Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cooperative total archives for Kelowna, British Columbia 1986

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1986_A3 B37.pdf
UBC_1986_A3 B37.pdf [ 6.26MB ]
UBC_1986_A3 B37.pdf
Metadata
JSON: 1.0096627.json
JSON-LD: 1.0096627+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0096627.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0096627+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0096627+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0096627+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0096627.ris

Full Text

COOPERATIVE TOTAL ARCHIVES FOR KELOWNA, BRITISH COLUMBIA By Kathleen Mary Barlee B. A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES i n THE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY, ARCHIVAL AND INFORMATION STUDIES We accept t h i s thesis as con-forming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF June <2) Kathleen Mary BRITISH COLUMBIA 1986 Barlee, 1986 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of jLi&ZfirfZy, bRcMtffiL #A/£> /rt FoR ft AT tOA) STUblES The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada \ V6T 1Y3 )E-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT Major -factors in the underdevelopment of local archives in the municipality of Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia, have been a lack of public and administrative awareness of the value of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s and archival documents, a lack of local p o l i t i c a l interest in the subject of archives, a lack of federal, provincial and loc a l aid or l e g i s l a t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e local archival development, and thus, a lack of funding at the community level for archives. There has also been a need for direction from the provincial government i n planning e f f e c t i v e records management/archival systems for Kelowna, as well as for most other municipalities in B r i t i s h Columbia. To come to a decision on how to overcome these problems i t has been necessary to study perspectives on local archives, to analyze the records management/archival relat i o n s h i p , and to be knowledgeable of problems facing local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia. An i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach has been taken, with l i t e r a t u r e and primary sources from the archival, museum, l i b r a r y , h i s t o r i c a l , p o l i t i c a l science and records management f i e l d s being studied. In the archives domain, two major studies, the Symons and the Wilson reports, with th e i r emphasis on federal, provincial and local networking, formed an excellent basis for further investigation. Where they were available, s t a t i s t i c s concerning local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia have proven most h e l p f u l , as have provincial government reports. The above have been supplemented by i i i l e t t e r s and questionnaires to provincial and t e r r i t o r i a l archives, as well as to local municipalities in B r i t i s h Columbia. Two conclusions have been reached. F i r s t , "total archives" that c o l l e c t both o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l documents in a l l media, and use systematic records management procedures have become a, Canadian public archives t r a d i t i o n which has the potential to prove a valuable example for smaller municipalities. Secondly, in order to achieve economies of scale, private and public agencies may have to cooperate in joint funding e f f o r t s at the local l e v e l . By combining public and private endeavours, a new type of archives i s created. It i s posited that t h i s amalgam, a "cooperative t o t a l archives," could become the basis for archival development in the municipality of Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION • 1 2. PERSPECTIVES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL ARCHIVES 6 3. THE RECORDS MANAGEMENT/ARCHIVES RELATIONSHIP AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA • 31 4. ARCHIVAL PROBLEMS AND THE EXTENT OF PROVINCIAL AND FEDERAL AID TO LOCAL ARCHIVES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 50 5. PREVIOUS PROPOSALS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL ARCHIVES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 71 6. CONCLUSION 87 A Scenario for Cooperative Total Archives in Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia 95 BIBLIOGRAPHY 115 Appendices 1. BRITISH COLUMBIA HERITAGE TRUST: GRANTS FOR ARCHIVAL PROJECTS, 1979-84 123 2. CULTURAL SERVICES BRANCH: GRANTS, AWARDS AND SUBSIDIES TO MUSEUMS AND ARCHIVES, 1979-84 125 3. CANADIAN STUDIES RESEARCH TOOLS: GRANTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1981-85 126 1 Chapter Is INTRODUCTION The growth of municipal and other local government archives in Canada has lagged behind those of federal and provincial government i n s t i t u t i o n s . This i s not surprising. Before the mid-1960s the whole trend of Canadian archival development involved the archives of senior governments attempting, with a limited number of resources, to c o l l e c t a large proportion of Canada's archival heritage. The r e s u l t was that documents which were of local importance, but not of provincial or national i n t e r e s t , were often lost or destroyed. Since then there has been a large increase in the number of local archives, but even so, two major studies, the Symons and the Wilson reports, released in 1975 and 1980 respectively, have pointed out the continuing neglect in the care of lo c a l archival materials and the impoverished state of most i n s t i t u t i o n s at t h i s l e v e l . <1) In an attempt to respond to these and other problems in the Canadian archival community, in 1985 the federal, provincial and t e r r i t o r i a l ministers responsible for culture c a l l e d for the creation of a Canadian Archives System based upon each province or t e r r i t o r y having i t s own Council of Archives. 1. T. H. B. Symons, To Kngw_0urselvesi The_Rep_ort Qf__the Commission on_Canadian_Studies, vol. 2 (Ottawa: Association of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada, 1975), (hereafter c i t e d as the Symons Report) , 69-85; Canadi an_Archi yes$_ Report to the Sgci al Sciences and Huraanitys_Research_CounciL9f Q§Qida_by_.the_Cgnsul tat i ye_Gr (Ottawa: Information Division of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1980), (hereafter cited as the Wilson Report). The question arises, how can a small local archives in the Kelowna area of B r i t i s h Columbia f i t into the proposed System, and, at the same time, break out of the mold of underdevelopment? As pointed out in both the Symons and Wilson reports local archives need solutions to the problems facing them. Therefore, the answer to the above query involves a p r a c t i c a l approach.(2) Building on the Canadian t r a d i t i o n of "total archives" i n i t i a t e d by the Public Archives of Canada, and on essential background information provided in Chapters Two through Five Df t h i s t h e s i s , a scenario for "cooperative tot a l archives" at the local government level i s developed in Chapter Six. The concept of t o t a l archives has been widely discussed but rarely in p r i n t . However, Hugh Taylor in a recent study published by the United Nations Educational, S c i e n t i f i c and Cultural Organization summarises the four goals of t o t a l archives: 1. The acq u i s i t i o n of documents to r e f l e c t a l l aspects of social a c t i v i t y . 2. Acquisition of a l l media of (the) record. 3. Involvement in the entire l i f e cycle o f records, through a records management programme. 2. Alain Clavet in Orient at ign_and_Managenie §t_the_Pybl i_c._ Archi.y es_of _Canadai A_Prgposal _ .for _I_nt erven t i on (Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1983), also takes a p r a c t i c a l , problem solving approach. This work, sponsored by Bernard Weilbrenner, the Assistant Dominion A r c h i v i s t , i s Clavet's Master's thesis for the University of Quebec at H u l l . 4. Involvement in expanding networks -for the interchange of information and strategic planning.(3) His interpretation i s now being referred to in other international publications as well.(4) Although Taylor places records management t h i r d on h i s l i s t of goals for tot a l archives, t h i s t h e s i s , in agreement with former Dominion A r c h i v i s t Wilfred Smith, gives i t a pre-eminent position.(5) Records management, through service to the agency creating the record, i s the engine which drives the total archives vehicle. Therefore, i t has the potential to become the basis for cooperative t o t a l archives at the local l e v e l . Thus, after a history of local archives has been given, and an analysis of the development of perceptions on t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , records management, and cooperation has been made in Chapter Two - t h i s i s necessary in order to place subsequent chapters in their h i s t o r i c a l context - the focus in Chapter Three s h i f t s to the records management/archives relationship at the federal, provincial and local government l e v e l s , and 3. Hugh A. Taylor, Archival Services_and_.the_Cgncep_t gf._t.he LJser_, A_RAMP Study (Paris: Unesco, 1984) , 48; Taylor summarizes Terry Cook, "The Tyranny of the Medium: A Comment on 'Total Archives,"* Archiyaria 9 (Winter 1979-80): 141-49; Cook in turn i s elaborating on former Dominion A r c h i v i s t Wilfred I. Smith, see "Introduction," Archiyes£__Mirrgr gf Qanada_Past (Toronto: 1972), 18-20. 4. See Michael Cook, The Management_gf _I_n£ grmat i_»n_frgm Archives (Aldershot, Eng.: Gower Publishing Co. Ltd., 1986), 188-89." See Smith, "Introduction," 18-20. emphasizes the need for i t s implementation in smaller municipalities. In addition, as the underdevelopment o-f archives in the City o-f Kelowna i s , to a certain extent, a microcosm o-f that experienced by other communities in B r i t i s h Columbia, Chapter Four d e t a i l s problems facing most local archives in t h i s province. It i s found that d i f f i c u l t i e s have been exacerbated by four major factors: a lack of public awareness of the value of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s and documents; a lack of p o l i t i c a l interest in the development of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s ; a lack of l e g i s l a t i v e d i r e c t i o n from provincial and loc a l governments regarding the records management/archives relationship; a lack of funding for archival f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f . Another essential chapter, Five, analyzes solutions that have been recommended in the past for the archival problems of local communities in B r i t i s h Columbia. The suggestions are important as they have been made by knowledgeable historians and a r c h i v i s t s in B r i t i s h Columbia. It i s worthwhile to study th e i r recommendations in order to build on the ideas of others in planning for the development of cooperative total archives in a p a r t i c u l a r local community. In the past the major tota l archives in Canada have been those of the federal, provincial and largest municipal governments which c o l l e c t the o f f i c i a l records of their sponsoring agencies as well as documents from their respective spheres of int e r e s t . The public purse pays for the care of a l l private and public documents which are collected in t h i s t o t a l archives s i t u a t i o n . However, in smaller municipalities most public and private agencies cannot afford to provide proper archival care -for their own o f f i c i a l documents, l e t alone carry the additional burden of caring for other documents found in the community at large. The costs involved make i t d i f f i c u l t for a municipality to fund a to t a l archives i n s t i t u t i o n , with i t s comprehensive multimedia approach to c o l l e c t i n g archival documents and i t s records management emphasis. Without cooperation and the r e s u l t i n g economies of scale, the present neglect and destruction of archival documents generated at the local level i s l i k e l y to continue. Chapter Six builds on the preceeding four chapters and addresses the problems of how to promote public awareness of the value of local archives, how to r a i s e local p o l i t i c a l interest in local archives, and how to fund local archives in order to ensure that the prerequisite f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f are in place. The scenario that i s developed for Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia, uses Hugh Taylor's d e f i n i t i o n of the four goals of tot a l archives, but adds another objective - cooperation between the public and private sectors. The re s u l t i s a new concept, cooperative to t a l archives. 6 Chapter 2: PERSPECTIVE Over time a number of Canadians, p a r t i c u l a r l y historians and a r c h i v i s t s , have looked at the problem of how tQ preserve and make accessible records of the lower l e v e l s of government as well as other archival materials generated in lo c a l communities. The commentaries on the development of local archives may be divided into two periods - before and after 1975. In that year Canadian a r c h i v i s t s formed an automonous professional group, the Association of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s (ACA). Formerly, a r c h i v i s t s had functioned under the auspices of the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association (CHA) and most of the writing on the subject of Canadian archives had been done by or under the aegis of Canadian historians.(1) The new profession's discussion of archival problems was in part sparked by the Symons and Wilson Reports which commented on the underdeveloped state of most Canadian archives.(2) It i s important to study statements that have been made over time, for the h i s t o r i c a l perspective and the context they provide, both of which are helpful in planning a records management/archives scenario for the Kelowna area of B r i t i s h 1. The major pe r i o d i c a l s of the CHA are the Canadian b}istgrical__Reyiew, which was founded in 1920 and grew out of the Revi ew_ of Histgrical___.Publ_icatigns Rel ati_ ng_tg_Canada, started in 1896 (hereafter cited as CHR) and the Canadian di§tgrlcal _Associat i gn__Annual_ R§egrts_.wi th_Hi^tgri cal Papers (hereafter c i t e d as CHA_Papers) which originated in 1922 and carried on from the Hi stgr^c_Landmar ks_Assgci at i gn_gf Canada: Annual Report s. 2. The Symons Report, 69-85; Wilson Report; B u l l e t i n , 1973-79; ACA Bui 1etin, 1979 — ; Archiyaria Association of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1975 —>. Archiyes (Ottawa: Columbia. In the pre-1975 era there was periodic concern over the neglect of l o c a l l y generated archival materials, especially the records of local government.<3) In 1952, the CHA, prompted by reports made to the Royal Commission on the Arts, Letters and Sciences, held a symposium on loca l history which concluded with the goal of trying to establish cooperation and communication among local h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and the CHA in order to aid the development of local history and archives.(4) As time progressed there was a growing recognition that neither h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s nor museums had the proper s t a f f , f a c i l i t i e s , funding or expertise necessary to play a major 3. "A ' P r a c t i c a l ' Plea," CHR 15 (1934): 245-47; Seorge W. Brown, "Provincial Archives in Canada," CHR 16 (1935): 2-7; George W. Brown, "The Problem of Public and H i s t o r i c a l Records in Canada," CHR 25 (1944): 4; William Morton, " H i s t o r i c a l Societies and Museums," Royal _Cgmmissi gn_St yd i es^_A_ _SeJ[ecti on of ......Essays Prepared f QC the Royal Cgmmi ssi gQ_.._.gn _ ..Nat i gnal 5§>Y_elgp_ment_i.n_th!_^ (Ottawa: King 's Printer, 1951), 249-59; Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences, Repgrt__gf__the BQYSi....Q9CQ(0i5..siQQ_._OQ Nationa_,_Deyel9M^n%.̂ LU^%h?.̂ r.%^^..^.\=:^%t.Er.^: §„Qd_Sciencesx_l?4?=51 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1951), 119-22 (hereafter cited as the Massey-Levesque Report); "The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, and Local History: A Symposium," CHA_Papers (1952): 46-65; John A. Archer, "A Study of Archival Institutions in Canada," (Ph.D diss., Queen's University, Kingston, 1969), 440-551, 554, 562, 590, 607 (microfilm, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library); Michael D. Swift, "Chairman's Message," Canadian._Archiyi.st 2 (1974): 2-4. 4. "CHA, CHR and Local History" 48, 64-65. 8 r o l e in the development and care o-f archival c o l l e c t i o n s . (5) As early as 1945 the Saskatchewan Archives Act had allowed the Provincial Archives to serve as a depository for o f f i c i a l and unoffical documents from the local l e v e l , s p e c i f i c a l l y including the records of municipalities and school d i s t r i c t s . It stated: Any municipality or school d i s t r i c t in Saskatchewan may with the consent of the Provincial A r c h i v i s t deposit any of i t s non-current records or other documents with him for preservation in the archi ves. (6) This was an example which other provinces, among them B r i t i s h Columbia, were to follow. <7) However, the passing of the l e g i s l a t i o n did not help the development of archival c o l l e c t i o n s of local government records as the majority of municipalities did not have modern records management programs, did not express concern over the archival value of 5. Morton, "H i s t o r i c a l Societies and Museums," 249-51; Massey-Levesque Report, 121-22; Robert S. Gordon, "Suggestions for Organization and Description of Archival Holdings of Local H i s t o r i c a l Societies," American_.....Archivist 26 (1963): 19-20; Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 548, 550, 574; Carl E. Guthe, "The Provincial Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia: A Commentary, Appendix to The Guthe Report on the Role of Museums in B r i t i s h Columbia," Museum Round-Up 6 (April 1962): 2; Raymond 0. Harrison, lechnical Reguirements of _Small Museums, Technical Paper 1 (Canadian Museums Association, 1966),6. 6> Reyised_Statutes_of_Saskatchewan_l?45, c. 113, s. 10; RSBC, Document Disposal Act 1983, c. 20, s. 4. 7. Lewis H. Thomas, "Archival L e g i s l a t i o n in Canada," CHA P§B1?I§ (1962), 108; Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 442-58. their records, and did not pursue the offer.(8) In any event, they probably did not want their records completely out of their j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Although, there was a tendency towards federal and provincial c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c o l l e c t i o n s , some a r c h i v i s t s , historians and records managers, as well as members of the local populace, thought i t was only l o g i c a l that whenever possible archival material should remain close to the geographic area in which i t was created.<9) In theory, attention was paid to the idea that federal, provincial and local governments, as well as churches, u n i v e r s i t i e s , businesses, labour unions and other agencies should take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the archival care of the records they create, and that t h i s should be part of a systematic records management program with the primary function of the archives being to serve the creator of the record.<10) In fa c t , most local organizations neglected the archival care of t h e i r records. Therefore, leadership and cooperation were proposed: leadership from the archives of the senior governments; cooperation among any i n s t i t u t i o n s groups or in d i v i d u a l s 8. Archer, "Archival I n s t i t u t i o n s in Canada," 442-58, 496; Swift, "Chairman's Message," 2-3. 9. Brown, "Provincial Archives in Canada," 3-5; A. R. N. Woadden, "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control and Orderliness," American_Archiyist 27 (1964): 261-64; Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 34, 610-11. 10. "A " P r a c t i c a l ' Plea," 245-7; Brown, "Problem of Public and H i s t o r i c a l Records," 1-5; Massey-Levesque Report, 341-2, 397; Woadden, "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control," 262-4; Archer, "Archival I n s t i t u t i o n s in Canada," 440-499; 591. 10 possessing or using archival materials. (11) None of these suggestions was acted upon as the ef-forts of senior governments were concentrated upon developing their own a r c h i v a l , and, in some cases, records management programs. Toronto's successful adoption of the tot a l archives concept in 1960 proved to be of l i t t l e use an an example for smaller, less well developed communities. Few except for the largest municpalities established archives to care for their own governmental records in a systematic manner.(12) Yet, local government sponsorship of adequately financed, equipped and staffed t o t a l archives had the potential to solve the problem of which organization would fund the c o l l e c t i o n and care of the u n o f f i c i a l documents generated by a local community. However, in most l o c a l i t i e s there was not s u f f i c i e n t funding, administrative demand, public i n t e r e s t , p o l i t i c a l w i l l , scholarly need or local expertise to support the proper care of local documents with archival values. This d i f f i c u l t y was not helped by the indifference to local history of a l l but a few historians and scholars between 1950 and 1970. Although there had been a strong focus on local history in B r i t i s h Columbia and the Maritimes before then, an a r t i c l e written in 1946 by h i s t o r i a n , W. L. Morton, i s often c i t e d as the beginning of a trend for professional 11. Brown, "Provincial Archives in Canada," 3-6; Morton, " H i s t o r i c a l Societies and Museums," 257-9; Massey-Levesque Report, 397; Archer, "Archival Institutions in Canada," 442. 12. Woadden, "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control," 262-4; Swift, "Chairman's Message," 2. 11 historians to be interested in regional history.(13) Writing in c r i t i c i s m o-f the Laurentian thesis — which stated that Canada evolved -from the commercial system of the St. Lawrence River — being used as a basis for the interpretation of Canadian history, he stated: In an imperfect world an unequal incidence of national p o l i c i e s i s no doubt inevitable, but even in an imperfect world people may be allowed to shape an interpretation of l i f e in accord with the i r own experience.(14) More i n f l u e n t i a l , though, was a study written for the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences, 1949-51. Hilda Neatby, professor of history and one of the f i v e Royal Commissioners, concluded that Canada needed history with a national focus because for nearly a century Canadian history had been "accumulating in a fragmentary, local and spasmodic fashion."(15) For the next twenty years Neatby was heeded, as most Canadian historians proceeded to build a s o l i d basis for national history. However, by 1969 the emninent Canadian h i s t o r i a n , J. M. S. Careless was arguing that the Canadian i d e n t i t y was composed of a number of limited i d e n t i t i e s , "two languages, p l u r a l i s e d 13. Walter N. Sage, "Where Stands Canadian History?" CHA Pagers (1945): 11; Margaret Prang, "National Unity and the Uses of History," CHA_Papers (1977), 6. 14. W. L. Morton,"Clio in Canada: The Interpretation of Canadian History," University_gf._Igrgntg_Quarter l_y 15 (April 1946). 15. Hilda Neatby, "National History," in Royal_Cgmmissign Studies, 206; her stance was somewhat modified in "CHA, CHR and Local History," 46-50. i2 p o l i t i c s and ethnic m u l t i p i i c i t y . " ( 1 6 ) His statements refl e c t e d a renewed interest i n regional, local and urban studies b y the academic community. The increased popularity o f provincial and local studies i n the 1970s was caused b y a certain exhaustion o f national themes, a movement o f p o l i t i c a l power t o the provinces, the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f community colleges, the growth o f computer based quantitative studies, and a worldwide interest i n s o c i a l history.(17) Consequently, there was a r e a l i z a t i o n o f the need for archival materials generated a t the local l e v e l . I h l _ B l c e n t _ E r a From 1975 onwards, the ACA and various other organizations slowly began t o turn t h e i r attention t o the problem o f the development o f local archives. Where once there had been the Public Archives o f Canada (PAC) and a few nascent provincial archives a s i n the 1930s and 1940s, by 1975 there was a wide variety of archives sponsored b y senior governments, municipalities, churches, businesses, l i b r a r i e s , museums, h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges. Most of t h i s 16. J. M. S. Careless, "Limited Identities in Canada," CHR 50 (March 1969): 3. 17. G. St e l t e r and A. A r t i b i s e , eds., IheCanadian_City (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971); the Urban Hi s,tgry Review (Ottawa: History D i v i s i o n , National Museum of Man, 1972—); Ramsay Cook, "The Golden Age of Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Writing," Hi stor i cal__Ref l e c t i o n s 4 (Summer 1977): 137-49; Hugh A. Taylor, "Archives for Regional History," (a paper presented at the symposium, Blueprint for In t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Regional History, London, Ont., 7-10 Sept. 1977), 6-18; H. V. Nelles, "Rewriting History," Saturday. Night 96 (Feb. 1981): 11-16. growth was on a small scale, but i t revealed a growing interest in and r e a l i z a t i o n o-f the importance o-f archives and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y — archival documents should remain close to the area in which they originate. Although there had been a large increase in the number o-f archives most o-f them did not possess even the most rudimentary archival services, • f a c i l i t i e s or s t a f f . (18) Yet, researchers, expanding t h e i r interests into local studies, were coming to r e a l i z e the need for archival material generated at t h i s l e v e l . At the same time, most a r c h i v i s t s had come to place l i t t l e f a i t h in h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s due to their poor performance in caring for archival materials. Many of the new proposals for the care of archives stressed the importance of various forms of formal and informal networking as a way to promote increased communication, cooperation and coordination among varying combinations of archives, a r c h i v i s t s , heritage organizations, u n i v e r s i t i e s , h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , school boards, businesses, churches, unions, or other agencies which have archival 18. Wilson Report, 29-59. 