UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the transferability of selected concepts and procedures of scientific experimentation Imenda, Sitwala Namwinji 1984

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A STUDY OF THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SELECTED CONCEPTS AND PROCEDURES OF S C I E N T I F I C EXPERIMENTATION by SITWALA NAMWIN J I /^IMEND A ( w i t h e d u c a t i o n ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Z a m b i a , 1976 , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k a t A l b a n y , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATIS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d B.Sc . M.Sc. THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 © S i t w a l a N a m w i n j i Imenda, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Mft7H£MfiTfc£ 4 S C f g / V c c £J>UCAT(ON The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e d t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t k n o w l e d g e o f s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s of s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s t r a n s f e r a b l e b e y o n d t h e l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h i t h a s been a c q u i r e d . I n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s p r o b l e m c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l s of s c i e n t f i c e n q u i r y and s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e were d e v e l o p e d . T o g e t h e r , t h e s e two c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l s were u s e d t o e x a m i n e t h i s b r o a d q u e s t i o n o f t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f e x p e r i m e n t a l k n o w l e d g e a c r o s s l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y two l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s were d e f i n e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y e x a m i n e d : t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c and t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s were d e v e l o p e d t o p r e s e n t s e l e c t e d e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t o s t u d e n t s i n e a c h o f t h e s e c o n t e x t s . T h i s s t u d y e m p l o y e d a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n , h a v i n g one c o n t r o l a n d two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . E a c h g r o u p c o m p r i s e d t h r e e i n t a c t c l a s s r o o m s . I n a l l , a t o t a l o f s i x r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d s i n g l e - s e x s c h o o l s f r o m L u s a k a d i s t r i c t , Z a m b i a , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y , g i v i n g a t o t a l o f 342 s t u d e n t s . Two t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s were d e v e l o p e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r and t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d were a n a l y s e d t h r o u g h a l i n e a r m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n m o d e l o f a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e h a v i n g two c o v a r i a t e s a n d one d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . i i i The T u k e y method was u s e d t o c o n d u c t a p o s t e r i o r i c o m p a r i s o n s amongst t h e t h r e e g r o u p s w h i c h p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y showed t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r s u c h k n o w l e d g e t o a s i t u a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n was p r e s e n t e d . The r e s u l t s showed, f u r t h e r , t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t p r o v i d e d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l o f t r a n s f e r (p<0.05) t h a n d i d t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d a n d some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r a c t i o n a s w e l l a s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e s u g g e s t e d . DR. GAALEN L. ERICKSON iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i L i s t of Tables vi L i s t of Figures v i i Acknowledgements v i i i Chapter I: Introduction 1 1. Background to the problem 1 2. D e f i n i t i o n of terms 2 3. Statement of the general problem 3 4. Statement of the s p e c i f i c problem 3 5. Research and s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses . 4 6. Importance of the problem 5 7. Contributions of the study 7 8. Rationale of the study 8 9. The method of study 10 10. Assumptions of the study 14 11. Limitations of the study 15 Chapter II: Contexts of the study and l i t e r a t u r e review 16 1. H i s t o r i c a l - S o c i e t a l context 16 2. Epistemological context 21 Views on the nature of science and s c i e n t i f i c enquiry 21 Operationalisation of the notion of method in school c u r r i c u l a 31 - The United States 34 - The Zambian case 38 Types of knowledge 44 3. Psychological context 49 Concept and p r i n c i p l e learning 49 T r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c experimentation 51 4. Pedagogical context 56 Instruction i n process s k i l l s 56 Research studies on i n s t r u c t i o n i n process s k i l l s 64 5. Summary of the l i t e r a t u r e review 68 Chapter I I I : The methods of the study 70 1. Target population and the accessible population 70 2. The sample 71 3. Research design 72 Type of design 72 Instrumentation 73 - Test in germination of seeds (TIGS) 73 - Test in concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c experimentation (TCPSE) 74 V TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Treatments 78 - Content instruction in germination of seeds 78 - Instruction in concepts and procedures of sc ient i f i c experimentation . . . 79 - Group act iv i t ies 83 Evaluation of the instructional materials 89 4. The data 90 Collection of the data 90 Stat ist ical model and analysis of data 91 Stat ist ical hypotheses and tests 92 Chapter IV: Results . 93 1. Summary of results 93 2. Results of the stat i s t ica l hypotheses 95 Preliminary analysis: ANCOVA tests 95 Tests of the stat i s t ica l hypotheses 100 3. Summary of the results 102 Chapter V: Discussion of the results . . . 104 1. The transferabi l i ty of concepts and procedures of sc ient i f ic experimentation . 105 2. Context of instruction versus the transferabi l ity of the knowledge of sc ient i f ic experimentation 110 Chapter VI: Conclusions and recommendations ^ 115 1. Conclusions of the study 115 2. Limitations and recommendations 117 Bibliography . . , 121 Appendix A 139 Appendix B 144 Appendix C 169 Appendix D 173 Appendix E 175 Appendix F 307 Appendix G 402 Appendix H 404 Appendix I 418 vi LIST OF TABLES Table I: The four-point scale used by Herron (1971) to classify laboratory act iv i t ies in the PSSC and BSCS instructional materials 36 Table II: Arithmetic means of the three groups on the three measures made in the study 93 Table III: ANCOVA summary table for the three groups 96 Table IV: Graphical representation of the results of the study 99 Table V: Results of the s tat i s t ica l hypotheses of the study . . . 101 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1: The conceptual model of sc ient i f ic enquiry used in this study 30 Figure 2.2: The Hewson model of related aspects of knowledge .. 47 Figure 2.3: The conceptual model of aspects of sc ient i f i c knowledge used in this study 48 V i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s p r o j e c t w o u l d n o t have been a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o o p e r a t i o n o f many p e o p l e : - My most h e l p f u l and t h o u g h t f u l c o m m i t t e e : Bob C a r l i s l e , f o r p r o v i d i n g me w i t h t h e o v e r a l l s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e f o r t h e s t u d y ; W a l t e r B o l d t , f o r t h e most i n v a l u a b l e c o u n s e l l i n g i n r e s e a r c h d e s i g n a n d t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s t u d y ; a n d most e s p e c i a l l y , G a a l e n E r i c k s o n f o r h e l p i n g me t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e a n d c o n t e x t u r i z e t h e p r o b l e m o f t h i s s t u d y , a s w e l l a s a s s i s t i n g me w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a n d m a k i n g i t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o g e t b a c k t o Zambia t o c o l l e c t d a t a f o r t h i s p r o j e c t . - P r o f e s s o r R e g i n a l d W i l d : F o r a s s i s t i n g me a n d my f a m i l y t o s e t t l e d u r i n g o u r f i r s t few months i n C a n a d a , and a l s o f o r w o r k i n g a s my p r o - t e r m a d v i s o r d u r i n g my f i r s t y e a r a t U.B.C. - M r . A. S i m u c h o b a : The C h i e f E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r , L u s a k a R e g i o n , f o r a l l o w i n g me t o work w i t h h i s t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . - The t e a c h e r s who h e l p e d me w i t h t h e s t u d y : M e s s r s B a l a k r i s h n a n a n d Banda ( C h o n g w e ) ; M e s s r s Gondwe and S n e l s o n ( K a f u e ) ; Mr. Goma ( M u n a l i ) ; Mr. M a l a k a t a ( M a t e r o G i r l s ) ; Mr. P h i r i ( K a b u l o n g a G i r l s ) ; M i s s N t h a w i e (Roma G i r l s ) ; a n d M i s s Mwale ( K a b u l o n g a G i r l s ) , f o r a g r e e i n g t o p i l o t - t e s t t h e TCPSE amongst h e r s t u d e n t s . - A l l t h e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . - My u n c l e , Mr. V. K. M u l i n d e t i , a n d h i s f a m i l y : F o r t a k i n g v e r y g ood c a r e o f me w h i l e I was c o l l e c t i n g d a t a f o r t h i s t h e s i s . - My w i f e , G r a c e : F o r b e i n g so s u p p o r t i v e a n d p a t i e n t w i t h me; a n d f o r t a k i n g e x t r e m e l y g ood c a r e o f o u r c h i l d r e n d u r i n g my l o n g h o u r s a n d months o f a b s e n c e f r o m home. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e p r o b l e m T h r o u g h o u t t h e l a s t two d e c a d e s , s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s have a d v o c a t e d t h e t e a c h i n g o f k n o w l e d g e o f c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e d e s i g n o f e x p e r i m e n t s i n s c i e n c e a s w e l l a s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a a c c r u i n g f r o m s u c h e x p e r i m e n t s . As Hewson ( 1 9 8 2 ) s t a t e s : A d e c l a r e d a i m o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n c e i s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i n k i n g i n t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n c e ... and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s i s a c h i e v e d i s o f i n t e r e s t t o s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s ( p . 3 ) . H e g a r t y (nd) makes a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n : T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a g r e e m e n t t h a t t e a c h i n g u n i v e r s i t y s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y i s i m p o r t a n t ( p . 1 3 3 ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e Zambian G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s i s s u e d i n 1970 e m p h a s i z e d t h e " e x p e r i m e n t a l a p p r o a c h " a s t h e m a i n t e a c h i n g mode. The s y l l a b u s was d e s i g n e d t o : l e a d p u p i l s i n t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d s and ways o f t h i n k i n g . The a c c e n t i s on d i s c o v e r y by  t h e p u p i l , who i s n o t e x p e c t e d t o m e m o r i z e l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f t o t a l l y u n c o n n e c t e d f a c t s ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e , 1 9 7 0 , p . 6 7 ) . I n 1974, t h e Zambian m i n i s t r y u n d e r l i n e d i t s commitment t o t h i s a p p r o a c h by m a n d a t i n g t h a t a l l j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s c a r r y o u t e x p e r i m e n t s i n s c i e n c e on p r o b l e m s o f i n t e r e s t t o them, i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n s m a l l g r o u p s . 2 E l s e w h e r e , d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a b a s e d on t h i s n o t i o n o f s t u d e n t e n q u i r y t o o k p l a c e , t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e x t e n t ( U n i t e s S t a t e s E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C o m m i s s i o n , 1961; UNESCO,1971; G r e a t o r e x a n d L i s t e r , 1980; M a c L a r e n , 1980, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . 2. D e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , and i n l i n e w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r Two, t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be u s e d : C o g n i t i v e k n o w l e d g e : L e a r n i n g o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n c e a s w e l l a s e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v i n g t h e c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n o f B l o o m ' s taxonomy ( B l o o m , 1 9 5 6 ) . P s y c h o m o t o r s k i l l s : P r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e p h y s i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f v a r i o u s s c i e n t i f i c a p p a r a t u s e s a n d e q u i p m e n t , t h a t i s , a s i n R a v e t z ' s ( 1 9 7 1) n o t i o n o f c r a f t k n o w l e d g e . G e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t : An i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e l e a r n i n g o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n makes use o f c o n t e n t drawn f r o m a b r o a d r a n g e o f d i s c i p l i n e s c o v e r i n g b o t h n a t u r a l a n d s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . C o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t : An i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e l e a r n i n g o f s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n makes use o f c o n t e n t d rawn f r o m a s p e c i f i c s c i e n c e t o p i c . S c i e n c e p r o c e s s s k i l l s : V a r i o u s t y p e s o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . S c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y : P r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g k n o w l e d g e c l a i m s a b o u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among o b j e c t s , phenomena o r e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g i n n a t u r e . S c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n : P r o c e d u r a l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e d e s i g n a n d e x e c u t i o n o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n s c i e n c e , a s w e l l a s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a 3 a c c r u i n g f r o m s u c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . 1 3. S t a t e m e n t o f t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m One b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h has u n d e r s c o r e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f k n o w l e d g e r e l a t i n g t o e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a h a s been t h e p o t e n t i a l t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f s u c h k n o w l e d g e w i t h i n a n d a c r o s s s u b j e c t m a t t e r (Gagne, 1965b; T o b i n and C a p i e , 1980; F i n l e y , 1 9 8 3 ) . However, t h i s a s s u m p t i o n has n o t y e t b een s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t u d i e d a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s s t u d y s e e k s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s commonly e n c o u n t e r e d i n e x p e r i m e n t a l work i n s c i e n c e , a t t h i s l e v e l , may be t r a n s f e r a b l e t o s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n and a c r o s s s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t . 4. S t a t e m e n t o f t h e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s t u d y s e e k s t o a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : I s k n o w l e d g e o f s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t r a n s f e r a b l e b e y o n d t h e l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h i t h a s been a c q u i r e d ? To a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e r e s e a r c h e r a d d r e s s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s : a) I s k n o w l e d g e o f s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s of s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a c q u i r e d w i t h i n a c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c s c i e n c e c o n t e x t t r a n s f e r a b l e t o a n o t h e r s c i e n c e c o n t e x t w h i c h i s f a m i l i a r t o t h e ' S c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y i s c o n c e i v e d o f a s s u b s u m i n g s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . H e n c e , t h e f o r m e r i s p e r f o r m e d by c a r e e r s c i e n t i s t s w h i l e t h e l a t t e r h a s been d e f i n e d s o a s t o i n c l u d e p r a c t i c a l e x e r c i s e s n o r m a l l y c a r r i e d o u t i n s c h o o l l a b o r a t o r i e s . 4 students? b) Is knowledge of s e l e c t e d concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c experimentation a c q u i r e d w i t h i n a general-knowledge context t r a n s f e r a b l e to a s p e c i f i c s c i e n c e context which i s f a m i l i a r to the students? c) Does the context w i t h i n which the knowledge of s c i e n t i f i c experimentation has been a c q u i r e d have any e f f e c t on the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of that knowledge? 5. Research and s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses The above s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s l e a d to the formulation of the f o l l o w i n g research hypotheses, followed by t h e i r c orresponding s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses. H1. Students who are exposed to i n s t r u c t i o n in the concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c experimentation, w i t h i n the c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c context, w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the dependent v a r i a b l e than those who are not exposed to such i n s t r u c t i o n . 2 Ho: y 2 - u x > 0 H l : y2 " H2. Students who, are exposed to i n s t r u c t i o n in the concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c experimentation, w i t h i n a general-knowledge context, w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the dependent v a r i a b l e , than those who are not exposed to such i n s t r u c t i o n . Ho: u-j - y^ > 0 H3. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in performance, on the dependent v a r i a b l e , between students taught w i t h i n the c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c context and those taught w i t h i n the general-knowledge context. Ho: y2 " ~ 0 Ho: u2 ~ ^3 * 0 2Where JJ2 and p3 are the r e s p e c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n means f o r Groups 1, 2 and 3; and Groups 2 and 3 are the ones which r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n in s c i e n t i f i c experimentation while Group 1 served as a comparison group. 5 T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o h e r e i n a f t e r a s H1_, H2 and H3_, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 6. I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m The i s s u e a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s a p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m o f p r a c t i c e i n t e a c h i n g c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n Zambian s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The need f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e p r o b l e m c a n be s e e n i n two c o n t e x t s , s o c i e t a l a nd p e d a g o g i c a l . I t i s t h e s e c o n t e x t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n t e x t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , a s u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , t h a t t h e p r o b l e m f i n d s i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n a n d i s j u d g e d t o be w o r t h y o f c a r e f u l s t u d y . A b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e s e c o n t e x t s i s g i v e n b e l o w . The n e x t c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s a more e l a b o r a t e e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e c o n t e x t s . Soc i e t a l c o n t e x t • No s o o n e r had Zambia g a i n e d h e r i n d e p e n d e n c e ( 1 9 6 4 ) t h a n she s t a r t e d m a k i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e and s u b s t a n c e of t h e c o u n t r y ' s e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m ( M i n i s t r y o f D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n n i n g , 1 9 6 6 ) . Zambia has a l w a y s b e l i e v e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n c e and m a t h e m a t i c s i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a c o u n t r y ' s e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e g o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t w i s h t o s e e any downward t r e n d i n t h e s t a n d a r d s o f m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e were m a r k e d by e x p a n s i o n o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . 6 P e d a g o g i c a l c o n t e x t . C u r r e n t l y , Zambia e n d e a v o u r s t o t e a c h c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n by e n g a g i n g s t u d e n t s i n p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n a n d o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m . The G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s i s s u e d i n 1970 e m p h a s i z e d p r a c t i c a l work and e n c o u r a g e d t e a c h e r s t o engage t h e i r p u p i l s i n l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h r e q u i r e d them t o d e s i g n and c a r r y o u t t h e i r own e x p e r i m e n t s ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e , 1 9 7 0 ) . I t was f u r t h e r d i r e c t e d t h a t some b a s i c a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n c e p t s be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s i n l i n e w i t h t h e c o u n t r y ' s commitment t o d i v e r s i f y i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l economy. E x p e r i e n t i a l c o n t e x t . The w r i t e r , w h i l e w o r k i n g a s a l e c t u r e r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Z a m b i a , became p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s p r o b l e m a f t e r h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h S A P A ( S c i e n c e - A P r o c e s s A p p r o a c h ) m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c e d by t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e A d v a n c e m e n t o f S c i e n c e ( 1 9 6 5 ) . The w r i t e r a nd h i s s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h e s e m a t e r i a l s t o be v e r y h e l p f u l . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e w r i t e r a nd h i s s t u d e n t s had c o m p l e t e d numerous c o u r s e s i n " p u r e " s c i e n c e s , t h e s e m a t e r i a l s a p p e a r e d t o b r o a d e n e v e r y o n e ' s a w a r e n e s s i n m a k i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s , m e a s u r e m e n t s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a n d o t h e r s k i l l s c o v e r e d by t h e m a t e r i a l s . I t was d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h a t t h e w r i t e r f e l t t h a t i t m i g h t be u s e f u l t o i n t r o d u c e some c o n c e p t s p e r t a i n i n g t o s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n a 7 n o n - l a b o r a t o r y c o n t e x t p r i o r t o an e x t e n s i v e r e l i a n c e upon p r a c t i c a l l a b o r a t o r y work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f so many 'new' s c i e n c e p r o g r a m s w h i c h were e n a c t e d i n t h e s i x t i e s a n d e a r l y s e v e n t i e s . I t was t h e b e l i e f o f t h e w r i t e r t h a t t h i s n o n - l a b o r a t o r y k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c o u l d be l e a r n e d by s t u d e n t s a n d a p p l i e d t o s i t u a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e c o n t e x t ( s ) i n w h i c h i t was l e a r n e d . T h i s b e l i e f f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f t h i s s t u d y . 7. The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y I n v i e w o f t h e f o r e - g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n , t h e p r o b l e m o f t h i s s t u d y was f o u n d t o be i m p o r t a n t i n s o f a r a s i t e n d e a v o u r e d t o a. d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t c o g n i t i v e k n o w l e d g e o f e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s , i n s c i e n c e , i s t r a n s f e r a b l e w i t h i n a n d a c r o s s l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s w i t h i n t h e c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n . b. e x a m i n e c a r e f u l l y t h e p e d a g o g y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r o f c o g n i t i v e , e x p e r i m e n t a l k n o w l e d g e . c. e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g a s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e e x i s t i n g s c i e n c e p r o j e c t i n d e v e l o p i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l k n o w l e d g e i n s c i e n c e among Zam b i a n s t u d e n t s . I t i s f u r t h e r h o p e d t h a t s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s w i l l b e n e f i t f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , g i v e n t h a t many c o u n t r i e s i n t h e w o r l d t o d a y s t i l l s t r i v e t o d e v e l o p s t u d e n t 8 c o m p e t e n c e i n p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( e . g . B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . 8. R a t i o n a l e o f t h e s t u d y D e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s t h a t have been made o v e r t h e y e a r s t o i n s t i l l " s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g " i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s , l i t t l e work h a s been d e v o t e d t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e o f s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g . One way i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h i n g o f " s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g " h a s been o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e n o t i o n o f " p r o c e s s s k i l l s " . One f u n d a m e n t a l b a s i s f o r t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s s k i l l s h a s been t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . As T o b i n a n d C a p i e ( 1 9 8 0 ) o b s e r v e : P r o c e s s s k i l l s r e p r e s e n t a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way o f t h i n k i n g t h a t s h o u l d be r e a d i l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o o t h e r p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n s ( p 5 9 0 ) . T o b i n a n d C a p i e a r g u e t h a t i f p r o c e s s s k i l l s a r e n o t t i e d t o t h e c o n t e n t i n w h i c h t h e y a r e l e a r n e d , e v e n i f t h e y may be t a u g h t i n a s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t a r e a , t h e y c a n be s u b s e q u e n t l y u s e d t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s f r o m o t h e r a r e a s w i t h i n s c i e n c e , m a t h e m a t i c s o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e . T o b i n and C a p i e f u r t h e r s t a t e : The p o t e n t i a l g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o c e s s s k i l l s r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t and u s e ( p 5 9 l ) . Some s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e been c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e g e n e r a l a r e a h a v e a d d r e s s e d o t h e r i s s u e s . F o r e x a m p l e , L a w s o n , N o r d l a n d a n d D e V i t o ( 1 9 7 5 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w een f o r m a l r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y a n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e 9 s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e s s s k i l l s . S p e a r s and Z o l l m a n (1977) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e of s t r u c t u r e d v e r s u s u n s t r u c t u r e d l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s on s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s s k i l l s . D o r a n and S e l l e r s ( 1 9 7 8) s t u d i e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween s c i e n c e p r o c e s s s k i l l s a c h i e v e m e n t and s t u d e n t s ' s e l f c o n c e p t . T o b i n a n d C a p i e ( 1 9 8 2 a ) i n v e s t i g a t e d f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e l e a r n i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s s k i l l s . O t h e r s h ave f o c u s s e d o n l y on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s f o r p r o c e s s s k i l l a c h i e v e m e n t ( e . g . Tannenbaum, 1971; Ludeman, 1975; M o l i t o r and G e o r g e , 1976; D i l l a s h a w and Okey, 1980; T o b i n a n d C a p i e , 1 9 8 2 b ) . The w r i t e r s p e c u l a t e s t h a t s t u d e n t s who h a v e a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r ways o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n s h o u l d be a b l e t o g e n e r a l i z e them t o o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g t h o s e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y , c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k 3 a b o u t how e x p e r i m e n t s i n s c i e n c e s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d . A w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e n , i s t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o g n i t i v e k n o w l e d g e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c a n be a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h r e l e v a n t n o n - l a b o r a t o r y i n s t r u c t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r r e a l i s e s t h a t 3 I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t s i n c e much o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l work i n s c i e n c e i s i n f l u e n c e d by b o t h c o n t e n t and ' a p p r o p r i a t e method' , a s . w i l l be e x p l a i n e d l a t e r , o t h e r c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w o u l d l i k e l y e x i s t . S u c h f r a m e w o r k s may u s e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s f r o m t h o s e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 1 0 p r a c t i c a l l a b o r a t o r y work may b r i n g a b o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e a b i l i t i e s , h o w e v e r , t h i s d o e s n o t n e g a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r e c e d i n g t h e p r a c t i c a l work by i n s t r u c t i o n on c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . I t i s s t r a n g e t h a t so much e m p h a s i s w o u l d be p l a c e d on t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s s k i l l s i n s o many c o u n t r i e s f o r s u c h an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , w i t h o u t u n d e r t a k i n g more s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h on one o f t h e b a s e s upon w h i c h t h e w h o l e i n n o v a t i o n was f o u n d e d , t h a t i s , t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s e p r o c e s s s k i l l s i s t r a n s f e r a b l e . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s t h i s i m p o r t a n t i s s u e and i t e n d e a v o u r e d t o m a x i m i s e p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e by d e v e l o p i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w e r e , and w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e t o be, u t i l i s e d a t t h e c l a s s r o o m l e v e l . 9. The method o f s t u d y T a r g e t a n d a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n . The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y were G r a d e 9 s t u d e n t s i n Zambian s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n were s i n g l e - s e x s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n L u s a k a d i s t r i c t . I n a l l , s i x r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s f r o m L u s a k a d i s t r i c t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . T r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s were t h e n r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e s e s i x s c h o o l s . The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y . T h i s s t u d y e m p l o y e d a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n , h a v i n g one c o n t r o l a n d two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . T h i s 11 c o r r e s p o n d s t o C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y ' s D e s i g n 10 of t h e q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s ( C a m p b e l l & S t a n l e y , 1 9 6 3 ) . C o m p a r i s o n s were made b e t w e e n p r e - and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t ( s ) , i f a n y , o f p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . I n a l l , n i n e G r a d e 9 c l a s s e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y , g i v i n g a t o t a l o f 342 s t u d e n t s . N i n e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s were e n g a g e d t o a s s i s t t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o i n s t r u c t t h e c o m p a r i s o n a n d t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . E a c h g r o u p c o m p r i s e d two c l a s s e s o f b o y s a n d one c l a s s o f g i r l s . The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n Zambia b e t w e e n May and A u g u s t , 1983. P h a s e s o f t h e s t u d y . I n l i n e w i t h t h e a b o v e d e s i g n , t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n t h r e e p h a s e s : The p l a n n i n g p h a s e . The f i r s t p h a s e o f t h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g t a s k s : a. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f some o f t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s i n h e r e n t i n e x p e r i m e n t a l work a t t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . T h i s t a s k was a c c o m p l i s h e d by e x a m i n a t i o n o f commonly u s e d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . b. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w h i c h p r e s e n t e d t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s i d e n t i f i e d i n ( a ) a b o v e , i n a n o n - l a b o r a t o r y manner. Two s e t s o f m a t e r i a l s were d e v e l o p e d i n two d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . 1 2 The f i r s t s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( C - S I S E ) . T h i s a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d t h e s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s w i t h i n one b i o l o g y t o p i c ( p h o t o s y n t h e s i s ) . The s e c o n d s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n  s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( G I S E ) . T h i s a p p r o a c h drew e x a m p l e s f r o m a w i d e r a n g e o f d i s c i p l i n e s . B o t h o f t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n e d a s e r i e s o f e n d - o f - u n i t t e s t s w h i c h were a i m e d a t a s s e s s i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i n s t r u m e n t t o t e s t f o r t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s c o v e r e d by t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p e d i n (b) a b o v e . T h i s s t a g e c o m p r i s e d c o n s t r u c t i o n of t e s t i t e m s and p i l o t t e s t i n g them on a s a m p l e o f 38 G r a d e 9 Zambian s t u d e n t s . F o l l o w i n g t h e p i l o t s t a g e , t h e t e s t was r e v i s e d and t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l a r g e r s a m p l e o f G r a d e 9 Zambian s t u d e n t s ( 3 4 2 s t u d e n t s ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s l a t t e r t e s t i n g were t h e n u s e d t o s e l e c t i t e m s f o r t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e t e s t . T h i s t e s t was c a l l e d t h e t e s t i n c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f  s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( T C P S E ) . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e of 13 g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s n o r m a l l y t a u g h t t o G r a d e 9 s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o l s . T h i s t a s k was a c c o m p l i s h e d by w o r k i n g w i t h a l l t h e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . S u b s e q u e n t l y , i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s were t h e n a s k e d t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s t o p r e s e n t t h e c o n t e n t a r e a of G e r m i n a t i o n o f S e e d s , e. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t e s t t o m e a s u r e s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e c o n t e n t a r e a o f g e r m i n a t i o n o f  s e e d s . T h i s t e s t was a j o i n t - p r o d u c t of t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n d a l l t h e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . The t e s t was c a l l e d t h e t e s t i n g e r m i n a t i o n of s e e d s ( T I G S ) . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e . The s e c o n d p h a s e of t h i s s t u d y c o m p r i s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s : a. The t e a c h i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t o f g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s t o a l l t h e n i n e c l a s s e s by t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s t e a c h e r s . The m a t e r i a l w h i c h was t a u g h t was t h a t d e v e l o p e d by i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s r e f e r r e d t o i n (d) a b o v e . b. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e TIGS t o a l l t h e n i n e c l a s s e s . c . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e TCPSE, a s a p r e t e s t , t o a l l t h e n i n e c l a s s e s . d. The t e a c h i n g o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s on s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . The c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p was e n g a g e d 14 w i t h s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s h a v i n g no o v e r l a p w i t h t h o s e s t u d i e d by t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . The a c t u a l t o p i c s s t u d i e d by t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p were n e g o t i a t e d b e t w e e n t h e r e s e a r c h e r a nd t h e s c h o o l s s u p p l y i n g t h e c l a s s e s f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , e. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e TCPSE a s a p o s t t e s t , t o a l l t h e n i n e c l a s s e s . The a n a l y s i s p h a s e . The t h i r d a n d f i n a l s t a g e o f t h e s t u d y was t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e . The raw d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a b o v e i n s t r u m e n t s were a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h t h e use o f a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . The Tukey method was u s e d t o c o n d u c t a p o s t e r i o r i p a i r w i s e c o n t r a s t s o f t h e p o s t t e s t g r o u p means i n l i n e w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s o f t h e s t u d y . 10. A s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y T h i s s t u d y assumed t h a t c o g n i t i v e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w e r e : a. i d e n t i f i a b l e by a r e s e a r c h e r i n t h e f i e l d b. l e a r n a b l e by s t u d e n t s f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n d e l i b e r a t e l y t a i l o r e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , a n d c. t e s t a b l e t h r o u g h a p a p e r - a n d - p e n c i 1 t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t . 11. L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e d e l i m i t e d by t h r e e f a c t o r s : 1 5 a. O n l y a few s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s i n h e r e n t i n e x p e r i m e n t a l work i n s c i e n c e were e x p l o r e d . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y may a p p l y o n l y t o t h o s e s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s , a n d n o t t o any o t h e r s . b. F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , o n l y s i n g l e - s e x s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y t o o t h e r t y p e s o f s c h o o l s s h o u l d be done w i t h d i s c r e t i o n . " c . I t was n o t f e a s i b l e t o a s s i g n s t u d e n t s r a n d o m l y t o t h e g r o u p s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y may be o f l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n v i s - a - v i s t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . " S i n g l e s e x s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d f o r u s e i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d a w e l l d e f i n e d a c c e s s i b l e s u b - p o p u l a t i o n of t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n and a l l o w e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y k e e p t h e r a t i o o f g i r l s t o b o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t o f t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . The r a t i o o f b o y s t o g i r l s i n t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i s a b o u t 2 : 1 . 1 6 CHAPTER TWO CONTEXTS OF THE STUDY AND LITERATURE REVIEW. T h i s c h a p t e r e x t e n d s t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s w h i c h were i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . The g e n e r a l p r o b l e m b e i n g a d d r e s s e d by t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n c a n be embedded i n f o u r b r o a d c o n t e x t s : h i s t o r i c a l - s o c i e t a l , e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d p e d a g o g i c a l . T h e s e c o n t e x t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l a s t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e s t u d y b e i n g r e p o r t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e a r e v i e w o f t h e s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m a r e a of t h i s s t u d y . 1. H i s t o r i c a l - s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t Zambia had a c r i t i c a l s h o r t a g e o f s k i l l e d manpower a t t h e t i m e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d i t was a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d t h a t , s o o n a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was s e r i o u s l y c o n t e m p l a t e d ( M i n i s t r y o f D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n n i n g , 1 9 6 6 ) . W i t h i n t h e F i r s t N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n ( F N D P ) t h e g o v e r n m e n t o b s e r v e d t h a t e x p a n s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d t r a i n e d t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t o r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t p r o v i s i o n be made t o e s t a b l i s h a t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T e c h n i c a l a n d f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n were recommended t o p r o v i d e f o r s k i l l e d manpower w h i c h was so b a d l y n e e d e d t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y f r o m t h e c o u n t r y ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and t o e x p a n d h e r new 1 7 i n d u s t r i a l p r o j e c t s . The FNDP r e a d , i n p a r t : A new t r a d e s c h o o l w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d i n e v e r y p r o v i n c e a t p r e s e n t w i t h o u t one w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h e x p a n d e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e p r e s e n t t r a d e s c h o o l s , w i l l h e l p meet t h e l o n g - r u n n e e d s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y f o r f u l l y - t r a i n e d o p e r a t i v e s , and a l s o f o r o p e r a t i v e s i n t h e m e c h a n i c a l a n d e n g i n e e r i n g t r a d e s . C a r e f u l c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l a l s o be g i v e n t o p r o v i d e o t h e r f u l l - t i m e c o u r s e s c o m b i n i n g a b a s i c s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a d e t r a i n i n g i n t h e l i g h t o f f u t u r e manpower n e e d s ( M i n i s t r y o f D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n n i n g , 1966, p 5 3 ) . I n 1968 T e c h i c a l a n d F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n were t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d C o m m i s s i o n f o r T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n a nd V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . T h i s t r a n s f e r f o l l o w e d a r e p o r t by Mr. W.A. S a u n d e r s who e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g were o f s u c h f u n d a m e n t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o a y o u n g n a t i o n , s u c h a s Z a m b i a , t h a t t h e y n e e d e d p r i o r i t y t r e a t m e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s w o u l d be g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g a s p e c i a l a g e n c y f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . Two s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r t e c h n i c i a n a n d t e c h n o l o g i s t t r a i n i n g . By p r o v i d i n g s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n w i t h an e f f e c t i v e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o l o g y t o s t u d e n t s o f t h e s e two s c h o o l s , i t was e n v i s a g e d t h a t a d e p e n d a b l e r e s e r v o i r o f q u a l i f i e d c a n d i d a t e s f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Zambia a n d t e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e s w o u l d be c r e a t e d . T h i s a c t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n w i t h i n t h e s p i r i t o f u p h o l d i n g h i g h s t a n d a r d s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e 18 and m a t h e m a t i c s , a s t h e M i n i s t r y o f D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n n i n g ( 1 9 6 6 ) s t a t e d : E d u c a t i o n e x p a n s i o n means much more t h a n i n c r e a s i n g e n r o l m e n t r a p i d l y . Time and e f f o r t must be d e v o t e d t o p r o v i d i n g new t e x t b o o k s , e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h new c o u r s e s , and r e l a t i n g what i s t a u g h t more d i r e c t l y t o t h e n e e d s o f an i n d e p e n d e n t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y ... The t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e and m a t h e m a t i c s must be i m p r o v e d ( p 5 6 ) . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e c o u n t r y ' s s o c i a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e Zambian g o v e r n m e n t a n n o u n c e d i n 1975 t h a t e v e r y e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d become a p r o d u c t i o n u n i t a n d t h a t e v e r y s t u d e n t s h o u l d engage i n p r o d u c t i v e work a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h i s / h e r n o r m a l s t u d i e s . T h i s d e c i s i o n came a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r u l i n g p a r t y ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o t u r n t h e c o u n t r y ' s e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m i n t o an i n s t r u m e n t f o r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t by " c o m b i n i n g t h e o r y w i t h p r a c t i c e " t o p r o m o t e Z a m b i a ' s a g r a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i d e a of p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s was one i n v o l v i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f R u r a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n C e n t r e s whose a i m s were s p e l l e d o u t a s f o l l o w s by P r e s i d e n t Kaunda : T h e s e c e n t r e s a r e v e r y c a r d i n a l t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y - now t h e f o c u s o f UNIP's [ r u l i n g p a r t y ] e f f o r t s . C o l o n i a l b r a i n - w a s h i n g h a s l e d o u r y o u t h s t o grow w i t h t h e i d e a o f l i f e u n d e r t h e b r i g h t l i g h t s o f c i t i e s a n d o f w h i t e - c o l l a r j o b s a s t h e o n l y a v e n u e t o a d e c e n t f u t u r e ... The f u t u r e of y o u t h s f l o u r i s h e s on t h e f e r t i l e s o i l s o f Z a m b i a . Our c o u n t r y - s i d e , w i t h i t s v a s t r i c h r e s o u r c e s i n s o i l , w a t e r , f o r e s t s a n d w i l d l i f e , o f f e r s a b u n d a n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e p e o p l e o f Zambia t o l i v e h a p p i l y a n d i n p r o s p e r i t y ... T h e s e r u r a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n c e n t r e s s h o u l d be a l e a d i n g m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n s p e a r h e a d i n g t h e a g r a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y - s i d e ( K a u n d a , 1976, p 3 ) . 19 L o c a t i o n s f o r t h e s e R u r a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n C e n t r e s were s e l e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . U n e m p l o y e d y o u t h s were t a k e n t o t h e s e c e n t r e s and t a u g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o d u c t i v e c o l l e c t i v e m a n u a l w o r k . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s i n t h e s e c e n t r e s was a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n t h i s h ad s t r o n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e n e e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e s t o be t a u g h t i n t h e Zambian s c h o o l s . By t h i s t i m e , A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e had been made an '0' L e v e l s u b j e c t . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , no s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e f i r s t s c h o o l s u b j e c t t o be a f f e c t e d by t h e s e n a t i o n a l dreams was A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e ( a s w i l l be s e e n b e l o w ) . I n a n u t s h e l l , m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o l o g y a r e r e g a r d e d a s key e l e m e n t s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Z a m b i a ' s economy. T h i s was e v i d e n t i n t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f i n t e n t c o n t a i n e d i n t h e v a r i o u s d o c u m e n t s a s w e l l a s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v a r i o u s c o l l e g e s t o c a t e r f o r s c i e n c e - r e l a t e d s k i l l - t r a i n i n g p rogrammes. T h i s n o t i o n was c a p t u r e d w e l l by P r e s i d e n t Kaunda i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : W h i l s t I w o u l d n o t d a r e e v e n s l i g h t l y t o m i n i m i s e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n i n t h e h u m a n i t i e s , I do n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t we w o u l d be m e e t i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h i s n a t i o n ... i f we c o n t e n t e d o u r s e l v e s w i t h b e i n g a r a c e o f a s p i r i n g h i s t o r i a n s , l a w y e r s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , e c o n o m i s t s a n d p o l i t i c i a n s a l o n e . We l i v e i n an age o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t a n d i f t h e n a t i o n i s t o s e r v e i t s e l f a n d t o p l a y an e f f e c t i v e a nd p r o d u c t i v e r o l e i n t h e w o r l d c o m m u n i t y , i t must i t s e l f be p r e p a r e d t o t r a i n i t s p e o p l e , n o t o n l y t o u s e , b u t t o m a i n t a i n a n d c r e a t e t h e t e c h n i c a l a p p a r a t u s w h i c h i n c r e a s i n g l y s u p p o r t t h e modern c o m m u n i t y . . . I t i s my dream t h a t i n a few y e a r s Zambia w i l l be t e c h n i c a l l y c o m p e t e n t t o s e r v i c e t h e n e e d s of 20 i t s i n d u s t r y and f u r t h e r a n c e of i t s d e v e l o p m e n t ( C o m m i s s i o n f o r T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , 1969, p 2 ) . The g o v e r n m e n t ' s commitment t o t h e t e a c h i n g of m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e h a s n o t waned o v e r t h e y e a r s . T h i s commitment was e c h o e d i n t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e 1977 d r a f t v e r s i o n o f t h e E d u c a t i o n R e f o r m d o c u m e n t : S i n c e m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y , more i m p o r t a n c e s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e s e by c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s . . . ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e , 1977a, p 1 0 6 ) . The p l a n n e d e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m i n Zambia c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m s o f s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s s u c h a s t h e German D e m o c r a t i c R e p u b l i c , R u s s i a , Cuba a n d C h i n a , where e d u c a t i o n i s c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d and c o n t r o l l e d t o meet t h e s o c i a l a nd e c o n o m i c r e q u i r e m e n t s of s o c i e t y ( K l e i n , 1978; S w e t z , 1 9 7 9 ) . I n t h e s e s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n i s r e g a r d e d a s an e c o n o m i c n e c e s s i t y w h i c h s h o u l d c r e a t e a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e t r a i n i n g o f a s k i l l e d , t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d l a b o u r f o r c e . T h i s i s i n l i n e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s w h i c h r e v o l v e a r o u n d " s c i e n c e - i n t e n s i v e " i n d u s t r i e s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , g i v e n Z a m b i a ' s a s p i r a t i o n t o f o l l o w a s o c i a l i s t p a t h o f b o t h s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e e m p h a s i s t h a t i s p l a c e d on s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y e d u c a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be j u s t i f i e d . 21 2. E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t V i e w s on t h e n a t u r e o f s c i e n c e and s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . B r i d g h a m ( 1 9 6 9 ) d e s c r i b e s t h r e e c o n c e p t i o n s o f s c i e n c e : r a t i o n a l e m p i r i c i s m , s y s t e m a t i c e m p i r i c i s m a n d p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s e a r c h . The f i r s t one r e f e r s t o s c i e n t i s t s a s p e o p l e a t t e m p t i n g t o r e l a t e p u b l i c o b s e r v a t i o n s i n a r a t i o n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t manner. I t i s , c o n s e q u e n t l y , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a b e l i e f t h a t p u b l i c l y o b s e r v e d phenomena c a n be u n d e r s t o o d a n d c o g e n t l y r e l a t e d a n e m p h a s i s on c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , an o p e n n e s s t o new d a t a , and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e c o n s i d e r t h e v a l u e o r g e n e r a l i t y o f o l d e r e d u c e d r e l a t i o n s o r e x p l a n a t i o n s ( B r i d g h a m , 1 9 6 9 , p 2 6 ) . T h i s v i e w of s c i e n c e assumes t h e e x i s t e n c e of an o r d e r l y w o r l d a n d , t h e r e f o r e , g e t s d i s t u r b e d by i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n o b s e r v a t i o n s . The s e c o n d v i e w of s c i e n c e , t h a t i s , s y s t e m a t i c e m p i r i c i s m , r e c o g n i z e s t h e s e l e c t i v e n a t u r e of t h e a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c i e n t i f i c d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , s y s t e m a t i c e m p i r i c i s m r e f e r s t o p r o c e d u r e s d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n s t r u c t e d o r a p p l i e d t o c o n t r o l a n d o r d e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f s c i e n c e i s , t h e r e f o r e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n , c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , h y p o t h e s i s f o r m u l a t i o n and t e s t i n g . . . ( B r i d g h a m , 1969, p 2 7 ) . I t h a s been a r g u e d t h a t t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f much of s c i e n t i f i c work a n d h e l p t o s e p a r a t e s c i e n c e f r o m o t h e r f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e . S y s t e m a t i c e m p i r i c i s m a p p e a r s t o e m p h a s i z e t h e r o l e p l a y e d by ' p r o c e s s e s ' o f s c i e n c e and 22 n e g l e c t s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r p l a y s i n s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . The v i e w t h a t s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n f o l l o w s a w e l l p l a n n e d c o u r s e of a c t i o n g i v e s r i s e t o a n o t i o n t h a t i t h a s a p r o g r a m ; t h a t s c i e n t i s t s know what t h e i r work i s a l l a b o u t ; a n d t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a , and t h e c r i t i c i s m a n d e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e o r y a r e n o t random a c t i v i t i e s , b u t h a v e s h a p e , p o i n t , a n d p u r p o s e ( B r i d g h a m , 1 9 6 9 , p 2 8 ) . I t , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r s t h a t a c o m p l e t e c o n c e p t i o n o f s c i e n c e , i n a d d i t i o n t o s p e c i f y i n g e l e m e n t s o f s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e d u r e , s h o u l d a l s o pay a t t e n t i o n t o how s c i e n t i s t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d e p l o y t h e s e e l e m e n t s i n t e r m s o f how t h e e l e m e n t s o f p r o c e d u r e f u r n i s h t h e means. The t h i r d c o n c e p t i o n , ( i . e . t h e v i e w o f s c i e n c e a s p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s e a r c h ) , r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a s w e l l a s t h e d i s c i p l i n a r y f i e l d w i t h i n w h i c h a s c i e n t i s t i s w o r k i n g a n d h a s been groomed b o t h p l a y i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . T h i s v i e w o f s c i e n c e c o n t e n d s t h a t what a s c i e n t i s t c h o o s e s t o s t u d y , t h e methods he c h o o s e s t o u s e a n d , s u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e d a t a he c o l l e c t s a r e a l l s h a p e d by a s h a r e d w o r l d v i e w . Kuhn ( 1 9 6 2 ) who h a s been t h e c h i e f a d v o c a t e o f t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f s c i e n c e , u s e s t h e word ' p a r a d i g m ' t o r e f e r t o t h i s " s h a r e d w o r l d v i e w " ( B r i d g h a m , 1 9 6 9 , p 3 0 ) . B r i d g h a m (1969) s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g comment: 23 A r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t much o f s c i e n c e i s p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s e a r c h b r i n g s w i t h i t a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p r o c e d u r e s i n s c i e n c e a r e d e t e r m i n e d by b o t h t h e p a r a d i g m . . . a n d t h e p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e phenomena s t u d i e d . The p r o c e d u r e s a r e e f f e c t i v e o n l y b e c a u s e t h e i r s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t i s w e l l a d a p t e d t o t h e phenomena t o be s t u d i e d and b e c a u s e t h e u s e o f t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s p r o v i d e s d a t a t h a t c a n be c o n n e c t e d w i t h o t h e r work i n t h e s c i e n c e . I f t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s i s i g n o r e d a n d o n l y t h e i r g e n e r a l f o r m r e m a r k e d u p o n , one i s l e f t w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t do n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e s c i e n c e f r o m o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a nd t h a t h a r d l y s u g g e s t t h e power o f s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s a c t u a l l y u s e d by s c i e n t i s t s ( p 3 5 ) . F i n l e y ( 1 9 8 3 ) o b s e r v e s t h a t t h i s v i e w i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y p h i l o s o p h e r s ' n o t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . He s t a t e s : . . . r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s h a v e n o t r e j e c t e d s e n s o r y d a t a a s i r r e l e v a n t t o s c i e n c e e n q u i r y . T h i s p o s i t i o n w o u l d d e s t r o y t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t s c i e n c e i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a l w o r l d . T h e i r p o s i t i o n i s r a t h e r t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n s r e s u l t [ f r o m ] b o t h o u r e x i s t i n g k n o w l e d g e a n d s e n s o r y i m p r e s s i o n s . K n o w l e d g e g u i d e s what o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l r e s u l t , b u t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l be l i m i t e d by t h e n a t u r e o f s e n s o r y i m p r e s s i o n s ( p 5 2 ) . E a s l e y ( 1 9 7 1 ) a l s o s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y a s e v i d e n c e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g r e m a r k : A s c i e n t i s t ' s f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a t he b r i n g s t o an e n q u i r y may g i v e h i m t h e f a l s e i d e a t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s e n q u i r y a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e o r y . . . T h e t h e o r y s h o u l d be made a s e x p l i c i t a s p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o make i t e a s i e r f o r o t h e r o b s e r v e r s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e r e s u l t s o f e n q u i r y , s i n c e t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s a s w e l l a s e m p i r i c a l t e c h n i q u e s c a n t h e n be c h a l l e n g e d ( p 1 5 3 ) . E a s l e y ( 1 9 7 1 ) e x p r e s s e s t h e same i d e a i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t way when he s t a t e d : 24 A c c o u n t s o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t hod, l i k e e x p o s i t i o n s o f t h e h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e , mean l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o t h o s e who a r e w i t h o u t some s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g i n c o n c r e t e s c i e n t i f i c p r o b l e m s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e e l e m e n t s of s c i e n t i f i c method r e q u i r e t o be p r e s e n t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s p e c i a l m a t e r i a l s o f s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e , f o r o n l y i n t h i s way d o e s t h e l a t t e r become i l l u m i n a t e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e f o r m e r ( p 1 4 8 ) . B r o u w e r (nd) s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w , and he s t a t e s : The p a r a d i g m ( t h e c o n c e p t u a l a n d o f t e n m e t a p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f k n o w l e d g e ) i d e n t i f i e s t h e p r o b l e m s i n t h e f i e l d , t h e r e l e v a n t d a t a r e q u i r e d , t h e t y p e o f e x p l a n a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f we want t o g i v e p e o p l e a b a s i s f r o m w h i c h t h e y c a n become p r o b l e m - s o l v e r s , t h e y n e e d t o h a v e an e x t e n s i v e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f i e l d ( p 9 ) . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e o r y on d e s i g n and c o n d u c t of o b s e r v a t i o n s d o e s n o t mean, h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e o r y a l o n e d e t e r m i n e s what i s o b s e r v e d . I t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e f o r o b s e r v e r s g u i d e d by t h e o r y t o be s u r p r i s e d a t what t h e y s e e . One m a j o r o b s t a c l e e n c o u n t e r e d by someone w i s h i n g t o d e v e l o p a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y l i e s i n t h e t a s k o f r e c o n c i l i n g many a d v e r s e , and most t i m e s o p p o s i n g , p o i n t s of v i e w on t h e s u b j e c t . H e r r o n ( 1 971) l i k e n s t h e s i t u a t i o n t o a game o f " m o s a i c m a k i n g " a s f o l l o w s : The s i t u a t i o n m i g h t be l i k e n e d t o a game o f " m o s a i c m a k i n g " i n w h i c h a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s must u s e t h e same g i v e n u n i v e r s e of p i e c e s . A p l a y e r i s n o t r e q u i r e d t o c o n s t r u c t a " c o m p l e t e " m o s a i c a n d , h e n c e , n e e d n o t u s e a l l o f t h e p i e c e s a t h i s d i s p o s a l . . . ( p 1 7 9 ) . H e r r o n f u r t h e r e x p r e s s e s t h e f e a r t h a t i f a v a r i e t y o f p l a u s i b l e a n d e q u a l l y d e f e n s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n s e x i s t c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y , a p r o b l e m o f e v o l v i n g a 25 u s e f u l s e t o f t e r m s whose m e a n i n g s a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , s u r f a c e s . He, h o w e v e r , a d o p t s a v i e w w h i c h r e g a r d s s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y a s " o n g o i n g , s e l f - c o r r e c t i n g and r e v i s i o n a r y p r o c e s s e s w h i c h r e s u l t i n b o d i e s o f c u r r e n t l y w a r r a n t e d f a c t a n d t h e o r y " ( H e r r o n , 1971, p 1 7 9 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , H e r r o n c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e b o d i e s o f f a c t a n d t h e o r y a c c r u i n g f r o m s u c h a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n t i n g e n t on t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , t h e o p e r a t i o n s he p e r f o r m s , a n d t h e c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h o r g a n i z e a n d c o n t r o l h i s o p e r a t i o n s . P h i l o s o p h e r s have d i f f e r e d a s t o t h e p r e c i s e f o r m u l a t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d be g i v e n t o p a r t i c u l a r p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d. I t i s c l e a r , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y a s b e i n g made up o f a f i x e d s e q u e n c e o f s t e p s now r e c e i v e s l i t t l e s c h o r l a r l y s u p p o r t ( E a s e l y , 1 9 5 8 ) . One s o u r c e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n s t h e l e v e l s o f s p e c i f i c i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e " f i v e s t e p " d e s c r i p t i o n o f " t h e s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d " w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m an o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f J o h n Dewey's n o t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y (Dewey, 1933; 1 9 3 8 ) . A n o t h e r c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e i s t h e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e s e " s t e p s " i n a s e q u e n t i a l manner. I n f a c t t h e n o t i o n o f s t e p s i n s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y may be t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e d a y s o f K a r l P e a r s o n ( 1 8 5 7 - 1 9 3 6 ) a n d a p p e a r s t o have a r i s e n i n an e f f o r t t o e s c a p e e r r o r s o f s u b j e c t i v e b i a s a n d so an a t t e m p t was made t o i d e n t i f y p r o c e d u r e s o f e n q u i r y . J o h n Dewey's f i v e c y c l i c p h a s e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y c o n t r i b u t e d f u r t h e r momentum t o 26 t h i s s e a r c h f o r g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s o r p r o c e s s e s o f e n q u i r y . T h e s e f i v e p h a s e s , s u b s e q u e n t l y , f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r h i s t h e o r y o f e n q u i r y . D e w e y ( l 9 3 3 ) i d e n t i f i e d t h e s e p h a s e s a s ( a ) f e l t d i f f i c u l t y (b) p r o b l e m f o r m u l a t i o n ( c ) h y p o t h e s i s - g u i d e d o b s e r v a t i o n (d) r e a s o n i n g ( e ) h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g . A l t h o u g h Dewey s a i d t h a t t h e s e p h a s e s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p p e a r i n a g i v e n o r d e r , a n d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t a l l have t o be p r e s e n t i n any one i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e y n o n e t h e l e s s , s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t e d a s e q u e n c e . Dewey d e f i n e s s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y a s t h e i n t e n t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f a p r o b l e m a nd p u r p o s e f u l v a r i a t i o n o f e x i s t e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s ( D e w e y , 1 9 3 8 ) . To h i m an e n q u i r y s i t u a t i o n i s one w h i c h i s d e l i b e r a t e l y s e t up f o r t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f g a i n i n g and t e s t i n g k n o w l e d g e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k i s of f u n d a m e n t a l i m p o r t a n c e i n g u i d i n g h i m t h r o u g h a ' p r e m e d i t a t e d m a n i p u l a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s ' . The p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i n g t h e p r o b l e m a nd t e s t i n g i t o u t i s e n v i s a g e d t o c o n t i n u e u n t i l ' k n o w l e d g e ' h a s been a t t a i n e d . Dewey d e f i n e s t h i s u l t i m a t e k n o w l e d g e a s " t h a t w h i c h s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t e r m i n a t e s t h e e n q u i r y " . P e i r c e ( 1 9 5 5 ) c o n s t r u e s t h e o b j e c t o f e n q u i r y a s a s e t t l e m e n t o f o p i n i o n , o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f " b e l i e f " , r a t h e r t h a n p r o o f o f an " a b s o l u t e t r u t h " . The p r o c e s s b e g i n s w i t h t h e o n s e t o f d o u b t a nd e n d s w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a " h a b i t 27 o f a c t i o n " . P e i r c e u s e s t h e t e r m " h a b i t o f a t i o n " t o r e f e r t o an e n q u i r e r ' s p r o p e n s i t y t o a c t i n c e r t a i n ways w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e o p e r a t i o n a l c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e b e l i e f s o e s t a b l i s h e d . H e r r o n ( 1 971) i n t e r p r e t e s " d o u b t " , i n P e i r c e ' s s e n s e , t o d e s i g n a t e t h e e m ergence of a q u e s t i o n , s m a l l o r l a r g e , e x i s t e n t i a l o r i m a g i n a r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , d o u b t may be r e g a r d e d a s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h p u t s t h e e n q u i r e r i n t o an u n e a s y and d i s s a t i s f i e d s t a t e f r o m w h i c h he s t r u g g l e s t o f r e e h i m s e l f i n o r d e r t o p a s s i n t o t h e s t a t e o f b e l i e f , w h i c h m a r k s t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f s u c h q u e s t i o n s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he i s c o n f i d e n t e nough t o b a s e f u t u r e a c t i o n s on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e n q u i r y . E i n s t e i n ' s s t a r t i n g p o i n t assumes t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an o b j e c t i v e , e x t e r n a l w o r l d i n d e p e n d e n t o f any o b s e r v e r ( H e r r o n , 1 9 7 1 ) . He, h o w e v e r , r e a l i z e s t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e w o r l d ( i . e . p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y ) i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t u i t i o n a nd e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e e n q u i r e r . The e n q u i r e r i s s e t i n t o m o t i o n by h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h d a t a s u p p l i e d t o h i m by h i s s e n s e i m p r e s s i o n a b o u t t h e w o r l d . E i n s t e i n c o n s t r u e d s c i e n t i f i c t h o u g h t a s b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s t r u c t i v e a n d s p e c u l a t i v e i n n a t u r e . The e n q u i r e r , a c c o r d i n g t o E i n s t e i n , d o e s n o t d i s c o v e r o r p e r c e i v e t h e c o n c e p t o f h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r a t h e r he ' c o n s t r u e s ' i t . B r i d g h a m (1936) a r g u e s a g a i n s t t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f ' t h e s c i e n t i f i c method' and m a i n t a i n s t h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i n s t a n c e 28 of e n q u i r y i s n o t m e r e l y u n i q u e , b u t c a n o n l y be d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f what t h e s c i e n t i s t d o e s i n a g i v e n p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e ( B r i d g h a m , 1 9 3 6 ) . B r i d g h a m c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s e s o f e n q u i r y a r e so e n o r m o u s l y c o m p l i c a t e d t h a t t h e y d e f y a n a l y s i s . D e s p i t e t h e s h a r p d i s a g r e e m e n t s among p h i l o s o p h e r s o f s c i e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y e v i d e n c e d by t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e s , c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s seem t o c o n v e r g e i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s . H e r r o n ( l 9 7 l ) r e f e r s t o t h e s e a s "commonplaces o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y " . A c c o r d i n g l y , H e r r o n r e c o g n i z e s t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f ' s u b j e c t m a t t e r , a g e n t , method, phenomena a n d s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e ' a s a r e a s o f c o n v e r g e n c e d e m o n s t r a t e d by most p h i l o s o p h e r s o f s c i e n c e . He a d d s : I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e b i a s e s a n d t h e v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h may be o p e r a t i n g , t h e e n q u i r e r h i m s e l f p o s s e s s e s c e r t a i n p r e d i l e c t i o n s i n t h e way he p e r s o n a l l y v i e w s h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r . . . T h e r e f o r e , even t h o u g h we m i g h t assume t h a t c o n s e n s u s c o u l d be a t t a i n e d among t h e members o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o m m u n i t y i n a g i v e n f i e l d a s t o i t s i m p o r t a n t and o u t s t a n d i n g u n s o l v e d p r o b l e m s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r d e t e r m i n e s t h e f o r m s of t h e s e p r o b l e m s a n d t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y a r e s p e c i f i e d i n p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m a t i c i n s t a n c e s ( p 1 8 0 ) . Schwab ( 1 9 6 0 ) has a r g u e d t h a t s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y c a n be v been d i v i d e d i n t o two f o r m s : " s t a b l e " and " f l u i d " e n q u i r y . The a p p r o a c h t o r e s e a r c h i s d i f f e r e n t i n e a c h c a s e . I n s t a b l e e n q u i r y , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k b e i n g u s e d i s t a k e n a s a d e q u a t e and t h e p r o b l e m a s d e f i n e d s e e k s t o r e - a f f i r m t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c l o s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r o b l e m and t h e 29 t h e o r y . As B r i d g h a m ( 1 9 6 9 ) o b s e r v e s , s t r e s s i n s t a b l e e n q u i r y i s p l a c e d .on i d e n t i f y i n g a nd e l i m i n a t i n g c o n t a m i n a t i n g e f f e c t s a n d on d e v e l o p i n g o b s e r v a t i o n a l and i n f e r e n t i a l t e c h n i q u e s t h a t make t h e most e f f e c t i v e b r i d g e b e t w e e n t h e o r y and phenomena... Much o f s t a b l e e n q u i r y i s an a t t e m p t t o l o c a t e a s p e c t s o f t h e o r y t h a t w i l l g i v e t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n of p h e n o m e n a l p a r t i c u l a r s ( p 3 3 ) . I n f l u i d e n q u i r y , t h e a d e q u a c y o f c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s t o " c o v e r " t h e phenomena i s q u e s t i o n e d . I n t h i s t y p e o f e n q u i r y , t h e r e i s an a t t e m p t t o s e e k a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k s t o a c c o u n t f o r o b s e r v e d phenomena. S u b s e q u e n t l y , a n a l y s i s o f t h i s t y p e i s u s u a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d o r f o l l o w e d by t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f s e g m e n t s of t h e o r y w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e s . A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , a v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y , r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2.1 was d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . T h i s v i e w r e c o g n i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b o t h t h e k n o w l e d g e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r a s w e l l a s t h e k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d . I t i s b e c a u s e of t h i s t h a t b o t h t h e k n o w l e d g e o f g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s a s w e l l a s c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n were t a u g h t . 30 Figure 2.1 The conceptual model of s c i e n t i f i c  enquiry used in t h i s study IB. KNOWLEDGE SUBJECT MATTER (as defined by the s c i e n t i f i c community) 1A. AGENT (sinoular or p l u r a l , incorporating i n t e l l i g e n c e , habit, bias) 1C. VERBAL AND PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE OF SCIENTIFIC. METHOD 2. CONCEPT OF SUBJECT MATTER LEADS TO FORMULATION OF PROBLEM 3. PROBLEM IS'SPECIFIED; EXPERIMENTAL METHOD IDENTIFIED OR DEVISED; INTERPRETED DA A SOUGHT AND 4. KNOWLEDGE OF SUBJECT MATTER 5. REFLECTIVE EXAMINATION OF IB, 1C, 2, 3 AND 4 TOGETHER WITH MORE INTELLIGENCE AND INVENTION 31 O p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e n o t i o n of method i n s c h o o l  c u r r i c u l a . E a s l e y ( 1 9 7 1) d e f i n e s " s c i e n t i f i c m ethod" a s a s e t o f g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h g u i d e s c i e n t i s t s ( c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y ) i n t h e s e a r c h f o r new k n o w l e d g e and w h i c h s e r v e s c i e n t i s t s a nd l a y m e n a l i k e i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n of c l a i m s o f k n o w l e d g e ( p 1 5 0 ) . The n o t i o n o f 'method' g o e s b a c k t o t h e G r e e k s , who c o n c e i v e d o f t h e e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n v a r i o u s a r e a s o f k n o w l e d g e , v i z : l o g i c , d i a l e c t i c , e t h i c s , p o l i t i c s , m a t h e m a t i c s , p h y s i c s , r h e t o r i c a n d h e u r i s t i c ( E a s l e y , 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s n o t i o n h a s been t h e s u b j e c t o f d e b a t e and d e l i b e r a t i o n f o r s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s up t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , w i t h o u t any g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t a s t o t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e s e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . H o w ever, t h e 'method' u s e d i n s c i e n c e h a s been r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n c r e a t i n g v a l i d a n d r e l i a b l e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t o u r p h y s i c a l w o r l d . G i v e n t h i s g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e v a l u e o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d o l o g y , s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s h a v e , s i n c e t h e m i d - l 8 0 0 s , a d v o c a t e d t h a t t h e ' p r o c e s s e s ' o f s c i e n c e be t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s . As L a y t o n ( 1 9 73) r e p o r t s , some o f t h e t o p s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s o f t h e m i d - l 8 0 0 s i n E n g l a n d b e l i e v e d t h a t " t h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s c i e n c e as a b r a n c h o f l e a r n i n g was t h e method by w h i c h k n o w l e d g e was a c q u i r e d . The i n d u c t i v e a s p e c t s of s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y , r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s , were o f most s i g n i f i c a n c e f r o m an e d u c a t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w " ( p l 7 2 ) . I t was s u b s e q u e n t l y , 32 recommended t h a t s c i e n c e be s t u d i e d i n t h e s c h o o l s n o t f o r i t s i n f o r m a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s b u t b e c a u s e i t t r a i n e d t h e power o f o b s e r v a t i o n a n d r e a s o n i n g . The n o t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c method has p e r s i s t e d i n t h e m i n d s of some p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t most of t h e c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s w h i c h were s u g g e s t e d i n t h e 1960s a n d 1970s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , s t i l l r e v o l v e d a r o u n d i t . As F i n l e y ( 1 9 8 3 ) o b s e r v e s : . . . R o b e r t Gagne ( 1 9 6 5 ) p r e s e n t e d a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n t o t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Advancement o f S c i e n c e . The c o n t e n t o f t h e s e p a p e r s h a s had a s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m , i n s t r u c t i o n , a nd r e s e a r c h i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n s i n c e t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n ( p 4 7 ) . One m a j o r p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e k i n d o f s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g a d v o c a t e d by Gagne and t h a t a d v o c a t e d by h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s l a y i n t h e s t a t u s a c c o r d e d s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n t e n t . The p r e - G a g n e a n e r a o u t l o o k was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l a r g e e m p h a s i s on a c q u i s i t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t i n i t s " p r o c e s s e d " f o r m , w i t h l i t t l e a l l o w a n c e f o r k n o w l e d g e o f p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . The k n o w l e d g e of s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y , where i t e x i s t e d , was m a i n l y o f t h e t y p e where s t u d e n t s were m e r e l y r e q u i r e d t o r e c i t e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s . When i t came t o l a b o r a t o r y work, t h e t e a c h e r u s u a l l y c a r r i e d o u t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , u s u a l l y t o p r o v e h i m s e l f r i g h t . I n t h e m a i n , t h e s t u d e n t was n o t e x p e c t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e any p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y t o c a r r y o u t any s c i e n t i f i c 33 i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o r c o m p e t e n c e i n u s i n g p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e q u i p m e n t . The Gagnean d o c t r i n e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , e m p h a s i z e d two t h i n g s : c o m p e t e n c e i n u s i n g l a b o r a t o r y e q u i p m e n t / a p p a r a t u s , a n d a b i l i t y t o c a r r y o u t s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . K n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r was n o t o f p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e . 5 The p r o b l e m w i t h d e - e m p h a s i z i n g s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n t e n t h a s been m e n t i o n e d a l r e a d y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e r o l e t h e o r y p l a y s i n s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y , t h a t i s , i n p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s e a r c h . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a l s o i s t h e low s t a t u s p l a c e d on t h e r o l e o f r e c e p t i o n l e a r n i n g o f p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y , by t h e Gagnean d o c t r i n e . I t i s n o t , h o w e v e r , s u r p r i s i n g when one c o n s i d e r s t h e p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l mood o f t h e t i m e . The r e f o r m s o f t h e 1960s a n d '70s were t a k i n g p l a c e a t t h e t i m e when e d u c a t i o n p s y c h o l o g i s t s were a d v o c a t i n g " l e a r n i n g by d o i n g " . The c r i e s f o r " d i s c o v e r y " a n d " e n q u i r y " l e a r n i n g were l o u d e nough t o d i s c o u r a g e any e f f o r t s t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t on how t o go a b o u t c o n d u c t i n g e x p e r i m e n t s i n s c i e n c e . The i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t , i t was a r g u e d , h ad t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o f i g u r e o u t s u c h p r o c e d u r e s " w i t h p r o p e r g u i d a n c e " f r o m t h e t e a c h e r . 5 G a g n e ' s o p e r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y h a s been u s e d h e r e a s an e x a m p l e o f a p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h p r o d u c e d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a i m e d a t p r e s e n t i n g c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . 34 The way i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c m ethod was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a a n d Zambia w i l l now be d i s c u s s e d . 6  The U n i t e d S t a t e s T h r e e U n i t e d S t a t e s c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g e a c h o f t h e t h r e e m a j o r s u b j e c t a r e a s , have been c h o s e n and a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . CHEM S t u d y . I n t h e CHEM s t u d y c o u r s e , e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n , c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f 'models' w h i c h a l l o w t h e o b s e r v e d phenomena t o be e x p l a i n e d and p e r m i t r e l a t e d phenomena t o be p r e d i c t e d ( H e r r o n , 1 9 7 1 ) . The i n a d e q u a c y o f t h i s a p p r o a c h a s an e x a m p l e o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f ' c o n t r o l l i n g e x p e r i m e n t s ' , f o r i n s t a n c e , p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r knows what i t i s t h a t h e / s h e i s c o n t r o l l i n g . To do t h i s i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r p o s s e s s t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . H e r r o n makes t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n : The o v e r r i d i n g i m p r e s s i o n one r e c e i v e s f r o m t h e CHEM S t u d y m a t e r i a l s i s t h a t t r u t h s o r " f a c t s " a b o u t u n c h a n g i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f n a t u r e come t o us f r o m t h e phenomena. The r o l e o f t h e e n q u i r e r i s t o o b s e r v e phenomena a c c u r a t e l y a n d " o b j e c t i v e l y " . . . a n d t o 6 The U n i t e s S t a t e s h a s been c h o s e n s i n c e i t was one o f t h e m a j o r l o c a t i o n s f o r s e r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m s t h e e f f e c t s o f w h i c h were f e l t i n many p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g t h e T h i r d W o r l d ( B a e z , 1 9 7 6 ) . 35 d e t e r m i n e a " v a l i d e s t i m a t e o f u n c e r t a i n t y " o f h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s ( p 1 9 7 ) . PSSC P h y s i c s . Whereas t h e CHEM s t u d y m a t e r i a l s i n c o r p o r a t e d b o t h an e x p l i c i t a n d an i m p l i c i t a c c o u n t o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y , t h e PSSC P h y s i c s m a t e r i a l s r e l i e d l a r g e l y on an i m p l i c i t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y - t h e r e b y o p e n i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l s . L i k e t h e CHEM S t u d y , t h e PSSC P h y s i c s m a t e r i a l s were a l s o d e v e l o p e d , by and l a r g e , f r o m a p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y w h i c h u p h e l d t h e n a t u r a l e x i s t e n c e o f f i x e d , u n c h a n g i n g , e t e r n a l l y t r u e a n d e n q u i r e r - p r o o f l a w s o f n a t u r a l phenomena. The r o l e o f p h y s i c s , t h e r e f o r e , was t o u n c o v e r s u c h l a w s t h r o u g h an a p p r o a c h s u g g e s t i v e o f a p e r s p e c t i v e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f s y s t e m a t i c e m p i r i c i s m . A c c o r d i n g l y , any d i s c r e p a n c i e s o b s e r v e d b e t w e e n e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s a n d t h e s e " t r u e " l a w s were e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h e p r e c i s i o n a n d s c o p e o f o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h r e s t r i c t e d t h e e n q u i r e r ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e , m e a s u r e a n d c o n t r o l a l l r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s i r o n i c a l t o n o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e m a i n o b j e c t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n s i n t h e 1960s was t o p r o m o t e " o p e n n e s s " i n s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y i n t e r m s o f s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o f o r m u l a t e h y p o t h e s e s a n d d e s i g n e x p e r i m e n t s t o t e s t t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s , t h e PSSC P h y s i c s m a t e r i a l s h a r d l y i n c l u d e d any e x e r c i s e s t o f o s t e r t h e s e a b i l i t i e s . As H e r r o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) o b s e r v e s : 36 ...students i n PSSC p h y s i c s courses are probably never asked to attempt to formulate a problem or h y p o t h e s i s and r a r e l y , i f ever, asked to devise t h e i r own procedures f o r c o l l e c t i n g r e l e v a n t data (p20l)» Herron a r r i v e d at t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n a f t e r a n a l y s i n g the f i f t y - t w o PSSC a c t i v i t i e s and c l a s s i f y i n g them a c c o r d i n g to the f o u r - p o i n t s c a l e given on Table I. Table I. The f o u r - p o i n t s c a l e used by Herron (1971) to c l a s s i f y l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s i n the PSSC and BSCS i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . 7 Level Source of Problem Means of Investigation Outcome/Interpretation 1 Given Given 2 Given Given 3 Given Open - Student is expected to devise his own way(s) of inves-t i g a t i n g the problem 4 Open - Open (As in Student " 3 above) is free to formu-late or ' i n i t i a t e problem for in v e s t i g a t i o n Given or immediately obvious from manual Unknown to student Open - Student i s .free to come up with any fin d i n g or make his own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ^ ) . Teacher does not expect any pre-conceived outcome/ in t e r p r e t a t i o n Open (As i n 3 above) 7These l e v e l s were d e s c r i b e d by Herron (1971 ) without the use of a t a b l e . The above t a b l e has been the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the present w r i t e r . 