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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cartographic records in archives : a shared resource Hutchison, Margaret Mary 1986

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CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS IN ARCHIVES:  A SHARED RESOURCE  By MARGARET MARY HUTCHISON B.A., The University of V i c t o r i a , 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES  in THE FACULTY OF ARTS Administered by the School of Library, A r c h i v a l , and Information Studies and the Department of History  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1986 ©  Margaret Mary Hutchison, 1986  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  i npartial  fulfilment of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely available  theLibrary  f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  s h a l l make I further  agree that permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood that for  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  f i n a n c i a l gain  It i s thesis  s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department o f  K^Ccy^  o ^ X fcW. Sc4-_eo4 <^ o L W - v ^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date  _k-pl3^vJ-__w  /  it x,  Columbia  l^8_3  ,  C W c W a i ,  ABSTRACT  Cartography i s often viewed as such an esoteric d i s c i p l i n e employing art and science i n the creation of records that l i t t l e i s known outside cartographic agencies about the evolution of the maps.  Archives  concerned with acquiring cartographic records have tended to concentrate on c o l l e c t i n g the published maps.  Maps are most often consulted f o r  their i l l u s t r a t i v e value or reference quality.  However, t h i s  i l l u s t r a t i v e value often obscures the character and evidential value of maps.  This thesis attempts to show that cartographic materials have  important  evidential value and that archives have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to  help ensure this value i s recognized both i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of records and i n t h e i r eventual use.  The f i r s t problem for archives i s to i d e n t i f y the f u l l range of the cartographic record both i n terms of agencies which produce cartographica and the records generated within each agency.  Therefore, t h i s study  examines the range of cartographic records which have been produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia over time, and the types of cartographic records three B r i t i s h Columbia repositories acquire.  The second problem i s that  a r c h i v i s t s need to gain an awareness of the cartographic communication process i t s e l f .  To this end, this study outlines some aspects of  cartographic communication which bear on matters of a r c h i v a l administration.  Each of these i n turn affects the appraisal of the  evidential values of cartographic records. complexity,  These indications of the  together with the increasing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , of the  ii  cartographic records argue strongly f o r the a r c h i v i s t ' s knowledgeability about t h e i r production as an a i d i n their use or interpretation.  Cartographic materials have a v a l i d place i n archives but the a r c h i v i s t must take an active part i n acquiring and understanding the records documenting the intervening procedures between data c o l l e c t i o n and map publication. Maps can serve a wider public and archives can be an important m i l i e u f o r the more comprehensive use of the medium by acquiring the f u l l range of cartographic records as well as helping researchers towards a better understanding the records they are using.  of the motivating ideas behind  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  There have been many people who have given me encouragement during the time t h i s thesis has been i n progress.  I owe p a r t i c u l a r thanks to  friends from the MAS class of 1983, Shelley, Debra, Wilma, and Mary-Anne.  I would l i k e to thank my advisor, Terry Eastwood, whose encouragement was largely responsible f o r my application to the Masters of Archival Studies programme.  Terry has been an example of perseverance  and dedication to the programme and to archives which I have t r i e d to follow.  I would also l i k e to thank David Chamberlin and Frances Woodward  who took time out of their busy schedules to provide thoughtful and constructive c r i t i c i s m of my work.  I am grateful f o r the support of my  colleagues at the Saskatchewan Archives, i n p a r t i c u l a r Mr. Ian Wilson and Mr. Douglas Bocking.  Mrs. Sharon Smith of the Saskatchewan Archives has  earned my h e a r t f e l t thanks f o r her e f f o r t s i n deciphering my handwriting and e r r a t i c punctuation while typing the f i n a l version.  And f i n a l l y , I  could not have done any of this had i t not been f o r my parents b e l i e f i n me; the most powerful incentive there i s .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgements  iv  Introduction Chapter I Chapter II  1 Cartographic Records Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia Cartographic Records i n B r i t i s h Columbia Archives  Chapter III Cartographic Communication Process and Archives Chapter IV  Conclusion: Cartographic Records i n Archives: A Shared Resource  Bibliography  4 24  42 59 73  v  1 INTRODUCTION  It i s interesting to speculate on how d i f f e r e n t our understanding  of  history might be today without the comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n s of archives available to us.  The confident sense of continuity with the past which  we cherish would be l o s t without the archival repositories which preserve records f o r us u n t i l we discover a use f o r them.  As museums hold  a r t i f a c t u a l evidence of human productivity so archives hold documentary evidence which gives us the sense of "being there" at the time events i n the past took place.  Archives provide the dimension of context to  h i s t o r y which enables events, people and places to be more t r u t h f u l l y understood.  The history of Canada's surveying and mapping, the story of  the country's exploration and settlement by Europeans, can be found i n archives across the country.  Cartographic archives provide the lens  through which we can not only see the earth as i t has been perceived through a r e l a t i v e l y short period of time but through which we can look at both early and contemporary attempts to present our attitudes, b e l i e f s and knowledge about the land and our place on i t .  Cartographic archives  contain the means to show us how Canada appeared to e a r l i e r generations and what was  important to them.  evidence of man's t e r r i t o r i a l i t y .  The records comprise the accumulated In order to understand what  cartographic records are trying to show us, c e r t a i n facets of their special nature have to be considered.  Cartographic records are an amalgam of s c i e n t i f i c , a r t i s t i c and communicative s k i l l s , and this compound nature must be represented within  2  the cartographic holdings of archives i f the maps are to be f u l l y utilized. important  Careful s e l e c t i o n of material can not only document the stages of development of man's impact on the land but show the  technical evolution of cartographic documentation as w e l l . The individual maps which are held i n a single archives may indicate cartographic d i v e r s i t y but i f they are considered together i n context with the holdings of other map r e p o s i t o r i e s much more can be understood about the map production of a region.  Therefore, i t i s important  that  the archives be part of a network which seeks to preserve, and which may i n fact become, the t o t a l cartographic memory of an area. of cartography  This network  stems from the nature of the medium i t s e l f .  being the r e s u l t of a progressive accumulation  Instead of  of data ending i n a  finished product, as, f o r instance, i n a book on a c e r t a i n t o p i c , base maps may be added to and modified to create new and d i f f e r e n t  products,  often by quite d i f f e r e n t creating agencies.  The same base map and basic  information about an area may be transformed  by adding specialized  information to i t .  For this reason retention of cartographic records i n  various r e p o s i t o r i e s , record o f f i c e s as well as archives, allows f o r the most i n t e l l i g e n t , most complete u t i l i z a t i o n of this complex medium.  Each  o f f i c e within this network can provide the needed context by assembling the additional records and expert s t a f f to a s s i s t the p o t e n t i a l user to understand what i t i s the records are trying to communicate.  This thesis w i l l examine the nature of cartographic records, i n h i s t o r i c a l as well as contemporary forms; the r o l e of a r c h i v a l repositories i n networks of o f f i c e s preserving cartographic records;  3  their role i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of cartographic information; and s e l e c t i o n of cartographic records by archives.  The study w i l l focus on  cartographic records produced by f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and government agencies as they r e l a t e to B r i t i s h Columbia. b r i e f review of map the f i e l d of map the present day.  the  municipal To begin, a  production i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l i l l u s t r a t e  how  creation i n the province has grown and d i v e r s i f i e d to The major centres of map  making i n the province are  clustered on Vancouver Island and the lower mainland and consequently choice of archival repositories considered i n Chapter Two concentration.  the  r e f l e c t s this  Under examination are the holdings of the Vancouver C i t y  Archives, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, and the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Chapter Three looks at some factors  influencing the cartographic communication process and how networks of repositories preserving cartographic records would benefit the transmission of cartographic communication. considers how  The concluding  chapter  the a r c h i v a l appraisal process i s affected by the d i v e r s i t y  and increasing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the cartographic record.  4  CHAPTER I Cartographic Records Production i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  Modern B r i t i s h Columbia mapping has evolved from beginnings which can be traced to a wide variety of enterprises.  The seeds can be found i n the  journals and maps of Europeans i n the l a t e f i f t e e n t h and early sixteenth centuries when French, Spanish, English and Russian adventurers sought to expand the extent and wealth of t h e i r homelands.  During early expeditions  North America merely stood i n the way of Europeans with aspirations to reach the riches of Asia. as commercial  But i n time the region i t s e l f came to be valued  interest i n i t s natural resources led to both a maritime and  a continental f u r trade.  Commercial exploration and the settlement which  followed i t l a i d part of the foundation f o r the future province's cartographic heritage.  F i r s t , i t i s necessary to place modern B r i t i s h Columbia mapping i n an h i s t o r i c a l context.  By b r i e f l y tracing the exploration of the region by  land and by sea, i t may be seen how the area f i r s t came to be mapped and how the constituents of i t s cartography, i t s agencies and t h e i r technology, changed over time.  I t i s also useful to outline the h i s t o r i c a l development  of c e r t a i n types of maps i n Canada as a whole i n order to sketch the larger framework within which B r i t i s h Columbia cartography evolved.  Secondly, we  w i l l examine the development of the map making t r a d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  i t s e l f , those based i n national programmes as well as those  indigenous to B r i t i s h Columbia.  This encapsulated description of how  contemporary mapping has evolved from the amalgam of the goals and  5  experiences  of explorers, settlements, m i l i t a r y companies, and  governments i s necessary  fledgling  i n order to understand the v a r i e t y of records  which comprise cartographic holdings i n B r i t i s h Columbia archives today.  The emphasis here i s primarily on revealing the administrative history of B r i t i s h Columbia cartography, which i s important to the cartographic a r c h i v i s t who  information  faces the task of appraisal and  s e l e c t i o n of records from this vast f i e l d .  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the variety  of agencies which have produced maps as well as of the purposes for which such maps have been created helps ensure that the range of cartographic records within an archives w i l l contain, as f a r as possible, those records which best reveal the evolving h i s t o r y of the cartography region.  of the  Informed s e l e c t i o n of the cartographic record also reveals the  evolving landscape as i t has been interpreted by several generations of map  makers.  The mapping of B r i t i s h Columbia i s but one facet of the long h i s t o r y of Canadian cartography.  In Canada, as elsewhere throughout the world,  exploration and commerce have motivated men geographical knowledge. f i r s t map 1728.1  The cartography  to f i l l i n the blanks i n  of western Canada began with the  of the p r a i r i e region drawn by P i e r r e de l a Verendrye i n  Commercial enterprises of the Hudson's Bay Company and i t s r i v a l ,  the North West Company, brought t h e i r cartographers, Peter F i d l e r and David Thompson^ to the westerly regions of Rupert's Land i n the late 1700's and early 1800's.  Scarcity of furs i n the p r a i r i e region soon  pushed exploration further westward as David Thompson explored and mapped  6  the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers i n 1807 i n the course of the search f o r new trading p o s s i b i l i t i e s and good transportation routes.  This incentive  to reach further towards the P a c i f i c resulted i n the piece by piece creation of a detailed record by those traversing the land.  These  general maps not only documented the t e r r a i n but f a c i l i t a t e d the explorer's return to an area once t r a v e l l e d and i l l u s t r a t e d the geographic features f o r his sponsors i n Europe.  Such maps enabled plans  and decisions to be made pertaining to transportation routes and eventual claims to the land i t s e l f . 3  The general maps from such journeys were the  forerunners of the most basic map i n use today, the topographic map.  A  topographic map i s one which i s intended "to portray and i d e n t i f y the features of the Earth's surface as f a i t h f u l l y as possible within the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by scale."4  These early topographic surveys r e s u l t i n g from the competition between fur trade companies were compiled by explorers, traders, and cartographers possessing varying degrees of proficiency.  But as  exploration progressed surveyors were being trained i n B r i t a i n and Europe i n the l a t e s t surveying technology (including the use of Harrison's chronometer, perfected i n England i n 1765, which accurately determined longitude)^ i n order to carry out topographic surveys of t h e i r respective countries as aids to government and defence.  Consequently,  by 1778 maps  based on s c i e n t i f i c instrumental surveys were being produced, the most notable i n Canada being the work on the east coast by Joseph Des Barres and i n the western i n t e r i o r by P h i l i p Turnor.6  A new printing process  c a l l e d lithography would enable John Arrowsmith and other B r i t i s h map  7 makers to produce and d i s t r i b u t e up-to-date editions of maps from information gathered as exploration of the northern and western regions of Canada continued through the 1800's.  Another step i n the process of characterizing the land was  taken  when the need f o r s c i e n t i f i c a l l y accurate geological information, gathered  i n an organized and comprehensive manner, led to the formation  of the Geological Survey of Canada i n 1842.  In compiling base maps to  accompany the geological reports, the Geological Survey was the f i r s t Canadian author of topographic sheets.  Many of these sheets also found  use as general topographic maps i n the absence of any other large-scale mapping.^ mapping was  Another agency which soon became involved i n large-scale the o f f i c e which l a t e r became known as the Survey D i v i s i o n of  the Department of M i l i t i a and Defence, now named the Mapping and Charting Establishment.  Responding to the fear that B r i t i s h North America would  need to be defended against the Union Army of the United States, t h i s o f f i c e was engaged from 1863 to 1871  i n drawing up detailed topographic  sheets at 1:2500 depicting f o r t i f i c a t i o n s along the Canada/United States border.  