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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cooperative total archives for Kelowna, British Columbia Barlee, Kathleen 1986

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COOPERATIVE TOTAL ARCHIVES FOR KELOWNA, BRITISH COLUMBIA By Kathleen  Mary B a r l e e  B. A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in THE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY, ARCHIVAL AND  INFORMATION  STUDIES  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as con-forming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June <2)  1986  Kathleen Mary B a r l e e , 1986  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department o r by h i s o r her  be granted by the head of representatives.  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  thesis  s h a l l not be  my  It is thesis  allowed without my  written  permission.  \  Department of  jLi&ZfirfZy,  bRcMtffiL  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  )E-6  (3/81)  #A/£>  /rt FoR  ft AT  tOA)  STUblES  ii ABSTRACT Major -factors i n the underdevelopment of l o c a l a r c h i v e s i n the  m u n i c i p a l i t y of  lack of p u b l i c archival  Kelowna, B r i t i s h  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e awareness  interest  in  the  subject  f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l  of  level  of  of l o c a l  a r c h i v e s , a lack of  a i d or l e g i s l a t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e  a r c h i v a l development, and thus,  community  been a  of the value  i n s t i t u t i o n s and a r c h i v a l documents, a lack  political  local  Columbia, have  a lack of funding  f o r a r c h i v e s . There has  at the  a l s o been a need f o r  d i r e c t i o n from the p r o v i n c i a l government i n planning e f f e c t i v e records  management/archival systems  f o r most other a  decision  f o r Kelowna,  as well as  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  To come t o  on  how  to  overcome  necessary t o study p e r s p e c t i v e s the  records  these problems i t has been  on l o c a l  management/archival  knowledgeable  of  problems  archives, to  relationship,  facing  local  analyze  and  to  be  archives i n B r i t i s h  Columbia. An  interdisciplinary  literature  and primary  approach sources from  library, historical, political fields  being  studied. Symons  has  In and  science the  studies,  the  the  emphasis  on f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l  been  Columbia government  statistics  and r e c o r d s  archives  Wilson  have  proven  reports.  most  The  local  helpful,  above  have  management  domain, two major  reports,  and l o c a l  concerning  with  the a r c h i v a l , museum,  with  their  networking, formed  an e x c e l l e n t b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . available,  taken,  Where they were  archives i n B r i t i s h as been  have  provincial  supplemented by  i ii letters  and  archives,  questionnaires  as  well  as  to  to  provincial  local  and  territorial  municipalities  in British  Columbia. Two c o n c l u s i o n s have been reached. that c o l l e c t  both o f f i c i a l  media,  and use systematic  become  a, Canadian  potential  to  municipalities. scale, private joint and  public  prove  a  Secondly,  and u n o f f i c i a l  archives"  documents i n a l l  r e c o r d s management procedures have archives  tradition  valuable  example  in  order  and p u b l i c agencies  funding e f f o r t s  F i r s t , "total  at t h e l o c a l  which has the for  smaller  t o achieve  economies of  may have t o  cooperate i n  level.  By combining p u b l i c  p r i v a t e endeavours, a new type of a r c h i v e s i s c r e a t e d .  i s p o s i t e d t h a t t h i s amalgam, a could  become  the  basis  for  m u n i c i p a l i t y of Kelowna, B r i t i s h  "cooperative t o t a l archival Columbia.  It  archives,"  development  i n the  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT Chapter 1.  i i  INTRODUCTION  •  1  2.  PERSPECTIVES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL ARCHIVES  3.  THE RECORDS MANAGEMENT/ARCHIVES RELATIONSHIP AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  4.  6 •  31  ARCHIVAL PROBLEMS AND THE EXTENT OF PROVINCIAL AND FEDERAL AID TO LOCAL ARCHIVES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  50  5.  PREVIOUS PROPOSALS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL ARCHIVES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  71  6.  CONCLUSION A S c e n a r i o f o r Cooperative Total Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia  Archives i n  BIBLIOGRAPHY  87 95  115  Appendices 1.  BRITISH COLUMBIA HERITAGE TRUST: ARCHIVAL PROJECTS, 1979-84  GRANTS FOR  2.  CULTURAL SERVICES BRANCH: GRANTS, AWARDS AND SUBSIDIES TO MUSEUMS AND ARCHIVES, 1979-84  125  3.  CANADIAN STUDIES RESEARCH TOOLS: BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1981-85  126  GRANTS IN  123  1 Chapter Is The  INTRODUCTION growth  archives  in  provincial Before  of  Canada  municipal has  and  lagged  other  T h i s i s not  mid-1960s  the  whole  development  involved  the  archives  attempting,  with a l i m i t e d number  large proportion was  Since local  have  of  Wilson r e p o r t s , pointed  of r e s o u r c e s ,  been a l a r g e  to c o l l e c t  released in  and  the  1975  and  problems i n the Canadian  in  the  A r c h i v e s System Council  In an  provincial  state  attempt to  and  of  local most  respond  to  a r c h i v a l community, territorial  ministers  c a l l e d f o r the c r e a t i o n of a Canadian  based upon each province of  1980 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  impoverished  other  responsible for culture  of  destroyed.  i n the care of  these and  federal,  result  major s t u d i e s , the Symons and  out the c o n t i n u i n g neglect  materials  The  a  i n c r e a s e i n the number of  t h i s l e v e l . <1)  i t s own  governments  importance, but not  i n s t i t u t i o n s at  1985  senior  archival heritage.  a r c h i v e s , but even so, two  archival  surprising.  or n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , were o f t e n l o s t or  then there has  and  trend of Canadian a r c h i v a l  that documents which were of l o c a l  provincial  the  of Canada's  government  behind those of f e d e r a l  government i n s t i t u t i o n s .  the  local  or t e r r i t o r y  having  Archives.  1. T. H. B. Symons, To Kngw_0urselvesi The_Rep_ort Qf__the Commission on_Canadian_Studies, v o l . 2 (Ottawa: A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada, 1975), ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as the Symons Report) , 69-85; Canadi an_Archi yes$_ Report t o the Sgci al Sciences and Huraanitys_Research_CounciL9f Q§Qida_by_.the_Cgnsul t a t i ye_Gr (Ottawa: Information D i v i s i o n of the S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities Research C o u n c i l of Canada, 1980), (hereafter c i t e d as the Wilson Report).  The  question a r i s e s ,  the Kelowna System,  area of  and,  at  the  them.  involves  time,  pointed  Therefore,  "total  small  local  f i t into  break  out  the  in  the proposed  to  the  Building  the problems above query  on the Canadian  a r c h i v e s " i n i t i a t e d by the P u b l i c  Archives  of Canada, and  on e s s e n t i a l background i n f o r m a t i o n provided  Chapters  through  Two  "cooperative t o t a l  Five  Df  this  a r c h i v e s " at the  in  both the Symons and  answer  approach.(2)  archives  out of the mold of  a r c h i v e s need s o l u t i o n s to  a practical  t r a d i t i o n of  same  As  reports local  facing  can a  B r i t i s h Columbia  underdevelopment? Wilson  how  in  thesis, a scenario for  local  government l e v e l  is  developed i n Chapter S i x . The  concept of  total  but r a r e l y i n p r i n t . published Cultural  by the  a r c h i v e s has been  However, Hugh  United Nations  Organization  widely  Taylor  discussed  i n a recent  study  Educational, S c i e n t i f i c  summarises  the  four  goals  of  and  total  archives: 1. The acquisition of documents t o r e f l e c t a l l aspects of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . 2. Acquisition record.  of  all  media  of  (the)  3. Involvement i n the entire l i f e cycle o f records, through a r e c o r d s management programme.  2. A l a i n C l a v e t i n O r i e n t at ign_and_Managenie §t_the_Pybl i_c._ Archi.y es_of _Canadai A_Prgposal _.for _I_nt erven t i on (Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1983), a l s o takes a p r a c t i c a l , problem s o l v i n g approach. T h i s work, sponsored by Bernard Weilbrenner, the A s s i s t a n t Dominion A r c h i v i s t , i s C l a v e t ' s Master's t h e s i s f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of Quebec at H u l l .  4. Involvement i n expanding networks -for the interchange of information and s t r a t e g i c planning.(3) His  interpretation  international  is  p u b l i c a t i o n s as  Although  Taylor p l a c e s  list  of g o a l s f o r  with  former  total  Dominion  to the agency  to  local  given, and  basis  their to  and  federal,  Wilfred  t h i r d on h i s  Smith,  Records management,  for  Therefore,  gives i t a  through s e r v i c e  it  records  - the  and  perceptions  made i n  p l a c e subsequent  on  records  Chapter Two  -  chapters i n  focus i n Chapter Three s h i f t s  management/archives  provincial  a r c h i v e s has been  responsibility,  has been  order to  context  a r c h i v e s at the  the development of  cooperation in  has the p o t e n t i a l  cooperative t o t a l  institutional  necessary  historical the  other  t h e s i s , i n agreement  Thus, a f t e r a h i s t o r y of l o c a l  territoriality,  this i s  in  well.(4)  archives, t h i s  an a n a l y s i s of  management,  to  c r e a t i n g the r e c o r d , i s the engine which d r i v e s  the  level.  referred  r e c o r d s management  archives vehicle.  become  being  Archivist  pre-eminent p o s i t i o n . ( 5 )  the t o t a l  now  local  relationship government  at  the  levels,  and  3. Hugh A. T a y l o r , A r c h i v a l Services_and_.the_Cgncep_t gf._t.he LJser_, A_RAMP Study (Paris: Unesco, 1984) , 48; Taylor summarizes T e r r y Cook, "The Tyranny of the Medium: A Comment on 'Total A r c h i v e s , " * A r c h i y a r i a 9 (Winter 1979-80): 141-49; Cook i n t u r n i s e l a b o r a t i n g on former Dominion A r c h i v i s t Wilfred I. Smith, see " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " Archiyes£__Mirrgr gf Qanada_Past (Toronto: 1972), 18-20. 4. See Michael Cook, A r c h i v e s ( A l d e r s h o t , Eng.: 188-89."  The Management_gf _I_n£ grmat i_»n_frgm Gower P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , 1986),  See Smith, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " 18-20.  emphasizes  the  need  for  i t s implementation  in  smaller  municipalities. In City  a d d i t i o n , as the underdevelopment  o-f Kelowna i s , t o a  experienced Four  by four value  c e r t a i n extent, a microcosm o-f that  by other communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  details  province.  problems  It i s found  facing  archival  political  and  local  in  the  of p u b l i c and  governments  management/archives  exacerbated  awareness of  documents;  development  a  a  of  archival  of  funding  chapter, F i v e , analyzes  communities i n  important  as they have  and a r c h i v i s t s i n  B r i t i s h Columbia.  The suggestions are  been made by knowledgeable  local  governments sponsoring spheres of  the  federal,  which  total  archives  community.  the past the major t o t a l of  historians  i n order t o b u i l d on the i d e a s of o t h e r s  i n p l a n n i n g f o r the development of c o o p e r a t i v e in a p a r t i c u l a r  problems of  B r i t i s h Columbia. It i s worthwhile t o study  t h e i r recommendations  those  for  s o l u t i o n s that  have been recommended i n the past f o r the a r c h i v a l  In  records  f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f .  Another e s s e n t i a l  local  lack of  the  lack  the  from p r o v i n c i a l  regarding  relationship;  Chapter  archives in t h i s  a lack of l e g i s l a t i v e d i r e c t i o n  local  archival  a lack  institutions  interest  institutions;  most  that d i f f i c u l t i e s have been  major f a c t o r s : of  o-f a r c h i v e s i n the  collect  a r c h i v e s i n Canada have been  provincial the  and  largest  municipal  official  records  of  their  agencies as well as documents from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e interest.  The p u b l i c  purse pays f o r  the care of  all  p r i v a t e and  p u b l i c documents which are  total  archives situation.  most  public  and  proper a r c h i v a l alone  carry  However,  private care -for  the  i n smaller m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  agencies  cannot a f f o r d to  t h e i r own  additional  collected in this  official  burden  of  make i t d i f f i c u l t institution, collecting  The  f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y to fund  with  its  archival  comprehensive  documents  and  documents,  caring  documents found i n the community at l a r g e .  a  total  its  records  the r e s u l t i n g  scale,  and  destruction  neglect  documents generated at the l o c a l Chapter  Six  addresses the the  value  interest  b u i l d s on the  problems of how  of  local  in local  level  archives,  a r c h i v e s , and  economies of of  archival continue.  four c h a p t e r s  and  promote p u b l i c awareness of how  how  to r a i s e local  to fund  local  political  archives in  order to ensure that the p r e r e q u i s i t e f a c i l i t i e s and in p l a c e .  The  Columbia,  uses Hugh T a y l o r ' s d e f i n i t i o n  total  archives  management  i s l i k e l y to  preceeding  to  other  multimedia approach t o  and  present  for  let  costs involved  emphasis. Without cooperation the  provide  staff  are  s c e n a r i o t h a t i s developed f o r Kelowna, B r i t i s h  archives,  but  between the p u b l i c concept, c o o p e r a t i v e  adds  and  another  objective  private sectors.  total  archives.  of the four g o a l s of  The  -  cooperation  result  is a  new  6 Chapter 2:  PERSPECTIVE  Over time a number  of Canadians, p a r t i c u l a r l y  and a r c h i v i s t s , have looked at  the problem of how tQ p r e s e r v e  and make a c c e s s i b l e r e c o r d s of the as  well  as  communities.  other The  a r c h i v e s may be 1975.  In  of  divided  on  i n t o two  generated  group,  periods - before  the Association  local  of l o c a l and a f t e r  formed an automonous of Canadian  Archivists  Formerly, a r c h i v i s t s had f u n c t i o n e d under t h e a u s p i c e s  the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l  under  the  profession's sparked by  aegis  Association  (CHA) and most of t h e  of Canadian a r c h i v e s had been of  discussion  Canadian of  t h e Symons and  historians.(1)  archival  problems  Wilson Reports which  the underdeveloped  s t a t e of most Canadian  important t o study  statements that have been  f o r the h i s t o r i c a l both  in  the development  Canadian a r c h i v i s t s  w r i t i n g on t h e s u b j e c t or  lower l e v e l s of government  materials  commentaries  that year  professional (ACA).  archival  historians  of  which  management/archives  perspective are  The  was  in  new  i n part  commented on  archives.(2) It i s made over time,  and the context they  helpful  done by  planning  provide, a  records  s c e n a r i o f o r the Kelowna area of B r i t i s h  1. The major periodicals of the CHA a r e the Canadian b}istgrical__Reyiew, which was founded i n 1920 and grew out of the Revi ew_ of Histgrical___.Publ_icatigns Rel ati_ ng_tg_Canada, started i n 1896 ( h e r e a f t e r cited as CHR) and the Canadian di§tgrlcal _ A s s o c i a t i gn__Annual_ R§egrts_.wi t h _ H i ^ t g r i c a l Papers ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as CHA_Papers) which o r i g i n a t e d i n 1922 and c a r r i e d on from the Hi stgr^c_Landmar ks_Assgci at i gn_gf Canada: Annual Report s. 2. The Symons Report, 69-85; Wilson Report; B u l l e t i n , 1973-79; ACA Bui 1 e t i n , 1979 — ; A r c h i y a r i a A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1975 — > .  Archiyes (Ottawa:  Columbia. In t h e pre-1975 e r a t h e r e was p e r i o d i c concern neglect  of l o c a l l y  generated a r c h i v a l  the r e c o r d s of l o c a l by r e p o r t s and  materials,  held  especially  government.<3) In 1952, the CHA, prompted  made t o the Royal Commission  Sciences,  over the  a  symposium  on  on the A r t s , local  Letters  history  which  concluded with the goal of t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h c o o p e r a t i o n and communication  among  local  historical  order t o a i d the development  of l o c a l  As  was  time  progressed  neither h i s t o r i c a l facilities,  there  a  s o c i e t i e s and the CHA i n h i s t o r y and a r c h i v e s . ( 4 ) growing  recognition  that  s o c i e t i e s nor museums had the proper s t a f f ,  funding  or e x p e r t i s e  necessary t o  play a  major  3. "A ' P r a c t i c a l ' Plea," CHR 15 (1934): 245-47; Seorge W. Brown, " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n Canada," CHR 16 (1935): 2-7; George W. Brown, "The Problem of P u b l i c and H i s t o r i c a l Records in Canada," CHR 25 (1944): 4; W i l l i a m Morton, " H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t i e s and Museums," Royal _Cgmmissi gn_St yd i es^_A_ _SeJ[ecti on of ......Essays Prepared f QC the Royal Cgmmi s s i gQ_.._.gn _..Nat i gnal 5§>Y_elgp_ment_i.n_th!_^ (Ottawa: King 's Printer, 1951), 249-59; Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s , Repgrt__gf__the BQYSi....Q9CQ(0i ..siQQ_._OQ Nationa_,_Deyel9M^n%.^LU^%h?.^r.%^^..^.\=:^%t.E .^: §„Qd_Sciences _l?4? 51 (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1951), 119-22 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as the Massey-Levesque Report); "The Canadian Historical A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, and Local H i s t o r y : A Symposium," CHA_Papers (1952): 46-65; John A. Archer, "A Study of A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada," (Ph.D d i s s . , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , Kingston, 1969), 440-551, 554, 562, 590, 607 ( m i c r o f i l m , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y ) ; Michael D. S w i f t , "Chairman's Message," Canadian._Archiyi.st 2 (1974): 2-4. 5  r  x  =  4. "CHA, CHR and Local H i s t o r y " 48, 64-65.  8 role  i n the development and  As e a r l y as 1945  care o-f a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s . (5)  the Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Act had allowed  Provincial  A r c h i v e s t o serve as  unoffical  documents  from  a depository for o f f i c i a l  the  local  level,  the and  specifically  i n c l u d i n g the r e c o r d s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and school  districts.  It s t a t e d : Any m u n i c i p a l i t y or school d i s t r i c t in Saskatchewan may with the consent of the Provincial Archivist d e p o s i t any of i t s non-current r e c o r d s or other documents with him for preservation in the a r c h i ves. (6) T h i s was  an example which other p r o v i n c e s ,  Columbia,  were  to  f o l l o w . <7)  legislation  did  collections  of l o c a l  municipalities programs,  not  did  help  However, the  among them B r i t i s h the  passing of the  development  of  archival  government r e c o r d s as the m a j o r i t y of not  have  d i d not express concern  modern  records  management  over the a r c h i v a l value of  5. Morton, "Historical Societies and Museums," 249-51; Massey-Levesque Report, 121-22; Robert S. Gordon, "Suggestions f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of A r c h i v a l Holdings of L o c a l Historical S o c i e t i e s , " American_.....Archivist 26 (1963): 19-20; Archer, " A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada," 548, 550, 574; C a r l E. Guthe, "The Provincial Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia: A Commentary, Appendix t o The Guthe Report on the Role of Museums i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Museum Round-Up 6 ( A p r i l 1962): 2; Raymond 0. Harrison, lechnical Reguirements of _Small Museums, T e c h n i c a l Paper 1 (Canadian Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , 1966),6. 6> Reyised_Statutes_of_Saskatchewan_l?45, Document D i s p o s a l Act 1983, c. 20, s. 4.  c. 113,  s. 10; RSBC,  7. Lewis H. Thomas, " A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada," CHA P§B1?I§ (1962), 108; Archer, " A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada," 442-58.  t h e i r r e c o r d s , and d i d not pursue they  probably d i d not want  their  jurisdictions.  federal  and  archivists, members  local  and  a t t e n t i o n was local  labour  as  local  thought  as  and  organizations  cooperation  among  well as logical  remain c l o s e  universities,  agencies  care  of  the  archives  any  take  a systematic  records  the a r c h i v e s In f a c t , most  archival  care  of t h e i r  c o o p e r a t i o n were proposed:  of  institutions  8. Archer, "Archival Institutions S w i f t , "Chairman's Message," 2-3.  should  the r e c o r d s they  of the record.<10)  neglected  the  p r o v i n c i a l and  t h e primary f u n c t i o n of  r e c o r d s . T h e r e f o r e , l e a d e r s h i p and from  as  i t was only  churches,  other  archival  serve the c r e a t o r  leadership  managers,  t h i s should be part of  management program with being t o  of c o l l e c t i o n s , some  idea that f e d e r a l , well  unions  f o r the  c r e a t e , and t h a t  out of  a tendency towards  a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l should  paid t o the  responsibility  completely  area i n which i t was created.<9) In t h e o r y ,  governments,  businesses,  records  populace,  that whenever p o s s i b l e t o the geographic  there was  centralization  historians  of the  t h e i r records  Although,  provincial  the o f f e r . ( 8 ) In any event,  the  senior  groups  or  governments; individuals  i n Canada," 442-58, 496;  9. Brown, " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n Canada," 3-5; A. R. N. Woadden, "Toronto's Venture i n t o Paperwork Control and Orderliness," American_Archiyist 27 (1964): 261-64; Archer, " A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada," 34, 610-11. 10. "A " P r a c t i c a l ' P l e a , " 245-7; Brown, "Problem of P u b l i c and H i s t o r i c a l Records," 1-5; Massey-Levesque Report, 341-2, 397; Woadden, "Toronto's Venture i n t o Paperwork C o n t r o l , " 262-4; Archer, " A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada," 440-499; 591.  10 possessing  or  using  archival  suggestions  was  acted  governments  were  concentrated  archival,  and,  in  m a t e r i a l s . (11)  upon  some  as  the  upon  ef-forts  proved  less  t o be  municpalities  records in  government sponsorship staffed total of which the  use an  archives  of adequately  documents  s c h o l a r l y need of l o c a l  demand, or l o c a l  generated  local 1950  public  was  not  in  for  largest  their  manner.(12) Yet,  local  f i n a n c e d , equipped  by  own  and  t o s o l v e the problem  a  local  c a r e of  community.  not s u f f i c i e n t  funding,  political  will,  support the proper  care  values.  helped by  the i n d i f f e r e n c e  to  h i s t o r y of a l l but a few h i s t o r i a n s and s c h o l a r s between and  1970.  local history  Although in  British  t h e r e had  o f t e n c i t e d as  11. Brown, "Historical Report, 397;  been a  Columbia and  then, an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n i n 1946 is  care  interest,  expertise to  documents with a r c h i v a l  This d i f f i c u l t y  own  a r c h i v e s concept  the c o l l e c t i o n and  However, i n most l o c a l i t i e s t h e r e was administrative  to  the p o t e n t i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n would fund  unofficial  their  except f o r the  a systematic  a r c h i v e s had  senior  an example f o r s m a l l e r ,  communities. Few  established  governmental  these  cases, r e c o r d s management programs.  of l i t t l e  well developed  of  developing  Toronto's s u c c e s s f u l adoption of the t o t a l 1960  None of  strong focus  the Maritimes  by h i s t o r i a n , W.  the beginning of  L.  on  before Morton,  a trend for professional  "Provincial A r c h i v e s i n Canada," 3-6; Morton, Societies and Museums," 257-9; Massey-Levesque Archer, " A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada," 442.  12. Woadden, "Toronto's Venture into 262-4; S w i f t , "Chairman's Message," 2.  Paperwork  Control,"  11 h i s t o r i a n s to be in  criticism  Canada  interested in regional history.(13)  o-f the  evolved  Lawrence River  —  Laurentian  -from  the  thesis —  commercial  which system  Writing  stated of  that  the  St.  being used as a b a s i s f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of Canadian h i s t o r y , he  stated:  In an imperfect world an unequal i n c i d e n c e of national policies is no doubt i n e v i t a b l e , but even i n an imperfect world people may be allowed to shape an interpretation of life i n accord with t h e i r own experience.(14) More i n f l u e n t i a l , though, Commission Sciences,  on National 1949-51.  was  a study  Development i n  Canadian local  history  and  Neatby  a national  f o c u s because been  was  heeded,  1969  arguing  for nearly  "accumulating  one  For  the  a century  i n a fragmentary, next twenty y e a r s  Canadian h i s t o r i a n s proceeded  basis for national  However, by was  as most  of h i s t o r y and  and  concluded t h a t Canada needed  spasmodic f a s h i o n . " ( 1 5 )  build a solid  Careless  had  Royal  the A r t s , L e t t e r s  H i l d a Neatby, p r o f e s s o r  of the f i v e Royal Commissioners, h i s t o r y with  w r i t t e n f o r the  to  history.  the emninent Canadian h i s t o r i a n , J . M. t h a t the Canadian i d e n t i t y  of a number of l i m i t e d i d e n t i t i e s ,  "two  was  S.  composed  languages, p l u r a l i s e d  13. Walter N. Sage, "Where Stands Canadian H i s t o r y ? " Pagers (1945): 11; Margaret Prang, "National Unity and Uses of H i s t o r y , " CHA_Papers (1977), 6.  CHA the  14. W. L. Morton,"Clio i n Canada: The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Canadian H i s t o r y , " U n i v e r s i t y _ g f . _ I g r g n t g _ Q u a r t e r l_y 15 ( A p r i l 1946). 15. Hilda Neatby, "National History," i n Royal_Cgmmissign S t u d i e s , 206; her stance was somewhat modified i n "CHA, CHR and Local H i s t o r y , " 46-50.  i2 politics  and  reflected  a  studies by of  renewed  and  regional, local  to  the  provinces,  was a  generated a t  the  proliferation  o f computer based  a worldwide i n t e r e s t  i n social  realization of the l o c a l  statements and urban  The i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a r i t y  o f n a t i o n a l themes, a movement o f  c o l l e g e s , t h e growth  there  in  His  s t u d i e s i n t h e 1970s was caused b y a  local  c e r t a i n exhaustion  and  interest  the academic community.  provincial  power  multipiicity."(16)  ethnic  community  quantitative studies,  history.(17)  the need  of  political  Consequently,  f o r archival materials  level.  Ihl_Blcent_Era From 1975 slowly  onwards, t h e ACA and v a r i o u s other  began t o  turn t h e i r  o f local  development  attention t o  organizations  t h e problem o f t h e  a r c h i v e s . Where once t h e r e had been the  Public Archives o f  Canada (PAC) and a  a r c h i v e s a s i n the  1930s and 1940s, b y 1975 t h e r e  variety  of  municipalities, historical  archives  sponsored  churches,  few nascent  by  businesses,  senior  16. J . M. S. C a r e l e s s , (March 1969): 3.  "Limited  was a wide governments,  libraries,  s o c i e t i e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s .  provincial  museums,  Most of t h i s  I d e n t i t i e s i n Canada," CHR 50  17. G. S t e l t e r and A. A r t i b i s e , eds., I h e C a n a d i a n _ C i t y (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1971); the Urban Hi s,tgry Review (Ottawa: H i s t o r y D i v i s i o n , N a t i o n a l Museum of Man, 1972—); Ramsay Cook, "The Golden Age of Canadian Historical W r i t i n g , " Hi s t o r i cal__Ref l e c t i o n s 4 (Summer 1977): 137-49; Hugh A. T a y l o r , "Archives f o r Regional H i s t o r y , " (a paper presented at the symposium, Blueprint for Interdisciplinary Regional H i s t o r y , London, Ont., 7-10 Sept. 1977), 6-18; H. V. N e l l e s , "Rewriting H i s t o r y , " Saturday. Night 96 (Feb. 1981): 11-16.  growth  was  on  a  small  scale,  but  i t r e v e a l e d a growing  i n t e r e s t i n and r e a l i z a t i o n o-f the importance o-f a r c h i v e s territoriality —  a r c h i v a l documents should  and  remain c l o s e t o the  area i n which they o r i g i n a t e .  Although t h e r e had been a l a r g e  increase  in  archives  possess  even  •facilities  the  or  number  the  most  rudimentary  o-f them d i d not  archival  most  historical  had  communication,  to  cooperation  combinations of a r c h i v e s , universities, historical unions,  18. Wilson  Report, 29-59.  l i t t l e faith in  performance i n c a r i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r the forms of  as a way t o promote i n c r e a s e d  and  coordination  among  varying  a r c h i v i s t s , heritage organizations, s o c i e t i e s , school  churches,  At the same  t h e importance of v a r i o u s  networking  or  place  Many of the new  care of a r c h i v e s s t r e s s e d and informal  come  due t o t h e i r poor  archival materials.  