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Cooperative total archives for Kelowna, British Columbia Barlee, Kathleen 1986

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COOPERATIVE TOTAL ARCHIVES FOR KELOWNA, BRITISH COLUMBIA By Kathleen Mary Barlee B. A., The University of British Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES i n THE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY, ARCHIVAL AND INFORMATION STUDIES We accept this thesis as con-forming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF June <2) Kathleen Mary BRITISH COLUMBIA 1986 Barlee, 1986 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of jLi&ZfirfZy, bRcMtffiL #A/£> /rt FoR ft AT tOA) STUblES The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada \ V6T 1Y3 )E-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT Major -factors in the underdevelopment of local archives in the municipality of Kelowna, British Columbia, have been a lack of public and administrative awareness of the value of archival institutions and archival documents, a lack of local political interest in the subject of archives, a lack of federal, provincial and local aid or legislation to facilitate local archival development, and thus, a lack of funding at the community level for archives. There has also been a need for direction from the provincial government in planning effective records management/archival systems for Kelowna, as well as for most other municipalities in British Columbia. To come to a decision on how to overcome these problems it has been necessary to study perspectives on local archives, to analyze the records management/archival relationship, and to be knowledgeable of problems facing local archives in British Columbia. An interdisciplinary approach has been taken, with literature and primary sources from the archival, museum, library, historical, political science and records management fields being studied. In the archives domain, two major studies, the Symons and the Wilson reports, with their emphasis on federal, provincial and local networking, formed an excellent basis for further investigation. Where they were available, statistics concerning local archives in British Columbia have proven most helpful, as have provincial government reports. The above have been supplemented by i i i letters and questionnaires to provincial and territorial archives, as well as to local municipalities in British Columbia. Two conclusions have been reached. First, "total archives" that collect both official and unofficial documents in all media, and use systematic records management procedures have become a, Canadian public archives tradition which has the potential to prove a valuable example for smaller municipalities. Secondly, in order to achieve economies of scale, private and public agencies may have to cooperate in joint funding efforts at the local level. By combining public and private endeavours, a new type of archives is created. It is posited that this amalgam, a "cooperative total archives," could become the basis for archival development in the municipality of Kelowna, British Columbia. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION • 1 2. PERSPECTIVES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL ARCHIVES 6 3. THE RECORDS MANAGEMENT/ARCHIVES RELATIONSHIP AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA • 31 4. ARCHIVAL PROBLEMS AND THE EXTENT OF PROVINCIAL AND FEDERAL AID TO LOCAL ARCHIVES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 50 5. PREVIOUS PROPOSALS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL ARCHIVES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 71 6. CONCLUSION 87 A Scenario for Cooperative Total Archives in Kelowna, British Columbia 95 BIBLIOGRAPHY 11Appendices 1. BRITISH COLUMBIA HERITAGE TRUST: GRANTS FOR ARCHIVAL PROJECTS, 1979-84 123 2. CULTURAL SERVICES BRANCH: GRANTS, AWARDS AND SUBSIDIES TO MUSEUMS AND ARCHIVES, 1979-84 125 3. CANADIAN STUDIES RESEARCH TOOLS: GRANTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1981-85 126 1 Chapter Is INTRODUCTION The growth of municipal and other local government archives in Canada has lagged behind those of federal and provincial government institutions. This is not surprising. Before the mid-1960s the whole trend of Canadian archival development involved the archives of senior governments attempting, with a limited number of resources, to collect a large proportion of Canada's archival heritage. The result was that documents which were of local importance, but not of provincial or national interest, were often lost or destroyed. Since then there has been a large increase in the number of local archives, but even so, two major studies, the Symons and the Wilson reports, released in 1975 and 1980 respectively, have pointed out the continuing neglect in the care of local archival materials and the impoverished state of most institutions at this level. <1) In an attempt to respond to these and other problems in the Canadian archival community, in 1985 the federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for culture called for the creation of a Canadian Archives System based upon each province or territory having its own Council of Archives. 1. T. H. B. Symons, To Kngw_0urselvesi The_Rep_ort Qf__the Commission on_Canadian_Studies, vol. 2 (Ottawa: Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 1975), (hereafter cited as the Symons Report) , 69-85; Canadi an_Archi yes$_ Report to the Sgci al Sciences and Huraanitys_Research_CounciL9f Q§Qida_by_.the_Cgnsul tat i ye_Gr (Ottawa: Information Division of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1980), (hereafter cited as the Wilson Report). The question arises, how can a small local archives in the Kelowna area of British Columbia fit into the proposed System, and, at the same time, break out of the mold of underdevelopment? As pointed out in both the Symons and Wilson reports local archives need solutions to the problems facing them. Therefore, the answer to the above query involves a practical approach.(2) Building on the Canadian tradition of "total archives" initiated by the Public Archives of Canada, and on essential background information provided in Chapters Two through Five Df this thesis, a scenario for "cooperative total archives" at the local government level is developed in Chapter Six. The concept of total archives has been widely discussed but rarely in print. However, Hugh Taylor in a recent study published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization summarises the four goals of total archives: 1. The acquisition of documents to reflect all aspects of social activity. 2. Acquisition of all media of (the) record. 3. Involvement in the entire life cycle of records, through a records management programme. 2. Alain Clavet in Orient at ign_and_Managenie §t_the_Pybl i_c._ Archi.y es_of _Canadai A_Prgposal _ .for _I_nt erven t i on (Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1983), also takes a practical, problem solving approach. This work, sponsored by Bernard Weilbrenner, the Assistant Dominion Archivist, is Clavet's Master's thesis for the University of Quebec at Hull. 4. Involvement in expanding networks -for the interchange of information and strategic planning.(3) His interpretation is now being referred to in other international publications as well.(4) Although Taylor places records management third on his list of goals for total archives, this thesis, in agreement with former Dominion Archivist Wilfred Smith, gives it a pre-eminent position.(5) Records management, through service to the agency creating the record, is the engine which drives the total archives vehicle. Therefore, it has the potential to become the basis for cooperative total archives at the local level. Thus, after a history of local archives has been given, and an analysis of the development of perceptions on territoriality, institutional responsibility, records management, and cooperation has been made in Chapter Two -this is necessary in order to place subsequent chapters in their historical context - the focus in Chapter Three shifts to the records management/archives relationship at the federal, provincial and local government levels, and 3. Hugh A. Taylor, Archival Services_and_.the_Cgncep_t gf._t.he LJser_, A_RAMP Study (Paris: Unesco, 1984) , 48; Taylor summarizes Terry Cook, "The Tyranny of the Medium: A Comment on 'Total Archives,"* Archiyaria 9 (Winter 1979-80): 141-49; Cook in turn is elaborating on former Dominion Archivist Wilfred I. Smith, see "Introduction," Archiyes£__Mirrgr gf Qanada_Past (Toronto: 1972), 18-20. 4. See Michael Cook, The Management_gf _I_n£ grmat i_»n_frgm Archives (Aldershot, Eng.: Gower Publishing Co. Ltd., 1986), 188-89." See Smith, "Introduction," 18-20. emphasizes the need for its implementation in smaller municipalities. In addition, as the underdevelopment o-f archives in the City o-f Kelowna is, to a certain extent, a microcosm o-f that experienced by other communities in British Columbia, Chapter Four details problems facing most local archives in this province. It is found that difficulties have been exacerbated by four major factors: a lack of public awareness of the value of archival institutions and documents; a lack of political interest in the development of archival institutions; a lack of legislative direction from provincial and local governments regarding the records management/archives relationship; a lack of funding for archival facilities and staff. Another essential chapter, Five, analyzes solutions that have been recommended in the past for the archival problems of local communities in British Columbia. The suggestions are important as they have been made by knowledgeable historians and archivists in British Columbia. It is worthwhile to study their recommendations in order to build on the ideas of others in planning for the development of cooperative total archives in a particular local community. In the past the major total archives in Canada have been those of the federal, provincial and largest municipal governments which collect the official records of their sponsoring agencies as well as documents from their respective spheres of interest. The public purse pays for the care of all private and public documents which are collected in this total archives situation. However, in smaller municipalities most public and private agencies cannot afford to provide proper archival care -for their own official documents, let alone carry the additional burden of caring for other documents found in the community at large. The costs involved make it difficult for a municipality to fund a total archives institution, with its comprehensive multimedia approach to collecting archival documents and its records management emphasis. Without cooperation and the resulting economies of scale, the present neglect and destruction of archival documents generated at the local level is likely to continue. Chapter Six builds on the preceeding four chapters and addresses the problems of how to promote public awareness of the value of local archives, how to raise local political interest in local archives, and how to fund local archives in order to ensure that the prerequisite facilities and staff are in place. The scenario that is developed for Kelowna, British Columbia, uses Hugh Taylor's definition of the four goals of total archives, but adds another objective - cooperation between the public and private sectors. The result is a new concept, cooperative total archives. 6 Chapter 2: PERSPECTIVE Over time a number of Canadians, particularly historians and archivists, have looked at the problem of how tQ preserve and make accessible records of the lower levels of government as well as other archival materials generated in local communities. The commentaries on the development of local archives may be divided into two periods - before and after 1975. In that year Canadian archivists formed an automonous professional group, the Association of Canadian Archivists (ACA). Formerly, archivists had functioned under the auspices of the Canadian Historical Association (CHA) and most of the writing on the subject of Canadian archives had been done by or under the aegis of Canadian historians.(1) The new profession's discussion of archival problems was in part sparked by the Symons and Wilson Reports which commented on the underdeveloped state of most Canadian archives.(2) It is important to study statements that have been made over time, for the historical perspective and the context they provide, both of which are helpful in planning a records management/archives scenario for the Kelowna area of British 1. The major periodicals of the CHA are the Canadian b}istgrical__Reyiew, which was founded in 1920 and grew out of the Revi ew_ of Histgrical___.Publ_icatigns Rel ati_ ng_tg_Canada, started in 1896 (hereafter cited as CHR) and the Canadian di§tgrlcal _Associat i gn__Annual_ R§egrts_.wi th_Hi^tgri cal Papers (hereafter cited as CHA_Papers) which originated in 1922 and carried on from the Hi stgr^c_Landmar ks_Assgci at i gn_gf Canada: Annual Report s. 2. The Symons Report, 69-85; Wilson Report; Bulletin, 1973-79; ACA Bui 1etin, 1979 —; Archiyaria Association of Canadian Archivists, 1975 —>. Archiyes (Ottawa: Columbia. In the pre-1975 era there was periodic concern over the neglect of locally generated archival materials, especially the records of local government.<3) In 1952, the CHA, prompted by reports made to the Royal Commission on the Arts, Letters and Sciences, held a symposium on local history which concluded with the goal of trying to establish cooperation and communication among local historical societies and the CHA in order to aid the development of local history and archives.(4) As time progressed there was a growing recognition that neither historical societies nor museums had the proper staff, facilities, funding or expertise necessary to play a major 3. "A 'Practical' Plea," CHR 15 (1934): 245-47; Seorge W. Brown, "Provincial Archives in Canada," CHR 16 (1935): 2-7; George W. Brown, "The Problem of Public and Historical Records in Canada," CHR 25 (1944): 4; William Morton, "Historical Societies and Museums," Royal _Cgmmissi gn_St yd i es^_A_ _SeJ[ecti on of ......Essays Prepared f QC the Royal Cgmmi ssi gQ_.._.gn _ ..Nat i gnal 5§>Y_elgp_ment_i.n_th!_^ (Ottawa: King 's Printer, 1951), 249-59; Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences, Repgrt__gf__the BQYSi....Q9CQ(0i5..siQQ_._OQ Nationa_,_Deyel9M^n%.^LU^%h?.^r.%^^..^.\=:^%t.Er.^: §„Qd_Sciencesx_l?4?=51 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1951), 119-22 (hereafter cited as the Massey-Levesque Report); "The Canadian Historical Association, the Canadian Historical Review, and Local History: A Symposium," CHA_Papers (1952): 46-65; John A. Archer, "A Study of Archival Institutions in Canada," (Ph.D diss., Queen's University, Kingston, 1969), 440-551, 554, 562, 590, 607 (microfilm, University of British Columbia Library); Michael D. Swift, "Chairman's Message," Canadian._Archiyi.st 2 (1974): 2-4. 4. "CHA, CHR and Local History" 48, 64-65. 8 role in the development and care o-f archival collections. (5) As early as 1945 the Saskatchewan Archives Act had allowed the Provincial Archives to serve as a depository for official and unoffical documents from the local level, specifically including the records of municipalities and school districts. It stated: Any municipality or school district in Saskatchewan may with the consent of the Provincial Archivist deposit any of its non-current records or other documents with him for preservation in the archi ves. (6) This was an example which other provinces, among them British Columbia, were to follow. <7) However, the passing of the legislation did not help the development of archival collections of local government records as the majority of municipalities did not have modern records management programs, did not express concern over the archival value of 5. Morton, "Historical Societies and Museums," 249-51; Massey-Levesque Report, 121-22; Robert S. Gordon, "Suggestions for Organization and Description of Archival Holdings of Local Historical Societies," American_.....Archivist 26 (1963): 19-20; Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 548, 550, 574; Carl E. Guthe, "The Provincial Museum of British Columbia: A Commentary, Appendix to The Guthe Report on the Role of Museums in British Columbia," Museum Round-Up 6 (April 1962): 2; Raymond 0. Harrison, lechnical Reguirements of _Small Museums, Technical Paper 1 (Canadian Museums Association, 1966),6. 6> Reyised_Statutes_of_Saskatchewan_l?45, c. 113, s. 10; RSBC, Document Disposal Act 1983, c. 20, s. 4. 7. Lewis H. Thomas, "Archival Legislation in Canada," CHA P§B1?I§ (1962), 108; Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 442-58. their records, and did not pursue the offer.(8) In any event, they probably did not want their records completely out of their jurisdictions. Although, there was a tendency towards federal and provincial centralization of collections, some archivists, historians and records managers, as well as members of the local populace, thought it was only logical that whenever possible archival material should remain close to the geographic area in which it was created.<9) In theory, attention was paid to the idea that federal, provincial and local governments, as well as churches, universities, businesses, labour unions and other agencies should take responsibility for the archival care of the records they create, and that this should be part of a systematic records management program with the primary function of the archives being to serve the creator of the record.<10) In fact, most local organizations neglected the archival care of their records. Therefore, leadership and cooperation were proposed: leadership from the archives of the senior governments; cooperation among any institutions groups or individuals 8. Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 442-58, 496; Swift, "Chairman's Message," 2-3. 9. Brown, "Provincial Archives in Canada," 3-5; A. R. N. Woadden, "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control and Orderliness," American_Archiyist 27 (1964): 261-64; Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 34, 610-11. 10. "A "Practical' Plea," 245-7; Brown, "Problem of Public and Historical Records," 1-5; Massey-Levesque Report, 341-2, 397; Woadden, "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control," 262-4; Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 440-499; 591. 10 possessing or using archival materials. (11) None of these suggestions was acted upon as the ef-forts of senior governments were concentrated upon developing their own archival, and, in some cases, records management programs. Toronto's successful adoption of the total archives concept in 1960 proved to be of little use an an example for smaller, less well developed communities. Few except for the largest municpalities established archives to care for their own governmental records in a systematic manner.(12) Yet, local government sponsorship of adequately financed, equipped and staffed total archives had the potential to solve the problem of which organization would fund the collection and care of the unofficial documents generated by a local community. However, in most localities there was not sufficient funding, administrative demand, public interest, political will, scholarly need or local expertise to support the proper care of local documents with archival values. This difficulty was not helped by the indifference to local history of all but a few historians and scholars between 1950 and 1970. Although there had been a strong focus on local history in British Columbia and the Maritimes before then, an article written in 1946 by historian, W. L. Morton, is often cited as the beginning of a trend for professional 11. Brown, "Provincial Archives in Canada," 3-6; Morton, "Historical Societies and Museums," 257-9; Massey-Levesque Report, 397; Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 442. 12. Woadden, "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control," 262-4; Swift, "Chairman's Message," 2. 11 historians to be interested in regional history.(13) Writing in criticism o-f the Laurentian thesis — which stated that Canada evolved -from the commercial system of the St. Lawrence River — being used as a basis for the interpretation of Canadian history, he stated: In an imperfect world an unequal incidence of national policies is no doubt inevitable, but even in an imperfect world people may be allowed to shape an interpretation of life in accord with their own experience.(14) More influential, though, was a study written for the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences, 1949-51. Hilda Neatby, professor of history and one of the five Royal Commissioners, concluded that Canada needed history with a national focus because for nearly a century Canadian history had been "accumulating in a fragmentary, local and spasmodic fashion."(15) For the next twenty years Neatby was heeded, as most Canadian historians proceeded to build a solid basis for national history. However, by 1969 the emninent Canadian historian, J. M. S. Careless was arguing that the Canadian identity was composed of a number of limited identities, "two languages, pluralised 13. Walter N. Sage, "Where Stands Canadian History?" CHA Pagers (1945): 11; Margaret Prang, "National Unity and the Uses of History," CHA_Papers (1977), 6. 14. W. L. Morton,"Clio in Canada: The Interpretation of Canadian History," University_gf._Igrgntg_Quarter l_y 15 (April 1946). 15. Hilda Neatby, "National History," in Royal_Cgmmissign Studies, 206; her stance was somewhat modified in "CHA, CHR and Local History," 46-50. i2 politics and ethnic multipiicity."(16) His statements reflected a renewed interest in regional, local and urban studies by the academic community. The increased popularity of provincial and local studies in the 1970s was caused by a certain exhaustion of national themes, a movement of political power to the provinces, the proliferation of community colleges, the growth of computer based quantitative studies, and a worldwide interest in social history.(17) Consequently, there was a realization of the need for archival materials generated at the local level. Ihl_Blcent_Era From 1975 onwards, the ACA and various other organizations slowly began to turn their attention to the problem of the development of local archives. Where once there had been the Public Archives of Canada (PAC) and a few nascent provincial archives as in the 1930s and 1940s, by 1975 there was a wide variety of archives sponsored by senior governments, municipalities, churches, businesses, libraries, museums, historical societies, universities and colleges. Most of this 16. J. M. S. Careless, "Limited Identities in Canada," CHR 50 (March 1969): 3. 