These f o r t i f i c a t i o n surveys were kept secret by the Department  and therefore were not available f o r general use.8  A t h i r d source of  Canadian topographical mapping began i n 1871 when the Dominion Land Survey began i n the p r a i r i e s under the d i r e c t i o n of the surveyors of the federal Department of the Interior.9  Concerned about the v u l n e r a b i l i t y  of the uninhabited land north of the 49th p a r a l l e l and convinced that Canadian settlement would help secure the border, the Department's primary focus was the cadastral surveying of the Canadian p r a i r i e region i n order  8 to encourage settlement there.  Cadastral mapping, the mapping of  property boundaries, helped clear the way settlement on p r a i r i e lands.  f o r quick and systematic  As the Departments r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s grew  i t also engaged i n topographical surveys i n the Rocky Mountains.  The  i n i t i a l series of maps intended f o r purposes of land r e g i s t r a t i o n  was  subsequently joined by a second s e r i e s , i n smaller scale, created f o r purposes of federal land administration.  Through the evolution of these  agencies, i t i s possible to trace the natural growth of the National Topographic Series to the form we are f a m i l i a r with today.  As formal topographic and cadastral mapping programmes were being organized east of the Rocky Mountains, the surveying and mapping of both the coastal and inland regions of B r i t i s h Columbia by l o c a l authorities began.  U n t i l the s e t t l i n g of V i c t o r i a i n 1843 with the attendant demands  for cadastral surveying, the bulk of mapping i n the region was marine-based.  Captain James Cook i n 1778 and Captain George Vancouver i n  1792 and 1793 continued the northern coastal explorations begun i n 1774 by the Spanish.  In 1795, B r i t i s h interests were furthered when the  B r i t i s h Admiralty created the Hydrographic  O f f i c e of the Admiralty to  coordinate the information gathered i n surveys including those carried out p r i o r to settlement of the P a c i f i c ' s northwest coastal region.10  The  United States Coast Survey charted the P a c i f i c Northwest coast as f a r north as the 49th p a r a l l e l as early as 1841 with the same goal i n mind. The survey ships of the Royal Navy, which had a s i g n i f i c a n t  presence  during the negotiations over the location of the international boundary along the 49th p a r a l l e l were r e c a l l e d a f t e r the signing of the boundary  9 treaty i n 1846.  The Royal Navy did not return to the area u n t i l  1857  when i t s experience and precise surveying techniques were again required to help s e t t l e differences of opinion between B r i t a i n and the United States over the boundary as i t f e l l between Vancouver Island and the San Juan Islands.  On shore meanwhile, increasing settlement created a need f o r land surveys.  The Hudson's Bay Company's interests i n establishing a B r i t i s h  settlement provided the impetus f o r the f i r s t land surveys on Vancouver Island.  Here, i n contrast to surveys i n eastern regions, the i n i t i a l  work was carried out by private rather than government i n i t i a t i v e . O f f i c e r s of the Hudson's Bay Company held the f i r s t surveying positions, although they were not always trained f o r such work.  The f i r s t , A. Lee  Lewes, was employed to "make a s i t e plan of the Company's new establishment at the Southern end of Vancouver Island"!* i n 1842; second, Captain W.C  Grant, served i n 1849-50, but not u n t i l the  appointment i n 1851  of the t h i r d Company surveyor, Joseph Despard  Pemberton, did anything of significance r e s u l t .  the  His appointment f i n a l l y  "marked the inception of cadastral surveys of consequence on the island. "12  The necessity f o r cadastral surveying increased as V i c t o r i a  grew and Pemberton became the f i r s t Surveyor-General  of the c o l o n i a l  government's Department of Lands and Works i n 1859.  Pemberton's  surveying was  intended to pave the way  Hudson's Bay Company might f u l f i l  f o r settlement i n order that the  i t s promise to bring i n colonists and  thereby retain i t s proprietary rights to Vancouver Island.  He also  surveyed the townsites beside Fort V i c t o r i a and nearby Esquimalt Harbour  10  i n order to produce the plans the Company needed to promote land sales. In time, settlement was l a i d out not simply i n the Company s t y l e of stockaded buildings but i n l o t s i n preparation f o r further population and commercial growth stemming from farms and businesses providing produce and European goods to the posts and whaling operations i n the P a c i f i c region. 1857.  The Royal Navy resumed i t s surveys of the coastal harbours i n On the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia the f i r s t Surveyor-General  (counterpart to Pemberton) named by S i r Edward Bulwer Lytton, Secretary of State f o r the colonies, was Colonel R.C. Moody, who commanded a special force of Royal Engineers despatched from England i n the f a l l of 1858 and "directed to survey land suitable f o r settlement, mark out public reserves and road locations, and prepare a s i t e f o r the seat of government on the mainland."13  The Royal Engineers were f i r s t sent to the area known to the Hudson's Bay Company as New Caledonia primarily due to Company fears about i t s hold on the region.  It was a vast and valuable possession  which the B r i t i s h were a f r a i d of losing to the American s e t t l e r s moving steadily west and north.  In 1845 two of the select corps of  well-educated and well-trained m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s were sent from Montreal on a confidential mission to observe the s i t u a t i o n i n the area and determine whether the B r i t i s h could be adequately protected i n the event of war.  This m i l i t a r y r o l e waxed and waned i n importance but f o r the  next f i f t y years the Royal Engineers were to be the source of important contributions to the development of the cartographic record i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  In addition to this i n i t i a l expedition (the reports and maps  of which are housed i n the Public Record O f f i c e , London, E n g l a n d ) ,  the  14  Royal Engineers were involved i n the Land Boundary Commission to produce the f i n a l survey of the 49th p a r a l l e l to determine the boundary's exact route which i n turn defined the Southern,border of what was to become B r i t i s h Columbia.  In 1858 a contingent of Royal Engineers was  instructed  to carry out townsite and road surveying and road-building. The maps and plans produced were printed on t h e i r own press i n New Westminster and d i s t r i b u t e d l o c a l l y and sent to B r i t a i n .  F i n a l l y , between 1871 and  the Engineers were engaged i n a j o i n t m i l i t a r y survey of B r i t i s h  1906  Columbia  with the Canadian government with the objective of selecting permanent f o r t i f i c a t i o n sites.  Their sojourn at the m i l i t a r y base at Esquimalt,  just outside of V i c t o r i a , ended i n 1906 when they were r e c a l l e d to Britain.  Their a c t i v i t i e s were carried on i n Canada by the Royal  Canadian Engineers.  Their departure marked the end of B r i t i s h mapping i n  B r i t i s h Columbia.15  After 1906 most surveying was done by agencies of  the p r o v i n c i a l government.  Local government involvement i n cadastral surveying can be dated from 1858 with the creation of the Lands and Works Department of the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia under the d i r e c t i o n of Colonel R.C. Moody of the Royal Engineers.  The small contingent of Royal Engineers engaged i n  surveying was unable to produce surveys fast enough to keep up with the demand f o r land with the result that i n 1860 the "pre-emption based on f i l i n g f o r and occupying lands p r i o r to survey and was begun.  system  purchase"!^  The 1860 Proclamation and i t s 1861 amendment provided "the  f i r s t statutory recognition of survey regulations" and "empowered the  12 Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works to appoint  'sworn surveyors' and to  issue a scale of remuneration which they would be p a i d . " l ?  By 1871, when  B r i t i s h Columbia joined the Dominion of Canada, mapping i n the province had reached a new stage.  The successor to Colonel Moody as Chief  Commissioner of Lands and Works, J.W.  Trutch, was responsible f o r a map  dated 1871 which i s credited today with being a benchmark of "the close of exploratory mapping and the f u l l entry into the era of precise instrumental surveying and mapping"!** n the Northwest coast of Canada. 0  The P r o v i n c i a l Department of Lands and Works was constituted i n December 1871 and the o f f i c e of Surveyor-General  became part of t h i s Department.  The Chief Commissioner controlled government contract surveying and mapping i n conjunction with the Surveyor-General administration of the programmes.19  who handled  the d a i l y  The i n s t i t u t i o n of i t s own surveying  and mapping o f f i c e a f t e r Confederation was evidence of recognition by the p r o v i n c i a l government of i t s need f o r knowledge of the land i n order to administer i t .  Its role as part of a growing nation, within federal  unity rather than under c o l o n i a l r u l e , signalled B r i t i s h  Columbials  i n t e n s i f y i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r documenting i t s own development. Cartographic production kept pace.  In 1873, the surveys being made by P r o v i n c i a l surveyors were joined, and i n many cases overlapped, by the Dominion surveys of railway b e l t lands.20  Both p r i v a t e l y and p r o v i n c i a l l y compiled  information was drawn  on f o r a map of the province which came to be viewed as the successor to the 1871 map produced under the d i r e c t i o n of J.W.  Trutch.  In 1895, the  Honourable C.B. Martin, Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, unveiled  13  the new map,  which has recently been c a l l e d "a good example of the state  of cartographic art i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the late 19th Century."21 B r i t i s h Columbia cartography  evolved, incorporating new  surveying, new p r o v i n c i a l topographic and thematic map  As  techniques f o r series developed'  and the production of these maps quickly became a complex government industry.  As more and more information on the Province was gathered  as government departments d i v e r s i f i e d to carry out new  and  programmes, the  records grew more sophisticated as well as more numerous.  New series  documenting the p r o v i n c i a l land management schemes were needed to r e f l e c t the intensity and spread of land settlement.  B r i t i s h Columbia's mapping  was evolving from the overall documentation of a province's growth to the in-depth representation of land use by means of a systematic of thematic and topographic  series.  progression  The populating of the land c a l l e d  for a change from the e a r l i e r emphasis on small scale mapping of general areas of the mid-to-late 1800's to mapping i n larger scale of s p e c i f i c lands by the early 1900's.  By 1913  B r i t i s h Columbia was producing  d i s t i n c t series of maps to cope with the complex land system. series were named the Pre-emptor, Land, Degree, and  The Pre-emptor Series "outlined surveyed  four  These  Topographical.  l o t s and indicated lands  open f o r pre-emption i n a d i s t i n c t i v e colour t i n t " ; the Land Series was "confined to coastal areas, and similar to the Pre-emptor maps, usually contained notations of interest to s e t t l e r s " ; the Degree Series was forerunner of the National Topographic Series" and showed surveyed and important  c u l t u r a l d e t a i l s ; the Topographic Series was  early contour mapping.  22  "the lots  the product  These series formed the basis f o r record  of  14  keeping i n mapping o f f i c e s f o r many years.  The longest surviving of  these, the p r o v i n c i a l s e r i e s , was not completely supplanted by the National Topographic Series u n t i l the 1970*s.  23  During the f l o u r i s h i n g  of these four s e r i e s , the central mapping establishment i n the Province was the Surveyor-General's Division.  Branch and i t s offshoot, the Geographic  Today, mapping i s carried out by many government departments  with the work often c r i s s - c r o s s i n g administrative j u r i s d i c t i o n s .  In the main, three m i n i s t r i e s are presently responsible f o r the bulk of B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i n c i a l mapping.  The M i n i s t r y of Environment  encompasses map production units such as the T e r r e s t r i a l Studies Branch, the Surveys and Resource Mapping Branch, the Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch, and the Marine Resources Branch; the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources contains many important geological d i v i s i o n s ; and the Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing encompasses the Surveys and Land Records Branch, the Surveyor-General, and Legal Surveys.  Cartographic  and drafting units of the T e r r e s t r i a l Studies Branch i n both V i c t o r i a (headquarters) and Kelowna ( s a t e l l i t e operation) carry out "mapping, graphics presentation, report graphics production and computer d i g i t a l mapping . . . as well as projects undertaken by aquatic studies, a i r studies and the planning and assessment branch (and other groups within the M i n i s t r y of Environment)." 4 2  Inherent i n the production of these  various cartographic records i s the generation of textual records documenting the methodology employed as well as the programmes whose purposes the maps serve.  15 Map production has consistently involved many d i s t i n c t stages, including surveying, processing of data, reproduction, and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Surveying and i t s related a c t i v i t i e s results i n graphic records such as sketch maps, t e r r a i n sketches, f i e l d notes, and a e r i a l photographs.  The  second phase, processing of data, r e s u l t s i n base maps, master negatives, master overlays, b l u e l i n e proofs, p r i n t i n g plates and press proofs.  The  extent of reproduction and d i s t r i b u t i o n , the t h i r d phase, depends on demand, and, i n many cases, the type and form of a map w i l l be by cost factors and potential use.  determined  Generally speaking, the more formal  the use the higher the quality and the more expensive the copy.  For  example, the T e r r e s t r i a l Studies Section of the Surveys and Resource Mapping Branch, M i n i s t r y of Environment, contributes cartography to the Technical Report Series.  This series, which i s i n addition to the  products available to user agencies, i s a working report series which responds to s p e c i f i c queries.  A recent example i s the series of reports  in support of the mapping surveys done f o r the northeast coal project. In the words of the Head of Cartography  f o r the T e r r e s t r i a l Studies  Section t h i s project "exemplifies our 'state of the a r t ' p r o g r e s s " ^ and uses automation combined with graphics to put out a quality product i n limited time.  Chart production, an important segment of the cartographic output i n B r i t i s h Columbia, also evolves through these various stages.  Nautical  charts describe the area below the shoreline whereas topographic sheets are concerned with the area above i t . (CHS)  The Canadian Hydrographic Service  i s a major component of the Ocean Science and Surveys Sector of the  16  Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans.  Of the four regional  o f f i c e s , the P a c i f i c Region O f f i c e , located at P a t r i c i a Bay near V i c t o r i a , d i s t r i b u t e s 42 percent of a l l charts compiled i n Canada and 75 percent of the p u b l i c a t i o n s . ^ The hydrographic survey of Canadian 2  waters (carried out by B r i t i s h Admiralty surveyors) began i n 1883 with the decision to survey systematically Georgian Bay, which had been the s i t e of many marine accidents.  The B r i t i s h survey ships were involved  u n t i l 1910 although the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r hydrographic surveys was coming more and more under the purview of the Canadian government.  O r i g i n a l l y the f i e l d work was compiled i n Ottawa and sent to England f o r engraving and publishing as an Admiralty chart. Due to the delay between survey and the publication of a chart i t was decided to publish the charts i n Canada. The f i r s t was issued using photolithography i n 1903. In subsequent years, plates of the Admiralty charts, based on Canadian work were sent to Canada, and by the F i r s t World War the service was responsible f o r maintaining a l l of i t s own c h a r t s . ? 