Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

On performing Wolf : problems inherent in the Geistliche Lieder from the Spanisches Liederbuch Kuhl, Margaret Louise 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A1_5 K83.pdf [ 4.37MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096604.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096604-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096604-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096604-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096604-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096604-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096604-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096604-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096604.ris

Full Text

ON PERFORMING WOLF: ' <£y}'e.C><U. '•I PROBLEMS INHERENT IN THE "GEISTLICHE LIEDER" FROM THE SPANISCHES LIEDERBUCH By MARGARET LOUISE KUHL B.Mus sWilfrid Laurier University, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1984 © Margaret Louise Kuhl, 1984 GRADUATION VOICE RECITAL By MARGARET LOUISE KUHL assisted by HEATHER ENGLISH B.Mus., Wilfrid Laurier University, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1982 © Margaret Louise Kuhl , 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Q The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date >E-6 (3/81) A B S T R A C T ON PERFORMING WOLF: PROBLEMS INHERENT IN THE "GEISTLICHE LIEDER" FROM THE SPANISCHES LIEDERBUCH By Margaret Louise Kuhl Chairman: Professor William E. Benjamin The D.M.A. thesis includes three f u l l solo recitals: 25 January 1982 — works by Haydn, Brahms, Debussy, and Argento (accompanist Heather English) 11 April 1983 — works by Schubert, Wolf, Berg, Poulenc, and Britten (accompanist Terence Dawson) 13 February 1984 — works by Schiitz, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Mussorgsky, and Montsalvatge (accompanists Terence Dawson and Ed Norman). The f i n a l requirement consists of a document and an accompanying lecture-recital, examining problems for the performer inherent in the ten "Geistliche Lieder" from Hugo Wolf's Spanisches Liederbuch. I propose that the presentation of these songs as a complete cycle of ten does not enhance their emotional impact. A solution to this problem is for the performer to extract and rearrange groups of songs that are dramatically convincing and have the momentum of a small-scale cycle. Two groups that work well in this regard are: i i i i i No. 3, "Nun wandre, Maria,",No. 4, "Die ihr schwebet," No. 5, "Fiihr mich, Kind, nach Bethlehem!" and No. 1, "Nun bin ich dein"; and No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden hier," and No. 10, "Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter." The latter group is discussed in especial detail, with attention to character development, images of Christian suffering and pain, and harmonic and melodic structure. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i Part I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I . I s the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " a Cycle? 5 I I I . No. 7, "Miihvoll komm' i c h und beladen" 15 IV. No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r " and No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r " 16 V. Conclusion 35 FOOTNOTES 37 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 39 APPENDIX 1 (Texts of the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " ) 42 APPENDIX 2 (Dates and O r i g i n a l Order of the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " ) . . . 48 APPENDIX 3 (Score of No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r " ) . . . . 49 APPENDIX 4 (Score of No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r " ) . . . 51 RECITAL PROGRAMS „ i n pocket i v LIST OF FIGURES 1. No. 6, "Ach, des Knaben Augen s i n d , " mm. 17-23 8 2. No. 3, "Nun wandre, Mar i a , " mm. 21-26 8 3. No. 2, "Die du Gott gebarst, du Reine," mm. 1-8 9 4. No. 7, "Miihvoll komm' i c h und beladen," mm. 1-8 10 5. No. 1, "Nun b i n i c h d e i n , " mm. 31-34 10 6. No. 5, "Fiihr mich, Kind, nach Bethlehem," mm. 39-end 11 7. No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r " — P o e t i c S t r u c t u r e . . . 19 8. No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein GeliebterV — P o e t i c S t r u c t u r e . . 20 9. No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r " — S e c t i o n a l Breakdown of Harmonic St r u c t u r e 22 10. No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r " — S e c t i o n a l Breakdown of Cadence P o i n t s 24 11. No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r , " mm. 1-10 — Harmonic Sketch 25 12. No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r , " mm. 1-6 — Chromatic Descending 7-6 Sequence 30 13. No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r , " mm. 1-6 — Harmonic Sketch 32 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Dr. Robert M o r r i s and P r o f . Donald Brown f o r t h e i r generous help and encouragement throughout my st u d i e s at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t has been a jo y to work w i t h my accompanist, P h i l i p T i l l o t s o n ; h i s i n s i g h t s i n t o the German L i e d have taught me f a r more than I can ever acknowledge. Without the emotional support of Charles Smith and the s p i r i t u a l guidance of Harry and Fran Robinson, I could not have completed t h i s work. I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to m y . p r i n c i p a l , t h e s i s .advisor, Dr. W i l l i a m Benjamin, f o r h i s i n s i g h t f u l advice and s t i m u l a t i n g c r i t i c i s m . I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the k i n d permission of C F . Peters Corporation to i n c l u d e excerpts taken from Hugo Wolf's Spanisches  Liederbuch, E d i t i o n Peters No. 3149. v i PART I I n t r o d u c t i o n The ten " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " ("Sacred Songs") from the Spanisches  Liederbuch by Hugo Wolf are among the l e a s t well-known of h i s songs, f o r s e v e r a l reasons. One reason, I t h i n k , i s the tendency of many performers to shy away from d i f f i c u l t and obscure music, i n favour of the more r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e . Another reason i s that the poetry i s very sombre and f u l l of images of C h r i s t i a n s u f f e r i n g and g u i l t . There i s no question of the c o l l e c t i v e d i f f i c u l t y of the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " or of t h e i r p r e v a i l i n g seriousness, but to ignore them or pass over them i n favour of the simpler or the l i g h t e r - v e i n e d seems a great p i t y . I f nothing e l s e , the f a c t that many of the i n d i v i d u a l songs are so e x q u i s i t e suggests that we might l e a r n to appreciate the e n t i r e set more. Wolf chose h i s t e x t s from the 1852 c o l l e c t i o n , Das Spanisches Liederbuch, of Paul Heyse and Emanuel G e i b e l — a s e l e c t i o n that continued a prevalent nineteenth-century t r a d i t i o n of using Southern, C l a s s i c a l sources. As E r i c Sams s t a t e s : The Romantic movement i n Germany was i n s a t i a b l y a v i d f o r poetry of a l l k i n d s , from a l l lands. . . . A s the German p a i n t e r s had craved the c l e a r a i r and warm l i g h t of I t a l y , so German w r i t e r s and musicians found t h e i r own n a t i v e art-forms r e v i v i f i e d and i r r a d i a t e d by Southern grace and l i g h t n e s s of rhyme and metre, melody and cadence. Further, the ideas of Spanish l o c a l colour and costume, p r i d e and passion, . . . made a p a r t i c u l a r appeal to the l i g h t e r l y r i c poets such as Emanuel G e i b e l (1815-84) and through them to |he great song w r i t e r s such as Schumann and l a t e r Brahms and Wolf.. Heyse and Geibel's c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e s t h i r t e e n g e i s t l i c h e (sacred) and ninety-nine w e l t l i c h e (secular) poems, i n two d i s t i n c t s e t s . Wolf chose to w r i t e music to only ten g e i s t l i c h e and t h i r t y - f o u r w e l t l i c h e poems, s t i l l i n two d i s t i n c t s e t s , or perhaps c y c l e s . 1 2 The diverse Spanish sources translated by Heyse and Geibel range from the fourteenth-century poet Juan Ruiz, Archpriest of H i t a (No. 1, "Nun b i n i c h dein") to such well-known poets as the sixteenth-century Lope de Vega (No. 4, "Die i h r schwebet," a l u l l a b y of the V i r g i n Mary, which was set by 2 Brahms as well as by Wolf). Not every author i n the c o l l e c t i o n was a bona fid e Spanish poet, however. Some poems, although presented as Spanish verse translated into German, are believed to have been a c t u a l l y written by Heyse or Geibel as German o r i g i n a l s . For example, i n the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder," Don Manuel del Rio, the purported author of No. 7, "Miihvoll komm' i c h und beladen," was a c t u a l l y Geibel using the name of a Spanish ancestor 3 of his wife. Heyse used the pseudonym Don Luis e l Chico for c e r t a i n poems included i n the w e l t l i c h e portion of the c o l l e c t i o n . Before considering the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder" as a set or cycle, I w i l l examine the i n d i v i d u a l songs b r i e f l y ; most of us know a few of these songs as i n d i v i d u a l s , since they appear now and then i n r e c i t a l , usually i n combination with other Wolf songs. Rather than attempt any involved textual c r i t i c i s m or s t r u c t u r a l analysis of the poetry, I w i l l b r i e f l y describeethe imagery and emotive power of the texts. In other words, how do the poems touch the performer and the audience? What kind of emotional or s p i r i t u a l response do they e l i c i t , above and beyond the sensory beauty of the words and rhythm? In order to sing and play such songs, performers should attempt to personalize and i n t e r n a l i z e the u n i v e r s a l sentiments expressed; only then can they recreate these sentiments for t h e i r audiences. No. 1, "Nun b i n i c h dein," i s a love song addressed to the V i r g i n Mary. In i t s expression of ardour and devotion, i t i s reminiscent of medieval Troubadour and Trouvere songs, i n which chivalrous love and s p i r i t u a l devotion are merged, and become i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . The use of 3 the familiar "du" form signals this kind of intimacy. No. 2, "Die du Gott gebarst, du Reine," also focuses on the Virgin, exalting her purity and her position as intercessor. No. 3, "Nun wandre, Maria," a straightforward poem with a simple stanzaic structure, portrays a vivid picture of Mary and Joseph on the road to Bethlehem. The humblest peasant could identify with and understand the plight of the expectant mother and the concerned father who would do anything (even give up his donkey!) to alleviate the pain of her coming hour. Each stanza ends with the refrain "Schon krahen die Hahne und nah i s t der Ort"; quite possibly the allusion to the cock crowing is a foreshadowing of the death of Christ. No. 4, "Die ihr schwebet," the lullaby by de Vega mentioned above, also conveys a vivid scene — one of palm trees and wind, a poorly clad child and an anxious mother. No. 5, "Fiihr mich, Kind, nach Bethlehem!" and No. 6, "Ach, des Knaben Augen sind," both focus on Christ as Child, and are structurally comparable to the preceding two songs in their simplicity and use of repetition. No. 5 repeats the exhortation, "Wem gelang' es, wem, ohne dich zu dir zu gehn" ("Who, who could manage to come to you without your aid"). In No. 6, the statement of devotion, "Und ein Etwas strahlt aus ihnen, das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt" ("For from your eyes something shines that captures a l l my heart") closes both stanzas. The seventh song, "Miihvoll komm' ich und beladen," is the only one attributed directly to a German rather than to a Spanish poet. This poem is unlike the other nine, in that i t is based on a succession of Biblic a l quotations; this close adherence to Bib l i c a l sources is more German Protestant than Spanish Catholic. For example, "Miihvoll komm' ich und beladen" ("In t o i l come I, and heavy laden") brings to mind "Come unto me, a l l ye that labour and are heavy laden" (Matthew 11:28), and later "Du nur 4 schaffest, dass i c h weiss wie das V l i e s s der Lammer werde" ("You alone can make me white as lamb's fleece") r e c a l l s the Old Testament reference, ". . • though your sins be as s c a r l e t , they s h a l l be as white as snow; though they be red l i k e crimson, they s h a l l be as wool" (Isaiah 1:18). There are as well the New Testament references to Mary Magdalene anointing the feet of Jesus, and to Jesus addressing the t h i e f on the cross. No. 8, "Ach, wie lang die Seele schlummert!" i s a kind of s p i r i t u a l r e f l e c t i o n and a c a l l to repentance. I t i s , i n my opinion, the l e a s t successful song of the group. The poem has a maudlin and sentimental streak, and i s structured as a two-fold p a r a l l e l i s m , depicting darkness followed by l i g h t , twice. Despite t h i s c l e a r pattern, however, the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i s somewhat d i s j o i n t e d and awkward; Wolf's musical s e t t i n g r e f l e c t s these d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s — but not to the advantage of the song as a whole. No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden h i e r , " and No. 10, "Wunden tragst du mein Ge l i e b t e r , " are both dialogues between Man and God, expounding on the causes f o r Ch r i s t ' s death. The dialogue of No. 9 i s i n the form of question and answer, and r e c a l l s the form of old European c a r o l s , such as the thirteenth-century L a t i n "Angelus ad Virginem," and the f i f t e e n t h -century English "This endris Night," as well as of the well-known medieval mystery play Everyman. No. 10 e x p l o i t s the ancient r h e t o r i c a l device of i n c l u s i o (a r e f r a i n occurring only at the very beginning and the end of a poem) — a device used i n the Psalms; i n f a c t , i t i s remarkably s i m i l a r i n structure to Psalm 8 (which also frames three stanzas with an i n c l u s i o ) . Both of these songs are discussed i n much greater d e t a i l below. PART II Is the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder" a Cycle? For a performer i n constant search of r e c i t a l material, that i s , cohesive and i n t e r e s t i n g programs, a v i t a l question i s whether the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder" can be considered a performable cycle. In other words, should they be performed as an unbroken group i n Wolf's predetermined order? I f we decide that they are not best performed as a cycle, what, then, are the alte r n a t i v e s ? Can we create smaller groups, perhaps, that have on t h e i r own some kind of c y c l i c nature? In order to answer such questions, we must f i r s t consider what we mean when we use the word "c y c l e . " What features of a set of songs are we attempting to p i n down when we use that word? Luise Peake suggests that a song cycle i s : A composite form of vocal music c o n s i s t i n g of a group of i n d i v i d u a l l y complete songs . . . I t may r e l a t e a serie s of events, or a se r i e s of impressions, or i t may be a group of songs u n i f i e d bjr mood. The texts may be by a si n g l e author or from several sources. Such an all-encompassing set of c r i t e r i a i s not r e a l l y that h e l p f u l ; many sets of songs that few would consider cycles are included, for example, Schubert's Schwanengesang and many of the Brahms opuses. Peake, however, goes on to add that: Each £song cycle^J i s an a r t work i n which the emotional content of each song, together with i t s rhythmic and dynamic momentum, i s allowed to carry over to,.the next, and to be musically prepared, developed and concluded. The key word here i s momentum — emotional, rhythmic, and dynamic. Momentum suggests movement — with a beginning (Peake's "musical preparation"), followed by development,or shaping towards some kind of goal 5 6 or climax, and f i n a l l y a conclusion. Three well-known song cycles, Schubert's Die schone M i i l l e r i n , and Schumann's Frauenliebe und -leben and D i c h t e r l i e b e , a l l c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e t h i s b u i l d i n g of momentum on d i f f e r e n t and varied l e v e l s . Die schone  M i i l l e r i n depicts an actual p h y s i c a l journey, as we l l l a s an emotional journey that ends i n despair and death. Frauenliebe und -leben progresses c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y from youth to maturity to death, or, i f you l i k e , from a flowering of love to i t s f u l f i l l m e n t and f i n a l l y to separation through death. D i c h t e r l i e b e also incorporates several d i f f e r e n t kinds of momentum; there i s a movement of time, from spring through summer, which i s complemented by a movement from the ecstacy of love through the bitterness of heartbreak and f i n a l l y once again to the death of love. Music scholars have attempted, with varying success, to show that i n these cycles and others there i s a corresponding ser i e s of musical events that constitutes an ordered unity. Thomas Archer proposes that i n Die  schone M i i l l e r i n : The . . . drama has i t s r i s i n g and i t s f a l l i n g action, i t s exposition, i t s climax and i t s catastrophe. . . . {jThe songs^] f a l l quite n a t u r a l l y into f i v e sections, two of which are included i n the r i s e of the cyc l e , three i n the f a l l £with a prelude, an interlude, and a postlude as wellj. . . . analyzed i n t h i s way, Die schgne M i i l l e r i n f a l l s quite n a t u r a l l y into the form of a free rondo. Archer attempts to demonstrate how the musical and poetic features support th i s l arger dramatic and l o g i c a l construction. A more recent, and perhaps the best-known, attempt at the analysis of an e n t i r e song cycle i s by Arthur Komar, on D i c h t e r l i e b e . ^ Komar addresses such matters as the p r i n c i p a l images and poetic structures. He points out c e r t a i n words that are repeated from poem to poem, and other p e r s i s t e n t verbal associations (such as re f e r e n c e s t i n several songs to the r i v e r Rhine and to the cathedral at Cologne), as well as common rhyme schemes. 7 In arguing for the purely musical coherence of these songs as a cycle, or an "integrated musical t o t a l i t y " as he puts i t , Komar postulates that ae."controlling compositional plan must be demonstrated" for a l l the songs g i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r order. He f e e l s that such a plan i s achieved i n D i c h t e r l i e b e by means of a coherent key scheme, motivic and harmonic con t i n u i t y , and unity of rhythmic, melodic, and accompanimental f i g u r a t i o n s . When I attempt to measure the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder" by such c r i t e r i a , I f i n d several ways i n which the songs seems to conform to a c y c l i c p r i n c i p l e — i n both the textual and musical domains. To consider the h i s t o r i c a l evidence f i r s t , however, we can speculate that Wolf may have heard a c y c l i c structure to the set, since he chose only ten of the t h i r t e e n poems i n Heyse and Geibel's g e i s t l i c h e c o l l e c t i o n , leaving out the l a s t three. Furthermore, he altered Heyse and Geibel's order for four of the songs (see Appendix 2) — i n d i c a t i n g a clear preference for t h e i r present order. Within the set of ten songs as Wolf f i n a l l y set them down, the r e p e t i t i o n of textual themes demonstrates a kind of textual cohesiveness. In nine out of the ten, reference i s made to s u f f e r i n g , agony, tears, or pain — sometimes inner s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r i n g a r i s i n g out of g u i l t , and at other times actual p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g and pain. Only No. 6, "Ach des Knaben Augen sind," i s free of such a l l u s i o n s . ( I n t e r e s t i n g l y , of the ten t h i s song i s also the most straightforward harmonically.) Eight of the songs speak of death or sleep; sleep i n many of these instances can be interpreted as symbolizing death. The idea of a journey or t r a v e l l i n g l i n k s two of the songs (Nos. 3 and 5 ) . This textual cohesiveness i s complemented by a musical uniformity; i n other words, most of the songs are obsessed with a few s p e c i f i c musical 8 gestures, many of which can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the pervasive theme of s u f f e r i n g . The t e x t i s f o r the most part declaimed on a d r o n e - l i k e r e p e t i t i o n of only a few p i t c h e s , w i t h meticulous a t t e n t i o n to proper word rhythm and s t r e s s (see Figures 1 and 2); the e f f e c t i s that of Figure 1; No. 6, MAch, des'Knaben Augen s i n d , " mm. 17-23 Und IO geb__ ich guix mich hin, AM those «jrtfs_ my heart eon-tote, •ei-nes Aa - gen— Oumkt to Thee, lord,. nur su die I mould rem ncn; den denn ein Et - wma strthlt aua ih their heav** - If glow inf next, Figure 2: No. 3, "Nun wandre, M a r i a , " mm. 21-26 9 psalmodizing. Deviation from these repeated pitches i s usually by h a l f -step or whole-step. Heightened emotion i s demonstrated by a higher p i t c h l e v e l (see Figure 2). There are few large leaps. Nowhere i n t h i s set i s there a trace of the l i g h t e r , tuneful s t y l e of Wolf's love songs or Marchenlieder. Another pervasive musical element i s the highly chromatic accompaniment. The constantly s h i f t i n g harmonies colour the admittedly often l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g melody. The most s t r i k i n g dissonances are vocal and piano appoggiaturas against harmonies i n the piano; some of these resolve immediately, others only a f t e r elaborate extension and prolongation (see Figures 3 and 4). Such motivic appoggiaturas had been r h e t o r i c a l l y associated with g r i e f and s u f f e r i n g by composers from the Baroque to the la t e nineteenth century (e.g. Bach's A r i a "Buss und Reu", No. 19 from Matthauspassion; Mahler's "Nun seh' i c h wohl" from K i n d e r t o t e n l i e d e r ) . Figure 3: No. 2, "Die du Gott gebarst, du Reine," mm. 1-8 » i r r if" M r r J >J — ^ 1 r r i v Dt* du Gott f- • b«Ml, du R«i- - •«,- und t l - -Thau wKo borll our Smv- • ieur Jt- . na, tidmi rt . - a . . -j J H J , . M J J h i J .. J J y~i 0 ,. i ~ i j~i J , , , o r> . . ' U i> Y Lu . *W»w us from our 10 In the d e t a i l e d comparison of the l a s t two songs, Nos. 9 and 10, below, these aspects of melody and harmony w i l l be discussed at greater length. This obsession with s u f f e r i n g , i . e . chromaticism, i s countered only twice by an acknowledgement of grace and healing. In both cases, we f i n d conspicuous s h i f t to diatonic harmony, which comes as b r i e f but sweet r e l i e f (see Figures 5 and 6). Figure 5: No. 1, "Nun b i n i c h dein," mm. 31-34 11 Nevertheless, i n spite of these l i n k i n g thematic threads, the one e s s e n t i a l element of a song cycle seems to be missing — namely, momentum. In f a c t , the obsessive r e p e t i t i o n of a few textual and musical themes precludes any progression from one sentiment to another, or from one att i t u d e to another. Such extreme cohesiveness verges on monotony. The unvarying sentiment and at t i t u d e of the remorseful, g u i l t - r i d d e n Man i n h i s r e l a t i o n to God produces a s t a t i c tableau that i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a performer to energize. For that reason, I f e e l that singing these ten songs as a Q cycle i s not the most persuasive way to present them. However, within the set there i s a wealth of material to be u t i l i z e d , perhaps i n smaller groups that do have dramatic shape and momentum. One way of constructing such groups i s by means of a textual c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the songs. I propose that these ten poems f i t into two categories. The f i r s t group, No. 1, 2, and 7 through 10, consists of the in t r o s p e c t i v e , the complex, and the mystical. These poems depict Man i n an agony of c av c o n t r i t i o n , h i s recognition of human f a l l i b i l i t y , and h i s desperate prayer for the intervention, through grace, of either the V i r g i n Mary or C h r i s t . In the second group, the emphasis s h i f t s away from the longings of a tormented soul to the ex t e r i o r world. Instead of i n t e r i o r anguish, there i s a representation of r e a l events i n a straightforward p o r t r a y a l of the 12 Holy Family. In these songs, Nos. 3-6, Jesus i s shown as an innocent c h i l d , even though we sense an ominous foreshadowing of h i s death. The four songs i n t h i s group are those with simple r e f r a i n structures. There are any number of v i a b l e combinations of songs from these two categories. The simplest two combinations are external songs followed by i n t e r n a l , and i n t e r n a l followed by external. One such simple combination that works rather well i s a group c o n s i s t i n g of four songs: two external songs, Nos. 3 and 4, followed by either No. 5 or No. 6 as a t r a n s i t i o n , and f i n a l l y No. 1 (internal) as a conclusion. The idea of a journey or a progression i n time l i n k s these four songs, and gives t h i s combination a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . This journey begins before the b i r t h of Jesus, with No. 3, "Nun wandre Maria," on the road to Bethlehem. The constant eighth-note pattern i n the r i g h t hand of the piano suggests the motion of the t r a v e l e r s , as does the rhythmic f i g u r e of a dotted quarter followed by an eighth i n the bass. Between No. 3 and No. 4, the b i r t h has taken place, and we hear Mary i n No. 4, "Die i h r schwebet," imploring the angels to quieten the r u s t l i n g treetops i n order that her babyymight sleep. No. 3 i s i n the key of E throughout, beginning i n E minor and ending i n E m a j o r . ^ No. 4 s t a r t s and ends i n E major, but i s never i n any one key for more than a few measures. Thus the songs are linked by the common key of E, but have u t t e r l y , d i f f e r e n t harmonic characters. I suggest either No. 5 or No. 6 to follow these two, i n part because fif of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y with No. 3. Both No. 5 and No. 6, however, would be excessive; two adjacent songs so s i m i l a r to one another, no matter how l o v e l y they are, tend to undermine each other's e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Which to include, No. 5 or No. 6? No. 6, with no a l l u s i o n to s u f f e r i n g , i s the most p o s i t i v e and o p t i m i s t i c of a l l the songs. I t i s a 13 song of dedication and devotion. There are two ways of i n t e r p r e t i n g i t s text. I f we imagine the speaker to be Mary, then the scene i s one of utmost intimacy between mother, and c h i l d , and the song serves as a d i r e c t l i n k with Mary as the young mother of No. 4. However, i t can also be interpreted as the devotion of Man the d i s c i p l e , who gives himself wholeheartedly to C h r i s t : "Und so geb' i c h ganz mich h i n . . . i|dassij©mein ganzes Herz gewinnt" ("And so I give myself completely . . . because my whole heart has been won"). Thus t h i s song acts as a l i n k to the univ e r s a l Man who speaks i n No. 1, which follows. Equally strong arguments serve for the i n c l u s i o n of No. 5 i n t h i s group. Again, the character of the speaker can be interpreted i n two ways. There i s perhaps a more compelling narrative order i f the speaker i s thought to be one of the Wise Men; "Fiihr mich, Kind, nach Bethlehem" can then be interpreted, l i t e r a l l y , as "Lead me, c h i l d , to Bethlehem £that I may see my God"]." The f i g u r a t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y to No. 3, which depicts an actual journey, reinforces that viewpoint. On the other hand, the poem can be taken as an extended metaphor, that i s , "Lead me, c h i l d , on a pilgrimage or walk with you — that I may findiimy God." Thus, No. 5 can also be sung by Everyman. I have no preference f or ei t h e r No. 5 or No. 6 on textual grounds, therefore. However, No. 6 i s i n the same key as No. 1 (F major); on those purely musical grounds, No. 5 ( i n A major) seems preferable for t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group. The three songs already presented s u f f i c e on t h e i r own to make a l o v e l y group — a kind of mini-Nativity pageant. However, I f i n d i t most e f f e c t i v e to continue the journey of Nos. 3, 4, and 5, from the r e a l world into the soul. For that reason,, I want to follow that group with at l e a s t one of the i n t e r n a l songs. The beginning of No. 1, "Nun b i n i c h dein" ("Now I am 14 y o u r s " ) , suggests the completion of a s p i r i t u a l odyssey begun by the r e a l h i s t o r i c a l events of Nos. 3 and 4. In a d d i t i o n , the Spanish C a t h o l i c Marian theme of No. 1 complements and balances the c e n t r a l r o l e of the V i r g i n i n ' Nos. 3 and 4. As a r e s u l t of the place that Wolf assigned to t h i s song — the f i r s t of the set — i t s opening word l a c k s an antecedent; there i s nothing preceding "Nun b i n i c h d e i n " to which the "now" may r e f e r . However, at the end of t h i s group, "now" s i g n i f i e s the r e s u l t , perhaps the end r e s u l t , of the preceding s o n g s . N o w , a f t e r w i t n e s s i n g t h i s h i s t o r i c a l journey, the speaker has committed himself to God through the V i r g i n , and begsaher i n t e r c e s s i o n w i t h God to a l l e v i a t e h i s s u f f e r i n g . PART I I I No. 7, II 'Muhvoll komm' ic h und beladen' II Two noted Wolf scholars, Frank Walker and E r i k Werba, agree that No. 7, "Muhvoll komm' i c h und beladen," i s the f i n e s t and the most worthy of experience both as musicologist and accompanist: G-Moll, die Mozart-Tonart des Leides, kennzeichnet den erregendsten g e i s t l i c h e n Gesang: "Muhvoll komm i c h und beladen." Hier i s t die Spannung f a s t u n e r t r a g l i c h , b i s s i e ^ c h i n dem B-Dur-Schrei "0 nimm mich an, Du Hort der Gnaden" l o s t . (G minor, Mozart's key for sorrow, characterizes the most e x c i t i n g sacred song, "Muhvoll komm i c h und beladen." Here the tension i s almost unbearable, u n t i l i t resolves i n the B-flat-major ^ r e l a t i v e major of G minorj[ cry, "0 accept me, Thou refuge of grace.") This tension i s created by dissonance, chromaticism, and an unrelenting There i s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n for performing t h i s song by i t s e l f , since i t i s rather d i f f e r e n t from the other nine songs: as noted e a r l i e r , i t i s the only one by a German author, and i t i s the only one to use a pr i m a r i l y B i b l i c a l text. I t s Northern, Protestant s e n s i b i l i t y does not f i t p a r t i c u l a r l y w ell with any of the other, thoroughly Spanish songs. However, i t i s so lo v e l y that no presentation of the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder" should be without i t . att e n t i o n of the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder. II 12 As Werba states, based on his wide rhythmic motive: 15 PART IV No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r "  and No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r " I am not the f i r s t to regard the l a s t two songs of the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r , " No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r , 1 " and No. 10, "Wunden tr a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r , " as somehow belonging together. Igor S t r a v i n s k y t r a n s c r i b e d them as a p a i r , f o r chamber ensemble; those 1968 t r a n s c r i p t i o n s 14 are g e n e r a l l y regarded as e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y