17. G. Stelter and A. Artibise, eds., IheCanadian_City (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971); the Urban Hi s,tgry Review (Ottawa: History Division, National Museum of Man, 1972—); Ramsay Cook, "The Golden Age of Canadian Historical Writing," Hi stor i cal__Ref lections 4 (Summer 1977): 137-49; Hugh A. Taylor, "Archives for Regional History," (a paper presented at the symposium, Blueprint for Interdisciplinary Regional History, London, Ont., 7-10 Sept. 1977), 6-18; H. V. Nelles, "Rewriting History," Saturday. Night 96 (Feb. 1981): 11-16. growth was on a small scale, but it revealed a growing interest in and realization o-f the importance o-f archives and territoriality — archival documents should remain close to the area in which they originate. Although there had been a large increase in the number o-f archives most o-f them did not possess even the most rudimentary archival services, •facilities or staff. (18) Yet, researchers, expanding their interests into local studies, were coming to realize the need for archival material generated at this level. At the same time, most archivists had come to place little faith in historical societies due to their poor performance in caring for archival materials. Many of the new proposals for the care of archives stressed the importance of various forms of formal and informal networking as a way to promote increased communication, cooperation and coordination among varying combinations of archives, archivists, heritage organizations, universities, historical societies, school boards, businesses, churches, unions, or other agencies which have archival 18. Wilson Report, 29-59. 14 concerns. (19) Often the recommendations that were made conflicted with one another and even archivists fell into dispute among themselves. In the meantime, some large municipalities, working in isolation, had established total archives which stressed service to the creator of the record as their primary function.(20) However, it remains to be 19. Symons Report, 72, 82; Wilson Report, 66-72, 92, 109; Peter Bower, "After the Dust Settles," Archiyaria 9 (Winter 1979-80): 218-29; "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," BCEhiYaria 11 (Winter 1980-81): 3-35; Canadian Historical Association, Archives Committee, Response to the Report _. Canadian Archives, (1981); Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee, Summary of Briefs and Hearings (Ottawa: Information Services, Department of Communications, 1982), 53-60; Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee, Report_gf_the E§deral_Cuitural„Pgl (Canada: Information Services, Department of Communications, 1982), 132, 136-8, 349; Marion Beyea and Marcel Caya, eds. , PIanning__f gr__Canadian Archi ves_,; Ihe._Prgceedi ngs gf _the__Fiurst..Congress gn__Archi yes (Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian Archivists, 1983), 109-26; Clavet, Qggperatign_at_the_Publ ic Archi_yes_of _Canada; Ian E. Wi 1 son , chair , Repgrt_gf __the_Adyisgry Cgmmlttee_gn._Ar_c.hiyes_:_ September_!984 (Ottawa: Information Division, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1985); "The Canadian Archives System — A Discussion Paper," circulated at the Annual Beneral Meeting of the ACA, Edmonton, 13 June 1985. Although used in the King James version of the Bible, by 1957 when network planning techniques first came into general use for developing operational effectiveness, the term "network" had come to mean a "representation of interconnected events, processes, etc., used in the study of work efficiency," and "an interconnected group of people; an organisation." The term has also become a verb meaning "to cover with a network," and has come to have computer applicability. Informal networks made up of interconnected groups of people and organisations applies the most closely to the present archival use of the term "network" in Canada; The Qxfgrd_ Dictionary, vol. 7 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961), 105-6; A Supplement _tg__the Q_.ford_ English_DictigQary, vol. 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), 1175. 20. R. Scott James, "Administration of Municipal Records: The Toronto Experience," Government Publigatigns Review, 8A (1981): 321-35; Anthony L. Rees, "Masters in Our Own House?" Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983): 53-59. 15 proven whether or not the total archives way, collecting government records and other documents -from the community at large, is a viable method of development for smaller municipalities. A hopeful sign for the future of local archives is that federal, provincial and territorial minsters responsible for culture have proposed the establishment of a Canadian Archives System. Much of the discussion was sparked by the Symons and the Wilson reports.(21) The Symons Report devoted a chapter to the state of Canadian archives. It took the view that although Canadian archives are the foundation of Canadian studies a large amount of material necessary to the pursuit of these studies had not been received or collected because of inadequate financial assistance from all levels of government and the lack of a systematic coordination of institutional collections policies.(22) To help solve this problem the report made thirty-one recommendations, the major ones being: 1. ... that the archives and archivists of Canada undertake a programme to promote public awareness of the potential value of private papers and other archival material, and that the universities of Canada co-operate in this programme in various appropriate ways. 4. ... the creation of a national network of regional archives. 21. "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," 3-35; James E. Page, "Canadian Studies and Archives," Reflections on the Symgns_Repgrt gn_the State_gf Qanadian_Studies_in_l?SO (Ottawa: Secretary of State, 1981), 204-25. 22. Symons Report, 69, 70-1, 82. 16 5. ... that, in many cases, the regional archive be located within the local university and be administered by it; that every university give consideration to the possibility o-f undertaking such a role in the proposed national network o-f regional archives; and that, in all cases, close ties be established between the university and the regional archive.(23) The ACA proved to be against the role of universities or colleges in this network. The national association thought that universities had a poor record in caring for their own archives, and that a network based on university archives would work against institutional responsibility and functional archives, both of which focus on service to the creator of the record.(24) Instead, the ACA favoured a place for municipal government as a sponsor of archival networking activity, and placed an emphasis on the institutional responsibility of both the public and private sectors. Our federal, provincial and municipal governments all have a role to play in financing and co-ordinating systems and networks, but in every case there ought to be emphasis on the encouragement of archival programmes on the part of public and private agencies responsible for the creation of records having archival value.(25) Yet, most municipal governments have a very poor record in caring for their own documents with archival values. However, in the form of the local tax base, they may have a more stable 23. 24. 25. Ibid., 82. "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," 9. Ibid., 11. economic -foundation than universities or colleges which are dependent upon the provincial government through which -federal •funding is directed. Although archivial networks based on universities failed to develop, the Symons Report is significant as it applies to archives because it identifies the crisis in the archives field, especially that involving the neglect of local archival materials, it emphasizes the interrelationship between archives and all fields of Canadian study, and it points out the importance of local, provincial and federal archives working together in close liaison.(26) As a reaction to the Symons Report and to requests to its predecessor, the Canada Council, for various forms of archival assistance, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC) established the Consultative Group on Canadian Archives to conduct a study on the state of Canadian archival institutions.(27) Under the chairmanship of Ian Wilson, Provincial Archivist of Saskatchewan, the Group analyzed the state of Canadian archives, documented the underfunding and the underdevelopment, pointed out the need for improvement, and offered suggestions, a number of which involved networking. Its findings,,presented in a report simply entitled Canadian_Archives, but known as the Wilson Report, while emphasizing the poverty, neglect, and crisis situation of local archives which had proliferated in the 26. Symons Report, 73-4. 27. Wilson Report, 1. 18 1970s, disagreed with the solution o-f the Symons Report which suggested the establishment o-f a national network of local archives having a close involvement with universities.(28) Instead, the Consultative Group offered its own alternatives. In order to develop a "coordinated system with appropriate leadership and cooperative attitudes" the Consultative Group made nineteen recommendations, the first five of which proposed a structure for and a means of implementing a formal program for archival networking in Canada. They recommended that: 1. ... all public archives reevaluate their overall programs to achieve an appropriate balance between their traditional institutional programs and new programs designed to provide leadership to a cooperative system of archives in their region. 2. ... the archives in each province form a coordinated network to establish common priorities and to develop services, facilities and programs of benefit to all. 3. ... the Public Archives of Canada establish an Extension Branch to administer consulting services, information services, technical facilities and a grant program for the benefit of the entire archival system, with policies and priorities to be established on the recommendation of a National Archival Advisory Committee. 4. ... the federal government amend the Public Archives Act (R.S.C. 1970, Chapter P-27) as soon as possible to permit the programs we are recommending and to provide a solid legislative base for the future development of the Public Archives of Canada. 28. Ibid., 91. 5. ... the annual budget of the Public Archives of Canada be increased by $2.5 million for programs to be administered by the new Extension Branch.(29) The recommendations give a leadership role to all public archives, but have a special emphasis on the part of provincial archives in developing cooperative networks of archives, and on the PAC in providing funding. Elsewhere, the report suggests but does not recommend (as it does not have the authority to do so), that provincial funds designated for networking be administered by formally constituted Provincial Archival Network Boards, or, alternately, the Provincial Archives themselves.(30) On the whole, the ACA agreed with the five recommendations but was against an Extension Branch of the PAC as defined in Recommendation three.(31) In any event, perhaps because of the lack of agreement perceived to exist among archivists themselves, it was not until 1985 that the political will necessary to cause changes was publically manifested by the federal and provincial levels of government.(32) For the future, there are three topics in the report that 29. Ibid., 109-11. 30. Ibid., 68. 31. "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," 14. 32. Regarding perceived disagreement among archivists see, Terry Eastwood, "Attempts at National Planning for Archives in Canada Since the Wilson Report," (a paper presented to the Annual Conference of the Society of American Archivists, Washington, D. C., 2 Sept. 1984); Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee, Sumf_ar.y_.of_Briefs_and_Hearings, 53-58. 20 have the potential to have a pro-found e-ffect on the development of local government archives. First, the report elevates "territoriality" to an archival principle by making it a corollary of "ECQvenance, namely, that records originating from the same source should be kept together and not inter-filed with records from other sources." It goes on to state: any particular set of records should remain as far as possible, in the locale or milieu in which it was generated.<33) Second, it emphasizes that the public total archives already in existence should foster the development of appropriate institutional, corporate, or local archives with the result that a much broader spectrum of historically important materials can be preserved, the full financial burden does not fall directly on the public purse, and the archives remain a living part of their institutional or local community. <34) Third, it advocates a formal linkage between records management and archives: when a 'total archives' accepts records from a local government, corporation, or other local organization, the archives should urge the establishment of a basic records management routine involving its archivists in the systematic selection of future records for preservation.(35) 33. Wilson Report, 15-16. 34. Ibid., 66. 35. Ibid., 87. 21 Even though the report does not directly address which local institutions are to collect unofficial documents such as letters, diaries and photographs, the above three points are important interpretations of the role of archives at the local level as they emphasize territoriality, institutional responsibility, total archives, and a role for records management.(36) They are part of the justification for local government archives, although, according to the report they could apply to any institutional, geographic or thematic archives.(37) As well as recommending provincial leadership the report has specific suggestions based on institutional responsibility, but involving cooperative efforts, on how local archives and local archival networks may be developed. Basic funding should be provided locally with no provincial grants unless certain standards are met.(38) It suggests the establishment of "cooperative archives" in which the records of a university, municipality, business, union local, parish, association — might be housed together sharing a good archival facility and the services of a professional staff. Under this system ownership could remain with each participating organization which would likely have differing 36. Ibid., 65—6. 37. Ibid., 63-64. 38. Ibid. , 91. access policies in place, and the facility could be governed by a representative board which would oversee the operations and apportion costs.<39) A major omission of this scheme is that it does not address what care would be provided for unofficial records in a community. Aside from that, the proposal deserves consideration as it suggests how cooperative endeavours at the local level, aided by the systematic developmentv of formal networks by the archives of the federal and provicial governments, can help local institutions in providing suitable archival facilities and staff. It has the advantage of being in harmony with prevailing political philosophy which wants more participation from the private sector and less government involvement. While the courses of action proposed in the Symons and Wilson reports were being discussed in the archival community, the neglect, dispersion or destruction of local archival documents was becoming a major concern to archivists and academics alike. In 1977, Hugh Taylor, then Director General of the Archives Branch of the PAC, noted the importance of the local archival record in comparative, interdisciplinary, and quantitative (computer) studies, the symbiotic relationship of local history and archives with heritage and conservation movements, and emphasized the benefits of total archives at the local level: For the regional historians in Canada, the English tradition has potentially great advantages with its emphasis on the value of the public record in the documentary heritage, a record rooted and grounded in the environment that created it, with private sector material as an essential supplementary source. There is probably a greater degree of elitism in the collection policy of a repository devoted to collection solely in the private sector without the reminder of the witness Df the ordinary citizen in the public record.(40) David Gagan, a quantitative social historian, observed that historical demographic research "tends to be microanalytical, focussed on narrowly defined local populations, whose vital records were originally generated by local municipal agencies." On a more practical level he noted: as governments and universities become increasingly cost conscious, financial constraint will inevitably affect research and social scientists in particular will be forced to redirect their interests toward more localized subjects.... There was a need for the stuff out of which new social history is being fashioned — assessment rolls, deeds and mortgages, marriage, birth and death registers, wills, municipal directories, school attendance reports, police precinct books, gaol registers, club and lodge memberships rolls, medical and public health records, church affiliation lists, indentures of apprenticeship, and the letters and diaries of ordinary folk.(41) 40. Taylor, "Archives for Regional History," 3, see also, pp. 2, S-ll of the same paper. 41. David Gagan, "Rediscovering Local History: The Problems of Archival Sources for the 'New' History," Cgmmynigue 4 (Spring 1980): 14, 15; see also, Archiyaria 14 (Spring 1982). That same year, 1980, traditional historian, J. M. S. Careless, conducted a ten year review o-f the -field of regional and local history in which he noted the growth of class history, regional and cultural pluralism as well as other regional/local subjects.(42) Historical interest was being shown in "the urban places themselves" but "detailed work, masses of it, is still to be done."(43) Thus, searching for grist for the historical mill, urban historian, Alan Artibise, headed a group trying to establish a cooperative regional archives for the Victoria area of southern Vancouver Island. When this effort failed, he and two other historians, Peter Baskerville and Chad Gaffield, organized the Vancouver Island Project to inventory the records of that area.(44) However, inventories of documents do not provide proper archival care, and, in any case, scholarly demand alone has not proven sufficient to result in the establishment of properly equipped local archives. On the other hand, the ACA tried to rectify the problem but its Committee on Local Archives failed to cause any real improvement in the overall conditions of local archives. The 42. J. M. S. Careless, "Limited Identities — Ten Years Later," Manitoba_History 1 (Spring 1980): 3-9. 43. Ibid.,5,9. 44. Alan Artibise, et. al . , Civic Archi yal_.Sur.yeyj. Greater Vic;tari a_R^ggrt_and_^ (Victoria: 1979); Peter A. Baskerville, Chad M. Gaffield, "The Vancouver Island Project: Historical Research and Archival Practice," Archiyaria 17 (Winter 1983-84): 173-87; see also, Peter Bower, "Archives and the Landon Project," Archiyaria 5 (Winter 1977-78): 152-55. 25 result Df four years of meetings, 1976-80, was the publication of a brief, but concise, two page pamphlet.(45) The professional association did not have the necessary power or funding to cause any real change in the status of local archives. Therefore, momentum to implement formal networks and give the leadership necessary to develop suitable local archives waited for the political will of senior and local levels of government. The revision of legislation pertaining to the PAC helped to provide the opportunity.(46) By 1985, the federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for culture had agreed to the establishment of the Canadian Archives System which would be coordinated by a Canadian Council of Archives at the national level, and based upon a foundation of provincial/territorial councils of archives. According to a 45. Standards_Recgmmended_for the_0perati_gn_gf_Lgcal_Archiyes in Canada (Association of Canadian Archivists, 1980); the progress of the Local Archives Committee may be followed in the Archives Bulletin (hereafter cited as AB), see "Laval Resolutions: IV. Local Archives Service," AB 1 (July 1976): 5; "ACA Committee Activities: Local Archives," AB 2 (Feb. 1977): 2; "Other Committees Report: 1. Local Archives," AB 2 (July 1977): 6; "Committees: Vice-President's Report, 3. Local Archives," AB 3 (April 1978): 2; "President's Report: Interarchival Relations," AB 3 (June 1978): 2; "Local Archives: AB 3 (June 1978): 9; "Select Committees: Local Archives Committee," AB 3 (Aug. 1978); 7; "Committees: Vice-President's Report 2. Local Archives," AB 4 (April 1979): 5; "Select Committees: Local Archives," AB 4 (Aug. 1979). 46. "Canadian Archives System," 2; Public Archives of Canada, Appalling Neglect of Canadian Archives to be Rectified," (newsrelease) 8 Nov. 1985; "Canadian Council of Archives — Inaugural Meeting," AC:A_Bul ljsti n 10 (January 1986): 4. 26 "Discussion Paper" which is to be used as a basis for future planning, the duties of each province/territory would be to: form a council of archives, structured as best suits their circumstances, to promote development and coordinate the implementation of projects of mutual interest. This would be the base of the Canadian Archives System. The activities of the councils, and archives through them, should be based on a comprehensive assessment of the archives in the province/territory and local requirements for archival service. This would ensure a focus for the work of the archives councils and would provide a plan for the development of the archival system. In addition: Each province/territory should provide grants and assistance through its council for the development of archival institutions and of the services provided to researchers. (47) Thus, the success or failure of the Canadian Archives System will depend upon the expertise and funding given to the councils by the various provincial/territorial archives. This in turn will rest upon political decision making and be dependent on the amount of funding provided by the ministers responsible for culture. At the local level, individual archival institutions were to be represented in the provincial/territorial councils and have basic responsibilities. 47. "The Canadian Archives the_Adyisgry__Committee, 5. System," 3-4; see also, Report_of 27 Each institution or government which operates an archives is to be responsible •for its continued core funding to sustain basic archival services. These include servicing the administrative records of its parent body and defining its acquisition interests and programmes, having professional regard for the legitimate interests of other archives, the limitation of its own core resources and the principles of archival science.(48) For local institutions the emphasis is on individual responsibility and, although no specific mention is made of total archives at the local level, it is implied in the recommendations regarding acquisitions rivalry. An important element at this level will be the need to educate the local community about the administrative, heritage, cultural, and democratic uses of their documents with archival values. Federally, the PAC with the advice of a Canadian Council of Archives representing the provincial councils and the national archival associations: would coordinate the system at the national level, link the provincial/territorial councils, and provide grants and services in support of the custodial responsibilities of archives.(49) It is not made clear whether or not the PAC will be able to provide services directly to the local archives if a provincial/territorial council were weak in making a plan for and systematic development or in giving grants and assistance. 48. 49. Ibid., 3. Ibid, 4. 28 Otherwise, in such a case, the -fate of local archives will hinge completely on their own endeavours unless the associations o-f archivists help their members make effective use of the grant educational programs provided by the Canadian Council of Archives.