2  Today the CHS i s primarily concerned with producing navigation charts including charts covering harbours and channels, t i d a l currents, f i s h e r i e s areas, t e r r i t o r i a l seas, natural resource maps of the ocean and a special series of charts f o r the Department of National Defence.  The  P a t r i c i a Bay o f f i c e i s responsible f o r charting a l l of the navigable waters west of the Manitoba/Saskatchewan border including the Western A r c t i c (Beaufort Sea).  In addition to t h i s , the CHS publishes  small-craft charts designed with pleasure boaters i n mind, tide books, small c r a f t guides, s a i l i n g directions f o r p i l o t s , and catalogues of charts f o r each region.  The d i v e r s i t y of marine cartography and the  importance of the various editions have led the CHS to look to automation  17  to reduce the workload and costs.  Automation  i s used to draw the charts  once the compiled data from f i e l d sheets and other sources has been d i g i t i z e d (the representation of a quantity by a number code) or "converted into a computer compatible form f o r automatic drawing by a computer controlled plotter."28 The CHS has been using automation f o r over sixteen years and the Regional Chart Superintendent of the P a c i f i c Region i s looking ahead to the day when "information collected i n d i g i t a l form can be transposed v i a automation to produce the f i n a l p r o d u c t . "  29  Obviously the development of such technology w i l l have an impact i n the realm of records keeping as well as i n that of records creation.  Cartographic records, whether f e d e r a l l y , p r o v i n c i a l l y or p r i v a t e l y generated, may become even less accessible than they are today through the introduction of computer-assisted cartography.  Automation  enables  agencies to create records which r e f l e c t programme planning and execution on a l e v e l considered too labour intensive to carry out otherwise.  In  Environment Canada, "conventional cartographic methods are frequently supplemented or [are] being replaced by computerized systems which, when operational, can o f f e r greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n the interactive analysis and presentation of mapped information."-^ The application of computers to the science of cartography i s changing the nature of cartographic records and the manipulation of data on a screen implies that processes such as the addition or deletion of data and the recombining of data into a new format, may never be documented permanently. hard copies along the way,  Without generating  i t w i l l be v i r t u a l l y impossible to document  the process of a map's creation.  Moreover, as cartographers develop ways  18 of f i t t i n g cartographic techniques into computer programmes, compiling evidence of the computerized  cartographic techniques themselves w i l l  require specialized expertise and equipment.  A l l of these have important  implications f o r a r c h i v i s t s accustomed to working with the physical form of the record rather than just with the unprocessed  information i t s e l f .  Cartographic a r c h i v i s t s w i l l have to grapple with the problem that the data i s being added to and therefore i s changing constantly.  In meeting  the challenge of machine readable cartography, the a r c h i v i s t may have to put aside some of the more t r a d i t i o n a l aspects of records keeping take up the challenge of information management.  and  Some of the  implications of this as i t applies to one important aspect of archival work, appraisal, w i l l be dealt with i n Chapter  Four.  Comprehensive mapping of any area i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s often assured not by conscious design but rather through the large number of mapping agencies and overlapping of programmes. government o f f i c e d i c t a t e a map  The needs of one  of a p a r t i c u l a r area at one scale while  another o f f i c e with d i f f e r e n t requirements w i l l choose a d i f f e r e n t scale for mapping the same area.  Because of duplication of e f f o r t i n various  government agencies, the Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing was encouraged i n 1952 by a report e n t i t l e d "The F a c i l i t a t i o n of Planning" to work towards the " r a t i o n a l surveying, mapping and f i l i n g of our land data base"__ by developing "a minimal number of standard-scale maps evolved from a common base, each serving a s p e c i f i c purpose.  It [the report]  j u s t i f i e d a coherent system of cross-referenced f i l i n g and indexing f o r long-term benefits."32  This recommendation has gradually been  implemented with the result that one o f f i c e , f o r example, the Parks  19  and Outdoor Recreation D i v i s i o n , can become "a highly decentralized organization with i t s regions free to meet t h e i r mapping needs at t h e i r own d i s c r e t i o n d i r e c t l y i n the market place.  In this the central service  provides a coordinating and unifying function besides supplying highly competitive mapping products using both own-force and private sector means."33  The cooperation between various government agencies i s extended to the municipal sector as well.  Municipal mapping on the lower mainland of  B r i t i s h Columbia includes the 1:2500 land use information series covering Greater Vancouver; the 1:10 000 planimetric series formerly produced by the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (GVRD) i n conjunction with the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s to describe boundaries  of various land use  designations and delineate the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve; and the 1:50 000 scale used by the Regional Planning Department on i t s report maps. The Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t was comprised of the region's f i f t e e n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and three e l e c t o r a l areas u n t i l i t was disbanded i n 1983. Two departments of the GVRD i n p a r t i c u l a r , Regional Planning and Engineering, used maps.  The Regional Planning Department was  concerned with the GVRD's land use and transportation planning activities.  The Engineering Department was responsible f o r the "design  and maintenance of the regional water supply and waste disposal facilities."34  Both departments had limited cartographic c a p a b i l i t y and  depended mainly upon the p r o v i n c i a l government for base maps. The functions of the GVRD have either disappeared or been assumed by the p r o v i n c i a l government.  20 F i n a l l y , one l a s t factor contributing to the complexity of tracing map production i n government agencies of a l l levels i s the dynamic nature of these agencies i n t h e i r response to changing organization.  administrative  A p r o v i n c i a l example w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e the point.  The Ministry of Environment's T e r r e s t r i a l Studies Section of the Surveys and Resource Mapping Branch originated  from the Canada Land Inventory Federal/Provincial Programs, and the B r i t i s h Columbia Land Inventory, through the Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat, to Resource Analysis Branch and now Surveys and Resource Mapping Branch.35  It has recently been joined by F i s h and W i l d l i f e s t a f f to expand products to include coastal and estuary habitat as well as w i l d l i f e  information.  As a member of t h i s o f f i c e commented, "Even the l a t e s t catalogue doesn't have the correct name on it."36  These u t i l i t a r i a n changes a f f e c t the  a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the record series i n various wa>r.  Overlapping of  s e r i e s , while duplicating records i n one sense, allows predecessor and successor series to maintain important continuity.  Changing t i t l e s may  well hinder awareness of a v a i l a b i l i t y of new series but i t w i l l also reveal new directions and development of programmes under the Ministry.  It i s t h i s dynamic nature of map production which has provided the r i c h and challenging Columbia.  legacy for cartographic  archives  in British  One repository cannot hope to r e t a i n a l l the mapping generated  within a region, nor should one t r y .  I f r e p o s i t o r i e s , scattered  throughout a region, each manage to secure cartographic  records  documenting one small part of the context within which to view our  21 continuing place on the land and our e f f e c t on i t , then they w i l l have contributed to a p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e interactive system of i d e n t i f y i n g information.  In the following chapter, three archives within an  u n o f f i c i a l network i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be considered illustrate  i n order to  the challenges facing archives wishing to preserve  cartographic  records.  NOTES CHAPTER I  1.  T.E. Layng, "Highlights i n the Mapping of Canada," Canadian Library 16 (6) (May 1960): 286.  2.  Ibid.  3.  N.L. Nicholson and L.M. Sebert, The Maps of Canada (Folkestone: Dawson § Sons, 1981), 3.  4.  E. Meynen, ed., M u l t i l i n g u a l dictionary of technical terms i n cartography (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag GMBH, 1973), 821.  5.  A. Robinson, R. Sale and J . Morrison, Elements of Cartography, 4th ed. (New York: John Wiley § Sons, 1978), 24.  6.  Nicholson and Sebert, Maps of Canada, 4.  7.  Ibid., 36.  8.  Ibid., 14.  9.  Ibid., 5.  Wm.  10.  R.W. Sandilands, "The History of Hydrographic Surveying i n B r i t i s h Columbia," The Canadian Cartographer 7 (1970): 106.  11.  D.F. Pearson, "An H i s t o r i c a l Outline of Mapping i n B r i t i s h Columbia," The Canadian Cartographer 2 (1974): 116.  12.  D.W. Thomson, Men and Meridians: The History of Surveying and Mapping i n Canada. V o l . 1, P r i o r to 1867 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 1966), 279.  13.  D.F. Pearson, " H i s t o r i c a l Outline," 117.  14.  F.M. Woodward, "The Royal Engineers' Mapping of B r i t i s h Columbia: 1845-1906," WAML Information B u l l e t i n 7 (1976): .29.  15.  Ibid., 34.  16.  D.F. Pearson, " H i s t o r i c a l Outline," 117.  17.  Ibid., 118.  18.  Ibid., 119.  19.  Ibid., 120.  23  20.  M. North, D. Holdsworth and J . Teversham, "A Brief Guide to the Use of Land Surveyors' Notebooks i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y , B.C. 1859-1890," B.C. Studies 34 (1977): 51.  21.  D.F. Pearson, " H i s t o r i c a l  22.  Ibid., 122-123.  23.  Ibid., 122.  24.  L. Houston, "Paper prepared f o r : Canadian Cartographic Association meeting, New Westminster, March 26, 1983," 3.  25.  Ibid., 5.  26.  W.S. Crowther, "The Canadian Hydrographic Service: A 1983 Perspective" (Paper delivered to the F i r s t Regional Meeting i n B r i t i s h Columbia of the Canadian Cartographic Association, New Westminster, B.C., 26 March, 1983), 11.  27.  Ibid., 4.  28.  The Canadian Hydrographic Service, Information Branch, Fisheries and Oceans (Ottawa, 1979): IX  29.  W.S.  30.  M.J. Romaine, "Environment Canada--Mapping A c t i v i t i e s i n the P a c i f i c and Yukon Region" (Paper delivered to Regional Meeting i n B r i t i s h Columbia of the Canadian Association, New Westminster, B.C., 26 March, 1983),  31.  D.A. Shaw, "A Coherent System: an i l l u s t r a t e d address to the Canadian Cartographic Association" (Paper delivered to the F i r s t Regional Meeting i n B r i t i s h Columbia of the Canadian Cartographic Association, New Westminster, B.C., 26 March, 1983), 1.  32.  Ibid.  33.  Ibid., 4.  34.  Hugh Kellas, "Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t Mapping A c t i v i t i e s " (Paper delivered to the F i r s t Regional Meeting i n B r i t i s h Columbia of the Canadian Cartographic Association, New Westminster, B.C., 26 March, 1983), 1.  35.  Lloyd Houston, "Paper," 1983, 1.  36.  Lloyd Houston, conversation with Margaret Hutchison, 26 March,  Outline," 121.  Crowther, "The Canadian Hydrographic Service," 9. and Programs the F i r s t Cartographic 1.  1983.  24  CHAPTER I I C a r t o g r a p h i c Records i n B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s  The d i v e r s i t y o f c a r t o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s i s a c h a l l e n g e t o be met by the c o l l e c t i n g p o l i c i e s o f a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s .  This chapter  t o examine t h r e e r e p o s i t o r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n terms o f development o f t h e i r c a r t o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s .  proposes  the  The L i b r a r y and Maps  S e c t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , and the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y have been chosen t o i l l u s t r a t e how q u i t e d i s s i m i l a r c a r t o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s c a n e v o l v e w i t h i n a small geographical area.  I n e x a m i n i n g them t h i s c h a p t e r  will  l o o k a t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the c o l l e c t i o n s , the range o f r e c o r d s them and how they f i t i n t o the g e n e r a l framework o f c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n and u s e .  within  records  The p r i m a r y aim i s t o u n d e r s t a n d the p r a c t i c a l  l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h i n which c a r t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v e s o p e r a t e and t o see  the  s o r t s o f problems a f f e c t i n g c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s .  B e f o r e l o o k i n g a t the t h r e e r e p o s i t o r i e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o u t l i n e and d e f i n e the terms d e s c r i b e d as c a r t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s f o r the of t h i s study.  purposes  The c a r t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s t y p i f i e d by the h o l d i n g s o f  the  r e p o s i t o r i e s under d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e maps, b o t h t h e m a t i c ( d e a l i n g w i t h a s i n g l e phenomena, such as weather) and g e n e r a l (showing s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f d i v e r s e phenomena as on t o p o g r a p h i c s h e e t s ) . h i s t o r i c a l or c u r r e n t ,  p r i n t e d or manuscript.  are c h a r t s , f i r e i n s u r a n c e p l a n s , a t l a s e s ,  Maps may be  I n a d d i t i o n t o maps t h e r e  m i c r o f o r m s , and g l o b e s .  The  25  Society of American A r c h i v i s t s defines cartographic records/archives as records and archives containing information depicting, i n graphic or photogrammetric form, a portion of a l i n e a r surface, such as maps and related materials (globes, topographic and hydrographic charts, cartograms, r e l i e f models, and a e r i a l photographs), and related textual records.1 Related materials should include records used or produced during the compilation of the map.  These are records other than a e r i a l photographs  (which are usually housed separately i n a i r photo l i b r a r i e s ) such as master overlays, and b l u e l i n e proofs as well as associated textual documentation.  For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , the term  composition  records w i l l be used to refer to the records resulting from the mechanical processes which together compose the f i n a l map while supporting or related records w i l l refer to related textual records such as reports and f i l e s compiled during the production of the maps. not contain many composition records important  The r e p o s i t o r i e s surveyed do  records and, unfortunately, i n cartographic  e v i d e n t i a l value, the contextual aspect, i s l o s t i f such  records are not preserved  i n conjunction with the published map. The  published map alone does not reveal the administrative p o l i c i e s which combined to create i t .  I t i s recognized that archives can neither hope to  preserve the composition records for each and every map produced, nor should they.  The composition  records of those thematic and general maps  considered seminal i n the output of the agency together with the base maps on which they appear would exemplify what might be retained. If evidential value i s that which characterizes "records of an agency that are 'necessary  to provide an authentic and adequate documentation of i t s  organization and f u n c t i o n i n g , ' " then i t i s important 2  that some  26  c o m p o s i t i o n r e c o r d s be r e t a i n e d Much o p p o r t u n i t y f o r composition records collected,  interpreting as  evaluated,  t h e map b a s e t h e r e b y  i n Chapter  the data  final  map came t o  i s contained within  t h e y show how t h e a c c u m u l a t e d d a t e h a s s e l e c t e d and g e n e r a l i z e d f o r f i n a l  a i d i n g the  generalization process. further  s h o w i n g how t h e  researcher  will  the been  presentation  i n understanding  The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s  be.  on  the  be  discussed  Three.  