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On performing Wolf : problems inherent in the Geistliche Lieder from the Spanisches Liederbuch Kuhl, Margaret Louise 1984

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ON PERFORMING WOLF:  '  PROBLEMS INHERENT IN THE "GEISTLICHE LIEDER" FROM THE SPANISCHES LIEDERBUCH By MARGARET LOUISE KUHL B . M u s W i l f r i d Laurier University, 1976 s  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1984 © Margaret Louise Kuhl, 1984  <£y}'e.C><U.  '•I  GRADUATION VOICE RECITAL By MARGARET LOUISE KUHL assisted by HEATHER ENGLISH B.Mus., W i l f r i d Laurier University, 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1982 © Margaret Louise Kuhl , 1982  >E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree t h a t for  understood that for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  be  shall  g r a n t e d by  not  be  Q  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  (3/81)  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  the  representatives. publication  the  University  the  p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  scholarly  in partial  written  A B S T R A C T  ON PERFORMING WOLF: PROBLEMS INHERENT IN THE "GEISTLICHE LIEDER" FROM THE SPANISCHES LIEDERBUCH  By Margaret Louise Kuhl  Chairman:  Professor William E. Benjamin  The D.M.A. thesis includes three f u l l solo r e c i t a l s : 25 January 1982 —  works by Haydn, Brahms, Debussy, and Argento (accompanist Heather English)  11 A p r i l 1983 —  works by Schubert, Wolf, Berg, Poulenc, and B r i t t e n (accompanist Terence Dawson)  13 February 1984 —  works by Schiitz, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Mussorgsky, and Montsalvatge (accompanists Terence Dawson and Ed Norman).  The f i n a l requirement consists of a document and an accompanying l e c t u r e - r e c i t a l , examining problems for the performer inherent i n the ten "Geistliche Lieder" from Hugo Wolf's Spanisches Liederbuch. I propose that the presentation of these songs as a complete cycle of ten does not enhance their emotional impact.  A solution to this problem i s  for the performer to extract and rearrange groups of songs that are dramatically convincing and have the momentum of a small-scale cycle. Two groups that work well i n this regard are:  ii  iii  No. 3, "Nun wandre, Maria,",No. 4, "Die i h r schwebet," No. 5, "Fiihr mich, Kind, nach Bethlehem!" and No. 1, "Nun bin i c h dein"; and No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden h i e r , " and No. 10, "Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter." The l a t t e r group i s discussed i n especial d e t a i l , with attention to character development, images of C h r i s t i a n suffering and pain, and harmonic and melodic structure.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF FIGURES  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vi  Part I. II. III. IV.  V.  Introduction I s the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r "  1 a Cycle?  5  No. 7, " M i i h v o l l komm' i c h und b e l a d e n "  15  No. 9, " H e r r , was t r a g t d e r Boden h i e r " and No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r "  16  Conclusion  35  FOOTNOTES  37  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  39  APPENDIX 1 ( T e x t s o f t h e " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " )  42  APPENDIX 2 (Dates and O r i g i n a l Order o f the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " ) . . .  48  APPENDIX 3 (Score o f No. 9, " H e r r , was t r a g t d e r Boden h i e r " )  ....  49  ...  51  APPENDIX 4 (Score o f No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r " ) RECITAL PROGRAMS  „  i n pocket  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  1.  No. 6, "Ach, des Knaben Augen s i n d , " mm. 17-23  8  2.  No. 3, "Nun wandre, M a r i a , " mm. 21-26  8  3.  No. 2, " D i e du Gott g e b a r s t , du R e i n e , " mm. 1-8  9  4.  No. 7, " M i i h v o l l komm' i c h und b e l a d e n , " mm. 1-8  10  5.  No. 1, "Nun b i n i c h d e i n , " mm. 31-34  10  6.  No. 5, "Fiihr m i c h , K i n d , nach Bethlehem," mm. 39-end  11  7.  No. 9, " H e r r , was t r a g t d e r Boden h i e r " —  Poetic Structure  8.  No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r V  —  9.  No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r " — Breakdown o f Harmonic S t r u c t u r e  10. 11. 12. 13.  No. 9, " H e r r , was t r a g t d e r Boden h i e r " — of Cadence P o i n t s  ...  Poetic Structure  . .  19 20  Sectional  Sectional  22 Breakdown 24  No. 9, " H e r r , was t r a g t d e r Boden h i e r , " mm. 1-10 — Harmonic Sketch  25  No. 9, " H e r r , was t r a g t d e r Boden h i e r , " mm. 1-6 — Chromatic D e s c e n d i n g 7-6 Sequence  30  No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r , " mm. 1-6 Harmonic S k e t c h  32  v  —  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o thank Dr. Robert M o r r i s and P r o f . Donald Brown f o r t h e i r generous h e l p and encouragement throughout my s t u d i e s a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I t has been a j o y t o work w i t h my a c c o m p a n i s t , P h i l i p T i l l o t s o n ; h i s i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e German L i e d have t a u g h t me f a r more than I can e v e r acknowledge. W i t h o u t t h e e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t o f C h a r l e s Smith and t h e s p i r i t u a l guidance o f H a r r y and F r a n R o b i n s o n , I c o u l d n o t have completed t h i s work. I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o m y . p r i n c i p a l , t h e s i s . a d v i s o r , D r . W i l l i a m Benjamin, f o r h i s i n s i g h t f u l a d v i c e and s t i m u l a t i n g  I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge  criticism.  the k i n d permission of C F . Peters  C o r p o r a t i o n t o i n c l u d e e x c e r p t s t a k e n from Hugo Wolf's S p a n i s c h e s L i e d e r b u c h , E d i t i o n P e t e r s No. 3149.  vi  PART I  Introduction  The  ten " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " ("Sacred Songs") from the S p a n i s c h e s  Liederbuch  by Hugo Wolf are among the l e a s t well-known of h i s songs, f o r  s e v e r a l reasons.  One  reason,  I t h i n k , i s the tendency of many p e r f o r m e r s  to shy away from d i f f i c u l t and obscure m u s i c , i n f a v o u r o f the more r e a d i l y accessible.  Another r e a s o n i s t h a t the p o e t r y i s v e r y sombre and  images of C h r i s t i a n s u f f e r i n g and  guilt.  full  There i s no q u e s t i o n of  c o l l e c t i v e d i f f i c u l t y of the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " or o f t h e i r  the  prevailing  s e r i o u s n e s s , but to i g n o r e them or pass over them i n f a v o u r of the or the l i g h t e r - v e i n e d seems a g r e a t p i t y .  of  simpler  I f n o t h i n g e l s e , the f a c t t h a t  many of the i n d i v i d u a l songs a r e so e x q u i s i t e s u g g e s t s t h a t we might l e a r n t o a p p r e c i a t e the e n t i r e s e t more. Wolf chose h i s t e x t s from the 1852 Liederbuch,  of P a u l Heyse and Emanuel G e i b e l —  a prevalent nineteenth-century sources.  c o l l e c t i o n , Das  Spanisches  a s e l e c t i o n that  continued  t r a d i t i o n of u s i n g S o u t h e r n , C l a s s i c a l  As E r i c Sams s t a t e s :  The Romantic movement i n Germany was i n s a t i a b l y a v i d f o r p o e t r y of a l l k i n d s , from a l l l a n d s . . . . A s the German p a i n t e r s had craved the c l e a r a i r and warm l i g h t o f I t a l y , so German w r i t e r s and m u s i c i a n s found t h e i r own n a t i v e a r t - f o r m s r e v i v i f i e d and i r r a d i a t e d by Southern grace and l i g h t n e s s o f rhyme and metre, melody and cadence. F u r t h e r , the i d e a s of Spanish l o c a l c o l o u r and costume, p r i d e and p a s s i o n , . . . made a p a r t i c u l a r appeal t o the l i g h t e r l y r i c p o e t s such as Emanuel G e i b e l (1815-84) and t h r o u g h them to |he g r e a t song w r i t e r s such as Schumann and l a t e r Brahms and Wolf.. Heyse and G e i b e l ' s c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e s t h i r t e e n g e i s t l i c h e (sacred) n i n e t y - n i n e w e l t l i c h e ( s e c u l a r ) poems, i n two d i s t i n c t s e t s . w r i t e music t o o n l y t e n g e i s t l i c h e and  Wolf chose to  t h i r t y - f o u r w e l t l i c h e poems, s t i l l  i n two d i s t i n c t s e t s , or perhaps c y c l e s . 1  and  2  The d i v e r s e Spanish sources t r a n s l a t e d by Heyse and G e i b e l range the f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y poet Juan R u i z , A r c h p r i e s t o f H i t a  from  (No. 1, "Nun  bin  i c h d e i n " ) to such well-known poets as the s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Lope de Vega (No. 4, "Die i h r schwebet," a l u l l a b y o f the V i r g i n Mary, which was  s e t by  2 Brahms  as w e l l as by W o l f ) .  f i d e S p a n i s h poet, however.  Not e v e r y author i n the c o l l e c t i o n was  a bona  Some poems, a l t h o u g h p r e s e n t e d as Spanish  v e r s e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o German, are b e l i e v e d to have been a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n by Heyse or G e i b e l as German o r i g i n a l s .  For example, i n the  L i e d e r , " Don Manuel d e l R i o , the p u r p o r t e d author of No. i c h und b e l a d e n , " was  "Geistliche 7, "Miihvoll komm'  a c t u a l l y G e i b e l u s i n g the name o f a S p a n i s h a n c e s t o r  3  of h i s w i f e .  Heyse used the pseudonym Don L u i s e l Chico f o r c e r t a i n poems  i n c l u d e d i n the w e l t l i c h e p o r t i o n o f the  collection.  B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " as a s e t o r c y c l e , I w i l l examine the i n d i v i d u a l songs b r i e f l y ; most o f us know a few of these songs as i n d i v i d u a l s , s i n c e they appear now combination w i t h o t h e r Wolf songs.  and then i n r e c i t a l , u s u a l l y i n  Rather than attempt  any  involved  t e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m or s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of the p o e t r y , I w i l l d e s c r i b e e t h e imagery  and emotive power o f the t e x t s .  do the poems touch the performer and the audience? or s p i r i t u a l response do they e l i c i t , of the words and rhythm? should attempt  briefly  I n o t h e r words,  how  What k i n d o f e m o t i o n a l  above and beyond the sensory  In o r d e r to s i n g and p l a y such songs,  to p e r s o n a l i z e and i n t e r n a l i z e the u n i v e r s a l  beauty  performers  sentiments  e x p r e s s e d ; o n l y then can they r e c r e a t e these sentiments f o r t h e i r audiences. No. Mary.  1, "Nun  b i n i c h d e i n , " i s a l o v e song addressed to the V i r g i n  I n i t s e x p r e s s i o n o f ardour and d e v o t i o n , i t i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f  m e d i e v a l Troubadour  and Trouvere songs, i n which c h i v a l r o u s l o v e and  s p i r i t u a l d e v o t i o n are merged, and become i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e .  