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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Facial action determinants of pain judgment Lee, Douglas Spencer 1985

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FACIAL ACTION DETERMINANTS OF PAIN JUDGMENT by DOUGLAS SPENCER LEE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1974 M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983 DISSERTATION SUBMITTED THE REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR OF IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES PSYCHOLOGY We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d ""THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1985 0 D o u g l a s S p e n c e r Lee, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of / y^^^<s^^^-^^r The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 3E-6 (.3/81) ABSTRACT N o n v e r b a l i n d i c e s o f p a i n a r e some of t h e l e a s t r e s e a r c h e d s o u r c e s o f d a t a f o r a s s e s s i n g p a i n . The e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e F u n c t i o n s o f n o n v e r b a l f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s p o t e n t i a l l y much i n f o r m a t i o n t o be g a i n e d i n s t u d y i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a i n . R e s u l t s from two s t u d i e s s u p p o r t t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s r e l a t e d t o p a i n may i n d e e d be a s o u r c e oF i n f o r m a t i o n For p a i n a s s e s s m e n t . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e Found s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t j u d g e s c o u l d make d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s amongst l e v e l s o f d i s c o m f o r t From v i e w i n g a p e r s o n ' s F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . Other s t u d i e s Found t h a t t h e o c c u r r e n c e oF a s m a l l s e t oF F a c i a l movements c o u l d be used t o d i s c r i m i n a t e amongst s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f s e l F r - r e p o r t e d d i s c o m f o r t . However, t h e r e was no r e s e a r c h d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n oF whether j u d g e s r a t i n g s would v a r y i n r e s p o n s e t o d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s oF t h e i d e n t i f i e d F a c i a l movements. I s s u e s r e g a r d i n g t h e F a c i a l cues used by n a i v e j u d g e s i n making r a t i n g s oF a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s d i s c o m f o r t were i n v e s t i g a t e d . Four h y p o t h e s e s were d e v e l o p e d . From p r i o r r e s e a r c h u s i n g t h e F a c i a l A c t i o n C o d i n g System (FACS) (Ekman S. F r i e s e n , 1978) a s m a l l s e t oF F a c i a l muscle movements, termed A c t i o n U n i t s (AUs), were Found t o be t h e b e s t F a c i a l movements For d i s c r i m i n a t i n g amongst d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s oF p a i n . The F i r s t h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t i n c r e a s i n g t h e number oF AUs per e x p r e s s i o n would l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d r a t i n g s oF d i s c o m f o r t . The s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t v i d e o segments w i t h t h e AUs p o r t r a y e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y would be r a t e d h i g h e r t h a n segments w i t h t h e same AUs p o r t r a y e d i n a s e q u e n t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Four e n c o d e r s p o r t r a y e d a l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . The c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were randomly e d i t t e d onto v i d e o t a p e and p r e s e n t e d t o t h e j u d g e s . The j u d g e s used th e s c a l e o f a f f e c t i v e d i s c o m f o r t d e v e l o p e d by G r a c e l y , McGrath, and •ubner ( 1 9 7 8 ) . T w e n t y - f i v e male and 25 f e m a l e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s v o l u n t e e r e d as j u d g e s . The r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d both h y p o t h e s e s . I n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f AUs per e x p r e s s i o n l e d t o a s h a r p r i s e i n j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . V i d e o segments o f o v e r l a p p i n g AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were r a t e d h i g h e r t h a n segments w i t h n o n - a v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Female j u d g e s always r a t e d h i g h e r t h a n male j udges. The s e c o n d s t u d y was m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h e f i r s t s t u d y . The major h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h o n l y upper f a c e AUs would be r a t e d as more o f t e n i n d i c a t i n g a t t e m p t s t o h i d e an e x p r e s s i o n .than lower f a c e e x p r e s s i o n s . T h i s s t u d y c o n t a i n e d a s u b s e t of e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t were i d e n t i c a l t o ones used i n t h e f i r s t s t u d y . T h i s a l l o w e d f o r t e s t i n g o f t h e F o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s which s t a t e d t h a t t h e r a t i n g s of t h i s s u b s e t o f e x p r e s s i o n s would d i f f e r between the s t u d i e s due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e judgment c o n d i t i o n s . Both h y p o t h e s e s were a g a i n s u p p o r t e d . Upper f a c e e x p r e s s i o n s were more o f t e n judged as p o r t r a y i n g a t t e m p t s by IV. t h e e n c o d e r s t o h i d e t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s . A n a l y s i s of t h e f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n s were r a t e d h i g h e r i n s t u d y 2 t h a n s t u d y 1. A sex o f judge X judgment c o n d i t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t f e m a l e s r a t e d h i g h e r i n s t u d y 1 but males r a t e d h i g h e r i n s t u d y 2 . The r e s u l t s from t h e s e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e n o n v e r b a l communication o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n was d e f i n e d by a number o f p a r a m e t e r s which l e d j u d g e s t o a l t e r t h e i r r a t i n g s d e p e n d i n g on t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s b e i n g viewed. While s t u d i e s o f t h e m i c r o - b e h a v i o r a l a s p e c t s o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a r e new, t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t such r e s e a r c h i s i n t e g r a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e complex comm u n i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s o f n o n v e r b a l f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . f V. TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES . i x LIST OF FIGURES x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i INTRODUCTION 1 G e n e r a l Types of P a i n A s s e s s m e n t . . . . 2 R a t i o n a l e f o r S t u d y i n g F a c i a l E x p r e s s i o n s o f P a i n . 4 R a t i o n a l e s f o r C o n d u c t i n g Judgment S t u d i e s of F a c i a l E x p r e s s i o n s . 6 D e f i n e d L i n e s o f R e s e a r c h 7 P a i n E x p r e s s i o n v s . E m o t i o n a l E x p r e s s i o n 8 The Concept o f F a c i a l B e h a v i o r 10 Summary o f R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e P r e s e n t R e s e a r c h . . . . . 11 LITERATURE REVIEW 13 Model f o r C o n d u c t i n g Judgment S t u d i e s o f P a i n 13 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of E m p i r i c a l S t u d i e s o f F a c i a l E x p r e s s i o n s o f P a i n . . 16 Summary o f A - B F i n d i n g s 24 L i m i t a t i o n s of A - B R e s e a r c h . 25 Summary o f A - C F i n d i n g s 26 L i m i t a t i o n s o f A - C F i n d i n g s . . 29 Summary o f B - C F i n d i n g s 31 L i m i t a t i o n s of B - C F i n d i n g s 32 G e n e r a l Summary of Reviewed R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 V! . E v a l u a t i o n o f R o s e n t h a l ' s M o d e l . . . . . . . . 34 S t r e n g t h s 34 Model r e l a t i o n s h i p s not y e t a d d r e s s e d . . 36 Weaknesses 36 C o n c l u s i o n s from e v a l u a t i n g R o s e n t h a l ' s model... 37 HYPOTHESES 39 H y p o t h e s i s 1 -. Impact of t h e C o m p l e x i t y of AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s . . . . 40 H y p o t h e s i s 2 - O v e r l a p p i n g v e r s u s N o n - O v e r l a p p i n g AUs 42 H y p o t h e s i s 3 - Hidden vs Non^Hidden AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s of P a i n 43 H y p o t h e s i s 4 - E f f e c t s o f Judgment C o n t e x t on Jud g e s ' R a t i n g s 45 GENERAL METHODS 47 C o n s t r u c t i o n o f V i d e o Segments. 47 E n c o d e r s . . . . . . . . . • 48 En c o d e r T r a i n i n g 48 R u l e s f o r S e l e c t i n g V i d e o Segments... 49 R u l e s f o r e q u a t i n g posed w i t h s p o n t a n e o u s e x p r e s s i o n s . 49 R u l e s f o r e l i m i n a t i n g movement a r t i f a c t s 50 Rule f o r s t a n d a r d i z i n g segment c o n t e x t 50 How r u l e s were a p p l i e d 51 Equipment......... • 51 R e l i a b i l i t y of E n c o d e r s ' AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s 51 STUDY 1 54 Method 54 VI I , S u b j e c t s 5 4 Judges •• 54 E n c o d e r s 55 P r o c e d u r e s f o r D e v e l o p i n g S t i m u l u s Tape 55 S e l e c t i o n o f AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t o be t e s t e d 55 C o n s t r u c t i o n o f s t i m u l u s t a p e 57 P r o c e d u r e s , f o r Judges >• 60 Measures 61 D e s i g n 62 R e s u l t s 62 R e l i a b i l i t y o f Judges 62 P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data 6,4 A n a l y s i s o f H y p o t h e s i s 1 66 A n a l y s i s o f H y p o t h e s i s 2 69 Summary. 77 STUDY 2 80 Method 80 Sub j e c t s ' B0 Judges 80 E n c o d e r s 80 P r o c e d u r e s f o r D e v e l o p i n g S t i m u l u s Tape 80 S e l e c t i o n o f AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t o be t e s t e d 80 C o n s t r u c t i o n o f s t i m u l u s t a p e 81 P r o c e d u r e s f o r Judges •• 81 Measures 83 D e s i g n , J • • • 83 R e s u l t s •- 84 V I I I . R e l i a b i l i t y o f Judges 84 P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D a t a . . . 85 A n a l y s i s o f H y p o t h e s i s 3 85 A n a l y s i s o f H y p o t h e s i s 4 88 Summary 93 GENERAL DISCUSSION 94 L e v e l of C o n p l e x i t y 94 Sex o f Judge 95 Type o f C o n f i g u r a t i o n 98 Hidden vs Not Hidden F a c i a l C o n f i g u r a t i o n s . . . . . . . . 99 P l a c i n g t h e P r e s e n t R e s e a r c h w i t h i n t h e Judgment Model 101 F a c i a l A c t i v i t y as a N o n v e r b a l Measure o f P a i n . . . . 103 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the P r e s e n t S t u d i e s 104 C o n c l u s i o n s 106 REFERENCES 107 Appendix A 121 Appendix 8 131 Appendix C 135 Appendix D • 138 Appendix E 141 Appendix F 143 Appendix G. 145 Appendix H 147 Appendix I 149 Appendix J 151 Appendix K. 153 Appendix L... 155 IX. Appendix M 157 Appendix N • • • 159 Appendix •.. 161 Appendix P 165 Appendix Q •• 171 Appendix R 174 Appendix S... 176 Appendix T . . . . . . . . . 173 X. L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e page 1 Summary o f E m p i r i c a l R e s e a r c h on Judgments o f F a c i a l E x p r e s s i o n s o f P a i n C a t e g o r i z e d u s i n g R o s e n t h a l ' s Model. 17 2 P o s s i b l e AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s . 56 3 AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r H y p o t h e s i s 1..... 58 4 AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r H y p o t h e s i s 2 59 5 Study 1 - A n a l y s i s of P o s t r E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data 65 6 Mean G r a c e l y R a t i n g s f o r Each L e v e l o f AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n by Sex o f Judge 67 7 Mean G r a c e l y R a t i n g s f o r Type of F a c i a l C o n f i g u r a t i o n a c r o s s L e v e l s o f C o m p l e x i t y f o r each Sex o f Judge 71 8 Upper and Lower Face AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s . . 82 9 Study 2 - A n a l y s i s o f P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data 86 10 Mean P r o p o r t i o n of Times C o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f t h e Upper and Lower Face were Judged as At t e m p t s t o Hide 87 11 AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s Common t o S t u d i e s 1 and 2 90 12 Mean G r a c e l y R a t i n g s f o r each L e v e l o f Sex o f Judge and Judgment C o n d i t i o n 91 XI L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e page 1 R o s e n t h a l ' s Model f o r C o n d u c t i n g Judgment S t u d i e s ... 15 2 I n t e r a c t i o n of Sex o f Judge and L e v e l s o f C o m p l e x i t y 63 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of O v e r l a p p i n g AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n L e v e l s o f C o m p l e x i t y . . . . . . . . 70 4 I n t e r a c t i o n o f Type o f C o n f i g u r a t i o n and L e v e l o f C o m p l e x i t y 73 5 I n t e r a c t i o n o f Sex o f Judge and Type o f C o n f i g u r a t i o n 74 6 I n t e r a c t i o n of Sex o f Judge and L e v e l of C o m p l e x i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 7 I n t e r a c t i o n o f Judgment C o n d i t i o n and Sex o f Judge 92 XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am i n d e b t e d t o my s u p e r v i s o r , Ken C r a i g , F a r F i v e y e a r s o f s u p p o r t and u n r e l e n t i n g p u s h i n g t o do a b e t t e r j o b . Your encouragement t o do b e t t e r has c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e f i n e m e n t o f my r e s e a r c h s k i l l s . W i t h o u t t h e n i m b l e F a c e s o f Andy G o t o v i e c , C h r i s P a t r i c k , D e l p h i n Schwalm, and C a r a Zaskow, and Brend a G e r h a r d t t o t e l l t h e FACS a b o u t t h e i r F a c e s t h i s r e s e a r c h would n e v e r have happened. Thank you a l l . A n o t e t o my mother and F a t h e r who must have wandered at t i m e s what I would be when I. grew up. Wander no mare, I t h i n k I ' l l be a d o c t o r . My e t e r n a l l a v e t o my F a m i l y P a t , C a r o l , Dianne, and M o n i c a . Now t h a t s c h o o l i s out what s h a l l we do? 1. INTRODUCTION P a i n i s not o n l y an a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l e x p e r i e n c e but da t a i n d i c a t e s i t s impact on we s t e r n s o c i e t y i s s t a g g e r i n g . E s t i m a t e s of v a r i o u s p a i n c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h e r e a r e m i l l i o n s of s u f f e r e r s ( B o n i c a , 1983; L o e s e r , 1980; P a u l l e y S. H a s k e l l , 1975; Main S. W a d d e l l , 1982). B r e s l e r ( 1979) fo u n d t h a t up t o 80% o f a l l p a t i e n t s who c o n s u l t e d p h y s i c i a n s d i d so f o r p a i n r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . Treatment o f p a i n s u f f e r e r s c o s t s b i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y ( B r e n a , 1978; L o e s e r , 1980; Main S W a d d e l l , 1982). In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s o c i e t a l c o s t s r e c e n t work s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s common f o r f a m i l i e s o f p a i n s u f f e r e r s t o be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d ( B l o c k , 1981; B l o c k S Boyer, 1984; Mohamed,Weisz S. Waring, 1978). In r e c o g n i z i n g t h e e n o r m i t y of t h e problem i t must a l s o be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t we l a c k u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f many f a c e t s o f the p a i n e x p e r i e n c e . How w e l l i n d i v i d u a l s u f f e r e r s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , r e s e a r c h e r s , and s o c i e t y can l e a r n t o u n d e r s t a n d and c o n t r o l p a i n w i l l depend i n l a r g e p a r t on how a c c u r a t e l y p a i n can be a s s e s s e d . As s t a t e d by M e l z a c k (1983) "The measurement of p a i n i n man i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e s t u d y of p a i n mechanisms and f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f methods t o c o n t r o l p a i n " ( p . 1 ) . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e t a s k o f a s s e s s i n g t h e n a t u r e and s e v e r i t y o f p a i n i s u l t i m a t e l y t i e d t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l judgment, t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s a d d r e s s e d a number o f i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s f o c u s i n g on how o b s e r v e r s use n o n v e r b a l f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s when j u d g i n g a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s p a i n . 2. Genera 1 Types o f P a i n Assessment In k e e p i n g w i t h a m u l t i f a c e t e d c o n c e p t of p a i n ( M e l z a c k & W a l l , 1965, 1982) f o u r g e n e r a l t y p e s of a s s e s s m e n t a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r m e a s u r i n g p a i n . These methods a r e s e l f - r e p o r t ( i n c l u d i n g w r i t t e n and v e r b a l r e p o r t s ) , o b s e r v a t i o n o f t i s s u e damage, p h y s i o l o g i c a l measurement, and o b s e r v a t i o n of n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r . Chapman e t a l . (1985) o v e r v i e w s t h e s e 1 f - r e p o r t , p h y s i o l o g i c a l , and o b s e r v a t i o n o f n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r methods o f m e a s u r i n g p a i n . T i s s u e damage and i n s u l t can be a s s e s s e d by a wide range o f m e d i c a l d i a g n o s t i c and a s s e s s m e n t t e c h n i q u e s . P h y s i o l o g i c a l measures o f p a i n u t i l i z e a u tonomic r e s p o n s e ( e . g . B l o c k , 1981), e l e c t r o m y o g r a p h i c measurement (Vaughan S. L a n z e t t a , 1980) and e 1 e c t r o e n c e p h a 1 o g r a p h i c measurement ( B l a n c h a r d , 1981; C h u d l e r S Dong, 1983). The M c G i l l P a i n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (MPQ) ( M e l z a c k , 1975) and s c a l e s f o r r a t i n g t h e a f f e c t i v e and s e n s o r y q u a l i t i e s o f p a i n d e v e l o p e d by G r a c e l y , McGrath, and Dubner (1978, 1979) a r e among the b e s t s e l f - r e p o r t measures and b o t h have pr o v e n t o be u s e f u l measures o f p a i n ( G r a c e l y , 1983; M e l z a c k , 1983). However, u n t i l r e c e n t l y a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e s of n o n v e r b a l p a i n b e h a v i o r have e i t h e r been i s o l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h measures un i q u e t o s i n g l e s t u d i e s (Ganchrow, S t e i n e r , K l e i n e r S. E d e l s t e i n , 1978; L e v e n t h a l S. Sharp, 1965), or have been so r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d t h a t t h e measure has not y e t g a i n e d wide a c c e p t a n c e ( s e e Keefe and B l o c k , 1982 f o r a g l o b a l c o d i n g system and C r a i g S. P a t r i c k , 1985 f o r s p e c i f i c f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n ) . While a s s e s s m e n t o f p a i n v i a s e l f - r e p o r t , p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures, and t i s s u e damage a r e b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d t h a n n o n v e r b a l measures of p a i n no method i s w i t h o u t p r o b l e m s . D i s t o r t i o n and r e s p o n s e b i a s o f s e l f - r r e p o r t measures a r e w e l l known ( C r a i g S. P r k a c h i n , 1980; K a z d i n , 1980]. A l s o t o be r e c o g n i z e d i s the f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( e g . c h i l d r e n , a d u l t s who a r e i l l i t e r a t e or l a c k f a c i l i t y w i t h t h e t e s t l a n g u a g e , or r e t a r d e d i n d i v i d u a l s ) do not have t h e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s t o p r o p e r l y c o m p l e t e a s e l f - r e p o r t a s s e s s m e n t ( C r a i g , 1980). Assessment o f p a i n by amount o f t i s s u e damage has been shown t o be a poor i n d i c a t o r of p a i n ( B e e c h e r , 1959; L o e s e r , 1980; S t e w a r t , 1977; M e l z a c k & W a l l , 1982). In a d d i t i o n , p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures a r e o f t e n r e a c t i v e and i n t r u s i v e (Ekman, 1982; K a z d i n , 1980), have ambiguous meanings, d i s p l a y l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and g e n e r a l l y have low i n t e r c o r r e 1 a t i o n s among measures ( C a c i o p p o , Marsha 11-Goode11 S Gormenzano, 1983). These problems o f t e n make i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l d a t a d i f f i c u l t . Development o f n o n v e r b a l measures of p a i n w i l l not o n l y widen t h e scope o f a s s e s s m e n t but p o s s i b l y w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e measures which w i l l c o u n t e r some of t h e problems i n h e r e n t i n t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f a s s e s s m e n t . As i n d i c a t e d by H a r p e r , Wiens, and M a t a r a z z o (1978) s t u d i e s of n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r s u g g e s t t h a t p e o p l e use a wide range o f n o n v e r b a l cues f o r a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l judgments. From a n e c d o t a l a c c o u n t s ( T u r k , Meichenbaum & Genest, 1981; F o r d y c e , 197B) and c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h (Chambers S. P r i c e , 1 967 ; Jacox, 1 980; Johnson, 1977; Teske, Daut S. C l e e l a n d , 1983) i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e use o f n o n v e r b a l cues f o r a s s e s s i n g and d e s c r i b i n g p a i n i s common and seen as an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( C r a i g S. P r k a c h i n , 1983). I t i s as yet u n c l e a r , however, what t y p e s of n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r a r e used i n j u d g i n g p a i n . F o r i n s t a n c e , even though i t has been d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t o b s e r v e r s of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n can a c c u r a t e l y judge t h e o c c u r r e n c e and i n t e n s i t y of p a i n (Gubar, 1966; L a n z e t t a S. K l e c k , 1970; P a t r i c k , C r a i g , & P r k a c h i n , i n p r e s s ) i t i s as y e t unknown what f e a t u r e s of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a r e used by t h e o b s e r v e r s i n making t h e i r judgments. The p r e s e n t s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o c l a r i f y t h i s q u e s t i o n . R a t i o n a l e f o r S t u d y i n g F a c i a l Ex pre ss i o ns of P a i n A t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e n o n v e r b a l p a i n b e h a v i o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , can be t r a c e d back t o Darwin (1872). However, due t o t h e o n l y r e c e n t development of adequate m e a s u r i n g t e c h n i q u e s (Ekman S. F r e i s e n , 1978; I z a r d , 1979) and t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s (Ekman, 1982), work on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n i s i n i t s i n f a n c y . The d e c i s i o n t o f o c u s t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n was based on t h r e e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . F i r s t , and f o r e m o s t , t h e q u e s t i o n of what f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a r e used by j u d g e s when r a t i n g a p e r s o n ' s l e v e l of p a i n has not r e c e i v e d any d i r e c t e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y . The use of a r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d m i c r o - a n a l y t i c measurement method f o r s c o r i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s (Ekman S. F r i e s e n , 1978) a l l o w e d t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s t o e m p i r i c a l l y examine t h e q u e s t i o n of 5. what f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a judge uses when r a t i n g q u a l i t i e s of p a i n of a n o t h e r p e r s o n . The u t i l i t y o f t h e F a c i a l A c t i o n C o d i n g System (FACS) (Ekman S F r i e s e n , 1978) as a s o u r c e o f dependent v a r i a b l e s which d i s c r i m i n a t e among d i f f e r e n t p a i n i n t e n s i t i e s has a l r e a d y been d e m o n s t r a t e d ( C r a i g S P a t r i c k , 1985; P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ) . Second, t h e f a c e has been i d e n t i f e d as a p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h and i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a s s e s s i n g p a i n ( C r a i g & P r k a c h i n , 1983; LeResche a Dworkin, 1984; P o l u n i n , 1977). A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d which i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e f a c e , body movements, and sp e e c h q u a l i t i e s as i n d i c a t o r s o f emotion ( C l i n e , A t z e l & Holmes, 1972; D i m a t t e o , Friedman & T a r a n t a , 1979; Ekman, F r i e s e n & S c h e r e r , 1976), t h e more r e c e n t work by Ekman, F r i e s e n , O ' S u l l i v a n , and S c h e r e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) , Ekman and O s t e r (1982), and S c h e r e r and Ekman (1982) a r g u e s t h a t much o f t h e debate r e g a r d i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of n o n v e r b a l modes i s due t o l i m i t a t i o n s o f r e s e a r c h methodology and t h e s i t u a t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y o f most n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t more i n f o r m a t i o n on each mode of n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r , u s i n g more s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s e a r c h methods, i s needed b e f o r e s-tudying t h e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f n o n v e r b a l modes and t h e i r p a s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h has a t t e m p t e d t o s u p p l y more adequate i n f o r m a t i o n on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . The f i n a l r e a s o n f o r c o n c e n t r a t i n g on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of p a i n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . P r i o r r e s e a r c h on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of p a i n has been f r a g m e n t e d w i t h no o v e r r i d i n g t h r u s t t o t h e r e s e a r c h . The use o f a g e n e r a l model f o r c o n d u c t i n g judgment s t u d i e s ( R o s e n t h a l , 1982) was used t o a l l o w f o r an i n t e g r a t i o n o f p r i o r r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r g u i d i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . R a t i o n a l e s f o r C o n d u c t i ng Judgment S t u d i e s o f F a c i a 1 E x p r e s s i o n s The t h r e e r a t i o n a l e s t h a t have been o f f e r e d by o t h e r s f o r s t u d y i n g o b s e r v e r judgments o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a r e t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n s s e r v e a c o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n , t h a t t h e y r e f l e c t i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena, and t h e y may have c l i n i c a l u t i l i t y as a measure of t r e a t m e n t i m p a c t . While t h e s e r a t i o n a l e s s h a r e c e r t a i n c o m m o n a l i t i e s t h e y need to be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d as t h e y each have u n i q u e f e a t u r e s which may s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e r e s e a r c h based on t h e p a r t i c u l a r r a t i o n a l e . The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s s e r v e a c o m m u n icative f u n c t i o n i s t h e most common r a t i o n a l e ( C r a i g , 1978, Ekman, 1965; K e e f e , W i l k i n s S. Cook, 1984; L a n z e t t a S K l e c k , 1970; Munn, 1940). T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s based on i m p r e s s i o n s o f e v e r d a y e x p e r i e n c e s i n which p e o p l e a p pear t o i n f e r t h e s u b j e c t i v e s t a t u s o f o t h e r p e o p l e from t h e i r n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r , most commonly t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . The second r a t i o n a l e s u g g e s t s t h a t measurements o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s may be used as dependent v a r i a b l e s i n o r d e r t o augment d a t a from o t h e r measures ( C r a i g S. P a t r i c k , 1985; 7 . Ekman S. F r i e s e n , 1969; LeResche, 1982]. T h i s r a t i o n a l e i s p r e d i c a t e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a r e l e s s prone t o v o l u n t a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n by t h e s u b j e c t t h a n e i t h e r o t h e r n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r (Ekman, 1982] o r s e l f - r e p o r t ( C r a i g 5 P r k a c h i n , 1983]. The t h i r d r a t i o n a l e i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e c o n d but f o c u s e s on a d i f f e r e n t need. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d from m e a s u r i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s may prove t o have v a l u a b l e c l i n i c a l u t i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y as a measure o f i n t e r v e n t i o n impact and as a s o u r c e o f f e e d b a c k f o r t h e t h e r a p i s t ( B l o c k , 1981; Ekman & F r i e s e n , 1968; Ganchrow e t a l . , 1978]. The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d on the co m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i ons. • e f i n e d L i n e s o f R e s e a r c h A l l i e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t r a t i o n a l e s used f o r s t u d y i n g judgments o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a r e t h e t y p e s o f r e s e a r c h done i n t h i s a r e a . The h i s t o r y o f judgment s t u d i e s o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s can be t r a c e d a l o n g f o u r l i n e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f i r s t l i n e has d e a l t w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f whether o b s e r v e r s c o u l d make a c c u r a t e judgments o f e m o t i o n s or p a i n based on o b s e r v i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s ( B o ucher, 1969; Ekman, 1972; I z a r d , 1969; L a n g f e l d , 1918; L a n z e t t a , C a r t w r i g h t - S m i t h 6 K l e c k , 1976; L a n z e t t a & K l e c k , 1970; P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ) . The second l i n e t r a c e s r e s e a r c h t h a t has a t t e m p t e d to d e v i s e measurement t o o l s f o r c o d i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s ( B i r d w h i s t e l 1 , 1952; Ekman a F r i e s e n , 1978; I z a r d , 1979). The t h i r d l i n e , which i s r e l a t e d t o the seco n d , f o c u s e d on q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h what a r e a s of t h e f a c e o b s e r v e r s use when making judgments ( D u n l a p , 1927; Ekman, F r i e s e n & Tomkins, 1971; Hanawalt, 1944). The F i n a l l i n e of r e s e a r c h , which has o n l y r e c e n t l y been d e v e l o p e d , has f o c u s e d on p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures o f f a c i a l m u s c u l a t u r e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r o l e o f u n o b s e r v a b l e f a c i a l muscle a c t i v i t y i n e x p e r i e n c i n g v a r i o u s e m o t i o n s (Ekman, Lev e n s o n & F r i e s e n , 1983; S c h w a r t z , Brown & Aher, 1980; Schwarz, F a i r , S a l t , Mandel & Klerman, 1976; Vaughan a L a n z e t t a , 1980). When combined t h e s e f o u r l i n e s o f r e s e a r c h r e p r e s e n t a broadband r e s e a r c h F r o n t a t t a c k i n g t h e many q u e s t i o n s a s k e d r e g a r d i n g t h e u t i l i t y and r o l e oF n o n v e r b a l F a c i a l b e h a v i o r as t h e s e b e h a v i o r s r e l a t e t o t h e e x p r e s s i o n and judgment oF p a i n and e m o t i o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d i e s were based m a i n l y on t h e F i r s t and t h i r d l i n e s oF r e s e a r c h . P a i n E x p r e s s i o n v s . E m o t i o n a l E x p r e s s i on C r a i g and P a t r i c k ( 1 9 8 5 ) , P a t r i c k e t a l . ( i n p r e s s ) , LeResche (1982), and Hyde (1985) have shown t h a t FACS, which was d e v e l o p e d to s t u d y F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s oF e m o t i o n , can be used t o s t u d y F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . Ganchrow et a l . ( 1 9 7 8 ) , i n s t u d y i n g judgments o f p a i n r e s p o n s e s , used a s i m p l e c o d i n g system r e m i n i s c e n t oF t h e F a c i a l A f f e c t S c o r i n g T e c h n i q u e d e v e l o p e d by Ekman et a l . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . However, t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y oF methods For s t u d y i n g e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n t o s t u d y i n g p a i n e x p r e s s i o n must not h i d e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e c o n c e p t of a f f e c t or emotion ( I z a r d , 1971; Tomkins, 1982) and p a i n (IASP, 1979; L e v e n t h a l S. E v e r h a r t , 1979; Melzack S. W a l l , 1965; W e isenberg, 1977). T h e o r i e s o f p a i n and a f f e c t a r e d i f f e r e n t . P a i n e x p e r i e n c e s a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as c o m p r i s i n g a f f e c t i v e , c o g n i t i v e , and s e n s o r y components which may or may not be c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d under v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( L e v e n t h a l a E v e r h a r t , 1979; M e l z a c k a W a l l , 1982). W i t h i n t h e o r i e s o f p a i n , a f f e c t i s seen as an i m p o r t a n t but not t h e o n l y c e n t r a l component ( C r a i g , 1985). The c o n c e p t o f a f f e c t however i s t h e o b v i o u s c e n t r a l component i n t h e o r i e s of e m o t i o n , t h e two terms o f t e n b e i n g used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Tomkins (1982) s t a t e d " I view a f f e c t as t h e p r i m a r y i n n a t e b i o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i n g mechanism, more u r g e n t t h a n d r i v e d e p r i v a t i o n and p l e a s u r e , and more u r g e n t even t h a n p h y s i c a l p a i n " (p. 3 5 4 ) . A key q u e s t i o n when d i s c u s s i n g t h e use of a s i n g l e measurement t o o l a c r o s s two d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s i s how t h e r e s u l t s based on t h e t o o l a r e i n t e r p r e t e d . In t h e o r i e s o f a f f e c t , t h e f o c u s i s on h y p o t h e s e s o f t h e c u l t u r a l d e t e r m i n a n t s , g e n e t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and c o m m u n i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s (Ekman, 1978; I z a r d , 1971; R e d i c a n , 1982; Tomkins, 1982). For t h e o r i e s of p a i n t h e d a t a from th e same measurement method may be r e l a t e d t o t h e s o u r c e s o f p a i n , t h e s e n s o r y or e v a l u a t i v e q u a l i t i e s p e r c e i v e d by t h e p e r s o n , t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d - h y p o t h e s e s ' of e motion as t h e y r e l a t e t o p a i n , as w e l l as complex i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s i z e d f a c t o r s ( K l e c k , et a l . 1976). I t i s c l e a r t h e n t h a t t h e s i m i l a r i t y of methods used and p o s s i b l e o v e r l a p p i n g h y p o t h e s e s between r e s e a r c h on p a i n e x p r e s s i o n and e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o n l y r e p r e s e n t a 1 0 . c i r c u m s c r i b e d a r e a o f j o i n t t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t between r e s e a r c h i n t h e s e two a r e a s . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s e two a r e a s a r e s e p a r a b l e and d e s e r v e f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n as- uniq u e t o p i c s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s s h a r e d methodology but t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between p a i n and emotion w i l l be e v i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s p a p e r . The Concept o f F a c i a l B e h a v i o r Whether t h e f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h has been on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n or a f f e c t , and r e g a r d l e s s of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r e d i l e c t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , w i t h i n t h e r e a l m of measurement t e c h n i q u e s t h e term " f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n " has c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n . Ekman, F r i e s e n , and E l l s w o r t h (1982a) and 0 ' S u l l i v a n (1982) p o i n t out s e v e r a l problems w i t h t h e t e r m i n o l o g y used i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e f a c e . Ekman e t a l . (1982a) p r o p o s e d t h e term " f a c i a l b e h a v i o r " t o i n d i c a t e o b s e r v a b l e movement on t h e f a c e . The terms emotion or e x p r e s s i o n a r e r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i n f e r e n c e s one makes from o b s e r v i n g f a c i a l b e h a v i o r . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , which c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e s what i s o b s e r v e d from t h a t which i s i n f e r r e d , opens t h e door f o r r e s e a r c h e r s i n a l l a r e a s t o use common measures of f a c i a l b e h a v i o r w i t h o u t a d o p t i n g o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ' i n f e r e n c e s about what i s b e i n g measured. The c o n c e p t of f a c i a l b e h a v i o r r e d u c e s t h e debate o v e r what i s b e i n g measured t o t h e problem of d e f i n i n g what a b e h a v i o r i s w i t h o u t a l s o i n c l u d i n g i n t h i s debate t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t o i n t e r p r e t t h e meaning of t h e b e h a v i o r . The terms f a c i a l b e h a v i o r , movement, and a c t i o n w i l l be used t o i n d i c a t e f a c i a l e v e n t s t h a t have been o b j e c t i v e l y coded. The term p a i n e x p r e s s i o n w i l l r e f e r t o i n f e r e n c e s o r g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s t h a t a r e presumed to r e p r e s e n t t h e s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e o f the i n d i v i d u a l who d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e s e s p e c i f i e d f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s . By s t r i p p i n g i n f e r e n c e from o b s e r v a t i o n o f f a c i a l b e h a v i o r i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o compare o b s e r v a t i o n s from d i v e r s e a r e a s i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a c i a l movement which a r e o b s e r v e d , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i n f e r e n c e s made about t h e s e movements. I t would be p o s s i b l e t o compare the f a c i a l b e h a v i o r o b s e r v e d when p e o p l e were s u b j e c t e d t o f e a r f u l or s t r e s s f u l s t i m u l i w i t h t h e f a c i a l b e h a v i o r o f p e o p l e exposed t o p a i n f u l s t i m u l i . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n c o u l d s u g g e s t t h e common f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s i n v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s and i d e n t i f y t h o s e which a r e u n i q u e t o each s t i m u l u s . W i t h i n t h e a r e a o f p a i n r e s e a r c h t h e s e u n i q u e f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s c o u l d a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o see i f t h e y were r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s of t h e p a i n s t i m u l u s and i t s s e n s o r y i m p a c t , t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p e r s o n ' s r e a c t i o n or t o t h e p e r s o n ' s s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e v e n t . The p r e s e n t s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e c i f i c f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s r e l a t e d t o p a i n and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f p a i n based on v i e w i n g t h e s e f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s . Summary o f R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e P r e s e n t R e s e a r c h The t h r u s t of t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h can be q u i c k l y summarized. There i s a need f o r more and b e t t e r p a i n a s s e s s m e n t methods. Of t h e f o u r major a r e a s where p a i n 1 2 . a s s e s s m e n t can be made o n l y t h e a s s e s s m e n t of n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r l a c k s any a d e q u a t e measurement methods. The use o f n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r i n a s s e s s i n g p a i n has c l i n i c a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l i m p o r t a n c e . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l a r e a s o f n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l , t h e o r e t i c a l , and c l i n i c a l r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g f a c i a l b e h a v i o r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c e r t a i n f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s t h a t have been f o u n d c o n c o m i t a n t t o t h e r e p o r t of p a i n and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e s p o r t r a y e d by t h e s e f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . 1 3 . LITERATURE REVIEW Due t o t h e d i v e r s e r e s e a r c h on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n t h e r e i s a need f o r a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f judgment s t u d i e s o f p a i n . The l i t e r a t u r e t o be r e v i e w e d w i l l be o r g a n i z e d f o l l o w i n g R o s e n t h a l ' s (1982) model f o r c o n d u c t i n g judgment s t u d i e s . T h i s r e v i e w c o n t a i n s f o u r major s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t i n t r o d u c e s R o s e n t h a l ' s model and o u t l i n e s how i t i s used t o s t r u c t u r e t h e r e v i e w . The second p r o v i d e s a system f o r c l a s s i f y i n g e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on judgments o f p a i n e x p r e s s i o n . T h i s system w i l l f o l l o w t h e model's g u i d e l i n e s . The t h i r d p r o v i d e s a summary of t h e f i n d i n g s i n each a r e a and a d i s c u s s i o n o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . The f o u r t h s e c t i o n a s s e s s e s t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e model based on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h and how w e l l t h e model h e l p e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g new a r e a s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Model fo r C o n d u c t i n g Judgment S t u d i e s o f P a i n E x c e p t f o r r e s e a r c h on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t u t i l i z e p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e c o r d i n g methods, a l l s t u d i e s o f f a c i a l b e h a v i o r use o b s e r v e r s e i t h e r as c o d e r s ( p e o p l e t r a i n e d t o use a s p e c i f i c r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e or method) or as j u d g e s ( p e o p l e a s k e d t o make p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s based on o b s e r v a t i o n s o f f a c i a l b e h a v i o r ) . These two o b s e r v e r r o l e s may o v e r l a p but u s u a l l y f u l f i l l d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h needs. For i n s t a n c e , C r a i g and P a t r i c k (1985) and LeResche (1982) used h i g h l y t r a i n e d c o d e r s , L a n z e t t a and K l e c k (1970) used 1 4 . n a i v e j u d g e s as o b s e r v e r s , and Ganchrow e t a l . (1978) p r o v i d e d t h e i r o b s e r v e r s w i t h mimimal t r a i n i n g and a s t r u c t u r e d s c o r i n g Form. The a f o r e m e n t i o n e d s t u d i e s by C r a i g and P a t r i c k , L a n z e t t a and K l e c k , and Ganchrow et a l . a l l i n v e s t i g a t e d p a i n e x p r e s s i o n s , but each s t u d y used a d i f f e r e n t o b s e r v e r r o l e . From t h e d i v e r s i t y of s t r a t e g i e s the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o how b e s t t o i n t e g r a t e t h e F i n d i n g s . The model p r o p o s e d by R o s e n t h a l (1982) p r o v i d e s an i n t e g r a t i v e Framework For a s s e s s i n g and c o n d u c t i n g judgment s t u d i e s . T h i s model p r o v i d e s a s t r u c t u r e For a s y s t e m a t i c r e v i e w and For c o n t r a s t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t o b s e r v e r r o l e s and t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d by each method. F i g u r e 1 i s a g r a p h i c d i s p l a y of t h e model o f judgment s t u d i e s p r o p o s e d by R o s e n t h a l . The F o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s t h e model's components and component i n t e r a c t i o n s . A - one or more a t t r i b u t e s oF t h e p e r s o n exposed t o a known s t i m u l u s ( e g . p a i n or F e a r ) . B - t h e o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r oF t h e p e r s o n ( e g . F a c i a l or body movement, s k i n t o n e c h a n g e ) . C - the judgment oF t h e o b s e r v e r oF t h e A a t t r i b u t e s based on p e r c e p t i o n o f B ( e g . r a t e s l e v e l o f p a i n ) . A B -̂ t h e s t u d y o f n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r as a dependent v a r i a b l e (eg. a r e t h e r e a l i m i t e d number oF F a c i a l a c t i o n s s p e c i f i c t o h i g h l e v e l s oF n o x i o u s s t i m u l a t i o n ? ) . B C - t h e p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i s on u s i n g t h e e n c o d e r ' s n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r as an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( e g . do F i g u r e 1 R o s e n t h a l ' s Model f o r C o n d u c t i n g Judgment S t u d i e s B S t a t e o f e n c o d e r E n c o d e r 1 s n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i or Decoder' < judgment 1 6 . o b s e r v e r s make d i f f e r e n t judgments dependent upon t h e t y p e of n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r t h e y s e e ? ) . A C - t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s i s on t h e o b s e r v e r ' s a c c u r a c y i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e e n c o d e r ( e g . how a c c u r a t e l y can t h e o b s e r v e r s d i s c r i m i n a t e between p a i n and f e a r s t a t e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s ? ) . A B C - t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s i n t e r e s t i s a l l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e model ( e g . f i n d i n g what f a c i a l a c t i o n s r e l a t e t o s p e c i f i c s t a t e s o f t h e e n c o d e r and t e s t i n g which f a c i a l a c t i o n s o b s e r v e r s use t o i n f e r t h e s t a t e o f t h e e n c o d e r ) . U s i n g t h i s model i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c l a s s i f y e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h by t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e components b e i n g s t u d i e d . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f E m p i r i c a l S t u d i e s o f F a c i a l E x p r e s s i o n s o f P a i n T a b l e 1 summarizes t h e r e c e n t work on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of p a i n . S t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d p r i o r t o 1965 were not i n c l u d e d because t h e y c o n t a i n e d p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o b l e m a t i c m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f l a w s (Ekman, 1982; Ekman, F r i e s e n a E l l s w o r t h , 1982b), and o f t e n d i d not s e p a r a t e p a i n from t h e l a r g e r f o c u s on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of e m o t i o n . In a r e v i e w of r e s e a r c h on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of p a i n c o n d u c t e d by LeResche and Dworkin (1984) o n l y one s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of p a i n (Chapman S J o n e s , 1944) was f o u n d p r i o r t o 1965. A l s o not i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 1 a r e r e s e a r c h summaries of work on t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d d u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s of a s u b j e c t r e c e i v i n g p a i n e l i c i t i n g s t i m u l i . 17. P h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i s o u t s i d e t h e r e a l m of t h e p r e s e n t model of judgment s t u d i e s . I f a s t u d y f o c u s e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on both judgments of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s and p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures a summary of t h e judgment s e c t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 1. Summary o f A - B F i n d i n g s I t i s e v i d e n t from t h e s t u d i e s summarized i n T a b l e 1 t h a t r e s e a r c h on d i f f e r e n t component r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n R o s e n t h a l ' s model p r o d u c e u n i q u e t y p e s o f r e s u l t s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from r e s e a r c h on o t h e r component r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The n i n e e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t examined t h e A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p a l l l i s t e d s p e c i f i c f a c i a l f e a t u r e s , movements, or a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y which appear t o be r e l a t e d t o f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of p a i n . T h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h r e l i e s h e a v i l y on adequate measurement of f a c i a l b e h a v i o r . Comparing th e FACS coded d a t a ( C r a i g S. P a t r i c k , 1985; Hyde, 1985; LeResche, 1982; P a t r i c k et a l . , i n p r e s s ) t o t h e more g l o b a l c o d i n g o f Ganchrow et a l . (1978) and L e v e n t h a l and Sharp (1965) and t h e l i m i t e d range o f Keefe and B l o c k (1982) h i g h l i g h t s t h e g a i n s i n c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s and s p e c i f i c i t y when u s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o d i n g system v e r s u s g l o b a l or l i m i t e d c o d i n g f o r t h i s t y p e of r e s e a r c h . With t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e Keefe and B l o c k (1982, exp. 1) f i n d i n g t h a t g r i m a c i n g was not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e p a t i e n t ' s p a i n r a t i n g a l l o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s found t h a t f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o measures of t h e p a t i e n t ' s or s u b j e c t ' s p a i n . Ganchrow e t a l . (1978) a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e s t a t e o f t h e s u b j e c t a f f e c t s t h e f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s d e m o n s t r a t e d d u r i n g p a i n f u l s t i m u 1 u a t i o n . Table 1 Summary of Empirical Research on Judgments of Facial Expressions of Pain Categorized using Rosenthal's Model Author A B a  C Ss Coders Judges Relia- Findings State Nonverbal Rating in A in B in C bility Subject Behavior of Model of Subject Judge Segment A-B Craig & Cold pressor. FACS 72 F I F 71% AUs 6,7,10,12,25,26,27,435, Patrick Gracely scale of 1 M overall 45 discriminated baseline (1985) Affective Discom- 85% for from hand emersion. AUs fort used as signif. described as eyes narrow self-report. AUs b . upper lip pull, pulling Ss exposed to lips oblique, mouth open, modeling influence. eyes closed or blinking. Sig. tolerant & intolerant modeling effect on self- report. Ganchrow Cold pressor. Coders rated 24 F 4 F Not Pain tolerance lower for Steiner & Self-report pain global level 8 M 2 M given. depressed group. At neutral Kleiner 0-10 scale. of pain & affect. 16 depres depressed group had higher (1978) Hamilton Depress. patients freq. corrugated brow. scale & self-rate 16 normal squinting, closed eyes & depression 0-100. volunteer turned down mouth. During pain depressed group had higher freq. of squinted eyes, turned down mouth & compressed lips. Coders rated both groups in more pain during pain than base. As the sole focus of this table is on facial expressions it would be redundant to list facial expressions under "B". Instead, either the method of measuring facial expressions or specific characteristics of "B", besides facial expressions, will be given. AU = Action Unit. This is a term used by Ekman and Friesen (1978) to describe movements of specific facial muscles. Author A B Hyde (1985) Ss were chronic back pain pats, who received a range of motion test. Pats, instructed to hide & pose pain express for one segment. Self-report MPQ Gracely scales. FACS. Global coders rated overall expressiveness. Keefe & Block (1982) Exper. 1 Ss rated pain 0-10 prior to assess of static & dynamic states. All Ss had chronic low back pain. 5 codes for static 6 dynamic states & concomitant behavior codes for guarding, bracing, rub, grim- acing & sighing Keefe & Ss were either Same as in Exper. 1 Block pain patients, (1982) normal or depress. controls. All Exper. 4 were assessed as See also in experiment 1. in B-C below. Ss Coder Judge Pelia- Findings in A in B in C bility 60 F 60 M 13 F 14 M FACS 2 F 1 M Global 1 F 1 M FACS Males rated globally as less 78% expressive. No difference on overall. self-report scales. No sex Global differences for AU frequency, ratings Overall MANOVA found AUs 2,4, inter- 6,7,10,12,25,43 & 45 sig. class different amongst baseline, correl. pain, masked & posed segments. = 0.92. Post hoc analysis found a) AUs 4 & 43 sig. more in pain than base, b) AU 45 sig less during masked than base, c) AUs 4,6, 12 & 43 sig. more & AU 45 sig. less in posed than base, d) AU 25 sig more & AUs 4,6 & 12 sig less in pain than posed. Effect- Correlation of guarding & ive % grimace with other behaviors 80-96 was highest. Correlation of pain rating with all behaviors except grimace was sig. Mean frequency of combined behaviors sig. higher during movenent than static assessment. 10 Ss Blind Not in each to Ss given group. status All behaviors sig. higher in pain patients than controls, except bracing which was not sig. different between pain patients and normals. Author A B C Keefe Wilkins Cook (1984) Ss were low back pain patients receiving neuro- surgical evaluation. Ss rated pain on 0-10 scale. Same as in Keefe & Block (1982). LeResche (1982) Still photos of unanesthetized people experiencing pain from acute severe trauma. FACS Leventhal & Sharp (1965) Hours in labor & cervical dilation. Birdwhistell coding system (1952). Patrick Craig & Prkachin (in press) See also A-C below. Ss received shocks FACS while exposed to models. Used Gracely scale of Affective Discomfort. Ss Coder Judge Relia- Findings in A in B in C bility 32 F 48 M 91.9%. 7 Ss in I F 16 photos None 71 F 2 F 75.5% mean agree over sig. moves. Total pain behaviors sig. related to pain ratings. Sig. more total pain behaviors dur- ing movement than when s t i l l . Mult, regress, found number of operations predicted total pain behaviors, guarding & bracing. Exam findings predicted total pain & guarding. Duration of pain predicted guarding. No patient characteristics predicted rubbing, grimacing & sighing. Indices of pain were AUs 4,6,7, 11,20,25,26,27 & 43. AUs described as brow lower, horiz- ontal lip stretch, closed eyes mouth open, cheeks raised, eye lids tight & nasolabial furrow. Brow, forehead & eye movements sig. increased with dilation & hours in labor. 30 F 1 F 1 M 74% Sig. AUs discriminating highest overall shock from baseline were AUs 4, 84% for 6,10 & 45. Frequency of AUs sig. AUs. sig. higher in tolerant than intolerant or control condition Au frequency sig. greater in pain threshold or high shocks than baseline. Author A B C Ss Coder Judge Relia- Findings Segment in A in B in C b i l i t y A - C Gubar (1966) Anticipation of shock or reward. Kleck, Vaughan, Cartwright- Smith, Vaughan & Lanzetta (1976) Exper. 1 Kleck et al. (1976) cont. exper. 2 Received no/med/high shocks alone or being ebserved. Rating of shock 0-100. Ss were selected as high or low self-monitors- Replication of exper 1. No selection for high low monitoring. Judges yoked to Ss 23 & could avoid shock by making correct judgments of S's condition. Js were naive or experienced with shock. Judges rated shock 20 M 0-100 scale. 47 N/A Replication of experiment 1. 40 M 3 F 1 M 3 F 3 M Kendalls coeff. of con- cordance p .001 Same as above Experienced Js better at knowing when to respond. Naive Js failed to discrim- inate between shock & reward trials but experienced Js made accurate discrimina- tions . Hypothesised.shock level x experimental condition did not reach sig. For self-report main effect for shock level but hypo thesized shock level X condi- tion was not sig. Less discom- fort judged in observed vs alone condition. No sex effect. Less discom- fort judged in observed vs alone condition. Self-report rating lower when observed than alone. Lanzetta Cartwright- Smith & Kleck (1976) exper. 2 Anticipation of no/ low/high shock under instructions to be demonstrative or hide facial expression or baseline Js indicated i f Ss were anticipating shock & its level. Js observed self & others. A l l Js were also Ss. 9 M 9 M None Js made fewer errors judging given expressions under demonstrative than hide or baseline conditions Author A Lanzetta et al. Anticipation & (1976) cont. exper. reception of low/med high shocks. Posed no pain & intense pain. Rated pain 0-100. Lanzetta & Kleck (1970) Anticipation of mod. level shock or no shock. LaRusso (1978) Ss receiving shocks or simulating receiving shocks. Patrick et al. (in press) See also A-B above Videos of Ss receiv- ing shocks while exposed to tolerant intolerant or contol models. C Ss Coder Judge Relia- Findings in A in B in C bility Js rated intensity 10 F 2 F .90 mean on 0-100 scale. 10 M 6 M correl. for test retest reliab. Js viewed tape of 12 M 12 M None self & others. Js given received shock if incorrect. Js viewed tape & 2 M scored segments as 2 F real or simulated. Half of Js received single shock. 24 paranoid 24 normal contols N/A Js given analgesic, 30 F 15 F None hypersensitive, or given control instructions. Rated Ss on 7 pt. scale of discomfort. No sex differences in expressions. Posing had sig. effect on Js ratings of shock. Sig. posing X intensity. Ss reported lower pain in pose "no pain" vs pose "intense pain". Js could discriminate shock vs no shock facial express- ions. Ss who made few judgment errors were them- selves difficult for others to judge. Those making many judgment errors were relatively easy for others to judge. Group X tape condition. Pats, more accurate with genuine expressions than contols. Patients viewing simulated expressions less accurate than controls. Contois viewing genuine express, were less accurate than when viewing simulated expressions. Js rated Ss receiving higher shocks to be in more pain. Instructions to Js has sig. effect at highest shock level. Js rated tolerant Ss to be in more pain than other two groups Mult, regress, showed AUs 4,6, 10 & 45 sig related to Js ratings. Author A B C Ss Coder Judge Relia- Findings in A in B in C bility Prkachin & Craig (1985) Prkachin Currie & Craig (1983) Videos of Ss receiv- ing shocks while exposed to tolerant intolerant & control model Videos of Ss receiv- ing shocks while exposed to tolerant intolerant & control models. Rated pain on 7 pt. scale Js rated shocks as low/med/high & rated Ss' overall distress & difficul- ty in rating S. 27 F Js given analgesic 30 hyperanalgesic, or control instructions Rating pain on 7 pt. scale. 15 F SDT Js discriminated shock levels. analysis Discrimination between high & Lx value ired shocks easier than med & non-sig. low. Modeling affected Js rating of intensity. Js global ratings of distress differed amongst modeling groups. Js ratings of difficulty sig. different across modeling groups. 15 F N/A Js discriminated shock inten- 15 M sity. Js' ratings differed across model conditions. Sig. shock X model which showed most sig. differences at high shock. Js rated face as more important than body cues. No difference due to sex of judge. Hypersensitive instruct, lead to higher judgment of pain Block (1981) Videos of spouses or confederate displaying pain or neutral express- ion on command. Spouse was pain patient. Non-patient spouses & neutral observers judged expressions on 11 pt. scale. Not 16 given spuses 2 neutral observers Not Spousal judges & neutral given observers rated pain express- ions as more pain than neutral for both their spouses & the confederate. Author A B C Ss Coder Judge Relia- Findings in A in B in C bility Boucher (1969) Keefe & Block (1982) See also A-B above Von Baeyer, Johnson & McMillan (1984) Exper. 1 Still photos of faces previously judged to show fear/suffering; fear; distress, as well as psychiatric controls Coding was done for 22 video segments using system from experiments in A-B above. Videos of low or high nonverbal pain expressions by patient. Verbal content was standard. Male doctor & female patient were acting. Judges rated photos as fear; sadness/ sorrow; actual pain Js used 11 pt scale, visual analogue & Gracely scale of sensory distress. Js rated video on 21 item visual analogue scale. Js were senior undergrad. nurses. Photos from previous research 47 Not Chi square test indicated given distribution of judgments differed sig. from chance for 36 of 39 photos. Not given Not given. Pre- test was done. 9 Not Total level of coded pain given behaviors sig. correlated with all 3 types of Js ratings. Guarding & grimacing correlated independently with all 3 pain rating scales used by Js. 44 F Not Js in high condition gave sig. given higher pain concern scores. Js did not differ in rating need for aid or support for patient. In high condition neg. correlation between experience and pain concern. Von Baeyer et al. (1984) Exper. 2 Same as above Js rated videos on except low/med/high 16 items using 6 pt. expressions. scale. Js were divided into low/ med/high nurturance. Same 88 F N/A Face & body movements & voice as tone were rated as sig. diff- above erent between high & low with no med. in between. Js ratings pre- increased monotonically with test increases in pain display, for med. Sig. interaction between nurturance and pain express- ion on solicitude scale. 25. Brow f u r r o w i n g , eyes t i g h t and/or c l o s e d , mouth open, and l i p s s t r e t c h e d ( u p per l i p p u l l e d up or l i p s p u l l e d h o r i z o n t a l l y o r o b l i q u e l y ] a r e t h e g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s . The c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s i s r e m a r k a b l e f o r such a s m a l l number of s t u d i e s , g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t f i v e v e r y d i f f e r e n t c l i n i c a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l p a i n c o n d i t i o n s were s t u d i e d ( c e r v i c a l d i l a t i o n / h o u r s i n l a b o r , c h r o n i c low back p a i n , c o l d p r e s s o r , e l e c t r i c shock, and p h o t o s o f u n a n a e s t h e t i z e d p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c i n g a c u t e s e v e r e t r a u m a s ) . A l s o o f note i s t h a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t methods of c o d i n g n o n v e r b a l f a c i a l b e h a v i o r were used. A l t h o u g h i n i t s i n f a n c y t h i s r e s e a r c h a p p e a r s t o p r o v i d e a good b e g i n n i n g t owards t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o s s i b l e s y s t e m a t i c f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . L i m i t a t i o n s of A r; B Re sea roh LeResche (1 9 8 2 ) , i n an u n c o n t r o l l e d c a s e s t u d y , p r o v i d e d t h e weakest o f t h e s t u d i e s . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h e s i m i l a r i t y of her f i n d i n g s t o t h e g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s i n t h e a r e a . While th e v a r i e t y o f f a c i a l c o d i n g methods c o u l d be seen as a s t r e n g t h o f t h i s a r e a t h e tremendous v a r i a b l i l i t y i n c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s and s p e c i f i c i t y between methods c o u l d be a r t i f i c i a l l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e o v e r a l l c o n s i s t e n c y of t h e f i n d i n g s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f i n d i n g s by L e v e n t h a l and Sharp (19S5) are open f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as FACS c o d i n g of t h e brow, f o r e h e a d , and eyes uses 10 AUs (AU or A c t i o n U n i t i s a term used by Ekman and F r i e s e n , 1978, t o d e s c r i b e movements of s p e c i f i c f a c i a l m u s c l e s ) f o r c o d i n g 26. movement i n t h e s e a r e a s , o n l y f i v e o f which a r e i d e n t i f i e d as r e l a t i n g t o p a i n i n r e s e a r c h u s i n g FACS. I t must remain u n c e r t a i n i f L e v e n t h a l and Sharp r e p o r t e d t h e same f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s as FACS based r e s e a r c h even though t h e r e i s agreement t h a t t h e upper f a c e e x p r e s s e s i m p o r t a n t p a i n c u e s . K e e f e and B l o c k (1982) used a p r e d e f i n e d s e t o f f a c i a l p a i n b e h a v i o r s . U s i n g a p r e d e f i n e d s e t o f b e h a v i o r s p r e c l u d e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g o t h e r f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s which may have been p o w e r f u l i n d i c a t o r s o f p a i n . A l s o , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f " g r i m a c e " g i v e n by K e e f e and B l o c k i s not i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e FACS d e s c r i p t o r s f o u n d i n o t h e r A-B r e s e a r c h . Summary o f .A - Cj F i n d i n g s B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f A-C r e s e a r c h i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h e r o l e of component B, or t h e s u b j e c t ' s n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r , i n t h e A-C r e l a t i o n s h i p . The c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between A-C r e s e a r c h and t h e o t h e r a r e a s of r e s e a r c h i s t h a t t h e n o n v e r b a l , b e h a v i o r o f t h e s u b j e c t i s not measured even though i t i s t h e s o l e s o u r c e of d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e s u b j e c t t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e j u d g e . The s o l e f o c u s o f A-C r e s e a r c h i s on whether j u d g e s , g i v e n a c c e s s s o l e l y t o t h e n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r o f t h e s u b j e c t , can a c c u r a t e l y r a t e t h e s t a t e o f t h e s u b j e c t . The f i n d i n g s o f s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g on t h e A-C r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i c a t e d , i n b r o a d terms, t h a t j u d g e s c o u l d make d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s between f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f s u b j e c t s a n t i c i p a t i n g a shock o r no shock (Gubar, 1966; L a n z e t t a S. K l e c k , 1970) and amongst f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f shock i n t e n s i t y ( K l e c k e t a l . , 1976, exp. 27. 1; L a n z e t t a e t a l . , 1976, exp. 3; P a t r i c k et a l . i n p r e s s ; P r k a c h i n S C r a i g , 1983; P r k a c h i n et a l . , 1983). S e v e r a l s u b j e c t and judge m a n i p u l a t i o n s were Found t o a f f e c t j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . Judges r a t e d s u b j e c t s who were o b s e r v e d t o be i n l e s s d i s c o m f o r t t h a n s u b j e c t s who were u n o b s e r v e d ( K l e c k et a l . , 1976, exp. 1 S 2 ) . M o d e l i n g i n f l u e n c e s on s u b j e c t s a l t e r e d j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s ( P a t r i c k et a l . , i n p r e s s ; P r k a c h i n S. C r a i g , 1985; P r k a c h i n e t a l . , 1983). I n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o s u b j e c t s t o a l t e r t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a f f e c t e d j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s ( L a n z e t t a et a l . , 1976, exp. 2 S 3; LaRusso, 1978). I n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o j u d g e s r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a t e of t h e s u b j e c t l e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a l judge r e s p o n s e s ( P a t r i c k et a l . , i n p r e s s ; P r k a c h i n e t a l . , 1983). The p r e s e n t s t a t e o f t h e judge ( n o r m a l or p a r a n o i d ) a f f e c t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between s p o n t a n e o u s and s i m u l a t e d p a i n e x p r e s s i o n s (LaRusso, 1978). F i n a l l y , g i v i n g j u d g e s r e p e a t e d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e p a i n s t i m u l u s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r a c c u r a c y (Gubar, 1966) w h i l e a s i n g l e e x p o s u r e d i d not ( L a R u s s o , 1978). The f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e A-C r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h r e e a r e a s . F i r s t , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t judgment outcomes ar e s e n s i t i v e t o an a r r a y o f s o c i a l , i n s t r u c t i o n a l , and knowledge f a c t o r s . S o c i a l , i n s t r u c t i o n a l , and knowledge f a c t o r s when a p p l i e d t o t h e s u b j e c t appear t o a f f e c t j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . J u d g e s' knowledge of t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e and whether t h e j u d g e s were p a r a n o i d or not a l s o a f f e c t e d j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . Second, t h e s t u d i e s t o d a t e have 28. f o c u s e d on t h e r e l a t i v e magnitude o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e v a r i o u s m a n i p u l a t i o n s and not on t h e a b s o l u t e a c c u r a c y . That i s , r e s e a r c h has shown d i s c r i m i n a b l e r e s u l t s a c r o s s l e v e l s o f most m a n i p u l a t i o n s but a l m o s t no i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g how c l o s e t h e j u d g e s came t o r a t i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e as d e f i n e d by t h e s u b j e c t s ' s e l f - r e p o r t o r t o t h e a b s o l u t e magnitude o f t h e s t i m u l u s . K l e c k e t a l . (1976) i n both t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t s on t h e e f f e c t s o f s u b j e c t s b e i n g o b s e r v e d or u n o b s e r v e d gave s e l f - r e p o r t and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f p a i n i n t e n s i t y t h a t s u g g e s t e d t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s of c o n d i t i o n , s e l f - r e p o r t f a r e x c e e d e d j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s f o r mid and h i g h i n t e n s i t i e s but j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s f a r e x c e e d e d s e l f - r e p o r t at z e r o i n t e n s i t y . L a n z e t t a et a l . (1976, exp. 3) a l s o i n d i c a t e d l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c i e s between j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s and s e l f - r e p o r t d u r i n g posed " i n t e n s e " and posed "no p a i n " c o n d i t i o n s . Judges a g a i n were c o n s i s t e n t l y lower t h a n s e l f - r e p o r t e x c e p t f o r posed " i n t e n s e " at low shock l e v e l s where t h e r a t i n g s were s i m i l a r . The major c l i n i c a l q u e s t i o n which a r i s e s from t h e s e r e s u l t s i s what d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a i n management e f f i c a c y a r e t h e r e between management based on judgments o f r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e v e r s u s judgments o f a b s o l u t e a c c u r a c y ? More r e s e a r c h i s needed i n o r d e r t o a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s t h i s q u e s t i o n . The f i n a l a r e a where t h e r e s u l t s from A-C r e s e a r c h a r e i n s t r u c t i v e i s i n t h e a r e a of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . L a n z e t t a and K l e c k (1970) and K l e c k et a l . (1976) p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e were s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n j u d g e s ' r e l i a b i l i t y a c r o s s s u b j e c t s . Some s u b j e c t s were r e l i a b l y 29. judged, w h i l e f o r o t h e r s j u d g e s showed l i t t l e r e l i a b i l i t y . T h i s v a r i a b i l i t y i s p r o b a b l y due t o both i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t s ' f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s as w e l l as j u d g e s ' a b i l i t y t o make c e r t a i n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . The amount o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e i n s u b j e c t s ' n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r i s b e s t p o r t r a y e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h by P a t r i c k e t a l . ( i n p r e s s ) . P a t r i c k et a l . found t h a t 5 5% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r by changes i n f o u r s p e c i f i c components of t h e s u b j e c t s ' f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s (AUs 4, 6, 10, and 4 5 ) . While t h i s i s an i m p r e s s i v e r e s u l t f o r j u s t f o u r f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s o u r c e of 45% o f j u d g e s ' v a r i a n c e i s l e f t u n a c c o u n t e d . L i m i t a t i o n s of _A ^ C R e s e a r c h The i n t e n t o f A-C r e s e a r c h w i t h i n t h e model i s t o s t u d y how w e l l j u d g e s map the s t a t e of t h e s u b j e c t and what f a c t o r s o t h e r than n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r may a f f e c t t h i s mapping. Two problems i n t h e r e v i e w e d l i t e r a t u r e have l i m i t e d t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h i s i n t e n t . F i r s t , o n l y K l e c k et a l . (1976, exp. 1 a 2) and L a n z e t t a e t a l . (exp. 3) used i d e n t i c a l s e l f - r e p o r t and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s c a l e s which would a l l o w f o r d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n between t h e s e s c a l e s . As n o t e d i n t h e f i n d i n g s above t h e r e were major d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the s u b j e c t s ' and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . U n l e s s f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e i s s u e o f a c c u r a c y t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y w i l l remain u n c l a r i f i e d . Second, t h e measurement p r o p e r t i e s o f most o f t h e measures of t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e are not w e l l known. The G r a c e l y s c a l e of a f f e c t i v e d i s c o m f o r t has r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t i n g i t s measurement 30. p r o p e r t i e s ( G r a c e l y et a l . , 1978, 1979). While i n common use, t h e s e r i a l r a t i n g s c a l e s (eg. 1-100) o f t e n l a c k a d e q u a t e s u p p o r t f o r e i t h e r t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y or v a l i d i t y ( G r a c e l y , 1982; T u r s k y , Jamner a Friedman, 1982). Thus, a l t h o u g h such s c a l e s have pr o v e n u s e f u l f o r a l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s ' and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e e v e n t s i t i s unknown what t h e p a r a m e t e r s are f o r such d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o s p e c i f y what i s b e i n g a s s e s s e d when s t u d y i n g p a i n because o f i t s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l n a t u r e (Chapman et a l . 1985). T h i s need f o r s p e c i f i c i t y i s i n d i c a t e d by G r a c e l y et a l . (1978) p r o d u c i n g s e p a r a t e a f f e c t i v e and s e n s o r y s c a l e s and the MPQ b e i n g d i v i d e d i n t o s e n s o r y , a f f e c t i v e , and e v a l u a t i v e s u b s c a l e s ( M e l z a c k , 1975; P r i e t o S G e i s i g e r , 1982). The l a c k o f s p e c i f i c i t y i n t h e r e s e a r c h t o d a t e h i n d e r s a c l e a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f what a s p e c t s o f p a i n t h e j u d g e s a r e r a t i n g . Two f a c t o r s l i m i t t h e g e n e r a 1 i z a b i 1 i t y o f t h e A-C r e s e a r c h . E l e c t r i c shock i s t h e o n l y p a i n s t i m u l u s used. T h i s i s c l e a r l y an i n s u f f i c i e n t base f o r g e n e r a l i z i n g r e s u l t s from t h i s a r e a ( H a r r i s a R o l l m a n , 1983; Turk et a l . , 1983; W o l f f , 1971). A l s o , v e r y l i t t l e has been done towards s t u d y i n g t h e a t t r i b u t e s of t h e j u d g e s and how t h e y may c o n t r i b u t e to t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . Only t h e sex o f judge ( K l e c k e t a l . , 1976, exp. 2; P r k a c h i n et a l . , 1983) and j u d g e s ' e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e p a i n s t i m u l i (Gubar, 1966; LaRusso, 1978) have been s t u d i e d , w i t h t h e r e b e i n g no e f f e c t f o r sex o f judge. A l t h o u g h a number o f judge a t t r i b u t e s may prove t o be i m p o r t a n t t h e r e s e a r c h by Von Baeyer et a l . 31 . (1984) r e g a r d i n g t h e B-C r e l a t i o n s h i p would s u g g e s t t h a t p l a u s i b l e a t t r i b u t e s t o s t u d y would be j u d g e s ' work e x p e r i e n c e i n r a t i n g p a i n and l e v e l o f n u r t u r a n c e . Summary o f B 2. £. F i n d i n g s The model's major c r i t e r i o n f o r s t u d y i n g t h e B-C r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t t h e r e i s e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r shown t o t h e j u d g e . T h i s p e r m i t s s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e n o n v e r b a l ( i e . f a c i a l ) b e h a v i o r s t o be used as s t i m u l i f o r t h e j u d g e s and i s an i n d e p e n d e n t i s s u e from t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e which i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o a l t e r t h e i r n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r . I f t h i s c r i t e r i o n was s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d o n l y Boucher (19B9) and K e e f e and B l o c k (198 2) would have been i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 1. B l o c k (1981) and Von Baeyer e t a l . (1984) were i n c l u d e d because t h e y made some attempt t o c o n t r o l or d e f i n e t h e n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r s shown t o the j u d g e s a l t h o u g h t h e y d i d not s p e c i f y t h e e x p l i c i t p a r a m e t e r s of t h e s e b e h a v i o r s . The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t d i r e c t m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h e n o n v e r b a l f a c i a l b e h a v i o r of t h e s u b j e c t can l e a d t o a l t e r a t i o n of t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s i n d e p e n d e n t o f e x p l i c i t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e . The s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t j u d g e s can d i f f e r e n t i a t e between l e v e l s of p a i n and n e u t r a l f a c i a l b e h a v i o r ( B l o c k , 1981; Von Baeyer e t a l . , 1984), between f e a r , s a d n e s s / s o r r o w , and a c t u a l p a i n f a c i a l b e h a v i o r ( B o u c h e r , 1969), and t h a t p a i n r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s , e s p e c i a l l y g r i m a c i n g and g u a r d i n g b e h a v i o r s , c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h r e e t y p e s o f j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s c a l e s ( K e e f e S. B l o c k , 1982, 32. exp. 4 ) . L i m i t a t i o n s of B_ - C_ R e s e a r c h As s t a t e d above o n l y Boucher (1969), and K e e f e and B l o c k (1982) came c l o s e t o f u l f i l l i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r B-C r e s e a r c h o f s p e c i f y i n g t h e n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r viewed by t h e j u d g e s . By c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e s p e c i f i c i t y a c h i e v e d i n c o d i n g n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r i n A-B r e s e a r c h i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h by Boucher, and K e e f e and B l o c k o n l y b a r e l y meet t h e l e v e l s o f s p e c i f i c i t y and c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o b t a i n a b l e by c u r r e n t c o d i n g s y stems such as FACS. The r e s u l t s of a l l B-C s t u d i e s must be viewed as somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e due t o t h e l a c k of s p e c i f y i n g p a r t i c u l a r f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s which a f f e c t e d t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . Thus i t i s not known i f j u d g e s f o c u s e d on t h e upper or lower f a c e movements, on l i p or eye movements, or some complex of f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s . I t i s a l s o d i s t u r b i n g t o note t h a t no d a t a were g i v e n r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e c o d i n g done t o s p e c i f y t h e n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r s u s e d . Without such d a t a i t i s unknown how w e l l t h e f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s f i t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f p a i n e x p r e s s i o n s used- t o d e s c r i b e t h e n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r seen by t h e j u d g e s . From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f R o s e n t h a l ' s model t h i s i s a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m . Thus, even though t h e B-C r e s e a r c h used a v a r i e t y of j u d g e s , which i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e l a c k o f s p e c i f i c i t y of t h e n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r s viewed by t h e s e j u d g e s means t h e s e s t u d i e s have not a d e q u a t e l y f u l f i l l e d t h e i n t e n t of t h e model's g u i d e l i n e s . G e n e r a l Summary o f Reviewed R e s e a r c h A-B r e s e a r c h has moved g e n e r a l l y from molar t o more 33. m o l e c u l a r c o d i n g o f f a c i a l b e h a v i o r w i t h a c o n c o m i t a n t i n c r e a s e i n c o d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s . S p e c i f i c f a c i a l movements have been found t o d i s c r i m i n a t e amongst d i f f e r e n t p a i n s t a t e s and p a i n v e r s u s n o n - p a i n s t a t e s . A-C r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t j u d g e s can d i s c r i m i n a t e among v a r i o u s p a i n s t a t e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s , a l t h o u g h , as e x p e c t e d from t h e model, what cues t h e j u d g e s use f o r t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s i s not known. I t has a l s o been shown t h a t j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s a r e a f f e c t e d by a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l , i n s t r u c t i o n a l , and knowledge f a c t o r s . E l e c t r i c shock i s t h e o n l y p a i n s t i m u l u s used t o d a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . B-C r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s do v a r y as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s shown to them. However, due t o a l a c k of s p e c i f i c i t y t h e s e f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s a r e not w e l l d e f i n e d . A l s o , as e x p e c t e d from t h e model, t h i s r e s e a r c h does not t i e s p e c i f i c f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s to t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e . O v e r a l l t h e model's b a s i c component r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d , a l b e i t t h e q u a l i t y and f o c u s of t h e r e s e a r c h was v a r i a b l e . The r e s e a r c h by P a t r i c k e t a l . ( i n p r e s s ) and K e e f e and B l o c k (1982) which was l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 as i n v e s t i g a t i n g two t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , A-B and A-C, and A-B and B-C r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i l l be t h e f o c u s of t h e f i n a l summary remarks. At f i r s t g l a n c e i t may appear t h a t t h e s e two s t u d i e s c o u l d have been used t o i n v e s t i g a t e more complex component r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However, t h i s i s not t h e c a s e . What t h e s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d was t h a t s i m p l y s t u d y i n g t h e s i m p l e component r e l a t i o n s h i p s s e p a r a t e l y was not enough t o 34. g u a r a n t e e t h a t d i r e c t comments c o u l d be made about more complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In t h e P a t r i c k e t a l . s t u d y i t was not p o s s i b l e t o t a k e t h e s e p a r a t e A-B and A-C r e s e a r c h and make a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t about an A-B-C complex r e l a t i o n s h i p due t o u s i n g a s i g n a l d e t e c t i o n d e s i g n i n t h e A-C p a r t o f t h e s t u d y , a j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s c a l e t h a t was d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e s u b j e c t ' s s e l f - r e p o r t , and t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e j u d g e ' s a c c u r a c y b e i n g c o l l a p s e d a c r o s s s u b - p a i n t o p a i n t o l e r a n c e s t i m u l i segments. In t h e Keefe and B l o c k s e r i e s of s t u d i e s d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t s a m p l e s , l i m i t e d a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e , and f o c u s i n g on t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between coded b e h a v i o r and m u l t i p l e judgment r a t i n g s c a l e s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h a t t e m p t s t o make a s t a t e m e n t about t h e l a r g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a n t h o s e d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d i n t h e s t u d i e s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e e n t i r e model i s r e c o g n i z e d . In d e v e l o p i n g t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e d e s i g n of t h e e x p e r i m e n t s so t h a t t h e y c o u l d be c l e a r l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e o v e r a l l framework of t h i s model. E v a l u a t i o n o f R o s e n t h a l ' s Model At t h i s p o i n t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e a t e n t a t i v e e v a l u t i o n o f R o s e n t h a l ' s model f o r c o n d u c t i n g judgment s t u d i e s . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l p r o f i l e t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknessess of t h e model. S t r e n g t h s From use o f t h e model t o date t h r e e a r e a s o f s t r e n g t h have been i d e n t i f i e d . F i r s t , t h e f a c t t h a t p r i o r t o t h i s 35. r e s e a r c h few o f t h e r e v i e w e d s t u d i e s had been c i t e d t o g e t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e model i s p o w e r f u l enough t o a l l o w p r e v i o u s l y d i v e r g e n t r e s e a r c h t o be o r g a n i z e d i n t o a s y s t e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e . A b e n e f i t o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s t h a t s e v e r a l s p e c i a l t y a r e a s can be i d e n t i f i e d ( e g . t h e A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . The j u s t c o m p l e t e d r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s an example o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e s p e c i a l t y a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h . U s i n g t h e model a l l o w s f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h on s p e c i a l t o p i c s so t h a t l a r g e r and more c o h e r e n t s t a t e m e n t s can be made on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s t h a n i f t h e r e s e a r c h was l e f t u n s t r u c t u r e d . The s e c o n d s t r e n g t h i s t h a t t h e model s e t s g u i d e l i n e s f o r what s h o u l d and s h o u l d not be i n c l u d e d i n or e x p e c t e d from r e s e a r c h i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a . As p o i n t e d out i n t h e g e n e r a l summary of t h e r e s e a r c h i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t i f t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i s f o c u s i n g on t h e cues used by j u d g e s t h e n B-C r e s e a r c h i s t h e p l a c e t o l o o k . However, as r e v e a l e d above, t h e B-C r e s e a r c h t o d a t e does not meet t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n and i n not m e e t i n g t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n one o f t h e weaknesses of t h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h was i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s example d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e model not o n l y h e l p i n d e c i d i n g where t o s e a r c h f o r r e s e a r c h on a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n but a l s o h e l p s i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h p e r t i n e n t t o a s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h i s model has proven u s e f u l f o r g a i n i n g a f u l l e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i n t r i c a c i e s of s t u d y i n g judgments of n o n v e r b a l f a c i a l b e h a v i o r . The problems i n u s i n g t h e 3 6 . P a t r i c k e t a l . ( i n p r e s s ) and Keefe and B l o c k (1982) s t u d i e s , both o f which f o c u s e d on two t y p e s o f component r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e more complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u g g e s t e d by t h e model h i g h l i g h t s some o f t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f r e s e a r c h i n g t h i s a r e a . Model r e l a t i o n s h i p s not y e t a d d r e s s e d As i s o b v i o u s by now t h e major a r e a not y e t r e s e a r c h e d i s t h e A-B-C r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h , as mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e B- C r e l a t i o n s h i p a w a i t i n g more s o l i d r e s e a r c h . R e s e a r c h on t h e whole model i s c r i t i c a l i f l i n k s between t h e model's segments a r e t o be f o r g e d so t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e A-B, B-C, and A-C components. T h i s would a l l o w f o r a p r o p e r e v a l u a t i o n of t h e model's u t i l i t y f o r g u i d i n g r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a of s t u d y i n g judgments o f f a c i a l b e h a v i o r . Weaknesses B e s i d e s t h e f a c t t h e model as a whole has not been t e s t e d , which i s not a weakness o f t h e model per se but r a t h e r a c a u t i o n t h a t t h e model's u t i l i t y i s unknown, t h e r e a r e two weaknesses i n t h e model. The f i r s t weakness i s t h a t t h e model has no e x p l i c i t c o n n e c t i o n s t o o t h e r a r e a s o f r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . Thus' t h e model s t a n d s i n i s o l a t i o n t o work done on p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r e n c o d i n g o f f a c i a l b e h a v i o r ( L a n z e t t a e t a l . , 1976) or making judgments (Bandura a R o s e n t h a l , 1965; B l o c k , 1981; Vaughan S L a n z e t t a , 1970), or t o v o c a l f a c t o r s as o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s of t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e ( C l i n e et a l . , 1972; Ekman e t a l . , 1980). C o g n i t i v e r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h such i s s u e s as s e l f ^ 3 7 . o b s e r v a t i o n o f p a i n b e h a v i o r ( B a n d l e r , Madaras S Bern, 1968} and judgment h e u r i s t i c s (Kahneman, S l o v i c S. T v e r s k y , 1982] a r e o t h e r a r e a s t o which th e model may need t o be c o n n e c t e d . The t r e n d s u g g e s t e d by t h e s e examples i s t h a t each g e n e r a l component c o u l d be b r o k e n down i n t o s e v e r a l subcomponents and r e s e a r c h would f o c u s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s amongst t h e subcomponents. The s e c o n d problem wi t h t h e model i s i t s u n i d i r e c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . The model i s not f o r m u l a t e d to r e p r e s e n t r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s which, from such p e r s p e c t i v e s as s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y ( B a n d u r a , 1977), a r e c r i t i c a l i n e x p l a i n i n g o n g o i n g human s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . While t h e model does not r e p r e s e n t r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i t i s not i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , and c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a component o f an i n t e r a c t i o n a l model. C o n c l u s i o n s from e v a l u a t i n g R o s e n t h a l ' s model At p r e s e n t t h e model a p p e a r s t o be w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e t y p e o f r e s e a r c h t h a t has been c o n d u c t e d on judgments o f p a i n based on v i e w i n g f a c i a l b e h a v i o r . I t has s e r v e d w e l l i n s t r u c t u r i n g t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e and s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s . I t would appear t h a t t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e model have not y e t became a s e r i o u s i s s u e as, o t h e r t h a n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n n e c t i n g t h e model t o t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l d a t a a v a i l a b l e , t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r decomposing each component i s not y e t c r i t i c a l . A l s o , s i n c e t h e r e s e a r c h t o date has not been a b l e t o d e a l c o m p l e t e l y w i t h t h e whole model i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e model w i l l p r e s e n t l y become 38. e c l i p s e d by a more r e c i p r o c a l model. T h e r e f o r e t h e model w i l l be used f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e d e s i g n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s and i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e s u l t s . 