Herman F . F r i i s ,  when w r i t i n g  i n 1 9 5 0 o f m o d e r n map m a k i n g  agencies  and t h e i r m y r i a d a c t i v i t i e s , c l a i m e d t h a t " t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n t life  h i s t o r y o f a map a s ,  indeed,  that h i s t o r y i s expressed  and a c c u m u l a t i o n o f the  records."  activities  to researchers  is  development difficult  important  To b e a b l e t o d o c u m e n t  3  o f c o n t e m p o r a r y map m a k i n g .  interested But the  i n understanding a r c h i v i s t ' s task  and by problems o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  referencing  t h e s e same r e c o r d s .  of  creating cartographic  agencies  i n the  life  c y c l e of the  records,  In a d d i t i o n , of course,  basic storage  facilities  and s t a f f  these factors  affect  attainment  archivists.  of the  the  terms  t o the  made the of  knowledge  records,  b e a r i n g on the repositories  ideal for  history  must  provide A l l  cartographic  ways o f c o p i n g w i t h  o f t h e i r mandates.  B r i t i s h Columbia r e p o s i t o r i e s which f o l l o w are three responses  and  for cartographic records.  A r c h i v e s have d e v i s e d d i f f e r e n t  limitations while f u l f i l l i n g  is  consequently,  preserving related  and p r o d u c t i o n o f m a p s .  to care  the  i n s t i t u t i n g e a r l y and i n f o r m e d  and m e e t i n g p r a c t i c a l needs f o r s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s  the  and,  The s o l u t i o n l i e s i n b u i l d i n g records,  content  those  by the o f t e n daunting q u a n t i t y o f c a r t o g r a p h i c records  d i v e r s i t y of type,  appraisal  i n the  the  The  introduced to  challenge of cartographic  records.  three  illustrate  27  Library and Maps Section, P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  Library and Maps Section came into being i n 1982 when a  reorganization authority.  brought the Library D i v i s i o n and the Map D i v i s i o n under one  The mandates for the two parts of the Section have been  brought into close alignment as shown i n the objectives The objectives  of the Section.  set out do not constitute a c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c y but rather a  f l e x i b l e set of guidelines f i r s t time guidelines  followed by the Section; however, t h i s i s the  have been formally defined.  The objectives  are as  follows:  Library of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives: 1.  To support research i n B r i t i s h Columbia history, including p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l history, ethnology, the arts and literature.  2.  To enhance the knowledge and s k i l l s of s t a f f through the a c q u i s i t i o n of professional l i t e r a t u r e .  3.  To complement other c o l l e c t i o n s i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives.  Map C o l l e c t i o n : 1.  To preserve and make available the published maps and the cartographic and a r c h i t e c t u r a l archives of the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  2.  To support research i n h i s t o r y , geography and cartography by acquiring and making available maps of B r i t i s h Columbia, as well as any other maps showing the development of geographical knowledge of t h i s part of the world.  3.  To contribute to the study of B r i t i s h Columbia's a r c h i t e c t u r a l heritage through the a c q u i s i t i o n of plans by important architects of plans representative of building types.  4.  To complement other c o l l e c t i o n s i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s .  4  28 The very extensive l i b r a r y of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives encompasses the valuable Northwest C o l l e c t i o n of books and pamphlets which was begun by the f i r s t a r c h i v i s t R. Edward Gosnell.5  Gosnell, appointed the f i r s t  L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r i a n i n 1893, believed i n the then current idea of archives and proposed that there should be "a special department r e l a t i n g to B r i t i s h Columbia, i t s o f f i c i a l records, the h i s t o r y of e a r l i e s t times and subsequent settlement,  i t s progress and development, etc.  comprising  newspaper f i l e s , old books and pamphlets, and a l l other l i t e r a t u r e of P r o v i n c i a l interest that may from time to time e x i s t . . ."6. His legacy, the Northwest C o l l e c t i o n , remains a valuable research tool and the Library provides valuable reference material to the s t a f f and to the public.  The f i r s t Map C o l l e c t i o n objective, concerning  o f f i c i a l records, i s  the l a t e s t to come into focus, the other three objectives having been i n place f o r some time and therefore are r e f l e c t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n as i t now e x i s t s .  The f i r s t objective anticipates the systematic  retention of  the records of the government map creators by the Library and Maps Section.  However one problem arose when the Ministry of Environment  issued a d i r e c t i v e that a l l government departments (including archives), along with the map buying public, were to be charged regular prices f o r Ministry of Environment maps.  Those purchase costs (usually $3.00 per  sheet) would have made systematic  c o l l e c t i o n of o f f i c i a l  cartographic  output p r o h i b i t i v e l y expensive f o r the Maps Section, however the M i n i s t r y has been phasing out i t s map publishing function.  29  Another d i f f i c u l t y  which hampers the implementation  of active  a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s by the Section i s the shortage of s t a f f and space. In the recent past this s i t u a t i o n has been used to the best advantage f o r the tasks of implementing a new cataloguing system and the w h i t t l i n g away of the backlog to make the c o l l e c t i o n more accessible f o r research. However, i n spite of such d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  records continue to a r r i v e .  Donations of private records are encouraged, auctions are watched f o r items of potential interest, published items from Departmental catalogues are ordered (where not prevented by Department p o l i c i e s such as that of the M i n i s t r y of Environment), and also by responding to disposal orders which, so f a r , have mostly involved a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawings.?  On occasion  the opportunity arises to copy p r i v a t e l y owned a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawings. Maps are also transferred, either i n the form of copies or the o r i g i n a l i t s e l f , from c o l l e c t i o n s held elsewhere i n the Archives. photocopies  of l e t t e r s and sketches contained i n the Colonial  correspondence held by the Manuscripts  and Government Records D i v i s i o n  are sent " f o r the Division's reference" by the Manuscripts archivists.  For example,  Division  Any other information such as copies of correspondence  accompanying the item i n the o r i g i n a l f i l e , are also sent and kept i n the Library and Map Section f i l e s together with l i s t s of sketch maps and plans retained by the Manuscripts and Government Records D i v i s i o n .  This  procedure i s followed to preserve the information regarding the provenance of the records and provide the immediate context of material which has been divided, because of the form or medium i t takes, from the main body of the records.  30  The Library and Maps Section's range of interest i s broad. Chronologically i t spans from the e a r l i e s t beginnings of European exploration of the P a c i f i c coastline to the present, and encompasses a geographical span from coastal South America to coastal Alaska.  Inland  the coverage extends from the e a r l y days of New Caledonia to the current main focus on the land within the modern p o l i t i c a l boundaries  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  generated  Because the Section cannot acquire a l l the records  which r e l a t e to i t s wide i n t e r e s t s , i t also provides information on the many maps available i n other agencies by keeping on hand catalogues of published maps and d i r e c t i n g researchers to cartographic materials held by such agencies as the Land T i t l e s O f f i c e of the M i n i s t r y of the Attorney General and the Surveys § Lands Records Branch of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing.  The Surveys § Lands Records Branch, Legal  Surveys Section holds surveyors fieldbooks, h i s t o r i c plans such as early town s i t e s , and maps of Indian reserves and roads and t r a i l s .  This  material, though t y p i c a l of what i s normally considered h i s t o r i c and therefore a r c h i v a l , i s s t i l l referred to, i n many instances, by the professional s t a f f of the Legal Surveys Section.  I t i s not unusual f o r  cartographic records to be preserved and reused for other purposes over long periods by the o f f i c e s which create them.  Many composition records,  including everything from surveyors d i a r i e s and a e r i a l photographs, to the various photographic negatives showing drainage, roads or parks, may be reconsidered, reassembled and reissued i n the form of a completely d i f f e r e n t map, perhaps by a d i f f e r e n t M i n i s t r y or Department. Cartographic records, i n cartographic archives as well as creating o f f i c e s , tend naturally to be part of an ongoing chain of information.  31  The role of the Library and Maps Section has altered s u b s t a n t i a l l y over the years p a r t l y because of economic r e s t r i c t i o n s and p a r t l y because of a changing focus of c o l l e c t i n g .  When money i s a v a i l a b l e , gaps i n the  h i s t o r i c a l record of the early maritime and continental fur trade are f i l l e d where possible.  Also, transfers of records remaining i n various  government vaults w i l l add valuable research material to the Section's holdings.  However, i n p r a c t i c a l terms, the Section i s interested  primarily i n receiving i t s sponsor government's map  series as well as  published maps r e l a t i n g to B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon produced by such agencies as the Hydrographic Service, the Geological Survey and published maps from private agencies.  This c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c y r e f l e c t s  not only the s c a r c i t y and therefore the costs involved i n c o l l e c t i n g early material, but also a recognition that the current records are best collected now while they are i n p r i s t i n e condition and complete series can be more e a s i l y obtained at minimal cost.  Vancouver C i t y Archives and Record Services D i v i s i o n .  On May  16, 1932,  James S k i t t Matthews was  appointed  archivist for  the C i t y of Vancouver by a Special Committee of the C i t y Council i n recognition of h i s long commitment to c o l l e c t i n g documentation pertaining to the c i t y ' s development.  At this time the a r c h i v i s t was put under the  j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Public Library Board and was staff.  a member of the Library  This had changed by 1933 when the C i t y A r c h i v i s t was placed under  the administration of C i t y Council and moved to an o f f i c e at City H a l l . Responsibility f o r the archives moved back and f o r t h among d i f f e r i n g  32 overseers u n t i l 1957 when the C i t y of Vancouver was appointed to be i t s sole trustee.  In 1972  i t came to i t s new and permanent home under the  o f f i c e of the C i t y Clerk.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the Vancouver C i t y Archives and Records Service D i v i s i o n i s under the C i t y Clerk's o f f i c e , a d i v i s i o n of the C i t y Clerk's Department, C i t y of Vancouver.  "The Archives i s responsible for  acquiring, preserving, and making a v a i l a b l e the h i s t o r i c a l records of the City as well as related h i s t o r i c a l d o c u m e n t s . T h i s pared down mandate contrasts with the Major Matthews era when a p o l i c y of "the preservation and custody of the h i s t o r i c a l records and r e l i c s of the City of Vancouver, and surrounding communities of North Vancouver, West Vancouver, Burnaby, Richmond, and, i n a lesser degree, Squamish, Gibsons, and Port Moody" resulted i n "a mass of h i s t o r i c a l papers and p i c t u r e s " ^ 9  being collected through the consuming interest of the a r c h i v i s t , Major Matthews.  However, for various reasons, the c i t y administration was  reluctant to deposit o f f i c i a l records with Major Matthews.  Today, a  v i t a l part of the Archives mandate i s the operation of a records management programme and records centre services to a l l C i t y departments, boards, and commissions. are included.  Cartographic records, both graphic and textual,  The Archives has had a programme of c u l l i n g i t s  cartographic holdings to remove and transfer maps not pertaining to Vancouver.  In 1983,  75 percent of the t o t a l map  c o l l e c t i o n related  d i r e c t l y to Vancouver proper.  The records management programme i n place ensures there i s a vehicle  33  for systematic transfer of records from the City of Vancouver Department producing them.  Of the 610 records retention schedules implemented by  December, 1982, 56 were f o r the Planning Department, a major cartographical source.H  The Archives also holds Greater Vancouver  Regional D i s t r i c t (GVRD) maps on microfilm.  In addition, the index to  the Major Matthews Photograph C o l l e c t i o n contains a l i s t i n g f o r maps he c o l l e c t e d personally.  Maps within other manuscript  c o l l e c t i o n s housed i n  the Archives are not separately l i s t e d .  The Vancouver C i t y Archives and Record Services D i v i s i o n i s primarily concerned with systematic a c q u i s i t i o n and preservation of City records.  The Archives does not interpret i t s role to acquire maps or  other records a c t i v e l y from private sources mainly due to the shortage of space; the space available being earmarked f o r records transferred from the municipal o f f i c e s , which are the Archives primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . *  2  Potential donors of private records are directed to an archives with a wider mandate unless the donor s p e c i f i e s that the records come to the Vancouver C i t y Archives.  Corporate donors are encouraged to maintain  their own records where possible.  Special Collections D i v i s i o n , University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library.  The Special Collections D i v i s i o n has a dual function, housing both a rare books c o l l e c t i o n and the U n i v e r s i t y archives.  This has been the  s i t u a t i o n since 1960, the year the Special Collections D i v i s i o n was formed to bring together c o l l e c t i o n s of rare and " s p e c i a l " books held by  34 the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library, the University archives, as well as h i s t o r i c a l maps, manuscripts and photographs.^  A basis f o r the  present-day c o l l e c t i o n was put i n place shortly a f t e r the University was established  (1914).  By 1920, interested persons had established the  Committee on University A r c h i v e s .  14  This Committee gave way i n 1960 when  Special Collections was formed to take over the care of the donated material as well as rare and special books.  Although maps r e l a t i n g to  the h i s t o r y of the P a c i f i c Northwest had been donated to the Library as early as 1931, i t was not u n t i l 1966 that a f u l l - t i m e s t a f f member was put i n charge of maps.  The focus of the D i v i s i o n from i t s inception has  been '"general Canadiana, strong i n source material f o r a number of topics:  B r i t i s h Columbia, the f u r trade, the War of 1812, the R i e l  Rebellion, the 1837 Rebellion, and Canadian t r a v e l and description to 1900.' 5 m1  Archival material donated to the University has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  been given to the Library but once the archives was i n place such records were deposited under i t s care.  Thus the University Archives and the  h i s t o r i c a l manuscripts c o l l e c t i o n s are now joined with the Special Collections D i v i s i o n .  The h i s t o r i c a l map c o l l e c t i o n i n Special Collections has been steadily increasing i n scope.  I t i s a source for topics i n Canadian and  P a c i f i c Northwest history, the h i s t o r y of cartography (the h i s t o r y of the a r t i s t i c , s c i e n t i f i c and communicative development of cartography i t s e l f ) and the h i s t o r i c a l cartography of North America (the h i s t o r y of man's exploration and discovery  of the world's geography).  