The use o f  3 the f a m i l i a r "du" form signals this kind of intimacy.  No. 2, "Die du Gott  gebarst, du Reine," also focuses on the V i r g i n , exalting her purity and her position as intercessor. No. 3, "Nun wandre, Maria," a straightforward poem with a simple stanzaic structure, portrays a v i v i d picture of Mary and Joseph on the road to Bethlehem.  The humblest peasant could i d e n t i f y with and understand the  plight of the expectant mother and the concerned father who would do anything (even give up h i s donkey!) to a l l e v i a t e the pain of her coming hour.  Each stanza ends with the r e f r a i n "Schon krahen die Hahne und nah  i s t der Ort"; quite possibly the a l l u s i o n to the cock crowing i s a foreshadowing of the death of Christ.  No. 4, "Die i h r schwebet," the  l u l l a b y by de Vega mentioned above, also conveys a v i v i d scene —  one of  palm trees and wind, a poorly clad c h i l d and an anxious mother. No. 5, "Fiihr mich, Kind, nach Bethlehem!" and No. 6, "Ach, des Knaben Augen sind," both focus on Christ as Child, and are s t r u c t u r a l l y  comparable  to the preceding two songs i n their s i m p l i c i t y and use of r e p e t i t i o n . No. 5 repeats the exhortation, "Wem gelang' es, wem, ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn" ("Who, who could manage to come to you without your a i d " ) .  In No. 6,  the statement of devotion, "Und e i n Etwas s t r a h l t aus ihnen, das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt" ("For from your eyes something shines that captures a l l my heart") closes both stanzas. The seventh song, "Miihvoll komm' i c h und beladen," i s the only one attributed d i r e c t l y to a German rather than to a Spanish poet.  This poem  i s unlike the other nine, i n that i t i s based on a succession of B i b l i c a l quotations; this close adherence to B i b l i c a l sources i s more German Protestant than Spanish Catholic.  For example, "Miihvoll komm' i c h und  beladen" ("In t o i l come I, and heavy laden") brings to mind "Come unto me, a l l ye that labour and are heavy laden" (Matthew 11:28), and l a t e r "Du nur  4  s c h a f f e s t , dass i c h weiss wie das V l i e s s d e r Lammer werde" ("You a l o n e can make me white as lamb's f l e e c e " ) r e c a l l s the O l d Testament  reference,  ". . • though your s i n s be as s c a r l e t , they s h a l l be as white as snow; though they be r e d l i k e crimson, they s h a l l be as wool" There a r e as w e l l the New Testament  (Isaiah  1:18).  r e f e r e n c e s to Mary Magdalene a n o i n t i n g  the f e e t o f J e s u s , and to Jesus a d d r e s s i n g the t h i e f on the c r o s s . No.  8, "Ach, wie l a n g d i e S e e l e schlummert!"  r e f l e c t i o n and a c a l l  to r e p e n t a n c e .  s u c c e s s f u l song o f the group.  i s a kind of s p i r i t u a l  I t i s , i n my o p i n i o n , the l e a s t  The poem has a maudlin and s e n t i m e n t a l  s t r e a k , and i s s t r u c t u r e d as a t w o - f o l d p a r a l l e l i s m , d e p i c t i n g darkness f o l l o w e d by l i g h t ,  twice.  D e s p i t e t h i s c l e a r p a t t e r n , however, t h e o v e r a l l  e f f e c t i s somewhat d i s j o i n t e d and awkward; Wolf's m u s i c a l s e t t i n g these d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s — No.  b u t n o t t o the advantage  reflects  o f the song as a whole.  9, "Herr, was t r a g t d e r Boden h i e r , " and No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du  mein G e l i e b t e r , " a r e both d i a l o g u e s between Man and God, expounding on the causes f o r C h r i s t ' s d e a t h .  The d i a l o g u e o f No. 9 i s i n the form o f  q u e s t i o n and answer, and r e c a l l s the form o f o l d European c a r o l s , such as the t h i r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y L a t i n "Angelus ad V i r g i n e m , " and the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h " T h i s e n d r i s N i g h t , " as w e l l as o f the well-known m e d i e v a l mystery p l a y Everyman.  No. 10 e x p l o i t s the a n c i e n t r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e o f  inclusio  (a r e f r a i n o c c u r r i n g o n l y a t the v e r y b e g i n n i n g and the end o f a  poem) —  a d e v i c e used i n the Psalms;  i n f a c t , i t i s remarkably s i m i l a r i n  s t r u c t u r e to Psalm 8 (which a l s o frames t h r e e s t a n z a s w i t h an i n c l u s i o ) . Both o f these songs a r e d i s c u s s e d i n much g r e a t e r d e t a i l below.  PART I I  I s the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " a Cycle?  For a performer  i n constant search o f r e c i t a l m a t e r i a l , that i s ,  c o h e s i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g programs, a v i t a l q u e s t i o n i s whether the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " can be c o n s i d e r e d a performable should they be performed order?  cycle.  as an unbroken group i n Wolf's  I f we d e c i d e t h a t they a r e n o t b e s t performed  then, a r e the a l t e r n a t i v e s ?  attempting  as a c y c l e , what, perhaps,  that  nature?  I n o r d e r t o answer such q u e s t i o n s , we must f i r s t when we use the word " c y c l e . "  predetermined  Can we c r e a t e s m a l l e r groups,  have on t h e i r own some k i n d o f c y c l i c  I n o t h e r words,  c o n s i d e r what we mean  What f e a t u r e s o f a s e t o f songs a r e we  t o p i n down when we use t h a t word?  L u i s e Peake suggests  that a  song c y c l e i s : A composite form o f v o c a l music c o n s i s t i n g o f a group o f i n d i v i d u a l l y complete songs . . . I t may r e l a t e a s e r i e s o f events, or a s e r i e s o f i m p r e s s i o n s , or i t may be a group o f songs u n i f i e d bjr mood. The t e x t s may be by a s i n g l e author o r from s e v e r a l s o u r c e s . Such an a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g  s e t o f c r i t e r i a i s not r e a l l y t h a t h e l p f u l ; many  s e t s o f songs t h a t few would c o n s i d e r c y c l e s a r e i n c l u d e d , f o r example, Schubert's  Schwanengesang and many o f the Brahms opuses.  Peake, however,  goes on t o add t h a t : Each £song cycle^J i s an a r t work i n which the emotional content of each song, t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s rhythmic and dynamic momentum, i s a l l o w e d t o c a r r y over to,.the next, and t o be m u s i c a l l y prepared, developed and concluded. The key word here i s momentum — Momentum suggests movement —  e m o t i o n a l , rhythmic, and dynamic.  with a beginning  (Peake's " m u s i c a l  p r e p a r a t i o n " ) , f o l l o w e d by development,or shaping towards some k i n d o f g o a l  5  6  or c l i m a x , and f i n a l l y a  conclusion.  Three well-known song c y c l e s , Schubert's D i e schone M i i l l e r i n , and Schumann's F r a u e n l i e b e  und - l e b e n and D i c h t e r l i e b e , a l l c l e a r l y  t h i s b u i l d i n g o f momentum on d i f f e r e n t and v a r i e d l e v e l s .  illustrate  D i e schone  M i i l l e r i n d e p i c t s an a c t u a l p h y s i c a l j o u r n e y , as w e l l l a s an emotional j o u r n e y t h a t ends i n d e s p a i r  and death.  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y from youth t o m a t u r i t y flowering death. there  Frauenliebe  to death, o r , i f you l i k e ,  o f l o v e t o i t s f u l f i l l m e n t and f i n a l l y  Dichterliebe also incorporates  und - l e b e n p r o g r e s s e s  to s e p a r a t i o n  from a  through  s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f momentum;  i s a movement o f time, from s p r i n g through summer, which i s  complemented by a movement from the e c s t a c y  of love  through the b i t t e r n e s s  of h e a r t b r e a k and f i n a l l y once a g a i n t o the death o f l o v e . Music s c h o l a r s have attempted, w i t h v a r y i n g these c y c l e s and o t h e r s t h e r e  s u c c e s s , to show t h a t i n  i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e r i e s o f m u s i c a l events  t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s an ordered u n i t y .  Thomas A r c h e r proposes t h a t i n D i e  schone M i i l l e r i n : The . . . drama has i t s r i s i n g and i t s f a l l i n g a c t i o n , i t s e x p o s i t i o n , i t s c l i m a x and i t s c a t a s t r o p h e . . . . {jThe songs^] f a l l q u i t e n a t u r a l l y i n t o f i v e s e c t i o n s , two o f which a r e i n c l u d e d i n the r i s e o f the c y c l e , t h r e e i n the f a l l £ w i t h a p r e l u d e , an i n t e r l u d e , and a p o s t l u d e as wellj. . . . a n a l y z e d i n t h i s way, D i e schgne M i i l l e r i n f a l l s q u i t e n a t u r a l l y i n t o the form o f a f r e e rondo. A r c h e r attempts t o demonstrate how the m u s i c a l and p o e t i c f e a t u r e s t h i s l a r g e r d r a m a t i c and l o g i c a l A more r e c e n t ,  support  construction.  and perhaps the best-known, attempt a t t h e a n a l y s i s o f  an e n t i r e song c y c l e i s by A r t h u r Komar, on D i c h t e r l i e b e . ^ such m a t t e r s as the p r i n c i p a l images and p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e s .  Komar addresses He p o i n t s out  c e r t a i n words t h a t a r e repeated from poem to poem, and o t h e r p e r s i s t e n t verbal associations and  t o the c a t h e d r a l  (such as r e f e r e n c e s t i n s e v e r a l songs to the r i v e r Rhine a t C o l o g n e ) , as w e l l as common rhyme schemes.  7  I n a r g u i n g f o r the p u r e l y m u s i c a l coherence of these songs as a c y c l e , or an " i n t e g r a t e d m u s i c a l t o t a l i t y " as he puts i t , Komar p o s t u l a t e s t h a t a e . " c o n t r o l l i n g c o m p o s i t i o n a l p l a n must be demonstrated" f o r a l l the songs g i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r order.  He  f e e l s t h a t such a p l a n i s achieved i n  D i c h t e r l i e b e by means o f a coherent  key  scheme, m o t i v i c and  c o n t i n u i t y , and u n i t y o f rhythmic, m e l o d i c ,  and  harmonic  accompanimental  figurations. When I attempt to measure the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " by such c r i t e r i a , f i n d s e v e r a l ways i n which the songs seems to conform to a principle —  i n both the t e x t u a l and m u s i c a l domains.  h i s t o r i c a l evidence  f i r s t , however, we  cyclic  To c o n s i d e r the  can s p e c u l a t e t h a t Wolf may  heard a c y c l i c s t r u c t u r e to the s e t , s i n c e he chose o n l y t e n of  have  the  t h i r t e e n poems i n Heyse and G e i b e l ' s g e i s t l i c h e c o l l e c t i o n , l e a v i n g out l a s t three.  the  Furthermore, he a l t e r e d Heyse and G e i b e l ' s o r d e r f o r f o u r of  the songs (see Appendix 2) — present  I  i n d i c a t i n g a clear preference for t h e i r  order.  