(50) Although it needs to be fleshed out, the Discussion Paper on the Canadian Archives System is extremely important. For the first time it shows a political realization at the federal and provincial levels of government of the need for a formal integrated network of archives in Canada. An element still missing, however, is the lack of political awareness and will at the local level. Even so, the time is now appropriate for the implementation of a Canadian Archives System as most of the provincial and territorial archives have now reached the stage of having properly implemented archives/records management programs. They are in a position to give advice to local archival institutions, and to organize their respective councils of archives. Care for the records of local government has the potential to be the basis for many archives. Increased expertise by the provincial levels of government should make it possible for them to provide leadership in this area to local governments. As outlined in this chapter and summarized in the Wilson Report, perspectives on local archives in Canada show an increasing acceptance of the concepts of institutional 50. Ibid. responsibility, the records management/archives relationship, and territoriality.(51) It is not yet clear, however, whether total archives can be successfully applied to smaller municipalities. Although they may be part o-f other agencies the majority of total archives in this country are affiliated with the federal, provincial and largest municipal governments. The total archives approach offers a solution to the problem of which institution is going to provide archival care for unofficial documents generated in the community at large, but it also suggests that the care of official records of non-governmental institutions will be paid for by the public purse. The concept of institutional responsibility, on the other hand, implies that each agency which creates records should be responsible for them, and is in agreement with the recent political trend in Canada to minimize government involvement and emphasize private initiative. Whether total archives or institutional care alone is involved, it is commonly thought advisable that corporate records of all kinds should be subject to records management/archival programs. Territoriality, which the Wilson Report makes an archival principal, adds another dimension: whenever possible documents with archival values should remain in the locale in which they are created.(52) Bearing the above perspectives in mind, this study proposes that cooperation between the public 51. Wilson Report, 15-16, 66, 87. and private sectors can be combined with institutional responsiblity, records management practices, and the principle o-f territoriality, to make total archives a practical alternative for the municipality of Kelowna, British Columbia. 31 Chapter 3s IHE_RECQRDS_MANAGEM LQCAL_GOyERNMENI_IN_ The solid basis -for any archives is a corporate body which in the course o-f its •functions creates a volume o-f records which are required -for administrative purposes, a portion of which has permanent value as records o-f decisions, legal and personal rights, and as a historical record o-f the policies and operations o-f the originating body and the collective experience o-f the community it serves. (1) Wilfred I. Smith Dominion Archvist, 1978 In order to understand the potential for the application of cooperative total archives programs to municipal government in British Columbia and to comprehend the necessity of the records management/archives linkage it is important to realise the acceptance of the relationship between total archives and records management in Canada, as well as knowing what records management is, what its benefits, uses and drawbacks are, what steps are being taken in the United States to develop local records management/archives programs, what are the federal/provincial responsibilities towards culture and the administration of municipal government in Canada, what falls under the jurisdictions of municipal and other local government in British Columbia, what is the relationship between the municipal and provincial governments, what are the roles of the Provincial Archives and the Records Management 1. Wilfred I. Smith, Archives in New Zealand:. A_Rep_grt (Wellington: Archives and Records Association of New Zealand, 1978),16. Branch, and what are the problems -facing municipal governments trying to establish records management programs in this province. Although there is some ignorance of the value of records management or archives by many local governments, another major problem has been the lack of involvement of the provincial government, which, considering its relationship with municipal governments should be giving them direction in the records management and archives field. It becomes evident that there is a need for records management/archival programs at the local level of government. As matters stand, municipal governments themselves may have to take the initiative. Ominously for the fate of archives, most local governments are unaware of the value of the records management/archives 1i nkage. Municipal government has been chosen to be an area of study in the field of records management and archives for two reasons. First, municipal involvement is likely to be an essential component of total archives at the local level. Second, out of the various forms of local government it has the widest variety of responsibilities, encompasses 83 per cent of the population, and, historically, has great 1ongevi ty. (2) Naturally, the functioning of municipal and other local governments in British Columbia, as elsewhere, necessitates 2. Robert L. Bish, "Local Government in British Columbia" (Review Draft, University of Victoria, March 1983), 1. the creation of records. Therefore, it follows that some form of a records management/archives system should be used. Records management procedures should include the identification and care of archival documents which have administrative, legal, fiscal and research or heritage values. Although municipal government is one of the most important forms of local government its records management programs are not well developed, and are not usually linked to archives.(3) Yet, the ACA has emphasized that municipal government should have an essential role to play in financing and coordinating systems and networks of archives.(4) In addition, when one considers the records management/archives linkage and the tradition of most total archives being joined to governments, it appears logical that municipal government should have an integral role to play in the development of cooperative total archives at the local level. A number of eminent Canadian archivists have accepted the link between total archives and records management. Wilfred Smith, the former Dominion Archivist, stated that 3. K. M. Barlee, "Records Management and Municipal Government in British Columbia," a report presented to the spring meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal Officers Association of British Columbia, 18 April 1986, Penticton, B. C.; R. A. Beauchamp, "Problems Encountered with Records Management," a paper presented to the spring meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal Officers Association of British Columbia, IS April 1986, Penticton, B. C.; Len Delozier (sic), "Focus," ACA Bulletin 5 (Aug. 1980): 6-7. Leonard C. DeLozier, "Archival Cooperation," Museum_Rgund-LJp 86 (Summer 82): 30. 4. "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," 9. 34 the archives system should integrate control over the management of current records, the provision of records centres for dormant records, and the operation of central microfilm services, as well as the conventional archival functions of acquiring, preserving, and making available for use materials which have permanent value ....(5) The Wilson Report advocates that when a total archives accepts the records of local agencies the archives should urge the establishment of a basic records management routine involving its archivists in the systematic selection of future records for preservation.(6) Hugh Taylor, former Director General of the Archives Branch of the Public Archives of Canada, states that one of the goals of total archives should be: Involvement in the entire life cycle of records, through a records management program.(7) Thus, records management is considered an essential part of total archives. Ideally, modern records management should encompass a life cycle approach to the control of information from its creation to its destruction or archival use.(S) Although file 5. Smith, "Introduction," 18-20; when the archival institution administers records management functions it is known as an integrated system; when the archives and records management institutions are under separate administrations but work closely together, it is known as a coordinated system. 6. Wilson Report, 87; see above, p. 20, also. 7. Taylor, Archiyal_Seryices_and_t 48. 8. For a fuller description of the functions of records management see, Frank B. Evans, Ihe_Deyelgpment_gf_an_Archiyal ^€L^-E^9.c4.^^^U.§:9.^niMD.%.JP^9:9.C^WiWi^ (Paris: Unesco, 1982) , 15-16. 35 classification is an obvious prerequisite for proper records management, a system of scheduling records should be at the heart of records administration in all public archives.<9) Schedules stating the length of time documents should be retained are based on the administrative, legal, fiscal and archival values of records. It is scheduling which links records management to archives, and which makes the participation of an archivist necessary when establishing time periods for retention and disposal of information. Documents of lasting value, that is archival value, usually comprise only 3 to 5 per cent of modern records. The rest may be destroyed, thereby saving administrators considerable storage costs and helping them to know when it is economically viable to microfilm documents. In addition, it is important when computer generated records are created that retention and disposal schedules are applied to them immediately because of the ease with which information in machine-readable format may be changed or erased.(10) In this case, a life cycle approach which involves scheduling the record for archival retention from the time it originates becomes even more necessary. In Canada, the benefits of total archives programs with their records management emphasis have been recognized by the 9. Bryan Corbett and El don Frost, "The Acquisition of Federal Government Records: A Report on Records Management and Archival Practices," Archiyaria 17 (Winter 1983-84): 207; Q9mmittee_gn_the_Records_ A__Rep.grt (Washi ngton , D.C.: 1985), 16. 10. Cgmmittee_gn_the__Recgrd 10, 24-34. 36 national, provincial and many o-f the largest municipal governments as archival documents can have a utilitarian as well as a cultural use to government and to the population at large.(11) Administratively, the creator of the record may use records management/archives systems for efficient, effective and economical handling of information. This includes policy analysis, planning, budgeting, preparation for court cases, and accountability to the legal and audit responsibilities imposed by federal, provincial and local governments.(12) Today, appropriate public access to records which document the legal and financial agreements, contracts and programs of government, has come to be considered a basic right of a democratic society. Thus, properly implemented total archives systems have the potential to help all governments in the effective implementation of their responsibilities. Even so, it should be realised that modern records management, while much better than no systematic records management at all, has 11. James B. Rhoads, and Wilfred I. Smith, "Why Records Management is Important?" ARMA_Recgrds_Management 10 (Jan. 1976): 107; Cecilia Christine Freeman-Ward, "An Analysis of Document Disposal Policy and Procedures within the Government of British Columbia" (Master of Public Administration thesis, University of Victoria, 1983), 17-25; Woadden, "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control," 62-64; James, "Administration of Municipal Records," 321-34; Rees, "Masters in Our Own House?," 53-59. 12. Forest W. Horton and Donald A. Marchand, eds., Information M§D§9ement in Publ ic Admi nistratign:_ An Intrgdyctign and Resgurce Gui.de tg Ggyernment in the Inf grmati.gn___.Age (Arlington: Information Resources Press, 1982); Ian E. Wilson, "Archives of Urban Municipalities in Saskatchewan: Discussion Paper" (Saskatchewan Archives Board, circulated for discussion and comments July 1983), 1. 37 room -for improvement. American and Canadian reports have shown problems in organizing, maintaining, and retrieving proliferating government records, especially those created in planning and policy areas.(13) Despite the need for change in some records management procedures, the growth in the activities of local government has made the need to extend modern records management/archival practices to them part of a movement in North America. In 1980, the neglect of local government records was seen as the major archival crisis in the United States by eminent archivist, H. G. Jones. Nothing short of the initiation or strengthening of records management programs across the nation will meet the requirements for more efficient and economic administration of local government and increased utilization of local documentary knowledge.(14) In terms of Canadian problems, it is interesting to note that in the United States the recently instituted national Committee on the Records of Government recommends that "solutions workable in federal executive agencies should be transferred to state and local governments."(15) Today, American archivists, historians and public administrators, in conjunction with the American Association for State and Local 13. QQ<_ml£tee_gn_the_Records 18, 21, 24, 26; Corbett and Frost, "The Acquisition of Federal Government Records," 210-32. 14. H. G. Jones, Local _Ggyernment_Recgrdss_ An_Intrgductign_tg their_Managementi_P (Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1980), xi. 15. Cgmmittee_gn_the_Recgrds 43. 38 History and the -federal government's National Historical Publications and Records Commission have begun a Local Government Records Project. They plan to establish a National Information Center for Local Government Records, which would act as a clearing house and provide referral services for inquiries about effective records management practices. Basic documentation is also being provided in the form of guidebooks and audiovisual programs. Funding for the above has been both public and private, with the project itself being addressed to county officials, municipal government policy makers and records administrators, as well as historical and archival agencies.(16) Thus, Americans have begun to promote records management/archival programs for local government by combining federal, state and local efforts, and by melding expertise from the records management, archival and historical fields. In Canada, despite a recognition of the problem a movement to this type of coordinated action has not yet occurred although it may have the potential to do so under the aegis of the Canadian Archives System if this organisation extends its mandate beyond a completely cultural emphasis. In addition, a series of questions arises regarding where the responsibility for the creation of records management/archival programs at the local government level in Canada should lie. Should there be federal involvement as is 16. "Industry News: Local Records Aid is Coming," Information Management 18 (Aug. 1984): 15-6. the case in the United States? Should the responsibility be with the local government, with the provincial government, or with a combination of the two? One may look for one's answers from both a cultural and administrative viewpoint. Under the Canadian constitution, cultural affairs are a shared provincial/federal responsibility. Therefore, the two levels of government could share involvement in the cultural aspects of local government archives as was suggested in the Wilson Report.(17) On the other hand, the provinces have the responsibility for overseeing municipal government. Yet, to date, local governments in the majority of provinces have been given little direction in the development of records management/archives programs which is probably a reflection of the relatively recent introduction of the provincial governments themselves to this practice.(18) For the time being, in British Columbia the onus lies on the individual municipal governments to develop their own systems. However, to study the question of where the responsibility for the creation of records management/archival programs in this province should lie, is to become aware of the need for provincial direction especially as it applies to the scheduling of records. 17. Wilson Report, Recommendations 2 and 3, 109. 18. Letters from archivists in the provincial and territorial governmental archives, files of author; Quebec and New Brunswick are two of the main expceptions; Freeman-Ward, "An Analysis of Document Disposal Policy," 17-25. 40 In planning the development o-f cooperative total archives in which municipal and other local governments could participate it is helpful to be familiar with the structure of local government, its responsibilities, and its relationship to the provincial government. There are three main forms of local government in British Columbia in addition to municipal governments themselves: Regional Districts, Special Districts and School Districts.(19) The twenty-nine Regional Districts, responsible to the Ministry of Municipal Affairs oversee municipalities and electoral areas. Created in 1965, they coordinate activities between incorporated and unincorporated areas in a comprehensive coverage of the whole province with the exception of the Stikine region. There are over 400 Special Districts with the major divisions being: Improvement Districts, responsible to the Ministry of Municipal Affairs; Hospital Districts, responsible to the Ministry of Health; Water Communities, responsible to the Ministry of the Environment; Local Areas, responsible to the Ministries of Health, Highways, and Municipal Affairs. School Districts are responsible to the Ministry of Education. These three major forms of local government are directly responsible to, interact with and are guided by the provincial government. In establishing a cooperative total archives with 19. British Columbia, Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Stati sti cs__Rel ating tg_Reg_gnal _and Myolgi P.§1 _Ggyernments„_i n British Cglumbia_ 1985 (Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1985); Bish, "Local Government in B. C," 53-93. 41 participation by the municipal government as a major component, it is necessary to know what are the responsibilities of municipal government in British Columbia and what is involved in executing them. Incorporated municipal government is composed o-f: -forty-eight villages with populations of up to 2500; thirteen towns, 2501-5000; thirty-five cities, 5001 plus; forty-five district municipalities. The divisions, aside from district municipalities which have a unique responsibility for drainage and diking projects, are based on population.(20) The bulk of municipal responsibilities and expenditures occur in six main areas: general administration, including purchasing, contracting and labour relations; recreation; policing; fire protection; transportation; sewage and garbage disposal.(21) These services are decided upon by the provincial government and by the local populace, to both of which municipal 20. British Columbia, Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Muni ci_pal_ Stat i st i cs lQf_Lydi.ng Regional. Districts and Ij5RCQy_ement. n.i§tricts_f or the_Year Ended__Dec . _31 (Vi ctor i a , Queen's Printer, 1984), 7-8; Bish, "Local Government in British Columbia," 2, 27. 21. Municipal responsibilities may also include: airports; animal regulations; building inspection; business licensing; cemeteries; civil defence and emergency measures; control of firearms; economic development; elections; electricity generation and distribution; house numbering; industrial parks; irrigation and flood control; land purchase and development; libraries; museums; noise control; parks, planning and zoning; public health regulation; regulation of nuisances; social welfare administration; soil fill and removal regulations; storm drainage; streets, curbs and sidewalks lighting; subdivision control; tax collections; telephone service; television rebroadcasting; water supply and distribution; weed control, Bish, "Local Government in British Columbia," 29. governments are accountable in carrying out their responsibilities. Executing these duties involves a series o-f complex relationships between local governments and the ministries of the provincial government. However, it has systematic quali ti es when viewed in light of individuals attempting to resolve common problems within a set of institutional arrangements, which in turn operate within a framework of provincial and local government law....(22) This is seen in the interaction of municipal government with thirteen of the nineteen provincial ministries, the most prominent being the Ministry of Municipal Affairs. It makes the laws that govern the basic structure and operations of municipalities, supervises finances, and participates in land use and settlement throughout the Province. Other Ministries directly involved are: Provincial Secretary and Government Services; Attorney-General; Finance; Transportation and Highways; Labour; Environment; Industry and Small Business Development; Lands, Parks and Housing; Health; Human Resources; Consumer and Corporate Affairs, and, indirectly, the Ministries of Agriculture and of Forestry. As well as being accountable to the above Ministries, municipal government is responsible to its citizens through routine inquiries or through challenges issued through the Office of 22. Ibid., 9-10, see also p. 20. 43 the Ombudsman or by judicial review.(23) Thus, municipal government supplies services to its citizens, and in doing so interacts with other local governments and most ministries of the provincial government in a complicated but systematic manner. Therefore, it would appear logical that some responsibility for guiding or encouraging records management/archives systems for municipalities should lie with the Provincial Archives, the Records Management Branch, and the Ministry of Municipal Affairs. The Provincial Archives and the Records Management Branch are equal but separate parts of the Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Sovernment Services, and coordinate their activities as far as provincial government records are concerned. The Provincial Archives of British Columbia is a total archives, collecting multimedia documents from the community at large as well as receiving official provincial government records. In 1982, the Records Management Branch, using a methodology based on the federal government's total archives system, was established to develop modern records management practices within the provincial government.(24) This system, which could serve as an example to municipal governments, has three essential goals: to establish 23. Ibid., 18-20. 24. From the Public Archives of Canada's Records Management Series: Subject Classification Gu_de (1969); Records QC9§Qii.§tion and Operations (1969); Records_Schedul ing_and Disposal_ (1972); General __Recgrds_Di the Ggyernment_gf__Canada, 3rd ed. (1978). 