14 concerns. (19) Often the recommendations that were made con f l i c t e d with one another and even a r c h i v i s t s f e l l into dispute among themselves. In the meantime, some large muni c i p a l i t i e s , working in i s o l a t i o n , had established t o t a l archives which stressed service to the creator of the record as their primary function.(20) However, i t remains to be 19. Symons Report, 72, 82; Wilson Report, 66-72, 92, 109; Peter Bower, "After the Dust Set t l e s , " Archiyaria 9 (Winter 1979-80): 218-29; "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," BCEhiYaria 11 (Winter 1980-81): 3-35; Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, Archives Committee, Response to the Report _. Canadian Archives, (1981); Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee, Summary of B r i e f s and Hearings (Ottawa: Information Services, Department of Communications, 1982), 53-60; Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee, Report_gf_the E§deral_Cuitural„Pgl (Canada: Information Services, Department of Communications, 1982), 132, 136-8, 349; Marion Beyea and Marcel Caya, eds. , PIanning__f gr__Canadian Archi ves_,; Ihe._Prgceedi ngs gf _the__Fiurst..Congress gn__Archi yes (Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1983), 109-26; Clavet, Qggperatign_at_the_Publ i c Archi_yes_of _Canada; Ian E. Wi 1 son , chair , Repgrt_gf __the_Adyisgry Cgmmlttee_gn._Ar_c.hiyes_:_ September_!984 (Ottawa: Information D i v i s i o n , Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1985); "The Canadian Archives System — A Discussion Paper," c i r c u l a t e d at the Annual Beneral Meeting of the ACA, Edmonton, 13 June 1985. Although used in the King James version of the Bible, by 1957 when network planning techniques f i r s t came into general use for developing operational effectiveness, the term "network" had come to mean a "representation of interconnected events, processes, etc., used in the study of work e f f i c i e n c y , " and "an interconnected group of people; an organisation." The term has also become a verb meaning "to cover with a network," and has come to have computer a p p l i c a b i l i t y . Informal networks made up of interconnected groups of people and organisations applies the most clos e l y to the present archival use of the term "network" in Canada; The Qxfgrd_ Dictionary, vol. 7 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961), 105-6; A Supplement _tg__the Q_.ford_ English_DictigQary, v o l . 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), 1175. 20. R. Scott James, "Administration of Municipal Records: The Toronto Experience," Government Publigatigns Review, 8A (1981): 321-35; Anthony L. Rees, "Masters in Our Own House?" Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983): 53-59. 15 proven whether or not the to t a l archives way, c o l l e c t i n g government records and other documents -from the community at large, i s a viable method of development for smaller municipalities. A hopeful sign for the future of lo c a l archives i s that federal, provincial and t e r r i t o r i a l minsters responsible for culture have proposed the establishment of a Canadian Archives System. Much of the discussion was sparked by the Symons and the Wilson reports.(21) The Symons Report devoted a chapter to the state of Canadian archives. It took the view that although Canadian archives are the foundation of Canadian studies a large amount of material necessary to the pursuit of these studies had not been received or collected because of inadequate f i n a n c i a l assistance from a l l l e v e l s of government and the lack of a systematic coordination of i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n s policies.(22) To help solve t h i s problem the report made thirty-one recommendations, the major ones being: 1. ... that the archives and a r c h i v i s t s of Canada undertake a programme to promote public awareness of the potential value of private papers and other archival material, and that the u n i v e r s i t i e s of Canada co-operate in t h i s programme in various appropriate ways. 4. ... the creation of a national network of regional archives. 21. "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," 3-35; James E. Page, "Canadian Studies and Archives," Reflections on the Symgns_Repgrt gn_the State_gf Qanadian_Studies_in_l?SO (Ottawa: Secretary of State, 1981), 204-25. 22. Symons Report, 69, 70-1, 82. 16 5. ... that, in many cases, the regional archive be located within the local university and be administered by i t ; that every university give consideration to the p o s s i b i l i t y o-f undertaking such a r o l e in the proposed national network o-f regional archives; and that, in a l l cases, close t i e s be established between the university and the regional archive.(23) The ACA proved to be against the r o l e of u n i v e r s i t i e s or colleges in t h i s network. The national association thought that u n i v e r s i t i e s had a poor record in caring for their own archives, and that a network based on university archives would work against i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and functional archives, both of which focus on service to the creator of the record.(24) Instead, the ACA favoured a place for municipal government as a sponsor of archival networking a c t i v i t y , and placed an emphasis on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of both the public and private sectors. Our federal, provincial and municipal governments a l l have a role to play in financing and co-ordinating systems and networks, but in every case there ought to be emphasis on the encouragement of archival programmes on the part of public and private agencies responsible for the creation of records having archival value.(25) Yet, most municipal governments have a very poor record in caring for t h e i r own documents with archival values. However, in the form of the local tax base, they may have a more stable 23. 24. 25. Ibid., 82. "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," 9. Ibid., 11. economic -foundation than u n i v e r s i t i e s or colleges which are dependent upon the provincial government through which -federal •funding i s directed. Although a r c h i v i a l networks based on u n i v e r s i t i e s f a i l e d to develop, the Symons Report i s s i g n i f i c a n t as i t applies to archives because i t i d e n t i f i e s the c r i s i s in the archives f i e l d , e s p e c i a l l y that involving the neglect of local archival materials, i t emphasizes the int e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between archives and a l l f i e l d s of Canadian study, and i t points out the importance of l o c a l , p rovincial and federal archives working together in close liaison.(26) As a reaction to the Symons Report and to requests to i t s predecessor, the Canada Council, for various forms of archival assistance, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC) established the Consultative Group on Canadian Archives to conduct a study on the state of Canadian archival institutions.(27) Under the chairmanship of Ian Wilson, Provincial A r c h i v i s t of Saskatchewan, the Group analyzed the state of Canadian archives, documented the underfunding and the underdevelopment, pointed out the need for improvement, and offered suggestions, a number of which involved networking. Its findings,,presented in a report simply e n t i t l e d Canadian_Archives, but known as the Wilson Report, while emphasizing the poverty, neglect, and c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n of local archives which had prol i f e r a t e d in the 26. Symons Report, 73-4. 27. Wilson Report, 1. 18 1970s, disagreed with the solution o-f the Symons Report which suggested the establishment o-f a national network of local archives having a close involvement with universities.(28) Instead, the Consultative Group offered i t s own alternatives. In order to develop a "coordinated system with appropriate leadership and cooperative attitudes" the Consultative Group made nineteen recommendations, the f i r s t f i v e of which proposed a structure for and a means of implementing a formal program for archival networking i n Canada. They recommended that: 1. ... a l l public archives reevaluate t h e i r overall programs to achieve an appropriate balance between the i r t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs and new programs designed to provide leadership to a cooperative system of archives in their region. 2. ... the archives in each province form a coordinated network to establish common p r i o r i t i e s and to develop services, f a c i l i t i e s and programs of benefit to a l l . 3. ... the Public Archives of Canada establish an Extension Branch to administer consulting services, information services, technical f a c i l i t i e s and a grant program for the benefit of the entire archival system, with p o l i c i e s and p r i o r i t i e s to be established on the recommendation of a National Archival Advisory Committee. 4. ... the federal government amend the Public Archives Act (R.S.C. 1970, Chapter P-27) as soon as possible to permit the programs we are recommending and to provide a s o l i d l e g i s l a t i v e base for the future development of the Public Archives of Canada. 28. Ibid., 91. 5. ... the annual budget of the Public Archives of Canada be increased by $2.5 m i l l i o n for programs to be administered by the new Extension Branch.(29) The recommendations give a leadership role to a l l public archives, but have a special emphasis on the part of provincial archives in developing cooperative networks of archives, and on the PAC in providing funding. Elsewhere, the report suggests but does not recommend (as i t does not have the authority to do so), that provincial funds designated for networking be administered by formally constituted Provincial Archival Network Boards, or, alternately, the Provincial Archives themselves.(30) On the whole, the ACA agreed with the f i v e recommendations but was against an Extension Branch of the PAC as defined in Recommendation three.(31) In any event, perhaps because of the lack of agreement perceived to ex i s t among a r c h i v i s t s themselves, i t was not u n t i l 1985 that the p o l i t i c a l w i l l necessary to cause changes was p u b l i c a l l y manifested by the federal and provincial l e v e l s of government.(32) For the future, there are three topics in the report that 29. Ibid., 109-11. 30. Ibid., 68. 31. "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," 14. 32. Regarding perceived disagreement among a r c h i v i s t s see, Terry Eastwood, "Attempts at National Planning for Archives in Canada Since the Wilson Report," (a paper presented to the Annual Conference of the Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , Washington, D. C., 2 Sept. 1984); Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee, Sumf_ar.y_.of_Briefs_and_Hearings, 53-58. 20 have the potential to have a pro-found e-ffect on the development of local government archives. F i r s t , the report elevates " t e r r i t o r i a l i t y " to an archival p r i n c i p l e by making i t a c o r o l l a r y of "ECQvenance, namely, that records ori g i n a t i n g from the same source should be kept together and not inter-filed with records from other sources." It goes on to state: any p a r t i c u l a r set of records should remain as far as possible, in the locale or milieu in which i t was generated.<33) Second, i t emphasizes that the public t o t a l archives already in existence should foster the development of appropriate i n s t i t u t i o n a l , corporate, or local archives with the r e s u l t that a much broader spectrum of h i s t o r i c a l l y important materials can be preserved, the f u l l f i n a n c i a l burden does not f a l l d i r e c t l y on the public purse, and the archives remain a l i v i n g part of their i n s t i t u t i o n a l or local community. <34) Third, i t advocates a formal linkage between records management and archives: when a 'total archives' accepts records from a local government, corporation, or other local organization, the archives should urge the establishment of a basic records management routine involving i t s a r c h i v i s t s in the systematic selection of future records for preservation.(35) 33. Wilson Report, 15-16. 34. Ibid., 66. 35. Ibid., 87. 21 Even though the report does not d i r e c t l y address which local i n s t i t u t i o n s are to c o l l e c t u n o f f i c i a l documents such as l e t t e r s , d i a r i e s and photographs, the above three points are important interpretations of the role of archives at the lo c a l level as they emphasize t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t o t a l archives, and a r o l e for records management.(36) They are part of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for local government archives, although, according to the report they could apply to any i n s t i t u t i o n a l , geographic or thematic archives.(37) As well as recommending provincial leadership the report has s p e c i f i c suggestions based on i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but involving cooperative e f f o r t s , on how local archives and local archival networks may be developed. Basic funding should be provided l o c a l l y with no pro v i n c i a l grants unless certain standards are met.(38) It suggests the establishment of "cooperative archives" in which the records of a university, municipality, business, union l o c a l , parish, association — might be housed together sharing a good archival f a c i l i t y and the services of a professional s t a f f . Under t h i s system ownership could remain with each p a r t i c i p a t i n g organization which would l i k e l y have d i f f e r i n g 36. Ibid., 65—6. 37. Ibid., 63-64. 38. Ibid. , 91. access p o l i c i e s in place, and the f a c i l i t y could be governed by a representative board which would oversee the operations and apportion costs.<39) A major omission of t h i s scheme i s that i t does not address what care would be provided for u n o f f i c i a l records in a community. Aside from that, the proposal deserves consideration as i t suggests how cooperative endeavours at the local l e v e l , aided by the systematic development v of formal networks by the archives of the federal and p r o v i c i a l governments, can help local i n s t i t u t i o n s in providing suitable archival f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f . It has the advantage of being in harmony with pre v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l philosophy which wants more p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the private sector and less government involvement. While the courses of action proposed in the Symons and Wilson reports were being discussed in the archival community, the neglect, dispersion or destruction of local archival documents was becoming a major concern to a r c h i v i s t s and academics a l i k e . In 1977, Hugh Taylor, then Director General of the Archives Branch of the PAC, noted the importance of the local archival record in comparative, i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y , and quantitative (computer) studies, the symbiotic relationship of local history and archives with heritage and conservation movements, and emphasized the benefits of t o t a l archives at the local l e v e l : For the regional historians in Canada, the English t r a d i t i o n has p o t e n t i a l l y great advantages with i t s emphasis on the value of the public record in the documentary heritage, a record rooted and grounded in the environment that created i t , with private sector material as an essential supplementary source. There i s probably a greater degree of e l i t i s m in the c o l l e c t i o n p o l i cy of a repository devoted to c o l l e c t i o n s o l e l y in the private sector without the reminder of the witness Df the ordinary c i t i z e n in the public record.(40) David Gagan, a quantitative social h i s t o r i a n , observed that h i s t o r i c a l demographic research "tends to be microanalytical, focussed on narrowly defined local populations, whose v i t a l records were o r i g i n a l l y generated by local municipal agencies." On a more p r a c t i c a l level he noted: as governments and u n i v e r s i t i e s become increasingly cost conscious, f i n a n c i a l constraint w i l l inevitably affect research and social s c i e n t i s t s in p a r t i c u l a r w i l l be forced to redirect their i n t e r e s t s toward more l o c a l i z e d subjects.... There was a need for the stuff out of which new s o c i a l history i s being fashioned — assessment r o l l s , deeds and mortgages, marriage, b i r t h and death r e g i s t e r s , w i l l s , municipal d i r e c t o r i e s , school attendance reports, p o l i c e precinct books, gaol r e g i s t e r s , club and lodge memberships r o l l s , medical and public health records, church a f f i l i a t i o n l i s t s , indentures of apprenticeship, and the l e t t e r s and d i a r i e s of ordinary folk.(41) 40. Taylor, "Archives for Regional History," 3, see also, pp. 2, S - l l of the same paper. 41. David Gagan, "Rediscovering Local History: The Problems of Archival Sources for the 'New' History," Cgmmynigue 4 (Spring 1980): 14, 15; see also, Archiyaria 14 (Spring 1982). That same year, 1980, t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n , J. M. S. Careless, conducted a ten year review o-f the -field of regional and local history in which he noted the growth of class history, regional and c u l t u r a l pluralism as well as other regional/local subjects.(42) H i s t o r i c a l interest was being shown in "the urban places themselves" but "detailed work, masses of i t , i s s t i l l to be done."(43) Thus, searching for g r i s t for the h i s t o r i c a l m i l l , urban h i s t o r i a n , Alan A r t i b i s e , headed a group trying to establish a cooperative regional archives for the V i c t o r i a area of southern Vancouver Island. When t h i s e f f o r t f a i l e d , he and two other historians, Peter Baskerville and Chad G a f f i e l d , organized the Vancouver Island Project to inventory the records of that area.(44) However, inventories of documents do not provide proper archival care, and, in any case, scholarly demand alone has not proven s u f f i c i e n t to result in the establishment of properly equipped local archives. On the other hand, the ACA t r i e d to r e c t i f y the problem but i t s Committee on Local Archives f a i l e d to cause any real improvement in the overall conditions of local archives. The 42. J. M. S. Careless, "Limited Identities — Ten Years Later," Manitoba_History 1 (Spring 1980): 3-9. 43. I b i d . , 5 , 9 . 44. Alan A r t i b i s e , et. al . , C i v i c Archi yal_.Sur.yeyj. Greater Vic;tari a_R^ggrt_and_^ (Vi c t o r i a : 1979); Peter A. Baskerville, Chad M. G a f f i e l d , "The Vancouver Island Project: H i s t o r i c a l Research and Archival Practice," Archiyaria 17 (Winter 1983-84): 173-87; see also, Peter Bower, "Archives and the Landon Project," Archiyaria 5 (Winter 1977-78): 152-55. 25 res u l t Df four years of meetings, 1976-80, was the publication of a b r i e f , but concise, two page pamphlet.(45) The professional association did not have the necessary power or funding to cause any real change in the status of lo c a l archives. Therefore, momentum to implement formal networks and give the leadership necessary to develop suitable lo c a l archives waited for the p o l i t i c a l w i l l of senior and lo c a l l e v e l s of government. The revi s i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n pertaining to the PAC helped to provide the opportunity.(46) By 1985, the f e d e r a l , provincial and t e r r i t o r i a l ministers responsible for culture had agreed to the establishment of the Canadian Archives System which would be coordinated by a Canadian Council of Archives at the national l e v e l , and based upon a foundation of p r o v i n c i a l / t e r r i t o r i a l councils of archives. According to a 45. Standards_Recgmmended_for the_0perati_gn_gf_Lgcal_Archiyes in Canada (Association of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1980); the progress of the Local Archives Committee may be followed in the Archives B u l l e t i n (hereafter c i t e d as AB), see "Laval Resolutions: IV. Local Archives Service," AB 1 (July 1976): 5; "ACA Committee A c t i v i t i e s : Local Archives," AB 2 (Feb. 1977): 2; "Other Committees Report: 1. Local Archives," AB 2 (July 1977): 6; "Committees: Vice-President's Report, 3. Local Archives," AB 3 (April 1978): 2; "President's Report: Interarchival Relations," AB 3 (June 1978): 2; "Local Archives: AB 3 (June 1978): 9; "Select Committees: Local Archives Committee," AB 3 (Aug. 1978); 7; "Committees: Vice-President's Report 2. Local Archives," AB 4 (April 1979): 5; "Select Committees: Local Archives," AB 4 (Aug. 1979). 46. "Canadian Archives System," 2; Public Archives of Canada, Appalling Neglect of Canadian Archives to be R e c t i f i e d , " (newsrelease) 8 Nov. 1985; "Canadian Council of Archives — Inaugural Meeting," AC:A_Bul ljsti n 10 (January 1986): 4. 26 "Discussion Paper" which i s to be used as a basis for future planning, the duties of each province/territory would be to: form a council of archives, structured as best s u i t s their circumstances, to promote development and coordinate the implementation of projects of mutual inte r e s t . This would be the base of the Canadian Archives System. The a c t i v i t i e s of the councils, and archives through them, should be based on a comprehensive assessment of the archives in the province/territory and local requirements for archival service. This would ensure a focus for the work of the archives councils and would provide a plan for the development of the archival system. In addition: Each province/territory should provide grants and assistance through i t s council for the development of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s and of the services provided to researchers. (47) Thus, the success or f a i l u r e of the Canadian Archives System w i l l depend upon the expertise and funding given to the councils by the various p r o v i n c i a l / t e r r i t o r i a l archives. This in turn w i l l rest upon p o l i t i c a l decision making and be dependent on the amount of funding provided by the ministers responsible for culture. At the local l e v e l , individual archival i n s t i t u t i o n s were to be represented in the p r o v i n c i a l / t e r r i t o r i a l councils and have basic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 47. "The Canadian Archives the_Adyisgry__Committee, 5. System," 3-4; see also, Report_of 27 Each i n s t i t u t i o n or government which operates an archives i s to be responsible •for i t s continued core funding to sustain basic archival services. These include servicing the administrative records of i t s parent body and defining i t s acquisition i n t e r e s t s and programmes, having professional regard for the legitimate i n t e r e s t s of other archives, the l i m i t a t i o n of i t s own core resources and the p r i n c i p l e s of archival science.(48) For local i n s t i t u t i o n s the emphasis i s on individual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and, although no s p e c i f i c mention i s made of total archives at the local l e v e l , i t i s implied i n the recommendations regarding acquisitions r i v a l r y . An important element at t h i s level w i l l be the need to educate the loca l community about the administrative, heritage, c u l t u r a l , and democratic uses of their documents with archival values. Federally, the PAC with the advice of a Canadian Council of Archives representing the provincial councils and the national archival associations: would coordinate the system at the national l e v e l , link the p r o v i n c i a l / t e r r i t o r i a l councils, and provide grants and services in support of the custodial r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of archives.(49) It i s not made clear whether or not the PAC w i l l be able to provide services d i r e c t l y to the local archives i f a p r o v i n c i a l / t e r r i t o r i a l council were weak in making a plan for and systematic development or in giving grants and assistance. 48. 49. Ibid., 3. Ibid, 4. 28 Otherwise, in such a case, the -fate of local archives w i l l hinge completely on t h e i r own endeavours unless the associations o-f a r c h i v i s t s help their members make e f f e c t i v e use of the grant educational programs provided by the Canadian Council of Archives.(50) Although i t needs to be fleshed out, the Discussion Paper on the Canadian Archives System i s extremely important. For the f i r s t time i t shows a p o l i t i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n at the federal and provincial l e v e l s of government of the need for a formal integrated network of archives in Canada. An element s t i l l missing, however, i s the lack of p o l i t i c a l awareness and w i l l at the local l e v e l . Even so, the time i s now appropriate for the implementation of a Canadian Archives System as most of the provincial and t e r r i t o r i a l archives have now reached the stage of having properly implemented archives/records management programs. They are in a position to give advice to local archival i n s t i t u t i o n s , and to organize their respective councils of archives. Care for the records of lo c a l government has the potential to be the basis for many archives. Increased expertise by the provincial l e v e l s of government should make i t possible for them to provide leadership in t h i s area to local governments. As outlined in t h i s chapter and summarized in the Wilson Report, perspectives on local archives in Canada show an increasing acceptance of the concepts of i n s t i t u t i o n a l 50. Ibid. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the records management/archives relationship, and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . ( 5 1 ) It i s not yet clear, however, whether total archives can be successfully applied to smaller municipalities. Although they may be part o-f other agencies the majority of tot a l archives in t h i s country are a f f i l i a t e d with the federal, provincial and largest municipal governments. The tot a l archives approach o f f e r s a solution to the problem of which i n s t i t u t i o n i s going to provide archival care for u n o f f i c i a l documents generated in the community at large, but i t also suggests that the care of o f f i c i a l records of non-governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be paid for by the public purse. The concept of i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , on the other hand, implies that each agency which creates records should be responsible for them, and i s in agreement with the recent p o l i t i c a l trend in Canada to minimize government involvement and emphasize private i n i t i a t i v e . Whether t o t a l archives or i n s t i t u t i o n a l care alone i s involved, i t i s commonly thought advisable that corporate records of a l l kinds should be subject to records management/archival programs. T e r r i t o r i a l i t y , which the Wilson Report makes an archival p r i n c i p a l , adds another dimension: whenever possible documents with archival values should remain in the locale in which they are created.