37 U s i n g t h e s c a l e i n T a b l e I , H e r r o n f o u n d 7 5 % , 2 1 % , 4% and 0% o f t h e PSSC a c t i v i t i e s t o b e l o n g t o l e v e l s 1, 2, 3, a n d 4, r e s p e c t i v e l y . BSCS B i o l o g y . The BSCS B i o l o g y m a t e r i a l s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were c o n c e r n e d w i t h " t h e n a t u r e o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y " . H o w e v e r , t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t was g e n e r a l a n d n o t v e r y h e l p f u l . The n o t i o n o f n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g p r o b l e m s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a l s o f o u n d h e r e . The p r o b l e m was e i t h e r d i s c o v e r e d by t h e e n q u i r e r o r i t was h a n d e d o v e r t o h i m / h e r . No l i g h t was s h e d on t h e p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e s e p r o b l e m s were f o r m u l a t e d . I n d e e d , s u c h an e n d e a v o u r was n e i t h e r r e l e v a n t n o r n e c e s s a r y . A p p l y i n g t h e f o u r - l e v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o u t l i n e d a b o v e , H e r r o n f o u n d 7 3 % o f t h e s i x t y - t w o l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s t o be a t l e v e l 1, 2 1 % t o be a t l e v e l 2, 6% a t l e v e l 3 and 0% a t l e v e l 4. I n t e r m s o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t s o f v i e w on s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e q u i t e d i s c o u r a g i n g i n d e e d . A l t h o u g h s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y i s c o n s t r u e d a s a h i g h - l e v e l i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y , t h e e n q u i r e r i s s e e n n o t t o be i n f l u e n c e d , a t l e a s t n o t d i r e c t l y , by h i s / h e r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The k n o w l e d g e p a s s i v e l y e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e phenomenon b e i n g s t u d i e d a n d a l l t h e e n q u i r e r i s s u p p o s e d t o do i s s i m p l y " t u r n t h e s t o n e o v e r " and u n c o v e r t h i s k n o w l e d g e - p r o c e s s e d and e x i s t i n g i n i t s 38 f i n a l f o r m . H e n c e , t h e o b j e c t of s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g was t o a d e q u a t e l y arm t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e r i g h t t o o l s ( i . e . ' m e t h o d o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y ' ) t o u n c o v e r t h i s k n o w l e d g e . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r r e c o g n i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e p l a y e d by b o t h t h e k n o w l e d g e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r a s w e l l a s t h e k n o w l e d g e o f p r i n c i p l e s i n h e r e n t i n s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . T h i s means, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t e a c h i n g f o r a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f t h e d i s c i p l i n a r y f i e l d w i t h i n w h i c h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s a r e b e i n g t a u g h t . T h i s i s t h e v i e w b e i n g a d v a n c e d by t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r . The Zambian C a s e The t r e n d t o w a r d s an i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n p r a c t i c a l w o r k , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g and s e c o n d a r i l y on h i s own was b e l i e v e d t o be a d e s i r a b l e mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h m i g h t r e s u l t i n e n h a n c e d n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . However, b e c a u s e of t h e t i e s w i t h t h e p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n s t h a t were s t i l l b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by B r i t a i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l ( i . e . G .C.E.), Zambia d i d n o t h a v e much f l e x i b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s y l l a b u s e s . T h i s was d e t e r m i n e d by a n e e d t o m a i n t a i n h i g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t h a s been no s u r p r i s e t h a t an a l t e r n a t i v e way o f p r e s e r v i n g s t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e l e a r n i n g o f s c i e n c e 39 was w o r k e d o u t , a s w i l l be s e e n b e l o w . I t i s e a s y t o s e e how t h e i n t e n d e d c o u r s e o f Zambian n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on t h e h i s t o r i c a l - s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t a b o v e may ha v e l e g i t i m i z e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an e n q u i r y - o r i e n t e d , p r a c t i c a l component t o t h e s y l l a b u s . The s y l l a b u s o f t h e G e n e r a l S c i e n c e c o u r s e ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e , 1970) e m p h a s i z e d s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a s w e l l a s " s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g " . I t a l s o e m p h a s i z e d p r a c t i c a l work and e n c o u r a g e d t e a c h e r s t o have t h e i r p u p i l s c a r r y o u t t h e i r own e x p e r i m e n t s . I t was f u r t h e r d i r e c t e d t h a t some b a s i c a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n c e p t s be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s i n v i e w o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s p r o j e c t e d d e p e n d e n c e on a g r i c u l t u r e . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , t h e M i n i s t r y ' s v i e w o f s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g a t t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l was more e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s i s s u e d i n t h e same y e a r ( i . e . 1 9 7 0 ) . The s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s made i t c l e a r t h a t i t was d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y t o be a p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e l e a d i n g t h e p u p i l s i n t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c method and t h i n k i n g . E a c h p u p i l was r e q u i r e d t o h a v e a s m a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l p l o t t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h r e e y e a r c o u r s e . I n a d d i t i o n h e / s h e was e x p e c t e d t o work on a l a r g e s c a l e e x p e r i m e n t a l work and a c o m m e r c i a l p r o j e c t , k e e p i n g a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h i s e x e r c i s e was made an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e J u n i o r 40 S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l L e a v i n g E x a m i n a t i o n . T h i s n o t i o n o f s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g , p r e v a l e n t i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s , i s l a t e r s e e n t o i n f l u e n c e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n v i s - a - v i s t h e t e a c h i n g o f G e n e r a l S c i e n c e . F u r t h e r t o t h e 1970 d r a f t o f t h e Zambia J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s , t h e M i n i s t r y , i n November 1974, a p p r o v e d a m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h e G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n , j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s were now r e q u i r e d , i n e f f e c t f r o m 1975, t o c a r r y o u t a s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f a p r o b l e m o f i n t e r e s t t o them, i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n s m a l l g r o u p s . The p r i n c i p a l a i m s o f t h i s i n n o v a t i o n were t o p r o m o t e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e s s s k i l l s , a n d t o d e v e l o p an i n t e r e s t i n , a s w e l l a s a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c i e n c e . I n f u l l , t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e p r o j e c t work were s e t down as f o l l o w s : a. E a c h p u p i l i s e x p e c t e d t o m a i n t a i n r e c o r d s o f h i s / h e r p r o j e c t work i n a s p e c i a l e x e r c i s e book o r f i l e p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h e s e r e c o r d s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r i n s p e c t i o n a n d a s s e s s m e n t . b. P u p i l s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o c h o o s e t h e i r own p r o j e c t s , s u b j e c t t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s a d v i c e . A recommended l i s t o f p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be d i s p l a y e d i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t p u p i l s i n m a k i n g t h e i r c h o i c e s . c. P r o j e c t s may c o n s i s t of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o r s u r v e y i n any a r e a o f s c i e n c e o r t e c h n o l o g y , e . g . e c o l o g y , 41 p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y o r a s o c i a l s u r v e y i n v o l v i n g c o l l e c t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a nd i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a . d. P r o j e c t work s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e p u p i l ' s own l e i s u r e t i m e , b u t t h e t e a c h e r n e e d s t o c h e c k on p r o g r e s s a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . e. The p r o j e c t r e p o r t s h o u l d i n c l u d e , where a p p l i c a b l e : i ) a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e a i m ( s ) i i ) a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e e q u i p m e n t and methods u s e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a i i i ) p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a t a , i n c l u d i n g t a b l e s and g r a p h s i v ) a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s , w h i c h s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e m e t h o d s , a p p a r a t u s and d a t a v) c o n c l u s i o n s v i ) r e f e r e n c e t o l i t e r a t u r e o r s p e c i a l i s t s c o n s u l t e d v i i ) a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d f . P r o j e c t work w i l l be e v a l u a t e d by t h e t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s . The Head o f e a c h S c i e n c e D e p a r t m e n t s h o u l d s e n d i n t o t h e C h i e f E x a m i n e r t h e mark l i s t on w h i c h a l l c a n d i a d a t e s a r e e n t e r e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h n i n e s p e c i m e n p r o j e c t r e p o r t s : t h e b e s t t h r e e , a v e r a g e t h r e e a n d t h e w o r s t t h r e e ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e , 1 9 7 4 ) . The a i m s o f t h e p r o j e c t work were g i v e n a s f o l l o w s : a . To e n a b l e t h e p u p i l s t o l e a r n t h r o u g h t h e i r own 42 i n v e s t i g a t i o n s b. To i n t r o d u c e t h e p u p i l s t o s c i e n t i f i c m ethods a n d r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s , t h e r e b y p r o m o t i n g a c q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e s s s k i l l s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r e s t a n d a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c i e n c e c . To e n c o u r a g e s e l f - r e l i a n c e ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e , 1 9 7 4 ) . I n t h e M i n i s t r y ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h i s i n n o v a t i o n was i m p l e m e n t e d , a d e c r e e was i s s u e d m a n d a t i n g t h a t t h e c o m p l e t e d s t u d e n t p r o j e c t r e p o r t s w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e P a p e r I I I o f t h e f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e . A c c o r d i n g l y , a t o t a l o f 15% o f t h e J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l L e a v i n g E x a m i n a t i o n i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e was r e s e r v e d f o r P a p e r I I I . S i n c e t h e p r o j e c t work s t a r t e d , s e v e r a l s t u d i e s h a v e been c o n d u c t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t ( e . g . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e , 1977b; S p a r k e s , 1 9 8 0 ) . I n a l l t h e s e s t u d i e s one common f a c t o r r e p o r t e d i s t h a t most s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s a r e unhappy w i t h t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s . As S p a r k e s ( 1 9 8 0 ) o b s e r v e s : We c a n n o t c l a i m t h a t t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l e i t h e r w i s h t o r e t a i n t h e p r o j e c t o r w i s h t o a b o l i s h i t . B u t c l e a r l y many a r e unhappy w i t h i t i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m ... The o r i g i n a l p r o b l e m [ i n c o n s i s t e n t m a r k i n g ] t h a t l e d t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s l e f t u n r e s o l v e d . T e a c h e r s n e e d b e t t e r g u i d e l i n e s a s t o t h e t y p e o f p r o j e c t t o be c a r r i e d o u t a n d ways i n w h i c h h e l p s h o u l d be g i v e n a n d t h e p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d ( p p 2 6 - 7 ) . 43 I n t h e 1976 s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Z a m b i a , a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d t o e x i s t b e t w e e n P a p e r s I and I I o f t h e J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l L e a v i n g E x a m i n a t i o n i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e ( r = 0 . 8 3 ) . H owever, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P a p e r I I I ( i . e t h e p r o j e c t w o r k ) a n d e a c h o f P a p e r s I a n d I I were f o u n d t o be v e r y low ( i . e . 0.25 a n d 0.36, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s l ow c o r r e l a t i o n i t was f u r t h e r o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p r o j e c t work a nd e i t h e r P a p e r I o r P a p e r I I v a r i e d g r e a t l y amongst r e g i o n s ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e , 1 9 7 7 b ) . S p a r k e s ( 1 9 8 0) t o o k t h i s v a r i a t i o n t o mean t h a t t h e p r o j e c t work a nd t h e o t h e r two p a p e r s m e a s u r e d d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s . F u r t h e r , t h e v a r i a t i o n among r e g i o n s was i n t e r p r e t e d a s p o i n t i n g t o a l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t was e v a l u a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s . O p i n i o n on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t work among t e a c h e r s h a s been f o u n d t o be d i v i d e d on v a r i o u s g r o u n d s , e .g. b i o l o g y v e r s u s p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s , u n i v e r s i t y v e r s u s n o n - u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s , e x p a t r i a t e s v e r s u s Z a m b i a n s a nd e x p e r i e n c e d v e r s u s l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s ( S p a r k e s , 1 9 8 0 ) . M o s t o f t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d on t h e p r o j e c t a r e l a c k i n g i n b o t h s c o p e a n d d e p t h a n d a s a r e s u l t most o f t h e i s s u e s h a v e r e m a i n e d u n r e s o l v e d . The o n l y common p o i n t w h i c h a p p e a r s t o have come o u t o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h a t t e a c h e r s 44 h a v e i n s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s t o do a good j o b . H o w e v e r , t h e v a r i a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t among t e a c h e r s o f d i f f e r e n t a c a d e m i c a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s i n t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t and. t h e r e p o r t e d i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n m a r k i n g s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h i s p r o g r a m a r e d e e p - r o o t e d . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , c l e a r t h a t r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o a d d r e s s some o f t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o j e c t work. As t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e ( 1 9 7 9 ) o b s e r v e d : The J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y p r o j e c t g e n e r a t e s f a r more c o n t r o v e r s y t h a n any o t h e r p a r t o f t h e G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s . T h i s s t u d y s e e k s t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n by i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e p o s s i b l e u s e f u l n e s s o f i n t r o d u c i n g s t u d e n t s t o n o n - l a b o r a t o r y i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , p r i o r t o t h i s s o r t o f p r o j e c t work. I t i s e n v i s a g e d t h a t t h i s may r e s u l t i n a b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e , f o r y e a r s , been e x p e c t e d t o c a r r y o u t s p o n t a n e o u s l y o r by t r i a l a n d e r r o r . As s e e n a b o v e , t h i s a p p r o a c h h a s , i n t h e c a s e o f Z a m b i a , j u s t b r o u g h t a b o u t a l o t o f f r u s t r a t i o n and d e s p a i r on t h e p a r t of t h e s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . T y p e s o f K n o w l e d g e . K n o w l e d g e has been d e s c r i b e d by a number o f a u t h o r s a s b e l o n g i n g t o c e r t a i n t y p e s ( P i a g e t , 1971; R y l e , 1972; Schwab, 1962; S h a v e l s o n , 1974; L a w s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . 45 R y l e ( 1 9 7 2 ) p r o p o s e s a u s e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of two e s s e n t i a l b u t i n s e p a r a b l e a s p e c t s o f k n o w i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s scheme, one may d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n ' k n o w i n g t h a t ' ( f o r e x a m p l e , . k n o w i n g t h a t p h o t o s y n t h e s i s t a k e s p l a c e i n a l e a f ) a n d ' k n o w i n g how' ( f o r e x a m p l e , k n o w i n g how t o t e s t a l e a f f o r s t a r c h ) . Schwab (1962) e m p l o y s a s i m i l a r n o t i o n b u t d e s c r i b e s k n o w l e d g e i n t e r m s of ' s t r u c t u r e s ' . A c c o r d i n g l y , he makes a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e ' s u b s t a n t i v e s t r u c t u r e ' , t h a t i s : t h e body o f c o n c e p t s ; and t h e ' s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e ' , t h a t i s : t h e p r o c e d u r e s by w h i c h c o n c e p t s a r e u s e d i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n a g o a l . L i k e Schwab, S h a v e l s o n ( 1 9 7 4 ) d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n ' p r o p o s i t i o n a l ' and ' . p r o c e d u r a l ' k n o w l e d g e . Dewey (1938) e n v i s a g e s s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e t o be c o mposed o f a. a body o f w a r r a n t e d a s s e r t i o n s w h i c h have a c c u m u l a t e d a s a r e s u l t o f p a s t e n q u i r i e s ; and b. t h o s e l o g i c a l f o r m s by means o f w h i c h t h e y have been a c c u m u l a t e d . Hewson (1982) d e s c r i b e s t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f k n o w l e d g e a s f o l l o w s : . . . p r o c e d u r a l s t r u c t u r e s c o n c e r n a b i l i t i e s s u c h a s t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n m ethods and p r o c e d u r e s o f t h i n k i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , c o n t r o l l i n g a n d m a n i p u l a t i n g v a r i a b l e s , f o r m u l a t i n g and t e s t i n g h y p o t h e s e s , a p p l y i n g k n o w l e d g e , a n a l y s i n g and s y n t h e s i z i n g k n o w l e d g e , i n d u c i n g f a c t s , g e n e r a l i s i n g p r i n c i p l e s a n d e v a l u a t i n g s t a t e m e n t s . The p r o p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s h a v e f u n d a m e n t a l c o m p o n e n t s , t h a t i s , t h e c o n c e p t s w h i c h a r e c o n n e c t e d by means o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e r e b y g i v i n g e x t e n d e d m e a n i n g t o t h e c o n c e p t s ( p 1 8 ) . 46 A c c o r d i n g l y , Hewson (1982) p r o p o s e s a m o d e l f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g k n o w l e d g e ( F i g u r e 2 . 2 ) . As Hewson e x p l a i n s , t h i s m o d e l s e e s k n o w l e d g e a s h a v i n g b o t h s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e s o f k n o w l e d g e i n c l u d e t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a l a n d p r o c e d u r a l s t r u c t u r e s . The p r o p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e s e e n a s h a v i n g two c o m p o n e n t s , t h e c o n c e p t s a n d t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e c o n c e p t s . The f u n c t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e i s t o e x p l a i n a n d p r e d i c t p h e n o m e n a ( p 1 9 ) . The p r e s e n t s t u d y makes a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Hewson model by r e d e f i n i n g p r o p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s t o encompass some of t h e a s p e c t s o f k n o w l e d g e Hewson c l a s s i f i e s a s ' p r o c e d u r a l s t r u c t u r e s ' . T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n h a s been f o u n d n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o show t h a t p r o c e d u r a l s t r u c t u r e s c o n t a i n c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h may be t a u g h t a nd l e a r n e d i n t h e same way a s t h o s e subsumed u n d e r p r o p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r , t h e r e f o r e , a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n c e p t s and r u l e s / p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g t o p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n much t h e same way a s p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s / p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . T h i s s u b s e q u e n t r e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s e a s p e c t s o f k n o w l e d g e h a s g i v e n r i s e t o t h e m o d e l r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2.3. The c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s b a s e d upon t h i s m o d e l . 47 Figure 2.2 The Hewson Model of Related Aspects of Knowledge Know edge Structure (Conceptions) r Propositional structures ( i . e . knowing that) , J , Concepts Propositional re l a t i o nships between concepts Procedural structures ( i . e . knowing how to) e.g. problem solving s k i l l s c o n t r o l l i n g variables manipulating variables formulating hypotheses testing hypotheses applying analysing synthesising generalising evaluating Purpose Epistemological commitment to explain and predict phenomena. Explanations i n t e l l i g i b l e , p l a u s i b l e , f r u i t f u l 48 Figure 2.3 Conceptual Model of Aspects of Sc ient i f ic  Knowledge used in this study SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE COGNITIVE (Propositional knowledge) i .e . knowing that CONCEPTS PRINCIPLES/THEORIES I CONTENT (e.g. mass, mitosis, valence, heat, conduction) 1 PROCEDURAL* (e.g. variable, extrapolation, interpolation) ABILITY TO STATE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONCEPTS (e.g. Ohm's law, Newton's laws of motion, Archemede's pr inciple, law of Independent assortment) *Signifies type of knowledge dealt with in this study PSYCHOMOTOR (Procedural knowledge) i.e knowing how to ABILITY TO CARRY OUT PROCEDURE/ACTION ( e.g. being able to control and manipulate variables in a practical setting; being able to observe and measure the effect(s) of a manipulated variable on a responding one) * A B I L I T Y TO STATE D E T A I L S OF A PROCEDURE/ACTION (e.g. describing procedure for calculating mass of an object i f i ts density and volume are known; verbalising procedure for testing a leaf for starch; knowledge of need to control variables in an experiment; ab i l i t y to design a controlled experiment to test a given hypothesis; formulating hypotheses) A B I L I T Y TO ACTUALLY CARRY OUT A COGNITIVE OPERATION (e.g. being able to calculate mass of 49 3. P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t C o n c e p t a nd p r i n c i p l e l e a r n i n g . Gagne ( 1 9 7 0 , 1977) i d e n t i f i e s e i g h t m a j o r t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h humans, w h i c h r a n g e f r o m t h e s i m p l e s t ( i . e . s i g n a l l e a r n i n g ) t o t h e most c o m p l e x - i n Gagne's o p i n i o n - p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y a r e c o n c e p t a nd p r i n c i p l e l e a r n i n g , l a b e l e d by Gagne a s l e a r n i n g t y p e s 6 a n d 7, r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o n c e p t l e a r n i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o P e l l a ( 1 9 6 6 ) , c o n c e p t s a r e s u m m a r i e s o f t h e e s s e n t i a l i d e a s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r f a c t s t h a t e p i t o m i z e t h e common f a c t o r s o f a g r o u p o f i d e a s . S i m i l a r l y , G owin (1970) c o n s t r u e s c o n c e p t s a s ' r e g u l a r i t i e s i n e v e n t s d e s i g n a t e d by a s i g n o r a s y m b o l ' . Novak (1977) s u g g e s t s s i m p l y t h a t c o n c e p t s a r e 'what we t h i n k w i t h ' , t h e r e b y e n v i s i o n i n g a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f f a c t s a n d e v e n t s a s c o n c e p t s . Gagne ( 1 9 7 7 ) makes a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n ' c o n c r e t e * a n d ' d e f i n i t i o n a l ' c o n c e p t s . Gagne r e f e r s t o t h e f o r m e r a s ' c o n c e p t s by o b s e r v a t i o n ' a s " t h e y c a n be d e n o t e d by b e i n g p o i n t e d o u t " ( p 1 l 1 ) ; and t h e l a t t e r a s ' c o n c e p t s ' by d e f i n i t i o n ' t h e l e a r n i n g o f w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e "by t h e use o f l a n g u a g e " ( p 1 2 7 ) . Gagne e n v i s a g e s t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g o f d e f i n e d c o n c e p t s i s , i n e s s e n c e , t h e l e a r n i n g o f r u l e s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g o b j e c t s a n d e v e n t s . 50 I n a n u t s h e l l , G agne's v i e w o f a c o n c e p t i s t h a t a. i t i s an i n f e r r e d m e n t a l p r o d u c t b. i t i s l e a r n e d by a p r o c e s s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i . e . d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i n s t a n c e s o f t h a t c o n c e p t ; and c. e v i d e n c e t h a t a c o n c e p t h a s been l e a r n e d l i e s i n t h e l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t y t o p l a c e an o b j e c t i n a c l a s s . C o n c e p t - a t t a i n m e n t , t h e r e f o r e , c a n be an e a s y o r c o m p l e x t a s k d e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s a nd v a l u e s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r must c o n t e n d w i t h i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . R u l e / p r i n c i p l e l e a r n i n g . By and l a r g e , s c i e n c e i s a s t u d y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n / a m o n g s t c o n c e p t s . H e nce, s t u d y i n g s c i e n c e i n v o l v e s n o t o n l y t h e l e a r n i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e r e l a t e d . , R u l e o r p r i n c i p l e l e a r n i n g i s u n d e r s t o o d t o i n v o l v e e x p r e s s i o n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n o r amongst two o r more c o n c e p t s . Gagne s u g g e s t s t h a t t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d be met i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f p r i n c i p l e s : a. A l l t h e r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s i n h e r e n t i n a g i v e n p r i n c i p l e must be l e a r n e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y b e f o r e t h e y c a n be r e l a t e d ; b. A t t h e t i m e when t h e p r i n c i p l e i s t a u g h t , a l l t h e component c o n c e p t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e must be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e l e a r n e r . T h i s means t h a t 51 t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d e n s u r e t h a t h i s s t u d e n t s r e c a l l t h e s e p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d component c o n c e p t s . Once t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e r e c a l l e d , t h e y c a n now be r e l a t e d t o f o r m t h e p r i n c i p l e ; a nd c. When r e l a t i n g t h e c o n c e p t s , t h e y must be a r r a n g e d i n t h e p r o p e r s e q u e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e e x p r e s s e s . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y d e a l s w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s , i t h a s been u s e f u l t o a p p r o a c h t h i s t a s k i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h Gagne's s u g g e s t e d c o n d i t i o n s f o r c o n c e p t and p r i n c i p l e l e a r n i n g . T r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . C o l l e t t e ( 1 9 7 6) e n v i s a g e s t h a t t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g c a n o c c u r o n l y i f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be t r a n s f e r r e d i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n ' s k n o w l e d g e - s t r u c t u r e , t h a t i s , i f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s l e a r n e d i n c o n t e x t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t r a n s f e r i s t h o u g h t t o be e n h a n c e d o r f a c i l i t a t e d a s t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r t a s k s i n c r e a s e s . T h i s means t h a t t h e more c l o s e l y t h e l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s r e s e m b l e t h e new s e t t i n g , t h e b e t t e r a r e t h e c h a n c e s f o r t r a n s f e r t o o c c u r . A u s u b e l ( 1 9 79) a r g u e s t h a t f o r t r a n s f e r t o o c c u r , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be t r a n s f e r r e d s h o u l d be m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e l e a r n e r . Gagne ( 1 9 7 0 , 1977) e n v i s a g e s t h a t t r a n s f e r d e p e n d s on t h e d e g r e e o f o r i g i n a l l e a r n i n g a n d t h e d i v e r s i t y o f 1 52 l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h e l e a r n e r i s e x p o s e d t o . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he recommends t h a t i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g be c o n d u c t e d t o a d e q u a t e d e g r e e s ( b r e a d t h and d e p t h ) , u s i n g a b r o a d s p e c t r u m and a v a r i e t y o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s s t u d y s e e k s t o s a t i s f y t h i s r e q u i s i t e f o r t r a n s f e r by p r o v i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f e x a m p l e s w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e c o n t e x t s o f l e a r n i n g e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . The n o t i o n t h a t s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d c o n c e r n i t s e l f , p r i m a r i l y , w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( s u c h a s t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d u n d e r t h e l a b e l ' p r o c e s s e s o f s c i e n c e ' ) f o r t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l a nd t r a n s f e r v a l u e has been a t t a c k e d by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s . A u s u b e l , f o r e x a m p l e , has a r g u e d t h a t t h e s p e c i a l s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r u n u s u a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t y a n d c r e a t i v i t y ( c o n s t r u c t s w h i c h h a v e , o v e r t h e y e a r s , been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o c e s s s k i l l s ) a r e n o t v e r y t e a c h a b l e i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . He s t a t e s : The c r e a t i v e p e r s o n who makes a u n i q u e l y o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o h i s c u l t u r e i s n o t o n l y e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e b u t most o f h i s c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i s a l s o g e n e t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d and i s n o t v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e t o t r a i n i n g . The s c h o o l a t most c a n e n c o u r a g e h i m t o e x e r c i s e h i s c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s a nd r e w a r d t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n ( A u s u b e l , 1979, p . 1 7 5 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , A u s u b e l d o e s n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p r o c e s s s k i l l s a r e t r a n s f e r a b l e t o s i t u a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y a r e a c q u i r e d . He b e l i e v e s t h a t . . . c r i t i c a l - t h i n k i n g a b i l i t y c a n be e n h a n c e d o n l y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e . G r a n d s t r a t e g i e s o f d i s c o v e r y , l i k e s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d , do n o t seem t o be t r a n s f e r a b l e a c r o s s d i s c i p l i n a r y l i n e s 53 - e i t h e r when a c q u i r e d w i t h i n a g i v e n d i s c i p l i n e o r when l e a r n e d i n a more g e n e r a l f o r m a p a r t f r o m s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t ( A u s u b e l , 1965, p 2 5 8 ) . B r o u w e r (nd) e n d o r s e s t h i s n o t i o n s u c c i n c t l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : The hope t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g o f p r o c e s s s k i l l s w i l l l e a d t o a g e n e r a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s o l v e r s h a s been shown t o be an empty hope ( p 9 ) . B u r n s and B r o o k ( 1970) a l s o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e p r o c e s s s k i l l s a s a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o t h e c o n t e n t a r e a w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y h a v e been a c q u i r e d . They o b s e r v e : P r o c e s s e s , a s a t y p e o f o b j e c t i v e , a r e s p e c i f i c m e n t a l s k i l l s w h i c h a r e any of a s e t o f a c t i o n s , c h a n g e s , t r e a t m e n t s , o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f c o g n i t i v e o r a f f e c t i v e e n t i t i e s u s e d i n a s t r a t e g y i n a s p e c i a l o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e s o l u t i o n o f a p r o b l e m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g a c t , t h e u s e o f l e a r n i n g p r o d u c t s , o r t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f t h i n g s l e a r n e d ( p 2 7 ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , K y l e ( 1 9 8 0 ) a p p e a r s t o b e l i e v e i n t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f " b a s i c p r o c e s s s k i l l s " . He s t a t e s : The a b i l i t y t o s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e n q u i r e i s t h e p e r s o n a l , i n t e r n a l i z e d a b i l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o s y n t h e s i z e t h e k n o w l e d g e , w h i c h has b een o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e l e a r n i n g o f b a s i c p r o c e s s s k i l l s a n d c o m p e t e n c i e s , t h a t e n a b l e a p e r s o n t o r a t i o n a l l y e n q u i r e a n d s o l v e p r o b l e m s by means o f u n r e s t r i c t e d i n d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g ( i b i d , p l 2 8 ) . K a r p l u s ( 1 9 7 9 ) a d v o c a t e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f ' r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s ' b e c a u s e , i n h i s o p i n i o n , t h e y a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e a n d r e p r o d u c i b l e . The l o g i c a l a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s d e f i n e d by P i a g e t and h i s c o l l a b o r a t o r s a r e e x a m p l e s o f t h e r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s t h a t K a r p l u s i s a d v o c a t i n g . A c c o r d i n g l y , he i d e n t i f i e s c o n s e r v a t i o n , a d d i t i v e , s e r i a l o r d e r i n g , c o n t r o l o f 54 v a r i a b l e s , p r o p o r t i o n a l , f u n c t i o n a l , p r o p o s i t i o n a l a n d a n a l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s a s b e i n g some o f t h e most commonly o b s e r v e d . I t i s K a r p l u s ' v i e w t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e s e r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r , t h e y do n o t r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c f a c t s , e x p e r i e n c e s o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d may, t h e r e f o r e , be a p p l i e d t o a v a r i e t y o f phenomena, e . g . c o i n s , q u a n t i t i e s o f l i q u i d s , e n e r g y , o r e c o n o m i c a s s e t s , p l a n e g e o m e t r y , p r o p a g a t i o n o f l i g h t a n d any o t h e r c o n c e p t u a l a r e a s w h i c h may r e q u i r e u s a g e o f t h e s e r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s . What i s n o t c l e a r f r o m K a r p l u s ' p o s i t i o n i s w h e t h e r o r n o t he c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e s e r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s ^ s h o u l d be l e a r n e d f r o m a v a r i e t y o f c o n t e x t s , o r t h a t o n c e t h e y a r e a c q u i r e d i n one c o n t e x t t h e y c a n be r e a d i l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o o t h e r l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s o f s t u d y . G a g n e ( l 9 7 0 ) c o n t e n d s t h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d t o engage i n s y s t e m a t i c a n d d e l i b e r a t e p r a c t i c e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s c i e n t i s t s where t h e y w i l l l e a r n g e n e r a l i z a b l e c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h c a r r y t h e p r o m i s e o f b r o a d t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y a c r o s s many s u b j e c t a r e a s . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e r a t i o n a l p o w e r s w h i c h were i d e n t i f i e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s E d u c a t i o n P o l i c i e s C o m m i s s i o n ( 1 9 6 1 ) , Gagne ( 1 9 7 9 ) r e - i t e r a t e s h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t l e a r n e r s a l r e a d y p o s s e s s t h e s e p o w e r s a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s s h o u l d o n l y a i m a t t r i g g e r i n g them t o f u l l p o t e n t i a l . 55 Gagne's p o s i t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by Nay, e t a l , ( 1 9 71) who s t r e s s a v i e w t h a t a l t h o u g h f i e l d work and l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , s u c c e s s i s c o n t i n g e n t l a r g e l y on t h o u g h t r a t h e r t h a n on p h y s i c a l a c t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s " p o s s i b l e f o r s t u d e n t s t o g a i n k n o w l e d g e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y e n t i r e l y i n a v e r b a l , n o n - e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n n e r " ( p 2 0 5 ) . They a d d : Much o f t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d v e r b a l l e a r n i n g a l s o r e q u i r e s a s t u d e n t t o e x h i b i t p r o c e s s s k i l l s . F o r i n s t a n c e , he may be a s k e d t o i n t e r p r e t o r r e - i n t e r p r e t a s e t o f d a t a o b t a i n e d by someone e l s e , o r p o s e an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n t o t h e one i n d i c a t e d i n a c a s e h i s t o r y o r l a b o r a t o r y m a n u a l (Nay, e t a l , 1971, p 2 0 5 ) . T h i s v i e w i s s h a r e d w h o l l y by t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r a n d t h i s i s where he d e p a r t s f r o m t h e p e d a g o g i c s t a n c e a d o p t e d by t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e s c i e n c e p r o c e s s s k i l l s . I n t h e h i s t o r i c a l v i e w of t e a c h i n g f o r a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , i t h a s been h e l d t h a t e x p o s u r e t o and e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h ' r e l e v a n t ' p h y s i c a l m a t e r i a l s w o u l d r e s u l t i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h i s w r i t e r h o l d s t h e v i e w t h a t t h i s i s an u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n . R a t h e r , K a r p l u s ' c o n c e p t i o n o f ' r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s ' , a s w e l l a s G agne's p o s i t i o n on t h e n o t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s i n h e r e n t i n e x p e r i m e n t a l work i n s c i e n c e , w i n f a v o u r w i t h t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r . T h e s e v i e w s h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e 56 c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n o f f i g u r e s 2.1 a n d 2.3 w h i c h d e p i c t t h e c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 4. P e d a g o g i c a l c o n t e x t I n s t r u c t i o n i n p r o c e s s s k i l l s . B l o o m ( 1 9 5 6 ) c o n s t r u e d e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s a s b e l o n g i n g t o t h r e e d o m a i n s o f l e a r n i n g ; c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , a n d p s y c h o m o t o r . The c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n was e n v i s a g e d a s i n c l u d i n g " t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e r e c a l l o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s a n d s k i l l s " ( p 7 ) . The a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was d e f i n e d a s i n c l u d i n g " o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e c h a n g e s i n i n t e r e s t , a t t i t u d e s , a n d v a l u e s , and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p p r e c i a t i o n s a n d a d e q u a t e a d j u s t m e n t s " ( i b i d ) . The p s y c h o m o t o r domain c o n c e r n e d p h y s i c a l m a n i p u l a t i v e o r m o t o r s k i l l s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , p r o p o s i t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e c l e a r l y b e l o n g s t o t h e c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n . P r o c e d u r a l k n o w l e d g e , h o w e v e r , may be c o n s t r u e d a s b e l o n g i n g b o t h t o t h e c o g n i t i v e a s w e l l a s p s y c h o m o t o r d o m a i n s ( c . f . F i g u r e 2.3 a b o v e ) . E d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t i n g t o c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s may be c l a s s i f i e d , o r g a n i z e d a n d t a u g h t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f k n o w l e d g e d e s c r i b e d by B l o o m ( 1 9 5 6 ) , a t t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f t h e t a x o n o m y . 57 A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e f o r a t e a c h e r t o f o r m u l a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s a b o u t c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n o n l y . To t h i s e x t e n t , t h i s t y p e o f p r o c e d u r a l k n o w l e d g e c a n be v i e w e d a s p r o p o s i t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s b e i n g c o n j e c t u r e d i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on a p r a c t i c a l l a b o r a t o r y t a s k i s d e t e r m i n e d by a s t u d e n t ' s c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a s w e l l a s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e t a s k . 8 R o u t i n e a b i l i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e l a b o r a t o r y a p p a r a t u s a n d e q u i p m e n t , s u c h a s R a v e t z ' s n o t i o n o f c r a f t k n o w l e d g e ( R a v e t z , 1 9 7 1 ) , i s i m p o r t a n t i n s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s b u t i t i s n o t r e g a r d e d by t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r a s b e i n g t h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . I t w o u l d a p p e a r , t h e n , t h a t most o f t h e p r a c t i c a l l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s t h a t s t u d e n t s i n o u r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a r e e x p e c t e d t o c a r r y o u t r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h e m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s and r u l e s / p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g t o p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . B l oom ( 1 9 5 6 ) o b s e r v e s : Even t h e m a n i p u l a t i v e and m o t o r s k i l l s assume some k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e m a t e r i a l s , m e t h o d s , o r t o o l s t h a t a r e u s e d ( p 3 3 ) . E a s l e y ( 1 9 7 1 ) a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n p r a c t i c a l c o m p e t e n c e a n d c o g n i t i v e ( v e r b a l ) k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c 8 I n f a c t , a s Hewson s u g g e s t s , i t i s h e l p f u l t o u s e t h e t e r m ' c o n c e p t i o n s ' when t a l k i n g a b o u t c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e t o i n c o r p o r a t e b o t h p r o p o s i t i o n a l and p r o c e d u r a l k n o w l e d g e . 