44 transgovernmental file classification for administrative (housekeeping) records which are common to all departments or ministries; to develop separate operational classification for the records which are unique to the mandate of each ministry; to apply records retention and disposal schedules to both file classification systems. The provincial government of British Columbia has no archives act to ensure the above, but the disposal of government records is governed by the Document Disposal Act. The Provincial Archivist is named under the Act as one of five members of the Public Documents Committee.(25) Although not mentioned as such in the Act, the Director of the Records Management Branch is the current secretary of the Committee. The close relationship between the Records Management Branch and the Provincial Archives of British Columbia is not paralleled by most municipal governments in British Columbia. The cities of Vancouver and Trail are two of the prime exceptions, and a few others, like the Districts of Saanich and Esquimalt, are in the process of attempting to establish systematic records management/archives programs. In the absence of federal or provincial government direction, many municipal governments, realising the importance of modern records management, if not of municipal records with archival values, have been trying to develop programs on an individual basis. Municipalities, wanting more details than the broad 25. RSBC, Document Disposal Act 1983 c. 20, s. 3.2. outlines o-f the Municipal Act can give them, have asked the Ministry of Municipal Affairs for advice on which records should be kept and their respective retention periods. In return, these local governments have received some very broad outlines regarding federal and provincial government records retention requirements. They are far removed from the detailed retention and disposal schedules required.(26) Responding to a need for more expertise in the administration of municipal government, the municipal associations and the Ministry of Municipal Affairs sponsor a one week annual course which began in 1983. Two to three hours are usually put aside for training in municipal government records management but little emphasis is placed on the archival values of municipal records. Directions from the Ministry of Municipal Affairs or the Municipal Officers Association have proven inadequate to the present scheduling needs of municipal government.(27) Most municipalities, having been left on their own to develop file classification and scheduling, two of the most important parts of records management, have not been able to provide the necessary linkage between records management and 26. RSBC, Municipal Act, c. 290, ss. 235-7, 244; form letter from the Ministry of Municipal Affairs to municipalities which request information on records and documentation policy, files of author; Beauchmap, "Problems Encountered with Records Management," 4, 5. 27. "Municipal Administration Training Institute," MQA_Chapter 290 1 (Fall 1982): 5; "Municipal Administration Training Institute: Back in School." MQA Chapter 290 2 no. 3: 1; Kathleen M. Barlee, "Records Management Diploma Program: A Report," (prepared for Okanagan College, Kelowna, 17 Oct. 1985), 9. 46 archives. For example, municipalities such as Surrey and Kamloops even though they have wel1-developed records management programs, do not have systematic links to municipal archives.(28) In Kamloops, the difficulty is heightened by the fact that the director of the museum and archives does not consider the collection of municipal records other than minutes and by-laws as part of his responsibi1ities.(29) In this and other cases many municipal records fall into an archival no man's land. Another factor to be considered is that in order to implement individual records management programs municipalities are needlessly duplicating effort and expenses, and this in a time of austerity when they are struggling with restraint and often reducing staff. An example of the cost involved in initiating individual file classification and scheduling systems is seen in the municipality of Kamloops. Even though its Office Services Supervisor has expertise in the field having taught the Municipal Administrati on, Training Institute course on records management in 1983 and 1984, the city government has recently paid $30,000 to a private 28. Sue Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada: Problems and Solutions" (a paper read at the joint conference of the Northwest Archivists and the Association of British Columbia Archivists in Seattle, 3-5 May 1984), 5; Rosalie Spargo, Office Services Supervisor, City of Kamloops, telephone interview with the author, September 1985. 29. Ken Favrholdt, Director Kamloops Museum and Archives, during a question and answer period after his address to the B. C. Studies Conference, Feb. 1984, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C. 47 consultant to develop and implement a file classification system.(30) Many municipalities may not be prepared to incur this type of expense to achieve only one of the goals of efficient records management. Even if they are, unless the file classification systems are standardized, different classification systems scattered among various municipalities will make it more difficult for them to communicate with each other. When one considers the systematic qualities of their relationship and the cost involved the obvious solution emerges: it would be much better if municipalities all used the same system with modification for individual municipal needs. The Executive Officers of the two major municipal organizations, the Union of British Columbia Municipalities, composed of elected officials, and the Municipal Officers Association, composed of public employees, think it would be most helpful if direction in providing uniform retention and disposal schedules came from the provincial government.(31) A major drawback to provincial leadership has been the restraint program of the provincial government, and therefore, the failure of the Records Management Branch to develop a modern records management system for the Ministry of Municipal 30. Rosalie Spargo, Office Services Supervisor, Municipality of Kami oops, speech to the Association of British Columbia Archivists Fall Meeting, Kamloops, Oct. 19S5. 31. Sandra Allen, Executive Officer, Municipal Officers Association of British Columbia, interview with the author, Victoria, 25 Feb. 1985; Richard Taylor, Executive Director of the Union of British Columbia Municipalities, telephone conversation with the author, September 1985. 48 Affairs. This in turn means that the Ministry is not in a position to give detailed directions to municipalities. A solution may be for the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, the Union of British Columbia Municipalities, and the Municipal Officers Association to join forces in developing an operational file classification scheme for records and functions held in common by municipalities. Their records management procedures, file classification and schedules could be verified by the Records Management Branch, and their archival schedules by the Provincial Archives.(32) It can be seen that, despite a national and international awareness of the links between records management and total or solely institutional archives, most municipalities in British Columbia are not developing the records management/archives connection in which an archivist is involved in the entire life cycle of the record. Yet, in the development of either individual municipal or municipal total archives it is going to be especially important to have this type of archival participation. However, without legislation or firm direction from the provincial government's Records Management and 32. Particularly relevant to the above is that at the Spring meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal Officers Association, IS April 1986, a resolution was passed "that the Okanagan Chapter ... request the parent MOA body to petition the Province of British Columbia to enact legislation to develop clearly defined guidelines regarding retention and disposal requirements for municipalities of British Columbia; and that the Municipal Officers Association work with the Union of British Columbia Municipalities, Ministry of Municipal Affairs, and the Director of the Records Management Branch of the Province of British Columbia to establish this goal." 49 Archives Branches, or the Ministry o-f Municipal Affairs in the scheduling o-f records and in planning for their archival retention in either separate local government archives or in total archives, it is likely that the present neglect of most municipal and other local government documents which have long term cultural, heritage, and research values is likely to continue. 50 Chapter 4: ARCHIVAL PRAND EEDERAL_.AID.J0 BRITISH_COLUMBI A In order to develop a scenario for the comprehensive care of archival documents in the Kelowna area, it is helpful to be aware of the problems held in common by most local archives in British Columbia. A study reveals that the majority of archives in this province are underdeveloped, and, through necessity, linked to museums or other heritage institutions which collect archival documents in an ad hoc fashion. The situation has not been alleviated by a failure at the local level to realize the value of archives. Moreover, provinicial and federal aid and direction have only been of limited help. Provincially, this is revealed in a study of the activities of the Provincial Archives of British Columbia, the Records Management Branch, the Association of British Columbia Archivists, and government funding agencies. Nationally, this is shown by a study of the activities of the PAC, SSHRCC, and the Canadian Conservation Institute as well as other federal agencies. Analysis makes it very apparent that the recommendations of the Wilson Report and the proposals for the Canadian Archives System outlined in Chapter Two are most relevant: while there should be local responsibi1ty to sustain basic archival services, there is also a vital need for a formal network or system of archives having as its basis provincial councils of archives which would aid in the development of services, facilities and programs after a comprehensive assessment of local requirements has been made. A study Df the problems facing most local archives in British Columbia reveals that due to the lack of public and administrative awareness of the value of archival institutions and documents there has been a subsequent dearth of political interest in the subject of local archives. There are few provincial or federal funding agencies providing significant grants and services for local archives. When supplied, federal and provincial help has been informal, ad hoc and uncoordinated. There is little connection between the collection of archival documents and records management practices largely due to the inadequacy of provincial legislation pertaining to the scheduling of local government records, and the ignorance of local administrators where records management/archival matters are concerned. There has been little local funding for facilities, staffing and professional development. Most local archives, therefore, have inadequate conservation programs, technical and professional staff, and environmental controls. The scarcity of professional supervisors and the use of volunteers have often resulted in a lack of continuity in archival procedures within institutions. There has been a failure to collect unofficial documents systematically. Although there are national and provincial plans to develop them there have been no standards for the processing of archival materials. Local archival collections are, on the whole, inadequate and the objectives of most local institutions have been limited to salavage operations and attempts to provide rudimentary 52 service to the ad hoc collections that have survived.(1) A closer study of local archives in British Columbia shows that most have a very close relationship with museums, although in the past ten years there has been a rise in the number of institutions caring for their own records.(2) Still, at least 67 per cent of the approximate 137 archives in British Columbia are administrative subcomponents of museums. Fewer than 15 per cent are institutional archives attempting to collect the records of their sponsoring agencies in a systematic manner.(3) These have been some university, college, business, religious and other institutional archives not associated with either museums or heritage and historical societies. A 1984 survey of smaller archives belonging to the Association of British Columbia Archivists showed that 96 per cent of the respondents shared a building with a museum.<4) 1. Delozier (sic), "Focus," 5-7; DeLozier, "Archival Cooperation," 27-30; Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada," 5-9; "Results of Survey: 1984," ABCA_Newsletter 10 (Fall 1984): 4-7; Anne MacDermaid, "Study Three: Federal Support to Archives,.Libraries, and Museums," in Report,of the Advisory Committee on Archives, 66; "PABC Management of Networking with Local Archives," (questionnaire answered at the PABC, Jan. - Feb. 1985), in files of author. 2. Richard A. Duckies, Directory of_Myseums__Archiye Art Galleries of British Co_umbi_a, 4th ed. , (Victoria: British Columbia Museums Association, 1983); lhe_0f f i ci al_ Di rectory of Can ad i an Museums and Pel sited Inst i tut ions (Ottawa: Canadian Museums Association, 1984); "Results of Survey: 1984,: 5. 3. Compiled using Duckl_es_ Jhe Directory of _Museums_._Art Gal1eries_and_Archiyes, which includes both public and private institutions. 4. "Results of Survey: 1984," 5. Superficial1y, at least, this would appear to be a mutually advantageous arrangement: museums have physical facilities in place; both museums and archives have the preservation of heritage materials as a goal; as will be shown, it is easier to obtain provincial and federal government aid through museums than it is through archives. Yet, a number of experts in the field do not think this museum/archives relationship is the best one for archives. A recent confidential report, made for the municipality of Richmond by a consultant, recommends that the archives be directly responsible to the city clerk's office because of the records management/archives relationship. Although this city has a museum no mention is made of having any formal archival contact with it.<5) Sue Baptie, City Archivist for Vancouver, has admonished that museums often do not recognize the duality of archives - although having heritage and cultural roles archives also have an administrative function through service to the creator of the municipal record.(6) The Archives Advisor of the Provincial Archives, reversing an earlier position, has warned that the administrative instability of museums poses a serious problem for the permanent preservation 5. Elizabeth Eso, City Archivist for Richmond, in a conversation with the author, 19 April 1986, Vancouver, B. C. 6. Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada," 5-6. 54 of archival material.(7) He also argues that archivists must see that i f museums are to be the primary keepers o-f archival material, then almost all our documentary heritage will be lost.<8) As long ago as 1962 eminent American museologist, Carl Suthe, in a report which resulted in the separation of the provincial archives and museum in British Columbia, attacked the false assumption that museum artifacts and historical records and documents belong together by virtue of their historicity. This tradition is now obsolete. It is generally recognized that the process of collecting and preserving documents and photographs, the proper function of the archives, involves techniques of recording, cataloging and conserving which differ from those used in museums.(9) Guthe was used as a source by the Canadian Museum Association when it published its museum guidebook which advocated that museums not include archives as part of their responsibi1ities.(10) In terms of the present situation in this province, it should be realized that museums are not really to blame, they are doing the best they can in a bad 7. For information on his previous position see, Leonard C. DeLozier, "A Program to Improve the Archival Capability of Historical Museums in British Columbia" (April 1977), photocopy in files of author; regarding his present stance see, Delozier (sic), "Focus," 6. 8. DeLozier, "Archival Cooperation," 30. 9. Guthe, "The Provincial Museum of British Columbia: Appendix," 2. 10. Harrison, Techni.cal_Reguirements_of_Smal 6. situation. Through default, museums have been assuming a responsibility which archivists and museologists, for a variety of reasons, have considered as unsuitable to the functions of these heritage institutions. As 48 per cent of the archives in British Columbia that answered a recent federal survey have budgets of less than $20,000 per annum, increased funding would be most useful but it is not the complete solution.(11) Municipal government provides 74 per cent of the funding to 43 per cent of the archives.(12) However, a small municipality, like a small museum acting alone, may find it difficult to provide adequate archival service. While increased funding is obviously needed, if it were added to the status quo that exists we would merely have a more richly funded problem — museums and other heritage institutions that are unaware of basic archival principles, services, functions, and uses. The same criticism, that the provision of superficial aid will not make the necessary structural changes, applies to help that has been given through the Provincial Archives, the Association of British Columbia Archivists, the PAC, and various other provincial and federal organizations. In order to make plans for archives development at the local level it is helpful to be aware of what exactly the aid from 11. QaQadi an Archi yes in i_!§2__ Survey °i Her it age Institutions (Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1985), 9; the report did not state whether or not these statistics include archives linked to museums. 12. "Results of Survey," 5. these provincial and -federal agencies has been. The Provincial Archives has not been able to -fill the gap or to provide adequate leadership in the care o-f local documents and government records, despite the -fact that since 1953 the Document Disposal Act has made it possible -for this archives to accept the records of municipalities and school districts, that the position of Archives Advisor has been created, and that the staff of the Provincial Archives has given advice and help to local archives.<13) The Document Disposal Act, there being no archives act per se, is inapplicable in practice as it applies to local archives for five reasons. First, the Act is permissive as it does not direct either the municipalities or the Provincial Archives to take any action. Few municipalities have approached the provincial institution to take their noncurrent records.(14) Second, the current Provincial Archivist, John Bovey, thinks, and correctly so when one considers the widely held beliefs in institutional responsibility and the principle of territoriality, that municipalites should provide the necessary archival care for their records.(15) Third, if the Provincial Archives were willing to accept local government 13. Revised Statutes_gf_British Columbia, Document Disposal Act, 1983, c. 20, s. 4; based on the Saskatchewan Archives Act, see above, p. 8. 14. Leonard DeLozier, Archives Advisor, PABC, written comment to author, Sept. 1984. 15. John Bovey, Provincial Archivist of British Columbia, conservation with the author, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, 3 November 1984. 57 records, it would be impractical for it do so unless there were a rationalized system with properly inventoried and scheduled records being selected for archival retention. Fourth, to remove local records to Victoria where they would be relatively inaccessible to local administrators and citizens alike, would be against the principle of territoriality. Lastly, the Act is not comprehensive as it does not mention other forms of local government such as regional or special districts. The above reasons serve to show that vaguely stated de jure alternatives concerning the care of archival documents do not necessarily result in their adequate preservation in the absence of local public and administrative awareness of the value of archives and its records management links, and in the absence of local political will and a local base of resources and expertise from which to implement the legislation. In addition, the Archives Advisor, whose position was created by the Provincial Archives in 1978, has been unable to cause any real changes in the neglected state Df the records of municipal government or other local documents. His duties, carried out at the Provincial Archives and in the field, include coordinating aid from the provincial institution to local archives, serving as a consultant, and giving workshops and seminars. The Advisor is not usually conferred with regarding which museums or archives should receive grants 58 under the Heritage Trust or Cultural Services programs.(16) Neither the one day archival seminar which is given as part o-f a three day British Columbia Museums Association workshop -for student employment programs, nor the annual five day workshop held at the Provincial Archives for people active in the archives/museum field, strongly emphasizes the life cycle relationship between records management and archives.<17) It would have have been difficult for the Archives Advisor, whose position became part-time in 1982, to further the cause of this ideal, as the provincial government had only begun to implement records management/archives programs for its ministries. This may have been the reason why the Advisor did not act upon his initial plans to establish contact with the Association of Records Managers and Administrators, the Municipal Officers Association and the Ministry of Municipal Affairs.(18) Therefore, his activities have not dealt with local records management/archival matters to any large extent, and no substantial modifications for the better in the state of local archives have occurred. Moreover, the three Main Divisions Df the Provincial Archives, Manuscript and Government Records, Visual Records, 16. "PABC Management of Networking;" Leonard C. DeLozier, telephone conversation with the author, 14 March 1986. 17. DeLozier, telephone conversation with the author, 24 Jan. 1985; in addition, this was noted when the author attended a museum/archives workshop given in Kelowna, British Columbia, June 1985. 18. Delozier (sic), "Focus," 6-7; DeLozier, telephone conversation with the author, 24 Jan. 1985. and Sound and Moving Images, as well as the Conservation Laboratory, have made little real difference to the status quo. As no archives act, no formal policy, and no substantial provincial government funding exist, there is only ad hoc help from the provincial institution to other archives. Training, consulting, publishing, and some diffusion projects are the basis of most of the Divisions' and the Laboratory's cooperation with local archives.