As well as being  added to by interested f a c u l t y members, the c o l l e c t i o n has managed to  35 grow despite monetary r e s t r a i n t s by acquiring reprints and facsimiles of expensive and rare h i s t o r i c a l items.  The archives component within the  Special C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n works with other B r i t i s h Columbia archives "to  ensure that a r c h i v a l material of p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s  acquired and properly preserved f o r the use of present and future generations."^  Cartographic records generated by the University are  represented by campus plans "ranging from photographs of manuscript plans submitted 1912  i n the P r o v i n c i a l Government's competition f o r a u n i v e r s i t y i n  to the l a t e s t plans on three scales compiled  1930."I?  from a e r i a l surveys i n  Faculty, s t a f f and students working under the University's  aegis generate cartographic materials (such as the B r i t i s h Columbia Atlas of Resources) which f i n d t h e i r way not only into Special C o l l e c t i o n s but into the Map Library and the Geography Department's Map § A i r Photo Centre as well as into the Main Library i t s e l f .  In addition,  cartographic materials i n manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s are inventoried, and stored i n map cabinets, and copies of the inventory kept with the c o l l e c t i o n finding a i d to preserve a record of provenance.  The  a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y f o r the map c o l l e c t i o n states that,  maps, atlases and reference material supplementing existing holdings have been acquired. In order not to duplicate maps kept i n the Library's Map D i v i s i o n , maps of a l a t e r date than 1900 are not normally acquired. However, for conservation reasons sets of the various map series of the old B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands, such as the Pre-emptor's, Degree, Topographic, Regional and General series are kept i n Special C o l l e c t i o n s . Other twentieth century maps are acquired only i f they are rare or f r a g i l e , except i n special areas of study such as f i r e insurance plans.***  From looking b r i e f l y at these three B r i t i s h Columbia archives we can  36  see that much of their e a r l i e s t cartographic material owes i t s existence to the antiquarian a c t i v i t i e s of a few i n d i v i d u a l s with wide-ranging interests i n the h i s t o r y of the province.  Maps and plans were always  part of the general mass of papers being preserved f o r the h i s t o r i c a l interest i n a more or less haphazard fashion.  But i n view of the fact of  today's volume of map production, such haphazard and uncoordinated a c t i v i t y i s u n l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n the preservation of a complete cartographic record.  In response, r e p o s i t o r i e s have had to develop  guidelines to cope with the volume and plan f o r the retention of a l l cartographic records of permanent value.  The two classes of cartographic  records which have permanent value and which can be found i n most archives including the three mentioned above, are those which comprise an h i s t o r i c a l map c o l l e c t i o n and those which comprise cartographic archives.  The early map c o l l e c t i o n s of the three r e p o s i t o r i e s evolved out of the general h i s t o r i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s intended to document the colourful h i s t o r y of the P a c i f i c Northwest.  The idea of cartographic archives i n  the form we know today came into focus l a t e r as i t i s evident that the d i v e r s i t y of mapping, p a r t i c u l a r l y since 1871, was not r e f l e c t e d i n these particular collections.  In the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia,  some of the gaps from the early era of public records i n B r i t i s h Columbia have been f i l l e d i n by the transfer of cartographic materials dating from the C o l o n i a l period (1849 to 1871).  Although the nature of archives was  changing through the early decades of the twentieth century with the growing r e a l i z a t i o n of the importance of the government as a producer of records, by 1934 when W. Kaye Lamb assumed the o f f i c e of P r o v i n c i a l  37  L i b r a r i a n and A r c h i v i s t the c o l l e c t i o n of public records by the Archives was s t i l l haphazard.  The P r o v i n c i a l Archives did not, and s t i l l does not  have completely adequate l e g i s l a t i v e authority to back i t s a c q u i s i t i o n of public records, and i s therefore hampered i n i t s e f f o r t s to i n i t i a t e the systematic appraisal and a c q u i s i t i o n of cartographic records without i t . Under the Document Disposal Act, Chapter 95, RSBC 1979,  the P r o v i n c i a l  A r c h i v i s t i s named as Chairman of the Public Documents Committee which i s empowered to make recommendations concerning the destruction of documents.  But the Act does not give the Archives the authority to become  involved i n the planning f o r the eventual d i s p o s i t i o n of records early i n their l i f e cycle, and i n p a r t i c u l a r does not mandate deposit of a l l maps published by the government i n the archives.  In 1983  the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n s t i t u t e d a records management  programme to supplement the operation of the Document Disposal Act.  This  programme was set up, not as a records management system as such, but as an agency to provide advisory services to M i n i s t r i e s i n the establishment of  a records management programme.19  One of the purposes of the programme  is the encouragement of records scheduling so that inactive records are channeled to a records centre and that f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n either by destruction or transfer to the P r o v i n c i a l Archives, i s handled through central bureau.  one  However to those outside the two o f f i c e s (the Records  Management Branch and the Archives) the linkage between them may s l i g h t i f i t i s seen as existing at a l l .  appear  This does not help to make the  connection between archives and records management any clearer.  In  addition, the advisory function of the Records Management Branch precludes  38  i t from exercising any r e a l authority over the non-current records held by the M i n i s t r i e s .  The f i n a l decision regarding  the implementation of  records management i s s t i l l controlled within the M i n i s t r i e s themselves. The various d i v i s i o n s of the Archives,  including the Library and Maps  Section, would have benefitted more i f there had been d i r e c t communication between the Archives and Records Management Branch as body and  the M i n i s t r i e s as another.  It i s to be hoped that the Branch,  besides helping to organize the proper d i s p o s i t i o n of the records, also f i n d a way  one  can  to provide a much-needed l i n k bringing together the  economic interests of the M i n i s t r i e s with the c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s of the Archives.20  The  three r e p o s i t o r i e s under consideration here have quite d i f f e r e n t  cartographic  holdings r e f l e c t i n g the mandates of t h e i r sponsoring  institutions.  Each archives has a separate sphere of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with  the c o l l e c t i o n s of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives and Archives focussing now  the Vancouver C i t y  on o f f i c i a l records while Special Collections  houses both University records and h i s t o r i c a l manuscripts. Special Collections retains the "records of Societies and  In addition Associations  c l o s e l y associated with the University such as the Alma Mater Society."21  The  influence of records management on the holdings of the  Vancouver C i t y Archives i s well established and  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  confidence with which the Archives has set i t s c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c y , to the point of giving up items not f a l l i n g under i t s mandate.  The P r o v i n c i a l  Archives has yet to reap the benefits of such an established system but by formulating  i t s objectives i t has made i t s intentions and  the  39  direction i t wishes to take known to the Records Management Branch.  The  Library and Maps Section deals with the widest range of the cartographic record as the Provincial Government is the primary map making agency and is in the vanguard of evolving cartographic technology.  Although i t i s  not the archivist's job to interpret the record for researchers, archivists need to have an awareness of the cartographic processes and technology i f they are to help make some of the more abstract concepts in maps more intelligible to others. This topic w i l l be discussed in the following chapter in an attempt to try and outline some aspects of cartographic communication important to the understanding of maps.  40  NOTES CHAPTER II  1.  William L. Rofes, ed., A Basic Glossary f o r A r c h i v i s t s , Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers, reprinted from, The American A r c h i v i s t , 37  ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 418.  2.  Ibid., 422.  3.  H.R. F r i i s , "Cartographic and Related Records: What Are They, How Have They Been Produced and What Are Problems of Their Administration," The American A r c h i v i s t , 1950, 14.  4.  D.R. Chamberlin, "Library and Maps Section Objectives," P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981.  5.  T.E. Eastwood, "R.E. Gosnell, E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d and the Founding of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1894-1919, BC Studies, 54 (1982): 42.  6.  Ibid., 41.  7.  Geoffrey Castle, conversation 1982.  8.  Vancouver C i t y Archives, V i s i t o r ' s Information brochure, n.d.  9.  John H a l l Archer, "A Study of Archival Institutions i n Canada." (Ph.D. d i s s . , Queen's University, 1969), 458.  with Margaret Hutchison, 5 November,  10.  Ibid., 458.  11.  Vancouver C i t y Archives, Annual Report (1982):  12.  S. Baptie, class lecture, 15 October, 1981.  13.  F. Woodward, "Cartographic Collections at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library," Archivaria, 13 (1981-1982): 99.  14.  John Archer, "A Study," 464.  15.  Laurenda D a n i e l l s , "The Special Collections of the Library of U.B.C.," B r i t i s h Columbia Library Quarterly, 36 (1973): 52.  16.  Association of B i i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , survey of i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o l l e c t i n g p o l i c i e s , response from the UBC Library.  17.  F. Woodward, "Cartographic C o l l e c t i o n s , " 102.  27.  41  18.  Ibid., 105.  19.  Kent Haworth, class lecture, 7 December, 1982.  20.  Kent Haworth, class lecture, 7 December, 1982.  21.  The Library, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, "The A c q u i s i t i o n of Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC Archival Collections P o l i c y , " 1976.  42  CHAPTER III The Cartographic Communication Process and Archives  The previous chapters have attempted to outline some aspects of cartographic records keeping which a r c h i v i s t s face i n the administration of cartographic archives.  The process of map making i t s e l f i s complicated  and sophisticated. The mapping of an e n t i r e country or province can only be carried out within a complex structure designed to support many programmes.  Therefore the administrative h i s t o r y of the map making  agencies and t h e i r interrelatedness i s substantial.  The cartographic  a r c h i v i s t i s also concerned with the development of the science and a r t involved i n transferring data about the earth into a mappable form.  The  adjustments which must be made during t h i s process a f f e c t the eventual interpretation of the data shown on the map.  Cartographic a r c h i v i s t s  therefore need to be aware of the study of cartographic communication not only to help researchers understand maps more c l e a r l y , but to increase their own understanding of the importance of the preservation of cartographic records documenting the complete range of the necessary adjustment and manipulation of cartographic data.  Modern maps are created according to many rules and  conventions  which can be used s e l e c t i v e l y by the map maker to create a map unique to an agency. agency.  These records become strong indicators of the p o l i c i e s of the  Because map  overlays can be rearranged i n various  combinations  to produce several d i f f e r e n t maps and the raw data used again i n the creation of e n t i r e l y new maps, cartographic records maintain an ongoing  43  currency to the originating o f f i c e .  Therefore, the creating o f f i c e  becomes the best source of knowledge of how the data i s u t i l i z e d over time.  This i s information which neither the cartographic a r c h i v i s t nor  the researcher can usually determine from the published map alone. Therefore, with many of the records documenting the map making process (the component parts of cartographic communication) only a v a i l a b l e i n the agency, the potential i s there f o r the agency to play a greater r o l e i n the interpretation of the records.  I t can also become, and be recognized  as, part of the cartographical information network together with archives and  libraries.  Cartographic communication r e s u l t s from the s k i l l f u l blend of graphic art and science.  Map makers express c r e a t i v i t y i n arranging elements such  as colour, l e t t e r i n g and pattern which, when organized together on the map, represent the geographical data.  Of course, this c r e a t i v i t y i s  bounded by the l i m i t s set by the purpose of the map which w i l l influence the eventual effectiveness of i t .  Henceforth, the term cartographic  communication w i l l be used i n the context of the information contained i n the making of a map rather than of the information "on" the map.  In other  words, the term refers not to where a feature i s located on the map, but the how and why i t i s shown.  The discussion here involves information  presented in-the-round or p i c t o r i a l l y wherein each aspect of the subject i s presented so that each i s read, or seen, i n relationship with the other.  This i s i n contrast to information presented i n a s e r i a l manner,  each aspect following another  i n l i n e a r fashion as i n textual records.  Awareness of the difference i n reading textual materials and reading  44  cartographic materials l i e s i n the perceptions of the reader.  Mapped  information, that i s , information about the earth's n a t u r a l as w e l l as c u l t u r a l features, presented on a two dimensional  sheet of paper i s a  v i s u a l form of communication with i t s own demands of accuracy and l i k e a p i c t u r e or a photo cannot be q u i c k l y read or i n t e r p r e t e d .  As with the evidence i n photographs, map content should be viewed w i t h i n the context of the purpose f o r which the map was created.  The  unique problem of map making i s that the map i s t r y i n g t o portray a p o r t i o n of the earth's surface which i s an enormous and constantly changing phenomenon. geographical detail.  Obviously, a s i n g l e map sheet cannot portray any  area i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l without m o d i f i c a t i o n of that  We know the degree of m o d i f i c a t i o n from the s c a l e .  For example,  the scale 1:63,360 (1 i n c h : l mile or 63,360 inches) where 1 i s equal to the u n i t on the map and 63,360 i s equal to the corresponding u n i t on the ground means that f o r every one inch on the map 63,360 inches or 1 mile of ground i s represented.  This allows a c e r t a i n amount of d e t a i l from that  mile to be shown much l a r g e r than i t would on a map where the one inch corresponded to 316,800 (1:316,800 or 1 inch to 5 m i l e s ) .  1:316,800 i s  small scale where d e t a i l from f i v e m i l e s , to be shown w i t h i n an inch on a map, must n e c e s s a r i l y be made s m a l l , so that features such as paths and b u i l d i n g s would be too small to be represented.  The smaller the scale the  fewer the number of p h y s i c a l features which can be included.  Scale often  determines whether a map might be s u i t a b l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r need. scale i s the most important c o n t r o l guiding a cartographer when g e n e r a l i z i n g d e t a i l f o r a map.  