(52) Bearing the above perspectives in mind, t h i s study proposes that cooperation between the public 51. Wilson Report, 15-16, 66, 87. and private sectors can be combined with i n s t i t u t i o n a l responsiblity, records management practices, and the p r i n c i p l e o-f t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , to make to t a l archives a p r a c t i c a l alternative for the municipality of Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia. 31 Chapter 3s IHE_RECQRDS_MANAGEM LQCAL_GOyERNMENI_IN_ The s o l i d basis -for any archives i s a corporate body which in the course o-f i t s •functions creates a volume o-f records which are required -for administrative purposes, a portion of which has permanent value as records o-f decisions, legal and personal r i g h t s , and as a h i s t o r i c a l record o-f the p o l i c i e s and operations o-f the originating body and the c o l l e c t i v e experience o-f the community i t serves. (1) Wilfred I. Smith Dominion Archvist, 1978 In order to understand the potential for the application of cooperative total archives programs to municipal government in B r i t i s h Columbia and to comprehend the necessity of the records management/archives linkage i t i s important to r e a l i s e the acceptance of the relat i o n s h i p between tota l archives and records management in Canada, as well as knowing what records management i s , what i t s benefits, uses and drawbacks are, what steps are being taken in the United States to develop lo c a l records management/archives programs, what are the federal/provincial r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards culture and the administration of municipal government in Canada, what f a l l s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n s of municipal and other lo c a l government in B r i t i s h Columbia, what i s the relationship between the municipal and provincial governments, what are the roles of the Provincial Archives and the Records Management 1. Wilfred I. Smith, Archives in New Zealand:. A_Rep_grt (Wellington: Archives and Records Association of New Zealand, 1978),16. Branch, and what are the problems -facing municipal governments trying to establish records management programs in t h i s province. Although there i s some ignorance of the value of records management or archives by many local governments, another major problem has been the lack of involvement of the provincial government, which, considering i t s relationship with municipal governments should be giving them di r e c t i o n in the records management and archives f i e l d . It becomes evident that there i s a need for records management/archival programs at the loc a l level of government. As matters stand, municipal governments themselves may have to take the i n i t i a t i v e . Ominously for the fate of archives, most loc a l governments are unaware of the value of the records management/archives 1i nkage. Municipal government has been chosen to be an area of study in the f i e l d of records management and archives for two reasons. F i r s t , municipal involvement i s l i k e l y to be an essential component of to t a l archives at the local l e v e l . Second, out of the various forms of local government i t has the widest variety of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , encompasses 83 per cent of the population, and, h i s t o r i c a l l y , has great 1ongevi ty. (2) Naturally, the functioning of municipal and other lo c a l governments in B r i t i s h Columbia, as elsewhere, necessitates 2. Robert L. Bish, "Local Government in B r i t i s h Columbia" (Review Draft, University of V i c t o r i a , March 1983), 1. the creation of records. Therefore, i t follows that some form of a records management/archives system should be used. Records management procedures should include the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and care of archival documents which have administrative, l e g a l , f i s c a l and research or heritage values. Although municipal government i s one of the most important forms of local government i t s records management programs are not well developed, and are not usually linked to archives.(3) Yet, the ACA has emphasized that municipal government should have an essential role to play in financing and coordinating systems and networks of archives.(4) In addition, when one considers the records management/archives linkage and the t r a d i t i o n of most tota l archives being joined to governments, i t appears l o g i c a l that municipal government should have an integral r o l e to play in the development of cooperative t o t a l archives at the local l e v e l . A number of eminent Canadian a r c h i v i s t s have accepted the link between tota l archives and records management. Wilfred Smith, the former Dominion A r c h i v i s t , stated that 3. K. M. Barlee, "Records Management and Municipal Government in B r i t i s h Columbia," a report presented to the spring meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association of B r i t i s h Columbia, 18 A p r i l 1986, Penticton, B. C.; R. A. Beauchamp, "Problems Encountered with Records Management," a paper presented to the spring meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association of B r i t i s h Columbia, IS April 1986, Penticton, B. C.; Len Delozier ( s i c ) , "Focus," ACA B u l l e t i n 5 (Aug. 1980): 6-7. Leonard C. DeLozier, "Archival Cooperation," Museum_Rgund-LJp 86 (Summer 82): 30. 4. "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses," 9. 34 the archives system should integrate control over the management of current records, the provision of records centres for dormant records, and the operation of central microfilm services, as well as the conventional archival functions of acquiring, preserving, and making available for use materials which have permanent value ....(5) The Wilson Report advocates that when a t o t a l archives accepts the records of local agencies the archives should urge the establishment of a basic records management routine involving i t s a r c h i v i s t s in the systematic selection of future records for preservation.(6) Hugh Taylor, former Director General of the Archives Branch of the Public Archives of Canada, states that one of the goals of total archives should be: Involvement in the entire l i f e cycle of records, through a records management program.(7) Thus, records management i s considered an essential part of tota l archives. Ideally, modern records management should encompass a l i f e cycle approach to the control of information from i t s creation to i t s destruction or archival use.(S) Although f i l e 5. Smith, "Introduction," 18-20; when the archival i n s t i t u t i o n administers records management functions i t i s known as an integrated system; when the archives and records management i n s t i t u t i o n s are under separate administrations but work cl o s e l y together, i t i s known as a coordinated system. 6. Wilson Report, 87; see above, p. 20, also. 7. Taylor, Archiyal_Seryices_and_t 48. 8. For a f u l l e r description of the functions of records management see, Frank B. Evans, Ihe_Deyelgpment_gf_an_Archiyal ^€L^-E^9.c4.^^^U.§:9.^niMD.%.JP^9:9.C^WiWi^ (Paris: Unesco, 1982) , 15-16. 35 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s an obvious prerequisite for proper records management, a system of scheduling records should be at the heart of records administration in a l l public archives.<9) Schedules stating the length of time documents should be retained are based on the administrative, l e g a l , f i s c a l and archival values of records. It i s scheduling which l i n k s records management to archives, and which makes the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of an a r c h i v i s t necessary when establishing time periods for retention and disposal of information. Documents of l a s t i n g value, that i s archival value, usually comprise only 3 to 5 per cent of modern records. The rest may be destroyed, thereby saving administrators considerable storage costs and helping them to know when i t i s economically viable to microfilm documents. In addition, i t i s important when computer generated records are created that retention and disposal schedules are applied to them immediately because of the ease with which information in machine-readable format may be changed or erased.(10) In t h i s case, a l i f e cycle approach which involves scheduling the record for archival retention from the time i t originates becomes even more necessary. In Canada, the benefits of tot a l archives programs with their records management emphasis have been recognized by the 9. Bryan Corbett and El don Frost, "The Acquisition of Federal Government Records: A Report on Records Management and Archival Practices," Archiyaria 17 (Winter 1983-84): 207; Q9 m mittee_gn_the_Records_ A__Rep.grt (Washi ngton , D.C.: 1985), 16. 10. Cgmmittee_gn_the__Recgrd 10, 24-34. 36 national, provincial and many o-f the largest municipal governments as archival documents can have a u t i l i t a r i a n as well as a cul t u r a l use to government and to the population at large.(11) Administratively, the creator of the record may use records management/archives systems for e f f i c i e n t , e f f e c t i v e and economical handling of information. This includes policy analysis, planning, budgeting, preparation for court cases, and accountability to the legal and audit r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s imposed by federal, provincial and lo c a l governments.(12) Today, appropriate public access to records which document the legal and f i n a n c i a l agreements, contracts and programs of government, has come to be considered a basic right of a democratic society. Thus, properly implemented tota l archives systems have the potential to help a l l governments in the e f f e c t i v e implementation of their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Even so, i t should be realised that modern records management, while much better than no systematic records management at a l l , has 11. James B. Rhoads, and Wilfred I. Smith, "Why Records Management i s Important?" ARMA_Recgrds_Management 10 (Jan. 1976): 107; C e c i l i a Christine Freeman-Ward, "An Analysis of Document Disposal Policy and Procedures within the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia" (Master of Public Administration thesis, University of V i c t o r i a , 1983), 17-25; Woadden, "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control," 62-64; James, "Administration of Municipal Records," 321-34; Rees, "Masters in Our Own House?," 53-59. 12. Forest W. Horton and Donald A. Marchand, eds., Information M§D§9ement in Publ i c Admi nistratign:_ An Intrgdyctign and Resgurce Gui.de tg Ggyernment in the Inf grmati.gn___.Age (Arlington: Information Resources Press, 1982); Ian E. Wilson, "Archives of Urban Mun i c i p a l i t i e s in Saskatchewan: Discussion Paper" (Saskatchewan Archives Board, c i r c u l a t e d for discussion and comments July 1983), 1. 37 room -for improvement. American and Canadian reports have shown problems in organizing, maintaining, and r e t r i e v i n g p r o l i f e r a t i n g government records, e s p e c i a l l y those created in planning and policy areas.(13) Despite the need for change in some records management procedures, the growth in the a c t i v i t i e s of local government has made the need to extend modern records management/archival practices to them part of a movement in North America. In 1980, the neglect of local government records was seen as the major archival c r i s i s in the United States by eminent a r c h i v i s t , H. G. Jones. Nothing short of the i n i t i a t i o n or strengthening of records management programs across the nation w i l l meet the requirements for more e f f i c i e n t and economic administration of local government and increased u t i l i z a t i o n of local documentary knowledge.(14) In terms of Canadian problems, i t i s interesting to note that in the United States the recently i n s t i t u t e d national Committee on the Records of Government recommends that "solutions workable in federal executive agencies should be transferred to state and local governments."(15) Today, American a r c h i v i s t s , h i s t o r i a n s and public administrators, in conjunction with the American Association for State and Local 13. QQ<_ml£tee_gn_the_Records 18, 21, 24, 26; Corbett and Frost, "The Acquisition of Federal Government Records," 210-32. 14. H. G. Jones, Local _Ggyernment_Recgrdss_ An_Intrgductign_tg their_Management i_P (Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1980), x i . 15. Cgmmittee_gn_the_Recgrds 43. 38 History and the -federal government's National H i s t o r i c a l Publications and Records Commission have begun a Local Government Records Project. They plan to establish a National Information Center for Local Government Records, which would act as a clearing house and provide r e f e r r a l services for i n q u i r i e s about e f f e c t i v e records management practices. Basic documentation i s also being provided in the form of guidebooks and audiovisual programs. Funding for the above has been both public and private, with the project i t s e l f being addressed to county o f f i c i a l s , municipal government policy makers and records administrators, as well as h i s t o r i c a l and archival agencies.(16) Thus, Americans have begun to promote records management/archival programs for local government by combining federal, state and local e f f o r t s , and by melding expertise from the records management, archival and h i s t o r i c a l f i e l d s . In Canada, despite a recognition of the problem a movement to t h i s type of coordinated action has not yet occurred although i t may have the potential to do so under the aegis of the Canadian Archives System i f t h i s organisation extends i t s mandate beyond a completely cul t u r a l emphasis. In addition, a series of questions arises regarding where the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the creation of records management/archival programs at the local government level in Canada should l i e . Should there be federal involvement as i s 16. "Industry News: Local Records Aid i s Coming," Information Management 18 (Aug. 1984): 15-6. the case in the United States? Should the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y be with the loc a l government, with the provincial government, or with a combination of the two? One may look for one's answers from both a cult u r a l and administrative viewpoint. Under the Canadian constitution, c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s are a shared provincial/federal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Therefore, the two l e v e l s of government could share involvement in the cu l t u r a l aspects of local government archives as was suggested in the Wilson Report.(17) On the other hand, the provinces have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for overseeing municipal government. Yet, to date, local governments in the majority of provinces have been given l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n in the development of records management/archives programs which i s probably a r e f l e c t i o n of the r e l a t i v e l y recent introduction of the provincial governments themselves to t h i s practice.(18) For the time being, in B r i t i s h Columbia the onus l i e s on the individual municipal governments to develop their own systems. However, to study the question of where the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the creation of records management/archival programs in t h i s province should l i e , i s to become aware of the need for provincial d i r e c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y as i t applies to the scheduling of records. 17. Wilson Report, Recommendations 2 and 3, 109. 18. Letters from a r c h i v i s t s in the provincial and t e r r i t o r i a l governmental archives, f i l e s of author; Quebec and New Brunswick are two of the main expceptions; Freeman-Ward, "An Analysis of Document Disposal Policy," 17-25. 40 In planning the development o-f cooperative total archives in which municipal and other local governments could p a r t i c i p a t e i t i s helpful to be familiar with the structure of local government, i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and i t s relationship to the provincial government. There are three main forms of local government in B r i t i s h Columbia in addition to municipal governments themselves: Regional D i s t r i c t s , Special D i s t r i c t s and School Districts.(19) The twenty-nine Regional D i s t r i c t s , responsible to the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s oversee municipalities and electoral areas. Created in 1965, they coordinate a c t i v i t i e s between incorporated and unincorporated areas in a comprehensive coverage of the whole province with the exception of the Stikine region. There are over 400 Special D i s t r i c t s with the major d i v i s i o n s being: Improvement D i s t r i c t s , responsible to the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s ; Hospital D i s t r i c t s , responsible to the Ministry of Health; Water Communities, responsible to the Ministry of the Environment; Local Areas, responsible to the M i n i s t r i e s of Health, Highways, and Municipal A f f a i r s . School D i s t r i c t s are responsible to the Ministry of Education. These three major forms of local government are d i r e c t l y responsible to, interact with and are guided by the provincial government. In establishing a cooperative t o t a l archives with 19. B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s , Stati s t i cs__Rel ating tg_Reg_gnal _and Myolgi P.§1 _Ggyernments„_i n B r i t i s h Cglumbia_ 1985 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, 1985); Bish, "Local Government in B. C," 53-93. 41 p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the municipal government as a major component, i t i s necessary to know what are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of municipal government in B r i t i s h Columbia and what i s involved in executing them. Incorporated municipal government i s composed o-f: -forty-eight v i l l a g e s with populations of up to 2500; thirteen towns, 2501-5000; t h i r t y - f i v e c i t i e s , 5001 plus; f o r t y - f i v e d i s t r i c t municipalities. The d i v i s i o n s , aside from d i s t r i c t municipalities which have a unique r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for drainage and diking projects, are based on population.(20) The bulk of municipal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and expenditures occur in six main areas: general administration, including purchasing, contracting and labour r e l a t i o n s ; recreation; p o l i c i n g ; f i r e protection; transportation; sewage and garbage disposal.(21) These services are decided upon by the provincial government and by the local populace, to both of which municipal 20. B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s , Muni ci_pal_ Stat i st i cs lQf_Lydi.ng Regional. D i s t r i c t s and Ij5RCQy_ement. n.i§tricts_f or the_Year Ended__Dec . _31 (Vi ctor i a , Queen's Prin t e r , 1984), 7-8; Bish, "Local Government in B r i t i s h Columbia," 2, 27. 21. Municipal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may also include: airports; animal regulations; building inspection; business l i c e n s i n g ; cemeteries; c i v i l defence and emergency measures; control of firearms; economic development; elections; e l e c t r i c i t y generation and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; house numbering; i n d u s t r i a l parks; i r r i g a t i o n and flood control; land purchase and development; l i b r a r i e s ; museums; noise control; parks, planning and zoning; public health regulation; regulation of nuisances; social welfare administration; s o i l f i l l and removal regulations; storm drainage; streets, curbs and sidewalks l i g h t i n g ; subdivision control; tax c o l l e c t i o n s ; telephone service; t e l e v i s i o n rebroadcasting; water supply and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; weed control, Bish, "Local Government in B r i t i s h Columbia," 29. governments are accountable in carrying out th e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Executing these duties involves a series o-f complex relationships between local governments and the ministries of the provincial government. However, i t has systematic quali t i es when viewed in l i g h t of individ u a l s attempting to resolve common problems within a set of i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements, which in turn operate within a framework of provincial and local government law....(22) This i s seen in the interaction of municipal government with thirteen of the nineteen provincial m i n i s t r i e s , the most prominent being the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s . It makes the laws that govern the basic structure and operations of municipalities, supervises finances, and part i c i p a t e s in land use and settlement throughout the Province. Other M i n i s t r i e s d i r e c t l y involved are: Provincial Secretary and Government Services; Attorney-General; Finance; Transportation and Highways; Labour; Environment; Industry and Small Business Development; Lands, Parks and Housing; Health; Human Resources; Consumer and Corporate A f f a i r s , and, i n d i r e c t l y , the M i n i s t r i e s of Agriculture and of Forestry. As well as being accountable to the above M i n i s t r i e s , municipal government i s responsible to i t s c i t i z e n s through routine i n q u i r i e s or through challenges issued through the Of f i c e of 22. Ibid., 9-10, see also p. 20. 43 the Ombudsman or by j u d i c i a l review.(23) Thus, municipal government supplies services to i t s c i t i z e n s , and in doing so interacts with other local governments and most ministries of the provincial government in a complicated but systematic manner. Therefore, i t would appear l o g i c a l that some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for guiding or encouraging records management/archives systems for municipalities should l i e with the Provincial Archives, the Records Management Branch, and the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s . The Provincial Archives and the Records Management Branch are equal but separate parts of the Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Sovernment Services, and coordinate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s as far as provincial government records are concerned. The Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia i s a to t a l archives, c o l l e c t i n g multimedia documents from the community at large as well as receiving o f f i c i a l provincial government records. In 1982, the Records Management Branch, using a methodology based on the federal government's t o t a l archives system, was established to develop modern records management practices within the provincial government.(24) This system, which could serve as an example to municipal governments, has three essential goals: to establish 23. Ibid., 18-20. 24. From the Public Archives of Canada's Records Management Series: Subject C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Gu_de (1969); Records QC9§Qii.§tion and Operations (1969); Records_Schedul ing_and Disposal_ (1972); General __Recgrds_Di the Ggyernment_gf__Canada, 3rd ed. (1978). 44 transgovernmental f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for administrative (housekeeping) records which are common to a l l departments or ministries; to develop separate operational c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for the records which are unique to the mandate of each ministry; to apply records retention and disposal schedules to both f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems. The provincial government of B r i t i s h Columbia has no archives act to ensure the above, but the disposal of government records i s governed by the Document Disposal Act. The Provincial Archivist i s named under the Act as one of f i v e members of the Public Documents Committee.(25) Although not mentioned as such in the Act, the Director of the Records Management Branch i s the current secretary of the Committee. The close relationship between the Records Management Branch and the Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia i s not pa r a l l e l e d by most municipal governments in B r i t i s h Columbia. The c i t i e s of Vancouver and T r a i l are two of the prime exceptions, and a few others, l i k e the D i s t r i c t s of Saanich and Esquimalt, are in the process of attempting to est a b l i s h systematic records management/archives programs. In the absence of federal or provincial government d i r e c t i o n , many municipal governments, r e a l i s i n g the importance of modern records management, i f not of municipal records with archival values, have been trying to develop programs on an individual basis. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , wanting more d e t a i l s than the broad 25. RSBC, Document Disposal Act 1983 c. 20, s. 3.2. outlines o-f the Municipal Act can give them, have asked the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s for advice on which records should be kept and their respective retention periods. In return, these local governments have received some very broad outlines regarding federal and provincial government records retention requirements. They are far removed from the detailed retention and disposal schedules required.(26) Responding to a need for more expertise i n the administration of municipal government, the municipal associations and the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s sponsor a one week annual course which began in 1983. Two to three hours are usually put aside for t r a i n i n g in municipal government records management but l i t t l e emphasis i s placed on the archival values of municipal records. Directions from the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s or the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association have proven inadequate to the present scheduling needs of municipal government.(27) Most municipalities, having been l e f t on t h e i r own to develop f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and scheduling, two of the most important parts of records management, have not been able to provide the necessary linkage between records management and 26. RSBC, Municipal Act, c. 290, ss. 235-7, 244; form l e t t e r from the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s to municipalities which request information on records and documentation po l i c y , f i l e s of author; Beauchmap, "Problems Encountered with Records Management," 4, 5. 