formal  their  s t u d i e s , were coming t o r e a l i z e the need  archivists societies  services,  Yet, r e s e a r c h e r s , expanding  a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l generated at t h i s l e v e l .  time,  for  most  s t a f f . (18)  interests into local for  o-f  other  agencies  boards,  which  businesses,  have  archival  14 concerns. (19) conflicted dispute  Often  with  among  the  one  recommendations  another  themselves.  and In  that  even a r c h i v i s t s f e l l  the  meantime,  had e s t a b l i s h e d  total  a r c h i v e s which s t r e s s e d  s e r v i c e t o the c r e a t o r  primary  function.(20)  into large  in isolation,  their  made  some  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , working  as  were  However,  of the r e c o r d  i t remains t o be  19. Symons Report, 72, 82; Wilson Report, 66-72, 92, 109; Peter Bower, " A f t e r the Dust S e t t l e s , " A r c h i y a r i a 9 (Winter 1979-80): 218-29; "Canadian A r c h i v e s : Reports and Responses," BCEhiYaria 11 (Winter 1980-81): 3-35; Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, A r c h i v e s Committee, Response t o t h e Report _. Canadian Archives, (1981); Federal C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee, Summary of Briefs and Hearings (Ottawa: Information S e r v i c e s , Department of Communications, 1982), 53-60; Federal C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee, Report_gf_the E§deral_Cuitural„Pgl (Canada: Information Services, Department of Communications, 1982), 132, 136-8, 349; Marion Beyea and Marcel Caya, eds. , PIanning__f gr__Canadian Archi ves_,; Ihe._Prgceedi ngs gf _the__Fi rst..Congress gn__Archi yes (Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian Archivists, 1983), 109-26; Clavet, Qggperatign_at_the_Publ i c Archi_yes_of _Canada; Ian E. Wi 1 son , c h a i r , Repgrt_gf __the_Adyisgry Cgmmlttee_gn._Ar_c.hiyes_:_ September_!984 (Ottawa: Information D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Humanities Research C o u n c i l of Canada, 1985); "The Canadian A r c h i v e s System — A D i s c u s s i o n Paper," c i r c u l a t e d at the Annual Beneral Meeting of the ACA, Edmonton, 13 June 1985. Although used i n the King James v e r s i o n of the B i b l e , by 1957 when network planning techniques f i r s t came i n t o general use f o r developing o p e r a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , t h e term "network" had come t o mean a " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n t e r c o n n e c t e d events, processes, e t c . , used i n t h e study of work e f f i c i e n c y , " and "an i n t e r c o n n e c t e d group of people; an o r g a n i s a t i o n . " The term has a l s o become a verb meaning "to cover with a network," and has come t o have computer a p p l i c a b i l i t y . Informal networks made up of i n t e r c o n n e c t e d groups of people and o r g a n i s a t i o n s a p p l i e s t h e most c l o s e l y t o the present a r c h i v a l use of t h e term "network" i n Canada; The Qxfgrd_ D i c t i o n a r y , vol. 7 (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1961), 105-6; A Supplement _tg__the Q_.ford_ E n g l i s h _ D i c t i g Q a r y , v o l . 2 (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1976), 1175. u  20. R. S c o t t James, " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Municipal Records: The Toronto Experience," Government P u b l i g a t i g n s Review, 8A (1981): 321-35; Anthony L. Rees, "Masters i n Our Own House?" A r c h i v a r i a 16 (Summer 1983): 53-59.  15 proven  whether  or  not  government r e c o r d s large,  is  a  and  viable  municipalities. archives  the other  total  documents -from  method  A  hopeful  Canadian A r c h i v e s  development  sign  for  The  f u t u r e of  territorial  local  minsters of  Canadian a r c h i v e s .  Canadian  a r c h i v e s are  of material  studies  not  of a  It took  the foundation  l a r g e amount  been  inadequate f i n a n c i a l  sparked by the Symons and  Symons Report devoted a chapter t o  s t a t e of  collections  smaller  a  System.  Wilson reports.(21)  the l a c k  the  for  proposed the establishment  Much of the d i s c u s s i o n was  had  collecting  the community at  of  i s that f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c u l t u r e have  and  a r c h i v e s way,  necessary to received  or  the view  that  of Canadian  the  although studies a  the p u r s u i t collected  the  of these  because  of  a s s i s t a n c e from a l l l e v e l s of government systematic  policies.(22)  To  coordination help  solve  of  institutional  t h i s problem  r e p o r t made t h i r t y - o n e recommendations, the major ones  the  being:  1. ... that the a r c h i v e s and a r c h i v i s t s of Canada undertake a programme t o promote p u b l i c awareness of the p o t e n t i a l value of private papers and other archival material, and that the u n i v e r s i t i e s of Canada co-operate in t h i s programme i n v a r i o u s a p p r o p r i a t e ways. 4. ... the c r e a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l of r e g i o n a l a r c h i v e s .  network  21. "Canadian A r c h i v e s : Reports and Responses," 3-35; James E. Page, "Canadian S t u d i e s and A r c h i v e s , " Reflections on the Symgns_Repgrt gn_the State_gf Qanadian_Studies_in_l?SO (Ottawa: S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , 1981), 204-25. 22.  Symons Report, 69,  70-1,  82.  16 5. ... t h a t , i n many cases, the r e g i o n a l archive be located within the local u n i v e r s i t y and be administered by i t ; that every u n i v e r s i t y g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the possibility o-f undertaking such a r o l e i n the proposed n a t i o n a l network o-f r e g i o n a l archives; and t h a t , in a l l cases, close t i e s be e s t a b l i s h e d between the u n i v e r s i t y and the r e g i o n a l archive.(23) The  ACA  colleges  proved in  to  this  be  network.  that u n i v e r s i t i e s had archives,  and  The  the r o l e of u n i v e r s i t i e s or national  a poor record  that  would work a g a i n s t  against  a  network  institutional  a s s o c i a t i o n thought  in caring for  their  based on u n i v e r s i t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  archives  functional  a r c h i v e s , both of which f o c u s on s e r v i c e t o the c r e a t o r record.(24)  Instead, the ACA  government as a sponsor placed  favoured  private  for  of  the  municipal  of a r c h i v a l networking a c t i v i t y ,  an emphasis on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the p u b l i c and  a place  own  and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of both  sectors.  Our federal, provincial and municipal governments a l l have a r o l e t o play i n financing and co-ordinating systems and networks, but i n every case t h e r e ought t o be emphasis on the encouragement of a r c h i v a l programmes on the part of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the creation of records having archival value.(25) Yet,  most municipal  c a r i n g f o r t h e i r own  governments have  a very  poor r e c o r d  documents with a r c h i v a l values.  i n the form of the l o c a l  23.  Ibid.,  24.  "Canadian A r c h i v e s :  25.  Ibid.,  tax  base, they may  11.  However,  have a more s t a b l e  82. Reports and  in  Responses,"  9.  economic -foundation  than  u n i v e r s i t i e s or c o l l e g e s  which a r e  dependent upon the p r o v i n c i a l government through which -federal •funding  i s directed.  universities significant  to  i n the  n e g l e c t of  archivial  develop,  as i t a p p l i e s t o  the c r i s i s the  failed  Although  the  archival  Report  is  e s p e c i a l l y that i n v o l v i n g  m a t e r i a l s , i t emphasizes the  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r c h i v e s  and a l l f i e l d s of Canadian  study, and i t p o i n t s out the importance and  Symons  a r c h i v e s because i t i d e n t i f i e s  archives f i e l d ,  local  networks based on  f e d e r a l a r c h i v e s working together  of l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l  i n close liaison.(26)  As a r e a c t i o n t o the Symons Report and t o requests  to i t s  predecessor,  the Canada C o u n c i l , f o r v a r i o u s forms of a r c h i v a l  assistance,  the  Council on  of  Social  Canada  Canadian  Sciences  and  Humanities  Research  (SSHRCC) e s t a b l i s h e d the C o n s u l t a t i v e Group  Archives  to  conduct  a  study  on the s t a t e of  Canadian a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( 2 7 ) Under the chairmanship Ian  Wilson, P r o v i n c i a l  analyzed  the  underfunding  state and the  f o r improvement, involved simply  situation  of  while of  Canadian  and o f f e r e d  archives,  suggestions,  documented  a  emphasizing  the  archives  26.  Symons Report, 73-4.  27.  Wilson Report, 1.  but known  poverty,  which  the  out the need  number of which  I t s findings,,presented  Canadian_Archives,  local  Saskatchewan, the Group  underdevelopment, pointed  networking.  entitled  Report,  A r c h i v i s t of  of  i n a report  as the  Wilson  n e g l e c t , and c r i s i s  had p r o l i f e r a t e d  i n the  18 1970s, d i s a g r e e d with the s o l u t i o n o-f the Symons Report  which  suggested  the  local  archives  having  establishment a  close  o-f  a national  involvement  network of  with u n i v e r s i t i e s . ( 2 8 )  Instead, the C o n s u l t a t i v e Group o f f e r e d i t s own In  order  to  develop  appropriate  leadership  Consultative  Group made  five  of  which  implementing Canada.  a  proposed formal  a  and  alternatives.  "coordinated  cooperative  system  attitudes"  nineteen recommendations, a  structure  program  for  for  and  archival  the a  They recommended t h a t :  2. ... the a r c h i v e s i n each p r o v i n c e form a coordinated network t o e s t a b l i s h common priorities and to develop services, f a c i l i t i e s and programs of b e n e f i t t o a l l . 3. ... the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada establish an Extension Branch to administer consulting services, information s e r v i c e s , technical f a c i l i t i e s and a grant program f o r the b e n e f i t of the entire a r c h i v a l system, with p o l i c i e s and priorities to be established on the recommendation of a National Archival Advisory Committee. 4. ... the f e d e r a l government amend the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s Act (R.S.C. 1970, Chapter P-27) as soon as p o s s i b l e to permit the programs we are recommending and to provide a solid legislative base f o r the f u t u r e development of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada.  Ibid.,  91.  the first  means of  networking  1. ... a l l public archives reevaluate their overall programs t o achieve an appropriate balance between their t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs and new programs designed t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p t o a c o o p e r a t i v e system of a r c h i v e s i n their region.  28.  with  in  5. ... the annual budget of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada be i n c r e a s e d by $2.5 m i l l i o n f o r programs to be administered by the new Extension Branch.(29) The  recommendations  archives,  but  provincial  give  have  archives  a  a  leadership  special  in  emphasis  developing  a r c h i v e s , and on the PAC  the a u t h o r i t y to do  so), that provincial  Archival  administered  Network  on  Boards,  recommendations but  the PAC  because of the  among a r c h i v i s t s political manifested  will  or,  the  not have  funds designated f o r  alternately,  against  the  i t was  to  federal  cause and  Provincial  agreed  with  the  an Extension Branch of  lack of agreement  themselves,  by  the  by f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d P r o v i n c i a l  was  necessary  of  networks of  Elsewhere,  as d e f i n e d i n Recommendation three.(31)  perhaps  part  (as i t does  A r c h i v e s themselves.(30) On the whole, the ACA five  the  i n p r o v i d i n g funding.  does not recommend  be  to a l l p u b l i c  cooperative  r e p o r t suggests but  networking  role  In any  event,  p e r c e i v e d to e x i s t  not u n t i l changes  1985 was  provincial  that the publically levels  of  government.(32) For the f u t u r e , t h e r e are t h r e e t o p i c s i n the r e p o r t t h a t  29.  Ibid.,  109-11.  30.  Ibid.,  68.  31.  "Canadian A r c h i v e s :  Reports  and Responses,"  14.  32. Regarding perceived disagreement among a r c h i v i s t s see, Terry Eastwood, "Attempts at National Planning f o r A r c h i v e s i n Canada S i n c e the Wilson Report," (a paper presented t o the Annual Conference of the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , Washington, D. C., 2 Sept. 1984); Federal C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee, Sumf_ar.y_.of_Briefs_and_Hearings, 53-58.  20 have  the  potential  development of  to  local  have  a  corollary  originating  pro-found  government a r c h i v e s .  elevates " t e r r i t o r i a l i t y " to it  a  of  an a r c h i v a l  "ECQvenance,  from the same source  e-ffect  on  the  F i r s t , the r e p o r t principle  namely,  by making  that  records  should be kept together and  not i n t e r - f i l e d with r e c o r d s from other sources."  It goes on t o  state: any particular s e t of r e c o r d s should remain as f a r as p o s s i b l e , i n the l o c a l e or m i l i e u i n which i t was generated.<33) Second, i t emphasizes t h a t the p u b l i c in  existence  should  foster  i n s t i t u t i o n a l , corporate,  total  archives already  the development of a p p r o p r i a t e  or l o c a l  a r c h i v e s with  the r e s u l t  that a much broader spectrum of h i s t o r i c a l l y important m a t e r i a l s can be preserved, the full financial burden does not f a l l directly on the p u b l i c purse, and the a r c h i v e s remain a living p a r t of t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l or l o c a l community. <34) Third,  it  advocates  a  formal  linkage  between  management and a r c h i v e s : when a ' t o t a l a r c h i v e s ' accepts r e c o r d s from a l o c a l government, c o r p o r a t i o n , or other local o r g a n i z a t i o n , the a r c h i v e s should urge the establishment of a b a s i c r e c o r d s management r o u t i n e i n v o l v i n g i t s a r c h i v i s t s i n the systematic s e l e c t i o n of future records f o r preservation.(35)  33. Wilson  Report,  34.  I b i d . , 66.  35.  I b i d . , 87.  15-16.  records  21 Even though the institutions  r e p o r t does not d i r e c t l y  are  to  collect  unofficial  letters,  diaries  important  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the r o l e  level  as  and photographs, the  they  emphasize  responsibility,  total  management.(36)  could  apply  to  archives,  local  such  as  above t h r e e p o i n t s are of a r c h i v e s at the  and  a  local  institutional  role  for  records  the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r l o c a l  although, according  any  documents  territoriality,  They are p a r t of  government a r c h i v e s ,  address which  institutional,  t o the  r e p o r t they  geographic  or  thematic  archives.(37) As has  well as  recommending p r o v i n c i a l  specific  suggestions  responsibility, local  but  a r c h i v e s and  B a s i c funding  based  involving local  should be  l e a d e r s h i p the r e p o r t on  cooperative  of  efforts,  a r c h i v a l networks may provided l o c a l l y  grants u n l e s s c e r t a i n standards are met.(38) establishment  institutional  of " c o o p e r a t i v e  on  how  be  developed.  with no  provincial  It  suggests  a r c h i v e s " i n which  the  the r e c o r d s  a u n i v e r s i t y , m u n i c i p a l i t y , b u s i n e s s , union local, parish, association — might be housed together s h a r i n g a good a r c h i v a l facility and the services of a professional s t a f f .  Under  this  participating  system  ownership  o r g a n i z a t i o n which  36.  I b i d . , 65—6.  37.  I b i d . , 63-64.  38.  I b i d . , 91.  could  remain  would l i k e l y have  with  each  differing  access p o l i c i e s i n  p l a c e , and  by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e board and  apportion  that  it  proposal  address  records  deserves  endeavours  at  development and  not  in  the  provicial  a  local  level,  of  philosophy s e c t o r and  which  Wilson the  neglect,  wants  can  harmony more  by  from t h a t , the how  cooperative  the  systematic  help  with  local and  institutions in  staff.  It has  prevailing  becoming  archival  quantitative  political  proposed i n the  Symons and  or a  In 1977,  destruction major  concern  of  community,  local  archival  to a r c h i v i s t s  and  Hugh T a y l o r , then D i r e c t o r General noted  r e c o r d i n comparative,  the importance of  the  interdisciplinary,  and  (computer) s t u d i e s , the symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p of  history  movements, and the l o c a l  the  involvement.  dispersion  was  scheme i s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the p r i v a t e  the A r c h i v e s Branch of the PAC,  local  Aside  aided  facilities  courses of a c t i o n  academics a l i k e .  local  of t h i s  r e p o r t s were being d i s c u s s e d i n the a r c h i v a l  documents  of  in  l e s s government  While the  operations  networks by the a r c h i v e s of the f e d e r a l  governments,  being  the  care would be provided f o r  community.  providing s u i t a b l e archival advantage  what  omission  c o n s i d e r a t i o n as i t suggests  of formal  v  could be governed  which would oversee  costs.<39) A major  does  unofficial  the f a c i l i t y  level:  and  archives  emphasized the  with  h e r i t a g e and  b e n e f i t s of  total  conservation a r c h i v e s at  For the r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s i n Canada, the English tradition has p o t e n t i a l l y great advantages with i t s emphasis on the value of the public record i n the documentary heritage, a r e c o r d rooted and grounded i n the environment that created i t , with private sector material as an e s s e n t i a l supplementary source. There i s probably a greater degree of elitism in the c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c y of a r e p o s i t o r y devoted t o c o l l e c t i o n s o l e l y i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r without the reminder of the witness D f the o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n i n the p u b l i c record.(40) David  Gagan, a  historical  quantitative social  demographic r e s e a r c h  focussed  on narrowly  records  were  originally  On  a more p r a c t i c a l  agencies."  defined  h i s t o r i a n , observed  "tends to be local  microanalytical,  populations,  generated  by  that  whose v i t a l  local  municipal  l e v e l he noted:  as governments and u n i v e r s i t i e s become increasingly cost conscious, financial c o n s t r a i n t w i l l i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t research and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s in particular will be forced to r e d i r e c t t h e i r interests toward more l o c a l i z e d s u b j e c t s . . . . There was  a need f o r the s t u f f out of which new s o c i a l h i s t o r y is being fashioned — assessment r o l l s , deeds and mortgages, marriage, b i r t h and death registers, wills, municipal directories, school attendance reports, police precinct books, gaol registers, club and lodge memberships r o l l s , medical and public health records, church affiliation lists, indentures of apprenticeship, and the letters and d i a r i e s of o r d i n a r y f o l k . ( 4 1 )  40. T a y l o r , "Archives f o r Regional H i s t o r y , " 3, see 2, S - l l of the same paper.  also,  pp.  41. David Gagan, "Rediscovering Local History: The Problems of Archival Sources f o r the 'New' H i s t o r y , " Cgmmynigue 4 (Spring 1980): 14, 15; see a l s o , A r c h i y a r i a 14 (Spring 1982).  That  same  year,  1980,  C a r e l e s s , conducted and  local  history,  history regional  traditional  in and  which  shown  urban p l a c e s  i t , is still  g r i s t f o r the h i s t o r i c a l headed  a  group  trying  he  cultural  subjects.(42)  masses of  noted  pluralism  Historical themselves"  but  t o be done."(43)  two  other h i s t o r i a n s ,  r e c o r d s of  s u f f i c i e n t to result  scholarly  Peter  Vancouver I s l a n d  t h a t area.(44) However,  i n v e n t o r i e s of documents do not p r o v i d e proper case,  Artibise,  Vancouver I s l a n d .  B a s k e r v i l l e and Chad G a f f i e l d , organized the  any  being  establish a cooperative regional  f a i l e d , he and  i n v e n t o r y the  was  " d e t a i l e d work,  m i l l , urban h i s t o r i a n , Alan to  class  Thus, searching f o r  When t h i s e f f o r t  in  S.  as well as other  interest  V i c t o r i a area of southern  and,  M.  the growth of  a r c h i v e s f o r the  Project to  J.  a ten year review o-f the -field of r e g i o n a l  regional/local i n "the  historian,  demand  archival  care,  alone has not proven  i n the establishment  of p r o p e r l y  equipped  t r i e d t o r e c t i f y the  problem  local archives. On the other hand, the but  ACA  i t s Committee on Local A r c h i v e s  improvement  i n the o v e r a l l  conditions  f a i l e d t o cause any of l o c a l  42. J . M. S. C a r e l e s s , "Limited Identities L a t e r , " Manitoba_History 1 (Spring 1980): 3-9. 43.  real  a r c h i v e s . The  —  Ten  Years  Ibid.,5,9.  44. Alan A r t i b i s e , et. al . , Civic Archi yal_.Sur.yeyj. Greater Vic;tari a_R^ggrt_and_^ ( V i c t o r i a : 1979); Peter A. B a s k e r v i l l e , Chad M. G a f f i e l d , "The Vancouver Island P r o j e c t : Historical Research and Archival Practice," A r c h i y a r i a 17 (Winter 1983-84): 173-87; see a l s o , Peter Bower, "Archives and the Landon P r o j e c t , " A r c h i y a r i a 5 (Winter 1977-78): 152-55.  25 r e s u l t D f four years of meetings, 1976-80, was of  a  brief,  professional funding  to  archives. and  but  concise,  cause  any  real momentum  the l e a d e r s h i p  archives  page  a s s o c i a t i o n d i d not have  Therefore,  give  two  waited f o r  change  pamphlet.(45)  the s t a t u s of  t o implement  the p o l i t i c a l  The  the necessary power or in  necessary t o  the p u b l i c a t i o n  formal  local  networks  develop s u i t a b l e l o c a l  will  of  s e n i o r and  local  l e v e l s of government. The to  r e v i s i o n of  provide  provincial had  agreed  System Archives  the and to  l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the PAC  opportunity.(46) territorial the  which would  ministers  establishment be c o o r d i n a t e d  at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , and  provincial/territorial  By  councils  1985,  the  helped  federal,  responsible for culture of by a  the Canadian  Archives  Canadian C o u n c i l  of  based upon a foundation  of  of a r c h i v e s .  According  to a  45. Standards_Recgmmended_for the_0perati_gn_gf_Lgcal_Archiyes in Canada ( A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1980); the progress of the Local A r c h i v e s Committee may be f o l l o w e d i n the Archives Bulletin (hereafter c i t e d as AB), see "Laval R e s o l u t i o n s : IV. Local A r c h i v e s S e r v i c e , " AB 1 (July 1976): 5; "ACA Committee A c t i v i t i e s : Local A r c h i v e s , " AB 2 (Feb. 1977): 2; "Other Committees Report: 1. Local A r c h i v e s , " AB 2 (July 1977): 6; "Committees: Vice-President's Report, 3. Local A r c h i v e s , " AB 3 ( A p r i l 1978): 2; " P r e s i d e n t ' s Report: Interarchival Relations," AB 3 (June 1978): 2; "Local Archives: AB 3 (June 1978): 9; " S e l e c t Committees: Local Archives Committee," AB 3 (Aug. 1978); 7; "Committees: Vice-President's Report 2. Local Archives," AB 4 (April 1979): 5; " S e l e c t Committees: Local A r c h i v e s , " AB 4 (Aug. 1979). 46. "Canadian A r c h i v e s System," 2; P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, Appalling Neglect of Canadian A r c h i v e s to be R e c t i f i e d , " (newsrelease) 8 Nov. 1985; "Canadian Council of A r c h i v e s — Inaugural Meeting," AC:A_Bul ljsti n 10 (January 1986): 4.  26 " D i s c u s s i o n Paper" which planning,  i s t o be used as  a basis for future  the d u t i e s of each p r o v i n c e / t e r r i t o r y would be t o : form a c o u n c i l of a r c h i v e s , s t r u c t u r e d as best s u i t s t h e i r circumstances, t o promote development and coordinate the implementation of p r o j e c t s of mutual interest. T h i s would be the base of the Canadian A r c h i v e s System. The activities of the c o u n c i l s , and a r c h i v e s through them, should be based on a comprehensive assessment of the a r c h i v e s in the province/territory and local requirements f o r a r c h i v a l s e r v i c e . This would ensure a focus f o r the work of the a r c h i v e s c o u n c i l s and would p r o v i d e a plan for the development of the a r c h i v a l system.  In a d d i t i o n : Each p r o v i n c e / t e r r i t o r y should provide grants and a s s i s t a n c e through i t s c o u n c i l for the development of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s and of the s e r v i c e s provided to r e s e a r c h e r s . (47) Thus, the will  success  depend  or f a i l u r e of  upon  the  the Canadian A r c h i v e s  expertise  and  funding  c o u n c i l s by the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l / t e r r i t o r i a l in  turn  will  dependent on  rest  upon  political  the amount of funding  archives.  decision provided  given  System t o the This  making and be  by the m i n i s t e r s  responsible for culture. At the l o c a l t o be represented have b a s i c  l e v e l , i n d i v i d u a l a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were i n the p r o v i n c i a l / t e r r i t o r i a l  c o u n c i l s and  responsibilities.  47. "The Canadian A r c h i v e s the_Adyisgry__Committee, 5.  System," 3-4;  see a l s o , Report_of  27 Each institution or government which operates an a r c h i v e s i s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e •for i t s continued core funding to sustain basic archival services. These i n c l u d e servicing the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s of its parent body and defining i t s acquisition interests and programmes, having professional regard f o r the legitimate i n t e r e s t s of other a r c h i v e s , the l i m i t a t i o n of i t s own core resources and the principles of archival science.(48) For  local  institutions  responsibility total  the  and, although  archives  at  the  emphasis  is  no s p e c i f i c  local  level,  on  mention i s made of  i t i s implied i n the  recommendations r e g a r d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n s r i v a l r y . element at community  this level will  individual  be t h e need  An important  t o educate the l o c a l  about t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , h e r i t a g e ,  c u l t u r a l , and  democratic uses of t h e i r documents with a r c h i v a l  values.  F e d e r a l l y , the PAC with t h e advice of a Canadian C o u n c i l of  Archives  representing  the p r o v i n c i a l  councils  and t h e  national archival associations: would coordinate the system at t h e national level, link the provincial/territorial councils, and p r o v i d e grants and s e r v i c e s i n support of the custodial responsibilities of archives.(49) It  i s not made c l e a r  provide  services  whether or not the  directly  provincial/territorial  council  to  the  were  PAC w i l l  local  be a b l e t o  archives  if a  weak i n making a plan f o r  and s y s t e m a t i c development or i n g i v i n g g r a n t s and a s s i s t a n c e .  48. I b i d . , 3. 49. I b i d , 4.  28 Otherwise, hinge  i n such  completely  a s s o c i a t i o n s o-f use  a case,  of  the  on  the -fate  their  own  educational  Canadian C o u n c i l of  Archives.(50)  on  and  provincial  A r c h i v e s System  of a r c h i v e s  m i s s i n g , however, i s the level.  the p r o v i n c i a l  territorial  and  having  archival  government  of  archives. the  Increased  government  should  Care  still  awareness and now  will  appropriate for  System as most reached  of the  archives/records  acceptance  organize t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e the  records  local  to  be  basis  f o r many  expertise  by  the p r o v i n c i a l  l e v e l s of  it  possible  on  local of  the  the  of  potential  make  Report, p e r s p e c t i v e s  to for  As o u t l i n e d i n t h i s chapter  Ibid.  An element  implemented  l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s area t o l o c a l  50.  For  They are i n a p o s i t i o n to g i v e a d v i c e t o  archives.  increasing  important.  a r c h i v e s have now  i n s t i t u t i o n s , and  has  i n Canada.  a Canadian A r c h i v e s  properly  management programs.  councils  the  the need f o r a formal  Even so, the time i s of  local  by  r e a l i z a t i o n at the f e d e r a l  lack of p o l i t i c a l  the implementation  of  provided  i s extremely  l e v e l s of government of  i n t e g r a t e d network  stage  the  members make e f f e c t i v e  programs  time i t shows a p o l i t i c a l  at the l o c a l  unless  i t needs t o be f l e s h e d out, the D i s c u s s i o n Paper  the Canadian  the f i r s t  archives w i l l  endeavours  a r c h i v i s t s help t h e i r  grant  Although  of l o c a l  for  them  to  provide  governments. and  summarized  archives concepts  in of  i n the Canada  Wilson show an  institutional  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the r e c o r d s and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . ( 5 1 ) total  archives  municipalities.  