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Camera lucida : the moving image as evocative document : film form, film meaning and the grammatology.. 1986

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CAMERA LUCIDA: THE MOVING IMAGE AS EVOCATIVE DOCUMENT FILM FORM, FILM MEANING AND THE GRAMMATOLOGI OF ARCHIVAL SELECTION BY RHONDA L. LJUNGGREN M.A., UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES THE FACULTY OF ARTS A d m i n i s t e r e d by The S c h o o l o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i e s and the Department of H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d : THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH 1986 © Rhonda L. Ljun g g r e n 7 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Of Aful 11% W & I O / - 7 Q \ ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of moving image documents such as they p e r t a i n t o the s e l e c t i o n of f i l m s f o r a r - c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . I t i s advanced t h a t both the p h y s i c a l na- t u r e o f the f i l m r e c o r d and the n a t u r e of the evidence i t p r e s e n t s are prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the development o f a r c h i v a l s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . F urthermore i t i s argued t h a t the s t r u c t u r e and con- t e n t o f f i l m a re i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s which impact s i g n i f i c a n t l y upon the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a r c h i v a l v a l u e , and the s u i t a b i l i t y of the f i l m r e c o r d f o r permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n . F i n a l l y , a major f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g s e l e c t i o n i n v o l v e s a c c o u n t i n g f o r the impact of f i l m as a r e f l e c t o r and p u r v e y o r o f p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . Given the p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e of f i l m i n moulding p o p u l a r i d e a s , a t t i t u d e s , and v a l u e systems, a r c h i v a l s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a must take i n t o a ccount f i l m of a l l t ypes i f t h e r e i s to be any f u t u r e p r o s p e c t of a s s e s s i n g the impact o f f i l m on s o c i e t y i n a g i v e n p e r i o d . The s o u r c e s used f o r t h i s study i n c l u d e the w r i t i n g s o f h i s - t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s c o n c e r n i n g f i l m as h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e and the a r c h i v a l s e l e c t i o n t h e r e o f , as w e l l as t r a d i t i o n a l f i l m l i t e r a - t u r e . The st u d y proceeds from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the t e c h n i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s of f i l m to a c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d d i s c u s s i o n i n v o l v i n g the r e f l e c t i v e and i n f l u e n t i a l n a t u r e of the moving image document. A r c h i v a l s e l e c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of i t s n e c e s s i t y and j u s t i f i a b i l i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o the n a t u r e o f the f i l m r e c o r d , and a l t e r n a t i v e modes o f s e l e c t i o n are i n v e s t i g a t e d . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ' i v CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. . . 1 CHAPTER I I THE NATURE OF THE MEDIUM AND AVENUES FOR HISTORICAL RESEARCH 6 CHAPTER I I I THE MOVING IMAGE DOCUMENT AND SOCIETAL REFLECTION 21 CHAPTER IV SOCIETY AS AUDIENCE: FILM INFLUENCE AND IMPACT. 50 CHAPTER V ARCHIVAL SELECTION AND THE MOVING IMAGE DOCUMENT 66 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY 97 i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to e x p r e s s my i n d e b t e d n e s s t o the f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s : t o Hugh T a y l o r , f o r h i s i n s p i r a t i o n and support d u r i n g f i r s t year and h i s e x p a n s i v e v i s i o n of the a r c h i v a l u n i v e r s e ; t o . H e a t h e r M a c N e i l , f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m , t i t l e i n s p i r a t i o n , and ( a ) m o r a l ( M a r x i s t m e t a - r e a l i s t ) s u p p o r t ; to T e r r y Eastwood, f o r t h e s i s s u p e r v i s i o n and support t h r o u g h - out the two y e a r s and pra c t i c u m . d e s p i t e my n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l l e a n i n g s ; and to B i l l O ' F a r r e l l , f o r i n t r o d u c i n g me to the r i o t o u s t e c h n i c a l w o r l d of f i l m a r c h i v e s and o f f e r i n g me a p l a c e t h e r e i n . i v PREFACE A NOTE REGARDING THE TITLE Camera l u c i d a i s L a t i n f o r a l i g h t or c l e a r chamber. The use of the term i n t h i s t i t l e i s i n t e n d e d to be e v o c a t i v e r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c , i n a manner s i m i l a r to the usage of Roland B a r t h e s i n h i s work of the same name. I t i s a m i s t a k e to a s s o c i a t e Photography, by r e a s o n of i t s t e c h n i c a l o r i g i n s , w i t h the n o t i o n of a dark . passage (camera o b s c u r a ) . I t i s camera l u c i d a t h a t we s h o u l d s a y ( s u c h was the name of t h a t a p p a r a t u s , a n t e r i o r t o Photography, which p e r m i t t e d drawing an o b j e c t t h r o u g h a p r i s m , one eye on the model, the o t h e r on t h e p a p e r ) ; f o r , from the eye's v i e w p o i n t , 'the essence of the image i s t o be a l t o g e t h e r o u t s i d e , w i t h o u t i n t i m a c y , and y e t more i n a c c e s s i b l e and mys- t e r i o u s than the thought of the i n n e r m o s t b e i n g ; w i t h - out s i g n i f i c a t i o n , y e t summoning up the depth of any p o s s i b l e meaning; u n r e v e a l e d y e t m a n i f e s t , h a v i n g t h a t absence-as-presence which c o n s t i t u t e s the l u r e and the f a s c i n a t i o n o f the S i r e n s ' (Blanchot).1 I n t e r p r e t e d as a c l e a r chamber, camera l u c i d a a l s o i n v o k e s the 2 i d e a of " l i g h t t h r o u g h " which i n f o r m s both the p h y s i c a l s t r u c - t u r e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e of the f i l m medium. As a r c h i v i s t s we have always been l e s s concerned w i t h * shedding l i g h t on , ; the s u r f a c e of our r e c o r d from a f i x e d p o i n t of view than h i s t o r i a n s i n the p a s t have sought to do. We t r y t o i l l u m i n e the whole corpus of our c o l l e c t i o n s and a l l o w the l i g h t of r e l a t e d n e s s to p e n e t r a t e through our i n t r i c a t e a r c h i v a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s as through the i n t e r l a c e of an i l l u m i n a t e d m a n u s c r i p t or a s t a i n e d g l a s s window. We have a l s o r e - e n t e r e d an e r a of ' l i g h t t h r o u g h ' i n a p h y s i c a l sense as we r e c o g n i z e the power of the f i l m , and the t r a n s p a r e n t s l i d e which may be j u s t as i n v o l v i n g as the s t a i n e d g l a s s window and the stone t r a c e r y . 3 The term grammatology has been a p p r o p r i a t e d from Jacques v D e r r i d a , and i s employed here as b e i n g e x p r e s s i v e of s i t u a t i n g an a n a l y s i s of f i l m v a l u e w i t h i n the terms of f i l m r e f e r e n c e ; of a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a framework f o r a d i s c o u r s e o f f i l m v a l u e w i t h i n which a m e a n i n g f u l d i s c u s s i o n of s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a can take p l a c e . R o l a n d B a r t h e s , Camera L u c i d a : R e f l e c t i o n s on Photography, t r a n s l a t e d by R i c h a r d Howard (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1981) , p. 1 0 6 . " 2 Hugh A. T a y l o r , "The Media of Record: A r c h i v e s i n the Wake of McLuhan," G e o r g i a A r c h i v e 6 (1978), p. 8. 3 I b i d . v i 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The h i s t o r i a n of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y " f a c e s n ot a s c a r - 1 c i t y but an embarrassment of e v i d e n c e . " The new media-domina- t e d i n f o r m a t i o n age has i n u n d a t e d s o c i e t y w i t h a seemingly end- l e s s u n i v e r s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d i n a v a r i e t y of f o r m a t s . D e s p i t e the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s , h i s t o r i c a l r e - s e a r c h e r s and a r c h i v i s t s a l i k e have c l u n g w i t h t e n a c i t y to the media of p r i n t and paper .as the prime r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s t o r i - c a l " f a c t . " T h i s i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g i n view of the f a c t t h a t the c u r r e n t g e n e r a t i o n of a r c h i v i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s came to ma- t u r i t y i n an age c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a preponderance of t e x t u a l me- d i a and appear to e x h i b i t a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the p r i n t e d media of r e c o r d . T h i s s i t u a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n a c e r t a i n amount of aca- demic "snobbery a g a i n s t the new media, a f e e l i n g t h a t p r i n t i s the 2 o n l y p l a c e where ' t r u t h 1 hangs o u t . " I n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d on o t h e r media has been r e g a r d e d w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n or d i s m i s s e d as b e i n g too much o r i e n t e d towards p o p u l a r c u l t u r e t o be of h i s t o r i c a l s i g - n i f i c a n c e . Contemporary s o c i e t y e x h i b i t s a l a m e n t a b l e tendency to m a r g i n a l i s e the importance • of- p r o d u c t s of p o p u l a r c u l t u r e on the b a s i s o f t h e i r mass a p p e a l and consumption. T h i s has been i l l u s t r a t e d by the l e n g t h y t r a d i t i o n of r e l e g a t i n g such mass phe- nomena as p o p u l a r music and f i l m t o the. .periphery of contemporary h i s t o r y i n s t e a d of s u b j e c t i n g them to the s e r i o u s s c r u t i n y they demand, i f o n l y i n view of t h e . s h e e r numbers they r e a c h . There seems t o be a wi d e s p r e a d and g e n e r a l o b l i v i o n of the 2 degree t o which the media- and t e c h n o l o g y - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n age has permeated a l l s t r a t a of s o c i e t y , t r a n s m u t i n g the form and n a t u r e of h i s t o r i c a l , e v i d e n c e i n . t h e p r o c e s s . The a r c h i - v a l community, e n t r u s t e d w i t h the task, of p r e s e r v i n g r e c o r d s of h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , has t r a d i t i o n a l l y sought out mate- r i a l . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , of the " i n t e r e s t s o f h i s t o r i a n s of c e n t r i s t 3 p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . " In f a c t , the v e r y language of a r c h i v e s has e v o l v e d from the medium .of t e x t u a l , r e c o r d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those produced by an o r g a n i z a t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l i n the course of p e r - s o n a l or c o r p o r a t e a c t i v i t y . Some l i b e r a l - m i n d e d a r c h i v i s t s , , s p e a k i n g from the new f r o n - t i e r s of the " a r c h i v a l edge,"^ are c a l l i n g f o r a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the a r c h i v i s t ' s r o l e i n s o c i e t y . Hugh T a y l o r has spoken of the a r c h i v i s t ' s duty t o t a k e on the r o l e , of a modern-day p r o p h e t , 5 a c q u i r i n g and p r e s e r v i n g m a t e r i a l w i t h a.sense of p r e s c i e n c e . I f the r e c o r d of contemporary h i s t o r y i s - t o be p r e s e r v e d , the a r c h i v i s t s of today and. p a r t i c u l a r l y of tomorrow "may have to assume the shaman's r o l e as keepers of the t r i b a l memory i n our g l o b a l v i l l a g e . - " ^ T h i s b e l i e f , would appear to be e s p e c i a l l y p e r - t i n e n t to the a r e a of the s o - c a l l e d " s p e c i a l " media, which, be- cause of t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y ephemeral p h y s i c a l n a t u r e , are i n dan- ger of p a s s i n g permanently out of the a r c h i v i s t ' s grasp i f s t e p s are not taken to save such r e c o r d s of the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l i n f o r - m ation age. In o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e such r e c o r d s f o r p o s t e r i t y , the i d i o - s y n c r a t i c p h y s i c a l n a t u r e of the new media w i l l need to be c o n s i - dered i n s o f a r as p h y s i c a l form . w i l l by n e c e s s i t y i n f l u e n c e c o n t e n t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a t a r c h i v i s t s " t r y to u n d e r s t a n d the 3 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the media i n . . . (^theirj c u stody which are e x p r e s s e d i n 'messages' beyond t h e i r , l i t e r a r y c o n t e n t , and pass 7 on t h i s awareness to the u s e r . " A r e c o r d t h a t needs to b e . c o n s i d e r e d . i n t h i s l i g h t i s t h a t of the moving image document, a source t h a t . h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y been viewed as a phenomenon of mass c u l t u r e , but has l a r g e l y been i g n o r e d as a source f o r s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h . That f i l m i s a p o p u l a r a r t form seems to have worked a g a i n s t i t s r e c o g n i t i o n as a v i a b l e h i s t o r i c a l source,, w h i l e the v e r y f a c t of i t s p o p u l a r i t y s h o u l d have i n s u r e d , i-t l e g i t i m a c y a t the v e r y l e a s t as a source a f f e c t i n g v a s t numbers of p e o p l e . The v e r y f a c t t h a t f i l m has e x i s t e d as a p o p u l a r e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r c l o s e to one hundred y e a r s would seem to imbue i t w i t h some s o r t o f h i s t o r i c a l s t a t u s . The p r e s e n t study w i l l seek to p r e s e n t an ov e r v i e w of the medium of f i l m , , or moving images., i n l i g h t of i t s n a t u r e as a c u l - t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d , capable of both r e f l e c t i n g and i n f l u - e n c i n g s o c i e t y . C o n s i d e r e d as such, the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the a p p r a i s a l and s e l e c t i o n of f i l m i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d . . . The study w i l l attempt to p r e s e n t f i l m as a h i g h l y r e f l e c t i v e and i n f l u e n t i a l medium, and w i l l c o n s i d e r such c h a r a c - t e r i s t i c s as they impact upon the development o f s e l e c t i o n c r i - t e r i a . The v e r y i s s u e of s e l e c t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d as one deman- d i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n l i g h t o f the n a t u r e of the medium, and v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the t r a d i t i o n a l modes o f s e l e c t i o n w i l l be c o n s i - dered. The study w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y on the medium of f i l m ; the a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d . The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l p r o c e e d from a s t r u c t u r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the n a t u r e of the f i l m medium, i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s , l i m i t a - t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g f i l m t y p o l o g i e s and avenues f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , to a more c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d a n a l y s i s , f o c u s s i n g on the medium's p o t e n t i a l to r e f l e c t and/or d i s t o r t v a r i o u s f a c e t s of s o c i e t y , as e x e m p l i f i e d by both a c t u a l i t y and f e a t u r e f i l m . Elements of b i a s and d i s t o r t i o n , propaganda, spon- s o r s h i p , and a r e a s of common abuse w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as they p e r - t a i n t o f i l m i n g e n e r a l , and w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o the news- r e e l and documentary. F e a t u r e f i l m i n p a r t i c u l a r w i l l be i n v e s t i - g a ted as a r e f l e c t o r of both o v e r t and c o v e r t s o c i e t a l v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s , as w e l l as a form of mass e n t e r t a i n m e n t . The e x p r e s s i o n and source of the a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d i n f i l m , the concept of f i l m as an i n d i c a t o r of n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and the r e f l e c t i v e phenomenon of the box o f f i c e are among the t o p i c s to be d i s c u s s e d . The ways i n which moving images impact upon v i e w i n g a u diences and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l w i l l a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d , i n c l u d i n g the n a t u r e of the v i e w i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and the i s s u e of f i l m c e n s o r s h i p . F i n a l l y , , the medium's p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e f l e c - t i v e n a t u r e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of the i m p l i c a t i o n s h e l d f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f moving images f o r permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . . A s p e c t s of s t r u c t u r e , i n f l u e n c e , and moreover the n a t u r e of the e v idence c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the f i l m document, w i l l be seen to impact s i g n i f i c a n t l y upon the i s s u e of a r c h i v a l s e l e c t i o n . The i s s u e of s e l e c t i o n i t s e l f w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of i t s n e c e s s i t y , j u s t i f i a b i l i t y , and p r a c t i - c a l i t y i n l i g h t of both the volume and n a t u r e of the moving image document. 5 NOTES John E. 0 * Connor,.and. M a r t i n A. J a c k s o n , American H i s t o r y / American F i l m : I n t e r p r e t i n g the Holl y w o o d Image (New York: F r e d e r i c k Ungar P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979), P^ i x . 2 James Quinn, The F i l m and T e l e v i s i o n as an Aspe c t o f European C u l t u r e (Leyden: A.W. S i j t h o f f , 1968), p. 79. 3 ^Hugh A. T a y l o r , "The Media of Record: A r c h i v e s i n the Wake o f McLuhan," G e o r g i a A r c h i v e 6 (1978), p. 6. ^ I b i d . 5 I b i d . ^ I b i d . , p. 5. I b i d . , p. 3- 6 CHAPTER I I THE NATURE OF THE MEDIUM AND- AVENUES FOR HISTORICAL RESEARCH I f f i l m i s to be c o l l e c t e d and r e t a i n e d i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i - t o r i e s , a b a s i c knowledge of the medium w i l l be r e q u i r e d of both a r c h i v i s t s and p o t e n t i a l users.' When a p p r o a c h i n g f i l m as a source f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , due c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be p a i d to i t s form and the unique c i n e m a t i c language by which i t communicates, as the p h y s i c a l n a t u r e of the medium impac t s upon i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r r e s e a r c h use.. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine f i l m s t r u c t u r a l l y , f i r s t e xamining the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the medium, and then c a t e g o r i z i n g f i l m i n t o t y p o l o g i e s and o u t l i n i n g p o t e n t i a l avenues f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h . B e f o r e the r e s e a r c h e r can maximize the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n f i l m and u n d e r s t a n d the ways i n which s t r u c t u r e i n f l u e n c e s both c o n t e n t and meaning, c e r t a i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l elements of the medium, need to be c o n s i d e r e d . J u s t as the r e s e a r - cher approaches the t e x t u a l document w i t h a c r i t i c a l mind, ques- t i o n i n g a l l a s p e c t s of i t s c o n t e n t , c o n t e x t , and c r e a t i o n , so must the f i l m document be approached, b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t the t e c h - n o l o g y of f i l m w i l l by i t s n a t u r e be more complex than t h a t of p r i n t and paper. Image t e c h n o l o g y had i t s b e g i n n i n g s e a r l y i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t h the i n v e n t i o n o f a number of o p t i c a l t o y s e x p l o i t i n g a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n h e r e n t i n human v i s i o n known as p e r s i s t e n c e o f v i s i o n . T h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l phenomenon was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y by P e t e r Mark RogSt i n 1 824-- As a r e s u l t of 7 t h i s " d e f e c t " i n v i s i o n , "the b r a i n r e t a i n s images c a s t upon the r e t i n a of the eye f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t w e n t i e t h to one- f i f t h of a second beyond t h e i r a c t u a l removal from the f i e l d of-. 2 v i s i o n . " T h i s phenomenon makes the i l l u s i o n of motion p o s s i b l e , f o r when another imageEtakes the p l a c e of the f i r s t i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n , the b r a i n superimposes the two images over the b l a n k space between them. F i l m i s composed of a number of s t i l l images which are c o n c a t e n a t e d i n t o an i l l u s i o n of c o n t i n u o u s motion by the b r a i n . A l t h o u g h the i l l u s i o n of motion can be c r e a t e d a t f i l m speeds as low as t w e l v e frames per second, a s t a n d a r d of t w e n t y - f o u r frames per second e v e n t u a l l y became a c c e p t e d as a g e n e r a l norm f o r o p t i m a l image q u a l i t y . U n t i l motion p i c t u r e t e c h n o l o g y was a b l e to r e c o r d and p r o j e c t f i l m a t speeds s u f f i - c i e n t to produce a seamless semblance of m o t i o n , a f l i c k e r e f f e c t was v i s i b l e on the s c r e e n . T h i s e f f e c t .in e a r l y f i l m s draws a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t the image i s n o t c o n t i n u o u s l y upon the s c r e e n ; i n f a c t , when w a t c h i n g a f i l m , we are a c t u a l l y f i x i n g our eyes on a darkened s c r e e n f o r as much as f i f t y per cent of the t i m e . Thus the p r o j e c t e d f i l m i l l u s i o n e x i s t s o n l y i n the mind, by means of a f l a w i n h e r e n t i n human v i s i o n . Opera- t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p e r s i s t e n c e of v i s i o n i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon known as " p h i e f f e c t , " d e f i n e d as "the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r c e p t i o n o f motion which i s caused by the d i s p l a c e m e n t of 3 two o b j e c t s seen i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n i n n e i g h b o r i n g p o s i t i o n s . " The c o m b i n a t i o n of these two phenomena makes f i l m "the f i r s t communications medium to be based upon p s y c h o - p e r c e p t u a l i l l u - s i o n s c r e a t e d by machines."^ The b a s i s of moving image t e c h n o l o g y has thus been s c i e n - 8 t i f i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d as a s e r i e s of s t i l l images p r o j e c t e d a t a speed s u f f i c i e n t t o c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n of motion. The n e x t c r u c i a l s t r u c t u r a l element to be grapsed by the u s e r of f i l m i s the manipu- l a t i o n o f these images. Through e d i t i n g , l i t e r a l l y the " c u t t i n g " of the f i l m , the f i l m m a k e r m a n i p u l a t e s images to produce a d e s i r e d effecjb.. One o f the most b a s i c t h e o r i e s o p e r a t i v e i n the a r t of e d i t i n g i s t h a t o f montage, a concept o p e r a t i n g a t the l e v e l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l awareness. The t h e o r y of montage was f i r s t advanced by S o v i e t f i l m m a k e r S e r g e i E i s e n s t e i n (1898-1 94-8), who was a c t i v e i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l P r o l e t k u l t T heater i n Moscow i n the 1920s. E i s e n s t e i n ' s t h e o r y of montage o p e r a t e d a l o n g the l i n e s of M a r x i s t d i a l e c t i c : "The d i a l e c t i c i s a way of l o o k i n g a t human h i s t o r y and e x p e r i e n c e as a p e r p e t u a l c o n f l i c t i n which a f o r c e ( t h e s i s ) c o l l i d e s w i t h a c o u n t e r f o r c e ( a n t i t h e s i s ) . t o produce from t h e i r c o l l i s i o n a w h o l l y new phenomenon ( s y n t h e s i s )• which i s not the sum of the two f o r c e s but something g r e a t e r than and d i f f e r e n t 5 from them b o t h . " A c c o r d i n g to E i s e n s t e i n , . . . i n f i l m e d i t i n g the shot . . . i s a t h e s i s which when p l a c e d i n t o j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r shot of opposing v i s u a l c o n t e n t - i t s a n t i t h e s i s - produces a s y n t h e s i s (a s y n t h e t i c i d e a or i m p r e s s i o n ) which i n t u r n becomes the t h e s i s o f .a new d i a l e c t i c as the montage sequence c o n t i n u e s . T h i s v i s u a l o p p o s i t i o n between shots may be a c o n f l i c t of l i n e a r d i r e c t i o n s , p l a n e s , volumes, l i g h t i n g , e t c . , and.need not extend to the d r a m a t i c con- t e n t of the s h o t . " E i s e n s t e i n f a v o u r e d the example of the Japanese ideogram to i l l u s t r a t e the p r o c e s s b e h i n d d i a l e c t i c a l montage: c h i l d b i r d k n i f e water door + + + + + mouth mouth h e a r t eye ear sorrow weep l i s t e n scream s i n g 7 9 A more s o p h i s t i c a t e d example can.be seen i n . t h e f o l l o w i n g example, wherein the p r o c e s s .of.montage s y n t h e s i z e s an e n t i r e l y new meaning a r i s i n g out of. the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of u n r e l a t e d e l e ments: man ,. t r e e . sun. . . , sun t a n g l e d i n the t r e e ' s b r a n c h e s , as a t s u n r i s e , meaning now the e a s t . ^ The t h e o r y of montage i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of the depth of c o n t r o l e x e r t e d over m a t e r i a l by the .filmmaker, the element of s e l e c - t i o n or o m i s s i o n , and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s such de- c i s i o n s can h o l d f o r the v i e w i n g a u d i ence. .. S i n c e one o f the major c r i t i c i s m s l e v e l l e d .at film..as a p o t e n t i a l source f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h has always been i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s t o r - t i o n , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e . p o s s i b l e f o r c e s o p e r a t i v e behind such d i s t o r t i o n c o u l d perhap.s. b e t t e r equipi.the r e s e a r c h e r to d e t e c t and account f o r such biases, i n the f i l m document. Other elements enter, i n t o , . s t r u c t u r e as i t a f f e c t s meaning, elements i n c l u d i n g c o m p o s i t i o n , f r a m i n g , camera l e n s e s , l i g h t i n g , the type o f e m u l s i o n used, f o c u s , and camera .placement, a l l of which impact upon the s i n g l e .frame, and the s h o t . The most b a s i c v i s u a l u n i t o f f i l m ( a f t e r the i n d i v i d u a l frame) i s the 9 s h o t , d e f i n e d as "a s i n g l e u n i n t e r r u p t e d , a c t i o n , o f a camera." Shots are combined.into scenes, scenes i n t o sequences, and so on. A l l elements which impinge upon . the. make-up and c o m p o s i t i o n 10 of a shot or scene must be c o n s i d e r e d as a p o t e n t i a l element of d i s t o r t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the p o s s i b l e a f . f e c t i n g p r e s ence o f the camera i n a c t u a l i t y f i l m , . o r f i l m which p u r p o r t s to r e c o r d e m p i r i c a l l y " r e a l " events i n . a t r u t h f u l manner. From the b e g i n n i n g s o f f i l m t e c h n o l o g y the medium's c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i n g as a r e c o r d e r of. h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e has been r e c o g - n i z e d , both by those i n v o l v e d i n . i t s . i n c e p t i o n , and contemporary c r i t i c s . F o l l o w i n g , the i n v e n t i o n of the k i n e t o g r a p h i n 1 895» W.K.L. D i c k s o n w r o t e : The advantages to s t u d e n t s a n d . h i s t o r i a n s w i l l be immeasurable. I n s t e a d o f dry and m i s l e a d i n g a c c o u n t s , t i n g e d w i t h the. e x a g g e r a t i o n s - o f the c h r o n i c l e r s ' minds, our a r c h i v e s w i l l be e n r i c h e d - b y the v i t a l i z e d p i c t u r e s of g r e a t n a t i o n a l scenes, i n s t i n c t w i t h a l l the g l o w i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d them.10 S i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s were e x p r e s s e d by contemporary f i l m c r i t i c s who d e s c r i b e d . t h e . p i o n e e r i n g work of the Lumiere b r o t h e r s i n F r a n c e , r e c o r d i n g events such as workers l e a v i n g a f a c t o r y or a t r a i n a r r i v i n g at. a . s t a t i o n , as "nature taken a l i v e " or 11 "nature caught i n the a c t . " . W r i t i n g , i n , .1 8:98, B o l e s l a w Matus- zewski was s t r u c k by .the. motion p i c t u r e - camera' s n o v e l p o t e n t i a l f o r p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y , . a n d the i m p l i c a t i o n s t h i s c a p a c i t y h e l d f o r the r e c o r d i n g of h i s t o r y . What i s more p r o p h e t i c f o r the f i l m a r c h i v i s t o f today are Matuszewski! s, remarks about the i n a b i l i t y of the cameraman, or f i l m m a k e r . t o c o r r e c t l y p r e d i c t which events would have h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e c o n f e r r e d upon 1 2 them by the p a s s i n g of t i m e . In the 1920s, i n t e r e s t i n the use o f f i l m f o r h i s t o r i c a l d ocumentation spread to h i s t o r i c a l c i r c l e s . . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the I c o n o g r a p h i c a l Commission (1 926-1 93-4) embarked on 11 a m i s s i o n t h a t i s s t i l l b e i n g c a r r i e d on today -- the q u e s t to c a t e g o r i z e f i l m i n t o . a h i e r a r c h y of t y p o l o g i e s u s e f u l to h i s - t o r i a n s and h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h . The term " h i s t o r i c a l f i l m " was employed to d e s c r i b e f i l m s "which r e c o r d a person or p e r i o d from the time a f t e r the i n v e n t i o n of cinematography and w i t h o u t d r a m a t u r g i c a l or ' a r t i s t i c ' p u r p o s e s : those f i l m s which p r e - sent a v i s u a l r e c o r d o f a d e f i n i t e event, p e r s o n or l o c a l i t y , and which presuppose a c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z a b l e h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t 1 3 i n h e r e n t i n the s u b j e c t m a t t e r . " The Commission was a n x i o u s to e x c l u d e from t h i s d e f i n i t i o n f i c t i o n a l or f e a t u r e f i l m s and d o c u m e n t a r i e s , genres which i n v o l v e d a c e r t a i n amount of "per- 1 4. s o n a l i n t e r p o l a t i o n " * by the f i l m m a k e r . A c t u a l i t y f i l m , a l - ready w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d through the s t a n d a r d i z e d format of the n e w s r e e l , was c o n s i d e r e d to be o f most i n t e r e s t to the h i s t o r i a n as " i l l u s i o n s of o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , o f events.and p e o p l e , a 1 5 v i s u a l v e r s i o n of newspapers." The A c t e s t a b l i s h i n g the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s (approved 19 June, 1934), r e c o g n i z e d the h i s t o r i c a l capa- c i t y o f f i l m by i n c l u d i n g a p r o v i s i o n f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of f i l m of h i s t o r i c a l m e r i t . "Indeed, the unique a b i l i t y of the m o t i o n - p i c t u r e camera t o . r e c o r d e v e n t s . f o r h i s t o r i c a l purposes was e s p e c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by a. p r o v i s i o n i n the a c t which a u t h o r - i z e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o the motion p i c t u r e s to be a c c e p t e d from governmental a g e n c i e s , the acceptance from non-governmental 1 6 s o u r c e s o f motion p i c t u r e s i l l u s t r a t i v e of American h i s t o r y . " Both John B r a d l e y , motion p i c t u r e c o n s u l t a n t to the 1 7 L i b r a r y o f Congress, w r i t i n g i n 194-8, and S i r A r t h u r E l t o n , w r i t i n g i n 1955, compare the r e c o r d i n g of images and sound on 12 f i l m t o o t h e r more a n c i e n t forms of r e c o r d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . E l t o n l i k e n s the f i l m document to o t h e r modes o f r e c o r d - k e e p i n g employed th r o u g h o u t the ages: " I want to c o n s i d e r the f i l m as source m a t e r i a l f o r h i s t o r y i n the sense t h a t p a l i m p s e s t and parchment, h i e r o g l y p h and rune, c l a y t a b l e t and m a n o r i a l r o l l are source m a t e r i a l s - f r a g m e n t s , sometimes fragments of f r a g - ments, o f t e n d e f a c e d by t i m e , and a p p l i e d t o purposes of h i s t o r i - 1 8 c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n r a r e l y contemplated by the o r i g i n a l a u t h o r s . " In the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g the I c o n o g r a p h i c a l Commission, t h e r e were s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s to c l a s s i f y f i l m s s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s i g n i - f i c a n c e to the h i s t o r i c a l researcher.. In 1939 the N a t i o n a l A r - c h i v e s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s a r r i v e d a t s t a n d a r d s t o d e f i n e c a t e - g o r i e s of f i l m t h a t would be c o l l e c t e d f o r r e s e a r c h p urposes. The major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were: f a c t u a l per se ( i n c l u d i n g news* r e e l s and o t h e r r e c o r d f i l m of h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ) : f a c t u a l - e x p o s i t o r y ( f a c t u a l f i l m s c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o some s e t mode of c o m p o s i t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t r a v e l o g u e s and e d u c a t i o n a l f i l m s ) ; a r t - c r a f t ( f i l m s documenting major t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments i n the motion p i c t u r e a r t s or i n d u s t r y ) ; and " h i s t o r i c " f i l m s (those which have e x e r c i s e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on p u b l i c o p i n i o n and have i n t h a t sense become h i s t o r i c , a s , f o r example, Uncle \ 1 9 Tom 1s C a b i n ) . T h i s system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o v e r s a wide range of f i l m , but i s something l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y as much o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h i n g e s on the concept of American " h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , " which i n most i n s t a n c e s i s bound to be an a r b i t r a r y or s u b j e c t i v e d e c i s i o n . C h r i s t o p h e r Roads o f the I m p e r i a l War Museum, England, has dev e l o p e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i l m i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s , which 13 f o c u s e s more on the form and s t r u c t u r e o f the f i l m as i t a f f e c t s 20 i t s v a l u e as h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e . The f i r s t c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s o r i g i n a l a c t u a l i t y o r r e c o r d f i l m i n a t o t a l l y u n e d i t e d form. The second c a t e g o r y i n v o l v e s the same f i l m i n a s e m i - e d i t e d con- d i t i o n w i t h excess f o o t a g e and t e c h n i c a l l y f l a w e d p o r t i o n s ex- c i s e d . T h i r d l y , t h e r e i s r e c o r d f i l m which has been e d i t e d i n t o the n e w s r e e l or some s i m i l a r f ormat. The f o u r t h c a t e g o r y com- p r i s e s documentary f i l m s , which i n v o l v e the m a n i p u l a t i o n of o r i g i n a l f o o t a g e i n t o a s i n g l e - p u r p o s e d format and as such are o f l i t t l e v a l u e to the h i s t o r i a n as p r i m a r y h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e . The f i n a l c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s f e a t u r e f i l m s , w hich are v e r y much 21 secondary s o u r c e s , a c c o r d i n g to Roads. T h i s mode of c l a s s i f i - c a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be o f more use to the h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r , w i t h i t s emphasis on form and s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than on d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e of f i l m c o n t e n t . 1 s i m i l a r c l a s s i - 22 f i c a t i o n scheme i s advocated by W i l l i a m Hughes, who l i k e w i s e d i v i d e s a c t u a l i t y f i l m i n t o e d i t e d and u n e d i t e d f o r m a t s . News-' f i l m i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from n e w s r e e l s on the b a s i s of not b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d on a r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e . In a d d i t i o n to documentary and c o m p i l a t i o n f i l m s , the l a t t e r b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d out o f e x t a n t f o o t a g e , Hughes i n c l u d e s what he c a l l s "magazine f i l m s , " which he d e f i n e s as b e i n g r e l e a s e d i n s e r i e s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , s i m i l a r 23 to n e w s r e e l s , but f e a t u r i n g g r e a t e r l e n g t h and depth of coverage. From the p r e c e d i n g a t t e m p t s to c l a s s i f y f i l m a c c o r d i n g to i t s u s e f u l n e s s to the h i s t o r i a n , i t would seem t h a t the f i l m of r e c o r d i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d by many to be the most u s e f u l form of f i l m document f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . The use of f e a t u r e f i l m as a p u r v e y o r of h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e i s not as 1 w i d e l y a c c e p t e d , and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . P r e s e n t - d a y h i s t o r i a n s were f o r the most p a r t educated i n a p r i n t - o r i e n t e d c u l t u r e and tend to view the f i l m r e c o r d w i t h d i s t r u s t , a c c u s i n g i t of a p a r t i s a n s h i p which does not a l l o w f o r u n b i a s e d communication. The w r i t t e n r e c o r d has t r a d i t i o n - a l l y conveyed a sense of " i m p a r t i a l i t y " which i s r a r e l y a t t r i b u t e d to f i l m . But f i l m has the c a p a c i t y to make a unique c o n t r i b u t i o n to the f i e l d o f h i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y , as e x e m p l i f i e d by what J.A..S. G r e n v i l l e r e f e r s to as a " k i n d o f e y e - w i t n e s s 25 q u a l i t y , " r e f e r r i n g to the motion p i c t u r e camera's a b i l i t y to r e c o r d events o c c u r r i n g i n f r o n t o f i t . A number of unique a t t r i b u t e s making f i l m a v a l u a b l e form of h i s t o r i c a l documen- t a t i o n have been o u t l i n e d by A r t h u r E l t o n : 1 ) I t can show as n o t h i n g e l s e the r o u t i n e s o f p r o c e d u r e and p r o c e s s , of custom and c r a f t ; 2) F i l m ' s p e c u l i a r command of movement r e s u l t s i n i t s a b i l i t y to r e c o r d more or l e s s u n s e l e c t i v e l y every- t h i n g t a k i n g p l a c e i n f r o n t of the l e n s ; 3) F i l m ' s a b i l i t y to r e c o r d the c o m p a r a t i v e study of p e r s o n a l and crowd p s y c h o l o g y i n terms of movement, g e s t u r e , a t t i t u d e and s e t of muscle; L) F i l m can a l s o be used d i r e c t l y t g ^ p r e s e n t h i s t o r y and an h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t of view. E l t o n does modify the f o u r t h p o i n t somewhat by p o i n t i n g out the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of s e l e c t i o n and c o n d e n s a t i o n , .and how these f a c - t o r s can r e s u l t i n an a c q u i r e d s y m b o l i c v a l u e t hrough emphasis 27 and/or d i s t o r t i o n . For E l t o n , the g r e a t e s t a t t r i b u t e o f f i l m would seem to be i t s a b i l i t y to a c t as an u n b i a s e d r e c o r d e r of e vents t a k i n g p l a c e i n f r o n t o f the camera, and i n t h i s sense, the camera does not l i e . U s i n g f i l m as a source f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , M a r t i n A. J a c k s o n has a d v o c a t e d two p o t e n t i a l avenues which can be t a k e n : 15 the v i e w i n g o f f i l m as s i m p l y a v i s u a l r e c o r d , or the v i e w i n g of f i l m as a r e f l e c t i o n of p u b l i c o p i n i o n a t a g i v e n moment i n 28 h i s t o r y . H i s t o r i a n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been b i a s e d towards the former approach, i n which f i l m a p p roximates " r e a l i t y " by r e c o r d i n g s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The l a t t e r avenue of r e s e a r c h d e a l s l e s s w i t h the i s s u e of h i s t o r i c a l or v i s u a l a u t h e n t i c i t y and more w i t h the r e f l e c t i o n of p u b l i c a t t i t u d e a t a g i v e n t i m e . As such, i t i s an approach more s u i t e d to the f e a t u r e f i l m i n many ways, and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h a t c o n t e x t . While much d i s c u s s i o n has c e n t e r e d around the i s s u e of how h i s t o r i a n s can use f i l m as an h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d , l e s s a t t e n - t i o n has been g i v e n to the q u e s t i o n o f j u s t what h i s t o r i a n s can expect to c o n t r i b u t e to the f i e l d o f h i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y t h rough t h e i r use of the f i l m document. There has been some d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the h i s t o r i a n ' s p o t e n t i a l . r o l e as a m e d i a t o r i n b r i n g - i n g t o g e t h e r the d i v e r s e elements communicated by the f i l m r e c o r d i n t o some s o r t o f broader o v e r v i e w o f h i s t o r y and s o c i e t y . S t u a r t Samuels and Robert Rosen w r i t e t h a t " g i v e n the h i s t o r i a n ' s p r i m a r y concern w i t h the p r o c e s s e s , of. s o c i a l development, he i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o s p e c i f y the m e d i a t i n g f a c t o r s t h a t e n t e r i n t o f i l m p r o d u c t i o n - the r o l e of the market, govern- ment, p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s , and mass i d e o l o g i e s , to mention o n l y 29 a few examples." They go on to s t a t e t h a t . . . we c o u l d b r i n g our p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the p r o c e s s e s o f change to bear on two l e v e l s . The f i r s t c o u l d p r e s e n t a s y n t h e s i z e d p i c t u r e o f the p r o c e s s o f f i l m m a k i n g i t s e l f to demonstrate the s t r u c t u r a l l i n k s between systems o f p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , consumption, c r i t i c i s m and s o c i a l l c o n t r o l . . . . The 16 second l e v e l would r e l a t e both t h e m a t i c c o n t e n t and f i l m ' t e c h n i q u e to the s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n which they are developed and consumed.30 Others f e e l the h i s t o r i a n i s . n o t s u i t e d to be the c a t a l y s t o f such a s y n t h e s i s . Frans Nieuwenhof f e e l s t h a t . . . the i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n stands i n the way o f the movement towards s y n t h e s i s , towards o v e r a l l p i c - t u r e s . The wide approach i s r e p u d i a t e d s i n c e i t i s u n f e a s i b l e w i t h modern s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n method and r e s e a r c h .3 1 Nieuwenhof f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t w h i l e i t i s " d o u b t f u l whether h i s t o r i a n s are the r i g h t men i n the r i g h t p l a c e f o r the u l t i - mate c o m p i l a t i o n of such 1 p i c t u r i z i n g ' t h r ough mass communica- t i o n media . . . s t i l l i t i s obvious t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n of the r e l e v a n c e of the mass communication media f o r the h i s t o r i c a l p i c t u r e - m a k i n g may l e a d to a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e o f 32 t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h and the p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e r e o f . " Whether or not the h i s t o r i a n i s s u i t e d to s y n t h e s i z e a new p i c t u r e of s o c i e t y t h r o u g h the. use of f i l m and s i m i l a r media, t h e r e are f u r t h e r m a t t e r s to c o n s i d e r when u s i n g the moving image document f o r any s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h purpose, . A p p r o a c h i n g f i l m as an h i s t o r i c a l document, the r e s e a r c h e r w i l l f i n d i t i m p o r t a n t to be a b l e to e s t a b l i s h h i s source c o n t e x t u a l l y , and may f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y to date the f i l m i n o r d e r to v e r i f y i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y or e s t a b l i s h an a p p r o p r i a t e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n which to, view the f i l m . Both v i s u a l i n t e r n a l elements and e x t e r n a l e v i d e n c e may p r o v i d e c l u e s to e s t a b l i s h the p e r i o d of p r o d u c t i o n . P h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s such as f i l m s t o c k , d e v e l o p - ment p r o c e s s , s p a c i n g of s p r o c k e t h o l e s , m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s codes 17 i m p r i n t e d on the f i l m s t o c k , the presence o f a so u n d t r a c k (and whether o r not i t i s s y n c h r o n o u s ) , and the type o f equipment used (such as zoom l e n s e s , whose appearance i n the i n d u s t r y can be a c c u r a t e l y d a t e d ) , a l l a s s i s t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p e r i o d of p r o d u c t i o n f o r a fiibm. The p r o j e c t e d f i l m o f t e n r e v e a l s names of the c a s t , d i r e c t o r , date of c o p y r i g h t , and so on, i n the c r e d i t s . I n t e r n a l s t y l i s t i c elements can a l s o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from s t y l e s o f e d i t i n g , l i g h t i n g , d i r e c t i n g , a c t i n g , camera placement, and depth o f f i e l d , as w e l l as more o v e r t v i s u a l i n d i c a t o r s i n the form o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , l andmarks, t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, c l o t h i n g s t y l e s , and 33 p a t t e r n s o f language and b e h a v i o u r . A f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t of t e x t u a l documentation. T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t a r e a both f o r a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s which c o l l e c t f i l m , and p o t e n t i a l u s e r s of those f i l m s . C e r t a i n i n f o r - m a tion, i f a v a i l a b l e , can i l l u m i n a t e many f a c e t s o f the f i l m document which may o t h e r w i s e remain i n o b s c u r i t y . T e x t u a l documentation can i n c l u d e the "dope s h e e t s " t h a t n e w s r e e l camera- men k e p t on e v e r y s h o t , and s h o o t i n g s c r i p t s , which r e f l e c t the f i l m m a k i n g p r o c e s s . C o l l e c t i o n s such as the B r i t i s h Boasd o f F i l m Censors s c r i p t f i l e s , accumulated i n the p u r s u i t o f ex e r - c i s i n g c o n t r o l over f i l m c o n t e n t , may be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the r e s e a r c h e r . F i l m t r e a t m e n t s and s c e n a r i o s a re l i k e w i s e v a l u a b l e f o r t r a c i n g the p r e l i m i n a r y form o f a f i l m t h r ough to i t s d e f i n i t i v e f i n a l form. The t r e a t m e n t i s the f i r s t o u t l i n e or p r o p o s a l p r e s e n t e d to the p r o d u c e r , w h i l e the s c e n a r i o i s a more d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e , c o n t a i n i n g a f u l l l i s t o f sh o t s and a 3 A s e q u e n t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f stage and t e c h n i c a l a c t i o n s . I n f o r - 1 8 mation r e g a r d i n g f i l m d i r e c t o r s , s t u d i o s , d i s t r i b u t o r s , w r i t e r s and e d i t o r s , can o f t e n be gleaned from f i l m company r e c o r d s , i f a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n , and from f i l m magazines and j o u r - n a l s . Back i s s u e s of d i s t r i b u t o r s ' c a t a l o g u e s can a l s o be con- s u l t e d to e s t a b l i s h the c o n t e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l f i l m s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r u n n i n g t i m e s . F i l m t i m i n g can be a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g which copy of a f i l m i s b e i n g d e a l t w i t h , p a r t i - c u l a r l y when the f i l m e x i s t s i n m u l t i p l e v e r s i o n s as a r e s u l t o f a complex p r o d u c t i o n h i s t o r y or r e - c u t t i n g f o r f o r e i g n d i s - t r i b u t i o n . The p h y s i c a l n a t u r e and s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s of the medium impact s i g n i f i c a n t l y upon the f i l m document's v a l u e and p o t e n - t i a l as an h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . F u l l u t i l i z a t i o n of the medium's i n f o r m a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y i s o n l y p o s s i b l e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the document's s t r u c t u r e , and the ways i n which form can i n f l u e n c e c o n t e n t . Such knowledge i s c r i t i c a l n o t o n l y f o r r e s e a r c h e r s w i s h i n g to use the medium, but a l s o to the a r c h i v i s t s who must s e l e c t and care f o r the f i l m documents i n t h e i r c u s t o d y . As the i s s u e of s e l e c t i o n h i n g e s upon the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f a r e c o r d , a l l elements which may p o t e n t i a l l y impact upon v a l u e must of n e c e s s i t y be r e c o g n i z e d . Inasmuch as form i n f l u e n c e s c o n t e n t , i t i s the f i r s t element to be c o n s i d e r e d when a s s e s s i n g the f i l m r e c o r d ' s v a l u e and u s e f u l - n e s s . Next, the moving image document w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of c o n t e n t and the i m p l i c a t i o n s c o n t e n t h o l d s f o r i t s use as a r e c o r d f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h . 19 NOTES 1 D a v i d A. Cook, A H i s t o r y o f N a r r a t i v e F i l m (New York: W.W. N o r t o n & Co., 1981), p. 1. 2 I b i d . 3 James Monaco, How to Read, a F i l m : The A r t , Technology, Language, H i s t o r y , and Theory of F i l m and Media. R e v i s e d e d i t i o n . (New Y o rk: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981), p. 4.4.5. ^"Cook, A H i s t o r y of N a r r a t i v e F i l m , p. 2. 5 I b i d . , p. 171. 6 I b i d . , p. 172. 7 I b i d . , p. 173. g W i l l i a m J i n k s , The C e l l u l o i d . L i t e r a t u r e : F i l m i n the h u m a n i t i e s . Second e d i t i o n . ( B e v e r l y H i l l s : Glencoe P r e s s , 1974), p. 8. 9 John H a r r i n g t o n , The R h e t o r i c of F i l m (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Win s t o n , I n c . , 1 973) » ~- 3~* 1 0 John B.. K u i p e r , "The H i s t o r i c a l V alue of Motion P i c t u r e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 31 (1 968), p. -385. 11 Eugene C. McCreary, " F i l m and H i s t o r y : Some Thoughts on T h e i r I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , " S o c i e t a s 1 (1971), p. 54.. 1 2 Anthony A l d g a t e , Cinema and H i s t o r y : B r i t i s h Newsreels and the S p a n i s h C i v i l War (London: S c o l a r P r e s s , 1979), p. ~ 1 3 I b i d . , p. 6. U I b i d . 1 5 I b i d . , p. 3. 1 6 Dorothy Arbaugh, "Motion P i c t u r e s and the F u t u r e H i s t o r i a n , " American A r c h i v i s t 2 (1939), p. 1 0 6 . 1 7 ' K u i p e r , "The H i s t o r i c a l Value of Motion P i c t u r e s , " pp. 385- 386. 1 8 A r t h u r E l t o n , " F i l m as Source M a t e r i a l f o r H i s t o r y , " A.S.L.I.B. P r o c e e d i n g s 7 (1955), p. 207. 1 9 Arbaugh, "Motion P i c t u r e s and the F u t u r e H i s t o r i a n , " p. 109. 20 20 C h r i s t o p h e r H. Roads, " F i l m as H i s t o r i c a l E v i d e n c e , " J o u r n a l o f the S o c i e t y of A r c h i v i s t s 3 (1966), p. 184. 21 ' I b i d . 22 W i l l i a m Hughes, "The e v a l u a t i o n o f f i l m as e v i d e n c e , " i n The h i s t o r i a n and f i l m , e d i t e d by P a u l Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), pp. 55-56. 2 3 I b i d . , p. 56. 24 ^Penelope Houston, "The Nature o f the E v i d e n c e , " S i g h t and Sound 36 (1967), p. 90. 25 J.A.S. G r e n v i l l e and N i c h o l a s Pronay, "The H i s t o r i a n and H i s t o r i c a l F i l m s , " U n i v e r s i t y . V i s i o n 1 (1 968), p. 3. E l t o n , " F i l m as Source M a t e r i a l f o r H i s t o r y , " pp. 209-210. 27 I b i d . , p. 210. 28 M a r t i n A. J a c k s o n , " F i l m as a Source M a t e r i a l : Some P r e l i m i n a r y Notes Toward a Methodology," J o u r n a l o f I n t e r d i s c i - p l i n a r y H i s t o r y 4 (1973), p. 78. 29 S t u a r t Samuels and Robe r t Rosen, "Film- and the H i s t o r i a n , " American H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r 11 (1973), p. 33. 3C 31 F r a n s Nieuwenhof, "The Relevance of A u d i o v i s u a l Mass Communication f o r the H i s t o r i a n , " i n S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r y , F i l m and S o c i e t y 1: H i s t o r y and the A u d i o - V i s u a l Media, e d i t e d by K a r s t e n F l e d e l i u s , e t a l (Copenhagen: - "Eve n t u s , 1~979)» p. 311. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 316. 3 3 Hughes, "The e v a l u a t i o n of f i l m as e v i d e n c e , " p. 4-9. 3 4 P i e r r e S o r l i n , The F i l m i n H i s t o r y : R e s t a g i n g the P a s t ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1980), p. 28. 