(19) Superficial solutions are being offered to major problems. It can be seen that the emphasis at the Provincial Archives has not been in giving direction to local archival institutions on how to develop a systematic approach in the implementation of records management/archival programs, or in the collection of unofficial materials. Its focus, of necessity, has had to be on helping the smaller archives in caring for their ad hoc assortment of local history materials. For the Provincial Archives to do more there will be a need for local efforts, expertise and funding, as well as provincial government aid and financial backing for the development of records management/archives systems for local government, and for the development of comprehensive collections policies. At the same time, the Records Management Branch of the Provincial Government has had no direct mandate to encourage the implementation of records management/archival systems at the local level, although it may have an indirect right to do 19. "PABC Management of Networking with Local Archives." 60 so through its service to various government ministries which, as noted in Chapter Three, interact with local levels o-f government. Thus, local archives have been unable to look to the Records Management Branch for assistance in establishing comprehensive records management/archival programs for the records of municipal and other local governments. Furthermore, grants from two main donors, the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, have intensified the museum/archives relationship. The Ministry of Labour funding for student employment programs is heavily geared towards museums and only in a minor way towards archives.(20) The Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services as well as administering the Provincial Archives and the Records Management Branch, oversees the Lottery Grants Branch, the Heritage Conservation Branch, and the Cultural Services Branch. Aid to archives is only a peripheral part of their funding programs and is usually tied to that for museums.(21) Under the terms of the Heritage 20. Helen Tremaine, Training Coordinator, British Columbia Museums Association, telephone conversation with the author, 24 Jan. 1985; the Ministry of Labour was contacted for information on how its funding had been distributed but was unable to supply these statistics. 21. British Columbia Heritage Trust, Annual_Repgrt_ British Columbia_Heritage Trust (Victorias M of PS & GS, 1979-81, 1982- 83", 1983-84, 1984-85); British Columbia, M of PS & GS, Cultural Services Branch, Grants, Awards_ and Subsidies (Victorias M of PS ?< GS) 1979-80, 1980-81, 1981-82, 1982-83, 1983- 84, 1984-85); E. R. Orchard, Director of the Lotteries Grants Branch, letter to the author, Feb. 7, 1985, stated that the statistics were not available from the Lottery Grants Branch. Conservation Act archival materials must be considered heritage property in order to be supported.(22) Through the British Columbia Heritage Trust, the Heritage Conservation Branch gives funds for capital projects and grants for publication assistance planning, inventory, scholarships, building restoration, religious buildings, heritage area revitalization, historical archaeology, student employment, commemorative monuments, conferences, and additional activities. Over the years, funds for archival projects have come to between 1 and 6 percent of the annual total (see Appendix One), which was #1,500,000 in the 1984-85 period.(23) The Cultural Services Branch, through the British Columbia Cultural Fund, gives grants, awards and subsidies for professional support and program development projects, service programs, artist and student services, and special support services. Under professional support and program development, the Branch gave operating funds averaging from #32,000 to #42,000 per institution in the 1981-84 period to an average of twenty-seven museums per year, but not to archives which had a separate identity.(24) Funding for archival projects was a miserly 0.2 per cen of the annual total which was a very 22. _RSBC, Heritage Conservation Act, 1979, (consolidated Sept. 4, 1981) c. 165, Interpretation. 23. British Columbia Heritage Trust. Annual_Repgrt__ British Qolumbia_Heritage_Trust_l?84-85. 24. British Columbia, M of PS & GS, Cultural Services Branch, PCQftssignal_Suppgrt and_Prggram_Develgpment (Victoria: M of PS & GS), 3. generous six and one hal-f million dollars during the 1984-85 period.(25) Under community development projects the Branch gave -funding . which amounted to *8,725 -from 1979 to 1984.(26) (See Appendix Two.) The -fact that the preponderance o-f funding from the Heritage Conservation Branch and Cultural Services Branch goes to museums weighs against the development of archival institutions, and, natuarally enough, considering the mandate of the two branches, gives a near exclusive emphasis to the heritage, property, and artistic qualities of archival artifacts. As there is no archives act under which a separate trust for archival institutions could be established, archives are, of necessity, established under the aegis of museums. The result has been that archival processes as well as the research and administrative components of local archives are often ignored. The Association of British Columbia Archivists has been concerned with the failure of the provincial government to support archives not associated with museums. The Association, formed in the early 1970s by a group of professional and amateur archivists, has endeavoured to promote competence and communication among its members.(27) 25. British Columbia, M of PS 8< GS, Cultural Services Branch, GrantSj. Awards and Subsidi es_ Apri 1 i?84_-_ March 1985 (Victoria: M of PS 8< GS) , 38. 26. Ibid., Grantsi_Awards__and_Su^ (1979-84). 27. Laurenda Daniells, "A Brief History of the Association of British Columbia Archivists," _SQA„_iwsl|tter 10 (Summer 1984). Educational workshops and seminars have been held, and communication has been promoted through meetings and through the ABCA__ews_etter. Although it has been largely ineffective in moving governments to support archives, the Association has lobbied provincial and municipal governments for more help in developing municipal archives and in obtaining archives legislation.(28) The Association has also wanted to be the catalyst in the implementation of the provincial network of archives recommended in the Wilson Report.(29) However, as the organization functions with little funding, with volunteer officers, and with no institutional basis of power, it has been unable to cause any structural changes in the underdeveloped condition of most local archives in British Columbi a. From the above it can be seen that provincial policy has tended to link archives with museums to the detriment of the former. This is seen in the funding policy of the Heritage Conservation and Cultural Services Branches which regard archives as a minor subcomponent of museums. The Provincial Archives and the Records Management Branch, both hampered by provincial austerity programs and lack of will, have not given adequate aid or direction in developing the records management/archives relationship at the local level. In 28. Daniells, "Brief History of the Association;" Kent M. Haworth, "Local Archives: Responsibilities and Challenges for Archivists," Archiyaria 3 (Winter 1976-77): 37-39. 29. Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada," 3. 64 addition, the Association o-f British Columbia Archivists, although it realizes the need for institutional responsibility and provincial archives legislation in providing proper care for the records of local government, has been unable to cause any meaningful changes. When one turns to the federal level one finds much the same situation in the efforts of the PAC, the National Archival Appraisal Board, the SSHRCC, the Canadian Conservation Institute, as well as other agencies.<30) They have not affected the basic structure of archives in British Columbia. The PAC realizes that the limited help extended by the federal government to archives has not been comparable to that given to museums and art galleries through the National Museum Corporation or to heritage buildings through Heritage Canada.<31) The PAC itself has tended to offer assistance to archives in the form of training and inventory programs.(32) Theoretically, the training is to encompass both the 30. See, MacDermaid, "Study Threes Federal Support to Archives," 59-67, for more details. 31. Clavet, "Appendix 15, Structure of the Canadian Archives System and Recommendations," Cogger at ign____at __.the ...Public Archiyes_gf_Canada; see also, MacDermaid, 57-67; the nine Museum Assistance Programmes amounted to $8.5 million in 1984-85, see In_Ygur Cgmmunitys. Natignal Myseums_ of __Canada 6QQyii_.Repgrt.j_ 1984-85 (National Museums of Canada, 1985), 60; the Archives Assistance Program of the Public Archives of Canada had $100,00 to spend in 1985 according to Michael Swift, Director General of the PAC's Archives Branch, conversation with the author, Oct. 1985, Ottawa. 32. Clavet, Cgggeration at the Publi c_Archi yes_.gf .Canada, 28-33, 44-45. archives and records management areas, but, in reality -for British Columbia, it has only extended to archives training. The Archives Branch offers two extensive three or -four week courses per year in archival management to those who'have at least one year's experience in a position related to archives. The cost o-f the course, $400.00, -for those not employed by the Department of Communications, plus the expense of a month's stay in Ottawa, put it outside the reach of most local archives. The Records Management Branch sponsors an annual four week course for administrators and five day workshops for lower level staff. The courses are intended for municipal, provincial and foreign governments as well as private organizations and societies.(33) Federal courses have the potential to be helpful for local governments in British Columbia as the provincial Records Management Branch has based its Records Management System on that of the PAC. Unfortunately, because of federal government demand and due to lack of publicity, by the end of 1985 no municipal employee from British Columbia had taken any of the PAC's records management courses.(34) Thus, while local archivists, who can 33. Ibid., 45. 34. Jay Atherton, Director General of the Records Management Branch, PAC, letter to the author, 31 Jan. 1985; Mr. Atherton further notes that only 14 municipal employees had taken the courses in the 1978-84 period: for the four week course in records management, four from Ottawa, one from Regina and three from Winnipeg; for the five day course, two from Saskatoon, two from Regina and three from Winnipeg; Harry Chapin, Director of the PAC's Vancouver Records Centre, telephone conversations with the author, Feb. and Oct. 1985. 66 afford to do so, may take advantage o-f the archival training program, it is usually only federal government departments and representatives from foreign governments that have taken the records management training. From time to time since the early 1960s, the PAC has sponsored records surveys of archival materials in order to identify what documents exist and where they are located. In 1971, the surveys were organized under student summer employment programs, with funding provided by the federal government's Manpower and Immigration Commission.(35) The major criticism of these inventories is that although they locate documents both in and out of archives, they are only a first step in the archival process of appraisal, accessioning, arranging, describing, conserving, and providing access. The value of inventories is somewhat dubious without the rest of the necessary archival functions. A successful example of interprofessional cooperation, communication and coordination is seen in the National Archival Appraisal Board which appraises documents valued over $1,500 donated to public repositories for income tax deduction purposes. The adminstration fee is $75.00 per session, honorarium for chairman of the session is $200.00 for a full 35. Clavet, Qgoperatxgn_at_the_Pu 33, "Appendix 19, Break-down (sic) of Federal Summer Employment Programs;" Grace Maurice Hyam, "National Inventories," At(;.hiyes._Bul letin 4 (June 1979): 1-2; "The National Archival Survey in British Columbia," ACA_Bulletin 4 (Dec. 1979): 4; AQA_Bulletin 5 (Aug. 1980): 3. 67 day, and $125.00 -for a half day session. The other two members o-f the appraisal committee usually receive $150.00 and $100.00 each.(36) The National Director has stated that if a small local archives has a collection that does not need extensive appraisal the Board will very likely charge nothing or only a minimal amount.(37) Most local archives in British Columbia do not take advantage of this service for three likely reasons: they do not think they can afford the substantial costs involved; they are not receiving donations valued over $1,500; they are unaware that the Board exi sts. (38) Another federal agency, SSHRCC, has provided major funding for archival projects through its Canadian Studies Research Tools program. Since 1981, one of its chief goals has been to place a greater emphasis than has been done before on Canadian Studies and strategic themes of national importance.(39) The Vancouver Island Project has been one of the major Research Tools recipients in British Columbia with 36. Sue M. Baptie (Regional Director of NAAB), letter to the author, 25 Jan. 1985. 37. Stan Hanson, Workshop on Appraisal, ACA Conference, Edmonton, 15 June 1985. 38. Another program seldom used by the archival community is the Cultural Initiatives Program of the Department of Communications which supplies capital assistance to projects valued at over $200,000, McDermaid, "Study Three: Federal Support tD Archives," 58. 39. Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canadian Styd,ies_Research_Tgols__ Prggram_Gui del ines (1985) ; McDermaid, "Study Three: Federal Support to Archives," 61-62. 68 $158,111 o-f the $381,784 spent in that province in the 1981-85 time period going to it.(40) (See Appendix Three.) This project is essentially a records survey o-f local government institutions, municipalities, school districts, and improvement districts, as well as o-f select primary and secondary research materials held by other institutions such as museums, historical societies, churches and businesses.(41) The aim o-f the survey is to locate records and archival documents potentially valuable for researching regional and local Vancouver Island history. The same criticism applies to the Vancouver Island Project that pertains to the surveys of the PAC. Identifying material is only one step in the archival process, it should be a supplement to, not a replacement for, proper records management procedures, and the archival process of providing appraisal, arrangement, description, access, and conservation services to collections. A major archival problem, the lack of adequate conservation programs, is compounded by the fact that only archives that are part of museums get federal conservation aid. The Canadian Conservation Institute, under the auspices of the federal Crown Corporation, the National Museums of Canada, offers its services to archives that are part of public museums and art galleries, but not to archives having a 40. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Qanadi an_Studi es ._Research_Tgol s (list of projects, 1982-87). 41. Baskerville and Gaffield, "The Vancouver Island Project," 173; 69 separate existence. The Institute sponsors workshops, visits institutions to check lighting, humidity, temperature, and other environmental matters, lends environment measuring instruments, and provides help in emergencies.(42) In conclusion, it can be seen that -federal and provincial aid to local archives has been largely inadequate to the task of fostering rationalized and comprehensive development. This is due to a lack of awareness by local administrators and the public of the value of archival institutions and documents. As a result, there has been a corresponding political inaction to pass the provincial or local legislation necessary for the provision of a funding base from which to improve the underdeveloped state of local archives. Many federal, provincial and local services have been developed to serve museums and only secondarily archives. The result has been that the majority of local archives in British Columbia are affiliated with museums. This is hardly the fault of museum administrators who often have provided vitally needed basic services for archives without having any call on the necessary resources or expertise. Essential elements such as the need for suitable facilities, ongoing operational funding, and professional expertise in the archives field, as well as the requirement for a records management/archives life cycle approach and comprehensive acquisitions mandate, have been 42. "Criteria for the Acceptance of Request and Research Services," (a pamphlet), Can Insti tute. s for Conservation adian Conservation 70 overlooked in the aid that has been given. When, as is happening with many museum/archives at the local level, uses such as administrative and research needs are ignored then an incomplete and stunted archival identity emerges. The result has been that the archives perspective which emphasizes the provision of service to the creator of the record, to public planners, to neighbourhood groups, to Canadian scholars of history, geography, the social sciences, and other fields, and to concerned citizens of a democratic society, has been largely overlooked. Important official and unofficial archival documents are uncollected, remain inaccesible, or, even at worst, are destroyed. 71 Chapter 5: PREVIOyS__PROPOSALS ARCHIVES_IN„BRIIISH Suggestions on how to -further the development of local archives in British Columbia have been made in several quarters, and although not implemented, many of these ideas have the potential to be applied to the creation of local records management/archival systems. Therefore, in order to provide a scenario for the future it is of value to look at recommendations that have been made in the past. In 1976, the Provincial Archivist of British Columbia, Allan Turner, proposed a solution to the problem of how to care for municipal records with archival values. He suggested that the Ministry of Municipal Affairs could legislate standard retention and disposal schedules for municipalities to follow. Even though he thought it would be more productive if records management programs were also incorporated into the Act, he realized that this might not prove feasible.(1) Consequently, he suggested that municipalities could establish such programs, and have their records with archival values deposited with municipal, regional or district government archives, with museums, libraries or historical societies if they had adequate facilities and staff, or, as a last and somewhat reluctant choice, with the Provincial Archives of British Columbia. In any case, the individual municipality would retain title to 1. Artibise, Ciy£c_Archi_yal_Suryey_gf_Greater_Victoria, 29. 72 its documents. The Provincial Archivist thought that through provincial government legislation or regulation A municipality should be empowered to establish a municipal archives -for the preservation o-f the historical municipal records or to associate itsel-f with other municipalities in the creation and maintenance of a regional or district archives, and to expend monies for facilities, equipment, personnel, and all other purposes necessary to the effective operation of such an archives.<2) Turner realized that each municipality might not be able to assume individual responsibility but a group of municipalities acting together could afford archival services. In addition, he recommended: If legislative authority is required, the Municipal Act could provide for the appointment of a municipal records manager and a municipal archivist....(3) Turner's proposals came to naught. The Government of British Columbia did not have retention and disposal schedules for its own ministries to follow, and thus the Ministry of Municipal Affairs was not in a position to develop detailed schedules for municipalities. Aside from the City of Vancouver there was no municipality with the ability or the expertise necessary to receive regularly scheduled records into a municipal archives. Other depositories such as the Provincial Archives or museums, libraries and historical societies were unsuitable. Even so, the former Provincial Archivist's Ibid., Ibid. 29. suggestions are o-f significance: he correctly stressed the importance of records management; he advocated the records management/archives relationship; he identified the need for leadership and legislation from the provincial government in developing standard records schedules and in empowering municipalities to establish individual, regional or district archi ves. Less detailed were recommendations made by another archivist from the Provincial Archives. Recognizing the need for archival decentralization, Kent Haworth suggested that regional districts, through powers delegated to them through the Municipal Act, could establish a coordinated framework for local development based on archival standards, similar to that which was possible in the library field.(4) These suggestions are worthy of closer analysis because of the economies of scale that have been made possible in the four Consolidated Public Library Systems through having the libraries which belong to each system share a central administration and resource centre. This is shown in a comparison with other types of libraries. The libraries in the Consolidated Systems, which serve 40 per cent of the population, have per capita operating costs of $13.97, compared to $18.97 for the eight individual municipal libraries which serve 18 per cent of the population, and $26.70 for the Vancouver Federated 4. Haworth, "Local Archives: Responsibilities and Challenges for Archivists," 34-36; RSBC, Municipal Act, c. 290, s. 798. 74 Library System which serves 30.5 per cent o-f the population. Approximately 80 per cent o-f the funding for all libraries is provided locally.(5) The remaining 7 per cent of the population, which live in isolated communities are provided service through the provincial government.(6) There were three impediments to the implementation of Haworth's recommendations. One was the need for a greater public awareness of the value of archives as has been pointed out in both ' the Symons and Wilson reports. Presently, the public looks upon libraries as an essential service, this is not the case with local archival institutions. Second is the need for archives legislation. Under the Library Act there is criteria, based on local support, under which various combinations of municipalities, school districts, and/or regional districts may approach provincial, municipal or regional governments in order to have library services implemented for their local areas.(7) Haworth states that the Municipal Act could be the vehicle for implementing archives legislation. Yet, libraries, which he uses as an example, are largely governed by the Library Act, and it is only in remote areas where they are under the jurisdiction of regional districts. In the case of archives, even if proponents of 5. Based on statistics provided by British Columbia, M of PS & GS, Library Services Branch, British Columbia Public tibraries:__.Statisties, (Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1983). 6. Ibid. 7. RSBC, c. 235, s. 6, 16, 29, 30, 31, 40, 40.1, 41. archival services can prove they have local support, there is no legislative mechanism to facilitate change. The Library Act also provides that the provincial government may determine professional criteria for those working in the field.