W i t h i n the s e t of t e n songs as Wolf f i n a l l y  s e t them down, the  r e p e t i t i o n o f t e x t u a l themes demonstrates a k i n d of t e x t u a l c o h e s i v e n e s s . I n n i n e out o f the t e n , r e f e r e n c e i s made to s u f f e r i n g , agony, t e a r s , or pain —  sometimes i n n e r s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r i n g a r i s i n g out of g u i l t , and  o t h e r times a c t u a l p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g and p a i n . Knaben Augen s i n d , " i s f r e e of such a l l u s i o n s .  Only No.  6, "Ach  des  ( I n t e r e s t i n g l y , of the t e n  t h i s song i s a l s o the most s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d h a r m o n i c a l l y . )  E i g h t of  songs speak of death or s l e e p ; s l e e p i n many of these i n s t a n c e s can i n t e r p r e t e d as s y m b o l i z i n g death. l i n k s two  of the songs (Nos.  The  at  i d e a of a j o u r n e y or  the be  travelling  3 and 5 ) .  T h i s t e x t u a l cohesiveness  i s complemented by a m u s i c a l u n i f o r m i t y ; i n  o t h e r words, most of the songs are obsessed  w i t h a few  specific  musical  8  g e s t u r e s , many o f which can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p e r v a s i v e theme o f suffering.  The  t e x t i s f o r the most p a r t d e c l a i m e d on a d r o n e - l i k e  r e p e t i t i o n o f o n l y a few p i t c h e s , w i t h m e t i c u l o u s a t t e n t i o n t o p r o p e r word rhythm and  s t r e s s (see F i g u r e s 1 and  F i g u r e 1;  No.  2 ) ; the e f f e c t i s t h a t o f  6, A c h , des'Knaben Augen s i n d , " mm.  17-23  M  Und IO  geb__  •ei-nes Aa - gen—  ich guix mich hin,  AM those «jrtfs_ my heart eon-tote,Oumkt to Thee, lord,.  nur  su  die  ncn  ;  I mould rem den  F i g u r e 2:  No.  3, "Nun  denn ein  Et  -  wma strthlt  their heav** - If  wandre, M a r i a , " mm.  aua  glow  21-26  ih  inf  next,  9  psalmodizing.  D e v i a t i o n from these repeated p i t c h e s i s u s u a l l y by  step or whole-step. level  Heightened  (see F i g u r e 2 ) .  emotion i s demonstrated by a h i g h e r  There are few l a r g e l e a p s .  t h e r e a t r a c e of the l i g h t e r ,  halfpitch  Nowhere i n t h i s s e t i s  t u n e f u l s t y l e of Wolf's l o v e songs or  Marchenlieder. Another p e r v a s i v e m u s i c a l element i s the h i g h l y chromatic accompaniment.  The  c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g harmonies c o l o u r the a d m i t t e d l y  o f t e n l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g melody. piano a p p o g g i a t u r a s immediately,  The most s t r i k i n g d i s s o n a n c e s  a g a i n s t harmonies i n the p i a n o ; some o f these r e s o l v e  o t h e r s o n l y a f t e r e l a b o r a t e e x t e n s i o n and  F i g u r e s 3 and  4).  are v o c a l and  p r o l o n g a t i o n (see  Such m o t i v i c appoggiaturas had been r h e t o r i c a l l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r i e f and s u f f e r i n g by composers from the Baroque to the l a t e nineteenth century Matthauspassion;  F i g u r e 3:  No.  »ir v  Dt* Thau  -a..  H  J  "Nun  seh' i c h wohl" from  , . M J  r  M r J  hi  four  • b«Ml, Smv-  us  from our  >— J  ^  du • ieur  R«iJt-  - •«,. na,  ' U  i> Y  i ~ i  No.  19  from  Kindertotenlieder).  J  J .. J J y~i 0 ,.  Lu  . *W»w  Reu",  2, "Die du Gott g e b a r s t , du Reine," mm.  Gott borll  du wKo J  Mahler's  if"  r  -j  (e.g. Bach's A r i a "Buss und  1-8 1  j~i J  r und tidmi  ,,  r  ,o  tlrt .  i -  r> . .  10  I n the d e t a i l e d comparison  o f the l a s t two  songs, Nos.  9 and  10,  below, these a s p e c t s o f melody and harmony w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t e r length. T h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h s u f f e r i n g , i . e . chromaticism, i s countered o n l y twice by an acknowledgement o f grace and h e a l i n g . conspicuous s h i f t relief  to d i a t o n i c harmony, which comes as b r i e f but sweet  (see F i g u r e s 5 and 6 ) .  F i g u r e 5:  No.  In both c a s e s , we  1, "Nun  b i n i c h d e i n , " mm.  31-34  find  11  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s p i t e o f these l i n k i n g thematic t h r e a d s , t h e one e s s e n t i a l element In  o f a song c y c l e seems t o be m i s s i n g —  namely, momentum.  f a c t , the o b s e s s i v e r e p e t i t i o n o f a few t e x t u a l and m u s i c a l themes  p r e c l u d e s any p r o g r e s s i o n from one sentiment t o another, o r from one a t t i t u d e to another.  Such extreme c o h e s i v e n e s s verges on monotony.  The  u n v a r y i n g sentiment and a t t i t u d e o f the r e m o r s e f u l , g u i l t - r i d d e n Man i n h i s r e l a t i o n to God produces to  energize.  a s t a t i c tableau that i s d i f f i c u l t  f o r a performer  F o r t h a t r e a s o n , I f e e l t h a t s i n g i n g these t e n songs as a Q  c y c l e i s not the most p e r s u a s i v e way t o p r e s e n t them. However, w i t h i n the s e t t h e r e i s a wealth o f m a t e r i a l t o be u t i l i z e d , perhaps  i n s m a l l e r groups  t h a t do have d r a m a t i c shape and momentum.  way o f c o n s t r u c t i n g such groups the songs. first  I propose  i s by means o f a t e x t u a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f  t h a t these t e n poems f i t i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s .  These poems d e p i c t Man i n an agony o f c a v  c o n t r i t i o n , h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f human f a l l i b i l i t y ,  and h i s d e s p e r a t e p r a y e r  the i n t e r v e n t i o n , through grace, o f e i t h e r the V i r g i n Mary o r C h r i s t . In  the second  tormented is  The  group, No. 1, 2, and 7 through 10, c o n s i s t s o f the i n t r o s p e c t i v e , t h e  complex, and the m y s t i c a l .  for  One  group,  the emphasis s h i f t s away from the l o n g i n g s o f a  s o u l t o the e x t e r i o r w o r l d .  Instead of i n t e r i o r anguish, there  a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e a l events i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p o r t r a y a l o f the  12  Holy F a m i l y .  In these songs, Nos.  even though we  3-6, J e s u s i s shown as an i n n o c e n t c h i l d ,  sense an ominous foreshadowing  i n t h i s group a r e those w i t h simple r e f r a i n  of h i s d e a t h .  The  f o u r songs  structures.  There a r e any number of v i a b l e combinations o f songs from these categories.  The  two  s i m p l e s t two combinations a r e e x t e r n a l songs f o l l o w e d by  i n t e r n a l , and i n t e r n a l f o l l o w e d by e x t e r n a l . t h a t works r a t h e r w e l l i s a group  One  such simple  c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r songs:  songs, Nos.  3 and 4, f o l l o w e d by e i t h e r No.  f i n a l l y No.  1 ( i n t e r n a l ) as a c o n c l u s i o n .  5 or No. The  combination two  external  6 as a t r a n s i t i o n ,  and  i d e a o f a j o u r n e y or a  p r o g r e s s i o n i n time l i n k s these f o u r songs, and g i v e s t h i s combination a special  significance.  T h i s j o u r n e y b e g i n s b e f o r e the b i r t h o f J e s u s , w i t h No. M a r i a , " on the road to Bethlehem.  The  3, "Nun  wandre  c o n s t a n t e i g h t h - n o t e p a t t e r n i n the  r i g h t hand of the piano suggests the motion o f the t r a v e l e r s , as does the rhythmic f i g u r e o f a d o t t e d q u a r t e r f o l l o w e d by an e i g h t h i n the bass. Between No. i n No.  3 and No.  4, the b i r t h has taken p l a c e , and we hear Mary  4, "Die i h r schwebet," i m p l o r i n g the a n g e l s to q u i e t e n the r u s t l i n g  t r e e t o p s i n o r d e r t h a t her babyymight s l e e p . throughout, b e g i n n i n g i n E minor and  No.  3 i s i n the key of E  ending i n E m a j o r . ^  No.  4 starts  and  ends i n E major, but i s never i n any one key f o r more than a few measures. Thus the songs a r e l i n k e d by the common key o f E, but have u t t e r l y , d i f f e r e n t harmonic c h a r a c t e r s . I suggest e i t h e r No.  5 or No.  of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y w i t h No.  3.  6 to f o l l o w these two,  Both No.  5 and No.  i n p a r t because fif  6, however, would be  e x c e s s i v e ; two a d j a c e n t songs so s i m i l a r to one another, no matter  how  l o v e l y they a r e , tend to undermine each o t h e r ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Which to i n c l u d e , No.  5 or No.  6?  No.  6, w i t h no a l l u s i o n to  s u f f e r i n g , i s the most p o s i t i v e and o p t i m i s t i c o f a l l the songs.  It is a  13  song o f d e d i c a t i o n and d e v o t i o n . text.  There a r e two ways of i n t e r p r e t i n g i t s  I f we imagine the speaker to be Mary, then the scene i s one o f  utmost i n t i m a c y between mother, and c h i l d , and the song s e r v e s as a d i r e c t l i n k w i t h Mary as the young mother o f No. 4. i n t e r p r e t e d as the d e v o t i o n o f Man  However, i t can a l s o be  the d i s c i p l e , who  gives himself  w h o l e h e a r t e d l y to C h r i s t :  "Und  ganzes Herz gewinnt" ("And  so I g i v e m y s e l f c o m p l e t e l y  whole h e a r t has been won"). Man who  speaks i n No.  . . . because my  Thus t h i s song a c t s as a l i n k to the u n i v e r s a l  1, which  E q u a l l y s t r o n g arguments group.  so geb' i c h ganz mich h i n . . . i|dassij©mein  follows. s e r v e f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f No. 5 i n t h i s  A g a i n , the c h a r a c t e r o f the speaker can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n two ways.  There i s perhaps a more c o m p e l l i n g n a r r a t i v e o r d e r i f the speaker i s thought to be one o f the Wise Men;  "Fiihr mich, K i n d , nach Bethlehem" can  then be i n t e r p r e t e d , l i t e r a l l y , as "Lead me, may  see my God"]."  The f i g u r a t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y to No.  a c t u a l journey, r e i n f o r c e s that viewpoint. be taken as an extended metaphor, or walk w i t h you — by  c h i l d , to Bethlehem £that I  t h a t I may  that i s ,  3, which d e p i c t s an  On the o t h e r hand, the poem can "Lead me,  findiimy God."  c h i l d , on a p i l g r i m a g e  Thus, No. 5 can a l s o be sung  Everyman. I have no p r e f e r e n c e f o r e i t h e r No. 5 or No. 6 on t e x t u a l grounds,  therefore.  However, No. 6 i s i n the same key as No. 1 (F m a j o r ) ; on those  p u r e l y m u s i c a l grounds, No. 5 ( i n A major) seems p r e f e r a b l e f o r t h i s particular  group.  The t h r e e songs a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d s u f f i c e on t h e i r own group —  a k i n d of m i n i - N a t i v i t y pageant.  to make a l o v e l y  However, I f i n d i t most e f f e c t i v e  to c o n t i n u e the j o u r n e y of Nos. 3, 4, and 5, from the r e a l w o r l d i n t o the soul.  For t h a t reason,, I want to f o l l o w t h a t group w i t h a t l e a s t one o f the  i n t e r n a l songs.  