3 0 I b i d . , pp. 3 2 - 3 3 . CHAPTER I I I THE MOVING IMAGE DOCUMENT AND SOCIETAL REFLECTION In today's v i s u a l l y - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y the c r e a t i o n o f images and t h e i r mass consumption has become an i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y . The moving image r e c o r d has e v o l v e d i n t o a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d medium capable of r e c o r d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about r e a l e v e n t s , and about s o c i e t y and i t s p e r c e p t i o n o f i t - s e l f . The medium f u n c t i o n s i n a m u l t i - f a c e t e d r o l e stemming from i t s c o n t e x t of i n v e n t i v e c r e a t i o n , i t s c a p a c i t y to c r e a t e an image of s o c i e t y and a l s o p r o j e c t the image back to s o c i e t y , and the degree of i n f l u e n c e i t w i e l d s over the v i e w i n g a u d i e n c e . F i l m has the a b i l i t y to r e f l e c t , d i s t o r t and a f f e c t the way i n which s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e s contemporary i s s u e s , and i t s e l f . The r e f l e c t e d image has the p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s t o r t i o n , and i t i s t h i s c h a r a c - t e r i s t i c which has r e s u l t e d i n a good d e a l of d i s t r u s t d i r e c t e d a t the medium both as a r e c o r d e r of e m p i r i c a l l y " r e a l " events and as a p u r v e y o r of works o f c r e a t i v e imagination.•> Both a c t u a l i t y and f e a t u r e f i l m can be viewed as a r e f l e c t i o n of a g i v e n s o c i e t y a t a p a r t i c u l a r moment, and a l t h o u g h both are i n h e r e n t l y b i a s e d i n one way or a n o t h e r , they remain v a l u a b l e i f l a r g e l y untapped r e s o u r c e s f o r h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i e t a l , and c u l t u r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The type of f i l m r e c o r d t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d by the h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r t o be the most r e l i a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h p ur- poses i s t h a t o f a c t u a l t i y f i l m , or f i l m t h a t p u r p o r t s to convey an a c c u r a t e r e c o r d of r e a l i t y as i t was r e c o r d e d by the camera. 22 H i s t o r i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , the most common form of a c t u a l i t y f i l m i s the n e w s r e e l . D u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c e n t u r y n e w s r e e l s packaged c u r r e n t events i n t o an e x t r e m e l y r i g i d and s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m a t which r e a c h e d a wide v i e w i n g p u b l i c . W h i l e the n e w s r e e l was once a major source of news and i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a l a r g e num- ber of p e o p l e , i t i s today r e g a r d e d as a h i g h l y b i a s e d and d i s - t o r t e d source o f r e c o r d f i l m , due to i t s l i m i t a t i o n o f coverage and m a n i p u l a t i o n of c o n t e n t . In a d d i t i o n to examining the na- t u r e of the n e w s r e e l ' s d i s t o r t i o n and p r o p a g a n d i z i n g , perhaps one of the main v a l u e s o f the n e w s r e e l as a source of a c t u a l i t y f i l m i s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o view what contemporary cinema a u d i e n c e s 1 a c t u a l l y saw t h e m s e l v e s . Newsreels have come t o be r e g a r d e d as b e i n g b i a s e d towards the e n t e r t a i n i n g r a t h e r than the e d u c a t i o n a l or i n f o r m a t i v e . Many of the n e w s r e e l companies were s u b s i d i a r i e s of the f e a t u r e f i l m c o n g l o m e r a t e s , and i t was the f e a t u r e f i l m w i t h i t s p o t e n - t i a l f o r monetary g a i n t h a t the conglomerates were concerned w i t h p r o m o t i n g . Hence the n e w s r e e l p r e c e d i n g the f e a t u r e was s u b j e c t e d t o a c e r t a i n amount of s e l f - i m p o s e d c e n s o r s h i p by the i n d u s t r y , i n o r d e r to p r e s e n t t o p i c s c a l c u l a t e d n ot to annoy the customers,.or to i n f l a m e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . . . . The n e w s r e e l s show .us today what t h e i r p r o d u c e r s thought y e s t e r d a y ' s a u d i e n c e s wanted to see as e n t e r - t a i n m e n t ; the n e w s r e e l i s a l s o a p r i m a r y source f o r what the c o n t r o l l i n g e l i t e , whether t h r o u g h f o r m a l c e n s o r s h i p or t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l i n f l u e n c e , wanted the movie a u d i e n c e s - the p o p u l a r masses - to know or b e l i e v e . . . . I t was e n t e r t a i n m e n t and n o t educa- t i o n t h a t m o t i v a t e d the. newsreel. makers. Humourist Oscar Levant has d e s c r i b e d the n e w s r e e l g e n e r i c a l l y 23 as "a s e r i e s of c a t a s t r o p h e s , ended by a f a s h i o n show," a view which seems i n d i c a t i v e of some s o r t of p o p u l a r consensus. In 1937 a Paramount news e d i t o r o f f e r e d an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s phenomenon: The t h e a t r e managers who have t o show our n e w s r e e l s do not t h i n k t h e i r f u n c t i o n i s to educate. They go to g r e a t e f f o r t i n t h e i r t h e a t r e s to s e t up the de- s i r e d atmosphere of romance, h a p p i n e s s , music and s o f t l i g h t , and a l o n g comes.a n e w s r e e l w i t h the l a t e s t r a c e , r i o t or something e l s e t h a t makes the audience h o t . 4 As an e n t e r t a i n m e n t i t e m , n e w s r e e l s were f o r c e d to c o n c e n t r a t e on the c e r e m o n i a l s i d e of l i f e , w i t h the emphasis on " s p o r t s , f a d s and f a s h i o n s , p a r a d e s , b a t h i n g b e a u t i e s , s h i p l a u n c h i n g s , 5 and mere c u r i o s i t i e s . " W h i l e such s u b j e c t s may not always be what the h i s t o r i a n i s seeking,, n e w s r e e l s may c o n s t i t u t e a r i c h s ource of documentation c o n c e r n i n g p o p u l a r i n f l u e n c e s upon p u b l i c t a s t e and a t t i t u d e , as w e l l as a r i c h source f o r documenting contemporary t r e n d s i n s e l f - i m p o s e d c e n s o r s h i p . The n e w s r e e l may a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as a form of mass communication and s t u - d i e d f o r i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s as such. The e d i t i n g o f "news" it e m s i n t o an e n t e r t a i n m e n t package s h o u l d l e a d a r e s e a r c h e r to t r e a t n e w s r e e l s .as d i s t o r t e d or " d i r e c t e d " images of s o c i e t y , r a t h e r than as s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a - 6 t i o n s of h i s t o r i c a l " f a c t . " The r e s e a r c h e r u s i n g n e w s r e e l s as source m a t e r i a l needs to c o n s i d e r the elements of s e l e c t i o n , omissionriand s equencing t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to the e v o l u t i o n of a news " s t o r y , " as w e l l as the s u b j e c t i v e and p o s s i b l y m i s l e a d i n g n a t u r e of v o i c e - o v e r commentary. A f u r t h e r element c o n t r i b u t i n g to d i s t o r t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s 21 what C h r i s t o p h e r Roads r e f e r s to as a " b i a s towards a r e c o r d 7 of what o c c u r r e d by day under r e a s o n a b l e weather c o n d i t i o n s , " d rawing a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t f i l m i s a v u l n e r a b l e and ephemeral medium and i s thus b e t t e r s u i t e d t e c h n i c a l l y to p e r i o d s of calm and f a v o u r a b l e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s f a c t o f t e n works a g a i n s t the s u r v i v a l of r e c o r d s made i n the arenas of war and n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r . The v e r y p r e s e n c e of t h e .camera i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n may5 a l s o r e s u l t i n a c e r t a i n amount of d i s t o r t i o n . . A r t h u r Marwick, however, f e e l s the camera has an i m p o r t a n t i n v o l u n t a r y f u n c t i o n i n r e c o r d i n g an event, however b i a s e d the message i t i n t e n t i o n - g a l l y w i shes to convey. Where newsreel.s are concerned, Mar- wick s t a t e s t h a t "the message t h a t such a f i l m wishes to put f o r w a r d i s d e s c r i b e d as 'the w i t t i n g t e s t i m o n y , ' arid the term used to d e s c r i b e the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n a f i l m might con- Q t a i n i s 'the u n w i t t i n g t e s t i m o n y . ' " U n w i t t i n g t e s t i m o n y c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y i n c l u d e such f e a t u r e s as the p h y s i c a l e n v i r - onment, l i f e s t y l e s , and p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r , p o r t r a i t u r e ( t h a t i s , how p e o p l e a c t u a l l y appeared a t a g i v e n t i m e ) , the c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s , , and what Marwick 1 0 r e f e r s to as the " c r a s h c o u r s e " f u n c t i o n o f a r c h i v a l f o o t a g e , a l l u d i n g to f i l m ' s p o t e n t i a l to r e v e a l . i n an i n s t a n t what would r e q u i r e pages i n p r i n t . The n a t u r e o f u n w i t t i n g t e s t i m o n y r e i n f o r c e s the camera's c a p a c i t y to f u n c t i o n as a n e u t r a l obser- ve r i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . As a " w i t n e s s to the c a t a s t r o p h i c events of our epoch, i t r e t a i n s a l e v e l of o b j e c t i v i t y t h a t i s 11 o f t e n beyond the c a p a c i t y of the a g i t a t e d human p a r t i c i p a n t . " Examples of t h i s can be s e e n n i n contemporary news coverage. 25 As a n e u t r a l r e c o r d e r o f v i s u a l images, a c t u a l i t y f i l m has the- f u r t h e r c a p a c i t y t o r e c o r d those s o c i a l groups t r a d i t i o n a l l y i g n o r e d u n t i l r e c e n t l y by c o n v e n t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s . The h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r w i l l s u r e l y b e n e f i t from f i l m ' s a b i l i t y t o c a p t u r e t h e ' c u l t u r e and i c o n o g r a p h y of the "man i n the s t r e e t , " the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , women and c h i l d r e n ; i n s h o r t , those s o c i a l groups who have f o r the most p a r t been de- p r i v e d of a w r i t t e n h i s t o r y . A c t u a l i t y f i l m a l s o has a s i m i l a r r o l e to p l a y i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s . At the o p p o s i t e end o f the spectrum l i e s the p o t e n t i a l of a c t u a l i t y f i l m t o c r e a t e symbols e v o c a t i v e of a p a r t i c u l a r e r a . "Cameramen have p r o v i d e d us w i t h a k i n d o f sh o r t h a n d v i s u a l imagery f o r t h i s c e n t u r y : a B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s means a crowd i n the r a i n o u t s i d e Number Ten; the D e p r e s s i o n means c l o t h - c a p p e d men on s t r e e t c o r n e r s ; the G e n e r a l S t r i k e , a shot o f i d l e machinery or empty r a i l w a y l i n e s ; the B a t t l e o f B r i t a i n , t h a t shot from F i r e s Were S t a r t e d o f f i r e - h o s e s s n a k i n g 1 p away down a London s t r e e t a f t e r a r a i d . " The power o f f i l m t o f a s h i o n such p o t e n t v i s u a l imagery f o r an age has i n f l u e n c e d us t o such a degree t h a t i t has become d i f f i c u l t t o e n v i s i o n the e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y i n a n y t h i n g o t h e r than b l a c k and w h i t e . I t i s t h i s power which makes a c t u a l i t y f i l m a d i f f i c u l t h i s t o r i c a l source t o d i s m i s s , whatever i t s s h o r t c o m i n g s as an u n b i a s e d r e c o r d . A p a r t from contemporary n e w s f i l m , and w i t h the demise of the n e w s r e e l , the most common form of a c t u a l i t y f i l m b e i n g p r o - duced today i s the documentary. The Fre n c h who f i r s t used the term documentaire were r e f e r r i n g t o t r a v e l o g u e s or educa- 26 t i o n a l t r a v e l f i l m s . The term "documentary" was f i r s t used i n t he contemporary sense by John G r i e r s o n , i n an anonymous r e v i e w o f R o b e r t F l a h e r t y ' s Moana: "Being a v i s u a l a ccount of the d a i l y l i f e of a P o l y n e s i a n y o u t h , . . . the f i l m has 1L 15 documentary v a l u e . " H " F o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d n o n - f i c t i o n f i l m s " g r a d u a l l y came to be d e s c r i b e d as "the c r e a t i v e t r e a t m e n t of 1 6 a c t u a l i t y . " " C r e a t i v e " s h o u l d perhaps be c o n s i d e r e d the o p e r a t i v e term h e r e , f o r r e g a r d l e s s of the f i l m m a k e r ' s i n t e n - t i o n s , some degree of b i a s i s always i m p a r t e d t o the documentary f i l m . " F o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d " i s a l s o a c r u c i a l term; documen- t a r i e s are not s i m p l y hundreds o f f e e t of f o o t a g e t a c k e d t o - ge t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y . They are o r g a n i z e d and s t r u c t u r e d i n a manner t h a t . w i l l b e s t s e r v e to promote the f i l m m a k e r ' s i n t e n - t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t documentaries a re c o m p i l e d from a c t u a l i t y f o o t a g e has o f t e n imbued them w i t h an.undeserved aura o f authen- t i c i t y and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . . Those who see t h r o u g h the veneer of " r e a l i t y " t h a t many documentaries p u r p o r t to convey, o f t e n r e a c t v i o l e n t l y t o the documentary's c l a i m of s u p e r i o r i t y over t h e . f i c t i o n f i l m . M a r c e l Ophuls, d i r e c t o r of. The Sorrow and the P i t y , w r i t e s : As I've p o i n t e d out whenever and wherever I can, documentaries - or whatever t h e i r d i r e c t o r s care to c a l l them - are j u s t not my;-/favorite k i n d of movie w a t c h i n g . The f a c t i s t h a t I don't t r u s t the l i t t l e b a s t a r d s . I don't t r u s t the m o t i v e s of those who t h i n k they a re s u p e r i o r t o f i c t i o n f i l m s , I don't t r u s t t h e i r c l a i m to have c o r n e r e d the market on t r u t h , I don't t r u s t t h e i r i n o r d i n a t e l y h i g h , and e n t i r e l y u n deserved, s t a t u s of b o u r g e o i s r e s p e c t a - b i l i t y . " 1 The extreme example of m a n i p u l a t i o n i n the .documentary 27 c o n t e x t i s the use o f the documentary format as a t o o l f o r s p r e a d i n g propaganda. W h i l e the h i s t o r i a n may p e r e m p t o r i l y d i s m i s s such f i l m as b e i n g b l a t a n t l y m a n i p u l a t i v e and a h i g h l y d i s t o r t e d v e r s i o n o f " r e a l i t y , " the propaganda f i l m can p r o v i d e s o c i e t a l i n s i g h t s o f a s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e . Propaganda f i l m s a re . . . c o n s c i o u s l y made to promote c e r t a i n g o a l s , to persuade, to u n i t e , and to s t i m u l a t e to a c t i o n . I t i s t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h i s p u r p o s i v e n e s s , which g i v e s to the propaganda f i l m i t s d i s t i n c t v a l u e f o r s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . . . . In the propaganda f i l m , the a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s o f a s o c i e t y , n o r m a l l y the backdrop f o r d r a m a t i c a c t i o n , come i n t o the f o r e g r o u n d to s t a n d naked f o r a n a l y s i s . 1 8 Another i s s u e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to propaganda i s t h a t of s p o n s o r s h i p , an element t h a t a l s o must be taken i n t o account when a s c e r t a i n i n g , the v e r a c i t y o f the f i l m r e c o r d . Sponsor- s h i p has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been more of an i s s u e w i t h the documen- t a r y and c o m p i l a t i o n f i l m than w i t h the f e a t u r e f i l m i n d u s t r y , as n e i t h e r the documentary or c o m p i l a t i o n a re p a r t i c u l a r l y commercial i n nature.. Because of t h i s f a c t , an element of compromise i n the form o f s p o n s o r s h i p has o f t e n e n t e r e d i n t o t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . C o n s i d e r e d as r e c o r d f i l m , sponsored f i l m does p r o v i d e some degree of i n s i g h t i n t o the mot i v e s of the s p o n s o r i n g i n t e r e s t by " r e v e a l i n g the views which they wanted 1 9 the p u b l i c to h o l d on the v i t a l i s s u e s o f the day." F i l m would seem to p o s s e s s the c a p a c i t y f o r r e c o r d i n g a s p e c t s of r e a l i t y , w i t h a degree of v e r a c i t y u n p a r a l l e l e d i n the t e x t u a l r e c o r d . By the same token i t p o s s e s s e s an almost e q u a l c a p a c i t y f o r f a l s i f i c a t i o n : 28 C o n t r a r y to some p o p u l a r l y h e l d b e l i e f s the camera does l i e and i t can l i e . v e r y c o n s i s t e n t l y and f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y . I t i s t h i s f a c i l i t y t h a t f i l m has f o r n o t t e l l i n g the t r u t h w h ich c r e a t e s the g r e a t e s t abuse of f i l m as an h i s - t o r i c a l source.20 A l l documents i n v i t e f a l s i f i c a t i o n . The f i l m r e c o r d , because of the number of hands i n v o l v e d i n i t s c r e a t i o n and i t s manner of p r o d u c t i o n , has l o n g been r e g a r d e d by h i s t o r i a n s w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of s u s p i c i o n . One of the major r e a s o n s f o r t h i s s u s p i c i o n , and one o f theiamore f r e q u e n t a r e a s of abuse i n a c t u a l i t y f i l m i s the use of s t o c k - s h o t s , w herein a t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d shot i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the r e a l t h i n g ( u s u a l l y f o r r e a s o n s of convenience and expense, and not n e c e s s a r i l y to d e l i b e r a t e l y m i s l e a d ) , w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g i n g the source or the m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n v o l v e d . S t o c k - s h o t s have a l o n g h i s t o r y o f use and abuse i n a l l t y p e s of f i l m s , as do r e c o n - s t r u c t i o n sequences, whereby an attempt i s made to r e - e n a c t an h i s t o r i c event w i t h o u t a c knowledging i t s removal from r e a l i t y . Such p a t t e r n s o f f a l s i f i c a t i o n have confounded h i s t o r i a n s f o r y e a r s , l e a d i n g many to advocate methods of i d e n t i f y i n g the o f f e n d i n g s h o t s and sequences. C h r i s t o p h e r Roads has sugges- t e d f i l m m a k e r s employ c o l o u r t i n t i n g o f r e c o n s t r u c t e d sequences, 21 to d i s t i n g u i s h them from a c t u a l r e c o r d f i l m . Penelope Houston adv o c a t e s the use of f o o t n o t e s to accompany c o m p i l a t i o n f i l m s f o r the same purpose. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d , n ot a l l o w e d to masquerade as the r e a l t h i n g . D o u b t f u l a t t r i b u t i o n s might be acknowledged; d i s t i n c t i o n s might be drawn between f i r s t h a n d m a t e r i a l which can.be e x a c t l y i d e n - t i f i e d , and m a t e r i a l which has a l r e a d y been put t h rough one p r o p a g a n d i s t mincer or a n o t h e r . . . . . 29 H i s t o r i a n W i l l i a m H. M c N e i l l i s even more adamant on t h i s p o i n t , which he c a r r i e s to i t s somewhat i l l o g i c a l extreme: "Only i f an h i s t o r i c a l i d e a i s used to d i c t a t e how. f o o t a g e s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d and s e l e c t e d can the wisdom and i n s i g h t of our p r o - 23 f e s s i o n f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h i s k i n d o f f i l m m a k i n g . " A s i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t i s echoed by J.A.S.. G r e n v i l l e and N i c h o l a s Pronay: " I d e a l l y both the ' t e c h n i c a l 1 and ' s c h o l a r l y ' h a l v e s o f . . . a f i l m p r o j e c t s h o u l d both be h i s t o r i a n s by t r a i n i n g . " 2 Perhaps the most extreme view on t h i s p o i n t i s t h a t e x p r e s s e d by F r i t z Terveen, who s t a t e s t h a t an a n a l y s i s o f form and t e c h - n i q u e s h o u l d be determined f o r every s h o t , . . . and must be a t t a c h e d as accompanying t e x t or c r i t i c a l a p p a r a t u s i n a w r i t t e n form i n o r d e r to enable i t to be used f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . Only thus can a sequence of shots..be p l a c e d e x a c t l y i n i t s a p p r o p r i a t e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . T h i s i s a t a s k which can be c a r r i e d out o n l y by the h i s t o r i a n i n ? c. c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h s c i e n t i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d e x p e r t s . The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n has o u t l i n e d what c o n s t i t u t e s -the most common form of abuse i n r e c o r d f i l m , t h a t of the f a l s i f i - c a t i o n o f the f i l m r e c o r d which i s p r e s e n t e d as a r e p r e s e n t a - t i o n of " r e a l i t y . " At the o t h e r end o f the spectrum t h e r e i s a c o n f u s i n g s i t u a t i o n which o c c u r s when shots are e x t r a c t e d from f i c t i o n a l f i l m s and p r e s e n t e d as h i s t o r i c a l f a c t . T h i s s i t u a t i o n more t y p i c a l l y a r i s e s w i t h a h i s t o r i c a l r e - c r e a t i o n f i l m such as E i s e n s t e i n ' s S t r i k e (1924.), which l o o k s so o l d and " r e a l " t h a t i t has become imbued w i t h a f a l s e a u r a of a u t h e n t i c i t y . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n a c e r t a i n amount of con- f u s i o n and has p r o p a g a t e d a c o n t i n u e d p a t h o l o g y of abuse: 30 "Sequences from .his ( E i s e n s t e i n . ' s ) h i s t o r i c a l r e c r e a t i o n s of r e v o l u t i o n a r y R u s s i a have been p r e s e n t e d , i n documentary and 2 6 c o m p i l a t i o n f i l m s as a u t h e n t i c f o o t a g e . " Another case i n v o l v e s f o o t a g e supposedly of the R u s s i a n R e v o l t o f 1905 d e p i c t i n g the events o f "Bloody Sunday" (09 Ja n u a r y , 1905). In r e a l i t y , the f o o t a g e was from a 1925 f i l m , 9 th o f Ja n u a r y , by V.K. V i s k o v s k i j . The complete 1925 f i l m was not d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l 1956, r e v e a l i n g a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f misuse o f the Bloody Sunday f o o t a g e as a c t u a l f o o t a g e . o f an h i s t o r i c a l event. I f a r e s e a r c h e r i s a t t e m p t i n g to seek out and compensate f o r a r e a s o f abuse and d i s t o r t i o n , or to . a s c e r t a i n a f i l m m a k e r ' s p a r t i c u l a r mode of s e l e c t i v i t y , i t may be of b e n e f i t to c o n s u l t p r e c i s e l y t h a t f o o t a g e which i s abs:ent from the f i n a l e d i t e d form. A good d e a l more f o o t a g e i s shot than u l t i m a t e l y appears on s c r e e n , and i t i s sometimes the e x c i s e d f o o t a g e t h a t may be of more h i s t o r i c a l . i n t e r e s t t o the r e s e a r c h e r . The e x i s t e n c e o f such o u t - t a k e m a t e r i a l (known s i m p l y as " o u t s " i n the i n d u s t r y ) can p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e e v i d e n c e i n order, t o c o n s t r u c t a more com- p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e of the f i l m e d event. The removed f o o t a g e may have been e x c i s e d f o r reasons of p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l s e n s i - t i v i t y , as w e l l as f o r the more mundane reaso n s o f l e n g t h or t e c h n i c a l i n a d e q u a c i e s . Whatever the r e a s o n s , t h i s type of ma- t e r i a l , i f a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n , s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d by the r e s e a r c h e r s e e k i n g to complement e x i s t i n g f o o t a g e . 31 In c o n t r a s t to a c t u a l i t y f i l m , f i c t i o n a l f i l m , c o n s t i t u t i n g the c r e a t i v e t r e a t m e n t of some s i t u a t i o n or e vent, e i t h e r r e a l or i m a g i n e d , demands a c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t approach on the p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h e r to e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n c a p t u r e d i n the p r o c e s s of c o n s c i o u s or u n c o n s c i o u s s o c i e t a l r e f l e c t i o n . L i k e a c t u a l i t y f i l m , the f i c t i o n a l or f e a t u r e f i l m has the c a p a c i t y to both r e f l e c t and d i s t o r t v a r i o u s , f a c e t s of " r e a l i t y . " In the case of the f e a t u r e f i l m , the r e f l e c t i o n a p p l i e s to the v a l u e systems and a t t i t u d e s o f s o c i e t y , as w e l l as to more o v e r t i c o n o g r a p h i c a l d i s p l a y s . The v a l u e o f the f i c t i o n a l f i l m may not l i e i n what the h i s t o r i a n would n e c e s s a r i l y con- s i d e r to be s t r i c t l y " h i s t o r i c a l , " , but r a t h e r i n a broader sense of s o c i e t a l and c u l t u r a l documentation. A r t h u r E l t o n a d v o c a t e s an approach to the f e a t u r e f i l m w hich p o s i t s i t as a v a l u a b l e a r t e f a c t o f p o p u l a r c u l t u r e , e x i s t i n g w i t h i n an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t : The f i c t i o n f i l m g i v e s a c l u e to the p o i n t o f view of i t s t i m e , and the p o p u l a r a t t i t u d e towards l i f e . F i c t i o n f i l m s are t o d a y ' s f o l k l o r e , and w i l l be as u s e f u l to the h i s t o r i a n , or a t l e a s t t o the a n t h r o - p o l o g i s t , as the b a l l a d and the f a i r y t a l e . ° R e f l e c t i o n i n the f e a t u r e f i l m can t a k e many forms, and can o p e r a t e on many l e v e l s , from u n c o n s c i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f p r e - v a i l i n g s o c i e t a l concerns to s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f propaganda, r a n g i n g from m i l d s u a s i o n to b l a t a n t c o e r c i o n . As i n the a c t u a l i t y f i l m , the f e a t u r e f i l m can bear u n w i t t i n g t e s t i m o n y to immutable p h y s i c a l " t r u t h s . " For example, on the s t r i c t l y p h y s i c a l l e v e l , the camera may c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s - l y c a p t u r e the i c o n o g r a p h y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the environment. 32 In the course o f t h e i r s p a t i a l conquests , f i l m s o f f i c t i o n and f i l m s o f f a c t a l i k e c a p t u r e Innumerable components o f the w o r l d they m i r r o r : huge mass d i s - p l a y s , c a s u a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of human b o d i e s and i n a n i - mate o b j e c t s and an e n d l e s s s u c c e s s i o n of u n o b t r u s i v e phenomena. As a ma t t e r of f a c t , the s c r e e n shows i t s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h the u n o b t r u s i v e , the n o r m a l l y n e g l e c t e d . 