can  with  the  they may  provincial  The t o t a l  for unofficial  l a r g e , but  applied  be p a r t  archives in t h i s  to  smaller  o-f other  agencies  country are  and  affiliated  largest  municipal  a r c h i v e s approach o f f e r s a s o l u t i o n to  problem of which i n s t i t u t i o n  care  of  not yet c l e a r , however, whether  successfully  Although  federal,  governments. the  It i s be  the m a j o r i t y of t o t a l  management/archives r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  i s going t o p r o v i d e a r c h i v a l  documents generated  i n the community at  i t a l s o suggests that the care of o f f i c i a l  non-governmental  institutions  p u b l i c purse. The concept  will  be  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  paid  records  f o r by  the  responsibility,  on  the other hand, i m p l i e s t h a t each agency which c r e a t e s r e c o r d s should  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them, and  i s i n agreement with  recent  political  to  involvement archives  or  be  minimize  care  alone  is  government  Whether  total  involved,  it is  a d v i s a b l e t h a t c o r p o r a t e r e c o r d s of a l l kinds  subject  to  which  adds  r e c o r d s management/archival programs. the  Wilson  another  documents with a r c h i v a l which  Canada  private i n i t i a t i v e .  institutional  Territoriality, principal,  in  and emphasize  commonly thought should  trend  the  Report  dimension:  v a l u e s should remain  they are created.(52)  makes an whenever  archival possible  i n the l o c a l e i n  Bearing the above p e r s p e c t i v e s i n  mind, t h i s  study proposes t h a t cooperation between the p u b l i c  51.  Report,  Wilson  15-16, 66,  87.  and  private  responsiblity, o-f  sectors  can  be combined with i n s t i t u t i o n a l  r e c o r d s management p r a c t i c e s ,  territoriality,  to  make  a l t e r n a t i v e f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y  total  and the p r i n c i p l e  archives  a practical  of Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia.  31 Chapter  3s  IHE_RECQRDS_MANAGEM  LQCAL_GOyERNMENI_IN_ The s o l i d b a s i s -for any a r c h i v e s i s a c o r p o r a t e body which i n t h e course o-f i t s •functions c r e a t e s a volume o-f r e c o r d s which are r e q u i r e d -for a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes, a p o r t i o n of which has permanent value as r e c o r d s o-f d e c i s i o n s , l e g a l and personal rights, and as a h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d o-f the p o l i c i e s and o p e r a t i o n s o-f the o r i g i n a t i n g body and the c o l l e c t i v e experience o-f t h e community i t s e r v e s . (1) W i l f r e d I. Smith Dominion A r c h v i s t , 1978 In order  t o understand  of c o o p e r a t i v e t o t a l in B r i t i s h  the p o t e n t i a l  f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n  a r c h i v e s programs t o municipal  Columbia and  t o comprehend  the necessity  r e c o r d s management/archives l i n k a g e i t i s important the acceptance  of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  r e c o r d s management i n Canada, as  government  total  of t h e  to realise  a r c h i v e s and  well as knowing what  records  management i s , what i t s b e n e f i t s , uses and drawbacks a r e , what steps  a r e being taken  records  management/archives  federal/provincial administration under  i n the United  the  government  jurisdictions in  British  between t h e municipal r o l e s of  programs,  responsibilities  of municipal  of  what  are  local the  c u l t u r e and t h e  i n Canada, what  municipal  Columbia,  what  towards  government  and p r o v i n c i a l  the Provincial  S t a t e s t o develop  and  other  falls local  i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p  governments, what a r e the  A r c h i v e s and  t h e Records Management  1. W i l f r e d I. Smith, A r c h i v e s i n New Zealand:. A_Rep_grt (Wellington: A r c h i v e s and Records A s s o c i a t i o n of New Zealand, 1978),16.  Branch, and what are the problems -facing municipal trying  to  province. records  establish Although  or  management  i s some archives  government,  which,  programs  ignorance of by  in  governments,  of involvement  considering  this  the value of  many l o c a l  major problem has been the lack  provincial with  there  management  another  records  governments  of the  i t s relationship  municipal governments should be g i v i n g them d i r e c t i o n i n  the r e c o r d s  management and a r c h i v e s f i e l d .  that t h e r e i s at the l o c a l governments  I t becomes e v i d e n t  a need f o r r e c o r d s management/archival programs level  of government. As matters  themselves  may  have  to  stand, municipal  take  the  Ominously f o r the f a t e of a r c h i v e s , most l o c a l unaware  of  the  value  of  the  records  initiative.  governments are  management/archives  1i nkage. Municipal  government has  been chosen  t o be  study i n the f i e l d  of r e c o r d s management and  reasons.  First,  municipal  essential  component  Second, out of the  widest  cent  of  total  archives  the v a r i o u s forms  variety the  of  involvement  of  of l o c a l  responsibilities,  population,  and,  an area of  a r c h i v e s f o r two  is  l i k e l y t o be an  at the l o c a l  level.  government  i t has  encompasses 83 per  historically,  has  great  1ongevi t y . (2) Naturally, governments  the f u n c t i o n i n g of  in British  Columbia, as  municipal  and other  elsewhere,  local  necessitates  2. Robert L. B i s h , "Local Government i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (Review D r a f t , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , March 1983), 1.  the c r e a t i o n of of  a  records  Records  r e c o r d s . Therefore, management/archives  management  identification  and  forms  of l o c a l  system  procedures care  administrative, legal, Although municipal  i t f o l l o w s that some form  of  fiscal  should  should  archival  be  include  documents  one of  the  which have  and research or h e r i t a g e  government i s  used.  the most  values. important  government i t s r e c o r d s management programs  are  not well developed, and are not u s u a l l y l i n k e d t o a r c h i v e s . ( 3 ) Yet, the ACA  has emphasized  have an e s s e n t i a l r o l e systems  the  tradition it  integral  records  logical  the  a r c h i v e s being municipal  In a d d i t i o n , when one  link  between  linkage  joined  to  government  r o l e t o play i n the development  number of  should  and c o o r d i n a t i n g  management/archives  that  a r c h i v e s at the l o c a l A  of a r c h i v e s . ( 4 )  of most t o t a l  appears  government  t o play i n f i n a n c i n g  and networks  considers  that municipal  of  and the  governments,  should  have an  cooperative  total  level.  eminent Canadian total  archives  W i l f r e d Smith, the former Dominion  a r c h i v i s t s have and  records  accepted  management.  A r c h i v i s t , stated that  3. K. M. B a r l e e , "Records Management and Municipal Government i n B r i t i s h Columbia," a r e p o r t presented t o the s p r i n g meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, 18 A p r i l 1986, P e n t i c t o n , B. C.; R. A. Beauchamp, "Problems Encountered with Records Management," a paper presented t o the s p r i n g meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal Officers A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, IS A p r i l 1986, P e n t i c t o n , B. C.; Len D e l o z i e r ( s i c ) , "Focus," ACA Bulletin 5 (Aug. 1980): 6-7. Leonard C. DeLozier, " A r c h i v a l Cooperation," Museum_Rgund-LJp 86 (Summer 82): 30. 4. "Canadian A r c h i v e s : Reports and Responses,"  9.  34 the archives system should integrate control over the management of c u r r e n t r e c o r d s , the p r o v i s i o n of records centres f o r dormant r e c o r d s , and the o p e r a t i o n of c e n t r a l m i c r o f i l m s e r v i c e s , as well as the conventional archival functions of acquiring, preserving, and making available f o r use m a t e r i a l s which have permanent value ....(5) The Wilson  Report advocates t h a t when a t o t a l  the r e c o r d s of l o c a l  agencies the a r c h i v e s  archives  accepts  should  urge the establishment of a b a s i c records management routine involving its archivists i n the systematic s e l e c t i o n of future records for preservation.(6) Hugh T a y l o r , former D i r e c t o r General  of the A r c h i v e s Branch of  the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, s t a t e s t h a t one of the g o a l s of total  a r c h i v e s should  be:  Involvement i n the e n t i r e l i f e c y c l e of r e c o r d s , through a records management program.(7) Thus, total  r e c o r d s management  i s considered  an e s s e n t i a l  p a r t of  archives. Ideally,  l i f e cycle  modern  records  approach to  management  the c o n t r o l  should encompass a  of i n f o r m a t i o n  c r e a t i o n t o i t s d e s t r u c t i o n or a r c h i v a l  from i t s  use.(S) Although  file  5. Smith, "Introduction," 18-20; when the archival institution administers records management f u n c t i o n s i t i s known as an i n t e g r a t e d system; when the a r c h i v e s and r e c o r d s management i n s t i t u t i o n s are under separate a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s but work c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r , i t i s known as a c o o r d i n a t e d system. 6. Wilson  Report, 87;  see above, p. 20,  7. T a y l o r , A r c h i y a l _ S e r y i c e s _ a n d _ t  also. 48.  8. For a fuller d e s c r i p t i o n of the f u n c t i o n s of r e c o r d s management see, Frank B. Evans, Ihe_Deyelgpment_gf_an_Archiyal ^€L^-E^9.c4.^^^U.§:9.^niMD.%.JP^9:9.C^WiWi^ ( P a r i s : Unesco, 1982) , 15-16.  35 classification management, heart  i s an  obvious p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r  a system of  s c h e d u l i n g r e c o r d s should  of  records  administration  Schedules  stating  the  retained  are based  archival  values  records  management  length  on the  of  time  It  only  5 per  3 to  destroyed, c o s t s and  thereby  archives,  and  to m i c r o f i l m computer disposal  i s archival  cent of  schedules  The  comprise  rest  may  considerable  be  storage viable  i s important  are  that r e t e n t i o n and  created  when  are a p p l i e d to them immediately because of i n machine-readable format  be changed or erased.(10) In t h i s case, a l i f e c y c l e involves scheduling  the record  b e n e f i t s of t o t a l  may  approach  for archival retention  from the time i t o r i g i n a t e s becomes even more In Canada, the  the  addition, i t  the ease with which i n f o r m a t i o n  which  links  Documents  know when i t i s economically  records  and  makes  value, u s u a l l y  modern r e c o r d s .  In  be  when e s t a b l i s h i n g time  saving a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  documents.  generated  which  d i s p o s a l of i n f o r m a t i o n .  h e l p i n g them t o  the  documents should  i s s c h e d u l i n g which  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of an a r c h i v i s t necessary  value, that  be at  administrative, legal, f i s c a l  to  p e r i o d s f o r r e t e n t i o n and  records  i n a l l p u b l i c archives.<9)  of  records.  of l a s t i n g  proper  necessary.  archives  programs with  t h e i r r e c o r d s management emphasis have been recognized  by  the  9. Bryan Corbett and E l don Frost, "The A c q u i s i t i o n of Federal Government Records: A Report on Records Management and A r c h i v a l P r a c t i c e s , " A r c h i y a r i a 17 (Winter 1983-84): 207; Q9 ittee_gn_the_Records_ A__Rep.grt (Washi ngton , D.C.: 1985), 16. mm  10.  Cgmmittee_gn_the__Recgrd  10, 24-34.  36 national,  provincial  governments as  records and  use  the  planning,  by  to  as  t o the p o p u l a t i o n  at  has  the  legal  p u b l i c access  to  be  and and  for  court  responsibilities  local  governments.(12)  contracts  considered  and  to  should  be r e a l i s e d  t h a t modern  much b e t t e r than no systematic  the  programs of  a b a s i c r i g h t of a archives  help a l l governments i n the  e f f e c t i v e implementation of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . it  cases,  audit  Thus, p r o p e r l y implemented t o t a l potential  effective  to r e c o r d s which document  agreements,  come  democratic s o c i e t y . have  the  use  This includes policy  preparation  provincial  financial  government,  systems  a utilitarian  for e f f i c i e n t ,  of i n f o r m a t i o n .  budgeting,  federal,  Today, a p p r o p r i a t e and  municipal  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y , the c r e a t o r of the record may  accountability  imposed  largest  can have  management/archives systems  analysis,  legal  o-f  t o government and  economical handling  and  many  a r c h i v a l documents  well as a c u l t u r a l large.(11)  and  Even  so,  r e c o r d s management, while  records management at a l l ,  has  11. James B. Rhoads, and Wilfred I. Smith, "Why Records Management i s Important?" ARMA_Recgrds_Management 10 (Jan. 1976): 107; C e c i l i a C h r i s t i n e Freeman-Ward, "An A n a l y s i s of Document Disposal P o l i c y and Procedures w i t h i n the Government of British Columbia" (Master of Public Administration t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1983), 17-25; Woadden, "Toronto's Venture i n t o Paperwork C o n t r o l , " 62-64; James, " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Municipal Records," 321-34; Rees, "Masters i n Our Own House?," 53-59. 12. F o r e s t W. Horton and Donald A. Marchand, eds., Information M§D§9ement i n Publ i c Admi n i s t r a t i g n : _ An I n t r g d y c t i g n and Resgurce Gui.de tg Ggyernment i n the Inf grmati.gn___.Age ( A r l i n g t o n : Information Resources Press, 1982); Ian E. Wilson, "Archives of Urban M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Saskatchewan: D i s c u s s i o n Paper" (Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, c i r c u l a t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n and comments J u l y 1983), 1.  37 room shown  -for  improvement.  problems  in  American  organizing,  p r o l i f e r a t i n g government planning  and  Canadian r e p o r t s have  maintaining,  and r e t r i e v i n g  r e c o r d s , e s p e c i a l l y those  created i n  and p o l i c y areas.(13)  Despite  the need  f o r change  i n some r e c o r d s management  procedures, the growth i n the a c t i v i t i e s of l o c a l  government  has made the need t o extend modern r e c o r d s management/archival practices  t o them part  of a movement  1980,  the n e g l e c t of l o c a l  major  archival  a r c h i v i s t , H.  crisis G.  in  i n North America.  In  government r e c o r d s was seen as the the  United  States  by  eminent  Jones.  Nothing short of the initiation or s t r e n g t h e n i n g of r e c o r d s management programs a c r o s s the n a t i o n w i l l meet the requirements for more efficient and economic administration of local government and increased utilization of l o c a l documentary knowledge.(14) In terms of Canadian problems, i t i s that  i n the  Committee "solutions transferred  United S t a t e s  on  the  Records  workable i n to  state  the r e c e n t l y of  instituted national  Government  federal executive and  local  American a r c h i v i s t s , h i s t o r i a n s  i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  recommends  that  agencies should  governments."(15)  be  Today,  and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , i n  c o n j u n c t i o n with the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r  13. QQ<_ml£tee_gn_the_Records Corbett and Frost, "The A c q u i s i t i o n Records," 210-32.  S t a t e and Local  18, 21, 24, 26; of Federal Government  14. H. G. Jones, Local _Ggyernment_Recgrdss_ An_Intrgductign_tg their_Management _P ( N a s h v i l l e : American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S t a t e and Local H i s t o r y , 1980), x i . i  15. Cgmmittee_gn_the_Recgrds  43.  38 History  and  the  -federal  government's  Publications  and  Records  Commission  Government Records P r o j e c t . Information Center act  as  a  National have  begun  a  Local  They plan t o e s t a b l i s h a National  f o r Local Government  clearing  Historical  house  Records, which would  and provide r e f e r r a l  services for  i n q u i r i e s about e f f e c t i v e r e c o r d s management p r a c t i c e s .  Basic  documentation i s a l s o being provided i n the form of guidebooks and  a u d i o v i s u a l programs.  Funding  f o r the above has been  p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , with the p r o j e c t i t s e l f county  officials,  records  municipal  administrators,  agencies.(16)  Thus,  as  government well  Americans have  federal, state  and  from the r e c o r d s  local  being addressed policy  as h i s t o r i c a l begun t o  management/archival programs f o r l o c a l  makers and  and  archival  promote r e c o r d s combining  by melding  expertise  and  historical  fields.  In Canada, d e s p i t e a r e c o g n i t i o n of the problem a movement t h i s type of c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i o n has not yet occurred it  may  have the p o t e n t i a l  Canadian  Archives  t o do so  System  if  mandate beyond a completely  to  government by  e f f o r t s , and  management, a r c h i v a l  both  under the a e g i s  to  although of  the  t h i s o r g a n i s a t i o n extends i t s  cultural  emphasis.  In a d d i t i o n , a s e r i e s of questions a r i s e s regarding where the  responsibility  for  the  creation  management/archival programs at the l o c a l Canada should  l i e . Should  t h e r e be f e d e r a l  of  records  government l e v e l i n involvement  16. "Industry News: Local Records Aid i s Coming," Management 18 (Aug. 1984): 15-6.  as i s  Information  the  case i n the United  States?  Should  with the l o c a l government, with the with  a combination  Canadian  cultural  look f o r one's answers  affairs  responsibility.  Under  are  shared  T h e r e f o r e , the two  levels  i n the c u l t u r a l  of  suggested  Report.(17)  On  responsibility  a r c h i v e s as was  the for  other  the  a  of government could share involvement l o c a l government  be  government, or  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e viewpoint.  constitution,  provincial/federal  provincial  of the two? One may  from both a c u l t u r a l  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  hand,  the  aspects  i n the  provinces  Wilson  have  overseeing municipal government.  the  Yet, t o  date, l o c a l governments i n the m a j o r i t y of p r o v i n c e s have been given  little  direction  in  management/archives programs of  the  relatively  governments being, i n  recent  themselves  to  B r i t i s h Columbia  the  development  which  i s probably a  introduction this  study  the  creation  of  province  should  provincial  question  records  of  the onus  provincial  For the time  the i n d i v i d u a l  own systems.  where the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  to  become  especially  as  programs  aware it  records  reflection  the  l i e s on  management/archival  l i e , is  direction  of  practice.(18)  municipal governments t o develop t h e i r to  of  However, f o r the in  this  of the need f o r applies  to  the  s c h e d u l i n g of r e c o r d s .  17. Wilson Report, Recommendations  2 and 3, 109.  18. L e t t e r s from a r c h i v i s t s i n the p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l governmental archives, f i l e s of author; Quebec and New Brunswick are two of the main expceptions; Freeman-Ward, "An A n a l y s i s of Document D i s p o s a l P o l i c y , " 17-25.  40 In planning the development o-f c o o p e r a t i v e t o t a l in  which  municipal  and  participate i t i s helpful local to  government,  government  School  governments  in British  There  and  i t s relationship  are t h r e e main forms of  Columbia i n a d d i t i o n t o municipal  Regional  Districts,  Special  D i s t r i c t s . ( 1 9 ) The twenty-nine Regional  responsible  to  municipalities  the  Ministry  and  electoral  of  Municipal  areas.  the  exception  Special  Created  Hospital  r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Districts,  Communities,  Environment;  region.  province  There are over  Local  responsible Areas,  responsible  to  major forms of  the local  i n t e r a c t with and  Ministry  establishing  a  400  Affairs;  the M i n i s t r y of  Health;  to  the  of  Affairs. of  Ministry  School  Education.  by the p r o v i n c i a l  cooperative  the  t o the M i n i s t r i e s of  government are d i r e c t l y  are guided  with  to  responsible  Municipal  they  Improvement  M i n i s t r y of Municipal  responsible  Health, Highways, and  In  Stikine  oversee  unincorporated  coverage of the whole  the  Districts,  i n 1965,  D i s t r i c t s with the major d i v i s i o n s being:  Districts,  Water  of  Districts  Affairs  c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s between i n c o r p o r a t e d and areas i n a comprehensive  could  t o be f a m i l i a r with the s t r u c t u r e of  government.  governments themselves: and  local  i t s responsibilities,  the p r o v i n c i a l  local  other  archives  total  Districts  are  These t h r e e  responsible to, government. archives  with  19. British Columbia, Ministry of Municipal Affairs, S t a t i s t i cs__Rel a t i n g tg_Reg_gnal _and M y o l g i P.§1 _Ggyernments„_i n British Cglumbia_ 1985 (Victoria: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1985); B i s h , "Local Government i n B. C , " 53-93.  41 participation component,  by it  the is  municipal necessary  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of municipal and  what  municipal  is  government  involved  to  know  as  a  what  are  government i n B r i t i s h  in  executing  them.  major the  Columbia  Incorporated  government i s composed o-f: -forty-eight v i l l a g e s with  populations  of  thirty-five  up  to  cities,  municipalities.  2500; 5001  The  thirteen plus;  divisions,  towns,  2501-5000;  forty-five aside  from  district district  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which have a unique r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r drainage and  d i k i n g p r o j e c t s , are based on population.(20) The  municipal  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  areas:  general  contracting  and  protection; These and  sewage  s e r v i c e s are decided upon by  the  local  including  purchasing,  relations; recreation; policing;  transportation;  populace,  of  expenditures occur i n s i x main  administration,  labour  bulk  and  garbage  fire  disposal.(21)  by the p r o v i n c i a l government to  both  of  which  municipal  20. British Columbia, Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Muni ci_pal_ Stat i s t i cs lQf_Lydi.ng Regional. Districts and Ij5RCQy_ement. .i§tricts_f or the_Year Ended__Dec . _31 (Vi c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1984), 7-8; Bish, "Local Government in B r i t i s h Columbia," 2, 27. n  21. Municipal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may also include: a i r p o r t s ; animal r e g u l a t i o n s ; building inspection; business l i c e n s i n g ; cemeteries; c i v i l defence and emergency measures; c o n t r o l of firearms; economic development; elections; electricity generation and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; house numbering; industrial parks; irrigation and flood control; land purchase and development; libraries; museums; noise control; parks, planning and zoning; public health regulation; r e g u l a t i o n of nuisances; social welfare administration; soil fill and removal regulations; storm drainage; s t r e e t s , curbs and sidewalks lighting; subdivision control; tax c o l l e c t i o n s ; telephone s e r v i c e ; t e l e v i s i o n r e b r o a d c a s t i n g ; water supply and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; weed c o n t r o l , B i s h , "Local Government i n B r i t i s h Columbia," 29.  governments  are  accountable  in  carrying  out  their  responsibilities. Executing  these  duties  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l o c a l the  provincial  involves  a  series  o-f complex  governments and t h e m i n i s t r i e s  government.  However,  i t has  of  systematic  q u a l i t i es when viewed in light of i n d i v i d u a l s attempting to resolve common problems within a set of institutional arrangements, which i n t u r n operate w i t h i n a framework of p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l government law....(22) T h i s i s seen i n the i n t e r a c t i o n thirteen  of  the nineteen  provincial  prominent being the M i n i s t r y the  laws t h a t  of municipal government with ministries,  of Municipal A f f a i r s .  govern t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , s u p e r v i s e s f i n a n c e s , and use and settlement d i r e c t l y involved Services; Highways;  Development; Resources; the  are: Provincial  Environment;  Lands,  Parks  Consumer and  accountable  government  through  Industry  and  to  the to  Other  and  Business  Health;  Human  and, i n d i r e c t l y ,  and of F o r e s t r y .  As well as  Ministries,  municipal  i t s c i t i z e n s through  c h a l l e n g e s i s s u e d through  I b i d . , 9-10, see a l s o p. 20.  Government  and Small  Housing;  above  Ministries  Transportation  Corporate A f f a i r s ,  i s responsible  i n q u i r i e s or  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n land  S e c r e t a r y and  Finance;  I t makes  and o p e r a t i o n s of  the Province.  M i n i s t r i e s of A g r i c u l t u r e  being  22.  throughout  Attorney-General; Labour;  t h e most  routine  t h e O f f i c e of  43 the  Ombudsman  or  by  judicial  review.(23)  government s u p p l i e s s e r v i c e s t o i n t e r a c t s with other l o c a l the  provincial  manner.  Therefore,  responsibility  it  for  i t s c i t i z e n s , and  governments and  government  Thus, municipal  in  a  would  appear or  so  most m i n i s t r i e s of  complicated  guiding  i n doing  but  logical  systematic that  encouraging  some  records  management/archives systems f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s should l i e with the  Provincial  Archives,  the Records  the M i n i s t r y of Municipal The P r o v i n c i a l  Affairs.  A r c h i v e s and the Records Management Branch  are equal  but separate  Secretary  and  p a r t s of  Sovernment  activities  as  concerned.  The P r o v i n c i a l  total  far  archives,  community  as  provincial  using  based on  management This  practices  system,  governments,  23.  Ibid.,  was  which has  the  within  three  records  serve  are  B r i t i s h Columbia i s a documents  the f e d e r a l  the  their  from  the  provincial  Records Management Branch,  established  could  coordinate  as r e c e i v i n g o f f i c i a l  In 1982,  system,  of P r o v i n c i a l  government  multimedia  as well  a methodology  and  A r c h i v e s of  collecting  at l a r g e  the M i n i s t r y  Services,  government r e c o r d s .  archives  Management Branch, and  government's t o t a l  t o develop provincial  modern r e c o r d s government.(24)  as an example to municipal  essential  goals:  to  establish  18-20.  24. From the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada's Records Management Series: Subject Classification Gu_de (1969); Records QC9§Qii.§tion and Operations (1969); Records_Schedul ing_and Disposal_ (1972); General __Recgrds_Di the Ggyernment_gf__Canada, 3rd ed. (1978).  44 transgovernmental  file  classification  for  (housekeeping) r e c o r d s which are common  administrative  t o a l l departments or  m i n i s t r i e s ; t o develop s e p a r a t e o p e r a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r the to  r e c o r d s which are unique t o the  mandate of each m i n i s t r y ;  apply r e c o r d s r e t e n t i o n and d i s p o s a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems. Columbia  has no  d i s p o s a l of  as one of  a r c h i v e s act  The P r o v i n c i a l  Management  Committee. Management Columbia British  The  to ensure  the above,  i s governed  by the  Branch i s not  and  but the Document  A r c h i v i s t i s named under the Act Committee.(25)  as such i n the Act, the D i r e c t o r of the  Branch  close  file  government of B r i t i s h  f i v e members of the P u b l i c Documents  Although not mentioned Records  The p r o v i n c i a l  government r e c o r d s  Disposal Act.  schedules t o both  is  the  c u r r e n t s e c r e t a r y of the  relationship the  between  Provincial  p a r a l l e l e d by  the  Archives  Records of B r i t i s h  most municipal governments i n  Columbia.  The c i t i e s  of Vancouver  e x c e p t i o n s , and a and Esquimalt,  Trail  few o t h e r s , l i k e  are i n the p r o c e s s  systematic  records  absence of  federal  municipal  and  governments,  r e c o r d s management,  provincial realising  of the prime  the D i s t r i c t s of  Saanich  of attempting t o e s t a b l i s h  management/archives or  are two  programs.  government the  In  the  d i r e c t i o n , many  importance  of modern  i f not of municipal r e c o r d s with a r c h i v a l  v a l u e s , have been t r y i n g t o develop programs on an  individual  basis. Municipalities,  wanting  more  details  25. RSBC, Document D i s p o s a l Act 1983 c. 20, s.  than the broad  3.2.  outlines  o-f the Municipal  Ministry  of  should  be  Municipal  kept and  r e t u r n , these  local  o u t l i n e s regarding retention detailed  Act can g i v e  Affairs  their respective  f e d e r a l and  retention  of municipal  a d v i c e on which  provincial  They  and  are  disposal  removed  schedules  government, the  municipal  which began i n 1983.  