Also,  45  Cartographic generalization i s the c o l l e c t i v e term f o r the modifications employed to balance the e f f e c t of reducing the earth's features to a mappable form. Reduction, when applied to earth phenomena, i s . . . accompanied by inescapable changes. Distances separating features and widths and lengths of features are reduced i n the r a t i o of the reduction. Adjacent discrete items become more and more crowded, c l a r i t y i s generally reduced, and there may be an increase i n the r e l a t i v e v i s u a l importance of the general compared to the s p e c i f i c .  1  Obviously, earth phenomena are symbolized and reduced to f i t on the  map  and the resulting d i s t o r t i o n i n the data would render that data incomprehensible without s k i l l f u l manipulation.  The cartographer's s k i l l  involves manipulations of the data that represent information to be mapped by means of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of data (elimination of unwanted d e t a i l ) , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or ordering and grouping of data, symbolization, and i n d u c t i o n .  2  As the scale of the map becomes smaller the data chosen  must represent a l l the rest of the data within that class. on a large scale map,  For example,  1:63,360 or 1:50,000 many b u i l d i n g s , small hamlets,  towns and c i t i e s may be shown whereas on a small scale map,  1:316,800,  buildings w i l l c e r t a i n l y not be shown, hamlets may not appear, towns may appear only as dots, and c i t i e s as c i r c l e s .  The choice of which data  w i l l be l e f t o f f and which then becomes representative of the area depends primarily on the purpose of the map.  On a general map,  roads of  a l l types may be shown together with towns, a i r p o r t s , and other points of interest.  On a thematic map,  such as one displaying population, the  a i r p o r t s , points of interest, and roads may be l e f t o f f to allow the theme to be portrayed c l e a r l y .  46  Since the r e a l i t y of the earth and the " r e a l i t y " on the map are not synonymous, the reader must be aware of, and know how to interpret the " r e a l i t y " on the map.  This awareness or perception has been c a l l e d  "graphicacy" by B r i t i s h researchers.  In 1965 the term graphicacy was  proposed "to describe the educated counterpart of the v i s u a l - s p a t i a l aspect to human i n t e l l i g e n c e and communication."  3  The researchers  attributed other aspects of human i n t e l l i g e n c e to educated l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y or l i t e r a c y ; educated numerical a b i l i t y or numeracy; and a b i l i t y in s o c i a l intercourse, or articulacy.4 Graphicacy then, i s the a b i l i t y to communicate s p a t i a l information by other than verbal or numerical means, that i s , through patterns or plans, i n the depiction of the earth's geography.  It i s the educated counterpart to the i n t u i t i v e , and  i s a s k i l l which can be acquired by both map makers and map readers. Studies of pre-school and school c h i l d r e n i n B r i t a i n showed that the a b i l i t y to read maps, to conceptualize the content of a map, begins quite early, by about three or four years of age when c h i l d r e n begin drawing pictures and "maps" and therefore i t has been concluded by researchers that graphicate s k i l l s could reasonably be taught i n the beginning of  school l i f e . 5  stages  Since i t i s the r e a l i t y which the map reader i s  seeking, the mental maps that the reader carries with him, compiled from accumulated l i f e t i m e experience, may i n h i b i t and c e r t a i n l y influence the f u l l and/or correct impact of the map.  As Monmonier observes, "Both map  reader and map author have active rather than passive r o l e s i n cartographic communication--both should attempt to understand the communication process; both must s t r i v e to make i t e f f e c t i v e . " 6  47  The knowledge of the map user i s the necessary complement of the map maker's s k i l l i n transmitting information about the earth's surface.  The s c i e n t i f i c p r e c i s i o n of a map  i s l o s t on readers i f they  simply accept what the map appears to be saying without questioning whether they are seeing the information i n terms of t h e i r own inaccurate or  incomplete images.  cannot, be i d e n t i c a l .  Muehrcke states, "Map  and r e a l i t y are not,  Most map reading mistakes occur because the user  forgets t h i s v i t a l fact and expects a one-to-one correspondence between map and r e a l i t y . " '  7  And, as explained by Hugh Brody i n Maps and Dreams,  maps may present the outline of a story but the d e t a i l s must be in by the reader's informed imagination.  As the environment  filled  as i t i s  cartographically represented may be unfamiliar to us, the communicative map enables us to reach closer to those unfamiliar perspectives about which time and/or circumstance has denied us firsthand knowledge.  Also,  maps can o f f e r a connecting l i n k to the past, allowing readers to view h i s t o r i c a l events through access to contemporary biases, popular opinion, misconceptions and interpretations of events present i n the records.  These intangible aspects of history cannot be t o t a l l y  recreated but a sense can be recaptured by graphicate readers.  The  study of history i s enhanced by such a link which, when combined with accompanying textual and photographic ( i n recent h i s t o r y ) evidence, provides the modern viewer with a picture closer to that a c t u a l l y seen by the o r i g i n a l participants.8  Thus graphicacy has much to o f f e r the  map user.  Although the map user must take some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the amount  48 and quality of information he gains from the map,  the map  author also i s ,  or should be, aware of the reader's varying levels of knowledge about the map  and how  i t s information can be gleaned.  mental process of designing a map  The map  author starts the  by defining h i s purpose or intended  message and by choosing his means of presentation or mapping technique, both of which are calculated to e l i c i t c e r t a i n responses i n a map reader.^  The e f f e c t i v e transmission of information i s aided or hindered  through an a r t i s t i c rendering of colours and shapes representing the data.  Impressions are created through s k i l l f u l choice of tone, shape or  pattern which present data i n a way which may reader's questions.10  suggest answers to the  For example, i n t u i t i o n , perception, or common  sense t e l l s a reader that a deep colour tone has more "weight" therefore more "value" than a l i g h t e r tone.  Symbols are chosen, and have  t r a d i t i o n a l l y been chosen according to what has been discovered to "look r i g h t , " or put another way,  what symbols and techniques have e l i c i t e d the  correct response from the readers.  Much research has been done on  readers' reactions to various manual mapping techniques, and with the advent of automated  continues  cartography.  As manual techniques give way  to automated techniques, purely  i n t u i t i v e choices by the cartographer must give way i n t u i t i o n and mathematical t h e o r i e s . H  to a combination  of  Cartographic i n t u i t i o n learned  through study and apprenticeship trains the mind and eye i n plane surface representation.  Now,  i n addition, the structure of a map must be broken  49 down and analyzed so that i t can be reproduced mathematically by automation. screen.  Symbols may present quite d i f f e r e n t messages on a computer  A l l of these psychological facets of cartography are studied  under the rubric of information theory,12 which follows data from the source (data gathering) through transmission to the ultimate destination, the reader.  Study of this progression allows cartographers to see where  errors can occur thereby enabling them to r e c t i f y any problems and lessen the p o s s i b i l i t y of the wrong message being received.  As well, design and  format are not only c a r e f u l l y chosen to enhance maps' effectiveness but for the p r a c t i c a l purpose of maintaining a reasonable size of f i n a l document i n order to accommodate housekeeping requirements f o r duplication and storage.I  3  Generalization i s the most i n t r i c a t e of  design questions, i n both manual and automated cartography, with considerations of scale and p r o j e c t i o n as well as choice of information being d i f f i c u l t and v i t a l matters of concern.  In avoiding c l u t t e r and  confusion the degree of generalization chosen depends on the scale, the complexity of the data, and the purpose of the map.*  4  I t has been  pointed out that "the h i s t o r y of maps i s to a large extent a centuries-long struggle f o r accuracy i n showing form, d i r e c t i o n , s i z e , r e l i e f , and other details,"15 and one of the basic elements a f f e c t i n g a map's design i s mathematical scale.  "Maps, a e r i a l photographs, and a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawings are prepared according to precise measurements and calculations, and any alterations  50  introduced during their reproduction or conservation may alter or distort their information."16  When beginning the process of generalization, the  choice of scale, being one of the f i r s t steps i n creating the map, determines the amount and type of data chosen and the way i t i s depicted.  The smaller the scale of the map the larger the area that can  be shown but the less d e t a i l that can be seen. The larger the scale, however, the smaller the area shown and the greater the amount of detail.  The purpose of the map w i l l determine the scale and therefore  the degree of generalization needed.  Symbolization and the choice of map projection (any systematic arrangement of meridians and p a r a l l e l s , portraying the curved surface of the sphere or spheroid upon a plane)1? communication.  also affect the success of  Cartographic symbolization, the rendering of data into a  representative, graphic form, can obscure meaning for the inexperienced reader and can also "impart an incorrect visual impression of precision and accuracy to poorly simplified or c l a s s i f i e d data."18 The cartographer, i n choosing the appropriate symbols, must take into account the reader's untrained eye or inexperienced visual perception. Familiar symbols such as graduated c i r c l e s , cubes of various sizes and varying densities of shaded areas can be clearly differentiated when viewed side by side but become d i f f i c u l t to compare when spread over the map. Obviously the largest and smallest, lightest and darkest, are easy to identify but the values i n between are not as clearly distinguished from each other.  When comparison i s d i f f i c u l t , the v a l i d i t y of the  51 information misread.  represented  Some m e t h o d s  b y t h o s e m i d d l e v a l u e s may b e m i n i m i z e d o f s y m b o l i z a t i o n a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e  p a r t i c u l a r uses than others but showing the  "as  cartographers  locations of tangible features  phenomena a n d t h e  structure  increasingly complex."19  to depicting  of s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  symbols i s  that  "What b e g i n s  integrated  wholeness  separated."20  And a l s o ,  aspects of the  environment,  t h e phenomena  simplified.  communication process than obscures to  study the  standing space  the  projections  are  p o r t i o n o f the map s h e e t . which the Due t o t h e  t h e phenomena become  will  it  isolates,  the  examination.  data  all  n e c e s s a r i l y be l e f t  to f i t  T h e map e n a b l e s the  [the  the  the  to the  reader  necessity  plane  the  of  Map  surface  c a n be p r o d u c e d ,  properties  of  a by  shape.  this  The  cartographer  and t h e i r uses  characteristics  a  of projections  r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n t o another  kinds of d i s t o r t i o n .  o n how t o e m p l o y a p r o j e c t i o n t o f i t  rather  Relationships of  i n v o l v e s the use  projections']  and  map.  earth  v a r i o u s ways s u c h p r o j e c t i o n s in different  out  to problems o f t r a n s f e r r i n g  o f the  of t r a n s f e r r a l  i s manipulated  on " t h e i r  and  aspect of symbolization i s p r o j e c t i o n .  spherical surface  manipulation results  constrained.  to represent  or on the banks of r i v e r s .  t e c h n i c a l response  become  and h o p e f u l l y i l l u m i n a t e s  i n a microcosm on the  The p r o c e s s  concentrates  e n d s up b o u n d e d  i s not p o s s i b l e  some f a c t o r s  under  corners  important  intangible  intangible  c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l environment w i t h o u t  reproduced  Another  it  from s i m p l y  T h i s can a l s o work t o advantage i n  since  subject  on s t r e e t  are  since  for  maps h a v e  The p r o b l e m i n r e p r e s e n t i n g  phenomena b y g e o m e t r i c in total,  shifted  or  of  the  and  52 d i s t r i b u t i o n s that are being mapped."21  B r i e f l y , the properties referred  to above which d i f f e r e n t i a t e the classes of projections and which a f f e c t the presentation of data are as follows:  a) conformality, or  preservation of the shape of the earth's land and sea masses; b) equivalence, or preservation of areal extent; c) equidistance, or preservation of true distance from point of o r i g i n .  Obviously  choice of projection w i l l a f f e c t the information portrayed.  then,  For example,  a dot map comparing quantities of wheat y i e l d s between countries requires the q u a l i t y of equivalence so that the information i s not d i s t o r t e d during the cartographic process.  Although no projection w i l l exactly  reproduce the earth's r e a l i t y on a plane surface, a r e a l i s t i c objective i s to choose the one which w i l l enable the truest impression to be conveyed.  What i s important  i s the c l a r i t y of the objective and the  consequent a p p l i c a t i o n of appropriate cartographic  techniques.  Ineffective or confusing mans w i l l le_d readers astray, or simply not be used at a l l .  Beyond the map are other influences on the map subject which are part of the c u l t u r a l sphere.  This i s i n keeping with Muehrcke's view  that " i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y the mapped world, not the map, which we are trying to understand."  22  He then goes on to say, "Making maps simple  does not change the world; i t only l e t s us treat i t , for c e r t a i n purposes, as i f i t were uncomplicated." content just as a book can.  23  Maps can be read for c e r t a i n  The reader may select what i t i s he or she  needs, by inference i f necessary, before c r i t i c a l l y or a n a l y t i c a l l y  53 examining  the entire map as an item i t s e l f .  It may  indeed be that some  map readers are e a s i l y influenced by graphic representations and, as with photographs,  accept their veracity u n c r i t i c a l l y .  2 4  However, f o r the  map  reader i t i s important to remember, again, that i t i s "the actual s i t u a t i o n on the earth that i s s i g n i f i c a n t " and that maps "have d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n s as well as c e r t a i n unique capabilities."25  The map may  also  be enriched by the reader's own perception of the information being presented.  The imagery contrived by the graphics, including the  conventional signs such as l e t t e r s and d i g i t s , i s given credence by the experience of the viewer.  For example, a contour which i s small i n  diameter and which i s l a b e l l e d with elevation and name (e.g. Mt. Baker) has an immediate impact on someone f a m i l i a r with the geographical r e a l i t y of mountains.  With the mountain's height i n mind, the contour gains i n  meaning as i t appears to reach up towards us thereby triggering a r e a l i s t i c v i s i o n i n the mind of the reader.  Conversely, the larger  contour becomes equated with lower a l t i t u d e s as i t carries the eyes out to the sides widening and f l a t t e n i n g the feature i n the mind of the reader.  But to those f a m i l i a r with the actual features, i t w i l l take  only a l i t t l e time to learn to see the feature on the map. analogous  to the way  This i s  i n which stereoscopic glasses reveal rugged t e r r a i n  only when the eyes and the mind have learned to perceive the peaks and valleys flattened by the perspective of the airplane's camera.  As a  reader's experience with maps grows, v i s u a l images w i l l be c o r r e c t l y remembered, prompted by the increasingly f a m i l i a r cartographic symbols.  Direct experience i n the world around us provides the means whereby  54  "we  come to grips with the world around us through the process of  cognitive mapping.  