The b e g i n n i n g o f No. 1, "Nun b i n i c h d e i n " ("Now  I am  14  y o u r s " ) , s u g g e s t s the c o m p l e t i o n of a s p i r i t u a l odyssey begun by the r e a l h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s of Nos. 3 and 4.  In addition,  the S p a n i s h C a t h o l i c M a r i a n  theme of No. 1 complements and b a l a n c e s the c e n t r a l Nos. 3 and  r o l e of the V i r g i n i n '  4.  As a r e s u l t of the p l a c e t h a t Wolf a s s i g n e d to t h i s song — of the s e t —  the  first  i t s opening word l a c k s an a n t e c e d e n t ; t h e r e i s n o t h i n g  p r e c e d i n g "Nun  b i n i c h d e i n " t o which the "now"  end o f t h i s group, "now"  may  refer.  However, a t the  s i g n i f i e s the r e s u l t , perhaps the end r e s u l t , of  the p r e c e d i n g s o n g s . N o w , a f t e r w i t n e s s i n g t h i s h i s t o r i c a l j o u r n e y , t h e speaker has committed  h i m s e l f to God through the V i r g i n , and  intercession  to a l l e v i a t e h i s  w i t h God  suffering.  begsaher  PART I I I  No. 7, II'Muhvoll komm' i c h und beladen'II  Two  noted Wolf s c h o l a r s , Frank Walker and E r i k Werba, agree t h a t No. 7,  "Muhvoll komm' i c h und b e l a d e n , " i s the f i n e s t and the most worthy o f a t t e n t i o n o f the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r .  II  12  As Werba s t a t e s , based on h i s wide  e x p e r i e n c e both as m u s i c o l o g i s t and accompanist: G-Moll, d i e Mozart-Tonart des L e i d e s , k e n n z e i c h n e t den e r r e g e n d s t e n g e i s t l i c h e n Gesang: "Muhvoll komm i c h und b e l a d e n . " H i e r i s t d i e Spannung f a s t u n e r t r a g l i c h , b i s s i e ^ c h i n dem B-DurS c h r e i "0 nimm mich an, Du Hort d e r Gnaden" l o s t . (G minor, Mozart's key f o r sorrow, c h a r a c t e r i z e s the most e x c i t i n g s a c r e d song, "Muhvoll komm i c h und b e l a d e n . " Here the t e n s i o n i s almost u n b e a r a b l e , u n t i l i t r e s o l v e s i n the B - f l a t - m a j o r ^ r e l a t i v e major o f G minorj[ c r y , "0 a c c e p t me, Thou r e f u g e o f grace.") T h i s t e n s i o n i s c r e a t e d by d i s s o n a n c e , chromaticism, and an u n r e l e n t i n g rhythmic  motive:  There i s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p e r f o r m i n g t h i s song by i t s e l f , it  i s rather d i f f e r e n t  from the o t h e r n i n e songs:  as noted e a r l i e r ,  since it is  the o n l y one by a German author, and i t i s the o n l y one t o use a p r i m a r i l y B i b l i c a l text.  I t s N o r t h e r n , P r o t e s t a n t s e n s i b i l i t y does n o t f i t  p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l w i t h any o f the o t h e r , t h o r o u g h l y Spanish songs. it  However,  i s so l o v e l y t h a t no p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " should be  without i t .  15  PART IV  No. 9, " H e r r , was t r a g t d e r Boden h i e r " and  No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r "  I am n o t the f i r s t t o r e g a r d t h e l a s t two songs o f t h e " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r , " No. 9, " H e r r , was t r a g t d e r Boden h i e r , " and No. 10, "Wunden 1  t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r , " as somehow b e l o n g i n g t o g e t h e r . transcribed  Igor  Stravinsky  them as a p a i r , f o r chamber ensemble; those 1968 t r a n s c r i p t i o n s 14  are g e n e r a l l y  r e g a r d e d as e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y moving.  What i s i t about t h e s e two songs t h a t l i n k s them so c l o s e l y ? Textually, and  b o t h songs a r e d i a l o g u e s engaging t h e same two c h a r a c t e r s ,  Christ.  Man  I n b o t h songs, t h e c h a r a c t e r s d i s p l a y t h e same a t t i t u d e s :  Man i s c o n t r i t e and r e m o r s e f u l ; C h r i s t i s c o n s o l i n g  and l o v i n g , and  acknowledges s u f f e r i n g as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f h i s l o v e . There i s no n a r r a t i v e , i n t h e sense o f s t o r y - t e l l i n g , as i n songs No. 3 and No. 4, and l i t t l e e x t e r n a l m o t i o n on t h e p a r t o f e i t h e r speaker. The  d i s c o u r s e c e n t r e s around t h e o l o g i c a l , m y s t i c a l , and i n t a n g i b l e m a t t e r s .  The  poems d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h paradox:  g l o r y , of the n a t u r a l to  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s u f f e r i n g to  to the supernatural,  o f death t o l i f e ,  and o f wounds  healing. I n No. 9, t h e d i a l o g u e i s c l o a k e d by a c o n s i s t e n t  use o f metaphor.  Images a r e l i n k e d and i n t e r w o v e n i n t o a composite p i c t u r e .  Images o f e a r t h  or s o i l l e a d t o t h e w a t e r i n g o f t h e e a r t h , which produces t h o r n s and flowers. garden.  W a t e r i n g then t a k e s t h e form o f streams, from w h i c h grow a From t h e f r u i t s o f t h e garden a r e woven g a r l a n d s and w r e a t h s o f  t h o r n s and f l o w e r s .  On t h e one hand a r e images o f g r i e f , s u f f e r i n g , and 16  17  d e a t h ; the w a t e r i n g i s done w i t h t e a r s , the s o i l b e a r s t h o r n s ( p a i n ) , the  and  t h o r n s a r e made i n t o a wreath t h a t f i g u r e s i n the a c t u a l s u f f e r i n g and  death o f C h r i s t upon the c r o s s .  On the o t h e r hand  are images o f beauty,  growth, and l i f e ; water i s a source of l i f e w i t h o u t which a garden cannot grow, a garden growing from f r u i t f u l  s o i l produces f l o w e r s as w e l l as  t h o r n s , and from f l o w e r s a r e woven g a r l a n d s to be worn by In  No. 10, images  question — wounds —  Man.  are r e p l a c e d by the c o n c r e t e naming o f the i s s u e s i n  wounds, p a i n , b l o o d , and sweat — namely, the g i v i n g of l i f e ,  and the winning o f Man's s o u l .  and the causes f o r those  the d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f u l t i m a t e l o v e ,  By means then of moving from the  m e t a p h o r i c a l to the c o n c r e t e t h e r e i s both a l i n k and a p r o g r e s s i o n between No.  9 and No.  10.  There i s a l s o a development a t t i t u d e s toward h i m s e l f — paradoxical.  between No.  a development  I n the former, Man  9 and No.  10 i n Man's  that at f i r s t  seems to be  seems not to have the courage to name  h i m s e l f as " i c h , " a l t h o u g h he c a l l s C h r i s t " H e r r " ("Lord") and uses the second-person f a m i l i a r form o f "du." between Man  and God  D e s p i t e the h i e r a r c h i c a l  that t h i s implies —  difference  a d i f f e r e n c e so great t h a t  i s no p o i n t a t which an e m o t i o n a l c l o s e n e s s can be e s t a b l i s h e d — a sense of genuine communication  I n the l a t t e r ,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  and C h r i s t seems c l o s e r , by v i r t u e o f the f a c t t h a t  addresses C h r i s t both as " H e r r " and as "mein G e l i e b t e r " refers directly  to h i m s e l f as " i c h . "  a s s e r t i n g some sense of e q u a l i t y .  there i s  (or d i a l o g u e ) between them, as the  q u e s t i o n and answer format i n d i c a t e s . between Man  there  Man  ("my  Man  beloved") and  has seemingly grown c l o s e r by  He s p e c i f i e s h i s r o l e , or r a t h e r what he  wishes h i s r o l e c o u l d be, i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between h i m s e l f and  Christ:  " t r i i g i c h s i e s t a t t d e i n e r , i c h " ("would t h a t I_ c a r r i e d £your wounds^) f o r you").  C h r i s t ' s response, which i n essence i s t h a t Man  content himself  18  w i t h the r o l e o f r e c e i v e r , goes unheeded.  I n No. 10, t h e r e i s much l e s s  sense o f genuine communication; Man's s t r u g g l e f o r independence, though l e a d i n g to a more developed actually resulted No. 9 no l o n g e r The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between him and C h r i s t , has  i n estrangement and d i s t a n c e .  The simple h i e r a r c h y o f  exists.  poems have s i m i l a r f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s .  Both have t h r e e s t a n z a s ;  No. 10, however, as a l r e a d y mentioned, has an a d d i t i o n a l opening and closing refrain  (see F i g u r e s 7 and 8 ) .  I n No. 9, the d i a l o g u e i s d i v i d e d e q u a l l y i n t o a l t e r n a t i n g exchanges. for  two-line  The m u s i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s o f the song match those o f the t e x t ;  every t w o - l i n e statement,  t h e r e i s a four-measure m u s i c a l segment.  The  c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between q u e s t i o n s and answers i s s i g n a l l e d by the same rhyme scheme i n each f o u r - l i n e s t a n z a meter suggests language —  (ab-ba).  The u n v a r y i n g t r o c h a i c  t h a t Man and C h r i s t a r e speaking  i n one and the same  i n o t h e r words, t h a t t h e r e i s genuine communication between  them. The  t e s s i t u r a o f the v o c a l l i n e i n No. 9 c r e a t e s a c l e a r  between the two c h a r a c t e r s .  distinction  The v o c a l l i n e o f Man's u t t e r a n c e s l i e s a t a  h i g h e r l e v e l than t h a t o f C h r i s t ' s , and dangerously r e g i s t e r break f o r most s i n g e r s . m a i n t a i n a c o n t r o l l e d and easy  hovers  around a  I t i s t h e r e f o r e much more d i f f i c u l t to  tone, e s p e c i a l l y because o f the c h a n t - l i k e  i n s i s t e n c e on and r e p e t i t i o n o f c e r t a i n tones s i g n i f y a d e l i b e r a t e choice of v o c a l colour —  (C-sharp, D, and E ) .  I t may  one t h a t i s n o t easy and  c o m f o r t a b l e but t h a t r e p r e s e n t s i n s t e a d Man's anguish and torment.  The  c o n t r a s t w i t h C h r i s t ' s r e p l i e s i s marked; the t e s s i t u r a i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower and r e s t s i n the c o m f o r t a b l e middle  register.  T h i s , t o o , may be an  i n d i c a t i o n o f the p a r t i c u l a r t o n e - c o l o u r Wolf imagined  —  c o m f o r t i n g sound, which i s a l s o i n keeping w i t h the t e x t .  a warmer, more  19  F i g u r e 7:  No.  9, "Herr, was  t r a g t der Boden h i e r " —  Poetic  Number of Rhyme 3 ^ S y l l a b l e s  Structure  Measures of Music  (2 mm. 1(M) H e r r , was  t r a g t der Boden h i e r ,  Den du t r a n k s t so b i t t e r l i c h ?  a  4  (mm.  3-6)  4  (mm.  7-10)  b  1(C) Dornen, l i e b e s Herz, f u r mich, Und  Intro)  f u r d i c h der Blumen Z i e r .  2(M) Ach, wo  s o l c h e Bache r i n n e n ,  Wird e i n G a r t e n da gedeihn?  2(C) J a , und w i s s e !  Kranzelein,  Gar v e r s c h i e d n e , f l i c h t man  drinnen.  3(M) 0 mein H e r r , zu wessen Z i e r Windet man  d i e Kranze?  Sprich!  3(C) D i e von Dornen s i n d f u r mich, D i e von Blumen r e i c h ' i c h d i r .  