moving. What i s i t about these two songs that l i n k s them so c l o s e l y ? T e x t u a l l y , both songs are dialogues engaging the same two ch a r a c t e r s , Man and C h r i s t . In both songs, the characters d i s p l a y the same a t t i t u d e s : Man i s c o n t r i t e and remorseful; C h r i s t i s con s o l i n g and l o v i n g , and acknowledges s u f f e r i n g as a demonstration of h i s lo v e . There i s no n a r r a t i v e , i n the sense of s t o r y - t e l l i n g , as i n songs No. 3 and No. 4, and l i t t l e e x t e r n a l motion on the part of e i t h e r speaker. The d i s c o u r s e centres around t h e o l o g i c a l , m y s t i c a l , and i n t a n g i b l e matters. The poems d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h paradox: the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s u f f e r i n g to g l o r y , of the n a t u r a l to the sup e r n a t u r a l , of death to l i f e , and of wounds to h e a l i n g . In No. 9, the dialogue i s cloaked by a c o n s i s t e n t use of metaphor. Images are l i n k e d and interwoven i n t o a composite p i c t u r e . Images of ea r t h or s o i l lead to the watering of the e a r t h , which produces thorns and flowe r s . Watering then takes the form of streams, from which grow a garden. From the f r u i t s of the garden are woven garlands and wreaths of thorns and flow e r s . On the one hand are images of g r i e f , s u f f e r i n g , and 16 17 death; the watering i s done with tears, the s o i l bears thorns (pain), and the thorns are made into a wreath that figures i n the actual s u f f e r i n g and death of Chri s t upon the cross. On the other hand are images of beauty, growth, and l i f e ; water i s a source of l i f e without which a garden cannot grow, a garden growing from f r u i t f u l s o i l produces flowers as well as thorns, and from flowers are woven garlands to be worn by Man. In No. 10, images are replaced by the concrete naming of the issues i n question — wounds, pain, blood, and sweat — and the causes for those wounds — namely, the giving of l i f e , the demonstration of ultimate love, and the winning of Man's soul. By means then of moving from the metaphorical to the concrete there i s both a l i n k and a progression between No. 9 and No. 10. There i s also a development between No. 9 and No. 10 i n Man's attitudes toward himself — a development that at f i r s t seems to be paradoxical. In the former, Man seems not to have the courage to name himself as " i c h , " although he c a l l s C h r i s t "Herr" ("Lord") and uses the second-person f a m i l i a r form of "du." Despite the h i e r a r c h i c a l difference between Man and God that t h i s implies — a diffe r e n c e so great that there i s no point at which an emotional closeness can be established — there i s a sense of genuine communication (or dialogue) between them, as the question and answer format i n d i c a t e s . In the l a t t e r , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Man and Chri s t seems cl o s e r , by v i r t u e of the fact that Man addresses C h r i s t both as "Herr" and as "mein Geli e b t e r " ("my beloved") and refe r s d i r e c t l y to himself as " i c h . " Man has seemingly grown closer by asserting some sense of equality. He s p e c i f i e s h i s r o l e , or rather what he wishes h i s r o l e could be, i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between himself and C h r i s t : "t r i i g i c h s i e s t a t t deiner, i c h " ("would that I_ c a r r i e d £your wounds^) for you"). C h r i s t ' s response, which i n essence i s that Man content himself 18 with the r o l e of rec e i v e r , goes unheeded. In No. 10, there i s much l e s s sense of genuine communication; Man's struggle for independence, though leading to a more developed r e l a t i o n s h i p between him and C h r i s t , has a c t u a l l y resulted i n estrangement and distance. The simple hierarchy of No. 9 no longer e x i s t s . The poems have s i m i l a r formal structures. Both have three stanzas; No. 10, however, as already mentioned, has an a d d i t i o n a l opening and cl o s i n g r e f r a i n (see Figures 7 and 8). In No. 9, the dialogue i s divided equally into a l t e r n a t i n g two-line exchanges. The musical proportions of the song match those of the text; for every two-line statement, there i s a four-measure musical segment. The close r e l a t i o n s h i p between questions and answers i s s i g n a l l e d by the same rhyme scheme i n each f o u r - l i n e stanza (ab-ba). The unvarying trochaic meter suggests that Man and Chris t are speaking i n one and the same language — i n other words, that there i s genuine communication between them. The t e s s i t u r a of the vocal l i n e i n No. 9 creates a clear d i s t i n c t i o n between the two characters. The vocal l i n e of Man's utterances l i e s at a higher l e v e l than that of C h r i s t ' s , and dangerously hovers around a r e g i s t e r break for most singers. I t i s therefore much more d i f f i c u l t to maintain a con t r o l l e d and easy tone, e s p e c i a l l y because of the chant-like insistence on and r e p e t i t i o n of c e r t a i n tones (C-sharp, D, and E). I t may s i g n i f y a deliberate choice of vocal colour — one that i s not easy and comfortable but that represents instead Man's anguish and torment. The contrast with C h r i s t ' s r e p l i e s i s marked; the t e s s i t u r a i s considerably lower and res t s i n the comfortable middle r e g i s t e r . This, too, may be an i n d i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r tone-colour Wolf imagined — a warmer, more comforting sound, which i s also i n keeping with the text. 19 Figure 7: No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden h i e r " — Poetic Structure Number of Measures Rhyme 3 ^ Syllables of Music 1(M) Herr, was tragt der Boden h i e r , Den du trankst so b i t t e r l i c h ? a b (2 mm. Intro) 4 (mm. 3-6) 1(C) Dornen, l i e b e s Herz, fur mich, Und fur dich der Blumen Z i e r . 4 (mm. 7-10) 2(M) Ach, wo solche Bache rinnen, c Wird e i n Garten da gedeihn? d 2(C) Ja, und wisse! Kranzelein, d Gar verschiedne, f l i c h t man drinnen. c 8 4 (mm. 11-14) 7 7 4 (mm. 15-18) 8 3(M) 0 mein Herr, zu wessen Zier Windet man die Kranze? Sprich! 3(C) Die von Dornen sind fur mich, Die von Blumen r e i c h ' i c h d i r . a b 7 4 (mm. 19-22) 7 7 4 (mm. 23-26) 7 (1 jh.sPostlude) * I n these Figures and i n the remainder of t h i s paper, I l a b e l sections according to stanza and speaker: 1(M) r e f e r s to Man's statement i n the f i r s t stanza; 1(C) i s C h r i s t ' s response i n the same stanza; etc. This procedure i s used for both songs. 20 Figure 8: No. 10, "Wunden tragst du mein Geliebter" — Poetic Structure Number of Measures Rhyme Syllable s of Music (2 mm. Intro) (Refrain) Man: Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter, a 8 6 (mm. 3-8) Und sie schmerzen dich; b 5 Triig' ich sie statt deiner, ich! b 7 (2 mm. Interlude) KM) Herr, wer wagt' es, so zu farben c 8 4 (mm. 11-14) Deine Stirn mit Blut und Schweiss? d 7 1(C) Diese Male sind der Preis, d 7 8 (mm. 15-22) Dich, o Seele, zu erwerben. c 8 An den Wunden muss ich sterben, c 8 Weil ich dich geliebt so heiss. d 7 2(M) Konnt1 ich, Herr, fur dich sie tragen, e 8 4 (mm. 23-26) Da es Todeswunden sind. f 7 = 1(M) 2(C) Wenn dies Leid dich riihrt, mein Kind, f 7 8 (mm. 27-34) Magst du Lebenswunden sagen: e 8 = KC) Ihrer keine ward geschlagen, e 8 (except for Draus fur dich nicht Leben rinnt. f 7 m. 30) 3(M) Ach, wie mir in Herz und Sinnen g 8 4 (mm. 35-38) Deine Qual so wehe tut! h 7 = 1(M) 3(C) Hartres noch mit treuem Mut h 7 8 (mm. 39-46) Triig 1 ich froh, dich zu gewinnen; g 8 Denn nur der weiss recht zu minnen, g 8 Der da stirbt vor Liebesglut. h 7 (2 mm. Interlude) (Refrain) Man: Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter, a 8 6 (mm. 49-54) Und sie schmerzen dich; b 5 Triig' ich sie statt deiner, ich! b 7 (6 mm. Postlude) 21 No. 10 i s not as concise as No. 9, nor i s the d i s p a r i t y i n t e s s i t u r a as marked. Symmetry and proportion are s t i l l present, but l e s s apparent. C h r i s t ' s responses are each twice as long as Man's statements (fourvJLines compared to two); the music r e f l e c t s t h i s proportion with an eight-measure-to-four-measure pattern. However, the r e f r a i n , which i s spoken by Man, brings Man's portion of the dialogue into equal balance with C h r i s t ' s — twelve l i n e s of poetry for each. In the music, the added r e f r a i n s contain exactly twelve measures of music; thus Man has, as w e l l , the same number of sung measures as C h r i s t — an i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t of Wolf's s e n s i t i v i t y to balance and proportion. Textually, the second song complements the f i r s t ; musically the second song both obscures and r e i n f o r c e s that r e l a t i o n s h i p . No. 9 shows a clear harmonic progression with an ultimate, large-scale r e s o l u t i o n , whereas No. 10 i s much more s t a t i c — a kind of harmonic tableau that keeps c i r c l i n g around a few keys but never resolves. We might think of No. 9 as equally divided between two tonal centres — the f i r s t h a l f (mm. 1-15) i n B, and the r e s t a large V^-I progression i n E. However, i t i s more useful for the performer to conceptualize the e n t i r e song as a progression i n E (V^/V to to I ) , because there i s then a sense of propulsion or movement from the s t a r t toward a r e a l i z e d goal — the t o n i c i z a t i o n of E. This l a t t e r view i s substantiated by the text. I t s use of a question and answer format indicates an active p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the part of the speakers. The answers respond to the questions, and subsequent questions respond to those answers. The b u i l d i n g of metaphors also implies progression — from watering (trankst) to streams (Bache), from thorns and flowers (Dornen, Blumen) to a garden (Garten), and from the, garden to the f r u i t of a garden, namely wreaths or garlands (Kranze). The two-fold meaning of "Kranze" brings us back to the previous "Dornen" and "Blumen," 22 but now by means of a demonstrated cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p : the taking or acceptance of thorns i n order that flowers might be given. There i s not the same kind of directedness on the large scale i n No. 10 as there i s i n No. 9. The whole song seems to centre around F-sharp. But i s F-sharp the tonic, or does i t function as the dominant B? A b r i e f look at the i n d i v i d u a l sections of No. 10 w i l l help to e s t a b l i s h an harmonic overview (see Figure 9). Figure 9: No. 10, "Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter" — Sectional Breakdown of Harmonic Structure Intro Refrain (mm. 1-10) K M ) K C ) (mm. 11-14) (mm. 15-22) V 7 / i v - i v - V 7 - i - V v i i ^ - V bVI 7 .V - I (sequence) of F-sharp of B of F-sharp 2(M) (mm. 23-26) 2(C) (mm. 27-34) (repeat of 1(M)) (repeat of 1(C)) of B of F-sharp 3 ( M ) 3(C) (mm. 35-38) (mm. 39-46) End Refrain (mm. 47-54) (repeat of 1(M)) of B - I of E followed by V 7 - bVI - V 7 - I of F-sharp V 7 / i v - i v - V 7 - i - V of F-sharp Coda (mm. 55-60) i - b l l - v i - i ^ - I - i v - I of F-sharp ?? or V - i - V of B ??? 23 In the same way that i t i s more useful to think of the whole of No. 9 i n E, even though the beginning sounds more l i k e B, so the Introduction and Refrain (mm. 1-10) of No. 10 i s a progression i n j u s t one key, F-sharp, even though the opening three measures c l e a r l y o u t l i n e the t o n a l i t y of B. Notice that i n both songs, there i s an i n i t i a l suggestion of B, but that i n both cases B i s never f i r m l y established. In a l l three stanzas of No. 10, the four-measure M sections end on the dominant of B; there i s never a sense of f i n a l a r r i v a l (on the tonic) i n B. Each C section ends with a strong V-I cadence i n F-sharp. Furthermore, the exact r e p e t i t i o n of the piano part i n a l l three M sections suggests that Man i s not a c t i v e l y engaged i n dialogue (as i n No. 9), but rather d e l i v e r s an unchanging lament, hearing nothing but the sound of his own voice. The responses of C h r i s t , although not as r e p e t i t i v e (either harmonically or textually) do address the same issues — i n t r y i n g to answer i n d i f f e r e n t ways the per s i s t e n t Man. The fact that the f i n a l Refrain i s an exact r e p e t i t i o n of the opening implies that Man has not heard and does not understand, and therefore has no repose. This i m p l i c a t i o n i s underlined by the inconclusive ending of the Refrain on the dominant of F-sharp. From the standpoint of the text, I have suggested that the dialogue of No. 9 was more immediate and compelling than that of No. 10. Can t h i s same r e l a t i o n s h i p also be demonstrated musically? Are the four-measure sections of a l t e r n a t i n g dialogue i n No. 9 linked harmonically so as to suggest a r e a l conversation with a genuine exchange of ideas. Or i s there rather a convincing argument for saying that the sections are both d i s j u n c t i v e and i n t e r r e l a t e d harmonically, i . e . that there i s more than one harmonic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n for c e r t a i n sections? On one l e v e l , each section of No. 9 (except for the l a s t ) appears to 24 Figure 10: No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden h i e r " — Sectional Breakdown of Cadence Points 1(M) V of B 1(C) V of B (also I of F-sharp) 2(M) V 7 of D-sharp 2(C) V 7 of E 3(M) V 7 of E 3(C) v i of E (followed by V 7-I of E i n Postlude) end on a dominant of some key (see Figure 10). The inconclusiveness of these dominant endings s e r v e s the argument that the text i s propelled forward toward some further r e s o l u t i o n or response. There i s a question, however, whether the dominant, i n a l l cases, a c t u a l l y functions as a dominant at these section endings. Do we not also hear several other harmonic functions for these chords? The f i r s t stanza provides a good i l l u s t r a t i o n . In the piano part, i t i s possible to hear the whole o f the opening stanza as a prolongation of the dominant of B. The melody, however, c l e a r l y outlines an F-sharp t r i a d — f i r s t minor, then m a j i o r — while harmonically mm. 7-10 seem f i r m l y i n the key of F-sharp (see Figure 11). In the context of either F-sharppor B, the D minor chord at the beginning of 1(C) comes as a surprise, having no cl e a r function i n e i t h e r key. Is D minor a kind of chromatic mediant harmony i n B minor, deceptively r e s o l v i n g the V 7 of B and leading to another V of B i n m. 10? Or i s D minor an a l t e r e d dominant of F-sharp (containing i t s leading tone, the enharmonic E-sharp), eventually r e s o l v i n g i n that key? In the two other stanzas of No. 9, the connections between the M and 25 26 the C sections are almost as unexpected and ambiguous as i n the f i r s t stanza. In a l l cases there are several harmonic explanations. In the 7 6 second stanza, the l i n k between sections can be heard as ei t h e r a VII -I of B ( i . e . an A-sharp dominant seventh chord as a t h i r d - s u b s t i t u t i o n for an 7 7 6 F-sharp dominant seventh chord, the V of B), or as a deceptive V -bVI i n D-sharp. Although the second explanation i s f u n c t i o n a l l y more s t r a i g h t -forward, the key of D-sharp i s never a c t u a l l y established. At t h i s point i n the song, the harmonic focus i s j u s t beginning to turn toward E. In the t h i r d stanza, the l i n k between the M and C sections i s also ambiguous. The strong V^Oof E i n m. 22 makes the unison G's i n mm. 23-24 sound l i k e the t h i r d of an incomplete E minor chord, which then leads to a Ger,. of E i n m. 25. (From m. 25 on, there i s no question that the t o n a l i t y centres around E.) However, the movement of the vocal l i n e from G to A-sharp (B-flat) obscures our sense of the E centre, and suggests G minor instead. Of course, there i s no r e a l functioning harmony i n G