological d i s t r e s s , are rooted i n the organization of the larger society. Giele (1980) states "changes i n the nurturing and instrumental functions of men and women cannot be accomplished on an indi v i d u a l l e v e l , rather, s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and c u l t u r a l assumptions are involved and po l i c y changes that affect: the way that economic i n s t i t u t i o n s and family interact are c a l l e d f o r " (p. 168). The women were angry with the lack of available resources i n the community to help them e s t a b l i s h new expectations and delegate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to their roles as mothers. There was l i t t l e community support for l o c a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to care for infants. I phoned human resources to get numbers, and they said you are f i n a n c i a l l y capable of paying for s i t t e r s , and so we can't help you. I t r i e d t alking to various d i f f e r e n t organizations and community centres and didn't get anywhere. Normally i t i s jus t a matter of tapping those resources, I f e l t 94 very alone, very alienated. The q u a l i t y of the private services that were available for infant care and the lack of on-site day care provided by employers outraged the women. They believed society had a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for their children's needs and their needs as mothers and should provide qu a l i t y on-site day care. Fein s t e i n (1979) indicates day care consists of fragmented services scattered over the national landscape> and s i g n i f i c a n t populations such as infants and school-age ch i l d r e n go largely ignored by national programming. Naynard (1985) suggests, i n Canada, the mounting demand for day care coupled with the- shortage of qual i t y day care i s a c h i l d care c r i s i s . These theorists support the study women's disillusionment with community resources and society's response to their needs. The women i d e n t i f i e d a lack of s o c i e t a l support structures to help them e s t a b l i s h new expectations and delegate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to th e i r roles as mothers, wives, and workers. The women believed work hours were i n f l e x i b l e and structured to make sharing of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n family l i f e d i f f i c u l t . The women wanted more f l e x i b l e work hours for themselves and the i r husbands through f l e x i b l e work time, job sharing, or part time work. Regular work doesn't make any allowance for being a parent. That i s a problem. I don't know what the compromise i s i f there i s one. The way we do 95 business now, I think i t i s intere s t i n g that the ones that are most successful now are small businesswomen. I t i s a t e l l i n g thing that most of the small businesses started i n Canada l a s t year were started by women. I t i s a t e l l i n g thing that i t seems to be - the only way that they can get a decent working s i t u a t i o n . I t means that bureaucracies, the professions, major corporations r e a l l y haven't been w i l l i n g to make allowance for them. They are not w i l l i n g to be f l e x i b l e . They make no allowance for family l i f e whatsoever. Hood (1983) i n s i s t s the expansion of f l e x i b l e time, personal holidays, and other a l t e r n a t i v e work scheduling i s e s s e n t i a l to enable working couples to enjoy more ada p t a b i l i t y to each other's needs and schedules. Pol i t (1979) stresses the importance of the shortened work week, flexible-work hours, and job sharing. Pol i t (1979) rel a t e s changing work schedules to s o c i o l o g i c a l and psychological issues implied by a change i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of people's a c t i v i t i e s over time and; therefore, t h e i r q u a l i t y of l i f e . The study findings support these t h e o r i s t s ' hypotheses, since the study women believed work scheduling was central to the i r r e d e f i n i t i o n of themselves as workers, and the qu a l i t y of th e i r l i v e s as mothers and wives. This q u a l i t a t i v e study of the experience of eight women returning to work following the b i r t h of their f i r s t c h i l d 96 has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e , e d u c a t i o n , and r e s e a r c h . Those i m p l i c a t i o n s , as w e l l as the summary and c o n c l u s i o n s o f the r e s e a r c h , are d i s c u s s e d i n the f i n a l chapter o f the study. 97 Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Summary T h i s study has e x p l o r e d the experience o f e i g h t women r e t u r n i n g to work a f t e r the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . An examination o f the phenomenon of women's r e t u r n to work enabled the re s e a r c h e r to reproduce and c o n c e p t u a l i z e the women's s o c i a l r e a l i t y . Using the grounded theory methodology, the r e s e a r c h e r focused on common asp e c t s o f the women's ex p e r i e n c e s . T h e o r e t i c a l sampling allowed the re s e a r c h e r to develop and s u b s t a n t i a t e concepts r e p r e s e n t i n g a s o c i a l - p r o c e s s . Data c o l l e c t i o n , with c o n c u r r e n t data a n a l y s i s , r e v e a l e d the process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n , wherein, the women were r e q u i r e d t o change t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s and behaviours f o r each o f t h e i r m u l t i p l e r o l e s o f wi f e , mother, and worker. The women moved from t h e i r p r e v i o u s s e t o f r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and behaviours to a new s e t o f r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and behaviours. They had to r e d e f i n e t h e i r r o l e s , and, as a consequence, t h e i r husbands' e x p e c t a t i o n s and behaviours had to change. F u r t h e r data a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d the process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n was composed o f three stages. In the f i r s t stage, t a k i n g on m u l t i p l e r o l e s , the women had assumed the maternal r o l e with the b i r t h o f t h e i r i n f a n t s . While on mat e r n i t y l e a v e , the women contemplated 98 t h e i r d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n to work and c o n s i d e r e d a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g : a) s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , b) t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r work r o l e , c) t h e i r husbands' responses to t h e i r work r o l e , d) t h e i r a b i l i t y to o b t a i n adequate c h i l d c a r e , and e) t h e i r f i n a n c e s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l o f these f a c t o r s l e d the women to the d e c i s i o n t h a t to r e t u r n to work f u l l time was r i g h t f o r them. The second stage o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n was i n i t i a t e d by the women's r e t u r n to work and was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the women's experience o f r o l e s t r a i n or being overwhelmed. The women's r o l e s t r a i n was a consequence o f t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and f e e l i n g s . T h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f themselves and o t h e r s and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c r e a t e d f e e l i n g s o f a) g u i l t , b) l o s s , c) exhau s t i o n , d) ambivalence, e) anger, and f ) resentment. The women d e s c r i b e d themselves as l o s i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e i r l i v e s , because they were attempting to meet a l l o f t h e i r r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and were f a i l i n g to f u l f i l l most o f them. In the t h i r d and f i n a l stage o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n , the women had to get t h e i r l i v e s under c o n t r o l or reduce t h e i r r o l e s t r a i n and d e s c r i b e d a number o f e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t h a t enabled them t o do so. I n i t i a l l y , the women l e t go o f the e x p e c t a t i o n s and the myths u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t , l o s s , e xhaustion, ambivalence, anger, and resentment, and then r e l i n q u i s h e d those f e e l i n g s . T h e r e a f t e r , i n s u c c e s s i o n , the women s e t p r i o r i t i e s , planned and or g a n i z e d , 99 n e g o t i a t e d , e s t a b l i s h e d new e x p e c t a t i o n s , and del e g a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The women's .husbands were c e n t r a l to t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s , s i n c e they were r e q u i r e d to accept most o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s being d e l e g a t e d by the women. As a r e s u l t o f g e t t i n g t h e i r l i v e s under c o n t r o l , they improved the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r l i v e s . Role r e d e f i n i t i o n , as d e s c r i b e d by the study women, was an ongoing process i n t h e i r l i v e s . Having t h e i r l i v e s under c o n t r o l r e p r e s e n t e d a p r e c a r i o u s balance t h a t c o u l d be d i s t u r b e d r e s u l t i n g i n renewed r o l e s t r a i n which r e q u i r e d e f f o r t s to achieve r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n . The women attempted to p r o j e c t themselves to t h e i r f u t u r e s to p r e d i c t whether they c o u l d manage t h e i r m u l t i p l e r o l e s when they a c q u i r e d a new s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s and behaviours, e.g. with the b i r t h o f t h e i r second c h i l d . The women d i d not want to accept t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . They wanted s o c i e t y to accept some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to r e s t r u c t u r e t h e i r s o c i a l environments to a s s i s t them to d e a l with the process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the women expected s o c i e t y to pro v i d e adequate day care and more f l e x i b l e work hours t o hel p they and t h e i r husbands to s u c c e s s f u l l y change t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s and behaviours. C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s study c h a r a c t e r i z e s the experience o f working f i r s t - t i m e mothers as r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n and o u t l i n e s t h i s 100 s e q u e n t i a l stage by stage process. S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from the d i s c o v e r y o f t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The