58 i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . He s t a t e s : The e m p h a s i s i n d i c a t e d on t h e a b i l i t y t o p r a c t i s e e n q u i r y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i s t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d s h a r p l y f r o m m e r e l y v e r b a l f o r m u l a t i o n s o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d . W h i l e v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s may s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r c r i t i c i s m o f p r a c t i c e a n d h e n c e may be a u s e f u l means f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f o u r o b j e c t i v e , a p e r s o n may be s k i l l e d i n v e r b a l a n a l y s i s w i t h o u t b e i n g a c o m p e t e n t e n q u i r e r . The c o n v e r s e may a l s o be t r u e , t h a t i s , a p e r s o n c a n be a c o m p e t e n t e n q u i r e r w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o p e r f o r m a d e q u a t e l y i n t h e v e r b a l c r i t i c i s m o f e n q u i r y ( p 1 5 5 ) . Some r e s e a r c h e r s f e e l t h a t t h e r e may be some d i f f i c u l t y i n u s i n g t h e l a b o r a t o r y a n d e n q u i r y m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g t o a t t a i n t h e b r o a d a i m o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be c o n c e r n t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n may n o t be r e a d y f o r . t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s o f l e a r n i n g a t t h e t i m e when t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o engage i n them. As Gagne (1 9 6 3 ) p o i n t s o u t : . . . p r a c t i s i n g e n q u i r y t o o s o o n , a n d w i t h o u t a s u i t a b l e b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e , c a n have a n a r r o w i n g a n d c r a m p i n g e f f e c t on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d e p e n d e n t t h i n k i n g . And i f t h i s i s t r u e a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e c o l l e g e s o p h o m o r e , s u r e l y t h i s d a n g e r must be a l l t h e more s e v e r e i f we c o n s i d e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l a n d t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ( p 1 4 7 ) . K y l e ( 1 9 8 0 ) a d d s t o t h i s v i e w when he s t a t e s : Many s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s w o u l d p r e f e r f r u s t r a t i n g s t u d e n t s by f o r c i n g s t u d e n t s t o e n q u i r e . . . I a g r e e w i t h H u r d ' s b a s i c p r e m i s e t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o l e a r n on t h e i r own - b u t n o t a l l s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be f o r c e d t o l e a r n t h r o u g h d i s c o v e r y t e c h n i q u e s ( p i 2 6 ) . T h i s d e b a t e a p p e a r s t o c e n t r e on w h e t h e r o r n o t e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s a r e c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n a way s i m i l a r , 59 a t l e a s t i n a f u n d a m e n t a l way, t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i s t s . A u s u b e l ( 1 9 6 1 ) d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n t h e r o l e o f a s c i e n t i s t a n d t h e r o l e o f a s c i e n c e s t u d e n t . He s t a t e s : The a d u l t s c i e n t i s t i s e n g a g e d i n a f u l l - t i m e s e a r c h f o r new g e n e r a l o r a p p l i e d p r i n c i p l e s i n h i s f i e l d . The s t u d e n t , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d i n an e f f o r t t o l e a r n t h e same b a s i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t h i s f i e l d w h i c h t h e s c i e n t i s t l e a r n e d i n h i s s t u d e n t d a y s , and a l s o t o l e a r n s o m e t h i n g of t h e m e thod and s p i r i t o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . T h u s , w h i l e i t makes p e r f e c t l y good s e n s e f o r t h e s c i e n t i s t t o work f u l l - t i m e f o r m u l a t i n g a n d t e s t i n g new h y p o t h e s e s , i t i s q u i t e i n d e f e n s i b l e ... f o r t h e s t u d e n t t o ...{do} t h e same t h i n g ... I f he i s e v e r t o d i s c o v e r he must f i r s t l e a r n ; and he c a n n o t l e a r n a d e q u a t e l y by p r e t e n d i n g he i s a j u n i o r s c i e n t i s t ( p p 3 8 ~ 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , A u s u b e l ( 1 9 6 5 ) p r o p o s e s t h a t s c h o o l s s h o u l d f o c u s on t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t w h i c h i s b o t h more t e a c h a b l e and more i m p o r t a n t f o r p r o b l e m s o l u t i o n , i n s t e a d o f f o c u s i n g on p r o d u c i n g p r o b l e m s o l v e r s , who a r e i n r e a l i t y v e r y r a r e t o come by i n s o c i e t y . He s t a t e s : I n my o p i n i o n , any s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m w o r t h y o f t h e name must be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s y s t e m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an o r g a n i z e d body o f k n o w l e d g e a s an e x p l i c i t end i n i t s e l f ... The g o a l s o f t h e s c i e n c e s t u d e n t a n d t h e g o a l s o f a s c i e n t i s t a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l . H e n c e , s t u d e n t s c a n n o t l e a r n s c i e n c e e f f e c t i v e l y by e n a c t i n g t h e r o l e o f j u n i o r s c i e n t i s t ( p 2 5 9 ) . A u s u b e l h o l d s t h e v i e w t h a t i f s c h o o l s y s t e m s e m p h a s i z e d t e a c h i n g f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e t e n r a t i o n a l p o w e r s , i d e n t i f i e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s E d u c a t i o n P o l i c i e s C o m m i s s i o n ( 1 9 6 1 ) t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t r a n s m i t t i n g s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n t e n t , s t u d e n t s w o u l d l a c k t h e e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s r e q u i r e d t o s o l v e t y p i c a l p r o b l e m s i n an a c a d e m i c s e t t i n g . 60 T h i s p o s i t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by Novak (1979) who a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t A u s u b e l ' s t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g i n t h e c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n c a n l e a d t o s u b s t a n t i a l enhancement o f s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o t h i n k r a t i o n a l l y a n d c r i t i c a l l y . A u s u b e l ' s p o s i t i o n i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by K y l e ( l 9 8 0 ) who a l s o u p h o l d s t h e t e a c h i n g o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t . He o b s e r v e s : C r i t i c i s m i s l e v e l e d a t t h e c l a s s r o o m where s c i e n c e i s p r e s e n t e d a s o n l y an o r g a n i z e d body o f k n o w l e d g e ; y e t k n o w l e d g e c e r t a i n l y i s an e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t o f s c i e n c e . Any f o r m o f s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h f a i l s t o i n c l u d e a n d p l a c e some e m p h a s i s on t h i s a s p e c t o f s c i e n c e i s c h e a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t who i n t e n d s t o become a s c i e n t i s t , w h i l e g i v i n g a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f s c i e n c e t o t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s who w i l l e v e n t u a l l y c o m p r i s e t h e n o n s c i e n c e c o m m u n i t y ( p l 2 5 ) . H o w ever, E a s e l y ( 1 9 5 8 ) i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t b o t h t h e s c i e n c e s t u d e n t a n d an a d u l t s c i e n t i s t o p e r a t e w i t h s i m i l a r r u l e s o f i n f e r e n c e . He s t a t e s : The s i t u a t i o n t h a t g e n e r a t e s p r o b l e m s f o r a s i x y e a r o l d a n d f o r an a d u l t s c i e n t i s t a r e on v e r y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n . . . [ f o r ] t h e two e x t r e m e s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s m a l l c h i l d a n d t h e a d u l t s c i e n t i s t , t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a n d t h e r u l e s o f i n f e r e n c e a r e f a r more c o m p l e x f o r t h e l a t t e r . H o wever, b o t h o p e r a t e w i t h t h e s e e l e m e n t s a n d t h e s e r u l e s i n t h e same b a s i c way ( p 1 5 7 ) . E a s e l y ' s p o s i t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by N a g e l ( 1 958) who b e l i e v e s t h a t e n q u i r i e s i n s c i e n c e g e n e r a l l y p o s s e s s common i d e n t i f i a b l e f e a t u r e s . He o b s e r v e s : 61 I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t any two e n q u i r i e s , w h e t h e r i n r e m o t e l y r e l a t e d o r i n i n t i m a t e l y d e p e n d e n t b r a n c h e s o f s c i e n c e , w i l l e x h i b i t i d e n t i f i a b l e a nd i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s ; and i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a r g u e f r o m t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n p u r s u i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s t h e s c i e n c e s employ a v a r i e t y o f m e t h o d s . B u t i t i s e q u a l l y c l e a r t h a t any two e n q u i r i e s w i l l p o s s e s s some common f e a t u r e s , s o t h a t by i n s i s t i n g on t h e s e t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e m a n i f e s t d i f f e r e n c e s one c a n w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y m a i n t a i n t h e u n i t a r y c h a r a c t e r o f s c i e n t i f i c m ethod ( p 1 4 6 ) . I n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , most of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p e c i a l i z e d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n may n o t e x i s t a nd i t i s p r o b a b l y p o s s i b l e t o t e a c h t h e n o t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t a f a i r l y g e n e r a l l e v e l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f s u c h c o n c e p t s s h o u l d h o l d p r o m i s e f o r use i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . As E a s l e y ( 1 9 5 8) o b s e r v e s : The e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d i n d i f f e r e n t s c i e n c e s , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t j u s t i f y t h e c l a i m t h a t p a r t i c u l a r methods l a c k a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o o t h e r f i e l d s o f s c i e n c e s ( p l 5 2 ) . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e a b o v e d i s a g r e e m e n t s on t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s a n d p e d a g o g i c v a l u e o f p r o c e s s s k i l l s , i t a p p e a r s i m p o r t a n t f r o m a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ' s s t a n d - p o i n t t o c u l t i v a t e i n h i s s t u d e n t s c o m p e t e n c e i n v e r b a l f o r m u l a t i o n s o f p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , s u c h a s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l a nd p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s e s o f s c i e n c e a s a n o r m a t i v e and c r i t i c a l d i s c i p l i n e ( E a s l e y a n d T a t s u o k a , 1 9 6 8 ) . The n o t i o n of t r e a t i n g a l l t h e b r a n c h e s o f s c i e n c e m e r e l y a s ' G e n e r a l S c i e n c e ' a t t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l i n 62 Z a m b i a , f o r e x a m p l e , may be s e e n a s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s p l a c e d a r o u n d t h e s e s u b j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . T h i s n o t i o n o f ' i n t e g r a t e d s c i e n c e ' i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t p a r t i c u l a r o n l y t o t h e Z ambian s i t u a t i o n . I t i s a c t u a l l y i n l i n e w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s o f t h e 1960s t h a t t o o k p l a c e i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m as w e l l a s N o r t h A m e r i c a . Fensham (1980) i d e n t i f i e s f i v e c a t e g o r i e s u n d e r w h i c h e x i s t i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n may be c l a s s i f i e d . He g i v e s t h e s e a s a. f a c t u a l and t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e ; b. p r o c e s s o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d r e a s o n i n g ; c . p r a c t i c a l o r l a b o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n s c i e n c e ; d. a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s , and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , s c i e n c e ; a n d e. r e l a t i o n o f s c i e n c e t o s o c i e t y . Fensham b e l i e v e s t h a t a g i v e n s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h ave t o i n c l u d e o b j e c t i v e s i n a l l t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . E a c h s o c i e t y a d o p t s a s e t of o b j e c t i v e s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e n e e d s , a s p i r a t i o n s and b i a s e s o f t h a t s o c i e t y . A l o o k a t t h e Zambian J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s c i e n c e s y l l a b u s shows t h a t t h e c o u n t r y i s a t t e m p t i n g t o g e t a t a l l t h e f i v e c o n c e r n s o u t l i n e d a b o v e , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l a s t one b e c a u s e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t a r i a n b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e c o u n t r y e n v i s a g e s m i g h t emanate f r o m i t . 63 One i m p o r t a n t p o i n t w h i c h d e s e r v e s m e n t i o n i s t h a t c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e s v a r y w i t h i n a g i v e n f i e l d o f s c i e n c e and f r o m one f i e l d t o a n o t h e r , due t o t h e f a c t t h a t a s new s t r u c t u r e s a r e d e v e l o p e d some o l d ones g e t m o d i f i e d o r d r o p p e d a l t o g e t h e r . The same a p p l i e s t o c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s of s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . Some methods o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l s o become o b s o l e t e . I n d e e d , B r o n o w s k i (1951) and Kuhn (1962) have shown t h a t s t y l e s o f t h e o r y and method i n a s c i e n c e c h a n g e f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . T h i s s t u d y h a s been c o n c e i v e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t , i n c o n v e n t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r g i v e s h i s s t u d e n t s l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h r e q u i r e them t o c a r r y o u t ' e x p e r i m e n t s ' . T h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s a r e n o r m a l l y j u d g e d w i t h c e r t a i n f a i r l y ' s t a n d a r d ' c r i t e r i a i n m i n d . T h a t i s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e t y p e o f t o p i c , t h e t e a c h e r u s u a l l y f o l l o w s c e r t a i n g u i d e l i n e s w h i c h most t i m e s i n c l u d e some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : a. D i d t h e s t u d e n t i n c l u d e a s t a t e m e n t o f h i s p r o b l e m , i . e . h y p o t h e s i s ? b. D i d t h e s t u d e n t a d e q u a t e l y i s o l a t e t h e v a r i a b l e s germane t o h i s s t u d y , i . e . i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f m a n i p u l a t e d , r e s p o n d i n g , a n d c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s ? c. How a d e q u a t e l y d i d t h e s t u d e n t c o n t r o l a n d m a n i p u l a t e t h e v a r i a b l e s ? d. How a c c u r a t e l y d i d t h e s t u d e n t m e a s u r e t h e r e s p o n d i n g 64 v a r i a b l e ? e. How a d e q u a t e was t h e g e n e r a l d e s i g n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t ? f . Was t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c a r r i e d o u t a c c u r a t e l y ? g. D i d t h e s t u d e n t a d e q u a t e l y r e l a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s s t u d y t o t h e q u e s t i o n s , o r h y p o t h e s e s , w h i c h he s e t o u t t o i n v e s t i g a t e ? The e x a c t h y p o t h e s e s and v a r i a b l e s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d a r e , o f c o u r s e , p a r t i c u l a r t o e a c h e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n . ' The g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r s t o h o l d f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s where e x p e r i m e n t a l work a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l i s i n v o l v e d . R e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on i n s t r u c t i o n i n p r o c e s s s k i l l s . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o r e f e r t o some s t u d i e s w h i c h have been done i n t h e g e n e r a l a r e a o f P r o c e s s S k i l l s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n have been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e p a s t . S p e a r s a n d Z o l l m a n ( 1 9 7 7 ) f o u n d t h a t s t r u c t u r e d l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s e n h a n c e d s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s s k i l l s a s o p p o s e d t o an u n s t r u c t u r e d l a b o r a t o r y a p p r o a c h . T h i s f i n d i n g h a s been f u r t h e r c o n f i r m e d by K o z m a ( l 9 8 2 ) who f o u n d t h a t t h e more s t r u c t u r e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n : t h e b e t t e r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s t u d e n t s on h i s s c i e n c e p r o c e s s q u i z , t h e l e s s t i m e n e e d e d t o s o l v e t h e l a b o r a t o r y p r o b l e m s , and t h e more s a t i s f i e d t h e s t u d e n t s were w i t h t h e i r 65 i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e s e two s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t some amount o f t e a c h e r g u i d a n c e t o s t u d e n t s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o a t t a i n k n o w l e d g e o f and some d e g r e e o f l i k i n g f o r p r a c t i c a l work i n s c i e n c e . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g i n t h a t i t c a s t s some d o u b t on t h e n o t i o n t h a t a l l t h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d i s t h e s o - c a l l e d ' r e s p o n s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t ' a n d t h e n t h e y a r e a b l e t o s p o n t a n e o u s l y d i r e c t t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h p r a c t i c a l work i n s c i e n c e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s u n d e r l i n e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r e s e n t i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o d e s i g n , i n t e r p r e t a n d c a r r y o u t s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s . I n N i g e r i a , a " p r o c e s s - a p p r p a c h " o r i e n t e d p r o g r a m o f t h e P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n Improvement P r o g r a m was f o u n d n o t t o p r o d u c e t h e i n t e n d e d c h a n g e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r b e y o n d t h e i r f i r s t y e a r o f e x p o s u r e t o t h e p r o g r a m (Brown & R e e d , 1 9 8 2 ) . G e o r g e ( l 9 6 5 ) f o u n d t h e B l u e v e r s i o n o f t h e B i o l o g y S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m S t u d y ( B S C S ) t o h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on s t u d e n t s ' c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t y a s c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e who f o l l o w e d a c o n v e n t i o n a l b i o l o g y c o u r s e . The same s t u d y , h o w e v e r , showed t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f b o t h t h e G r e e n a n d Y e l l o w v e r s i o n s o f t h e BSCS on c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t g e n e r a t e d by a c o n v e n t i o n a l b i o l o g y c o u r s e . D o r a n a n d S e l l e r s ( 1 9 7 8 ) f o u n d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s c i e n c e p r o c e s s s k i l l a c h i e v e m e n t a n d s t u d e n t s ' 66 s e l f - c o n c e p t . The two r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t m e n t a l a b i l i t y was a m a j o r component of b o t h p r o c e s s s k i l l s a n d b i o l o g y a c h i e v e m e n t . Suchman's " i n q u i r y t r a i n i n g " p r o g r a m p r o d u c e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n h i s t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . One i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n w h i c h Suchman made r e g a r d i n g h i s p r o g r a m was t h a t a c h i l d ' s s t o r e o f c o n c e p t s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n g ave h i m an enormous a d v a n t a g e i n t h e e n q u i r y p r o c e s s . Suchman o b s e r v e s : What a c h i l d a l r e a d y knows a b o u t an e v e n t i s p r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h i s a b i l i t y t o f i n d o u t more a b o u t i t s c a u s a l i t y . T h i s i s t r u e e v e n i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s s i n c e one c a n n o t s a m p l e a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e i f he h a s n o t y e t c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i t (Suchman, 1962 p p 1 2 4 ~ 5 ) . P a p p e l i s , e_t a l ( 1 9 8 0 ) , f o u n d p r o f i c i e n c y i n s c i e n c e p r o c e s s s k i l l s amongst p r e m e d i c a l and p r e d e n t a l s t u d e n t s t o be i n c r e a s e d a f t e r g o i n g t h r o u g h a c o u r s e i d e n t i c a l t o SAPA. T o b i n a n d C a p i e ( 1 9 8 2 a ) f o u n d l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a nd c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t t o be r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e s s s k i l l s . They f o u n d f o r m a l r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y t o be t h e s t r o n g e s t p r e d i c t o r o f p r o c e s s s k i l l a c h i e v e m e n t a n d r e t e n t i o n . L i k e w i s e , P a d i l l a , e_t a l . ( 1 9 83) f o u n d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f 0.73 t o e x i s t b e t w e e n s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e i n i n t e g r a t e d p r o c e s s s k i l l s on one h a n d , a n d f o r m a l r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y on a n o t h e r , among m i d d l e and h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . 67 I n a r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n , F i n l e y (1982) h a s shown t h a t s t u d e n t s ' k n o w l e d g e o f r e l e v a n t c o n c e p t s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t h e s c i e n c e p r o c e s s o f m i n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F i n l e y ' s f i n d i n g s r a i s e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t s c i e n c e p r o c e s s s k i l l s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e and q u e s t i o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s c i e n c e p r o c e s s s k i l l s a r e " c o n t e n t - f r e e " i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s w h i c h " c a n be u s e d by s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y o f any s c i e n c e d i s c i p l i n e a n d i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s " ( p 6 9 0 ) . He c o n t e n d s t h a t s t u d e n t s ' c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e o f s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t may, i n f a c t , h ave p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e s on t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o p e r f o r m v a r i o u s s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , F i n l e y c o n c l u d e s h i s p a p e r by c a l l i n g f o r more r e s e a r c h on t h i s i s s u e . He s t a t e s : . . . t h e c l a i m t h a t s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s a r e g e n e r a l i z e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s a p p l i c a b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g a w i d e v a r i e t y o f phenomena n e e d s t o be e x a m i n e d . I f t h e c o r r e c t u s e o f a s c i e n c e p r o c e s s i s c o n t e n t d e p e n d e n t t h e n b r o a d t r a n s f e r o f a s c i e n c e p r o c e s s may o c c u r o n l y i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s where t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e r e l a t e d t o t h e phenomena u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s known by t h e s t u d e n t s . A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e a n d s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s i s c l e a r l y n e e d e d ( p 6 9 4 ) . I t a p p e a r s q u i t e c l e a r f r o m t h e f o r e - g o i n g l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w t h a t r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s s u c h a s t h e one t a c k l e d by t h i s s t u d y a r e l o n g o v e r d u e . R e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s on t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l v a l u e a n d t r a n s f e r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d p r o g r a m s have g e n e r a l l y been i n c o n c l u s i v e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e s t u d i e s h ave t e n d e d t o have no common f o c u s . 68 The p r e s e n t s t u d y h a s been d e s i g n e d t o e x a m i n e , i n a s y s t e m a t i c way, t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e o f w h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o t e a c h c o g n i t i v e k n o w l e d g e t o s t u d e n t s w h i c h c o u l d t h e n be g e n e r a l i z e d t o a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s . 5. Summary o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d a b o v e p o i n t s t o a. t h e ne e d t o r e l a t e s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g t o t h e demands o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h i n t h e Zambian c o n t e x t . I t has been e n v i s a g e d t h a t t h i s c a n be a c h i e v e d by e n g a g i n g s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n s c i e n c e - r e l a t e d e x p e r i m e n t a l work. I n t h e Zambian s i t u a t i o n t h e a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n u s i n g a p r a c t i c a l p r o j e c t h a s c a u s e d a l o t o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among t h e Zambian s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . b. a v i e w t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s composed o f b o t h p r o p o s i t i o n a l a n d p r o c e d u r a l s t r u c t u r e s . The l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t p r o c e d u r a l  s t r u c t u r e s c a n o n l y f u n c t i o n w i t h i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f a g i v e n d i s c i p l i n e , a n d n o t i n i s o l a t i o n . c . a v i e w t h a t p r o c e d u r a l k n o w l e d g e i s , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , made up o f i d e n t i f i a b l e c o g n i t i v e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s . T h e s e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s may be a p p l i e d t o v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s where t h e y may be n e e d e d . 69 d. a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e c o g n i t i v e k n o w l e d g e i n h e r e n t i n p r o c e d u r a l s t r u c t u r e s may o c c u r i n t h e same way a s c o n c e p t u a l p r o p o s i t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e , t h a t i s , by n o n - l a b o r a t o r y t e a c h i n g o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e p e d a g o g i c a l a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s a nd p r o c e d u r e s h a s been a t t e m p t e d t h r o u g h s t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n p r a c t i c a l , h a n d s - o n , l a b o r a t o r y a n d o u t d o o r a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h o u t an e f f o r t t o i n t r o d u c e t h e s t u d e n t s t o t h e r e l a t e d c o g n i t i v e k n o w l e d g e p r i o r t o t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . The w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t p r a c t i c a l work i n s i e n c e s h o u l d be p r e c e d e d by d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c o g n i t i v e k n o w l e d g e r e l e v a n t t o t h e s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n q u e s t i o n . I n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e t h e p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n h a s been i n v e s t i g a t e d a c r o s s two l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s . T h e s e two c o n t e x t s , a l o n g w i t h t h e methods a n d p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 70 CHAPTER I I I THE METHODS OF THE STUDY 1. T a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y c o m p r i s e d G r a d e 9 s t u d e n t s i n Zambian s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n were s i n g l e - s e x s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n L u s a k a d i s t r i c t . S i n g l e - s e x s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d f o r u s e i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d ,a w e l l d e f i n e d a c c e s s i b l e s u b - p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n a n d a l l o w e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y k e e p t h e r a t i o o f g i r l s t o b o y s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t o f t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . (The r a t i o o f g i r l s t o b o y s i n t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1:2; M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e , 1 9 7 8 b ) . L u s a k a d i s t r i c t was c h o s e n by t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g two r e a s o n s : a. The d i s t r i c t was l a r g e e nough t o p r o v i d e t h e number o f s c h o o l s w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r s o u g h t t o engage i n t h e s t u d y . b. The l o c a t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i c t a f f o r d e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i t h t h e s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e w h i c h was r e q u i r e d i n t e r m s o f m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d r e l a t i v e l y e a s i e r modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o and f r o m t h e s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g 71 i n t h e s t u d y w o u l d h a v e any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e o u tcome o f t h e s t u d y . T h e r e a r e no known d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e b a s e d on l o c a t i o n o f s c h o o l p e r  s e . 2. The s a m p l e S i x s i n g l e - s e x s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m L u s a k a d i s t i c t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . T h e s e i n c l u d e d 3 b o y s ' and 3 g i r l s ' s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The s i x s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s f o r m e d 3 g r o u p s , e a c h o f w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f one c l a s s o f g i r l s a n d two c l a s s e s o f b o y s . The two c l a s s e s o f b o y s , b o t h came f r o m t h e same s c h o o l . T h i s was done so a s t o m i n i m i z e c r o s s - i n t e r f e r e n c e w h i c h may h a v e o c c u r r e d h a d t h e two c l a s s e s i n a g i v e n s c h o o l been a s s i g n e d t o two d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . T r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s were t h e n r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . T h i s s t u d y u s e d i n t a c t c l a s s r o o m s . No random a s s i g n m e n t of s t u d e n t s was p o s s i b l e a s t h e r e s e a r c h e r a r r i v e d i n s c h o o l s h a l f - w a y t h r o u g h t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r . S t u d e n t s h a d a l r e a d y been a s s i g n e d t o c l a s s r o o m s by t h i s t i m e . I t may be i m p o r t a n t , h o w e v e r , t o m e n t i o n t h a t i n a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s no s t r e a m i n g o f c l a s s e s was p r a c t i s e d . T h i s meant t h a t s t u d e n t s i n a l l t h e s e s c h o o l s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o c l a s s r o o m s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f G r a d e 8 when t h e y a r r i v e d i n t h e s c h o o l s a n d r e m a i n e d i n t h o s e c l a s s e s u n t i l t h e end o f j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a t i n g c l a s s e s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d 72 f r o m a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e G r a d e 9 c l a s s e s i n e a c h s c h o o l . The f a c t ' t h a t s i x d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y made i t i m p r a c t i c a l t o r a n d o m l y a s s i g n s t u d e n t s t o t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . G i v e n t h a t s t u d e n t s were n o t r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e g r o u p s , a n d t h a t o n l y s i n g l e - s e x s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were u s e d , any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y t o t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f G r a d e 9 Zambian s t u d e n t s w i l l h ave t o be made w i t h d i s c r e t i o n . The s t u d y i n v o l v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s : a. N i n e c l a s s e s o f G r a d e 9 Zambian s t u d e n t s , g i v i n g a t o t a l o f 342 s t u d e n t s . 38 s t u d e n t s were u s e d i n e a c h c l a s s . b. N i n e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . 3. R e s e a r c h d e s i g n Type o f d e s i g n . T h i s s t u d y e m p l o y e d a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t c o n t r o l - g r o u p d e s i g n , h a v i n g one c o n t r o l a n d two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . I n t h i s r e g a r d , c o m p a r i s o n s were made b e t w e e n p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t s c o r e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t ( s ) o f t h e t r e a t m e n t s , i f a n y , on s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e t e s t i n c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f  s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( T C P S E ) . The g e n e r a l d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y c a n be s c h e m a t i z e d a s i n t h e C a m p b e l l a n d S t a n l e y ( 1 9 6 3 ) mode a s f o l l o w s : 9 9 T h i s i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f C a m p b e l l a n d S t a n l e y ' s D e s i g n 10, t h e n o n - e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l g r o u p d e s i g n ( C a m p b e l l & S t a n l e y , 73 X l °1 °2 X 2 °3 X l °1 °2 X 3 . °3 X l °1 °2 X 4 °3 Where: = Content i n s t r u c t i o n in germination of seeds (CIGS) 0 1 = Test in germination of seeds (TIGS) Op = Test in concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c experimentation (TCPSE) - used as pretest X2 = Normal i n s t r u c t i o n i n General Science (NIGS) = Content-specific i n s t r u c t i o n in s c i e n t i f i c experimentation (C-SISE) X^ = General i n s t r u c t i o n in s c i e n t i f i c experimentation (GISE) 0 3 = Posttest ( i . e . TCPSE re-administered as posttest) — = Connotes non-random assignment of subjects to groups Instrumentation. T h i s study i n v o l v e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of two t e s t s , one to assess the students' mastery of the t o p i c of germination of  seeds and another to t e s t the students' knowledge of s e l e c t e d concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c e xperimentation. Test i n germination of seeds (TIGS). P a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers were asked to supply the researcher with t e s t items to t e s t the attainment of the concepts and p r i n c i p l e s covered i n the 9 ( c o n t ' d ) 1 9 6 3 ) . 74 t o p i c o f g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s a s t h e y n o r m a l l y t a u g h t i t . E a c h o f t h e t e a c h e r s s u p p l i e d i t e m s o u t o f w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n s t r u c t e d t h e t e s t i n g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s ( T I G S ) t o f u n c t i o n a s a m e a s u r e o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e t o p i c was m a s t e r e d by a l l t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y . T h i s t e s t i s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x A. R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e t e s t . T h i s t e s t h a d a H o y t ' s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.59 and s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement o f 2.59. V a 1 i d i t y o f t h e t e s t . No s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t e s t was o b t a i n e d . T h i s p l a c e s a m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t on t h e t e s t ' s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r u s e . N o n e t h e l e s s , o v e r a n d a b o v e t h i s w e a k n e s s , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i t e m s f o r t h e t e s t were s u p p l i e d by t h e t e a c h e r s , b a s e d on a g i v e n c o n t e n t a r e a , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t e s t h a d some f a c e a s w e l l a s c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . T e s t i n c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( T C P S E ) . T h i s t e s t was d e v e l o p e d by c o n t r u c t i n g an i n i t i a l p o o l o f 58 i t e m s , b a s e d on t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . The i t e m s were t h e n p i l o t t e s t e d on a s a m p l e o f 38 G r a d e 9 Zambian s t u d e n t s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , an i t e m a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n r e v i s i o n s t o i m p r o v e p o o r i t e m s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , 6 more i t e m s were c o n s t r u c t e d a n d a d d e d t o t h e 58 u s e d i n t h e p i l o t - t e s t i n g , m a k i n g a t o t a l o f 64 i t e m s . 75 The 64 i t e m s were t h e n g i v e n t o 342 G r a d e 9 Zambian s t u d e n t s (228 b o y s and 114 g i r l s ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s l a t t e r t e s t i n g were u s e d t o s e l e c t i t e m s f o r t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e t e s t . T h i s t e s t i s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x B. The i t e m s c o m p r i s i n g t h i s t e s t were s e l e c t e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g g r o u n d s : They had a a. d i f f i c u l t y i n d e x o f b e t w e e n 0.25 and 0.75, i n c l u s i v e . b. d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d e x o f a t l e a s t 0.30; 1 0 and c. p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f a t l e a s t 0.30. (The i t e m s u s e d h ad a p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f b e t w e e n 0.30 a n d 0.57, i n c l u s i v e . ) The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d e x r e f e r r e d t o i n (b) a b o v e was u s e d b e c a u s e i t gave a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h a t p r o v i d e d by t h e p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . The LERTAP ( L a b o r a t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h t e s t a n a l y s i s p a c k a g e ) c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m gave p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r e a c h f o i l o f e v e r y i t e m b u t d i d n o t g i v e an o v e r a l l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d e x f o r t h e e n t i r e i t e m . The p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s u s e d were t h o s e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e i n t e n d e d f o i l s f o r e a c h i t e m . The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d i c e s , on 1 0 A d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d e x was c o m p u t e d by f i n d i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who g o t an i t e m r i g h t f r o m t h e t o p and t h e b o t t o m 2 0% o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e a n d d i v i d i n g t h i s d i f f e r e n c e by t h e number o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h g r o u p . 76 t h e o t h e r h a n d , were s p e c i f i c v a l u e s c o m p u t e d on t h e b a s i s o f how w e l l o r p o o r l y e a c h i t e m d i s c r i m i n a t e d b e t w e e n t h e t o p and b o t t o m - r a n k e d s t u d e n t s on t h e t e s t . R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e t e s t . The t e s t h a d a H o y t ' s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.87 and a t e s t - r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t o f s t a b i l i t y o f 0.73, c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t H o y t ' s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t r e f e r r e d t o t h e t e s t ' s m e a s u r e of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y w h i l e t h e l a t t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t r e f e r r e d t o t h e t e s t ' s s t a b i l i t y o v e r t i m e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t e s t had a s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement o f 2.83. V a l i d i t y o f t h e t e s t . T h r e e t y p e s o f v a l i d i t y were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s t e s t : F a c e v a l i d i t y . A p a n e l o f 6 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s i n Z a m b i a , was a s k e d t o comment on t h e t e s t ' s f a c e v a l i d i t y . A l l t h e s i x t e a c h e r s s t a t e d t h a t t h e TCPSE was a v a l i d m e a s u r e o f c o n c e p t s a nd p r o c e d u r e s f o u n d i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h was u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , a s w e l l a s f o r c o n t e n t a nd c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , h a s been p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x C. C o n t e n t a n d c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . The c o n t e n t a n d c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t i e s o f t h i s t e s t were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w ays: 77 A l l t h e i t e m s u s e d i n t h i s t e s t were c l a s s i f i e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s m e a s u r i n g c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s . The s i x t e a c h e r s , who r e s p o n d e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n A p p e n d i x C r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e , were a s k e d t o m a t c h t h e i t e m s w i t h t h e r e s p e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h t h e y t h o u g h t were b e i n g t e s t e d by t h e s p e c i f i c i t e m s . The t e a c h e r s ' d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was t a k e n a s a m e a s u r e o f c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . On t h e a v e r a g e , t h e t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was f o u n d t o be 8 3 % c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . F u r t h e r , t h e t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o comment on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y w o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e t e s t t o be a v a l i d m e a sure o f ( i ) t h e c o g n i t i v e k n o w l e d g e o f des i g n i n g s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a nd i n t e r p r e t i n g  d a t a ; a nd ( i i ) s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o d e s i g n a s w e l l a s i n t e r p r e t s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s . A l l t h e s i x t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e i t e m s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h i s t e s t were a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t s ' k n o w l e d g e o f d e s i g n i n g s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s and i n t e r p r e t i n g d a t a . The t e s t was f u r t h e r c r o s s - v a l i d a t e d w i t h s t u d e n t i n t e r v i e w s . T h i r t y s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e t o p , m i d d l e a nd b o t t o m g r o u p s (10 s t u d e n t s f r o m e a c h g r o u p ) o f t h e 342 s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e 78 s t u d y . A s t i m u l a t e d - r e c a l 1 t e c h n i q u e was u s e d t o s o l i c i t e x p l a n a t i o n s o f how t h e s t u d e n t s w o r k e d o u t e a c h o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . I t was v e r y c l e a r f r o m t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s t h a t s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e t o p g r o u p had m a s t e r e d t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s demanded by t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e t e s t . S t u d e n t s f r o m t h e m i d d l e g r o u p showed p a r t i a l m a s t e r y o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n t h a t w h e r e a s t h e y were a b l e t o c o r r e c t l y e x p l a i n t h e i r a n s w e r s t o some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s , t h e y were u n a b l e t o do so f o r o t h e r s . S t u d e n t s f r o m t h e b o t t o m g r o u p , i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , were u n a b l e t o e x p l a i n how t h e y a r r i v e d a t t h e a n s w e r s w h i c h t h e y g a v e . I n most c a s e s where e x p l a n a t i o n s were g i v e n , t h e y were i n c o r r e c t . Some o f t h e s t u d e n t s a d m i t t e d h a v i n g g u e s s e d on most o f t h e i t e m s . T r e a t m e n t s . T h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e v e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s t o c o v e r t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e s t u d y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . G i v e n b e l o w a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a n d how e a c h was u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . C o n t e n t i n s t r u c t i o n i n g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s ( C I G S ) . The f i r s t s t e p o f . t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p o s e a l l t h e s t u d e n t s i n a l l t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n 79 g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s on t h i s t o p i c were d e v e l o p e d by t h e n i n e s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y i n l i a s o n w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y c o n c e p t s a nd p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h t h e y n o r m a l l y t a u g h t t h e i r s t u d e n t s on t h i s t o p i c a n d t h e n d e v e l o p i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e c o n c e p t s a n d p r i n c i p l e s . The t o p i c s c o v e r e d by a l l t h e t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : a. E x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s o f s e e d s ( b e a n , m a i z e , s u n f l o w e r a nd c a s t o r o i l s e e d s ) ; b. I n t e r n a l f e a t u r e s o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s ( b e a n , m a i z e , s u n f l o w e r and c a s t o r o i l s e e d s ) ; c . C o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s t o t a k e p l a c e a nd e x p e r i m e n t s t o t e s t f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f g e r m i n a t i o n ; a nd d. The c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s by w h i c h g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s g e t t h e i r f o o d and t h e b y - p r o d u c t s o f t h i s p r o c e s s . I n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . The f i r s t t a s k h e r e was t o i d e n t i f y c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s i n h e r e n t i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . T h i s t a s k was a c c o m p l i s h e d by e x a m i n i n g , p r i m a r i l y , t h e Zambia J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l G e n e r a l a n d A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s e s a nd o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e s y l l a b u s e s ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e , 1970; 1 9 7 4 ) . 