Two  training in  municipal  government  develop important provide  f i l e classification  and  been  v a l u e s of  linkage  aside  municipal A f f a i r s or  government.(27)  left  scheduling,  p a r t s of r e c o r d s management, the necessary  course  proven inadequate t o  s c h e d u l i n g needs of municipal having  the  r e c o r d s management but  O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n have  Most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  and  week annual  D i r e c t i o n s from the M i n i s t r y of Municipal  the present  the  required.(26)  t o three hours are u s u a l l y put  l i t t l e emphasis i s placed on the a r c h i v a l  the Municipal  from  associations  A f f a i r s sponsor a one  records.  records  a need f o r more e x p e r t i s e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  M i n i s t r y of Municipal  for  In  very broad  government  far  the  records  retention periods.  governments have r e c e i v e d some  requirements.  Responding t o  for  them, have asked  on  t h e i r own two  to  of the most  have not been a b l e t o  between r e c o r d s management  and  26. RSBC, Municipal Act, c. 290, ss. 235-7, 244; form l e t t e r from the M i n i s t r y of Municipal A f f a i r s t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which request information on records and documentation policy, f i l e s of author; Beauchmap, "Problems Encountered with Records Management," 4, 5. 27. "Municipal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e , " MQA_Chapter 290 1 (Fall 1982): 5; "Municipal Administration Training Institute: Back i n School." MQA Chapter 290 2 no. 3: 1; Kathleen M. B a r l e e , "Records Management Diploma Program: A Report," (prepared f o r Okanagan C o l l e g e , Kelowna, 17 Oct. 1985), 9.  46 archives.  For  Kamloops  example,  even  though  municipalities they  have  such  as Surrey and  wel1-developed  records  management programs, do not have systematic l i n k s t o municipal archives.(28) fact  that t h e  consider minutes this  In Kamloops, the d i f f i c u l t y  the  d i r e c t o r of collection  the museum  of  and by-laws as p a r t  and  other  cases  i s heightened  by t h e  and a r c h i v e s does not  municipal  records  other  of h i s r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t i e s . ( 2 9 )  many  municipal  be  considered  records f a l l  than In  i n t o an  a r c h i v a l no man's land. Another implement  factor  to  individual  records  i s that i n order t o management  programs  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e n e e d l e s s l y d u p l i c a t i n g e f f o r t and expenses, and t h i s i n a restraint involved  time of a u s t e r i t y when they a r e s t r u g g l i n g with  and o f t e n reducing in  initiating  s c h e d u l i n g systems Even  though i t s  the f i e l d Institute city  staff.  individual  i s seen  i n the  Office Services  having taught  An example file  has  S u p e r v i s o r has e x p e r t i s e i n  t h e Municipal  recently  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  m u n i c i p a l i t y of Kamloops.  A d m i n i s t r a t i on, T r a i n i n g  course on r e c o r d s management  government  of t h e c o s t  paid  i n 1983 and 1984, the  $30,000  to  a  private  28. Sue B a p t i e , "Local Government Records i n Canada: Problems and S o l u t i o n s " (a paper read at t h e j o i n t conference of the Northwest A r c h i v i s t s and the A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia Archivists in Seattle, 3-5 May 1984), 5; R o s a l i e Spargo, O f f i c e Services Supervisor, City of Kamloops, telephone i n t e r v i e w with t h e author, September 1985. 29. Ken F a v r h o l d t , D i r e c t o r Kamloops Museum and A r c h i v e s , during a question and answer p e r i o d a f t e r h i s address to the B. C. S t u d i e s Conference, Feb. 1984, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C.  47 consultant  to  develop  and  implement  system.(30) Many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s this  type  of  expense  e f f i c i e n t records file  to  will  make i t more d i f f i c u l t  other.  When  relationship emerges: the  needs.  system The  organizations, composed  and  the  of  among v a r i o u s  Officers  of  officials,  and  i f d i r e c t i o n i n providing  the  failure  of  the  Records  municipal  Officers  think i t would be  uniform r e t e n t i o n and  schedules came from the p r o v i n c i a l  r e s t r a i n t program of the p r o v i n c i a l  a l l used  Municipalities,  t h e Municipal  employees,  to provincial  solution  the two major municipal  of B r i t i s h Columbia  most h e l p f u l  major drawback  obvious  for individual  composed of p u b l i c  A  q u a l i t i e s of t h e i r  the  Association,  disposal  municipalities  i f municipalities  modification  the Union elected  involved  much b e t t e r  Executive  different  f o r them t o communicate with each  cost  with  a r e , u n l e s s the  standardized,  one c o n s i d e r s the systematic  i t would be  same  i f they  are  scattered  incur  only one of the g o a l s of  Even  systems  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems  not be prepared t o  achieve  management.  classification  may  a file classification  government.(31)  leadership  has been the  government, and  therefore,  Management Branch t o develop a  modern r e c o r d s management system f o r the M i n i s t r y  of Municipal  30. R o s a l i e Spargo, O f f i c e S e r v i c e s S u p e r v i s o r , Municipality of Kami oops, speech t o the A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s F a l l Meeting, Kamloops, Oct. 19S5. 31. Sandra A l l e n , E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r , Municipal Officers A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n t e r v i e w with the author, Victoria, 25 Feb. 1985; Richard T a y l o r , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n with the author, September 1985.  48 Affairs.  This in  turn means  that the  Ministry  i s not  in a  p o s i t i o n to g i v e d e t a i l e d d i r e c t i o n s t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A s o l u t i o n may the  Union  Municipal  of  be f o r the M i n i s t r y of  British  Columbia  O f f i c e r s Association  operational functions  file held  common  be  verified  archival It  by  the  can  by  not  to  be  archives,  i n which  l i f e c y c l e of individual  the  developing  a national  municipal or  especially  the  provincial  records could  and  their  Archives.(32)  and  international total  or  most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h the r e c o r d s  Yet,  management/archives  i s involved  i n the  i n the development  municipal t o t a l  important  an and  schedules  Branch,  to  have  archives  government's  it  of  entire either  i s going  t h i s type of a r c h i v a l  p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, without l e g i s l a t i o n from  Their  Provincial  an a r c h i v i s t  the r e c o r d .  the  records  l i n k s between r e c o r d s management and  solely institutional Columbia are  for  Management  be seen t h a t , d e s p i t e  awareness of the  connection  scheme  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  Records  schedules  and  to j o i n f o r c e s i n developing  by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  management procedures, f i l e  Affairs,  Municipalities,  classification in  Municipal  Records  or f i r m d i r e c t i o n Management  and  32. P a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the above i s that at the Spring meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , IS A p r i l 1986, a r e s o l u t i o n was passed "that the Okanagan Chapter ... request the parent MOA body t o p e t i t i o n the P r o v i n c e of British Columbia t o enact l e g i s l a t i o n t o develop c l e a r l y defined guidelines regarding r e t e n t i o n and disposal requirements f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia; and that the Municipal O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n work with the Union of British Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s , and the D i r e c t o r of the Records Management Branch of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia t o e s t a b l i s h t h i s goal."  49 A r c h i v e s Branches, or the M i n i s t r y o-f Municipal scheduling  o-f  records  and  r e t e n t i o n i n e i t h e r separate total  planning  local  for their  and other  cultural,  continue.  local  heritage,  i n the  archival  government a r c h i v e s or  a r c h i v e s , i t i s l i k e l y that the present  municipal term  in  Affairs  neglect  in  of most  government documents which have long and  research  values i s l i k e l y to  50 Chapter  4:  ARCHIVAL  P  R  EEDERAL_.AID.J0  archival  N  a s c e n a r i o f o r the comprehensive c a r e  documents i n the Kelowna area, i t i s h e l p f u l  aware of the problems h e l d i n common by most l o c a l British  Columbia.  archives  in  this  necessity, linked which c o l l e c t  A  study  reveals  province  that  or other  a r c h i v a l documents i n  an ad hoc  been a l l e v i a t e d by  a i d and  majority  of  through  heritage i n s t i t u t i o n s fashion.  a f a i l u r e at  t o r e a l i z e the value of a r c h i v e s .  and f e d e r a l  the  t o be  archives in  are underdeveloped, and,  t o museums  s i t u a t i o n has not level  D  BRITISH_COLUMBI A  In order t o develop of  A  the  The local  Moreover, p r o v i n i c i a l  d i r e c t i o n have only been of l i m i t e d  help.  P r o v i n c i a l l y , t h i s i s r e v e a l e d i n a study of the a c t i v i t i e s of the  Provincial  Management  Archives  Branch,  the  of  British  Columbia,  Association  of  the Records  British  Columbia  A r c h i v i s t s , and government funding agencies. N a t i o n a l l y , i s shown by a study of the the Canadian Conservation agencies.  Analysis  a c t i v i t i e s of the PAC, Institute  makes  recommendations of the Wilson Canadian  Archives  relevant: sustain for  while  System there  basic archival  very  Report  services,  apparent  federal that  the  and the p r o p o s a l s f o r the  outlined should  SSHRCC, and  as well as other  it  this  in  be  Chapter  local  Two  are most  responsibi1ty  there i s a l s o  a vital  to need  a formal network or system of a r c h i v e s having as i t s b a s i s  provincial development  councils of  of  services,  archives  which  facilities  comprehensive assessment of l o c a l  and  would  aid  programs  requirements  in  the  after  has been made.  a  A  study Df  British  interest  in  the  subject  of  or  g r a n t s and  services for local  local  help  uncoordinated. of  practices  largely  is  archival  the  been little  to  the  t o the  ignorance  When s u p p l i e d ,  and  local  have  development.  inadequate  professional of  funding  inadequacy  local  national  documents  and  no standards archival  salavage  There  has  been  most l o c a l  operations  and  of  on the  of  a  There  staffing  The  and  and  scarcity  v o l u n t e e r s have procedures  Although  collect  there  are  t h e r e have been  archival materials. whole, inadequate  to  has  therefore,  f a i l u r e to  i n s t i t u t i o n s have attempts  where  technical  p r o v i n c i a l p l a n s t o develop them f o r the p r o c e s s i n g  government  archives,  use  systematically.  c o l l e c t i o n s are,  o b j e c t i v e s of  provincial  lack of c o n t i n u i t y i n a r c h i v a l  institutions.  unofficial  management  concerned.  programs,  the  the  administrators  local  and  between  of l o c a l  environmental c o n t r o l s .  supervisors  often resulted i n a within  and  federal and  of  facilities,  Most  conservation  staff,  professional  for  few  hoc  records  scheduling of  ad  connection  r e c o r d s management/archival matters are  professional  and  political  There are  informal,  documents  due  l e g i s l a t i o n pertaining  little  in  providing s i g n i f i c a n t  archives.  has  There  collection  been  lack of p u b l i c  archives.  f e d e r a l funding agencies  provincial  and  to the  archives  been a subsequent dearth of  provincial  records,  due  local  awareness of the value of a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  documents t h e r e has  and  f a c i n g most  Columbia r e v e a l s t h a t  administrative and  the problems  Local  and  the  been l i m i t e d  to  provide  rudimentary  52 s e r v i c e t o the ad hoc c o l l e c t i o n s that have A shows  closer  study  of  t h a t most have a  although  in  local  survived.(1)  archives i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  very c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with museums,  the past t e n years  t h e r e has been a  r i s e i n the  number of i n s t i t u t i o n s c a r i n g f o r t h e i r own records.(2) at  least  67  per  cent  B r i t i s h Columbia are Fewer than to  college,  the  the  approximate 137 a r c h i v e s i n  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e subcomponents of museums.  15 per cent a r e  collect  systematic  of  Still,  records  manner.(3)  institutional  of  their  These  have  archives  sponsoring been  some  attempting  agencies  university,  b u s i n e s s , r e l i g i o u s and other i n s t i t u t i o n a l  not a s s o c i a t e d with e i t h e r museums or s o c i e t i e s . A 1984 survey  of smaller  in a  archives  h e r i t a g e and h i s t o r i c a l  a r c h i v e s belonging  to the  A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s showed that 96 per cent of  t h e respondents shared  a b u i l d i n g with  a museum.<4)  1. Delozier (sic), "Focus," 5-7; DeLozier, "Archival Cooperation," 27-30; B a p t i e , "Local Government Records i n Canada," 5-9; " R e s u l t s of Survey: 1984," ABCA_Newsletter 10 (Fall 1984): 4-7; Anne MacDermaid, "Study Three: Federal Support t o A r c h i v e s , . L i b r a r i e s , and Museums," i n Report,of the Advisory Committee on A r c h i v e s , 66; "PABC Management of Networking with Local A r c h i v e s , " ( q u e s t i o n n a i r e answered at the PABC, Jan. - Feb. 1985), i n f i l e s of author. 2. Richard A. Duckies, D i r e c t o r y of_Myseums__Archiye Art Galleries of B r i t i s h Co_umbi_a, 4th ed. , (Victoria: British Columbia Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , 1983); lhe_0f f i c i al_ Di r e c t o r y of Can ad i an Museums and Pel sited Inst i t u t ions (Ottawa: Canadian Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , 1984); "Results of Survey: 1984,: 5. 3. Compiled using Duckl_es_ Jhe D i r e c t o r y of _Museums_._Art G a l 1 e r i e s _ a n d _ A r c h i y e s , which i n c l u d e s both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e institutions. 4. " R e s u l t s of Survey: 1984," 5.  S u p e r f i c i a l 1 y , at l e a s t ,  t h i s would appear  advantageous arrangement: place;  both  heritage to  museums  and  provincial  archives  and  museums than i t i s through Yet, a number of  Richmond  confidential by  a  have the p r e s e r v a t i o n of  will  federal  be shown, i t i s e a s i e r  government  a i d through  archives.  experts  museum/archives r e l a t i o n s h i p recent  mutually  museums have p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n  m a t e r i a l s as a g o a l ; as  obtain  t o be a  report,  consultant,  i n the f i e l d  do  not t h i n k  this  i s the best one f o r a r c h i v e s . made  f o r the  recommends  A  m u n i c i p a l i t y of  t h a t the a r c h i v e s be  d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e c i t y c l e r k ' s o f f i c e because of t h e r e c o r d s management/archives r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Although  has a museum no  any formal a r c h i v a l  contact  with  mention i s made of having  city  it.<5) Sue B a p t i e , C i t y A r c h i v i s t f o r Vancouver,  has admonished that museums o f t e n do not r e c o g n i z e of  this  archives  -  although  having  the d u a l i t y  h e r i t a g e and c u l t u r a l  roles  a r c h i v e s a l s o have an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f u n c t i o n through s e r v i c e  to  record.(6)  the  Advisor  creator of  of  the  municipal  the P r o v i n c i a l  p o s i t i o n , has  warned t h a t  Archives,  The A r c h i v e s  reversing  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  an e a r l i e r  i n s t a b i l i t y of  museums poses a s e r i o u s problem f o r the permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n  5. E l i z a b e t h Eso, C i t y A r c h i v i s t f o r Richmond, i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n with t h e author, 19 A p r i l 1986, Vancouver, B. C. 6.  Baptie,  "Local Government Records i n Canada," 5-6.  54 of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . ( 7 )  He a l s o argues that  a r c h i v i s t s must see that i f museums are t o be the primary keepers o-f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , then almost a l l our documentary h e r i t a g e w i l l be lost.<8) As long ago as 1962  eminent American museologist, C a r l Suthe,  i n a r e p o r t which r e s u l t e d i n the s e p a r a t i o n archives  and museum  assumption that  in British  of the p r o v i n c i a l  Columbia, attacked  museum a r t i f a c t s  and h i s t o r i c a l  the f a l s e  r e c o r d s and  documents belong together by v i r t u e of t h e i r historicity. This tradition is now o b s o l e t e . It i s g e n e r a l l y recognized that the process of c o l l e c t i n g and p r e s e r v i n g documents and photographs, t h e proper function of the archives, involves techniques of r e c o r d i n g , c a t a l o g i n g and conserving which d i f f e r from those used i n museums.(9) Guthe was used as when  i t published  museums  not  a source by t h e Canadian Museum A s s o c i a t i o n i t s museum  include  responsibi1ities.(10) this  province,  really to  In  i t should  guidebook which advocated  archives terms be  of  as  part  t h e present  realized  blame, they a r e doing t h e best  of  that their  situation in  that museums a r e not they can i n  a bad  7. For i n f o r m a t i o n on h i s previous p o s i t i o n see, Leonard C. DeLozier, "A Program t o Improve the A r c h i v a l C a p a b i l i t y of Historical Museums i n British Columbia" (April 1977), photocopy i n f i l e s of author; regarding h i s present stance see, D e l o z i e r ( s i c ) , "Focus," 6. 8. DeLozier, " A r c h i v a l Cooperation," 30. 9. Guthe, "The Appendix," 2. 10.  Harrison,  Provincial  Museum  of B r i t i s h  Techni.cal_Reguirements_of_Smal  Columbia: 6.  situation.  Through  responsibility variety  of  default,  which  archivists  reasons,  have  f u n c t i o n s of these h e r i t a g e As 48 per cent answered  a recent  museums  have  and  been  museologists,  considered  as  i s not  provides 74  the  institutions.  of t h e a r c h i v e s i n B r i t i s h f e d e r a l survey  complete  per cent  archives.(12)  a  have budgets  service.  needed,  While  i f i t were added  funding  small  museum a c t i n g alone, may f i n d archival  Columbia t h a t of l e s s than  most u s e f u l but  s o l u t i o n . ( 1 1 ) Municipal  of t h e  However,  to  43 per  municipality,  i tdifficult increased  t o the  funding  s t a t u s quo  is  that  The will  are  adequate obviously  that e x i s t s we  other archival  cent of t h e  t o provide  funded problem —  institutions  government  l i k e a small  would merely have a more r i c h l y heritage  for a  u n s u i t a b l e t o the  $20,000 per annum, i n c r e a s e d funding would be it  assuming a  museums and  unaware  of  basic  p r i n c i p l e s , s e r v i c e s , f u n c t i o n s , and uses. same c r i t i c i s m , t h a t the  not  make the necessary  help t h a t has been Association  of  make  plans  it  i s helpful  structural  changes, a p p l i e s  given through the P r o v i n c i a l  British  v a r i o u s other p r o v i n c i a l to  p r o v i s i o n of s u p e r f i c i a l a i d  Columbia and f e d e r a l  Archivists,  A r c h i v e s , the the  organizations.  PAC, and In order  f o r archives  development at the l o c a l  to  of  be  aware  what  to  level  e x a c t l y t h e a i d from  11. QaQadi an Archi yes in i_!§2__ Survey °i Her i t age Institutions (Ottawa: P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, 1985), 9; the report d i d not s t a t e whether or not these s t a t i s t i c s i n c l u d e a r c h i v e s l i n k e d t o museums. 12.  " R e s u l t s of Survey," 5.  these p r o v i n c i a l  and -federal agencies has been.  The P r o v i n c i a l or  to  provide  documents and 1953  A r c h i v e s has not been a b l e adequate  t o accept  the r e c o r d s  that  position  districts, created, given  and  that  advice  and  the  the s t a f f help  The Document se, i s  to  to  Bovey,  o-f l o c a l  take  any  Second,  A r c h i v e s Advisor has been  of the  Provincial Archives  t h e r e being  no a r c h i v e s act  i t a p p l i e s to l o c a l  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or the P r o v i n c i a l  action.  Few  municipalities  i n s t i t u t i o n t o take t h e i r  the c u r r e n t  necessary Provincial  archival  that  Provincial  have  noncurrent  Archivist,  John widely  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the p r i n c i p l e  municipalites  should  care f o r t h e i r records.(15)  A r c h i v e s were  has  archives.<13)  t h i n k s , and c o r r e c t l y so when one c o n s i d e r s the  territoriality,  school  F i r s t , the Act i s p e r m i s s i v e as i t  held b e l i e f s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l of  of  p r a c t i c e as  e i t h e r the  approached the p r o v i n c i a l records.(14)  care  gap  made i t p o s s i b l e -for t h i s  local  inapplicable in  not d i r e c t  Archives  the  of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  D i s p o s a l Act,  a r c h i v e s f o r f i v e reasons. does  in  the  government r e c o r d s , d e s p i t e the -fact that s i n c e  the Document D i s p o s a l Act has  archives  per  leadership  to - f i l l  w i l l i n g to  accept  provide  the  T h i r d , i f the  local  government  13. Revised Statutes_gf_British Columbia, Document Disposal Act, 1983, c. 20, s. 4; based on the Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Act, see above, p. 8. 14. Leonard DeLozier, A r c h i v e s A d v i s o r , PABC, w r i t t e n comment to author, Sept. 1984. 15. John Bovey, P r o v i n c i a l Archivist of B r i t i s h Columbia, conservation with the author, Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, 3 November 1984.  57 records, were  a  i t would  rationalized  scheduled  records  Fourth, t o be  regional  being  alike,  other  show that vaguely  for  stated  retention.  V i c t o r i a where they would administrators  against Act i s of  districts.  i n v e n t o r i e d and  archival  local  forms  do so u n l e s s t h e r e  properly  to  be  L a s t l y , the  or s p e c i a l  with  records to  would  mention  for i t  selected  inaccessible  territoriality. not  system  remove l o c a l  relatively  citizens  does  be i m p r a c t i c a l  the  and  principle  of  not comprehensive as i t local  government  The above reasons  such as serve to  de j u r e a l t e r n a t i v e s concerning  the  care of a r c h i v a l documents  do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n t h e i r  adequate  the  preservation  administrative records  awareness  management  political  in  will  of  links,  and  a local  absence the  and  of  value in  p u b l i c and  of a r c h i v e s and i t s  the  base of  local  absence  of  local  r e s o u r c e s and e x p e r t i s e  from which t o implement the l e g i s l a t i o n . In  addition,  the  Archives  created by the P r o v i n c i a l cause any r e a l of municipal carried  out  changes i n  at  the  and  the neglected s t a t e Df the  Provincial a i d from  regarding  which  The  Advisor  Archives  and i n the f i e l d ,  the p r o v i n c i a l  museums  or  is  not  archives  records  documents. H i s d u t i e s ,  i n s t i t u t i o n to  a r c h i v e s , s e r v i n g as a c o n s u l t a n t , and g i v i n g seminars.  was  A r c h i v e s i n 1978, has been unable t o  government or other l o c a l  include coordinating local  A d v i s o r , whose p o s i t i o n  workshops  u s u a l l y c o n f e r r e d with should r e c e i v e g r a n t s  58 under  the H e r i t a g e  Trust or  Neither t h e one day a r c h i v a l  held  S e r v i c e s programs.(16)  seminar which i s given as p a r t o-f  a t h r e e day B r i t i s h Columbia student  Cultural  Museums A s s o c i a t i o n workshop -for  employment programs, nor the annual  at  the  Provincial  archives/museum  field,  Archives strongly  r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c o r d s  became p a r t - t i m e  this ideal, implement  as the records  ministries.  people a c t i v e i n t h e  emphasizes  the  l i f e cycle  management and archives.<17)  would have have been d i f f i c u l t position  for  f i v e day workshop  It  f o r the A r c h i v e s A d v i s o r , whose  i n 1982,  provincial  to further  government  management/archives  T h i s may have been the reason  the cause of  had only  begun t o  programs  for i t s  why the Advisor d i d  not a c t upon h i s i n i t i a l  p l a n s t o e s t a b l i s h contact with  the  Association  Managers  the  Municipal  of  Records  Officers  Affairs.(18)  and  A s s o c i a t i o n and the  Therefore,  his activities  Administrators,  M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l have not d e a l t with  l o c a l r e c o r d s management/archival matters t o any l a r g e e x t e n t , and no s u b s t a n t i a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s of  local  f o r the b e t t e r i n  the s t a t e  a r c h i v e s have o c c u r r e d .  Moreover,  the  A r c h i v e s , Manuscript  three  Main  Divisions  and Government Records,  Df the P r o v i n c i a l V i s u a l Records,  16. "PABC Management of Networking;" Leonard C. DeLozier, telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n with t h e author, 14 March 1986. 17. DeLozier, telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n with t h e author, 24 Jan. 1985; i n a d d i t i o n , t h i s was noted when t h e author attended a museum/archives workshop given i n Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia, June 1985. 18. Delozier (sic), "Focus," 6-7; DeLozier, c o n v e r s a t i o n with t h e author, 24 Jan. 1985.  telephone  and  Sound  and  Moving  Images,  quo.  a r c h i v e s a c t , no formal p o l i c y , and no s u b s t a n t i a l  from  i n s t i t u t i o n t o other a r c h i v e s .  consulting, publishing, of  most  of  o f f e r e d to  emphasis at direction systematic  Provincial efforts, government  to local  approach  s o l u t i o n s are  It can  not been  institutions  on how  or  in  archives in  caring  history  and  funding,  financial  as  backing  Government  the implementation the l o c a l  19.  time, the Records has had  it  may  hoc the  a need f o r l o c a l  well  as  provincial  f o r the development of local  government, and policies. the  mandate t o encourage  of r e c o r d s management/archival  l e v e l , although  For  Management Branch of  no d i r e c t  of  t o be  f o r t h e i r ad  f o r the development of comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n s At the same  a  records  has had  materials. be  the  in giving  collection  I t s f o c u s , of n e c e s s i t y ,  A r c h i v e s t o do more t h e r e w i l l  a i d and  of  the  that  t o develop  the implementation  local  expertise  be seen  A r c h i v e s has  programs,  smaller of  the  archives.(19) S u p e r f i c i a l  in  materials.  are  Laboratory's  archival  and  help  the  r e c o r d s management/archives systems f o r  Provincial  status  Training,  diffusion projects  Divisions'  the P r o v i n c i a l  on h e l p i n g the assortment  some  major problems.  management/archival unofficial  and  the  c o o p e r a t i o n with l o c a l being  t o the  government funding e x i s t , t h e r e i s only ad hoc  the p r o v i n c i a l  basis  difference  Conservation  have  provincial  real  well as the  Laboratory, As no  made l i t t l e  as  systems at  have an i n d i r e c t r i g h t t o do  "PABC Management of Networking with Local A r c h i v e s . "  60 so through i t s s e r v i c e t o v a r i o u s government m i n i s t r i e s which, as  noted  in  government. the  Chapter  Thus, l o c a l  Records Management  comprehensive  records  Three, i n t e r a c t with a r c h i v e s have  l e v e l s o-f  been unable to look t o  Branch f o r a s s i s t a n c e management/archival  r e c o r d s of municipal and other l o c a l  local  in establishing programs  f o r the  governments.  Furthermore, g r a n t s from two main donors, the M i n i s t r y of Labour and the M i n i s t r y of P r o v i n c i a l Services,  have i n t e n s i f i e d  S e c r e t a r y and Government  the museum/archives r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The M i n i s t r y of Labour funding f o r student employment programs is  h e a v i l y geared  towards museums  and only  in a  towards a r c h i v e s . ( 2 0 ) The M i n i s t r y of P r o v i n c i a l Government Archives  S e r v i c e s as and  L o t t e r y Grants the  Cultural  peripheral to  that  the  well as  Records  Management  Branch.  S e c r e t a r y and  Branch,  oversees the  Conservation Branch, and  Aid  to  a r c h i v e s i s only a  part of t h e i r funding programs and i s u s u a l l y for  museums.