39. HYPOTHESES P r i o r r e s e a r c h has p i n p o i n t e d t h e o c c u r r e n c e of c e r t a i n AUs as i m p o r t a n t w i t h r e g a r d s t o s u b j e c t s ' f a c i a l d i s p l a y s o f p a i n ( C r a i g & P a t r i c k , 1985; Hyde, 1985; LeResche, 1982; P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ] as w e l l as j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s of p a i n ( P a t r i c k et a l . , i n p r e s s ) . The two s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d here examined a number o f c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n which c o u l d p l a y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n l e a d i n g j u d g e s to r a t e a s u b j e c t as e x p e r i e n c i n g p a i n . In t h e s e s t u d i e s t h o s e AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a t have been found r e l a t e d t o p a i n were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v a r i e d i n o r d e r t o measure t h e impact o f t h e s e AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e e n c o d e r s ' f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . W i t h i n t h e judgment model t h i s r e s e a r c h was c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e B-C r e l a t i o n s h i p . As d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , t h e r e s e a r c h t o d a t e s t u d y i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f n o n v e r b a l f a c i a l b e h a v i o r on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s has been s o l e l y c o r r e l a t i o n a l and w a n t i n g o f t i g h t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t i m u l i viewed by t h e j u d g e s . These s t u d i e s were the f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l f a c i a l b e h a v i o r o f p a i n a t a m i c r o - b e h a v i o r a l l e v e l . The major f a c t o r s a d d r e s s e d were 1) t h e impact o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f s p e c i f i c AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f p a i n ; 2) the e f f e c t o f o v e r l a p p i n g v e r s u s n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s ; and 3) t h e r o l e of upper and lower f a c e AUs as cues of e n c o d e r s ' a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of p a i n . 40. P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has shown t h e r e t o be- no sex o f judge e f f e c t w i t h r e g a r d s t o r a t i n g l e v e l s of p a i n ( K l e c k et a l . , 1976; P r k a c h i n et a l . , 1983). However, t h e l a c k o f e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s viewed by t h e j u d g e s s t i l l l e a v e s open t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether t h e r e a r e sex d i f f e r e n c e s between j u d g e s t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . These f i n d i n g s i n p a i n judgments a r e a l s o i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o g e n e r a l judgment r e s e a r c h u s i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f emotion which c o n s i s t e n t l y have found sex o f judge e f f e c t s (see H a l l , 1979, 1984 f o r r e v i e w s ) . Thus sex o f judge was i n c l u d e d as a s u b s i d i a r y f a c t o r i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s . Que t o l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e sample s i z e o f e n c o d e r s , which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y , no sex o f e n c o d e r f a c t o r w i l l be examined as i t i s not a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n s t r u e t h e s m a l l sample as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f e i t h e r sex (Stark-Adamec S. K i m b a l l , 19S4). H y p o t h e s i s _1_ £ Impact o f t h e C om p 1 e x i t y o f AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s The i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t s of i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s ( i . e . by i n c r e a s i n g t h e number or AUs per c o n f i g u r a t i o n ) on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e e n c o d e r s ' e x p r e s s e d l e v e l o f p a i n . From p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i t has been d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t j u d g e s can d i s c r i m i n a t e amongst f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f p a i n f u l s t i m u l a t i o n ( s e e t h e A-C r e s e a r c h i n T a b l e 1 ) . I t has a l s o been shown t h a t , at a g l o b a l l e v e l , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s 41 . i n ways t h a t a l t e r j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s ( see t h e B-C r e s e a r c h i n T a b l e 1 ) . However, t h i s r e s e a r c h has made v e r y few i n r o a d s i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n of what s p e c i f i c f a c i a l movements j u d g e s use i n making t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . D e s p i t e l a r g e i n t r a - and i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n AUs d i s p l a y e d , r e s e a r c h by C r a i g and P a t r i c k ( 1 9 8 5 ) , Hyde (1985), and P a t r i c k e t a l . ( i n p r e s s ) has r e v e a l e d a c o n s i s t e n t s e t o f p a i n - r e l a t e d AUs. From a t o t a l o f 44 p o s s i b l e AUs t h e o n l y A c t i o n U n i t s t h a t have d i s c r i m i n a t e d p a i n and n o n - p a i n s t a t e s a r e AUs 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 25, 43, and 45, w i t h AUs 4, B, 7, 10, and 45 a p p e a r i n g as a c o r e c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f AUs s i n c e t h e y a l l a p p e a r e d i n each o f t h e above t h r e e s t u d i e s which f o c u s e d on c o l d p r e s s o r , shock, and low back p a i n . T h i s c o r e c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f AUs a l s o c o n t i b u t e d t o j u d g e s ' a t t r i b u t i o n s of p a i n . P a t r i c k e t a l . ( i n p r e s s ) f ound t h a t a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g AUs 4, 6, 10, and 45 had a mean m u l t i p l e R = 0.78 i n p r e d i c t i n g j u d g e s ' o v e r a l l r a t i n g s o f p a i n . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e c o r e AUs and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s does not i n d i c a t e a c l e a r c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c o r e AUs and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . A p o s s i b l e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d not be i n v e s t i g a t e d by P a t r i c k e t a l . as t h e c o r e AUs were embedded i n an o n g o i n g s t r e a m o f o t h e r AUs which d i d not a l l o w f o r d i r e c t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e t h e s e s p e c i f i c AUs. The c o m p l e x i t y o f th e AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and l a c k o f knowledge r e g a r d i n g how ju d g e s made t h e i r r a t i n g s l e a v e s open t h e p o s s i b l i l i t y f o r t h i r d v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s which c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e 42. c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e c o r e AUs and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . F a c t o r s which c o u l d p o s s i b l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e c o r e AUs and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s a r e 1) t h e c o r e AUs o c c u r r e d w i t h o t h e r AUs which c o u l d have been i m p o r t a n t cues f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c o r e AUs; 2) t h e r e may be s u b t l e changes i n AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n p a t t e r n s which were not d e t e c t e d by a n a l y s i s u s i n g o n l y t h e f r e q u e n c y o f AU o c c u r r e n c e ; and 3] t h e r e were uncoded and u n c o n t r o l l e d head and body movements which c o u l d have been used as c u e s by t h e j u d g e s . To e l i m i n a t e t h e s e s o u r c e s o f a m b i g u i t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r o l e o f f a c i a l a c t i o n s as d e t e r m i n a n t s o f judgments o f p a i n AUs 4, 6, 7, 10, and 45 were i s o l a t e d from a l l o t h e r AUs and p r e s e n t e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y to j u d g e s i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r c a u s a l e f f e c t s on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e more o f t h e s e c o r e AUs c o n t a i n e d i n a f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h e h i g h e r would be t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e e n c o d e r s ' p a i n . H y p o t h e s i s 2_ 0 v e r 1 app i ng v e r s u s N o n - O v e r l a p p i n g AUs The above mentioned h y p o t h e s i s i s based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s i m p l e o c c u r r e n c e o f p a i n - r e l a t e d AUs a l l o w s j u d g e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e among f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f p a i n . Ekman (1982b), and Ekman and F r i e s e n (1978) a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l f a c t o r t h a t j u d g e s use i n r a t i n g an AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s not t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r AUs per se but whether t h e AUs have a t e m p o r a l o v e r l a p o r n o t . In p a r t i c u l a r , Ekman and F r e i s e n c o n t e n d t h a t t h e AUs must have o v e r l a p p i n g a p i c e s (an apex i s 43. t h e span o f t i m e d u r i n g which an AU i s at i t s most i n t e n s e l e v e l f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r o c c u r r e n c e ) b e f o r e t h e AUs w i l l be p e r c e i v e d as an u n i t a r y g l o b a l e x p r e s s i o n . F o l l o w i n g Ekman and F r i e s e n ' s argument i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r p o t e n t i a l l y r e l e v a n t AUs t o be p e r c e i v e d by j u d g e s as u n i t a r y e x p r e s s i o n s i n o r d e r f o r t h e judge t o r a t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n . In d e s c r i b i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e s of c o r e AUs P a t r i c k et a l . ( i n p r e s s ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o r e p a i n - r e l a t e d AUs t e n d e d t o o v e r l a p i n v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s d u r i n g p a i n f u l s t i m u l a t i o n . I t was not p a s s i b l e t o t e s t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e AUs h a v i n g o v e r l a p p i n g a p i c e s w i t h r e g a r d s t o j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s b e c a u s e of t h e c o n c u r r e n t p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r AUs, l a c k o f c o m p a r a b l e segments c o n t a i n i n g AUs w i t h and w i t h o u t o v e r l a p p i n g a p p i c e s , and i n s u f f i c i e n t c o d e r r e l i a b i l i t y i n m e a s u r i n g AU apex o n s e t and o f f s e t . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t v i d e o segments i n which t h e AUs had o v e r l a p p i n g a p i c e s would be r a t e d as d i s p l a y i n g more p a i n t h a n segments where t h e same AUs d i d not o v e r l a p . H y p o t h e s i s 3 2. Hidden vs Non — H i d d e n AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f P a i n The q u e s t i o n of how w e l l p e o p l e can c o n t r o l t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s and how o b s e r v e r s d e a l w i t h such e x p r e s s i o n s has been o f i n t e r e s t w i t h r e g a r d s t o e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s (Ekman S. F r i e s e n , 1969, 1975) and p a i n ( L a n z e t t a e t a l . 1976; LaRusso, 1978). In t h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h a d i s t i n c t i o n has been made between v o l u n t a r y ( c o n t r o l l e d ) and i n v o l u n t a r y ( u n c o n t r o l l e d ) movements. C l i n i c a l l y t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s r e l e v a n t t o s t u d y i n g d e c e p t i v e and s t o i c a l b e h a v i o r . S i n c e both t y p e s of b e h a v i o r a r e dependent upon whether p e o p l e can 44. or c a n n o t c o n t r o l t h e i r b e h a v i o r i t i s l i k e l y t h a t r e s e a r c h on e i t h e r s t o i c a l o r d e c e p t i v e b e h a v i o r w i l l r e l a t e t o t h e o t h e r t y p e o f b e h a v i o r . A d i s t i n c t i o n between h i d d e n and n o n — h i d d e n ( v o l u n t a r y and i n v o l u n t a r y f a c i a l movements) e x p r e s s i o n s can be made on a p h y s i o l o g i c a l as w e l l as a c l i n i c a l , o b s e r v a t i o n a l b a s i s . The c o n t r o l o f f a c i a l m u s c l e s o f e x p r e s s i o n s i s t h r o u g h t h e s e v e n t h c r a n i a l nerve o r f a c i a l n e r v e (Diamond, 1979; H j o r t s j o , 1969). The b r a n c h e s o f t h e f a c i a l n e r v e t o t h e upper and lower f a c e a r e d i f f e r e n t . The upper f a c e i s p r i m a r i l y i n n e r v a t e d by t h e t e m p o r a l and z y g o m a t i c b r a n c h e s w h i l e t h e lower i s i n n e r v a t e d m a i n l y by t h e b u c c a l and m a n d i b u l a r b r a n c h e s o f t h e f a c i a l n e r v e ( A n d e r s o n , 1983; Diamond, 1979). In a d d i t i o n , t h e c e n t r a l n e r v o u s system s u b s t r a t e s o f t h e upper b r a n c h e s d i f f e r from t h a t of t h e lower b r a n c h e s . The t e m p o r a l and z y g o m a t i c b r a n c h e s a r e s u b j e c t t o b i l a t e r a l b r a i n i n n e r v a t i o n w h i l e t h e lower f a c e b r a n c h e s r e c e i v e c o n t r a l a t e r a l i n n e r v a t i o n (Diamond, 1979; Rinn, 1984). C o n t r a 1 a t e r a 1 1 y i n n e r v a t e d m u s c l e s t e n d t o be under g r e a t e r v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l t h a n b i l a t e r a l l y i n n e r v a t e d m u s c l e s ( R i n n , 1984). I t would seem r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t upper f a c e movements a r e under l e s s v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l ( i e c annot be h i d d e n o r c o n t r o l l e d e a s i l y ) t h a n lower f a c e movements. Ekman and F r i e s e n (1975) i n d i s c u s s i n g f a c i a l movements t h a t can be more or l e s s c o n t r o l l e d d u r i n g d e c e p t i o n r e p e a t e d l y p a i n t e d t o upper f a c e a c t i o n s as t h e l e a s t 45. c o n t r o l l a b l e a c t i o n s . In d e s c r i b i n g where t o f i n d cues o f t h e p e r s o n ' s a c t u a l e m o t i o n a l s t a t e when t h e y a r e t r y i n g t o be d e c e p t i v e , Ekman and F r i e s e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t the upper f a c e i s t h e most c o n s i s t e n t l y r e v e a l i n g a r e a t o l o o k f o r cues o f t h e p e r s o n ' s a c t u a l e m o t i o n a l s t a t e . The above arguments i n d i c a t e t h a t upper and lower f a c e movements can be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e i r ease of c o n t r o l by t h e e n c o d e r . I t was not known i f n a i v e j u d g e s use t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r a t e upper and lower f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as i n d i c a t i n g a t t e m p t s by t h e e n c o d e r s t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t j u d g e s would d i s c r i m i n a t e upper f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as more o f t e n i n d i c a t i n g a t t e m p t s by t h e e n c o d e r s t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f d i s c o m f o r t t h a n lower f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . H y p o t h e s i s 4 •£ E f f e c t s o f Judgment C o n t e x t on J u d g e s ' Ra t i n gs The p u r p o s e of t h e f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e judgment c o n t e x t g i v e n t o t h e j u d g e s r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a t e o f t h e e n c o d e r s . From p r i o r r e s e a r c h s t u d y i n g t h e A-C r e l a t i o n s h i p ( P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ; P r k a c h i n e t a l . , 1983) i t was found t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o t h e j u d g e s r e g a r d i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' s t a t e a f f e c t e d t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' p a i n . L a n z e t t a e t a l . (1976) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t j u d g e s e a s i l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d between f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t s when t h e y were t r y i n g t o pose "no p a i n " or " i n t e n s e p a i n " w h i l e r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s h o c k s . However, as i s t h e c a s e w i t h A-C r e s e a r c h no i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e on t h e e x a c t n a t u r e of t h e f a c i a l 46. movements which may have l e d j u d g e s t o make d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t i n g s . As w i l l be e x p l a i n e d below two s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d . These s t u d i e s c o n t a i n e d a s u b s e t of i d e n t i c a l AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s but d i f f e r e d i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e j u d g e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s s e s s t h e impact o f t h e judgment c o n t e x t g i v e n t o t h e j u d g e s on t h e i r p a i n r a t i n g s o f s p e c i f i e d AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r a t i n g s would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between t h e two s e t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n s . The l a c k o f d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i n t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was due t o t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . 47. GENERAL METHODS Two s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d . The f i r s t s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e f i r s t two h y p o t h e s e s w h i l e t h e s e c o n d s t u d y f o c u s e d on t h e l a s t two h y p o t h e s e s . Both s t u d i e s s h a r e d a number o f common p r o c e d u r e s r e g a r d i n g t h e development of t h e s t i m u l u s t a p e s . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s g i v e d e t a i l s on t h e e n c o d e r s who made t h e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , t h e r u l e s f o r s e l e c t i n g s t i m u l u s segments, and t h e r e l i a b i l i l t y o f t h e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s on t h e f i n a l s t i m u l u s t a p e s . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f V i d e o Segments In o r d e r t o f o c u s s o l e l y on t h e c o r e p a i n - r e l a t e d AUs i t was n e c e s s a r y t o use s h o r t d u r a t i o n v i d e o segments t o m i n i m i z e t h e i n t r u s i o n of e x t r a n e o u s f a c t o r s , such as i n a d v e r t e n t AUs, head movements, and f a c i a l s k i n t o n e changes, which c o u l d a l t e r t h e j u d g e s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m a n i p u l a t e d AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s (Ekman, 1978; O ' S u l l i v a n , 1982). A l l segments showed o n l y t h e e n c o d e r s ' f a c e and s h o u l d e r s . An i n i t i a l i s s u e was s e t t i n g t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e v i d e o segments. The d u r a t i o n of t h e segments was i m p o r t a n t f o r c o n t r o l l i n g e x t r a n e o u s f a c t o r s and s e t t i n g t h e v i s u a l c o n t e x t f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n s . Due t o t h e w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g r e s e a r c h t h r u s t s on s t u d y i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s no s t a n d a r d s f o r v i d e o segment l e n g t h have been e s t a b l i s h e d . In t h e l i t e r a t u r e on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of p a i n t h e segments r a t e d by ju d g e s have ra n g e d i n d u r a t i o n from t h r e e s e c o n d s ( P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ) t o 10 minutes ( K e e f e & B l o c k , 1982). T h i s v a r i a b i l i t y 4 8 . i s a l s o a p p a r e n t i n s t u d i e s o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f e m o t i o n . R o s e n t h a l and DePaulo (1979) r e p o r t e d a s t u d y u s i n g v i d e o segments of 250 m i l l i s e c o n d s and two s e c o n d s , w h i l e Ekman e t a l . (1980) used two minute segments. The segment d u r a t i o n f o r s t u d y 1 was f i v e s e c o n d s , and f o r s t u d y 2 i t was t h r e e s e c o n d s . The d i f f e r e n c e was due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e c o n d s t u d y had s i m p l e r AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which t h e e n c o d e r s c o u l d do f a s t e r t h a n many o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n t h e f i r s t s t u d y . E n c o d e r s The major c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n o f t h e e n c o d e r s was t h a t they, be a b l e t o p r o d u c e t h e c o m p l e t e s e t of r e q u i r e d AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s upon demand. Due t o t h i s c o n s t r a i n t o n l y f o u r e n c o d e r s , two male and two f e m a l e were r e c r u i t e d . One male and one f e m a l e e n c o d e r had e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h FACS w h i l e t h e o t h e r two e n c o d e r s had some f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e system. The mean age o f t h e e n c o d e r s was 26.0 y r s . Encoder T r a i n i ng As a l l f o u r e n c o d e r s were f a m i l i a r w i t h FACS i t was p o s s i b l e t o use t h e FACS c o d i n g manual f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t o t h e e n c o d e r s . The a u t h o r , who i s a c e r t i f i e d FACS c o d e r , gave c o n t i n u o u s f e e d b a c k t o t h e e n c o d e r s d u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g f o r each c o n f i g u r a t i o n and t h r o u g h o u t t h e t a p i n g s e s s i o n s l e a d i n g t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l i segments. A l l t r a i n i n g and t a p i n g was done on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . The i n d i v i d u a l i z e d f e e d b a c k and t r a i n i n g o v e r and above t h e i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e c o d i n g manual was 49. n e c e s s a r y due t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x h i b i t e d by t h e e n c o d e r s i n m a s t e r i n g t h e v a r i o u s AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . R u l e s f o r S e l e c t i n g V i d e o Segments Whil e posed e x p r e s s i o n s a l l o w f o r i n c r e a s e d e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l t h e y do so by i n c r e a s i n g t h e r i s k o f s t i m u l u s a r t i f a c t s t h a t c o n f o u n d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s of t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and may a l s o d e c r e a s e t h e e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e s t u d y (Ekman e t a l . , 1982b; 0 ' S u l l i v a n , 1982; R o s e n t h a l , 1982). The two i s s u e s c e n t r a l t o t h i s g e n e r a l c o n c e r n a r e s t i m u l u s measurement a b i l i t y (Ekman, 1982b; 0 ' S u l l i v a n , 1982), or t h e a b i l i t y t o a c c u r a t e l y measure t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , and s t i m u l u s c r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y ( A r c h e r a A k e r t , 1977), which f o c u s e s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f posed and s p o n t a n e o u s e x p r e s s i o n s . Both o f t h e s e i s s u e s a r e a d d r e s s e d i n t h e r u l e s f o r s e l e c t i n g v i d e o segments. R u l e s f o r eg uat i n g posed w i t h s p o n t a n e o u s e x p r e s s i o n s By r e v i e w i n g t h e p r i o r r e s e a r c h which i d e n t i f i e d t h e c o r e p a i n r e l a t d AUs ( C r a i g S. P a t r i c k , 1985; Hyde, 1985; P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ) i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l y o c c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s o f AUs. From t h i s r e v i e w t h e f o l l o w i n g two s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were used. 1. The apex f o r i s o l a t e d AUs and f o r AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o u l d not e x c e e d one s e c o n d i n d u r a t i o n . Thus i f an AU o c c u r r e d by i t s e l f i t s apex c o u l d not be more t h a n one s e c o n d . I f two or more AUs had o v e r l a p p i n g a p i c e s t h e n th e p e r i o d when t h e i r a p i c e s o v e r l a p p e d c o u l d not e xceed one s e c o n d ! 2. No AUs c o u l d be at t h e extreme i n t e n s i t y l e v e l u s i n g t h e 50. FACS c o d i n g method f o r a s s e s s i n g i n t e n s i t y . R u l e s f o r e 1 i m i n a t i n g movement a r t i f a c t s In a d d i t i o n t o t h e above two r u l e s each segment must a l s o have p a s s e d th e f o l l o w i n g two r u l e s : 3. No movement o t h e r t h a n t h e ones s p e c i f i e d were a l l o w e d . 4. A minimum of two and o n e ^ h a l f s e c o n d s o f n e u t r a l e x p r e s s i o n was r e q u i r e d b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e r e was enough segment d u r a t i o n t o s t a n d a r d i z e t h e segment l e n g t h and have t h e c o m p l e t e c o n f i g u r a t i o n i n t h e f i n a l e d i t t e d form. Rule f o r s t a n d a r d i z i n g segment c o n t e x t O ' S u l l i v a n [ 1982], Kendon (1982), and T a g i u r i (1969) p o i n t e d out t h a t b e h a v i o r can o n l y o c c u r w i t h i n a c o n t e x t and t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n c o n t e x t may a f f e c t j u d g e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e b e h a v i o r . To con t.r o l f o r c o n t e x t u a l a r t i f a c t s t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l r u l e was used. 5. Any segment which had a v a r i a t i o n i n c o n t e x t ( e g . c l o t h i n g , make-up, h a i r r s t y l e , l i g h t i n g , e t c . ) was e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s r u l e was n e c e s s a r y t o e l i m i n a t e v a r i a t i o n s due t o t h e e n c o d e r s n e e d i n g s e v e r a l days t o c o m p l e t e t h e s e t of posed c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Each e n c o d e r c h o s e h i s or her own a p p e a r a n c e and r e m a i ned w i t h t h a t a p p e a r a n c e f o r a l l t h e i r se gme n t s . One c o n t e x t which was s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v a r i e d o v e r e n c o d e r s and f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s was head p o s i t i o n . T h i s was done t o p r o d u c e a more r e a l i s t i c n a t u r e f o r t h e s t i m u l u s t a p e . Four head p o s i t i o n s were use d . The e n c o d e r s l o o k e d 51 . n e a r - o f f camera r i g h t and l e f t (30H40cm), and f a r - o f f camera r i g h t and l e f t (70-90 cm). These f o u r head p o s i t i o n s were f u l l y b a l a n c e d a c r o s s e n c o d e r s and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . The f a r - o f f camera p o s i t i o n s s t i l l a l l o w e d f o r a f u l l view o f t h e f a c e . How r u l e s were a p p l i e d An i n d e p e n d e n t , c e r t i f i e d FACS c o d e r a p p l i e d a l l f i v e r u l e s . To m i n i m i z e t h e amount of c o d i n g r e q u i r e d t h e a u t h o r used r u l e s 3, 4, and 5 t o e l i m i n a t e t h e more o b v i o u s l y u n a c c e p t a b l e segments p r i o r t o g i v i n g t h e i n d e p e n d e n t c o d e r t h e l i s t o f p o t e n t i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e segments. I f two or more segments c o n t a i n e d a c c e p t a b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s by t h e same e n c o d e r one was randomly s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t o t h e s t udy . Equipment The e n c o d e r s were r e c o r d e d u s i n g an RCA CC007 c o l o r camera and P a n a s o n i c AG6300 VHS v i d e o c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r . E d i t i n g was done u s i n g two P a n a s o n i c AG6300 VHS r e c o r d e r s c o n t r o l l e d by a P a n a s o n i c A500 e d i t c o n t r o l b o a r d . The s t i m u l u s segments were p l a y e d t o the j u d g e s t h r o u g h a P a n a s o n i c AG6300 r e c o r d e r v i a a RCA J0975WV 19 i n c h c o l o r mo n i t o r . R e l i a b i l i t y o f E n c o d e r s ' A U C o n f i g u r a t i o n s The r e l i a b i l i t y o f the e n c o d e r s ' c o n f i g u r a t i o n s was a s s e s s e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f o r a l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s used i n s t u d i e s 1 and 2. An i n d e p e n d e n t , c e r t i f i e d FACS cod e r who was b l i n d t o t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r each h y p o t h e s i s coded t h e o c c u r r e n c e of a l l AUs per segment, the t i m e at 52. which each AU o n s e t , t h e apex o n s e t , t h e apex o f f s e t , and t h e AU o f f s e t , and t h e i n t e n s i t y of each AU. The t i m i n g d a t a was used t o a s s e s s i f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were o v e r l a p p i n g o r n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g . A t i m e - d a t e g e n e r a t o r which s u p e r i m p o s e d t h e t i m e down t o 1/60 s e c o n d on t h e m o n i t o r s c r e e n was used t o a s s e s s t h e o n s e t and o f f s e t t i m e s . The a u t h o r a c t e d as t h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o d e r and coded t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f a l l AUs i n e v e r y segment, t h e i r i n t e n s i t y , as w e l l as a s s e s s i n g whether t h e y were i n o v e r l a p p i n g or n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g p a t t e r n s . A random 25% o f a l l f i n a l segments were s e l e c t e d t o a s s e s s t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f o n s e t and o f f s e t t i m e s o f a l l AUs i n t h o s e segments. There was 100% agreement r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as o v e r l a p p i n g or n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g , For c a l c u l a t i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f AU o c c u r r e n c e s t h e f o r m u l a p r e s e n t e d i n t h e FACS manual was u s e d . The f o r m u l a i s : T o t a l number o f agreements X 2 c o d e r s X 100 T o t a l number o f AUs coded The o v e r a l l p e r c e n t agreement f o r AU o c c u r r e n c e was 98.5%. The o v e r a l l p e r c e n t agreement f o r AU i n t e n s i t y was 67%. As t h e t i m i n g f o r t h e AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s was c r i t i c a l f o r t h e s e s t u d i e s a more s t r i n g e n t t h a n u s u a l margin o f e r r o r was used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e agreements f o r o n s e t and o f f s e t t i m e s . I n s t e a d of t h e margin b e i n g ^0.2 s e c o n d s , or 12/60 of a s e c o n d on t h e t i m e - d a t e g e n e r a t o r ( C r a i g S P a t r i c k , 1985; Hyde, 1985; P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ) t h e margin was s e t at 53. +0.17 s e c o n d s or 10/60 o f a s e c o n d . The mean p e r c e n t agreement f o r AU o n s e t was 94.8%, f o r apex o n s e t 80.2%, f o r apex o f f s e t 87.8%, and f o r AU o f f s e t 82.5%. The r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s f o r t h e AU o c c u r r e n c e s and f o r t h e t i m i n g o f t h e AU and apex o n s e t s and o f f s e t s were a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h e s e s t u d i e s . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s was deemed t o o low f o r i n c l u s i o n of i n t e n s i t y s c o r e s as measures i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . 54. STUDY 1 Study 1 t e s t e d t h e h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e impact of i n c r e a s i n g t h e number of c o r e AUs per f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n and t h e r o l e o f o v e r l a p p i n g a p i c e s on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s of t h e e n c o d e r s ' p o r t r a y e d p a i n . The r a t i o n a l e f o r c o m b i n i n g both h y p o t h e s e s i n t h e same d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s was t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e to a c h i e v e , w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p a r s i m o n y , t h e maximum number o f c o m p a r i s o n s u s i n g t h e l a r g e s t sample s i z e . These two h y p o t h e s e s were combined i n a s i n g l e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n method but have been s e p a r a t e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l d a t a a n a l y s i s . Method S u b j e c t s Judges In k e e p i n g w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h which d e f i n e d t h e AUs i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d from t h e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . T w e n t y - f i v e male and 2 5 fe m a l e j u d g e s were s e l e c t e d from t h e p s y c h o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t ' s s u b j e c t p o o l . The j u d g e s were a l l from f i r s t y e a r p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s . S i x ju d g e s were r e p l a c e d as f i v e m i s s e d at l e a s t one r a t i n g and one m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . The mean age f o r males was 18.9 y r s . and f o r f e m a l e s 18.3 y r s . A l l jud g e s r e c e i v e d e i t h e r c o u r s e c r e d i t or $3.00 i f t h e y had t h e i r quota of c r e d i t s . The s i z e o f t h e sample of j u d g e s was d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m u l a f o r e s t i m a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y ( i . e . t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e mean of t h e j u d g e s ' 55. r a t i n g s ) o f j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s p r o p o s e d by R o s e n t h a l (1973. E f f e c t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y f o c u s e s on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i t e m s b e i n g r a t e d . I t i s an a d a p t i o n o f t h e Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a and i s used f o r e s t i m a t i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e mean r a t i n g s f o r d i f f e r e n t sample s i z e s o f j u d g e s . To e s t i m a t e t h e mean e f f e c t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y , a mean c o r r e l a t i o n f o r a sample of 72 i n d e p e n d e n t p a i r s o f j u d g e s was c a l c u l a t e d from t h e d a t a on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s from P a t r i c k e t a l . ( i n p r e s s ) . The mean r e l i a b i l i t y was r = 0.46. The e s t i m a t e d e f f e c t i v e i n t e r - judge r e l i a b i l i t y f o r a sample o f 50 j u d g e s w i t h an e s t i m a t e d mean r e l i a b i l i t y o f r = 0.46 was R = 0.98 (R = e f f e c t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y ) . E n c o d e r s D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f o u r e n c o d e r s i s g i v e n above i n t h e G e n e r a l Methods. P r o c e d u r e s f o r D e v e l o p i n g S t i m u l u s Tape S e l e c t i o n o f AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t o be t e s t e d T a b l e 2 p r e s e n t s t h e 23 p o s s i b l e AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s r a n g i n g from s i n g l e AUs t o c o m b i n a t i o n s of f o u r AUs (AUs 6 and 7 cannot be coded s i m u l t a n e o u s l y so t h e r e were no c o m b i n a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g both t o g e t h e r ) . With t h e e x c e p t i o n of c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n which AU 6 o c c u r s a l o n e o r w i t h AU 45 a l l c o m b i n a t i o n s were t e s t e d w i t h t h e AUs i n o v e r l a p p i n g and n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g apex c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . C o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n which AU 6 o c c u r r e d a l o n e or s i m p l y combined w i t h AU 45 were e x c l u d e d from t e s t i n g as AU 6 i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o 56. T a b l e 2 P a s s i b l e AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s L e v e l of AU P o s s i b l e AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s C o n f i g u r a t i o n a L e v e l 1 4 6 7 10 45 L e v e l 2 4+6 4+7 4+10 4+45 6+10 6+45 7+10 7+45 10 + 45 L e v e l 3 4+6+10 4+6+45 4+7+10 4+7+45 4+10+45 6+10+45 7+10+45 L e v e l 4 4+6+10+45 4+7+10+45 a D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e AUs a r e as f o l l o w s : A U Muscle Movement 4 C o r r u g a t o r brow l o w e r e r s 6 O r b i c u l a r i s O c u l i cheek r a i s e r 7 O r b i c u l a r i s O c u l i l i d t i g h t e n e r 10 L a v a t o r L a b b i S u p e r i o r i s upper l i p r a i s e r 45 L a v a t o r P a l e b r a e b l i n k 5 7 . p r o d u c e v o l u n t a r i l y by i t s e l f (Ekman S. F r e i s e n , 1978). The c o n f i g u r a t i o n 6+45 was e x c l u d e d as AU 45 (eye b l i n k ) does not f a c i l i t a t e t h e v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l o f AU 6. That c o n f i g u r a t i o n s where AU 6 o c c u r r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y were not t e s t e d was not a major c o n c e r n as such c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a p p e a r v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g s p o n t a n e o u s e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . Of t h e 360 t e n s e c o n d segments coded i n C r a i g and P a t r i c k (1985) and t h e 450 t h r e e s e c o n d segments coded i n P a t r i c k et a l . ( i n p r e s s ) AU 6 and 6+45 o c c u r r e d a t o t a l of seven t i m e s . T h i s v e r y low f r e q u e n c y would s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a r e not r e a d i l y p r o d u c e d by s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c i n g p a i n f u l s t i m u l a t i o n and t h u s t h e i r e x c l u s i o n does not hamper g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e r e s u l t s t o s p o n t a n e o u s e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . To c l a r i f y t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a t were t h e f o c u s o f each h y p o t h e s i s T a b l e s 3 and 4 l i s t t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r h y p o t h e s i s 1 and 2, r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f s t i mu1 us t a p e A t o t a l o f 148 segments were viewed by t h e j u d g e s . There were 4 segments w i t h s i n g l e AUs, 17 w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g apex c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , 11 w i t h n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g apex c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , and 5 randomly chosen segments per e n c o d e r . Thus t h e r e were 4 + 17 + 1 1 + 5 segments t i m e s 4 e n c o d e r s e q u a l l i n g 148 segments. The randomly c h o s e n segments were used t o check i n t r a - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y . The o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e segments was r a n d o m i z e d a c r o s s e n c o d e r s and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s with t h e l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t t h e same e n c o d e r was not seen more t h a n t h r e e t i m e s c o n s e c u t i v e l y and t h a t no 58. T a b l e 3 AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n f o r H y p o t h e s i s 1 L e v e l o f AU AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s C o n f i g u r a t i o n L e v e l 1 4 7 10 45 a L e v e l 2 4+6 4+7 4+10 4+45 6+10 7+10 7+45 10+45 L e v e l 3 4+6+10 4+6+45 4+7+10 4+7+45 4+10+45 6+10+45 7+10+45 L e v e l 4 4+6+10+45 4+7+10+45 a A "+" mark i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a p i c e s o f t h e AUs o v e r l a p p e d , 59. T a b l e 4 AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r H y p o t h e s i s 2 Type o f AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s L e v e l of AU O v e r l a p p i n g N o n - o v e r l a p p i n g C o n f i g u r a t i o n A p i c e s A p i c e s a b L e v e l 2 4+7 4+10 4-7 4-10 4+45 7+10 4-45 7-10 7+45 10+45 7-45 10-45 L e v e l 3 4+7+10 4-7-10 4+7+45 4-7-45 4+10+45 4-10-45 7+10+45 7-10-45 L e v e l 4 4+7+10+45 4-7-10-45 a These c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 3. b A "-" mark i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a p i c e s o f t h e AUs d i d not o v e r l a p . 60. i d e n t i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were seen c o n s e c u t i v e l y . The segments were f i v e s e c o n d s i n d u r a t i o n and were s e p a r a t e d by a s i x s e c o n d b l a n k p e r i o d d u r i n g which t h e j u d g e s r e c o r d e d t h e i r r a t i n g s . The segments were s e q u e n t i a l l y numbered by a v o i c e on t h e v i d e o which announced t h e b e g i n n i n g o f each new segment at t h e end o f each b l a n k p e r i o d . P r o c e d u r e s f o r Judges From one t o t h r e e j u d g e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n each s e s s i o n . I f t h r e e j u d g e s were used t h e t h i r d judge s a t b e h i n d t h e f i r s t two w i t h a c l e a r view o f t h e m o n i t o r between t h e f r o n t two j u d g e s . T h i s arrangement was used t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e j u d g e s had views of t h e e n c o d e r s u n d i s t o r t e d by t h e b i a s o f t h e m o n i t o r s c r e e n when viewed at extreme a n g l e s . The d i s t a n c e o f t h e m o n i t o r from t h e f r o n t row was 150cm and t h e back row 270cm. The s e a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s were a l l o c a t e d on a f i r s t come b a s i s . Each judge was g r e e t e d by t h e a u t h o r at t h e main e n t r a n c e to t h e l a b and e s c o r t e d i n t o t h e v i e w i n g room. The room was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3m X 5m. F o l l o w i n g t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e l a s t judge t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were g i v e n t h e r a t i n g forms (Appendix A) so t h a t t h e y c o u l d f o l l o w t h e r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s ( A ppendix B) were t h e n r e a d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d a bogus d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p a i n s t u d y i n which t h e e n c o d e r s were p u r p o r t e d t o have been s u b j e c t s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s t a p e was g i v e n a l o n g w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s on how t o use t h e r a t i n g form. F o l l o w i n g 61 . c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f any q u e s t i o n s a f i v e segment p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n was c o n d u c t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e j u d g e s p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . These p r a c t i c e t r i a l s were o f t h r e e e n c o d e r s who were not on t h e a c t u a l s t i m u l u s t a p e . F o l l o w i n g any f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n t h e s t i m u l u s t a p e was p r e s e n t e d . T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 26 m i n u t e s . D u r i n g t h e v i e w i n g o f t h e p r a c t i c e and s t i m u l u s t a p e t h e i n c a n d e s c e n t l i g h t s were dimmed s l i g h t l y t o e l i m i n a t e any g l a r e on t h e m o n i t o r s c r e e n . The a u t h o r r e m a i n ed i n t h e room t h r o u g h o u t th e v i e w i n g . Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s t a p e t h e r a t i n g forms were c o l l e c t e d and t h e j u d g e s were g i v e n t h e p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix C ) . F o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e j u d g e s were d e b r i e f e d (Appendix D). Measures As d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w t h e r e was a q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m a t c h i n g th e s u b j e c t s ' s e l f - r e p o r t e d l e v e l o f p a i n t o t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' p a i n . I t was s u g g e s t e d a t t h a t t i m e t h a t i t would be b e n e f i c i a l to use e q u i v a l e n t s c a l e s f o r s e l f - r e p o r t and j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s t o e n c o u r a g e c o m p a r i s o n s between t h e s e two measures. In p a r t i c u l a r t h i s would h e l p i n t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of r e s e a r c h on t h e component r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the judgment model. In k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h e G r a c e l y p a i n r a t i n g s c a l e o f A f f e c t i v e D i s c o m f o r t ( G r a c e l y e t a l . , 1978) was used. T h i s v e r s i o n as w e l l as t h e 1979 v e r s i o n have been used as s e l f - r e p o r t measures i n s t u d i e s on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s 62. of p a i n ( C r a i g & P a t r i c k , 1985; Hyde, 1985; P a t r i c k et a l . , i n p r e s s ) . Keefe and B l o c k (1982) used t h e S e n s o r y I n t e n s i t y p a i n d e s c r i p t o r s c a l e ( G r a c e l y et a l . , 1978) as a j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s c a l e . I t was t h o u g h t t h a t s t a y i n g w i t h t h e A f f e c t i v e D i s c o m f o r t s c a l e o f f e r e d more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e g r a t i o n between t h e p r i o r s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e A f f e c t i v e D i s c o m f o r t s c a l e and t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h t h a n between t h e Keefe and B l o c k s t u d y and t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e 15 s t a n d a r d a d j e c t i v e s , which ranged from " d i s t r a c t i n g " t o " e x c r u c i a t i n g " , a b a s e l i n e i t e m l a b e l l e d "no d i s c o m f o r t " was added and s c o r e d as z e r o . The a d j e c t i v e l i s t and s c a l e d s c o r e s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix E. D e s i g n The d e s i g n f o r h y p o t h e s i s 1, r e g a r d i n g t h e impact of i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , was a 2 X 4 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h t h e f i r s t f a c t o r as a between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r and t h e s e c o n d as a w i t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r . The f a c t o r s were sex o f judge and l e v e l of c o m p l e x i t y f o r o v e r l a p p i n g AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The d e s i g n f o r h y p o t h e s i s 2, c o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e o f o v e r l a p p i n g AU a p i c e s , was a 2 X 2 X 3 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h t h e f i r s t f a c t o r as a between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r and t h e l a s t two as w i t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r s . The f a c t o r s were sex of judge, t y p e o f apex c o n f i g u r a t i o n ( o v e r l a p p i n g v s . non- o v e r l a p p i n g ] , and l e v e l of c o m p l e x i t y . R e s u l t s Re l i a b i l i t y o f Judges 63, The s t a n d a r d i n t e r - j u d g e as w e l l as i n t r a - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t i e s were c a l c u l a t e d . The i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g W i ner's (1971) f o r m u l a f o r e s t i m a t i n g i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y from ANQVA- d a t a . The i n t e r r j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y was e s t i m a t e d t o be r = 0.94. The i n t r a - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e 20 p a i r s of i d e n t i c a l r e p e a t e d AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . T h r e e t y p e s o f r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s were computed. A p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n , p e r c e n t p e r f e c t a g r e e m e n t s , and p e r c e n t agreements +2 s c a l e u n i t were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each j u d g e . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , which i s commonly u s e d on such d a t a , must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n i n t h i s i n s t a n c e as t h e p a i r s of c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a r e n o n - i n d e p e n d e n t . The mean i n t r a - judge r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was r = 0.47. A p a s s i b l e r e a s o n f a r t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i n t e r - and i n t r a - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n sample s i z e s used f a r c o m p u t i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s . The i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y was computed u s i n g a sample s i z e o f 128 r a t i n g s w h i l e t h e i n t r a - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y was ba s e d on 20 r a t i n g s . The mean p e r c e n t a g e and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f p a i r s .with p e r f e c t a g r e e m e n t s w i t h i n j u d g e s was 26.4% +_ 13.4%. The p e r c e n t agreement +2 s c a l e d s c o r e was us e d b e c a u s e t h e G r a c e l y s c a l e , a l t h o u g h b u i l t on an i n t e r v a l m e t r i c , does not have t h e a d j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t o r s e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d on t h e s c a l e . T h e r e a r e a number o f v e r y f i n e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s between s e v e r a l a d j e c t i v e s which may l e a d t h e p e r f e c t agreement c r i t e r i o n t o m i s r e p r e s e n t t h e j u d g e s g e n e r a l c o n s i s t e n c y . The mean p e r c e n t a g e and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f 64, p a i r s w i t h +_2 s c a l e u n i t agreement was 69.2% +_ 20.7%. P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data T h i s b r i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d f i v e i t e m s , two o f which were m a n i p u l a t i o n c h e c k s . The summary d a t a f a r t h e f i r s t f o u r i t e m s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5. R e s u l t s from q u e s t i o n 4, which was t h e main m a n i p u l a t i o n c h e c k , i n d i c a t e d t h a t j u d g e s v i e w e d t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as a c c e p t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s t h e y e x p e c t e d f o r t h e r a n g e o f r a t i n g s , t h e y u s e d . The means f o r both male and f e m a l e j u d g e s were v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o u n d i n Hyde e t a l . (1985] who used s t i m u l u s segments o f a c t u a l low back p a i n p a t i e n t s e x p e r i e n c i n g p a i n d u r i n g a r a n g e - o f - m o t i a n t e s t . The f i f t h q u e s t i o n , which was c o m p l e t e d c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e j u d g e s ' r e s p o n s e t o q u e s t i o n 4, i n d i c a t e d t h a t even when j u d g e s r a t e d t h e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as a t l e a s t -somewhat u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h e y u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s as t h e i s s u e . The most common i s s u e s were p r o b l e m s i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between a d j a c e n t i t e m s an t h e r a t i n g s c a l e , t h e l a c k o f body movement or sound from t h e e n c o d e r s , and h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g amongst c e r t a i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f q u e s t i o n 4 and 5 s u g g e s t t h a t t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o d u c i n g s t i m u l i t h a t t h e j u d g e s ' f o u n d b e l i e v a b l e . To e v a l u a t e whether any o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were r e l a t e d t o j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was c o n d u c t e d u s i n g sex o f judge and t h e f i r s t T a b l e 5 Study 1 - A n a l y s i s of P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data Q u e s t i o n s Males Fema1es 1. G e n e r a l a c c u r a c y Mean 4. 20 4.12 2. Types of p a i n i n t e r a c t i o n s ( f r e q u e n c i e s p e r c a t e g o r y ] Acute C h r o n i c Both None 9 2 13 1 1 4 0 9 2 3. E a s i e r t o judge males or f e m a l e s ( f r e q u e n c i e s p e r c a t e g o r y ) Fema1es Males No d i f f e r e n c e 6 6 13 a 5 1 2 4. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s Mea n 3 . 32 3. 88 66, f o u r q u e s t i o n s t o p r e d i c t j u d g e s ' o v e r a l l mean r a t i n g s . The two f a c t o r s which p r e d i c t e d j u d g e s ' o v e r a l l mean r a t i n g s were sex o f judge and q u e s t i o n 3, whether j u d g e s f o u n d male or f e m a l e s u b j e c t s e a s i e r t o r a t e . The m u l t i p l e R was 0.48. As i t was not a p p r o p r i a t e t o a n a l y z e t h e e f f e c t o f sex o f e n c o d e r i n t h i s s t u d y , and t h e f a c t t h a t q u e s t i o n 3 o n l y a c c o u n t e d f o r 10.7% o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f j u d g e s ' o v e r a l l mean r a t i n g , q u e s t i o n 3 was not d e a l t w i t h i n f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s . A n a l y s i s o f H y p o t h e s i s _1_ H y p o t h e s i s 1 a s s e r t e d t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f c o n f i g u r a t i a n a l c o m p l e x i t y would l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f e n c o d e r d i s p l a y e d d i s c o m f o r t . T a b l e 6 p r e s e n t s t h e mean r a t i n g and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r each l e v e l o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o m p l e x i t y f o r each sex o f j u d g e . The a n a l y s i s was a 2 X 4 ANOVA [sex o f judge X l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y ) w i t h t h e mean G r a c e l y s c a l e d s c o r e f o r each l e v e l as t h e d ependent measure ( A p p e n d i x F ) . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were f o u n d f o r sex o f j u d g e F(1,48] = 8.08, p < .005, and l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y F ( 3 , 14 4) = 75.89, p < . 0 0 0 1 . The sex o f judge X l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y i n t e r a c t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t F(3,'144) = B.01, p < . 0 0 0 5 . F i g u r e 2 p o r t r a y s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . Due t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t both main e f f e c t s were r e d u c e d to s i m p l e e f f e c t s ( A p p e n d i x G). The s i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r sex of judge r e v e a l e d t h a t f e m a l e j u d g e s r a t e d t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n m a l e s . F o r l e v e l 3 t h e r e s u l t was F(1,192) = 11.85, p < . 0 0 1 , and f o r l e v e l 4 F ( 1 , 1 9 2 ) = 14.78, p < . 0 0 1 . The s i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t 67. T a b l e 6 Mean G r a c e l y R a t i n g s f o r Each L e v e l o f AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n by Sex o f Judge Sex o f Judge Male L e v e l of C o n f i g u r a t i o n 2 3 M 2.59 4.65 6.08 5.93 SD 0.69 1.38 2.85 2.50 Fema1e M 3.07 6.06 8.91 9.09 SD 0.79 2.25 4.52 4.97 Figure 2 Interaction of Sex of Judge and Levels of Complexity 69, f o r b o t h male and f e m a l e j u d g e s . The r e s u l t f o r male j u d g e s was F[3,144) = 44.4, p < . 0 0 0 1 , and f o r f e m a l e j u d g e s F(3,144) = 39.3, p < .0001. As t h e s i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s t hoc c o m p a r i s o n s , u s i n g Newman-Keu1s, were done f o r each s i m p l e e f f e c t [ A p p e n d i x H). The p o s t hoc a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t F o r male and f e m a l e j u d g e s a l l l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each o t h e r e x c e p t l e v e l s 3 and 4. With a combined t o t a l o f e i g h t s i m p l e and p o s t hoc c o m p a r i s o n s c a r e s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d i n a c c e p t i n g t h e p a s t hoc c o m p a r i s o n s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t f o r male j u d g e s l e v e l 2 was r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n l e v e l s 3 and 4 as a more c o n s e r v a t i v e a l p h a l e v e l , which would p r o t e c t t h e f a m i l y - w i s e e r r o r r a t e , would e l i m i n a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e . F i g u r e 3 g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each u n i q u e AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n t o t h e mean l e v e l s c o r e s . As can be s een t h e l a c k o f e f f e c t between l e v e l s 3 and 4 ' c o u l d be due t o e i t h e r t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s 4+6+10, 4+6+45, and 6+10+45, or some l a c k o f e f f e c t o f t h e l e v e l 4 c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . A n a l y s i s o f H y p o t he s i s 2_ H y p o t h e s i s 2 p r e d i c t e d t h a t o v e r l a p p i n g AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s would be r a t e d as e x p r e s s i n g more d i s c o m f o r t t h a n n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . T h i s was t e s t e d o v e r t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which c o n t a i n e d m u l t i p l e AUs. T a b l e 7 p r e s e n t s t h e mean r a t i n g s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r each t y p e o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n a c r o s s t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y f o r e ach sex o f j u d g e . The a n a l y s i s was F i g u r e 3 70. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Overlapping A U C o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n L e v e l s of Complexity 11 10 8 7 Mean Gracely Scaled 6 Score 4 A 3 1 2 H 10 4 45 4+6 • 6+10 • 4+10 • 7+10 • 4+7 • 7 + 4 5 4+45> ; 1 ^ 10+45 • 4+6+10 • 4+6+45 • 6+10+45 • 4+10+45 • 4+7+10 • 4 + 7 + 4 5J 7+10+45 4+6+10+45 4+7+10+45 2 3 Lev e l s of Complexity —r~ 4 71 T a b l e 7 Mean G r a c e l y R a t i n g s f o r Type o f F a c i a l C o n f i g u r a t i o n a c r o s s L e v e l s of C o m p l e x i t y f o r each Sex of Judge O v e r l a p p i ng C o n f i g u r a t i o n N o n - O v e r l a p p i n g Le ve 1 Male M SD Sex a f Judge Female M SD 4.22 5.24 5.89 1.00 2.11 2.77 5.44 7.38 8.96 1.92 3.64 5.06 3.85 4.30 4.52 0.95 1.35 1.65 4.60 5.00 5.68 1.27 1.36 1.98 The means f o r o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s do not match t h o s e o f T a b l e 5 as a l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g AU 6 were exc1ude d. 72, a 2 X 2 X 3 ANOVA [sex o f j u d g e X t y p e o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n X l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y ) w i t h t h e mean G r a c e l y s c a l e d s c o r e as t h e dependent measure ( A p p e n d i x I ) . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were found f o r sex o f judge F(1 ,48) • = 7.55, p < . 0 0 5 , l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y F (2,96) = 36.85, p < .0001, and t y p e o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n F(1,48) = 33.29, p < . 0 0 0 1 . A l l f i r s t o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s f o r t h e f i r s t o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s were c o n f i g u r a t i o n X l e v e l , F (2,96) = 14.51, p < . 0 0 01 , sex o f j u d g e X c o n f i g u r a t i o n F ( 1 , 4 8 ) = 5.84, p < . 0 2 5 , and sex o f j u d g e X l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y F ( 2 , 9 6) = 3.94, p < . 0 2 5 . F i g u r e s 4, 5, and 6 d e m o n s t r a t e t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s main a n a l y s i s a l l main e f f e c t s were s e p a r a t e d i n t o t h e i r s i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r each i n t e r a c t i o n . T e s t i n g t h e s i m p l e e f f e c t s w i t h i n t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n X l e v e l of c o m p l e x i t y i n t e r a c t i o n r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n and l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y ( A p p e n d i x J ) . C o n f i g u r a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e v e l 3 F(1,144) = 26.27 p_<.001 and l e v e l 4 F(1,144) = 51.51, p<.001. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were r a t e d as d e m o n s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i s c o m f o r t t h a n non- o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s when t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d t h r e e o r f o u r AUs. The s i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . F o r o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h e e f f e c t o f l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y was F(2,96) = 50.66, £ < .001 and f o r n o n - o v e r 1 a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s F^(2,96) = 5.71, p < . 0 2 5 . Figure 4- Interaction of Type of Configuration and Level of Complexity Figure 5 Interaction of Sex of Judge and Type of Configuration n 4 1 0 2 H Male Female Sex of Judge Figure 6 Interaction of Sex of Judge and Level of Complexity Levels of Complexity 7 6 , To f u r t h e r e x p l o r e t h e e f f e c t s o f l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y w i t h i n each t y p e o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n p o s t hoc c o m p a r i s o n s were computed [ A p p e n d i x K). F o r o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a l l l e v e l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . F o r n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i t was fo u n d t h a t o n l y l e v e l s 2 and 4 d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T e s t s on t h e s i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r t h e sex o f judge X c o n f i g u r a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n p r o d u c e d t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s [ A p p e n d i x L ) . S e x . o f judge was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s F [ 1 , 9 6 ) = 12.56, p. < . 0 0 -1 . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e f e m a l e j u d g e s r a t e d o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n male j u d g e s . As t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t e s t e d h e r e were a l s o t e s t e d i n h y p o t h e s i s 1 t h e r e s u l t i s r e d u n d a n t . I t does s u g g e s t however, t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between male and f e m a l e j u d g e s a r e not a c c o u n t e d f o r s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g AU 6 as s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d w i t h and w i t h o u t t h i s AU b e i n g p r e s e n t . The a b s e n c e o f an e f f e c t f o r sex on n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t n e i t h e r sex a t t a c h e d as much i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as t h e y d i d t o t h e o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . The s i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r each sex o f j u d g e . F o r male j u d g e s t h e r e s u l t was F[1 , 4 8 ] = 5.62, p < .025 and f o r f e m a l e j u d g e s F ( 1 , 4 8 ] = 33.50, p < .001. Both e f f e c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t j u d g e s r a t e d o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s h i g h e r t h a n n o n - o v e r 1 a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h t h e e f f e c t b e i n g much more p r o n o u n c e d 77, f o r f e m a l e j u d g e s . The s i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r t h e sex o f judge X l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y i n t e r a c t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r b o t h f a c t o r s ( A p p e n d i x M]. Sex o f judge was s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e v e l 3 F ( 1 , 1 4 4 ] = 5.73, p < . 