c  8  d  7  d  7  c  8  a  7  b  7  7  4 (mm.  11-14)  4 (mm.  15-18)  4 (mm.  19-22)  4 (mm.  23-26)  7 (1 j h . s P o s t l u d e )  * I n these F i g u r e s and i n the remainder o f t h i s paper, I l a b e l s e c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to s t a n z a and speaker: 1(M) r e f e r s to Man's statement i n the f i r s t s t a n z a ; 1(C) i s C h r i s t ' s response i n the same s t a n z a ; e t c . T h i s procedure i s used f o r both songs.  20  Figure 8:  No.  10, "Wunden tragst du mein Geliebter" —  Rhyme (Refrain) Man: Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter, Und  s i e schmerzen dich;  Triig' i c h s i e statt deiner, i c h !  Poetic  Number of Syllable s  Structure Measures of Music (2 mm.  a  8  b  5  b  7  6 (mm.  (2 mm. KM)  Herr, wer wagt' es, so zu  farben  c  8  Schweiss?  d  7  d  7  Dich, o Seele, zu erwerben.  c  8  An den Wunden muss ich sterben,  c  8  Weil i c h dich geliebt so heiss.  d  7  Konnt  e  8  f  7  f  7  Magst du Lebenswunden sagen:  e  8  Ihrer keine ward geschlagen,  e  8  Draus fur dich nicht Leben r i n n t .  f  7  Ach, wie mir i n Herz und  g  8  Deine Qual so wehe t u t !  h  7  3(C) Hartres noch mit treuem Mut  h  7  g  8  Denn nur der weiss recht zu minnen,  g  8  Der da s t i r b t vor Liebesglut.  h  7  Deine S t i r n mit Blut und  1(C) Diese Male sind der Preis,  2(M)  1  i c h , Herr, fur dich sie tragen,  Da es Todeswunden sind. 2(C) Wenn dies Leid dich riihrt, mein Kind,  3(M)  Triig  1  Sinnen  ich froh, dich zu gewinnen;  (Refrain) Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter, Und  s i e schmerzen dich;  Triig' ich sie statt deiner, i c h !  a  8  b  5  b  7  3-8)  Interlude)  4 (mm.  11-14)  8 (mm.  15-22)  4 (mm.  23-26)  = 8 (mm. =  1(M) 27-34) KC)  (except for m. 30)  4 (mm. = 8 (mm.  (2 mm. Man:  Intro)  1(M) 39-46)  Interlude)  6 (mm.  (6 mm.  35-38)  49-54)  Postlude)  21  No.  10  as marked.  i s not as c o n c i s e as No. Symmetry and  9, nor  i s the d i s p a r i t y i n t e s s i t u r a  proportion are s t i l l  p r e s e n t , but  l e s s apparent.  C h r i s t ' s responses are each twice as l o n g as Man's statements (fourvJLines compared to two);  the music r e f l e c t s t h i s p r o p o r t i o n w i t h an  to-four-measure p a t t e r n .  However, the r e f r a i n , which i s spoken by  b r i n g s Man's p o r t i o n of the d i a l o g u e twelve l i n e s of p o e t r y  f o r each.  i n t o equal balance  balance  and  has,  Man,  with C h r i s t ' s  In the music, the added r e f r a i n s  e x a c t l y twelve measures of music; thus Man sung measures as C h r i s t —  eight-measure-  —  contain  as w e l l , the same number of  an i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t of Wolf's s e n s i t i v i t y  to  proportion.  T e x t u a l l y , the second song complements the f i r s t ; m u s i c a l l y the second song both obscures and  r e i n f o r c e s that r e l a t i o n s h i p .  No.  9 shows a c l e a r  harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n w i t h an u l t i m a t e , l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o l u t i o n , whereas No.  10 i s much more s t a t i c —  c i r c l i n g around a few We  keys but never r e s o l v e s .  might t h i n k o f No.  the f i r s t  h a l f (mm.  a k i n d of harmonic t a b l e a u t h a t keeps  1-15)  9 as e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between two i n B, and  the r e s t a l a r g e V^-I  tonal centres  —  p r o g r e s s i o n i n E.  However, i t i s more u s e f u l f o r the performer to c o n c e p t u a l i z e the e n t i r e song as a p r o g r e s s i o n i n E  (V^/V  to  to I ) , because t h e r e i s then a  sense of p r o p u l s i o n or movement from the s t a r t toward a r e a l i z e d t o n i c i z a t i o n of E. of a q u e s t i o n and  T h i s l a t t e r view i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the t e x t .  answers respond to the q u e s t i o n s ,  respond to those answers.  progression — flowers  The  from w a t e r i n g  The  and  the  I t s use  answer format i n d i c a t e s an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on  p a r t of the speakers. questions  goal —  the  subsequent  b u i l d i n g of metaphors a l s o i m p l i e s  ( t r a n k s t ) to streams (Bache),  (Dornen, Blumen) to a garden ( G a r t e n ) , and  f r u i t of a garden, namely wreaths or g a r l a n d s  from the, garden to  (Kranze).  meaning of "Kranze" b r i n g s us back to the p r e v i o u s  from thorns  The  and the  two-fold  "Dornen" and  "Blumen,"  22  but now by means o f a demonstrated cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p : t a k i n g or acceptance o f thorns i n order  t h a t f l o w e r s might be  There i s n o t the same k i n d o f d i r e c t e d n e s s No. 10 as t h e r e F-sharp. B?  i s i n No. 9.  the  given.  on the l a r g e s c a l e i n  The whole song seems t o c e n t r e  around  But i s F-sharp the t o n i c , o r does i t f u n c t i o n as the dominant  A b r i e f l o o k a t the i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s o f No. 10 w i l l h e l p t o  e s t a b l i s h an harmonic overview (see F i g u r e 9 ) .  Figure  9:  No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r " — Breakdown o f Harmonic S t r u c t u r e  Sectional  Intro Refrain  (mm.  1-10)  K M )  (mm.  11-14)  K C )  (mm.  15-22)  2(M)  (mm.  23-26)  (repeat  o f 1(M))  of B  2(C)  (mm.  27-34)  (repeat  of 1(C))  of F-sharp  3(M)  (mm.  35-38)  (repeat  o f 1(M))  of B  3(C)  (mm.  39-46)  - I  of E  V /iv - iv - V 7  vii^ bVI  7  7  - V  End R e f r a i n Coda  (mm.  47-54)  (mm.  55-60)  7  - bVI - V  V /iv - iv - V 7  i  7  of F-sharp of B  .V - I (sequence)  followed V  - i - V  of F-sharp  by - I  o f F-sharp  - i - V  o f F-sharp  7  - b l l - v i - i ^ - I - i v - I o f F-sharp ?? or  V - i  - V of B  ???  23  I n the same way t h a t i t i s more u s e f u l t o t h i n k o f the whole o f No. 9 i n E, even though the b e g i n n i n g sounds more l i k e B, so the I n t r o d u c t i o n and Refrain  (mm. 1-10) o f No. 10 i s a p r o g r e s s i o n  i n j u s t one key, F-sharp,  even though t h e opening three measures c l e a r l y o u t l i n e the t o n a l i t y o f B. Notice  t h a t i n b o t h songs, t h e r e  i s an i n i t i a l  suggestion  o f B, b u t t h a t i n  both cases B i s never f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . In a l l three  s t a n z a s o f No. 10, the four-measure M s e c t i o n s end on the  dominant o f B; there  i s never a sense o f f i n a l a r r i v a l  (on the t o n i c ) i n B.  Each C s e c t i o n ends w i t h a s t r o n g V-I cadence i n F-sharp. exact  Furthermore, the  r e p e t i t i o n o f the piano p a r t i n a l l t h r e e M s e c t i o n s suggests t h a t  Man i s not a c t i v e l y engaged i n d i a l o g u e an unchanging lament, h e a r i n g  nothing  (as i n No. 9 ) , but r a t h e r d e l i v e r s  but the sound o f h i s own v o i c e .  responses o f C h r i s t , a l t h o u g h not as r e p e t i t i v e ( e i t h e r h a r m o n i c a l l y t e x t u a l l y ) do address the same i s s u e s —  The or  i n t r y i n g t o answer i n d i f f e r e n t  ways the p e r s i s t e n t Man. The  fact  t h a t the f i n a l R e f r a i n i s an exact  r e p e t i t i o n o f the opening  i m p l i e s t h a t Man has not heard and does not understand, and t h e r e f o r e has no r e p o s e .  This i m p l i c a t i o n i s underlined  by the i n c o n c l u s i v e ending o f  the R e f r a i n on t h e dominant o f F-sharp. From the s t a n d p o i n t  o f the t e x t , I have suggested t h a t the d i a l o g u e o f  No. 9 was more immediate and c o m p e l l i n g  than t h a t o f No. 10.  r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o be demonstrated m u s i c a l l y ? of a l t e r n a t i n g d i a l o g u e r e a l conversation convincing  A r e the four-measure  i n No. 9 l i n k e d h a r m o n i c a l l y  w i t h a genuine exchange o f i d e a s .  argument f o r s a y i n g  i n t e r r e l a t e d harmonically,  Can t h i s same sections  so as t o suggest a Or i s t h e r e r a t h e r a  t h a t the s e c t i o n s a r e both d i s j u n c t i v e and  i . e . that there  i s more than one harmonic  interpretation f o r c e r t a i n sections? On one l e v e l , each s e c t i o n o f No. 9 (except  f o r the l a s t ) appears t o  24  Figure  end  10:  No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r " — Breakdown of Cadence P o i n t s  1(M)  V  of B  1(C)  V  of B  2(M)  V  7  of D-sharp  2(C)  V  7  of E  3(M)  V  7  of E  3(C)  v i of E  on a dominant of some key  Sectional  ( a l s o I of F-sharp)  ( f o l l o w e d by V - I i n Postlude) 7  (see F i g u r e 10).  The  of E  inconclusiveness  of  these dominant endings s e r v e s the argument t h a t the t e x t i s p r o p e l l e d forward toward some f u r t h e r r e s o l u t i o n or There i s a q u e s t i o n ,  response.  however, whether the dominant, i n a l l cases,  a c t u a l l y f u n c t i o n s as a dominant a t these s e c t i o n endings. hear s e v e r a l other harmonic f u n c t i o n s provides  a good i l l u s t r a t i o n .  the whole o f The  —  the opening s t a n z a  while harmonically  F i g u r e 11).  the b e g i n n i n g of 1(C) e i t h e r key.  mm.  I n the context  The  first  not  also  stanza  In the piano p a r t , i t i s p o s s i b l e to hear as a p r o l o n g a t i o n  of the dominant of  melody, however, c l e a r l y o u t l i n e s an F-sharp t r i a d  majior  7-10  —  of e i t h e r F-sharppor B,  B.  f i r s t minor, then  seem f i r m l y i n the key  comes as a s u r p r i s e , h a v i n g no  of F-sharp  (see  the D minor chord at clear function i n  I s D minor a k i n d of chromatic mediant harmony i n B minor,  d e c e p t i v e l y r e s o l v i n g the V Or  f o r these chords?  Do we  7  of B and  l e a d i n g to another V of B i n m.  i s D minor an a l t e r e d dominant of F-sharp ( c o n t a i n i n g i t s l e a d i n g  the enharmonic E - s h a r p ) , e v e n t u a l l y I n the two  other  s t a n z a s of No.  10? tone,  r e s o l v i n g i n t h a t key? 9,  the c o n n e c t i o n s between the M  and  25  26  the  C s e c t i o n s a r e almost as unexpected and ambiguous as i n the f i r s t  stanza.  I n a l l cases t h e r e are s e v e r a l harmonic e x p l a n a t i o n s .  In the  7 6 second s t a n z a , the l i n k between s e c t i o n s can be heard as e i t h e r a V I I - I of  B (i.e.  an A-sharp dominant seventh chord as a t h i r d - s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r an  F-sharp dominant s e v e n t h c h o r d , the V D-sharp.  7  7 6 o f B ) , or as a d e c e p t i v e V -bVI i n  A l t h o u g h the second e x p l a n a t i o n i s f u n c t i o n a l l y more s t r a i g h t -  forward, the key o f D-sharp i s never a c t u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . in  At t h i s  point  the song, the harmonic focus i s j u s t b e g i n n i n g to t u r n toward E. In  the t h i r d  ambiguous.  s t a n z a , the l i n k between the M and C s e c t i o n s i s a l s o  The s t r o n g V^Oof E i n m. 22 makes the u n i s o n G's i n mm.  23-24  sound l i k e the t h i r d of an incomplete E minor c h o r d , which then l e a d s to a Ger,. o f E i n m.  25.  c e n t r e s around E.) A-sharp instead.  (From m.  25 on, t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t the t o n a l i t y  However, the movement of the v o c a l l i n e from G to  ( B - f l a t ) obscures our sense of the E c e n t r e , and suggests G minor Of c o u r s e , there i s no r e a l f u n c t i o n i n g harmony i n G minor h e r e ,  because of the appearance of F i n m. the  24.  However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  that  move from the dominant o f E to G minor i s the same chromatic-mediant  r e l a t i o n s h i p as the dominant o f B moving to D minor i n the f i r s t  stanza  —  a l s o w i t h o u t any f u n c t i o n i n g D minor harmonies. A p a r t from the m u l t i - l a y e r e d harmonic r e a d i n g s , another c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the harmonic c o m p l e x i t y o f No. and minor modes —  9 i s the v a c i l l a t i o n between major  apparent i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t k e y s , F-sharp, B, and E.  The i n i t i a l appearances o f F-sharp and B as keys are i n the minor mode; t h e i r l e a v e - t a k i n g s a r e i n major, at which p o i n t i t i s no l o n g e r whether the  they f u n c t i o n as t o n i c or dominant.  clear  E, as the u l t i m a t e t o n i c of  song, does not have t h a t nebulous q u a l i t y , even though i t a l s o  f l u c t u a t e s between major and minor. I made the o b s e r v a t i o n e a r l i e r t h a t there i s not the same sense o f  27  forward motion i n No.  10 as t h e r e i s i n No.  c i r c l i n g and r e p e t i t i o n .  9, but r a t h e r  a f e e l i n g of  The same s o r t o f p r o c e s s o f t o n a l c o m p l e x i t y and  ambiguity seems to be a t work, however.  I n No.  on the keys o f B and F-sharp, w i t h i n t e r v e n i n g  10, the harmonic  focus i s  t o n i c i z a t i o n s o f D, F, and  B-flat. Perhaps most remarkable i s a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between the c o n n e c t i o n s o f 1(M)  and 1(C) i n b o t h songs.  f o l l o w e d by a D s o n o r i t y chord).  ( i n No.  I n both, an F-sharp chord i s  9, a D minor chord; i n No.  I n b o t h , t h e r e i s no apparent p r e p a r a t i o n f o r D;  D chords come as harmonic relationship  surprises.  However, i n No.  (to D major) i s c l e a r e r —  (mm.  therefore,  10, the  both  functional  I-bVI i n F-sharp, even though the  F-sharp chord i s i t s e l f a c l e a r dominant i s t o n i c i z e d once i t a r r i v e s  10, a D major  o f B.  I n No.  10, f u r t h e r m o r e , D  15-16), whereas i n No.  9 the D minor  chord i s j u s t a p a s s i n g s o n o r i t y . I t i s apparent from the d i s c u s s i o n that the  the two songs are somehow l i n k e d f o c u s i s on E, i n No.  the l a t t e r on F-sharp.  i n t h e i r key s t r u c t u r e s .  dominant:  i n No.  i n No.  9 as the dominant  fluctuates  between the f u n c t i o n s  c l e a r t o n i c , the f i n a l F-sharp s o n o r i t y  of E and i n  I n both songs, t h e r e of t o n i c  9, the key o f B ends up as the dominant  s t a r t i n g out sounding l i k e a t o n i c ; i n No.  B.  9,  These seemingly d i s t a n t keys a r e r e l a t e d by the  10 as the t o n i c o f which F-sharp i s the dominant.  i s a chord or key t h a t  I n No.  10 on F-sharp, w i t h the former e n d i n g i n E and  p i v o t a l key o f B, which f u n c t i o n s No.  of t o n a l ambiguity and key c e n t r e s  and  of E a f t e r  10, even though F-sharp i s a  is left  sounding l i k e a dominant  I n o t h e r words, B i s always t h e r e i n both songs, l u r k i n g under  the  surface. We  get the f e e l i n g t h a t No.  r e s o l u t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s :  10 i s l e f t hanging w i t h o u t a c l e a r  the c l o s i n g R e f r a i n  ends on the dominant  of  of  28  F-sharp, not the t o n i c ; and the f i n a l cadence I-iv-I in F - s h a r p — "If My  j u s t as r e a d i l y heard as V - i - V i n B.  The s u b j u n c t i v e  o n l y " of Man's R e f r a i n i s supported by t h i s f e e l i n g of i n c o n c l u s i v e n e s s • initial  r e a c t i o n to the end o f No.  10 was  have i n c l u d e d t h i s f i n a l R e f r a i n on h i s own i n d i c a t e h i s own of  o f the song i s a weak, p l a g a l  to s p e c u l a t e t h a t Wolf might initiative —  l a c k o f r e s o l u t i o n or freedom  perhaps  to  from g u i l t . ^ [ ' ' . I n v e s t i g a t i o n  the Spanish and German sources f o r the p o e t r y shows t h a t t h a t i s not the 16  case; Wolf s e t the poems w i t h no s u b s t a n t i a l t e x t u a l changes. it  i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t he d i d change the o r d e r o f Nos.  However,  9 and 10, perhaps  a v o i d any r e a l sense o f f i n a l i t y or c e r t a i n t y t h a t the end o f No.  9 implies.  To perform the songs i n Heyse and G e i b e l ' s o r d e r c r e a t e s too neat and an o v e r a l l t o n a l s t r u c t u r e , going from F-sharp to  E (I) i n No.  between Man  9.  and God  Thus f a r my  i s not so n e a t l y  The s m a l l e r m u s i c a l g e s t u r e t h a t i s  9 and No.  10 i s the a p p o g g i a t u r a .  9, the a p p o g g i a t u r a s permeate a l l of the M s e c t i o n s .  I n each  chords, r e s o l v i n g o n l y on the l a s t beat o f each bar. r e s o l u t i o n s , dramatized by decrescendos  four-  measure-long  These weak-beat  i n a l l measures, s e r v e to emphasize  the a p p o g g i a t u r a chords r a t h e r than the r e s o l u t i o n s .  The  resulting  o b s e s s i v e i n i t s rhythmic and d y n a m i c a l l y contoured sameness  i s m a i n t a i n e d throughout  the t h r e e M s e c t i o n s .  t h a t i n the piano n o t h i n g happens on the f i r s t 9, u n t i l the f i n a l cadence In  In  lower  a p p o g g i a t u r a s on beat 2 are heard as d i s p l a c e m e n t s o f  pattern —  (V)  concluded.  measure phrase, as w e l l as i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , the upper and  No.  10, t o B  d i s c u s s i o n has focused on l a r g e r m u s i c a l i s s u e s such as  most e v i d e n t as a l i n k between No.  semitone  tidy  Wolf's v i s i o n seems to have been t h a t the d i a l o g u e  key schemes and harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n s .  No.  (V o f V) i n No.  to  (It i s , i n fact,  striking  beat of any measure o f  i n E.)  these M s e c t i o n s , the a p p o g g i a t u r a f i g u r e s o u t l i n e a chromatic  —  29  descending 7-6  sequence ( i n every measure, the a p p o g g i a t u r a i s a seventh  over the b a s s , r e s o l v i n g to a s i x t h ) , v a r y i n g i n l e n g t h and p a t t e r n from one s t a n z a to the next. mm.  1-6  as non-chord  (except perhaps  i n m.  For example, i f we hear the a p p o g g i a t u r a s of  tones and hear one a c t u a l chord i n each measure 1 ) , we  f i n d a s e r i e s of f i r s t  inversion triads  that  can be heard as a descending p a s s i n g p r o g r e s s i o n w i t h i n what i s r e a l l y prolonged V In  No.  a  o f B (see F i g u r e 12).  7  10, the a p p o g g i a t u r a s do not f i g u r e i n any such  sequence.  T h e i r p a t t e r n i s r a t h e r a s e r i e s of p a i r e d q u a r t e r - n o t e chords, w i t h the harmonic f u n c t i o n o f the f i r s t second  chord.  The  fact  chord of each p a i r c l a r i f i e d  t h a t the f i r s t  appears  example, the f i r s t in  quite d i f f e r e n t  to be c o n f i r m s the t e x t u a l i d e a of paradox.  s o n o r i t y o f No.  10 appears  from For  to be a B - f l a t minor chord;  f a c t , however, i t i s an a p p o g g i a t u r a d e c o r a t i o n o f a V  the b e g i n n i n g of No.  the  chord of each p a i r has a l e g i t i m a t e  c h o r d a l i d e n t i t y and y e t t u r n s out to be something what i t f i r s t  o n l y by  7  of B, j u s t as a t  9.  The o v e r l a p p i n g and c o n f u s i o n of f u n c t i o n i n g and n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g harmonies i n the M s e c t i o n s of No.  10 becomes e s p e c i a l l y apparent when we  examine the c o r r e l a t i o n between the m e l o d i c accompaniment.  ( v o c a l ) l i n e and the piano  At times the melody i s p a r t o f the r e a l f u n c t i o n i n g harmony,  but never f o r l o n g ; because  of the harmonies s h i f t i n g underneath,  chord  tones i n the melody a r e almost i n v a r i a b l y transformed i n t o non-chord For  example, i n m.  tones.  3, the melody D i s at f i r s t p a r t of the B minor chord,  but a t " t r a g s t " i t becomes an a p p o g g i a t u r a to the C-sharp  of vii°, which i n  t u r n becomes an a p p o g g i a t u r a once a g a i n to the D over B minor;  throughout  t h i s phrase, the melody a p p o g g i a t u r a s are s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h a p p o g g i a t u r a s in  the piano c h o r d s . In  the next phrase  ("Und  s i e schmerzen d i c h , " mm.  5-6), the l a r g e r  30  Figure 12;  No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden h i e r , " mm. Descending 7-6 Sequence  ft:  'I  I •  1-6 —  1  "X"  «  Ye.  &  fit ">?  Chromatic  31  melodic o u t l i n e i t s e l f  i s a t odds w i t h the harmony.  an F-sharp minor t r i a d , C-sharp  to A to F-sharp  The melody a r p e g g i a t e s  ( w i t h a G-sharp  a p p o g g i a t u r a ) ; however, the most important p i t c h e s of t h a t t r i a d e n t e r as non-chord  tones  (see F i g u r e 13).  (The C-sharp  i s f i r s t heard as an  a p p o g g i a t u r a e v e n t u a l l y r e s o l v i n g to a D of the D major chord i n m. the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s m e l o d i c phrase i s weakened, so i s the  5.  As  final  r e s o l u t i o n onto F-sharp, by the f a c t t h a t G-sharp moves to F-sharp on a weak second b e a t , which a l s o happens to be harmonized chord i n the accompaniment.)  Still,  w i t h an a p p o g g i a t u r a  the i m p r e s s i o n of an F-sharp minor  m e l o d i c o u t l i n e remains, w h i l e the harmony moves i n t o t h i s key o n l y belatedly —  a f t e r b e g i n n i n g i n B minor.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , because  of the  p a i r e d q u a r t e r - n o t e chords, the harmonic rhythm of the M s e c t i o n s of No. i s o f t e n out o f alignment w i t h the meter. 3's, but the a p p o g g i a t u r a f i g u r e s group  The  6/4  meter groups  them i n 2's.  10  things i n  Thus the d i s t i n c t i o n  between s t r o n g and weak r e s o l u t i o n s , between a p p o g g i a t u r a s and mere p a s s i n g notes i s d i f f i c u l t . T h i s o v e r l a p p i n g and c o n f u s i o n i n the M s e c t i o n s g i v e s way s e c t i o n s of No.  10 to a more s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p r e s e n t a t i o n .  C s e c t i o n s of No.  J u s t as i n the  9, the a p p o g g i a t u r a f i g u r e s are l e s s prominent  C h r i s t ' s statements, y i e l d i n g to a sense o f r e g u l a r i t y and stability.  i f not a c t u a l l y doubled  notes are p a r t o f the f u n c t i o n i n g chords.  