(21)  Under  way  a d m i n i s t e r i n g the P r o v i n c i a l  Branch, the H e r i t a g e Services  minor  the  tied  terms of the H e r i t a g e  20. Helen Tremaine, Training C o o r d i n a t o r , B r i t i s h Columbia Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n with the author, 24 Jan. 1985; the M i n i s t r y of Labour was contacted f o r information on how i t s funding had been d i s t r i b u t e d but was unable t o supply these s t a t i s t i c s . 21. B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e T r u s t , Annual_Repgrt_ British Columbia_Heritage Trust ( V i c t o r i a s M of PS & GS, 1979-81, 1982- 83", 1983-84, 1984-85); B r i t i s h Columbia, M of PS & GS, Cultural S e r v i c e s Branch, Grants, Awards_ and Subsidies (Victorias M of PS ?< GS) 1979-80, 1980-81, 1981-82, 1982-83, 1983- 84, 1984-85); E. R. Orchard, D i r e c t o r of the L o t t e r i e s Grants Branch, l e t t e r t o the author, Feb. 7, 1985, s t a t e d t h a t the s t a t i s t i c s were not available from the L o t t e r y Grants Branch.  Conservation  Act  archival  heritage property  i n order  t o be  British  Heritage  Trust,  Branch  Columbia gives  publication building  funds  for  assistance  restoration,  revitalization, commemorative  materials  projects  inventory,  religious  area  and  additional  conferences,  and  6  heritage  employment,  come  1  for  student  y e a r s , funds f o r a r c h i v a l  between  grants  scholarships,  buildings,  archaeology,  Conservation  and  a c t i v i t i e s . Over the to  considered  the H e r i t a g e  planning,  monuments,  be  supported.(22) Through the  capital  historical  must  p r o j e c t s have  percent of the annual  total  (see  Appendix One),  which was  #1,500,000 i n the 1984-85 period.(23)  The  Services  Branch,  through  the B r i t i s h  gives  grants,  awards  and  Cultural  Cultural  Fund,  professional  artist  services.  Under p r o f e s s i o n a l support  Branch  subsidies  for  support and program development p r o j e c t s , s e r v i c e  programs,  the  Columbia  gave  and  student  operating  #42,000 per i n s t i t u t i o n  s e r v i c e s , and  funds  special  support  and program development, averaging from #32,000 t o  i n the 1981-84 p e r i o d to an average of  twenty-seven museums per year, but not t o a r c h i v e s which had  a  separate  a  miserly  identity.(24) 0.2  per  cen  Funding of  the  for annual  a r c h i v a l p r o j e c t s was total  22. _RSBC, H e r i t a g e Conservation Act, 1979, 4, 1981) c. 165, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 23. B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e T r u s t . Qolumbia_Heritage_Trust_l?84-85.  which was  a very  ( c o n s o l i d a t e d Sept.  Annual_Repgrt__  British  24. B r i t i s h Columbia, M of PS & GS, C u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s Branch, PCQftssignal_Suppgrt and_Prggram_Develgpment ( V i c t o r i a : M of PS & GS), 3.  generous s i x and  one hal-f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s  period.(25) Under gave  -funding  community  . which  development  amounted  1984.(26)  (See Appendix Two.)  o-f funding  from the H e r i t a g e  during  the 1984-85  p r o j e c t s the  to  Branch  *8,725 -from  1979 to  The -fact t h a t the preponderance  Conservation  Branch  and C u l t u r a l  S e r v i c e s Branch goes t o museums weighs a g a i n s t the development of a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , the  mandate  of  emphasis t o the  the  and, n a t u a r a l l y enough,  two  branches,  h e r i t a g e , property,  gives  considering  a near e x c l u s i v e  and a r t i s t i c  q u a l i t i e s of  archival  artifacts.  separate  t r u s t f o r a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s could be e s t a b l i s h e d ,  archives are,  As t h e r e i s no a r c h i v e s act under which a  of n e c e s s i t y ,  museums. The r e s u l t as  the  has been that a r c h i v a l  research  and  a r c h i v e s are often  support  with the  processes  components  B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s  f a i l u r e of  archives  not  Association,  formed  professional  and  promote  administrative  the a e g i s  of  as well  of  local  ignored.  The A s s o c i a t i o n of concerned  e s t a b l i s h e d under  associated  in  the  amateur  competence and  the p r o v i n c i a l  early  archivists,  with 1970s has  communication among  has been  government t o  museums. by  a  The  group  of  endeavoured  to  i t s members.(27)  25. B r i t i s h Columbia, M of PS 8< GS, C u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s Branch, GrantSj. Awards and S u b s i d i es_ Apri 1 i?84_-_ March 1985 ( V i c t o r i a : M of PS 8< GS) , 38. 26.  I b i d . , Grants _Awards__and_Su^ i  27. Laurenda D a n i e l l s , "A B r i e f of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , " 1984).  (1979-84). H i s t o r y of the A s s o c i a t i o n _SQA„_iwsl|tter 10 (Summer  Educational  workshops  communication  and  seminars  has been promoted  the ABCA__ews_etter.  have  been  held,  through meetings and  and  through  Although i t has been l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e  i n moving governments to support  a r c h i v e s , the A s s o c i a t i o n  l o b b i e d p r o v i n c i a l and  governments f o r more  developing  municipal  legislation.(28) catalyst  municipal  in  The  archives  and  Association  the implementation  in  of the  help i n  obtaining  has a l s o  archives  wanted to  be  officers, been  functions  and  unable  with to  underdeveloped  with  little  funding,  no i n s t i t u t i o n a l  b a s i s of  cause  any  condition  of  structural most  the  p r o v i n c i a l network of  a r c h i v e s recommended i n the Wilson Report.(29) However, as organization  has  local  with  the  volunteer  power, i t has  changes  in  the  archives in B r i t i s h  Columbi a. From the above i t can tended  be seen that p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y  to l i n k a r c h i v e s with  former. T h i s  i s seen  Conservation  and  a r c h i v e s as a A r c h i v e s and  i n the  Cultural  museums funding Services  to the detriment policy  of the  Branches  minor subcomponent of museums. the Records  of  which  regard  The P r o v i n c i a l  Management Branch, both hampered  a u s t e r i t y programs and  lack of w i l l , have not  adequate  aid  in  management/archives  direction relationship  at  developing the  the  Heritage  provincial  or  has  local  the  by  given  records  level.  In  28. D a n i e l l s , " B r i e f H i s t o r y of the A s s o c i a t i o n ; " Kent M. Haworth, "Local A r c h i v e s : R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and Challenges f o r A r c h i v i s t s , " A r c h i y a r i a 3 (Winter 1976-77): 37-39. 29.  Baptie,  "Local Government Records i n Canada," 3.  64 addition,  the  Association  o-f  British  Columbia A r c h i v i s t s ,  although i t r e a l i z e s the need f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l and  provincial  archives l e g i s l a t i o n in  f o r the r e c o r d s of l o c a l any  p r o v i d i n g proper  care  has been unable t o cause  meaningful changes. When one  same  government,  responsibility  turns  situation  Archival  Appraisal  Conservation have  not  British  in  to the f e d e r a l the  efforts  Board,  I n s t i t u t e , as affected  Columbia.  of  the  other  basic  PAC  the  one  finds  PAC,  SSHRCC,  well as  the The  level  the the  much the National Canadian  agencies.<30) They  s t r u c t u r e of a r c h i v e s i n  realizes  t h a t the l i m i t e d  help  extended by the f e d e r a l government to a r c h i v e s has not been comparable to t h a t given t o museums and art g a l l e r i e s through the N a t i o n a l Museum Corporation or to heritage buildings through H e r i t a g e Canada.<31) The PAC  itself  has tended  the form of t r a i n i n g and Theoretically,  the  t o o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e to a r c h i v e s inventory training  in  programs.(32) is  30. See, MacDermaid, "Study Threes A r c h i v e s , " 59-67, f o r more d e t a i l s .  to  encompass both  Federal  Support  the  to  31. C l a v e t , "Appendix 15, S t r u c t u r e of the Canadian Archives System and Recommendations," Cogger at ign____at __.the ...Public Archiyes_gf_Canada; see a l s o , MacDermaid, 57-67; the nine Museum A s s i s t a n c e Programmes amounted t o $8.5 million in 1984-85, see In_Ygur Cgmmunitys. Natignal Myseums_ of __Canada 6QQyii_.Repgrt.j_ 1984-85 (National Museums of Canada, 1985), 60; the Archives Assistance Program of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada had $100,00 t o spend i n 1985 according t o Michael Swift, D i r e c t o r General of the PAC's Archives Branch, c o n v e r s a t i o n with the author, Oct. 1985, Ottawa. 32. Clavet, Cgggeration 28-33, 44-45.  at  the  P u b l i c_Archi yes_.gf .Canada,  archives  and r e c o r d s  B r i t i s h Columbia,  management areas,  i t has  The A r c h i v e s Branch courses per year  only extended  but, i n  to archives  o f f e r s two e x t e n s i v e  in archival  r e a l i t y -for training.  t h r e e or -four  week  management t o those who'have at  l e a s t one year's experience i n a p o s i t i o n r e l a t e d t o a r c h i v e s . The cost o-f the course, $400.00, -for those not employed by the Department stay  in  of Communications, Ottawa,  archives.  put  p l u s the  i t outside  The Records  expense of a month's  the  reach  Management Branch  of most l o c a l  sponsors an annual  four week course f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and f i v e day workshops f o r lower  level  provincial  staff. and  organizations  and  potential  be  Columbia its  to  The courses  foreign  governments  societies.(33) helpful  as the p r o v i n c i a l  Records  are intended f o r m u n i c i p a l ,  for  as  Federal  local  well  as  courses  private have the  governments i n B r i t i s h  Records Management Branch has based  Management  System  on  that  of  the  PAC.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , because of f e d e r a l government demand and due t o lack  of p u b l i c i t y , by  from  British  Columbia  the end of had  taken  management courses.(34) Thus, while  33.  1985 no municipal employee any local  of the PAC's r e c o r d s a r c h i v i s t s , who can  I b i d . , 45.  34. Jay A t h e r t o n , D i r e c t o r General of the Records Management Branch, PAC, l e t t e r t o the author, 31 Jan. 1985; Mr. Atherton f u r t h e r notes that only 14 municipal employees had taken the courses i n the 1978-84 p e r i o d : f o r the four week course i n r e c o r d s management, f o u r from Ottawa, one from Regina and t h r e e from Winnipeg; f o r the f i v e day course, two from Saskatoon, two from Regina and t h r e e from Winnipeg; Harry Chapin, Director of the PAC's Vancouver Records Centre, telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n s with the author, Feb. and Oct. 1985.  66 a f f o r d t o do so,  may  take advantage o-f the  archival training  program, i t i s u s u a l l y only f e d e r a l government departments  and  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from f o r e i g n  taken  the  PAC  has  governments t h a t have  r e c o r d s management t r a i n i n g . From  time to  sponsored r e c o r d s  time s i n c e surveys of  the e a r l y  archival materials  i d e n t i f y what documents e x i s t and 1971,  the  surveys  employment  programs,  government's major  were  Manpower  criticism  with and  of these  l o c a t e documents both i n and first  1960s, the  i n order  where they are l o c a t e d .  organized funding  under  student  provided  Immigration inventories  to In  summer  by the f e d e r a l  Commission.(35)  The  i s t h a t although they  out of a r c h i v e s , they are  only a  step  i n the a r c h i v a l process  of a p p r a i s a l , a c c e s s i o n i n g ,  arranging,  describing, conserving,  and  value  of i n v e n t o r i e s i s somewhat  p r o v i d i n g access.  The  dubious without the r e s t of  the necessary a r c h i v a l f u n c t i o n s . A  successful  communication Archival  and  example  of i n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n ,  coordination  is  seen  in  the  A p p r a i s a l Board which a p p r a i s e s documents valued  $1,500 donated to p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s f o r income tax purposes.  National  The  adminstration  honorarium f o r chairman of  fee  is  $75.00  over  deduction  per  the s e s s i o n i s $200.00 f o r  session, a  full  35. C l a v e t , Qgoperatxgn_at_the_Pu 33, "Appendix 19, Break-down ( s i c ) of Federal Summer Employment Programs;" Grace Maurice Hyam, "National Inventories," At(;.hiyes._Bul l e t i n 4 (June 1979): 1-2; "The National A r c h i v a l Survey i n B r i t i s h Columbia," ACA_Bulletin 4 (Dec. 1979): 4; AQA_Bulletin 5 (Aug. 1980): 3.  67 day,  and  $125.00  -for a  half  day  session.  The other two  members o-f the a p p r a i s a l committee u s u a l l y r e c e i v e $150.00 and $100.00 each.(36) The N a t i o n a l  D i r e c t o r has s t a t e d that  small  collection  local  archives  extensive appraisal or only a Columbia likely  a  the Board w i l l  that does not need  very l i k e l y charge nothing  minimal amount.(37) Most l o c a l do  not  reasons:  substantial valued  has  take  advantage  they  do  costs involved;  over  $1,500;  not  archives i n B r i t i s h  of t h i s think  are  s e r v i c e f o r three  they  they a r e not  they  if a  can  a f f o r d the  receiving  unaware  that  donations the  Board  exi s t s . (38) Another funding Research  federal  agency,  for archival T o o l s program.  SSHRCC,  has  p r o j e c t s through  its  Since  provided  major  Canadian S t u d i e s  1981, one of  i t s chief  goals  has been t o p l a c e a g r e a t e r emphasis than has been done b e f o r e on  Canadian  importance.(39) the major  Studies  and  strategic  themes  The Vancouver Island P r o j e c t  Research T o o l s r e c i p i e n t s i n  36. Sue M. B a p t i e (Regional D i r e c t o r of author, 25 Jan. 1985. 37. Stan Hanson, Workshop Edmonton, 15 June 1985.  on  of  national  has been one of  B r i t i s h Columbia with  NAAB), l e t t e r t o the  Appraisal,  ACA  Conference,  38. Another program seldom used by the a r c h i v a l community i s the Cultural Initiatives Program of the Department of Communications which s u p p l i e s c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e t o p r o j e c t s valued at over $200,000, McDermaid, "Study Three: Federal Support t D A r c h i v e s , " 58. 39. S o c i a l Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canadian Styd,ies_Research_Tgols__ Prggram_Gui del i n e s (1985) ; McDermaid, "Study Three: Federal Support t o A r c h i v e s , " 61-62.  68 $158,111 o-f the $381,784 spent i n that p r o v i n c e time  period  project i s  going  to  essentially a  institutions, improvement  districts,  records  as  o-f  the  school  well  is  the  PAC.  archival  valuable  Identifying process,  of  d e s c r i p t i o n , access, A  major  conservation archives aid. of  for  Canada,  select  other  archival  that are  federal offers  is  be  a  one  regional  step  supplement  and  i n the  to,  not  a  procedures, and the  appraisal,  arrangement,  services to collections. the  i s compounded  lack  by the  museums get  of  adequate  f a c t that  federal  only  conservation  I n s t i t u t e , under the auspices  Corporation,  i t s services  and a r c h i v a l  t o the surveys of  only  management  problem,  part of  Crown  primary and  The same c r i t i c i s m a p p l i e s t o  and c o n s e r v a t i o n  programs,  and  i n s t i t u t i o n s such  researching  providing  The Canadian Conservation the  o-f  locate records  material  i t should  process  government  districts,  Island P r o j e c t that p e r t a i n s  replacement f o r , proper r e c o r d s archival  as  to  l o c a l Vancouver Island h i s t o r y . the Vancouver  o-f l o c a l  s o c i e t i e s , churches and businesses.(41)  survey  documents p o t e n t i a l l y  Appendix Three.) T h i s  survey  m a t e r i a l s held by  as museums, h i s t o r i c a l aim  (See  municipalities,  secondary research  The  it.(40)  i n the 1981-85  to  the National  archives  Museums of  that are part of  p u b l i c museums and a r t g a l l e r i e s , but not t o a r c h i v e s having a  40. S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Qanadi an_Studi es ._Research_Tgol s ( l i s t of p r o j e c t s , 1982-87). 41. B a s k e r v i l l e and 173;  G a f f i e l d , "The Vancouver Island P r o j e c t , "  69 separate e x i s t e n c e . institutions other  to  The  check  environmental  I n s t i t u t e sponsors lighting,  matters,  workshops,  humidity,  lends  visits  temperature,  environment  and  measuring  instruments, and p r o v i d e s help i n emergencies.(42) In c o n c l u s i o n , i t can be seen t h a t -federal and p r o v i n c i a l aid of  to local  a r c h i v e s has been l a r g e l y inadequate  fostering rationalized  and comprehensive development.  i s due t o a lack of awareness by l o c a l public  of the  value of  archival  administrators  provision  of  a  funding  underdeveloped  state  provincial  local  museums  and  and only  that the m a j o r i t y affiliated  or l o c a l  of  of l o c a l  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who  suitable  expertise i n the  requirement  for a  and  records  comprehensive  f o r the  improve  to  serve  The r e s u l t has been  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  having any c a l l  are  f a u l t of museum needed b a s i c  on the necessary  elements such operational  as the need funding, and  a r c h i v e s f i e l d , as well management/archives acquisitions  the  federal,  developed  provided v i t a l l y  ongoing  professional  approach  have been  Essential  facilities,  inaction  Many  This i s hardly the  s e r v i c e s f o r a r c h i v e s without  for  to  archives.  archives  o f t e n have  or e x p e r t i s e .  political  which  secondarily archives.  with museums.  resources  from  local  services  and t h e  l e g i s l a t i o n necessary  base  This  i n s t i t u t i o n s and documents.  As a r e s u l t , t h e r e has been a corresponding to pass the p r o v i n c i a l  t o the task  life  as t h e cycle  mandate, have been  42. " C r i t e r i a f o r the Acceptance of Request s f o r Conservation Conservation and Research S e r v i c e s , " (a pamphlet), Can adian Insti tute.  70 overlooked  i n the a i d t h a t has been given.  When, as local  i s happening  l e v e l , uses  are ignored emerges.  such as  The r e s u l t  record, to  and  other  has been  public planners,  stunted  s e r v i c e t o the c r e a t o r of t o neighbourhood groups, t o  concerned c i t i z e n s of  s o c i e t y , has been l a r g e l y overlooked. unofficial  archival  perspective  h i s t o r y , geography, t h e s o c i a l  f i e l d s , and t o  documents  needs  archival identity  that t h e a r c h i v e s  the p r o v i s i o n of  Canadian s c h o l a r s of  museum/archives at the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and research  then an incomplete and  which emphasizes the  with many  are  sciences,  a democratic  Important o f f i c i a l and uncollected,  i n a c c e s i b l e , o r , even at worst, a r e destroyed.  remain  71 Chapter  5:  PREVIOyS__PROPOSALS  ARCHIVES_IN„BRIIISH Suggestions archives  in  British  q u a r t e r s , and have the  on how  t o -further the development  Columbia  although  potential  have  been  not implemented,  to  be a p p l i e d  scenario f o r the future  i n several  many of these  ideas  c r e a t i o n of  local  to the  r e c o r d s management/archival systems. provide a  made  of l o c a l  T h e r e f o r e , i n order i t i s of value  to  t o look at  recommendations t h a t have been made i n t h e past. In 1976, Allan  the P r o v i n c i a l  Turner,  A r c h i v i s t of  proposed  a  solution  British to  Columbia,  the  problem  of how t o c a r e f o r municipal r e c o r d s with a r c h i v a l v a l u e s . suggested  that  legislate  the  standard  Ministry  retention  municipalities to follow. more  productive  incorporated prove  feasible.(1)  with  regional  or  A c t , he  libraries  or  facilities c h o i c e , with  deposited  o r , as  the P r o v i n c i a l  suggested  municipal,  with  museums,  had  adequate  and somewhat r e l u c t a n t  A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  municipality  that  have t h e i r  with  i f they  a last  were a l s o  t h i s might not  archives,  societies  for  i t would be  programs  he  could  schedules  such programs, and  government  individual  Affairs  realized that  values  historical  and s t a f f ,  disposal  Consequently,  archival district  and  management  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s could e s t a b l i s h records  Municipal  Even though he thought  i f records  i n t o the  of  He  In  any  case, the  would r e t a i n t i t l e t o  1.  A r t i b i s e , Ciy£c_Archi_yal_Suryey_gf_Greater_Victoria, 29.  72 i t s documents. provincial  The  P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t thought that  government l e g i s l a t i o n or  through  regulation  A municipality should be empowered to establish a municipal archives -for the preservation o-f the historical municipal records or to associate itsel-f with other municipalities in the creation and maintenance of a regional or district archives, and to expend monies for facilities, equipment, p e r s o n n e l , and a l l other purposes necessary to the e f f e c t i v e operation of such an archives.<2) Turner  r e a l i z e d that each  municipality  assume i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but a c t i n g together could  might not  be able  to  a group of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  afford archival services.  In a d d i t i o n ,  he recommended: If legislative authority i s r e q u i r e d , the Municipal Act could provide for the appointment of a municipal r e c o r d s manager and a municipal a r c h i v i s t . . . . ( 3 ) Turner's  p r o p o s a l s came t o naught.  Columbia d i d not own  have r e t e n t i o n and  m i n i s t r i e s to  Affairs  was  not  f o l l o w , and in  for  municipalities.  was  no  to  receive  municipal  archives.  Archives  or museums,  unsuitable.  Even  I b i d . , 29. Ibid.  thus the  the  British  schedules f o r i t s  M i n i s t r y of  Municipal  develop d e t a i l e d schedules  Aside from the with  Government of  disposal  a p o s i t i o n to  municipality  necessary  The  C i t y of Vancouver  ability  regularly  or  scheduled  the  there  expertise  records  into  a  Other d e p o s i t o r i e s such as the P r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r i e s and so,  the  historical  former  s o c i e t i e s were  Provincial  Archivist's  suggestions importance  are o-f of  significance:  records  he  management;  management/archives r e l a t i o n s h i p ; l e a d e r s h i p and developing  legislation  standard  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to  c o r r e c t l y s t r e s s e d the he advocated  he i d e n t i f i e d the  from the p r o v i n c i a l  records  the r e c o r d s  schedules  and  need f o r  government i n in  establish individual, regional  empowering or  district  by  another  Recognizing  the need  a r c h i ves. Less  detailed  were  recommendations  a r c h i v i s t from the P r o v i n c i a l for  archival  regional  Archives.  decentralization,  d i s t r i c t s , through  Kent  powers  made  Haworth suggested  delegated t o them  that  through  the Municipal Act, could e s t a b l i s h a c o o r d i n a t e d framework f o r local  development based on a r c h i v a l  which was are  standards, s i m i l a r t o t h a t  p o s s i b l e i n the l i b r a r y f i e l d . ( 4 ) These  worthy  of  closer  analysis  because of the economies of  s c a l e t h a t have  been made p o s s i b l e  Public  Library  Systems  belong  to  resource types  each centre.  of  system This  libraries.  Systems, which serve  through share i s shown The  of  the  individual  municipal  population,  in a  libraries  and  Consolidated  the l i b r a r i e s which  central  40 per cent of the  c a p i t a o p e r a t i n g c o s t s of eight  i n the four  having a  suggestions  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  comparison with in  the  Consolidated  p o p u l a t i o n , have per  $13.97, compared t o $18.97 l i b r a r i e s which $26.70  other  f o r the  serve 18 per  f o r the Vancouver  cent  Federated  4. Haworth, "Local A r c h i v e s : R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and Challenges f o r A r c h i v i s t s , " 34-36; RSBC, Municipal Act, c. 290, s. 798.  74 L i b r a r y System which  s e r v e s 30.5 per cent  Approximately 80 per cent provided  locally.(5)  p o p u l a t i o n , which  o-f the funding f o r a l l l i b r a r i e s i s  The  remaining  live in  were  Haworth's  three  7  per  cent  i s o l a t e d communities  s e r v i c e through the p r o v i n c i a l There  o-f the p o p u l a t i o n .  a r e provided  One  t o t h e implementation of  was the  need f o r a g r e a t e r  p u b l i c awareness of the v a l u e of a r c h i v e s as has been out  in  both ' the  Symons  local  as an e s s e n t i a l  archival  based  combinations  on  of  local  districts  regional  governments  implemented  may  for their  in  local  Municipal Act could be legislation.  order  under  school  approach  this i s  Second i s the  the L i b r a r y Act t h e r e i s  support,  municipalities,  regional  service,  institutions.  need f o r a r c h i v e s l e g i s l a t i o n . Under criteria,  pointed  and Wilson r e p o r t s . P r e s e n t l y , the  p u b l i c l o o k s upon l i b r a r i e s not the case with  which  districts,  provincial, to  have  various  municipal  library  areas.(7) Haworth  and/or  where  districts.  or  services  s t a t e s that the  the v e h i c l e f o r implementing  archives  Yet, l i b r a r i e s , which he uses as an example, a r e  l a r g e l y governed by the L i b r a r y Act, and i t i s only i n areas  the  government.(6)  impediments  recommendations.  of  they In  are  the case  under  the  jurisdiction  of a r c h i v e s ,  remote  of r e g i o n a l  even i f proponents of  5. Based on s t a t i s t i c s provided by B r i t i s h Columbia, M of PS & GS, Library S e r v i c e s Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Public tibraries:__.Statisties, (Victoria: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1983). 6.  Ibid.  7.  RSBC, c. 235, s. 6, 16, 29, 30, 31, 40, 40.1, 41.  archival no  s e r v i c e s can  legislative  prove they have l o c a l  mechanism t o  f a c i l i t a t e change. The L i b r a r y  Act a l s o p r o v i d e s that t h e p r o v i n c i a l professional parallel  criteria  measure  support, t h e r e i s  f o r those  f o r archives  government may determine  working i n would  be  the field.<8) most  helpful  A in  developing the p r o f e s s i o n a l standards which a r e much needed at the l o c a l  level.  T h i r d , t h e necessary  has not been present, however formed B r i t i s h Columbia of l i b r a r i e s i n  provincial leadership  i t may develop  under t h e  C o u n c i l of A r c h i v e s . ( 9 ) A  newly  1966 study  t h i s p r o v i n c e noted that i n the establishment  of an e f f e c t i v e province-wide  interrelated  system  Experience elsewhere has shown that provincial l e a d e r s h i p i s the most e s s e n t i a l s i n g l e ingredient....(10) It  can  be  provincial  seen  that  legislation  the and  local  support  leadership  as  well  necessary  as t h e to  make  Haworth's suggestions a r e a l i t y have been missing. Nevertheless,  his  proposals  have  value because they  r e c o g n i z e t h e need f o r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a r c h i v e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  for  local  responsibility,  mechanism f o r t h e establishment  8.  of l o c a l  for a  legislative  a r c h i v e s , and f o r  I b i d . , s. 43.  9. The B r i t i s h Columbia C o u n c i l of A r c h i v e s was formed by a A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia members who had i n i t i a l l y met f o r t h e Annual General Meeting of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n , on 19 A p r i l 1986, at the C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s . 10. Rose V a i n s t e i n , Publ i c _ L i b r a r i e s _ i n_Br i_ti sh Columbia: A Survey with ......Recommendations (Victoria: Public Libraries Research Study, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966), 85.  76 archival time  standards  they  hint  and  at  professional  the  economies  through the establishment one  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and More  archives  detailed made  in  criteria. of  At  the same  s c a l e to be  obtained  of r e g i o n a l a r c h i v e s which have only  share a number of s e r v i c e s . were  1979  recommendations by  a  group  for  which  a  regional  included  urban  h i s t o r i a n Alan A r t i b i s e . ( 1 1 ) It proposed the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a cooperative  local  by municipal  and  regional  other  district,  recommended first  a r c h i v e s i n s t i t u t i o n which would be governed  a  local  government agencies such  school  three  board  stage  archival  step would see the establishment  composed  of  representatives  from  possessed a r c h i v a l documents, and of  British  qualified archives  Columbia.  This  professional development  plan  passed  agencies  by  The  c o n s u l t a n t , and  regional  district,  board,  the  the P r o v i n c i a l  one  or  regional  would  consultant area.  work  with  a  i n preparing  an  They would w r i t e  public records  step  which would  and  would  more members library  A r c h i v e s , and  11. A r t i b i s e , C i y i c _ A r c h _ y a l _ S u r  The  from the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s  the  other  include  of a permanent committee composed of a  archival  It  i n s t i t u t i o n s which  municipalites  second  board.  