minor here, because of the appearance of F i n m. 24. However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the move from the dominant of E to G minor i s the same chromatic-mediant r e l a t i o n s h i p as the dominant of B moving to D minor i n the f i r s t stanza — also without any functioning D minor harmonies. Apart from the multi-layered harmonic readings, another contributing factor to the harmonic complexity of No. 9 i s the v a c i l l a t i o n between major and minor modes — apparent i n three d i f f e r e n t keys, F-sharp, B, and E. The i n i t i a l appearances of F-sharp and B as keys are i n the minor mode; th e i r leave-takings are i n major, at which point i t i s no longer c l e a r whether they function as tonic or dominant. E, as the ultimate tonic of the song, does not have that nebulous q u a l i t y , even though i t also fluctuates between major and minor. I made the observation e a r l i e r that there i s not the same sense of 27 forward motion i n No. 10 as there i s i n No. 9, but rather a f e e l i n g of c i r c l i n g and r e p e t i t i o n . The same sort of process of tonal complexity and ambiguity seems to be at work, however. In No. 10, the harmonic focus i s on the keys of B and F-sharp, with intervening t o n i c i z a t i o n s of D, F, and B - f l a t . Perhaps most remarkable i s a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between the connections of 1(M) and 1(C) i n both songs. In both, an F-sharp chord i s followed by a D sonority ( i n No. 9, a D minor chord; i n No. 10, a D major chord). In both, there i s no apparent preparation for D; therefore, both D chords come as harmonic surprises. However, i n No. 10, the fu n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p (to D major) i s c l e a r e r — I-bVI i n F-sharp, even though the F-sharp chord i s i t s e l f a clear dominant of B. In No. 10, furthermore, D i s t o n i c i z e d once i t a r r i v e s (mm. 15-16), whereas i n No. 9 the D minor chord i s j u s t a passing sonority. I t i s apparent from the discussion of tonal ambiguity and key centres that the two songs are somehow linked i n t h e i r key structures. In No. 9, the focus i s on E, i n No. 10 on F-sharp, with the former ending i n E and the l a t t e r on F-sharp. These seemingly distant keys are related by the p i v o t a l key of B, which functions i n No. 9 as the dominant of E and i n No. 10 as the tonic of which F-sharp i s the dominant. In both songs, there i s a chord or key that fluctuates between the functions of tonic and dominant: i n No. 9, the key of B ends up as the dominant of E a f t e r s t a r t i n g out sounding l i k e a tonic; i n No. 10, even though F-sharp i s a clear tonic, the f i n a l F-sharp sonority i s l e f t sounding l i k e a dominant of B. In other words, B i s always there i n both songs, l u r k i n g under the surface. We get the f e e l i n g that No. 10 i s l e f t hanging without a clear r e s o l u t i o n for two reasons: the c l o s i n g Refrain ends on the dominant of 28 F-sharp, not the tonic; and the f i n a l cadence of the song i s a weak, pla g a l I - i v - I i n F - s h a r p — j u s t as r e a d i l y heard as V-i-V i n B. The subjunctive "I f only" of Man's Refrain i s supported by t h i s f e e l i n g of inconclusiveness• My i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n to the end of No. 10 was to speculate that Wolf might have included t h i s f i n a l Refrain on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e — perhaps to in d i c a t e h i s own lack of r e s o l u t i o n or freedom from g u i l t . ^ [''.Investigation of the Spanish and German sources for the poetry shows that that i s not the 16 case; Wolf set the poems with no s u b s t a n t i a l textual changes. However, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that he did change the order of Nos. 9 and 10, perhaps to avoid any r e a l sense of f i n a l i t y or c e r t a i n t y that the end of No. 9 implies. To perform the songs i n Heyse and Geibel's order creates too neat and t i d y an o v e r a l l tonal structure, going from F-sharp (V of V) i n No. 10, to B (V) to E (I) i n No. 9. Wolf's v i s i o n seems to have been that the dialogue between Man and God i s not so neatly concluded. Thus far my discussion has focused on larger musical issues such as key schemes and harmonic progressions. The smaller musical gesture that i s most evident as a l i n k between No. 9 and No. 10 i s the appoggiatura. In No. 9, the appoggiaturas permeate a l l of the M sections. In each four-measure phrase, as well as i n the Introduction, the upper and lower semitone appoggiaturas on beat 2 are heard as displacements of measure-long chords, resolving only on the l a s t beat of each bar. These weak-beat resolutions, dramatized by decrescendos i n a l l measures, serve to emphasize the appoggiatura chords rather than the resolutions. The r e s u l t i n g pattern — obsessive i n i t s rhythmic and dynamically contoured sameness — i s maintained throughout the three M sections. (It i s , i n f a c t , s t r i k i n g that i n the piano nothing happens on the f i r s t beat of any measure of No. 9, u n t i l the f i n a l cadence i n E.) In these M sections, the appoggiatura figures outline a chromatic 29 descending 7-6 sequence ( i n every measure, the appoggiatura i s a seventh over the bass, res o l v i n g to a s i x t h ) , varying i n length and pattern from one stanza to the next. For example, i f we hear the appoggiaturas of mm. 1-6 as non-chord tones and hear one actual chord i n each measure (except perhaps i n m. 1), we f i n d a series of f i r s t i n version t r i a d s that can be heard as a descending passing progression within what i s r e a l l y a prolonged V 7 of B (see Figure 12). In No. 10, the appoggiaturas do not fi g u r e i n any such sequence. Their pattern i s rather a seri e s of paired quarter-note chords, with the harmonic function of the f i r s t chord of each pair c l a r i f i e d only by the second chord. The fact that the f i r s t chord of each pair has a legitimate chordal i d e n t i t y and yet turns out to be something quite d i f f e r e n t from what i t f i r s t appears to be confirms the textual idea of paradox. For example, the f i r s t sonority of No. 10 appears to be a B - f l a t minor chord; i n f a c t , however, i t i s an appoggiatura decoration of a V 7 of B, j u s t as at the beginning of No. 9. The overlapping and confusion of functioning and non-functioning harmonies i n the M sections of No. 10 becomes e s p e c i a l l y apparent when we examine the c o r r e l a t i o n between the melodic (vocal) l i n e and the piano accompaniment. At times the melody i s part of the r e a l functioning harmony, but never for long; because of the harmonies s h i f t i n g underneath, chord tones i n the melody are almost i n v a r i a b l y transformed into non-chord tones. For example, i n m. 3, the melody D i s at f i r s t part of the B minor chord, but at " t r a g s t " i t becomes an appoggiatura to the C-sharp of vii°, which i n turn becomes an appoggiatura once again to the D over B minor; throughout t h i s phrase, the melody appoggiaturas are synchronized with appoggiaturas i n the piano chords. In the next phrase ("Und s i e schmerzen d i c h , " mm. 5-6), the larger 30 Figure 12; No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden hier," mm. 1-6 — Chromatic Descending 7-6 Sequence ft: I • ' I 1 "X" « & Ye. fit ">? 31 melodic ou t l i n e i t s e l f i s at odds with the harmony. The melody arpeggiates an F-sharp minor t r i a d , C-sharp to A to F-sharp (with a G-sharp appoggiatura); however, the most important pitches of that t r i a d enter as non-chord tones (see Figure 13). (The C-sharp i s f i r s t heard as an appoggiatura eventually r e s o l v i n g to a D of the D major chord i n m. 5. As the beginning of t h i s melodic phrase i s weakened, so i s the f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n onto F-sharp, by the fact that G-sharp moves to F-sharp on a weak second beat, which also happens to be harmonized with an appoggiatura chord i n the accompaniment.) S t i l l , the impression of an F-sharp minor melodic ou t l i n e remains, while the harmony moves into t h i s key only belatedly — a f t e r beginning i n B minor. A d d i t i o n a l l y , because of the paired quarter-note chords, the harmonic rhythm of the M sections of No. 10 i s often out of alignment with the meter. The 6/4 meter groups things i n 3's, but the appoggiatura figures group them i n 2's. Thus the d i s t i n c t i o n between strong and weak reso l u t i o n s , between appoggiaturas and mere passing notes i s d i f f i c u l t . This overlapping and confusion i n the M sections gives way i n the C sections of No. 10 to a more straightforward presentation. Just as i n the C sections of No. 9, the appoggiatura figures are l e s s prominent i n C h r i s t ' s statements, y i e l d i n g to a sense of r e g u l a r i t y and harmonic s t a b i l i t y . The melodic l i n e i n these sections follows c l o s e l y the underlying harmonies; i f not a c t u a l l y doubled i n the piano, most melody notes are part of the functioning chords. The piano w r i t i n g i s also more straightforward; each measure begins with a t h r i c e - r e i t e r a t e d functioning chord (note the symbolic three'.), followed by the ever-present appoggiatura f i g u r a t i o n . This f i g u r a t i o n i s co n s i s t e n t l y made up of three quarter-note chords that decorate the note of r e s o l u t i o n by semitone movement from above and below (e.g. m. 15) or i n one d i r e c t i o n only (e.g. m. 16). 32 Figure 13: No. 10, "Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter," mm. 1-6 — Harmonic Sketch I1" *J1 O ft-T- i 9- • P ^ ^ — ^ f l -" f l B  "P f — 3. -pr b: 15 i 3 33 I n e f f e c t , both rhythm and harmony i n these C s e c t i o n s are more even and more steady. The harmonic rhythm i s c l o s e l y t i e d to the meter; there i s a chord change on almost every strong beat. Evenness extends a l s o to a broader l e v e l , where i t i s i n part due to the r e g u l a r i t y of the ascending-t h i r d sequences, and to the c l e a r f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e i r component chords. Sequences a l s o p l a y an important, i f l e s s c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n a l , r o l e i n No. 9 (see above); there they harmonize Man's questions and descend. I n No. 10, the corresponding symbolism i s obvious, yet provides a poignant c o n t r a s t ; the sequences that Harmonize C h r i s t ' s responses are ascending. I n s p i t e of the many s i m i l a r i t i e s between No. 9 and No. 10, i . e . the dialogue format, the same c h a r a c t e r s , the references i n both to s u f f e r i n g and death, and the s i m i l a r musical gestures expressing those sentiments, there i s a convincing progression between the two songs. Hence they comprise a d r a m a t i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g u n i t . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l dynamic — namely, the development of Man's inner s t a t e , and the r e s u l t i n g change i n the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between C h r i s t and Man — leaves us w i t h a sense of the t r a g i c . The movement of Man's s t a t e from No. 9 to No. 10 i s that of the simple to the complex, from the naive to the self-aware, and from the acceptance of an order to a questioning of that order and hence to a l a c k of r e c e p t i v e n e s s , which leads u l t i m a t e l y to a b a r r i e r i n communication. In Man's simple s t a t e i n No. 9, an understanding could be reached and a s a t i s f y i n g c o n c l u s i o n made. The growing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of Man i n No. 10 precludes a s a t i s f a c t o r y c l o s e — and so we are l e f t without one. Thus the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of both No. 9 and No. 10, i n t h e i r set order, i s u l t i m a t e l y p e s s i m i s t i c . The message of hope i s not accepted, and Man i s l e f t to go on q u e s t i o n i n g . Hugo Wolf, i n r e v e r s i n g the o r i g i n a l order of these two poems, as I pointed out e a r l i e r , d e l i b e r a t e l y chose to end on 34 that t r a g i c and inconclusive note. & & & & & & & & & & & PART V Conclusion Would i t be a v i o l a t i o n of Wolf's intentions to reverse the order of the l a s t two songs? Should a performer accept without complaint Wolf's t r a g i c v i s i o n of No. 9 followed by No. 10, or can he f e e l f r ee to present the more o p t i m i s t i c view of the converse? Would the emotional impact of these two songs be weakened or strengthened by tampering with t h e i r order? Who can say d e f i n i t e l y ? There i s , however, a larger issue at stake, which has to do with the r e l a t i o n of groups such as Nos. 9 and 10 with the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder" as a whole, and with other possible derived r e c i t a l groupings. Which s i t u a t i o n shows o f f these songs (not to mention the other " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder") to th e i r best advantage? Is i t j u s t i f i e d to tamper with what the composer gives us i n order to create a d i f f e r e n t kind of emotional impact? What ri g h t does the performer have to sele c t and rearrange? These questions are most c r i t i c a l for those sets of songs that are i n a kind of middleground between a r e a l song-cycle, intended as such by the composer, and a mere c o l l e c t i o n — sets that lack the momentum of a song-cyc l e , but s t i l l have cohesive elements (e.g. Schubert's Schwanengesang or Schumann's Myrten, and of course the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " ) , sets that are d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to present i n t a c t i n r e c i t a l . The best sol u t i o n i s to extract and rearrange, from these larger sets, smaller groups of songs that are dramatically convincing and that have the momentum of a mini-cycle. This matter of choice, a subjective one indeed, i s something each 35 36 performer must decide for himself — and to decide once i s not to say that the choices cannot be revised. I t i s a creative process that i s never s t a t i c , an ever-changing process that brings new i n s i g h t s into even the 17 most f a m i l i a r music. I t i s perhaps the best way to keep these songs a l i v e and dynamic. FOOTNOTES "''Eric Sams, The Songs of Hugo Wolf, revised 2nd ed. (London: Eulenburg Books, 1983), p. 248. 2 Brahms's version, known as the " G e i s t l i c h e s Wiegenlied," for cont r a l t o , v i o l a , and piano (Op. 91/2), captures the f o l k - l i k e q u a l i t y of the poem by coupling i t with the obbligato melody of the medieval Christmas c a r o l "Joseph l i e b e r Joseph mein." 3 See Margaret G. Sleeman and Gareth A. Davies, "Variations on Spanish Themes: The Spanisches Liederbuch of Emanuel Geibel and Paul Heyse and I t s Re f l e c t i o n i n the Songs of Hugo Wolf," Proceedings of the Leeds  Ph i l o s o p h i c a l and L i t e r a r y Society, L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l Section 18/2 (June 1982): 262. 4 Luise Peake, "Song Cycle", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and  Musicians, 6th ed. (1980), v o l . 17, p. 521. 5 I b i d . , p. 522. Thomas Archer, "The Formal Construction of Die scho'ne M i i l l e r i n , " Musical Quarterly 20/4 (October 1934): 402, 407. 7See Arthur Komar, " H i s t o r i c a l Background" and "The Music of Di c h t e r l i e b e : The Whole and I t s Parts," i n Robert Schumann: D i c h t e r l i e b e , ed. Arthur Komar (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1971), pp. 3-12 and 63-94. ^I b i d . , p. 65. 