80 I n s e t t i n g o u t t h e o v e r a l l a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s y l l a b u s t h e m i n i s t r y s t a t e d : The o v e r a l l e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be on p r a c t i c a l work by t h e p u p i l so t h a t he a c q u i r e s p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s a n d u s e s b a s i c m a t h e m a t i c a l s k i l l s i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a , i n t e r p r e t i n g d a t a , d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s and d e s i g n i n g e x p e r i m e n t s ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e , 1974, p. i i ) . The m i n i s t r y , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t d e f i n e t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t u a l a n d / o r p r o c e d u r a l k n o w l e d g e t h a t w o u l d be u s e f u l i n a t t a i n i n g t h i s g o a l . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e m i n i s t r y ' s e m p h a s i s on " d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g " p r e s u p p o s e d t h a t t h e r e l e v a n t k n o w l e d g e p e r t a i n i n g t o ' c o l l e c t i n g d a t a , i n t e r p r e t a t i n g d a t a , d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s and d e s i g n i n g e x p e r i m e n t s ' w o u l d be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g . As e x p l a i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e t r e n d o f c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n Zambia was a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e g l o b a l s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t w h i c h b e s i e g e d t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d r e g a r d i n g what a s p e c t s o f s c i e n c e s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , a n d how. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d i t u s e f u l t o r e f e r t o d o c u m e n t s u s e d o u t s i d e Zambia i n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t how o t h e r c o u n t r i e s had o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h i s b r o a d g o a l . T h i s c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s c h o i c e t o use a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f F u n k , et. a l ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s i n h e r e n t i n p r o c e s s s k i l l s , a s an e x a m p l e o f a f r a m e w o r k o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( F u n k , e_t a l ; 1 9 7 9 ) . 81 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , t h e p r o c e d u r e o f d e s i g n i n g s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i s c o n s t r u e d a s s u b s u m i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s : v a r i a b l e ; m a n i p u l a t e d v a r i a b l e ; r e s p o n d i n g v a r i a b l e ; c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e ; h y p o t h e s i s ; a n a l y s i n g s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ; c o n t r o l l i n g v a r i a b l e s ; a n d p l a n n i n g ( o r d e s i g n i n g ) s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s were f o r m u l a t e d f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s i d e n t i f i e d a b o v e : G i v e n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d be a b l e t o : a. i d e n t i f y t h e m a n i p u l a t e d v a r i a b l e i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . b. i d e n t i f y t h e r e s p o n d i n g v a r i a b l e i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . c . i d e n t i f y any c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e ( s ) i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . d. i d e n t i f y t h e h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g t e s t e d i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . e. i d e n t i f y t h e s t a t e m e n t w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e s t h y p o t h e s i s f o r t e s t i n g t h e e f f e c t o f a g i v e n v a r i a b l e . f . c h o o s e t h e b e s t d e s i g n f r o m d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s a i m e d a t t e s t i n g a g i v e n h y p o t h e s i s. 82 g. c h o o s e a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e a d e q u a c y o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n a i m e d a t t e s t i n g a g i v e n h y p o t h e s i s . h. s u g g e s t how a g i v e n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n w o u l d be i m p r o v e d upon t o y i e l d t h e most a c c e p t a b l e r e s u l t s . i . g i v e t h e b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r c o n t r o l l i n g an e x p e r i m e n t i n a g i v e n way. Funk,e_t §_1(1979) d e f i n e a s e c o n d b r o a d a r e a i n c l u d e d u n d e r s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  d a t a , t o i n c l u d e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a s k s : d e s c r i b i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d on t a b l e s i n t e r m s o f t h e a r i t h m e t i c mean, r a n g e a nd mode; d e s c r i b i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d on l i n e g r a p h s ; d e s c r i b i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d on b a r g r a p h s ; e x t r a p o l a t i n g f r o m d a t a p r e s e n t e d on l i n e g r a p h s ; i n t e r p o l a t i n g f r o m d a t a p r e s e n t e d on l i n e g r a p h s ; c o n s t r u c t i n g i n f e r e n c e s , p r e d i c t i o n s a n d o t h e r g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s , b a s e d on s e t s o f d a t a o r o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t s ; a n d c h e c k i n g c o l l e c t e d d a t a a g a i n s t h y p o t h e s e s b e i n g t e s t e d a n d s t a t i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e d a t a s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s e s . T h e s e t a s k s were f o r m u l a t e d i n t h e f o r m o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s a s f o l l o w s : The s t u d e n t s h o u l d be a b l e t o 83 a. d e s c r i b e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d on a t a b l e i n t e r m s o f t h e mean, r a n g e a n d mode. b. d e s c r i b e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d on a l i n e g r a p h . c . i n t e r p r e t i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d on a b a r g r a p h . d. e x t r a p o l a t e f r o m d a t a p r e s e n t e d on a l i n e g r a p h . e. i n t e r p o l a t e f r o m d a t a p r e s e n t e d on a l i n e g r a p h f . c o n s t r u c t i n f e r e n c e s , p r e d i c t i o n s o r o t h e r g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s , b a s e d on a g i v e n s e t of d a t a o r o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t s ; and g. c h e c k c o l l e c t e d d a t a a g a i n s t h y p o t h e s e s b e i n g t e s t e d a n d s t a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e d a t a s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s e s . I n a n u t s h e l l , t h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d two b r o a d t o p i c s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , t h a t i s , d e s i g n i n g s c i e n t i f i c  e x p e r i m e n t s , a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g sc i e n t i f i c d a t a , u s i n g t h e F u n k , e t a l (1979) m o d e l . G r o u p a c t i v i t i e s T h r e e g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y : one c o m p a r i s o n a n d two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e a r e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . 84 G r o u p j _ ( C o m p a r i s o n g r o u p ; NIGS) . T h i s g r o u p was a s s i g n e d t o an i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t w h i c h , i n t h e o p i n i o n of t h e r e s e a r c h e r , c o n t a i n e d no c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f d e s i g n i n g s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g sc i e n t i f i c d a t a . The b r o a d t o p i c a r e a s t u d i e d by s t u d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p o v e r t h e d u r a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y was The U n i v e r s e . The w r i t e r p e r i o d i c a l l y v i s i t e d s t u d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p and was s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e m a t e r i a l s s t u d i e d by G r o u p s 2 a n d 3 were n o t b e i n g c o v e r e d by t h i s g r o u p . The i n s t r u c t i o n f o l l o w e d by t h i s g r o u p d u r i n g t h i s t i m e h a s been r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s s t u d y a s n o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n  i n G e n e r a l Sc i e n c e ( N I G S ) . The m a t e r i a l s c o v e r e d by t h i s g r o u p , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n p r e - and p o s t t e s t , a r e l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x D. T h i s segment o f i n s t r u c t i o n l a s t e d s i x w eeks, g i v i n g a t o t a l o f 18 f o r t y - m i n u t e c l a s s p e r i o d s . G r o u p 2 ( C - S I S E ) . T h i s g r o u p was e x p o s e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w h i c h were d e v e l o p e d by t h e w r i t e r , b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d a b o v e . The m a t e r i a l s t o w h i c h s t u d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p were e x p o s e d p r e s e n t e d t h e s e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s i n a c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t , t h a t i s , t h e a p p r o a c h u s e d e x a m p l e s a n d l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g o n l y t h e c o n t e n t o f one s c i e n c e t o p i c , i n t h i s c a s e p h o t o s y n t h e s i s . T h i s t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s s t u d y a s t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n 85 ( C - S I S E ) , a n d h a s been d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x E. I n a l l , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n l a s t e d s i x w e e k s , g i v i n g a t o t a l o f 18 f o r t y - m i n u t e p e r i o d s . T e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o comment on t h e p r o g r e s s made by t h e i r s t u d e n t s a s t h e y moved f r o m one u n i t t o a n o t h e r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e w r i t e r v i s i t e d t h e c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s g r o u p a t l e a s t o nce a week t o c h e c k on t h e i r p r o g r e s s . B e f o r e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t e d t h e w r i t e r met w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s a n d e x p l a i n e d t o them t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o j e c t . The t e a c h e r s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e i r p r i n c i p a l r o l e was t o p r e s e n t a nd s u p e r v i s e t h e l e a r n i n g e x e r c i s e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t e a c h e r s were e x p e c t e d t o mark t h e e n d - o f - u n i t t e s t s and a c c o r d i n g l y a d v i s e t h e i r s t u d e n t s on w h e t h e r t o p r o c e e d t o t h e n e x t u n i t o r t o do f u r t h e r work on t h e t o p i c w h i c h t h e y were w o r k i n g o n . M a r k i n g k e y s , i n d i c a t i n g m a s t e r y l e v e l s , were p r o v i d e d t o t h e t e a c h e r s . The u n i t t e s t s were k e p t by t h e t e a c h e r s a n d were i s s u e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s o n l y when t h e y were r e a d y t o t a k e them. T e a c h e r s i n a g i v e n g r o u p d i d n o t know what s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r g r o u p s were w o r k i n g o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y were a s s u r e d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was n o t t o e v a l u a t e s c h o o l s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r a c a d e m i c e x c e l l e n c e , o r any o t h e r s u c h k i n d o f e v a l u a t i o n . The t e a c h e r s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y was t o t r y o u t new i n s t r u c t i o n a l 86 m a t e r i a l s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e t e a c h e r s were i n f o r m e d t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e , i f a n y , w o u l d be e x p l a i n e d s o l e l y i n t e r m s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s u s e d and n o t i n t e r m s of t h e a b i l i t i e s o f s t u d e n t s o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d . I n i t i a l l y , b o t h t h e t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e d some d e g r e e o f d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l mode u s e d i n t h e m a t e r i a l s . However, a f t e r a few s e s s i o n s e v e r y t h i n g f e l l i n t o p l a c e and s t u d e n t s p r o c e e d e d f r o m one u n i t t o a n o t h e r a s i f i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r . From t h a t p o i n t o n w a r d s , t e a c h e r s were k e p t b u s y , i n t e r m s o f m a r k i n g , i n o r d e r t o k e e p up w i t h t h e demands o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . M o s t s t u d e n t s , and one n o v i c e t e a c h e r i n one c a s e , e x p e r i e n c e d some d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l demanded by t h e s e m a t e r i a l s was b e y o n d t h e r e a c h o f t h e a v e r a g e s t u d e n t . They a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s d e a l t w i t h t h e t o p i c o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n t h a n was n o r m a l l y t h e c a s e a t t h e G r a d e 9 l e v e l . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e i r p u p i l s had a d o u b l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o b o t h t h e c o n t e n t a s p e c t o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s a s w e l l a s t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w h i c h f o r m e d t h e m a i n f o c u s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s . The t e a c h e r s f u r t h e r o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t y 87 a p p e a r e d t o a f f e c t t h e s l o w e r s t u d e n t s more s e r i o u s l y t h a n t h e b r i g h t o n e s . I n s o f a r a s t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l s was c o n c e r n e d , one u n i t i n p a r t i c u l a r a p p e a r e d t o p r e s e n t p r o b l e m s t o t h e s t u d e n t s . T h i s was U n i t 2 w h i c h d e a l t w i t h c o n s t r u c t i n g h y p o t h e s e s . S t u d e n t s had d i f f i c u l t y a c c e p t i n g t h a t a c o n j e c t u r e w h i c h e x p r e s s e d a "wrong" o u t c o m e / p r e d i c t i o n c o u l d s t i l l be r e g a r d e d a s an a c c e p t a b l e and t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s i s . F o r i n s t a n c e , most s t u d e n t s w o u l d n o t r e g a r d t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t a s a t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s i s : L e a v e s w h i c h c o n t a i n no c h l o r o p h y l l w i l l c a r r y o u t p h o t o s y n t h e s i s . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o n t e n t o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n a c o r r e c t s t a t e m e n t and a t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s i s . M o s t s t u d e n t s r e g a r d e d s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g k i n d a s a c c e p t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s : P r e s e n c e o f w a t e r i s one o f t h e f a c t o r s n e c e s s a r y f o r p h o t o s y n t h e s i s t o t a k e p l a c e i n a l e a f . A M a s t e r y a p p r o a c h was u s e d . S t u d e n t s d i d n o t go t o t h e n e x t u n i t u n t i l t h e y had met t h e c r i t e r i o n mark f o r p a s s i n g t h e u n i t t h e y were w o r k i n g o n . D e s p i t e t h e d i f f i c u l t r e a d i n g l e v e l o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , t h e s t u d e n t s w o r k e d h a r d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e b o y s ' s c h o o l . The n o v i c e t e a c h e r who was t e a c h i n g t h e g i r l s ' c l a s s was u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s up t o t h e end o f t h e s t u d y . 88 N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a l l t h i s , h o w e v e r , t h e w r i t e r was p l e a s e d w i t h t h e e f f o r t s made by a l l t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e i r t e a c h e r s , g i v e n t h a t t h i s was a d d i t i o n a l work o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e i r s y l l a b u s r e q u i r e m e n t s . G r o u p 3_ ( G l S E ) . The t h i r d g r o u p o f t h e s t u d y was e x p o s e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s w h i c h were a l s o d e v e l o p e d by t h e w r i t e r . T h e s e m a t e r i a l s were a l s o b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d a b o v e . T h e s e m a t e r i a l s , h o w e v e r , p r e s e n t e d t h e s e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s w i t h i n a g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t . T h i s a p p r o a c h u s e d e x a m p l e s drawn f r o m a b r o a d r a n g e o f s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s - b o t h n a t u r a l a n d s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . T h i s t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s s t u d y a s g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n  s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( G I S E ) , a n d h a s been p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x F. I n a l l , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n h e r e a l s o l a s t e d s i x weeks, g i v i n g a t o t a l o f 18 f o r t y - m i n u t e c l a s s p e r i o d s . The t e a c h e r s o f t h i s g r o u p were g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d a s s u r a n c e s i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e g i v e n t o t h e t e a c h e r s o f G r o u p 2. On t h e w h o l e , t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l mode u s e d i n t h e m a t e r i a l s were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s o f G r o u p 2. As f o r G r o u p 2, t h e t e a c h e r s h e r e were a l s o a s k e d t o comment on t h e p r o g r e s s made by s t u d e n t s f r o m one u n i t t o a n o t h e r . On t h e w h o l e , t h e s e m a t e r i a l s a p p e a r e d t o be much e a s i e r t o m a s t e r t h a n t h o s e u s e d by s t u d e n t s i n G r o u p 2. The 89 s t u d e n t s i n G r o u p 3 a p p e a r e d t o r e l a t e e a s i l y t o t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s were p r e s e n t e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h i s g r o u p d i d n o t seem t o e x p e r i e n c e t o o much d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f ' h y p o t h e s i s ' a s was t h e c a s e w i t h s t u d e n t s o f G r o u p 2. F u r t h e r m o r e , a p a r t f r o m t h e t e r m i n o l o g y r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l d i d n o t p r e s e n t any p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p . Two o f t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g r o u p a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s a c t u a l l y a p p e a r e d t o n a r r o w t h e gap between t h e ' b r i g h t ' a n d t h e ' s l o w ' s t u d e n t s , a n d w o n d e r e d why t h i s was t h e c a s e . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . B o t h t h e C-SISE a n d t h e GISE m a t e r i a l s were e v a l u a t e d , by use o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y ( c f . A p p e n d i x G ) , by t h e s i x t e a c h e r s who p r e s e n t e d them t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t s . A l l t h e s i x t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n e d some i m p o r t a n t a n d u s e f u l c o n c e p t s p e r t a i n i n g t o s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . I n t h e words o f one o f t h e t e a c h e r s , t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s were " c e r t a i n l y v e r y u s e f u l i f n o t e s s e n t i a l " t o e x p e r i m e n t a l work i n s c i e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s were l o g i c a l l y s e q u e n c e d a n d were e a s y t o f o l l o w . The t e a c h e r - g u i d e d b u t s e l f - p a c e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l mode u s e d i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s 90 was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d , i n t h e m a i n , t o be a g ood a p p r o a c h . One t e a c h e r , i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n A p p e n d i x G, o b s e r v e d : I w i s h t h i s method was i n c l u d e d i n t h e J u n i o r S c i e n c e C o u r s e more t h a n i t i s a t t h e moment. One o f t h e t e a c h e r s , h o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l mode e m p l o y e d , t h o u g h t t h a t i t was n o t g ood f o r some s t u d e n t s . He o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e o n l y d r a w b a c k was t h a t t h e method p e r m i t t e d some s t u d e n t s t o work f a s t e r t h a n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s w o u l d a l l o w . He s t a t e d : Some s t u d e n t s went t o o f a s t f o r t h e m s e l v e s , w h e r e a s an e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r m i g h t have been a b e t t e r j u d g e on how f a s t t h e y s h o u l d w o r k. On t h e w h o l e , t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s were r e g a r d e d a s p r o v i d i n g v a l i d a nd e s s e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . 4. The d a t a C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e t e s t i n g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s ( T I G S ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l t h e 9 c l a s s e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y , f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n t e n t i n s t r u c t i o n i n g e r m i n a t i o n of s e e d s ( C I G S ) . T h i s t e s t was h a n d - s c o r e d by t h e w r i t e r a n d t h e s c o r e s s e r v e d a s t h e f i r s t c o v a r i a t e . I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e T I G S , t h e t e s t i n c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n (TCPSE) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l t h e c l a s s e s . The TCPSE was c o m p u t e r - s c o r e d u s i n g t h e LERTAP c o m p u t e r 91 p r o g r a m . S t u d e n t s ' s c o r e s on t h i s t e s t were u s e d a s t h e s e c o n d c o v a r i a t e . S c o r e s on t h e p o s t t e s t ( i . e . TCPSE r e - a d m i n i s t e r e d f o l l o w i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s ) g ave t h e f i n a l s e t o f s c o r e s w h i c h s e r v e d a s t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . S t u d e n t s ' raw s c o r e s on t h e s e t h r e e m e a s u r e s h a v e been p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x H. S t a t i s t i c a l m o d e l and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . T h i s s t u d y u s e d a l i n e a r m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n m o d el o f a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h one d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a n d two c o v a r i a t e s . 1 1 T h i s m o d e l was u s e d so a s t o e n a b l e t h e w r i t e r t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e two c o v a r i a t e s on t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . T h i s was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were g i v e n t o t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , f o l l o w i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e p r e t e s t s . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s m o d e l a n d t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , e f f e c t c o d i n g ( c f . P e d h a z u r , 1982, pp289-296) o f t r e a t m e n t v e c t o r s was d o n e . The c o d e d d a t a were a n a l y z e d by t h e BMD-03R m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e (ANCOVA) c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . G r o u p s 2 a n d 3 were i n d i v i d u a l l y c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p ( i . e . G r o u p 1 ) . 1 1 T h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s m o d e l a s w e l l a s t h e s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s a n d t e s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x I . 92 S t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s a n d t e s t s . B e f o r e t e s t i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s o f t h i s s t u d y p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t s e v e r a l p r e l i m i n a r y ANCOVA t e s t s , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l m o d e l u s e d i n t h e s t u d y ( c f . A p p e n d i x I ) . On t h e w h o l e , t h e p r o c e d u r e a n d t e s t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s were a s f o l l o w s : ( i ) T e s t o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e o v e r a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by a l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . ( i i ) T e s t f o r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s a n d e q u a l i t y o f r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s . ( i i i ) T e s t f o r t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . ( i v ) A d j u s t m e n t o f t h e p o s t t e s t means f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . F o l l o w i n g t h e ANCOVA t e s t s , a p o s t e r i o r i p a i r w i s e c o n t r a s t s o f t h e p o s t t e s t g r o u p means were c o n d u c t e d , i n l i n e w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s o f t h e s t u d y , by c o n s t r u c t i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s a t a l p h a = 0.05. S i n c e e q u a l numbers o f s u b j e c t s were u s e d i n e a c h g r o u p , t h e T u k e y method was u s e d i n t h e c o n t r a s t s . A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r u s i n g t h e T u k e y method was t h a t i t , g e n e r a l l y , g i v e s n a r r o w e r c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s w i t h o u t c o m p r o m i s i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l power o f t h e t e s t s . The r e s u l t s o f a l l t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s a n d c o n t r a s t s r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I V . 93 CHAPTER IV RESULTS T h i s chapter presents the r e s u l t s of t h i s study as f o l l o w s : A summary of the raw data has been presented f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by the r e s u l t s of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n ANCOVA on the raw data across the three groups. The ANCOVA t e s t s c o n s t i t u t e d a necessary and p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the data before the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s of the re s e a r c h hypotheses c o u l d be c a r r i e d out. F o l l o w i n g the ANCOVA t e s t s , the r e s u l t s of the three s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses of the study are then presented. L a s t l y , a b r i e f summary of the r e s u l t s i s given. 1 . Summary of the data Table 11. A r i t h m e t i c means cf the three groups on the three measures made i n the study M E A N S TIGS TCPSE POSTTEST Class 1: 21 .97 18.45 18 26 GROUP 1 Class 2: 22 .03 18.47 18 76 Class 3: 22 .42 18.63 18 56 Group Means: 22 .14 18.52 18 53 Class 1: 22 .18 18.24 26 11 GROUP 2 Class 2: 21 .53 18.63 29 61 Class 3: 21 .92 19.03 25 18 Group Means: 21 .88 18.63 26 97 Class 1: 22 .32 18.42 28 76 GROUP 3 Class 2: 22 .24 19.03 29 82 Class 3: 22 .03 18.39 30 84 Group Means: 22 .20 18.61 29 81 94 T a b l e I I d i s p l a y s t h e mean s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e t h r e e g r o u p s on t h e t h r e e m e a s u r e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . B o t h c l a s s a n d g r o u p means a r e g i v e n . The TIGS had a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 4.38 and a g r a n d mean s c o r e o f 22.07 o u t of a t o t a l s c o r e o f 28. T h i s showed t h a t on t h e w h o l e t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y a t t a i n e d a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t o f g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s • As c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e t a b l e , a l l t h e t h r e e g r o u p s s c o r e d v e r y c l o s e t o t h i s g r a n d mean, t h a t i s , 22.14, 21.88 and 22.20 f o r G r o u p s 1, 2 a n d 3, r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p r e t e s t mean s c o r e s f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s on t h e TCPSE were a l s o r e a s o n a b l y i d e n t i c a l , t h a t i s , 18.52, 18.63 and 18.61 f o r G r o u p s 1, 2 a n d 3, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d p o s s i b l e e q u i v a l e n c e o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y , w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e two c o v a r i a t e s . The TCPSE, a s a p o s t t e s t , h a d a g r a n d mean o f 24.95 o u t o f a t o t a l s c o r e o f 42. The t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s h ad h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n t h e g r a n d mean w h e r e a s t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s c o r e d b e l o w t h i s g r a n d mean. The TCPSE h a d a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 7.92. T a b l e I I i n d i c a t e s v e r y l i t t l e c h a n g e s b e t w e e n t h e p r e -an d p o s t t e s t mean s c o r e s o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p on t h e TCPSE, t h a t i s , 18.52 a n d 18.53, r e s p e c t i v e l y . G r o u p s 2 a n d 3, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , showed s u b s t a n t i a l g a i n s b e t w e e n t h e two 95 t e s t i n g o c c a s i o n s , w i t h G r o u p 3 s h o w i n g a h i g h e r mean s c o r e t h a n g r o u p 2. 2. R e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s  P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s : ANCOVA t e s t s . A l i n e a r m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d o u t on t h e raw d a t a u s i n g t h e BMD-03R c o m p u t e r p a c k a g e . The c o m p u t e r o u t p u t was t h e n u s e d t o c a r r y o u t t h e ANCOVA s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s o u t l i n e d i n A p p e n d i x I . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t e s t s v i s - a - v i s t h e s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x I , a r e r e p o r t e d b e l o w . A l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e 8 i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 80.02% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( i . e . R Y.12345678 = 0 . 8 0 0 2 ) . T h i s gave an o b s e r v e d F - v a l u e o f 166.71, a g a i n s t a c r i t i c a l F - v a l u e o f 1.96 a t a l p h a = 0 . 0 5 and d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m o f 8 a n d 333. T h i s r e s u l t l e a d t o t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i n f a v o u r o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e o v e r a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e 8 i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The t e s t f o r i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s gave an o b s e r v e d F - v a l u e o f 2.25, a g a i n s t t h e c r i t i c a l F - v a l u e o f 2.39 a t a l p h a = 0 . 0 5 a n d d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m o f 4 a n d 3 3 3 . T h i s r e s u l t l e a d t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t , w i t h i n c h a n c e , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . I n e s s e n c e , t h i s t e s t a l s o showed t h a t t h e 96 r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o n e a n o t h e r . T h i s i s a n e c e s s a r y t e s t i n t h e ANCOVA p r o c e d u r e . T h e o b s e r v e d e q u a l i t y o f r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s a s w e l l a s t h e a b s e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s e n a b l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o p r o c e e d w i t h f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f ANCOVA. T h e t e s t f o r t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s y i e l d e d a n o b s e r v e d F - v a l u e o f 2 9 7 . 5 8 , a g a i n s t a c r i t i c a l F - v a l u e o f 3.02 a t a l p h a = 0 . 0 5 a n d d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m o f 2 a n d 3 3 7 . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , a f t e r a d j u s t i n g f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e t w o c o v a r i a t e s . T a b l e I I I g i v e s a s u m m a r y o f t h e A N C O V A a n a l y s i s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . T a b l e I I I . ANCOVA s u m m a r y t a b l e f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . Source of Variation Proportion of Variance Sums of Squares df Mean r Squares Covariates 0.4324 9213.52 2 4606.76 Regression 0.3624 7724.14 2 3862.07 297.77 Residual 0.2052 4371.75 337 12.97 Total 1.0000 21309.41 341 T h e s e r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 7 9 . 4 8 % o f v a r i a n c e i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h i s 7 9 . 4 8 % a n d t h e 8 0 . 0 2 % r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t T a b l e I I I p r e s e n t s d a t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e r e d u c e d m o d e l . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e 97 i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s c o n t r i b u t e d o n l y 0.54% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , a n d , a s r e p o r t e d a b o v e , t h i s was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n . Out o f t h e 7 9 . 4 8 % of v a r i a n c e i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o f t h e r e d u c e d m o d e l , 36.24% was due t o t r e a t m e n t s and 4 3 . 2 4 % was due t o t h e c o v a r i a t e s . The h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e c o v a r i a t e s s i g n i f i e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o v a r i a t e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n p r e d i c t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . T h i s , i n i t s e l f , i s a good i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e s e c o v a r i a t e s f o r u s e i n t h i s s t u d y . Of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , i n p a r t , u n d e r l i n e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e p l a y e d by t h e c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n i n f l u e n c i n g a p e r s o n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h i s , a s was a r g u e d i n C h a p t e r I I and a s d e p i c t e d by t h e c o n c e p t u a l m o d el o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( F i g u r e 2 . 1 ) , f o r m s one o f t h e key e l e m e n t s o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . T a b l e I I I a l s o shows t h e mean s q u a r e r e s i d u a l , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e u n a d j u s t e d means, o f 12.97. T h i s s t a t i s t i c i s i m p o r t a n t a s i t was s u b s e q u e n t l y u s e d i n s e t t i n g up c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s f o r t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , a s r e p o r t e d b e l o w . F u r t h e r m o r e , T a b l e I I I shows an o b s e r v e d F - v a l u e o f 297.77 a t a l p h a = 0.05 a n d d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m o f 4 a n d 337. The 98 c r i t i c a l F - v a l u e a t a l p h a = 0.05 a n d d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m o f 4 and 337 i s 2.39. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e o v e r a l l r e s u l t o f t h e ANCOVA a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d p r e s e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s . The p r e s e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s l e a d t o t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e p o s t t e s t means. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a d j u s t e d means: G r o u p 1: Y a d j . = l 8 . 5 7 G r o u p 2: Y a d j . = 2 6 . 9 9 G r o u p 3: Y a d j . = 2 9 . 7 5 I t c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e s e a d j u s t e d means t h a t t h e a d j u s t m e n t s were v e r y s m a l l . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s f e l l v e r y c l o s e t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p means. Owing t o t h e s m a l l n a t u r e o f t h e s e a d j u s t m e n t s , t h e u n a d j u s t e d g r o u p means were u s e d i n s u b s e q u e n t t e s t s . T a b l e I V shows t h e g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y b a s e d on t h e p r e - and p o s t t e s t mean s c o r e s o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s on t h e TCPSE. 99 Table IV. G r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the study. 30 • 20 Group Means on The TCPSE 10 Pretest Posttest The r e s u l t s on the above graph i n d i c a t e s u b s t a n t i a l gains f o r students of Groups 2 and 3, and very s l i g h t change f o r students of the comparison group ( i . e . Group l ) . The graph p o i n t e d to p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the comparison group and each of Groups 2 and 3, suggesting that t h i s was probably where the treatment e f f e c t s observed above l a y . Group 3 had a higher p o s t t e s t mean score than Group 2, although i t was d i f f i c u l t to determine from the graph whether or not s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between these two groups. Hence, in accordance with the r e s e a r c h hypotheses of t h i s study, a p r i o r i p a i r - w i s e c o n t r a s t s of the group means were conducted. The r e s u l t s of these c o n t r a s t s are r e p o r t e d below. 100 T e s t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses. For the convenience of the reader the r e s e a r c h hypotheses of t h i s study, as w e l l as t h e i r c orresponding s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses, are again presented: HI) Students who are exposed to i n s t r u c t i o n i n the concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c e xperimentation, w i t h i n a c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t , w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the dependent v a r i a b l e than those who are not exposed to such i n s t r u c t i o n . Ho: ^2 - V>i> 0 Hj: y 2 - Uj _• 0 H 2) Students who are exposed to i n s t r u c t i o n i n the concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c experimentation, w i t h i n a general-knowldge c o n t e x t , w i l l score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those who are not exposed to such i n s t r u c t i o n . , Ho: - V>i > 0 V y 3 - i i ! * 0 H3) There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean scores, on the dependent v a r i a b l e , between students taught w i t h i n the c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c context and those taught w i t h i n the general-knowledge context. Ho: ~ u 3 = 0 \ . y 2 - y 3 * o Table V shows the r e s u l t s of the t e s t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses of t h i s study. 101 Table V. R e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses of the  s t u d y 1 2 Contrast Estimate of Contrast 95% C.I.  7j - Y 2 = 18.53-26.97 = -8.44 (7.32 , 9.56) Yj - ? 3 = 18.53-29.81 =-11.28 (10.16 , 12.40) Y 2 - Y 3 = 26.97-29.81 = -2.76 (1.64 , 3.88) The c o n t r a s t s presented i n Table V show that a l l the three groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from one another. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d below i n r e l a t i o n to each of the research hypotheses of the study. Hypothesis HI'. The lower and upper l i m i t s of the confidence i n t e r v a l (C.I.) of the t e s t of t h i s hypothesis d i d not in c l u d e zero. T h i s i n d i c a t e d that one of the means was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the other. The magnitude of the means showed that the mean f o r Group 2 was much l a r g e r than the mean for Group 1. Consequently, t h i s r e s u l t l e d to the acceptance of the n u l l hypothesis of HJ_, i n d i c a t i n g that i n s t r u c t i o n i n the concepts and procedures of s c i e n t i f i c experimentation, given w i t h i n a c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c context, s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhanced student performance on the TCPSE. Hypothesis H2. The lower and upper l i m i t s of the confidence 1 2 T h e ab s o l u t e values of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the means being c o n t r a s t e d were used in c o n s t r u c t i n g the confidence i n t e r v a l s . 1 02 i n t e r v a l o f t h e t e s t o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s d i d n o t s p a n z e r o a l s o . S i m i l a r l y , t h i s l e d t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , g i v e n w i t h i n a g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t , s i g n i f i c a n t l y e n h a n c e d s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e TCPSE. H y p o t h e s i s H3. The l o w e r a n d u p p e r l i m i t s o f t h e t e s t o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s d i d n o t span z e r o . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e . T h i s meant t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p s 2 an d 3, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s v a r i e d i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t o t h e t o p i c o f g e r m i n a t i o n  o f s e e d s . The m a g n i t u d e o f t h e means i n d i c a t e d t h a t G r o u p 3 had t h e l a r g e r mean o f t h e two. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s r e s u l t showed t h a t t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t p r o m o t e d t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n d i d t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t . 3. Summary o f t h e r e s u l t s The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y showed t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r s u c h k n o w l e d g e , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e TCPSE, t o a s i t u a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n was 1 03 p r e s e n t e d . T h e s e r e s u l t s showed t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t l e a d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h a n d i d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r m u l a t e d w i t h i n a c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 1 04 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION OF RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e c o n t e x t s a s w e l l a s t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . F o r t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f t h e r e a d e r t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e a g a i n p r e s e n t e d : H1. S t u d e n t s who a r e e x p o s e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , w i t h i n t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t , w i l l s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e t h a n t h o s e who a r e n o t e x p o s e d t o s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n . H2. S t u d e n t s who a r e e x p o s e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c o n c e p t s a nd p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , w i t h i n a g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t , w i l l s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e t h a n t h o s e who a r e n o t e x p o s e d t o s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n . H3. T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mean s c o r e s , on t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s t a u g h t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t and t h o s e t a u g h t w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t . S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s o f HJ_ and H2 i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p and e a c h o f t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t s a nd p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n was t r a n s f e r a b l e b e y o n d t h e l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s w i t h i n w h i c h i t was i n i t i a l l y a c q u i r e d , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e TCPSE. The two g r o u p s w h i c h r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p ( p 0.05) on t h e d e p e n d e n t 1 05 v a r i a b l e . 