2 9 In a d d i t i o n to c a p t u r i n g the p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y of a g i v e n s o c i e t y a t a g i v e n t i m e , the s u b j e c t matter o f f i c t i o n a l f i l m can f u n c - t i o n as a barometer f o r c u r r e n t p u b l i c concerns and the p r e v a i l - i n g a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g these c o n c e r n s . Whether or not such i n f o r m a t i o n can be r e g a r d e d as " h i s t o r i c a l f a c t " i s l i k e l y t o be the s t u m b l i n g b l o c k a s . f a r as h i s t o r i a n s are concerned. P a u l Smith laments the u n f o r t u n a t e tendency of h i s t o r i a n s t o seek out o n l y the ty p e s of f i l m s which, p u r p o r t to p r e s e n t f a c t and " r e a l i t y ; " the f i c t i o n f i l m i s " h e l d to be of i t s na- t u r e a n t i t h e t i c a l t o f a c t and r e a l i t y , t o be make-believe and i n v e n t i o n , i n which f a c t and r e a l i t y can be shadowed but not 30 d i r e c t l y conveyed." F i c t i o n f i l m n o t o n l y s u f f e r s from the s o - c a l l e d s tigma of c r e a t i v e i n v e n t i o n , but a l s o from a l o n g t r a d i t i o n of t r i v i a l i t y r e s u l t i n g from i t s w i d e s p r e a d d i s s e m i n a t i o n t h r o u g h - out the s t r a t a of s o c i e t y . I t has a l r e a d y been remarked t h a t contemporary s o c i e t y e x h i b i t s an u n f o r t u n a t e p r o c l i v i t y towards m a r g i n a l i s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of p r o d u c t s o f p o p u l a r c u l t u r e because o f t h e i r mass a p p e a l . The c o n t i n u e d t r a d i t i o n of p u s h i n g such mass phenomena as p o p u l a r music and f i l m to the 33 p e r i p h e r y of contemporary h i s t o r y has caused f i l m to have been r e c o g n i z e d as a p o p u l a r phenomenon w h i l e i t has l a r g e - l y been d i s m i s s e d as an h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e . Because of t h i s , o n l y a c t u a l i t y f i l m has g a i n e d some r e s p e c t f o r i t s e l f as a p u r v e y o r o f h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e , w h i l e "the f i c t i o n f i l m has borne l o n g e r and more d e e p l y than o t h e r types of f i l m the s t i g - ma of b e i n g merely- t r i v i a l and ephemeral p o p u l a r e n t e r t a i n m e n t , a v e h i c l e of d i v e r s i o n and escape f o r uneducated or semi-edu- c a t e d masses b r u t a l i s e d by t h e i r t o i l , which c o u l d have no 31 r e l e v a n c e to the concerns of s e r i o u s h i s t o r y . " Only the h i s t o r i c a l re-enactment has been c o n s i d e r e d to f a l l w i t h i n the h i s t o r i a n ' s sphere of i n t e r e s t , but t h i s too has u s u a l l y been 32 r e j e c t e d as " f a l s i f y i n g and d i s t o r t i n g h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y . " The s o - c a l l e d "problem" of r e l a t i n g the c o n t e n t of f i l m s to r e a l i t y i s not c o n f i n e d to f i c t i o n f i l m s , but a p p l i e s to a l l c a t e g o r i e s of f i l m , and thus s h o u l d not be t o u t e d as a. r e a s o n f o r i g n o r i n g the f i c t i o n a l f i l m as an h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e . F i l m does not always p u r p o s i v e l y attempt to r e f l e c t r e a l i t y , 33 but more o f t e n than not " r e f r a c t s " i t . In o r d e r to u t i l i z e f i c t i o n a l f i l m as source m a t e r i a l a broader framework of r e f e r e n c e i s needed. The f e a t u r e f i l m must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of i t s c r e a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n as w e l l as i t s r e c e p t i o n i n o r d e r to r e a l i z e i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l and maximize the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be gleaned from i t . Of c o u r s e , the same can be s a i d of c o n v e n t i o n a l t e x t u a l documentation. 3A I t i s a fundamental p r i n c i p l e of h i s t o r i c a l work t h a t documents are e v i d e n c e not o n l y of a more or l e s s mediated r e a l i t y to which they have e x p l i c i t r e f e r - ence but a l s o of the p r o c e s s of m e d i a t i o n i t s e l f and of the m e n t a l i t y and i n t e n t of t h e i r o r i g i n a t o r s , as w e l l , perhaps, as of t h e i r r e c e i v e r s . . . . F i l m i t s e l f i s a p a r t o f r e a l i t y , and f i l m s are the p r o - d u c t s of r e a l a c t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s , mental and p h y s i c a l , capable of e x e r c i s i n g r e a l i n f l u e n c e on those who see them. The r e a l i t y c o n s t i t u t e d by f i l m i s j u s t as much a p r o p e r o b j e c t of the h i s t o r - i a n ' s Q a t t e n t i o n as t h a t a p p a r e n t l y p e r c e i v e d on f i l m . ^ 4 C o n s i d e r i n g f i c t i o n l f i l m as the p r o d u c t of a m e d i a t i o n p r o - c e s s , a c r u c i a l f a c t o r to take i n t o account i s t h a t of whose a t t i t u d e s are b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i n the f i l m p r o d u c t . F i l m i s n o t so much an i n d i v i d u a l a r t , a l t h o u g h f i l m s are made by i n d i v i d u a l f i l m m a k e r s , as a c o r p o r a t e a r t , and the p r o d u c t of a community. To t h i s end, t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the concept of a n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , as r e f l e c t e d i n a n a t i o n ' s f i l m i c o u t p u t . T h i s concept i s i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to the a u t e u r t h e o r y , which has t r a d i t i o n - a l l y c o n c e i v e d of f i l m s as the e x c l u s i v e p r o d u c t s of an i n d i - v i d u a l , "seen as e x i s t i n g l a r g e l y o u t s i d e h i s t o r y , e x p r e s s i n g a v i s i o n which owed l i t t l e t o s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s , to g e o g r a p h i - 35 c a l or p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s . " Edward Buscombe argues a g a i n s t t h i s t h e o r y , s t a t i n g t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s c r e a t i n g the f i l m s , r e g a r d l e s s of how unique t h e i r v i s i o n , have themselves been formed In a s o c i a l p r o c e s s . "American f i l m s are n e i t h e r sim- p l y the unmediated e x p r e s s i o n of a c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , nor i n d i v i d u a l a c t s o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , but the p r o d u c t s o f 35 some p o s s i b l y r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two." On the o t h e r hand, P a u l Smith f e e l s f i l m s need to be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the framework of a c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s - ness i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n n o t o n l y some i d e a of how f i l m s were 0 7 c r e a t e d , but a l s o how they impacted upon t h e i r a u d i e n c e s . He goes on to a s s e r t t h a t i t w i l l n o t s u f f i c e to s i m p l y de- t e c t f i l m s i l l u s t r a t i v e of s o c i e t y ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n s , but t h a t i t i s " n e c e s s a r y to go f u r t h e r and to examine what i t i s t h a t t h e i r s p e c i f i c appearance i n f i l m can t e l l us about the provenance, n a t u r e , d i s s e m i n a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e o f those o o i d e a s . " Smith o f f e r s no answers, but f e e l s i t i s i m p o r t a n t to a t l e a s t ask how f i l m s can h e l p h i s t o r i a n s t o d e f i n e , l o - 39 c a t e , mediate and d i s s e m i n a t e such i d e a s . Buscombe does not b e l i e v e i n the i d e a of a n a t i o n a l con- s c i o u s n e s s , and c i t e s the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s i n Ameria which H o l l y w o o d has p e r p e t u a t e d r a t h e r than t r a n s c e n d e d , such as the " n o r t h e r n and p r o t e s t a n t t r a d i t i o n , " ^ which has r e s u l t e d i n a s e p a r a t e c i n e m a t i c t r a d i t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y groups. On the s u b j e c t of c l a s s d i v i s i o n s , the assumption t h a t f i l m was c r e - a t e d as a mass • e n t e r t a i n m e n t p a n d e r i n g to the " o r d i n a r y " ma- j o r i t y i s a l s o r e j e c t e d by Buscombe, who s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e as to whether mid d l e and w o r k i n g c l a s s e s i n f a c t a t t e n d e d the same f i l m s , and whether Hollywood was a c t i n g on the demands of a s i n g l e audience or a d i v i d e d one. D u r i n g the heyday of Hol l y w o o d i n the f i r s t h a l f of t h i s c e n t u r y , those i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of f i l m s , or i n the r e g u l a - 36 t o r y i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g f i l m p r o d u c t i o n and c o n t e n t , h a i l e d m o s t l y from the middle' c l a s s , as d i d the c r i t i c s who / 2 r e v i e w e d the f i l m s . These f a c t s , a c c o r d i n g t o Buscombe, p o i n t to the absence of any s o r t of c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o p e r a t i v e b e h i n d the c r e a t i o n of American f i l m s . The s e m i n a l work i n t h i s a r e a i s s t i l l S i e g f r i e d K r a c a u e r ' s s t u d y o f German f i l m from.1918 to 1933, which has been blamed f o r " h e l p i n g b r i n g on H i t l e r through sheer m o r b i d i t y . " K r a - cauer w r i t e s : " I t i s my c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f the German f i l m s deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n s predominant i n Germany from T.91 8 to 1 933 can be exposed - d i s p o s i t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e d the course of events d u r i n g t h a t , time and which w i l l have to be r e c k o n e d w i t h i n t h e p o s t - H i t l e r e r a . " 4 4 The e x p r e s s i o n i s t f i l m s made between the wars, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by morbid p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s u b j e c t s p r e s e n t e d i n a grotesque and h i g h l y s t y l i z e d manner, came to be e p i t o m i z e d by Das K a b i n e t t des Dr. C a l i g a r i (The C a b i n e t o f Dr.. C a l i g a r i , R o b e r t Wiene, 1 91 9) • The f i l m was d e s c r i b e d , by one c r i t i c as "the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t attempt a t the e x p r e s s i o n o f a., c r e a t i v e mind i n / 5 the medium of cinematography," w h i l e another c r i t i c w r o t e : I t has the odor of t a i n t e d f o o d . I t l e a v e s a t a s t e of c i n d e r s i n the mouth. 4 The n i g h t m a r i s h decor a n d . l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s of e x p r e s s i o n i s t f i l m sought t o " p o r t r a y s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s i n o b j e c t i v e terms, to r e n d e r not s i m p l y n a r r a t i v e s but s t a t e s of minds, moods, and atmosphere through the .medium of the p h o t o g r a p h i c image,. ... 37 The r e s u l t i n g f i l m s were f e l t by K r a c a u e r to expose the German s o u l i n a l l i t s d e p r a v i t y , u l t i m a t e l y to bear f r u i t i n the r i s e of H i t l e r . A c c o r d i n g to K r a c a u e r , What f i l m s r e f l e c t are not so much e x p l i c i t credos as p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n s - those deep l a y e r s of c o l l e c t i v e m e n t a l i t y which extend more or l e s s below the dimension o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Of c o u r s e , p o p u l a r magazines and broadcasts,, b e s t s e l l e r s , ads, f a s h i o n s i n language and o t h e r s e d i m e n t a r y p r o d u c t s of a p e o p l e ' s c u l t u r a l l i f e a l s o y i e l d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about predominant a t t i t u d e s , w i d e s p r e a d i n n e r t e n d e n c i e s . But the medium of thggScreen exceeds t h e s e s o u r c e s i n i n c l u s i v e n e s s . • An approach t o f e a t u r e f i l m a n t i t h e t i c a l to the i d e a of f i l m as a r e f l e c t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h a t which views f i l m as an escape v a l v e t h rough which s o c i e t y seeks r e l i e f from i t s overwhelming p r e s s u r e s and p r e o c c u p a t i o n s . Many argue a g a i n s t t h i s view, b e l i e v i n g t h a t even i n s e e k i n g r e l i e f from everyday p r e s s u r e s s o c i e t y w i l l u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e v e a l i t s i n n e r m o s t secrets.. Andrew S a r r i s c i t e s s o c i a l c r i - t i c s o f the l e f t who argue a g a i n s t j u s t such a t h e o r y . They s t a t e t h a t even the most e s c a p i s t f i l m s are r e v e a l i n g i n what they c o v e r t l y say about s o c i e t y . Hence the o l d K i n g Kong was presumed to be the u n c o n s c i o u s p r o d u c t o f Freud's C i v i l i z a t i o n and I t s D i s c o n t e n t s , whereas the new K i n g Kong has been r e p o r t e d l y programmed to i l l u s t r a t e Fanon's Wretched of the E a r t h . The Graduate was c o n s i d e r e d ' s i g n i f i c a n t ' p r e c i s e l y because i t evaded the i l l s of Vietnam, and poor C a l i g a r i was blamed by K r a c a u e r f o r h e l p i n g b r i n g on H i t l e r t h r o u g h sheer m o r b i d i t y . T h i s o p i n i o n i s backed up by Hugh Gray ( i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to 38 Andre B a z i n ' s What i s Cinema? v o l . 1, 1967), who sees i n the cinema the o p p o r t u n i t y to a n t i c i p a t e the u l t i m a t e c o n f r o n t a - 50 t i o n between man and a u t o m a t i o n . T h i s o p p o r t u n i t y w i l l o c c u r o n l y as l o n g as f i l m f u n c t i o n s i n the c a p a c i t y as a r e f l e c t o r and n o t merely as a p u r v e y o r of e s c a p i s t p l e a s u r e . Too many f o r too l o n g , n o t a b l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , have p r e f e r r e d to t h i n k of i t s i m p l y as an avenue of escape par e x c e l l e n c e from a h i g h - p r e s s u r e l i f e , f o r which we are ever s e e k i n g - a new w o r l d , as i t were, to l i v e i n . But such s o - c a l l e d p a t h s of es- cape, p l e a s a n t as they are to wander i n , are i n r e a l i t y each but a c u l - d e - s a c . The more we see the s c r e e n as a m i r r o r r a t h e r than an escape h a t c h , the more we w i l l be p r e p a r e d f o r what i s to come.5' R e t u r n i n g to the i s s u e of c o n s i d e r i n g f i l m as j u s t such a r e f l e c t o r , the q u e s t i o n to be asked i s e x a c t l y what i s the s c r e e n r e f l e c t i n g ? I t would seem to be r e f l e c t i n g the a t t i - tudes and v a l u e s o f some s o c i a l group, but t h e r e i s no easy or s i m p l e answer to the q u e s t i o n of whose a t t i t u d e s are ex- p r e s s e d i n f i l m s , or to what e x t e n t such a t t i t u d e s c o r r e s - pond to those o f s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . In the n a r r o w e s t sense, i t c o u l d be assumed t h a t the a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d are those of the s o c i a l a g g r e g a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of f i l m s , and i n the c o n t e x t o f the American mass f i l m , those a t t i t u d e s i n most cases would have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n the H o l l y - wood f i l m f a c t o r y . . The q u e s t i o n to be asked i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s to what e x t e n t do the a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s of Hollywood c o r r e s p o n d to those of s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l ? S o c i o l o g i s t Leo Rosten has s t u d i e d the H o l l y w o o d f i l m i n d u s t r y o f the 1930s and 1940s, and found H o l l y w o o d to be "an i n d e x o f our s o c i e t y 39 and our c u l t u r e , " c a s t i n g the v a l u e s of American s o c i e t y i n t o s t a r k r e l i e f . 1 Whether or n o t t h i s t e n e t i s a c c e p t e d , i t would appear l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t the c r e a t o r s o f a f i l m s h o u l d assume some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c o n t e n t of a f i l m , whether or not the c o n t e n t i s a r e f l e c t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l or s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . As a r e f l e c t o r o f s o c i e t y and a p u r v e y o r of a t t i t u d e s , f e a t u r e f i l m can be approached i n two ways, a c c o r d i n g to Eugene C. McCreary. I t can be c o n s i d e r e d as the work of one man, u s u a l l y the d i r e c t o r , whose t o t a l work can be examined to r e v e a l r e c u r r e n t themes, f o r m a l s t y l e s , and "elements of f i l m language r e v e l a t o r y of one man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the. , 5 3 s o c i e t y and eppoh i n which he l i v e s or l i v e d . " In t h i s approach, the r e s e a r c h e r must come to terms w i t h the r o l e o f the d i r e c t o r and h i s p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n as a d i s t i l l e r of- p u b l i c awareness: The d i r e c t o r ' s i s r a r e l y , i f e v e r , a s e m i n a l mind. H i s importance l i e s elsewhere - i n p o p u l a r i z a t i o n , i n v u l g a r i z a t i o n of contemporary i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r r e n t s , or i n b r i n g i n g to e s s e n t i a l l y mass a u d i e n c e s a h e i g h t e n e d awareness of a contemporary s i t u a t i o n and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . 54- Thus the d i r e c t o r i s c o n s i d e r e d as an i n d i v i d u a l shaped by s o c i e t y , and r e f l e c t i v e of the u n d e r c u r r e n t s o p e r a t i v e i n t h a t s o c i e t y , r a t h e r than as a c r e a t i v e and o r i g i n a l mind o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e the b o u n d a r i e s of s o c i e t y . McCreary's o t h e r approach i n v o l v e s an e x a m i n a t i o n of the t o t a l f i l m p r o d u c t i o n of a s o c i e t y a t a g i v e n moment, to r e v e a l a common body of a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and c o n c e r n s ; f i l m as a s o c i e t a l m i r r o r , as i t were./ F e a t u r e f i l m s can a l s o a c t r e f l e c t i v e l y i n a more s u b t l e manner, i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n as " i n d i c a t o r s of c o v e r t c u l t u r e 56 v a l u e s . " As a p r o d u c t of p o p u l a r c u l t u r e , f i l m can be s t u d i e d f o r what i t b e t r a y s both o v e r t l y and c o v e r t l y , some- times r e v e a l i n g u n d e r l y i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n s or t e n s i o n s t h rough c o v e r t v a l u e s i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o openly acknowledged v a l u e s . An example of t h i s can be seen i n the d e p i c t i o n o f b l a c k s i n e a r l y American f i l m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n D.W. G r i f f i t h ' s The B i r t h of a N a t i o n (1915), i n which m a l i c i o u s p o r t r a y a l s of r a c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s had to be e x c i s e d from the o r i g i n a l f i l m , w h i l e a t the same time t h e r e was no d e s i r e to p r e s e n t " a s s e r - 57 t i v e , competent, v i r i l e b l a c k h e r o e s . " The r e s u l t of t h i s c o n f l i c t between o v e r t and c o v e r t c u l t u r a l v a l u e s was the e v o l u t i o n o f the n e u t r a l , harmless image of the b l a c k , e p i - tomized, by the "Aunt Jemima" s t e r e o t y p e . As a medium o f r e f l e c t i o n , a m i r r o r of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s and i c o n o g r a p h y , f i l m as a v i s u a l r e c o r d needs to be s u b j e c t e d to s p e c i f i c a n a l y s e s i n o r d e r t o maximize the v a l u e of the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n . The major con- temporary approaches to the a n a l y s i s o f f i l m can be r o u g h l y c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , a c c o r d i n g to whether the a n a l y s i s i s c e n t e r e d on c o n t e n t or s t r u c t u r e . The s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s approach examines l a r g e r u n i t s o f c i n e m a t i c meaning, w h i l e the s i g n a n a l y s i s approach ( c e n t e r e d on c o n t e n t ) exa- mines s i n g l e u n i t s of meaning w i t h i n both the v i s u a l and 41 a u d i o components of f i l m (what K a r s t e n F l e d e l i u s r e f e r s to c o r e s p e c t i v e l y as the "macro-plane" and the " m i c r o - p l a n e " ) . A complete f i l m a n a l y s i s would have to combine both approaches. A c c o r d i n g to W i l l i a m Hughes, we r a r e l y e x p l o r e the con- 59 t e n t o f v i s u a l images beyond the l e v e l . o f mere r e c o g n i t i o n , and i g n o r e the c a p a c i t y of f i l m to p r e s e n t a p l e t h o r a o f imagery which can be s u b j e c t e d to the above o u t l i n e d forms of a n a l y s e s . F i l m c o n s i d e r e d as a r e c o r d e r of such images i s an i m p o r t a n t source o f s t u d y f o r s e m i o l o g i s t s , who a n a l y s e f i l m i n terms of the symbols i t c o n t a i n s . P e t e r W o l l e n ( i n h i s i n f l u e n t i a l S i g n s and Meaning in. the Cinema, 1 969), has borrowed a t r i c h o - tomy of c i n e m a t i c " s i g n s " from p h i l o s o p h e r C.S. P e i r c e : -The I c o n : a s i g n i n which the s i g n i f i e r r e p r e s e n t s the s i g n i f i e d m a i n l y by i t s s i m i l a r i t y to I t , i t s l i k e n e s s ; -The Index: which measures a q u a l i t y not because i t i s i d e n t i c a l to i t but'because i t has an i n h e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t ; -The Symbol: an a r b i t r a r y s i g n i n which the s i g n i f i e r has n e i t h e r a d i r e c t o r an i n d e x i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s i g n i f i e d , but r a t h e r r e p r e s e n t s i t through c o n v e n t i o n . 6 0 T h i s type o f f i l m a n a l y s i s has been termed a " s t r u c t u r a l i s t 61 r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the t h e o r y o f a u t h o r s h i p , " i n which " f i l m i s no l o n g e r posed as a communication but as an a r t e f a c t which i s u n c o n s c i o u s l y s t r u c t u r e d i n a c e r t a i n way; the a u t h o r i s no l o n g e r seen as the c r e a t i v e source but as an e f f e c t o f 62 the f i l m t e x t . " A c c o r d i n g to t h i s view, f i l m i s not so much a p r o d u c t to be consumed by c u l t u r e , but i s a p r o d u c t 4.2 o f meaning i n which the " r e a d i n g " of the f i l m i s emphasized. The s t r u c t u r a l approach seeks to p r o v i d e a l a r g e r frame- work w i t h i n which to p e r f o r m an a n a l y s i s of the m i c r o - p l a n e . The a n a l y s t l o o k s f o r p a t t e r n s or s t r u c t u r e s which impinge s i g - n i f i c a n t l y on f i l m c o n t e n t , p a t t e r n s which may or may n o t have been c o n s c i o u s l y i n c l u d e d by the f i l m m a k e r . In such a n a l y s i s the rhythm of the f i l m ' s e d i t e d s t r u c t u r e may a c t as a guide by e m p h a s i z i n g or a n t i c i p a t i n g key elements of e x p r e s s i o n or c o n t e n t . ^ In these a n a l y s e s , the r e f l e c t i v e n a t u r e of f i l m i s t a k e n as a given,, and t h i s n a t u r e i s e x p l o i t e d by s u b j e c - t i n g the v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d . w i t h i n a f i l m to r i g o r - ous s c r u t i n y and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A f u r t h e r avenue f o r the study of the f e a t u r e f i l m as a r e f l e c t i v e phenomenon i s t h a t of c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n s . The b o x - o f f i c e s u c c e s s i s o f t e n panned by c r i t i c s , w h i l e the b o x - o f f i c e f a i l u r e i s o f t e n o f more m e r i t i n terms of the c i n e m a t i c medium. Both the success and f a i l u r e can be s i g - n i f i c a n t i n documenting s o c i e t a l c o n c e r n s ; "whereas the excep- t i o n a l f i l m w i l l p o i n t to the s o f t s p o t s of a s o c i e t y , the u n e x c e p t i o n a l r u n - o f - t h e - m i l l movie t e s t i f i e s b r o a d l y to t h a t 65 s o c i e t y ' s p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic consensus." The term "consensus," however, c o n j u r e s up v i s i o n s o f S o v i e t R u s s i a and N a z i Germany and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e propaganda machines, which churned out f i l m s " i n d i c a t i v e of what the t o t a l i t a r i a n regime wanted i t s p o p u l a t i o n to b e l i e v e , r e i n f o r c i n g a c c e p t a b l e l a t e n t c o n v i c t i o n s a b o u t . o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g 43 the b a s i c i d e a l s and p o l i c i e s of the g o v e r n i n g e l i t e . " In S o v i e t R u s s i a , h i s t o r i o g r a p h y f o l l o w e d a development p a r a - l l e l e d by the d e p i c t i o n of R u s s i a n h i s t o r y i n f e a t u r e f i l m s . "The ' t r u t h of the p a s t ' was to be communicated to the p r e s e n t so t h a t R u s s i a ' s p e o p l e c o u l d be m o t i v a t e d by i t , as i n the 67 case o f S e r g e i E i s e n s t e i n ' s A l e x a n d e r Nevsky." R e t u r n i n g to the r o l e of the. box o f f i c e , i t would seem t h a t f i l m s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as p u r e l y unmediated r e f l e c - t i o n s of any s o r t of mass or i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s due to the c o n t e x t of t h e i r c r e a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n . In any d i s - c u s s i o n of f i l m as a r e f l e c t i v e medium, the r o l e of the box o f f i c e must be c o n s i d e r e d a c r i t i c a l element. The f i l m i n d u s - t r y i s a c o r p o r a t e a r t c o n c e r n e d . p r i m a r i l y w i t h monetary g a i n . Thus f i l m s are viewed more as a p r o d u c t than a r t , and moreover, as a p r o d u c t which must c a t e r to an e x i s t i n g market i n o r d e r to s e l l . I f the f i l m i n d u s t r y can be assumed to o p e r a t e under a system of p a t r o n a g e , the t i c k e t - b u y i n g p u b l i c would have to be c o n s i d e r e d the u l t i m a t e p a t r o n . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r to ensure i t s s u r v i v a l , the i n d u s t r y must of n e c e s s i t y concern i t s e l f w i t h p r o v i d i n g a s a t i s f y i n g p r o d u c t f o r i t s consumers. I t has l o n g been f e l t t h a t s uccess a t the box o f f i c e "was to be o b t a i n e d by g i v i n g the people what they wanted; i . e . something to which they c o u l d r e l a t e and which t h e r e f o r e r e f l e c - 68 t e d t h e m s e l v e s . " D i s s e n t e r s from t h i s o p i n i o n doubt the v a l u e o f the box o f f i c e as a barometer of p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , because i t cannot t e l l you whether the audience might l i k e n ot o n l y what i t i s g e t t i n g but a l s o o t h e r t h i n g s which i t i s n o t g e t t i n g . S e c o n d l y , p e o p l e pay f o r a f i l m b e f o r e they have seen i t . Box o f f i c e r e c e i p t s t h e r e f o r e s t r i c t l y o n l y r e c o r d how many people have seen a f i l m , not how many p e o p l e ^ l i k e d i t , or thought i t e x p r e s s e d what they f e l t . 6 9 T h i s argument r a i s e s some p e r t i n e n t and s eemingly i r r e f u t a b l e p o i n t s . However, i t was i n f a c t c o u n t e r e d by S i e g f r i e d K r a - cauer some t h i r t y y e a r s or so b e f o r e i t was w r i t t e n : I t has o c c a s i o n a l l y been remarked t h a t H ollywood manages to s e l l f i l m s which do not g i v e the masses what they r e a l l y want. In t h i s o p i n i o n H ollywood f i l m s more o f t e n than n o t s t u l t i f y and m i s d i r e c t a p u b l i c persuaded by i t s own p a s s i v i t y and by overwhelming p u b l i c i t y i n t o a c c e p t i n g them.,.