9 In f a c t , none of Wolf's large sets of songs are generally regarded as cyc l e s . See, for example, Lotte Lehmann, Eighteen Song Cycles: Studies i n  Their I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972), which includes by Wolf only the "Mignon Lieder" — extracted from the larger published set of Goethe Lieder. "^My references i n t h i s paper are to Wolf's o r i g i n a l keys. In performance, a mezzo-soprano (such as I) or a contralto w i l l use a transposed version — i d e a l l y one that preserves the kind of key re l a t i o n s h i p s I mention here. See Komar, D i c h t e r l i e b e , p. 93. "'""'"It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that, although he eventually placed i t at the beginning of the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder," Wolf composed t h i s song l a s t of the ten. See Appendix 2, derived from Sams, Songs,* p p . 251-262. 12 See Frank Walker, Hugo Wolf: A Biography, ^  2nd edv? (New:TYofk: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1968), p. 255; and E r i k Werba, Hugo Wolf: oder, Der zornige  Romantiker (Vienna: F r i t z Molden, 1971), p. 186. 13 Werba, Hugo Wolf, p. 186. 37 38 See Robin Maconie, "Stravinsky's Final Cadence," Tempo 103 (1972): 18-20; and Heinrich Lindlar, "Zu Strawinskys geistlichem Vermachtnis: Urn zwei Gesange aus Wolfs 'Spanischem Liederbuch 1," Oesterreichische  Musikzeitschrift 37/6 (June 1982): 318-319. "^Walker, Hugo Wolf, pp. 76-77, suggests that Wolf was obsessed by a life-long guilt over the acquisition of the syp h i l i t i c condition that eventually caused his madness and death. 16 See Sleeman and Davies, "Variations," pp. 236-242. "^Irmgard Seefried, one of the great German Lieder singers of our time, confessed that, "begriff ich endlich, was Hugo Wolf in a l l diesen Jahren fiir mich war und i s t . Die Bangigkeit des Herzens musst Du erkennen, die Unsicherheit Deines Wissens musst Du fiihlen, die Einsamkeit Deines Tuns musst Du ho'ren, um das Italienische Liederbuch und das Spanische Liederbuch aus Dir selbst heraus gebaren, schreien, flustern, fuhlen und lieben, ahnen und wissen zu lassen. . . . Darum glaube ich, dass jeder ganz bestimmt seinen eigenen Hugo Wolf hat, und jeder muss eben mit seiner Fulle und mit seiner Armut, die ihm das Leben gegeben hat, mit seinem Hugo Wolf ringen." ("I f i n a l l y understood what Hugo Wolf was and is for me after a l l these years. In order to let the Italian Songbook and the Spanish Songbook come out of yourself, be born, cried, whispered, f e l t , and loved, be vaguely suggested and dimly known, you must recognize the tearfulness of the heart, you must feel the uncertainty of your knowledge, and you must hear the loneliness of your doings. . . . Therefore I believe that everyone quite certainly has his very own Hugo Wolf and everyone must, even with the fullness and the poverty that l i f e has given him, fight for the recognition of his own Hugo Wolf.") In "Bekenntnis zu Hugo Wolf," Oesterreichische Musikzeitschrift 15/2 (February 1960): 78. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  The Relationship between Poetry and Music; Art-Songs In General Bruner, E l l e n Carole. "The Relationship of Text and Music i n the Lieder of Hugo Wolf and Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Syracuse University, 1974. DA 35/11 (May 1975): 7340-A. Cone, Edward T. The Composer's Voice. Berkeley: Un i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1974. Deutsch, Babette. Poetry Handbook. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1969. H a l l , James H. The Art Song. Norman: Univ e r s i t y of Oklahoma Press, 1953. I s t e l , Edgar. "Schubert's L y r i c S t y l e . " Musical Quarterly 14/4 (October 1928): 575-595. Ivey, Donald. Song: Anatomy, Imagery, and Styles. New York: The Free Press, 1970. Kinsey, Barbara. "Morike Poems Set by Brahms, Schumann, and Wolf." Music Review 29/4 (November 1968): 257-267. K r a v i t t , Edward F. "The Influence of T h e a t r i c a l Declamation upon Composers of the Late Romantic L i e d . " Acta Musicologica 34/1 (1962): 18-28. Schumann, E l i s a b e t h . German Song. London: Max P a r r i s h & Co., 1948. Stein, Jack M. "Was Goethe Wrong about the Nineteenth-Century Lied? An Examination of the Relation of Poem and Music." Publications of the  Modern Language Association 77/3 (June 1962): 232-239. . "Poem and Music i n Hugo Wolf's Mo'rike Songs." Musical Quarterly 53/1 (January 1967): 22-38. . Poem and Music i n the German Lied from Gluck to Wolf. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. Thym, Jurgen. "The Solo Song Settings of Eichendorff's Poems by Schumann and Wolf." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Case Western Reserve Un i v e r s i t y , 1974. DA 35/5 (November 1974): 3043-A. Reviewed by Michael S a f f l e , i n Current Musicology 28 (1979): 130-135. The Nature of Song-Cycles Archer, Thomas. "The Formal Construction of Die schone M i i l l e r i n . " Musical  Quarterly 20/4 (October 1934): 401-407. 39 40 Becker, Judith. "On Defining Sets of Pieces." In Theory Only 1/6 ' /•) (September 1975): 17-20. Komar, Arthur. " H i s t o r i c a l Background" and "The Music of D i c h t e r l i e b e : The Whole and I t s Parts." In Robert Schumann: D i c h t e r l i e b e , pages 3-12 and 63-94. Norton C r i t i c a l Score. Editedrby Arthur Komar. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1971. Lehmann, Lotte. Eighteen Song Cycles: Studies i n Their Interpretation. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972. Moore, Gerald. The Schubert Song Cycles. London: Hamish Hamilton Ltd., 1975. Peake, Luise E i t e l . "The Song Cycle: A Preliminary Inquiry into the Beginnings of the Romantic Song Cycle and the Nature of an Art Form." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia Un i v e r s i t y , 1968. DA 32/10 ( A p r i l 1972): 5830-A. . "Song Cycle." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6th ed. (1980), v o l . 17, pages 521-523. Smith, Charles J . "On Hearing the Chop i n Preludes as a Coherent Set." In Theory Only 1/4 (July 1975): 5-16. Smith, Warren Storey. "The C y c l i c P r i n c i p l e i n Musical Design, and the Use of I t by Bruckner and Mahler." Chord and Discord 2/9 (1960): 3-32. Hugo Wolf and the Spanisches Liederbuch B i e r i , Georg. Die Lieder von Hugo Wolf. Inaugural-Dissertation der U n i v e r s i t a t Bern. Bern: Paul Haupt, 1935. Boylan, Paul Charles. "The Lieder of Hugo Wolf: Zenith of the German Art Song." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1968. DA 30/3 (September 1969): 1192-A. Campbell, Betty Smith. "The Solo Sacred Lieder of Hugo Wolf: The I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of Music and Text." Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia Un i v e r s i t y , 1969. DA 30/4 (October 1969): 1585-A. Carner, Mosco. Hugo Wolf Songs. London: B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation, 1982. Egger, R i t a . Die Deklamationsrhythmik Hugo Wolfs i n h i s t o r i s c h e r Sicht. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1963. Reviewed by Imogen F e l l i n g e r , i n Die Musikforschung 19/1 (1966): 106-107. Gruen, John. "The Songs of Hugo Wolf: A Discussion with E l i z a b e t h Schwarzkopf." Musical America 80 (June 1960): 22-23, 28. 41 Hamburger, Paul. "The Interp r e t a t i o n of Picturesque Elements i n Wolf's Songs." Tempo 48 (Summer 1958): 9-15. L i n d l a r , Heinrich. "Zu Strawinskys geistlichem Vermachtnis: Urn zwei Gesange aus Wolfs 'Spanischem Liederbuch'." Oesterreichische  M u s i k z e i t s c h r i f t 37/6 (June 1982): 318-319. Maconie, Robin. "Stravinsky's F i n a l Cadence." Tempo 103 (1972): 18-23. Newman, Ernest. Hugo Wolf. London: Methuen & Co., 1907; r e p r i n t ed., New York: Dover Publi c a t i o n s , 1966. Sams, E r i c . The Songs of Hugo Wolf. London: Methuen & Co., 1961; revised 2nd ed., London: Eulenburg Books, 1983. • "Hugo Wolf." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6th ed. (1980), v o l . 20, pages 475-502. Seefried, Irmgard. "Bekenntnis zu Hugo Wolf." Oesterreichische  M u s i k z e i t s c h r i f t 15/2 (February 1960): 77-78. Sleeman, Margaret G., and Davies, Gareth A. "Variations on Spanish Themes: The Spanisches Liederbuch of Emanuel Geibel and Paul Heyse and I t s Ref Oiection'-inlithe Songs of Hugo Wolf." Proceedings of the Leeds  Ph i l o s o p h i c a l and L i t e r a r y Society. L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l Section 18/2 (June 1982): 155-274. Thurmer, Helmut. Die Melodik i n den Liedern von Hugo Wolf. S c h r i f t e n zur Musik 2. Giebing: Emil Katzbichler, 1970. Walker, Frank. "Wolf's Spanish and I t a l i a n Songs." Music & Letters 25/4 (October 1944): 194-209. . Hugo Wolf: A Biography. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1951; 2nd ed., 1968. Werba, E r i k . Hugo Wolf: oder, Der zornige Romantiker. Vienna: F r i t z Molden, 1971. . "Hugo Wolfs Liedschaffen aus der Sicht von heute." Oesterreichische M u s i k z e i t s c h r i f t 33/2 (February 1978): 57-64. APPENDIX 1 Texts of the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " * No. 1: (attributed to E r z p r i e s t e r von H i t a ; German trans, by Heyse) Nun b i n i c h dein, Du a l l e r Blumen Blume, Und sing' a l l e i n Allsturid zu deinem Ruhme; W i l l e i f r i g s ein, Mich d i r zu weihn Und deinem Duldertume. Frau auserlesen, Zu d i r steht a l l mein Hoffen, Mein innerst Wesen I s t a l l e z e i t d i r offen. Komm, mich zu losen Vom Fluch des Bosen, Der mich so hart betroffen! Now I am yours, Flower of a l l flowers, And sing s o l e l y At a l l times to your praise; I w i l l be zealous, Dedicate myself to you And to your sufferance. Lady e l e c t , In you i s a l l my hope, My innermost being Is forever open to you. Come, free me From the curse of the E v i l One Who has so sore a f f l i c t e d me! Du Stern der See, Du Port der Wonnen, Von der im Weh Die Wunden H e i l gewonnen, Eh' i c h vergeh, B l i c k ' aus der Hoh, Du Konigin der Sonnen! Nie kann versiegen Die F i i l l e deiner Gnaden; Du h i l f s t zum Siegen Dem, der mit Schmach beladen. An dich s i c h schmiegen, Zu deinen Fiissen l i e g e n H e i l t a l i e n Harm und Schaden. Ich l e i d e schwer Und wohlverdiente Strafen. Mir bangt so sehr Bald Todesschlaf zu schlafen. T r i t t du einher, Star of the Sea,-Haven of d e l i g h t s , From whom, i n agony, The a f f l i c t e d have found s a l v a t i o n , Before I pass away, Look from on high, Queen of Suns! Never can the abundance Of your mercy be exhausted; You help towards triumph Him who i s laden with shame. To c l i n g to you, To l i e at your feet, Heals a l l i n f i r m i t y and g r i e f . I s u f f e r severe And well-merited punishments. I am i n great fear Of sleeping soon death's sleep. Come f o r t h , **Adapted from D i e t r i c h Fischer-Dieskau, The Fischer-Dieskau Book of  Lieder (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1980), pp. 350-354; and Margaret G. Sleeman and Gareth A. Davies, "Variations on Spanish Themes: The Spanisches  Liederbuch of Emanuel Geibel and Paul Heyse and I t s R e f l e c t i o n i n the Songs of Hugo Wolf," Proceedings of the Leeds P h i l o s o p h i c a l and L i t e r a r y Society, L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l Section 18/2 (June 1982): 237-242 and 262-263. 42 43 Und durch das Meer 0 fiihre mich zum Hafen! And through the sea, Bring me to the harbour! No. 2: (attributed to Nicolas Nunez; German trans, by Heyse) Die du Gott gebarst, du Reine, Und a l l e i n e Uns gelos't aus unsern Ketten, Mach mich f r o h l i c h , der i c h weine, Denn nur deine Huld und Gnade mag uns retten. Herrin, ganz zu d i r mich wende, Dass sich ende Diese Qual und dieses Grauen, Dass der Tod mich f u r c h t l o s fande, Und n i c h t blende Mich das L i c h t der Himmelsauen. You who bore God, Pure One, And alone Delivered us from our chains, Make me, who weep, glad, For only your Grace and mercy can d e l i v e r us. Lady, I turn to you, That t h i s torment and dread May cease, That death mayufand me unafraid, And I be not blinded By the l i g h t of the Heavenly Pastures. Weil du unbefleckt geboren, Auserkoren Zu des ew'gen Ruhmes Statten — Wie mich Leiden auch umfloren, Unverloren Bin i c h doch, w i l l s t du mich retten. Because you were born immaculate, Chosen For abodes of eternal glory — However much v e i l e d i n sorrow, I am not l o s t , I f you w i l l d e l i v e r me. No. 3: (attributed to Ocana; German trans, by Geibel) "Der h e i l i g e Joseph s i n g t " Nun wandre, Maria, Nun wandre nur f o r t . Schon krahen die Hahne, Und nah i s t der Ort. Nun wandre, Geliebte, Du Kleinod mein, Und balde wir werden In Bethlehem s e i n . Dann ruhest du f e i n Und schlummerst dort. Schon krahen die Hahne, Und nah i s t der Ort. Wohl seh i c h , Herr i n , Die K r a f t d i r schwinden; Kann deine Schmerzen Ach, kaum verwinden. "Saint Joseph sings" Go on, Mary, Go on. The cocks are crowing, And the place i s near. Go on, beloved, My jewel, And soon s h a l l we be In Bethlehem. Then s h a l l you r e s t And slumber there. The cocks are crowing, And the place i s near. I see w e l l , Lady, Your strength i s waning; Your pains I cannot, Alas, subdue. 4 4 Ge t r o s t ! Wohl fin d e n Wir Herberg d o r t . Schon krahen d i e Hahne, Und nah i s t der Ort. War' e r s t bestanden Dein S t u n d l e i n , Marie, Die gute Botschaft Gut l o h n t ' i c h s i e . Das E s e l e i n h i e Gab' i c h drum f o r t ! Schon krahen d i e Hahne, Komm! Nah i s t der Ort. Take heart! We s h a l l f i n d Lodging there. The cocks are crowing, And the place i s near. Would i t were over, Mary, your hour, Those good t i d i n g s Would I reward w e l l . The donkey here Would I give f o r t h a t ! The cocks are crowing, Come! The place i s near. No. 4 : ( a t t r i b u t e d to Lope de Vega'; German t r a n s , by Geibel) Die i h r schwebet Um diese Palmen In Nacht und Wind, Ihr h e i l ' g e n Engel, S t i l l e t d i e W i p f e l ! Es schlummert mein Kind. Ihr Palmen von Bethlehem Im Windesbrausen, Wie mogt i h r heute So z o r n i g sausen! 0 rauscht n i c h t a l s o ! Schweiget, n e i g e t Euch l e i s ' und l i n d ; S t i l l e t d i e W i p f e l ! Es schlummert mein Kind. Der Himmelsknabe Duldet Beschwerde, Ach, wie so mud' er ward Vom L e i d der Erde. Ach nun im S c h l a f ihm L e i s e g e s a n f t i g t Die Qual z e r r i n n t , S t i l l e t d i e W i p f e l ! Es schlummert mein Kind. Grimmige K a l t e Sauset hernieder, Womit nur deck' i c h Des K i n d l e i n s G l i e d e r ! 0 a l l i h r Engel, Die i h r g e f l i i g e l t Wandelt im Wind, S t i l l e t d i e W i p f e l ! Es schlummert mein Kind. You who hover About these palms, I n n i g h t and wind, Holy Angels, S i l e n c e t h e i r leaves! My c h i l d i s asleep. Palms of Bethlehem In b l u s t e r i n g wind, How can you today So a n g r i l y blow! Oh, roar not so! Be s t i l l , bow S o f t l y and gently; S i l e n c e the l e a v e s ! My c h i l d i s asleep. The Son of Heaven Is s u f f e r i n g ; Ah, so t i r e d has He grown Of earth's sorrows. Ah, now i n sleep Gently softened, The pain melts away. S i l e n c e the leaves! My c h i l d i s asleep. F i e r c e c o l d Comes rushing; With what s h a l l I cover The l i t t l e c h i l d ' s limbs! Oh, a l l you Angels Who winged Tra v e l on the wind, S i l e n c e the leaves! My c h i l d i s asleep. 