<8) A parallel measure for archives would be most helpful in developing the professional standards which are much needed at the local level. Third, the necessary provincial leadership has not been present, however it may develop under the newly formed British Columbia Council of Archives.(9) A 1966 study of libraries in this province noted that in the establishment of an effective province-wide interrelated system Experience elsewhere has shown that provincial leadership is the most essential single ingredient....(10) It can be seen that the local support as well as the provincial legislation and leadership necessary to make Haworth's suggestions a reality have been missing. Nevertheless, his proposals have value because they recognize the need for decentralization of archives in British Columbia, for local responsibility, for a legislative mechanism for the establishment of local archives, and for 8. Ibid., s. 43. 9. The British Columbia Council of Archives was formed by a Association of British Columbia members who had initially met for the Annual General Meeting of their association, on 19 April 1986, at the City of Vancouver Archives. 10. Rose Vainstein, Publ i c_Li brari es_i n_Br i_ti sh Columbia: A Survey with ......Recommendations (Victoria: Public Libraries Research Study, British Columbia, 1966), 85. 76 archival standards and professional criteria. At the same time they hint at the economies of scale to be obtained through the establishment of regional archives which have only one administration and share a number of services. More detailed were recommendations for a regional archives made in 1979 by a group which included urban historian Alan Artibise.(11) It proposed the construction of a cooperative local archives institution which would be governed by municipal and other local government agencies such as the regional district, school board and library board. It recommended a three stage archival development plan. The first step would see the establishment of an interim committee composed of representatives from local institutions which possessed archival documents, and from the Provincial Archives of British Columbia. This committee would work with a qualified professional archives consultant in preparing an archives development plan for the area. They would write a comprehensive by-law concerning public records which would be passed by participating municipalites and the other agencies involved. The second step would include the establishment of a permanent committee composed of a regional archival consultant, and one or more members each from the regional district, the regional library board, the school board, the Provincial Archives, and the general public. A 11. Artibise, Ciyic_Arch_yal_Sur 24-6. 77 major innovation would be the implementation of a records management training and advisory service for the use of all participating municipalities and agencies. A total archives policy would be developed to further the deposit and processing of unofficial documents from the community at large. The third step would involve the establishment of an archives building to house the regional archival consultant and support staff, and to provide storage for unofficial as well as official documents from those organizations which wished to store their records at the archives. It was also proposed that the archives building would have a research area for the public and office space for non-profit societies concerned with the history of the region. Reflecting the traditional Canadian approach, the proposal did not envisage participation from the private sector in paying to have its records provided archival care. The plan was creative in suggesting the establishment of a records management training and advisory service, and in allowing members to belong to the regional association, take advantage of its records management services but still have the option of keeping their records in their own institutions if they wished to do so. However, like the Turner and Haworth proposals, which also suggested cooperation among local governments and agencies, the Artibise scheme was never implemented due to political inertia, and a lack of public and administrative demand in the Victoria area. The Archives Advisor of the Provincial Archives made a 78 suggestion that gave a leadership role to the Association o-f British Columbia Archivists in developing a network o-f local archives. In a 1982 address to the Association, Leonard DeLozier -formulated a program for archival cooperation. While stressing the importance of institutional responsibility, he recommended that the provincial association provide expertise and encouragement to the records keepers of municipalities and other institutions, as well as approaching the Municipal Officers Association in order to be made cognizant of its problems and needs. The Advisor further proposed that regional archives groups be formed to identify records of value and to encourage institutional responsibility, that the formation of new archives within museums be discouraged through the discretionary use of funding programs, and that the public be made aware of the importance of archives.(12) While most of the proposals were relevant, the suggestion that the provincial association provide expertise and encouragement to municipal and institutional records keepers was somewhat unrealistic. At that time, aside from the City of Vancouver Archivist, most Association of British Columbia Archivists members had had little practical experience with records management. The Association did not have the necessary expertise or funding to fill an educational and training vacuum in that area. Thus, the Association did not act upon the suggestion and did not develop the proposed local archives 12. DeLozier, "Archival Cooperation," 30 79 network, but the latter idea was not forgotten. Two years later, the City of Vancouver Archivist, Sue Baptie questioned the value of local archives being total archives because "the history of those institutions and the level of sophistication, does not translate well into the area of cities or municipalities."(13) Instead, the City Archivist saw two main types of public archives developing in British Columbia: one, separate local government archives, the other, museums of documentary heritage.<14) To further this end, she thought that there should be a mutual education program between records managers and archivists.(15) Local archivists should be taught the fundamental archival principle "that records are created to facilitate business.... Once that purpose has been accomplished, the documents may have value for historical research."(16) As well as continuing to lobby the provincial government, she proposed that the Association of British Columbia Archivists should open lines of communication with the Association of Records Managers and Administrators and the Union of British Columbia Municipalities. The Provincial Archives should offer its one week internship program to both organizations and the public should be made more aware of the archival value of local 13. Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada," 6. 14. Ibid., 9, 10. 15. Ibid., 9, 11. 16. Ibid., 6. 80 government records. (17) There are -four major responses to these suggestions. First, as was shown in Chapter Four, the museums/archives relationship has been a stopgap one at best •for archives. Therefore, museums as they are presently organized are not a practicable alternative. Second, it should be noted that the comment regarding the lack of sophistication of local archives could have been applied to most provincial archives twenty years ago. Since that time these archives have developed records management expertise and most have begun to link their archives to records management in a life cycle approach through scheduling procedures.(18) In addition, in 1981 the University of British Columbia initiated a Master of Archival Studies Program which has a records management component. Expertise is more readily available than it once was. Thus, if there is the political will and if it is joined to the economies of scale that can be derived from cooperation between the private and public sectors, then total archives could be developed based on the municipal level of government. Third, concerning the idea of promoting a mutual awareness among archivists, records managers and elected officials, while having a great deal of utility it would only be one of the first steps in developing plans to provide archival care for the records of local government. 17. Ibid., 11-13. 18. Freeman-Ward, "An Analysis of Document Disposal Policy and Procedures," 19-26; Swift, "Chairman's Message," 2. 81 Fourth, it should be realised that separate municipal archives could prove a failure in preserving local government records for the same reasons that total archives at the local level could. There has been a lack of knowledge of the records management/archives life cycle approach, an omission of direction or legislation from the provincial government, a failure at the local level to understand the importance of the archival values of municipal records, and, in most cases, a dearth of local funding.(19) Once the above matters have been rectified, then municipalities may take their choice as to which type of local archives they wish to develop. In response to earnest national and provincial appeals for planned archival development, the then Vice-President of the Association of British Columbia Archivists, Reuben Mare, prepared the "British Columbia Archives Development Plan" in the spring of 1985.(20) The goal of the plan, which was to be administered by the Association of British Columbia Archivists, is to create a formal provincial network of archives based on consensus, cooperation, standardization of archival procedures, and archival accreditation.(21) The plan identifies the need to raise public awareness of the value of 19. Research questionnaire for "Records Management Diploma Program: A Report," by Barlee. 20. Reuben Ware, "British Columbia Archives Development Plan" (a paper circulated to the Association of British Columbia Archivists for discussion at the Annual General Meeting, 19 April 1985, at the University of Victoria), 2-4. 21. Ibid., 2-6. 82 local archives, to encourage institutional responsibility, to •find ways of funding local archives and to communicate with institutions such as the British Columbia Museums Association and the British Columbia Historical Associations.(22) The plan notes that there are three main organizations concerned with the care of local documents. First, is the local "archival institution" which should become the "main acquisition arena for the Province's records heritage," and which should be a total archives serving the institutional creator of the record as well as collecting the documents of private individuals and non-government institutions.(23) A second choice is the local museum/archives. It could: perform a library function by collecting copies of materials pertaining to local history that can support the museum operation and provide educational programmes to the community. In addition, it could: acquire heritage records relating to the history of their communities by establishing agreements with local institutions and individuals. In terms of acquisition of original records, local archives should be encouraged to go as far as their resources and community support can take them.(24) One assumes that these archival sections of museums would acquire original records only when an archival institution was not established in a local area. Third, is the Provincial 22. Ibid., 2, 3, 5, 6. 23. Ibid., 4. 24. Ibid. 83 Archives o-f British Columbia which would only collect security micro-film copies of the original documents held by the local archival institutions.(25) The plan recommends a number of ways to fund its proposals and to develop local archives. Direct appeals should be made to corporations and large institutions. The Association of British Columbia Archivists should apply for development grants. The provincial government should establish an "Archives Fund" of one million dollars, the annual interest from which would be administered by the Association of British Columbia Archivists.(26) Non-government institutions housing their records at an archives should "contribute" directly to the local institution.(27) This latter suggestion is significant as it is one of the first proposals which mentions the private sector contributing towards the costs of caring for its records at a total archives. The goal of the plan, the development of archival standards and a provincial network based on these standards, is most commendable, but the plan also has three major drawbacks. First, although it implies that total archives at the 25. Ibid. 26. Ibid., 2; the amount suggested seems rather small when compared with the one and a half million dollars and the seven millon dollars in interest alone given by the British Columbia Heritage Trust and Cultural Services Branch respectively, in the 1984-85 period, as mentioned in Chapter Three above. 27. Ibid.,3. 84 local level are desirable, it does not discuss what Hugh Taylor considers an essential goal o-f total archives, involvement in the entire li-fe cycle of records through a records management program.(28) It does not mention contact with the Municipal Officers Association, the Union of British Columbia Municipalities, or the Association of Records Managers and Administrators. Without a life cycle approach it is unlikely, given the importance of local government participation, and the wide acceptance of the necessity for a records management component in total archives, that any but cosmetic improvement will ensue. Second, it is a controversial point whether the provinical government would give the Association a large sum of money to administer when the government has the alternate choice of the Provincial Archives or the Records Management Branch, directly accountable to it, which the provincial association is not. The precedent established by the Cultural Services and the Heritage Conservations Branches is for them to distribute government grants. Third, as noted in Chapter Two when discussing the ACA and its Committee on Local Archives, associations of archivists usually do not have the time, funding or the institutional base from which to accomplish changes in their respective national or provincial spheres. Thus, the above impediments may make it difficult for the plan to be implemented as outlined. 28. Taylor, ArchivalServices, 48. 85 To sum up: the proposals made for the development of local archives in British Columbia have not proven extemely effective to date. As noted by the Archives Advisor of the Provincial Archives of British Columbia, the City Archvist of Vancouver, and the Director of the Records Management Branch, there is a need for greater public awareness of the value and requirements of local archives. This is likely one of the reasons why a base of provincial government support and direction, and local government inititative and expertise are not in place. Even though provincial and local government politicians have been unresponsive to local government archival needs, as the above recommendations have shown, a number of archivists and historians have recognized the importance of the records management/archives relationship, territoriality, institutional responsibility, and total archives at the local level. The variety of suggestions that have been made in the past include some that are worthy of consideration when developing a scenario for cooperative total archives at the local level. Provincial government involvement though direction from the Ministry of Municipal Affairs in records management matters is a sensible idea, as is the establishment of a fund for archival development. A precedent for the latter has already been set in the cultural services and heritage conservation fields. Communication between archivists and the Municipal Officers Association, the Union of British Columbia Municipalities and the Association of 86 Records Managers and Administrators, as well as with the British Columbia Museums Association and the British Columbia Historical Association has been advocated. A number o-f archivists, aware of the role of archives as poor cousins of museums, have pragmatically made museums their second choice as a custodian of archives at the local level. Also considered has been cooperation between local government agencies such as municipalities, regional districts, libraries and school districts in providing care for archival documents. Some proposals have favoured total archives at the local level, while others have questioned or merely ignored the matter. The Artibise and the Ware plans brought forth two new ideas. The former suggested the establishment of a total archives serving a variety of local governments. Records management training and advisory services would be offered to participating agencies which would not necessarily keep their records at the archival institution. The latter recommended that the private sector should directly "contribute" to archives which provided services. 87 Chapter hi CONCLUSION Major factors in the underdevelopment of local archives in the municipality of Kelowna, British Columbia, have been a lack of public and administrative awareness of the value of archival institutions and archival documents, a lack of local political interest in the subject of archives, a lack of federal, provincial and local aid or legislation to facilitate archival development, and thus, a lack of funding at the community level for archives. There has also been a need for direction from the provincial government in planning effective records management/archival systems for Kelowna, as well as for most other municipalities in British Columbia. To come to a decision on how to overcome these problems it has been necessary to study perspectives on local archives, to analyze the records management/archival relationship, and to be knowledgeable of particular problems facing local archives in British Columbia. Two conclusions have been reached. First, total archives that collect both official and unofficial documents in all media, and use systematic records management procedures have become a Canadian public archives tradition which has the potential to prove a valuable example for smaller municipalities. Second, in order to achieve economies of scale, private and public agencies may have to cooperate in joint funding efforts at the local level. By combining public and private endeavours, a new type of archives is created. It is posited that this amalgam, a cooperative total archives, 88 could become the basis for archival development in the municipality o-f Kelowna, British Columbia. This study has -focussed on issues that are relevant to the development o-f cooperative total archives at the local level of government. It has taken as its basis the four goals of total archives as defined by Hugh Taylor: Involvement in the entire life cycle of records through a records management program. The acquisition of documents to reflect all aspects of social activity. Acquisition of all media of (the) record. Involvement in expanding networks for the interchange of information and strategic pianning.(1) They have been rearranged to put records management first, as through service provided to municipal government records management has the potential to be an important factor in the development of total archives at the local level. Chapter Two provided an historical overview of the development of local archives in Canada. It was shown that over time the concepts of territoriality, institutional responsiblity, the records management/archives relationship and federal, provincial and local networks, both formal and informal, have become widely accepted among archivists. Thus, it is believed that local archival material should remain as close as possible to its area of origin, that the creator of the record should be responsible for its care, and that archives should be linked to records management while at the 1. Taylor, ArchiyalServices, 48. 89 same time providing a service to the creator o-f the record. The federal, provincial and many of the largest municipal governments in Canada have implemented total archives systems, but it has usually proven impractical to extend total archives to most municipalities as it is beyond their means to have the public purse bear the total costs. Archival materials at the local level have remained largely neglected despite urgings to the contrary by Candian historians. In 1980, the highly acclaimed Wilson Report suggested that local communities could ease the burden of caring for archival documents by establishing cooperative archives. The records from a university, municipality, business, union local, parish, or association could all be housed together with the respective organizations sharing the costs and responsibilities of operating the archives.(2) However, the report did not address the issue of which agency would provide care for the unofficial documents generated in local communties. By 1985, responding to concerns raised in the Wilson Report, federal and provincial ministers responsible for culture had decided to establish a Canadian Archives System. The basis of this network is to be provincial/territorial councils of archives which will be composed of individual institutional archives. Each province or territory is to analyze its requirements and then plan a program of archival grants and services to be distributed through their respective councils to archival 2. Wilson Report, 92, see above, pp. 21-22. ' 90 institutions. <3> When one studies the background o-f archival development, and the national and provincial plans -for archival progress it becomes evident that the time is appropriate -for the implementation o-f an archives strategy -for Kelowna, British Columbia. As the records management/archives relationship is an integral part D-f total archives, and as municipal government is the core administrative agency likely to be closely a-f-filiated with the proposed cooperative total archives, Chapter Three analyzed the records management/archives relationship at the federal, provincial and local levels of government. It was found that in British Columbia most municipal governments, unlike their federal and provincial counterparts, do not have a strongly developed records management/archives relationship. Very often, even the implementation of modern records management procedures is overlooked. The result has been that most municipal records with archival values are either neglected or destroyed. Knowledgeable municipal officers, realizing the similarity of the records management needs of municipalities and the high costs involved in developing individual records management programs, would like the Ministry of Municipal Affairs to provide them with guidance, especially in the scheduling of municipal records into time periods for retention and disposal. However, these same officials are largely unaware of 3. "The Canadian Archives System," 3-4. 