1. The t r a n s f e r a b i 1 i t y o f c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n R e f e r r i n g b a c k t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I o f t h i s t h e s i s , i t was n o t e d t h a t d i s a g r e e m e n t p r e v a i l s on w h e t h e r o r n o t c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e a v i a b l e o r v a l u a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l g o a l o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . A u s u b e l ( 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 7 9 ) , B u r n s a n d B r o o k ( 1 9 7 0 ) , K y l e ( 1 9 8 0) a n d Novak ( 1 9 7 9 ) a r e a l l o f t h e v i e w t h a t s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g s h o u l d p r i m a r i l y a i m a t p r e s e n t i n g t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t of r e s p e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e s o f s c i e n c e . T h e s e a u t h o r s do n o t s u p p o r t t h e t e a c h i n g o f ' p r o c e s s e s ' o f s c i e n c e f o r any t r a n s f e r v a l u e o r , g e n e r a l l y , a s a v i a b l e g o a l o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . A u s u b e l ( 1 9 6 5 ) p u t s t h i s p o s i t i o n v e r y w e l l i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : . . . c r i t i c a l - t h i n k i n g a b i l i t y c a n be e n h a n c e d o n l y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e . G r a n d s t r a t e g i e s o f d i s c o v e r y , l i k e s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d , do n o t seem t o be t r a n s f e r a b l e a c r o s s d i s c i p l i n a r y l i n e s - e i t h e r when a c q u i r e d w i t h i n a g i v e n d i s c i p l i n e o r when l e a r n e d i n a more g e n e r a l f o r m a p a r t f r o m s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t ( p 2 5 8 ) . K a r p l u s ( 1 9 7 9 ) a d v o c a t e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f ' r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s ' b e c a u s e i n h i s o p i n i o n , t h e s e a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e a nd r e p r o d u c i b l e . He c o n t e n d s t h a t s u c h r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s a s a d d i t i v e , s e r i a l o r d e r i n g , c o n t r o l o f v a r i a b l e s , p r o p o r t i o n a l , f u n c t i o n a l , p r o p o s i t i o n a l and a n a l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s , do n o t r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c f a c t s , e x p e r i e n c e s o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 1 06 As s u c h , K a r p l u s a r g u e s t h a t t h e s e r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s c a n be a p p l i e d t o a v a r i e t y o f phenomena. He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s e ' r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s ' a r e t e a c h a b l e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , a t t a i n a b l e t h r o u g h d e l i b e r a t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . Gagne (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n be i s o l a t e d a n d d e a l t w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . T h i s v i e w c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h a t e x p r e s s e d by K a r p l u s a b o v e . A l t h o u g h K a r p l u s ' r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s may be d i f f e r e n t f r o m Gagne's s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , t h i s s t u d y h a s f o u n d t h e n o t i o n o f i d e n t i f y i n g p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s and p r e s e n t i n g them t o s t u d e n t s , t o be b o t h a w o r t h w h i l e a n d a f e a s i b l e e n d e a v o u r f o r s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r c o n t e n d s t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f d e s i g n i n g  e x p e r i m e n t s a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g d a t a , l i k e K a r p l u s ' r e a s o n i n g p a t t e r n s i s a l s o i d e n t i f i a b l e a n d r e p r o d u c i b l e , a n d n e e d n o t r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c f a c t s , e x p e r i e n c e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t may be r e c a l l e d t h a t one o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g a s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e f o r p r a c t i c a l work i n s c i e n c e , s u c h a s t h e Zambian J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l S c i e n c e P r o j e c t . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r t o have o p e n e d up s u c h a p o s s i b i l i t y . One o f t h e t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y f e l t v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h s h o u l d make i t e a s i e r f o r h i s s t u d e n t s t o 107 engage i n p r a c t i c a l work i n s c i e n c e , f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h e C-SISE m a t e r i a l s . He r e m a r k e d : A t f i r s t I q u e s t i o n e d t h e v a l u e o f t h i s c o u r s e s i n c e i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t o o b t a i n a g o o d mark i n t h e f i r s t 2 u n i t t e s t s r e q u i r e d s i m p l y t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a h a n d f u l o f i m p o r t a n t t e r m s . . . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I c a n s e e t h a t t h e s e few t e r m s c a n make b o t h t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b and t h e s t u d e n t s ' t a s k ( o f t e a c h i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) i m m e n s e l y e a s i e r , f o r t h e y r e f e r t o c o n c e p t s w h i c h a r e o t h e r w i s e more d i f f i c u l t . H a v i n g s p e n t a l o n g t i m e on t h e e x p e r i m e n t s o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s , I know how d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o p u t a c r o s s t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d what we do. I w o u l d 1 i k e t o do e x p e r i m e n t a l work w i t h t h e 2 c l a s s e s t h a t have t a k e n t h i s c o u r s e - my t a s k s h o u l d be much e a s i e r . 1 3 A t t h e t i m e t h i s p r o j e c t s t a r t e d , p h o t o s y n t h e s i s h a d a l r e a d y been c o v e r e d i n a l l t h e s c h o o l s . I t i s c l e a r f r o m t h e a b o v e t e a c h e r ' s r e m a r k s t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s o f t h i s p r o j e c t i m p r e s s e d h i m a s h a v i n g some p r a c t i c a l v a l u e t o b o t h t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l work i n s c i e n c e . The t e a c h e r c o n c l u d e d : The c o u r s e s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e s t u d e n t s ' p o w e r s o f l o g i c , p o w e r s I have f o u n d . i n t h e p a s t t o be o f t e n v e r y weak. What i s i m p o r t a n t a b o u t t h i s l a t t e r comment i s t h e u s u a l a l l u s i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f ' r a t i o n a l p o w e r s ' f r o m s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , an a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h s t i l l r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l s t u d y . Nay, et al (1971) b e l i e v e t h a t a l t h o u g h l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t , s u c c e s s i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s l a r g e l y c o n t i n g e n t on t h o u g h t r a t h e r t h a n 1 3 T h i s t e a c h e r made t h e s e r e m a r k s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e on t h e E v a l u a t i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s ; A p p e n d i x G. 1 08 on p h y s i c a l a c t i o n . T h i s n o t i o n a p p e a r s t o a g r e e w i t h t h e r e m a r k s e x p r e s s e d by t h e t e a c h e r q u o t e d a b o v e i n h i s a l l u s i o n t o " s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f s t u d e n t s ' p o w e r s o f l o g i c " . The p r e s e n t w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t much o f t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t on t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c e n t r e s on t h e f a i l u r e t o r e a l i s e t h a t some c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c a n be t r e a t e d a s ' p r o p o s i t i o n a l ' k n o w l e d g e . T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n s h o u l d e n a b l e w o r k e r s i n t h e f i e l d t o d e v e l o p i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w i l l p r e s e n t t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n much t h e same way a s t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f b i o l o g y , c h e m i s t r y , p h y s i c s , a n d o t h e r b r a n c h e s o f s c i e n c e . I n e s s e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l m o d e l o f s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( i . e . F i g u r e 2 . 3 ) , w h i c h i d e n t i f i e d p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s w i t h i n Hewson's ( 1 9 8 2 ) ' p r o c e d u r a l s t r u c t u r e s ' , h a s made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r t o p l a n i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n a p e d a g o g i c a l l y u s e f u l way. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h i s i s a v i a b l e a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y i s b a s e d on a n o t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y a s a t y p e o f p a r a d i g m a t i c r e s e a r c h w h i c h h o l d s t h a t p r o c e d u r a l k n o w l e d g e c a n f u n c t i o n o n l y w i t h i n a w e l l - d e f i n e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t . A c c o r d i n g l y , a l l t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y 109 were e x p o s e d t o t h e c o n t e n t o f b o t h t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y a c q u i r e d t h e p r o c e d u r a l k n o w l e d g e a s w e l l a s t h e c o n t e x t t o w h i c h t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o t r a n s f e r t h e l e a r n e d p r o c e d u r a l k n o w l e d g e . T h i s n o t i o n i s v e r y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e m o d e l of s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( c f . F i g u r e 2 . 1 ) . T h i s m o d e l r e g a r d s t h e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , h i s / h e r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o n t e n t o f a g i v e n f i e l d o f s t u d y , a s w e l l a s a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s , a s b e i n g v i t a l t o s u c c e s s f u l s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . The h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f v a r i a n c e i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e c o v a r i a t e s , a s r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r I V , b e a r s e v i d e n c e t o t h e p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y o f t h i s m o d e l . I n a n u t s h e l l , t h i s s t u d y h a s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d t h e p a r a d i g m a t i c v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y by d e v e l o p i n g a m o d e l b a s e d on t h i s v i e w and t h e n p u t t i n g i t t o a p r a c t i c a l t e s t . S t u d i e s i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , s u c h a s t h e one u n d e r t a k e n h e r e h a v e been few and f a r b e t w e e n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t i e t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y t o s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s i n t h e f i e l d . Suchman's ( 1 9 6 2 ) ' i n q u i r y t r a i n i n g ' p r o g r a m i s t h e o n l y one w h i c h comes c l o s e t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Suchman's s t u d y d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , p r o d u c e any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n h i s t r e a t m e n t a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n t e r m s of t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s a c q u i r e d i n h i s " i n q u i r y t r a i n i n g " p r o g r a m t o o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s . 1 1 0 I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r , Suchman's s u b j e c t s f a i l e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t r a n s f e r o f t h e k n o w l e d g e a c c r u i n g f r o m h i s p r o g r a m b e c a u s e o f Suchman's f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i s e t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e p l a y e d by c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e t r a n s f e r a r e a . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o a p p l y e x p e r i m e n t a l k n o w l e d g e t o s u b j e c t a r e a s w h i c h a r e u n f a m i l i a r t o them. T h i s i s t h e p o i n t w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s s t u d y f r o m Suchman's s t u d y a s w e l l a s o t h e r p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a . I n e s s e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r o l e p l a y e d by t h e c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e a r e a t o w h i c h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l k n o w l e d g e i s t o be t r a n s f e r r e d may be r e g a r d e d a s t h e ' m i s s i n g l i n k ' w h i c h , i f p r o v i d e d f o r , s h o u l d make i t p o s s i b l e f o r s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y t h e v e r b a l k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o s u c h an a r e a . T h i s p o i n t u n d e r l i n e s t h e u s e f u l n e s s of t h e c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l of s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y w h i c h h a s been u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( i . e . F i g u r e 2 . 1 ) . 2 . C o n t e x t o f i n s t r u c t i o n v e r s u s t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f k n o w l e d g e  o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n The s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t o f H 3 showed t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . T h i s r e s u l t s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t p r o m o t e d t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n d i d t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e 111 p r o b a b l y l i e s i n t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h s t u d e n t s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . I t was r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I t h a t , f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s ' v i e w p o i n t , s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c g r o u p a p p e a r e d t o e x p e r i e n c e p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . The t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l demanded by t h e C - S I S E m a t e r i a l s was b e y o n d t h e r e a c h o f t h e a v e r a g e s t u d e n t . The t e a c h e r s o f t h i s g r o u p a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s t r e a t e d t h e t o p i c o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n t h a n was n o r m a l l y t h e c a s e a t t h e G r a d e 9 l e v e l . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e C-SISE i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f e l t t h a t t h e i r p u p i l s had a d o u b l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o b o t h t h e c o n t e n t a s p e c t o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s a s w e l l a s t h e c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d t h e m a i n f o c u s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s was p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e c a s e , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t a l l t h e c l a s s e s u s i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s had a l r e a d y s t u d i e d p h o t o s y n t h e s i s . No s u c h s e n t i m e n t s were e x p r e s s e d by t e a c h e r s o f t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e g r o u p . I n f a c t , w h e r e a s t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e C - S I S E m a t e r i a l s f e l t t h a t t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l o f t h e m a t e r i a l s a p p e a r e d t o a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e s l o w e r s t u d e n t s more t h a n t h e b r i g h t o n e s , t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e G I S E m a t e r i a l s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s a p p e a r e d t o n a r r o w t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e s l o w e r s t u d e n t s and t h e b r i g h t o n e s . 1 12 A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s o f t h e C - S I S E i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s were somewhat d i s t r a c t e d by p r o b a b l y p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o two a s p e c t s o f l e a r n i n g , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s may i n f a c t h a v e c o n s t r u e d t h e s u b s t a n c e o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s a s b e i n g o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e w h o l e e x e r c i s e . T h i s may have been t h e c a s e , g i v e n t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s were s t u d y i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s t i m e - t a b l e d f o r s c i e n c e . T h i s may a l s o e x p l a i n , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , why t h e n o t i o n o f a c c e p t a b l e and t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s i s p r o v e d t o be d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d , a s was r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , w h e n e v e r t h e s t u d e n t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a c c e p t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h p r e d i c t e d o u t c o m e s w h i c h were f a c t u a l l y w r o n g . A p a r t f r o m t h e a p p a r e n t c o m p l e x i t y o f . t h e C - S I S E m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a l s o p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e ' g e n e r a l ' n a t u r e o f t h e GISE m a t e r i a l s , i n t e r m s of t h e v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s u s e d , p r o b a b l y g a v e t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p -p e r h a p s i m p l i c i t l y - t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be g e n e r a l i z e d t o a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t may n o t h a v e o c c u r e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s o f t h e C - S I S E g r o u p t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s t h e y were l e a r n i n g h ad any t r a n s f e r p o t e n t i a l b e y o n d t h e c o n t e x t o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s . T h i s i s an i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w h i c h may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e o b s e r v e d v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e two 1 1 3 g r o u p s . As one p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r i n t h e C - S I S E g r o u p s u g g e s t e d : To p r o v i d e g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e , some d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s ( i . e . o t h e r t h a n p h o t o s y n t h e s i s ) m i g h t h a v e been c h o s e n . T h e s e m i g h t e v e n h a v e i n c l u d e d " n o n - s c i e n t i f i c " t o p i c s w i t h w h i c h t h e b o y s m i g h t h a v e f o u n d i t e a s i e r t o r e l a t e . 1 " One o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e o b s e r v e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e p o s t t e s t b e t w e e n t h e two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s c o u l d h a v e been t e a c h i n g  e x p e r i e n c e . Two o f t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s o f t h e C - S I S E g r o u p ( G r o u p 2) h a d v e r y l i t t l e t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . One had j u s t g r a d u a t e d f r o m c o l l e g e a n d a n o t h e r was an u n t r a i n e d t e a c h e r who was a w a i t i n g t o go t o c o l l e g e a f t e r h a v i n g c o m p l e t e d G.C.E. A ' l e v e l s i n B r i t a i n . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , i t i s c l e a r f r o m T a b l e I I t h a t one o f t h e c l a s s means o f G r o u p 2 was much h i g h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r t w o . The h i g h e s t c l a s s mean f o r G r o u p 2 ( 2 9 . 6 1 ) b e l o n g e d t o t h e c l a s s w h i c h was t a u g h t by t h e e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r , a n d i t c o m p a r e s f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e c l a s s means f o r G r o u p 3 w h i c h h a d e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c l a s s e s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n , t h e r e p r o b a b l y e x i s t e d an e d u c a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s b e y o n d t h e o b s e r v e d s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e may h a v e been two c o u n t e r - b a l a n c i n g a s p e c t s t o t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t w h e r e a s t h e GISE 1 " T h e s e r e m a r k s were made i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x G. 1 1 4 g r o u p may h a v e g a i n e d an a d v a n t a g e i n t e r m s o f v a r i a t i o n o f i n s t a n c e s o f a g i v e n c o n c e p t / p r o c e d u r e , t h e C - S I S E g r o u p may h a v e g a i n e d a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t o p i c o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l k n o w l e d g e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , where b o t h t h e k n o w l e d g e of t h e c o n t e n t of a g i v e n d i s c i p l i n e a s w e l l a s t h e k n o w l e d g e o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a r e i n t e n d e d e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , t h e C -SISE a p p r o a c h may be p r e f e r r e d , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e o b t a i n e d a b o v e . S i n c e b o t h a p p r o a c h e s a r e c a p a b l e o f f o s t e r i n g t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n e d c o n c e p t s / p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n b e y o n d e a c h l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t , t h e c h o i c e o f w h i c h o f t h e l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s one s h o u l d use i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n w i l l d e p e n d on t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h a t s i t u a t i o n . 115 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s c h a p t e r g i v e s a b r i e f summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y a s w e l l a s some i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a n d some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e p r e s e n t e d . 1. C o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y The m a i n f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y were t h a t a . c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t o a n o t h e r a r e a w i t h i n t h e same domain o f l e a r n i n g . b. t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t p r o m o t e d t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e s e l e c t e d e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n d i d t h e c o n t e n t s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e t h a t i ) o n c e t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n h a v e been t a u g h t , t h e y n e e d n o t be r e - t a u g h t t o t h e s t u d e n t s e a c h t i m e t h e t e a c h e r c h a n g e s t h e t o p i c o f s t u d y . S t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o be a b l e t o r e l a t e t h e s e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t o a d i f f e r e n t t o p i c a s l o n g a s t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f s u c h a t o p i c i s known t o them. 1 1 6 i i ) w here e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s c e n t r e a r o u n d s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o d e s i g n e x p e r i m e n t s a n d i n t e r p r e t s c i e n t i f i c d a t a , a p p r o a c h e s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s s u c h a s t h o s e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y may p r o v e t o be v e r y u s e f u l a s a p r e l u d e t o p r a c t i c a l w o r k . i i i ) t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y ) b e t w e e n t h e two l e a r n i n g c o n t e x t s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y w o u l d a p p e a r t o s u g g e s t t h a t s t u d e n t s r e l a t e d more e a s i l y t o t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e t h a n t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t i n l e a r n i n g , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y t r a n s f e r r i n g , t h e s e l e c t e d e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t o a n o t h e r c o n t e x t . T h i s means t h a t i t may be a p p r o p r i a t e t o use t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t w i t h l o w e r g r a d e l e v e l s a n d t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t w i t h h i g h e r g r a d e l e v e l s . H o w e v e r , f r o m t h e s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t e x t may p o s s e s s an a d d e d a d v a n t a g e i n s o f a r a s i t e n a b l e s s t u d e n t s t o a c q u i r e s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t u a l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t may be a d v i s a b l e t o u s e t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t e x t f o r h i g h e r g r a d e l e v e l s i f , i n d e e d , t h e r e i s an i n h e r e n t s t u d e n t d i f f i c u l t y i n a t t e n d i n g t o b o t h t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t o f a g i v e n s c i e n c e t o p i c a s w e l l a s t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . I n t h e 1 1 7 Zambian c a s e , t h e r e f o r e , i t may be a good i d e a t o use t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e a p p r o a c h a t t h e j u n i o r a n d t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c a p p r o a c h a t t h e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l s . I n t e r m s of t h e e x i s t i n g s c i e n c e p r o j e c t i n Z a m b i a , i t a p p e a r s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r o j e c t be p r e c e d e d by i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( p r e f e r a b l y w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t ) a s a way o f h e l p i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o s u b s e q u e n t l y b e t t e r p l a n and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n may be h e l p f u l n o t o n l y f o r t h e Zambian c a s e b u t a l s o f o r a l l i n s t a n c e s where s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p l a n and e x e c u t e t h e i r own e x p e r i m e n t s . 2. L i m i t a t i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y , i n so f a r a s t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y , h a v e been q u i t e c o n c l u s i v e . The ' f i n d i n g s , h o w e v e r , p o s e and i n d i c a t e s e v e r a l more i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s t h a n were i n v e s t i g a t e d by t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . T h i s s t u d y made no a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a c t u a l a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s t o c a r r y o u t e x p e r i m e n t s i n s c i e n c e , f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . The e m p h a s i s was on t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o d e s i g n ( o r p l a n ) e x p e r i m e n t s a n d i n t e r p r e t e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e a b i l i t y t o d e s i g n a s w e l l a s i n t e r p r e t e x p e r i m e n t s , on one h a n d , a n d t o 1 18 s u c c e s s f u l l y e x e c u t e a p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was n o t i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h i s , t h e n , p o i n t s t o an i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y w h i c h s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t s t u d e n t s who have r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s of s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , s i m i l a r t o t h e t y p e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , n e c e s s a r i l y become b e t t e r e x p e r i m e n t e r s t h a n t h o s e who r e c e i v e d no s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e r e a l s o i s n e e d t o d e v e l o p a measurement i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h w i l l a s s e s s p r a c t i c a l c o m p e t e n c e i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . The t e s t w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y ( i . e . t h e TCPSE) i s l i m i t e d o n l y t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y t o d e s i g n and i n t e r p r e t e x p e r i m e n t s i n s c i e n c e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p s y c h o m o t o r s k i l l s i n t e r m s o f t h e p h y s i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c s c i e n t i f i c e q u i p m e n t ( i . e . c r a f t k n o w l e d g e ) i s a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r f r o m t h e one i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . C o mpetence i n p s y c h o m o t o r s k i l l s i s p r o b a b l y a c h i e v e d by p r a c t i c e w i t h t h e r e l e v a n t s p e c i f i c e q u i p m e n t a n d i s p r o b a b l y l e s s d e p e n d e n t on t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f a g i v e n d i s c i p l i n e . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o d e s i g n e x p e r i m e n t s a s w e l l a s m a k i n g a u t h e n t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s c i e n t i f i c d a t a , a s a d v o c a t e d by t h e m o d el of s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 119 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s s t u d y e m p l o y e d o n l y a s e l e c t e d number o f c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s , t h e r e f o r e , n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e o b s e r v e d t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f t h e s e l e c t e d p r o c e d u r a l c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . A n o t h e r s t u d y s h o u l d t a k e t h e same c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s a n d e x t e n d t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d o n l y two s u c h c o n t e x t s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n were p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s ; t h a t i s , t h e c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c a n d t h e g e n e r a l - k n o w l e d g e c o n t e x t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s , t h e r e f o r e , n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s c o u l d be u s e d t o a c h i e v e s i m i l a r o u t c o m e s . The p r o b l e m o f s a m p l i n g g r e a t l y r e s t r i c t s t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t no random a s s i g n m e n t o f s u b j e c t s t o t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s was d o n e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y t o t h e e n t i r e Zambian p o p u l a t i o n o f G r a d e 9 s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be made w i t h due d i s c r e t i o n . I n t h e same way, i t may be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y were b a s e d on s t u d e n t s i n s i n g l e - s e x s c h o o l s . A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r h a s no r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s w o u l d h a v e been d i f f e r e n t h a d c o - e d u c a t i o n a l o r p r i v a t e s c h o o l s been u s e d i n t h e s t u d y , t h e 1 20 r e a d e r i s n o n e t h e l e s s a d v i s e d t o e x e r c i s e c a u t i o n w h e n e v e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f the.se f i n d i n g s a r e made t o t h e s e l a t t e r t y p e s o f s c h o o l s . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e s a m p l i n g p r o b l e m s , t h e w r i t e r u r g e s o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d t o r e p l i c a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i t h s t u d e n t s o f c o - e d u c a t i o n a l a nd p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . Where p o s s i b l e , f u r t h e r s t u d i e s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s , h a v i n g s u b j e c t s f r o m s i n g l e - s e x , p r i v a t e , a s w e l l a s c o - e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l , n o t o n l y f o r t h e Zambian s i t u a t i o n b u t f o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d a s w e l l . 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY 122 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, M.J. a n d C o l l i n s , A. A s c h e m a - t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w o f r e a d i n g . T e c h . Rep. 3 2 , U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s : C e n t r e f o r t h e s t u d y o f r e a d i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1 9 7 7 . A l l e n , M a r y , J . and Y e n , Wendy, M. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o ' m e a s u r e m e n t  t h e o r y . B o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Company, M o n t e r e y , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 7 9 . A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Adv a n c e m e n t o f S c i e n c e . Sc i e n c e 2 a p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h , p a r t s J_ t o 7 _A a n d B) . New Y o r k , M i s c e l l a n e o u s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 8 . A n a s t a s i , A. P s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g . New y o r k : The M c m i l l a n Co., 1 9 5 4 . A n d e r s o n , R.C. S c h e m a - d i r e c t e d p r o c e s s i n l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n . T e c h . Rep. 5 0 , U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s : C e n t r e f o r t h e s t u d y o f r e a d i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1 9 7 7 . A u s u b e l , D. P. I n d e f e n s e o f v e r b a l l e a r n i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l  t h e o r y , J J _ , 1 5 - 2 5 , 1 961 . A u s u b e l , D. P. L e a r n i n g by d i s c o v e r y : R a t i o n a l e a n d M y s t i q u e . B u l l . n a t . a s s o c i a t i o n s e c . s c h o o l t e a c h e r , 4 5 , 1 8 - 5 8 , 1 9 6 1 . A u s u b e l , D. P. Some p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f l e a r n i n g by d i s c o v e r y . The a r i t h m e t i c t e a c h e r , J J _ , 2 9 0 - 3 0 2 , 1 9 6 4 . A u s u b e l , D. P. An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l schemes a p p r o a c h t o s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t . J o u r n a l  o f r e s e a r c h i n sc i e n c e t e a c h i n g , 3_, 2 5 5 - 2 6 4 , 1 9 6 5 . A u s u b e l , D. P. E d u c a t i o n f o r r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g . I n L a w s o n , A. 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C o m p a r i s o n o f s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s f o r S c i e n c e - A P r o c e s s A p p r o a c h a nd T r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g f o r t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h a n d s i x t h g r a d e c l a s s e s : A p r o d u c t e v a l u a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f r e s e a r c h i n s c i e n c e  t e a c h i n g , V2 ( 1 ) , 31-39, 1975. W o l l m a n , W. C o n t r o l l i n g v a r i a b l e s : A s s e s s i n g l e v e l s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . S c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , 6 J _ ( 3 ) , 3 7 1 - 3 8 3 , 1 977. W o l l m a n , W. D e v e l o p m e n t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f sc i e n c e t e a c h i n g :  E a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e . ERIC-SMEAC c l e a r i n g h o u s e , 1978. W o l l m a n , W. Form v e r s u s c o n t e n t i n P i a g e t i a n t e s t i n g . Sc i e n c e  e d u c a t i o n , _ 6 ( 5 ) , 7 5 1 - 7 6 2 , 1982. W o l l m a n , W. a n d L a w s o n , A. E. T e a c h i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e o f C o n t r o l l e d E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n : A P i a g e t i a n a p p r o a c h . S c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , 6 1 , 5 7 - 7 0 , 1977. Wood, D. A. The P i a g e t - P r o c e s s m a t r i x . S c h o o l s c i e n c e a n d  m a t h e m a t i c s , 74, 4 0 7 - 4 1 2 , 1974. Y o l o y e , A y o t u n d e . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e A f r i c a n P r i m a r y S c i e n c e Programme ( A P S P ) . New t r e n d s i n i n t e g r a t e d s c i e n c e  t e a c h i n g , I V , 131-141, 1977. 139 140 APPENDIX A THE TEST IN GERMINATION OF SEEDS (TIGS) 141 TEST IN GERMINATION OF SEEDS (TIGS) Name: School: Grade: Date: Time Allowed: 40 minutes Instructions: This test consists of 6 questions. Answer a l l the questions by writing your answers in the spaces provided. Ql. (a) Draw a bean seed showing the following external features: (i) testa (seed coat) ( i i ) micropyle ( i i i ) hilum (scar) (b) Draw the structure of a germinating bean seed showing the following internal features: (i) cotyledons ( i i ) radicle ( i i i ) plumule Q2. State 4 factors which are necessary for germination to take place. (a) (b) (c) (d) 142 Q3. Consider the following two experimental sets: SET A SET B Germinating Maize Seeds -L-ul Wet cotcon wool Lime water Wet cotton wool What do you expect to observe in: (a) SET A? Lime water (b) SET B? What changes would you expect to observe in: (a) SET A? (b) SET B? 143 Q5. C o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t s : SET A SET B SET A H i g h - q u a l i t y bean seeds c o n t a i n e d i n wet c o t t o n wool P o t a s s i u m p y r o g a l l a t e " s o l u t i o n ( t o absorb oxygen) SET B What would you e x p e c t t o o b s e r v e i n : (a) SET A? (b) SET B? Q6. C o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t s : SET A SET B P r e v i o u s l y soaked s u n f l o w e r seeds (no a i r spaces) n M e r c u r y — p r e v i o u s l y soaked VL*" s u n f l o w e r seeds ( w i t h a c c e s ^ t o a i r ) What would you e x p e c t t o obs e r v e i n : (a) SET A? (b) SET B? 144 APPENDIX B THE TEST IN CONCEPTS AND PROCEDURES OF SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTATION (TCPSE) 145 TEST IN CONCEPTS AND PROCEDURES OF S C I E N T I F I C EXPERIMENTATION  (TCPSE). NAME: - AGE: -CLASS SCHOOL:-TIME ALLOWED: ONE HOUR AND THIRTY MINUTES. INSTRUCTIONS:-T h e r e a r e 42 q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s t e s t . A l l q u e s t i o n s c a r r y e q u a l w e i g h t . I n d i c a t e y o u r a nswer by e n c i r c l i n g t h e l e t t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e o p t i o n o f y o u r c h o i c e . EXAMPLE 1 Zambia's c a p i t a l c i t y i s ( a ^ L u s a k a b. Mongu c . K i t w e d. Kabwe L e t t e r ( e p h as been e n c i r c l e d b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . EXAMPLE 2 Zambia's economy depends m a i n l y on t h e f o l l o w i n g m i n e r a l : a. Diamond b. G o l d c. E m e r a l d (d?) C o pper L e t t e r ^ ^ h a s been e n c i r c l e d b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO! 146 Read t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e and t h e n a nswer t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w , i . e . Qs. 1-4. S i m a s i k u w a n t e d t o f i n d o u t w h e t h e r p l a n t s g e r m i n a t e d b e t t e r i n t h e d a r k o r i n t h e l i g h t . He p u t 6 m a i z e s e e d s i n one p o t c o n t a i n i n g loam s o i l a n d t h e n p l a c e d i t i n a d a r k room. He t h e n t o o k a n o t h e r p o t c o n t a i n i n g 6 c a s t o r o i l s e e d s p l a n t e d i n l oam s o i l s i m i l a r t o t h e s o i l u s e d i n t h e f i r s t p o t and p l a c e d i t on a window p l a t e f a c i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s u n . S i m a s i k u a d d e d t h e same amounts of w a t e r t o b o t h p o t s , e x p e c t i n g t h e s e e d s p l a c e d i n t h e d a r k t o g e r m i n a t e b e t t e r t h a n t h o s e p l a c e d i n t h e l i g h t . Q1. The h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h S i m a s i k u w a n t e d t o t e s t i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i s t h a t a. c a s t o r o i l s e e d s g e r m i n a t e f a s t e r t h a n m a i z e s e e d s . b. l i g h t , o x y g e n and w a t e r a r e a l l n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n t o t a k e p l a c e . c. a s u i t a b l e t e m p e r a t u r e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n of s e e d s . d. s e e d s p l a c e d i n t h e d a r k w i l l g e r m i n a t e f a s t e r t h a n s e e d s p l a c e d i n t h e l i g h t . Q2. I n t h e above e x p e r i m e n t S i m a s i k u f o u n d t h a t c a s t o r o i l s e e d s g e r m i n a t e d f a s t e r t h a n m a i z e s e e d s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t s e e d s g e r m i n a t e f a s t e r i n t h e l i g h t . To be a b l e t o come t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n he s h o u l d have a . w a t e r e d b o t h p o t s more b. w a t e r e d t h e m a i z e s e e d s more c. grown b o t h t y p e s o f s e e d s i n t h e l i g h t d. p u t t h e same k i n d o f s e e d s i n b o t h p o t s 147 Q3. The v a r i a b l e w h i c h S i m a s i k u wanted t o MANIPULATE i n t h e above e x p e r i m e n t was t h e a. l i g h t r e c e i v e d by t h e s e e d s b. t i m e t a k e n f o r s e e d s t o g e r m i n a t e c . w a t e r g i v e n t o t h e s e e d s d. number o f s e e d s u s e d i n e a c h p o t Q4. The f a c t o r w h i c h may be u s e d as t h e RESPONDING v a r i a b l e i n t h e a bove e x p e r i m e n t i s t h e a. s i z e o f t h e p o t i n w h i c h t h e s e e d s were p l a n t e d b. p l a c e where t h e s e e d s were l e f t c . t y p e o f s o i l u s e d d. number o f s p r o u t i n g s e e d s i n e a c h p o t Q5. I f y o u w i s h e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s o a k e d s e e d s g e r m i n a t e d f a s t e r t h a n d r y s e e d s , w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s w o u l d be t h e b e s t t o u s e ? a. p l a n t 25 d r y m a i z e s e e d s and 25 d r y bean s e e d s a t t h e same t i m e and compare r e s u l t s b. p l a n t 25 d r y m a i z e s e e d s and 25 s o a k e d bean s e e d s a t t h e same t i m e a nd n o t e t h e t i m e i t t a k e s them t o g e r m i n a t e c . p l a n t 25 d r y m a i z e s e e d s and 25 s o a k e d m a i z e s e e d s a t t h e same t i m e and compare r e s u l t s d. p l a n t 25 d r y bean s e e d s , n o t e r e s u l t s ; p l a n t 25 s o a k e d bean s e e d s ; n o t e r e s u l t s ; t h e n compare b o t h r e s u l t s 148 Read t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t a n d t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s , i . e . Q6. I n an e x p e r i m e n t t o show t h a t c a r b o n d i o x i d e i s g i v e n o f f by g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s t h e f o l l o w i n g two e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t s were u s e d : SET A SET B sunflower seeds A f t e r 4 d a y s , i t was o b s e r v e d ( f o u n d ) t h a t o n l y t h e l i m e w a t e r i n S e t A had t u r n e d m i l k y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s g i v e , o f f c a r b o n d i o x i d e . Q6. To be a b l e t o come t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s h o u l d h a v e a. p u t d e a d and d i s i n f e c t e d s e e d s i n S e t A a s w e l l . b. u s e d h i g h - q u a l i t y s u n f l o w e r s e e d s i n S e t B. c. u s e d l e s s l i m e w a t e r i n S e t B. d. u s e d bean s e e d s i n S e t B. 149 S t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e and t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s , i . e . Q 7 . I n an e x p e r i m e n t t o show t h a t g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s g e n e r a t e h e a t , a G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s t u d e n t s e t up h e r e x p e r i m e n t a s f o l l o w s : She p u t a m o i s t a b s o r b e n t c o t t o n w o o l i n a vacuum b o t t l e . N e x t , she h a l f - f i l l e d t h e b o t t l e w i t h g e r m i n a t i n g m a i z e s e e d s ; i n s e r t e d a t h e r m o m e t e r t h r o u g h a o n e - h o l e d s t o p p e r and s e a l e d i t i n p l a c e w i t h m o d e l i n g c l a y t o make i t a i r t i g h t . Her e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p l o o k e d a s i n t h e d i a g r a m b e l o w : i; ' ' Thermometer Modeling clay Vacuum Bottle Q7. W h i c h one of t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n ? a. The s t u d e n t s h o u l d have i n c l u d e d a n o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t c o n t a i n i n g g e r m i n a t i n g bean s e e d s t o a c t a s a c o n t r o l e x p e r i m e n t . b. The s t u d e n t s h o u l d have u s e d a n o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t c o n t a i n i n g d e a d and d i s i n f e c t e d m a i z e s e e d s t o a c t a s a c o n t r o l e x p e r i m e n t . c. The s t u d e n t s h o u l d have u s e d a n o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t c o n t a i n i n g d e a d and d i s i n f e c t e d bean s e e d s t o a c t a s a c o n t r o l e x p e r i m e n t . d. The d e s i g n i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e p r o b l e m f o r w h i c h i t has been s e t up. I f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s g e n e r a t e h e a t , t h e r e w i l l be a r i s e i n t e m p e r a t u r e ; i f n o t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e w i l l r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d . 