of an i n t e r i m committee local  the  concerning  participating  involved.  establishment  for  library  the  development plan.  committee  archives  a comprehensive by-law be  and  as  the  regional  each from  board, the  the general  the  school  public.  A  24-6.  77 major  innovation  management  would  be  t r a i n i n g and  the  advisory  participating municipalities policy  would  processing large.  of  as  wished to s t o r e  further  documents  house the  s t a f f , and  official  to  A  from  use of a l l  total  archives  the  deposit  the  community at  would i n v o l v e the establishment  building to  support  well  unofficial  of a r e c o r d s  s e r v i c e f o r the  and agencies.  developed  The t h i r d step  archives and  be  implementation  regional archival  to p r o v i d e storage  documents  from  t h e i r r e c o r d s at  and  of an  consultant  for unofficial  as  those o r g a n i z a t i o n s which the a r c h i v e s .  It  was  also  proposed t h a t the a r c h i v e s b u i l d i n g would have a r e s e a r c h area for  the  public  concerned  and  with  office  space  the  history  R e f l e c t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l not to  its  creative  in  management  records  training  members t o belong of i t s  and  to the  to  their do  the  archival  proposals,  which  governments  and  region.  service,  The plan of  and  a  was  records  i n allowing  r e g i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , take advantage  also  like  suggested  agencies,  the  i n s t i t u t i o n s i f they the Turner  Artibise  i n e r t i a , and  of the  have the o p t i o n  cooperation  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e demand i n the V i c t o r i a A r c h i v e s Advisor  still  t h e i r own  However,  implemented due to p o l i t i c a l  The  care.  establishment  advisory  records in  so.  the  p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n paying  r e c o r d s management s e r v i c e s but  keeping  wished  provided  suggesting  of  Canadian approach, the proposal d i d  envisage p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the have  of  for non-profit societies  and Haworth among  scheme was  local never  a lack of p u b l i c and  area.  Provincial  A r c h i v e s made a  78 suggestion British  that gave a  l e a d e r s h i p r o l e t o t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o-f  Columbia A r c h i v i s t s i n developing  archives.  In  a  1982  DeLozier -formulated stressing  address  to  a network o-f l o c a l  t h e A s s o c i a t i o n , Leonard  a program f o r a r c h i v a l c o o p e r a t i o n .  t h e importance of  institutional  While  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he  recommended that t h e p r o v i n c i a l  a s s o c i a t i o n provide  and  keepers of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  encouragement t o the r e c o r d s  other  institutions,  as  Officers  Association  problems  and  regional  archives  value  needs.  well  in  as  order  The  groups  to  be  through  of  new  archives  the discretionary  the p u b l i c be  within  made aware of  While most of t h e p r o p o s a l s  municipal  unrealistic. Archivist, members  and At  most  had  management.  had  little  The  Association  or  vacuum i n  that area.  the suggestion  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , that t h e museums  funding  funding  to  be  discouraged  programs, and that archives.(12)  records  of  keepers was somewhat t h e C i t y of Vancouver  B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s  practical  fill  that  e x p e r t i s e and encouragement  that time, a s i d e from Association  that  t o i d e n t i f y r e c o r d s of  were r e l e v a n t , t h e suggestion  institutional  expertise  of i t s  proposed  the importance of  the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n provide  12.  further  formed  use of  t h e Municipal  be made cognizant  Advisor  and t o encourage i n s t i t u t i o n a l  formation  to  approaching  expertise  experience  d i d not an  have  with the  educational  Thus, the A s s o c i a t i o n  necessary  and t r a i n i n g  d i d not a c t upon  and d i d not develop t h e proposed l o c a l  DeLozier, " A r c h i v a l Cooperation," 30  records  archives  79 network, but t h e l a t t e r Two Baptie  i d e a was not f o r g o t t e n .  years l a t e r , questioned  archives  the C i t y  the value  of Vancouver of  local  because "the h i s t o r y of  A r c h i v i s t , Sue  a r c h i v e s being  total  those i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e  l e v e l of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , does not t r a n s l a t e well i n t o t h e area of c i t i e s or m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . " ( 1 3 ) Instead, t h e C i t y saw  two main  Columbia:  types of p u b l i c  a r c h i v e s developing i n  one, separate l o c a l  museums of documentary  heritage.<14) To f u r t h e r t h i s end, she  that  between  r e c o r d s managers and a r c h i v i s t s . ( 1 5 ) Local  records  be  taught  for  should  the  are created  purpose has  to  of  Columbia  communication  with  Administrators  be  made  As well  Archivists  the  Union  more  business....  Once t h a t  may have v a l u e  as c o n t i n u i n g t o lobby  should  the Association open  lines  of  British  Columbia  A r c h i v e s should o f f e r i t s one  of  the p u b l i c  t h e a r c h i v a l value of l o c a l  13.  B a p t i e , "Local Government Records i n Canada," 6.  14.  I b i d . , 9, 10.  15.  I b i d . , 9, 11.  16.  I b i d . , 6.  of  of Records Managers and  t o both o r g a n i z a t i o n s and aware  archivists  a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e "that  she proposed t h a t  The P r o v i n c i a l  week i n t e r n s h i p program  education program  t h e documents  the A s s o c i a t i o n  and  Municipalities.  mutual  facilitate  research."(16) government,  British  a  fundamental  the p r o v i n c i a l  should  be  been accomplished,  historical  British  government a r c h i v e s , t h e o t h e r ,  thought  should  there  Archivist  80 government  r e c o r d s . (17)  these suggestions. museums/archives •for  should  not  noted  sophistication most  as  Therefore,  are  be  First,  are was  a that  the  most have begun to  of  management  it  is  j o i n e d to  of  mutual elected  provide  17.  the economies  time  r e c o r d s management  Program is  initiated  which has a r e c o r d s  more r e a d i l y  of s c a l e  In  available  will  and i f  t h a t can be d e r i v e d  the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s , then based on the municipal  concerning  among  archivists,  one of the  a r c h i v a l care  Ibid.,  Since that  Thus, i f t h e r e i s the p o l i t i c a l  o f f i c i a l s , while  would only be  ago.  s c h e d u l i n g procedures.(18)  Expertise  Third,  awareness  lack of  r e c o r d s management e x p e r t i s e and  a r c h i v e s could be developed  government.  the  have been a p p l i e d to  twenty years  Studies  from c o o p e r a t i o n between total  presently  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  component.  the  Second, i t  regarding  l i n k t h e i r a r c h i v e s to  Archival  than i t once was.  are  alternative.  comment  i n a l i f e c y c l e approach through a d d i t i o n , i n 1981  they  a r c h i v e s could  archives  Four,  to  stopgap one at best  as  practicable  of l o c a l  provincial  Master  major responses  shown i n Chapter  museums  these a r c h i v e s have developed  a  -four  r e l a t i o n s h i p has been a  archives.  organized  There  having a first  f o r the  the  i d e a of promoting a  records great deal  steps i n r e c o r d s of  level  managers  and  of u t i l i t y i t  developing p l a n s t o local  government.  11-13.  18. Freeman-Ward, "An A n a l y s i s of Document D i s p o s a l P o l i c y Procedures," 19-26; S w i f t , "Chairman's Message," 2.  and  81 Fourth,  i t should  be r e a l i s e d that separate  could prove a f a i l u r e f o r the  in preserving local  same reasons that  could.  There  has been  management/archives direction  or  dearth  legislation  of  of  Mare,  approach,  an  records  omission  of  the p r o v i n c i a l government, a  to understand the importance of r e c o r d s , and,  in  the  most cases,  a  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may  earnest  archival  Association prepared  take t h e i r  a r c h i v e s they wish to  response t o  the  national  development, of  British  "British  is  to  a r c h i v e s based on  c h o i c e as  provincial  the then  a  Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , Reuben  Columbia  formal  A r c h i v e s Development of the p l a n , which  provincial  consensus, c o o p e r a t i o n , archival  appeals  Vice-President  by the A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h  create  to  develop.  and  s p r i n g of 1985.(20) The goal  t o be administered  Archivists,  of the  level  then  P l a n " i n the was  the l o c a l  funding.(19) Once the above matters have been  planned the  records  local  which type of l o c a l  for  government  of knowledge  from  level  archives  a r c h i v e s at  cycle  values of municipal  rectified,  In  a lack  life  f a i l u r e at the l o c a l archival  total  municipal  Columbia  network of  standardization  a r c h i v a l procedures,  and  i d e n t i f i e s the need  to r a i s e p u b l i c awareness of the value of  19. Research questionnaire for Program: A Report," by B a r l e e .  a c c r e d i t a t i o n . ( 2 1 ) The  of plan  "Records Management Diploma  20. Reuben Ware, " B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s Development P l a n " (a paper c i r c u l a t e d to the A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia Archivists f o r d i s c u s s i o n at the Annual General Meeting, 19 A p r i l 1985, at the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a ) , 2-4. 21.  Ibid.,  2-6.  82 local  archives, to  encourage i n s t i t u t i o n a l  •find  ways of funding  local  a r c h i v e s and  i n s t i t u t i o n s such as t h e B r i t i s h and  concerned local  notes t h a t  acquisition which should  be a  c r e a t o r of t h e private  l o c a l documents.  institution"  arena f o r  Associations.(22)  t h e r e a r e t h r e e main o r g a n i z a t i o n s  with the c a r e of  "archival  which  archives  r e c o r d s h e r i t a g e , " and  serving the  r e c o r d as well as c o l l e c t i n g  individuals  and  non-government  A second c h o i c e i s t h e l o c a l  F i r s t , i s the  should become t h e "main  the Province's  total  t o communicate with  Columbia Museums A s s o c i a t i o n  t h e B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l The plan  responsibility, to  institutional  t h e documents of institutions.(23)  museum/archives.  It could:  perform a library f u n c t i o n by c o l l e c t i n g copies of m a t e r i a l s p e r t a i n i n g t o local h i s t o r y t h a t can support the museum o p e r a t i o n and provide educational programmes t o t h e community. In a d d i t i o n , i t c o u l d : acquire heritage records relating to the h i s t o r y of t h e i r communities by e s t a b l i s h i n g agreements with local i n s t i t u t i o n s and individuals. In terms of a c q u i s i t i o n of original records, local a r c h i v e s should be encouraged t o go as f a r as t h e i r r e s o u r c e s and community support can take them.(24) One  assumes  that  these  archival  s e c t i o n s of museums would  acquire o r i g i n a l  r e c o r d s only when an a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n was  not e s t a b l i s h e d  in a  22.  I b i d . , 2, 3, 5, 6.  23.  I b i d . , 4.  24.  Ibid.  local  area.  Third, i s the Provincial  83 A r c h i v e s o-f B r i t i s h Columbia which would only c o l l e c t micro-film c o p i e s archival  of the o r i g i n a l  held by the  local  institutions.(25)  The  plan  recommends  proposals  and  should be  made t o  to  development  grants. an  local  of  The  from  ways  which  of  fund  Direct  its  appeals  large institutions.  provincial  Fund"  to  archives.  Columbia A r c h i v i s t s  "Archives  interest  number  c o r p o r a t i o n s and  of B r i t i s h  establish  a  develop  Association  annual  documents  security  one  would  be  The  should apply f o r government  should  million dollars,  the  administered by  the  A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s . ( 2 6 ) Non-government institutions  housing  "contribute"  directly  l a t t e r suggestion proposals towards  which the  archives.  their  the  i s significant mentions  costs  The goal  of  the  caring  local  and  a provincial  is  commendable,  at  an  a r c h i v e s should  institution.(27) i s one  of the  private  sector  contributing  for  its  records  the  plan  first  at a t o t a l  development of a r c h i v a l  network based on these  but  This  as i t  of the p l a n , the  standards most  to  records  standards,  also  has  t h r e e major  total  archives  drawbacks. First,  25.  although  it  implies that  at the  Ibid.  26. Ibid., 2; the amount suggested seems r a t h e r small when compared with the one and a h a l f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s and the seven m i l l o n d o l l a r s i n i n t e r e s t alone given by the B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e T r u s t and C u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s Branch r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n the 1984-85 p e r i o d , as mentioned i n Chapter Three above. 27.  Ibid.,3.  84 local  level  Taylor  are  considers  involvement records  desirable,  in  an  the  management  is  entire  d i s c u s s what Hugh  o-f  total  archives,  c y c l e of r e c o r d s does not  or  given  the  through a  mention  O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , the Union  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and  contact  of  Association  British  of  Records  Without a l i f e c y c l e approach i t  the  importance  of  local  government  the wide acceptance of the n e c e s s i t y  management component i n  cosmetic  not  goal  li-fe  Administrators.  unlikely,  records  essential  Municipalities,  Managers and  does  program.(28) It  with the Municipal Columbia  it  improvement  total  will  for a  a r c h i v e s , that any  ensue.  Second,  it  but is  a  c o n t r o v e r s i a l point  whether the  p r o v i n i c a l government  would  g i v e the A s s o c i a t i o n  a large  of money t o administer  when  the  government  Archives  or  the  accountable t o The  has  the  alternate  Records  i t , which  Conservations  government  grants.  discussing  the  associations funding or changes  of  and  Branches as its  archivists  t o be implemented as  28.  is  in  Committee do  base from  48.  directly  a s s o c i a t i o n i s not. and  the  them t o d i s t r i b u t e Chapter on not  Local  Two  which t o  when  Archives,  have the  time,  accomplish  or p r o v i n c i a l spheres.  make i t d i f f i c u l t  outlined.  Taylor, A r c h i v a l S e r v i c e s ,  for  noted  respective national  Thus, the above impediments may  Branch,  Cultural Services  usually  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  in their  of the P r o v i n c i a l  Management  by the  Third,  ACA  choice  the p r o v i n c i a l  precedent e s t a b l i s h e d  Heritage  sum  f o r the  plan  85 To local  sum up:  archives  effective to Provincial  the p r o p o s a l s in British  date.  made f o r  Columbia have  As noted  the development of not proven extemely  by the A r c h i v e s  A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, the  Vancouver, and the D i r e c t o r of the Records  of l o c a l  reasons  a  why  base  archives. of  provincial  d i r e c t i o n , and l o c a l government not  in  place.  politicians  Even have  a r c h i v a l needs, number  of  Management Branch,  been  as the  of  the  territoriality,  include  developing local  and  and l o c a l  government  to  government  local  above recommendations historians  have  have shown, recognized  responsibility,  a  the  and  total  level.  of suggestions some  a  support  r e c o r d s management/archives r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  a r c h i v e s at the l o c a l  past  government  unresponsive  and  one of t h e  i n i t i t a t i v e and e x p e r t i s e are  institutional  The v a r i e t y  of the value and  i s likely  though p r o v i n c i a l  archivists  importance  This  of the  C i t y A r c h v i s t of  there i s a need f o r g r e a t e r p u b l i c awareness requirements  Advisor  that  are  scenario f o r  t h a t have worthy  cooperative  level.  Provincial  d i r e c t i o n from  the M i n i s t r y  been made  i n the  of c o n s i d e r a t i o n when total  government of Municipal  a r c h i v e s at the  involvement  though  A f f a i r s i n records  management matters i s a s e n s i b l e i d e a , as i s the establishment of  a  fund  latter  has  heritage  for  archival  already  conservation  a r c h i v i s t s and the of  British  been  development. set  the c u l t u r a l  fields.  Municipal  Columbia  in  A precedent f o r the s e r v i c e s and  Communication  Officers Association,  Municipalities  and  between the Union  the A s s o c i a t i o n of  86 Records  Managers  and  Administrators,  B r i t i s h Columbia Museums A s s o c i a t i o n Historical  Association  archivists, museums, as  a  has  been  as  well  as with  and the B r i t i s h  advocated.  A  number  have p r a g m a t i c a l l y made  museums t h e i r second c h o i c e  custodian has  of  archives  been  at  the  cooperation  local  between  level.  local  proposals while  have others  favoured have  matter.  The A r t i b i s e and  ideas.  The  archives  former  serving  management  a  total  questioned  that  the  archives  at the  local  new  the of  establishment  local  of a t o t a l  governments.  Records  a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s would be o f f e r e d t o  sector  which provided  at the  the Ware plans brought f o r t h two  variety  archival  private  documents.  the  p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies which would records  libraries  or merely ignored  suggested  t r a i n i n g and  archives  Also  government  school d i s t r i c t s i n p r o v i d i n g care f o r a r c h i v a l  level,  o-f  a r c h i v e s as poor c o u s i n s of  agencies such as m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s ,  Some  Columbia  aware of the r o l e of  considered  and  the  not n e c e s s a r i l y keep t h e i r  institution. should services.  The  directly  l a t t e r recommended "contribute"  to  87 Chapter  hi  CONCLUSION  Major f a c t o r s  i n the underdevelopment  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Kelowna, B r i t i s h lack  of p u b l i c and  archival  interest  in  the local  archival  and  community l e v e l  the value  a r c h i v a l documents, a l a c k of  f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and development,  archives  Columbia, have been a  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e awareness of  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  political  of l o c a l  subject  of  for archives.  a  lack  There has  local  a r c h i v e s , a lack of  a i d or l e g i s l a t i o n t o thus,  of  facilitate  of funding  at  the  a l s o been a need f o r  d i r e c t i o n from the p r o v i n c i a l government i n planning e f f e c t i v e records  management/archival  f o r most other a decision necessary the  systems f o r  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  on how  to overcome  these  t o study p e r s p e c t i v e s  records  Kelowna, as  on  management/archival  has  been  a r c h i v e s , to analyze  relationship,  knowledgeable of p a r t i c u l a r problems f a c i n g British  as  To come to  problems i t  local  well  local  and  to  be  archives in  Columbia.  Two archives  conclusions  have  been  reached.  that c o l l e c t both o f f i c i a l  i n a l l media, and  use  systematic  and  records  First,  unofficial  total documents  management procedures  have become a Canadian p u b l i c a r c h i v e s t r a d i t i o n which has potential  to  prove  municipalities. scale, private j o i n t funding  Second, and  a  valuable in  order  p u b l i c agencies  e f f o r t s at the l o c a l  and  p r i v a t e endeavours, a new  is  p o s i t e d that  example to may  level.  for  smaller  achieve economies of have t o  cooperate i n  By combining p u b l i c  type of a r c h i v e s i s c r e a t e d .  t h i s amalgam,  the  a cooperative  total  It  archives,  88 could  become  the  basis  for  archival  m u n i c i p a l i t y o-f Kelowna, B r i t i s h T h i s study  has -focussed  the development level  of t o t a l  i n the  Columbia.  on  i s s u e s t h a t are  o-f c o o p e r a t i v e  of government.  development  at the  local  It has taken as i t s b a s i s t h e four  goals  a r c h i v e s as d e f i n e d  total  archives  relevant to  by Hugh T a y l o r :  Involvement i n the e n t i r e l i f e c y c l e of r e c o r d s through a r e c o r d s management program. The a c q u i s i t i o n of documents aspects of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y .  to reflect a l l  A c q u i s i t i o n of a l l media of (the) r e c o r d . Involvement in interchange of pianning.(1) They  have been rearranged  through  service  Two  development of time  the  responsiblity, and  to  a r c h i v e s at the l o c a l  provided  local  an  concepts the  of  records  federal, provincial  i s believed  c l o s e as the  a r c h i v e s should  be  overview  Canada.  I t was  of  the  shown t h a t  institutional  management/archives r e l a t i o n s h i p  and l o c a l  that l o c a l  should  records  level.  territoriality,  networks, both formal and  accepted  among a r c h i v i s t s .  a r c h i v a l material  p o s s i b l e t o i t s area of  record  government  historical  archives i n  i n f o r m a l , have become widely it  municipal  as  p o t e n t i a l t o be an important f a c t o r i n the  development of t o t a l Chapter  t o put r e c o r d s management f i r s t ,  provided  management has the  over  expanding networks f o r the information and s t r a t e g i c  origin,  responsible  be l i n k e d t o r e c o r d s  1. T a y l o r , A r c h i y a l S e r v i c e s , 48.  for  should  Thus,  remain as  t h a t the c r e a t o r of i t s c a r e , and t h a t  management while at the  89 same time p r o v i d i n g The  federal,  a service to  provincial  and  the c r e a t o r o-f  many  of t h e l a r g e s t  governments i n Canada have implemented t o t a l but  the r e c o r d . municipal  a r c h i v e s systems,  i t has u s u a l l y proven i m p r a c t i c a l t o extend t o t a l  archives  t o most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as i t i s beyond t h e i r means t o have the p u b l i c purse bear t h e t o t a l local the  level  ease  by  Candian  historians.  burden  establishing  of  caring  cooperative  organizations  the  In  business,  the  the archives.(2)  issue  unofficial  of  which  costs  union  documents  records  responsibilities  agency  would  provide  concerns r a i s e d  care  i n the  e s t a b l i s h a Canadian  A r c h i v e s System.  network i s t o be p r o v i n c i a l / t e r r i t o r i a l  then plan distributed  or t e r r i t o r y  a program through  of  their  The  b a s i s of t h i s  c o u n c i l s of a r c h i v e s archives.  i t s requirements and  grants and  respective  By 1985,  had decided  institutional  i s t o analyze  of a r c h i v a l  the  Wilson Report, f e d e r a l  to  composed of i n d i v i d u a l  for  communties.  responsible f o r culture  Each p r o v i n c e  or  However, the r e p o r t d i d not address  provincial ministers  be  a  the r e s p e c t i v e  and  which w i l l  by  from  local, parish, with  and  documents generated i n l o c a l  responding t o  communities could  The  be housed together  sharing  1980, the h i g h l y  archival  archives.  university, municipality, a s s o c i a t i o n could a l l  for  at t h e  d e s p i t e urgings t o  Wilson Report suggested that l o c a l  the  operating  Archival materials  have remained l a r g e l y neglected  contrary  acclaimed  costs.  services to  councils  2. Wilson Report, 92, see above, pp. 21-22.  be  to archival  ' 90 i n s t i t u t i o n s . <3> development, archival  When one  and  the  progress  it  s t u d i e s the background  national  and  provincial  becomes  evident  that  a p p r o p r i a t e -for the implementation Kelowna, B r i t i s h As  the  integral is  records  core  a-f-filiated Chapter  the  Three  at the  government.  It  was  do  overlooked.  costs  modern  values  programs, provide  in  would them with  municipal  records  federal  strongly Very  are  either  officers,  the  into  Columbia most and  provincial records even  procedures  municipal  neglected  or  the is  records  destroyed.  r e a l i z i n g the s i m i l a r i t y of  of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s individual  and the high  r e c o r d s management  of Municipal A f f a i r s t o  especially  time  l e v e l s of  developed  management  Ministry  guidance,  closely archives,  local  often,  has been t h a t most  developing  like  and  their  records  be  management/archives  British  a  management needs  involved  is  government  total  in  relationship.  Knowledgeable municipal the r e c o r d s  unlike  The r e s u l t  archival  records  that  have  to  cooperative  the  found  not  of  likely  federal, provincial  governments,  implementation  time  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an  and as municipal  agency  proposed  management/archives  with  archives,  analyzed  relationship  counterparts,  the  -for  o-f an a r c h i v e s s t r a t e g y -for  management/archives  administrative  with  municipal  plans  Columbia.  p a r t D-f t o t a l  the  o-f a r c h i v a l  periods  i n the s c h e d u l i n g of for  retention  and  d i s p o s a l . However, these same o f f i c i a l s are l a r g e l y unaware of  3.  "The  Canadian A r c h i v e s System,"  3-4.  91 the  value o-f  archival records  n a t i o n a l communities. Provincial  Thus, i t  Archives  o-f  government's Records the  M i n i s t r y o-f  them  archival  provincial  i s an opportune time  British  Municipal  governments  a r c h i v e s plan  i n records  matters.  It  the  holistic  to provide  management, and must  and  with  direction to t o educate  be r e a l i z e d any t o t a l have t o work w i t h i n  r e s t r i c t i o n s , e x i g e n c i e s and g u i d e l i n e s  formed  perspective  provincial helpful  newly  -for the  i n conjunction  developed f o r Kelowna w i l l  government  and  Columbia and the p r o v i n c i a l  Affairs,  f o r the r e c o r d s management/archives As  local, provincial  Management Branch,  municipal in  t o the  Canadian  and  national  t o analyze the  field.  as  A r c h i v e s System takes a  Kelowna  community,  is in  part  of a l a r g e r  Chapter Four i t was  i n t e r r e l a t e d problems that f a c e  local  a r c h i v e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. It was found t h a t t h e r e has been a lack of p u b l i c and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e awareness of archival  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  political  interest  federal, provincial  in  the value of  a r c h i v a l documents, a lack of l o c a l the  and l o c a l  subject  of  a r c h i v e s , a lack of  funding, s e r v i c e s or l e g i s l a t i o n  t o f a c i l i t a t e a r c h i v a l development, a l l of which have r e s u l t e d in  a lack  of a r c h i v a l  development at  date, there are no  provincial  which  be  grants  can  i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( 4 ) Thus,  the l o c a l  or f e d e r a l a r c h i v e s  level.  To  a c t s under  s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d towards a r c h i v a l most a r c h i v e s i n  B r i t i s h Columbia are  4. The f e d e r a l government i s p r e s e n t l y attempting t o pass new a r c h i v e s l e g i s l a t i o n which would make i t p o s s i b l e f o r the PAC to give more formal a i d and d i r e c t i o n t o p r o v i n c i a l and local archives.  minor  subcomponents  receive  largely  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more funding  and p r o v i n c i a l do.  o-f museums,  or p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f either u n o f f i c i a l  facilities  t o p r o v i d e adequate  documents or  and p r o v i n c i a l  institutions  have the r e s o u r c e s ,  necessary  museums  and s e r v i c e s from f e d e r a l  governments than separate a r c h i v a l  Yet, most museums do not  the f e d e r a l  because  official  care f o r  records.  Moreover,  archives l a r g e l y ignore the records  management/archives component i n t r a i n i n g that i s provided t o local  archives.  management  Yet, i t i s widely r e c o g n i z e d  should  p r a c t i c e . Although  be  an  the S o c i a l  Council of Canada through program has provided to  important  component  that r e c o r d s of  archival  Sciences and Humanities Research  i t s Canadian  substantial  S t u d i e s Research T o o l s  funding t h i s has  not helped  s o l v e t h e problems r e l a t i n g t o t h e underdevelopment of most  local  archives.  . suitable  At  the  facilities,  professional  local  locally  s t a f f , a records  approach, and  level  essentials  provided  such  operating  as  funds,  management/archives l i f e c y c l e  comprehensive a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s  are u s u a l l y  not i n p l a c e . In  t h e past  ten years  a  number  of  a r c h i v i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have addressed to  solve  the  problems  besetting  local  recommendations were o u t l i n e d i n Chapter plan  f o r the  development  Kelowna i t i s important  past.  and  t h e i s s u e of how archives.  