27. "Municipal Administration Training I n s t i t u t e , " MQA_Chapter 290 1 (Fall 1982): 5; "Municipal Administration Training Institute: Back in School." MQA Chapter 290 2 no. 3: 1; Kathleen M. Barlee, "Records Management Diploma Program: A Report," (prepared for Okanagan College, Kelowna, 17 Oct. 1985), 9. 46 archives. For example, municipalities such as Surrey and Kamloops even though they have wel1-developed records management programs, do not have systematic l i n k s to municipal archives.(28) In Kamloops, the d i f f i c u l t y i s heightened by the fact that the director of the museum and archives does not consider the c o l l e c t i o n of municipal records other than minutes and by-laws as part of his responsibi1ities.(29) In t h i s and other cases many municipal records f a l l into an archival no man's land. Another factor to be considered i s that in order to implement individual records management programs municipalities are needlessly duplicating e f f o r t and expenses, and t h i s in a time of austerity when they are struggling with r e s t r a i n t and often reducing s t a f f . An example of the cost involved in i n i t i a t i n g individual f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and scheduling systems i s seen in the municipality of Kamloops. Even though i t s Office Services Supervisor has expertise in the f i e l d having taught the Municipal Administrati on, Training Institute course on records management in 1983 and 1984, the c i t y government has recently paid $30,000 to a private 28. Sue Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada: Problems and Solutions" (a paper read at the joint conference of the Northwest A r c h i v i s t s and the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s in Seattle, 3-5 May 1984), 5; Rosalie Spargo, O f f i c e Services Supervisor, City of Kamloops, telephone interview with the author, September 1985. 29. Ken Favrholdt, Director Kamloops Museum and Archives, during a question and answer period after h i s address to the B. C. Studies Conference, Feb. 1984, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C. 47 consultant to develop and implement a f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system.(30) Many municipalities may not be prepared to incur t h i s type of expense to achieve only one of the goals of e f f i c i e n t records management. Even i f they are, unless the f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems are standardized, d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems scattered among various municipalities w i l l make i t more d i f f i c u l t for them to communicate with each other. When one considers the systematic q u a l i t i e s of t h e i r relationship and the cost involved the obvious solution emerges: i t would be much better i f municipalities a l l used the same system with modification for individual municipal needs. The Executive O f f i c e r s of the two major municipal organizations, the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , composed of elected o f f i c i a l s , and the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association, composed of public employees, think i t would be most helpful i f di r e c t i o n in providing uniform retention and disposal schedules came from the provincial government.(31) A major drawback to provincial leadership has been the re s t r a i n t program of the provincial government, and therefore, the f a i l u r e of the Records Management Branch to develop a modern records management system for the Ministry of Municipal 30. Rosalie Spargo, O f f i c e Services Supervisor, Municipality of Kami oops, speech to the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s F a l l Meeting, Kamloops, Oct. 19S5. 31. Sandra Allen , Executive O f f i c e r , Municipal O f f i c e r s Association of B r i t i s h Columbia, interview with the author, V i c t o r i a , 25 Feb. 1985; Richard Taylor, Executive Director of the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Mun i c i p a l i t i e s , telephone conversation with the author, September 1985. 48 A f f a i r s . This in turn means that the Ministry i s not in a position to give detailed directions to municipalities. A solution may be for the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s , the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association to join forces in developing an operational f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme for records and functions held in common by municipalities. Their records management procedures, f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and schedules could be v e r i f i e d by the Records Management Branch, and their archival schedules by the Provincial Archives.(32) It can be seen that, despite a national and international awareness of the l i n k s between records management and t o t a l or solely i n s t i t u t i o n a l archives, most municipalities in B r i t i s h Columbia are not developing the records management/archives connection in which an a r c h i v i s t i s involved in the e n t i r e l i f e cycle of the record. Yet, in the development of either individual municipal or municipal t o t a l archives i t i s going to be e s p e c i a l l y important to have t h i s type of archival p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, without l e g i s l a t i o n or firm d i r e c t i o n from the provincial government's Records Management and 32. P a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to the above i s that at the Spring meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association, IS April 1986, a resolution was passed "that the Okanagan Chapter ... request the parent MOA body to p e t i t i o n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia to enact l e g i s l a t i o n to develop c l e a r l y defined guidelines regarding retention and disposal requirements for municipalities of B r i t i s h Columbia; and that the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association work with the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Mu n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s , and the Director of the Records Management Branch of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia to establish t h i s goal." 49 Archives Branches, or the Ministry o-f Municipal A f f a i r s in the scheduling o-f records and in planning for their archival retention in either separate local government archives or in total archives, i t i s l i k e l y that the present neglect of most municipal and other local government documents which have long term c u l t u r a l , heritage, and research values i s l i k e l y to continue. 50 Chapter 4: ARCHIVAL P R A N D EEDERAL_.AID.J0 BRITISH_COLUMBI A In order to develop a scenario for the comprehensive care of archival documents in the Kelowna area, i t i s helpful to be aware of the problems held in common by most local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia. A study reveals that the majority of archives in t h i s province are underdeveloped, and, through necessity, linked to museums or other heritage i n s t i t u t i o n s which c o l l e c t archival documents in an ad hoc fashion. The situation has not been a l l e v i a t e d by a f a i l u r e at the local level to r e a l i z e the value of archives. Moreover, p r o v i n i c i a l and federal aid and d i r e c t i o n have only been of limited help. P r o v i n c i a l l y , t h i s i s revealed in a study of the a c t i v i t i e s of the Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Records Management Branch, the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , and government funding agencies. Nationally, t h i s i s shown by a study of the a c t i v i t i e s of the PAC, SSHRCC, and the Canadian Conservation Institute as well as other federal agencies. Analysis makes i t very apparent that the recommendations of the Wilson Report and the proposals for the Canadian Archives System outlined in Chapter Two are most relevant: while there should be local responsibi1ty to sustain basic archival services, there i s also a v i t a l need for a formal network or system of archives having as i t s basis provincial councils of archives which would aid in the development of services, f a c i l i t i e s and programs after a comprehensive assessment of local requirements has been made. A study Df the problems facing most local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia reveals that due to the lack of public and administrative awareness of the value of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s and documents there has been a subsequent dearth of p o l i t i c a l interest in the subject of local archives. There are few provincial or federal funding agencies providing s i g n i f i c a n t grants and services for local archives. When supplied, federal and provincial help has been informal, ad hoc and uncoordinated. There i s l i t t l e connection between the c o l l e c t i o n of archival documents and records management practices largely due to the inadequacy of provincial l e g i s l a t i o n pertaining to the scheduling of local government records, and the ignorance of local administrators where records management/archival matters are concerned. There has been l i t t l e local funding for f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f i n g and professional development. Most local archives, therefore, have inadequate conservation programs, technical and professional s t a f f , and environmental controls. The s c a r c i t y of professional supervisors and the use of volunteers have often resulted in a lack of continuity in archival procedures within i n s t i t u t i o n s . There has been a f a i l u r e to c o l l e c t u n o f f i c i a l documents systematically. Although there are national and provincial plans to develop them there have been no standards for the processing of archival materials. Local archival c o l l e c t i o n s are, on the whole, inadequate and the objectives of most local i n s t i t u t i o n s have been limited to salavage operations and attempts to provide rudimentary 52 service to the ad hoc c o l l e c t i o n s that have survived.(1) A closer study of local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia shows that most have a very close relationship with museums, although in the past ten years there has been a r i s e in the number of i n s t i t u t i o n s caring for their own records.(2) S t i l l , at least 67 per cent of the approximate 137 archives in B r i t i s h Columbia are administrative subcomponents of museums. Fewer than 15 per cent are i n s t i t u t i o n a l archives attempting to c o l l e c t the records of their sponsoring agencies in a systematic manner.(3) These have been some univ e r s i t y , college, business, r e l i g i o u s and other i n s t i t u t i o n a l archives not associated with either museums or heritage and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . A 1984 survey of smaller archives belonging to the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s showed that 96 per cent of the respondents shared a building with a museum.<4) 1. Delozier ( s i c ) , "Focus," 5-7; DeLozier, "Archival Cooperation," 27-30; Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada," 5-9; "Results of Survey: 1984," ABCA_Newsletter 10 (Fall 1984): 4-7; Anne MacDermaid, "Study Three: Federal Support to Archives,.Libraries, and Museums," in Report,of the Advisory Committee on Archives, 66; "PABC Management of Networking with Local Archives," (questionnaire answered at the PABC, Jan. - Feb. 1985), in f i l e s of author. 2. Richard A. Duckies, Directory of_Myseums__Archiye Art G a l l e r i e s of B r i t i s h Co_umbi_a, 4th ed. , ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia Museums Association, 1983); lhe_0f f i c i al_ Di rectory of Can ad i an Museums and Pel sited Inst i tut ions (Ottawa: Canadian Museums Association, 1984); "Results of Survey: 1984,: 5. 3. Compiled using Duckl_es_ Jhe Directory of _Museums_._Art Gal1eries_and_Archiyes, which includes both public and private i n s t i t u t i o n s . 4. "Results of Survey: 1984," 5. Superficial1y, at least, t h i s would appear to be a mutually advantageous arrangement: museums have physical f a c i l i t i e s in place; both museums and archives have the preservation of heritage materials as a goal; as w i l l be shown, i t i s easier to obtain provincial and federal government aid through museums than i t i s through archives. Yet, a number of experts in the f i e l d do not think t h i s museum/archives relationship i s the best one for archives. A recent confidential report, made for the municipality of Richmond by a consultant, recommends that the archives be d i r e c t l y responsible to the c i t y clerk's o f f i c e because of the records management/archives relationship. Although t h i s c i t y has a museum no mention i s made of having any formal archival contact with it.<5) Sue Baptie, City A r c h i v i s t for Vancouver, has admonished that museums often do not recognize the du a l i t y of archives - although having heritage and cultu r a l r o l e s archives also have an administrative function through service to the creator of the municipal record.(6) The Archives Advisor of the Provincial Archives, reversing an e a r l i e r position, has warned that the administrative i n s t a b i l i t y of museums poses a serious problem for the permanent preservation 5. Elizabeth Eso, City Archivist for Richmond, in a conversation with the author, 19 April 1986, Vancouver, B. C. 6. Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada," 5-6. 54 of archival material.(7) He also argues that a r c h i v i s t s must see that i f museums are to be the primary keepers o-f archival material, then almost a l l our documentary heritage w i l l be lost.<8) As long ago as 1962 eminent American museologist, Carl Suthe, in a report which resulted in the separation of the provincial archives and museum in B r i t i s h Columbia, attacked the f a l s e assumption that museum a r t i f a c t s and h i s t o r i c a l records and documents belong together by virtu e of the i r h i s t o r i c i t y . This t r a d i t i o n i s now obsolete. It i s generally recognized that the process of c o l l e c t i n g and preserving documents and photographs, the proper function of the archives, involves techniques of recording, cataloging and conserving which d i f f e r from those used in museums.(9) Guthe was used as a source by the Canadian Museum Association when i t published i t s museum guidebook which advocated that museums not include archives as part of th e i r responsibi1ities.(10) In terms of the present s i t u a t i o n in t h i s province, i t should be realized that museums are not r e a l l y to blame, they are doing the best they can in a bad 7. For information on h i s previous position see, Leonard C. DeLozier, "A Program to Improve the Archival Capability of H i s t o r i c a l Museums in B r i t i s h Columbia" (April 1977), photocopy in f i l e s of author; regarding his present stance see, Delozier ( s i c ) , "Focus," 6. 8. DeLozier, "Archival Cooperation," 30. 9. Guthe, "The Provincial Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia: Appendix," 2. 10. Harrison, Techni.cal_Reguirements_of_Smal 6. s i t u a t i o n . Through default, museums have been assuming a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which a r c h i v i s t s and museologists, for a variety of reasons, have considered as unsuitable to the functions of these heritage i n s t i t u t i o n s . As 48 per cent of the archives in B r i t i s h Columbia that answered a recent federal survey have budgets of less than $20,000 per annum, increased funding would be most useful but i t i s not the complete solution.(11) Municipal government provides 74 per cent of the funding to 43 per cent of the archives.(12) However, a small municipality, l i k e a small museum acting alone, may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to provide adequate archival service. While increased funding i s obviously needed, i f i t were added to the status quo that e x i s t s we would merely have a more r i c h l y funded problem — museums and other heritage i n s t i t u t i o n s that are unaware of basic archival p r i n c i p l e s , services, functions, and uses. The same c r i t i c i s m , that the provision of s u p e r f i c i a l aid w i l l not make the necessary structural changes, applies to help that has been given through the Provincial Archives, the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , the PAC, and various other provincial and federal organizations. In order to make plans for archives development at the local level i t i s helpful to be aware of what exactly the aid from 11. QaQadi an Archi yes in i_!§2__ Survey °i Her i t age I n s t i t u t i o n s (Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1985), 9; the report did not state whether or not these s t a t i s t i c s include archives linked to museums. 12. "Results of Survey," 5. these provincial and -federal agencies has been. The Provincial Archives has not been able to - f i l l the gap or to provide adequate leadership in the care o-f local documents and government records, despite the -fact that since 1953 the Document Disposal Act has made i t possible -for t h i s archives to accept the records of municipalities and school d i s t r i c t s , that the position of Archives Advisor has been created, and that the s t a f f of the Provincial Archives has given advice and help to local archives.<13) The Document Disposal Act, there being no archives act per se, i s inapplicable in practice as i t applies to lo c a l archives for f i v e reasons. F i r s t , the Act i s permissive as i t does not direct either the municipalities or the Provincial Archives to take any action. Few municipalities have approached the provincial i n s t i t u t i o n to take their noncurrent records.(14) Second, the current Provincial A r c h i v i s t , John Bovey, thinks, and c o r r e c t l y so when one considers the widely held b e l i e f s in i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the p r i n c i p l e of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , that municipalites should provide the necessary archival care for their records.(15) Third, i f the Provincial Archives were w i l l i n g to accept local government 13. Revised Statutes_gf_British Columbia, Document Disposal Act, 1983, c. 20, s. 4; based on the Saskatchewan Archives Act, see above, p. 8. 14. Leonard DeLozier, Archives Advisor, PABC, written comment to author, Sept. 1984. 15. John Bovey, Provincial Archivist of B r i t i s h Columbia, conservation with the author, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, 3 November 1984. 57 records, i t would be impractical for i t do so unless there were a ra t i o n a l i z e d system with properly inventoried and scheduled records being selected for archival retention. Fourth, to remove local records to V i c t o r i a where they would be r e l a t i v e l y inaccessible to local administrators and c i t i z e n s a l i k e , would be against the p r i n c i p l e of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . Lastly, the Act i s not comprehensive as i t does not mention other forms of local government such as regional or special d i s t r i c t s . The above reasons serve to show that vaguely stated de jure alternatives concerning the care of archival documents do not necessarily res u l t in t h e i r adequate preservation in the absence of local public and administrative awareness of the value of archives and i t s records management l i n k s , and in the absence of loc a l p o l i t i c a l w i l l and a loc a l base of resources and expertise from which to implement the l e g i s l a t i o n . In addition, the Archives Advisor, whose position was created by the Provincial Archives in 1978, has been unable to cause any real changes in the neglected state Df the records of municipal government or other local documents. His duties, carried out at the Provincial Archives and in the f i e l d , include coordinating aid from the provincial i n s t i t u t i o n to local archives, serving as a consultant, and giving workshops and seminars. The Advisor i s not usually conferred with regarding which museums or archives should receive grants 58 under the Heritage Trust or Cultural Services programs.(16) Neither the one day archival seminar which i s given as part o-f a three day B r i t i s h Columbia Museums Association workshop -for student employment programs, nor the annual f i v e day workshop held at the Provincial Archives for people active in the archives/museum f i e l d , strongly emphasizes the l i f e cycle relationship between records management and archives.<17) It would have have been d i f f i c u l t for the Archives Advisor, whose position became part-time in 1982, to further the cause of t h i s i d e a l , as the provincial government had only begun to implement records management/archives programs for i t s ministries. This may have been the reason why the Advisor did not act upon his i n i t i a l plans to establish contact with the Association of Records Managers and Administrators, the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association and the Ministry of Municipal Affairs.(18) Therefore, his a c t i v i t i e s have not dealt with local records management/archival matters to any large extent, and no substantial modifications for the better in the state of local archives have occurred. Moreover, the three Main Divisions Df the Provincial Archives, Manuscript and Government Records, Visual Records, 16. "PABC Management of Networking;" Leonard C. DeLozier, telephone conversation with the author, 14 March 1986. 17. DeLozier, telephone conversation with the author, 24 Jan. 1985; in addition, t h i s was noted when the author attended a museum/archives workshop given in Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia, June 1985. 18. Delozier ( s i c ) , "Focus," 6-7; DeLozier, telephone conversation with the author, 24 Jan. 1985. and Sound and Moving Images, as well as the Conservation Laboratory, have made l i t t l e real difference to the status quo. As no archives act, no formal p o l i c y , and no substantial provincial government funding ex i s t , there i s only ad hoc help from the provincial i n s t i t u t i o n to other archives. Training, consulting, publishing, and some d i f f u s i o n projects are the basis of most of the Divisions' and the Laboratory's cooperation with local archives.(19) S u p e r f i c i a l solutions are being offered to major problems. It can be seen that the emphasis at the Provincial Archives has not been in giving dir e c t i o n to local archival i n s t i t u t i o n s on how to develop a systematic approach in the implementation of records management/archival programs, or in the c o l l e c t i o n of u n o f f i c i a l materials. Its focus, of necessity, has had to be on helping the smaller archives in caring for their ad hoc assortment of local history materials. For the Provincial Archives to do more there w i l l be a need for local e f f o r t s , expertise and funding, as well as provincial government aid and f i n a n c i a l backing for the development of records management/archives systems for local government, and for the development of comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n s p o l i c i e s . At the same time, the Records Management Branch of the Provincial Government has had no dir e c t mandate to encourage the implementation of records management/archival systems at the local l e v e l , although i t may have an i n d i r e c t right to do 19. "PABC Management of Networking with Local Archives." 60 so through i t s service to various government ministries which, as noted in Chapter Three, interact with local l e v e l s o-f government. Thus, local archives have been unable to look to the Records Management Branch for assistance in establishing comprehensive records management/archival programs for the records of municipal and other local governments. Furthermore, grants from two main donors, the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, have i n t e n s i f i e d the museum/archives rela t i o n s h i p . The Ministry of Labour funding for student employment programs i s heavily geared towards museums and only in a minor way towards archives.(20) The Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services as well as administering the Provincial Archives and the Records Management Branch, oversees the Lottery Grants Branch, the Heritage Conservation Branch, and the Cultural Services Branch. Aid to archives i s only a peripheral part of their funding programs and i s usually t i e d to that for museums.(21) Under the terms of the Heritage 20. Helen Tremaine, Training Coordinator, B r i t i s h Columbia Museums Association, telephone conversation with the author, 24 Jan. 1985; the Ministry of Labour was contacted for information on how i t s funding had been distributed but was unable to supply these s t a t i s t i c s . 21. B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Trust, Annual_Repgrt_ B r i t i s h Columbia_Heritage Trust (Victorias M of PS & GS, 1979-81, 1982- 83", 1983-84, 1984-85); B r i t i s h Columbia, M of PS & GS, Cultural Services Branch, Grants, Awards_ and Subsidies (Victorias M of PS ?< GS) 1979-80, 1980-81, 1981-82, 1982-83, 1983- 84, 1984-85); E. R. Orchard, Director of the L o t t e r i e s Grants Branch, l e t t e r to the author, Feb. 7, 1985, stated that the s t a t i s t i c s were not available from the Lottery Grants Branch. Conservation Act archival materials must be considered heritage property in order to be supported.(22) Through the B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Trust, the Heritage Conservation Branch gives funds for capi t a l projects and grants for publication assistance planning, inventory, scholarships, building restoration, r e l i g i o u s buildings, heritage area r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , h i s t o r i c a l archaeology, student employment, commemorative monuments, conferences, and additional a c t i v i t i e s . Over the years, funds for archival projects have come to between 1 and 6 percent of the annual t o t a l (see Appendix One), which was #1,500,000 in the 1984-85 period.(23) The Cultural Services Branch, through the B r i t i s h Columbia Cultural Fund, gives grants, awards and subsidies for professional support and program development projects, service programs, a r t i s t and student services, and special support services. Under professional support and program development, the Branch gave operating funds averaging from #32,000 to #42,000 per i n s t i t u t i o n in the 1981-84 period to an average of twenty-seven museums per year, but not to archives which had a separate identity.(24) Funding for archival projects was a miserly 0.2 per cen of the annual t o t a l which was a very 22. _RSBC, Heritage Conservation Act, 1979, (consolidated Sept. 4, 1981) c. 165, Interpretation. 