150 Read t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e and answer t h e q u e s t i o n s w i c h f o l l o w , i , e . Q s . 8 & 9 . A G e n e r a l S c i e n c e t e a c h e r a s k e d h i s s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k o f f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e y t h o u g h t m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h e g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s . Among t h e f a c t o r s s u g g e s t e d were o x y g e n , a nd w a t e r ( m o i s t u r e ) . - The t e a c h e r t h e n a s k e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o f o r m u l a t e h y p o t h e s e s t o e n a b l e them t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e s e two f a c t o r s . Q8. OXYGEN: The f o l l o w i n g f o u r s t a t e m e n t s were p r e s e n t e d t o t e s t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o x y g e n on g e r m i n a t i o n . W h i c h ONE o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i s t h e BEST h y p o t h e s i s f o r t e s t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f oxygen on g e r m i n a t i o n ? a. A i r i s so m e t i m e s s a i d t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e oxygen i t c o n t a i n s . b. Oxygen i s e s s e n t i a l f o r g e r m i n a t i o n a s w e l l a s r e s p i r a t i o n . c . Oxygen i s one o f t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g g e r m i n a t i o n . d. Seeds w i l l n o t g e r m i n a t e i n t h e a b s e n c e o f o x y g e n . Q9. WATER/MOISTURE: The f o l l o w i n g f o u r s t a t e m e n t s were p r e s e n t e d t o t e s t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f w a t e r on g e r m i n a t i o n . W h i c h ONE o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i s t h e BEST h y p o t h e s i s t o t e s t t h e i n f l u e n c e of w a t e r / m o i s t u r e on g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s ? a. D i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s e e d s r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t amounts of w a t e r t o g e r m i n a t e . b. Water i s more n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r f a c t o r s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . c. Water i s one o f t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s d. Seeds w i l l n o t g e r m i n a t e i n t h e a b s e n c e o f w a t e r 151 Read t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t - u p and ans w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w , i . e Q S . 1 0 & 1 1 . Kakoma, b e l i e v i n g t h a t c r o w d e d s e e d s g e r m i n a t e d more s l o w l y t h a n w e l l - s p a c e d s e e d s , s e t up an e x p e r i m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t t h e s p a c i n g o f s e e d s had on t h e r a t e o f g e r m i n a t i o n . He p l a n t e d c a s t o r o i l s e e d s i n f o u r c o n t a i n e r s a s shown b e l o w : n SEEDS PLANTED lcm APART SEEDS PLANTED 2cm APART SEEDS PLANTED 3cm APART SEEDS PLANTED 4cm APART A l l t h e s e e d s were p l a n t e d 1cm deep and e a c h c o n t a i n e r was w a t e r e d d a i l y . The number o f s p r o u t i n g s e e d s i n e a c h c o n t a i n e r was r e c o r d e d e v e r y d a y . Q 1 0 . The RESPONDING v a r i a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y was t h e a. s i z e o f c o n t a i n e r s u s e d b. number o f s p r o u t i n g s e e d s c. amount o f w a t e r r e c e i v e d by t h e s e e d s d. how f a r a p a r t t h e s e e d s were p l a n t e d Q 1 1 . One o f t h e CONTROLLED v a r i a b l e s s t a t e d i n t h e s t u d y i s t h e a. s i z e o f t h e c o n t a i n e r s u s e d b. t h e . s p a c i n g o f t h e s e e d s c . amount o f w a t e r r e c e i v e d by t h e s e e d s d. d e p t h a t w h i c h t h e s e e d s were p l a n t e d 152 Q12. To s t u d y t h e e f f e c t o f l i g h t on g e r m i n a t i o n two s e t s o f s e e d s were u s e d . One s e t was e x p o s e d t o b r i g h t l i g h t a n d a s e c o n d one was k e p t i n t h e d a r k . Why was t h e s e c o n d s e t i n c l u d e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t ? a. Two s e t s o f s e e d s a r e b e t t e r t h a n one i n a c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t . b. I t i s n e c e s s a r y i n e v e r y s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t t o t e s t many p a r t s o f a p r o b l e m a t o n c e . T h i s s a v e s t i m e . c . I t was n e c e s s a r y i n c a s e one o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t s d i d n o t y i e l d t h e e x p e c t e d r e s u l t . d. I t w o u l d show w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e e f f e c t s were due t o l i g h t o n l y . Q13. F o u r s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o f i n d o u t t h e e f f e c t o f t e m p e r a t u r e on g e r m i n a t i o n . B e l o w a r e f o u r p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h t h e f o u r s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d . STUDENT 1: P u t m a i z e s e e d s a t 0°C; bean s e e d s a t 10°C; c a s t o r o i l s e e d s a t 20°C; and g r o u n d n u t s e e d s a t 30°C. STUDENT 2: P u t m a i z e s e e d s , bean s e e d s , c a s t o r o i l s e e d s and g r o u n d n u t s e e d s , a l l a t 25°C. STUDENT 3: Used o n l y bean s e e d s w h i c h she d i v i d e d ' i n t o f o u r s e t s a nd p l a c e d t h e f i r s t s e t a t 0°C; t h e s e c o n d one a t 15°C; t h e t h i r d a t 25°C and t h e l a s t one a t 35°C. STUDENT 4: Used m a i z e s e e d s w h i c h she p l a n t e d i n h e r m o t h e r ' s g a r d e n h a v i n g f e r t i l e s o i l . W h i c h ONE o f t h e above p r o c e d u r e s w o u l d y i e l d t h e most a c c e p t a b l e r e s u l t s f o r t h e p r o b l e m u n d e r s t u d y ? a. S t u d e n t 1 b. S t u d e n t 2 c . S t u d e n t 3 d. S t u d e n t 4 153 Read t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e and t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w , i . e . Qs.14-16. I n a s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e q u a l i t y o f s e e d s h ad an e f f e c t on g e r m i n a t i o n two s e t s o f s e e d s were u s e d . One s e t c o n t a i n e d 5 r o t t e n m a i z e s e e d s . A n o t h e r s e t c o n t a i n e d 5 h i g h - q u a l i t y m a i z e s e e d s . E a c h s e t was g i v e n t h e same amount o f w a t e r a nd p l a c e d i n i d e n t i c a l c o n t a i n e r s a t 25°C. The number o f g e r m i n a t i n g m a i z e s e e d s was r e c o r d e d e a c h d a y . Q14. I n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t e a c h s e t c o n t a i n e d t h e same number o f m a i z e s e e d s f o r w h i c h ONE o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s ? a. So t h a t t h e r e s u l t s a r e n o t b i a s e d by t h e number o f r o t t e n m a i z e s e e d s u s e d . b. So t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e i n f l u e n c e d o n l y by t h e m a n i p u l a t e d v a r i a b l e , n o t by t h e number o f s e e d s u s e d . c . T h e r e i s no need t o use more t h a n 5 r o t t e n s e e d s when we know t h a t t h e y a r e n o t g o i n g t o g e r m i n a t e . d. I t was n e c e s s a r y t o use t h e same number o f s e e d s b e c a u s e t h e t y p e o f s e e d s u s e d was t h e s a m e , i . e . e a c h s e t c o n t a i n e d m a i z e s e e d s . Q15. I t was n e c e s s a r y t o keep b o t h s e t s a t t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e f o r w h i c h ONE o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s ? a. 2 5 ° C i s t h e optimum t e m p e r a t u r e f o r g e r m i n a t i o n o f m a i z e s e e d s b. a t l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e s m a i z e s e e d s t a k e l o n g e r t o g e r m i n a t e c . t o e l i m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t o f t e m p e r a t u r e f r o m t h e o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s d. g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s t e n d t o o v e r - r e a c t a t h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s 154 Q16. E q u a l amounts of w a t e r a r e a d d e d t o t h e two s e t s i n t h e above e x p e r i m e n t so t h a t a. t h e m a n i p u l a t e d v a r i a b l e i s m e a s u r e d a c c u r a t e l y , t h e r e b y g i v i n g r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s b. t h e r e s p o n d i n g v a r i a b l e d o e s n o t a l t e r t h e e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s c . t h e r e s u l t s a r e due t o t h e c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s o n l y . d. t h e r e s u l t s a r e n o t a f f e c t e d by q u a n t i t i e s o f w a t e r u s e d Q17. To s t u d y t h e e f f e c t o f o x y g e n on g e r m i n a t i o n one s e t o f h i g h - q u a l i t y , s o a k e d bean s e e d s was e x p o s e d t o o x y g e n and l e f t a t 28°C. W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s BEST d e s c r i b e s t h e a d e q u a c y of t h e p r o c e d u r e u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ? a. T h i s i s a good e x p e r i m e n t b e c a u s e i f o x y g e n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n t h e s e e d s w i l l g e r m i n a t e . I f n o t , g e r m i n a t i o n w i l l n o t t a k e p l a c e . b. The e x p e r i m e n t s h o u l d have i n c l u d e d one s e t o f d r y bean s e e d s , i n s t e a d o f u s i n g o n l y s o a k e d bean s e e d s . c . The e x p e r i m e n t s h o u l d have i n c l u d e d one s e t ' o f l o w - q u a l i t y s e e d s , i n s t e a d o f u s i n g o n l y h i g h - q u a l i t y . s e e d s . d. The e x p e r i m e n t s h o u l d h a v e i n c l u d e d a s e c o n d s e t of h i g h - q u a l i t y bean s e e d s p l a c e d where t h e r e was no o x y g e n . 155 Read t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e and t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s , i . e . Q.18. A G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s t u d e n t w a n t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f o x y g e n on g e r m i n a t i o n . She p l a c e d 10 h i g h - q u a l i t y bean s e e d s i n a l a r g e p e t r i d i s h made o u t o f g l a s s , w a t e r e d i t w i t h 50ml o f w a t e r and l e f t i t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . N e x t , she p l a c e d 10 h i g h - q u a l i t y m a i z e s e e d s on a p l a s t i c p e t r i d i s h w h i c h was h a l f t h e s i z e o f t h e f i r s t o n e, w a t e r e d t h i s s e c o n d s e t w i t h 50ml o f w a t e r , p l a c e d i t i n a l a r g e b e l l j a r , c o n t a i n i n g p y r o g a l l o l , a c h e m i c a l w h i c h a b s o r b s o x y g e n . B o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t s were l e f t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a t room t e m p e r a t u r e . Q18. I n t h i s s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e was CONTROLLED: a. s i z e o f p e t r i d i s h e s u s e d b. amount o f o x y g e n t h e s e e d s were e x p o s e d t o c . t y p e o f s e e d s u s e d d. amount o f w a t e r r e c e i v e d Read t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e and t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w , i . e . Qs. 19&20. M u s o l e was a s k e d t o d e s i g n an e x p e r i m e n t t o show w h e t h e r o r n o t s o a k e d s e e d s g e r m i n a t e d f a s t e r t h a n d r y s e e d s . She p l a n t e d 15 s o a k e d bean s e e d s and 15 d r y bean s e e d s i n two i d e n t i c a l c o n t a i n e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y f i l l e d w i t h f e r t i l e s o i l . No w a t e r was added t o t h e two c o n t a i n e r s . She r e c o r d e d t h e number o f s p r o u t i n g s e e d s e a c h d a y , e x p e c t i n g more of t h e s o a k e d s e e d s t o t a k e l o n g e r t o g e r m i n a t e t h a n t h e d r y s e e d s . Q19. What was t h e .MANIPULATED v a r i a b l e i n . t h e above e x p e r i m e n t ? a . number o f bean s e e d s u s e d b. number o f s p r o u t i n g s e e d s c . c o n t a i n e r s i n w h i c h t h e s e e d s were p l a n t e d d. amount o f m o i s t u r e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e s e e d s 156 Q20. The h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h i s b e i n g t e s t e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i s t h a t a. s o a k e d m a i z e s e e d s w i l l g e r m i n a t e f a s t e r t h a n d r y bean s e e d s b. s o a k e d bean s e e d s w i l l g e r m i n a t e f a s t e r t h a n d r y m a i z e s e e d s c . b o t h s o a k e d and d r y s e e d s c a n g e r m i n a t e under a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d i t i o n s d. s o a k e d bean s e e d s w i l l t a k e l o n g e r t o g e r m i n a t e t h a n d r y bean s e e d s Q21.. I f y o u w i s h e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s u s e d up o x y g e n , w h i c h ONE o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s w o u l d be t h e b e s t t o u s e ? a. P u t 30 s o a k e d h i g h - q u a l i t y bean s e e d s and 30 s o a k e d d e a d bean s e e d s i n two r e s p e c t i v e c o n t a i n e r s ; c o r k t h e c o n t a i n e r s t i g h t l y ; t e s t t h e a i r i n t h e two c o n t a i n e r s w i t h a g l o w i n g s p l i n t a f t e r 3 d a y s . b. M i x 30 s o a k e d h i g h - q u a l i t y bean s e e d s w i t h 30 s o a k e d d e a d bean s e e d s t h o r o u g h l y ; p u t h a l f o f t h e s e e d s i n c o n t a i n e r A and a n o t h e r h a l f i n c o n t a i n e r B; c o r k t h e c o n t a i n e r s t i g h t l y ; t e s t t h e a i r i n t h e two . c o n t a i n e r s w i t h a g l o w i n g s p l i n t a f t e r 3 d a y s . c . P u t 30 s o a k e d h i g h - q u a l i t y bean s e e d s and 30 s o a k e d h i g h - q u a l i t y m a i z e s e e d s i n two r e s p e c t i v e c o n t a i n e r s ; c o r k t h e c o n t a i n e r s t i g h t l y ; t e s t t h e a i r i n t h e two c o n t a i n e r s w i t h a g l o w i n g s p l i n t a f t e r 3 d a y s . d. P u t 30 s o a k e d h i g h - q u a l i t y m a i z e s e e d s i n a c o n t a i n e r ; c o r k t h e c o n t a i n e r t i g h t l y ; t e s t t h e a i r i n t h e c o n t a i n e r w i t h a g l o w i n g s p l i n t a f t e r 3 d a y s . 157 S t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t a nd t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s : I n an e x p e r i m e n t t o show t h a t s e e d s r e q u i r e o x y g e n t o g e r m i n a t e , a G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s t u d e n t s e t up h i s e x p e r i m e n t a s i n t h e d i a g r a m s b e l o w : SET 1 SET 2 High-quality maize seed Potassium pyrogallate solution (to absorb oxygen from the bottle) Q22. W h i c h ONE o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n ? a. b. c . I t was n o t n e c e s s a r y t o use S e t 2 b e c a u s e a l l t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r was i n t e r e s t e d i n was t o see w h e t h e r o r n o t g e r m i n a t i o n w o u l d o c c u r i n t h e a b s e n c e o f o x y g e n . The' s t u d e n t ' s d e s i g n was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e p r o b l e m f o r w h i c h i t was s e t up To be f a i r , t h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d h a v e p u t some of p o t a s s i u m p y r o g a l l a t e s o l u t i o n i n S e t 2 a s w e l l . t h e d. One o f t h e s e t s s h o u l d d i s i n f e c t e d m a i z e s e e d s . have c o n t a i n e d dead and 158 Read t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e a n d t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w , i . e . Qs.23-26. A s c i e n t i s t w a n t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e m p e r a t u r e and g e r m i n a t i o n o f s e e d s . She p r e d i c t e d t h a t as t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e d t h e a v e r a g e number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s w o u l d a l s o i n c r e a s e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , she was i n t e r e s t e d i n f o u r t e m p e r a t u r e s : 10°C, 20°C, 30°C a nd 40 c C. To e n s u r e t h a t h e r r e s u l t s were r e l i a b l e she p r e p a r e d 7 s e t s o f e x p e r i m e n t s a t e a c h o f t h e above t e m p e r a t u r e s and t h e n l e f t them u n d e r s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s ( e x c e p t f o r t e m p e r a t u r e ) . E a c h s e t c o n t a i n e d 15 h i g h - q u a l i t y s e e d s and was w a t e r e d w i t h e q u a l amounts o f w a t e r . A f t e r 7 d a y s she c o u n t e d t h e number o f s e e d s w h i c h had g e r m i n a t e d i n e a c h o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t s . Her r e s u l t s were t a b u l a t e d a s ,; f o l l o w s : E X P E R I M E N T A L S E T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 at 10°C 12 15 13 12 14 11 14 NUMBER OF at 20°C 11 3 15 13 17 14 7 GERMINATING SEEDS at 30°C 15 13 13 14 14 8 14 at 40dC 7 5 9 7 8 7 6 Q23. What 20°C? i s t h e r a n g e o f t h e number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s a t a. b. c. d. 3 17 1 4 15 Q24. What 30°C? i s t h e r a n g e o f t h e number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s a t a. 7 b. 8 c. 14 d. 1 5 159 Q25. What i s t h e mode f o r t h e number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s a t 40°C? a. 5 b. 6 c. 7 d. 8 Q26. What i s t h e mode f o r t h e number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s a t 30°C? a. 8 b. 13 c. 14 d. 15 Read t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t and t h e n a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w , i . e . QS.27&28. A G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s t u d e n t p e r f o r m e d an e x p e r i m e n t t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t o f amount o f m o i s t u r e ( w a t e r ) on t h e r a t e o f g e r m i n a t i o n . He f e l t t h a t a s m o i s t u r e i n c r e a s e d t h e ' r a t e o f g e r m i n a t i o n w o u l d d e c r e a s e . He s e t up h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s f o l l o w s : EXPERIMENTAL NUMBER OF AMOUNT OF SET-UP SEEDS USED WATER ADDED 1 15 0 ml 2 15 2 ml 3 15 4 ml 4 15 6 ml 5 15 8 ml 6 15 10 ml The s t u d e n t c o u n t e d t h e number o f s e e d s t h a t had g e r m i n a t e d a f t e r 3 d a y s . He g r a p h e d t h e d a t a t h a t he c o l l e c t e d and o b t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g g r a p h : 160 15 NUMBER OF GERMINATING SEEDS AMOUNT OF WATER (ml) Q27. Choose ONE s t a t e m e n t b e l o w w h i c h BEST d e s c r i b e s t h e • r e l a t i o n s h i p r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e g r a p h . a. W a t e r i s n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n t o t a k e p l a c e . b. The number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f w a t e r t h e s e e d s r e c e i v e . c . As t h e amount o f w a t e r i n c r e a s e s , t h e number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s a l s o i n c r e a s e s . d. A l t h o u g h w a t e r i s n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n , t o o much w a t e r c a n a c t u a l l y k i l l s e e d s . Q28. P r e d i c t t h e number o f s e e d s t h a t w o u l d g e r m i n a t e i f 12ml o f w a t e r were a d d e d t o t h e s e e d s . a. 12 s e e d s b. 14 s e e d s c. 16 s e e d s d. I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o make s u c h a p r e d i c t i o n 161 Read t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t a n d t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w , i . e . Q s . 2 9 - 3 2 . I n a n o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t one s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t of l i g h t on g e r m i n a t i o n . He e x p o s e d g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s t o d i f f e r e n t amounts o f l i g h t . The s t u d e n t p r e p a r e d s i x s e t s o f s e e d s ( s e t s 1-6) w h i c h he t h e n e x p o s e d , r e p s p e c t i v e l y , t o 0,2,4,6,8 a n d 10 h o u r s o f l i g h t p e r d a y . He e x p e c t e d s e e d s w h i c h were e x p o s e d t o more l i g h t t o g e r m i n a t e f a s t e r t h a n t h o s e w h i c h were e x p o s e d t o l e s s l i g h t . The s t u d e n t ' s r e s u l t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e g r a p h b e l o w : ! 5 NUMBER GERMINATING.. SEEDS 5 • 2 Z S 8* io (Hours per day) AMOUNT OF EXPOSURE TO LIGHT Q29. Choose f r o m t h e s t a t e m e n t s g i v e n b e l o w ONE w i c h BEST d e s c r i b e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e g r a p h . a. As t h e amount o f e x p o s u r e t o s u n l i g h t i n c r e a s e s , t h e number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s a l s o i n c r e a s e s . b. As t h e number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s d e c r e a s e s , t h e number o f s e e d s e x p o s e d t o l i g h t i n c r e a s e s . c. The number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s i s n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e amount o f e x p o s u r e t o s u n l i g h t . d. S eeds need l i g h t e n e r g y t o g e r m i n a t e . 162 Q30. I f a s i x t h e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t o f s i m i l a r s e e d s was e x p o s e d t o 12 h o u r s o f l i g h t , how many s e e d s w o u l d y o u e x p e c t t o g e r m i n a t e ? a. 0 b. 5 c. 10 d. 15 Q31. How many s e e d s w o u l d g e r m i n a t e i f t h e y were e x p o s e d t o o n l y 1 h o u r o f l i g h t ? a . 0 b. 5 c. 1 0 d. I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t Q32. The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d above a. s u p p o r t t h e s t u d e n t ' s h y p o t h e s i s b. do n o t s u p p o r t t h e s t u d e n t ' s h y p o t h e s i s c . . a r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s h y p o t h e s i s d. c a n n o t be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t must have gone wrong somewhere 163 Q33. A researcher studying the e f f e c t of mineral s a l t s on germination of bean seeds observed that a l l seeds in a l l the experimental sets c o n t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n t mineral s a l t s , and i n the C o n t r o l c o n t a i n i n g no mineral s a l t s , germinated very w e l l and at the same time. We may conclude from t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n alone that a. good q u a l i t y bean seeds germinate w e l l r e g a r d l e s s of the environmental c o n d i t i o n s . b. mineral s a l t s have no e f f e c t on germination of bean seeds. c. a favourable temperature range i s necessary f o r germination of bean seeds. d. mineral s a l t s play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in growth. Study the f o l l o w i n g experimental report and then answer the questions which f o l l o w , i . e . Qs. 34-36. An experiment was done on the germination of soaked seeds. Using the data graphed below, answer the questions which f o l l o w . MAIZE SEEDS SOAKED FOR 24HOURS NUMBER GERMI-NATING BEAN SEEDS SOAKED FOR 24H0URS NATING NUMBER OF.DAYS.AFTER PLANTING i ^ 3 ' 4 5 ' br y ' " a ' y IO NUMBER OF DAYS AFTER PLANTING 164 Q34. The f i r s t day by w h i c h 50 s o a k e d bean s e e d s had g e r m i n a t e d was t h e a. s e c o n d day a f t e r p l a n t i n g b. t h i r d day a f t e r p l a n t i n g c. f i f t h day a f t e r p l a n t i n g d. s i x t h day a f t e r p l a n t i n g Q35. The f i r s t day by w h i c h 10 s o a k e d m a i z e s e e d s had g e r m i n a t e d was t h e a. f i r s t day a f t e r p l a n t i n g b. s e c o n d day a f t e r p l a n t i n g c. t h i r d day a f t e r p l a n t i n g d. f o u r t h day a f t e r p l a n t i n g Q36. I f y o u were t o a d v i s e someone a b o u t when t o e x p e c t most s o a k e d m a i z e s e e d s ( o f t h e t y p e u s e d i n t h e a b o v e s t u d y ) t o g e r m i n a t e , y o u s h o u l d s a y a. . 1 day a f t e r p l a n t i n g b. 2 d a y s a f t e r p l a n t i n g c. 3 d a y s a f t e r p l a n t i n g d. 6 d a y s a f t e r p l a n t i n g 165 S t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t c a r e f u l l y a n d t h e n a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w , i . e . Qs. 37&38. A G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s t u d e n t was i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g t h e e f f e c t o f t h e age of s e e d s on t h e i r r a t e o f g e r m i n a t i o n . He t o o k an e q u a l number o f s e e d s w h i c h were 3,6,9,12,15,18,21 and 24 months o l d and p l a n t e d them under s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . The s t u d e n t c o u n t e d t h e number o f s e e d s w h i c h had g e r m i n a t e d 7 d a y s a f t e r p l a n t i n g . He g r a p h e d h i s r e s u l t s and o b t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g g r a p h : 25 .. NUMBER 5 3 I 5* 12 15 i s 21 24 27 AGE OF SEEDS (in months) Q37. Choose ONE s t a t e m e n t b e l o w w h i c h BEST d e s c r i b e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e a b o v e g r a p h . a. The number o f g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s e s as t h e age o f s e e d s i n c r e a s e s . b. The number of o l d s e e d s t h a t g e r m i n a t e i s l e s s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o f low q u a l i t y . c . H i g h - q u a l i t y s e e d s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n t o t a k e p l a c e . d. S eeds w h i c h a r e up t o 9 months o l d g e r m i n a t e w e l l a f t e r w h i c h t i m e t h e . r a t e o f g e r m i n a t i o n s h a r p l y d e c r e a s e s . '2 166 Q38. From t h e above g r a p h , how many 4 month o l d s e e d s may be e x p e c t e d t o g e r m i n a t e ? a. Same a s f o r 9 month o l d s e e d s b. More t h a n 20 c. L e s s t h a n 20 d. Not p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e Read t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t and t h e n a nswer t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w , i . e . Qs. 39&40. An e x p e r i m e n t was c a r r i e d o u t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f t e m p e r a t u r e on g e r m i n a t i o n . The e x p e r i m e n t e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t e m p e r a t u r e w o u l d have no e f f e c t on t h e r a t e o f g e r m i n a t i o n . The e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s r e s u l t s a r e g r a p h e d b e l o w . NUMBER OF 20 15 .. 10 + GERMINATING 5 " SEEDS i i 1-5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 TEMPERATURE (°C) Q39. The r e s u l t s on t h e above g r a p h i n d i c a t e t h a t a. a s t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e s , t h e r a t e o f g e r m i n a t i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e s . b. t h e r a t e o f g e r m i n a t i o n c h a n g e s w i t h c h a n g e s i n t e m p e r a t u r e . c. a s t e m p e r a t u r e d e c r e a s e s , t h e r a t e o f g e r m i n a t i o n i n c r e a s e s . d. d i f f e r e n t s e e d s r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t t e m p e r a t u r e s t o g e r m i n a t e . 167 Q40. The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a. s u p p o r t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s h y p o t h e s i s b. do n o t s u p p o r t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s h y p o t h e s i s c . a r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s h y p o t h e s i s d. i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g wrong w i t h t h e d e s i g n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . S t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t and t h e n a nswer t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s , i . e . Q41. I n an e x p e r i m e n t t o show t h a t s e e d s r e q u i r e a i r t o g e r m i n a t e , t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s i g n was u s e d : A f t e r f o u r d a y s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r f o u n d t h a t o n l y t h e s e e d s i n S e t B h a d g e r m i n t e d . Q41. I t may be c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h i s r e s u l t a l o n e t h a t a. o x y g e n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n b. s e e d s c a n n o t g e r m i n a t e i n a vacuum c. s e e d s r e q u i r e a i r t o g e r m i n a t e d. m e r c u r y does n o t s u p p o r t g e r m i n a t i o n 168 S t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l r e p o r t and t h e n a nswer t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s , i . e . Q42. I n an e x p e r i m e n t t o show t h a t s e e d s r e q u i r e o x y g e n t o g e r m i n a t e , a G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s t u d e n t s e t up h i s e x p e r i m e n t a s i n t h e d i a g r a m s b e l o w : Q42. I n t h e above e x p e r i m e n t t h e s t u d e n t f o u n d t h a t a l l t h e s e e d s i n b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t s had g e r m i n a t e d e q u a l l y w e l l . I t may be c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h i s r e s u l t a l o n e t h a t a. s e e d s do n o t r e q u i r e o x y g e n t o g e r m i n a t e b. h i g h - q u a l i t y m a i z e s e e d s g e r m i n a t e w e l l r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s c. g e r m i n a t i n g s e e d s g e n e r a t e h e a t d. o x y g e n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r g e r m i n a t i o n SET B SET A 169 APPENDIX C EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE TEST IN CONCEPTS AND PROCEDURES OF SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTATION 170 EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE TEST IN CONCEPTS AND PROCEDURES OF SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTATION (TCPSE). Name of Respondent: School: .Date: 1. Presented below are sixteen, 16, objectives upon which the attached Test in Concepts and Procedures of Scientific Experimentation(TCPSE) has been based. The respondent is requested to identify the test items which test the respective objectives and enter the item numbers in the boxes provided. The number of boxes after each objective represents the number of test items constructed for that particular objective. THE OBJECTIVES: Given a description of a scientific investigation, the student should be able to: (a) identify the manipulated variable in the investigation. TEST ITEMS (b) identify the responding variable in the investigation. TEST ITEMS (c) identify any controlled variable(s) in the investigation. TEST ITEMS (d) identify the hypothesis being tested in the investigation. TEST ITEMS (e) identify the best hypothesis for: testing the effect of a given variable. TEST ITEMS (f) choose the best design from descriptions of experimental designs aimed at testing a given hypothesis. TEST ITEMS 171 (g) choose a statement which best describes the adequacy of an experimental design aimed at testing a given hypothesis. TEST ITEMS (h) suggest how a given experimental design would be improved to yield the most acceptable results. TEST ITEMS (i) give the best explanation for controlling an experiment in a given way. TEST ITEMS (j) describe information presented on a table in terms of the range and mode. TEST ITEMS (k) describe information presented on a line graph. TEST ITEMS (1) interpret information presented on a bar graph. TEST ITEMS (m) extrapolate from data presented on a line graph. TEST ITEMS (n) interpolate from data presented on a. line graph. TEST ITEMS (o) construct inferences, predictions or other general statements based on given sets of data or experimental reports. TEST ITEMS 172 (p) check collected data against hypotheses being tested and state whether or not the data support the hypotheses. TEST ITEMS 2. The test items in this test have been constructed to reflect some concepts and procedures considered by the researcher to be important in Designing Scientific Investigations and Interpreting Scientific  Data. (a) To what extent would you consider the above objective to be a reflection of the knowledge of designing scientific invest-igations as well as interpreting scientific data? (b) To what extent have the test items adequately reflected the above objectives? (c) To what extent would you consider this test to be a valid measure of a student.'.s abi l i t y to (i) design as well as identify components of a scientific investigation; and (ii ) interpret data arising from experimental work in science? (i) ( i i ) (d) Do you have any other comments regarding this test? 173 APPENDIX D TOPICS STUDIED BY GROUP 1 (NORMAL INSTRUCTION IN GENERAL SCIENCE - NIGS) 174 ' TOPIC D—THE UNIVERSE (One term) Syllabwi 1. Movement of the earth around the sun. Rotation of the earth. Climate. Day and night. Other planets of the solar system. Movement of the moon around the earth. Use of a model to show the relative positions and movements of the sun. earth, and planets. Other stars as compared to the sun. Families of stars, galaxies, and the Milky Way 2. Weighing with a spring balance. Density of regular solids by weighing and measurement. Density of irregular solids by measuring their volume by displacement. Density of liquids by a simple method 3. Decrease in weight of submerged objects leading to the idea of flotation 4. Obtaining 'pure' substances from 'impure' substances 5. Soil as a mixture of many substances 6. Importance of soil. Soil erosion and its prevention 7. Simple experiments to show the main difference between physical and chemical changes. 8. A very simple introduction to the idea of differences in the reactivities of several metals. 9. Metals reacting with water to form hydrogen. Simple pro-perties of hydrogen. 10. Metals reacting with air to form oxides. Notes 1. Demonstration of the apparent motion of the sun through the sky. Reasons for the differences between tropical and temperate climates. Some idea of the sizes, distances and conditions on Venus, Mars. Jupiter and Saturn. Observations on position and appearance throughout the month of a suitable celestial object. Obser-vations using a simple telescope or binoculars. Reference may be made to modern telescopes. 2. Density introduced by weighing identical cubes of different substances. Calculation of density from experimental results. 3. Experiments to determine which everyday materials can float. Determination of densities by ArchimeJes Principle not required. 4. Simple experiments such as the evaporation of solutions, filtration, distilla-tion of simple mixtures, extraction of pigments from grass and petals. Important of such techniques in industry. 5. Simple experiments to determine the proportions of the main components of soil. The components of a good farming soil. 6. Importance of soil to plant life and in agriculture. Simple experiments to show the agencies of erosion: Practical methods of reducing erosion. The need for careful control of erosion in agriculture. 7. Experiments such as the burning of metals, heating of carbonates. Long lists of differences will not be asked for. Basic idea that one is permanent and the other not, one produces new substances while the other does not. 8. Limited to heating in air and reactions with water. The idea to develop here is that some metals are more reactive than others. 9. Simple word equations can be introduced here, e.g. Iron-1-Oxygen = Iron Oxide. 10. Simple word equations can be used here. Relate differences in reactivity to Section 8. 175 APPENDIX E CONTENT-SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION IN SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTATION (C-SISE) 176 CONTENT-SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION IN SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTATION (C-SISE) CONTENT AREA: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Instructional Units Prepared by N. Sitwala Imenda (May 1983) 177 TABLE OF CONTENTS ITEM PAGE GENERAL INTRODUCTION 178 OVERVIEW • - 179 SECTION I. DESIGNING SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS 182 UNIT 1. Identifying Manipulated and Responding Variables 182 UNIT 2. Constructing Hypotheses 192 UNIT 3. Identifying Controlled Variables and Hypotheses in Scientific Investigations 201 Part 1. Identfying Controlled Variables 203 Part 2. Analysing Scientific Investigations 212 UNIT 4. Designing/Planning Scientific Investigations 228 SECTION II. INTERPRETING DATA '241 INTRODUCTION 241 UNIT 5. Data Presented on Tables 242 UNIT 6. Graphic Description of Relationships Between Variables 263 Sub-Unit 1. Line Graphs \ 264 Sub-Unit 2. Bar Graphs (Histograms) 274 UNIT 7. Verifying Experimental Results 287-REFERENCES 306 178 OVERVIEW GENERAL_INTRODUCTION A. Relevance and Scope Every junior secondary school pupil in Zambia is expected to choose a topic, plan and conduct a scientific investigation on some aspect of the chosen topic. Although this is a collection of instructional materials based on photosynthesis only, i t is hoped that i t s treatment of experimental design and interpretation of data w i l l help you to better handle this task when your time comes to plan and carry out your own scientific investigation later on this year or early next year. The instruction w i l l focus mainly on the following topics: 1. Formulating hypotheses 2. Identifying variables and hypotheses in a scientific investigation 3. Designing investigations 4. Describing and interpreting graphic and textual data. B. Mode of Instruction The instructional units are designed in a way that enables the learner to go at his/her own pace. Each unit begins by identifying and stating the objectives the learner i s expected to achieve by doing the activities which follow. As the student progresses through the exercises, he/she w i l l be given 179 directions and asked to write responses to questions. Self-checks are given in order to enable the student to monitor his/her progress. At the end of each unit, the student w i l l take a mastery test which w i l l enable him/her to determine his/her level of proficiency with the materials. OVERVIEW The study of photosynthesis is better viewed from the following two Scientific Laws: 1. The Law of Conservation of Energy - which says that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; i t can only be changed (trans-formed) from one form to another. 2. The Law of Conservation of Mass - which says that matter can neither be created nor destroyed during chemical change; i t can only be changed from one substance to another. In accordance with the above laws you w i l l recall the following points 1. The energy we need to stay alive comes from the food we eat. 2. The chemicals we need to repair our bodies and make them grow come from our food. The chemicals in the food we eat get changed into the chemicals we need in our bodies. 3. A l l our food comes from plants in the f i r s t place. Even the animals we eat have fed on plants. 180 The study of PHOTOSYNTHESIS helps us to understand where the chemical energy of the plant food comes from and how the actual process of manufacturing the food occurs. Photosynthesis is a process by which green plants manufacture food, in the form of sugar which subsequently gets converted and stored in the form of starch. [NOTE: that starch i s simply a long chain of sugar molecules.] As we saw in the case of Seed Germination, certain factors (i.e. chemicals or substances) are also necessary for plants to carry out photosynthesis. In this case the chemicals/substances necessary ftpr. photosynthesis, to. take place, are: 1. Water 2. Light energy 3. Carbon dioxide, and 4. Chlorophyll. Of these four factors, the f i r s t three have to be made available to the plant. The fourth one, however, naturally occurs within the plant i t s e l f . As a matter of fact, the green colour with which we associate leaves of plants is due to chlorophyll. Leaves which do not contain chlorophyll do not look green and are unable to carry out photosynthesis. Those leaves which contain patches of yellow and green are called VARIEGATED leaves because they do not have one single colour. In such leaves only the green areas are capable of photosynthesizing, i.e., carrying out^photosynthesis. This is due to the presence of chlorophyll in these green areas and lack of i t in the other areas. 181 The process of photosynthesis is normally represented as follows: WATER + Carbon Dioxide Sugar + Oxygen in presence of light, energy and chlorophyll This is normally written as follows, using chemical symbols: 12H20 + 6C02 Light f C6 H12°6 + 6 < V + 6 H 2 ° Chlorophyll This chemical equation reads: 12molecules of water combine with 6 molecules of carbon dioxide in the presence of light energy and chlorophyll to produce one molecule of sugar six molecules of both oxygen and water The arrow pointing upwards after oxygen simply means that the oxygen which i s produced during the reaction is released into the atmosphere, i.e., i t i s not stored within the leaf. During the course of the instructional units which follow, you w i l l be introduced to various aspects of designing scientific investigations and interpreting data using mainly the information presented above. One important point to note is that whereas i t is necessary to know the factors which are necessary for photosynthesis to occur, i.e., presence of light energy, water, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll, the main purpose of the instructional units given below centres on designing investigations and interpretation of data to verify the importance of the substances in this process. 182 SECTION I Unit 1. Identifying Manipulated and Responding Variables Purpose In this section, you w i l l be learning one of the s k i l l s needed when conducting an investigation. This important s k i l l may be used in every situation whenever you: a) wish to analyze how someone else conducted an investigation, and b) plan and carry out an investigation of your own. Objective After studying this unit you should be able to: 1. identify the MANIPULATED and RESPONDING variables in a written, statement or from a description of an investigation TIME REQUIRED TO COMPLETE THE UNIT: 2 DOUBLE PERIODS Introduction. The best way to become comfortable with science is to do science-related activities. You need to investigate a bit, use some equip-ment, and get your hands dirty. However, before this can be possible, i t is wise to know precisely what i t is you wish, to investigate and how you are going to carry out your investigation. The activities below w i l l enable you to acquire some knowledge relating to this i n i t i a l step of defining the nature of your investigation. 183 Directions, Over the next few pages, you w i l l complete a short segment of programmed instruction. Perhaps you have never used this type of instruction before. If not, the procedure is very simple. The instruction is broken down into small pieces. These pieces are presented as FRAMES. In a frame, some information i s usually given and a response is required of you, the learner. After writing in your response, you can check whether or not you are right by comparing i t with the answer on the right hand side of the page. Use a card or piece of paper to cover the answers. Read the frame and write in your responses. Then slide the card down to check your answer. If you make a mistake, read the frame again to find out what went wrong. Purpose » The purpose of this programme is to teach you to identify variables. After you have learned to identify variables you w i l l learn to classify them as manipulated or responding variables. These words are probably unfamiliar (i.e., new) to you now, but soon they w i l l be familiar. Read the following statement: THE AMOUNT OF STARCH MANUFACTURED IN A LEAF OF A PLANT DEPENDS ON THE AMOUNT OF WATER THE PLANT RECEIVES. In the above statement, two variables are described: 1. amount of starch; 2. amount of water. 184 A variable is something that can vary or change in a situation or a scientific investigation. What are the variables in the following statement? The amount of starch manu-factured in a leaf depends on how long the leaf is exposed to light. (i) ( i i ) Variables: (i) amount of starch ( i i ) length of time a leaf is exposed to light. It would not be correct to just say "starch" or "light" as the variables because you must include how each variable w i l l be measured. What are the variables in this statement; The greater the number of leaves on a plant, the greater the amount of chlorophyll i t contains. (i) ( i i ) Variables: (i) number of leaves (i i ) amount of chlorophyll Your answers do not have to be exactly the same as these but they should be close. An investigation was done to see i f the amount of starch manufactured in leaves was affected by the amount of carbon dioxide the leaves were exposed to. What are the variables in this investigation? (i) ( i i ) Variables: (i) amount of starch ( i i ) amount of carbon dioxide Again, your answers do not have to be exactly like the ones above. They should nevertheless be similar. In particular, "starch", or "carbon dioxide" would be incorrect listings by them-selves . 185 Frame 4 Frame 5 What are the variables in the statement below? (Remember, a variable is something that can change or vary in an investigation.) Occurence of photosynthesis was measured in terms of presence of starch in a leaf. (i) ( i i ) Variables: (i) Occurence of photosyn-thesis (i i ) presence of starch. Here is another statement. Identify the variables in i t . Photosynthesis occurs in the presence of water, carbon dioxide, light and chlorophyll Variables: (i) Photosynthesis (ii ) Water ( i i i ) Carbon Dioxide (iv) Light (v) Chlorophyll In an experiment to find out . whether or not the amount of light received by plants affected the amount of starch manufactured by the plants, three potted plants were exposed each day to five, ten and fifteen hours, respectively. What are the variables in this investigation? (i) ( i i ) Which one of the two variables was the MANIPULATED variable? (i) Variables: (i) amount of light received by plants. ( i i ) amount of starch manufactured by plants. (The underlined portions of the above intended responses are adequate by themselves.) Manipulated Variable: (i) amount of light received by plants. 