91 the value o-f archival records to the local, provincial and national communities. Thus, it is an opportune time -for the Provincial Archives o-f British Columbia and the provincial government's Records Management Branch, in conjunction with the Ministry o-f Municipal Affairs, to provide direction to municipal governments in records management, and to educate them in archival matters. It must be realized any total archives plan developed for Kelowna will have to work within provincial government restrictions, exigencies and guidelines for the records management/archives field. As the newly formed Canadian Archives System takes a holistic perspective and as Kelowna is part of a larger provincial and national community, in Chapter Four it was helpful to analyze the interrelated problems that face local archives in British Columbia. It was found that there has been a lack of public and administrative awareness of the value of archival institutions and archival documents, a lack of local political interest in the subject of archives, a lack of federal, provincial and local funding, services or legislation to facilitate archival development, all of which have resulted in a lack of archival development at the local level. To date, there are no provincial or federal archives acts under which grants can be specifically directed towards archival institutions.(4) Thus, most archives in British Columbia are 4. The federal government is presently attempting to pass new archives legislation which would make it possible for the PAC to give more formal aid and direction to provincial and local archives. minor subcomponents o-f museums, largely because museums receive significantly more funding and services from federal and provincial governments than separate archival institutions do. Yet, most museums do not have the resources, facilities or professional staff necessary to provide adequate care for either unofficial documents or official records. Moreover, the federal and provincial archives largely ignore the records management/archives component in training that is provided to local archives. Yet, it is widely recognized that records management should be an important component of archival practice. Although the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada through its Canadian Studies Research Tools program has provided substantial funding this has not helped to solve the problems relating to the underdevelopment of most local archives. At the local level essentials such as . suitable facilities, locally provided operating funds, professional staff, a records management/archives life cycle approach, and comprehensive acquisition policies are usually not in place. In the past ten years a number of historians and archivists in British Columbia have addressed the issue of how to solve the problems besetting local archives. Their recommendations were outlined in Chapter Five, as in order to plan for the development of cooperative total archives in Kelowna it is important to take into consideration proposals that have been made in the past. In 1976, Allan Turner, then Provincial Archivist of British Columbia, advocated direction from the Ministry of Municipal Affairs. He thought that the ministry could pass legislation which would establish retention and disposal schedules for the records of municipal government, empower municipalities to develop individual, regional, or district archives, and possibly even provide for the appointment of municipal records managers and archivists. That same year, Kent Haworth, an archivist with the Provincial Archives of British Columbia, recommended that regional archives, based on the regional library prototype, should be established under the Municipal Act. In 1979, a group headed by urban historian Alan Artibise presented a detailed plan for the development of a total regional archives for the Greater Victoria area. This was to be based on cooperation between local governments. One idea was unique, that participating agencies could take advantage of the records management training and archives advisory service offered, but not necessarily keep their archival records in the regional archives institution. In 1982, Len DeLozier, the Archives Advisor of the Provincial Archives, proposed alternate and less detailed solutions. He recommended cooperation between creators of records, the the formation of regional archival groups, the assumption of personal and institutional responsibility by owners of archival documents, and improvement of the image of archives in the eyes of the public. In addition, he recommended against the formation of new archives within museums. In 1984, Sue Baptie, the City Archivist of Vancouver, recommended leadership roles for the 94 Provincial Archives of British Columbia, and the Association of British Columbia Archivists in aiding the development of two types of archival repositories: separate governmental institutions and museums of documentary heritage. Unlike some of the other proposals, under this scheme there would be relatively few total archives at the local level. However, like many other archivists, the City Archivist saw a need for increased public awareness of the value of archives. By 1985, Reuben Ware, Director of the Records Management Branch of the provincial government, and then Vice-President of the Association of British Columbia Archivists, had suggested that local archival institutions, which would be total archives, should be the major collectors of the province's documentary heritage with a secondary role being assigned to museums. He further recommended that the Association of British Columbia Archivists should help to implement a provincial network of archives based on consensus and standardization of the primary levels of archival activity. He, also, saw a need to raise public awareness of the value of archives and suggested a new idea, that large non-government institutions should be encouraged to contribute directly to archives which provided care for their records. Despite the above suggestions, by the spring of 1986 very little had been done to improve the condition of local archives in British Columbia. Thus, it can be seen that in the past, the public and administrative awareness of the value of archives, and the federal, provincial and local political initiatives necessary •for legislative change in and -funding o-f the local records management/archives field have been missing. For the present, local areas, such as Kelowna, can define their records management/archives goals, in this case cooperative total archives, and then take the steps necessary to achieve them bearing in mind Hugh Taylor's four goals for total archives, the importance of institutional responsibility, territoriality, the records management/archives relationship, the problems of archival underdevelopment, and previous recommendations for improvement. For the future, local archives should be prepared to become part of the Canadian Archives System and its proposed network of archives. A Scenari_g_f or _the_Deyel_opment of.Cooperative iQ_!$el Qwna__BrIt i sh_Cglumbia_ Although many areas in this province have similar problems, it is likely, as is the case with libraries which may function on an individual or cooperative basis, there will be different resolutions to them. Solutions will probably be based on the economic and population foundations of communities, attitudes towards the importance of records management/archives development, and the general cooperative or individualistic perspective of the citizenry. What is offered for Kelowna is a small scale pilot project for cooperative total archives. If successful, it could serve as a prototype for other areas. In order to solve the archival problems existing in Kelowna it will be necessary to raise public and 96 administrative awareness of the value and needs of archives, and of the necessity for a records management/archives life cycle approach. It will also be imperative to convince municipal and other local government politicians and bureaucrats, as well as administrators in the private sector, why they should assume responsibility for the ongoing operating costs, adequate facilities and professional staff needed to maintain an archival institution. They will need to be shown why it is important to have legislation or executive directives linking records management to archives, and, following Taylor's total archives goals, why the City Archivist will need to be involved in a life cycle approach to records management. It must be realized that a small municipality acting as a separate entity would likely find it difficult to provide adequate archival care for its own records, let alone achieve the goals of total archives. Therefore, as suggested by the Wilson Report and the British Columbia Archives Development Plan, efforts should be made to involve other local governments and private agencies, and to have them pay for records management or archives services that are provided to them. Unfortunately, there is no provincial archives act to make cooperative archival efforts among public agencies possible as has occurred with regional libraries. On the other hand, the private sector by assuming institutional responsibility would pay for the care of its documents with archival values as well as for other records 97 management/archives services. Thus, the public purse would not bear all the expense, and the economies o-f scale, engendered by a sharing o-f pro-fessional expertise, sta-f-f , and suitable -facilities, would ensure that a comprehensive selection o-f official and unofficial documents is gathered, and that proper care is provided for locally generated archival materials. The municipality of Kelowna has the potential to launch a small scale pilot project for a cooperative total archives. Although in the past there has been a failure to systematically collect official or unofficial archival documents, and although funding, professional and technical support staff, proper facilities, and conservation programs have all been in short supply, there are a number of factors that bode well for the future. There is a wel1-developed museum program which has a nascent archival component. In 1986, the Kelowna Centennial Museum will be unique among small museums in Canada as it will have a research laboratory and a professional conservator to which an archives could have access. There is a heritage building, owned by the city and developed under museum auspices, which has the potential to house a local archives. Under the direction of a professional archivist, who is providing volunteer help to the museum, interest and support from public and private agencies for a feasibility study on local archival development have been 98 documented.<5) The Museum is presently providing major educational services to scholastic institutions through presentations at schools, travelling exhibits and the publishing o-f local history. The Director of the Museum is an excellent fund-raiser, collecting approximately forty per cent of the annual $250,000 budget in this manner.(6) Thus, this institution, which is also one of the four federal government National Exhibition Centres in British Columbia, has considerable administrative and fund-raising expertise, and is one of the wealthiest local museums in the province. Another factor favouring archival development in this community is that the City Clerk understands the value of records management and its linkages to archives.(7) In addition, academics and administration at Okanagan College, located within the city limits, favour the establishment of a local archival institution which will aid the identificiation, collection, processing and preservation of documents useful to 5. Letters of support from the municipal government, Okanagan College, the Chamber of Commerce, the Central Okanagan Regional District, School District Twenty-three, the Social Studies Teachers Association, the Kelowna Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society, the Anglican Diocese of Kootenay, the genealogy society, the multicultural society, local radio stations, as well as from the PAC and the Association of British Columbia Archivists, October 1985 - February 19B6, in Kelowna Centennial Museum files. 6. Kelowna Centennial Museum and National Exhibition Centre, "Financial Statement, 1984," "Education Report, 1985," Ursula Surtees, Director, conversation with the author, November 1985. 7. Richard Beauchamp, City Clerk of the Municipality of Kelowna, letter to the author, 8 November 1985, in the Kelowna Centennial Museum files. 99 their respective teaching, research and records management needs. The College has approached the Canadian Studies Research Tools Program o-f SSHRCC for funding to conduct a records survey within the area encompassed by the Central Dkanagan Regional District. There is a strong interest in heritage and history in the community. There is some predisposition towards cooperative efforts as Kelowna is the headquarters of the Okanagan Regional Library, a multicampus college system, and the British Columbia Fruit Growers Associaton, composed of a cooperative marketing organisation and packing houses. Another important factor is that the Kelowna area, with a projected population for 1990 of 105,600, is the largest and wealthiest commercial and administrative centre in the Okanagan Valley, which in itself is one of the biggest fruit growing areas in Canada.(8) The strong museum, the administrative demand, the scholarly need, and the local predisposition to cooperation, as well as the importance Df the city, serve to make Kelowna a logical centre to take a leadership role in the challenging task of developing a prototype for cooperative total archives. It is likely that initial development will be fostered by the Kelowna Centennial Musuem as it already has an administrative structure in place, is substantially funded by 8. British Columbia, Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Statistics Ri-I.ilting__._to_.Regional ._Qd_.Muni.ci pal _..Governments, 27, 63, 67; British Columbia, Ministry of Industry and Small Business Development, Br it i sh_Cgl umbi a_ .Fact s ..an_d_Stat.i st ics (Victoria, 1985), 9; British Columbia, Ministry of Economic Development, i!!Zit..ish_Cgl ymb.la_.Regi onal^ Xndex. 1978, 159. 100 the municipal government, has access to federal and provincial funding and services which favour museum/archival development, and has access to Museum Assistance Programmes personnel and its own conservator for advice on the estimated cost of converting the heritage building into . an archival accommodation with atmospheric control. Plans for archival development cannot afford to ignore funding which promotes the museum/archival relationship, even though, as noted in Chapter Four, a number of museologists and archivists do not think this is the best arrangement for archival development.(9) For the time being, however, the financially logical step is the second choice of the British Columbia Archives Plan - archival development under the aegis of a museum.(10) Based on the favourable conditions mentioned above and suggestions made in the past by provincial archivists and historians, but at the same time being aware of the formidable obstacles to be overcome, a number of planned phases should begin. First, as suggested in the proposal from the Artibise group, an interim Steering Committee should be established.(11) It could have a representative from the municipal government, the school district, Okanagan College, the Kelowna Centennial Museum, and the private sector, with other local organizations being consulted from time to time. 9. See above, pp. 53-55. 10. See above, p. 82. 11. See above, p. 76. 101 For the necessary guidance to be provided it is essential that a person knowledgeable in the -fields of archives and records management be part of the committee. In this case, the professional archivist/records manager advising the Museum could take that place. In another case, the Association of British Columbia Archivists, the Provincial Archives of British Columbia, or the British Columbia Archives Council could be approached for a representative. Having a small committee whose members have a variety of skills and backgrounds should expedite the decision . making and fund-raising processes that are a prerequisite for the development of a cooperative total archives. Although evidence of public support has been gathered, as recommended by the Symons Report and in various plans for archival development in British Columbia there is a need for increased awareness of the value of local archival institutions. Steps must be taken to overcome the lack of political interest in the subject of local archives. Local, provincial and federal politicians should be informed of the extent of local support in Kelowna for a feasibility study on the establishment of a local archives. Municipal politicians especially, should be made cognizant of the importance, for both administrative and cultural uses, of the records management/archives relationship.<12) It will prove 12. Okanagan College sponsored a seminar for the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal Officers Association on the importance of municipal records management and archives development. It was held in Penticton, IS April 1986. 102 advantageous to have the private sector, the public, civil servants and politicians realize the importance of records management/archival systems at the local level.(13) Funds for an archival development study should be sought. Local agencies, including those which wrote letters of support for the feasibility study, should be petitioned as well as federal and provincial sources of grants for archives museums, Canadian studies, and cultural initiatives. Keeping in mind the networking goals of the proposed Canadian Archives System, the Committee should approach the federal and provincial councils of archives to ascertain whether efforts to found a cooperative total archives at the local level can be coordinated with funding activities at the provincial and federal levels. Workshops, use of the media, and talks to community groups should also be part of the fund-raising efforts. Once the economic base for the study is in place, a professional records managment/archives consultant should be hired to prepare, in consultation with the committee, a development plan for cooperative total archives.(14) As noted in previous chapters, total archives at the local level have 13. For instance, Marcel Masse, Minister for the federal Department of Communications which oversees the national museums and archives, emphasizes the importance of local groups having community support before approaching his department for assistance, see, Marcel Masse, "I Intend to Have my Say," Muse 3 (Summer/July 1985), 15. 14. See above, p. 76, step one of the Artibise group's plan. been either directly or indirectly promoted by Hugh Taylor, in plans -for the Canadian Archives System, in the Artibise group's proposals and in the British Columbia Archives Development Plan. (15) To achieve economies o-f scale which would not otherwise be possible and to promote institutional responsibility -from the private sector, cooperation between various combinations o-f public and private agencies has also been favoured by the Wilson Report, and, as shown in Chapter Five, in most of the archival development plans for British Columbia.(16) However, there is no provincial legislation to promote the development of cooperation between public institutions, and payment to a total archives, for the provision of archival care to their records, is a new concept for most private agencies. Even so, the consultant and the committee must try to establish which private and public organizations will be prepared to pay for records management/archival services provided by the cooperative total archi ves. The museum and municipal government will want to know what the costs will be for the proposed records management/archives system in terms of staff, facilities, equipment and supplies. It will be necessary to have a plan made of the space needed: a holding area for for incoming documents which may be contaminated by insects or mold; a work 15. See above, pp. 22-23, 27, 77, 82. 16. See above, pp. 21, 72, 73-74, 76-77, 83. 104 area; a secure storage area; a public reference area. Adequate temperature and humidity controls will also be very important. Other capital expenses, in addition to those -for the -facility, will be -for a xerox machine, a micro-film reader, and technical support -facilities. The cost of some of these items could be shared with other organizations, especially if an arrangement were in place where a number of heritage groups share a building as envisaged by the Artibise group.(17) Projected operating expenses on a yearly basis should include the salary of a professional archivist, the cost of janitorial services and utilities as well as the funds needed for ongoing equipment and supplies such as acid free file folders, boxes, envelopes, and encapsulation materials.(18) Once the data on capital and operating expenses has been gathered a recommendation should be made on how the organization can be funded and administered. The majority of the financing should be provided locally following suggestions made in the Wilson Report, recommendations for the Canadian Archives System, as well as local library and museum precedent.(19) Until a significant number of public and private agencies are participating, or until provinicial 17. See above, p. 77 18. The above requirements for starting and operating a municipal archives are partially based upon Ian E. Wilson's "Archives of Urban Municipalities in Saskatchewan: Discussion Paper" (circulated for discussion and comment by the Saskatchewan Archives Board, July 1983), 5-6. 19. See above, pp. 21, 27. legislation is changed to -facilitate the -formation of regional archives, basic funding should be provided by the municipal government with participating agencies paying it for the archives and records management services being provided to them. An archives advisory board composed of representatives from participating organizations and from the general public should be established.(20) This would give the generators of both official and unofficial archival documents a say in the operations of the archives institution. As mentioned before, most of the federal and provincial grants and services are offered to museum/archives and not to archives with a separate existence. Thus, the archives will start as an administrative component of the Kelowna Centennial Museum. Later, if federal, provincial and local legislation, funding and services provided to archives improve, the local archives may be able to become the primary archival institution advocated in the British Columbia Archives Development Plan, or even become the centre for a regional archives as recommended in some of the other plans outlined in Chapter Five.(21) The second stage should commence when the municipality, in consultation with the interim steering committee and the records management/archives advisor, has decided what the inital captial and operating costs will be, has decided to 20. This is similar to suggestions made in the Wilson Report, and by the Artibise group, see above, pp. 21-22, 76. 21. Ibid., pp. 82, 72, 73, 76-77. 106 make a -financial commitment and has formed an archives advisory board. The interim committee would then be dissolved, and the municipality, the museum, and the board would take steps to hire an archivist. As the scope of a cooperative total archives is going to include records managment, the importance of which has been noted in Chapter Three, the professional who is hired should have expertise in both the records management and archives fields, as well as being aware of the new automated technologies that are emerging.