45 No. 5: (Anonymous; German trans, by Heyse) Fiihr mich, Kind, nach Bethlehem.' Dich, mein Gott, dich w i l l i c h sehn. Wem gelang' es, wem, Ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn! Ruttle mich, dass i c h erwache, Rufe mich, so w i l l i c h schreiten; Gib die Hand mir, mich zu l e i t e n , Dass i c h auf den Weg mich mache. Dass i c h schaue Bethlehem, Dorten meinen Gott zu sehn. Wem gelang 1 es, wem, Ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn! Von der Siinde schwerem Kranken Bin i c h trag' und dumpf bekommen. W i l l s t du ni c h t zu Hiilfe kommen, Muss i c h straucheln, muss i c h schwanken. L e i t e mich nach Bethlehem, Dich, mein Gott, dich w i l l i c h sehn. Wem gelang' es, wem, Ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn! Lead me, c h i l d , to Bethlehem! You, my God, You w i l l I see. Who, who could Come to You without your a i d ! Shake me, so that I awake, C a l l me, and I w i l l go; Give me your hand to guide me, That I may set out upon the way. That I may see Bethlehem, There to see my God. Who, who could Come to You without your a i d ! By the grievous sickness of s i n I am deeply and darkly oppressed. I f you w i l l not come to my a i d , I must stumble, I must stagger. Guide me to Bethlehem, You, my God, You w i l l I see. Who, who could Come to You without your a i d ! No. (attributed to Lopez de Ubeda; German trans, by Heyse) Ach, des Knaben Augen sind Mir so schon und k l a r erschienen, Und e i n Etwas s t r a h l t aus ihnen, Das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt. B l i c k t ' er doch mit diesen sussen Augen nach den meinen h i n ! Sah' er dann sein B i l d darin, Wiird' er wohl mich liebend griissen. Und so geb' i c h ganz mich h i n , Seinen Augen nur zu dienen, Denn e i n Etwas s t r a h l t aus ihnen, Das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt. Ah, the Infant's eyes, So b e a u t i f u l and clear they seemed, And from them something shines That captures a l l my heart. For with those sweet eyes He looks at mine! I f He then saw His image there, Lovingly would He greet me. And so I give myself wholly To serving only His eyes. For from them something shines That captures a l l my heart. No. 7: (attributed to Don Manuel del Rio; a c t u a l l y an o r i g i n a l German poem by Geibel) Miihvoll komm' i c h und beladen, In t o i l I come, and heavy laden, Nimm mich an, du Hort der Gnaden! Receive me, Refuge of Mercy! 46 Sieh, i c h komm' i n Tranen heiss Mit demiitiger Gebarde, Dunkel ganz vom Staub der Erde. Du nur schaffest, dass i c h weiss Wie das V l i e s s der Lammer werde. T i l g e n w i l l s t du j a den Schaden Dem, der reuig dich umfasst; Nimm denn, Herr, von mir die Last, Muhvoll komm' i c h und beladen. Lass mich flehend vor d i r knie'n, Dass i c h iiber deine Fiisse Nardenduft and Tranen giesse, Gleich dem Weib, dem du verziehn, Bis die Schuld wie Rauch z e r f l i e s s e . Der den Schacher du geladen: "Heute noch i n Edens Bann Wirst du se i n ! " o nimm mich an. Nimm mich an, du Hort der Gnaden! No. 8: (Anonymous; German trans, by Ach, wie lang die Seele schlummert! Zeit i s t ' s , dass s i e s i c h ermuntre. Dass man tot s i e wahnen di i r f t e , Also s c h l a f t s ie schwer und bang, Seit s i e jener Rausch bezwang, Den im Sundengift s i e s c h l i i r f t e . Doch nun ih r e r Sehnsucht L i c h t Blendend i h r ins Auge b r i c h t : Z e i t i s t ' s , dass s i e s i c h ermuntre. Mochte s i e g l e i c h taub ersheinen Bei der Engel siissem Chor: Lauscht s i e doch wohl zag empor, Ho'rt s i e Gott a l s K i n d l e i n weinen. Da nach langer Schlummernacht Solch ein Tag der Gnad' i h r l a c h t , Z e i t i s t ' s , dass sie s i c h ermuntre. No. 9: (Anonymous; German trans, by Herr, was tragt der Boden hier-,-Den du trankst so b i t t e r l i c h ? "Dornen, l i e b e s Herz, fiir mich, Und fiir dich der Blumen Z i e r . " See, with burning tears I come, Bowed i n humility, Dark with the dust of earth. You alone can make me white As lamb's f l e e c e . W i l l i n g l y w i l l You efface the wrong Of him who embraces You, repentant; Take then, Lord, the burden from me, In t o i l I come, and heavy laden. Let me kneel before You, pleading, That over Your feet I may pour tears and scent of nard, Like the woman You forgave, U n t i l my g u i l t i s dispersed l i k e vapour. You who t o l d the t h i e f : "Today i n Paradise s h a l l you be!" oh, receive me. Receive me, Refuge of Mercy! Geibel) Ah, how long the soul slumbers! I t i s time i t roused i t s e l f . So that one may think i t dead, Heavily and f e a r f u l l y i t sleeps, Overcome by i n t o x i c a t i o n , Drunk i n the venom of s i n . But now fchetlight?;bf itsilonging: 1. ; Breaks b l i n d i n g l y into the eyes: I t i s time i t roused i t s e l f . Though i t may have seemed deaf To the sweet choir of angels, S t i l l timid,ly i t p r i c k s i t s ears, Hearing God cry as a l i t t l e c h i l d . As, a f t e r i t s long night of slumber, Such a day of mercy w i l l smile on i t , It i s time i t roused i t s e l f . Heyse) Lord, what does the s o i l bear here, Which You water so b i t t e r l y ? "Thorns, dear heart, for me, And for you adorning flowers." 47 Ach, wo soIche Bache rinnen, Wird ein Garten da gedeihn? "Ja, und wisse! Kranzelein, Gar verschiedne, f l i c h t man drinnen. 0 mein Herr, zu wessen Zier Windet man die Kranze? s p r i c h ! "Die von Dornen sind fur mich, Die von Blumen r e i c h ' i c h d i r . " Ah., where such brooks run, S h a l l a garden f l o u r i s h there? "Yes, and know! Wreaths S h a l l be woven there, i n great v a r i e t y . " Oh my Lord, for whose adornment W i l l the wreaths be woven? Say! "Those of thorns are for me, Those of flowers I give to you." No. 10: (attributed to Jose de V a l d i v i v i e l s o ; German trans, by Geibel) Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter, Und s i e schmerzen dich; Triig' i c h s i e s t a t t deiner, i c h ! Herr, wer wagt' es, so zu farben Deine S t i r n mit Blut und Schweiss? "Diese Male sind der P r e i s , Dich, o Seele, zu erwerben. An den Wunden muss ich sterben, Weil i c h dich geliebt so h e i s s . " Konnt' i c h , Herr, fiir dich s i e tragen, Da es Todeswunden sind. "Wenn dies Leid dich r i i h r t , mein Kind, Magst du Lebenswunden sagen: Ihrer keine ward geschlagen, Draus fiir dich nicht Leben r i n n t . " Ach, wie mir i n Herz und Sinnen Deine Qual so wehe tu t ! "Hartres noch mit treuem Mut Triig' i c h froh, dich zu gewinnen; Denn nur der weiss r e c h f zu minnen, Der da s t i r b t vor Liebesglut." Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter, Und s i e schmerzen dich; Triig' i c h s i e ' s t a t t deiner, i c h ! Wounds you bear, my beloved, And they cause you pain; Would I bore them i n your stead, I! Lord, who dares so to s t a i n Your brow with blood and sweat? "These marks are the p r i c e Of winning you, oh Soul. Of these wounds must I die, For l o v i n g you so ardently." Would I might bear them for you, Lord, since they are mortal wounds. " I f t h i s sorrow touch you, my c h i l d , You may c a l l them l i v i n g wounds: Not one was made, from which L i f e does not flow for you." Ah, how my heart and mind Is tormented by your pain! "Even more hardships, with true courage, Would I gladly bear, to win you; For only he knows p e r f e c t l y how to love Who there dies for love." Wounds you bear, my beloved, And they cause you pain; Would I bore them i n your stead, I! APPENDIX 2 Dates and O r i g i n a l Order of the " G e i s t l i c h e Lieder" No. 1, "Nun b i n i c h dein" Wolf's Heyse and Date of Geibel's Order Composition 1 15 January 1890 No. 2, "Die du Gott gebarst, du Reine" 5 November 1889 No. 3, "Nun wandre, Maria" 4 November 1889 No. 4, "Die i h r schwebet" 5 November 1889 No. 5, "Fiihr mich, Kind, nach Bethlehem'." 6 15 December 1889 No. 6, "Ach, des Knaben Augen sind" 21 December 1889 No. 7, "Muhvoll komm' i c h und beladen" 10. January 1890 No. 8, "Ach, wie lang die Seele schlummert!" 8 19 December 1889 No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden h i e r " 10 24 November 1889 No. 10, "Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter" 9 16 December 1889 48 APPENDIX 3 Score of No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden hier" 49 50 12. "Mr r i-'r pr • ' I J ^ J J J e B'a-che rin - nen, wird ein Gar - ten da "ge-deitfn? „Ja, und wis-sol-che B'a-che rin - nen, wird ein Gar - ten da "ge-deitfn? „Ja, und wis-ae! brooks qf tears are flow - ing will e'er bios - soms deck the heath? "Yea, I tell thee! Kr'an - ze-lein, gar ver-schied - ne, flicbt man drin - nen" 0 mein many a wreath, will be twined be - yondman's know-ing." Tell me, sind fir mich, die von Blu - men reich' ich dir." twine for me, those of flowers I give to thee'.-APPENDIX 4 Score of No. 10, "Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter" Langsam and mit tiefer Empfindung Won - den tragst du, On the Cross, Love, mein Ge - lieb - ter, und sie schmer-zen dich;_ thou art bleed - ing, and I hear thee eigh;. trig* ich sie etat dei - ner, ich I oh could I re - lease thee, J! 51 52 53 23 lievt My smart? "Doth my mffr- mg touch <Ay heart? 54 55 55a RECITAL PROGRAMS UNSUITABLE FOR FILMING. FOR INFORMATION REGARDING THESE, CONTACT SPECIAL COLLECTIONS DIVISION, LIBRARY, 1956 MAIN MALL, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER, B.C. V6T 1Y3. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC R e c i t a l H a l l January 25, 1982 8:00 p.m. GRADUATION RECITAL Margaret Kuhl, Mezzo-Soprano Heather E n g l i s h , Piano Arianna a Naxos. Cantata a voce s o l a con accompagnamento f o r t e p i a n o Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Chansons de B i l i t i s 1. La Flute de Pan 2= La Chevelure 3. Le Tombeau des Naiades Claude Debussy (1862-1918) Therese (Op.86, No.l) Uber d i e Heide (Op.86, No.4) An d i e N a c h t i g a l l (Op.46, No.4) Van Ewiger Liebe (Op.43, No.l) Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) INTERMISSION From the Diary of V i r g i n i a Woolf 1. The Diary (April, 1919) 2. Anxiety (October, 1920) 3. Fancy (February3 1927) 4. Hardy's Funeral (January, 1928) 5. Pome (May, 1935) 6. War (June, 1940) 7. Parents (December, 1940) 8. Last Entry (March, 1941) Dominick Argento (1927- ) *In p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Doctor of Musical A r t s Degree w i t h a major i n Voice Translations Arianna a Naxos Recit: Teseo, my beloved, Where are you? I seem to have you near but it is a dream that deceives me. Dawn awakens like Phoebus rising from the sea with golden tresses. Dear husband, where have you gone? Perhaps your noble ardor calls you to pursue the wild beasts. Ah, come my dear, and I will offer a more pleasing prey. The constant, loving heart of Arianna tightens with ever firmer grasp, and makes fairer the splendid face of our love. 1 cannot bear to be separated. My heart sighs for you Come, my idol. Aria: Where are you, my fair treasure? Who steals you from this heart. If you do not come I shall die, I cannot bear my grief. If you have pity, oh gods support my pleas. Let my dear one return to me. Recit: But, to whom am I speaking? Only an echo replies. Teseo does not hear me or respond, and the wind and waves bear away my voice. Chansons de B i l i t i s T H E F L U T E For the Hy^cinthine festival he has given me a syiiox of well formed reeds, bound together with white was, which is sweet to my lips as honey. He teaches me how to play, sitting on his knees; bat I am a little nervous. He plays after me, so softly I can scarcely bear. We have nothing to say to each other, so close arc we to one another; but in songs WD converse, und sometimes our lips Conte together on the Utile. It is late; that is the song of the green frogs thai begins with the night. M y mother wil l never believe I have been so long look ing for my lost girdle. TOE H A I R l i e said: "Last night I dreamed. Jl had your hair around my throat. I had your tresses like a black collar around my neck and upon my breast. He cannot be far away. Yonder rocky cliffs rise higher than Che heavens. I will find him there. What do I see •' Oh Heavens •' Misery me I There is Argonaut wood. Those are GreeksTesec f He on the bow... Ah, if only I were mistaken but no, He is going, leaving me here abandoned. There is no more hope. I am betrayed. Teseo, Listen to meTeseo . Alas, in vain. The waves and wind bear him away forever from my sight. Oh, you unjust gods Why do you hot punish the impious one. Ungrateful, why did I save you from death. So that you could betray me? our promises? your oaths? Perjurer, Infidel 2 You have the heart to go. " J caressed them, and they were mine; and wc were bound together forever thus, by thai same hair, mouth to mouth, as two laurel bushes often have a single root. " A n d little by little, it seemed to me, our limbs so lost their identity that 1  became you, or you entered into me like my dream." When he had finished, be softly put his hands upon my shoulders, and looked at me with so tender a ga?.e that I lowered my eyes, with a shudder. To whom shall I turn? From whom hope for pity? I falter, in this bitter moment My trembling spirit fails. Aria: Ah, how I should like to die in this fatal moment, but heaven, unjust, preserves me in my cruel torment. Miserable, abandoned, I have no one to console me. He whom I so dearly loved has gone, barbarous and unfaithful. Chansons de B i l i t i s (cont'd) TUP. TOMI! OF THI1. NAIADS Through the wood covered with hoar frost 1 walked; my hair before my month blossomed with little icicles, and my sandals were heavy with muddy lumps of snow. He said to mc: "What are you looking for ? "—" ! am following the tracks of a satyr. The prints of his little cloven hoofs are spaced like holes in a white cloak." He said: "The satyrs are dead." "The satyrs and the nymphs too. For thirty years there has not been so terrible n winter. . The tracks lh.it you sec are those of a he-goat. But lei us stop here, for here is their tomb." And with the head of his hoc he broke t\\r. ice »»tt the spring where lite naiads used lo laugh. He look up the big frozen pieces, and holding them toward (he pale sky, he looked through tbcrn. Thereee You innocent young lad Why do you gaze at me so? What questions you have in your eyes. The wisest rulers in the world remain silent about the questions your eyes ask. A seashell is lying on the mantel, Hold it to your ear... and you will hear something. Over the Heath Over the heath echo my steps with hollow ring. . . Autumn is coming Spring is far away. Will there be one more blissful moment? Brewing mist, spirits hover, The earth is black, the shy is empty. Would that I had gone here in Hay... Life and love, how fast i t flies. TO THH N K H 1 T I N U A L B Do not: pour so loudly your amorous songs0 rich strains down from the blooming bough of toe apple. o nightingale! With your sweet throat you reawaken my love; for already the depths of my soul are stirred by your melting cry. Then again 1 would lie sleepless, staring up with tear-filled eyes, and pale as death, and haggard, to heaven above. Flee, nightingale, into the green shadows, into the grove, ami in your nest spend your kisses on your faithful wifi I'lctt. uh ilcct OI : t . T E U N A L L O V R Dark, how dark in-the woods Hnd llio ficlilst It is evening already; now the world is quiet. Nowhere a light and nowhere smoke, yes, even the lark is silent now. Out of the villa?.* comes the youth, bringing his sweetheart home. Ho lends her by I ho willow thickcta, liilklnj? n great deal ntut about w ninny things. "If you ore nshumcd and troubled, nshamcd of me before the others, let love be broken off as suddenly, as quickly as we first came together. Let us part in the rain, let us part in the wind, as quickly as wo first came together.". The girt spenks: "Our love shall not be parted I Iron is strong and steel very much so, our love is even stronger. Iron and sfcci ere shaped in the forge, but who shall change our love? Icon and steel may be melted, but our love shall endure forever 1" THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC Recital Hall Monday, April 11, 1983 8:00 p.m. •GRADUATION RECITAL Margaret Kuhl, mezzo soprano assisted by Terence Dawson, piano Nahe des Geliebten (Goethe) Franz Schubert Heiss mich nicht reden (Goethe) (1797-1828) Suleikas Zweiter Gesang (Goethe) Rastlose Liebe (Goethe) from the Spanische Liederbuch Hugo Wolf In dem Sohatten meiner Looken (1860-1903) Alle g.ingen, Herz, . zur Ruhe Herr was tragt der Boden hier Die ihr sohwebet Vier Lieder, Op. 2 Alban Berg Sehlafen, Schlafen, niahts ale Schlafen (Hebbel) C 1 8 8 5 " 1 9 3 5 ) Schlafend tragt man mich (Mombert) Nun ich der Riesen Stdrksten iiberwand (Mombert) Warm die Lufte (Mombert) - INTERMISSION -Le Travail du Peintre (Eluard) Francis Poulenc Pablo Picasso (1899-1963) Marc Chagall Georges Braque Juan Gris Paul Klee Joan MirS Jacques Villon A Charm of Lullabies Benjamin Britten A Cradle Song (Blake) (1913-1976) The Highland Balou (Burns) Sephestia's Lullaby (Greene) A Charm (Randolph) The Nurse's Song (Philip) *In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts Degree with a major in Voice. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC R e c i t a l H a l l Monday, F e b r u a r y 13, 1984 8:00 p.m. •GRADUATION RECITAL Ma r g a r e t K u h l , mezzo soprano a s s i s t e d by Edward Norman s organ T e r e n c e Dawson, piano from t h e K l e l n e G e i s t l i c h e Konzerte B r i n g t her dem Herren , SWV 283 E l l e n s z w e l t e r Gesang Gretchens B i t t e S u l e l k a Gruss Neue L i e b e Der Mond A l l n a c h t l i c h im Traume seh' i c h d i c h Die Liebende S c h r e i b t Pagenlied - INTEEraSSION from Songs and Dances o f Death K a l i b y e l n a y a Syeryenadu Tryepak Canciones para N1nos P a i s a j e El Lagarto e s t a Llorando Caracola Cancion Tonta Canclon China en Europa C a n c i o n c i l l a S e v i l l a n a *In p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the requirements f o r the Doctor o f Musical A r t s Degree w i t h a major i n Voice. H e i n r l c h Schiitz (1585-1672) Franz Schubert (1797-1828) F e l i x Mendelssohn (1809-1847) Modeste Mussorgsky (1839-1881) X a v l e r Montsalvatge (b. 1911) T E X T S Bringt her dem Herren Bringt her dem Herren, ihr Gewaltigen, Bringt her dem Herren Ehre und Starke* Halleluja... Bringt her dem Herren Ehre seines Namens. Betet an den Herren im heiligen Schmuck. Halleluja... A l l e Lande betet dich an und lobslngen deinem Namen. Halleluja... (Psalm 29:1;2) § 5 S 5 S Bring to the Lord Ascribe to the Lord, 0 mighty ones, Ascribe to the Lord glory and strength. A l l e l u i a . . . Ascribe to the Lord the glory due his name; worship the Lord in the splendour of his holiness. A l l e l u i a . . . A l l the nations c a l l upon Thee, and sing praises to Thy Name. Al l e l u i a . . . 5 S 5 5 Ellens zweiter Gesang Ellen's second Song JSger, ruhe von der Jagdl Welcher Schlutamer s o i l dich decken TrSume nicht, wenn Sonn' erwacht, dass JagdhBrner dich erwecken, JSger, ruhe von der Jagd. Schlaf! der Hirsch ruht i n der HShle, bei d i r sind die Hunde wach; Schlaf, nicht quSl es deine Seele, dass dein edles Ross erlag. JSger ruhe von der Jagd... (Sir Walter Scott) Cretchens Bitte Ach neige, du Schmerzen relche, dein A n t l l t z gnSdig meiner Not! Das Schwert im Herzen, mit tausend Schmerzen Blickst auf zu deines Sohnes Tod. Zum Vater Blickst du, und Seufzer schickst du hinauf urn sein' und deine Not. Wer ftthlet, wie wQhlet der Schmerz mir im Gebein? Was mein armes Herz — hier banget, was es z i t t e r t , was verlanget, Weisst nur du, nur du a l l e i n . Wohin ich immer gehe, wie wehe wird mir im Busen hierI Ich bin alleine, Ich wein, ich weine, das Herz zerbricht in mir... Huntsman, rest from the chaseI Soft slumber shall enfold you, Dream not, when the sun awakes, That hunting horns arouse you. Sleepl the deer rests i n the hollow; The hounds keep watch beside you, Sleep! Let not your soul grieve For your gallant horse lying dead. Huntsman, rest from the chase Gretchen's Prayer Oh, deeply a f f l i c t e d one, incline thy face graciously towards my distress! With a sword i n thy heart, With a thousand sorrows Thou beholdest thy Son's death. Thou lookest to His Father And sendest sighs To heaven for His and thy distress. Who can feel the gnawing pain That i s i n my bones? My poor heart's fears, tremblings, i t s longings, Thou only knowest. Thou alone! Wherever I go, . what woe i s i n my bosom! I am alone I weep and weep My heart within me breaks... (Goethe) Suleika Suleika Was bedeutet die Bewegung? Brlngt der Ost mir frohe Kunde? Seiner Schwingen frlsche Regung KShlt des Herzens ti e f e Wunde. Kosend spielt er mit den Staube, Jagt Ihn auf i n leichten WSlken, Trelbt zur slchern Rebenlaube Der Insekten frohe s Volkchen. Lindert sanft der Sonne Gliihen, KShlt auch mir die helssen Wangen, KUsst die Reben noch *.m Fliehen, Die auf Feld und Riigel prangen. Und mir bringt sein leises Fltlstern Von dem Freunde tausend Grilsse; Eh noch diese Hiigel diistern, GrQssen mich wohl tausend Kiisee. Und so kannst du welterZiehen! Diene Frohen und Betrtibten, Dort, wo hohe Kauern gliihen, Dort find ich bald den Vielgeliebten. Ach, die wahre Herzenskunde, Liebeshauch, erfrischtes Leben Wird mir nur aus seinem Munde, Kann mir nur sein Atem geben. (Marianne von WHlemer) Aus dem westSstlichen Divan What does this movement mean? Does the East wind bring me glad tidings? The fresh s t i r r i n g of i t s wings Cools the heart's deep wounds. Caressingly i t plays with the dust Sti r s i t up into l i t t l e clouds; Drives to the shelter of the vine-leaves The merry insect tribe. Softly i t tempers the sun's glow. And cools my hot cheeks; And in i t s f l i g h t kisses the vines Resplendent on f i e l d and h i l l . And to me i t s light whisper brings A thousand greetings from my dear one: Ere yet these h i l l s grow dark > A thousand kisses w i l l greet me. And so (East Wind), you may pass on your way, Ministering to friends and to those in need, There, where the high walls are a l l aglow, I shall soon dind my most beloved. Ah, the heart;s true tidings, Love's inspiration, l i f e ' s renewal; For me come from his mouth alone; Only his breath can give them to me. in Goethe S S $ § i i § S S t Gruss Leise zieht durch mein GemSth liebliches Gela"ute; Klinge, kleines Friihlingslied, k ling' hinaus in's Weite. Greeting Softly running through my mind, lovely strains, spring song, sound out into the distance. Zieh' hinaus bis an das Haus, wo die Veilchen spriessen; wenn du eine Rose schaust, sag) ich lass' sie grussen. (Heine) Neue Liebe Echo out to the house where violets bloom; should you see a rose there -greet her from me. New Love In dem Mondenschein im Walde sah ich jungpt die Elfen reiten, ihre Hflrner KSrt ich klingen, ihre GlScklein h8rt ich lluten... Not long ago I saw the elves riding through the moonlit woods I heard their horns sound and their bells tinkle. Ihre weissen RSsslein trugen -gold'ties Hirschgeweih' und flogen rasch dahin; wie wllde SchvSne kam es durch die Luft gezogen... LBchelnd nickte mir die KSn'gin, l&chelnd, im Worliberreiten, Gait das meiner neuen Liebe? Oder s o l i es Tod bedeuten? (Heine) Their l i t t l e white horses bore golden stags 1 antlers and flew swiftly along; i t was as i f wild swans drew through the a i r . The queen nodded to me and smiled as she rode past. Did she mean my new love -Or am I to die? SOHGS AHB DANCES OF DEATH Hodest Mussorgsky Poetry by A, A. Golenlshtchef-Kutusof I KAHBYELHAYA STONYET REBYONAK, SVYECHA. NACARAYA, TUSKLA MYBRTSAYET WtUGOH. , TSYELUYU NOCH, KALIBYEUCU KACHAYA, HAT KYE ZAB1UVSYA SNOM. RANIM RANYOKHANKA V DVYER. ASTAROZHNA, SHYERT SYBRDAB61NAYA STUKt VZDROGNUU HAT, ACLYANULAS TREVOZHNA. "POLNA PUCATSYA, MOY DRUM Death: BLYBDHAYE UTRA UZH SHOTRIT V AKOSHKA. PLACHA, TASKUYA, LYUBYA, if UTAMILAS. VZDREHNIKA NYEMNOZHKA, YA PASlZfflJ ZA TYEBYA. UCAMANtT TI DITYA NYE SUMYELAt SLASHCHYE TYEBYA YA SPAYU." "TISHYBf REBY(5HAK HOY MYECHYBTSYA, BYOTSYA, Mothers DOSHU TYBRZAYET MAYUI" "NU, DA SA MNOYU AH SKORA UYMYOTSYA. Death I BAYUSHKI, BAYU, BAY6." "SHCHYOCIIKI BLYEDNYEYUT, 8LABYRYBT DIKHANYE... Mother: DA ZAMALCHI ZHYE, MALYGI" "D&BRAYE ZNAMYENYE: STIKHNYET STRADANYE, Death: BAYUSHKI, BAYU, BAYU." "PR&CH T I , PRAKIYATAYAI LASKAY SVAYEYU Mother: SOUBISH TI RADAST MAYU." "NYET, M1RN1Y SON YA KLAOYEKTSU NAVYEYU; Death: BAYUSHKI, BAYU, BAYu\" "SZHALSYA, PAZHDf DAPYEVAT, KHAT HCNAVYENYB, Mother: STRASHHUTU PYESNYU TVAYUI" "viDISH, USNuL AN PAD TkllAYE PYENYE. Death: HAYUSIIKI, BAYU, BAYil." II SYERENADA NYEGA VALSHYEBNAYA, NOCH GALUBAYA, TREPYETNIY SUMRAK VYESH1... VNYEMLYET, PANIKMOT CALOFKAY, BALNAYA SHOPAT NACHN6Y TISHIHI. S6N NYE SMIKAYET BLYESTYASKCHIYE OCHI, ZILFZN K KASLAZHDYENYU ZAVYET; A PAD AKOSHKAM, V KALCRANI PALNOCHI, SHYERT SYERENADU PAY6T: "V HRAKYE NYE V VOL I, SUROVAY I TYBSNAY, HOLADAST, VYANYET TVAYA, RITSAR NYEVYEDAMIY. SftAY CRVDYESNAY 6sVABAZH(i YA TYEBYA. VSTAN, PASMATRf NA SYEBYA: KRASATOYU lit TVAY PRAZRACHNIY BLYESTIT, SHCROKI RUMYANI. VAUISTAY KAS6YU STAN TVAY KAK TvCHYEY ABVIT| PRiSTALMtKH CLAz GAUIBOYE SIYANYE, YARCHYE NYEBYES I AGNYA; ZNOYEH PAU/DYEHNIM VYEYET DIKHAHYE... T! ABALSTILA HYENYA, SliJKH TVAY PLYEN1LSYA HAY BY SYERENADAY, RITSARYA SHOPAT TVAY ZVAL. RITSAR PRISHYOL ZA PASLYEDNYBY HAGRADAYL CHAS UPAYEKYA KASTALI NYEZHEN TVAY STAN, UPAITYEXYEN TRfiPYET. 0, ZADUSHu YA TYEBYA V WEPRIKH ABYATYAKHI LYUBOVN1Y KAY LYEPYET SLUSHAY . . . HALCtll . . . TI MAYA I Lullabye The c h i l d moans; the candle, gutter ing. Dimly d i c k e r s around the room. A l l n ight, rocking the crad le, The mother never dropped off to aleap. Very ear l y , on the door caut ious ly . Tender-hearted death's knockI The mother shuddered, looked back uneasi ly. "Fear not, my fr iend I Pale morning already peeps i n the window. Weeping, g r iev ing , lov ing, You have grown t i r e d . Nap for a wh i le ; I w i l l watch fo r you. You could not calm the c h i l d ; I s ing more sweetly than you." "Be qu ie t i Hy c h i l d f r e t s , struggles. Tears spart my s ou l ! " "Indeed, we l l with me he w i l l soon f a l l asleep. Lul labye, hushabye." "H i s l i t t l e cheeks are turning white, h i s breathing weakens.. So be s t i l l then, I beg you!" "That ' s a good signs his su f fe r ing ceases. Lul labye, hushabye." "Away with you, damned one! With your caress You destroy my Joy . " "No, I br ing peaceful sleep to the c h i l d ; Lul labye, hushabye." "Have p i t y , wa i t , i f only a wh i le , before you stop s inging Your dreadful songl " "You see, he f e l l asleep under my quiet s inging. Lul lnbye, hushabye." Serenade Magical de l ight , blue n ight. F l i c ke r i ng tw i l i gh t of sp r ing . . . Head drooping, the i n va l i d hears The whisper of nocturnal s i l ence. Sleep does not close her b r i l l i a n t eyes, L i f e c a l l s her to pleaaure; But under the l i t t l e window, in the midnight s i l ence, Death sings h i s serenades " In the gloom of your severe and narrow pr i son. Your youth withers! As your unknown knight, wi th marvellous strength, I w i l l l i be ra te you. Get up, take a look at yourselft w i th besuty Your transparent face ahlnesi Cheeks of rouge, wavy b ra id . Your f igure embraced as i f by a cloud; The blue radiance of steadfast eyes. Brighter than heaven or f i r e ; Your breath exudes the heat of midday... You have seduced me. Your ear has been caught by my serenade. Your whisper has summoned your knight. The knight hss come for th i s l a s t reward: The hour of ecstacy has arr ived I Your tender f i gu re , rapturous tremour. Oh, I strangle you In my strong embrace; my love p r a t t l e , L i s ten . . . be s t i l l . . . you are mine I" Der Hood The Moon Mein Herz 1st wie die dunkle Nacht, wenn a l l e Wipfel rauschen; da steigt der Mond in voller Prac.ht aus Wolken aacht; und siehM der.Wald verstummt in tiefem Lauschen. Der Mond, der lichte Mond bist du i n deiner LiebesfUUe, wirf einen, einen Bllck mir zu v o l l HiBlmelsruh, -and sieh'! dies ungestiime Herz wird s t i l l e . Allngchtlich im Traume seh' ich dich AllnSchtlich im Traume aeh1 Ich dich und seh' dich Freundlich grUssen und laut aufwelnend etQrz' ich mich 8u delnen silssen Fussen. Du sieh8t mich an wehutUthiglich und schQttelst das blonde K8pfchen aus deinen Augen echleichen sich die Perlenthr&nentrSpfchen. Du sagst mir heimlich ein leises Wort und gibst mir den Straues von Cypressen ich wache auf, und der Strauss i s t fort und'a Wort hab' ich vergessen. My heart i s l i k e the dark night when a l l the treetops rustle; The moon rises i n f u l l splendour from behind the clouds; behold the woods in deep silence. Dear moon, Oh, bright moon so f u l l of love -cast me a glance of heavenly peace and behold - this troubled heart w i l l become s t i l l . Nightly in my Dreams I see you Nightly im my dreams I see you, and see your friendly greeting; and, loudly weeping, I throw myself at your feet. You look at me sadly and shake your l i t t l e f a i r head; from your eyes steal teardrops of pearl. You murmur a quiet word to me, and give me a spray of cypress. I awake the spray i s gone and the word forgotten. Die Llebende schreibt Ein Bllck von deinen Augen i n die meinen, Ein Kuss von deinem Mund auf meinem Munde, Wer davon hat, wie ich, gewisse Kunde, Mag dem was anders wohl erfreulich scheinen? Entfernt von d i r , entfremdet von den Meinen, Ftthr ich nur die Gedanken i n die Runde, Und immer treffen sie auf jene Stunde, Die einzige; da fang ich an zu weinen. Die TrSne trocknet wieder unveraehens: Er l i e b t j a , denk ich, her i n diese S t i l l e , Und eolltest du nicht i n die Ferae reichen? Vernimm das Lispeln dieses Llebewehens; Mein einzig Glttck auf Erden i s t dein Wille, Dein freundlicher zu mir; gib mir ein Zeichenl The Beloved Writes A glance from your eyes into mine, A kiss from your mouth on mine... To one who has, as I have, knowledge of these, Could anything else seem delightful? Far away from you, estranged from my kin, I carry these thoughts unceasingly, And they always rest upon that hour, That, one hour; then I begin to weep. My tears dry again unexpectedly; "His love," X t e l l myself."touches this s t i l l n e s s , And should not you, too, reach across the distance?" Listen to the longing of this love, My one joy on earth rests with you -Your goodwill towards me: Give me a signl Pagenlied Wenn die Sonne l l e b l i c h schiene wie In WSlschland lau und blau, ging' ich mit der Mandoline durch die UberglSnzte Au'. In der Nacht das Llebchen lauschte an dem Fens car, sties verwacht; wQnachte mir und i h r , uns Beiden, heimlich eine schSne Nacht. Page's Song I f , as i n southern climes, hazy and blue, the sun were here to shine I'd go, mandoline i n hand, over the radian£ meadow. By night my love would l i s t e n at the window, i n sweet awakening, as I wish us both, secretly, "eine schone Nacht." Canciones para turioa I. Palsaje I. Landscape La tarde equivocada sa vistlo de frio Detras de los crlstales turbios todos los ninos, ven convertirse pajaros un arbol amarillo. Th<* confused afternoon has clothed itself in cold Behind the muddy windows all the children see a yellow tree transforming itself into birds La tarde esta tendida alo largo d e l rio. The afternoon is spread out along the river. t un rubor de manzana tienbla And a blush of apples trembles en los tejadillos. over the shed roofs. II. El Lagarto ea^ a llorando... El lagarto esta ilorando, La lagarta esta liorendo. El lagarto y la l a g a r t a con delantalitos blancos. Han perdido sin querer su anillo de deeposados. Ay, su anillito plotno, ay, su anillito plomsdol Un cielo grande sin gente montaba en globo a los pajaros. Tl. The Lizard is crying... The he-lizard is crying, The she-lisard is crying. The he-lizard and the she-lizard with l i tt le white aprons. Have locit without wanting to their wedding ring. Ah, their l itt le leaden wedding ring, Ah, their l i tt le ring of lead! A large sky without people carries the birds in i t s balloon. El sol, capitan redondo, lleva un chaleco de raso. The sun, rotund captain, wears a satin waistcoat. Mlradlos que viejoa son! Que viejos son las lagartos! Ay, como lloran y lloran, ay, ay! c6mo estin llcrando! Look how old they are! How old the lizards are! Oh, how they cry and cry, Oh, Oh! How they go on crying. t i l . Caracola Me han trafdo una caracola. III. Snail They have brought me a snail Dentro le canta un mar de mapa. Mi corazon se llena de agua, con pececillos de sombra y plata. Inside it sings a map-green ocean. My heart owe 1.1 a with water, with small fish of brown end silver. Me han trafdo una cs.racola. Tf>ey have brought me a snail. IV. Canclon Tonta Mama, Yo quiero set d» p l s t a . Hijo,^ tendras mucho f r ' o . Mama, Yo quiero set de agua. Hijo, tendras mucho frio. Mami, Bordame en tu almonada. Eso si ! Ahora miemo! IV. Silly Song Mama, I wish I were silver. Sort, You'd be very cold. Mama, I wish I were water. Son, You'(i ba very cold Ma .vi, Embroider me on your pillow. That, yes! -ht away! I t ! TRFTAK LYES, DA PALYAN1, BYEZLYUDYE KRUGOMj VYUGA I PLACHYET I ST6NYETi CHUYETSYA. BUDTA VA NRAKYE SACIfNOM, ZI.AYA KAVO TA WIAR&HIT. CLYADI TAK I YESTI V TYEfWATYE KUZHIKA SMYERT ABNIHAYET, LASKAYET; S,PYANYENKIH PLYASHYET VDVAY6M TREPAKA, NA t/KHA PYESN NAPYEVAYETi " O K H , HUZHICHOK, STARICHOK, UBOGAY, PYAN WUJILSYA, PAPLYELSYA DAR6CAYJ A MYATYRL TA, VYEDMA, PFIOKYALAS, VZ1GRALA. S I'OLYA V LYES DREMUCHIY NYSVZNACHAY ZAGHALA GOREM, TASKOY. DA NUZHDOY TAMfMIY, LYAK, PRIKARNI DA USHI, RADIMIYJ YA JYKBYA, GALGBCHIK HOY, SNYESHKOM SAGREYU, VKRUC TYEBYA VYELIKUYU ICR!) ZATVftyy. VZBYllY KA PASTYEL, T l HYATYEL LYEBYOTKAI GYIY, NACHIHAY, ZAPYEVAY, PAG6TKAI SKASKU, DA TAKUYU, SirrfB VSYU MOCH TYANULAS, SIITOB PYAHCHUGYE KREPKA POD HYEYO ZASHfitAS. 