186 What variable is being manip-ulated in the investigation below: To investigate the effect of carbon dioxide on photo-synthesis, two sets of green plants were used. In the f i r s t set the plants were exposed to light, carbon dioxide and water. In the second set, the plants were exposed only to light and water. (All plants used contained chlorophyll.) Manipulated Variable: (i) Manipulated Variable: (i) carbon dioxide NOTE: that in this case the manipulated variable is defined in terms of the presence or absence of the variable of interest, in this case carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide has been MANIPULATED by being made available or unavailable to the plants. In an experiment to show the effect of chlorophyll on photo-synthesis, a variegated leaf from a plant which had previously been exposed to water, light and carbon dioxide was used. What was the manipulated variable in this study? (i) Manipulated Variable: (i) Portion of leaf having and not having chloro-phyll. (In this case the experi-menter "manipulated" presence and/or absence of chlorophyll by choosing a variegated leaf, i.e., a leaf which had chlorophyll in some areas but not in others.) To investigate the effect of water on photosynthesis, two sets of chlorophyll-contain-ing plants (green plants) were used. The f i r s t set was watered regularly and exposed to carbon dioxide and light. The second set was kept dry but was also exposed to light and carbon dioxide. What was the manipulated variable in this study? (i) Manipulated Variable: (i) Presence/absence of water (If in doubt, refer back to explanation given in frame 7 above.). 187 If a variable is expected to change as a result of manip-ulating another variable, such a variable i s called a RESPONDING variable. Referring back to the investi-gation presented in frame 6 above, the 'amount of starch manufactured by plants' is the RESPONDING variable. What were the RESPONDING variables in frames 7, 8, and 9 above? Responding Variables: (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) Responding Variables: (i) Frame 7: occurence of photosynthesis. ( i i ) Frame 8: occurence of photosynthesis. ( i i i ) Frame 9: occurence of photosynthesis. Again, your answers need not be exactly as given above. They should, however, be close. Identify the manipulated and responding variables in the following statement: More starch w i l l be manufac-tured in a leaf i f i t contains more water. (i) Manipulated Variable: (i i ) Responding Variable: (i) Manipulated Variable Amount of water in the leaf. ( i i ) Responding Variable: Amount of starch manufactured by leaf. The amount of water in a leaf is manipulated to see i f the amount of starch manufactured responds. 188 Frame 12 I d e n t i f y the manipulated and responding v a r i a b l e s i n the f o l l o w i n g statement: More photosynthesis w i l l occur ( i ) Manipulated V a r i a b l e : i n a l e a f i f i t i s exposed to more l i g h t . amount of l i g h t ( i ) Manipulated V a r i a b l e ( i i ) Responding v a r i a b l e : amount of s t a r c h manufactured ;or occurence ( i i ) Responding V a r i a b l e of photosynthesis. The amount of l i g h t reaching a l e a f i s manipulated to see i f the amount of s t a r c h manufactured responds. Frame 13 Consider the f o l l o w i n g chemical r e a c t i o n f o r photo-synthesis production of s t a r c h : L i g h t . 6 „ 0 12H 20 + 6C0 2 C h l o r o p h y l l " 2 + C,H 1 o0, + 60-* 6 12 6 2 The amount of oxygen produced i n t h i s r e a c t i o n depends on the amount of carbon di o x i d e a v a i l a b l e to the p l a n t . • What are the manipulated and ( i ) Manipulated V a r i a b l e : responding v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s statement? amount of carbon dioxide ( i ) Manipulated V a r i a b l e : ( i i ) Responding V a r i a b l e : amount of oxygen ( i i ) Responding V a r i a b l e : 189 Consider the chemical equation presented in frame 13 above. The amount of water available to the plant w i l l determine how much oxygen is produced in the photosynthetic reaction. What are the manipulated and responding variables in the above statement? (i) Manipulated Variable: (i) Manipulated Variable amount of water (ii ) Responding Variable: amount of oxygen (i i ) Responding Variable: Summary In this unit, you have learned to identify variables. You learned that a variable i s something that can change or vary in a scientific investi-gation or experiment. Next, you learned to identify two different kinds of ) variables. A variable that is deliberately changed in a situation is called a MANIPULATED VARIABLE. The variable that may change as a result of the manipulation i s called a RESPONDING VARIABLE. Now, obtain a unit test from your teacher and submit i t to him/her for marking after you have completed i t . 190 TEST FOR UNIT 1  IDENTIFYING VARIABLES I n s t r u c t i o n s : F o r each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s o r d e s c r i p t i o n s , i d e n t i f y t h e m a n i p u l a t e d v a r i a b l e (MV) and r e s p o n d i n g v a r i a b l e (RV ) . 1. S t u d e n t s i n a s c i e n c e c l a s s c a r r i e d o u t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o s t u d y t he e f f e c t o f c a r b o n d i o x i d e on p h o t o s y n t h e s i s . They, p l a c e d t h e f i r s t g r e e n p l a n t i n a b e l l j a r c o n t a i n i n g p o t a s s i u m h y d r o x i d e - a s u b s t a n c e w h i c h ab so rb s c a r b o n d i o x i d e . N e x t , t hey p l a c e d a second g r een p l a n t i n a n o t h e r b e l l j a r w h i c h d i d n o t c o n t a i n p o t a s s i u m h y d r o x i d e . B o t h p l a n t s were s u p p l i e d w i t h w a t e r and were exposed t o s u n l i g h t . A f t e r a few days t hey " t e s t e d t h e l e a v e s f r o m t h e two p l a n t s f o r p r e s e n c e o f s t a r c h . MV: RV: 2. The amount o f oxygen p r o d u c e d i n a p h o t o s y n t h e t i c r e a c t i o n depends on t h e amount o f l i g h t t o w h i c h a p l a n t i s e x p o s e d . MV: RV: 191 T e s t f o r U n i t 1 ( c o n t i n u e d ) 3. Cassava p l a n t s s t o r e s t a r c h i n t h e i r r o o t s . One s t u d e n t was i n t e r e s t e d , f o r h i s s c i e n c e p r o j e c t , t o f i n d o u t whether the l e n g t h o f t i m e c a s s a v a p l a n t s were exposed t o s u n l i g h t a f f e c t e d t h e amount of s t a r c h w h i c h was s u b s e q u e n t l y s t o r e d i n t h e p l a n t s ' r o o t s . MV: RV: 4. The s i z e o f c a s s a v a r o o t s depends on t h e amount of c h l o r o p h y l l c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p l a n t s ' l e a v e s . MV: •  RV :-; , 5 . The amount o f s t a r c h produced by a p l a n t depends upon the amount o f w a t e r t o w h i c h t h e p l a n t i s exposed. MV: RV: * * * * * E N D O F X E S T * * * * * r 192 UNIT 2 CONSTRUCTING_HYPOTHESES Purpose: Hypotheses are guesses about the rel a t i o n s h i p between varia b l e s . Before any sensible i n v e s t i g a t i o n or experiment i s done a hypothesis i s usually stated. The hypothesis provides guidance to an investigator about what data to c o l l e c t . - In t h i s section, you w i l l learn to construct or write hypotheses. This s k i l l w i l l be used i n subsequent sections of t h i s general topic. Objective: After studying t h i s u n i t , you should be able to: 1. construct a hypothesis when provided with a problem. Approximate time needed for completion: 1 Double period. INTRODUCTION The f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y when constructing a hypothesis i s to i d e n t i f y variables that could possibly a f f e c t the responding va r i a b l e . To do t h i s , you should examine the object i n a problem s i t u a t i o n and the environment i n which that object i s . 193 For example, consider t h i s problem: What af f e c t s the process of photosynthesis? A beginner i n the f i e l d , who has no idea about which p a r t i c u l a r factors might influence t h i s process may simply make a guess and l i s t the following fa c t o r s : 1. Temperature 2. Water 3. Oxygen 4 . Mineral s a l t s Notice that the experimenter may guess r i g h t or wrong vari a b l e s . The variables that the experimenter guesses may be based simply on h i s imagination or on more accurate information found i n books or communicated to him through other sources of information. Constructing A Hypothesis Once you have i d e n t i f i e d the variable which you think w i l l a f f e c t a given s i t u a t i o n , a testable hypothesis can now be stated. The term "testable hypothesis" i s used because t h i s indicates one of the functions a hypothesis should serve. / A hypothesis should point the way towards the design of an inv e s t i g a t i o n to test i t . To construct a hypothesis, express what you think w i l l be the e f f e c t of the variable you w i l l manipulate on the v a r i a b l e you expect to respond. This guess can be based on f a c t , opinion, i n s t i n c t or whatever sources of information you may possess. 194 For example, to construct a hypothesis related to the above problem, i.e., what affects the process of photosynthesis?, one may start with the f i r s t factor listed above: Temperature. A hypothesis to test the influence of heat on photosynthesis may, subse-quently^ be stated as follows: As the temperature around a plant increases, the amount of starch  being synthesized (manufactured) in the plant also increases. This type of guess is called a hypothesis and i t sets out a situation which an experimenter may now wish to test. One good way of formulating hypotheses in photosynthesis is by stating them in such a way that the effect of presence or absence of a given variable on occurence of photosynthesis is tested. Hence, going back to the factors identified above, we can construct the following hypotheses: 1. Photosynthesis w i l l not take place outside a certain optimum temperature range. 2 . Photosynthesis w i l l not take place in the absence of water. 3. Photosynthesis w i l l not take place in the absence of oxygen. 4 . Plants which have not been supplied with mineral salts w i l l not carry out photosynthesis. 195 EXERCISE 1 One Grade 9 student is interested in testing whether or not the following factors are necessary for photosynthesis to take place: 1. light energy 2. carbon dioxide 3. chlorophyll 4. air Construct a testable hypothesis on each of these variables to help the student to carry out his/her investigation: a) . • ; b) c) \ " d) '  (Check your hypotheses against those given at the back of this unit before you proceed to the next exercise!) 196 EXERCISE 2: A student i s i n t e r e s t e d i n formulating hypotheses on the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s to determine how they are r e l a t e d to the amount of oxygen produced by photosynthesizing water p l a n t s : v a r i a b l e s : 1. length (duration) of exposure to s u n l i g h t 2. amount of carbon dioxide 3. amount of c h l o r o p h y l l 4. number of leave on pla n t Construct a t e s t a b l e hypothesis on each of these v a r i a b l e s to help you to carry out some ~ i n v e s t i g a t i o n s : a) b) c) d) (Check your hypotheses against those given at the end of t h i s u n i t before taking the u n i t test.).. 197 MODEL_ANSWERS EXERCISE 1: a) No photosynthesis w i l l take place in the absence of light energy. OR Photosynthesis can only take place in the presence of light energy. b) Photosynthesis w i l l not occur in the absence of carbon dioxide. OR Photosynthesis takes place only in the presence of carbon dioxide c) Leaves which do not contain chlorophyll w i l l not carry out photosynthesis. OR Photosynthesis only takes place in chlorophyll-containing leaves d) Photosynthesis w i l l not take place in the absence of air. OR Photosynthesis takes place only in the presence of air. Your hypotheses may be entirely different from those given above, and s t i l l be correct. In each case, however, your statement should include the predicted effect of a manipulated variable on a responding variable. If in doubt, check the adequacy of your hypotheses with your teacher. 198 EXERCISE 2: a) The more a photosynthesizing water plant is exposed to light, the more oxygen i t produces. [NOTE: that the opposite of the above hypothesis i s equally correct as a hypothesis, viz: the more a photosynthesizing water plant is exposed to light, the less oxygen i t produces. Remember, a hypothesis is just a guess and not a l l guesses are correct.] b) The more the carbon dioxide a plant i s exposed to, the less the oxygen produced during photosynthesis. c) The amount of oxygen produced by a photosynthesizing water plant increases as the amount of chlorophyll contained by the plant also increases. d) The amount of oxygen produced by a photosynthesizing plant increases as the number of leaves on the plant increase. These are only a few of the many hypotheses which could be formulated concerning the variables listed above. Other relationships could also have been envisioned. Consequently, your hypotheses may be different, and perhaps opposite in meaning, from the ones given above, but s t i l l be acceptable hypotheses. 199 TEST FOR UNIT 2  CONSTRUCTING HYPOTHESES Instructions: For each of the following statements, write YES in the space provided i f you think the statement represents a clear formulation of a hypothesis and NO is you think i t does not. a) Chlorophyll is one of the factors necessary for photosynthesis to take place. b) Photosynthesis cannot take place in the presence of water. c) Photosynthesis can only take place i f light energy is provided to the plant. d) The more a photosynthesizing plant is exposed to oxygen, the more the starch produced. e) Carbon dioxide is one of the factors necessary for photosynthesis to take place. f) The more a photosynthesizing plant i s exposed to carbon dioxide the more oxygen w i l l be produced. g) Leaves which do not contain chlorophyll w i l l carry out photo-synthesis . h) Without water, photosynthesis cannot take place. i) Light is necessary for photosynthesis to occur because of the energy i t provides to the plant. j) The amount of oxygen produced during photosynthesis depends on the amount of chlorophyll contained in the leaves of a plant. 200 Test for Unit 2 (continued) For Question 2, circle the statement which best completes the statement. 2. When we say that a scientist has formed a hypothesis about an experiment, we mean that he has: a) indicated which measurements were made. b) designed equipment needed for an experiment. c) described how the experiment turned out. d) made a careful guess about what might happen. * * * * * E N D OF T E S T * * * * * 201 UNIT 3 IDENTIFYING_CONTROL Purpose: Before you can design your own investigation, you need to learn to recognize the parts of a typical investigation. What are the variables under study? What hypothesis i s being tested? These and other questions can be answered by analyzing an investigation. Objectives: After studying this unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the manipulated, responding and controlled variables in an experiment. 2. identify the hypothesis being tested when supplied with a description of an investigation. Part 1 - Controlling Variables Approximate time for completion: 2 Double periods. Introduction: There are many factors which might affect the outcome of an experiment, factors that the experimenter may not be interested in at the moment. For example, suppose we wanted to test the following situation: The greater the amount of light a plant i s exposed to, the greater the amount of oxygen produced during photosynthesis. We could grow some plants 202 in bright light and others where the light i s dim, and then measure the amount of oxygen produced per day or any period we choose to use. However, any results obtained would be worthless i f the amount of water each group received was different, or i f one type was made of all-green leaves while another carried variegated leaves. You are probably now beginning to see one of the problems associated with investigations. We want to be able to say that the manipulated variable and  only the manipulated variable affected the responding variable(s). We must make sure, therefore, that any other factor that could have an effect i s prevented from doing so. A variable which might affect an experiment but is kept from doing so is called a CONTROLLED VARIABLE. An experiment using such a variable i s said to be a controlled experiment. We could then define a controlled variable as one that i s prevented from affecting the outcome of an experiment. _ Now, consider the following experimental situation and identify the variables which are being controlled. \ 203 PART 1: CONTROLLING VARIABLES This unit w i l l concentrate on discussions of experiments which investi-gate the importance of the four factors which were identified in Unit 1 as being necessary for photosynthesis to take place. EXPERIMENTAL SITUATION 1: THE ROLE OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS Absorption of Carbon Dioxide by a Water Plant The fact that carbon dioxide is absorbed in the presence of light is indirect evidence of i t s use in the process of food-making (i.e., photo- • synthesis). One of the simplest methods of demonstrating this is by use of a water plant, and an indicator (chemical) which responds to slight changes in carbon dioxide concentrations in the chemical. Brom thymol blue (bromothymol blue) is one such chemical. The colour of brom thymol blue, as the name suggests, is blue. How-ever, i f carbon dioxide is added to the solution, the colour of the solution changes to yellow. If the carbon dioxide is taken away from the solution, as in photosynthesizing water plants, the colour of the solution turns back to blue. Now, study the following experimental report and then answer the quest-ions which follow. -. 204 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. Brom thymol blue was prepared in a flask and then the teacher blew carbon dioxide into the solution until i t just turned yellow. The resulting yellow solution was then poured into three large identical test-tubes. Two identical green plants were then placed into the f i r s t and second test-tubes, respectively. The experimental sets were then set up as follows: Test-tube 1: contained a green water plant and was exposed to light. Test-tube 2: contained a water plant similar to the one used in test-tube 1. This test-tube was, however, wrapped in aluminium f o i l to prevent light from reaching the plant. Test-tube 3: contained no plant and was exposed to light like test-tube 1. Now, answer the following questions. a) What changes, i f any, do you expect to see in: (i) Test-tube 1? ( i i ) Test-tube 2? ( i i i ) Test-tube 3? 205 b) What important roles are test-tubes 2 and 3 playing in this experiment? (i) Test-tube 2: (i i ) Test-tube 3: c) What variables were controlled in the experiment? (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) (iv) (v) [Student answers may be discussed while the experiment runs.] 206 EXPERIMENTAL SITUATION 2: Kashimoto wanted to see whether or not water plants needed light to carry out photosynthesis. He knew that photosynthesizing plants gave out oxygen so he expected that oxygen would be produced as an indication of whether or not photosynthesis had occurred. Kashimoto therefore set up his experiment as follows: he used two identical water plants; put them in equally-sized test-tubes and beakers; and used equal amounts of water in each set. He then kept one plant in the dark for three days and another one in the light, also for three days: LIGHT Inverted "test-tube Inverted test-tube' c < Water plant Water plant Beaker KEPT IN THE DARK FOR THREE DAYS KEPT IN THE LIGHT FOR THREE DAYS Question 1: What was the manipulated variable in this study? 207 Question 2: How did Kashimoto define his responding variable? Question 3: What was the significance (importance) of placing one experimental set in the dark? Question 4: What variables were controlled in the study? a) b) c) d) .  e) , * * * * * * * * * * * * You may have included the following variables on your l i s t : 1. MV: Presence/absence of light 2. RV: Defined in terms of release of oxygen. 3. The only difference between the two sets is presence/absence of light. The purpose of this study i s to examine whether or not presence or absence of light has any effect on photosynthesis, when a l l other requirements 208 for photosynthesis are satisfied. This i s best demonstrated when two sets are used as in the above experiment. 4. Your l i s t of controlled variables should have included: a) size of test-tubes used, b) size of beakers used, c) length of time the plants were kept in their respective experimental situations, d) type of water plant used, e) amount of water used in each case. Notice that i f different types of plants, different periods of time to run the experimental sets, or different amounts of water were used, i t would not be possible to say that the outcome was due to the effect of light alone. This i s the purpose, of having a controlled experiment, i.e., so that the outcome can be said to be due to the manipulated variable only. At this point, you are probably wondering whether or not i t is possible, in the f i r s t place, to identify and control for a l l the variables in a given experiment. This is the main purpose of this unit. In any experiment, there could be so many variables that may need to be controlled that no one could think of them a l l . This requires an experimenter to be reasonably knowledgeable with the topic or subject about which he is experimenting. 209 The best way to make sure that a l l variables are controlled for is by making several experimental set ups, each of which is treated in exactly the same way except for the manipulated variable. A controlled variable i s something, other than the manipulated variable, that could affect the responding variable. In a controlled experiment, the  controlled variables are usually prevented from affecting the outcome by making  sure that they are the same in a l l cases. Be sure that you understand the answers to the above questions before you proceed to the next experiment. 210 EXPERIMENTAL SITUATION 3: In an experiment to test whether or not water is necessary for photo-synthesis to take place, two identical green plants were used. The f i r s t plant was planted in f e r t i l e s o i l and watered regularly. The second plant was also planted in f e r t i l e s o i l but was not watered at a l l . Both plants were l e f t in the laboratory on an open shelf, exposed to the same amount of light. After three days, some leaves were taken from each plant and tested for starch. a) What was the manipulated variable in this experiment? b) What was the responding variable? c) What variables were controlled in the experiment? (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) (iv) ; (v) * * * * * * * * * * * * 211 Your answers to the above questions may have looked like the following: a. Presence/absence of water. b. Presence/absence of starch in leaf after three days; OR, occurrence of photosynthesis. c. (i) type of plant (green in each case). (i i ) type of s o i l where each plant was planted. ( i i i ) place where each set was left - open area to allow air (carbon dioxide) to reach the plants. (iv) amount of light to which the two plants were exposed. (v) length of time the experimental sets were l e f t to run. EXPERIMENTAL SITUATION 4: To test whether or not chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis to take place, carry out the following procedure: 1. Take a variegated leaf from your teacher. 2. Make a drawing of the leaf showing i t s pattern of green and non-green regions. 3. a) Boil about 300 ml of water in a beaker. b) Place the leaf you are testing for starch in the boiling water for 1 to 2 minutes until i t becomes very soft. (Heating a leaf in water ' " k i l l s the leaf", by breaking up i t s cells and removing the chlorophyll) c) Hold the leaf by i t s stem with forceps and rinse i t in warm alcohol until you have removed as much of the chlorophyll as possible. 212 PART I I : ANALYSING SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS I n t h i s p a r t , you a r e r e q u i r e d t o s t u d y the g i v e n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s and then s t a t e what i s wrong w i t h each one o f them. EXPERIMENT 1. A G e n e r a l S c i e n c e s t u d e n t was i n t e r e s t e d i n t e s t i n g the impo r t a n c e o f l i g h t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s . The s t u d e n t used two i d e n t i c a l p l a n t s w h i c h had been p r e v i o u s l y k e p t i n the da r k i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t t h e y c o n t a i n e d no s t a r c h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e e x p e r i m e n t . He th e n s e t h i s s t u d y as f o l l o w s : SET 1 SET 2 . LIGHT LEFT IN THE LEFT IN THE DARK LIGHT Both p l a n t s were green ; were s u p p l i e d w i t h enough w a t e r and a i r . Set 1 was k e p t i n t h e d a r k , w h i l e Set 2 was k e p t i n the l i g h t . A f t e r f o u r h o u r s , t h e s t u d e n t t o o k a l e a f from Set 1 and t e s t e d i t f o r s t a r c h . He w a i t e d f o r f o u r more hours and then took a l e a f from Set 2 and t e s t e d i t a l s o f o r s t a r c h . He th e n compared the r e s u l t s . 213 QUESTION: What is wrong with this study? EXPERIMENT 2. Another student was also interested in testing the importance of light in photosynthesis. He set up his experiment as follows: SET 1 SET 2 LEFT IN THE DARK LIGHT IDENTICAL GREEN PLANTS Potassium hydrox-ide pellets \ (to absorb carbon> dioxide from bell jar) The plants used were identical and were watered with equal amounts of water. Prior to the experiment the plants were placed in the dark for four days so as to ensure that they contained no starch at the beginning of the experiment. Set 1 was placed in the dark while Set 2 was placed in the light with a beaker containing potassium hydroxide pellets. QUESTION: What do you find wrong with this experimental design? 2 1 4 EXPERIMENT 3. A student was interested in testing the importance of carbon dioxide in the process of photosynthesis. He set up his experiment as follows: SET 1 Identical green plant Potassium hyd ide pellets (Used to ab carbon dioxid from b e l l SET 2 Two identical green plants, which had been previously kept in the dark to get rid of starch from the leaves, were used. They were supplied with equal amounts of water as well as light. QUESTION: What do you find wrong with this experimental design? * * * * * * * * * * * * 215 Model Answers to questions in Part II above: Experiment 1: Tests for starch in the two respective plants should have been carried out at the same time. Experiment 2: Set 2 should not have contained potassium hydroxide pellets for an experiment testing importance of light. Such a design w i l l yield misleading results. Experiment 3: Both plants do not contain carbon dioxide. One of the sets should not have contained potassium hydroxide. The experiment has no control. * * * * * * * * * Answers to Experimental Situation 1: Part I Absorption of Carbon Dioxide by a Water Plant 1. a) Test-tube 1: This test-tube contained a l l the requirements for photosynthesis to take place. Accordingly, i t was expected that the plant in this test-tube would carry out photosynthesis, using the carbon dioxide contained in the solution - thereby liberating oxygen. It was, therefore, expected that after some time the solution would turn blue due to removal of carbon dioxide from i t . 216 Absorption of Carbon Dioxide by a Water Plant (continued) 1. b) Test-tube 2: Because light was excluded from this test-tube, photo-synthesis would not take place. No change would, therefore, be expected to occur. This was a control for the fact that without photosynthesis taking place, no changes would take place. c) Test-tube 3: Since there was no plant in this set, photosynthesis would not take place, and therefore, no change would occur. This controlled for just the possibility of the solution changing colour over time. 2. a) Test-tube 2: As indicated above, this set served as a control experiment by not allowing photosynthesis to occur. If no change takes place in this test-tube, whereas a change occurs in Test-tube 1, we can say that the observed change is due to the process of photosynthesis which occurred in Test-tube 1 but not in Test-tube 2. b) Test-tube 3: Also served as a control experiment by testing whether or not the colour of the solution would change on i t s own over time. Since the only difference between this set and the one in Test-tube 1 i s the presence of the water plant, the observed change is attributed only to something which the plant in Test-tube 1 is doing that is lacking in Test-tube 3. 217 Absorption of Carbon Dioxide by a Water Plant (continued) 3. a) Blowing carbon dioxide into the solution before i t was distributed into the various test-tubes eliminated the possibility of blowing different amounts of the gas into the respective test-tubes. If this was not done, changes or lack of change in the colours of the solutions in the three test-tubes would have been interpreted in terms of some differing resistances to change colour due to different amounts of carbon dioxide in each of the test-tubes. It  was important to control for the amount of carbon dioxide in each  test-tube. b) Types (and sizes) of test-tubes used. c) Types of plants used in test-tubes 1 and 2. d) Sets 1 and 2 were controls for occurrence/non-occurrence of photosynthesis. e) A l l sets were placed at the same time and in the same place. CONCLUSION: Since test-tubes 2 and 3 showed no colour changes, the colour change in Test-tube 1 may be taken as indirect evidence of the absorption of carbon dioxide by green, photosynthesizing plants. 218 TEST FOR UNIT 3 CONTROLLING VARIABLES AND ANALYZING SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS For Question 1 below, circle the statement which best completes the statement. 1. A controlled experiment is used to test a hypothesis because i t : a) tests many parts of a problem at once and this saves time. b) uses trial-and-error since a scientist cannot know everything. c) is necessary for every good scientific investigation. d) tests only one part of a problem at a time. 2. To investigate whether or not light is necessary for photosynthesis"to take place, two experimental sets were prepared: Two identical green plants were watered with equal amounts of water and set up as follows: SET 1 SET 2 Left in Light Left in Dark Both sets were exposed to plenty of air and were l e f t to run for four days after which time some leaves were taken from the two respective plants and tested for starch. 219 Test for Unit 3 (continued) 2. a) What was the manipulated variable in this experiment? b) What was the responding variable? c) What was the importance of using two sets of experiments in this investigation, i.e., why was i t not enough to use only either Set 1 or Set 2? d) What variables were controlled? (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) (iv) 220 Test for Unit 3 (continued) 3. To investigate the role of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis, Muleta used two identical plants which were previously kept in the dark for a few days so as to remove starch from their leaves. He watered the plants with equal amounts of water and then set up his experiment as in the diagrams below: SET 1 SET 2 Plant Without Carbon Dioxide Identical Plants Potassium Hydroxi-de pellets (used to absorb carbon dioxide from the bell-jar) Plant with access to carbon dioxide contained in the bell-jar Muleta placed the two sets in the sunlight from 1000 hours to 1500. hours and then took some leaves from both plants and tested them for starch. a) What was the manipulated variable in this study? b) What was the responding variable? c) What variables were controlled? (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) (iv) 221 Test for Unit 3 (continued) 4 . Kacasu was interested in testing the importance of chlorophyll in the process of photosynthesis. He took a variegated leaf which was exposed to light for two days and marked a circle around a l l non-green patches using water-proof ink. He then tested the leaf for starch. a) What was the manipulated variable in this study? b) What was the responding variable? c) Can you think of any variables which have not been mentioned but which you think were controlled in the study? (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) 5. In an experiment to show that oxygen is liberated (given off) during photo-synthesis, a water plant, which was previously kept in the dark for three days so as to get rid of a l l the starch in i t s leaves, was used. The experiment was then set up as follows: 222 Test for Unit 3 (continued) The set was l e f t in sunlight from 0800 hours to 1600 hours. At 1600 hours the experimenter noticed that a gas had collected in the test-tube. He collected this gas and tested i t with a glowing splint. a) What was/were the manipulated variable(s) in this experiment? b) What was the responding variable? c) Was this experiment controlled or not? Explain. 6. In an experiment to see whether or not carbon dioxide is absorbed during photosynthesis, the following experiment was carried out: The experiment used a chemical called phenol red, which, as the name suggests, is red in colour. When carbon dioxide is added to phenol red, the chemical turns yellow and when the carbon dioxide is removed the chemical turns back to red. 223 Test for Unit 3 (continued) 6. The experimenter prepared the phenol red solution in a large flask and then blew carbon dioxide into i t until i t just turned yellow. He then poured the resulting yellow solution into three identical test-tubes. Two identical green water plants were then placed into the f i r s t and second test-tubes, respectively. The experiment was then set up as follows: Test-tube 1: contained one green water plant and was exposed to light. Test-tube 2: contained one green water plant similar to the one in Test-tube 1 but was wrapped in aluminium f o i l to prevent light from reaching the plant. Test-tube 3: contained no plant and was exposed to light as for Test-tube 1. a) What was/were the manipulated variable(s) in this experiment? b) What was the responding variable? 224 Test for Unit 3 (continued) 6. c) What importance do you attach to test-tubes 2 and 3? (i) Test-tube 2: (i i ) Test-tube 3: d) What variables were controlled in the experiment? (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) (iv) ; In the next three questions, you are required to study the given descrip-tions of experimental designs and state, using the spaces provided, what you think is wrong with each design. 225 Test for Unit 3 (continued) 7. Experiment 1: A student was interested in testing the importance of light in photosynthesis. He set up his experiment as follows: Set 1 Set 2 Young growing green plants Two plants were used after verifying that their leaves did not contain any starch. They^ were supplied with enough water and air. Both plants were green and were exposed to equal amounts of light. Question: What is wrong with this experimental design? 2 2 6 Test for Unit 3 (continued) 8. Experimental Design 2. A student was interested in testing the importance of carbon dioxide in the process of photosynthesis. He set up his experiment as follows: Set 1 Set 2 Left in the Dark Left in the Light Two identical green plants were used. They were watered with equal amounts of water and then exposed to sufficient air. Set 1 was placed in the dark and Set 2 was placed in the light. Question: What is wrong with this experimental design? 227 Test for Unit 3 (continued) 9. Experimental Design 3. A General Science student was interested in testing the importance of water in the process of photosynthesis. He set up his experiment as follows: Set 1 Set 2 The student used two plants which contained no starch. The plant in Set 1 had green leaves while the one in Set 2 had variegated leaves. He then poured 20 ml of water into Set 1 and 10 ml of water into Set 2. Question: What are the two main faults in this experimental design? * * * * * E N D OF T E S T * * * * * 228 UNIT 4 Purpose: In this section, you w i l l practice designing investigations to test hypotheses. Your s k i l l in designing investigations w i l l be limited only by your imagination. However, this does not mean that your design must be complicated. Quite the opposite, the simpler the design, the more likely you w i l l be able to collect useful information or data. Objective: When you have finished this unit, you should be able to: 1. design or plan an investigation to test a given hypothesis. Approximate time required to complete the section: 2 Double periods Introduction Designing an investigation can be defined as the setting up of a planned situation; the situation is planned to give the investigatdr certain information about the accuracy of a hypothesis. If the manner in which a variable can be manipulated and the type of response expected are clearly stated in the hypothesis, then much of the work in planning how to collect data has been done. There remains the task of specifying conditions under which the work w i l l be carried out. 229 Hypothesis: As the number of plants in an experimental set increases the amount of oxygen produced during photosynthesis also increases. Design: Take 10 identical water plants and five identical large test-tubes. F i l l the test-tubes with water and set the experiment up as follows: (the test-tubes should be supported in the positions shown). / T \ >r-v AT>\ NO PLANT (Control) 1 PLANT 2 PLANTS 3 PLANTS 3 PLANTS A l l the five test-tubes should then be exposed to equal amounts of light.• After a number of hours (say 5 hours), the amount of oxygen produced in each set should be measured in terms of the length of column of gas found in each test-tube. Notice that the design consists of carefully defining the manipulated and responding variables (number of plants in each test-tube and length of column of gas after the experiment has been lef t to run for a desired length of time), and stating how each variable w i l l be controlled ( a l l test-tubes to be exposed to equal amounts of light). 230 There is no magic or sacred number of experimental sets that an investi-gator should prepare for the manipulated variable. In the above design, the manipulated variable, i.e., number of plants in each set, had four levels - 1, 2, 3, and 4 plants. (Also, test-tube 1 with no plant may also be viewed as another level of the manipulated variable.) The experimenter could have used less or more experimental sets. In general, however, i t is good practice to have more than just the minimum number required for an experiment. In other words, although two or three sets would have been enough, i t is wise to have more so as to be sure that the observed effect did not just occur by accident. The more sets of an experiment one makes, the more confidence one w i l l have in believing the observed effect of the manipulated variable on the responding variable. Accordingly, the investigator must decide how many different values of the manipulated variables are appropriate and how they should be selected. For example, i f an investigator was interested in the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis, he would probably not expose his plants to 10-watt, 11-watt, 12-watt, 13-watt and 14-watt lamps. Instead, he would probably select values a l l the way from 20 watts to 500 watts, at say 20 to 25 watt intervals, in order to get a more clear picture of the effects of high intensities on the rate of photosynthesis. Following on the effect of light intensities, i.e., the amount of light, on the rate of photosynthesis, consider an experiment to test the following hypothesis: 231 HYPOTHESIS: As the intensity of light increases, the amount of oxygen pro-duced during photosynthesis also increases. To investigate this effect, the following study may be set up: DESIGN: Take three identical water plants, three large identical test-tubes and set up the experiment as follows: Test-tube 1: One water plant; experimental set exposed to a 25-watt lamp. Test-tube 2: One water plant; experimental set exposed to a 50-watt lamp. Test-tube 3: One water plant; experimental set exposed to a 75-watt lamp. The experimental sets were l e f t to run for six hours after which time the amount of oxygen produced in each set was measured. The values obtained were then compared. Questions: a) How was the manipulated variable defined? b) How was the responding variable defined? c) What variables were controlled? (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) 232 d) What values of the manipulated variable were selected? (i) ( i i ) - ( i i i ) •_ Your answers should have been the same or close to the following: a) Intensity of light to which a plant is exposed. b) The amount of oxygen produced by each plant. c) (i) Type of plants, ( i i ) Size of test-tubes. ( i i i ) Time experimental sets were allowed to run. d) (i) Intensity of light produced by 25-watt lamp, (i i ) Intensity of light produced by 50-watt lamp. ( i i i ) Intensity of light produced by 75-watt lamp. The four questions you answered above should be considered each time you design an investigation. That i s , your design should include a description of how both the manipulated and responding variables are defined, what variables w i l l be controlled and the levels of the manipulated variables selected for the investigation. When these four parts are included, you have described how the investigation is to be carried out. If you do a good job in writing the design, i t should be sufficiently clear that you.could hand i t to someone else and, without additional instruction, they could carry out the investigation just as you would. 233 Below is another example of a hypothesis and the design of an investi-gation to test i t . Read the design and answer the questions which follow. HYPOTHESIS: As the number of plants in an experimental set increases, the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed during photosynthesis also increases. DESIGN: Take 1000 ml of brom thymol blue and blow carbon dioxide into i t until i t just turns yellow. Next, pour the resulting solution into three 250 ml test-tubes and then place 1 plant in test-tube 1, 3 plants in test-tube 2, and 5 plants in test-tube 3, and then cork them tightly. (Be sure that a l l the plants used are identical.) Set the experiment up as in below and note the time i t takes the solution to turn blue. This w i l l be the measure of how much the plants use the carbon dioxide in the solution. The three test-tubes should be exposed to equal amounts of light. 1 PLANT 3 PLANTS 5 PLANTS QUESTIONS: a) How was the manipulated variable defined? b) How was the responding variable defined? 234 What variables were controlled? (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) What values of the manipulated variables were selected? (i) ' ( i i ) ( i i i ) •  * * * * * * * * * * * * Your answers should have been the same as or close to the following: Number of plants in each experimental set. Time taken for solution to turn blue. [Note that the shorter the time recorded, the higher the rate of carbon dioxide consumption.] (i) Type of plants (i i ) Size of test-tubes ( i i i ) Amount of light each experimental set was exposed to. (iv) Amount of carbon dioxide added to the brom thymol blue (before the solution was distributed out.) (i) 1 plant (i i ) 3 plants ( i i i ) 5 plants 235 If you are experiencing some d i f f i c u l t i e s with the answers given to the above questions, discuss them with a friend or with your teacher. It is very important that you understand them before you proceed to the next task. Now that you have learned to identify the four parts of a design, try to design an investigation yourself. Design an investigation to test the hypothesis given below. Be sure to include how the variables are to be defined, how other variables w i l l be controlled and what values of the manipulated variable w i l l be used. A l l of this is usually written up in a brief paragraph. HYPOTHESIS: The more the intensity of light a photosynthesizing plant is exposed to, the faster i t uses up carbon dioxide. DESIGN: * * * * * * * * * * * * 236 Here i s one of several possible designs: DESIGN: Take three identical water plants and put them in identical test-tubes, f i l l e d with a yellow solution of phenol red indicator. Expose the f i r s t test-tube to a 25 watt lamp; the second test-tube to a 50-watt lamp and the third test-tube to a 75 watt lamp. NOTE the time i t takes the solution to turn red in each case. Now, go back to your own design, make changes i f necessary, and have i t checked by your teacher. Another hypothesis i s given below. Design an investigation to test this hypothesis. Remember to include, in your design, each of the four parts described previously. HYPOTHESIS: Green leaves photosynthesize faster than variegated leaves. DESIGN: Have your design checked by your teacher before you go on to take the unit test. 237 TEST FOR UNIT 4 DESIGNING INVESTIGATIONS Instructions: Design an investigation to test each of the following hypotheses 1. Photosynthesis takes place only in the presence of carbon dioxide. [Think of your own experiment.] a) DESIGN: b) What is your manipulated variable? c) What is your responding variable 238 TEST FOR UNIT 4 (continued) d) What variable(s) have you controlled and how? 2. Photosynthesis takes place faster as the intensity of light increases. [Think of your own experiment.] a) DESIGN: b) What is your manipulated variable? c) What is_ your responding variable? 239 T E S T F O R U N I T 4 ( c o n t i n u e d ) d ) W h a t v a r i a b l e s h a v e y o u c o n t r o l l e d a n d h o w ? 3. T h e b i g g e r t h e p l a n t , t h e f a s t e r t h e r a t e o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s , a ) D E S I G N : b ) W h a t i s y o u r m a n i p u l a t e d v a r i a b l e ? c ) W h a t i s y o u r r e s p o n d i n g v a r i a b l e ? 240 TEST FOR UNIT 4 (continued) d) What variable(s) have you controlled and how? * * A * * END OF TEST * * * * * 241 SECTION II INTERPRETING_DATA INTRODUCTION One of the great strengths of science process s k i l l s is the opportunity they provide for the development of capabilities that can be transferred to a variety of experiences in and out of school. Interpreting data is such a s k i l l . While the ab i l i t y to interpret data i s essential in science, i t is of v i t a l importance in other disciplines as well. We are constantly interpreting data when we watch the news on television, read weather maps, listen to the radio or to the teacher, and look at photographs in newspapers or magazines. PURPOSE Once an experiment has been carried out, the next task for the experi-menter is to see whether or not the data he/she has collected supports or contradicts the hypothesis being tested. Section II deals with ways of representation and description of such data. The purpose of this section, therefore, is to enable you to check data collected in an experiment against the hypothesis being tested. In order to do this, i t is necessary that you are able to meaningfully interpret data represented in various ways. 242 OBJECTIVES The ab i l i t i e s embodied in this s k i l l involve students to be able to: 1. describe information presented on a table or graph. 2. construct inferences, predictions, or any other general (or specific) statements, based on given sets of data and/or other experimental reports. 3. describe, where necessary, the information in objectives 1 and 2 above in terms of some standard measures such as the arithmetic mean, mode and range. 4. check collected data against hypotheses being tested and state whether or not the hypotheses are supported by the data collected in an experiment. UNIT 5 DATA_PRESENTED_ON_TABLES In scientific investigations, scientists collect information to support o