01 and l e v e l 4 F(1,144). = 12.72, p < .001. The s i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r l e v e l were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r male j u d g e s F(2,9S) = 8.56, p < . 0 0 1 and f e m a l e j u d g e s F(2,96) = 32.22, p < .001. The p o s t hoc c o m p a r i s o n s f o r l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y i n d i c a t e d t h a t f a r male j u d g e s l e v e l 2 and 4 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t w h i l e f a r f e m a l e j u d g e s a l l l e v e l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( A p p e n d i x N) . As was t h e c a s e w i t h h y p o t h e s i s 1 a l a r g e number o f s i m p l e and p o s t hoc c o m p a r i s o n a n a l y s e s were needed t o i n v e s t i g a t e h y p o t h e s i s 2. Thus t h e same c a u t i o n s h o u l d be n o t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s which show s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e more l i b e r a l a l p h a l e v e l s . The e f f e c t o f a more c o n s e r v a t i v e e r r o r r a t e would be t o r e d u c e t h e number of s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s due t o l e v e l f o r , n o n - a v e r 1 a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and f o r sex o f j u d g e e f f e c t s r e l a t i n g to t h e s e c o n d l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y . Summary The main h y p o t h e s e s o f s t u d y 1 f o c u s e d on t h e e f f e c t s of i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f AUs per c o n f i g u r a t i o n and whether t h e t y p e o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n , o v e r l a p p i n g a p i c e s o r n o t , would a f f e c t j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e amount o f d i s c o m f o r t p o r t r a y e d by t h e e n c o d e r s . The sex o f judge was added as a s e c o n d a r y a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 78, D e s p i t e t h e l a r g e number o f i n t e r a c t i o n s f o u n d i n t e s t i n g t h e two h y p o t h e s e s s e v e r a l c l e a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d . F i r s t , t h e l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y , as d e f i n e d by t h e number o f AUs p r e s e n t i n any c o n f i g u r a t i o n , had a s t r o n g e f f e c t on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . The t i m e s when d i f f e r e n c e s between l e v e l s were not d i s c r i m i n a t e d were c o n f i n e d t o a d j a c e n t p a i r s o f l e v e l s . Second, when c o m p a r i n g l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y w i t h i n and between t h e t y p e s o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y i s l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . O v e r a l l , t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e d . I t i s e v i d e n t from t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t o f l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y f o u n d between t y p e s o f f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a t male and f e m a l e j u d g e s r e a c t e d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e two c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . F emales were f o u n d t o r a t e o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s much h i g h e r t h a n males w h i l e t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between j u d g e s on n o n r o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d between t h e male and f e m a l e j u d g e s ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between o v e r l a p p i n g and n o n - i o v e r l a p p i n g f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . W h i l e f e m a l e j u d g e s r a t e d o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s much h i g h e r t h a n n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , male j u d g e s r a t e d o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o n l y m i n i m a l l y , but s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r , t h a n n o n r o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Thus, i n g e n e r a l , h y p o t h e s i s 2 has been s u p p o r t e d i n t h a t n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were j u d g e d as d i s p l a y i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s d i s c o m f o r t t h a n o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s 79, f o r t h e more complex c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . However, t h i s g e n e r a l r e s u l t was l e s s t h e c a s e f o r male j u d g e s . F i n a l l y , as i s a p p a r e n t i n a l l t h e c o m p a r i s o n s between j u d g e s t h e t r e n d and a l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t f e m a l e j u d g e s r a t e d a l l t y p e s and l e v e l s o f f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s h i g h e r t h a n male j u d g e s . N o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between sex were o n l y f o u n d f o r t h e s i m p l e r and n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . 80. STUDY 2 Study 2 i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h h y p o t h e s e s . The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s was whether j u d g e s would more o f t e n i n d i c a t e t h a t upper f a c e v e r s u s lower f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s r e v e a l e d a t t e m p t s by t h e e n c o d e r s t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l r e a c t i o n s t o p a i n f u l s t i m u l i . The f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s e v a l u a t e d t h e impact o f t h e judgment c o n d i t i o n s which d i f f e r e d between t h e two s t u d i e s on t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . As t h e p r o c e d u r e s were as i d e n t i c a l as p o s s i b l e between t h e two s t u d i e s t h e method s e c t i o n i s f o c u s e d m a i n l y on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between th e two s t u d i e s . Method S u b j e c t s Judges T w e n t y — f i v e male and 25 f e m a l e f i r s t y e a r p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s s e r v e d as j u d g e s . Seven j u d g e s were r e p l a c e d as two i n d i c a t e d t h e y t h o u g h t t h e e x p r e s s i o n s were posed and f i v e o t h e r s m i s s e d at l e a s t one r a t i n g . The mean age f o r males was 18.3 y r s . and f o r f e m a l e s 18.5 y r s . E n c o d e r s D e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f o u r e n c o d e r s were p r o v i d e d i n t h e G e n e r a l Methods. P r o c e d u r e s f o r D e v e l o p i n g S t i m u l u s Tape S e1e c t i o n o f A U c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t o be t e s t e d In o r d e r t o have ad e q u a t e f r e q u e n c i e s o f upper and lower f a c e AUs f o r t e s t i n g i t was n e c e s s a r y t o use more t h a n j u s t t h e c o r e - p a i n r e l a t e d AUs, as AU 10 i s t h e o n l y c o r e p a i n - 81 r e l a t e d AU t h a t o c c u r s i n t h e l o w e r f a c e . Two more lo w e r f a c e AUs were added from the l a r g e r p o o l of p a i n - r e l a t e d AUs from which the c o r e AUs were i d e n t i f i e d as a s p e c i a l s u b s e t . AUs 12 and 25 were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The AUs t e s t e d were 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 25, and 45. T a b l e 8 l i s t s t h e seven upper and s i x lower f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a t were t e s t e d . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f s t i m u l u s t a p e The s t i m u l u s t a p e c o n s i s t e d o f 60 segments. There were 13 segments X 4 e n c o d e r s + 8 r e p e a t e d segments (two per e n c o d e r ) randomly s e l e c t e d t o check i n t r a - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y . The o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e segments was r a n d o m i z e d as i n s t u d y 1. The segments were t h r e e s e c o n d s i n d u r a t i o n and were s e p a r a t e d by a s i x s e c o n d b l a n k p e r i o d . The d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s segments was r e d u c e d t o t h r e e s e c o n d s t o r e d u c e the amount of n e u t r a l e x p r e s s i o n viewed. In s t u d y 1 t h e more complex e x p r e s s i o n s o f t e n t o o k most o f t h e segment d u r a t i o n which kept th e t a p e as a whole l o o k i n g n a t u r a l . E q u a t i n g t h e two s t u d i e s on t h e b a s i s o f segment d u r a t i o n was s a c r i f i c e d t o e n s u r e t h e n a t u r a l n e s s o f t h e t a p e used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . A l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , however, were seen i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . The segments were s e q u e n t i a l l y numbered by a v o i c e on t h e v i d e o t a p e . P r o c e d u r e s f o r Judges The b a s i c p r o c e d u r e was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f s t u d y 1. The i n s t r u c t i o n s ( A ppendix 0) c o n t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g a l t e r a t i o n s . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e bogus p a i n e x p e r i m e n t was changed. The d e s c r i p t i o n now was of a two p a r t Upper and Lower T a b l e 8 Face AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s Upper Face C o n f i g u r a t i o n s a L e v e l 1 4 7 45 L e v e l 2 4+6 4+7 4+45 7+45 Lower Face C o n f i g u r a t i o n s L e v e l 1 L e v e l 2 10 10 + 12 12 1 0 + 25 25 1 2 + 25 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e AUs a r e as f o l l o w s : AU 4 6 7 1 0 1 2 25 45 Muscle C o r r u g a t o r O r b i c u l a r i s O c u l i O r b i c u l a r i s O c u l i L a v a t o r L a b b i S u p e r i o r i s Z y g o m a t i c Major D e p r e s s o r L a b i L a v a t o r P a l e b r a e Movement brow l o w e r e r s cheek r a i s e r l i d t i g h t e n e r upper l i p r a i s e r l i p c o r n e r p u l l l i p s p a r t b l i n k 83. e x p e r i m e n t where, i n t h e f i r s t p a r t , t h e s u b j e c t s s p o n t a n e o u s l y r e s p o n d e d t o t h e p a i n s t i m u l i w h i l e , i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t , s u b j e c t s had been i n s t r u c t e d t o t r y and h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s t o an i d e n t i c a l s e t o f s t i m u l i . The r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were a l s o a l t e r e d . They now d e t a i l e d how to f i r s t make a judgment o f whether t h e e n c o d e r s were or were not t r y i n g t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s and t h e n how t o r a t e the c o n f i g u r a t i o n u s i n g t h e G r a c e l y p a i n r a t i n g s c a l e o f A f f e c t i v e D i s c o m f o r t . The r a t i n g form i s c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix P. The judges were g i v e n f i v e p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . P r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s t a p e l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 m i n u t e s . Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s t a p e t h e r a t i n g forms were c o l l e c t e d and t h e j u d g e s were g i v e n t h e p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n n a i r e t h e j u d g e s were d e b r i e f e d [Appendix Q) . Measures For each segment t h e j u d g e s c l a s s i f i e d each c o n f i g u r a t i o n as b e i n g e i t h e r a s p o n t a n e o u s e x p r e s s i o n [ n o t h i d d e n ) or as an a t t e m p t by t h e e n c o d e r t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n ( h i d d e n ) . The j u d g e s t h e n used th e G r a c e l y p a i n s c a l e o f A f f e c t i v e D i s c o m f o r t t o r a t e t h e amount of d i s c o m f o r t e x h i b i t e d by each e n c o d e r . D e s i g n The d e s i g n f o r t h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s was a 2 X 2 X 2 f a c t o r i a l w i t h t h e f i r s t f a c t o r as a between s u b j e c t f a c t o r and t h e l a s t two as w i t h i n s u b j e c t f a c t o r s . The f a c t o r s were sex o f judge, a r e a o f AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n [upper o r lower f a c e ) , 84. and l e v e l of c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o m p l e x i t y . For t h e f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s t h e d e s i g n was a 2 X 2 X 2 f a c t o r i a l w i t h t h e f i r s t two f a c t o r s as between s u b j e c t f a c t o r s and t h e l a s t as a w i t h i n s u b j e c t f a c t o r . The f a c t o r s were sex o f judge, t y p e of judgment c o n d i t i o n ( s t u d y 1 or s t u d y 2 ) , and l e v e l o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o m p l e x i t y . R e s u l t s R e l i a b i l i t y o f Judges I n t e r - j u d g e and i n t r a - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t i e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r both t h e j u d g i n g o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as h i d d e n or not h i d d e n as w e l l as t h e r a t i n g s o f d i s c o m f o r t . The i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e f o r t h e judgment o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as h i d d e n or not h i d d e n was r = 0.84. The i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e f o r t h e G r a c e l y r a t i n g s was r = 0.90. T h i s i n t e r - : judge r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e G r a c e l y r a t i n g s was c l o s e t o t h a t f o u n d i n s t u d y 1. For c a l c u l a t i n g t h e i n t r a - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e h i d d e n / n o t h i d d e n judgments i t was not a d v i s a b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n t y p e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . H a v ing a s m a l l sample s i z e ( e i g h t p a i r s o f judgments) and d i c h o t o m o u s d a t a p r o d u c e d v e r y skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e d a t a which makes c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s such as p h i or kappa q u i t e b i a s e d (House, House S. C a m p b e l l , 1981). Thus o n l y t h e mean p e r c e n t agreement was used. The mean p e r c e n t agreement was 87.5%. The mean c o r r e l a t i o n , mean p e r c e n t p e r f e c t agreement, and mean p e r c e n t agreement +2. s c a l e d s c o r e were computed f o r t h e i n t r a - j udge r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e G r a c e l y r a t i n g s . The mean 85. c o r r e l a t i o n was r = 0.45. The mean p e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were 23.2% + 19.2% f o r p e r f e c t agreements and 65.0% + 20.0% f o r agreements +2 s c a l e d s c o r e . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t and p e r c e n t agreements a r e s i m i l a r to t h e t h o s e r e p o r t e d i n s t u d y 1. P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t used i n s t u d y 1. Summary d a t a f o r t h e f i r s t f o u r i t e m s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9. R e s u l t s from q u e s t i o n s 4 and 5 which were m a n i p u l a t i o n c h e c k s a g a i n s u p p o r t e d t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e j u d g e s t h o u g h t t h e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were b e l i e v a b l e . In t h i s s t u d y t h e same comments were found i n q u e s t i o n 5 as i n s t u d y 1. In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l j u d g e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t r u s h e d i n making t h e i r r a t i n g s . As i n s t u d y 1 a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was c o n d u c t e d , u s i n g sex o f judge and t h e f i r s t f o u r q u e s t i o n s as p r e d i c t o r s . In t h i s s t u d y t h e dependent measure was t h e t o t a l f r e q u e n c y o f j u d g e s ' r a t i n g a c o n f i g u r a t i o n as not h i d d e n . Only sex o f judge p r o v e d t o be p r e d i c t i v e . The m u l t i p l e R_ was 0.33. Due to t h e l a c k o f p r e d i c t i v e power of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s t h e y were not i n c l u d e d i n any f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s . A n a l y s i s o f H y p o t h e s i s 3 I t was p r o p o s e d i n h y p o t h e s i s 3 t h a t more upper f a c e t h a n lower f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s would be judged as a t t e m p t s by the e n c o d e r s t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . T a b l e 10 g i v e s t h e mean p r o p o r t i o n of t i m e s t h e upper and lower f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were ju d g e d as h i d d e n and t h e i r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s broken down by l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y and sex o f Study 2 T a b l e 9 A n a l y s i s of P o s t - E x p e r i m e n t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data Quest i o n s Males Females 1. G e n e r a l a c c u r a c y Mean 3 . 92 3 . 36 2. Types o f p a i n i n t e r a c t i o n s ( f r e q u e n c i e s p e r c a t e g o r y ) A c u t e C h r o n i c Both None 1 1 1 6 7 13 0 4 a 3. E a s i e r t o judge males or f e m a l e s ( f r e q u e n c i e s per c a t e g o r y ) Fema1es 1 0 Males 6 No d i f f e r e n c e 9 1 1 4 10 4. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s Mean 3. 96 4. 24 87. T a b l e 10 Mean P r o p o r t i o n of Times C o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f the Upper and Lower Face were Judged as A t t e m p t s t o Hide A r e a s o f Face Upper Lower L e v e l 1 2 1 2 Male a M 0.38 0.54 0.52 0.72 SD 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.1S Sex o f Judge Female M 0.48 0.64 0.58 0.73 SD 0.25 0.16 0.19 0.23 a The lower t h e p r o p o r t i o n t h e more t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were judged as a t t e m p t s by e n c o d e r s t o h i d e t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s . j u d g e . The lower t h e s c o r e t h e more f r e q u e n t l y t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were r a t e d as h i d d e n . The a n a l y s i s was a 2 X 2 X 2 ANOVA (sex o f judge X f a c i a l a r e a X l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y ) w i t h t h e mean p r o p o r t i o n o f t i m e s t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were r a t e d as h i d d e n as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e [Appendix R). A l l t h r e e main e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . The main e f f e c t s were f o r sex of judge F( 1,48) = 5.87, p < . 0 2 5 , f o r a r e a o f t h e f a c e F(1,48) = 10.07, p < .005, and f o r l e v e l of c o m p l e x i t y F(1,48) = 58.04, p < . 0 0 0 1 . U s i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s t o i n t e r p r e t T a b l e 10 i n d i c a t e s t h a t at each l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y t h e upper f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were more o f t e n judged as p o r t r a y i n g a t t e m p t s t o h i d e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s t h a n lower f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Male j u d g e s s c o r e d more c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as h i d d e n t h a n f e m a l e j u d g e s . A n a l y s i s o f H y p o t h e s i s 4 H y p o t h e s i s 4 s e r v e d a d u a l p u r p o s e . I t p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l i m i t e d r e p l i c a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s i s 1 and a l l o w e d f o r e x p l o r a t o r y t e s t i n g o f t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r i n g judgment c o n d i t i o n s on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s of t h e e n c o d e r s ' e x p r e s s e d d i s c o m f o r t . As d e t a i l e d i n s t u d y 1 t h e ju d g e s were l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e e n c o d e r s were r e c e i v i n g p a i n f u i s t i m u l i and t h e j u d g e s were i n s t r u c t e d t o r a t e t h e e n c o d e r s ' p o r t r a y e d d i s c o m f o r t . In s t u d y 2 t h e j u d g e s were l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e e n c o d e r s were e i t h e r b e i n g s p o n t a n e o u s or were t r y i n g t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . Judges were t h e n asked to make a judgment as t o whether t h e 89. e n c o d e r was h i d i n g t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n or not and t h e n r a t e t h e e n c o d e r s ' l e v e l o f d i s c o m f o r t . Thus the judgment c o n d i t i o n s ( i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t e x t and r e q u i r e d judgments] d i f f e r e d between t h e s t u d i e s . The segment d u r a t i o n s were a l s o d i f f e r e n t . They were f i v e s e c o n d s i n s t u d y 1 and t h r e e s e c o n d s i n s t u d y 2. T a b l e 11 l i s t s t h e e i g h t f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s common to both s t u d i e s . T a b l e 12 p r e s e n t s t h e mean G r a c e l y r a t i n g s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r each l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y by sex o f judge and t y p e o f judgment c o n d i t i o n ( s t u d y 1 or 2 ) . The a n a l y s i s was a 2 X 2 X 2 ANOVA.(sex of judge X t y p e of judgment c o n d i t i o n X l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y ) w i t h t h e mean G r a c e l y s c a l e s c o r e s f o r each l e v e l as t h e dependent measure. (Appendix S ) . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were found f o r judgment c o n d i t i o n F(1,96) = 17.36, p_<.0001 and l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y F(1,96) = 123.20, p < . 0 0 0 1 . The sex of judge X judgment c o n d i t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t F(1,96) = 8.29, p < . 0 0 5 . F i g u r e 7 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . The sex o f judge X judgment c o n d i t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n was b roken i n t o i t s s i m p l e e f f e c t s ( A ppendix T ) . Two s i g n i f i c a n t s i m p l e e f f e c t s were f o u n d . The judgment c o n d i t i o n f o r male j u d g e s was s i g n i f i c a n t F(1,96) = 12.41, p < .001 and the sex of judge e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e s t u d y 2 judgment c o n d i t i o n F(1,96) = 6.63, p < . 0 2 5 . These e f f e c t s r e v e a l t h a t male j u d g e s r a t e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n s t u d y 2 t h a n s t u d y 1. As w e l l , male j u d g e s r a t e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n s t u d y 2 s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n f e m a l e j u d g e s . T a b l e 11 AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s Common t o S t u d i e s 1 and 2 AU C o n f i g u r a t i o n s L e v e l of C o n f i g u r a t i o n C o m p l e x i t y 1 4 7 10 45 2 4+6 4+7 4+45 7+45 91 . T a b l e 12 Mean G r a c e l y R a t i n g s f o r each L e v e l by Sex of Judge and Judgment C o n d i t i o n L e v e l 1 2 Judgment C o n d i t i o n Study 1 M SD Male Study 2 M SD Sex o f Judge Study 1 M SD Female Study 2 M SD 2 . 59 0. 69 5.52 2 . 93 3 . 07 0 . 79 3 . 96 1 . 33 4. 41 1 . 34 7 . 89 4. 36 5.. 8 5 2 . 48 6.14 3.40 Figure 7 Interaction of Judgment Condition and Sex of Judge 11 - 10 - 9 • Mean 8 " Gracely Scaled Score 7 3 - 2 - 1 - • • i Study 1 Study 2 Judgment Condition 93. Summary The r e s u l t s d e a l i n g w i t h h y p o t h e s i s 3 c l e a r l y s u p p o r t t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t j u d g e s view t h e upper r a t h e r t h a n t h e lower f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as i n d i c a t o r s o f an e n c o d e r ' s a t t e m p t t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t s i n g l e AUs a r e more l i k e l y t o be judged as i n d i c a t i v e o f an e n c o d e r t r y i n g t o h i d e t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n t h a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h two AUs. T h i s may i m p l y t h a t j u d g i n g a c o n f i g u r a t i o n as i n d i c a t i n g c o n t r o l o v e r t h e e x p r e s s i o n by t h e e n c o d e r i s somewhat dependent upon t h e amount o f f a c i a l movement e x h i b i t e d . Of e x p l o r a t o r y i n t e r e s t i s t h e r e s u l t t h a t male j u d g e s p e r c e i v e d more c o n f i g u r a t i o n s as s u g g e s t i n g a t t e m p t s to h i d e t h a n f e m a l e j u d g e s . R e s u l t s f o r h y p o t h e s i s 4 were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e A-C r e l a t i o n s h i p which i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n s t o j u d g e s l e d them t o a l t e r t h e i r r a t i n g s o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' p a i n ( P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ; P r k a c h i n et a l . , 1983]. The p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s i s 1 was a l s o s u c c e s s f u l . The l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y o f f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s would appear t o be an i m p o r a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f an e n c o d e r ' s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n o f d i s c o m f o r t . F i n a l l y , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e t y p e o f j u d g m e n t c o n d i t i o n had a s t r o n g d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on t h e r a t i n g s o f male and f e m a l e j u d g e s , w i t h f e m a l e s r a t i n g h i g h e r under t h e s t r a i g h t r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n but males r a t i n g h i g h e r under th e d u a l judgment c o n d i t i o n , may i n d i c a t e t h a t the sex of judge e f f e c t i s open to v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s . 94. GENERAL DISCUSSION The aim o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f e n c o d e r d i s p l a y e d d i s c o m f o r t . The f i n d i n g s from t h e two s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which seem t o be i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g a j u d g e ' s r a t i n g of a p e r s o n ' s d i s c o m f o r t from v i e w i n g t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . L e v e l of C o m p l e x i t y There were two v e r y c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s . The most c o n s i s t e n t f a c t o r was t h e l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n p o r t r a y e d . In a l l c a s e s , e x c e p t w i t h non- o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , t h e r e was a s t e e p i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t i n g s o f d i s c o m f o r t r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of c o m p l e x i t y . Only when t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were q u i t e complex d i d t h e r a t i n g s o f d i s c o m f o r t not d i s c r i m i n a t e between l e v e l s of c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o m p l e x i t y . The l i m i t e d r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y e f f e c t done i n s t u d y 2. s u p p o r t s t h e r o b u s t n e s s of t h i s e f f e c t . By comparing t h e r e s u l t s of t h e o v e r l a p p i n g and n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i t i s e v i d e n t , due t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e f f e c t o f n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l i s s u e i s t h e j u d g e s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n p a t t e r n ( i . e . o v e r l a p p i n g a p i c e s or not) and s e c o n d a r i l y t h e a b s o l u t e number of AUs c o n t a i n e d i n each v i d e o segment. T h i s f i n d i n g has two i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s . The f i r s t i s t h a t a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o t h e p a t t e r n of t h e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s r e l a t e d t o e x p e r i e n c i n g p a i n . P a t r i c k e t a l . [ i n 95. p r e s s ) used f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l AUs f o r most of t h e i r d a t a a n a l y s i s but a l s o i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c o r r e l a t i o n of AUs w i t h i n segments and t h e f r e q u e n c y o f c o - o c c u r r e n c e s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t AUs. Hyde (1985) used f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and a l s o a d d r e s s e d t h e i s s u e o f AU c o - o c c u r r e n c e when a n a l y z i n g her d a t a on low back p a i n p a t i e n t s . The e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s e s o f t h e s e p r i o r s t u d i e s p r e s e n t a much c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a c i a l a c t i v i t y and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p a i n t h a n s i m p l y f o c u s i n g on one measure such as f r e q u e n c y of AU o c c u r r e n c e . The s e c o n d i m p l i c a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e r o l e of o t h e r AUs. As n o t e d i n p r i o r r e s e a r c h ( C r a i g S. P a t r i c k , 1985; Hyde, 1985; L a n z e t t a S K l e c k , 1970; P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ) t h e r e were l a r g e i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a c i a l b e h a v i o r even w i t h i n s i m i l a r l e v e l s o f s e l f - r e p o r t e d d i s c o m f o r t . W h i l e a s m a l l s u b s e t of AUs have been i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r s o f d i s c o m f o r t , a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a n c e i n s e l f - r e p o r t e d d i s c o m f o r t may be a c c o u n t e d f o r by s t u d y i n g p a t t e r n s o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a t may or may not c o n t a i n some or a l l o f t h e AUs s t u d i e d i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . Thus s e e i n g an o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n of AUs 4 + 9 (nose w r i n k l e ) + 23 ( l i p t i g h t e n s ) may i n d i c a t e more d i s c o m f o r t t h a n a n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f AUs 4-10- 45, even though t h e l a t t e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n has more p a i n r e l a t e d AUs. Sex o f Judge The sex o f judge e f f e c t was t h e o t h e r c o n s i s t e n t f a c t o r 9 6 . t h r o u g h o u t both s t u d i e s . I t was c o n s i s t e n t i n t h a t male and f e m a l e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at some p o i n t f o r a l l major a n a l y s e s . However, t h e r e was l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e . As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r e s u l t s from t e s t i n g h y p o t h e s i s 4 t h e r e was a d r a m a t i c r e v e r s a l i n t h e sex o f judge e f f e c t . Female j u d g e s r a t e d f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s h i g h e r i n s t u d y 1 but males r a t e d them h i g h e r i n s t u d y 2. Of s p e c i a l note i s t h a t t h e sex o f judge e f f e c t s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h some p r i o r r e s e a r c h ( K l e c k e t a l . , 1976; P r k a c h i n e t a l . , 1983) which f o u n d no d i f f e r e n c e between male and f e m a l e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p r i o r r e s e a r c h and t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s c a n n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e l e c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s used i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e as sex o f judge e f f e c t s were a l s o f o u n d i n a r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d s t u d y (Hyde e t a l . , 1985) i n which j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s of back p a i n p a t i e n t s ' s p o n t a n e o u s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n were examined. Stark-Adamec and K i m b a l l (1984) i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f r e s e a r c h on sex d i f f e r e n c e s and H a l l (1979) i n her r e v i e w of sex d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d i n judgment s t u d i e s c l e a r l y p o i n t e d out t h a t i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t i t i s t h e sex o f t h e judge which i s t h e i s s u e . R a t h e r i t i s most l i k e l y one or more o f a number of d e v e l o p m e n t a l o r s o c i a l f a c t o r s which a r e t h e i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s and t h e use of a sex o f judge v a r i a b l e i s a g e n e r a l s h o r t h a n d method o f t a p p i n g t h e s e u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s . H a l l (1984) compared s i x h y p o t h e s e s t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n judgment 97. a c c u r a c y . Of t h e s i x h y p o t h e s e s o n l y t h e p r a c t i c e / a t t e n t i o n and accommodation h y p o t h e s e s seem p r o m i s i n g . The accommodation h y p o t h e s i s , which was d e v e l o p e d by R o s e n t h a l and DePaulo ( 1 9 7 9 ] , a p p e a r s t o o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e sex o f judge f i n d i n g s i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . As s t a t e d by R o s e n t h a l and DePaulo: I f i t i s d i s r u p t i v e o f smooth i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g f o r a p a r t i c i p a n t t o 'know t o o much' about t h e s t a t e of t h e o t h e r , we would e x p e c t women t o show r e l a t i v e l y l e s s a dvantage o v e r men i n d e c o d i n g n o n v e r b a l cues when t h o s e cues a r e under l e s s c o n t r o l o f t h e s e n d e r and more l i k e l y t o be u n i n t e n d e d t h a n i n t e n d e d c u e s . ( p . 