23. B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Trust. Annual_Repgrt__ B r i t i s h Qolumbia_Heritage_Trust_l?84-85. 24. B r i t i s h Columbia, M of PS & GS, Cultural Services Branch, PCQftssignal_Suppgrt and_Prggram_Develgpment (Victoria: M of PS & GS), 3. generous six and one hal-f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s during the 1984-85 period.(25) Under community development projects the Branch gave -funding . which amounted to *8,725 -from 1979 to 1984.(26) (See Appendix Two.) The -fact that the preponderance o-f funding from the Heritage Conservation Branch and Cultural Services Branch goes to museums weighs against the development of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s , and, natuarally enough, considering the mandate of the two branches, gives a near exclusive emphasis to the heritage, property, and a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s of archival a r t i f a c t s . As there i s no archives act under which a separate trust for archival i n s t i t u t i o n s could be established, archives are, of necessity, established under the aegis of museums. The resu l t has been that archival processes as well as the research and administrative components of loc a l archives are often ignored. The Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s has been concerned with the f a i l u r e of the provincial government to support archives not associated with museums. The Association, formed in the early 1970s by a group of professional and amateur a r c h i v i s t s , has endeavoured to promote competence and communication among i t s members.(27) 25. B r i t i s h Columbia, M of PS 8< GS, Cultural Services Branch, GrantSj. Awards and Subsidi es_ Apri 1 i?84_-_ March 1985 (Vi c t o r i a : M of PS 8< GS) , 38. 26. Ibid., Grantsi_Awards__and_Su^ (1979-84). 27. Laurenda Daniells, "A Brief History of the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , " _SQA„_iwsl|tter 10 (Summer 1984). Educational workshops and seminars have been held, and communication has been promoted through meetings and through the ABCA__ews_etter. Although i t has been largely i n e f f e c t i v e in moving governments to support archives, the Association has lobbied provincial and municipal governments for more help in developing municipal archives and in obtaining archives legislation.(28) The Association has also wanted to be the catalyst in the implementation of the provincial network of archives recommended in the Wilson Report.(29) However, as the organization functions with l i t t l e funding, with volunteer o f f i c e r s , and with no i n s t i t u t i o n a l basis of power, i t has been unable to cause any structural changes in the underdeveloped condition of most local archives in B r i t i s h Columbi a. From the above i t can be seen that provincial policy has tended to link archives with museums to the detriment of the former. This i s seen in the funding policy of the Heritage Conservation and Cultural Services Branches which regard archives as a minor subcomponent of museums. The Provincial Archives and the Records Management Branch, both hampered by provincial austerity programs and lack of w i l l , have not given adequate aid or d i r e c t i o n in developing the records management/archives relationship at the local l e v e l . In 28. Daniells, "Brief History of the Association;" Kent M. Haworth, "Local Archives: R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and Challenges for A r c h i v i s t s , " Archiyaria 3 (Winter 1976-77): 37-39. 29. Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada," 3. 64 addition, the Association o-f B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , although i t r e a l i z e s the need for i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and provincial archives l e g i s l a t i o n in providing proper care for the records of local government, has been unable to cause any meaningful changes. When one turns to the federal level one finds much the same s i t u a t i o n in the e f f o r t s of the PAC, the National Archival Appraisal Board, the SSHRCC, the Canadian Conservation Institute, as well as other agencies.<30) They have not affected the basic structure of archives in B r i t i s h Columbia. The PAC r e a l i z e s that the limited help extended by the federal government to archives has not been comparable to that given to museums and art g a l l e r i e s through the National Museum Corporation or to heritage buildings through Heritage Canada.<31) The PAC i t s e l f has tended to offer assistance to archives in the form of t r a i n i n g and inventory programs.(32) Theoretically, the t r a i n i n g i s to encompass both the 30. See, MacDermaid, "Study Threes Federal Support to Archives," 59-67, for more d e t a i l s . 31. Clavet, "Appendix 15, Structure of the Canadian Archives System and Recommendations," Cogger at ign____at __.the ...Public Archiyes_gf_Canada; see also, MacDermaid, 57-67; the nine Museum Assistance Programmes amounted to $8.5 m i l l i o n in 1984-85, see In_Ygur Cgmmunitys. Natignal Myseums_ of __Canada 6QQyii_.Repgrt.j_ 1984-85 (National Museums of Canada, 1985), 60; the Archives Assistance Program of the Public Archives of Canada had $100,00 to spend in 1985 according to Michael Swift, Director General of the PAC's Archives Branch, conversation with the author, Oct. 1985, Ottawa. 32. Clavet, Cgggeration at the Publi c_Archi yes_.gf .Canada, 28-33, 44-45. archives and records management areas, but, in r e a l i t y -for B r i t i s h Columbia, i t has only extended to archives t r a i n i n g . The Archives Branch o f f e r s two extensive three or -four week courses per year in archival management to those who'have at least one year's experience i n a position related to archives. The cost o-f the course, $400.00, -for those not employed by the Department of Communications, plus the expense of a month's stay in Ottawa, put i t outside the reach of most loc a l archives. The Records Management Branch sponsors an annual four week course for administrators and f i v e day workshops for lower level s t a f f . The courses are intended for municipal, provincial and foreign governments as well as private organizations and societies.(33) Federal courses have the potential to be helpful for local governments in B r i t i s h Columbia as the provincial Records Management Branch has based i t s Records Management System on that of the PAC. Unfortunately, because of federal government demand and due to lack of p u b l i c i t y , by the end of 1985 no municipal employee from B r i t i s h Columbia had taken any of the PAC's records management courses.(34) Thus, while local a r c h i v i s t s , who can 33. Ibid., 45. 34. Jay Atherton, Director General of the Records Management Branch, PAC, l e t t e r to the author, 31 Jan. 1985; Mr. Atherton further notes that only 14 municipal employees had taken the courses in the 1978-84 period: for the four week course in records management, four from Ottawa, one from Regina and three from Winnipeg; for the f i v e day course, two from Saskatoon, two from Regina and three from Winnipeg; Harry Chapin, Director of the PAC's Vancouver Records Centre, telephone conversations with the author, Feb. and Oct. 1985. 66 afford to do so, may take advantage o-f the archival t r a i n i n g program, i t i s usually only federal government departments and representatives from foreign governments that have taken the records management t r a i n i n g . From time to time since the early 1960s, the PAC has sponsored records surveys of archival materials in order to i d e n t i f y what documents exist and where they are located. In 1971, the surveys were organized under student summer employment programs, with funding provided by the federal government's Manpower and Immigration Commission.(35) The major c r i t i c i s m of these inventories i s that although they locate documents both in and out of archives, they are only a f i r s t step in the archival process of appraisal, accessioning, arranging, describing, conserving, and providing access. The value of inventories i s somewhat dubious without the rest of the necessary archival functions. A successful example of interprofessional cooperation, communication and coordination i s seen in the National Archival Appraisal Board which appraises documents valued over $1,500 donated to public r e p o s i t o r i e s for income tax deduction purposes. The adminstration fee i s $75.00 per session, honorarium for chairman of the session i s $200.00 for a f u l l 35. Clavet, Qgoperatxgn_at_the_Pu 33, "Appendix 19, Break-down (sic) of Federal Summer Employment Programs;" Grace Maurice Hyam, "National Inventories," At(;.hiyes._Bul l e t i n 4 (June 1979): 1-2; "The National Archival Survey in B r i t i s h Columbia," ACA_Bulletin 4 (Dec. 1979): 4; AQA_Bulletin 5 (Aug. 1980): 3. 67 day, and $125.00 -for a half day session. The other two members o-f the appraisal committee usually receive $150.00 and $100.00 each.(36) The National Director has stated that i f a small local archives has a c o l l e c t i o n that does not need extensive appraisal the Board w i l l very l i k e l y charge nothing or only a minimal amount.(37) Most local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia do not take advantage of t h i s service for three l i k e l y reasons: they do not think they can afford the substantial costs involved; they are not receiving donations valued over $1,500; they are unaware that the Board exi sts. (38) Another federal agency, SSHRCC, has provided major funding for archival projects through i t s Canadian Studies Research Tools program. Since 1981, one of i t s chief goals has been to place a greater emphasis than has been done before on Canadian Studies and strategic themes of national importance.(39) The Vancouver Island Project has been one of the major Research Tools r e c i p i e n t s in B r i t i s h Columbia with 36. Sue M. Baptie (Regional Director of NAAB), l e t t e r to the author, 25 Jan. 1985. 37. Stan Hanson, Workshop on Appraisal, ACA Conference, Edmonton, 15 June 1985. 38. Another program seldom used by the archival community i s the Cultural I n i t i a t i v e s Program of the Department of Communications which supplies capital assistance to projects valued at over $200,000, McDermaid, "Study Three: Federal Support t D Archives," 58. 39. Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canadian Styd,ies_Research_Tgols__ Prggram_Gui del ines (1985) ; McDermaid, "Study Three: Federal Support to Archives," 61-62. 68 $158,111 o-f the $381,784 spent in that province in the 1981-85 time period going to it.(40) (See Appendix Three.) This project i s e s s e n t i a l l y a records survey o-f local government i n s t i t u t i o n s , municipalities, school d i s t r i c t s , and improvement d i s t r i c t s , as well as o-f select primary and secondary research materials held by other i n s t i t u t i o n s such as museums, h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , churches and businesses.(41) The aim o-f the survey i s to locate records and archival documents p o t e n t i a l l y valuable for researching regional and local Vancouver Island history. The same c r i t i c i s m applies to the Vancouver Island Project that pertains to the surveys of the PAC. Identifying material i s only one step in the archival process, i t should be a supplement to, not a replacement for, proper records management procedures, and the archival process of providing appraisal, arrangement, description, access, and conservation services to c o l l e c t i o n s . A major archival problem, the lack of adequate conservation programs, i s compounded by the fact that only archives that are part of museums get federal conservation aid. The Canadian Conservation Institute, under the auspices of the federal Crown Corporation, the National Museums of Canada, of f e r s i t s services to archives that are part of public museums and art g a l l e r i e s , but not to archives having a 40. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Qanadi an_Studi es ._Research_Tgol s ( l i s t of projects, 1982-87). 41. Baskerville and G a f f i e l d , "The Vancouver Island Project," 173; 69 separate existence. The Institute sponsors workshops, v i s i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s to check l i g h t i n g , humidity, temperature, and other environmental matters, lends environment measuring instruments, and provides help in emergencies.(42) In conclusion, i t can be seen that -federal and provincial aid to local archives has been largely inadequate to the task of fostering rationalized and comprehensive development. This i s due to a lack of awareness by local administrators and the public of the value of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s and documents. As a r e s u l t , there has been a corresponding p o l i t i c a l inaction to pass the provincial or local l e g i s l a t i o n necessary for the provision of a funding base from which to improve the underdeveloped state of local archives. Many federal, provincial and local services have been developed to serve museums and only secondarily archives. The result has been that the majority of local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia are a f f i l i a t e d with museums. This i s hardly the f a u l t of museum administrators who often have provided v i t a l l y needed basic services for archives without having any c a l l on the necessary resources or expertise. Essential elements such as the need for suitable f a c i l i t i e s , ongoing operational funding, and professional expertise in the archives f i e l d , as well as the requirement for a records management/archives l i f e cycle approach and comprehensive acquisitions mandate, have been 42. " C r i t e r i a for the Acceptance of Request and Research Services," (a pamphlet), Can Insti tute. s for Conservation adian Conservation 70 overlooked in the aid that has been given. When, as i s happening with many museum/archives at the local l e v e l , uses such as administrative and research needs are ignored then an incomplete and stunted archival i d e n t i t y emerges. The result has been that the archives perspective which emphasizes the provision of service to the creator of the record, to public planners, to neighbourhood groups, to Canadian scholars of history, geography, the social sciences, and other f i e l d s , and to concerned c i t i z e n s of a democratic society, has been largely overlooked. Important o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l archival documents are uncollected, remain inaccesible, or, even at worst, are destroyed. 71 Chapter 5: PREVIOyS__PROPOSALS ARCHIVES_IN„BRIIISH Suggestions on how to -further the development of lo c a l archives in B r i t i s h Columbia have been made in several quarters, and although not implemented, many of these ideas have the potential to be applied to the creation of loc a l records management/archival systems. Therefore, in order to provide a scenario for the future i t i s of value to look at recommendations that have been made in the past. In 1976, the Provincial A r c h i v i s t of B r i t i s h Columbia, Allan Turner, proposed a solution to the problem of how to care for municipal records with archival values. He suggested that the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s could l e g i s l a t e standard retention and disposal schedules for municipalities to follow. Even though he thought i t would be more productive i f records management programs were also incorporated into the Act, he rea l i z e d that t h i s might not prove feasible.(1) Consequently, he suggested that municipalities could es t a b l i s h such programs, and have t h e i r records with archival values deposited with municipal, regional or d i s t r i c t government archives, with museums, l i b r a r i e s or h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s i f they had adequate f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f , or, as a l a s t and somewhat reluctant choice, with the Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. In any case, the individual municipality would retain t i t l e to 1. A r t i b i s e , Ciy£c_Archi_yal_Suryey_gf_Greater_Victoria, 29. 72 i t s documents. The Provincial Archivist thought that through provincial government l e g i s l a t i o n or regulation A municipality should be empowered to establish a municipal archives -for the preservation o-f the h i s t o r i c a l municipal records or to associate itsel-f with other municipalities in the creation and maintenance of a regional or d i s t r i c t archives, and to expend monies for f a c i l i t i e s , equipment, personnel, and a l l other purposes necessary to the e f f e c t i v e operation of such an archives.<2) Turner r e a l i z e d that each municipality might not be able to assume individual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but a group of municipalities acting together could afford archival services. In addition, he recommended: If l e g i s l a t i v e authority i s required, the Municipal Act could provide for the appointment of a municipal records manager and a municipal archivist....(3) Turner's proposals came to naught. The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia did not have retention and disposal schedules for i t s own m i n i s t r i e s to follow, and thus the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s was not in a position to develop detailed schedules for municipalities. Aside from the City of Vancouver there was no municipality with the a b i l i t y or the expertise necessary to receive regularly scheduled records into a municipal archives. Other depositories such as the Provincial Archives or museums, l i b r a r i e s and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s were unsuitable. Even so, the former Provincial A r c h i v i s t ' s Ibid., Ibid. 29. suggestions are o-f s i g n i f i c a n c e : he c o r r e c t l y stressed the importance of records management; he advocated the records management/archives relationship; he i d e n t i f i e d the need for leadership and l e g i s l a t i o n from the provincial government in developing standard records schedules and in empowering municipalities to establish i n d i v i d u a l , regional or d i s t r i c t archi ves. Less detailed were recommendations made by another a r c h i v i s t from the Provincial Archives. Recognizing the need for archival decentralization, Kent Haworth suggested that regional d i s t r i c t s , through powers delegated to them through the Municipal Act, could establish a coordinated framework for local development based on archival standards, similar to that which was possible in the l i b r a r y f i e l d . ( 4 ) These suggestions are worthy of closer analysis because of the economies of scale that have been made possible in the four Consolidated Public Library Systems through having the l i b r a r i e s which belong to each system share a central administration and resource centre. This i s shown in a comparison with other types of l i b r a r i e s . The l i b r a r i e s in the Consolidated Systems, which serve 40 per cent of the population, have per capita operating costs of $13.97, compared to $18.97 for the eight individual municipal l i b r a r i e s which serve 18 per cent of the population, and $26.70 for the Vancouver Federated 4. Haworth, "Local Archives: R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and Challenges for A r c h i v i s t s , " 34-36; RSBC, Municipal Act, c. 290, s. 798. 74 Library System which serves 30.5 per cent o-f the population. Approximately 80 per cent o-f the funding for a l l l i b r a r i e s i s provided locally.(5) The remaining 7 per cent of the population, which l i v e in isolated communities are provided service through the provincial government.(6) There were three impediments to the implementation of Haworth's recommendations. One was the need for a greater public awareness of the value of archives as has been pointed out in both ' the Symons and Wilson reports. Presently, the public looks upon l i b r a r i e s as an essential service, t h i s i s not the case with local archival i n s t i t u t i o n s . Second i s the need for archives l e g i s l a t i o n . Under the Library Act there i s c r i t e r i a , based on local support, under which various combinations of municipalities, school d i s t r i c t s , and/or regional d i s t r i c t s may approach p r o v i n c i a l , municipal or regional governments in order to have l i b r a r y services implemented for their local areas.(7) Haworth states that the Municipal Act could be the vehicle for implementing archives l e g i s l a t i o n . Yet, l i b r a r i e s , which he uses as an example, are largely governed by the Library Act, and i t i s only in remote areas where they are under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of regional d i s t r i c t s . In the case of archives, even i f proponents of 5. Based on s t a t i s t i c s provided by B r i t i s h Columbia, M of PS & GS, Library Services Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Public tibraries:__.Statisties, ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, 1983). 6. Ibid. 7. RSBC, c. 235, s. 6, 16, 29, 30, 31, 40, 40.1, 41. archival services can prove they have local support, there i s no l e g i s l a t i v e mechanism to f a c i l i t a t e change. The Library Act also provides that the provincial government may determine professional c r i t e r i a for those working in the field.<8) A p a r a l l e l measure for archives would be most helpful in developing the professional standards which are much needed at the local l e v e l . Third, the necessary provincial leadership has not been present, however i t may develop under the newly formed B r i t i s h Columbia Council of Archives.(9) A 1966 study of l i b r a r i e s in t h i s province noted that in the establishment of an e f f e c t i v e province-wide int e r r e l a t e d system Experience elsewhere has shown that provincial leadership i s the most essential single ingredient....(10) It can be seen that the local support as well as the provincial l e g i s l a t i o n and leadership necessary to make Haworth's suggestions a r e a l i t y have been missing. Nevertheless, his proposals have value because they recognize the need for decentralization of archives in B r i t i s h Columbia, for local r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , for a l e g i s l a t i v e mechanism for the establishment of local archives, and for 8. Ibid., s. 43. 9. The B r i t i s h Columbia Council of Archives was formed by a Association of B r i t i s h Columbia members who had i n i t i a l l y met for the Annual General Meeting of the i r association, on 19 Apr i l 1986, at the City of Vancouver Archives. 10. Rose Vainstein, Publ i c_Li brari es_i n_Br i_ti sh Columbia: A Survey with ......Recommendations (V i c t o r i a : Public L i b r a r i e s Research Study, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966), 85. 76 archival standards and professional c r i t e r i a . At the same time they hint at the economies of scale to be obtained through the establishment of regional archives which have only one administration and share a number of services. More detailed were recommendations for a regional archives made in 1979 by a group which included urban historian Alan Artibise.(11) It proposed the construction of a cooperative local archives i n s t i t u t i o n which would be governed by municipal and other local government agencies such as the regional d i s t r i c t , school board and l i b r a r y board. It recommended a three stage archival development plan. The f i r s t step would see the establishment of an interim committee composed of representatives from local i n s t i t u t i o n s which possessed archival documents, and from the Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. This committee would work with a q u a l i f i e d professional archives consultant in preparing an archives development plan for the area. They would write a comprehensive by-law concerning public records which would be passed by p a r t i c i p a t i n g municipalites and the other agencies involved. The second step would include the establishment of a permanent committee composed of a regional archival consultant, and one or more members each from the regional d i s t r i c t , the regional l i b r a r y board, the school board, the Provincial Archives, and the general public. A 11. A r t i b i s e , Ciyic_Arch_yal_Sur 24-6. 77 major innovation would be the implementation of a records management tra i n i n g and advisory service for the use of a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g municipalities and agencies. A tot a l archives policy would be developed to further the deposit and processing of u n o f f i c i a l documents from the community at large. The t h i r d step would involve the establishment of an archives building to house the regional archival consultant and support s t a f f , and to provide storage for u n o f f i c i a l as well as o f f i c i a l documents from those organizations which wished to store their records at the archives. It was also proposed that the archives building would have a research area for the public and o f f i c e space for non-profit s o c i e t i e s concerned with the history of the region. Reflecting the t r a d i t i o n a l Canadian approach, the proposal did not envisage p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the private sector in paying to have i t s records provided archival care. The plan was creative in suggesting the establishment of a records management tra i n i n g and advisory service, and in allowing members to belong to the regional association, take advantage of i t s records management services but s t i l l have the option of keeping their records in their own i n s t i t u t i o n s i f they wished to do so. However, l i k e the Turner and Haworth proposals, which also suggested cooperation among local governments and agencies, the A r t i b i s e scheme was never implemented due to p o l i t i c a l i n e r t i a , and a lack of public and administrative demand in the V i c t o r i a area. The Archives Advisor of the Provincial Archives made a 78 suggestion that gave a leadership role to the Association o-f B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s in developing a network o-f local archives. In a 1982 address to the Association, Leonard DeLozier -formulated a program for archival cooperation. While stressing the importance of i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he recommended that the provincial association provide expertise and encouragement to the records keepers of municipalities and other i n s t i t u t i o n s , as well as approaching the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association in order to be made cognizant of i t s problems and needs. The Advisor further proposed that regional archives groups be formed to i d e n t i f y records of value and to encourage i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , that the formation of new archives within museums be discouraged through the discretionary use of funding programs, and that the public be made aware of the importance of archives.