women i n the study were not s u f f e r i n g from a double b i n d induced by c o n f l i c t i n g messages from t h e i r c u l t u r a l group. Rather, these women were the v i c t i m s o f t h e i r own and o t h e r s ' b e l i e f s t h a t they c o u l d , independently .and e f f e c t i v e l y , manage marriages, c h i l d r e n , and jobs. As a r e s u l t , the women found t h e i r r e t u r n to work d i f f i c u l t . They were i n demanding and time consuming s i t u a t i o n s and, consequently, experienced changes i n t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l o u t l o o k s , s o c i a l l i v e s , and p h y s i c a l stamina. The women i n the study were simply unable to do a l l o f the t h i n g s they expected o f themselves, even when they lowered t h e i r standards. In a d d i t i o n , t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s a f f e c t e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r husbands and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The women took a g r e a t d e a l o f time to work t h e i r way through t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s and d u r i n g t h a t time they needed support. Indeed, those women with the h i g h e s t and most u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s o f themselves had the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y and needed the most support to change t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The women worked a t changing t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s , because they b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s would r e s u l t i n improved q u a l i t y o f l i f e f o r themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Although the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r change r e s t e d on the women, they were s a t i s f i e d with the changes and b e l i e v e d t h a t they had e s t a b l i s h e d arrangements where they were s h a r i n g 101 f a m i l i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e q u a l l y with t h e i r husbands. However, the women were unsure how long t h e i r new arrangements would work, and how long they would remain r e l e v a n t to t h e i r changing s i t u a t i o n s . D espite the women's high l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n and obvious commitment to t h e i r work, they had d i f f i c u l t y a r t i c u l a t i n g and acknowledging t h a t simply being a mother was not s u f f i c i e n t to meet t h e i r own needs. The women's d i f f i c u l t y i n acknowledging the l i m i t a t i o n s o f motherhood made i t hard f o r them to r e a l i s t i c a l l y contemplate t h e i r a c t i o n s when they c o n s i d e r e d having another c h i l d . Nursing I m p l i c a t i o n s The t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n and i t s accompanying c o n c l u s i o n s has s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s , f o r n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e , e d u c a t i o n , and r e s e a r c h . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e Knowledge o f the process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n , as experienc e d by working f i r s t - t i m e mothers, i s fundamental to p r o v i d i n g n u r s i n g c a r e to a growing number o f women. These women have e x p e c t a t i o n s o f themselves, s o c i e t y , and t h e i r h e a l t h c a r e p r o v i d e r s w i t h i n a system beset by funding and reso u r c e shortages. P r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e n u r s i n g care to women e x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n i s a c r e a t i v e c h a l l e n g e to m a t e r n a l - c h i l d h e a l t h nurses working i n a v a r i e t y o f s e t t i n g s . T h i s study p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l conceptual framework 102 f o r d i r e c t i n g each phase o f the n u r s i n g process i n v a r i o u s phases o f the c h i l d b e a r i n g c y c l e ; however, the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h a t d i r e c t i o n vary with the each phase o f th a t c y c l e . Those phases o f the c h i l d b e a r i n g c y c l e r e l e v a n t to t h i s study are the pre-conceptual phase, the a n t e n a t a l phase, and the e a r l y and l a t e p o s t n a t a l phases. The- Pre-conceptual and Ant e n a t a l Phases Women, i n a v a r i e t y o f circ u m s t a n c e s , are making d e c i s i o n s about whether t o assume the m u l t i p l e r o l e s o f wife, mother, and worker before they become pregnant. In high s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , many young women are d e c i d i n g to combine marriage, motherhood, and a c a r e e r . Waite, Haggstrom, and Kanouse (1985) i n d i c a t e , t h a t i n the high s c h o o l years and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , young women make key d e c i s i o n s about e d u c a t i o n , marriage, and parenthood. In a d d i t i o n , e a r l y d e c i s i o n s about combining work and c h i l d r e a r i n g have the g r e a t e s t impact on l a t e r labour f o r c e a c t i v i t y (Waite, Haggstrom, fie Kanouse, 1985). Young women a l s o a t t e n d p r e - c o n c e p t u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s or c l a s s e s and a t t h a t time may be d e c i d i n g to take