Their  F i v e , as i n order  cooperative total  t o take i n t o  that have been made i n the Provincial  of  historians  to  archives i n  consideration proposals  In 1976, A l l a n Turner,  A r c h i v i s t of B r i t i s h Columbia,  advocated  then  direction  from the M i n i s t r y ministry  of Municipal A f f a i r s .  could  r e t e n t i o n and government,  pass  legislation  which  d i s p o s a l schedules f o r empower  thought would  that the establish  the r e c o r d s of municipal  municipalities  r e g i o n a l , or d i s t r i c t  He  to  develop  individual,  a r c h i v e s , and p o s s i b l y even  provide for  the  appointment of municipal  That  same year, Kent Haworth, an a r c h i v i s t with the P r o v i n c i a l  Archives  of  British  a r c h i v e s , based on  r e c o r d s managers and  Columbia,  recommended  Municipal Act.  In 1979,  by urban h i s t o r i a n Alan A r t i b i s e presented of a t o t a l  V i c t o r i a area. local  This  governments.  agencies  could  training  and  necessarily archives Advisor less  was One  take archives  keep  the  to be idea  their  In  the  owners  improvement  the  image  public. new  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  between  that p a r t i c i p a t i n g records  service  management  offered,  records  in  the  but  not  regional  Len DeLozier, the A r c h i v e s  recommended c o o p e r a t i o n between  of  personal of  of  regional archival and  archival archives  institutional documents,  in  and  the eyes of the  he recommended a g a i n s t the formation of  a r c h i v e s w i t h i n museums.  A r c h i v i s t of  a group headed  a r c h i v e s f o r the Greater  the formation of  by  be  A r c h i v e s , proposed a l t e r n a t e and  He  responsibility  should  a d e t a i l e d plan f o r  unique, of  1982,  assumption  of  was  archival  Provincial  c r e a t o r s of r e c o r d s , the  regional  based on c o o p e r a t i o n  advisory  detailed solutions.  groups,  regional  advantage  institution. of  that  the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y p r o t o t y p e ,  e s t a b l i s h e d under the  the development  archivists.  In 1984,  Sue  B a p t i e , the  Vancouver, recommended l e a d e r s h i p  City  r o l e s f o r the  94 Provincial  A r c h i v e s of  B r i t i s h Columbia, and  of B r i t i s h  Columbia A r c h i v i s t s  two  of  types  archival  in aiding  repositories:  the A s s o c i a t i o n  the development of  separate governmental  i n s t i t u t i o n s and museums of documentary h e r i t a g e . of  the  other  proposals,  r e l a t i v e l y few  archives  this  scheme t h e r e would be level.  However,  l i k e many other a r c h i v i s t s , the C i t y A r c h i v i s t saw a  need f o r  increased  total  under  U n l i k e some  at the  local  p u b l i c awareness of the value of a r c h i v e s . By  Reuben Ware, provincial  1985,  D i r e c t o r of the Records Management Branch of the of  the  A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , had suggested  that  local  government,  archival  should be the  and  then  i n s t i t u t i o n s , which  Vice-President  would be  major c o l l e c t o r s of the  h e r i t a g e with a secondary f u r t h e r recommended A r c h i v i s t s should  p r o v i n c e ' s documentary  r o l e being assigned  t h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n help t o  total archives,  implement a  t o museums.  He  of B r i t i s h Columbia  provincial  network of  a r c h i v e s based on consensus and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the primary l e v e l s of  archival  activity.  He, a l s o , saw a  need t o r a i s e  public  awareness of the v a l u e of a r c h i v e s and suggested  idea,  that  large  encouraged t o  non-government  contribute d i r e c t l y to  care f o r t h e i r r e c o r d s . spring  of  1986  very  c o n d i t i o n of l o c a l Thus, i t administrative  institutions  should  be  a r c h i v e s which provided  D e s p i t e the above s u g g e s t i o n s , by the little  had  been  done t o improve the  a r c h i v e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  can be  seen that  awareness of  federal, provincial  a new  and  local  i n the  the value political  p a s t , the p u b l i c and of a r c h i v e s , initiatives  and the necessary  •for  l e g i s l a t i v e change  i n and  management/archives f i e l d local  areas,  such  as  management/archives archives,  the  Kelowna,  and then take  of  recommendations archives  records  m i s s i n g . For the p r e s e n t , can  this  define case  their  records  cooperative t o t a l  the s t e p s necessary  of  t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , the problems  in  the l o c a l  t o achieve them  Taylor's four goals f o r  importance  the  have been  goals,  bearing i n mind Hugh  -funding o-f  total archives,  institutional  responsibility,  r e c o r d s management/archives r e l a t i o n s h i p , archival  for  should be  underdevelopment,  improvement. prepared  to  For  the  and  previous  future,  become p a r t  local  of the Canadian  A r c h i v e s System and i t s proposed network of a r c h i v e s . A  Scenari_g_f or _the_Deyel_opment  of.Cooperative  iQ_!$el Qwna__BrIt i sh_Cglumbia_ Although  many  problems, i t i s  areas  likely,  in  as i s  may f u n c t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l be d i f f e r e n t r e s o l u t i o n s t o based  on  the  communities,  province  the case with  have  similar  l i b r a r i e s which  or c o o p e r a t i v e b a s i s , t h e r e w i l l them.  economic  attitudes  this  and  population  probably  foundations  be of  the  importance  of  management/archives  development, and  the general  cooperative  or  perspective  individualistic  offered  for  Kelowna  cooperative total  Kelowna  order  to  it  will  is  a  archives.  a p r o t o t y p e f o r other In  towards  Solutions will  of  small  the  citizenry.  scale  records  What i s  p i l o t project for  If s u c c e s s f u l , i t c o u l d serve as  areas.  solve be  the  archival  necessary  to  problems e x i s t i n g i n raise  public  and  96 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e awareness of and of cycle  the n e c e s s i t y approach.  municipal  for a  It  and  the value and needs  will  r e c o r d s management/archives l i f e also  other  be  local  imperative  government  they  should  operating needed be  assume  responsibility  c o s t s , adequate  f a c i l i t i e s and  t o maintain an a r c h i v a l  shown why  i t i s important  directives  linking  following  Taylor's  Archivist will  convince and  private sector,  for  the  ongoing  professional staff  i n s t i t u t i o n . They w i l l  need t o  t o have l e g i s l a t i o n or e x e c u t i v e  records  management  total  to  politicians  b u r e a u c r a t s , as well as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e why  of a r c h i v e s ,  archives  to  archives,  goals,  why  and,  the  City  need t o be i n v o l v e d i n a l i f e c y c l e approach t o  r e c o r d s management. It  must  be  realized  that  a  small m u n i c i p a l i t y  a c t i n g as a separate e n t i t y would l i k e l y p r o v i d e adequate a r c h i v a l achieve  the  suggested Archives  by  for  provided  the  care f o r i t s own r e c o r d s , l e t  of  total  Wilson  Report  archives. and  the  Development P l a n , e f f o r t s should  other l o c a l pay  goals  find i t d i f f i c u l t to alone  Therefore,  B r i t i s h Columbia  be made t o i n v o l v e  governments and p r i v a t e agencies, and t o have them  records to  management  them.  or  archives  Unfortunately,  services that are  there  a r c h i v e s act t o make c o o p e r a t i v e a r c h i v a l  is  no p r o v i n c i a l  e f f o r t s among p u b l i c  agencies p o s s i b l e as has occurred with r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s . the other hand, responsibility archival  as  the p r i v a t e s e c t o r by would pay f o r  values  as  assuming i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the care of  well  as  On  i t s documents with  for  other  records  97  management/archives not  bear  services.  a l l the expense,  engendered by a sharing suitable  -facilities,  selection  o-f o f f i c i a l  and  proper  that  archival  Although  in  would  ensure  economies  o-f  expertise,  sta-f-f , and  that  and u n o f f i c i a l  a  scale,  comprehensive  documents i s gathered,  i s provided  for locally  generated  of Kelowna has the p o t e n t i a l t o launch a  project  the  systematically  well  museum program  has  official  been  or  and  which has  future.  archives.  failure  unofficial and  conservation  supply, t h e r e a r e  f o r the  a  professional  facilities,  been i n short  bode  there  although f u n d i n g ,  s t a f f , proper  have a l l  f o r a cooperative total  past  collect  documents, and  that  the  would  materials.  scale p i l o t  support  and  t h e p u b l i c purse  o-f pro-fessional  care  The m u n i c i p a l i t y small  Thus,  to  archival technical programs  a number of f a c t o r s  There i s a wel1-developed  a nascent  a r c h i v a l component.  In  1986, the Kelowna Centennial Museum w i l l be unique among small museums i n Canada as i t w i l l have professional access.  conservator  to  There i s a h e r i t a g e  developed  under museum  house a l o c a l archivist,  archives.  who  feasibility  study  which  an  archives  and a have  b u i l d i n g , owned by t h e c i t y  and  has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o  Under the d i r e c t i o n of a p r o f e s s i o n a l volunteer  from p u b l i c and on  laboratory could  a u s p i c e s , which  i s providing  i n t e r e s t and support  a research  local  archival  help t o the museum,  p r i v a t e agencies f o r  a  development have been  98 documented.<5) educational  The  Museum  services  to  presentations  at  schools,  p u b l i s h i n g o-f l o c a l  history.  i s presently scholastic  providing  institutions  travelling  exhibits  major through  and t h e  The D i r e c t o r of the Museum i s an  e x c e l l e n t f u n d - r a i s e r , c o l l e c t i n g approximately f o r t y per cent of the annual  $250,000 budget i n t h i s manner.(6) Thus,  this  i n s t i t u t i o n , which i s a l s o one of t h e four f e d e r a l government National  Exhibition  considerable one  that  favouring the  City  management  and  academics  and  within the c i t y archival  in  British  Columbia,  has  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f u n d - r a i s i n g e x p e r t i s e , and i s  of the w e a l t h i e s t  factor  Centres  local  archival Clerk  museums i n the p r o v i n c e . development  understands  the  i n t h i s community i s value  i t s linkages  to  archives.(7)  administration  at  Okanagan  l i m i t s , favour  institution  c o l l e c t i o n , processing  which  a i d the  of  records  In a d d i t i o n ,  College,  the establishment  will  Another  of a  located local  identificiation,  and p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents u s e f u l t o  5. Letters of support from the municipal government, Okanagan C o l l e g e , the Chamber of Commerce, the C e n t r a l Okanagan Regional D i s t r i c t , School D i s t r i c t Twenty-three, t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n , the Kelowna Branch of t h e Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , the Anglican Diocese of Kootenay, the genealogy s o c i e t y , the m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y , l o c a l radio stations, as well as from the PAC and the A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , October 1985 - February 19B6, i n Kelowna Centennial Museum f i l e s . 6. Kelowna Centennial Museum and National E x h i b i t i o n Centre, "Financial Statement, 1984," "Education Report, 1985," U r s u l a Surtees, Director, conversation with t h e author, November 1985. 7. Richard Beauchamp, C i t y Clerk of t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y of Kelowna, l e t t e r t o t h e author, 8 November 1985, i n the Kelowna Centennial Museum f i l e s .  99 their  respective  needs.  The  Research  College  Tools  records  teaching,  Program  survey  Regional  heritage  and  predisposition  college  area  District. in  of the Okanagan  system,  and  the  packing  houses.  Canadian  i s a strong i n t e r e s t i n  community.  There  is  some  e f f o r t s as Kelowna i s the  Regional British  L i b r a r y , a multicampus  Columbia  Fruit  a c o o p e r a t i v e marketing Another  Studies  encompassed by the C e n t r a l  There  the  the  f o r funding t o conduct a  towards c o o p e r a t i v e  A s s o c i a t o n , composed of and  SSHRCC  the  history  and r e c o r d s management  approached  o-f  within  Dkanagan  headquarters  has  research  important  Growers  organisation  f a c t o r i s that t h e  Kelowna area, with a p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n f o r 1990 of 105,600, is  the l a r g e s t  centre  and w e a l t h i e s t  i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , which  biggest  fruit  growing areas i n  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e predisposition the c i t y ,  prototype  in  as well  make Kelowna the  It i s l i k e l y that i n i t i a l Centennial  i s one of t h e museum,  and the l o c a l  as the importance Df  a logical  challenging  f o r cooperative t o t a l  Kelowna  in itself  Canada.(8) The strong  to cooperation,  role  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  demand, the s c h o l a r l y need,  serve t o  leadership  the  commercial  task  c e n t r e t o take a of  developing a  archives. development w i l l be f o s t e r e d by  Musuem  administrative structure i n place,  as  it  already  has  an  i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y funded by  8. B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Municipal A f f a i r s , S t a t i s t i c s Ri-I.ilting__._to_.Regional ._Qd_.Muni.ci pal _..Governments, 27, 63, 67; British Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Industry and Small Business Development, Br i t i sh_Cgl umbi a_.Fact s ..an_d_Stat.i st i c s ( V i c t o r i a , 1985), 9; B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Economic Development, i!!Zit..i h_Cgl ymb.la_.Regi onal^ Xndex. 1978, 159. s  100 the municipal  government, has access t o f e d e r a l  and  provincial  funding and s e r v i c e s which favour museum/archival development, and  has access t o Museum  its  own  conservator  converting  the  accommodation  A s s i s t a n c e Programmes personnel  for  advice  heritage  with  on  the  building  atmospheric  and  estimated c o s t of  into  control.  . an  archival  Plans f o r a r c h i v a l  development cannot a f f o r d t o ignore funding which promotes the museum/archival r e l a t i o n s h i p , even though, as noted Four,  a number  of museologists  t h i s i s the best the  and a r c h i v i s t s  arrangement f o r a r c h i v a l  time being, however, the  i n Chapter  do not t h i n k  development.(9) For  financially logical  step i s the  second c h o i c e of the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s Plan - a r c h i v a l development under the a e g i s of a museum.(10) Based on suggestions  the f a v o u r a b l e made  in  the  c o n d i t i o n s mentioned  past  by p r o v i n c i a l  archivists  h i s t o r i a n s , but at the same time being aware of the obstacles  t o be overcome, a  begin.  First,  group,  an  as suggested interim  established.(11) municipal  It  government,  number of  i n the proposal  Steering could  have  Centennial Museum,  other l o c a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s being  See above, pp. 53-55.  10.  See  above, p.  82.  11.  See above, p.  76.  a  and  formidable  phases should  from the A r t i b i s e  Committee  should  be  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the  the school d i s t r i c t ,  the Kelowna  9.  planned  above and  and the  Okanagan C o l l e g e ,  p r i v a t e s e c t o r , with  c o n s u l t e d from time t o time.  101 For the necessary a person  to be provided i t i s e s s e n t i a l  knowledgeable i n  management  be  professional could  guidance  part  the -fields of a r c h i v e s  of  the  committee.  archivist/records  take that p l a c e .  In another  British  Columbia  Archivists,  British  Columbia,  or  could  be  the  approached  committee  whose  members  should  fund-raising  processes  the  t h i s case,  advising  case,  records the  the Museum  the A s s o c i a t i o n of  Provincial  Archives  of  B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s C o u n c i l  for  backgrounds  manager  In  and  that  a  representative.  have  a  expedite that  variety  the are  a  Having a small  of  skills  and  d e c i s i o n . making  and  prerequisite  for  the  development of a c o o p e r a t i v e t o t a l a r c h i v e s . Although recommended archival  by  the  awareness  institutions. political provincial  Steps  interest  Report  of must  i n the  and f e d e r a l local  and  e s p e c i a l l y , should  be  there i s a  value taken  of  local  need f o r archival  to overcome the lack of  s u b j e c t of l o c a l  archives.  Local,  be informed  of  i n Kelowna f o r a f e a s i b i l i t y study  of a l o c a l be made  administrative  management/archives  the  and  a r c h i v e s . Municipal cognizant of  cultural  as  i n various plans f o r  p o l i t i c i a n s should  support  the establishment  both  Symons  development i n B r i t i s h Columbia  increased  extent of  evidence of p u b l i c support has been gathered,  relationship.<12)  of It  on  politicians  the importance,  uses,  the  the will  for  records prove  12. Okanagan C o l l e g e sponsored a seminar f o r the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal Officers Association on the importance of municipal r e c o r d s management and archives development. It was held i n P e n t i c t o n , IS A p r i l 1986.  102 advantageous servants  t o have  and  the p r i v a t e  politicians  sector, the  realize  civil  t h e importance of r e c o r d s  management/archival systems at t h e l o c a l Funds f o r an a r c h i v a l  public,  level.(13)  development study should be sought.  Local agencies, i n c l u d i n g those which wrote l e t t e r s of support f o r the federal  f e a s i b i l i t y study, and p r o v i n c i a l  Canadian s t u d i e s , the networking the  and c u l t u r a l  i n i t i a t i v e s . Keeping  approach  the  of a r c h i v e s t o a s c e r t a i n total  coordinated  with  levels.  community  well as  sources of grants f o r a r c h i v e s museums,  should  cooperative  federal  p e t i t i o n e d as  i n mind  g o a l s of t h e proposed Canadian A r c h i v e s System,  Committee  councils  should be  archives funding  at  groups  should  use  also  and p r o v i n c i a l  whether e f f o r t s t o found a the  activities  Workshops,  federal  of  be  local at  level  can  be  t h e p r o v i n c i a l and  t h e media, and t a l k s t o  part  of the f u n d - r a i s i n g  efforts. Once  the  economic  professional records hired  to  development  prepare,  base  f o r the  managment/archives c o n s u l t a n t in  consultation  plan f o r c o o p e r a t i v e t o t a l  in previous chapters,  study i s i n p l a c e , a  total  with  the  should be  committee, a  a r c h i v e s . ( 1 4 ) As noted  a r c h i v e s at t h e  local  level  have  13. For i n s t a n c e , Marcel Masse, M i n i s t e r f o r the f e d e r a l Department of Communications which oversees the national museums and a r c h i v e s , emphasizes t h e importance of l o c a l groups having community support before approaching his department f o r a s s i s t a n c e , see, Marcel Masse, "I Intend t o Have my Say," Muse 3 (Summer/July 1985), 15. 14.  See above, p. 76, step one of the A r t i b i s e group's p l a n .  been e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y promoted by Hugh T a y l o r , i n plans  -for t h e Canadian  group's  proposals  Development  and  Plan. (15)  Archives in  To  the  System, British  achieve  be p o s s i b l e and t o  responsibility  the p r i v a t e  various  combinations  Five, in  Columbia.(16) However, t h e r e promote  t h e development  institutions,  and  payment  p r o v i s i o n of a r c h i v a l f o r most committee  must  organizations  t r y to will  and, as shown i n  development plans  i s no p r o v i n c i a l of  cooperation  to  a  care t o  p r i v a t e agencies.  total  their  between  Chapter  for British  l e g i s l a t i o n to between  archives,  public f o r the  r e c o r d s , i s a new concept  Even so,  establish  be  promote i n s t i t u t i o n a l  p r i v a t e agencies has a l s o  Report,  most of the a r c h i v a l  Archives  o-f s c a l e which  sector, cooperation  o-f p u b l i c and  been favoured by the Wilson  Columbia  economies  would not otherwise -from  i n the A r t i b i s e  the consultant  which  prepared  to  and the  p r i v a t e and p u b l i c pay  f o r records  management/archival s e r v i c e s provided by t h e c o o p e r a t i v e t o t a l a r c h i ves. The museum what  the  and municipal  costs  management/archives  will  made  of t h e  be  system  equipment and s u p p l i e s .  government w i l l  It  space needed:  in  for terms  the of  proposed staff,  w i l l be necessary a holding  documents which may be contaminated  know  records  facilities,  t o have  a plan  area f o r f o r incoming  by i n s e c t s or mold; a work  15. See above, pp. 22-23, 27, 77, 82. 16.  want t o  See above, pp. 21, 72, 73-74, 76-77, 83.  104 area;  a  secure  Adequate  storage  temperature and  important.  Other  and  public  reference  controls  will  expenses, i n a d d i t i o n  area.  a l s o be  very  t o those -for  be -for a xerox machine, a micro-film reader,  t e c h n i c a l support  items  a  humidity  capital  the - f a c i l i t y , w i l l  area;  -facilities.  could be shared  The c o s t of some  of  these  with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i f  an arrangement were i n p l a c e where a number of h e r i t a g e groups share  a  building  as  envisaged  P r o j e c t e d o p e r a t i n g expenses on  by  the A r t i b i s e group.(17)  a y e a r l y b a s i s should  the s a l a r y of a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t , the cost of s e r v i c e s and  and  s u p p l i e s such as a c i d encapsulation  a  and  recommendation  o r g a n i z a t i o n can be funded  i n the  Archives  Wilson  and  System,  precedent.(19)  Report, as  Until  private  agencies  are  17.  above, p.  77  See  well a  o p e r a t i n g expenses  should  the f i n a n c i n g should be provided made  f r e e f i l e f o l d e r s , boxes,  materials.(18)  Once the data on c a p i t a l gathered  janitorial  u t i l i t i e s as well as the funds needed f o r ongoing  equipment and envelopes,  include  be  made  administered.  on  has been how  the  The m a j o r i t y of  l o c a l l y following  suggestions  recommendations f o r the Canadian as  local  library  s i g n i f i c a n t number  participating,  or  and  museum  of p u b l i c  until  and  provinicial  18. The above requirements f o r s t a r t i n g and operating a municipal a r c h i v e s are p a r t i a l l y based upon Ian E. Wilson's "Archives of Urban M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Saskatchewan: Discussion Paper" (circulated for d i s c u s s i o n and comment by the Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, J u l y 1983), 5-6. 19.  See  above, pp.  21,  27.  l e g i s l a t i o n i s changed t o - f a c i l i t a t e the -formation of r e g i o n a l archives, basic government archives them.  funding should  with and  be provided  participating  records  agencies  management  An a r c h i v e s a d v i s o r y board  from p a r t i c i p a t i n g should  composed of  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and from  and u n o f f i c i a l  o p e r a t i o n s of the a r c h i v e s most of  the f e d e r a l  and  provincial  component  of  provincial  services be a b l e in  and  the general p u b l i c  As mentioned b e f o r e ,  g r a n t s and  s t a r t as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Centennial local  t o become the primary  become the  Museum.  legislation,  archival  Columbia A r c h i v e s  centre for a  The second in c o n s u l t a t i o n  r e g i o n a l a r c h i v e s as  captial  and o p e r a t i n g  and  archives  may  advocated  advisor,  recommended i n  when the m u n i c i p a l i t y ,  has  costs will  committee and decided  be, has  I b i d . , pp. 82,  72, 73, 76-77.  the  what the decided  20. T h i s i s s i m i l a r to suggestions made i n the Wilson and by the A r t i b i s e group, see above, pp. 21-22, 76. 21.  or even  Five.(21)  interim steering  management/archives  if  funding  Development P l a n ,  stage should commence with the  Later,  institution  some of the other plans o u t l i n e d i n Chapter  inital  s e r v i c e s are  provided to a r c h i v e s improve, the l o c a l  the B r i t i s h  records  a say i n the  not to a r c h i v e s with a separate  Thus, the a r c h i v e s w i l l Kelowna  f o r the  representatives  a r c h i v a l documents  existence.  the  it  g i v e the generators of  institution.  o f f e r e d t o museum/archives and  federal,  paying  s e r v i c e s being provided t o  be e s t a b l i s h e d . ( 2 0 ) T h i s would  both o f f i c i a l  by the municipal  to  Report,  106 make  a  -financial  advisory  board.  dissolved, would  commitment  and  take  cooperative  The the  interim  steps to total  archives  of  the  emerging.(22) Due involved least,  it the  The  and  duties  of  prove  archivist  board should  then  services  be  Artibise  establish provided,  Records offered  total  group  necessarily  include  records i n Chapter  have e x p e r t i s e as well  technologies  that  community and  the  better and  in as are  costs  i f , initially  records  r u l e s and  at  manager were  would  member keep  innovation have  archives  agencies.  their  for  the  regarding  expenditures,  c r i t e r i a f o r membership i n the  An  likely  and  regulations  appropriations  archives.  management to  the board  a r c h i v i s t , the museum and  ownership of the documents, and cooperative  to  be  person.  m u n i c i p a l i t y , the new  to  then  As the scope of a  archives f i e l d s ,  automated  probably  archives  would  which has been noted  to the s i z e of the  would  performed by one  going  i s h i r e d should  new  an  museum, and  archivist. is  the r e c o r d s management aware  formed  committee  h i r e an  Three, the p r o f e s s i o n a l who  being  has  m u n i c i p a l i t y , the  managment, the importance of  both  and  archival  suggested  practical  by  application.  a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s could However, records  they at  the  would the  be not  central  a r c h i v e s i n s t i t u t i o n . ( 2 3 ) As recommended by the Wilson Report,  22. I b i d . , pp. 33-35; see a l s o , Michael S w i f t , "Management Techniques and Technical Resources i n the A r c h i v e s of the 1980s," A r c h i y a r i a 20 (Summer 1985): 102-3. 23.  See  above, p.  77.  107 and  Allan  Columbia, record  Turner,  -former  ownership  could  even  archival  when  the  Provincial remain  materials  Archivist  with are  were necessary.  Thus, i n  processing,  preserving  unofficial  archival  services  housed i n the c e n t r a l  and  whether or  not access  addition to  materials,  restrictions  archival  Plan,  collecting,  o f , and making a c c e s s i b l e o f f i c i a l  c r e a t i v e suggestion  Development  owners  restrictions  the usual  records  different  made i n  the  and  management/archival to  a r c h i v e s procedures would be i n p l a c e .  the  usual  total  In an a m p l i f i c a t i o n of  the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s  private  sector  would  pay  for  the  c a r e of i t s records.(25) C r i t e r i a f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  on the board of the c o o p e r a t i v e sector  c r e a t o r of the  i n s t i t u t i o n . ( 2 4 ) The r e s p e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l  of the record would decide  a  the  o-f B r i t i s h  and other  the r e c o r d s  local  governments  a r c h i v e s by the p r i v a t e  would i n v o l v e payment f o r  management and a r c h i v a l s e r v i c e s provided  care of t h e i r r e c o r d s . progress  total  would  be  Through the c o o p e r a t i v e  made  towards  two  total  f o r the archives  of the g o a l s of t o t a l  a r c h i v e s o u t l i n e d by Hugh T a y l o r : The a c q u i s i t i o n of documents t o r e f l e c t aspects of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y .  all  and A c q u i s i t i o n of a l l media of (the) record.(26) Once  a  commitment  to  ongoing  24.  I b i d . , pp. 21-22,  71-72,  25.  I b i d . , p. 83.  26.  T a y l o r , A r c h i y a i _ S e r y i g e s , 48.  operations  has  been  108 e s t a b l i s h e d , as part  o-f t h e t h i r d phase p l a n s  should be made  •for p r e p a r i n g the a r c h i v a l  - f a c i l i t i e s , p l a n n i n g short and long  term g o a l s , and p r i o r i z i n g  activities.  be  prospectus  taken  to  compose  a  Immediate steps should and  send i t t o v a r i o u s  g r a n t i n g agencies i n order t o o b t a i n help with i n i t i a l expenses.  The a r c h i v i s t  o-f-fice while this  should  be provided with a  the a r c h i v i s t ,  i n consultation  administration,  should make  steps that  be taken t o reach the planned  will  achieve the goal of t o t a l  a number  of decisons  a d e c i s i o n should the a r c h i v i s t Report,  play  c y c l e of management  regarding t h e  an a c t i v e  agencies i n which  r o l e . As  should  acquire f i r s t  those a r c h i v a l  gather  holdings documents priorize  of  archives.