6 9 ] , One o f t h e major d i f f e r e n c e s between s t u d y 1 and 2 were t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . In s t u d y 1 t h e f o c u s was on t r y i n g t o a c c u r a t e l y r a t e t h e e n c o d e r s ' d i s c o m f o r t from v i e w i n g t h e e n c o d e r s ' f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . The a s s u m p t i o n b e h i n d such i n s t r u c t i o n s was t h a t t h e e n c o d e r s ' were o p e n l y communicating t h e i r a c t u a l s t a t e . In s t u d y 2 t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s c l e a r l y f o c u s e d on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e e n c o d e r s ' may have been t r y i n g t o h i d e f a c i a l cues about t h e i r s t a t e . In such c i r c u m s t a n c e s any f a c i a l a c t i v i t y c o u l d have been viewed as u n i n t e n d e d and not i n d i c a t i v e o f what the e n c o d e r was t r y i n g t o communicate, even i f i t d i d s u g g e s t s o m e t h i n g about t h e s t a t e of t h e e n c o d e r . F o l l o w i n g t h e accommodation h y p o t h e s i s i t would have been p r e d i c t e d t h a t female j u d g e s would have a t t e n d e d more t h a n male j u d g e s t o what t h e e n c o d e r a t t e m p t e d t o communicate ( i . e . no p a i n ] t h a n to l e a k e d cues t h a t were 98. c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h e a t t e m p t e d n o n v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Thus i n s t u d y 1 t h e r e would have been no d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e p o s s i b l e Flow oF an i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e e n c o d e r due t o t h e judge a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s i n g t h e e n c o d e r s ' s t a t e . However, i n s t u d y 2, a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n oF t h e e n c o d e r s ' s t a t e might have been d i s r u p t i v e as a t t e n t i o n would have had t o be p a i d t o t h e p e r c e i v e d c o n t r a d i c t i o n and t h e judge would have had t o ask F o r c 1 a r i F i c a t i o n t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e i n t e n t oF t h e e n c o d e r . The l i n e oF r e a s o n i n g o f f e r e d by t h e accommodation h y p o t h e s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e v e r s a l oF t h e sex oF judge e f f e c t i s open t o a c o n s i s t e n t e x p l a n a t i o n . However, as H a l l (1984) p a i n t e d out much mare work i s needed on t h e accommodation, as w e l l as o t h e r h y p o t h e s e s on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between male and f e m a l e j u d g e s b e f o r e c o n f i d e n c e can be t a k e n i n any p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n . Type o f C o n f i g u r a t i o n When i n i t i a l l y p o s t u l a t i n g an e f f e c t o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n t y p e ( o v e r l a p p i n g v s . n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g ) t h e r e were two p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s t o t a k e . The f i r s t p o s i t i o n assumed t h a t o n l y " f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s " would have been r a t e d by j u d g e s as d i s p l a y i n g d i s c o m f o r t . The key e lement t o d e f i n i n g a c o n f i g u r a t i o n as an e x p r e s s i o n was t h a t i t c o n t a i n e d AUs w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g a p i c e s . N o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s would t h u s not have been p e r c e i v e d as e x p r e s s i o n s and would have been r a t e d as i n d i c a t i v e o f l i t t l e or no p a i n . The s e c o n d p o s i t i o n assumed an a d d i t i v e f u n c t i o n which judges would have used t o add up t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f s e e i n g s e v e r a l AUs. The 99. o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between two segments w i t h i d e n t i c a l AUs would have been t h e d i f f e r e n c e between s e e i n g t h e AUs i n an o v e r l a p p i n g or n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g p a t t e r n . Thus a s t r o n g l e v e l e f f e c t would have been p r o p o s e d f o r both t y p e s o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h t h e o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s p o s s i b l y b e i n g r a t e d h i g h e r a t each l e v e l due t o t h e added e f f e c t o f o v e r l a p p i n g a p i c e s . The a c t u a l d a t a from e x a m i n i n g t h e t y p e s o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s does not u n e q u i v o c a l l y s u p p o r t e i t h e r p o s i t i o n . There was o n l y a v e r y weak l e v e l of c o m p l e x i t y e f f e c t f o r n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . However, t h i s weak e f f e c t p l u s t h e f a c t t h a t a l l mean l e v e l s o f non- o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean r a t i n g of s i n g l e AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e was some e f f e c t due t o s i m p l y s e e i n g more AUs. I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a r e much e a s i e r f o r j u d g e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e and a l s o l e a d t o much h i g h e r r a t i n g s o f d i s c o m f o r t . While th e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h found t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r more complex c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , o n l y two o f many p o s s i b l e p a t t e r n s were t e s t e d . B e s i d e s o t h e r v a r i a t i o n s i n o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h on t h e d u r a t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f t h e AUs w i t h i n v a r i o u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s needs t o be done t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r r o l e as cues f o r o b s e r v e r s . Hidden v s Not Hidden F a c i a l C o n f i g u r a t i o n s 1 0 0 . I t was f o u n d t h a t j u d g e s made d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s between p e r c e i v e d a t t e m p t s by t h e e n c o d e r s t o h i d e or not h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . T h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was based on t h e a r e a of t h e f a c e c o n t a i n i n g t h e f a c i a l a c t i v i t y . J u d g e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between upper and lower f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s when d e c i d i n g i f t h e e n c o d e r was a t t e m p t i n g t o h i d e t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n o f d i s c o m f o r t . The r a t i n g of upper f a c e a c t i v i t y as more o f t e n i n d i c a t i n g an a t t e m p t by t h e e n c o d e r t o h i d e t h e i r s t a t e was m a i n t a i n e d a c r o s s both l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y t h a t were t e s t e d . While t h e r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e n o t i o n of upper f a c e movements b e i n g l e s s c o n t r o l l a b l e , and t h u s a r e more l i k e l y t o be cues a v a i l a b l e t o j u d g e s r e g a r d i n g a p e r s o n ' s s t a t e , t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h cannot d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t t h e i d e a t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s based s o l e l y on t h e a r e a o f t h e f a c e . The r e a s o n t h e r e i s no d i r e c t s u p p o r t i s t h a t i t was not p o s s i b l e , i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , t o s e p a r a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f f a c i a l a r e a from t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t AUs i n t h e upper and lower f a c e . What i s known i s t h a t j u d g e s make d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s between h i d d e n and not h i d d e n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h an upper and lower f a c e d i s c r i m i nat i o n . Ekman and F r i e s e n (1969a; 1969b; 1975) d e s c r i b e d f o u r methods which p e o p l e may use t o c o n t r o l t h e i r f a c i a l b e h a v i o r : 1) i n t e n s i f y i n g , 2) d e i n t e n s i f y i n g , 3) n e u t r a l i z i n g , and 4) masking. P r i o r work has f o c u s e d on masking ( i . e . d i s s i m u l a t i o n ) f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l (Ekman S. F r i e s e n , 1969b; 1974; Ekman et a l . , 1980) and 101 . p a i n f u l s t a t e s ( L a n z e t t a e t a l . , 1976). L a n z e t t a e t a l . a l s o s t u d i e d t h e n e u t r a l i z i n g method. Study 2 i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f t e l l i n g j u d g e s t h e e n c o d e r used t h e n e u t r a l i z i n g method i n o r d e r t o s t u d y what cues t h e j u d g e s used to d e c i d e when t h e e n c o d e r s had a t t e m p t e d t o n e u t r a l i z e t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s . As o u t l i n e d above i t was found t h a t j u d g e s more o f t e n used upper t h a n lower f a c e a c t i o n s as cues o f an e n c o d e r s ' a t t e m p t t o h i d e ( n e u t r a l i z e ) t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o p a i n f u l s t i m u l i . T h i s f i n d i n g , and t h o s e on d i s s i m u l a t i o n which l o o k e d at d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a r e a s o f t h e f a c e , a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l d a t a ( R i n n , 1984) which i n d i c a t e d t h a t upper f a c e a c t i o n s a r e under l e s s v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l t h a n lower f a c e a c t i o n s and t h u s may be more u s e f u l as cues o f t h e a c t u a l s t a t e o f t h e e n c o d e r . The work on t h e masking and n e u t r a l i z i n g methods i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l i s s u e i s t h e degree of v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l of t h e f a c i a l m u s c l e s . Thus i f r e s e a r c h was t o be done on t h e i n t e n s i f y i n g and d e i n t e n s i f y i n g methods i t would seem l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e s u l t s might i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e methods work b e s t on lower f a c e m u s c l e s , l e a v i n g t h e upper f a c e movements as c l e a r e r i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e e n c o d e r ' s a c t u a l s t a t e . P l a c i n g t h e P r e s e n t R e s e a r c h w i t h i n t h e Judgment Mo de1 As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h f o c u s e d on t h e B-C r e l a t i o n s h i p i n R o s e n t h a l ' s model. T h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h i s used t o s t u d y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between an e n c o d e r ' s n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r and t h e j u d g e ' s r a t i n g o f t h e e n c o d e r ' s 102. s t a t e . A c o m p a r i s o n of t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e B-C r e s e a r c h l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s t h e f i r s t s t u d y t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y m a n i p u l a t e known and v e r i f i a b l e f a c i a l b e h a v i o r s t o see how v a r i o u s m a n i p u l a t i o n s a f f e c t e d j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e e n c o d e r s ' d i s p l a y e d p a i n f u l d i scom f o r t . A t e n t a t i v e c o n n e c t i o n can be drawn between t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t s and p r i o r A-C r e s e a r c h . P a t r i c k e t a l . ( i n p r e s s ) o b t a i n e d a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n which c o n t a i n e d most of t h e c o r e AUs used i n t h e f i r s t s t u d y . The r e s u l t s from h y p o t h e s i s 1 p r o v i d e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u p p o r t f o r P a t r i c k e t a l . ' s e q u a t i o n which s u g g e s t e d t h a t AUs 4, 6, 10, and 45 were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h judgments o f i n c r e a s e d p a i n . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s e q u a t i o n s h o u l d be we i g h t e d t a g i v e more weight t o t h e AUs when t h e y o v e r l a p t h a n t o t h e i r s i m p l e o c c u r r e n c e w i t h i n any segment of t i m e . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h a l s o i n d i c a t e s the i m p o r t a n c e of u s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o d i n g s y stems when s t u d y i n g t h e A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p [ C r a i g S P a t r i c k , 1985; Hyde, 1985; LeResche, 1982; P a t r i c k e t a l . , i n p r e s s ) . Without such r e s e a r c h i t would not have been p o s s i b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e B-C r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c i t y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . T h i s i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e o f one t y p e of r e s e a r c h on a n o t h e r h i g h l i g h t s t h e u t i l i t y o f R o s e n t h a l ' s model f o r c l a r i f y i n g i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o c o n d u c t i n g judgment s t u d i e s and t h e r o l e o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o d i n g s y s t e m s , such as FACS, i n r e s e a r c h an judgments and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . 103. F a c i a l A c t i v i t y as a_ N o n v e r b a l Measure of P a i n C r a i g and P a t r i c k (1985), Hyde (1985), and P a t r i c k et a l . ( i n p r e s s ) have a l l d e m o n s t r a t e d one method f o r m e a s u r i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . These s t u d i e s a l l used FACS and f o u n d , u s i n g h i g h l y t r a i n e d c o d e r s , t h a t a s m a l l s u b s e t o f AUs were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s e l f - r e p o r t e d d i s c o m f o r t . However, w h i l e e f f e c t i v e , u s i n g FACS i s a v e r y c o s t l y and t i m e consuming p r o c e d u r e which a l l but l i m i t s i t s use t o r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . A more p r a c t i c a l method would i n v o l v e t h e use of j u d g e s ( i . e . m i n i m a l l y t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s ) r a t h e r t h a n h i g h l y t r a i n e d c o d e r s . Ganchrow e t a l . (1978) and Keefe and B l o c k (1982) d e v i s e d c o d i n g s y stems t h a t a r e more p r a c t i c a l i n a p p l i e d s e t t i n g s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y can be seen as a f i r s t move towards s y n t h e s i z i n g t h e h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l c o d i n g o f FACS wit h t h e p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f a p p l i e d s e t t i n g s . To g i v e h e a l t h c a r e s t a f f t h e 'knowledge about e m p i r i c a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r ( e . g . f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s ) r e l a t e d t o p a i n d i s c o m f o r t and the s k i l l t o o b s e r v e such b e h a v i o r i s r e c o g n i z e as an i m p o r t a n t g o a l ( K e e f e e t a l . , 1984; LeResche & Dworkin, 1984; Teske et a l . , 1983). I t i s now c l e a r from t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s t h a t n a i v e j u d g e s can make c l e a r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n amongst an a r r a y o f s u b t l y d i f f e r e n t f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a t a r e known to r e l a t e t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s e l f - r e p o r t e d p a i n . G i v e n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e ground work has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r r e s e a r c h e r s to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t e a c h i n g j u d g e s t o a c c u r a t e l y o b s e r v e t h e s e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . 104. The r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a f o r both s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t when ju d g e s were g i v e n numerous o c c a s s i o n s f o r making r a t i n g s t h a t t h e i r mean r a t i n g s t e n d e d t o be q u i t e r e l i a b l e . These r e s u l t s would s u g g e s t t h a t i f judgment of f a c i a l a c t i v i t y was t o be used as a measure of p a i n f u l d i s c o m f o r t t h e n t h e measure s h o u l d be a v e r a g e d o v e r s e v e r a l j u d g e s o r o v e r one j u d g e ' s r e p e a t e d r a t i n g s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e P r e s e n t S t u d i e s T here ar e a number of l i m i t a t i o n s to t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The two most o b v i o u s ones a r e t h a t o n l y f o u r e n c o d e r s were used and t h e r e were no c o m p a r i s o n s made between p a i n - r e l a t e d AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and o t h e r t y p e s o f f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Both of t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s were due, i n p a r t , t o t h e l a r g e number o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s needed t o t e s t a l l t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p a i n - r e l a t e d AUs. O b t a i n i n g s k i l l e d e n c o d e r s was a l s o a p r o b lem. To i n c r e a s e t h e number of e n c o d e r s would r e q u i r e p l a c i n g l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e number o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s used and p o s s i b l y r e q u i r e t h e s e l e c t i o n of e a s i l y r e p r o d u c i b l e AUs. While p r o t o t y p i c e x p r e s s i o n s f o r a number o f e m o t i o n s have been d e s c r i b e d (Ekman a F r i e s e n , 1978a; I z a r d , 1979) t h e y g e n e r a l l y l a c k t h e r e p e a t e d e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h which s u p p o r t s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d e s c r i b e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . T h i s would l e a v e a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y between t h e p a i n - r e l a t e d AUs and o t h e r f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s on d i f f i c u l t ground. There ar e a l s o v a r i o u s o t h e r t y p e s o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which c o u l d be t e s t e d . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e d on two extreme c a s e s . More s u b t l e a l t e r a t i o n s of t h e o v e r l a p p i n g 105. and n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o u l d l e a d t o a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s which j u d g e s used when making t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t i n g o f o v e r l a p p i n g and non- o v e r l a p p i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i s s u e s o f i n t e n s i t y and t i m i n g o f the AUs and f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s need t o be more f u l l y e x p l o r e d . A l t h o u g h both f a c t o r s can be measured t h e r e i s no r e s e a r c h on t h e i r i m p a c t s on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s or i n r e l a t i o n t o s u b j e c t s ' se 1 f rr r epo r t . Both f a c t o r s were measured f o r r e l i a b i l i t y p u r p o s e s i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h but were not i n c l u d e d i n f u r t h e r d a t a a n a l y s i s . U n t i l t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of c o d i n g i n t e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s t o an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l i n t e n s i t y w i l l r e m a i n an u n s t u d i e d a r e a . While t h e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r c o d i n g t h e t i m i n g o f t h e o n s e t and o f f s e t of AUs and t h e i r a p i c e s was a c c e p t a b l e t h e r e were problems i n d e c i d i n g how t o use such measures i n a n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a . F o r t h e two t y p e s o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n s used i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h t h e r e were f i v e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of t h e f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r which measures o f d u r a t i o n c o u l d be d e r i v e d . These measures have not been i n v e s t i g a t e d and so t h e i r u t i l i t y i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e r o l e of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s i s unknown. The d e s i g n s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s d i d not l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t measures of t i m i n g . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f j u d g e s used. F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f moving towards the development of a n o n v e r b a l measure o f p a i n an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i s what AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s do h e a l t h c a r e p e r s o n n e l use as i n d i c a t o r s when r a t i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n . The p r e s e n t s t u d i e s have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y .106. i n v e s t i g a t e p a i n - r e l a t e d AUs but d i d not a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f how h e a l t h c a r e p e r s o n n e l r a t e such AU c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . With t h e s t r o n g but i n c o n s i s t e n t sex o f judge e f f e c t s and t h e e f f e c t o f judgment c o n d i t i o n s i t would not appear s a f e t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s t o a v e r y d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f j u d g e s o r judgment c o n d i t i o n s . C o n c l u s i o n To c o n c l u d e t h r e e p o i n t s w i l l be summarized. F i r s t , t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h s u c c e e d e d i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t d i r e c t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f f a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s can be used t o s t u d y a v a r i e t y of h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e v a l u e o f n o n v e r b a l f a c i a l movements. Such r e s e a r c h i s t o t a l l y dependent upon p r i o r r e s e a r c h which i d e n t i f i e s t h e f a c i a l movements which a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Second, t h e two s t u d i e s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e l e v e l of c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o m p l e x i t y , t y p e o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n , and judgment c o n d i t i o n a l l a f f e c t e d t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s of t h e e n c o d e r s ' p o r t r a y e d d i s c o m f o r t . F u r t h e r m o r e , j u d g e s t e n d e d t o use upper f a c e AUs as i n d i c a t o r s o f an a t t e m p t t o h i d e an e x p r e s s i o n when the j u d g e s b e l i e v e d some of t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were a t t e m p t s by t h e e n c o d e r s t o h i d e t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s . 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APPENDIX A No Discomfort 1 2 Distracting 1 2 Annoying 1 2 Uncomfortable 1 2 Unpleasant 1 2 Irritating 1 2 Upsetting 1 2 Distressing 1 2 Miserable 1 2 Frightful 1 2 Dreadful 1 2 Horrible 1 2 Agonizing 1 2 Intolerable 1 2 Unbearable 1 2 Excruciating 1 2 Rating Form Name: 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 i 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 No Discomfort 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Distracting 21 22 23 2A 25 26 27 28 Annoying 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Uncomfortable 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Unpleasant 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Irritating 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Upsetting 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Distressing 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Miserable 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Frightful 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Dreadful 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Horrible 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Agonizing 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Intolerable 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Unbearable 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Excruciating 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 32 33 34 35 36 3 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 3 34 35 36 3 32 33 34 35 36 3 K> No Discomfort 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Distracting 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Annoying 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA A5 Uncomfortable 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Unpleasant 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Irritating 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Upsetting 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Distressing 38 39 AO . Al A2 A3 AA AS Miserable 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Frightful 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Dreadful 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Horrible 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Agonizing 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA A5 Intolerable 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS Unbearable 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 A4 AS Excruciating 38 39 AO Al A2 A3 AA AS A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 AS A9 50 51 52 53 SA 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 SO 51 52 S3 SA 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 SO 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 A6 A7 A8 A9 50 51 52 53 5A 55 No Discomfort 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 D i s t r a c t i n g 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Annoying 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Uncomfortable 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Unpleasant 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 I r r i t a t i n g 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Upsetting 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 D i s t r e s s i n g 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Miserable 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 F r i g h t f u l 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Dreadful 56 57 58 59 60 61 . 62 63 H o r r i b l e 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Agonizing 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 I n t o l e r a b l e 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Unbearable 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 E x c r u c i a t i n g 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 < 68 69 70 71 72 73 No Discomfort 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Distracting 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Annoying 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Uncomfortable 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Unpleasant 74 ' 7 5 76 77 78 79 80 81 Irritating 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Upsetting 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Distressing 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Miserable 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Frightful 74 75 - 76 77 78 79 80 81 Dreadful 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Horrible 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Agonizing 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Intolerable 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Unbearable 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Excruciating 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 . 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 No Discomfort 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Distracting 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Annoying 92 93 94 95 : 96 97 98 99 Uncomfortable 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Unpleasant 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Irritating 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Upsetting 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Distressing 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Miserable 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Frightful 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Dreadful 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Horrible 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Agonizing • 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Intolerable. 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Unbearable 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Excruciating 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 100 101 102 , 103 104 105 106 107 108 No Discomfort 109 HO 111 112 113 114 Distracting 109 110 111 112 113 114 Annoying 109 110 111 112 113 114 Uncomfortable 109 110 111 112 113 114 Unpleasant 109 110 111 112 113 114 Irritating 109 110 111 112 113 114 Upsetting 109 110 111 112 113 114 Distressing 109 110 111 112 113 114 Miserable 109 110 111 112 113 114 Frightful 109 110 111 112 113 114 Dreadful 109 HQ ' 111 112 113 114 i Horrible 109 110 111 112 113 114 Agonizing 109 110 111 112 113 114 Intolerable 109 110 111 112 U3 114 Unbearable 109 110 111 112 113 114 Excruciating 109 110 111 112 113 114 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 00 No Discomfort 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Distracting 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Annoying 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Uncomfortable 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Unpleasant 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Irritating 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Upsetting 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Distressing 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Miserable 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Frightful 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Dreadful 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Horrible 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Agonizing 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Intolerable 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Unbearable 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 Excruciating 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 No Discomfort IA1 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Distracting 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Annoying 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Uncomfortable 141 . 