(12) While most of the proposals were relevant, the suggestion that the provincial association provide expertise and encouragement to municipal and i n s t i t u t i o n a l records keepers was somewhat u n r e a l i s t i c . At that time, aside from the City of Vancouver Ar c h i v i s t , most Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s members had had l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l experience with records management. The Association did not have the necessary expertise or funding to f i l l an educational and tr a i n i n g vacuum in that area. Thus, the Association did not act upon the suggestion and did not develop the proposed local archives 12. DeLozier, "Archival Cooperation," 30 79 network, but the l a t t e r idea was not forgotten. Two years l a t e r , the City of Vancouver A r c h i v i s t , Sue Baptie questioned the value of local archives being t o t a l archives because "the history of those i n s t i t u t i o n s and the level of sophistication, does not translate well into the area of c i t i e s or municipalities."(13) Instead, the City A r c h i v i s t saw two main types of public archives developing i n B r i t i s h Columbia: one, separate local government archives, the other, museums of documentary heritage.<14) To further t h i s end, she thought that there should be a mutual education program between records managers and archivists.(15) Local a r c h i v i s t s should be taught the fundamental archival p r i n c i p l e "that records are created to f a c i l i t a t e business.... Once that purpose has been accomplished, the documents may have value for h i s t o r i c a l research."(16) As well as continuing to lobby the provincial government, she proposed that the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s should open l i n e s of communication with the Association of Records Managers and Administrators and the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Munic i p a l i t i e s . The Provincial Archives should offer i t s one week internship program to both organizations and the public should be made more aware of the archival value of loca l 13. Baptie, "Local Government Records in Canada," 6. 14. Ibid., 9, 10. 15. Ibid., 9, 11. 16. Ibid., 6. 80 government records. (17) There are -four major responses to these suggestions. F i r s t , as was shown in Chapter Four, the museums/archives relationship has been a stopgap one at best •for archives. Therefore, museums as they are presently organized are not a practicable alter n a t i v e . Second, i t should be noted that the comment regarding the lack of sophistication of local archives could have been applied to most provincial archives twenty years ago. Since that time these archives have developed records management expertise and most have begun to link t h e i r archives to records management in a l i f e cycle approach through scheduling procedures.(18) In addition, in 1981 the University of B r i t i s h Columbia i n i t i a t e d a Master of Archival Studies Program which has a records management component. Expertise i s more readily available than i t once was. Thus, i f there i s the p o l i t i c a l w i l l and i f i t i s joined to the economies of scale that can be derived from cooperation between the private and public sectors, then to t a l archives could be developed based on the municipal level of government. Third, concerning the idea of promoting a mutual awareness among a r c h i v i s t s , records managers and elected o f f i c i a l s , while having a great deal of u t i l i t y i t would only be one of the f i r s t steps in developing plans to provide archival care for the records of local government. 17. Ibid., 11-13. 18. Freeman-Ward, "An Analysis of Document Disposal Policy and Procedures," 19-26; Swift, "Chairman's Message," 2. 81 Fourth, i t should be r e a l i s e d that separate municipal archives could prove a f a i l u r e in preserving local government records for the same reasons that tot a l archives at the local level could. There has been a lack of knowledge of the records management/archives l i f e cycle approach, an omission of direction or l e g i s l a t i o n from the provincial government, a f a i l u r e at the local level to understand the importance of the archival values of municipal records, and, in most cases, a dearth of local funding.(19) Once the above matters have been r e c t i f i e d , then municipalities may take t h e i r choice as to which type of local archives they wish to develop. In response to earnest national and provincial appeals for planned archival development, the then Vice-President of the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , Reuben Mare, prepared the " B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Development Plan" in the spring of 1985.(20) The goal of the plan, which was to be administered by the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , i s to create a formal provincial network of archives based on consensus, cooperation, standardization of archival procedures, and archival accreditation.(21) The plan i d e n t i f i e s the need to r a i s e public awareness of the value of 19. Research questionnaire for "Records Management Diploma Program: A Report," by Barlee. 20. Reuben Ware, " B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Development Plan" (a paper circulated to the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia Ar c h i v i s t s for discussion at the Annual General Meeting, 19 April 1985, at the University of V i c t o r i a ) , 2-4. 21. Ibid., 2-6. 82 local archives, to encourage i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , to •find ways of funding lo c a l archives and to communicate with i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the B r i t i s h Columbia Museums Association and the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Associations.(22) The plan notes that there are three main organizations concerned with the care of local documents. F i r s t , i s the local "archival i n s t i t u t i o n " which should become the "main acquisition arena for the Province's records heritage," and which should be a tota l archives serving the i n s t i t u t i o n a l creator of the record as well as c o l l e c t i n g the documents of private i n d i v i d u a l s and non-government institutions.(23) A second choice i s the lo c a l museum/archives. It could: perform a l i b r a r y function by c o l l e c t i n g copies of materials pertaining to local history that can support the museum operation and provide educational programmes to the community. In addition, i t could: acquire heritage records r e l a t i n g to the history of their communities by establishing agreements with local i n s t i t u t i o n s and indi v i d u a l s . In terms of acq u i s i t i o n of or i g i n a l records, local archives should be encouraged to go as far as th e i r resources and community support can take them.(24) One assumes that these archival sections of museums would acquire o r i g i n a l records only when an archival i n s t i t u t i o n was not established in a local area. Third, i s the Provincial 22. Ibid., 2, 3, 5, 6. 23. Ibid., 4. 24. Ibid. 83 Archives o-f B r i t i s h Columbia which would only c o l l e c t security micro-film copies of the o r i g i n a l documents held by the local archival institutions.(25) The plan recommends a number of ways to fund i t s proposals and to develop local archives. Direct appeals should be made to corporations and large i n s t i t u t i o n s . The Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s should apply for development grants. The provincial government should establish an "Archives Fund" of one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , the annual interest from which would be administered by the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia Archivists.(26) Non-government i n s t i t u t i o n s housing t h e i r records at an archives should "contribute" d i r e c t l y to the local institution.(27) This l a t t e r suggestion i s s i g n i f i c a n t as i t i s one of the f i r s t proposals which mentions the private sector contributing towards the costs of caring for i t s records at a t o t a l archives. The goal of the plan, the development of archival standards and a provincial network based on these standards, i s most commendable, but the plan also has three major drawbacks. F i r s t , although i t implies that t o t a l archives at the 25. Ibid. 26. Ibid., 2; the amount suggested seems rather small when compared with the one and a half m i l l i o n d o l l a r s and the seven millon d o l l a r s in interest alone given by the B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Trust and Cultural Services Branch respectively, in the 1984-85 period, as mentioned in Chapter Three above. 27. I b i d . , 3 . 84 local level are desirable, i t does not discuss what Hugh Taylor considers an essential goal o-f total archives, involvement in the entire li-fe cycle of records through a records management program.(28) It does not mention contact with the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association, the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Municip a l i t i e s , or the Association of Records Managers and Administrators. Without a l i f e cycle approach i t i s u n l i k e l y , given the importance of local government p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and the wide acceptance of the necessity for a records management component in t o t a l archives, that any but cosmetic improvement w i l l ensue. Second, i t i s a controversial point whether the provinical government would give the Association a large sum of money to administer when the government has the alternate choice of the Provincial Archives or the Records Management Branch, d i r e c t l y accountable to i t , which the provincial association i s not. The precedent established by the Cultural Services and the Heritage Conservations Branches i s for them to d i s t r i b u t e government grants. Third, as noted in Chapter Two when discussing the ACA and i t s Committee on Local Archives, associations of a r c h i v i s t s usually do not have the time, funding or the i n s t i t u t i o n a l base from which to accomplish changes i n their respective national or provincial spheres. Thus, the above impediments may make i t d i f f i c u l t for the plan to be implemented as outlined. 28. Taylor, A r c h i v a l S e r v i c e s , 48. 85 To sum up: the proposals made for the development of local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia have not proven extemely e f f e c t i v e to date. As noted by the Archives Advisor of the Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, the City Archvist of Vancouver, and the Director of the Records Management Branch, there i s a need for greater public awareness of the value and requirements of local archives. This i s l i k e l y one of the reasons why a base of provincial government support and di r e c t i o n , and local government i n i t i t a t i v e and expertise are not in place. Even though provincial and local government p o l i t i c i a n s have been unresponsive to local government archival needs, as the above recommendations have shown, a number of a r c h i v i s t s and historians have recognized the importance of the records management/archives re l a t i o n s h i p , t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and to t a l archives at the local l e v e l . The variety of suggestions that have been made in the past include some that are worthy of consideration when developing a scenario for cooperative t o t a l archives at the local l e v e l . Provincial government involvement though dir e c t i o n from the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s in records management matters i s a sensible idea, as i s the establishment of a fund for archival development. A precedent for the l a t t e r has already been set in the cu l t u r a l services and heritage conservation f i e l d s . Communication between a r c h i v i s t s and the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association, the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Mun i c i p a l i t i e s and the Association of 86 Records Managers and Administrators, as well as with the B r i t i s h Columbia Museums Association and the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association has been advocated. A number o-f a r c h i v i s t s , aware of the r o l e of archives as poor cousins of museums, have pragmatically made museums the i r second choice as a custodian of archives at the lo c a l l e v e l . Also considered has been cooperation between local government agencies such as municipalities, regional d i s t r i c t s , l i b r a r i e s and school d i s t r i c t s in providing care for archival documents. Some proposals have favoured t o t a l archives at the local l e v e l , while others have questioned or merely ignored the matter. The A r t i b i s e and the Ware plans brought forth two new ideas. The former suggested the establishment of a t o t a l archives serving a variety of local governments. Records management training and advisory services would be offered to p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies which would not necessarily keep t h e i r records at the archival i n s t i t u t i o n . The l a t t e r recommended that the private sector should d i r e c t l y "contribute" to archives which provided services. 87 Chapter hi CONCLUSION Major factors in the underdevelopment of local archives in the municipality of Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia, have been a lack of public and administrative awareness of the value of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s and archival documents, a lack of lo c a l p o l i t i c a l interest in the subject of archives, a lack of federal, provincial and local aid or l e g i s l a t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e archival development, and thus, a lack of funding at the community level for archives. There has also been a need for direction from the provincial government in planning e f f e c t i v e records management/archival systems for Kelowna, as well as for most other municipalities in B r i t i s h Columbia. To come to a decision on how to overcome these problems i t has been necessary to study perspectives on local archives, to analyze the records management/archival r e l a t i o n s h i p , and to be knowledgeable of p a r t i c u l a r problems facing local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia. Two conclusions have been reached. F i r s t , t o t a l archives that c o l l e c t both o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l documents in a l l media, and use systematic records management procedures have become a Canadian public archives t r a d i t i o n which has the potential to prove a valuable example for smaller municipalities. Second, in order to achieve economies of scale, private and public agencies may have to cooperate in jo i n t funding e f f o r t s at the local l e v e l . By combining public and private endeavours, a new type of archives i s created. It i s posited that t h i s amalgam, a cooperative t o t a l archives, 88 could become the basis for archival development in the municipality o-f Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia. This study has -focussed on issues that are relevant to the development o-f cooperative tot a l archives at the local level of government. It has taken as i t s basis the four goals of total archives as defined by Hugh Taylor: Involvement in the entire l i f e cycle of records through a records management program. The acquisition of documents to r e f l e c t a l l aspects of social a c t i v i t y . Acquisition of a l l media of (the) record. Involvement in expanding networks for the interchange of information and strategic pianning.(1) They have been rearranged to put records management f i r s t , as through service provided to municipal government records management has the potential to be an important factor in the development of to t a l archives at the local l e v e l . Chapter Two provided an h i s t o r i c a l overview of the development of local archives in Canada. It was shown that over time the concepts of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s ponsiblity, the records management/archives relationship and federal, provincial and local networks, both formal and informal, have become widely accepted among a r c h i v i s t s . Thus, i t i s believed that local archival material should remain as close as possible to i t s area of o r i g i n , that the creator of the record should be responsible for i t s care, and that archives should be linked to records management while at the 1. Taylor, A r c h i y a l S e r v i c e s , 48. 89 same time providing a service to the creator o-f the record. The federal, provincial and many of the largest municipal governments in Canada have implemented t o t a l archives systems, but i t has usually proven impractical to extend tot a l archives to most municipalities as i t i s beyond t h e i r means to have the public purse bear the tota l costs. Archival materials at the local level have remained largely neglected despite urgings to the contrary by Candian historians. In 1980, the highly acclaimed Wilson Report suggested that local communities could ease the burden of caring for archival documents by establishing cooperative archives. The records from a university, municipality, business, union l o c a l , parish, or association could a l l be housed together with the respective organizations sharing the costs and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of operating the archives.(2) However, the report did not address the issue of which agency would provide care for the u n o f f i c i a l documents generated in local communties. By 1985, responding to concerns raised in the Wilson Report, federal and provincial ministers responsible for culture had decided to establish a Canadian Archives System. The basis of t h i s network i s to be p r o v i n c i a l / t e r r i t o r i a l councils of archives which w i l l be composed of individual i n s t i t u t i o n a l archives. Each province or t e r r i t o r y i s to analyze i t s requirements and then plan a program of archival grants and services to be distributed through th e i r respective councils to archival 2. Wilson Report, 92, see above, pp. 21-22. ' 90 i n s t i t u t i o n s . <3> When one studies the background o-f archival development, and the national and provincial plans -for archival progress i t becomes evident that the time i s appropriate -for the implementation o-f an archives strategy -for Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia. As the records management/archives relationship i s an integral part D-f tot a l archives, and as municipal government i s the core administrative agency l i k e l y to be cl o s e l y a-f-filiated with the proposed cooperative tot a l archives, Chapter Three analyzed the records management/archives relationship at the federal, provincial and local l e v e l s of government. It was found that in B r i t i s h Columbia most municipal governments, unlike their federal and provincial counterparts, do not have a strongly developed records management/archives rela t i o n s h i p . Very often, even the implementation of modern records management procedures i s overlooked. The result has been that most municipal records with archival values are either neglected or destroyed. Knowledgeable municipal o f f i c e r s , r e a l i z i n g the s i m i l a r i t y of the records management needs of municipalities and the high costs involved in developing individual records management programs, would l i k e the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s to provide them with guidance, especially in the scheduling of municipal records into time periods for retention and disposal. However, these same o f f i c i a l s are largely unaware of 3. "The Canadian Archives System," 3-4. 91 the value o-f archival records to the l o c a l , provincial and national communities. Thus, i t i s an opportune time -for the Provincial Archives o-f B r i t i s h Columbia and the provincial government's Records Management Branch, in conjunction with the Ministry o-f Municipal A f f a i r s , to provide d i r e c t i o n to municipal governments in records management, and to educate them in archival matters. It must be realized any t o t a l archives plan developed for Kelowna w i l l have to work within provincial government r e s t r i c t i o n s , exigencies and guidelines for the records management/archives f i e l d . As the newly formed Canadian Archives System takes a h o l i s t i c perspective and as Kelowna i s part of a larger provincial and national community, in Chapter Four i t was helpful to analyze the i n t e r r e l a t e d problems that face local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia. It was found that there has been a lack of public and administrative awareness of the value of archival i n s t i t u t i o n s and archival documents, a lack of local p o l i t i c a l interest in the subject of archives, a lack of federal, provincial and local funding, services or l e g i s l a t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e archival development, a l l of which have resulted in a lack of archival development at the local l e v e l . To date, there are no provincial or federal archives acts under which grants can be s p e c i f i c a l l y directed towards archival i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( 4 ) Thus, most archives in B r i t i s h Columbia are 4. The federal government i s presently attempting to pass new archives l e g i s l a t i o n which would make i t possible for the PAC to give more formal aid and d i r e c t i o n to provincial and local archives. minor subcomponents o-f museums, largely because museums receive s i g n i f i c a n t l y more funding and services from federal and provincial governments than separate archival i n s t i t u t i o n s do. Yet, most museums do not have the resources, f a c i l i t i e s or professional staff necessary to provide adequate care for either u n o f f i c i a l documents or o f f i c i a l records. Moreover, the federal and provincial archives largely ignore the records management/archives component in tra i n i n g that i s provided to local archives. Yet, i t i s widely recognized that records management should be an important component of archival practice. Although the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada through i t s Canadian Studies Research Tools program has provided substantial funding t h i s has not helped to solve the problems r e l a t i n g to the underdevelopment of most local archives. At the local level essentials such as . suitable f a c i l i t i e s , l o c a l l y provided operating funds, professional s t a f f , a records management/archives l i f e cycle approach, and comprehensive acquisition p o l i c i e s are usually not in place. In the past ten years a number of historians and a r c h i v i s t s in B r i t i s h Columbia have addressed the issue of how to solve the problems besetting local archives. Their recommendations were outlined in Chapter Five, as in order to plan for the development of cooperative total archives in Kelowna i t i s important to take into consideration proposals that have been made in the past. In 1976, Allan Turner, then Provincial A r c h i v i s t of B r i t i s h Columbia, advocated d i r e c t i o n from the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s . He thought that the ministry could pass l e g i s l a t i o n which would establish retention and disposal schedules for the records of municipal government, empower municipalities to develop i n d i v i d u a l , regional, or d i s t r i c t archives, and possibly even provide for the appointment of municipal records managers and a r c h i v i s t s . That same year, Kent Haworth, an a r c h i v i s t with the Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, recommended that regional archives, based on the regional l i b r a r y prototype, should be established under the Municipal Act. In 1979, a group headed by urban h i s t o r i a n Alan A r t i b i s e presented a detailed plan for the development of a tot a l regional archives for the Greater V i c t o r i a area. This was to be based on cooperation between local governments. One idea was unique, that p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies could take advantage of the records management trai n i n g and archives advisory service offered, but not necessarily keep their archival records in the regional archives i n s t i t u t i o n . In 1982, Len DeLozier, the Archives Advisor of the Provincial Archives, proposed alternate and less detailed solutions. He recommended cooperation between creators of records, the the formation of regional archival groups, the assumption of personal and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by owners of archival documents, and improvement of the image of archives in the eyes of the public. In addition, he recommended against the formation of new archives within museums. In 1984, Sue Baptie, the City Archivist of Vancouver, recommended leadership roles for the 94 Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s in aiding the development of two types of archival r e p o s i t o r i e s : separate governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s and museums of documentary heritage. Unlike some of the other proposals, under t h i s scheme there would be r e l a t i v e l y few total archives at the loc a l l e v e l . However, l i k e many other a r c h i v i s t s , the City A r c h i v i s t saw a need for increased public awareness of the value of archives. By 1985, Reuben Ware, Director of the Records Management Branch of the provincial government, and then Vice-President of the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , had suggested that local archival i n s t i t u t i o n s , which would be tota l archives, should be the major c o l l e c t o r s of the province's documentary heritage with a secondary r o l e being assigned to museums. He further recommended that the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia Ar c h i v i s t s should help to implement a provincial network of archives based on consensus and standardization of the primary l e v e l s of archival a c t i v i t y . He, also, saw a need to r a i s e public awareness of the value of archives and suggested a new idea, that large non-government i n s t i t u t i o n s should be encouraged to contribute d i r e c t l y to archives which provided care for th e i r records. Despite the above suggestions, by the spring of 1986 very l i t t l e had been done to improve the condition of local archives in B r i t i s h Columbia. Thus, i t can be seen that in the past, the public and administrative awareness of the value of archives, and the federal, provincial and local p o l i t i c a l i n i t i a t i v e s necessary •for l e g i s l a t i v e change in and -funding o-f the local records management/archives f i e l d have been missing. For the present, local areas, such as Kelowna, can define their records management/archives goals, in t h i s case cooperative t o t a l archives, and then take the steps necessary to achieve them bearing in mind Hugh Taylor's four goals for t o t a l archives, the importance of i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , the records management/archives relati o n s h i p , the problems of archival underdevelopment, and previous recommendations for improvement. For the future, local archives should be prepared to become part of the Canadian Archives System and i t s proposed network of archives. A Scenari_g_f or _the_Deyel_opment of.Cooperative iQ_!