on m u l t i p l e r o l e s . In the a n t e n a t a l p e r i o d , women are i n c o n t a c t with h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s through a n t e n a t a l v i s i t s and a n t e n a t a l c l a s s e s . A n t e n a t a l forms c o u l d i n c l u d e a s e c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g an i n t e n t to r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f the i n f a n t , and women, i n t e n d i n g to r e t u r n to work p o s t n a t a l l y , c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d i n a n t e n a t a l c l a s s e s . By t h i s means 103 women p l a n n i n g to assume m u l t i p l e r o l e s c o u l d be r e f e r r e d to nurses. Decision-making i s a p i v o t a l aspect o f t h i s f i r s t stage of the proc e s s . The women i n t h i s study used methodical informed decision-making i n t h i s stage. The nurse should not a n t i c i p a t e t h a t a l l women w i l l use a form o f planned change to make d e c i s i o n s , s i n c e o f t e n women m a k e . i n t u i t i v e d e c i s i o n s . Nurses are aware t h a t planned change i s more e f f e c t i v e than change by d r i f t i n a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r h e a l t h and q u a l i t y o f l i f e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e r e f o r e , nurses e n c o u n t e r i n g women i n the pre-conceptual and a n t e n a t a l p e r i o d s can use the f a c t o r s from the f i r s t stage o f the proc e s s , t a k i n g on m u l t i p l e r o l e s , t o assess the form o f decision-making the women are u s i n g . Since a more i n t u i t i v e form o f decision-making has the p o t e n t i a l to i n c r e a s e the r o l e s t r a i n e x p e r i e n c e d by women, the nurse c o u l d p l a n her care to i n t r o d u c e f a c t o r s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n which were absent on assessment. In a d d i t i o n , u n d e r l y i n g theory c o u l d be i n c l u d e d to enable the women to understand the importance o f c o n s i d e r i n g a l l r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s to decision-making i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The study women i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r l a c k o f knowledge and r e s o u r c e s , on types o f day care and t h e i r e f f e c t s on i n f a n t s . Nurses, w e l l informed about a v a i l a b l e day care and r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g to e f f e c t s o f day care on i n f a n t s , can h e l p women to c o n s i d e r t h i s f a c t o r . 104 The second stage o f the process, e x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e s t r a i n , p r o v i d e s d i r e c t i o n f o r the nurse t o g i v e a n t i c i p a t o r y guidance to women i n the preconceptual and a n t e n a t a l p e r i o d s . The e x p e c t a t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and f e e l i n g s s p e c i f i e d i n e x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e s t r a i n are v a r i a b l e s t h a t can be assessed by the nurse. Women, a t r i s k f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e s t r a i n , would be pr o v i d e d with i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r own and t h e i r spouse's behaviours t h a t c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to r o l e s t r a i n . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a p r e v e n t a t i v e approach t h a t c o u l d decrease or e l i m i n a t e r o l e s t r a i n . The E a r l y P o s t n a t a l Phase Women, i n the e a r l y p o s t n a t a l p e r i o d o f the c h i l d b e a r i n g c y c l e , are encountered by nurses and other h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s through p o s t n a t a l n u r s i n g u n i t s , p o s t n a t a l e x e r c i s e c l a s s e s , and p o s t n a t a l community h e a l t h v i s i t s . In t h i s p e r i o d , nurses would expect women to be contemplating t h e i r d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n to work. Using the behaviours s p e c i f i e d by the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, women would be assessed, and those women having d i f f i c u l t y t a k i n g on m u l t i p l e r o l e s would be ca n d i d a t e s f o r p l a n n i n g and i n t e r v e n t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r has designed a course s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r those f i r s t - t i m e mothers on maternity leave making a d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n to work. The course i n c l u d e s planned change i n the decision-making process. A woman examines the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g her d e c i s i o n to take on m u l t i p l e r o l e s 105 and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to her s o c i a l i z a t i o n , s i t u a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , and v a l u e s . As a r e s u l t , the woman i s ab l e to a r r i v e a t a methodical informed d e c i s i o n as to whether r e t u r n i n g to work i s r i g h t f o r her. A group seminar approach p r o v i d e s a s u p p o r t i v e environment f o r a woman to examinine her e x p e c t a t i o n s , and those o f s o c i e t y and s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , and to a n t i c i p a t e