- However, . t h e d i s t o r t i n g i n - f l u e n c e of H ollywood mass e n t e r t a i n m e n t s h o u l d not be overrated.. The m a n i p u l a t o r depends upon, the i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s of h i s m a t e r i a l . . . . I t i s K r a c a u e r " s b e l i e f t h a t p u b l i c d i s c o n t e n t w i t h what i s b e i n g s e r v e d up by the f i l m m a k i n g i n d u s t r y w i l l be immediate- l y be r e f l e c t e d by d e c r e a s i n g b o x - o f f i c e r e c e i p t s , a s i t u a - t i o n which the i n d u s t r y w i l l qui.ckly attempt to remedy by a l t e r i n g i t s t a c t i c s . But even K r a c a u e r a d m i t t e d t h a t a b o x - o f f i c e h i t may c a t e r to o n l y one of s e v e r a l c o - e x i s t i n g demands, and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y to a p a r t i c u l a r l y s p e c i f i c or 71 even p r e v a l e n t one. What Kraca u e r b e l i e v e s to be u l t i m a t e - l y of more importance than b o x - o f f i c e p o p u l a r i t y i s the popu- l a r i t y of the s p e c i f i c m o t i f s of f i l m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those m o t i f s which r e c u r both i n b o x - o f f i c e s u c c e s s e s and b o x - o f f i c e 45 f l o p s a l i k e . I t i s these m o t i f s which . t e s t i f y t o the broad consensus of s o c i e t y and which r e v e a l the most about the s o c i e t y which produced them. The f i l m medium has thus demonstrated i t s a b i l i t y to f u n c - t i o n as a s o r t of s o c i e t a l m i r r o r . As a document r e v e l a t o r y of c u l t u r a l i c o n o g r a p h y as w e l l as the c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s - m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s and d e s i r e s , the moving image record::, o c c u p i e s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the f a b r i c of modern s o c i e t y and as such u n q u e s t i o n a b l y c o n s t i t u t e s a component of the a r c h i v a l r e c o r d of contemporary s o c i e t y . 4.6 NOTES 1 J u d i t h H. Gann, " R e f l e c t i o n s on the A u t h e n t i c i t y Q u e s t i o n , " i n S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r y , F i l m and S o c i e t y T: H i s t o r y and the A u d i o - V i s u a l Media, e d i t e d b y - K a r s t e n F l e d e l i u s , e t a l (Copenhagen:. E v e n t u s , 1 979), p. 185. 2 K.R.M. S h o r t , F e a t u r e F i l m s as H i s t o r y (London: Croom Helm L t d . , 1981), p. 17. 3 W i l l i a m Hughes., "The e v a l u a t i o n of. f i l m as e v i d e n c e , " i n The h i s t o r i a n and f i l m , e d i t e d by P a u l Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), p. 56 . 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . P i e r r e S o r l i n , . The F i l m i n H i s t o r y : R e s t a g i n g the P a s t ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1980), p. 15. 7 C h r i s t o p h e r H. Roads, " F i l m as H i s t o r i c a l E v i d e n c e , " J o u r n a l of the S o c i e t y of A r c h i v i s t s 3 (1966), p. 187. 8 Anthony A l d g a t e , Cinema and H i s t o r y : B r i t i s h Newsreels and the S p a n i s h . C i v i l War (London: S c o l a r P r e s s , 1 979) , p. 12. 9 I b i d . I b i d . 1 1 Hughes, "The e v a l u a t i o n of f i l m as e v i d e n c e , " p. 52. 12 Penelope Houston, "The Nature of the E v i d e n c e , " S i g h t and Sound. 36 (1 967), p. 92 . 13 D a vid A. Cook, A H i s t o r y of N a r r a t i v e F i l m (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, I n c . , 1981), p"I 220. 1 4. F o r s y t h Hardy, e d i t o r , G r i e r s o n on Documentary (London: Faber and Faber, 1 966), ~. 11 . 1 5 Cook, A H i s t o r y of N a r r a t i v e F i l m , p. 220. 1 6 Hardy, G r i e r s o n on Documentary, p. 11. 1 7 Jay S c o t t , " J u s t f a c t s . . . u n f o r t u n a t e l y , " Globe and M a i l 07 F e b r u a r y (1986), p. 12. 47 1 8 Eugene C.. McCreary, " F i l m and H i s t o r y : Some Thoughts on T h e i r I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , " S o c i e t a s 1 (1971), pp. 65-66. 19 Hughes, "The e v a l u a t i o n of f i l m as e v i d e n c e , " p. 64- 20 Roads, " F i l m as H i s t o r i c a l E v i d e n c e , " p. 184-. 21 Houston, "The Nature of. the E v i d e n c e , " p. 90. 22 ^ I b i d . 23 W i l l i a m H. M c N e i l l , "The H i s t o r i a n and H i s t o r i c a l F i l m s : The P r e s e n t S t a t e of Things and a Look a t the F u t u r e , " J o u r n a l o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n 29 (1968), p. 391. 24 J.A.S. G r e n v i l l e and N. Pronay, "The H i s t o r i a n and H i s t o r i c a l F i l m s , " U n i v e r s i t y V i s i o n 1 (1968), p. 4« 25 F r i t z Terveen, " F i l m as a H i s t o r i c a l Document," U n i v e r s i t y V i s i o n 1 (1968), p. 24. 2 6 K.M. L a r o s e , " P r e s e r v i n g the P a s t on F i l m : Problems f o r t h e A r c h i v i s t , " "Archi v a r i a 6 (1978), p. 1 4 3 . 27 ' N i e l s Skyum-Nielsen, "The Use" o f S t i l l s from F i c t i o n a l F i l m s as H i s t o r i c a l Documents," i n S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r y , F i l m and S o c i e t y : : H i s t o r y and the A u d i o - V i s u a l Media, e d i t e d by K a r s t e n F l e d e l i u s , et a l (Copenhagen:. Eventus, 1 979), p. 3..'.- 28 A r t h u r E l t o n , " F i l m as Source M a t e r i a l f o r H i s t o r y , " A.S.L.I.B. P r o c e e d i n g s 7 (1955), p. 208. 29 S i e g f r i e d K r a c a u e r , From C a l i g a r i to H i t l e r : A P s y c h o l o g i c a l H i s t o r y o f the German F i l m ( L o n d o n : D e n n i s Dobson L t d . , 1974), p. 7. 30 P a u l S m ith, "The F i c t i o n F i l m as H i s t o r i c a l Source: Problems and Approaches," i n S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r y , F i l m and S o c i e t y 1: H i s t o r y and the A u d i o - V i s u a l Media, e d i t e d by K a r s t e n F l e d e l i u s , - j e t a l (Copenhagen: E v e n t u s , 1 979), p. 202. 3 1 I b i d . , pp.. 201 - 2 0 2 . 3 2 I b i d . , p. 203. 3 4 I b i d . , pp. 204-205. 3 5 Edward Buscombe, "America on screen? Hollywood f e a t u r e f i l m s as s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e v i d e n c e " i n P o l i t i c s and the Media: F i l m and T e l e v i s i o n f o r , the P o l i t i c a l S c i e n t i s t and the H i s t o r i a n " e d i t e d by M.J. C l a r k (London: Pergamon P r e s s , 1979), p. 27. A8 3 6 I b i d . 3 7 S m i t h , "The F i c t i o n F i l m as H i s t o r i c a l Source," p. 206. 3 8 I b i d . , p. 207. 3 9 I b i d . ^Buscombe, "America on s c r e e n ? " , p. 27. 4 - 1 I b i d . , p. 28. / V 2 I b i d . ^ 3Andrew S a r r i s , P o l i t i c s and Cinema (Hew York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978), p. 9. " 4 4 K r a c a u e r , From C a l i g a r i to H i t l e r , p. v. * I b i d . , p. 3. 4 6 I b i d . 4^Cook, A H i s t o r y of N a r r a t i v e F i l m , p. 115. ^ K r a c a u e r , From C a l i g a r i to H i t l e r , p. 6. 4 ^ S a r r i s , P o l i t i c s and Cinema, p. 9. -^Andre B a z i n , What i s Cinema? v o l . 1 ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1967), p. 7. 5 1 I b i d . ^ 2Hughes, "The e v a l u a t i o n o f f i l m as e v i d e n c e , " p. 68. McCreary, " F i l m and H i s t o r y , " p. 55. 5 4 - I b i d . , p. 57. 5 5 I b i d . , p. 55. 56 Hughes, "The e v a l u a t i o n of f i l m as e v i d e n c e " p. 71. 5 7 I b i d . , p. 72. ^ 8 K a r s t e n F l e d e l i u s , " F i l m A n a l y s i s : the S t r u c t u r a l Approach, " i n P o l i t i c s and the Media:',..•Film.:and T e l e v i s i o n f o r the P o l i t i c a l S c i e n t i s t and the H i s t o r i a n , e d i t e d by M.J. C l a r k ( L o n d o n : P e r g a m o n P r e s s , 1979), p. 106. 49 ^ H u g h e s , "The e v a l u a t i o n of f i l m as e v i d e n c e , " p. 5 1 . ^°James Monaco. How t o Read a Fi l m : . . The A r t , Technology, Language, H i s t o r y , and Theory of F i l m and Media. R e v i s e d e d i t i o n . (New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 1 3 3 . C l a i r e J o h n s t o n , " B r i t i s h F i l m C u l t u r e , " i n Media, P o l i t i c s and C u l t u r e : . A S o c i a l i s t View, e d i t e d by C a r l Gardener (London: M a c m i l l a n P r e s s L t d . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 8 4 . 6 2 I b i d . 6 3 I b i d . , p. 8 5 . 6 4 F l e d e l i u s , " F i l m A n a l y s i s , " pp. 2 - 3 . 65 S h o r t , F e a t u r e F i l m s as H i s t o r y , p. 3 2 . 6 6 I b i d . ^ 7 I b i d . , p. 3 3 . ^ 8 J e f f r e y R i c h a r d s , V i s i o n s of Y e s t e r d a y (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . xv. ^Buscombe, "America on s c r e e n ? " , p. 2 6 . K r a c a u e r , From C a l l g a r l to' H i t l e r , pp. 5 - 6 . 7 1 I b i d . , p. 7 . 7 2 I b i d . 50 CHAPTER IV SOCIETY AS AUDIENCE: FILM INFLUENCE AND IMPACT V i e w i n g the f i l m medium as a s o r t of s o c i e t a l m i r r o r , a f u r t h e r i s s u e worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t of the impact of the r e f l e c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d by the moving image document. Does the message conveyed by f i l m impact s i g n i f i c a n t l y upon those who p a r t a k e of i t ? O p i n i o n on t h i s i s s u e ranges from t h a t o f i t b e i n g a n o n - i s s u e to the more commonly h e l d b e l i e f , a t l e a s t i n so- c i o l o g i c a l c i r c l e s , t h a t " f e a t u r e f i l m s e x e r t the most power- f u l i n f l u e n c e i n our l i v e s , an i n f l u e n c e which i n a l l proba- 1 b i l i t y i s s t r o n g e r than t h a t w i e l d e d by p r e s s and r a d i o . " Thus wrote J . P . Mayer i n 194-6, a d d i n g t h a t " v a l u e p a t t e r n s , a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r , (and) the o u t l o o k on l i f e g e n e r a l l y , are 2 m a n i f e s t l y shaped by f i l m i n f l u e n c e . " Over twenty y e a r s e a r l i e r , <the impact of f i l m upon a u d i e n c e s had been p r o c l a i m e d i n p o s i t i v e l y V i c t o r i a n tones by Donald Ramsey Young: " S o c i a l s t a n d a r d s are i n f l u e n c e d by motion p i c t u r e s . . . and . . . by the f a c t t h a t the a u d i e n c e , o f t e n young boys and g i r l s , are 3 packed i n narrow s e a t s , c l o s e t o g e t h e r , i n a darkened room." T h i s a t t i t u d e , f o c u s s i n g as i t does on the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n - ment of the t h e a t r e - g o i n g e x p e r i e n c e , was s t i l l b e i n g echoed i n 194-2 by U.E. H a r d i n g : "We are defaming our m o r a l s , c o r - r u p t i n g our y o u t h , i n f l a m i n g our young p e o p l e , e x c i t i n g 51 p a s s i o n , d e b a u c h i n g o u r c h i l d r e n , m a k i n g p r o s t i t u t e s and c r i m i n a l s t h r o u g h p i c t u r e - g o i n g ! 1 , 4 Today, a more r a t i o n a l v i e w i s b e i n g p r o p a g a t e d t h r o u g h a s o c i o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , a s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e work o f I . C . J a r v i e , who f o c u s e s on t h e s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f i l m - g o i n g , 5 and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f i l m s on g r o u p s o f p e o p l e . T h e i r u n i n t e n d e d s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e s tems f r o m . . . t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y t e l l s t o r i e s ; s t o r i e s c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i d e a s ; i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i d e a s a f f e c t t h e way p e o p l e a c t ; and s t o r i e s m e l d p e o p l e t o g e t h e r i n t o a u d i e n c e s -- t h i s t o o a f f e c t s t h e way t h e y a c t . The s o c i a l c o n s e - q u e n c e s o f b e i n g an a u d i e n c e , a r e t h e most i m p o r - t a n t a n d u s u a l l y u n d e r r a t e d . J a r v i e i n t e r p r e t s t h e s t o r y - t e l l i n g a s p e c t o f f i l m content&.as a f o r m o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l , a n d s u p p o r t s t h i s t e n e t by o u t l i n i n g t h e t h r e e m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , as d e f i n e d by s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , w h i c h c a n p o t e n t i a l l y be i n f l u e n c e d by f i l m - g o i n g : " t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f b o t h c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s i n t o t h e r u l e s , o b l i g a t i o n s a n d p r i v i l e g e s o f s o c i a l g r o u p s ( s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) ; t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l g r o u p s on t h e d e v e l o p - ment o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( p e r s o n a l i t y f o r m a t i o n ) ; and t h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t a k e n on by p e o p l e i n g r o u p s ( c o l l e c - t i v e b e h a v i o u r ) . " A c c o r d i n g t o J a r v i e , t h e r e a r e two f a c e t s t o f i l m a s a s o c i a l phenomenon: c o n t e n t a nd c o n t e x t . I n t e r m s o f t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l m o d e l , J a r v i e b e l i e v e s c o n t e x t t o be more i n f l u e n t i a l t h a n c o n t e n t : " l e a r n i n g , s o c i a l i z a - t i o n , p e r s o n a l i t y f o r m a t i o n , and e v e n t h e way p e o p l e f o r m 52 i n t o and behave i n groups may be i n f l u e n c e d by movie c o n t e n t ; w h i l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , p e r s o n a l i t y f o r m a t i o n and group b e h a v i o r g are c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t e d by movie c o n t e x t . " C o n t r a r y to the views of Ramsey Young and H a r d i n g , Jarvi.e b e l i e v e s t h a t the c o n t e x t o f f i l m - g o i n g can c o n t r i b u t e i n a p o s i t i v e way towards "normal and h e a l t h y s o c i a l i z a t i o n , p e r s o n a l i t y f o r m a t i o n and g group b e h a v i o r . " The e x t e n t of f i l m ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact i s d e t e r m i n e d not o n l y b y the s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f f i l m - g o i n g , but a l s o by the n a t u r e of the f i l m - v i e w i n g e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f . The c o n d i t i o n s under which a f i l m i s viewed may a t f i r s t seem to c o n f e r a p a s s i v e r o l e upon the film-goer., .but the v e r y i l l u s o r y n a t u r e of f i l m as p e r c e i v e d by the v i e w e r i n v o l v e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , both v o l u n t a r y and i n v o l u n t a r y , c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s : F i l m i s founded upon an i l l u s i o n and the I l l u s i o n i s a c h i e v e d o n l y t h r o u g h the s p e c t a t o r ' s u n w i l l e d and u n c o n s c i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Most c i n e m a t i c e f f e c t s depend upon the s p e c t a t o r e n t e r i n g the t h e a t e r w i t h a whole s e r i e s of v i s u a l r e a c t i o n s formed by h i s d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e . 1 0 The e v o l u t i o n o f the s p e c t a t o r ' s i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be t r a c e d t h r o u g h o u t the e a r l y h i s t o r y of f i l m , v i a the work of Edwin S. P o r t e r , D.W. G r i f f i t h , and the S o v i e t s . The B r i g h t o n S c h o o l i n B r i t a i n and Edwin S. P o r t e r i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . . . decomposed the c o n t i n u o u s scene i n t o I t s component sh o t s and the s p e c t a t o r was asked to c r e a t e the t e m p o r a l and s p a t i a l c o n t i n u i t y h i m s e l f . Then G r i f f i t h i n a l t e r n a t e montage . . . asked the spec- t a t o r to a c h i e v e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n i t y o f two 53 s p a t i a l l y s e p a r a t e d but t e m p o r a l l y p a r a l l e l e v e n t s . The n e x t s t e p was t a k e n when the S o v i e t s c h o o l o f documentary r e a l i s m s y s t e m a t i c a l l y extended G r i f f i t h ' s p r a c t i c e s of a l t e r n a t e montage, to s y m b o l i c p a r a l l e l s . The c o n c e p t u a l u n i t y was to be- c r e a t e d and e m o t i o n a l l y e n l a r g e d by the s p e c t a t o r h i m s e l f t h r o u g h h i s i d e n t i - f i c a t i o n of two f a c t u a l l y q u i t e d i s t i n c t events pos- s e s s i n g p a r a l l e l i m p l i c a t i o n s . . Thus i t can be seen t h a t the f i l m - g o e r has had an i n c r e a s i n g l y a c t i v e r o l e i n the f i l m e x p e r i e n c e , f i r s t t h r o u g h the j u x t a - p o s i t i o n of o p p o s i n g s h o t s which had to be combined to a c h i e v e the u n i t y o f the s t o r y l i n e . , and then through the S o v i e t system of s y m b o l i c montage. E x i s t i n g q u i t e s e p a r a t e l y from the f i l m m a k e r * s power of m a n i p u l a t i o n of images and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a m i f i - c a t i o n s such m a n i p u l a t i o n h o l d s f o r the a u d i e n c e , and y e t opera- t i n g i n tandem w i t h such e f f e c t s , i s the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n - ment of the cinema which makes the t o t a l f i l m e x p e r i e n c e p o s s i - b l e . The audience e n t e r s i n t o a realm o f d a r kness and i s o l a - t i o n , becoming more s u s c e p t i b l e to m a n i p u l a t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n . In a movie t h e a t e r , the o n l y source o f l i g h t , sound, and motion i s the s c r e e n . T h i s means t h a t the s p e c t a t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n i s . a u t o m a t i c a l l y and almost f o r c i b l y c o n c e n t r a t e d upon what the s c r e e n i s con- v e y i n g . The eye may wander,, but v e r y l i t t l e ; i i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e to i g n o r e motion or l i g h t . ' ' The h i g h r e s o l u t i o n o f the b i g s c r e e n image i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the dense amount of i n f o r m a t i o n f i l m i s c a p a b l e of con- v e y i n g , has c r e a t e d a v e r y "hot" medium i n McLuhanesque terms, a medium which, i s capable of w i e l d i n g a pow.erful i n f l u e n c e 54- over i t s a u d i e n c e . The v i e w e r e n t e r s i n t o the f i l m e x p e r i - ence w i l l i n g to suspend d i s b e l i e f , w i l l i n g to g i v e up i n d i v i - d u a l i d e n t i t y f o r a time i n the darkened t h e a t r e , to e n t e r a t r a n c e - l i k e s t a t e . The cinema has become "a s h r i n e a t which modern r i t u a l s r o o t e d i n a t a v i s t i c memories and s u b c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e s are a c t e d out i n . d a r k n e s s and s e c l u s i o n from the o u t e r 1 3 w o r l d . " The cinema a u d i e n c e t a k e s on an i d e n t i t y t h a t i s something more than the sum t o t a l of i t s p a r t s ; i t becomes a mass e n t i t y c a p a b l e of a c t i n g c o l l e c t i v e l y . The audience i n the cinema i s p l u r a l . . . . At the same t i m e , the audience i s s i n g u l a r : I t i s the im- p a c t e d s o l i d a r i t y o f so many i n d i v i d u a l s congrega- t e d to g i v e up or. escape t h e i r u niqueness . . . . Only a.'mass as hardened as a f i g h t i n g u n i t c o u l d endure the i m p l a c a b i l i t y o f a screen p r e t e n d i n g to ^ , be an animated w a l l , but a c t u a l l y an i n e r t s u r f a c e . The mass a s p e c t o f the f i l m audience e n a b l e s the powers be- h i n d the p r o d u c t i o n of f i l m s t o m a n i p u l a t e en masse. "The audience i n the movies t y p i f i e s the modern crowd, t h a t sham- b l i n g mass o f humanity, so l a r g e t h a t . i t i s measured i n s t a - t i s t i c s , a h e r d t h a t a u t h o r i t y t e n d s , f e e d s , p a c i f i e s , and r e g u l a t e s : T h i s i s .the crowd t h a t goes to the f a c t o r y , the 1 5 supermarket, and the bank, the m a t e r i a l of armies and mobs." T h i s crowd t h a t has been obse r v e d i n such complimentary terms has i t s e l f become a commodity t h a t i s sought out by the mass f i l m i n d u s t r y . Because of the crowd's c o l l e c t i v e n a t u r e , i t i s c a p a b l e of b e i n g m a n i p u l a t e d i n terms of s t a t i s t i c s by those who are b e h i n d the p r o d u c t i o n of f i l m s , and the crowd r e - f l e c t s the e f f e c t s of such m a n i p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h the phenomenon 55 of the box o f f i c e . The box o f f i c e becomes a barometer of p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e , i n d i c a t i v e o f the s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s - f a c t i o n of the f i l m - g o i n g mob w i t h the p r o d u c t i t has been s e r v e d . Recent d i s c u s s i o n on the f i l m - g o i n g , e x p e r i e n c e has cen- t e r e d on the p u r p o r t e d k i n s h i p between the s t a t e of the f i l m - v i e w e r and the s t a t e of dreaming,,, or the s t a t e "between waking and s l e e p i n g , i n which he - Qfche , view.er) abandons the r a t i o n a l i t y o f d a i l y l i f e w h i l e not y e t c o m p l e t e l y s u r r e n d e r i n g to h i s un- 1 6 c o n s c i o u s . " The darkened.environment of the cinema, the c o n t i n u o u s y e t r h y t h m i c a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d n a t u r e of the p r o - j e c t e d image, and the l a c k o f s o c i a l ' c o n t a c t work t o g e t h e r to c r e a t e a s e m i - h y p n o t i c s t a t e i n the v i e w e r , I n which i n h i b i t i o n s are s u p p r e s s e d , and the u n c o n s c i o u s i s more s u s c e p t i b l e to s u g g e s t i o n . P a u l Monaco has d e s c r i b e d f i l m s as " d r e a m l i k e r e f l e c t i o n s o f s h a r e d , c o l l e c t i v e concerns of the mass, na- 1 7 t i o n a l a u d i e n c e . " T h i s view i s n o t e n t i r e l y shared by Ed- ward Buscombe, a l t h o u g h he. agrees t h e r e i s a k i n s h i p between f i l m s and dreams. " F o r . j u s t as, a c c o r d i n g to F r e u d , dreams are not the d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n , of our u n c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e s , but a d i s t o r t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f them a f t e r the work of r e p r e s s i o n has been performed, so w i t h movies, whatever i n them does c o r r e s p o n d to the a u d i e n c e ' s own t h o u g h t s and f e e l - 1 8 i n g s has been worked upon by. o t h e r f a c t o r s . " The r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i l m s and dreaming has been . c a r r i e d even f u r t h e r , by comparing the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s - 56 t i c o f r a p i d eye movement (R.E.M.) i n s l e e p to the " f l i c k e r " e f f e c t sometimes d i s c e r n i b l e on s c r e e n , as w e l l as to the eye movements of the f i l m v i e w e r . a s he or. she watches the f i l m . The eye movements of the dreamer are not random but are ' a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s of Qiis) dream.' The same i s t r u e of watch- i n g a movie: 'The f i l m s p e c t a t o r o c c u p i e s a f i x e d s e a t , but o n l y p h y s i c a l l y . - . . . A e s t h e t i - c a l l y he i s i n permanent motion as h i s eye i d e n - t i f i e s w i t h the l e n s of the camera, which^perma- n e n t l y s h i f t s i n d i s t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n . 1 S i m i l a r l y , the i n s t a n t a n e o u s c u t s i n f i l m have been l i k e n e d 20 to the i n s t a n t a n e o u s n a t u r e of t r a n s i t i o n s i n dreaming. Amos V o g e l sees a f u r t h e r p o w e r f u l d e t e r m i n a n t o p e r a t i n g upon the u n c o n s c i o u s i n the darkness which l i e s a t the v e r y h e a r t of image t e c h n o l o g y : The v e r y darkness e n v e l o p i n g the v i e w e r i s more complete than he r e a l i z e s . ; f o r . the essence of cinema i s not l i g h t , but a s e c r e t compact be- tween l i g h t and d a r k n e s s . H a l f o f a l l the time a t the movies i s spent by the t r a n s f i x e d v i c t i m s of t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r t i n complete d a r k n e s s . . . . Could i t be p r e c i s e l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d s of t o t a l d arkness . . . t h a t our v o r a c i o u s sub- c o n s c i o u s , newly n o u r i s h e d by y e t another p r o - v o c a t i v e image,.'absorbs' the work's deeper ^ meaning and s e t s o f f c h a i n s of a s s o c i a t i o n s ? Thus the p e r i o d s of darkness which i n t e r r u p t the p r o j e c t e d images c o u l d be viewed as a p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e which causes the s u b c o n s c i o u s to absorb the images i t i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h on-a deeper l e v e l . R e i n f o r c i n g t h i s power of darkness i s the p r i m i t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the image, which p r e - d a t e s v e r b a l 57 communication and i s assumed to a c t upon a deeper l e v e l of the s u b c o n s c i o u s . V o g e l s t a t e s t h a t **. . . . In man's e v o l u t i o n , images a n t e d a t e words and t h o u g h t , thus r e a c h i n g deeper, o l d e r , more b a s i c l a y e r s o f the s e l f . . . . A s h o l y today as i n man's p r e - h i s t o r y , the image i s a c c e p t e d as i f i t were l i f e , r e a l i t y , t r u t h . I t i s a c c e p t e d on a f e e l i n g - r a t h e r than m i n d - l e v e l . 2 2 From the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e . w o u l d seem to e x i s t some degree of consensus r e g a r d i n g the power of the f i l m medium to e x e r t a c e r t a i n . a m o u n t of i n f l u e n c e over i t s a u d i - ence, be i t t h r o u g h the power of the- image, the power of l i g h t and/or:, d a r k n e s s , the n a t u r e of • the t h e a t r e environment, or the s o c i a l c o n t e x t of f i l m - g o i n g . I t i s perhaps t h i s v e r y p o t e n t i a l f o r power and i n f l u e n c e t h a t has worked a g a i n s t the medium where the i s s u e of c o n t r o l l i n g the c o n t e n t of f i l m i s concerned. I f t h e r e was not some concern about the i n f l u - ence of f i l m c o n t e n t , t h e r e would.be no need f o r the i n s t i t u - t i o n s which seek to r e g u l a t e f i l m content.. The v e r y f a c t o f the e x i s t e n c e of such i n s t i t u t i o n s would seem to r e i n f o r c e the i d e a t h a t f i l m i n f l u e n c e s i t s audience i n no u n c e r t a i n terms. The r e g u l a t i o n of f i l m c o n t e n t can take two forms: cen- so r s h i p , , and c o n t r o l . . The d i s t i n c t i o n between the two has been d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : C e n s o r s h i p c o n s t i t u t e s the l e g a l i m p o s i t i o n of r e s t r a i n t s upon the p r o d u c t i o n , p u b l i c a t i o n , and s a l e s of some photograph, f i l m , a r t o b j e c t , book, magazine:,' or o t h e r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l i n o r d e r to 58 make i t u n a v a i l a b l e t o . t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c as w e l l as upon the p r o d u c t i o n or performance of any p u b l i c entertainment:. . . . C o n t r o l i s p r a c t i c e d by those who have no l e g a l - a u t h o r i t y , to censor or t h r e a t e n to censor but use p e r s u a s i o n and even c o e r c i o n to r e s t r i c t freedom of speech. ^ There are s e v e r a l problems a r i s i n g from the i s s u e o f f i l m cen- s o r s h i p r e g a r d i n g the d u a l p o s i t i o n of f i l m as an a r t form and a p o p u l a r c u l t u r a l a r t e f a c t . In a d d i t i o n . , t h e r e are prob- lems a r i s i n g from t h e . p o s i t i o n . i n s o c i e t y of the persons or r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s which seek.to r e s t r i c t the c o n t e n t of f i l m . The f i r s t law of c e n s o r s h i p . - and p r o b a b l y the o n l y i m p o r t a n t one not i n s c r i b e d on the s t a t u t e books - i s t h i s : i n a democracy, the more p o p u l a r the a r t form, the g r e a t e r the demands f o r c e n s o r s h i p of i t . T h i s theorem has two c o r o l l a r i e s . F i r s t , the q u a l i t y of the a r t has l i t t l e . t o do w i t h the m a t t e r . Second, those who a r r o g a t e to themselves the p r i v i l e g e o f e x e r c i s i n g c e n s o r s h i p may. or may not be c u l t u r e d , u n b i a s e d and/or s i n c e r e . 