in  harmonic  The m e l o d i c l i n e i n these s e c t i o n s f o l l o w s c l o s e l y  u n d e r l y i n g harmonies;  the  i n the piano, most melody  The piano w r i t i n g i s a l s o more  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ; each measure b e g i n s w i t h a t h r i c e - r e i t e r a t e d chord  i n the C  functioning  (note the symbolic three'.), f o l l o w e d by the e v e r - p r e s e n t a p p o g g i a t u r a  figuration.  T h i s f i g u r a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t l y made up of t h r e e q u a r t e r - n o t e  chords t h a t d e c o r a t e the note o f r e s o l u t i o n by semitone movement from above and below (e.g. m.  15) or i n one d i r e c t i o n o n l y (e.g. m.  16).  32  Figure 13:  No. 10, "Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter," mm. Harmonic Sketch  I1"  O  *J1  ft-T-  ^ 9-  15 b:  •  P  1-6  —  i  ^—^fl-  3.  "  i  f l B  3  -pr  "P  f  —  33 I n e f f e c t , b o t h rhythm and harmony i n t h e s e C s e c t i o n s a r e more even and more s t e a d y .  The harmonic rhythm i s c l o s e l y t i e d t o the meter; t h e r e  i s a chord change on almost e v e r y s t r o n g b e a t .  Evenness extends a l s o t o a  b r o a d e r l e v e l , where i t i s i n p a r t due t o t h e r e g u l a r i t y of the a s c e n d i n g t h i r d sequences, and t o the c l e a r f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e i r component c h o r d s .  Sequences a l s o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t , i f l e s s c l e a r l y  f u n c t i o n a l , r o l e i n No. and descend.  I n No.  9 (see above); t h e r e they harmonize Man's q u e s t i o n s  10, the c o r r e s p o n d i n g symbolism i s o b v i o u s , y e t  p r o v i d e s a p o i g n a n t c o n t r a s t ; the sequences t h a t Harmonize C h r i s t ' s responses a r e a s c e n d i n g . I n s p i t e o f the many s i m i l a r i t i e s between No.  9 and No.  10, i . e . the  d i a l o g u e f o r m a t , the same c h a r a c t e r s , the r e f e r e n c e s i n b o t h t o s u f f e r i n g and d e a t h , and the s i m i l a r m u s i c a l g e s t u r e s e x p r e s s i n g those t h e r e i s a c o n v i n c i n g p r o g r e s s i o n between the two songs. comprise a d r a m a t i c a l l y s a t i s f y i n g u n i t .  sentiments,  Hence they  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l dynamic  —  namely, t h e development o f Man's i n n e r s t a t e , and the r e s u l t i n g change i n the n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between C h r i s t and Man sense o f t h e t r a g i c .  —  l e a v e s us w i t h a  The movement o f Man's s t a t e from No.  9 t o No.  10 i s  t h a t o f the s i m p l e to the complex, from the n a i v e to the s e l f - a w a r e , and from the acceptance  of an o r d e r t o a q u e s t i o n i n g of t h a t o r d e r and hence to  a l a c k of r e c e p t i v e n e s s , which l e a d s u l t i m a t e l y t o a b a r r i e r i n communication.  I n Man's s i m p l e s t a t e i n No.  reached and a s a t i s f y i n g c o n c l u s i o n made. Man one.  i n No.  9, an u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o u l d be  The growing  10 p r e c l u d e s a s a t i s f a c t o r y c l o s e —  Thus the o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f b o t h No.  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of  and so we a r e l e f t w i t h o u t  9 and No.  10, i n t h e i r s e t o r d e r ,  is ultimately pessimistic.  The message o f hope i s not a c c e p t e d , and Man i s  l e f t t o go on q u e s t i o n i n g .  Hugo Wolf, i n r e v e r s i n g the o r i g i n a l o r d e r of  these two poems, as I p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , d e l i b e r a t e l y chose to end  on  34  that  t r a g i c and  inconclusive  note.  &&&&&&&&&&&  PART V  Conclusion  Would i t be a v i o l a t i o n o f Wolf's i n t e n t i o n s to r e v e r s e t h e o r d e r o f the l a s t  two songs?  Should  a performer  a c c e p t without  complaint  Wolf's  t r a g i c v i s i o n o f No. 9 f o l l o w e d by No. 10, o r can he f e e l f r e e to p r e s e n t the more o p t i m i s t i c view o f the converse? these two songs be weakened or strengthened  Would t h e emotional impact o f by tampering  with their  order?  Who can say d e f i n i t e l y ? There i s , however, a l a r g e r i s s u e a t s t a k e , which has to do w i t h the r e l a t i o n o f groups such as Nos. 9 and 10 w i t h t h e " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " as a whole, and w i t h o t h e r p o s s i b l e d e r i v e d r e c i t a l groupings.  Which  situation  shows o f f these songs (not t o mention t h e other " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " ) t o t h e i r b e s t advantage?  Is i t j u s t i f i e d  t o tamper w i t h what t h e composer  g i v e s us i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f emotional impact? r i g h t does t h e performer  have to s e l e c t and r e a r r a n g e ?  These q u e s t i o n s a r e most c r i t i c a l a k i n d o f middleground  What  f o r those s e t s o f songs t h a t a r e i n  between a r e a l s o n g - c y c l e , intended as such by the  composer, and a mere c o l l e c t i o n —  s e t s t h a t l a c k t h e momentum o f a song-  c y c l e , but s t i l l have c o h e s i v e elements (e.g. Schubert's  Schwanengesang or  Schumann's Myrten, and o f course t h e " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " ) , s e t s t h a t a r e difficult  i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e to p r e s e n t i n t a c t  s o l u t i o n i s to e x t r a c t and r e a r r a n g e , from  in recital.  The b e s t  these l a r g e r s e t s , s m a l l e r  groups o f songs t h a t a r e d r a m a t i c a l l y c o n v i n c i n g and t h a t have the momentum of a m i n i - c y c l e . T h i s matter  o f c h o i c e , a s u b j e c t i v e one indeed, i s something each  35  36  performer  must d e c i d e f o r h i m s e l f —  the c h o i c e s cannot  be r e v i s e d .  s t a t i c , an ever-changing  and  to d e c i d e once i s not t o say t h a t  I t i s a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s t h a t i s never  p r o c e s s t h a t b r i n g s new  i n s i g h t s i n t o even the  17 most f a m i l i a r music. a l i v e and  dynamic.  I t i s perhaps the b e s t way  to keep these songs  FOOTNOTES  "''Eric Sams, The Songs o f Hugo Wolf, r e v i s e d 2nd ed. (London: Eulenburg Books, 1983), p. 248. 2 Brahms's v e r s i o n , known as the " G e i s t l i c h e s W i e g e n l i e d , " f o r c o n t r a l t o , v i o l a , and p i a n o (Op. 91/2), c a p t u r e s the f o l k - l i k e q u a l i t y o f the poem by c o u p l i n g i t w i t h the o b b l i g a t o melody o f the m e d i e v a l Christmas c a r o l "Joseph l i e b e r Joseph mein."  3 See Margaret G. Sleeman and Gareth A. D a v i e s , " V a r i a t i o n s on Spanish Themes: The S p a n i s c h e s L i e d e r b u c h o f Emanuel G e i b e l and P a u l Heyse and I t s R e f l e c t i o n i n the Songs o f Hugo Wolf," P r o c e e d i n g s o f the Leeds P h i l o s o p h i c a l and L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y , L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l S e c t i o n 18/2 (June 1982): 262. 4 L u i s e Peake, "Song C y c l e " , The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y o f Music and M u s i c i a n s , 6th ed. (1980), v o l . 17, p. 521. 5  I b i d . , p. 522.  Thomas A r c h e r , "The Formal C o n s t r u c t i o n o f D i e scho'ne M i i l l e r i n , " M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 20/4 (October 1934): 402, 407. S e e A r t h u r Komar, " H i s t o r i c a l Background" and "The Music o f D i c h t e r l i e b e : The Whole and I t s P a r t s , " i n Robert Schumann: D i c h t e r l i e b e , ed. A r t h u r Komar (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1971), pp. 3-12 and 63-94. 7  ^ I b i d . , p. 65. 9 In f a c t , none o f Wolf's l a r g e s e t s o f songs a r e g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as cycles. See, f o r example, L o t t e Lehmann, E i g h t e e n Song C y c l e s : S t u d i e s i n T h e i r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (New York: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1972), which i n c l u d e s by Wolf o n l y the "Mignon L i e d e r " — e x t r a c t e d from the l a r g e r p u b l i s h e d s e t of Goethe L i e d e r . "^My r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s paper a r e t o Wolf's o r i g i n a l k e y s . I n performance, a mezzo-soprano (such as I ) o r a c o n t r a l t o w i l l use a t r a n s p o s e d v e r s i o n — i d e a l l y one t h a t p r e s e r v e s the k i n d o f key r e l a t i o n s h i p s I mention h e r e . See Komar, D i c h t e r l i e b e , p. 93. "'""'"It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t , a l t h o u g h he e v e n t u a l l y p l a c e d i t a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r , " Wolf composed t h i s song l a s t o f the t e n . See Appendix 2, d e r i v e d from Sams, Songs,* p p . 251-262. 12 See Frank Walker, Hugo Wolf: A Biography, ^ 2nd edv? (New:TYofk: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1968), p. 255; and E r i k Werba, Hugo Wolf: oder, Der z o r n i g e Romantiker (Vienna: F r i t z Molden, 1971), p. 186. 13 Werba, Hugo Wolf, p. 186.  37  38  See Robin Maconie, "Stravinsky's F i n a l Cadence," Tempo 103 (1972): 18-20; and Heinrich L i n d l a r , "Zu Strawinskys geistlichem Vermachtnis: Urn zwei Gesange aus Wolfs 'Spanischem Liederbuch ," Oesterreichische M u s i k z e i t s c h r i f t 37/6 (June 1982): 318-319. 1  "^Walker, Hugo Wolf, pp. 76-77, suggests that Wolf was obsessed by a l i f e - l o n g g u i l t over the a c q u i s i t i o n of the s y p h i l i t i c condition that eventually caused h i s madness and death. 16 See Sleeman and Davies, "Variations," pp. 236-242. "^Irmgard Seefried, one of the great German Lieder singers of our time, confessed that, "begriff i c h endlich, was Hugo Wolf i n a l l diesen Jahren fiir mich war und i s t . Die Bangigkeit des Herzens musst Du erkennen, die Unsicherheit Deines Wissens musst Du fiihlen, d i e Einsamkeit Deines Tuns musst Du ho'ren, um das I t a l i e n i s c h e Liederbuch und das Spanische Liederbuch aus D i r selbst heraus gebaren, schreien, f l u s t e r n , fuhlen und lieben, ahnen und wissen zu lassen. . . . Darum glaube i c h , dass jeder ganz bestimmt seinen eigenen Hugo Wolf hat, und jeder muss eben mit seiner F u l l e und mit seiner Armut, die ihm das Leben gegeben hat, mit seinem Hugo Wolf ringen." ("I f i n a l l y understood what Hugo Wolf was and i s for me a f t e r a l l these years. In order to l e t the I t a l i a n Songbook and the Spanish Songbook come out of yourself, be born, c r i e d , whispered, f e l t , and loved, be vaguely suggested and dimly known, you must recognize the tearfulness of the heart, you must f e e l the uncertainty of your knowledge, and you must hear the loneliness of your doings. . . . Therefore I believe that everyone quite c e r t a i n l y has h i s very own Hugo Wolf and everyone must, even with the f u l l n e s s and the poverty that l i f e has given him, f i g h t f o r the recognition of h i s own Hugo Wolf.") In "Bekenntnis zu Hugo Wolf," Oesterreichische M u s i k z e i t s c h r i f t 15/2 (February 1960): 78.