the impact those e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l have on her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f e e l i n g s . T h i s examination permits a woman to a n t i c i p a t e the r o l e s t r a i n she may experience and to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f her s i t u a t i o n t h a t would c o n t r i b u t e to her r o l e s t r a i n . Each woman would i d e n t i f y and d i s c u s s s t r a t e g i e s o u t l i n e d f o r r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n . W i t h i n the group s i t u a t i o n , a woman an a l y z e s her own s i t u a t i o n and a p p l i e s the concepts taught i n the course to her own l i f e . In t h i s way, she can i d e n t i f y e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s to be used to prevent r o l e s t r a i n o r , a t a f u t u r e time, to reduce r o l e s t r a i n . A l l a s p e c t s o f the course would be supported by r e l e v a n t theory to a s s i s t the women to g a i n the knowledge necessary f o r managing m u l t i p l e r o l e s . The above n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d toward a n t i c i p a t e d problems, a r i s i n g from unplanned decision-making, and u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , c o n t r i b u t i n g to r o l e s t r a i n . E s s e n t i a l l y , a woman i s i n v o l v e d i n a n t i c i p a t o r y r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . The s t r a t e g y f o r t h i s course i s supported by the study r e s u l t s . 106 s i n c e the women with more r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s f e l t l e s s overwhelmed and moved through the r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n process more q u i c k l y than the othe r study women. In a d d i t i o n , the women, i n t h i s study were i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f res o u r c e s to meet t h e i r needs more e f f e c t i v e l y and found t h a t those r e s o u r c e s d i d not e x i s t . The women's changes i n knowledge, s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , and values would enable them to develop s t r a t e g i e s necessary to manage m u l t i p l e r o l e s . The Late P o s t n a t a l Phase Women i n the l a t e p o s t n a t a l p e r i o d o f the c h i l d b e a r i n g c y c l e are encountered by h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s a t w e l l baby c l i n i c s , community h e a l t h u n i t s , p h y s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e s , and h o s p i t a l emergency u n i t s . In the l a t e p o s t n a t a l phase, nurses c o u l d expect to encounter women who have r e t u r n e d to work, and who are e x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e s t r a i n or attempting to reduce r o l e s t r a i n . Many o f the study women d e s c r i b e d a v a r i e t y o f p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems r e s u l t i n g from e x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e s t r a i n t h a t l e d them to seek a s s i s t a n c e from h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The v a r i a b l e s , i . e . e x p e c t a t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and f e e l i n g s , d e s c r i b e d i n e x p e r i e n c i n g r o l e s t r a i n p r o v i d e nurses with i n s i g h t i n t o which as p e c t s o f a woman's s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n to a s s i s t her to move to r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , the women i n the study experienced anger which r e t a r d e d t h e i r movement through the process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . The women's anger 107 r e s u l t e d from t h e i r l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , and an i n a b i l i t y to meet t h e i r own needs. An examination and a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s would have reduced the anger experienced by the women and some o f t h e i r ambivalence, thereby, r e d u c i n g t h e i r r o l e s t r a i n and speeding t h e i r movement through the pr o c e s s . The women i n the study a l s o commented on t h e i r sense o f i s o l a t i o n and t h e i r need t o have something out there to h e l p women l i k e themselves. These comments i n d i c a t e the need f o r a group s e s s i o n approach t o n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n with the nurse as a resource person. Cronenwett (1980) found t h a t employed women were more l i k e l y to co n t i n u e to meet with postpartum groups f o r over a year. Group s e s s i o n s , aimed a t the women's r e c o g n i t i o n o f the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h e i r r o l e s t r a i n , would p r o v i d e a mutually s u p p o r t i v e and warm environment f o r d i s c u s s i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and group problem s o l v i n g . The t h i r d stage o f the pro c e s s , r e d u c i n g r o l e s t r a i n , a l s o s p e c i f i e s behaviours and s t r a t e g i e s demonstrated by the f i r s t - t i m e mother. L e t t i n g go o f c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e myths, e x p e c t a t i o n s , and f e e l i n g s , s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s , o r g a n i z i n g and p l a n n i n g , n e g o t i a t i n g , e s t a b l i s h