4 In 194-8 the United. N a t i o n s passed the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the U n i v e r s a l D e c l a r a t i o n , of Human R i g h t s , the embodi- ment o f the concept of freedom.of e x p r e s s i o n , as c o n t a i n e d i n A r t i c l e 19' "Everyone has t h e . r i g h t to freedom of o p i n i o n and e x p r e s s i o n ; t h i s r i g h t i n c l u d e s freedom t o h o l d o p i n i o n s w i t h - out i n t e r f e r e n c e and to see, r e c e i v e and i m p a r t I n f o r m a t i o n 25 and i d e a s t h r o u g h any media and r e g a r d l e s s of f r o n t i e r s . " S i n c e t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n a w a s passed r e s t r i c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h l i b e l , n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , war propaganda,. and the advocacy of 2 6 h a t r e d have been added. Such r e s t r i c t i o n s would appear to have l i t t l e t o do w i t h f i l m as an a r t form, or p o p u l a r e n t e r - 59 t a i n m e n t . F i l m c e n s o r s h i p can range, from the c u t t i n g o f a s i n g l e image, a scene, or a s c r i p t , to r a d i c a l r e - e d i t i n g o f an en- t i r e f i l m . Why are f i l m s s u b j e c t to t h i s k i n d o f c e n s o r s h i p ? A c c o r d i n g to Judy W o l f e , i t . i s because f i l m s are b e l i e v e d to be the most i n f l u e n t i a l . of t o day's media,, and i t i s assumed t h a t p e o p l e . • . . . t e n d to b e l i e v e what they see on the s c r e e n more r e a d i l y than what they r e a d i n books or hear on the r a d i o . The c o r o l l a r y of- t h i s i s t h a t be- h a v i o u r w i l l be m o d i f i e d as a r e s u l t . o f s e e i n g c e r - t a i n emotions or b e l i e f s o r a c t i o n s p o r t r a y e d on the screen/27 The power of f i l m t o . i n f l u e n c e b e h a v i o u r has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t modes of a c t i o n by v a r i o u s governments a t d i f f e r - ent t i m e s . The cinema has been w i d e l y used f o r p r o p a g a n d i z i n g i n both the e a s t e r n b l o c and the - t h i r d - w o r l d , w h i l e i n the wes- t e r n hemisphere c e n s o r s h i p has been' concerned.more w i t h p o r - t r a y a l s o f pornography and v i o l e n c e - , " i n the hope t h a t t h i s w i l l reduce p e r v e r s e , c o n t r a r y , or a b u s i v e b e h a v i o u r i n the 28 p o p u l a t i o n . " I.C. J a r v i e has a c c u r a t e l y . p i n p o i n t e d a b a s i c f l a w i n the s o - c a l l e d l o g i c of c e n s o r s h i p , i n t h a t w h i l e i t i s assumed t h a t p e o p l e have no defenses to r e s i s t b l a t a n t s u a s i o n , i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s assumed t h a t ."a p r i v i l e g e d few . ... can r e s i s t m a n i p u l a t i o n and hence can and s h o u l d p r o t e c t the 29 r e s t . " J a r v i e a l s o a d v o c a t e s the b e l i e f t h a t the i n f l u e n c e f i l m i s capable of w i e l d i n g over an audience i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d due to v a r y i n g a u d i e n c e . r e a c t i o n s a r i s i n g o u t . o f d i - v e r s e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l .and economic c o n t e x t s of 60 f i l m , and t h a t no two a u d i e n c e s w i l l r e a c t i n the same way to a g i v e n f i l m because of the n a t u r e of the a u d i e n c e ' s composi- 30 t i o n . Andrew Tudor pu t s f o r w a r d an argument a g a i n s t censor- s h i p by s t a t i n g t h a t a t b e s t the v i e w e r ' s response t o f i l m i s m a i n l y e m o t i o n a l , and i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y a temporary e f f e c t : Indeed, i f the medium can be s a i d to have any c h a r a c - t e r i s t i c i n and of i t s e l f i t i s s u r e l y t h i s h i g h de- pendence on a p r e d o m i n a n t l y e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t . . . . I t does not f o l l o w t h a t the movies are t h e r e f o r e an out- s t a n d i n g l y p o w e r f u l medium of p e r s u a s i o n . Long-term a t t i t u d e change i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t to s h o r t - t i m e emo- t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . The degree of i n f l u e n c e of f i l m thus seems to be an i s s u e of d i s p u t e where c e n s o r s h i p i s concerned. Whatever the i n f l u e n c e o f the f i l m medium, c e n s o r s h i p i t - s e l f remains an U n d i s p u t e d f a c t . Many arguments i n f a v o u r of c e n s o r s h i p have been p r e s e n t e d , but the main reas o n s b e h i n d the p r a c t i c e o f c e n s o r s h i p would seem to f a l l i n t o t h r e e broad c a t e g o r i e s : " p r o t e c t i o n of community s t a n d a r d s , m o r a l i t y , or 32 33 r e l i g i o n ; " "enforcement of a dominant c u l t u r e ; " and "pro- 's / t e c t i o n or p r o m o t i o n of a g i v e n p o l i t i c a l regime." A c c o r d i n g to Judy Wo l f e , t h e r e seems t o be a somewhat i n c e s t u o u s r e l a t i o n - s h i p between these competing i m p e r a t i v e s : Where t h e r e i s c e n s o r s h i p to p r o t e c t a p o l i t i c a l r e - gime, the f i r s t two r e a s o n s f o r c e n s o r s h i p w i l l a l s o be found. Where t h e r e i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t h e r e may or may not be p o l i t i c a l c e n s o r s h i p but t h e r e w i l l be an i n s i s t e n c e on the maintenance of community s t a n d a r d s . C e n s o r s h i p seems to e x i s t i n i t s most severe form d u r i n g and d i r e c t l y a f t e r p e r i o d s o f i n s t a b i l i t y , u p h e a v a l , and r e v o l u t i o n . 61 For example, under the A l l e n d e government i n C h i l e many f i l m s were produced by C h i l e / F i l m . F o l l o w i n g the overthrow of the A l l e n d e government, the m i l i t a r y d e s t r o y e d t h e . f i l m i n d u s t r y by d i s m a n t l i n g C h i l e . F i l m . Many of the c o u n t r y ' s l e a d i n g f i l m d i r e c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g Eduardo Paredes, were k i l l e d , w h i l e s e v e r a l o t h e r s f l e d i n t o e x i l e . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s even today i n South A f r i c a , a c o u n t r y c u r r e n t l y b e s i e g e d by w i d e s p r e a d c i v i l and p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t . R i g o r o u s c o n t r o l i s m a i n t a i n e d 37 over f i l m s and " u n p l e a s a n t t r u t h s " are r o u t i n e l y e x c i s e d . ' M i s c e g e n a t i o n . i s , of c o u r s e , not. p e r m i t t e d , and a major c h a r a c t e r - the b l a c k s e c r e t agent - was cut from L i v e and L e t Die by the d i s t r i b u t o r s be- f o r e i t was s e n t to South A f r i c a - , because o f her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h James Bond.' V i o l e n c e of any k i n d i s not p e r m i t t e d i n f i l m s t h a t are to be shown t o b l a c k a u d i e n c e s . ^ 8 A l t h o u g h the major impetus, f o r c e n s o r s h i p u s u a l l y stems from s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e r e a l s o e x i s t s a good d e a l of s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y i t s e l f , e i t h e r i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of what the a u t h o r i t i e s would p e r c e i v e as o b j e c t i o n a b l e , or so the f i l m r e c e i v e s a l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e a udience r a t i n g , or be- 39 cause i t i n f a c t s u p p o r t s the s t a t u s quo. H ollywood i s ob- v i o u s l y a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s model, as c e n s o r s h i p i s o f t e n o p e r a t i v e d u r i n g the p r e - p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s i t s e l f . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t would seem t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s some s o r t of consensus c o n c e r n i n g the a b i l i t y of the f i l m medium to not o n l y r e f l e c t c e r t a i n f a c e t s o f s o c i e t y , but a l s o to w i e l d con- s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e over those who p a r t a k e of the r e f l e c t i o n s , 62 d e s p i t e t h e o p i n i o n s o f d i s s e n t e r s l i k e Andrew.. T u d o r . Why e l s e w o u l d c e n s o r s h i p e x i s t , i f n o t t o " p r o t e c t " c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s o f s o c i e t y f r o m u n p l e a s a n t o r u n p a l a t a b l e " t r u t h s " a b o u t i t s e l f ? I f f i l m d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p a c t upon i t s a u d i - e n c e , c e n s o r s h i p w o u l d n o t be an i s s u e . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t c e n s o r s h i p s e e k s t o c o m p r o m i s e t h e r e f l e c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e f i l m medium by d a r k e n i n g a p o r t i o n o f t h e m i r r o r ' s s u r f a c e a n d i n t e r - r u p t i n g t h e i n t e n d e d m e s s a g e . I f t h e f i l m m a k e r i s a member o f s o c i e t y a n d i f t h e message p r e s e n t e d i n a f i l m i s a p r o d u c t o r a r e a c - t i o n t o t h e s o c i e t y .then i t may be f a i r l y s a i d t h a t t h e f i l m i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h a t s o c i e t y . The mes- sage may n o t be a p r e t t y one, b u t t h e q u e s t i o n must be a s k e d : i s t h e p a i n i n t h e message a b o u t t h a t s o - c i e t y c a u s e d by t h e f i l m o r by t h e s o c i e t y ? I t seems r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t t o i m p r o v e t h e f a c e o f j - j S o c i e t y , t h e c e n s o r w o u l d r a t h e r b r e a k t h e m i r r o r . The d e b a t e o v e r c e n s o r s h i p w o u l d seem t o r e i n f o r c e b o t h t h e r e f l e c t i v e a n d i n f l u e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e f i l m document. As a p e c u l i a r l y p o w e r f u l a n d i n t e g r a l component o f t h e t i s s u e o f s o c i e t y , t h e f i l m document must be c o n s i d e r e d f o r a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e n o t o n l y t o i t s p h y s i c a l n a t u r e , b u t m o r e o v e r t o t h e r e f l e c t i v e and i n f l u e n t i a l n a t u r e o f i t s c o n t e n t . . 63 NOTES 1 J.P. Mayer, S o c i o l o g y o f F i l m : S t u d i e s and Documents (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 194-6), p. 17. 2 I b i d . 3 P h i l i p J . D a v i e s , " F i l m as a t e a c h i n g r e s o u r c e , " i n P o l i t i c s and the Media: F i l m and T e l e v i s i o n f o r the P o l i t i c a l S c i e n t i s t and the H i s t o r i a n , e d i t e d by M . J . C l a r k ( L o n d o n : Pergamon P r e s s , 1979), p. 97. 4 I b i d . 5 I.C. J a r v i e , Movies as S o c i a l C r i t i c i s m : A s p e c t s o f T h e i r S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y ( M e t u c h e n , N , J , : S c a r e c r o w P r e s s , I n c . , 1978), p . i x . 6 I b i d . 7 I b i d . ,. pp. x - x i . ^ I b i d . , p. x i . 9 I b i d . 1 0 Eugene C. McCreary, " F i l m and H i s t o r y : Some Thoughts on T h e i r I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , " S o c i e t a s 1 (1971), p. 63. 11 ' I b i d . ^ 2 I b i d . , p. 64-. 1 3 Amos V o g e l , F i l m as a S u b v e r s i v e A r t (New York: Random House, 1 974-)» P- 9- 1 4 Dav i d Thomson, America i n the Dark: Ho l l y w o o d and the G i f t o f U n r e a l i t y (New York: W i l l i a m Morrow and Company, I n c . , 1977), p. 94. 1 5 I b i d . , pp. 97-98. 1 6 V o g e l , F i l m as a S u b v e r s i v e A r t , p. 10. 1 7 P a u l Monaco, Cinema and S o c i e t y : France and Germany D u r i n g the Twenties (New York: E l s e v i e r , 1976), pp. 10-11. 64 1 8 Edward Buscombe, "America on screen? Hollywood f e a t u r e f i l m s as s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e v i d e n c e , " i n P o l i t i c s and the Media: F i l m and T e l e v i s i o n T o r . t h e P o l i t i c a l S c i e n t i s t and the H i s t o r i a n ] e d i t e d by M.J. C l a r k (London: Pergamon P r e s s , 1979), p. 26. 1 9 Monaco, Cinema and S o c i e t y , p. 8. 2 0 I b i d . , pp. 8-9. 21 V o g e l , F i l m as a S u b v e r s i v e A r t , p. 10. 22 I b i d . , p. 11. 2 3 P e r r y C. Cotham, O b s c e n i t y , Pornography, and Censor- s h i p (Grand R a p i d s , M i c h i g a n : Baker Book H o u s e , 1 9 7 3 ) , pT 79. 24 Murray Schumach, The Face on the C u t t i n g Room F l o o r : The s t o r y o f movie and t e l e v i s i o n c e n s o r s h i p ( N e w York: W i l l i a m Morrow and Company, I n c . , 1 964), p~i 3. 25 Judy W o l f e , "The Filmmaker and Human R i g h t s : Some R e f l e c t i o n s , " i n F o r b i d d e n F i l m s : The Filmmaker and Human R i g h t s , e d i t e d by Marc Glassman ( T o r o n t o : T o r o n t o A r t s Group f o r Human R i g h t s and b l e w o i n t m e n t p r e s s , 1984), p. 4- 2 6 I b i d . 2 7 I b i d . 2 8 I b i d . 2 9 I b i d . 3°Ibid. 3 1 I b i d . 3 2 I b i d . 3 3 I b i d . 3 4 I b i d . , p. 5. 3 5 I b i d . 3 6 I b i d . 3 7 I b i d . 65 3 8 I b i d . 3 9 I b i d . , p. 6. ^ I b i d . , p. 7. 66 CHAPTER V ARCHIVAL SELECTION OF THE MOVING IMAGE DOCUMENT I f f i l m can be viewed as a medium of r e f l e c t i o n , the p r o - blem f o r the a r c h i v e s concerned w i t h p r e s e r v i n g f i l m becomes one of s e l e c t i n g which moving image documents to r e t a i n as a v a l u a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of such r e f l e c t i o n . The i s s u e o f se- l e c t i o n i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t , h a v i n g come of age In an e r a c h a r a c t e r i s e d by p r i n t e d , media, many a r c h i v i s t s today are e i t h e r u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o t h e r media, or c o n s i d e r i t too ephemeral.or p o p u l a r to c o n s t i t u t e a major r e s e a r c h r e s o u r c e f o r the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s o - c a l l e d " s p e c i a l " media i n the c o n t e x t o f the new i n f o r m a t i o n age needs t o be c l a r i f i e d f o r the bene- f i t o f a r c h i v i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s a l i k e , but i n the meantime, s t e p s must be taken to p r e s e r v e such r e c o r d s i n o r d e r to com- p l e t e the h i s t o r i c a l " p i c t u r e " of contemporary s o c i e t y t h a t i s b e i n g c r e a t e d by the h o l d i n g s i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . The moving image document has demonstrated i t s e l f t o be c a p a b l e o f r e c o r d i n g d i v e r s e f a c e t s of contemporary c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y , from e m p i r i c a l l y " r e a l " events and p o p u l a r i c o n o - graphy to the c o n s c i o u s or u n c o n s c i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f so- c i e t a l v a l u e s . As such, the medium must be c o n s i d e r e d to con- s t i t u t e a major i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e c o r d of t h i s c e n t u r y , a r e c o r d which c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be assumed to be of c o n s i d e r a b l e h i s t o r i - 67 c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . . T h e r e f o r e i t would f o l l o w t h a t such a r e c o r d s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d f o r the f u t u r e b e n e f i t of r e s e a r c h e r s . Given the q u a n t i t y , of moving images produced by s o c i e t y , the i s s u e f o r a r c h i v e s i s how much to r e t a i n . I f a l l moving images can be c o n s i d e r e d as r e f l e c t i v e of s o c i e t y i n some way, how i s the a r c h i v i s t to d e c i d e which to p r e s e r v e f o r pos- t e r i t y and which to r e j e c t ? T h i s i s a c r u c i a l i s s u e f o r the a r c h i v a l community, and i s an i s s u e on which t h e r e has to date been l i t t l e consensus. The extremes of c u r r e n t o p i n i o n run the gamut from the view, t h a t a b s o l u t e l y e v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d , to the a d v o c a t i o n of modern r e c o r d s management t e c h n i q u e s to d e s i g n a t e p r o d u c t i o n elements and r e l a t e d docu- m e n t a t i o n f o r a r c h i v a l r e t e n t i o n d u r i n g the f i l m p r o d u c t i o n 1 p r o c e s s i t s e l f . One of the b a s i c problems t h w a r t i n g the development of s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a i s the w i d e l y - h e l d b e l i e f t h a t "the p r e s e n t i s s i n g u l a r l y i l l - e q u i p p e d to d e c i d e what w i l l prove to be 2 o f h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the f u t u r e . " Indeed, i t i s n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e to p r e d i c t a c c u r a t e l y which events or c u l - t u r a l a r t e f a c t s w i l l have the mantle of h i s t o r i c a l importance c o n f e r r e d upon them by the p a s s i n g of t i m e . The a l t e r n a t i v e to such a c t s of n e a r - p r e s c i e n c e which by n e c e s s i t y c a s t the a r c h i v i s t i n t o the r o l e of a modern-day p r o p h e t , i s to cover a l l c o n c e i v a b l e bases by c o l l e c t i n g e v e r y t h i n g . T h i s i s an a l t e r n a t i v e s u p p o r t e d by many a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s . 68 As f a r as the h i s t o r i a n i s concerned, f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n are media of mass communications f i r s t and f o r e m o s t . The h i s t o r i a n needs, i d e a l l y , the whole of what the . . . p u b l i c was g i v e n t hrough the media i n o r d e r to be a b l e to a p p l y s t a t i s t i c a l / a n a l y t i c a l methods.3 T h i s view i s s u p p o r t e d by C l i v e C o u l t a s s , who b e l i e v e s t h a t the e n t i r e p r o c e s s of s e l e c t i o n c o u l d be a v o i d e d by p r e s e r v i n g as much as p o s s i b l e : D e c i s i o n s about what t o p r e s e r v e and what to r e j e c t are so a r b i t r a r y and s u s p e c t t h a t i t i s b e t t e r i n p r i n c i p l e to keep e v e r y t h i n g . Any k i n d o f f i l m i n time becomes i n t e r e s t i n g to someone. 4- C o u l t a s s b e l i e v e s t h a t even the most mundane f i l m s can have i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e , and t h a t t h i s s o r t of v a l u e must be 5 d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from a f i l m ' s p o t e n t i a l a r t i s t i c v a l u e . In terms of mass communications, and i n an e f f o r t to p r e s e r v e the t o t a l i t y o f events r e c o r d e d by the media, C o u l t a s s advo- c a t e s u n i v e r s a l r e t e n t i o n on i n t e r n a t i o n a l terms i n o r d e r to m a i n t a i n "a v i s u a l r e c o r d of contemporary events on an i n t e r n a - t i o n a l s c a l e . The main drawback of s e l e c t i o n would seem to be t h a t by i t s v e r y n a t u r e . . i t throws the a r c h i v i s t i n t o the u n e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g to make g o d l i k e d e c i s i o n s o f l i f e and death f o r f i l m s , whether or not such powers are d e s e r v e d . T h i s argument a g a i n s t s e l e c t i o n has i t s o r i g i n s e a r l y i n the h i s t o r y of f i l m a r c h i v e s . Indeed, H e n r i L a n g l o i s , one of the 69 o r i g i n a l f o u n d e r s of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f F i l m A r c h i v e s ( F . I . A . F . ) , " m a i n t a i n e d t h a t any s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a was i n d e f e n s i b l e , t h a t no a r c h i v i s t had the r i g h t to p l a y God i n d e t e r m i n i n g which f i l m s would l i v e and which would d i e . " T h i s s e n t i m e n t was a l s o v o i c e d by some of the e a r l y propaga- t o r s o f g e n e r a l a r c h i v a l t h e o r y , who, w h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t some amount o f s e l e c t i o n was n e c e s s a r y , f e l t t h a t s e l e c t i o n by the a r c h i v i s t was i n c o r r e c t . Some a r c h i v a l t h e o r i s t s argued t h a t t r i a g e , or s e l e c t i o n , w h i l e e v i d e n t l y n e c e s s a r y , s h o u l d be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n g e n e r a t i n g the documents i n the f i r s t p l a c e . H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n h e l d t h a t t h i s r e d u c t i o n s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e b e f o r e the documents reached the a r c h i v e s , and t h a t i t was the a r c h i v i s t ' s t a s k to g conserve a l l the r e c o r d s e n t r u s t e d to the a r c h i v e s . T h i s type of s e l e c t i o n as i t p e r t a i n s to f i l m w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . In a d d i t i o n t o the o v e r t i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e c o n t a i n e d i n f i l m , i t has been argued t h a t " a l l f i l m s . . . have some s o c i o l o g i c a l v a l u e , r e g a r d l e s s o f how p r o s a i c the s u b j e c t Q m a t t e r or the t r e a t m e n t . " S o c i o l o g i c a l v a l u e p o t e n t i a l l y embraces not o n l y the r e f l e c t i v e q u a l i t y of moving images, but a l s o the impact and i n f l u e n c e f i l m e x e r c i s e s over i t s a u d i e n c e . In the Manuel d ' A r c h i v i s t i q u e ( P a r i s , 1970), f i l m i s c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s : oeuvres d r a m a t i q u e s, oeuvres a r t i s t i q u e s , and documents d ' h i s t o r i q u e s , and i t i s proposed t h a t o n l y documents h i s t o r i q u e s s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d 1 0 by a r c h i v e s . However, i n the course of d e f i n i n g the term 70 " h i s t o r i c a l , " the manual c o n c l u d e s t h a t . . . not o n l y do a c t u a l i t i e s q u a l i f y . . ., but f i c t i o n f i l m s t h a t r e f l e c t the manners, mores, and language o f the s o c i e t y t h a t produced them q u a l i f y as w e l l . Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o u l d embrace a l l moving images, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the impact of the images i n r e l a t i o n t o the mass audience they a t t r a c t i s considered.'''' T h i s approach, s u p p o r t i n g as i t does the concept of t o t a l r e t e n t i o n , has been a t t a c k e d i n terms of the p o s s i b l e conse- quences i t would have I f put i n t o a c t i o n : f i l l i n g the v a u l t s " w i t h m a t e r i a l o f m a r g i n a l v a l u e (ephemera i n terms of c o n t e n t and form) u n t i l t h e r e i s no s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y l e f t f o r r e c o r d s of o b v i o u s v a l u e (based on form, c o n t e n t or a s s o c i a t i o n ) ..12 • • * • An a l t e r n a t i v e to t o t a l r e t e n t i o n i s what c o u l d be termed " m o d i f i e d t o t a l r e t e n t i o n . " T h i s approach, which has not ga i n e d much p o p u l a r i t y , i n v o l v e s the r e t e n t i o n o f a l l moving Images f o r a c e r t a i n s e t p e r i o d a t which p o i n t i t i s presumed t h a t the p a s s i n g o f time w i l l have p r o v i d e d some semblance of 1 3 h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . While such an approach would r e l i e v e the p r e s s u r e on p r e s e n t - d a y a r c h i v i s t s , o t h e r w i s e f o r c e d to make g o d l i k e d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g s e l e c t i o n , i t would l i k e l y pose extreme and p o s s i b l y i n s u r m o u n t a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s r e g a r - d i n g s t o r a g e space, a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , n o t to mention prob- lems a r i s i n g from e s t a b l i s h i n g some s o r t of consensus on r e - t e n t i o n and d i s p o s a l s c h e d u l e s . Such p r a c t i c a l o b s t a c l e s t o t o t a l r e t e n t i o n have caused some f i l m a r c h i v i s t s , g r a p p l i n g 71 w i t h the m o r a l i t y o f d e s t r o y i n g moving images, to advocate 1 A the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a "world-wide network of a r c h i v e s , " which would c o n c e i v a b l y make i t both p o s s i b l e and p r a c t i c a b l e to p r e s e r v e a l l moving images and e l i m i n a t e the c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e of s e l e c t i o n . However a t t r a c t i v e the p r o p o s i t i o n of t o t a l r e t e n t i o n may seem, a t l e a s t i n t h e o r y , i t seems u n l i k e l y to t r a n s l a t e i n t o u n i v e r s a l p r a c t i c e due .to overwhelming problems c o n c e r n i n g s t o r a g e space, i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n , and mounting c o s t s . I t would seem t h a t the concept of t o t a l r e t e n t i o n i s workable o n l y i n the " i d e a l world,", and t h a t s e l e c t i o n of some s o r t i s the o n l y r e a l l y f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e a t p r e s e n t , d e s p i t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of new s t o r a g e t e c h n o l o g i e s i n the not so d i s - t a n t f u t u r e . "Even w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of a p p l y i n g the emer- g i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s of the v i d e o d i s c and the d i g i t a l e n coding o f moving images to the development of new, l o w - c o s t s t o r a g e me- diums and i n s t a n t a n e o u s modes o f d i f f u s i o n , t h i s g e n e r a t i o n of moving image a r c h i v i s t s w i l l s t i l l have to a p p l y a p p r a i s a l p o l i c i e s to p r e v e n t the a r c h i v e s from s i n k i n g under the weight of a c c e s s i o n s , and the r e s e a r c h e r o f the f u t u r e from drowning 1 5 i n a sea of redundant, and t r i v i a l images." T h i s l a s t i s s u e r a i s e s the one o v e r w h e l m i n g l y . p o s i t i v e a s p e c t about s e l e c t i o n : the e l i m i n a t i o n of s o - c a l l e d "ephemera" from v a l u a b l e s t o r a g e space, a c o s t - e f f e c t i v e measure which has always been one of the key arguments on the s i d e of s e l e c t i o n . I m p l i c i t i n the concept of s e l e c t i o n of moving images i s the i s s u e of a p p r a i s a l , i n o r d e r to determine the s u i t a b i l i t y 72 of the document f o r r e t e n t i o n or d i s p o s a l . . To date no s p e c i - f i c d e f i