(22) Due to the size of the community and the costs involved it would probably prove better if, initially at least, the duties of archivist and records manager were performed by one person. The municipality, the new archivist, the museum and the board should then establish rules and regulations regarding services to be provided, appropriations for expenditures, ownership of the documents, and criteria for membership in the cooperative total archives. An innovation suggested by the Artibise group would likely have practical application. Records management and archives advisory services could be offered to member agencies. However, they would not necessarily keep their archival records at the central archives institution.(23) As recommended by the Wilson Report, 22. Ibid., pp. 33-35; see also, Michael Swift, "Management Techniques and Technical Resources in the Archives of the 1980s," Archiyaria 20 (Summer 1985): 102-3. 23. See above, p. 77. 107 and Allan Turner, -former Provincial Archivist o-f British Columbia, ownership could remain with the creator of the record even when the materials are housed in the central archival institution.(24) The respective institutional owners of the record would decide whether or not access restrictions were necessary. Thus, in addition to the usual collecting, processing, preserving of, and making accessible official and unofficial archival materials, records management/archival services and restrictions different to the usual total archives procedures would be in place. In an amplification of a creative suggestion made in the British Columbia Archives Development Plan, the private sector would pay for the archival care of its records.(25) Criteria for representation on the board of the cooperative total archives by the private sector and other local governments would involve payment for the records management and archival services provided for the care of their records. Through the cooperative total archives progress would be made towards two of the goals of total archives outlined by Hugh Taylor: The acquisition of documents to reflect all aspects of social activity. and Acquisition of all media of (the) record.(26) Once a commitment to ongoing operations has been 24. Ibid., pp. 21-22, 71-72, 25. Ibid., p. 83. 26. Taylor, Archiyai_Seryiges, 48. 108 established, as part o-f the third phase plans should be made •for preparing the archival -facilities, planning short and long term goals, and priorizing activities. Immediate steps should be taken to compose a prospectus and send it to various granting agencies in order to obtain help with initial capital expenses. The archivist should be provided with a temporary o-f-fice while permanent -facilities are being prepared. During this period, the archivist, in consultation with the administration, should make a number of decisons concerning steps that will be taken to reach the planned objectives. To achieve the goal of total archives, defined by Hugh Taylor as Involvement in the entire life cycle of records through a records management program.(27) a decision should be reached regarding the agencies in which the archivist will play an active role. As asserted in the Wilson Report, the archivist should be involved in a basic records management routine for every official agency sending records to a total archives.(28) It should also be decided to acquire first those archival collections which are in danger of destruction. To help accomplish these goals the archivist should gather statistics on the official records and archival holdings of the participants, and on unofficial archival documents within the community. The archivist should then priorize the process of implementing records 27. Ibid. 28. See above, p. 34. 109 management/archival scheduling procedures and collecting unofficial materials. If, as would likely be the case, the first records management priority were the records of municipal government, the city of Kelowna should pass a by-law concerning the management of its records as has been done in cities of Vancouver and Trail.(29) The legislation should: define a public document; ensure that no public document be destroyed without approval from the archives; form a public documents committee and a procedure for establishing and amending records retention and disposal schedules; require that one copy of all publications officially issued by the municipality be deposited with the archives; establish a public access policy for municipal records.(30) Guidelines and procedures manuals should be written to give direction on how to carry out various records management/archival functions. Similar procedures would also be implemented for private organizations and other local governments, with executive directives replacing by-laws. A library of basic archival literature would be started. In order to have Involvement in expanding networks for the interchange of information and strategic planning. (31) 29. City of Vancouver By-law 5201, City of Trail By-law 1922; this was recommended by the Artibise group, see above, p. 76; see also, Wilson, "Archives of Urban Municipalities in Saskatchewan," 4-5. 30. Based on Wilson, "Archives of Urban Municipalities in Saskatchewan," 4-5. 31. Taylor, Archival Services, 48. 110 one of the goals of total archives listed by Taylor, organizations such as the British Columbia Archives Council, the Association of Canadian Archivists, and the Association of British Columbia Archivists should be joined. With this preliminary structure in place, the archivist would then be prepared to administer a cooperative total archives. Of course, what the ideal should be is also realized. Although there is a requirement for institutional responsibility at the local level, as shown in Chapter Three there is also a need for formal direction and aid in records management and archival matters from the provincial government. In a parallel situation, the Committee on the Records of Sovernment in the United States has recommended that successful records management procedures of the federal government should be emulated at the state and local levels.<32) Similarily, in Kelowna it would be logical to plan municipal records management and archives systems following the procedures developed by the federal and provincial governments for their total archives systems. As suggested by the directors of the Municipal Officers Association, the Union of British Columbia Municipalities, as well as by Allan Turner, former Provincial Archivist of British Columbia, it would be most helpful if the provincial government could give direction to local governments concerning the scheduling of See above, p. 37. Ill municipal records.(33) An obvious solution to an individually expensive problem is to have the Records Management Branch in coordination with the Ministry o-f Municipal A-f-fairs, the Provincial Archives o-f British Columbia, a professional archivist/records manager representing local needs, as well as knowledgeable representatives from the Municipal Officers Association and the Union of British Columbia Municipalities, develop a common file classification and scheduling system for those records which all municipalities have in common. In addition, the senior governments should be encouraging cooperative efforts through the provision of grants for the demonstration, experimentation and support of small scale pilot projects favouring the formal coordination of archival efforts. Thus, at the national and provincial levels efforts should be made to help the orderly and systematic formation of records management/archives procedures based on expertise and a network approach. In the future, the Kelowna archives should re-evaluate its activites in light of changing local goals and concerns, while at the same time being aware of developments in records management and archival matters in the larger world. Changes in provincial legislation may facilitate the formation of the regional archives proposed by Allan Turner, Kent Haworth and the Artibise group.(34) As suggested by a number of archivists Ibid., pp. 47, 71. Ibid., pp. 72, 73, 76-77. 112 in British Columbia, and outlined in Chapter Five, local archivists should be knowledgeable of, and respond to, progress being made by the Association of British Columbia Archivists, the Municipal Officers Association, the Union of British Columbia Municipalities, the Association of Records Managers and Administrators, the British Columbia Historical Association, and the British Columbia Museums Association, as well as other related organizations in their attempts to develop archival or records management cooperation and coordination. If a cooperative total archives is developed in Kelowna, it should become part of the interlocking local, provincial and national networks recommended by the Wilson Report, and planned for by the Dominion, Provincial and Territorial Archivists through the Canadian Archives System. To sum up: it has been shown that there are four major obstacles to be overcome in the establishment of local archives. These are the lack of public and adminstrative awareness of the value of local archival institutions, the lack of administrative and political interest in the subject of archives, the lack of community funding for proper facilities and professional staff, and the lack of provincial or local legislation and direction to facilitate local archival development. However, even if these impediments are removed, in Kelowna, as in other local communities, most private and public agencies cannot afford to provide proper care for their own official records, let alone carry the additional burden of caring for other documents found in the 113 community at large. The costs involved make it difficult for the governments of most municipalities to fund a total archives instutution. Thus, it can be seen that without cooperative total archives, with its economies of scale and comprehenisve approach to collecting archival materials, the present neglect and destruction of most local documents with archival values will probably continue. There are many benefits to be derived from a cooperative total archives which builds on the Canadian total archives precedent, on the goals of total archives as defined by Hugh Taylor, on the widely accepted concepts of territoriality, institutional responsibility, a close records management/archives relationship and networking, and on suggestions made by historians and archivists in British Columbia. The creator of the record would use the local records management/archives program for efficient, effective and economical handling of information. This would include policy analysis, planning, budgeting, preparation for court cases, and accountability to the legal and audit responsibilities imposed by federal, provincial and local governments. There would be research, cultural, and heritage uses: by educators and students at schools, colleges and universities; by tourist promoters; by genealogists; by heritage organizations; by museums; by amateur historians; by professional researchers, such as historians, political scientists, geographers, and economists and others. In addition, appropriate public access to records which document 114 the legal and -financial agreements, contracts and programs of local government, especially in relationship to taxation and property rights, has come to be considered a basic right of a democratic society. 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University of Toronto Quarterly 25 (April 1946). Reprinted in Apprgaches_tg__Canadian Histgry, 42-49. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967.~ . "Historical Societies and Museums." In Royal. Q9__i_s_gn_St.ud_i.es_. A„§el ect i_gn _gf _Essays_Pre__ared_f or th§_Royal„Cgmmissign_ gn_Na_ignai_Deyel _____Ci._iD___9.ilQ9§§__i__:_!z„i i 249-59. Ottawa, King's Printer, 1951. Neatby, Hilda. "National History." In Royal _Cgmm.iss.ign __y_if_ll_.____f_il9_.i9D._9f .____.§ Y§__C_P.§C__....f 9_...thl__Rgyal _9_!_i__i9Q_9Q_N__iQQai_D§!Yeiggm and_Sci.ences__ 1949-51 , 205-16. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1951. Nelles, H. V. "Rewriting History." Saturday_Night 96 (Feb. 1981): 11-16. The Of f i.cial _.Dir ect gry_gf _Canadi_an._Mu_.eums_and_Relat.ed lD§ti_yti9D§? Ottawa: Canadian Museums Association, 1984. "PABC Management of Networking with Local Archives." Questionnaire 'answered at the Provincial Archives of British Columbia, Jan.-Feb. 1985. 120 Page, James E. "Canadian Studies and Archives." Reflections 9D_tb§_Symons_Re_ort on.t 1?80, 204-25. Ottawa: Secretary o-f State, 1981. "A 'Practical' Plea." Canadia^.H.stgrical.Review 15 (1934): 245-47. Prang, Margaret. "National Unity and the Uses of History." In Q§Q§dl§D_.dt§tgr_cal_ Assoc.at (1977): 3-12. Recgrds__rga_iz.tign.and_0.eratigns, Records Management Series. Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1969. Bl?.9C.ds_Sc_edul.ng.and.Disggsal . Records Management Series. Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1969. Rees, Anthony L. "Masters in Our Own House?" Archiyaria 16 (Summer 1983): 53-59. "Results of Survey: 1984." ABCA.Newsletter 10 (Fall 1984): 4-7. Rhoads, James B., and Wilfred I. Smith. "Why Records Management is Important?" ARMA_Recgrds Management Quarterly 10 (Jan. 1976): 5-8. Royal Commission on Government Organization. Repgrt.gf.the R9Y§I_Cgmmission.gn.Government.Organization. 5 vols. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1962. Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences. Repgrt.gf•_the.Rgyal_Cg_.i_sign_gn_National Deyelgpment.in.the.Arts..Letter Ottawa: King's Printer, 1951. Sage, Walter N. "Where Stands Canadian History?" In Canadian Histgr i ca__Assgci.ati gn__Hi stgrical .Papers (1945): 5-14. Smith, Wilfred I. "Archives as Recorded Past." In Preserving tbe._Q§D§dl§D_Her i tage_ A_Sympgsi um_Hel.d_i n.Assgc.ati gn witb„Heri.age.Canada. Edited by R. J. Laidl.er. Ottawa: Royal Society of Canada, 1975. Archiyes__n_New.Zea.and: A.Repgrt. Wellington: Archives and Records Association of New Zealand, 1978. "Introduction." In Archives. Mirrgr.gf.Canada.Past. Toronto: 1972. Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada. Canadian Studies.Research Tggls. Ottawa: Information Division, Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada. 121 Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada. Canadian Studies_Research_Tool_s: PxQ3_i___yi_§liD_s- 1985. Stand_rds_Recgmmended_fo Canada. Association of Canadian Archivists, 1980. Stelter, G. , and A. Artibise, eds. Ihe__Canadian__City. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971. Subject...Classification_Guide. Records Management Series. Public Archives of Canada, 1969. Swift, Michael. "Chairman's Message." Canadian_Archiyist 2 <1975): 1-4. "Management Techniques and Technical Resources in the Archives of the 1980s." Archiyaria 20 (Summer 1985): 95-104. Symons, T. H. B. lQ_Kngw Oursel_yes: The_Regort_gf_the C°!B!5i§§iQQ„9Q„Q§Q§d[i§D._.Studi_es. 2 vols. Ottawa: Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 1975. Taylor, Hugh A. Archi val __Seryices._an A_RAMP Study. Paris: Unesco, 1984. . "Archives for Regional History." Paper presented, at the symposium, Blueprint for Interdisciplinary Regional History, 7-10 Sept. 1977, London, Ont. . "The Collective Memory: Archives and Libraries as Heritage." Archiyari_a 15 (Winter 1982/83): 118-30. . "Information Ecology and the Archives of the 1980s." ^C_hi.y._Ci§ 20 (Summer 1985) : 94-104. Thomas, Lewis H. "Archival Legislation in Canada." Canadian __§tgrica__Assgciatign.__Histor_cal__Papers (1962) : 101-15. Vai nstei n, Rose. Pub_ic_L_brar_es__n_Br A Syryey_with_Recgmmendat_gns. Victoria: Public Libraries Research Study, British Columbia, 1966. Ware, Reuben. "British Columbia Archives Development Plan." Paper circulated for dicussion at the Annual General Meeting of the Association of British Columbia Archivists, April 1985, University of Victoria. Wilson, Ian. E. "Archives of Urban Municipalities in Saskatchewan: Discussion Paper." Regina, and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Archives Board, July 1983. 122 Wilson, Ian E., chair. Re_grt_g£_the_Ad 6C£biye§.?_ September 1984. Ottawa: Information Division, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1985. Woadden, A. R. N. "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control and Orderliness." American_Archivist 27 (1964): 261-64. Intery_ews_with_aut Allen, Sandra. Executive Officer, Municipal Officers Association of British Columbia. Victoria, 25 February 1985. Atherton, Jay. Director General, Records Management Branch, Public Archives of Canada. Ottawa, 9 October 1985. Beauchamp, Richard. City Clerk for the City of Kelowna, British Columbia. By telephone, Kelowna, 24 September 1985. Bovey, John. Provincial Archivist of British Columbia. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, 3 November 1984. Chapin, Harry. Director, Vancouver Records Centre, Public Archives of Canada. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Chang, John. Records Manager, City of Vancouver. By telephone, 23 September 1985. DeLozier, Leonard C. Archives Advisor, Provincial Archives of British Columbia. By telephone, 24 January 1985; 14 March 1986. Forbes, Jamie. City Planner, City Clerk, City of Trail, British Columbia. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Spargo, Rosalie. Office Services Supervisor, City of Kamloops. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Swift, Michael. Director General, Archives Branch, Public Archives of Canada. Ottawa, 10 October 1985. Taylor, Richard. Executive Director, Union of British Columbia Municipalities. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Tremaine, Helen. Training Coordinator, British Columbia Museums Association. By telephone, 24 January 1985. 123 Appendix Is BRITISH COLUMBIA HERITAGE 6R_HI_AL_PRQ_EQIS__i_Z_zi_* I_Z__§_ North Shore Museum and Archives catlaogue of photographs. Mrs. B. Thomas, and Mrs. J. Adams, Kelowna aural history project. Summerland Museum and Arts Society History of Summerland. ___Q__d__________h_ ___________ „___9____h__ l9_§l„l§_i____9f_„he___27_300_s_ent__* _______ <n°t available) __§iz_2 Atnarko Valley Historical Society aural history project. Vancouver Island Project annotated bibliography of primary sources. B. C. History/Archival Studies Scholarship Cranbrook Archives, Museum and Landmark Foundation secur i ty__system_and_eny_rgnment_l l9_§l_i§_2_l__gf_the______??2__pent_____ _. _ i_82_S3 Fructova School of Grand Forks • #48,300 to build a museum, archives and handicraft centre. Victoria City Archives • 4,04to research and document commercial buildings and illustrate them on display plaques. Vancouver Maritime Museum 3,600 to catalogue draughts of vessels designed and built in British Columbia. Vancouver City Archives 4,29to complete an inventory on primary and secondary sources of historical information on Vancouver heritage structures. Archival Studies Scholarship 7,500 _„_h__„______t________Q__ erenc §_-__---_-_--_- 2_.Q0l9____________9_ __he_f l_255_.787_spent** ____Z__ $1,U0U 1 ,000 500 ______ $7,500 $ 6UU 2,500 7,500 3,564 * Based on British Columbia Heritage Trust, Annual Repgrt: British_Cglumb_a_Heritage_Trust (Vi ctori as Mi ni stry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, 1979-84). ** This sum is the total expenditure of the British Columbia Heritage Trust for that year, minus operating, printing and public relations expenses. 124 1983-84 Victoria Chapter, Canadian Geotechnical Society * 1,750 Geotechnical Engineering in British Columbia aural history project. British Columbia Museums Association 5,250 ri.tcectory_gf_ _Museum iritish_Cglumbia. Atnarko Valley Historical Society -: ;- 1,500 aural history project. ABCA Newsletter 1,00Archival Studies Scholarship 7,50Anglican Diocese o-f Victoria '• 4,656 archive registry and cataloguing. Vancouver Historical Society 4,65Vancouver Bibliography Project. Vancouver City Archives • 6,208 historic False Creek research. Victoria City Archives 3,990 heritage building awareness project-University o-f British Columbia, Special Collections - 4,536 Solibakke papers. North Island Heritage Society 2,882 North Island heritage bibliography. City o-f Victoria 7,000 Victoria Truth Centre demolition, research for. City Archives of Victoria 1,523 Ci ty„.Archi ves_ newspaper, col 1 ect_gn_ lQJtal_i__3_5__of_the_* $52,451 ** This sum is the total expenditure of the British Columbia Heritage Trust for 1983-84 minus operating, printing and public relations expenses. 125 Appendix 2: CULTURAL SERVICES._BRA_CH_ SRANTS__A_ARDS_AND S___I_IE__IQ„__S_yMS^ 6teril_l_79_March____0 none given ABcil_.i?sQz!!!§_.eb_.i?ii none given 6e!lil_.I?81=__rch„l?82 Operating Assistance to 31 museums** $1,307,750 (average $42,185 per museum) Community Arts Development -for archival projects 89,940 i24__rec_pi ents__ayerage Total 1 ~_~ ~ Z . Iii3?7369g April_l_S2__ar_h_1983 Operating Assistance to 28 museums** $ 921,500 (average $32,911 per institution) Community Development -for museums and archives 17,370 li_.recip__nts__aver_ge____2^ ._. ._. lotal ' Z___.L.IIII„..Z.Z.I.ZII$IZ?3l'_|2Q AB!lil_.i?S3=_!_arch.l Operating Assistance to 21 museums** $ 835,500 (average $39,786 per institution) Community Development -for museums and archives 10,40O Iil_rec_pients___verage_$9_5_per in igtai ZZZ _Z ZZZZiZZIiiZ.oo Under the Community Development programs it has been difficult to tell which are archival and which are museum projects. However, the -following are the grants made to separate archives. In 1981/82 the Diocese o-f Kootenay Archives, Kelowna, received $2,500; 1982/83 the Provincial Synod Archives o-f the Anglican Church received $225 and the Vancouver City Archives $5,000; 1983/84 Trinity Western College Archives received $1,000. This amounted to $8_725 over three years. •Based on statistics in, British Columbia, Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, Cultural Services Branch, Grants. Awards. _and Sub__di.es (Victoria: Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, 1979-1984). ** Archives are not eligible for operating assistance grants unless they are associated with museums. The Professional Support and Program (guidelines) for the Cultural Services Branch, p. 3, states that areas eligible for assistance include performing arts, visual arts and craft organizations, museums and galleries, and cultural service organizations. 126 Appendix 3: CANADIAN STUDIES RESEARCH TOOLS: GRANTS.. IN BRIIISH_COL.y_BIA__l?|l = i?Sl_:82 Vancouver Historical Society $36,505 Centennial ______bl i ggraghy.Prgj_ect_ Total ___*36.501982-83 A. F. J. Artibise, University o-f Victoria t 74,936 Vancouver Island Project Bruce Nesbitt, Simon Fraser University 30,000 Canadian Literature: annotated bibliography L. J. Ross, private scholar 29,428 Guide to local histories in British Columbia Vancouver Historical Society 36,362 Centenni al _.Bi bl i ggraphy Project Total 1 Z  I Z- _.IIZQ._Z26 1983-84 none awarded i?84-85 Peter Baskerville, University o-f Victoria $ 74,175 Vancouver Island Project George Brandak, University o-f British Columbia 40,846 Organized Labour Records: annotated guide Dennis J. Duffy, private scholar 11,564 British Columbia Filmography Project Vancouver Historical Society 44,759 Vancouver Centennial Bibliography Francis Mansbridge, E. Kootenay Community College — 3,209 Irying.Laytgn.Bi bl i ggraphy _ . Total ~ ] Z-l IiZ_:_553 §5£NQ-IQIAL_19B1=85 _ _38__._784 •* Taken -from Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canadian Studies Research Tggl_s (Ottawa: Information Division, Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada). 

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