$el Qwna__BrIt i sh_Cglumbia_ Although many areas in t h i s province have similar problems, i t i s l i k e l y , as i s the case with l i b r a r i e s which may function on an individual or cooperative basis, there w i l l be d i f f e r e n t resolutions to them. Solutions w i l l probably be based on the economic and population foundations of communities, attitudes towards the importance of records management/archives development, and the general cooperative or i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c perspective of the c i t i z e n r y . What i s offered for Kelowna i s a small scale p i l o t project for cooperative total archives. If successful, i t could serve as a prototype for other areas. In order to solve the archival problems existing in Kelowna i t w i l l be necessary to r a i s e public and 96 administrative awareness of the value and needs of archives, and of the necessity for a records management/archives l i f e cycle approach. It w i l l also be imperative to convince municipal and other local government p o l i t i c i a n s and bureaucrats, as well as administrators i n the private sector, why they should assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the ongoing operating costs, adequate f a c i l i t i e s and professional s t a f f needed to maintain an archival i n s t i t u t i o n . They w i l l need to be shown why i t i s important to have l e g i s l a t i o n or executive d i r e c t i v e s linking records management to archives, and, following Taylor's t o t a l archives goals, why the City Archivist w i l l need to be involved in a l i f e cycle approach to records management. It must be r e a l i z e d that a small municipality acting as a separate entity would l i k e l y f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to provide adequate archival care for i t s own records, l e t alone achieve the goals of tota l archives. Therefore, as suggested by the Wilson Report and the B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Development Plan, e f f o r t s should be made to involve other local governments and private agencies, and to have them pay for records management or archives services that are provided to them. Unfortunately, there i s no provincial archives act to make cooperative archival e f f o r t s among public agencies possible as has occurred with regional l i b r a r i e s . On the other hand, the private sector by assuming i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would pay for the care of i t s documents with archival values as well as for other records 9 7 management/archives services. Thus, the public purse would not bear a l l the expense, and the economies o-f scale, engendered by a sharing o-f pro-fessional expertise, sta-f-f , and suitable - f a c i l i t i e s , would ensure that a comprehensive selection o-f o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l documents i s gathered, and that proper care i s provided for l o c a l l y generated archival materials. The municipality of Kelowna has the potential to launch a small scale p i l o t project for a cooperative tot a l archives. Although in the past there has been a f a i l u r e to systematically c o l l e c t o f f i c i a l or u n o f f i c i a l archival documents, and although funding, professional and technical support s t a f f , proper f a c i l i t i e s , and conservation programs have a l l been in short supply, there are a number of factors that bode well for the future. There i s a wel1-developed museum program which has a nascent archival component. In 1986, the Kelowna Centennial Museum w i l l be unique among small museums in Canada as i t w i l l have a research laboratory and a professional conservator to which an archives could have access. There i s a heritage building, owned by the c i t y and developed under museum auspices, which has the potential to house a loca l archives. Under the dire c t i o n of a professional a r c h i v i s t , who i s providing volunteer help to the museum, interest and support from public and private agencies for a f e a s i b i l i t y study on local archival development have been 98 documented.<5) The Museum i s presently providing major educational services to scholastic i n s t i t u t i o n s through presentations at schools, t r a v e l l i n g exhibits and the publishing o-f local history. The Director of the Museum i s an excellent fund-raiser, c o l l e c t i n g approximately forty per cent of the annual $250,000 budget in t h i s manner.(6) Thus, t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , which i s also one of the four federal government National Exhibition Centres in B r i t i s h Columbia, has considerable administrative and fund-raising expertise, and i s one of the wealthiest local museums in the province. Another factor favouring archival development in t h i s community i s that the City Clerk understands the value of records management and i t s linkages to archives.(7) In addition, academics and administration at Okanagan College, located within the c i t y l i m i t s , favour the establishment of a loca l archival i n s t i t u t i o n which w i l l aid the i d e n t i f i c i a t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n , processing and preservation of documents useful to 5. Letters of support from the municipal government, Okanagan College, the Chamber of Commerce, the Central Okanagan Regional D i s t r i c t , School D i s t r i c t Twenty-three, the Social Studies Teachers Association, the Kelowna Branch of the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l Society, the Anglican Diocese of Kootenay, the genealogy society, the multicultural society, local radio stations, as well as from the PAC and the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , October 1985 - February 19B6, in Kelowna Centennial Museum f i l e s . 6. Kelowna Centennial Museum and National Exhibition Centre, "Financial Statement, 1984," "Education Report, 1985," Ursula Surtees, Director, conversation with the author, November 1985. 7. Richard Beauchamp, City Clerk of the Municipality of Kelowna, l e t t e r to the author, 8 November 1985, in the Kelowna Centennial Museum f i l e s . 99 their respective teaching, research and records management needs. The College has approached the Canadian Studies Research Tools Program o-f SSHRCC for funding to conduct a records survey within the area encompassed by the Central Dkanagan Regional D i s t r i c t . There i s a strong interest in heritage and history in the community. There i s some predisposition towards cooperative e f f o r t s as Kelowna i s the headquarters of the Okanagan Regional Library, a multicampus college system, and the B r i t i s h Columbia Fr u i t Growers Associaton, composed of a cooperative marketing organisation and packing houses. Another important factor i s that the Kelowna area, with a projected population for 1990 of 105,600, i s the largest and wealthiest commercial and administrative centre in the Okanagan Valley, which in i t s e l f i s one of the biggest f r u i t growing areas in Canada.(8) The strong museum, the administrative demand, the scholarly need, and the local predisposition to cooperation, as well as the importance Df the c i t y , serve to make Kelowna a l o g i c a l centre to take a leadership role in the challenging task of developing a prototype for cooperative t o t a l archives. It i s l i k e l y that i n i t i a l development w i l l be fostered by the Kelowna Centennial Musuem as i t already has an administrative structure in place, i s substantially funded by 8. B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s , S t a t i s t i c s Ri-I.ilting__._to_.Regional ._Qd_.Muni.ci pal _..Governments, 27, 63, 67; B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Industry and Small Business Development, Br i t i sh_Cgl umbi a_ .Fact s ..an_d_Stat.i st i c s ( V i c t o r i a , 1985), 9; B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Economic Development, i!!Zit..ish_Cgl ymb.la_.Regi onal^ Xndex. 1978, 159. 100 the municipal government, has access to federal and provincial funding and services which favour museum/archival development, and has access to Museum Assistance Programmes personnel and i t s own conservator for advice on the estimated cost of converting the heritage building into . an archival accommodation with atmospheric control. Plans for archival development cannot afford to ignore funding which promotes the museum/archival relat i o n s h i p , even though, as noted in Chapter Four, a number of museologists and a r c h i v i s t s do not think t h i s i s the best arrangement for archival development.(9) For the time being, however, the f i n a n c i a l l y l o g i c a l step i s the second choice of the B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Plan - archival development under the aegis of a museum.(10) Based on the favourable conditions mentioned above and suggestions made in the past by provincial a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s , but at the same time being aware of the formidable obstacles to be overcome, a number of planned phases should begin. F i r s t , as suggested in the proposal from the A r t i b i s e group, an interim Steering Committee should be established.(11) It could have a representative from the municipal government, the school d i s t r i c t , Okanagan College, the Kelowna Centennial Museum, and the private sector, with other local organizations being consulted from time to time. 9. See above, pp. 53-55. 10. See above, p. 82. 11. See above, p. 76. 101 For the necessary guidance to be provided i t i s essential that a person knowledgeable in the -fields of archives and records management be part of the committee. In t h i s case, the professional archivist/records manager advising the Museum could take that place. In another case, the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , the Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, or the B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Council could be approached for a representative. Having a small committee whose members have a variety of s k i l l s and backgrounds should expedite the decision . making and fund-raising processes that are a prerequisite for the development of a cooperative total archives. Although evidence of public support has been gathered, as recommended by the Symons Report and in various plans for archival development in B r i t i s h Columbia there i s a need for increased awareness of the value of local archival i n s t i t u t i o n s . Steps must be taken to overcome the lack of p o l i t i c a l interest in the subject of local archives. Local, provincial and federal p o l i t i c i a n s should be informed of the extent of local support in Kelowna for a f e a s i b i l i t y study on the establishment of a local archives. Municipal p o l i t i c i a n s e s p e c i a l l y , should be made cognizant of the importance, for both administrative and c u l t u r a l uses, of the records management/archives relationship.<12) It w i l l prove 12. Okanagan College sponsored a seminar for the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association on the importance of municipal records management and archives development. It was held in Penticton, IS April 1986. 102 advantageous to have the private sector, the public, c i v i l servants and p o l i t i c i a n s r e a l i z e the importance of records management/archival systems at the local level.(13) Funds for an archival development study should be sought. Local agencies, including those which wrote l e t t e r s of support for the f e a s i b i l i t y study, should be petitioned as well as federal and provincial sources of grants for archives museums, Canadian studies, and cul t u r a l i n i t i a t i v e s . Keeping in mind the networking goals of the proposed Canadian Archives System, the Committee should approach the federal and provincial councils of archives to ascertain whether e f f o r t s to found a cooperative total archives at the local level can be coordinated with funding a c t i v i t i e s at the provincial and federal l e v e l s . Workshops, use of the media, and t a l k s to community groups should also be part of the fund-raising e f f o r t s . Once the economic base for the study i s in place, a professional records managment/archives consultant should be hired to prepare, in consultation with the committee, a development plan for cooperative tot a l archives.(14) As noted in previous chapters, t o t a l archives at the local level have 13. For instance, Marcel Masse, Minister for the federal Department of Communications which oversees the national museums and archives, emphasizes the importance of local groups having community support before approaching his department for assistance, see, Marcel Masse, "I Intend to Have my Say," Muse 3 (Summer/July 1985), 15. 14. See above, p. 76, step one of the A r t i b i s e group's plan. been either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y promoted by Hugh Taylor, in plans -for the Canadian Archives System, in the A r t i b i s e group's proposals and in the B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Development Plan. (15) To achieve economies o-f scale which would not otherwise be possible and to promote i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y -from the private sector, cooperation between various combinations o-f public and private agencies has also been favoured by the Wilson Report, and, as shown in Chapter Five, in most of the archival development plans for B r i t i s h Columbia.(16) However, there i s no provincial l e g i s l a t i o n to promote the development of cooperation between public i n s t i t u t i o n s , and payment to a total archives, for the provision of archival care to their records, i s a new concept for most private agencies. Even so, the consultant and the committee must try to establish which private and public organizations w i l l be prepared to pay for records management/archival services provided by the cooperative t o t a l archi ves. The museum and municipal government w i l l want to know what the costs w i l l be for the proposed records management/archives system in terms of s t a f f , f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and supplies. It w i l l be necessary to have a plan made of the space needed: a holding area for for incoming documents which may be contaminated by insects or mold; a work 15. See above, pp. 22-23, 27, 77, 82. 16. See above, pp. 21, 72, 73-74, 76-77, 83. 104 area; a secure storage area; a public reference area. Adequate temperature and humidity controls w i l l also be very important. Other capi t a l expenses, in addition to those -for the - f a c i l i t y , w i l l be -for a xerox machine, a micro-film reader, and technical support - f a c i l i t i e s . The cost of some of these items could be shared with other organizations, e s p e c i a l l y i f an arrangement were in place where a number of heritage groups share a building as envisaged by the A r t i b i s e group.(17) Projected operating expenses on a yearly basis should include the salary of a professional a r c h i v i s t , the cost of j a n i t o r i a l services and u t i l i t i e s as well as the funds needed for ongoing equipment and supplies such as acid free f i l e folders, boxes, envelopes, and encapsulation materials.(18) Once the data on cap i t a l and operating expenses has been gathered a recommendation should be made on how the organization can be funded and administered. The majority of the financing should be provided l o c a l l y following suggestions made in the Wilson Report, recommendations for the Canadian Archives System, as well as local l i b r a r y and museum precedent.(19) Until a s i g n i f i c a n t number of public and private agencies are p a r t i c i p a t i n g , or u n t i l p r o v i n i c i a l 17. See above, p. 77 18. The above requirements for st a r t i n g and operating a municipal archives are p a r t i a l l y based upon Ian E. Wilson's "Archives of Urban Mun i c i p a l i t i e s in Saskatchewan: Discussion Paper" (circulated for discussion and comment by the Saskatchewan Archives Board, July 1983), 5-6. 19. See above, pp. 21, 27. l e g i s l a t i o n i s changed to - f a c i l i t a t e the -formation of regional archives, basic funding should be provided by the municipal government with p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies paying i t for the archives and records management services being provided to them. An archives advisory board composed of representatives from p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizations and from the general public should be established.(20) This would give the generators of both o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l archival documents a say in the operations of the archives i n s t i t u t i o n . As mentioned before, most of the federal and provincial grants and services are offered to museum/archives and not to archives with a separate existence. Thus, the archives w i l l start as an administrative component of the Kelowna Centennial Museum. Later, i f federal, provincial and local l e g i s l a t i o n , funding and services provided to archives improve, the local archives may be able to become the primary archival i n s t i t u t i o n advocated in the B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Development Plan, or even become the centre for a regional archives as recommended in some of the other plans outlined in Chapter Five.(21) The second stage should commence when the municipality, in consultation with the interim steering committee and the records management/archives advisor, has decided what the i n i t a l c a p t i a l and operating costs w i l l be, has decided to 20. This i s similar to suggestions made in the Wilson Report, and by the A r t i b i s e group, see above, pp. 21-22, 76. 21. Ibid., pp. 82, 72, 73, 76-77. 106 make a -financial commitment and has formed an archives advisory board. The interim committee would then be dissolved, and the municipality, the museum, and the board would take steps to hire an a r c h i v i s t . As the scope of a cooperative to t a l archives i s going to include records managment, the importance of which has been noted in Chapter Three, the professional who i s hired should have expertise in both the records management and archives f i e l d s , as well as being aware of the new automated technologies that are emerging.(22) Due to the s i z e of the community and the costs involved i t would probably prove better i f , i n i t i a l l y at least, the duties of a r c h i v i s t and records manager were performed by one person. The municipality, the new a r c h i v i s t , the museum and the board should then establish rules and regulations regarding services to be provided, appropriations for expenditures, ownership of the documents, and c r i t e r i a for membership in the cooperative to t a l archives. An innovation suggested by the A r t i b i s e group would l i k e l y have p r a c t i c a l application. Records management and archives advisory services could be offered to member agencies. However, they would not necessarily keep their archival records at the central archives institution.(23) As recommended by the Wilson Report, 22. Ibid., pp. 33-35; see also, Michael Swift, "Management Techniques and Technical Resources in the Archives of the 1980s," Archiyaria 20 (Summer 1985): 102-3. 23. See above, p. 77. 107 and Allan Turner, -former Provincial A r c h i v i s t o-f B r i t i s h Columbia, ownership could remain with the creator of the record even when the materials are housed in the central archival institution.(24) The respective i n s t i t u t i o n a l owners of the record would decide whether or not access r e s t r i c t i o n s were necessary. Thus, in addition to the usual c o l l e c t i n g , processing, preserving of, and making accessible o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l archival materials, records management/archival services and r e s t r i c t i o n s d i f f e r e n t to the usual t o t a l archives procedures would be in place. In an amplification of a creative suggestion made in the B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Development Plan, the private sector would pay for the archival care of i t s records.(25) C r i t e r i a for representation on the board of the cooperative to t a l archives by the private sector and other local governments would involve payment for the records management and archival services provided for the care of th e i r records. Through the cooperative to t a l archives progress would be made towards two of the goals of t o t a l archives outlined by Hugh Taylor: The acquisition of documents to r e f l e c t a l l aspects of social a c t i v i t y . and Acquisition of a l l media of (the) record.(26) Once a commitment to ongoing operations has been 24. Ibid., pp. 21-22, 71-72, 25. Ibid., p. 83. 26. Taylor, Archiyai_Seryiges, 48. 108 established, as part o-f the th i r d phase plans should be made •for preparing the archival - f a c i l i t i e s , planning short and long term goals, and p r i o r i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Immediate steps should be taken to compose a prospectus and send i t to various granting agencies in order to obtain help with i n i t i a l c a p i t a l expenses. The ar c h i v i s t should be provided with a temporary o-f-fice while permanent - f a c i l i t i e s are being prepared. During t h i s period, the a r c h i v i s t , in consultation with the administration, should make a number of decisons concerning steps that w i l l be taken to reach the planned objectives. To achieve the goal of total archives, defined by Hugh Taylor as Involvement in the entire l i f e cycle of records through a records management program.(27) a decision should be reached regarding the agencies in which the a r c h i v i s t w i l l play an active r o l e . As asserted in the Wilson Report, the a r c h i v i s t should be involved in a basic records management routine for every o f f i c i a l agency sending records to a tota l archives.(28) It should also be decided to acquire f i r s t those archival c o l l e c t i o n s which are in danger of destruction. To help accomplish these goals the a r c h i v i s t should gather s t a t i s t i c s on the o f f i c i a l records and archival holdings of the participants, and on u n o f f i c i a l archival documents within the community. The a r c h i v i s t should then p r i o r i z e the process of implementing records 27. Ibid. 28. See above, p. 34. 109 management/archival scheduling procedures and c o l l e c t i n g u n o f f i c i a l materials. If, as would l i k e l y be the case, the f i r s t records management p r i o r i t y were the records of municipal government, the c i t y of Kelowna should pass a by-law concerning the management of i t s records as has been done in c i t i e s of Vancouver and Trail.(29) The l e g i s l a t i o n should: define a public document; ensure that no public document be destroyed without approval from the archives; form a public documents committee and a procedure for establishing and amending records retention and disposal schedules; require that one copy of a l l publications o f f i c i a l l y issued by the municipality be deposited with the archives; establish a public access policy for municipal records.(30) Guidelines and procedures manuals should be written to give direction on how to carry out various records management/archival functions. Similar procedures would also be implemented for private organizations and other local governments, with executive d i r e c t i v e s replacing by-laws. A l i b r a r y of basic archival l i t e r a t u r e would be started. In order to have Involvement in expanding networks for the interchange of information and strategic planning. (31) 29. City of Vancouver By-law 5201, City of T r a i l By-law 1922; t h i s was recommended by the A r t i b i s e group, see above, p. 76; see also, Wilson, "Archives of Urban Mun i c i p a l i t i e s in Saskatchewan," 4-5. 30. Based on Wilson, "Archives of Urban Municipalities in Saskatchewan," 4-5. 31. Taylor, Archival Services, 48. 110 one of the goals of t o t a l archives l i s t e d by Taylor, organizations such as the B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Council, the Association of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , and the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s should be joined. With t h i s preliminary structure in place, the a r c h i v i s t would then be prepared to administer a cooperative t o t a l archives. Of course, what the ideal should be i s also r e a l i z e d . Although there i s a requirement for i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y at the local l e v e l , as shown in Chapter Three there i s also a need for formal d i r e c t i o n and aid in records management and archival matters from the provincial government. In a p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n , the Committee on the Records of Sovernment in the United States has recommended that successful records management procedures of the federal government should be emulated at the state and local levels.<32) S i m i l a r i l y , in Kelowna i t would be l o g i c a l to plan municipal records management and archives systems following the procedures developed by the federal and provincial governments for their t o t a l archives systems. As suggested by the directors of the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association, the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , as well as by Allan Turner, former Provincial A r c h i v i s t of B r i t i s h Columbia, i t would be most helpful i f the provincial government could give di r e c t i o n to local governments concerning the scheduling of See above, p. 37. I l l municipal records.