(28)  To help accomplish  27.  Ibid.  28.  See above, p. 34.  sending  of  danger  these g o a l s the a r c h i v i s t  and  the community. process  agency  c o l l e c t i o n s which are i n  the p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  the  i n a basic  I t should a l s o be decided t o  s t a t i s t i c s on the o f f i c i a l  within  asserted i n the  be i n v o l v e d  management r o u t i n e f o r every o f f i c i a l total  should  concerning  as  the a r c h i v i s t  destruction.  the  a r c h i v e s , d e f i n e d by Hugh T a y l o r  records t o a  of  with  To  be reached  will  During  objectives.  Involvement i n the e n t i r e life records through a records program.(27)  records  temporary  permanent - f a c i l i t i e s are being prepared.  period,  Wilson  capital  on  r e c o r d s and a r c h i v a l unofficial  archival  The a r c h i v i s t should implementing  then  records  109 management/archival unofficial first  scheduling  materials.  records  If,  procedures  as would  management  and  l i k e l y be  priority  were  collecting the case, the  the  records  of  municipal government, the c i t y of Kelowna should pass a by-law concerning the management cities  of  define  Vancouver  a public  records  one copy  municipality  and  been done i n  T r a i l . ( 2 9 ) The l e g i s l a t i o n ensure that  approval from  committee  amending that  and  document;  destroyed without documents  of i t s r e c o r d s as has  a  no p u b l i c document  the a r c h i v e s ;  procedure  retention  and  for  disposal  deposited  with  the  be  form a p u b l i c  e s t a b l i s h i n g and  schedules;  of a l l p u b l i c a t i o n s o f f i c i a l l y be  should:  require  issued  archives;  by the  establish a  p u b l i c access p o l i c y f o r municipal records.(30) G u i d e l i n e s  and  procedures manuals should be w r i t t e n  how  to  c a r r y out  Similar  various  procedures  organizations directives  and  records  would other  replacing  be  local  implemented  governments,  by-laws.  Involvement in interchange of p l a n n i n g . (31)  d i r e c t i o n on  management/archival  also  l i t e r a t u r e would be s t a r t e d .  to give  A  functions. for private  with e x e c u t i v e  l i b r a r y of b a s i c  archival  In order t o have  expanding networks f o r the information and strategic  29. C i t y of Vancouver By-law 5201, C i t y of T r a i l By-law 1922; this was recommended by the A r t i b i s e group, see above, p. 76; see also, Wilson, "Archives of Urban Municipalities in Saskatchewan," 4-5. 30. Based on Wilson, Saskatchewan," 4-5. 31.  Taylor,  Archival  "Archives  Services,  48.  of Urban M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n  110 one  of  the  goals  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as  total  archives  listed  by  Taylor,  the B r i t i s h Columbia  Archives Council,  the A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , and  the A s s o c i a t i o n of  British  Columbia  Archivists  should  be  joined.  preliminary structure  in place,  prepared  a cooperative t o t a l  t o administer  Of course, Although  there  responsibility Three  is  at  there i s  records  Records  ideal a  the  In a  local  level,  i n the  government  should  be  archives. also realized.  for  institutional  emulated  in  direction  the  the  r e c o r d s management  Committee on  procedures  developed  governments f o r t h e i r t o t a l  by  has recommended  the  state  of  British  Turner,  Columbia  former  archives  and  the  federal  Archivist  local  See above, p.  governments  37.  and  provincial  As suggested  well  of B r i t i s h  would be most h e l p f u l i f the p r o v i n c i a l direction to  t o plan  by  O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , the Union  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , as  Provincial  local  systems f o l l o w i n g  a r c h i v e s systems.  the d i r e c t o r s of the Municipal  the  procedures of the f e d e r a l at  and  aid in  provincial  levels.<32) S i m i l a r i l y , i n Kelowna i t would be l o g i c a l municipal  Chapter  and  from the  United S t a t e s  s u c c e s s f u l r e c o r d s management  be  be i s  a r c h i v a l matters situation,  this  would then  as shown  f o r formal  parallel  of Sovernment  should  requirement  a l s o a need  management and  government.  that  what the  the a r c h i v i s t  With  as  by A l l a n  Columbia, i t  government could  concerning  the  give  scheduling  of  Ill municipal  records.(33)  expensive  problem i s t o  coordination Provincial  with  An  obvious s o l u t i o n t o an i n d i v i d u a l l y  have the Records Management Branch i n  the M i n i s t r y  Archives  o-f B r i t i s h  o-f Municipal  A-f-fairs, t h e  Columbia,  professional  a  a r c h i v i s t / r e c o r d s manager r e p r e s e n t i n g l o c a l knowledgeable  representatives  A s s o c i a t i o n and develop those  from  needs, as well as  t h e Municipal  Officers  the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  a common f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s c h e d u l i n g system f o r r e c o r d s which  addition,  a l l municipalities  the senior  cooperative  e f f o r t s through  demonstration,  should  be  the p r o v i s i o n  experimentation  p i l o t p r o j e c t s favouring efforts.  governments  have i n common.  and  In  encouraging  of g r a n t s f o r the  support  of  small s c a l e  t h e formal c o o r d i n a t i o n  of a r c h i v a l  Thus, at the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l  levels  efforts  should be made t o help t h e o r d e r l y and systematic formation of r e c o r d s management/archives procedures  based on e x p e r t i s e and  a network approach. In the f u t u r e , the Kelowna a r c h i v e s its  a c t i v i t e s i n l i g h t of  while at  local  g o a l s and concerns,  t h e same time being aware of developments i n r e c o r d s  management and a r c h i v a l in p r o v i n c i a l regional  changing  should r e - e v a l u a t e  matters  i n the l a r g e r  world.  Changes  l e g i s l a t i o n may f a c i l i t a t e t h e formation of the  a r c h i v e s proposed by A l l a n  Turner, Kent Haworth and  the A r t i b i s e group.(34) As suggested  by a number of a r c h i v i s t s  I b i d . , pp. 47, 71. I b i d . , pp. 72, 73, 76-77.  112 in  British  Columbia,  archivists progress  should being  and  be  made  by the  Chapter F i v e , l o c a l  of,  and  A s s o c i a t i o n of  respond  British  Administrators,  the A s s o c i a t i o n  the B r i t i s h  to,  Columbia  O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , the  Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  Managers and  in  knowledgeable  A r c h i v i s t s , the Municipal British  outlined  Union of of Records  Columbia H i s t o r i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n , and  the B r i t i s h Columbia Museums A s s o c i a t i o n ,  well  related  as  develop  other archival  coordination. Kelowna, i t  and  and  Territorial  up: to  These  are  lack  the  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and archives,  local  the  lack  private  in and  for  additional  Dominion,  Provincial  of p u b l i c and  public  their  own  as  funding the lack  direction  in  other  agencies cannot official  of  local  adminstrative  i n t e r e s t i n the  community  and  System.  archival institutions,  However, even  Kelowna,  establishment  political  of  and  that t h e r e are four major  p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , and  legislation  removed,  the i n t e r l o c k i n g l o c a l ,  the  of l o c a l  and  recommended by the Wilson  the  in  a r c h i v a l development.  care  by  cooperation  a r c h i v e s i s developed i n  of  networks  overcome  the value  f a c i l i t i e s and or  total  part  for  t h e i r attempts t o  management  i t has been shown  be  awareness of  of  national  in  A r c h i v i s t s through the Canadian A r c h i v e s  archives.  lack  become  planned  To sum obstacles  records  If a c o o p e r a t i v e should  provincial Report,  or  organizations  as  to  subject proper  of p r o v i n c i a l  facilitate  local  i f these impediments are local  communities, most  a f f o r d t o provide  records,  burden of c a r i n g f o r other  for  the  proper  l e t alone c a r r y  documents found  in  the the  113 community at l a r g e .  The c o s t s i n v o l v e d make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r  the  most  governments  archives  of  instutution.  cooperative t o t a l comprehenisve present  municipalities  Thus,  i t can  a r c h i v e s , with  archival  values w i l l  probably  be  fund  seen  a  that  i t s economies  approach t o c o l l e c t i n g  n e g l e c t and d e s t r u c t i o n  to  total without  of s c a l e and  archival materials, the  of most l o c a l  documents  with  continue.  There a r e many b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d from a c o o p e r a t i v e total  archives  precedent, Taylor,  which b u i l d s  on the g o a l s of t o t a l  on  t h e widely  institutional  suggestions  records and  made The  cases,  a  by  historians of  handling  of  a n a l y s i s , planning, and  and  governments. by  There would educators  universities;  by  and  tourist  archivists would  budgeting,  by  This  federal,  scientists,  researchers, geographers,  effective  would i n c l u d e  legal  f o r court and  provincial  audit  and l o c a l  be r e s e a r c h , c u l t u r a l , and h e r i t a g e students  at s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s and  promoters;  by  genealogists;  h e r i t a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; by museums; by amateur professional  on  use t h e l o c a l  preparation  the  and  in British  forefficient,  information.  to  records  networking,  the r e c o r d  accountability imposed  close  and  management/archives program  responsibilities  uses:  concepts of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y ,  relationship  creator  economical  policy  accepted  archives  a r c h i v e s as d e f i n e d by Hugh  responsibility,  management/archives  Columbia.  on t h e Canadian t o t a l  such and  as  a d d i t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t e p u b l i c access  h i s t o r i a n s ; by  historians,  economists  and  by  political  others.  In  t o r e c o r d s which document  114 the l e g a l local  a  would  rights,  has  democratic provide  individuals cultural government local  -financial agreements, c o n t r a c t s and programs of  government, e s p e c i a l l y i n  property of  and  come t o  society.  benefits  and  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t a x a t i o n and be  Thus,  considered  a basic right  cooperative total  archives  t h e c r e a t o r s of t h e r e c o r d s , t o  organizations  using  archives f o r research,  or h e r i t a g e needs, and t o c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e of t h e i r  community  would  community.  In s h o r t , every  be documented  through  of i t s shared memory i n a c o o p e r a t i v e t o t a l  f a c e t of t h e  the preservation archives.  115 BIBLIOGRAPHY Archer, John A. "A Study of A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada." Ph.D. d i s s . , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , K i n g s t o n , 1969. Microfilm. 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"Attempts at National Planning f o r A r c h i v e s i n Canada Since the Wilson Report." Paper presented t o the Annual Conference of the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , Washington, D. C., Sept. 1984. Evans, Frank B. The_Deye_gpment_gf_an_Archiva__and_Recgrds M§D§9eQ}§Qt_Prggramme. Paris: Unesco, 1982. Federal C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee. Reggrt.gf...the E§=deral _Cul t u r a Ottawa: Information S e r v i c e s , Department of Communications, . Symmary.gf . B r i e f s_and ....Hearings. Ottawa: S e r v i c e s , Department of Communications, 1982.  1982.  Information  Freeman-Ward, C e c i l i a C h r i s t i n e . "An A n a l y s i s of Document Disposal P o l i c y and Procedures Within the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia." Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1983. Gagan, David. "Rediscovering Local H i s t o r y : The Problems of A r c h i v a l Sources f o r the 'New' H i s t o r y . " Cgmmunigue 4 (Spring 1980): 14-15. General Recgrds.Dispgsa Canada. 3rd ed. H u l l : 1978.  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada.  Gordon, Robert S. "Suggestions f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of A r c h i v a l Holdings of Local H i s t o r i c a l Societies." A m e r i c a n _ A r c h i y i s t 26 (1963): 19-39. Guthe, C a r l E. "The P r o v i n c i a l Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia: Commentary." Myseym._Rgynd.-yg 6 ( A p r i l 1962). H a r r i s o n , Raymond 0. leghn.cal_Regu_rements T e c h n i c a l Paper 1. Canadian Museums A s s o c i a t i o n ,  A  1966.  Haworth, Kent M. "Local A r c h i v e s : R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and Challenges f o r A r c h i v i s t s . " A r c h i y a r i a 3 (Winter 1976-77): 28-36. Horton, Forest W., and Donald A. Marchand, eds. Information Management_in.Publ ig__.Administratigns. An_Intrgductign.and Resgurce.Gyide.tg.Ggyernment Arlington: Information Resources P r e s s , 1982.  119 lD._y°y„_.Q9!D_3yDi.!-.y.: Nat i onal _Museum___gf _Canad 1984-85. National Museums o-f Canada, 1985. James, R. S c o t t . " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Municipal Records: The Toronto Experience." Ggyernment Pub 8A (1981): 321-35. ~ ~ " " " " ~ " " " ' ~ " Jones, H. S. L99#.I__9Yernment_Recgrds_ An__ntrgductign_to t b i i r Management _Pr Nashvilie: American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S t a t e and Local H i s t o r y , 1980. A  Kelowna Centennial Museum and National E x h i b i t i o n " F i n a n c i a l Statement, 1984."  Centre.  "Education Report, 1985." MacDermaid, Anne. "Study Three: Federal Support t o A r c h i v e s , L i b r a r i e s and Museums." In_Re_grt_gf._the_.Advisory Q°!l!!!!ittee_gn_Archi Ian E. Wilson, c h a i r , 56-69. Ottawa: Information D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Humanities Research C o u n c i l of Canada, 1985. Masse, Marcel. "I Intend t o Have my Say." Muse 3 1985): 14-17.  (Summer/July  Morton, W. L. " C l i o i n Canada: The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Canadian H i s t o r y . " U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y 25 ( A p r i l 1946). Reprinted i n Apprgaches_tg__Canadian H i s t g r y , 42-49. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1967.~ . " H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t i e s and Museums." In Royal. Q9__i_s_gn_St.ud_i.es_. A„§el ect i_gn _gf _Essays_Pre__ared_f or th§_Royal„Cgmmissign_ gn_Na_ignai_Deyel _____Ci._iD___9.ilQ9§§__i__:_!z„i i 249-59. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1951. Neatby, H i l d a . "National H i s t o r y . " In Royal _Cgmm.iss.ign _ _ y _ i f _ l l _ . _ _ _ _ f _ i l 9 _ . i 9 D . _ 9 f .____.§ Y§__C_P.§C__....f 9_...thl__Rgyal _9_!_i__i9Q_9Q_N__iQQai_D§!Yeiggm and_Sci.ences__ 1949-51 , 205-16. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1951. N e l l e s , H. V. "Rewriting H i s t o r y . " Saturday_Night 1981): 11-16. The  96 (Feb.  Of f i.cial _.Dir ect gry_gf _Canadi_an._Mu_.eums_and_Relat.ed lD§ti_yti9D§? Ottawa: Canadian Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , 1984.  "PABC Management of Networking with Local A r c h i v e s . " Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 'answered at the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Jan.-Feb. 1985.  120 Page, James E. "Canadian S t u d i e s and A r c h i v e s . " R e f l e c t i o n s 9D_tb§_Symons_Re_ort on.t 1?80, 204-25. Ottawa: S e c r e t a r y o-f S t a t e , 1981. "A  ' P r a c t i c a l ' Plea." 245-47.  Canadia^.H.stgrical.Review  15  (1934):  Prang, Margaret. "National Unity and the Uses of H i s t o r y . " In Q§Q§dl§D_.dt§tgr_cal_ Assoc.at (1977): 3-12. Recgrds__rga_iz.tign.and_0.eratigns, Records Management Series. Ottawa: P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, 1969. Bl?.9C.ds_Sc_edul.ng.and.Disggsal . Records Management S e r i e s . Ottawa: P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, 1969. Rees, Anthony L. "Masters i n Our (Summer 1983): 53-59. "Results of Survey: 4-7.  Own  House?" A r c h i y a r i a 16  1984." ABCA.Newsletter  10  (Fall  1984):  Rhoads, James B., and W i l f r e d I. Smith. "Why Records Management i s Important?" ARMA_Recgrds Management Q u a r t e r l y 10 (Jan. 1976): 5-8. Royal  Commission on Government O r g a n i z a t i o n . Repgrt.gf.the R9Y§I_Cgmmission.gn.Government.Organization. 5 vols. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962.  Royal  Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s . Repgrt.gf•_the.Rgyal_Cg_.i_sign_gn_National Deyelgpment.in.the.Arts..Letter Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1951.  Sage, Walter N. "Where Stands Canadian H i s t o r y ? " In Canadian H i s t g r i ca__Assgci.ati gn__Hi s t g r i c a l .Papers (1945): 5-14. Smith, W i l f r e d I. "Archives as Recorded Past." In P r e s e r v i n g tbe._Q§D§dl§D_Her i tage_ A_Sympgsi um_Hel.d_i n.Assgc.ati gn witb„Heri.age.Canada. E d i t e d by R. J . Laidl.er. Ottawa: Royal S o c i e t y of Canada, 1975. Archiyes__n_New.Zea.and: A.Repgrt. Wellington: A r c h i v e s and Records A s s o c i a t i o n of New Zealand, 1978. "Introduction." Toronto: 1972.  In A r c h i v e s .  Mirrgr.gf.Canada.Past.  S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Research Council of Canada. Canadian Studies.Research T g g l s . Ottawa: Information D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l Sciences and Research Council of Canada.  121 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Research Council of Canada. Canadian Studies_Research_Tool_s: PxQ3_i___yi_§liD_ 1985. s  Stand_rds_Recgmmended_fo Canada. A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s ,  1980.  S t e l t e r , G. , and A. A r t i b i s e , eds. Ihe__Canadian__City. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1971. Subject...Classification_Guide. Records Management S e r i e s . P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, 1969. Swift, Michael. "Chairman's Message." C a n a d i a n _ A r c h i y i s t <1975): 1-4.  2  "Management Techniques and T e c h n i c a l Resources i n the A r c h i v e s of the 1980s." A r c h i y a r i a 20 (Summer 1985): 95-104. Symons, T. H. B. lQ_Kngw Oursel_yes: The_Regort_gf_the C°!B!5i§§iQQ„9Q„Q§Q§d[i§D._.Studi_es. 2 v o l s . Ottawa: A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s of Canada, T a y l o r , Hugh A. Archi val __Seryices._an Study. Paris: Unesco, 1984.  1975.  A_RAMP  . " A r c h i v e s f o r Regional H i s t o r y . " Paper presented, at the symposium, B l u e p r i n t f o r I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Regional H i s t o r y , 7-10 Sept. 1977, London, Ont. . "The C o l l e c t i v e Memory: A r c h i v e s and L i b r a r i e s as H e r i t a g e . " Archiyari_a 15 (Winter 1982/83): 118-30. . "Information Ecology and the A r c h i v e s of the 1980s." ^C_hi.y._Ci§ (Summer 1985) : 94-104. 2  0  Thomas, Lewis H. " A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada." Canadian __§tgrica__Assgciatign.__Histor_cal__Papers (1962) : 101-15. Vai n s t e i n, Rose. Pub_ic_L_brar_es__n_Br Syryey_with_Recgmmendat_gns. Victoria: Research Study, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966.  Public  A Libraries  Ware, Reuben. " B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s Development P l a n . " Paper c i r c u l a t e d f o r d i c u s s i o n at the Annual General Meeting of the A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia Archivists, A p r i l 1985, U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a . Wilson, Ian. E. "Archives of Urban M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Saskatchewan: D i s c u s s i o n Paper." Regina, and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, J u l y 1983.  122 Wilson, Ian E., c h a i r . Re_grt_g£_the_Ad 6C£biy §.?_ September 1984. Ottawa: Information D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Humanities Research C o u n c i l of Canada, 1985. e  Woadden, A. R. N. "Toronto's Venture i n t o Paperwork Control and Orderliness." A m e r i c a n _ A r c h i v i s t 27 (1964): 261-64. Intery_ews_with_aut A l l e n , Sandra. E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r , Municipal O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , 25 February 1985. Atherton, Jay. D i r e c t o r G e n e r a l , Records Management Branch, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada. Ottawa, 9 October 1985. Beauchamp, R i c h a r d . C i t y Clerk f o r the C i t y of Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia. By telephone, Kelowna, 24 September 1985. Bovey, John. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t of B r i t i s h Columbia. Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, 3 November 1984. Chapin, Harry. D i r e c t o r , Vancouver Records Centre, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Chang, John. Records Manager, C i t y of Vancouver. telephone, 23 September 1985.  By  DeLozier, Leonard C. A r c h i v e s A d v i s o r , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. By telephone, 24 January 1985; 14 March 1986. Forbes, Jamie. C i t y Planner, C i t y C l e r k , C i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. By telephone, 24 September  Trail, 1985.  Spargo, R o s a l i e . O f f i c e S e r v i c e s S u p e r v i s o r , C i t y of Kamloops. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Swift, Michael. D i r e c t o r G e n e r a l , A r c h i v e s Branch, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada. Ottawa, 10 October 1985. T a y l o r , R i c h a r d . E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , Union of B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . By telephone, 24 September 1985. Tremaine, Helen. T r a i n i n g C o o r d i n a t o r , B r i t i s h Columbia Museums A s s o c i a t i o n . By telephone, 24 January 1985.  123 Appendix Is BRITISH COLUMBIA 6R_HI_AL_PRQ_EQIS__i_Z_zi_*  HERITAGE  I_Z__§_  North Shore Museum and A r c h i v e s catlaogue of photographs. Mrs. B. Thomas, and Mrs. J . Adams, Kelowna aural h i s t o r y p r o j e c t . Summerland Museum and A r t s S o c i e t y H i s t o r y of Summerland. ___Q__d__________h_ ___________ „___9____h__  $1,U0U 1 ,000 500  ______  $7,500  l9_§l„l§_i____9f_„he___27_300_s_ent__* _______  < °t n  available)  __§iz_2 Atnarko V a l l e y H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y aural h i s t o r y p r o j e c t . Vancouver Island P r o j e c t annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y of primary sources. B. C. H i s t o r y / A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s S c h o l a r s h i p Cranbrook A r c h i v e s , Museum and Landmark Foundation secur i ty__system_and_eny_rgnment_l l9_§l_i§_2_l__gf_the______??2__pent_____ _. _  $  6UU 2,500 7,500 3,564  i_82_S3 Fructova School of Grand Forks • t o b u i l d a museum, a r c h i v e s and h a n d i c r a f t c e n t r e . V i c t o r i a C i t y Archives • t o r e s e a r c h and document commercial b u i l d i n g s and i l l u s t r a t e them on d i s p l a y plaques. Vancouver Maritime Museum t o catalogue draughts of v e s s e l s designed and b u i l t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s t o complete an i n v e n t o r y on primary and secondary sources of h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on Vancouver heritage structures. Archival Studies Scholarship _„_h__„______t________Q__ erenc §_-__---_-_--_l9____________9_ __he_f l_255_.787_spent**  #48,300 4,040 3,600 4,290  7,500 2_.Q00 ____Z__  * Based on British Columbia Heritage Trust, Annual Repgrt: B r i t i s h _ C g l u m b _ a _ H e r i t a g e _ T r u s t (Vi c t o r i as Mi ni s t r y of P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Government S e r v i c e s , 1979-84). ** T h i s sum i s the t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e of the B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e Trust f o r that year, minus o p e r a t i n g , p r i n t i n g and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s expenses.  124 1983-84 V i c t o r i a Chapter, Canadian Geotechnical S o c i e t y * 1,750 Geotechnical Engineering i n B r i t i s h Columbia aural history project. B r i t i s h Columbia Museums A s s o c i a t i o n 5,250 ri.tcectory_gf_ _Museum iritish_Cglumbia. Atnarko V a l l e y H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y -: ;1,500 aural h i s t o r y p r o j e c t . ABCA Newsletter 1,000 Archival Studies Scholarship 7,500 Anglican Diocese o-f V i c t o r i a ' • 4,656 a r c h i v e r e g i s t r y and c a t a l o g u i n g . Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 4,656 Vancouver B i b l i o g r a p h y P r o j e c t . Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s • 6,208 h i s t o r i c F a l s e Creek r e s e a r c h . V i c t o r i a C i t y Archives 3,990 h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g awareness p r o j e c t U n i v e r s i t y o-f B r i t i s h Columbia, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s 4,536 S o l i b a k k e papers. North Island Heritage S o c i e t y 2,882 North Island h e r i t a g e b i b l i o g r a p h y . C i t y o-f V i c t o r i a 7,000 V i c t o r i a Truth Centre d e m o l i t i o n , r e s e a r c h f o r . C i t y A r c h i v e s of V i c t o r i a 1,523 Ci ty„.Archi ves_ newspaper, c o l 1 ect_gn_ lQJtal_i__3_5__of_the_* $52,451  ** T h i s sum i s the t o t a l expenditure of the B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Trust f o r 1983-84 minus o p e r a t i n g , p r i n t i n g and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s expenses.  125 Appendix 2:  CULTURAL  SERVICES._BRA_CH_  SRANTS__A_ARDS_AND  S___I_IE__IQ„__S_yMS^ 6teril_l_79_March____0 none given  ABcil_.i?sQz!!!§_.eb_.i?ii none given 6e!lil_.I?81 __rch„l?82 Operating A s s i s t a n c e t o 31 museums** (average $42,185 per museum) Community A r t s Development -for a r c h i v a l p r o j e c t s i24__rec_pi ents__ayerage Total 1 ~_~ ~ Z . =  April_l_S2__ar_h_1983 Operating A s s i s t a n c e t o 28 museums** (average $32,911 per i n s t i t u t i o n ) Community Development -for museums and a r c h i v e s li_.recip__nts__aver_ge____2^ lotal  $1,307,750 89,940 Iii3?7 69g 3  $  921,500 17,370 ._. ._.  ' Z___.L.IIII„..Z.Z.I.ZII$IZ?3l'_|2Q  AB!lil_.i?S3 _!_arch.l Operating A s s i s t a n c e t o 21 museums** (average $39,786 per i n s t i t u t i o n ) Community Development -for museums and a r c h i v e s Iil_rec_pients___verage_$9_5_per in =  igtai  ZZZ  $  835,500 10,40O  _Z ZZZZiZZIiiZ.oo  Under t h e Community Development programs i t has been difficult to t e l l which are a r c h i v a l and which are museum projects. However, the -following a r e t h e grants made t o separate archives. In 1981/82 the Diocese o-f Kootenay Archives, Kelowna, r e c e i v e d $2,500; 1982/83 the P r o v i n c i a l Synod A r c h i v e s o-f the A n g l i c a n Church r e c e i v e d $225 and t h e Vancouver C i t y Archives $5,000; 1983/84 T r i n i t y Western C o l l e g e A r c h i v e s r e c e i v e d $1,000. T h i s amounted t o $8_725 over three years. •Based on s t a t i s t i c s i n , British Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Provincial Secretary and Government S e r v i c e s , C u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s Branch, G r a n t s . Awards. _and Sub__di.es (Victoria: Ministry of P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Government S e r v i c e s , 1979-1984). ** A r c h i v e s a r e not e l i g i b l e f o r o p e r a t i n g a s s i s t a n c e g r a n t s unless they are a s s o c i a t e d with museums. The P r o f e s s i o n a l Support and Program (guidelines) f o r the C u l t u r a l Services Branch, p. 3, s t a t e s that areas eligible f o r assistance i n c l u d e performing a r t s , v i s u a l a r t s and c r a f t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , museums and g a l l e r i e s , and c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  126 Appendix 3: CANADIAN BRIIISH_COL.y_BIA__l?|l  STUDIES  RESEARCH  TOOLS:  GRANTS.. IN  =  i?Sl_:82 Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Centennial ______bl i ggraghy.Prgj_ect_ Total  $36,505 ___*36.505  1982-83 A. F. J . A r t i b i s e , U n i v e r s i t y o-f V i c t o r i a Vancouver Island P r o j e c t Bruce N e s b i t t , Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y Canadian L i t e r a t u r e : annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y L. J . Ross, p r i v a t e s c h o l a r Guide t o l o c a l h i s t o r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Centenni a l _.Bi bl i ggraphy P r o j e c t Total 1 Z Z I  t 74,936 30,000 29,428 36,362 Z-  _.IIZQ._Z26  1983-84 none awarded i?84-85 Peter B a s k e r v i l l e , U n i v e r s i t y o-f V i c t o r i a Vancouver Island P r o j e c t George Brandak, U n i v e r s i t y o-f B r i t i s h Columbia Organized Labour Records: annotated guide Dennis J . Duffy, p r i v a t e s c h o l a r B r i t i s h Columbia Filmography P r o j e c t Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Vancouver Centennial B i b l i o g r a p h y F r a n c i s Mansbridge, E. Kootenay Community C o l l e g e — Irying.Laytgn.Bi bl i ggraphy _ . Total ~ ] Z-l  IiZ_:_553  §5£NQ-IQIAL_19B1 85  _38__._784  =  _  $ 74,175 40,846 11,564 44,759 3,209  •* Taken -from S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Research Council of Canada, Canadian Studies Research Tggl_s (Ottawa: Information D i v i s i o n , S o c i a l Sciences and Research Council of Canada).  

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