This mental a c t i v i t y begins at b i r t h and continues  for the remainder of our l i f e . " 2 6  In order to make sense of a l l this  information, we c l a s s i f y things, and we simplify and compress many things into just a few, f o r the sake of c l a r i t y and comprehension. Such a transformation of many things into one i s termed homomorphic mapping, e.g. constructing a single, representative mental map from the many individual viewpoints of people i n a group. Every map and model we construct of the world around us represents a simplifying many-to-one homomorphic transformation.2?  The cartographic process i t s e l f may be termed homomorphic wherein many threads of information from d i f f e r e n t sources are brought together to become a map.  By studying the o r i g i n s of these threads i n the  composition records and the related cartographic records and the processes involved i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n over others, i t becomes possible to determine how  the map became what i t i s . This inside view w i l l help i n  the interpretation of the map  since the map  i s the end product of a great  deal of sequential ordering of data from the i n i t i a l steps of f i e l d surveys and a i r photos to the l a s t step of publishing. This l i n e a r i t y of map  creation, i n which " t h e i r content i s presented s e r i a l l y , within  time,"28 presents the reader with one view of the cartographic process as well as the above-mentioned in-the-round view of the map  itself.  As t h i s chapter has t r i e d to show, there i s an added quality i n cartographic records production which complicates both their retention and use, and that quality i s the interpretive complexity of the record.  55  The dynamic nature of map  production r e s u l t s i n a wide variety of  map  agencies, each one evolving with some p a r t i c u l a r purpose i n mind to represent a p a r t i c u l a r view of the landscape.  We have found that a wide  s e l e c t i o n of maps from d i f f e r e n t map makers presents us with a more comprehensive idea of geographical or geocultural features.  But maps are  more than just i l l u s t r a t i o n s of where an incident occurred or where a town i s located; they are evidence of attitudes and p o l i c i e s and they can also be used as instruments of propaganda.  For these reasons i t i s  important that the composition records, as well as the map, for consultation i f needed.  be available  However, p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s facing  archives i n their attempts to acquire cartographic records have resulted in a less than complete record being available f o r research.  The ongoing u t i l i t y of some stages i n the cartographic process (such as base maps) and the continuing value to the agency of other records (such as surveyor's notebooks) means these records stay with the agency even though they may possess research value.  In some instances i n  B r i t i s h Columbia such records are being made available f o r research.  The  Legal Surveys Section of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing retains h i s t o r i c a l material such as surveyor's notebooks and early townsite plans.  Although researchers can be accommodated, the Section i s not  primarily a research f a c i l i t y .  The engineers on s t a f f can a s s i s t  researchers, but t h e i r reference service i s necessarily limited.  These  o f f i c e s are a necessary adjunct to cartographic archives and could be the beginning of a recognized network of cartographic agencies, including land r e g i s t r y o f f i c e s , and map  sales o f f i c e s , together with research  56  f a c i l i t i e s including archives and l i b r a r i e s .  Together a l l these  agencies  would help i d e n t i f y where components of the cartographic record of a region are located, while the archives could coordinate control over them.  intellectual  Cartographic records lend themselves to the concept  of networks as cooperation amongst agencies may already be a part of t h e i r creative l i f e s p a n .  Also, the diverse and complex nature of the  l i f e of cartographic records cannot r e a l l y be adequately understood from only one point of access where only one stage of the record may be found.  A cooperative network, i n which the cartographic archives plays a  r o l e within the cartographic system, would help increase the v i s i b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of cartographic records as an information source.  This chapter aimed at underlining the idea that a r c h i v i s t s need a knowledge of cartographic communication i f they are to understand that i t i s within the t o t a l cartographic record that evidence of man's view of his physical environment w i l l be found.  In addition, an understanding of  the intent behind a map i s dependent upon having records available which document those processes.  Such knowledge equips a r c h i v i s t s to argue f o r  preservation of more than just the maps themselves since i t has become clear that maps are more than simply guides to various phenomena. Instead, i t i s the t o t a l of the maps plus their composition  and t h e i r  related records which t e l l the h i s t o r y of man's coming to i n t e l l e c t u a l grips with the physical environment.  The topic of the actual a c q u i s i t i o n  of these records w i l l be dealt with i n Chapter Four.  57  Notes Chapter III  1.  A. Robinson, R. Sale, and J . Morrison, Elements of Cartography, 4th ed. (New York: John Wiley § Sons, 1978;, 149.  2.  Ibid., 150. S i m p l i f i c a t i o n : The determination of the important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the data, the retention and possible exaggeration of these important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the elimination of unwanted d e t a i l . Classification:  The ordering or scaling and grouping of data.  Symbolization: The graphic coding of the scaled and/or grouped essential c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , comparative s i g n i f i c a n c e s , and r e l a t i v e positions. Induction: inference. 3.  The application i n cartography of the l o g i c a l process of  G.W.G.V. Balchin, "Graphicacy," The American Cartographer 3 (1976): 34.  4.  Ibid., 33.  5.  M.S. Monmonier, Maps, D i s t o r t i o n and Meaning, Resource Paper No. 75-4 (Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1977), 37.  6.  Ibid., v.  7.  P.C. Muehrcke, Map Use, Reading, Analysis and Interpretation (Madison: J P Publications, 1978), 15.  8.  William Oppen, comp., The R i e l Rebellions: A Cartographic History (University of Toronto Press i n association with the Public Archives of Canada and the Canadian Government Publishing Centre: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1979), 91, 107.  9.  M.S. Monmonier, Maps, 9.  10.  R. Arnheim, "The Perception of Maps," The American Cartographer 3, No. 1 (1976): 6.  11.  Marvin White, "A Survey of the Mathematics of Maps," Auto Carto IV, ed. R.T. Aangeenbrug ( F a l l s Church: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping and the American Society of Photogrammetry, 1980): 82.  58 12.  M.S. Monmonier, Maps, 10.  13.  Lloyd Houston, "Paper prepared f o r : Canadian Cartographic Association meeting, New Westminster, March 26, 1983," (Paper delivered to the F i r s t Regional Meeting i n B r i t i s h Columbia of the Canadian Cartographic Association, New Westminster, B.C., 26 March, 1983), 4.  14.  M.S. Monmonier, Maps, 5.  15.  H. Speier, "Magic Cartography," Social Research, An International Quarterly of P o l i t i c a l and Social Science 8, No. 3 (1941): 315.  16.  R. Ehrenberg, Archives § Manuscripts: Maps and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Drawings, SAA Basic Manual Series (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1982), 7.  17.  Glossary, AACRII (CM).  18.  A. Robinson, R. Sale and J . Morrison, Elements, 153.  19.  P.C. Muehrcke, Map Use, 10.  20.  Ibid., 10.  21.  A. Robinson, R. Sale and J . Morrison, Elements, 271.  22.  P.C. Muehrcke, Map Use, 2.  23.  Ibid.  24.  S.W. Boggs, "Cartohypnosis," The S c i e n t i f i c Monthly 64, No. 6 (1947): 469.  25.  Ibid., 473.  26.  P.C. Muehrcke, Map Use, 3.  27.  P.Gould and R. White, Mental Maps, Pelican Geography and Environmental Studies, ed. Peter H a l l (New York: Penguin Books Inc. published i n Pelican Books, 1974), 52.  28.  H. Taylor, "Documentary A r t and the Role of the A r c h i v i s t , " The American A r c h i v i s t 42, No. 4 (1979): 420.  59 CHAPTER IV Conclusion:  Cartographic Records i n Archives:  A shared Resource  In the previous chapters we have taken a b r i e f look at the administrative complexity of cartographic agencies and t h e i r records; at how the cartographic c o l l e c t i o n s of three B r i t i s h Columbia r e p o s i t o r i e s have evolved and at the i n t e l l e c t u a l complexity of the records themselves.  In t h i s fourth and concluding chapter the topic of the  appraisal and a c q u i s i t i o n of cartographic records w i l l be considered.  In archives, a map i s given added meaning as a record of a c t i v i t y by the presence of supporting documents both textual and graphic.  Archives  which concentrate on obtaining the published maps alone, important as they are, r i s k ending up with a l i b r a r y of such maps, while the records which can provide important missed.  information about the creation of the map are  The concept of cartographic archives implies an interest i n more  than the subject content of discrete maps; and that i s an interest i n how the map came to be, information which the published map alone cannot provide.  Often, however, maps are collected as discrete items rather  than as part of the range of records of an agency.  This separation of  the map from the other cartographic records has led to some misunderstanding about the retention of maps by archives.  Many archives have used l i b r a r y methods of acquiring cartographic material, using catalogues put out by government map agencies as well as central map clearing houses to locate and select maps.  The tendency i s  60  to focus on the subject content of a map:  that i s , the s p e c i f i c coverage  of a p a r t i c u l a r area which has led to "emphasis . . . on individual documents or sets of documents rather than series or groups."1  This i s  one reason why many c o l l e c t i o n s are made up of d i s c r e t e published items rather than organic bodies of records.  To some viewers,  particularly  those from the f i e l d of l i b r a r y science, these published maps are usually considered i n the manner of other publications, and as such they are deemed to belong i n l i b r a r i e s .  In 1979, a report e n t i t l e d The Future of  the National Library i n Canada stated that "maps, u n i v e r s a l l y recognized as ' l i b r a r y matter,' are consequently  implied i n the d e f i n i t i o n of 'book'  outlined i n Section 2(B) of the National Library A c t . "  2  In the Act, book  i s defined as  l i b r a r y matter of every kind, nature and d e s c r i p t i o n and includes any document, paper, record, tape or other thing published by a publisher, on or i n which information i s written, recorded, stored or reproduced.3 The Report uses t h i s d e f i n i t i o n and the assumption that maps are everywhere recognized as l i b r a r y matter to argue that o f f i c i a l maps (those produced and published by and f o r government agencies) should be retained i n the National Library rather than i n the Public Archives of Canada.  There i s no question that the National Library should have  copies of maps for i t s reference service but the concept of these maps as more than publications, that they are i n fact records and that archives are interested i n contemporary records are issues which have not been recognized i n the Report.  The idea that archives need only "a small  c o l l e c t i o n of maps deemed to be e s s e n t i a l to support general h i s t o r i c a l  research on Canadian s u b j e c t s "  4  i s to deny the whole purpose behind  archives generally, and cartographic archives i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The  t r a d i t i o n a l idea that archives are r e p o s i t o r i e s for only rare and unqiue items lends a museum-like q u a l i t y to archives.  There are references i n  the l i b r a r y science l i t e r a t u r e to a r c h i v a l cartographic records being those " i n t r i n s i c a l l y valuable . . . for their r a r i t y . " 5  The implication  seems to be that a r c h i v a l maps are valuable a r t i f a c t s reserved f o r specialized use.  In terms of cartographic archives, the a c q u i s i t i o n of  b e a u t i f u l and rare examples of early cartography,  f o r example the elusive  mappae mundi (maps of the world), i s often thought to be t h e i r primary interest and c e r t a i n l y i t i s these items which catch the interest of the general public.  But most cartographic archives today are p r i m a r i l y  concerned with the challenge of acquiring the cartography of the l a s t few decades and of the present i n order to bequeath a comprehensive cartographic record of our era to the future.  The majority of cartographic archives are concerned with r e t a i n i n g the records of t h e i r sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n s , most of which are municipal, p r o v i n c i a l or federal governments.  Published cartographica,  although  mainly produced for public consumption on a wide v a r i e t y of subjects, i s s t i l l the r e s u l t and r e f l e c t i o n of a series of administrative and technical functions.  The maps are evidence of data s e l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s ,  map making s k i l l s , and map p r i n t i n g techniques.  Being products of  administrative decisions, published maps have important  s i g n i f i c a n c e when  considered i n r e l a t i o n to other documentation of the cartographic process.  Published maps are i n archives, therefore, because they are  62 part of the evidence of how an agency functioned and why not only because they are useful f o r reference.  i t existed and  In order f o r the maps to  f u l f i l l t h e i r role as records of the agency, however, the f u l l range of the record, from data c o l l e c t i o n to the f i n a l map, consideration.  must be taken into  This i s where the diverse stages and uses' of the records,  and the technology which produces them, r e s u l t i n added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a r c h i v i s t who  appraises the value of the cartographic record.  In the past archives have mostly been the passive receivers of records.  The concept of s e l e c t i n g records f o r retention, deciding which  records could be destroyed, and taking an active part i n the growth of an archival c o l l e c t i o n i s a r e l a t i v e l y recent one i n the a r c h i v a l profession.  This dates from the 1940's when records  production  p r o l i f e r a t e d and records management began i n the United States.  The  cartographic a r c h i v i s t , dealing with the records of the e s o t e r i c d i s c i p l i n e of cartography,  soon becomes aware that he/she must be  knowledgeable about h i s t o r i c a l , administrative and technological complexities of the records i n order to develop the f a m i l i a r i t y for e f f e c t i v e appraisal.  necessary  Appraisal, or selective retention, has been  defined by the SAA glossary of terms as  the process of determining the value and thus the d i s p o s i t i o n of records based upon their current administrative, l e g a l , and f i s c a l use; t h e i r e v i d e n t i a l and informational or research value; t h e i r arrangement; and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to other records.?  Appraising cartographic material involves defining the range of records to be considered.  The cartographic a r c h i v i s t w i l l l i k e l y f i n d  63 that a survey of agencies i d e n t i f i e d as those which produce maps w i l l have to be augmented by a survey to determine the types of records produced by each from the point of data c o l l e c t i o n onward.  This task i s  made d i f f i c u l t by the complexity of the various stages i n the cartographic process, and the fact that some products such as base maps and thematic overlays are shared amongst map producers.  Consequently,  some a c t i v i t i e s may be obscured i n the bureaucracy and the records hard to i d e n t i f y .  Maps, with t h e i r independent layers of information can be  adapted to many uses beyond t h e i r i n i t i a l purpose.  It i s s t i l l  important  however to i d e n t i f y the ones which have h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e or potential research value but which are s t i l l being consulted and held by the creating agencies.  However, the ongoing usefulness of such records  may make i t hard to determine the point at which they become noncurrent. The Land T i t l e s O f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a i s f i l l e d with such records and the Legal Surveys Section of the Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing retains surveyor's notebooks and townsite plans from the c o l o n i a l and f l e d g l i n g p r o v i n c i a l government periods.  