(33) An obvious solution to an i n d i v i d u a l l y expensive problem i s to have the Records Management Branch in coordination with the Ministry o-f Municipal A-f-fairs, the Provincial Archives o-f B r i t i s h Columbia, a professional archivist/records manager representing local needs, as well as knowledgeable representatives from the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association and the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , develop a common f i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and scheduling system for those records which a l l municipalities have in common. In addition, the senior governments should be encouraging cooperative e f f o r t s through the provision of grants for the demonstration, experimentation and support of small scale p i l o t projects favouring the formal coordination of archival e f f o r t s . Thus, at the national and provincial l e v e l s e f f o r t s should be made to help the orderly and systematic formation of records management/archives procedures based on expertise and a network approach. In the future, the Kelowna archives should re-evaluate i t s a c t i v i t e s in l i g h t of changing local goals and concerns, while at the same time being aware of developments in records management and archival matters in the larger world. Changes in provincial l e g i s l a t i o n may f a c i l i t a t e the formation of the regional archives proposed by Allan Turner, Kent Haworth and the A r t i b i s e group.(34) As suggested by a number of a r c h i v i s t s Ibid., pp. 47, 71. Ibid., pp. 72, 73, 76-77. 112 in B r i t i s h Columbia, and outlined in Chapter Five, local a r c h i v i s t s should be knowledgeable of, and respond to, progress being made by the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association, the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Association of Records Managers and Administrators, the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association, and the B r i t i s h Columbia Museums Association, as well as other related organizations in t h e i r attempts to develop archival or records management cooperation and coordination. If a cooperative total archives i s developed in Kelowna, i t should become part of the interlocking l o c a l , provincial and national networks recommended by the Wilson Report, and planned for by the Dominion, Provincial and T e r r i t o r i a l A r c h i v i s t s through the Canadian Archives System. To sum up: i t has been shown that there are four major obstacles to be overcome in the establishment of local archives. These are the lack of public and adminstrative awareness of the value of local archival i n s t i t u t i o n s , the lack of administrative and p o l i t i c a l interest in the subject of archives, the lack of community funding for proper f a c i l i t i e s and professional s t a f f , and the lack of provincial or local l e g i s l a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e local archival development. However, even i f these impediments are removed, in Kelowna, as in other local communities, most private and public agencies cannot afford to provide proper care for their own o f f i c i a l records, l e t alone carry the additional burden of caring for other documents found in the 113 community at large. The costs involved make i t d i f f i c u l t for the governments of most municipalities to fund a t o t a l archives instutution. Thus, i t can be seen that without cooperative tot a l archives, with i t s economies of scale and comprehenisve approach to c o l l e c t i n g archival materials, the present neglect and destruction of most loc a l documents with archival values w i l l probably continue. There are many benefits to be derived from a cooperative tota l archives which builds on the Canadian tota l archives precedent, on the goals of tota l archives as defined by Hugh Taylor, on the widely accepted concepts of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a close records management/archives relationship and networking, and on suggestions made by historians and a r c h i v i s t s in B r i t i s h Columbia. The creator of the record would use the local records management/archives program for e f f i c i e n t , e f f e c t i v e and economical handling of information. This would include policy analysis, planning, budgeting, preparation for court cases, and accountability to the legal and audit r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s imposed by federal, provincial and local governments. There would be research, c u l t u r a l , and heritage uses: by educators and students at schools, colleges and un i v e r s i t i e s ; by t o u r i s t promoters; by genealogists; by heritage organizations; by museums; by amateur historians; by professional researchers, such as his t o r i a n s , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , geographers, and economists and others. In addition, appropriate public access to records which document 114 the legal and -financial agreements, contracts and programs of local government, esp e c i a l l y in relationship to taxation and property r i g h t s , has come to be considered a basic right of a democratic society. Thus, cooperative tot a l archives would provide benefits to the creators of the records, to individuals and organizations using archives for research, cultural or heritage needs, and to c i t i z e n s interested in the government of their community. In short, every facet of the local community would be documented through the preservation of i t s shared memory in a cooperative tot a l archives. 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY Archer, John A. "A Study of Archival I n s t i t u t i o n s in Canada." Ph.D. d i s s . , Queen's University, Kingston, 1969. Microfilm. A r t i b i s e , Alan, et. al . Qi yi c__Archi val _Suryey A Victoria„..Report_and Recgm V i c t o r i a , 1979. Baptie, Sue. "Local Government Records in Canada: Problems and Solutions." Paper read at joint conference of the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s and Northwest A r c h i v i s t s , Seattle, May 1984. Barlee, K. M. "Records Management and Municipal Government i n B r i t i s h Columbia." A paper presented to the spring meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal O f f i c e r s Association, 18 April 1986, Penticton, B. C. _. . "Records Management Diploma Program: A Report." Prepared for Okanagan College, Kelowna, B. C., Oct. 1985. Baskerville, Peter A., and Chad M. G a f f i e l d . "The Vancouver Island Project: H i s t o r i c a l Research and Archival Practice." Archiyaria 17 (Winter 1983-84): 173-87. Beauchamp, R. A. "Problems Encountered with Records Management." A paper presented to the spring meeting of the Okanagan Chapter of the Municipal O f f i c e r ' s Association, 18 April 1986, Penticton, B. C. Beyea, Marion, and Marcel Caya, eds. PI anning__f or ..Canadian Archi .yes:. PdQceedi ngs_ of__ .the_Fi_rst_ Congress on Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1983. Bish, Robert L. "Local Government in B r i t i s h Columbia: A Review Draft." V i c t o r i a , University of V i c t o r i a , March 1983. Bower, Peter. "After the Dust Set t l e s . " Archivaria 9 (Winter 1979-80): 218-29. _ _ _. "Archives and the Landon Project." Archivaria 5 (Winter 1977-78): 152-55. B r i t i s h Columbia. Ministry of Economic Development. B r i t i s h QolyCDeli!_R§9iQQil_lQdex_l?78. V i c t o r i a : Ministry of Economic Development, 1978. B r i t i s h Columbia. Ministry of Industry and Small Business Devel opment. Bri t i sh_Col umbi a__Facts_.and__Stati s t i c V i c t o r i a , 1985. 116 B r i t i s h Columbia. Ministry o-f Municipal A-f-fairs. M_Q___p.al S t a t i s t i c s _ I n c l u Distri_ts_fgr_the_Year_En Vi c t o r i a: Queen's Printer, 1984^ . Statistics_Re §9yernments_in_Briti_sh_ Cglymbia__l?B5. V i c t o r i a , Queen 's Printer, 1985. B r i t i s h Columbia. Ministry o-f Provincial Secretary and Government Services. Cultural Services Branch. Grants, Aw^Cds__and_Subsi di es. V i c t o r i a : Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, 1979-84. - Cultural Services Branch. Prof essi Qnal_ Support and E'r.D9Cam_Deyelopment. V i c t o r i a : Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services. _. Library Services Branch. BritishL..Cglumb.i.a.Public L i b r a r i e s : . S t a t i s t i c s . V i c t o r i a : Queen's- Printer, 1983. Records Management Branch. "Records Management Branch: Annual Report: F i s c a l Year 1983/84." V i c t o r i a , 1984. B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Trust. Annual_Repgrt_ B r i t i s h y!BbAa„Her_tage_Tryst. V i c t o r i a : Provincial Secretary and Government Services, 1979-84. Brown, George W. "The Problem of Public and H i s t o r i c a l Records in Canada." Canadian_Histgrical.Review 25 (1944): 1-5. - "Provincial Archives in Canada." Canadian.Histgrical Review 16 (1935): 1-18. Canada. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . A_Financial iQf9!l!Batign_System._fgr_Municipaliti.es. Vol. 2, The Ci.as.si f i catign__ystems. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1970. Canadi an_Archiyes_in_ 1982:_ Suryey_gf _Her i t age.Inst i tut i gns. Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1985. Canadi an_Archiyes_ Repgrt.._tg_the_Sgci al „Sci ences._and Hyffianities_Research_Cgunc_ QQQiyitati ye_Grgup_gn__Canadi §n_ Archives. Ottawa: Information Division of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1980. "Canadian Archives: Reports and Responses." Archiyaria 11 (Winter 1980-81): 3-35. 117 "The Canadian Archives Systems A Discussion Paper." Paper c i r c u l a t e d at the Annual General Meeting of the Association of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , Edmonton, June 1985. Canadian Conservation Institute. Criteria..for_the_Acceptance of _.Reguests_f or._Cgnserya Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association. Archives Committee. ?sspgnse_tg_the_Repgrt ___.Canadian_Ar chives. 1981. "The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, and Local History: A Symposium." In Canadian bist9ri.cal_Assgc.iatign_.__H (1952) : 45-65. Careless, J. M. S. "Limited Identities in Canada." Canadian Historical... Review 50 (March 1969): 1-10. . "Limited I d e n t i t i e s — Ten Years Later." Manitoba History 1 (Spring 1980): 3-9. Cl avet, Alain. Orient at ign_and__Management__gf _ .Cggper atign at the_Pubiic__Archiyes_.gf._Canada: A_.Pf_QP.osal _ f gr iQt_._.yentign. Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1983. Cgmmittee_gn_the_Recgrds _.gf.Government: ARepgrt. Washington, D. C.: 1985 Cook, Michael. Ihe_Management _of ___nf grmat ign_f rgm_Archiyes. Aldershot, England: Gower Publishing Co. Ltd., 1986. Cook, Ramsay. "The Golden Age of Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Writing." distgrical_Ref1ectigns 4 (Summer 1977): 137-49. Cook, Terry. "The Tyranny of the Medium: A Comment on 'Total Archives.'" Archiyari.a 9 (Winter 1979-80): 141-49. Corbett, Bryan, and Eldon Frost. "The Acquisition of Federal Government Records: A Report on Records Management and Archival Practices." Archiyaria 17 (Winter 1983-84): 201-32. Daniel Is, Laurenda. "A Brief History of the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s . " ABCA__Newsl etter 10 (Summer 1984. DeLozier, Leonard C. "Archival Cooperation." Museum_Rgund--LJp 86 (Summer 1982): 27-30. . "Focus." ACA__Bulletin 5 (Aug. 1980): 5-7. 118 DeLozier, Leonard C. "A Program to Improve the Archival Capability of H i s t o r i c a l Museums in B r i t i s h Columbia." April 1977. Photocopy. Duckies, Richard A., ed. Di rec tor y.gf .Museums ,_„Archi yes.and Bct_§§!i.eries.gf_British_Cg_umbia. 4th ed. V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia Museums Association, 1983. Eastwood, Terry. "Attempts at National Planning for Archives in Canada Since the Wilson Report." Paper presented to the Annual Conference of the Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , Washington, D. C., Sept. 1984. Evans, Frank B. The_Deye_gpment_gf_an_Archiva__and_Recgrds M§D§9eQ}§Qt_Prggramme. Paris: Unesco, 1982. Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee. Reggrt.gf...the E§=deral _Cul tura Ottawa: Information Services, Department of Communications, 1982. . Symmary.gf .Brief s_and ....Hearings. Ottawa: Information Services, Department of Communications, 1982. Freeman-Ward, C e c i l i a Christine. "An Analysis of Document Disposal Policy and Procedures Within the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia." Master's thesis, University of V i c t o r i a , 1983. Gagan, David. "Rediscovering Local History: The Problems of Archival Sources for the 'New' History." Cgmmunigue 4 (Spring 1980): 14-15. General Recgrds.Dispgsa Canada. 3rd ed. Hull: Public Archives of Canada. 1978. Gordon, Robert S. "Suggestions for Organization and Description of Archival Holdings of Local H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t i e s . " American_Archiyist 26 (1963): 19-39. Guthe, Carl E. "The Provincial Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia: A Commentary." Myseym._Rgynd.-yg 6 (April 1962). Harrison, Raymond 0. leghn.cal_Regu_rements Technical Paper 1. Canadian Museums Association, 1966. Haworth, Kent M. "Local Archives: R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and Challenges for A r c h i v i s t s . " Archiyaria 3 (Winter 1976-77): 28-36. Horton, Forest W., and Donald A. Marchand, eds. Information Management_in.Publ ig__.Administratigns. An_Intrgductign.and Resgurce.Gyide.tg.Ggyernment Arlington: Information Resources Press, 1982. 119 lD._y°y„_.Q9!D_3yDi.!-.y.: Nat i onal _Museum___gf _Canad 1984-85. National Museums o-f Canada, 1985. James, R. Scott. "Administration of Municipal Records: The Toronto Experience." Ggyernment Pub 8A (1981): 321-35. ~ ~ " " " " ~ " " " ' ~ " Jones, H. S. L99#.I__9Yernment_Recgrds_ An__ntrgductign_to t b i i r ManagementA_Pr Nashvilie: American Association for State and Local History, 1980. Kelowna Centennial Museum and National Exhibition Centre. "Financial Statement, 1984." "Education Report, 1985." MacDermaid, Anne. "Study Three: Federal Support to Archives, L i b r a r i e s and Museums." In_Re_grt_gf._the_.Advisory Q°!l!!!!ittee_gn_Archi Ian E. Wilson, chair, 56-69. Ottawa: Information Divi s i o n , Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1985. Masse, Marcel. "I Intend to Have my Say." Muse 3 (Summer/July 1985): 14-17. Morton, W. L. "Cl i o in Canada: The Interpretation of Canadian History." University of Toronto Quarterly 25 (April 1946). Reprinted in Apprgaches_tg__Canadian Histgry, 42-49. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967.~ . " H i s t o r i c a l Societies and Museums." In Royal. Q9__i_s_gn_St.ud_i.es_. A„§el ect i_gn _gf _Essays_Pre__ared_f or th§_Royal„Cgmmissign_ gn_Na_ignai_Deyel _____Ci._iD___9.ilQ9§§__i__:_!z„i i 249-59. Ottawa, King's Printer, 1951. Neatby, Hilda. "National History." In Royal _Cgmm.iss.ign __y_if_ l l _ . _ _ _ _ f_il9_.i9D._9f .____.§ Y§__C_P.§C__....f 9_...thl__Rgyal _9_!_i__i9Q_9Q_N__iQQai_D§!Yeiggm and_Sci.ences__ 1949-51 , 205-16. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1951. Nelles, H. V. "Rewriting History." Saturday_Night 96 (Feb. 1981): 11-16. T h e Of f i.cial _.Dir ect gry_gf _Canadi_an._Mu_.eums_and_Relat.ed lD§ti_yti9D§? Ottawa: Canadian Museums Association, 1984. "PABC Management of Networking with Local Archives." Questionnaire 'answered at the Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, Jan.-Feb. 1985. 120 Page, James E. "Canadian Studies and Archives." Reflections 9D_tb§_Symons_Re_ort on.t 1?80, 204-25. Ottawa: Secretary o-f State, 1981. "A ' P r a c t i c a l ' Plea." Canadia^.H.stgrical.Review 15 (1934): 245-47. Prang, Margaret. "National Unity and the Uses of History." In Q§Q§dl§D_.dt§tgr_cal_ Assoc.at (1977): 3-12. Recgrds__rga_iz.tign.and_0.eratigns, Records Management Series. Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1969. Bl?.9C.ds_Sc_edul.ng.and.Disggsal . Records Management Series. Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, 1969. Rees, Anthony L. "Masters in Our Own House?" Archiyaria 16 (Summer 1983): 53-59. "Results of Survey: 1984." ABCA.Newsletter 10 (Fall 1984): 4-7. Rhoads, James B., and Wilfred I. Smith. "Why Records Management i s Important?" ARMA_Recgrds Management Quarterly 10 (Jan. 1976): 5-8. Royal Commission on Government Organization. Repgrt.gf.the R9Y§I_Cgmmission.gn.Government.Organization. 5 vols. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1962. Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences. Repgrt.gf•_the.Rgyal_Cg_.i_sign_gn_National Deyelgpment.in.the.Arts..Letter Ottawa: King's Printer, 1951. Sage, Walter N. "Where Stands Canadian History?" In Canadian Histgr i ca__Assgci.ati gn__Hi s t g r i c a l .Papers (1945): 5-14. Smith, Wilfred I. "Archives as Recorded Past." In Preserving tbe._Q§D§dl§D_Her i tage_ A_Sympgsi um_Hel.d_i n.Assgc.ati gn witb„Heri.age.Canada. Edited by R. J. Laidl.er. Ottawa: Royal Society of Canada, 1975. Archiyes__n_New.Zea.and: A.Repgrt. Wellington: Archives and Records Association of New Zealand, 1978. "Introduction." In Archives. Mirrgr.gf.Canada.Past. Toronto: 1972. Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada. Canadian Studies.Research Tggls. Ottawa: Information Divi s i o n , Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada. 121 Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada. Canadian Studies_Research_Tool_s: PxQ3_i___yi_§liD_ s- 1985. Stand_rds_Recgmmended_fo Canada. Association of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1980. S t e l t e r , G. , and A. A r t i b i s e , eds. Ihe__Canadian__City. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971. Subject...Classification_Guide. Records Management Series. Public Archives of Canada, 1969. Swift, Michael. "Chairman's Message." Canadian_Archiyist 2 <1975): 1-4. "Management Techniques and Technical Resources i n the Archives of the 1980s." Archiyaria 20 (Summer 1985): 95-104. Symons, T. H. B. lQ_Kngw Oursel_yes: The_Regort_gf_the C°!B!5i§§iQQ„9Q„Q§Q§d[i§D._.Studi_es. 2 vols. Ottawa: Association of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada, 1975. Taylor, Hugh A. Archi val __Seryices._an A_RAMP Study. Paris: Unesco, 1984. . "Archives for Regional History." Paper presented, at the symposium, Blueprint for I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Regional History, 7-10 Sept. 1977, London, Ont. . "The C o l l e c t i v e Memory: Archives and L i b r a r i e s as Heritage." Archiyari_a 15 (Winter 1982/83): 118-30. . "Information Ecology and the Archives of the 1980s." ^C_hi.y._Ci§ 2 0 (Summer 1985) : 94-104. Thomas, Lewis H. "Archival Legislation in Canada." Canadian __§tgrica__Assgciatign.__Histor_cal__Papers (1962) : 101-15. Vai nstei n, Rose. Pub_ic_L_brar_es__n_Br A Syryey_with_Recgmmendat_gns. V i c t o r i a : Public L i b r a r i e s Research Study, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966. Ware, Reuben. " B r i t i s h Columbia Archives Development Plan." Paper circulated for dicussion at the Annual General Meeting of the Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , Apri l 1985, University of V i c t o r i a . Wilson, Ian. E. "Archives of Urban Municipalities in Saskatchewan: Discussion Paper." Regina, and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Archives Board, July 1983. 122 Wilson, Ian E., chair. Re_grt_g£_the_Ad 6C£biye§.?_ September 1984. Ottawa: Information Div i s i o n , Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1985. Woadden, A. R. N. "Toronto's Venture into Paperwork Control and Orderliness." American_Archivist 27 (1964): 261-64. Intery_ews_with_aut Allen, Sandra. Executive O f f i c e r , Municipal O f f i c e r s Association of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , 25 February 1985. Atherton, Jay. Director General, Records Management Branch, Public Archives of Canada. Ottawa, 9 October 1985. Beauchamp, Richard. City Clerk for the City of Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia. By telephone, Kelowna, 24 September 1985. Bovey, John. Provincial A r c h i v i s t of B r i t i s h Columbia. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, 3 November 1984. Chapin, Harry. Director, Vancouver Records Centre, Public Archives of Canada. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Chang, John. Records Manager, City of Vancouver. By telephone, 23 September 1985. DeLozier, Leonard C. Archives Advisor, Provincial Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. By telephone, 24 January 1985; 14 March 1986. Forbes, Jamie. City Planner, City Clerk, City of T r a i l , B r i t i s h Columbia. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Spargo, Rosalie. O f f i c e Services Supervisor, City of Kamloops. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Swift, Michael. Director General, Archives Branch, Public Archives of Canada. Ottawa, 10 October 1985. Taylor, Richard. Executive Director, Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Municipalities. By telephone, 24 September 1985. Tremaine, Helen. Training Coordinator, B r i t i s h Columbia Museums Association. By telephone, 24 January 1985. 123 Appendix Is BRITISH COLUMBIA HERITAGE 6R_HI_AL_PRQ_EQIS__i_Z_zi_* I _ Z _ _ § _ North Shore Museum and Archives catlaogue of photographs. Mrs. B. Thomas, and Mrs. J. Adams, Kelowna aural history project. Summerland Museum and Arts Society History of Summerland. ___Q__d__________h_ ___________ „___9____h__ l9_§l„l§_i____9f_„he___27_300_s_ent__* _______ <n°t available) __§iz_2 Atnarko Valley H i s t o r i c a l Society aural history project. Vancouver Island Project annotated bibliography of primary sources. B. C. History/Archival Studies Scholarship Cranbrook Archives, Museum and Landmark Foundation secur i ty__system_and_eny_rgnment_l l9_§l_i§_2_l__gf_the______??2__pent_____ _. _ i_82_S3 Fructova School of Grand Forks • #48,300 to build a museum, archives and handicraft centre. V i c t o r i a City Archives • 4,040 to research and document commercial buildings and i l l u s t r a t e them on display plaques. Vancouver Maritime Museum 3,600 to catalogue draughts of vessels designed and b u i l t in B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver City Archives 4,290 to complete an inventory on primary and secondary sources of h i s t o r i c a l information on Vancouver heritage structures. Archival Studies Scholarship 7,500 _„_h__„______t________Q__ erenc §_-__---_-_--_- 2_.Q00 l9____________9_ __he_f l_255_.787_spent** ____Z__ $1,U0U 1 ,000 500 ______ $7,500 $ 6UU 2,500 7,500 3,564 * Based on B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Trust, Annual Repgrt: British_Cglumb_a_Heritage_Trust (Vi c t o r i as Mi ni s t r y of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, 1979-84). ** This sum i s the total expenditure of the B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Trust for that year, minus operating, printing and public r e l a t i o n s expenses. 124 1983-84 V i c t o r i a Chapter, Canadian Geotechnical Society * 1,750 Geotechnical Engineering in B r i t i s h Columbia aural history project. B r i t i s h Columbia Museums Association 5,250 ri.tcectory_gf_ _Museum iritish_Cglumbia. Atnarko Valley H i s t o r i c a l Society -: ;- 1,500 aural history project. ABCA Newsletter 1,000 Archival Studies Scholarship 7,500 Anglican Diocese o-f V i c t o r i a '• 4,656 archive r e g i s t r y and cataloguing. Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l Society 4,656 Vancouver Bibliography Project. Vancouver City Archives • 6,208 h i s t o r i c False Creek research. V i c t o r i a City Archives 3,990 heritage building awareness project- University o-f B r i t i s h Columbia, Special Collections - 4,536 Solibakke papers. North Island Heritage Society 2,882 North Island heritage bibliography. City o-f V i c t o r i a 7,000 V i c t o r i a Truth Centre demolition, research for. City Archives of V i c t o r i a 1,523 Ci ty„.Archi ves_ newspaper, col 1 ect_gn_ lQJtal_i__3_5__of_the_* $52,451 ** This sum i s the total expenditure of the B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage Trust for 1983-84 minus operating, printing and public r e l a t i o n s expenses. 125 Appendix 2: CULTURAL SERVICES._BRA_CH_ SRANTS__A_ARDS_AND S___I_IE__IQ„__S_yMS^ 6teril_l_79_March____0 none given ABcil_.i?sQz!!!§_.eb_.i?ii none given 6e!lil_.I?81=__rch„l?82 Operating Assistance to 31 museums** $1,307,750 (average $42,185 per museum) Community Arts Development -for archival projects 89,940 i24__rec_pi ents__ayerage Total 1 ~_~ ~ Z . Iii3?7 369g April_l_S2__ar_h_1983 Operating Assistance to 28 museums** $ 921,500 (average $32,911 per i n s t i t u t i o n ) Community Development -for museums and archives 17,370 li_.recip__nts__aver_ge____2^ ._. ._. l o t a l ' Z___.L.IIII„..Z.Z.I.ZII$IZ?3l'_|2Q AB!lil_.i?S3 =_!_arch.l Operating Assistance to 21 museums** $ 835,500 (average $39,786 per i n s t i t u t i o n ) Community Development -for museums and archives 10,40O Iil_rec_pients___verage_$9_5_per in i g t a i ZZZ _Z ZZZZiZZIiiZ.oo Under the Community Development programs i t has been d i f f i c u l t to t e l l which are archival and which are museum projects. However, the -following are the grants made to separate archives. In 1981/82 the Diocese o-f Kootenay Archives, Kelowna, received $2,500; 1982/83 the Provincial Synod Archives o-f the Anglican Church received $225 and the Vancouver City Archives $5,000; 1983/84 T r i n i t y Western College Archives received $1,000. This amounted to $8_725 over three years. •Based on s t a t i s t i c s i n , B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, Cultural Services Branch, Grants. Awards. _and Sub__di.es ( V i c t o r i a : Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, 1979-1984). ** Archives are not e l i g i b l e for operating assistance grants unless they are associated with museums. The Professional Support and Program (guidelines) for the Cultural Services Branch, p. 3, states that areas e l i g i b l e for assistance include performing arts, visual arts and c r a f t organizations, museums and g a l l e r i e s , and cultu r a l service organizations. 126 Appendix 3: CANADIAN STUDIES RESEARCH TOOLS: GRANTS.. IN BRIIISH_COL.y_BIA__l?|l = i?Sl_:82 Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l Society $36,505 Centennial ______bl i ggraghy.Prgj_ect_ Total ___*36.505 1982-83 A. F. J. A r t i b i s e , University o-f V i c t o r i a t 74,936 Vancouver Island Project Bruce Nesbitt, Simon Fraser University 30,000 Canadian Literature: annotated bibliography L. J. Ross, private scholar 29,428 Guide to local h i s t o r i e s in B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l Society 36,362 Centenni al _.Bi bl i ggraphy Project Total 1 Z Z I Z- _.IIZQ._Z26 1983-84 none awarded i?84-85 Peter Baskerville, University o-f V i c t o r i a $ 74,175 Vancouver Island Project George Brandak, University o-f B r i t i s h Columbia 40,846 Organized Labour Records: annotated guide Dennis J. Duffy, private scholar 11,564 B r i t i s h Columbia Filmography Project Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l Society 44,759 Vancouver Centennial Bibliography Francis Mansbridge, E. Kootenay Community College — 3,209 Irying.Laytgn.Bi bl i ggraphy _ . Total ~ ] Z-l IiZ_:_553 §5£NQ-IQIAL_19B1 =85 _ _38__._784 •* Taken -from Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada, Canadian Studies Research Tggl_s (Ottawa: Information Divis i o n , Social Sciences and Research Council of Canada).

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Canada 8 0
Japan 8 0
China 2 0
United States 1 0
City Views Downloads
New Westminster 8 0
Tokyo 8 0
Beijing 2 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items