n i t i o n f o r the a p p r a i s a l of moving images has been p r e s e n t e d , but t h e r e i s something to be g a i n e d from examining the concepts c o n t a i n e d i n a s t a n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n of a p p r a i s a l as i t a p p l i e s to t e x t u a l r e c o r d s . l a A p p r a i s a l has been d e f i n e d as "the p r o c e s s of d e t e r m i n i n g the v a l u e and t h u s . t h e d i s p o s i t i o n of r e c o r d s based upon t h e i r c u r r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , l e g a l , and f i s c a l use; t h e i r e v i d e n t i a l and i n f o r m a t i o n a l or r e s e a r c h v a l u e ; t h e i r arrangement; and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r 1 6 r e c o r d s . " T h i s d e f i n i t i o n has more.relevance to t e x t u a l r e c o r d s of corporate,, government, or p r i v a t e c r e a t i o n , but some p o i n t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e can be gleaned by a s c e r t a i n i n g a r e a s of r e l e v a n c e to the f i l m medium. A p p r a i s i n g the h i s t o r i - c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f moving images i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l because moving images themselves cannot always be c a t e g o r i z e d as h a v i n g e v i d e n - t i a l v a l u e i n the S c h e l l e n b e r g i a n sense, t h a t i s , those r e - cords " n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e an a u t h e n t i c and adequate docu- m e n t a t i o n o f i t s the c r e a t i n g body's o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c - 1 7 t i o n i n g , " nor can they always be judged f o r t h e i r v a l u e to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or l e g a l use, a l t h o u g h f i s c a l use c o u l d p e r - haps be l o o s e l y t r a n s l a t e d as p e r t a i n i n g to the p o t e n t i a l of the f e a t u r e f i l m f o r monetary g a i n . The arrangement of moving images I s not u s u a l l y a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r , u n l e s s t h i s concept i s a p p l i e d to the e d i t e d s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the f i l m or the accompanying t e x t u a l documentation. Moving images can have s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r f i l m r e c o r d s , e i t h e r i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r , c o n t e x t , or t r e a t m e n t , or by b e i n g 73 the p r o d u c t s of the same f i l m m a k e r or d i r e c t o r or cinematograph W h i l e moving images themselves are most l i k e l y t o be of i n f o r - m a t i o n a l v a l u e ( t h a t i s , c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r s o n s , 1 8 p l a c e s , s u b j e c t s , and so on ), and hence have h i g h r e s e a r c h v a l u e , they a re i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d t o t e x t u a l r e c o r d s of h i g h e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e - I t s h o u l d be c l e a r , based on any u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the way i n which moving images a r e produced and d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d , t h a t the end p r o d u c t , the images t h e m s e l v e s , have l i t t l e or no e v i d e n t i a r y v a l u e . The r e l a t e d documentation - p r o d u c t i o n f i l e s , f i n a n c i a l and p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s , c o n t r a c t s and correspondence - may r e v e a l how the . p r o d u c t i o n company or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y . . . f u n c t i o n e d , but t h e v a l u e of the end p r o d u c t , w h i l e i t may speak volumes t o the., p r o d u c e r ' s purpose, i s p r i m a r i l y i n f o r m a t i o n a l . ' At the 1980 Belgrade. Conference UNESCO f o r m u l a t e d a "Recommendation f o r the S a f e g u a r d i n g and P r e s e r v a t i o n of Moving Images" d e s i g n e d t o cover "those moving images which are i n t e n d e d f o r communication or d i s t r i b u t i o n to the p u b l i c 20 or a re made f o r documentation p u r p o s e s . " The Recommendation 21 was " t o p r o t e c t moving images from b e i n g d e s t r o y e d . " The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a mandatory system of d e p o s i t ' f o r n a t i o n a l l y - produced moving images was recommended, a l t h o u g h no d e t a i l s on such a system were g i v e n , a p a r t from s p e c i f y i n g such p r o - d u c t i o n s be p r e f e r a b l y d e p o s i t e d i n the form of p r e - p r i n t 22 m a t e r i a l . The Recommendation lamented.the s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e of s e l e c t i o n and the f a c t t h a t sheer volume o f t e n n e c e s s i t a t e d a d e n i a l of the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n i n which a l l moving images 74 would be p r e s e r v e d . W h i l e s p e c i f i c s are a v o i d e d , p a r t i c u l a r mention i s made of those moving images "which, because of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l , , a r t i s t i c , s c i e n t i f i c a n d h i s t o r i - c a l v a l u e , form p a r t of a n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e s h o u l d be 23 r e t a i n e d on a p r i o r i t y b a s i s . " A p r o v i s i o n i s a l s o made to the e f f e c t t h a t moving images s h o u l d not be d i s p o s e d of u n t i l a f u t u r e date a l l o w i n g f o r some degree of h i s t o r i c a l 24 p e r s p e c t i v e . Such g u i d e l i n e s do not s t a t e much t h a t i s not a l r e a d y known by a r c h i v e s i n v o l v e d i n c o l l e c t i n g f i l m . Few a r c h i v e s have developed f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e d g u i d e l i n e s c o n c e r n i n g s e l e c t i o n , r e j e c t i o n , and d i s p o s a l of f i l m m a t e r i a l . Even i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s l i k e Unesco and F.I.A.F. would appear to be h e d g i n g the i s s u e when they s t a t e t h a t "every 25 a r c h i v e must develop i t s own c r i t e r i a f o r a c q u i r i n g f i l m s , " b e a r i n g i n mind the proposed shape of a r e p o s i t o r y ' s c o l l e c - t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the t y p e s and p h y s i c a l f o r m a t s of f i l m s to be a c q u i r e d . The p r e s e r v a t i o n of n a t i o n a l l y - p r o d u c e d f i l m s seems t o be an agreed-upon p r i o r i t y , but the b a s i c problem of s e l e c t i o n would appear to be an i s s u e t h a t h a s . t o be r e s o l - ved by the i n d i v i d u a l r e p o s i t o r y , i n accordance w i t h i t s gene- r a l mandate and f a c i l i t i e s . The f u n c t i o n and purpose of a f i l m a r c h i v e w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t In d e v e l o p i n g s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a , a l t h o u g h the m a t t e r of d e t e r m i n i n g a r e p o s i t o r y ' s f u n c t i o n may be l e s s than c l e a r . Ken Larose has^ c a t e g o r i z e d the gene- r a l purposes of a f i l m a r c h i v e i n t o t h r e e b a s i c f u n c t i o n s : . . . to document an a r t form; to r e c o r d a mass medium; and to be the r e p o s i t o r y f o r motion p i c t u r e 75 images of r e a l p e o p l e , e v e n t s , and p l a c e s . I t i s t e m p t i n g to add a f o u r t h f u n c t i o n , t h a t f i l m a r c h i v e s are e x p e c ted to,house v i s u a l r e c o r d s f o r f u t u r e use by h i s t o r i a n s . The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s type of d e f i n i t i o n c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y c o n s t i t u t e a c a l l f o r t o t a l r e t e n t i o n , embracing as i t does f i l m s judged v a l u a b l e f o r a r t i s t i c m e r i t , as w e l l as those f i l m s documenting both a c t u a l i t i e s and a contemporary mass phenomenon. I t has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d t h a t such mass r e t e n - t i o n seems o n l y p r a c t i c a b l e i n the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n , w h i l e i n the r e a l w o r l d some degree of s e l e c t i o n w i l l have to take p l a c e i n view of the volume of a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l . The r e - p o s i t o r y ' s aim i n t h i s r e s p e c t has been d e s c r i b e d by V l a d i m i r Opela of C z e c h o s l o v a k i a as the attempt "to p r e s e r v e a l l r e - cords of permanent documentary v a l u e w h i l e l e a v i n g out l e s s 27 v a l u a b l e documents,". w i t h documentary v a l u e b e i n g d e t e r - mined by both the i m p o r t a n c e and range of the c o n t e n t of the f i l m r e c o r d , as w e l l as the form and degree of a u t h e n t i c i t y 28 of the r e c o r d . A c c o r d i n g to Opela, any assessment of moving images has to t a k e i n t o a ccount " t h e i r f u t u r e p r a c t i c a l u t i l i - z a t i o n , the p e r i o d i n which they were made, and i n the case of foreign-made r e c o r d s , the c o p y r i g h t and the p o s s i b i l i t y of 29 a c q u i r i n g the r e c o r d from i t s o r i g i n a t o r . " Examples of f u r t h e r c r i t e r i a used to determine what moving images are wor- thy of r e t e n t i o n i n c l u d e : c o n t e n t and t r e a t m e n t ; a e s t h e t i c s ; those f i l m s documenting the h i s t o r y , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p - 76 ment o f the i n d u s t r y ; f i l m s i l l u s t r a t i v e of m i l e s t o n e s , " f i r s t s , " b o x - o f f i c e s u c c e s s e s , trends,, " s t a r s , " the work of 30 c e r t a i n d i r e c t o r s , p r o d u c e r s , c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r s , and so on; f i l m s . " r e f l e c t i n g the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r of a 31 p e r i o d and environment;" f i l m a d a p t a t i o n s o f famous works of l i t e r a t u r e ; remakes o f s u c c e s s f u l f i l m s of the p a s t ; f i l m s awarded a t i m p o r t a n t f i l m f e s t i v a l s ; and f i l m s i l l u s t r a t i v e of c e r t a i n genres and n a t i o n a l " s c h o o l s " o f f i l m m a k i n g , and 32 t h e i r development. S t i l l o t h e r c r i t e r i a i n c l u d e : f i l m s r e f l e c t i n g the i n f l u e n c e , o f o t h e r media and the c o m p l e t i o n 33 o f e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n s ; f i l m s documenting e t h n i c or r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s ; f i l m s which " c h a l l e n g e contemporary community s t a n d a r d s and/or c e n s o r s h i p laws on what i s a c c e p t a b l e i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t r e a t m e n t or form;" ^ and those f i l m s which " e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the audie n c e and the s c r e e n , 35 or which r e f l e x i v e l y examine the image-making p r o c e s s . " A l s o c o n s i d e r e d are " v a r i a n t v e r s i o n s of moving images r e g a r - ded as ' c l a s s i c s ' which a re v a l u a b l e f o r f i l m study and f o r the purpose of f i l m r e s t o r a t i o n . ; ' o u t t a k e s ' from such p r o - d u c t i o n s i f s i g n i f i c a n t i n documenting the p r o c e s s of produc- t i o n ; and ' c u t s ' made from such p r o d u c t i o n s on demand o f cen- s o r s h i p a u t h o r i t i e s . " 3 ^ The development of s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a can be made l e s s a r b i t r a r y f o r c e r t a i n p e r i o d s i n f i l m h i s t o r y f o r which a l l or most f i l m s are p r e s e r v e d f o r reaso n s of r a r i t y and poor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n s . For example, any 77 f i l m produced p r i o r t o 1920 i s always a c q u i r e d , and i t i s u s u a l - l y o n l y f o r f i l m s , from the p e r i o d l a t e r than the mid-1 920s t h a t s e l e c t i o n becomes o p e r a t i v e . The American F i l m I n s t i t u t e ( L i - b r a r y of Congress) bases i t s p r i n c i p l e s of s e l e c t i o n on s u r v i - v a l r a t e s f o r c e r t a i n p e r i o d s of f i l m development: a) 1894-1920: Perhaps 15% of the f e a t u r e s s u r v i v e and p o s s i b l y 10-20% o f the s h o r t s . T h e r e f o r e a l l f i l m from t h i s p e r i o d , r e g a r d l e s s of c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d . b) 1921-1930: The s u r v i v a l r a t e f o r f e a t u r e s has grown from 12% to 20% over the p a s t t w e l v e y e a r s . U s i n g the AFI C a t a l o g as a base, some s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d be made when e n c o u n t e r i n g r o u t i n e B f e a - t u r e s o f obscure companies whose o u t p u t i s ade- q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d , and no s o c i a l l y redeeming elements can be d i s c e r n e d . c) 1 930-1 935: With a number o f n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , the b u l k of the s t u d i o o u t p u t s t i l l e x i s t s and i s more or l e s s under c o n t r o l , and v i r t u a l l y a l l of the b/w f i l m s w i l l end up b e i n g p r e s e r v e d from these companies. Some s e l e c t i o n i s needed f o r the B p r o d u c t and s m a l l company p r o d u c t i o n s . . . . A f u r t h e r s e l e c t i o n i s s u e i n v o l v e s the p h y s i c a l makeup o f the f i l m base i t s e l f , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e . f i l m s on a n i t r a t e base. Because of i t s i n h e r e n t l y u n s t a b l e c h e m i c a l composi- t i o n c e l l u l o s e n i t r a t e d e t e r i o r a t e s q u i c k l y and must be s t o r e d under s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s i n o r d e r to r e t a r d d e t e r i - o r a t i o n o f the image, and p o s s i b l e i g n i t i o n . T h i s type o f f i l m s t o c k was phased out and r e p l a c e d by a more s t a b l e ace- t a t e base i n the e a r l y 1 9 5 0 s . T h e r e f o r e a l l f i l m s produced b e f o r e c i r c a 1950 on n i t r a t e base ( o n l y 35 mm s t o c k i s i n v o l - ved) s h o u l d be c o l l e c t e d and t r a n s f e r r e d onto a c e t a t e " s a f e t y " s t o c k b e f o r e the image has d e t e r i o r a t e d . b e y o n d s a l v a g e . 78 C e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f f i l m . h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y been..rejec- t e d by a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . . These i n c l u d e : s t o c k f o o t a g e l a c k i n g p r o p e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or t e x t u a l documentation; o u t - t a k e s (because of sheer volume); p r e - p r o d u c t i o n and. d i s t r i b u - t i o n elements i n c l u d i n g s u b t i t l e bands, main and c o n c l u d i n g 39 t i t l e s ; m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n the h o l d i n g s or d u p l i c a - t e d i n o t h e r a r c h i v e s ; amateur c o m p i l a t i o n s , p r o d u c t i o n s and home movies; m a t e r i a l which i s i n c o m p l e t e or i n poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n ; m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e o n l y a t u n r e a s o n a b l e c o s t or w i t h heavy r e s t r i c t i o n s on use; and f o r e i g n f i l m s o t h e r w i s e a v a i l a b l e i n the c o u n t r y which a re a l r e a d y p r e s e r v e d i n the F.I.A.F. a r c h i v e o f the c o u n t r y of p r o d u c t i o n . 4 ^ Some r e v i s i o n of the a b o v e - o u t l i n e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would seem to be c a l l e d f o r , a t l e a s t w i t h r e g a r d to o u t - t a k e s , c e r - t a i n p r o d u c t i o n elements, and amateur f o o t a g e , where c o n t e n t may r e a s o n a b l y be seen to o v e r r i d e the i n t r a c t a b l e n a t u r e of the f o o t a g e ' s f o r m a t . R e j e c t i o n of f i l m m a t e r i a l s h o u l d n o t take p l a c e w i t h o u t due c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the c o n t e n t of the m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a cumbersome form.. A case i n p o i n t i s t h a t o f o u t - t a k e s , which o f t e n c o n s t i t u t e a v a l u a b l e r e c o r d o f c e n s o r e d or o t h e r w i s e s e n s i t i v e or " u n d e s i r a b l e " m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as t e c h n i c a l l y i n a d e q u a t e or r e p e t i t i o u s f o o t a g e . For example, the p r e s e n t a u t h o r r e c e n t l y spent s e v e r a l weeks a t the N a t i o n a l F i l m , T e l e v i s i o n and Sound A r c h i v e s i n Ottawa, o r g a n i z i n g a c o l l e c t i o n based on A l l a n K i n g ' s Warrendale (1966), a documentary f i l m e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t c e n t e r 79 f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . The c o l l e c t i o n , c o n s i s - t i n g o f 615 cans of f i l m ( c o n t a i n i n g over one thousand r o l l s o f 16 mm f i l m ) , was almost, e n t i r e l y comprised of o u t - t a k e ma- t e r i a l , most of which was to be r e t a i n e d by the r e p o s i t o r y based on the c o n t e n t of the m a t e r i a l . The documentary had o r i g i n a l l y been commissioned by the CBC,. who r e f u s e d to a i r i t upon c o m p l e t i o n f o r r e a s o n s of p r o f a n i t y . W a r r e n d a l e , d e s p i t e the c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g i t , went on to a l i m i t e d t h e a t r i c a l r e l e a s e , and shared top honours a t the Cannes f i l m f e s t i v a l w i t h A n t o n i o n i ' s Blow-Up. The c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e of the t r e a t - ment d e p i c t e d i n the f i l m ( W a r r e n d a l e . d i r e c t o r John Brown's " h o l d i n g " t h e r a p y , wherein c h i l d r e n vented t h e i r rage w h i l e b e i n g p i n n e d down by two or t h r e e s t a f f members) r e s u l t e d i n the c l o - sure o f the c l i n i c s h o r t l y a f t e r f i l m i n g was completed. Thus, the r e c o r d c o n s t i t u t e d by the outs was v a l u a b l e f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s : the documentary was a Canadian p r o d u c t i o n by an eminent Canadian documentary f i l m m a k e r ; i t won i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c c l a i m ; i t was c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n n a t u r e , both i n terms of i t s p r o d u c t i o n h i s t o r y and the t r e a t m e n t d e p i c t e d ; i t was noteworthy f o r the time i n terms of. the s h o o t i n g r a t i o (some f o r t y hours of o r i g i n a l f o o t a g e were e v e n t u a l l y e d i t e d down to a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred m i n u t e s ) ; and today s t i l l s tands as a landmark i n cinema v e r i t e documentary h i s t o r y . I t would t h e r e f o r e seem r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t outs and s i m i l a r f i l m m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be judged by c o n t e n t , and not s o l e l y by t h e i r p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The same c o u l d be s a i d of amateur f i l m , w h i ch, w h i l e i t i s sometimes l e s s than o p t i m a l i n t e c h n i c a l 80 terras, may c o n t a i n unique or o t h e r w i s e undocumented m a t e r i a l . C e r t a i n p r o d u c t i o n elements may.also prove v a l u a b l e . I f the r e - p o s i t o r y does n o t a l r e a d y p o s s e s s a r e a s o n a b l e copy o f a c e r - t a i n f i l m t i t l e , i t may be m o r e . c o s t - e f f e c t i v e t o make a com- p o s i t e p r i n t from the a p p r o p r i a t e p r i n t i n g elements, i f i t has such a t i t s d i s p o s a l , than, p u r c h a s i n g a composite r e l e a s e p r i n t c o m m e r c i a l l y . Many of the d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g out the types o f s e l e c t i o n o u t l i n e d above,, s u b j e c t i v e and a r b i t r a r y as some of them a r e , c o u l d be a v o i d e d a l t o g e t h e r i f a c e r t a i n amount of s e l e c t i o n was e x e r c i s e d b e f o r e m a t e r i a l r e a c h e d the a r c h i v e s . There has been some c a l l f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of modern r e - cords management t e c h n i q u e s d u r i n g the p r o d u c t i o n or even p r e - p r o d u c t i o n stage of f i l m m a k i n g . A l l p r o d u c t i o n elements ( n e g a t i v e s , p r i n t s , v i d e o - t a p e s , e t c . ) , and r e l a t e d documentation, s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d , d e s i g n a t e d , and s c h e d u l e d so t h a t the d i s p o s i t i o n of the elements can be c o n t r o l l e d a t ever y stage o f the p r o d u c t i o n / d i f f u s i o n p r o c e s s . The s h o r t term ( 3 - 5 y e a r s ) r e t e n t i o n o f the b r o a d e s t p o s s i b l e s e l e c t i o n o f moving images s h o u l d be the o b j e c t i v e , to p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a f i n a l s e l e c - t i o n w i t h some sense of h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . 41 Such a system would appear to s a t i s f y both the proponents and opponents o f the p r a c t i c e of s e l e c t i o n . I t would r e t a i n a broad sample o f v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l w h i l e weeding out the more ephemeral elements b e f o r e a n y t h i n g a r r i v e d a t the a r c h i v e , w h i l e t a k i n g I n t o account the f a l l i b i l i t y of contemporary judgements c o n c e r n i n g h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . However, t h i s system would r e q u i r e c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n between f i l m a r c h i v e s 81 and the f i l m i n d u s t r y , . a n d such c o o r d i n a t i o n seems to be the e x c e p t i o n , r a t h e r than the r u l e . One such e x c e p t i o n i s the F i l m s A r c h i v e s of the C z e c h o s l o v a k F i l m I n s t i t u t e . " A l l n a t i o n a l f i l m p r o d u c t i o n s are s y s t e m a t i c a l l y m o n i t o r e d , and a l l p r o d u c t i o n e lements, whether n e g a t i v e s or p r i n t s , d omestic or f o r e i g n , i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , are s c h e d u l e d e i t h e r f o r r e t e n t i o n f o r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s , and then d i s p o s a l a t the end of t h a t p e r i o d , or f o r d e p o s i t w i t h the A r c h i v e s f o r l o n g term r e t e n t i o n . " T h i s program c o n t r o l s a l l s i g n i f i c a n t p r o - d u c t i o n elements from the time they are c r e a t e d to the p o i n t of t h e i r u l t i m a t e a r c h i v a l d i s p o s i t i o n . C o n t r o l to such a degree i s l i k e l y p o s s i b l e o n l y i n c o u n t r i e s where f i l m p r o - / 3 d u c t i o n i s c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the s t a t e . D i f f i c u l t i e s p o s s i b l y encountered, i n such a system i n c l u d e both the time i n v o l v e d i n i t e m i z e d s c h e d u l i n g , as w e l l as r e a c h i n g a con- sensus on p e r i o d s o f r e t e n t i o n and the u l t i m a t e d i s p o s i t i o n o f f i l m elements. In a d d i t i o n , r e l a t e d t e x t u a l documentation s h o u l d i d e a l l y be i n c l u d e d i n the s c h e d u l i n g p r o c e s s , i n c l u - d i n g m a t e r i a l c r e a t e d d u r i n g p r o d u c t i o n ( p r o d u c t i o n f i l e s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , r e c e i p t s , s c r i p t s , g r a p h i c s ) , as w e l l as the b y - p r o d u c t s of d i s t r i b u t i o n ( c r i t i c a l r e v i e w s , i n t e r v i e w s , p r e s s books, and so o n ) . 4 4 In c o n c l u s i o n , the a l t e r n a t i v e s r e g a r d i n g the s e l e c t i o n of moving image documents i n an a r c h i v a l s e t t i n g would appear to f a l l i n t o two broad c a t e g o r i e s : to s e l e c t , or to not s e l e c t . By f a r the e a s i e s t to j u s t i f y i n terms of s a t i s f y i n g 82 a l l p o t e n t i a l needs of f u t u r e u s e r s would be to p r a c t i c e no s e l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v e e v e r y t h i n g . T h i s p r a c t i c e would e l i m i - n a t e the need to second-guess the needs of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s . I t would a l s o remove a good d e a l of. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from the s h o u l d e r s of the b e l e a g u e r e d a r c h i v i s t , who i s f o r c e d to a c t p r e s c i e n t l y by the v e r y n a t u r e of s e l e c t i o n , and i s the one who w i l l be blamed when f u t u r e u s e r s d i s c o v e r the r e c o r d they need was not p r e s e r v e d . The r e f l e c t i v e n a t u r e o f the moving image document would a l s o seem to count i n f a v o u r of s a v i n g e v e r y t h i n g , as e v e r y f i l m r e c o r d r e f l e c t s something about s o c i e t y , and thus c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be of i n t e r e s t to someone, sometime.' The main problem l y i n g i n the way of t o t a l r e t e n t i o n i s t h a t o f i n a d e q u a t e s t o r a g e space and l a c k of funds to ensure the f a c i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r the maintenance of such a c o l l e c - t i o n . In the f a c e of c u t - b a c k s and d e c r e a s e d a r c h i v a l s p e n d i n g , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i l l change i n the near f u t u r e , so u n l e s s t h e r e are d r a s t i c improvements i n l o w - c o s t s t o r a g e t e c h n o l o g y , the o n l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e would seem to be to p r a c t i c e some degree of s e l e c t i o n w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g to p r e s e r v e the b r o a d e s t and most comprehensive sam p l i n g o f the a v a i l a b l e moving image i n f o r m a t i o n a l u n i v e r s e . The n a t u r e of a r e p o s i t o r y ' s c o l l e c t i o n . w i l l have to be d e t e r m i n e d by the r e - p o s i t o r y ' s o v e r a l l mandate, b e a r i n g i n mind the g e n e r a l c r i - t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d by a u t h o r i t i e s l i k e Unesco and F.I.A.F. con- c e r n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the moving image document, and such p r e s e r v a t i o n i m p e r a t i v e s as the documentation of n a t i o n a l 83 f i l m p r o d u c t i o n . The i s s u e of s e l e c t i o n c o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l y s i m p l i f i e d by the u t i l i z a t i o n of r e c o r d s management t e c h n i q u e s to c u l l ephemera b e f o r e i t ever a r r i v e d a t a r e p o s i t o r y to confound the a r c h i v i s t . The s c h e d u l i n g of p r o d u c t i o n elements would n o t o n l y be an e f f i c i e n t way to c o n t r o l a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the f i l m r e c o r d , but"..would a l s o a l l o w f o r the development of some semblance of h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e b e f o r e the. u l t i m a t e d i s p o - s i t i o n of the r e c o r d was r e a c h e d . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of manage- ment of t h i s type would r e q u i r e c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the f i l m i n d u s t r y i t s e l f , and w h i l e i t would i n i t i a l l y i n v o l v e a good d e a l o f e f f o r t to s e t up, i n l i g h t of the s a v i n g s i n time and money i t would b r i n g t o a r c h i v e s , i t would seem to be w e l l worth the e f f o r t . T h i s type o f endeavour appears to work be s t i n a n a t i o n where f i l m i c output, i s c e n t r a l i z e d under one a u t h o r i t y , and t h e r e i s one n a t i o n a l f i l m a r c h i v e . A l t h o u g h t h i s system c o u l d be i m p l e m e n t ed.in a c o u n t r y such as Canada which does not have a c e n t r a l i z e d f i l m i n d u s t r y , i t would be much s i m p l e r to implement i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s i n g l e na- t i o n a l f i l m archive.. The e x i s t e n c e of one major n a t i o n a l f i l m a r c h i v e per c o u n t r y would seem to s i m p l i f y o t h e r m a t t e r s as w e l l . I f a n a t i o n houses s e v e r a l competing f i l m r e p o s i t o r i e s t h e r e w i l l be a g r e a t e r r i s k of d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t and c o m p e t i t i o n , b oth of which would r e s u l t i n a l e s s than o p t i m a l use of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l r e p o s i t o r y mandates would i n c r e a s e i n prominence and i m p o r t a n c e , and would n e c e s s i t a t e the e v o l u t i o n of c l e a r l y - d e v e l o p e d , a r t i - 84 c u l a t e d and s p e c i f i c s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . As the development of such seems t o be i m p o s s i b l e w i t h j u s t one,-major f i l m r e p o s i - t o r y c u r r e n t l y i n Canada, i t would appear t h a t f o r r e a s o n s of r e s o u r c e s and e x p e n d i t u r e , the i d e a of one major f i l m a r c h i v e per c o u n t r y i s the most v i a b l e a t p r e s e n t . I t would n o t be i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s to d u p l i c a t e the s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment n e c e s s a r y to house and a c c e s s f i l m a l l a c r o s s the c o u n t r y , when a c e n t r a l i z e d f i l m a r c h i v e c o u l d ade- q u a t e l y p r e s e r v e those f i l m r e c o r d s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a n a t i o n ' s f i l m i c o u t p u t . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t would seem.that the n a t u r e of the f i l m document s h o u l d d i c t a t e the most a p p r o p r i a t e mode of s e l e c t i o n . The development of any s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a w i l l of n e c e s s i t y have to take i n t o account not. o n l y the p h y s i c a l s t r u c - t u r e of f i l m ( i n c l u d i n g c o n d i t i o n and f i l m base, and moreover, a g e ) , but a l s o the t y p o l o g y of the f i l m and i t s i n f o r m a t i o n a l c o n t e n t . For c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f f i l m , such assessment may be s u f f i c i e n t . For o t h e r s , l i k e the f e a t u r e f i l m , a p p r a i - s a l must a l s o t a k e i n t o account the p o s i t i o n of f i l m i n s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d to i t s r e f l e c t i v e n a t u r e , p o p u l a r a p p e a l , and i n f l u e n c e . 85 NOTES 1 Sam K u l a , The A r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l of moving images: a RAMP stu d y w i t h g u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s l Unesco, 1983)» p. 96. N i c h o l a s Pronay, " A r c h i v e f i l m / t e l e v i s i o n p r e s e r v a t i o n : the h i s t o r i a n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , " The A u d i o v i s u a l L i b r a r i a n 5 (1 979), p. 24. 3 I b i d . ^ C l i v e C o u l t a s s , "The s e l e c t i o n o f n o n - f i c t i o n f i l m , " i n Problems o f S e l e c t i o n i n F i l m A r c h i v e s by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f F i l m A r c h i v e s ( B r u s s e l s : F.I.A.F., 1980), p. 87. 5 I b i d . , p. 89. ^ I b i d . , p. 92. 7 K u l a , The A r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l of moving images , p. 2. 8 I b i d . , p. 23. 9 I b i d . , p. 44. ^ ̂ I b i d . , p. 26. 11 ' ' I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . , p. 34. 13- 1 4 I b i d . , p. 49. I b i d . , p. 45. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 16 T Frank B. Evans, Donald F. H a r r i s o n , and Edwin A. Thompson, c o m p i l e r s , "A B a s i c G l o s s a r y f o r A r c h i v i s t s , Manu- s c r i p t C u r a t o r s , and Records Managers," American A r c h i v i s t 37 (1 974), p. 417. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 422. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 424. 1 9 K u l a , The A r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l of moving images, p. 26. 20 Margaret van V l i e t , "The Unesco Recommendation f o r the S a f e g u a r d i n g and P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Moving Images," European B r o a d c a s t i n g Union Review 32 (1 981 ), p. 16. 86 21 ' i b i d . 2 2 I b i d . , p. 17. 2 3 I b i d . 2 4 I b i d . 25 K u l a , The A r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l o f moving images, p. 27. 2 6 K.M. L a r o s e , " P r e s e r v i n g the P a s t on F i l m , " A r c h i y a r i a 6 (1 978), p. 137. 27 V l a d i m i r Opela, "Problems o f s e l e c t i o n of f i l m m a t e r i a l s and the a r c h i v a l system i n C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , " i n Problems of S e l e c t i o n i n F i l m A r c h i v e s by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of F i l m A r c h i v e s ( B r u s s e l s : F.I.A.F., 1980), p. 10. 2 8 I b i d . , pp. 10-11. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 12. 30 K u l a , The A r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l of, moving images, pp. 4-2-4-3. 31 ^ B l a z ena U r g o ^ i k o v a , "System o f A r c h i v a l S e l e c t i o n of Moving Images i n the Prague F i l m A r c h i v e , " i n Problems o f S e l e c t i o n i n F i l m A r c h i v e s , by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of F i l m A r c h i v e s ( B r u s s e l s : F.I.A.F., 1980), p. 17. 3 2 I b i d . , pp. 17-18. 33 I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of F i l m A r c h i v e s , Problems of S e l e c t i o n i n F i l m A r c h i v e s ( B r u s s e l s : F.I.A.F., 1980), pp. 134-135. 34 K u l a , The A r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l of moving images, p. 95. 3 5 I b i d . 3 6 I b i d . 37 L a r r y K a r r , "The American S i t u a t i o n , " i n Problems o f ^ e l e c t i o n i n F i l m A r c h i v e s by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of F i l m A r c h i v e s ( B r u s s e l s : F.I.A.F., 1980), p. 58. 38 I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of F i l m A r c h i v e s , Problems of S e l e c t i o n , p. 134. 39 K a r r , "The American S i t u a t i o n , " pp. 61-62. ^ I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of F i l m A r c h i v e s , Problems of S e l e c t i o n , p p . 1 3 5 - 1 3 6 . 87 K u l a , The A r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l of moving images, pp. 96- 4 2 I b i d . , p. 31• 4 3 I b i d . , p. 32. 4 4 I b i d . , p. 89, 88 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION S o c i e t y i s p r e s e n t l y overwhelmed by an e f f l o r e s c e n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d i n a v a r i e t y of d i v e r s e forms. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and morphology of the s p e c i a l media c o n s t i t u - t i n g the r e c o r d s o f the p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n age are e f f e c t i n g a change i n the form and n a t u r e . o f contemporary h i s - t o r i c a l evidence.. The p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y f a l l e n t o a n a t i o n ' s a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , which i n c r e a s i n g l y f i n d themselves i n a p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g to a c t p r o p h e t i c a l l y i n o r d e r to p r e s e r v e r e c o r d s which may become imbued w i t h h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e by the p a s s i n g of t i m e . The c a p a c i t y to a c t w i t h p r e s c i e n c e may be c r u c i a l i n s a v i n g many of the new media which a re i n danger of d i s a p p e a r i n g due to t h e i r ephemeral n a t u r e , combined w i t h a g e n e r a l l a c k of r e g a r d f o r t h e i r r e s e a r c h p o t e n t i a l . In o r d e r to p r e s e r v e such media, a r c h i v i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s a l i k e need to be cog- n i z a n t of the e x t e n t to which the new media of r e c o r d have permeated s o c i e t y , as w e l l as the degree o f t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . The p r e s e n t study has c o n c e n t r a t e d on one such medium, t h a t of f i l m i c moving images, w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g the medium's p h y s i c a l morphology, as w e l l as how the r e f l e c t i v e n a t u r e of c o n t e n t Impinges upon the s e l e c t i o n of moving images f o r permanent a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . In the case o f f i l m , a l o n g t r a d i t i o n of benign n e g l e c t due to i t s p o s i t i o n as a p r o d u c t of mass p o p u l a r c u l t u r e has 89 s i g n i f i c a n t l y impaired, i t s acceptance as an h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . F i l m has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d as a mass phenomenon, but the s o - c a l l e d " s t i g m a " of mass p o p u l a r i t y has t h w a r t e d i t s r e c o g - n i t i o n as a s o c i e t a l document of h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t . As a phenomenon of mass c u l t u r e , the f i l m document o c c u p i e s a unique d u a l r o l e i n the f a b r i c of contemporary s o c i e t y due to i t s r e - f l e c t i v e n a t u r e , and the i n f l u e n c e i t w i e l d s over i t s a u d i e n c e . Throughout i t s h i s t o r y , . ' f i l m has demonstrated the a b i l i t y to not o n l y r e f l e c t or " r e f r a c t " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of s o c i e t a l con- c e r n s , but to a l s o i n f l u e n c e and m a n i p u l a t e i t s audience through the message i t conveys. The f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t - d a y example i s o f f e r e d t o i l l u s t r a t e b o th the r e f l e c t i v e and i n f l u e n t i a l na- t u r e o f f i l m . In r e c e n t y e a r s H o l l y w o o d has produced a num- ber o f f i l m s r e f l e c t i n g t he a n t i - S o v i e t s e n t i m e n t r e s u l t i n g from s t r a i n e d East-West r e l a t i o n s . . F i l m s l i k e Re.d Dawn, Rambo, and Rocky IV were r e c e n t l y c i t e d a t a S o v i e t p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e as h a v i n g spawned a p a t h o l o g y o f h a t r e d a g a i n s t the S o v i e t Union. The r e a c t i o n t o such condemnation i s a l r e a d y apparent i n the American f i l m i n d u s t r y , , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the announce- ment o f p r o d u c t i o n of .The R u s s k i e s , i n which a S o v i e t spy submarine i s s t r a n d e d i n a s m a l l town on the American c o a s t . The f i l m i s b e i n g t o u t e d as the a n t i t h e s i s . of those f i l m s which have t r a d i t i o n a l l y p o r t r a y e d the R u s s i a n s as m a n i a c a l enemies of the West. T h i s example i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of f i l m ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r both r e f l e c t i o n and d i s t o r t i o n . A knowledge o f the n a t u r e of the medium s h o u l d make apparent those f a c t o r s ? : c o n t r i b u t i n g to 90 d i s t o r t i o n and thus make i t p o s s i b l e to account f o r such when u t i l i z i n g the f i l m document as a r e s e a r c h t o o l . I f f i l m i s to be p r e s e r v e d f o r f u t u r e use, those who s e l e c t and care f o r i t w i l l need to u n d e r s t a n d the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the medium, as w e l l as the ways i n which p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n f l u - ences c o n t e n t . As the medium i t s e l f can o p e r a t e as an i n f o r - m a t i o n a l f a c t o r of the r e c o r d , an awareness of both form and c o n t e n t w i l l e nable the a r c h i v i s t to convey p e r t i n e n t i n f o r - mation to the user.. S e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a cannot be developed w i t h o u t f i r s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p h y s i c a l n a t u r e of the docu- ment, as w e l l as the n a t u r e o f t h e . e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d by the document. In the case of the f i l m r e c o r d , s t r u c t u r e i s opera- t i v e i n d e t e r m i n i n g c o n t e n t , and as such, the two elements are c r u c i a l l y i n t e r w o v e n and cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i n t o t a l i s o l a t i o n . The r a m i f i c a t i o n s the n a t u r e o f the f i l m document h o l d s f o r the development of s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a are m a n i f o l d . Per- haps the p r i m a r y f a c t o r h i n d e r i n g the a r t i c u l a t i o n of c o n c r e t e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a i s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of endowing contemporary judgements of h i s t o r i c a l a r t e f a c t s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y those of popu- l a r c u l t u r e ) w i t h any semblance of h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Con- temporary v a l u e judgements a r e o f t e n marred by b i a s and s u b j e c - t i v i t y , and i n many cases a r e j u s t p l a i n wrong. Because of t h i s f a c t o r , as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t any f i l m c o u l d c o n c e i v a - b l y be o f i m p o rtance to someone, sometime, s e l e c t i o n becomes a moot p o i n t . A f u r t h e r f a c t o r h i n d e r i n g s e l e c t i o n concerns the r e f l e c t i v e n a t u r e of the f i l m document.. I f a l l f i l m can 91 be c o n s i d e r e d t o c o n s t i t u t e some form of s o c i e t a l r e f l e c t i o n , how can i t be p o s s i b l e t o d i s m i s s summarily a p o r t i o n of t h a t r e f l e c t i o n as b e i n g i r r e l e v a n t , ephemeral, or t r i v i a l ? Se- l e c t i o n t h e r e f o r e cannot be r e a s o n a b l y j u s t i f i e d , a t l e a s t on such grounds. I d e a l l y , t h e n , the a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y s h o u l d concern i t s e l f w i t h c o l l e c t i n g a l l moving images, r e p r e s e n t a - t i v e as they a re of some a s p e c t of s o c i e t y and human endeavour. I f such a scheme of t o t a l r e t e n t i o n i s not p r a c t i c a b l e , e i t h e r i n terms of s t o r a g e . space or e x p e n d i t u r e , s t e p s c o u l d be tak:en to i n c r e a s e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t s r e a l i z a t i o n . P o s s i b l e modes of a c t i o n c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y i n c l u d e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n t o a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t , and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the f i l m i n d u s t r y t o earmark e s s e n t i a l f i l m r e c o r d s w h i l e d i s m i s s i n g o b v i o u s ephemera. L e a v i n g a s i d e the most obvious i m p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of t o t a l r e t e n t i o n , a f u r t h e r c r i t i c a l element would be the de t e r m i n a - t i o n o f e x a c t l y what c o n s t i t u t e s " e v e r y t h i n g . " O b v i o u s l y , " e v e r y t h i n g " would n ot be a l i t e r a l term, and would perhaps be more i n d i c a t i v e of a p h i l o s o p h y of. s e l e c t i o n r a t h e r than a dogmatic h o a r d i n g of e v e r y t h i n g c e l l u l o i d . The a r c h i v a l v a l u e of f i l m documents w i l l have to be de t e r m i n e d by an a n a l y s i s or a p p r a i s a l e x p r e s s l y d e s i g n e d f o r the c e l l u l o i d r e c o r d , an a p p r a i s a l t h a t t a k e s i n t o account the p h y s i c a l make- up o f the document and the n a t u r e . o f the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n . The concept o f no s e l e c t i o n would t h e r e f o r e be i n d i - c a t i v e of a p h i l o s o p h y o f s e l e c t i o n which would r e t a i n a l l f i l m o f i n t r i n s i c a r c h i v a l v a l u e , a f t e r h a v i n g d e t e r m i n e d e x a c t l y 92 what c o n s t i t u t e s a r c h i v a l v a l u e i n terms of. the moving image document. D e t e r m i n i n g the v a l u e of the f i l m r e c o r d i s a problema- t i c a l p o i n t , i n v o l v i n g as i t o f t e n does s u b j e c t i v e and/or a r b i - t r a r y v a l u e judgements.- While' t h e r e appears to e x i s t a g e n e r a l l a c k o f consensus among the w o r l d ' s f i l m a r c h i v e a u t h o r i t i e s r e g a r d i n g s p e c i f i c s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a , . c e r t a i n p o i n t s seem to have emerged to f u n c t i o n as g u i d e l i n e s , however vague. S e l e c - t i o n appears t o be r e g a r d e d as a n e c e s s a r y e v i l , u n d e s i r a b l e and u l t i m a t e l y i n d e f e n s i b l e , y e t ne.cessary. under p r e s e n t - d a y c o n d i t i o n s to implement c e r t a i n p r e s e r v a t i o n p r i o r i t i e s , such as the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f f i l m o f n a t i o n a l , p r o d u c t i o n , and the f i l m i c o u t p u t o f c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l time p e r i o d s . For f i l m c o v e r e d by t h e s e a r e a s , the concept of s e l e c t i o n seems to be l a r g e l y i n a p p l i c a b l e . . F or these c a t e g o r i e s , the term "every- t h i n g " i s i n d e e d l i t e r a l . . . In the case o f f i l m n o t covered by these c a t e g o r i e s . , i s s u e s o f form and c o n t e n t appear to govern d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a r c h i v a l v a l u e , w i t h form o f t e n w i n n i n g out over c o n t e n t where c e r t a i n . p r o d u c t i o n elements and the s e d i m e n t a r y b y - p r o d u c t s o f f i l m m a k i n g are concerned. The p r e s e n t a u t h o r would l i k e to suggest t h a t c o n t e n t i s d e s e r - v i n g a f more c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n those cases where an i n - t r a c t a b l e p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h r e a t e n s to negate the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f the r e c o r d ' s content.. Such i s the case w i t h o u t - t a k e s , amateur f o o t a g e , and c e r t a i n p r o d u c t i o n e l e m e n t s , where t e c h - n i c a l i n a d e q u a c i e s or an u n e d i t e d s t r u c t u r e have t r a d i t i o n a l l y assumed p r i o r i t y over i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e , r e g a r d l e s s of the 93 p o t e n t i a l r e s e a r c h v a l u e of the r e c o r d . The p o s i t i o n o f f i l m i n s o c i e t y , i t s f u n c t i o n as both p u r v e y o r and r e f l e c t o r o f p o p u l a r c u l t u r e , i t s i n f l u e n c e and v a s t p o p u l a r a p p e a l -- these are a l l elements which have s i g n i - f i c a n t impact upon the s e l e c t i o n of f i l m f o r a r c h i v a l p r e s e r - v a t i o n . The n a t u r e of the evidence p r e s e n t e d by the f i l m docu- ment i s i n t i m a t e l y i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the r e c o r d . The p h y s i c a l form which encompasses the i n f o r m a - t i o n a l c o n t e n t of f i l m w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t f i l m c o n t e n t to a v e r y h i g h degree, but i t s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d to c o m p l e t e l y overwhelm the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e of c o n t e n t . I f s e l e c t i o n i_s •neces- sary,., f i l m must be e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g to i t s p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e ( i n c l u d i n g i t s age, c o n d i t i o n , and s t o c k ) , t y p o l o g y , and c o n t e n t ( i n c l u d i n g b oth " w i t t i n g " and " u n w i t t i n g " i n f o r m a t i o n ) . T h i s l i m i t e d assessment may be s u f f i c i e n t . f o r a c t u a l i t y f o o t a g e , but f o r o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , such as f i c t i o n f i l m , a d d i t i o n a l elements of a p p r a i s a l w i l l e n t e r i n t o the p i c t u r e , such as the r o l e of f i l m i n s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s r e f l e c t i v e n a t u r e , p o p u l a r a p p e a l , and degree of i n f l u e n c e . For example, a r e p o s i t o r y c o n s t r a i n e d by budget l i m i t a t i o n s may d e c i d e to c o n c e n t r a t e on b o x - o f f i c e s u c c e s s e s , i n o r d e r to r e t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of those f i l m s which t e s t i f y i n the broadest, sense to mass p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e . Another r e p o s i t o r y may. f o c u s i n s t e a d on o n l y n a t i o n a l f i l m p r o d u c t i o n w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i f the a r c h i v e does not p r e s e r v e the n a t i o n ' s f i l m i c o u t p u t , compre- h e n s i v e p r e s e r v a t i o n w i l l n o t be guaranteed by any o t h e r c o l - l e c t i n g body. Space and budget p e r m i t t i n g , a r e p o s i t o r y s h o u l d i d e a l l y concern i t s e l f w i t h r e t a i n i n g as broad a s a m p l i n g as 94 p o s s i b l e of a l l t y p e s o f f i l m s produced, i n o r d e r to m a i n t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l i n g o f the c i n e m a t i c p r o d u c t consumed by the p opulace a t a g i v e n t i m e . Such s a m p l i n g c o u l d c o n c e i v a - b l y i n c l u d e not only, b o x - o f f i c e s u c c e s s e s and f i l m s deemed to be o f a r t i s t i c v a l u e , but a l s o the b o x - o f f i c e " f l o p s , " i ndepen- dent p r o d u c t i o n s , f i l m s t h a t have been the s u b j e c t of c o n t r o - v e r s y and c e n s o r s h i p , f i l m s e l e v a t e d to " c u l t " s t a t u s , and the e n d l e s s r u n - o f - t h e - m i l l B grade f i l m s ( i n c l u d i n g h o r r o r and e x p l o i t a t i o n p r o d u c t s ) which c a t e r to a s p e c i f i c but s i z e - a b l e common i n t e r e s t group t y p i f y i n g sub-genres of p u b l i c t a s t e . The g o a l of s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be the r e t e n t i o n o f the b r o a d e s t p o s s i b l e s a m p l i n g of the a v a i l a b l e moving image u n i v e r s e , i n o r d e r to i n s u r e the w i d e s t coverage of contemporary s o c i e t y f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h use. I f t h e r e are s e v e r a l r e p o s i t o r i e s i n a g i v e n c o u n t r y c o l - l e c t i n g f i l m , the i s s u e of s e l e c t i o n i s bound to be f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by o v e r l a p p i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n i m p e r a t i v e s , and the need f o r c l e a r l y - a r t i c u l a t e d s e l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s , i f o n l y to a v o i d c o m p e t i t i o n and d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t . T h e r e f o r e , the s i m p l e s t s o l u t i o n would seem to be the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f one major f i l m a r c h i v e per c o u n t r y , p o s s e s s i n g the equipment neces- s a r y to p r o p e r l y m a i n t a i n and a c c e s s moving images. The c o s t of such equipment a l o n e would seem to n e c e s s i t a t e such a move. L o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s need n o t be p r e v e n t e d from ac- q u i r i n g s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n s of l o c a l i n t e r e s t w hich f a l l under t h e i r mandate, a l t h o u g h they may f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y to u t i l i z e the t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s of the n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e from time to 95 t i m e . The p r e s e r v a t i o n s c e n a r i o .which e n v i s i o n s one major f i l m a r c h i v e per c o u n t r y would i n c r e a s e the f e a s i b i l i t y o f i m p l e - menting f i l m r e c o r d s management t e c h n i q u e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r the f i l m i n d u s t r y . W h i l e such a program would i d e a l l y work most e f f i c i e n t l y i n a c o u n t r y h o u s i n g one f i l m a r c h i v e and a c e n t r a l i z e d n a t i o n a l f i l m i n d u s t r y , i t c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be implemented i n a n a t i o n w i t h a d e c e n t r a l i z e d f i l m i n d u s t r y . Problems of c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n would l i k e l y be i n - surmountable i f both the f i l m i n d u s t r y and f i l m a r c h i v e s were d e c e n t r a l i z e d . T a k i n g i n t o account the r e a l i t i e s of d e c r e a s e d a r c h i v a l spending and the remote p o s s i b i l i t i e s of new l o w - c o s t s t o r a g e f o r m a t s , i t would appear t h a t f o r the m a j o r i t y of f i l m a r c h i v e s some form of s e l e c t i o n may be the o n l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e i n o r d e r to c u l l the more ephemeral r e c o r d s and thus i n s u r e the s u r v i v a l of the most v a l u a b l e moving image documents. De t e r - m i n i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s v a l u e would appear to be the b i g g e s t c h a l l e n g e f o r f i l m a r c h i v e s s e e k i n g t o e s t a b l i s h s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . Such judgements are by n a t u r e l i k e l y to be somewhat s u b j e c t i v e , but contemporary v a l u e judgements can be made more o b j e c t i v e by c o n s i d e r i n g the moving image document i n terms of both p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e and i n f o r m a t i o n a l c o n t e n t , as w e l l as the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. In a d d i t i o n , the r o l e of f i l m i n s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the f e a t u r e f i l m , w i t h i t s c a p a c i t y t o m a n i f e s t both c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s v a l u e systems and to sway i t s a u d i e n c e , must be c o n s i d e r e d a 96 c r i t i c a l element i n a s c e r t a i n i n g the v a l u e of the f i l m docu- ment. Value can take many forms i n the f i l m r e c o r d , some more ob v i o u s than o t h e r s . S e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a must take i n t o account both f i l m s of o b v i o u s v a l u e , such as a r t i s t i c and b o x - o f f i c e s u c c e s s e s , propaganda and f i l m of h i g h i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e , as w e l l as f i l m s of l e s s o b v i o u s v a l u e , such as the p o p u l a r "B" . p r o d u c t , h o r r o r and teen f i l m s , which c a t e r to a s p e c i f i c and s i z e a b l e market, and as such, t e s t i f y to some s o r t of mass con- sensus. Once d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s " v a l u e " have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the i n d i v i d u a l f i l m a r c h i v e , the g o a l of s e l e c t i o n would i d e a l l y embrace the r e t e n t i o n of the e n t i r e u n i v e r s e of " v a l u a b l e " f i l m documentation, i n o r d e r to b e s t s e r v e a l l c o n c e i v a b l e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h needs. 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l d g a t e , Anthony. 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