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Unpleasant 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Irritating 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Upsetting 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Distressing 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Miserable 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Frightful 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Dreadful 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Horrible 141 142 143 . 144 145 146 147 148 Agonizing 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Intolerable 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Unbearable 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Excruciating 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 o 131'. APPENDIX B 132. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Study 1 In our l a b we have been s t u d y i n g p e o p l e s ' f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f d i s c o m f o r t from r e c e i v i n g p a i n f u l s t i m u l i . We a r e p r e s e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n how a c c u r a t e l y p e o p l e can r a t e a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s d i s c o m f o r t when v i e w i n g t h a t p e r s o n ' s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . I would l i k e t o g i v e you a l i t t l e b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e p e o p l e you a r e about t o watch. These p e o p l e were v o l u n t e e r s i n a s t u d y l o o k i n g a t t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a c u t e n o x i o u s s t i m u l a t i o n on p e o p l e s ' f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . They went t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f t e s t s i n which t h e y r e c e i v e d e l e c t r i c shock, r a d i a n t h e a t , and had s t r o n g p r e s s u r e a p p l i e d t o t h e i r i n d e x f i n g e r above t h e bone. These s t i m u l i v a r i e d i n d u r a t i o n form 1/2 t o 2 s e c o n d s . In a l l c a s e s , t h e s t i m u l i were v a r i e d from n o t i c e a b l e l e v e l s of s e n s a t i o n , which were not u n c o m f o r t a b l e , t o l e v e l s where t h e s u b j e c t s f e l t t h e s t i m u l a t i o n t o be as much as t h e y c o u l d endure and a s k e d t h a t i t be t e r m i n a t e d . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e p e o p l e r e p o r t e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n s , which v a r i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e range o f d e s c r i p t o r s on y o u r r a t i n g form. However, no a t t e m p t has been marde t o p r e s e n t e q u a l numbers of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s f o r a l l r e p o r t e d l e v e l s o f u n p l e a s a n t n e s s . The v i d e o segments you a r e about t o see show p e o p l e s ' f a c e s d u r i n g t h e b r i e f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s t i m u l i . As t h e s o l e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y i s on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a l l segments have been s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d and c a r e f u l l y e d i t t e d 133. so t h a t you w i l l see o n l y t h e s u b j e c t s ' f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . A l l p o r t i o n s of t h e o r i g i n a l t a p e s which r e v e a l e d body or head movements have been e l i m i n a t e d e i t h e r by s e l e c t i o n or e d i t t i n g . To c o n t r o l f o r p o s s i b l e cues due t o eye movements t h e p e o p l e were i n s t r u c t e d t o f i x a t e on one o f s e v e r a l s p o t s on t h e w a l l i n f r o n t of them. Thus you w i l l see l i t t l e or no eye movements i n t h e s e v i d e o segments. We have randomly s c r a m b l e d a l l t h e v i d e o t a p e segments so t h a t t h e o r d e r i n which you see t h e segments won't d i s c l o s e any i n f o r m a t i o n about what r a t i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' gave t h e s t i m u l a t i o n . The segments you a r e t o r a t e a r e s e p a r a t e d by a 6 s e c o n d b l a n k segment d u r i n g which t i m e you a r e t o make your r a t i n g . The b e g i n n i n g o f each segment w i l l be announced by a v o i c e i n d i c a t i n g t h e number o f t h e upcoming segment. The numbers announced on t h e t a p e c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e segment numbers l i s t e d on your r a t i n g f o r m s . T h i s w i l l h e l p g u i d e you i n p l a c i n g your r a t i n g s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s . As you can see on your r a t i n g forms t h e r e i s a l i s t of d e s c r i p t o r s shown on t h e l e f t s i d e o f each form which i n d i c a t e i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f u n p l e a s a n t n e s s . T h i s i s t h e same l i s t o f d e s c r i p t o r s used by t h e p e o p l e who r e c e i v e d t h e s t i m u l i . You a r e t o use t h e s e d e s c r i p t o r s i n making your r a t i n g o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s d i s t r e s s . For example, i f you t h o u g h t t h e p e r s o n was i n no d i s c o m f o r t you would use t h e d e s c r i p t o r "no d i s c o m f o r t " . I f you t h o u g h t t h a t t h e p e r s o n was e x p e r i e n c i n g a moderate l e v e l o f p a i n t h e n you might chose a d e s c r i p t o r such as " d i s t r e s s i n g " . 134. To make a r a t i n g choose t h e b e s t d e s c r i p t o r and c i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e segment number t h a t i s on t h e same row a c r o s s from t h a t d e s c r i p t o r . F o r example, i f you d e c i d e d t h a t i n segment 8 t h e p e r s o n f e l t t h e s t i m u l u s was " u n p l e a s a n t " you would c i r c l e number "8" a c r o s s from t h e word " u n p l e a s a n t " . Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? There a r e 148 segments t o r a t e . The v i d e o i s 26 minute s l o n g . T h e r e a r e 5 i n i t i a l p r a c t i c e segments. 135. APPENOIX C 136. POST—EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE Name 1. How a c c u r a t e do you t h i n k you a r e at j u d g i n g p e o p l e from v i e w i n g t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s ? ( c i r c l e one) Not at a l l Very a c c u r a t e a c c u r a t e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Have you had any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c i n g p a i n ? a. i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h many p e o p l e who have been d e m o n s t r a t i n g a c u t e or s h o r t term p a i n . b. i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h anyone e x p e r i e n c i n g c h r o n i c (more t h a n 6 months) p a i n . c. none o f t h e above. 3. I s i t e a s i e r f o r you t o judge t h e f e e l i n g s of e i t h e r f e m a l e s or males from o b s e r v i n g t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s ? ( c h e c k one) a. f e m a l e s b. males c. no d i f f e r e n c e 4. Remembering t h a t t h e s o l e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y was on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , how w e l l d i d you f e e l t h e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e range o f d i s t r e s s you r a t e d t h e s u b j e c t s as e x p e r i e n c i n g . Very Not at a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 137. 5. I f you r a t e d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of t h e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s as 5 or more would you p l e a s e i n d i c a t e what l e a d you t o see them as u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 138. APPENDIX • 139. D e b r i e f i n g f o r Study 1 As s t a t e d i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t h i s s t u d y i s i n t e r e s t e d i n how p e o p l e r a t e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s r e l a t e d t o p a i n . In t h r e e p r i o r s t u d i e s we were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y a s m a l l c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f f a c i a l movements t h a t were c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d t o s e l f ^ r e p o r t e d p a i n . However, i t i s u n c l e a r how w e l l t h e s e f a c i a l movements communicate t h e p e r s o n ' s p a i n t o j u d g e s , i n d e p e n d e n t of o t h e r v i s u a l c u e s . The v i d e o segments you viewed were p o r t r a y a l s o f a l l p a s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s of t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c i a l movements found i n t h e p r i o r s t u d i e s . Thus the v i d e o segments you saw were posed e x p r e s s i o n s which a t t e m p t e d t o d u p l i c a t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c i a l movements we found i n our p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n which we used e l e t r i c s hock, a c o l d p r e s s o r t e s t , and g i v i n g back p a i n p a t i e n t s " a range of motion t e s t . A l t h o u g h a l l t h e f a c i a l movements you saw a c t u a l l y happened i n t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o show you posed e x p r e s s i o n s i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l t h e v i s u a l c o n t e x t i n which you viewed t h e e x p r e s s i o n s . T h i s c o n t r o l e n a b l e s me t o e v a l u a t e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t r o l e o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s on your r a t i n g s . T here a r e two h y p o t h e s e s I am i n v e s t i g a t i n g . The f i r s t r e l a t e s t o what e f f e c t does making t h e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s more complex have on your r a t i n g s . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n t h e h i g h e r w i l l be your r a t i n g . The s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s f o c u s e s an t h e e f f e c t o f s e e i n g t h e f a c i a l movements p o r t r a y e d s e q u e n t i o n a 1 1 y v e r s u s 140. as a s i n g l e e x p r e s s i o n . I t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t the segments w i t h a s i n g l e u n i f i e d e x p r e s s i o n w i l l be r a t e d h i g h e r t h a n segments i n which t h e same movements a r e seen s e q u e n t i a l l y . B e s i d e s a t t e m p t i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r o l e of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n o b s e r v e r judgments t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a l s o a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p towards t h e development o f a p o s s i b l e method f o r t r a i n i n g h e a l t h c a r e workers t o more a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s t h e i r p a t i e n t ' s p a i n from o b s e r v i n g t h e p a t i e n t ' s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? 141 . APPENDIX E 142. G r a c e l y S c a l e A f f e c t i v e D e s c r i p t o r s of P a i n and S c a l e d S c o r e s D e s c r i p t o r s S c a l e d S c o r e s a No D i s c o m f o r t 0.0 b D i s t r a c t i n g 3.1 A n noying 3.5 U n c o m f o r t a b l e 3.S U n p l e a s a n t 4.0 I r r i t a t i n g 4.7 U p s e t t i n g 6. 1 D i s t r e s s i n g 7.7' Mi s e r a b l e 11.7 F r i g h t f u l 12.4 D r e a d f u l 15.0 H o r r i b l e 17.S A g o n i z i n g 25.1 I n t o l e r a b l e 26.7 U n b e a r a b l e 26.8 E x c r u c i a t i n g 38.7 a T h i s d e s c r i p t o r was added t o t h e o r i g i n a l s c a l e t o p r o v i d e a n o n - p a i n base p o i n t . b From G r a c e l y , R. H., McGrath, P., S. Dubner, R. ( 1978). R a t i o s c a l e s o f s e n s o r y and a f f e c t i v e v e r b a l p a i n d e s c r i p t o r s . P a i n , 5, 5-18. 143. APPENDIX F 144. H y p o t h e s i s 1 - 2 X 4 ANOVA sex o f judge x l e v e l of c o m p l e x i t y S o u r c e Sex E r r o r SS 194.03998 1153.34708 df MS F 1 194.03998 8.08 48 24.02806 P 0.0066 Le ve 1 Sex X Lev, E r r o r 741.02791 58.65509 468.68156 3 247.00930 3 19.55170 144 3.25473 75.89 0.0001 6.01 0.0007 145. APPENDIX G 146. H y p o t h e s i s 1 - S i m p l e E f f e c t s f o r Sex o f Judge and L e v e l o f C o m p l e x i t y S o u r c e SS df Sex a t L1 2.89042 1 Sex a t L2 24.77658 1 Sex a t L3 100.13106 1 Sex a t L4 124.89902 1 E r r o r 1622.02864 192 MS F 2.89042 0.34 24.77658 2.93 100.13106 11.85 124.89902 14.78 8.44807 0.001 0.001 Lev-Male 195.58139 Lev-Female 604.10161 E r r o r 468.68156 3 3 144 65.19380 201.36720 3.25473 20.03 0.001 61.87 0.001 147. APPENDIX H 148. H y p o t h e s i s 1 - Newman-Keuls P o s t Hoc Comparisons f o r L e v e l o f C o m p l e x i t y f o r Each Sex o f Judge Males X1 X2 X4 X3 2. 59 4.65 5. 93 6. 08 X1 2.06 3.34 3.49 . * X2 1 . 2 8 1 . 4 3 X4 0.15 Fern a 1 e s X1 X2 X3 X 1 3. 07 X2 6.06 2.99 X3 8.91 5 . 84 2. 85 X4 9. 09 6. 02 3.04 0.18 = .001 * * = .025 * = .05 149. APPENDIX I 150. H y p o t h e s i s 2 - 3 X 2 X 3 ANOVA Sex o f Judge X Type of C o n f i g u r a t i o n X L e v e l of C o m p l e x i t y S o u r c e SS df MS F p Sex 170.29088 1 170.29088 7.65 0.008 E r r o r 1067.81038 48 22.24605 L e v e l 151.10846 2 75.554423 36.85 0.0001 Sex X Lev 16.15179 2 8.07590 3.94 0.0227 E r r o r 196.84912 96 2.05051 C o n f i g 174.98137 Sex X Conf 30.67999 E r r o r 252.29390 1 1 48 174.98137 30.67999 5.25612 33.29 0.0001 5.84 0.0195 Conf X Lev 37.74372 S X C X L 6.82375 E r r o r 124.82809 2 2 96 18.87186 3.41188 1 . 30029 14.51 0.0001 2.62 n.s. 151 . APPENDIX J 152. H y p o t h e s i s 2 - S i m p l e E f f e c t s f o r Type o f C o n f i g u r a t i o n and L e v e l of C o m p l e x i t y S o u r c e Conf at L2 Canf at L3 SS 9.01020 68.80702 Conf at L4 134.90822 E r r o r 377.12199 df 1 1 1 1 44 MS 9.01020 68.80702 134.90822 2.61890 F 3. 44 26. 27 51.51 n. s. 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 1 Le v a t O v e r l a p Le v a t Non-over 169.73417 19.11802 84.86709 50.65 0.001 9.55901 5.71 0.025 E r r o r 321.67721 1 92 1.67540 153. APPENDIX K 154. H y p o t h e s i s 2 - Newman-KeuIs P o s t hoc Comparisons f o r L e v e l of C o m p l e x i t y by Type o f C o n f i g u r a t i o n N o n - O v e r l a p p i n g C o n f i g u r a t i o n s X2 X3 X4 4.23 4.65 5.10 — * X2 0.42 0.87 X3 0.45 O v e r l a p p i n g C o n f i g u r a t i o n s X2 X3 X4 4.83 6.31 7.42 - ** X2 1.48 2.54 _ X3 1.11 * = .025 ** - .001 155. APPENDIX L 156. H y p o t h e s i s 2 - S i m p l e e f f e c t s f o r Sex o f Judge and Type o f C o n f i g u r a t i o n S o u r c e SS df Sex a t 172.76642 1 O v e r l a p Sex a t 28.20460 1 Non-Overlap E r r o r 1320.10428 96 C o n f i g f o r 29.55685 1 Males C o n f i g f o r 176.10072 1 Females E r r o r 252.29390 48 MS F p 172.76642 12.56 0.001 28.20460 2.05 n.s. 13.75109 29.55685 5.62 0.025 176.10072 33.50 0.001 5.25612 157. APPENDIX M 158. H y p o t h e s i s 2 - S i m p l e E f f e c t s f o r Sex o f Judge and L e v e l o f C o m p l e x i t y S o u r c e Sex a t L2 Sex a t L3 Sex a t L4 E r r o r SS d f 24.37S91 1 50.33S02 1 111.72490 1 1264.65984 144 MS 24.37891 50.33902 111.72490 8.78236 F 2. 78 5. 73 12. 72 0. 025 0.001 L e v e l f o r Males L e v e l f o r Females 35.12025 132.13797 17.56013 8.56 0.005 66.06899 32.22 0.001 E r r o r 196.84912 96 2.05051 1 5 9 . APPENDIX N 160. H y p o t h e s i s 2 - Newman-Keuls P o s t hoc Comparisons f o r L e v e l o f C o m p l e x i t y by Sex o f Judge Male Judges X2 X3 X4 4.03 4.77 5.21 r; * X2 0.74 1.18 X3 0.44 Female Judges X2 X3 X4 5.02 6.19 7.32 - # *** X2 1.17 2.30 - ** X3 1.13 * = 0.025 ** = 0.01 *** = 0.001 161. APPENDIX 0 162. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Study 2 In our l a b we have been s t u d y i n g p e o p l e s ' f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of d i s c o m f o r t from r e c e i v i n g p a i n f u l s t i m u l i . We a r e p r e s e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n how a c c u r a t e l y p e o p l e can r a t e a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s d i s c o m f o r t when v i e w i n g t h a t p e r s o n ' s f a c i a l ex p r e s s i o n s . I would l i k e t o g i v e you a l i t t l e b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e p e o p l e you a r e about t o watch. These p e o p l e were v o l u n t e e r s i n a s t u d y l o o k i n g a t t h e e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a c u t e n o x i o u s s t i m u l a t i o n on p e o p l e s ' f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . They went t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f t e s t s i n which t h e y r e c e i v e d e l e c t r i c shock, r a d i a n t h e a t , and had s t r o n g p r e s s u r e a p p l i e d t o t h e i r i n d e x f i n g e r above t h e bone. These s t i m u l i v a r i e d i n d u r a t i o n from 1/2 t o 2 s e c o n d s . The e x p e r i m e n t was d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . In t h e f i r s t p a r t t h e p e o p l e r e c e i v e d t h e s t i m u l a t i o n and r a t e d i t s l e v e l o f d i s c o m f o r t . In t h e s e c o n d p a r t of t h e s t u d y t h e p e o p l e r e c e i v e d t h e same s t i m u l a t i o n but were i n s t r u c t e d t o t r y and c o n t r o l t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s so no one would know how much d i s c o m f o r t t h e y f e l t . In a l l c a s e s , t h e s t i m u l i were v a r i e d from n o t i c e a b l e l e v e l s o f s e n s a t i o n , which were not u n c o m f o r t a b l e , t o l e v e l s where t h e s u b j e c t s f e l t t h e s t i m u l a t i o n t o be as much as t h e y c o u l d endure and asked t h a t i t be t e r m i n a t e d . Under both c o n d i t i o n s , t h e p e o p l e r e p o r t e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n s , which v a r i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e range o f d e s c r i p t o r s on your r a t i n g form. However, f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y o n l y s e l e c t e d l e v e l s o f d i s c o m f o r t w i l l be 163. f o c u s e d on. The v i d e o segments you a r e about t o see show p e o p l e s ' f a c e s d u r i n g t h e b r i e f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s t i m u l i . As t h e s o l e f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y i s on f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a l l segments have been s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d and c a r e f u l l y e d i t t e d so t h a t you w i l l see o n l y t h e s u b j e c t s ' f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . A l l p o r t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l t a p e s which r e v e a l e d body or head movements have been e l i m i n a t e d e i t h e r by s e l e c t i o n or e d i t t i n g . To c o n t r o l f o r p o s s i b l e cues due t o eye movements th e p e o p l e were i n s t r u c t e d t o f i x a t e on one of s e v e r a l s p o t s on t h e w a l l i n f r o n t of them. Thus you w i l l see l i t t l e or no eye movements i n t h e s e v i d e o segments. The v i d e o t a p e i s c o m p r i s e d o f a random s e l e c t i o n o f segments from t h e n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n and t h e c o n d i t i o n where t h e s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d to c o n t r o l or h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , we have randomly s c r a m b l e d t h e o r d e r o f a l l our v i d e o t a p e segments so t h a t t h e o r d e r i n which you see t h e segments won't d i s c l o s e any i n f o r m a t i o n about what r a t i n g t h e s u b j e c t s gave t h e s t i m u l a t i o n . The segments you a r e t o r a t e a r e s e p a r a t e d by a S s e c o n d b l a n k s p a c e d u r i n g which t i m e you a r e t o make your r a t i n g . The b e g i n n i n g o f each segment w i l l be announced by a v o i c e i n d i c a t i n g t h e number o f t h e upcoming segment. The numbers announced on t h e t a p e c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e segment numbers l i s t e d on your r a t i n g f o r m s . T h i s w i l l h e l p g u i d e you i n p l a c i n g your r a t i n g i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e . You have two t a s k s . The f i r s t i s t o d e c i d e i f t h e p e r s o n was t r y i n g t o h i d e h i s or her f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n or 164. n o t . The s e c o n d i s t o r a t e as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e how much d i s c o m f o r t t h e p e r s o n was e x p e r i e n c i n g . As you can see on your r a t i n g forms t h e r e i s a l i s t of d e s c r i p t o r s shown on t h e l e f t s i d e o f each form which i n d i c a t e s i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f u n p l e a s a n t n e s s . T h i s i s t h e same l i s t o f d e s c r i p t o r s used by t h e p e o p l e who r e c e i v e d t h e s t i m l u l i . You a r e t o use t h e s e d e s c r i p t o r s i n making your r a t i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s d i s c o m f o r t . Two examples o f how t o use t h e r a t i n g form a r e as f o l l o w s : i f you t h o u g h t t h e p e r s o n i n t h e e i g h t h segment f e l t annoyed by t h e s t i m u l u s and was t r y i n g t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , you would p l a c e an "X" i n t h e box under th e word " h i d d e n " and c i r c l e t h e number "8" a c r o s s from t h e word "annoyed". I f you t h o u g h t t h e p e r s o n i n segment 12 f e l t t h e s t i m u l u s was u n p l e a s a n t and t h e y were not t r y i n g t o h i d e t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , you would p l a c e an "X" i n the box under t h e words "n o t h i d d e n " and c i r c l e t h e number "12" a c r o s s from t h e word " u n p l e a s a n t " . There a r e f i v e p r a c t i c e segments and t h e n 60 segments f o r t h e a c t u a l s t u d y . The t a p e i s a p p r o x i m e l y 9 m i n u t e s i n du r a t i o n . Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? 165. APPENDIX P Name: Rating Form N N N N N N N N N N N N ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2 No Discomfort 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Distr a c t i n g 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Annoying 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Uncomfortable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I r r i t a t i n g 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 u 12 Upsetting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Distressing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Miserable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 F r i g h t f u l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Dreadful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Horrible 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Agonizing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Intolerable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Unbearable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Excruciating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Name: Rating Form N N N N N N N N N N N N ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? No Discomfort 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Distr a c t i n g 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Annoying 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 " 20 21 22 23 24 Uncomfortable 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Unpleasant 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 I r r i t a t i n g 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Upsetting 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Distressing 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Miserable 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 F r i g h t f u l 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Dreadful 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Horrible 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Agonizing 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Intolerable 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Unbearable 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Excruciating 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Rating Form N N N N N N N No Discomfort 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Di s t r a c t i n g 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Annoying 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Uncomfortable 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Unpleasant 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 I r r i t a t i n g 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Upsetting 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Distressing 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Miserable 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 F r i g h t f u l 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Dreadful 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Horrible 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Agonizing 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Intolerable 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Unbearable 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Excruciating 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Name: N N N t N N e e n n e n e n e e n n e e n n e e n n 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 32 33 34 35 36 Name: Rating Form N N N N N N N N N N N N ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n No Discomfort 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 D i s t r a c t i n g 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Annoying 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Uncomfortable 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Unpleasant 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 I r r i t a t i n g 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Upsetting 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Distressing 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Miserable 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 F r i g h t f u l 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Dreadful 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Horrible 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Agonizing 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Intolerable 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Unbearable 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Excruciating 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Rating Form e e e e e e e e e e e e n n n n n n n n n n n n No Discomfort 49 50 51 52 53 54 Di s t r a c t i n g 49 50 51 52 53 54 Annoying 49 50 51 52 53 54 Uncomfortable 49 50 51 52 53 54 Unpleasant 49 50 51 52 53 54 I r r i t a t i n g 49 50 51 52 53 54 Upsetting 49 50 51 52 53 54 Distressing 49 50 51 52 53 54 Miserable 49 50 51 52 53 54 F r i g h t f u l 49 50 51 52 53 54 Dreadful 49 50 51 52 53 54 Horrible 49 50 51 52 53 54 Agonizing 49 50 51 52 53 54 Intolerable 49 50 51 52 53 54 Unbearable 49 50 51 52 53 54 Excruciating 49 50 51 52 53 54 Name: 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 - 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 55 56 57 58 59 60 171 . APPENDIX Q r- 172. D e b r i e f i n g f o r Study 2 As s t a t e d i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t h i s s t u d y i s i n t e r e s t e d i n how p e o p l e r a t e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s r e l a t e d t o p a i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y how p e o p l e r a t e h i d d e n v e r s u s n o n - h i d d e n f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . From n e u r o l o g i c a l , and c l i n i c a l s o u r c e s i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t r o l l i n g f a c i a l m u s c l e s around t h e e y es and f o r e h e a d which makes t h e s e m u s c l e s most' l i k e l y t o remain a c t i v e even i f someone i s t r y i n g t o c o n t r o l t h e i r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n . The v i d e o segments you viewed were p o r t r a y a l s o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n v o l v i n g m u s c l e s s o l e l y from e i t h e r t h e upper f a c e or t h e lower f a c e . These e x p r e s s i o n s were i m i t a t i o n s o f a c t u a l f a c i a l e x p r e r s s i o n s Found i n our p r i o r r e s e a r c h w i t h low back p a i n p a t i e n t s . I t was n e c e s s a r y t o show you i m i t a t i o n s oF t h e a c t u a l F a c i a l movements i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l t h e v i s u a l c o n t e x t i n which you viewed t h e e x p r e s s i o n s . T h i s c o n t r o l e n a b a l e s me t o e v a l u a t e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t r o l e oF F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s on your r a t i n g s . The major h y p o t h e s i s I am i n v e s t i g a t i n g i s t h a t j u d g e s w i l l c hose more e x p r e s s i o n s showing o n l y upper f a c e movements as h i d d e n t h a n lower f a c e movements. S e c o n d a r i l y , I w i l l be c o m paring your r a t i n g s o f t h e p e o p l e s ' d i s c o m f o r t t o r a t i n g s g a t h e r e d i n a p r i o r s t u d y , u s i n g t h e same models, t o see what e f f e c t d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n s have on r a t i n g s o f d i s c o m f o r t . B e s i d e s a t t e m p t i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r o l e of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s on o b s e r v e r judgments t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a l s o a 173. p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p towards t h e development o f a p o s s i b l e method f o r t r a i n i n g h e a l t h c a r e workers t o more a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s t h e i r p a t i e n t ' s p a i n from o b s e r v i n g t h e p a t i e n t ' s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? 174. APPENDIX R 175. H y p o t h e s i s 3 - 2 X 2 X 2 ANOVA Sex of Judge X Area o f Face X L e v e l of C o m p l e x i t y S o u r c e Sex E r r o r SS 0.22501 1.84095 df 1 48 MS 0.22501 0.03835 F 5.87 P 0.0193 Face Area 0.78647 Sex X Area 0.05147 E r r o r 3 . 75061 1 1 48 0.78647 0.05147 0.07814 10. 07 0. 66 0.0026 n. s, L e v e l Sex X Lev E r r o r 1.43793 0.00834 1.18915 1 1 48 1.43793 0.00834 0.02477 58. 05 0. 34 0.0001 Area X Lev Sex X Area X L e v e l 0.00147 0.00383 0.00147 0.00383 0. 09 0. 23 E r r o r 0.79852 48 0.01664 176. APPENDIX S 177. H y p o t h e s i s 4 - 2 X 2 X 2 AN 0 V A Judgment C o n d i t i o n X Sex of Judge X L e v e l o f C o m p l e x i t y S o u r c e Jud Cond Sex Jud X Sex E r r o r SS 179.7762 1 6 . 00094 85.91140 994.27808 df 1 1 1 96 MS 179.77621 6.00094 85.91140 10.35706 F 17.36 0 . 58 8. 29 P 0.0001 n. s. 0.0049 Le ve 1 Jud X Lev Sex X Lev Jud X Sex X L e v e l 261.70392 0.00886 1.93676 4. 1 1307 261.70392 0.00886 1.93676 4.11307 123.20 0.00 0. 91 1 . 94 0 . 0 0 0 1 n . s , n . s , n . s, Er ro r 203.92025 96 2.12417 178. APPENDIX T 179. H y p o t h e s i s 4 - S i m p l e E f f e c t s f o r Judgment C o n d i t i o n and Sex o f Judge S o u r c e SS Jud Cond 257.12043 f o r Male Jud Cond 8.56659 f o r Female Sex a t 23.25048 Jud Cond 1 Sex a t 68.65835 Jud Cond 2 df MS F p 1 257.12043 12.41 0.001 1 8.56659 23.25048 68.65835 0.41 n.s. 2.24 n. 6.63 0.025 Er r o r 994.27808 96 10 . 35706

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