6Y, Vf LYEsA, HYEBYESA, DA TUCH1, TYltH, VYETYER6K, DA SNYEZH6K LtfETUCHIY, SVYlSYTYES PYE1.YEN6YU, SKY Z^HNAY ptfKRAVOYU; YEYtl, KAK MLADYENTSA, STARICHK* PRIKR6YU. sr i , MAY DRUZII6K, MUZHICU6K SCHASTLIVIY, LYETA PRISIIL6, RAZTSVYEL6| HAD NIVAY SOLNISHK6 SHYEY&TSYA, DA SYERPI GULYXYUTI PyfcSYEHKA HYESY6TSYA, GALUPKI LYETAYUT . . . Trepak The forest and meadows, desertion a l l around! The snows tors weeps and •nana; It f ee l s , as I f tn the dark of n ight. Someone wicked i s l u rk ing . Look! Over there1 In the darkness, death Embraces, caresses a peasant; Together with the drunkard he dances a trapak. In his ear he hums a song! "Oh, l i t t l e peasant, o ld fe l l ow, wretched one, You drank your f i l l , and dragged yourself along, ay dear; And that snows to r s , the w i tch , arose, grew rough, Unexpectedly drove you from the f i e l d Into the primeval forest. G r l e f - e t r l c ken , sielancholy, toraented with need, Lie down, c u r l up and s leep, ay good stan! 1 w i l l war* you with snow, ay f r i e nd , I w i l l s ta r t a great gam around you. F l u f f up the bed, you swan of a anowstorat Hey, begin your song, l i t t l e s l a te r ) Such a ta le she stretched through the whole n ight, U n t i l the drunkard f e l l soundly asleep under her s p e l l . Oh, you forests , heavena, and clouds, Darkness, breeie, and f l y i n g snow, Hake a shroud out of downy snow; With i t I w i l l cover the old fe l low l i k e a baby. Sleep, my f r i end , lucky peasant, Suamer has cone, has bloosed I Over the f i e l d The dear sun lsughs and the acythes are aweeplng; A l i t t l e aong l a heard, the doves are f l y i n g . . . " V. Canci6n China en Europa La senorita del abanico, ya por e l puente del fresco r i o , Los caballeros con sua levitas, miran e l puente sin barandillas. La senorita del abanico, y los valances, busca marido. Los caballeros estan casados, con altas rubias de idioma bianco. Los g r i l l o s cantan por e l Oeste, (La senorita, va por lo verde.) Los g r i l l o s cantan bajo las flores. (Los caballeros, van por el Norte.) VI. Cancioncilla Sevlllana Amanecfa en e l naranjel Abejitas de oro buscaban la miel. Donde estara la miel? Esta en l a f l o r azul, Isabel. En la f l o r , del romero aquel. ( S i l l i t a de oro para e l raoro. S i l l a de oropel para su mujer.) Amanecla en e l naranjel. V. Chinese Song in Europe The lady With the fan goes over the bridge of the cool river. The gentlemen in their frock-coats Look at the bridge without balustrades. The lady of the fan • And of v e i l s Looks for a spouse. The gentlemen are married to t a l l blondes with white speech The crickets sing in the west. (The lady goes toward the green) The crickets sing beneath the flowers. (The gentlemen go north.) VI. Small Song from Sevilla Daybreak in the orange grove. L i t t l e golden bees were looking for honey. Where w i l l the honey be? In the blue flower, Isabel. In the flower of the rosemary there. ( L i t t l e gold chair for the moor. Tinsel chair for his wife.) Dawn was breaking in the orange grove. (F. Garcia Lorca) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC Recital Hall Saturday, July 28, 1984 1:00 p.m. GRADUATE LECTURE-RECITAL* Margaret Kuhl, mezzo-soprano assisted by Philip Tillotson, piano ON PERFORMING WOLFs PROBLEMS INHERENT IN THE "GEISTLICHE LIEDER" FROM THE SPANISCHES LIEDERBUCH *In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor Musical Arts Degree with a Major in Voice Performance. Tezts of the "Geistliche licdat"* Ho. 1: (attributed to Erzpriaster von Hlta; German trans, by Heyse) Nun bin Ich deln, Du a l l e r Blumen Blume, Und sing' a l l e i n Allstund su deinem Ruhme; W i l l e l f r l g sein, Mich d i r zu weihn Und deinem Duldertume. Frau auserlesen, Zu d i r steht a l l mein Boffen, Mein innerst Wesen 1st a l l e z e i t d i r offen. Komm, mich zu lBsen Vom Fluch des B6*sen, Der mich so hart betroffen! Du Stern der See, Su Port der Wonnen, Von der im Web. Die Wunden B e l l gewonnen, Eh' Ich vergeh, Blick' aus der Bb*h, Du KSnlgin der Sonnen! Nie kann versiegen Die FOlle delner Gnaden; Du h i l f s t zum Siegen Dem, der mit Schmach beladen. An dich sich schmlegen, Zu deinen FQssen liegen He l i t a l i e n Barm und Schaden. Ich leide schwer Und wohlverdiente Strafen. Mir bangt so sehr Bald Todesschlaf zu schlafen. T r l t t du einher. Und durch daa Meer 0 future mich zum Bafen! No. 2: (attributed to Nicolas NuSez; Die du Gott gebarst, du Belne, Und allelne Uns gelSs't aus unsern Ketten, Kach mich frtthlich, der Ich waine, Denn nur deine Huld und Gnade mag una retten. Herr i n , ganz zu d i r mich wende, Daes sich ende Diese Qual und dlesea Grauen, Dass der Tod mich furchtlos fSnde, Und nicht blende Mich das Licht der Himmelsauen. Well du unbefleckt geboren, Auaerkoren Zu dea ew'gan Ruhmes Stfitten — Wie mich Leiden auch umfloren, Unverloren Bin Ich doch, v i l l a t du mich retten. Now I am yours. Flower of a l l flowers, And sing solely At a l l times to your praise; I w i l l be zealous, Dedicate myself to you And to your sufferance. Lady elect, In you i s a l l my hope, My innermost being Is forever open to you. Come, free me From the curse of the E v i l One Who hae so sore a f f l i c t e d me! Star of the Seay Haven of delights, From whom, i n agony, The a f f l i c t e d have found salvation, Before I pass away, Look from on high. Queen of Suns! Never can the abundance Of your mercy be exhausted; Tou help towards triumph Bim who i s laden with shame. To c l i n g to you, To l i e at your feet, Beals a l l Infirmity and grief. X suffer severe And well-merited punishments. I am i n great fear Of sleeping soon death's sleep. Come forth, And through the sea, Bring me to the harbour! German trans, by Heyse) You who bore God, Pure One, And alone Delivered us from our chains, Make me, who weep, glad, For only your Grace and mercy can deliver us. Lady, I turn to you, That this torment and dread May cease, That death may-find me unafraid, And I be not blinded By the l i g h t of the Heavenly Pastures. Because you were born Immaculate, Chosen For abodes of eternal glory — However much veiled i n sorrow, I am not l o s t , I f you w i l l deliver me. So. 38 (attributed to Ocana; German trans, by Geibel) "Der heilige Joseph singe" "Saint Joseph sings" Hon wandre, Maria, Nun wandre nur f o r t . Schon krShen die HShne, Und nah 1st der Ort. Nun wandre, Geliebte, Du Kleinod mein, Und balde wir werden In Bethlehem sein. Dann ruhest du fei n Und schlummerst dort. Schon krShen die HShne, Und nah i s t der Ort. Wohl eeh i c h , Herrin, Die Kraft d i r schwinden; Kann deine Schmerzen Ach, kaum verwinden. Getrost! Wohl flnden Wir Herberg dort. Schon krShen die HShne, Und nah i s t der Ort. WSr' erst beatanden Dein Stflndlein, Marie, Die gute Botschaft Gut lohnt' ich s i e . Das Eselein hie ' GaV ich drum f o r t ! Schon krShen die HShne, Hah i s t der Ort. No. A; (attributed to Lope Go on, Mary, Go on. The cocks are crowing, And the place Is near. Go on, beloved, My jewel, And soon s h a l l we be In Bethlehem. Then sh a l l you rest And slumber there. The cocks are crowing, And the place i s near. I see s e l l , Lady, Tour strength i s waning; tour pains I cannot, Alas, subdue. Take heart! We s h a l l find Lodging there. The cocks are crowing, And the place i s near. Would i t were over, Mary, your hour, Those good tidings Would I reward well. The donkey here Would I give for that! The cocks are crowing, Come! The place i s near. de Vega'; German trans, by Geibel) Die ihr schwebet Urn diese Palmen In Nacht und Wind, Ihr hell'gen Engel, S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein Kind. Ihr Palmen von Bethlehem' Im Windesbrausen, Wie rnBgt ihr heute So zornig sausen'. 0 rauscht nicht also! -Schwelget, neiget Euch l e t s ' und l i n d ; S t i l l e t die Wipfel*. Es schlummert mein Kind. Der Himmelsknabe Duldet Beschwerde, Ach, wie so mUd* er ward Vom Leid der Erde. Ach nun im Schlaf ihm Leise gesanftigt Die Qual zerrinnt, S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein Kind. Grimmige KSlte Sauset hernieder,. Vomit nur deck' ich Des Kindleins Glieder! 0 a l l i h r Engel, Die ihr geflflgelt Wandelt im Wind, S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein Kind. You who hover About these palms. In night and wind, Holy Angels, Silence their leaves! My child i s asleep. Palms of Bethlehem In blustering wind, How can you today So angrily blow! Oh, roar not so! Be s t i l l , bow Softly and gently; Silence the leaves! My c h i l d i s asleep. The Son of Heaven Is suffering; Ah, so t i r e d has He grown Of earth's sorrows. Ah, now i n sleep Gently softened, The pain melts away. Silence the leaves! My child i s asleep. Fierce cold Comes rushing; With what s h a l l X cover The l i t t l e child's limbs! Oh, a l l you Angels Who winged Travel on the wind, Silence the leaves! My child i s asleep. No. 5: (Anonymous; German trans, by Heyse) F3hr mien, Kind, nach Bethlehem! Dich, mein Gott, dich w i l l ich sehn. Wem gelling' es, wem, Ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn! Rattle mich, dass ich erwache, Kufe mich, so w i l l ich achreiten; Gib die Hand mir, mich zu l e i t e n , Dass ich auf den Weg mich mache. Dass ich schaue Bethlehem, Dorten meinen Gott zu sehn. Wem gelSng' es, vem, Ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn! Von der SOnde schwereu Krsnken Bin ich trSg' und dumpf bekotmnen. W i l l a t du nicht zu llttlfe kommen, Huss ich straucheln, muss ich schwanken. Laite mich nach Bethlehem, Dich, mein Gott, dich w i l l ich sehn. Wem gelSng' es, wem, Ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn! Lead me, c h i l d , to Bethlehem! You, my God, You w i l l I see. Who, who could Come to You without your aid! Shake me, so that I awake, C a l l me, and X w i l l go; Give me your hand to guide me, That X may set out upon the way. That X may see Bethlehem, There to see my God. Who, who could Come to You without your aid! By the grievous sickness of s i n X am deeply and darkly oppressed. Xf you w i l l not come to my aid, X must stumble, X must stagger. Guide me to Bethlehem, You, my God, You w i l l X see. Who, who could Come to You without your aid! 6: . (attributed to Lopez de Ubeda; German trans, by Heyse) Ach, des Knaben Augen sind Mir so schSn und klar ers'chienen, Und ein Etwas strahlt aus ihnen, Das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt. B l i c k t ' er doch mit diesen sttssen Augen nach den meinen hin! SSh' er dann sein B i l d darin, WBrd' er wohl mich liebend grtissen. Und so geb' ich ganz mich hin, Seinen Augen nur zu dienen, Denn ein Etwas strahlt aus ihnen, Das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt. Ah, the Infant's eyes, So beautiful and clear they seemed, And from them something shines That captures a l l my heart. For with those sweet eyes He looks at mine! Xf He then saw His image there, Lovingly would He greet me. And so I give myself wholly To serving only His eyes. For from them something shines That captures a l l my heart. (attributed to Don Manuel del Rio; actually an o r i g i n a l German poem by Geibel) Miihvoll komm' ich und beladen, Nimm mich an, du Hort der Gnaden! Sieh, ich komm' i n TxSnen heiss Mit demfitiger Gebitrde, Dunkel ganz vom Staub der Erde. Du nur achaffest, dass i c h welss Wie das Vliess der LSmmer werde. Tilgen w i - l s t du j a den Schaden Dem, der reuig dich umfasst; Himm denn, Herr, von mir die Last, Miihvoll komm' ich und beladen. Lass mich flehend vor d i r knie'n, Dass ich iiber deine Fiisse Nardenduft and TrSnen giesse, Gleich dem Weib, dem du'verziehn, Bis die Schuld wie Rauch zarfliesse. Der den SchScher du geladen: "Heute noch i n Edens Bann Wirst du sein!" o nimm mich an. Himm mich an, du Hort der Gnaden! In t o i l I come, and heavy laden, Raceiva me, Refuge of Mercy! See, with burning tears X come, Bowed i n humility. Dark with the dust of earth. You alone can make me white As lamb's fleece. W i l l i n g l y w i l l You efface the wrong Of him who embraces You, repentant; Take then, Lord, the burden from me In t o i l X come, and heavy laden. Let me kneel before You, pleading, That over Your feet X may pour tears and scent of nard, Like the woman You forgave, U n t i l my g u i l t i s dispersed l i k e vapour. You who told the thief: "Today i n Paradise s h a l l you be!" oh, receive me. Receive me, Refuge of Mercy! No. 8: (Anonymous; German trans, by Geibel) Ach, vie lang die Seele schlummert! Zeit i s t ' s , dass sie sich ermuntre. Dass man tot sie wShnen dtirfte, Also schlSft sie achwer und bang, Seit sie jener Rausch bezwang, Den im SUndeagift sie schlflrfte. Doch nun ihrer Sehnsucht Licht Blendend ihr ins Auge bricht: Zeit i s t ' s , dass sie sich ermuntre. Ah, how long the soul slumbers! Ie i s time i t roused i t s e l f . So that one may think i t dead, Heavily and f e a r f u l l y i t sleeps, Overcome by intoxication, Drunk i n the venom of s i n . But now the.-.lightiof itsilongingr". : Breaks blindingly into the eyes: I t i s time i t roused i t s e l f . Mochte sie gleich taub ersheinen Bei der Engel sussem Chor: Lauscht sie doch wohl zag empor, HBrt sie Gott als Kindlein weinen. Da nach langer Schlummernacht Solch ein Tag der Gnad' ihr lacht, Zeit i s t ' s , dass sie sich ermuntre. Though i t may have seemed deaf To the sweet choir of angels, S t i l l timidly i t pricks i t s ears, Hearing God cry as a l i t t l e c h i l d . As, after i t s long night of slumber, Such a day of mercy w i l l smile on i t I t i s time i t roused i t s e l f . No. 9: (Anonymous; German trans, by Heyse) Herr, was t r l g t der Boden hier-, Den du trankst so b i t t e r l i c h ? "Dornen, liebea Hers, fur mich, Und fu"r dich der Blumen Zier." Ach, wo solche Ba*che rinnen, Wird ein Garten da gedeihn? "Ja, und wisse! KrSnzelein, Gar verschiedne, f l i c h t man drlnnen." 0 mein Herr, zu wessen Zier Windet man die Kranze? spricht "Die von Dornen sind fur mich, Die von Blumen reich' ich d i r . " . Lord, what does the s o i l bear here, Which You water so bi t t e r l y ? "Thorns, dear heart, for me, And for you adorning flower**" Ah, where such brooks run, Shall a garden fl o u r i s h there? "Yes, and know! Wreaths Shall be woven there, i n great variety." Oh my Lord, for whose adornment W i l l the wreaths be woven? Say! "Those of thorns are for me, Those of flowers I give to you." No. 10: (attributed to JosS de Valdivivielso; German trans, by Geibel)! Wunden trSgst du, mein Geliebter, tJnd sie schmerzen dich; TrQg' ich sie statt deiner, Ich! Herr, wer wagt' es, so zu fgrban Deine Stirn mit Blut und Schweiss? "Diese Male sind der Preis, Dich, o Seele, zu erwerben. An den Wunden muss Ich sterben, Well ich dich geliebt so heiso." KSnnt' i c h , Herr, fu*r dich sie tragen, Da es Todeswunden sind. "Wenn dies Leid dich ruhrt, mein Kind, Magst du Lebenswunden sagen: Ihrer keine ward geechlagen, Draus fur dich nicht Leben rin n t . " Ach, wie mir i n Herz und Sinnen Deine Quel so wehe tut! "HHrtres noch mit treuem Mut TrGg' ich froh, dich zu gewinnen; Denn nur der weiss recht zu minnen, Der da s t l r b t vor Liebesglut." Wunden trSgst du, mein Geliebter, Und sie schmerzen dich; TrSg' ich sie s t a t t deiner, i c h ! Wounds you bear, my beloved, And they cause you pain; Would I bore them i n your stead, I! Lord, who dares so to stain Your brow with blood and sweat? "Theoe marks are the price Of winning you, oh Soul. Of these wounds must I die, Por loving you so ardently." Would I might bear them for you, Lord, since they are mortal wounds. " I f this sorrow touch you, my c h i l d You may c a l l them l i v i n g wounds: Not one was made, from which L i f e does not flow .for you." Ah, how my heart and mind l a tormented by your pain! "Even more hardships, with true courage, Would I gladly.bear, to win you; For only he knows perfectly how to love Who there dies for love." Wounds you bear, my beloved. And they cause you pain; Would I bore them i n your stead, I! 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096604/manifest

Comment

Related Items