i n g new e x p e c t a t i o n s , and d e l e g a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i d e n t i f y t h i s stage. For many o f the women, months were r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a l l o f these s t r a t e g i e s were i d e n t i f e d and u t i l i z e d to achieve r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f those s e q u e n t i a l 108 steps enables nurses to i d e n t i f y s i t u a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t prevent a woman's movement through the process, and to d i r e c t n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s to a s s i s t a woman to rec o g n i z e and d e a l with her s p e c i f i c c o n s t r a i n t s . In a d d i t i o n , the step s guide nurses to pr o v i d e a woman with a n t i c i p a t o r y c o u n s e l l i n g f o r subsequent a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d to complete the process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . T h i s stage o f the process would a l s o be s u i t a b l e f o r n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n u t i l i z i n g a group s t r a t e g y , with meetings planned f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f the r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , mutual problem s o l v i n g , and emotional support. Nurses c o u l d a s s i s t a woman to t r a n s f e r the concepts o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n to f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n s where the process would be r e l e v a n t . The study f i n d i n g s support t h i s s t r a t e g y s i n c e , when i l l , one o f the study women experienced a r e t u r n to r o l e s t r a i n from r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , most o f the study women were p r o j e c t i n g to the b i r t h o f t h e i r next c h i l d and were attempting to p r e d i c t t h e i r , approach to r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . I f a woman was unable to achieve r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n f o l l o w i n g n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n , the nurse would need to r e a s s e s s her u s i n g the behaviours s p e c i f i e d i n the t h e o r e t i c a l framework and a s c e r t a i n whether f u r t h e r n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n c o u l d a s s i s t her to complete the proce s s . Her i n a b i l i t y to achieve r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n c o u l d have s e r i o u s consequences f o r the mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o f t h a t i n d i v i d u a l and her f a m i l y . 109 The process o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n i s a u t i l i t a r i a n approach, not based on i d e o l o g i c a l hypotheses about what women's r o l e s should be, but based on what worked f o r the women i n the study. T h e r e f o r e , t h i s approach c o u l d be r e l e v a n t f o r other f i r s t - t i m e mothers s t r u g g l i n g to manage the r o l e s o f wi f e , mother, and worker. Nurses are o f t e n working f i r s t - t i m e mothers. On a broader s c a l e , nurses c o u l d be d i r e c t i n g t h e i r n u r s i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s to making b u r e a u c r a t i c changes i n our s o c i e t y , such as adequate day care and f l e x i b l e work hours, which are more c o n s i s t e n t with t h e i r own needs and those o f t h e i r c l i e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , many p r a c t i c i n g nurses have l e a r n e d t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s through n u r s i n g programs and t h e i r own s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Nurses who are working f i r s t - t i m e mothers can a s s i s t t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s to meet the c h a l l e n g e to provide e f f e c t i v e and s e n s i t i v e n u r s i n g care to women attempting t o manage n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Nursing E d u c a t i o n M a t e r n a l - c h i l d h e a l t h n u r s i n g c u r r i c u l a must not o n l y p r o v i d e n u r s i n g students with an o p p o r t u n i t y to examine the v a r y i n g l i f e s t y l e s o f women; they must a l s o p r o v i d e students with d i r e c t i o n to a s s i s t those women to mai n t a i n t h e i r o p t i m a l h e a l t h and q u a l i t y o f l i f e ; T h i s study p r e s e n t s a con c e p t u a l framework t h a t c o u l d p r o v i d e n u r s i n g students with d i r e c t i o n , f o r a l l o f the phases o f the n u r s i n g 110 process, to care f o r f i r s t - t i m e mothers i n t e n d i n g to resume or resuming t h e i r work r o l e s . The concepts p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r n u r s i n g students to f i t t h e i r care to what i s r i g h t f o r i n d i v i d u a l working f i r s t - t i m e mothers and not to an i d e o l o g i c a l image o f what the r o l e s o f f i r s t - t i m e mothers should e n t a i l . To ensure b e t t e r n u r s i n g care f o r working f i r s t - t i m e mothers based on an understanding o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , these concepts should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the c u r r i c u l a o f b a s i c and c o n t i n u i n g n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n programs. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Nursing Research The i n v e s t i g a t o r used grounded theory as a r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y to e x p l o r e a new phenomenon— the experience o f f i r s t - t i m e mothers r e t u r n i n g to work a f t e r the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . The c o n c e p t u a l framework t h a t emerged from the study p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The group o f women i n t e r v i e w e d f o r the study probably i s comparable with other f i r s t - t i m e mothers r e t u r n i n g to work, however; an assumption cannot be made t h a t they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h a t p o p u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e i t i s apparent to what e x t e n t t h i s group r e p r e s e n t s the e x p e r i e n c e o f l a r g e numbers o f f i r s t - t i m e mothers r e t u r n i n g to work a f t e r the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a survey c o u l d be conducted o f f i r s t - t i m e working mothers to a s c e r t a i n whether the r o l e s t r a i n r e d u c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , i d e n t i f i e d i n the I l l s t u d y , a r e s t r a t e g i e s r o u t i n e l y u s e d b y w o r k i n g f i r s t - t i m e m o t h e r s e n g a g e d i n r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . S e v e r a l o t h e r q u e s t i o n s a r i s e f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s a n d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t u d y d a t a : 1. Does t h e t i m i n g o f r e t u r n t o wo r k make a d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o c e s s o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n ? 2. What i s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f f i r s t - t i m e f a t h e r s whose w i v e s r e t u r n t o w o r k ? 3. I s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e t u r n i n g t o wo r k a f t e r t h e b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t i n f a n t d i f f e r e n t f o r women i n o t h e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p s ? 4. I s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e t u r n i n g t o w o r k a f t e r t h e b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t i n f a n t d i f f e r e n t f o r women i n o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s ? 5 . What a r e t h e e f f e c t s o f r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n o n e a c h p a r t n e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s p o u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ? I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e s n u r s e s c a n n o t make n u r s i n g c a r e j u d g m e n t s b a s e d o n i d e o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e r o l e s o f women a s w i v e s , m o t h e r s , a n d w o r k e r s . Women r e t u r n i n g t o work , a f t e r t h e b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d r e p r e s e n t a u n i q u e g r o u p who a r e t a k i n g o n m u l t i p l e r o l e s a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s t h a t f i t t h e i r s p e c i f i c l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e women r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a n d c r e a t i v e n u r s i n g c a r e . To p r o v i d e c r e a t i v e a n d s e n s i t i v e n u r s i n g c a r e , n u r s e s m u s t h a v e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c h a n g e s o c c u r i n g i n women ' s l i v e s 112 w i t h i n the con t e x t o f our s o c i e t y . Grounded theory i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to understanding s o c i a l r e a l i t y from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s o c i a l scene. 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Chapter submitted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . Scanzoni, J . (1978). Sex r o l e s , women's work and m a r i t a l  c o n f l i c t . L e xington, MA: Lexington. S c a r a t o , A.M., & S i g a l l , B.A. (1979). M u l t i p l e r o l e women. Co u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 8.(1), 26-27. S c h i l l e r , J.D. (1980). C h i l d - c a r e a l t e r n a t i v e s and  emotional w e l l b e i n g . New York: Praeger. S c h l o s s b e r g , N.K. (1980). A model f o r a n a l y z i n g human a d a p t a t i o n to t r a n s i t i o n . C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 9( 2 ) , 2-18. S h a e v i t z , M.H. (1984). The superwomen syndrome. New York: Warner Books. Skard, A. G. (1968). Maternal d e p r i v a t i o n : The r e s e a r c h and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . In R.F. Winch & L.W. Goodman 120 ( E d s . ) , S e l e c t e d s t u d i e s i n marriage and the f a m i l y (pp. 266-280). New York: H o l t , Rhinehart and Winston. Skinner, D. (1982). The s t r e s s o r ' s and co p i n g p a t t e r n s o f dual c a r e e r f a m i l i e s . In H. McCubbin, A. Cauble & J . P a t t e r s o n (Eds.), Family s t r e s s , c o p i n g and s o c i a l  support (pp. 136-150). S p r i n g f i e l d , I L : C h a r l e s C. Thomas. S l e i g h t h o l m , B.J. (1985). The r e a l world o f the nurse educator. Canadian Nurse. 81.(11), 28-30. Smith, S.D., & Reid, W.J. (1986). R o l e - s h a r i n g marriage. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, (1984). Women In the work world. Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l i e s and S e r v i c e s . S t e r n , P. (1980). Grounded theory methodology: I t s uses and proc e s s e s . EOT Image, X I I ( 1 ) . 20-23. S t e r n , P., & P y l e s , S. (1985). Using grounded theory methodology to study women's c u l t u r a l l y based d e c i s i o n s about h e a l t h . Health Care f o r Women I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 6 (1-3), 1-24. T i z a r d , J . , Moss, P., SE P e r r y , J . (1976). A l l our  c h i l d r e n . London: Maurice Temple Smith. Waite, L . J . , Haggstrom, G.W., & Kanouse, D.E. (1985). Employment a c t i v i t i e s o f new parents. American  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 50,(2), 263-272. Watzalwick, P., Beavin, J . , SE Jackson, D. (1967). Pragmatics o f human communication: A study o f  i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , p a t h o l o g i e s , and paradoxes. New York: Norton and Company. 121 Appendix A INTRODUCTORY LETTER School o f Nursing U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B.C. J u l y 1985 Dear , My name i s Wendy H a l l . I am a r e g i s t e r e d nurse with t en years o f experience i n the care o f mothers and i n f a n t s . I am c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n the Master of Science i n Nursing Program a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I am i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g more about the experience o f f i r s t - t i m e m o thers.returning to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t i n f a n t . I t i s hoped t h a t the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study w i l l enable nurses to pr o v i d e informed guidance f o r f i r s t - t i m e mothers p l a n n i n g to r e t u r n to work i n the f u t u r e . In order to do t h i s , I am conducting a study t h a t r e q u i r e s me to i n t e r v i e w f i r s t - t i m e mothers. The c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the study a r e : r e t u r n i n g to work f u l l time, married or l i v i n g with a p a r t n e r , a spouse c u r r e n t l y working f u l l time. The study i n t e r v i e w s w i l l i n v o l v e d i s c u s s i n g your thoughts and f e e l i n g s about the experience o f combining work and motherhood approximately two months a f t e r your r e t u r n to work. I would l i k e to i n t e r v i e w you f o r one hour on two to three o c c a s i o n s i n your home. In order to permit me to con c e n t r a t e on your p o r t r a y a l o f your e x p e r i e n c e , I would 122 l i k e to tape r e c o r d the i n t e r v i e w s . I f a t any time, you wish a p a r t o f the i n t e r v i e w erased; i t w i l l be erased i n your presence. The r e c o r d i n g s are o n l y a v a i l a b l e to myself and w i l l be erased a t the end o f the study. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study w i l l not i n v o l v e any r i s k s to you or your i n f a n t . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study i s v o l u n t a r y and you are f r e e to withdraw a t any time without jeopardy to the conduct o f your care by h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The i n t e r v i e w s should provide you with an o p p o r t u n i t y to express your f e e l i n g s to an i n t e r e s t e d and concerned nurse. I f you wish to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, please r e t u r n a copy o f the signed consent form. I w i l l c a l l you and arrange an i n t e r v i e w time t h a t i s convenient f o r you. Any q u e s t i o n s or concerns that you may have w i l l g l a d l y be d i s c u s s e d a t the time o f the phone c a l l . S i n c e r e l y , Wendy H a l l , R.N., B.N. 123 Appendix B CONSENT FORM I g r a n t p e r m i s s i o n to Wendy H a l l , a student i n the Master's o f Science i n Nursing program a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, to i n t e r v i e w me f o r two or three one hour s e s s i o n s f o r her study "The Experience o f F i r s t - t i m e Mothers Returning to Work". I understand the i n t e n t o f the study i s to d e s c r i b e the experience o f f i r s t - t i m e mothers r e t u r n i n g to work f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o f t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . I understand the i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be audio tape-recorded. I understand c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be s t r i c t l y r e s p e c t e d and w r i t t e n r e p o r t s w i l l c o n t a i n no p e r s o n a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . I understand the i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l respond to any i n q u i r i e s I may make about the study. I understand my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y . I may withdraw from the study a t any time without jeopardy to the conduct o f my care by h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I may r e f u s e to answer some o f the q u e s t i o n s . I acknowledge t h a t I have r e c e i v e d a copy o f t h i s consent form. Date P a r t i c i p a n t ' s s i g n a t u r e and phone number Witness I n v e s t i g a t o r ' s s i g n a t u r e 

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