These sorts of records are usually not  open to appraisal f o r eventual transfer to the archives as early as other records because t h e i r administrative use may extend f o r many decades. However, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such records by the cartographic a r c h i v i s t i s a necessary part of completing the outline of the cartographic administrative history.  By making t h e i r existence known, the way i s  prepared f o r t h e i r eventual scheduling by archives.  Although i t may be an esoteric d i s c i p l i n e , cartography has fortunately evolved a " d i s t i n c t body of theory and practice that includes  64  a series of processes that are p e c u l i a r l y cartographic and common to the making of a l l maps-."8  The challenge f o r the cartographic a r c h i v i s t l i e s  in making the agency aware that the records resulting from processes such as generalization (for example, the worksheets and overlays) are i n f a c t records and that they are records which t e l l something of the technology u t i l i z e d to manipulate data during the making of the map. who  An a r c h i v i s t  i s knowledgeable about the wide scope of the cartographic process,  that i t documents the h i s t o r y of our physical and c u l t u r a l  environment,  can argue convincingly f o r the scheduling of such records.  This i s  becoming more v i t a l with the advent of automated technology i n map agencies today.  D i g i t i z e d data and computer-assisted cartography  (machines performing the necessary, r e p e t i t i v e t a s k s )  9  where the  composition records may be f l e e t i n g ( i n one form today, updated to another form the next) and simply non-existent i n any t r a d i t i o n a l , tangible form unless c a l l e d f o r t h , genie-like from the database, present a p a r t i c u l a r problem.  The information i n the database, both as raw data  and as i t appears when retrieved by computer printout, i s primary material and has the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a record as much as manually produced thematic overlays of t r a d i t i o n a l map making have.  For the  cartographic a r c h i v i s t , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the record must begin at the basic l e v e l of data management.  This "master f i l e " i s where most data i s  stored before being used to carry out s p e c i f i c operations.  The  documentation must accompany the data f i l e s so that "the interrelationships between the records and the units of information within each record"10 are maintained.  The cartographer and/or programmer  working through the beginning stages of a programme w i l l soon leave behind  65  the documentation as the basic programme evolves and manipulation of the data elements f o r specialized projects takes place.  As a r e s u l t there  may not be s u f f i c i e n t information allowing access to the programme i n a l l i t s forms by persons, e s p e c i a l l y those outside the agency, at a l a t e r date.  Also, without documentation the a r c h i v i s t may be unable to do any  content analysis to determine  i f the records are of value.  Another  problem i s the updatability of the data:  Many modern databases are i n t e r a c t i v e and real-time updatable which means that a user may change the data stored i n the database instantaneously. A r c h i v i s t s have yet to devise a method f o r documenting this " e d i t i n g " process or f o r "archiving" the contents of databases.H  The c a p a b i l i t y to manipulate large amounts of data quickly and e f f i c i e n t l y i s what makes a database p a r t i c u l a r l y useful to an agency but i t i s this feature which poses the greatest challenge to the a r c h i v i s t .  The values i n a textual record can be appraised by examining  the  content of that p a r t i c u l a r document on i t s own and by considering i t i n the context of the others i n the unit, whether that unit i s one f i l e or one metre of material. However, with computer technology the l i m i t a t i o n s on arrangement of information (time, patience, energy) are lessened and the pool of data can be added to, deleted from, and individual elements combined and recombined to create numerous data sets which are unique to the agency.  Knowledge of such agency-specific manipulations must be  gained or the data pool w i l l be l i t t l e more than a mass of unrelated facts.  It i s the relationships amongst these facts that an agency f e e l s  are important or that enable i t to carry out projects which give enduring  66  value to the data.  As i s pointed out by Dorothy Ahlgren and John  McDonald, ". . . there i s today no assurance that, having acquired the form, a r c h i v i s t s have acquired the substance" and the e l e c t r o n i c medium houses "information contained i n formats where s t a b i l i t y i s not intended and therefore i s not achieved."12  The a r c h i v i s t i s therefore faced with  decisions pertaining to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the elements i n the database which need to be retained as well as questions of how and when to transfer those i t e m s .  13  In a d d i t i o n , the appraisal process i s  affected by p r a c t i c a l considerations of both software dependency (where data can only be read i f processed on a computer which supports compatible software f o r that data) and costs of storing and preserving such records.  This discussion may  seem to have strayed from the s p e c i f i c topic of  cartographic archives i n B r i t i s h Columbia but i t was  intended to indicate  what cartographic a r c h i v i s t s everywhere are facing.  Cartographers have  been developing computer applications i n t h e i r work f o r many years and are moving s t e a d i l y towards the time when cartography w i l l be automated.  completely  At the present time however the t r a n s i t i o n i s s t i l l underway  from manual to automated systems r e s u l t i n g i n a mix of records formats. Whether cartographic records are on paper or on disk, the a r c h i v i s t i s concerned with the preservation of the information.  The increased use of  automation allows more thorough u t i l i z a t i o n of data by the agency.  This  added c a p a b i l i t y demands that more than ever before, the a r c h i v i s t must be knowledgeable about the records production within the context of the administrative h i s t o r y of the cartographic agency.  The structure and  67 functions of departments w i l l provide important and the type of records which might r e s u l t .  clues to the use of data  Today, the composite nature  of cartographic records includes the v a r i e t y of tangible documents, such as maps, proofs, and correspondence as well as the range of information which remains i n database format.  The task of developing a specialized archives of cartographic materials i s hampered i n most r e p o s i t o r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and elsewhere by the lack of space and manpower.  Due to the s h i f t i n  emphasis towards the a c q u i s i t i o n of public records by government-sponsored archives, they are faced with having to acquire records from a greater number of departments involved i n the creation of maps.  If there i s a records management system i n place, t h i s w i l l help  i d e n t i f y records and ensure the regular deposit of those with value, both primary (to the agency) and secondary (to other agencies and independent researchers) i n the archives.  Some d i r e c t i o n may be given to the records  manager by the guidelines the archives sets out for i t s e l f .  Each  cartographic archives has to determine what i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to i t s sponsor are and what the needs of i t s researchers are as well as what i s required to document the h i s t o r y of cartography taking an active r o l e i n understanding  itself.  It i s only by  the record that a r c h i v i s t s can  hope to meet the challenge within the constraints faced by most archives.  The a r c h i v i s t needs to know about cartography and be aware of  i t s aspects of art and science i n order to interpret some of the ideas behind cartographic communication.  Cartographic a r c h i v i s t s need the  perspective this knowledge gives them so that the most valuable records  68 of the agencies w i l l be recognized and therefore have a better chance of surviving the dangerous " i n t e r v a l of v u l n e r a b i l i t y between the moment at which the p r a c t i c a l usefulness of a map i s exhausted and the moment at which i t awakes the interest of h i s t o r i a n s as a r e l i c or memorial of the past"*  4 S  poken of by Raleigh Skelton.  A r c h i v i s t s must also be  knowledgeable i f they are to avoid s l i p p i n g back into a passive r o l e i n acquisition.  Appraisal i s an assertive a r c h i v a l function and therefore,  to be most e f f e c t i v e , i t must be backed by f a m i l i a r i t y with the records and an appreciation of their dynamic q u a l i t y .  However, cartographic a r c h i v i s t s cannot preserve everything i n the hopes of providing material f o r every conceivable research topic i n the future.  This i s c e r t a i n l y true of composition records.  these are i t i s not necessary composition  As important as  (and would not be possible) to keep a l l the  records f o r each map.  These records generally do not have  enduring value i f they "duplicate the o r i g i n a l survey maps and the f i n a l printed maps."^^  A set of records which follows the development of a  seminal map or p a r t i c u l a r overlays which may contain information not shown on the f i n a l map are examples of the type of composition  records  which should be i d e n t i f i e d and acquired.  A r c h i v i s t s are said to be responsible f o r the preservation of the record f o r the future and nowhere i s this duty more keenly f e l t than i n the a r c h i v a l function of appraisal.  The many factors being considered  during the appraisal process are now heightened  by an awareness of cost.  Although archives generally spend very l i t t l e on actual a c q u i s i t i o n ,  69 relying instead on donors and sponsoring  institutions,  1 6  the cost of  housing, maintaining and referencing records i s increasing constantly. As cartography  i s a multifaceted d i s c i p l i n e i t i s important  that as  complete a record as possible be acquired, and t h i s argues for the preservation of more than simply the published map.  Each stage of the  record, whether composition or published, has importance and a greater balance i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of each by archives i s needed. of the record i s important  The  as i t provides context which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  v i t a l i f cartographic records are to t e l l of the history of The story of how  the map  totality  cartography.  i t s e l f came to be i s a complicated one.  That  there i s a wider range of records i s evident, for example, i n the study of cartographic communication. cartography—surveying, specialists.  There are so many aspects to  d r a f t i n g , p u b l i s h i n g — a l l handled by d i f f e r e n t  The information on the map  (the subject) i s also ultimately  the result of the work of more s p e c i a l i s t s than just the  cartographers  themselves, for example geographers, geologists and the m i l i t a r y .  A l l of  this information and methodology from these divers sources has been fused into one body of knowledge.  The s c i e n t i f i c side has a l s o , through time,  been amalgamated with the experience, dreams and imagination of e a r l i e r map  makers and explorers.  Each region has seen i t s mapping grow and  d i v e r s i f y and this i s s t i l l happening with great speed.  It i s within  this chain of information or network that the cartographic memory of an area w i l l be found.  If a r c h i v i s t s do not know the range of the record,  archives w i l l not document the important  stages of the development of  man's impact on the land nor show the technical evolution of the cartographic record form.  70  The range of the record comes from two sources, the agencies and the internal records within any given agency.  As we have seen,  cartography  i s a set of processes which have evolved through input from a l l over a given area and the country:  Therefore cartographic records do not come  into being or e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n , they are part of a large framework. The records f i t together as the records of B r i t i s h Columbia f i t i n with the records of federal programmes.  This overlapping of programmes and  ideas w i l l be discovered through the administrative survey.  Appraisers  need to find out about records shared amongst agencies and about their l i f e cycle i n the agencies. creating and/or borrowing l i f e span determined.  Records with ongoing usefulness to the  agency must be i d e n t i f i e d and their potential  Here an agency o f f i c i a l , preferably a records  manager, w i l l have an important role to play i n appraisal i n cooperation with the a r c h i v i s t .  In p a r t i c u l a r , the agency w i l l play a v i t a l part i n  the appraisal of machine-readable cartography as i t w i l l be able to a s s i s t the a r c h i v i s t i n making periodic reviews of the data to determine i t s continuing value.  The reliance on the map making o f f i c e s by archives i s necessary when dealing with t h e i r records.  The d i v e r s i t y of agencies and the overlap of  f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal programmes makes a c q u i s i t i o n complicated.  Outlining c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s and a c q u i s i t i o n guidelines  helps foster communication within the l o c a l network of diverse repositories i n order to benefit s e l e c t i o n so that hopefully i n future there w i l l not be the gaps i n the record that face us today.  But  archives are the result of c o l l e c t i v e and cumulative e f f o r t .  What i s  71  needed i s a good basic structure consisting of knowledgeable (graphicate) s t a f f , cooperation amongst agencies and archives, and a balanced  records  a c q u i s i t i o n mandate upon which to b u i l d archives of the future. Cartographic archives are i n an i n t e r e s t i n g p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the records they serve.  There i s opportunity f o r greater involvement  with  the creation of the record i n the sense of having an awareness of the techniques behind map production.  There i s also the opportunity to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n an active network of agencies whose c o l l e c t i v e goal i s the e f f e c t i v e transmission of information about the land and our view of i t . These opportunities must be acted upon:  cartographic records themselves  are not s t a t i c and archives should not be s t a t i c i n t h e i r dealings with them.  It i s such sharing of resources and active involvement  ultimately benefit the future understanding records.  that w i l l  of contemporary cartographic  72  NOTES CHAPTER IV 1.  R. Ehrenberg, Archives § Manuscripts: Maps and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Drawings. SAA Basic Manual Series (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1982), 7.  2.  Canada. National Library of Canada. Library of Canada, Ottawa, 1979, 26.  3.  Ibid.  4.  Ibid., 28.  5.  Barbara F a r r e l l , Aileen Desbarats, Guide f o r a small map c o l l e c t i o n (Ottawa: Association of Canadian Map L i b r a r i e s , 1981), 10-11.  6.  W.O. Maedke, M.F. Robek, G.F. Brown, Information and Records Management, Second E d i t i o n (1974; Encino: Glencoe Publishing Co., Inc., 1981), 18-19.  7.  W.L. Rofes, ed., A Basic Glossary f o r A r c h i v i s t s , Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers, reprinted from The American A r c h i v i s t 57 (1974): 417:  8.  A. Robinson, R. Sale and J . Morrison, Elements of Cartography, 4th ed. (Toronto: John Wiley and Sons, 1978), 4-5.  9.  Ibid., 259.  The Future of the National  10.  Public Archives of Canada, Draft, guidelines f o r scheduling EDP data, 1982.  12.  Dorothy Ahlgren and John McDonald, "The Archival Management of a Geographic Information System," Archiyaria 13 (1981-1982): 64.  13.  Charles M. D o l l a r , "Appraising Machine-Readable Records," The American A r c h i v i s t 41, No. 4 (1978): 429.  14.  R.A. Skelton, Maps. A H i s t o r i c a l Survey of Their Study and C o l l e c t i n g . The Kenneth Nebenzahl, J r . , Lectures i n the History of Cartography at the Newberry Library, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1972), 28.  15.  R. Ehrenberg, Archives § Manuscripts: Maps and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Drawings. SAA Basic Manual Series (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1982), 13.  16.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Canadian Archives. 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