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  The R e l a t i o n s h i p between P o e t r y and Music; Art-Songs I n G e n e r a l  Bruner, E l l e n C a r o l e . "The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Text and Music i n the L i e d e r o f Hugo Wolf and Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. DA 35/11 (May 1975): 7340-A. Cone, Edward T. The Composer's V o i c e . P r e s s , 1974. Deutsch, B a b e t t e . H a l l , James H.  P o e t r y Handbook.  The A r t Song.  New  Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a  York: Funk & Wagnalls,  1969.  Norman: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1953.  I s t e l , Edgar. "Schubert's L y r i c S t y l e . " 1928): 575-595.  M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 14/4  Ivey, Donald. Song: Anatomy, Imagery, and S t y l e s . P r e s s , 1970.  New  (October  York: The Free  K i n s e y , B a r b a r a . "Morike Poems Set by Brahms, Schumann, and Wolf." Review 29/4 (November 1968): 257-267.  Music  K r a v i t t , Edward F. "The I n f l u e n c e of T h e a t r i c a l D e c l a m a t i o n upon Composers of the L a t e Romantic L i e d . " A c t a M u s i c o l o g i c a 34/1 (1962): 18-28. Schumann, E l i s a b e t h .  German Song.  London: Max  P a r r i s h & Co.,  1948.  S t e i n , J a c k M. "Was Goethe Wrong about the N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y L i e d ? An E x a m i n a t i o n o f the R e l a t i o n of Poem and M u s i c . " P u b l i c a t i o n s of the Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n 77/3 (June 1962): 232-239. . "Poem and Music i n Hugo Wolf's Mo'rike Songs." 53/1 (January 1967): 22-38. . Poem and Music i n the German L i e d Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971.  Musical Quarterly  from Gluck to Wolf.  Cambridge:  Thym, J u r g e n . "The S o l o Song S e t t i n g s of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s Poems by Schumann and Wolf." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Case Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. DA 35/5 (November 1974): 3043-A. Reviewed by M i c h a e l S a f f l e , i n C u r r e n t M u s i c o l o g y 28 (1979): 130-135.  The Nature o f Song-Cycles  A r c h e r , Thomas. "The Formal C o n s t r u c t i o n o f D i e schone M i i l l e r i n . " Q u a r t e r l y 20/4 (October 1934): 401-407.  39  Musical  40  Becker, J u d i t h . "On D e f i n i n g S e t s of P i e c e s . " (September 1975): 17-20.  I n Theory Only 1/6  '  /•)  Komar, A r t h u r . " H i s t o r i c a l Background" and "The Music o f D i c h t e r l i e b e : The Whole and I t s P a r t s . " I n Robert Schumann: D i c h t e r l i e b e , pages 3-12 and 63-94. Norton C r i t i c a l S c o r e . E d i t e d r b y A r t h u r Komar. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1971. Lehmann, L o t t e . E i g h t e e n Song C y c l e s : S t u d i e s i n T h e i r New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. Moore, G e r a l d . 1975.  The Schubert Song C y c l e s .  Interpretation.  London: Hamish H a m i l t o n L t d . ,  Peake, L u i s e E i t e l . "The Song C y c l e : A P r e l i m i n a r y I n q u i r y i n t o the B e g i n n i n g s o f the Romantic Song C y c l e and the Nature o f an A r t Form." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1968. DA 32/10 ( A p r i l 1972): 5830-A. . "Song C y c l e . " I n The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and M u s i c i a n s , 6th ed. (1980), v o l . 17, pages 521-523. Smith, C h a r l e s J . "On H e a r i n g the Chop i n P r e l u d e s as a Coherent S e t . " Theory Only 1/4 ( J u l y 1975): 5-16.  In  Smith, Warren S t o r e y . "The C y c l i c P r i n c i p l e i n M u s i c a l D e s i g n , and the Use o f I t by Bruckner and M a h l e r . " Chord and D i s c o r d 2/9 (1960): 3-32.  Hugo Wolf and the Spanisches L i e d e r b u c h  B i e r i , Georg. Die L i e d e r von Hugo Wolf. U n i v e r s i t a t Bern. Bern: P a u l Haupt,  I n a u g u r a l - D i s s e r t a t i o n der 1935.  Boylan, Paul Charles. "The L i e d e r of Hugo Wolf: Z e n i t h o f the German A r t Song." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1968. DA 30/3 (September 1969): 1192-A. Campbell, B e t t y Smith. "The S o l o Sacred L i e d e r o f Hugo Wolf: The I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Music and T e x t . " Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1969. DA 30/4 (October 1969): 1585-A. Carner, Mosco. 1982.  Hugo Wolf Songs.  London: B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ,  Egger, R i t a . D i e Deklamationsrhythmik Hugo Wolfs i n h i s t o r i s c h e r S i c h t . T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1963. Reviewed by Imogen F e l l i n g e r , i n D i e M u s i k f o r s c h u n g 19/1 (1966): 106107. Gruen, John. "The Songs o f Hugo Wolf: A D i s c u s s i o n w i t h E l i z a b e t h Schwarzkopf." M u s i c a l America 80 (June 1960): 22-23, 28.  41  Hamburger, P a u l . "The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P i c t u r e s q u e Elements i n Wolf's Songs." Tempo 48 (Summer 1958): 9-15. Lindlar, Heinrich. "Zu S t r a w i n s k y s g e i s t l i c h e m Vermachtnis: Urn zwei Gesange aus Wolfs 'Spanischem L i e d e r b u c h ' . " O e s t e r r e i c h i s c h e M u s i k z e i t s c h r i f t 37/6 (June 1982): 318-319. Maconie, R o b i n .  " S t r a v i n s k y ' s F i n a l Cadence."  Tempo 103 (1972): 18-23.  Newman, E r n e s t . Hugo Wolf. London: Methuen & Co., 1907; r e p r i n t ed., New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1966. Sams, E r i c . The Songs o f Hugo Wolf. London: Methuen & Co., 1961; r e v i s e d 2nd ed., London: E u l e n b u r g Books, 1983. • "Hugo Wolf." I n The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y o f Music and M u s i c i a n s , 6th ed. (1980), v o l . 20, pages 475-502. S e e f r i e d , Irmgard. "Bekenntnis zu Hugo Wolf." Oesterreichische M u s i k z e i t s c h r i f t 15/2 (February 1960): 77-78. Sleeman, Margaret G., and D a v i e s , G a r e t h A. " V a r i a t i o n s on S p a n i s h Themes: The S p a n i s c h e s L i e d e r b u c h o f Emanuel G e i b e l and P a u l Heyse and I t s Ref Oiection'-inlithe Songs o f Hugo Wolf." P r o c e e d i n g s o f the Leeds P h i l o s o p h i c a l and L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y . L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l S e c t i o n 18/2 (June 1982): 155-274. Thurmer, Helmut. D i e M e l o d i k i n den L i e d e r n von Hugo Wolf. Musik 2. G i e b i n g : E m i l K a t z b i c h l e r , 1970. Walker, Frank. "Wolf's Spanish and I t a l i a n Songs." (October 1944): 194-209. . Hugo Wolf: A B i o g r a p h y . ed., 1968.  S c h r i f t e n zur  Music & L e t t e r s 25/4  New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1951; 2nd  Werba, E r i k . Hugo Wolf: oder, Der z o r n i g e Romantiker. Molden, 1971.  Vienna: F r i t z  . "Hugo Wolfs L i e d s c h a f f e n aus d e r S i c h t von h e u t e . " O e s t e r r e i c h i s c h e M u s i k z e i t s c h r i f t 33/2 (February 1978): 57-64.  APPENDIX 1 T e x t s of the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r " *  No.  1:  ( a t t r i b u t e d to E r z p r i e s t e r von H i t a ; German t r a n s , by Heyse)  Nun b i n i c h d e i n , Du a l l e r Blumen Blume, Und s i n g ' a l l e i n A l l s t u r i d zu deinem Ruhme; W i l l e i f r i g sein, Mich d i r zu weihn Und deinem Duldertume.  Now I am yours, Flower of a l l f l o w e r s , And s i n g s o l e l y A t a l l times to your p r a i s e ; I w i l l be z e a l o u s , D e d i c a t e myself to you And to your s u f f e r a n c e .  Frau auserlesen, Zu d i r s t e h t a l l mein H o f f e n , Mein i n n e r s t Wesen Ist allezeit d i r offen. Komm, mich zu l o s e n Vom F l u c h des Bosen, Der mich so h a r t b e t r o f f e n !  Lady e l e c t , I n you i s a l l my hope, My innermost b e i n g I s f o r e v e r open to you. Come, f r e e me From the c u r s e of the E v i l One Who has so sore a f f l i c t e d me!  Du S t e r n der See, Du P o r t der Wonnen, Von der im Weh D i e Wunden H e i l gewonnen, Eh' i c h vergeh, B l i c k ' aus der Hoh, Du K o n i g i n der Sonnen!  S t a r of the Sea,Haven of d e l i g h t s , From whom, i n agony, The a f f l i c t e d have found Before I pass away, Look from on h i g h , Queen of Suns!  N i e kann v e r s i e g e n D i e F i i l l e d e i n e r Gnaden; Du h i l f s t zum Siegen Dem, der mit Schmach b e l a d e n . An d i c h s i c h schmiegen, Zu d e i n e n Fiissen l i e g e n H e i l t a l i e n Harm und Schaden.  Never can the abundance Of your mercy be exhausted; You h e l p towards triumph Him who i s l a d e n w i t h shame. To c l i n g to you, To l i e a t your f e e t , Heals a l l i n f i r m i t y and g r i e f .  I c h l e i d e schwer Und w o h l v e r d i e n t e S t r a f e n . M i r bangt so sehr B a l d T o d e s s c h l a f zu s c h l a f e n . T r i t t du e i n h e r ,  I s u f f e r severe And w e l l - m e r i t e d punishments. I am i n g r e a t f e a r Of s l e e p i n g soon death's s l e e p . Come f o r t h ,  salvation,  **Adapted from D i e t r i c h F i s c h e r - D i e s k a u , The F i s c h e r - D i e s k a u Book of L i e d e r (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1980), pp. 350-354; and Margaret G. Sleeman and Gareth A. D a v i e s , " V a r i a t i o n s on Spanish Themes: The Spanisches L i e d e r b u c h of Emanuel G e i b e l and P a u l Heyse and I t s R e f l e c t i o n i n the Songs of Hugo Wolf," Proceedings of the Leeds P h i l o s o p h i c a l and L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y , L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l S e c t i o n 18/2 (June 1982): 237-242 and 262-263.  42  43  And through the sea, B r i n g me to the harbour!  Und d u r c h das Meer 0 fiihre mich zum Hafen!  No.  2:  (attributed  to N i c o l a s Nunez; German t r a n s , by Heyse)  D i e du Gott g e b a r s t , du Reine, Und a l l e i n e Uns g e l o s ' t aus u n s e r n K e t t e n , Mach mich f r o h l i c h , der i c h weine, Denn nur d e i n e Huld und Gnade mag uns r e t t e n .  You who bore God, Pure One, And a l o n e D e l i v e r e d us from our c h a i n s , Make me, who weep, g l a d , For o n l y your Grace and mercy can d e l i v e r us.  H e r r i n , ganz zu d i r mich wende, Dass s i c h ende D i e s e Qual und d i e s e s Grauen, Dass der Tod mich f u r c h t l o s fande, Und n i c h t blende Mich das L i c h t der Himmelsauen.  Lady, I t u r n to you, That t h i s torment and dread May cease, That death mayufand me u n a f r a i d , And I be not b l i n d e d By the l i g h t of the Heavenly Pastures.  W e i l du u n b e f l e c k t geboren, Auserkoren Zu des ew'gen Ruhmes S t a t t e n — Wie mich L e i d e n auch u m f l o r e n , Unverloren B i n i c h doch, w i l l s t du mich r e t t e n .  Because you were b o r n immaculate, Chosen For abodes o f e t e r n a l g l o r y — However much v e i l e d i n sorrow, I am not l o s t , I f you w i l l d e l i v e r me.  No.  3:  ( a t t r i b u t e d to Ocana; German t r a n s , by G e i b e l )  "Der h e i l i g e Joseph  singt"  " S a i n t Joseph s i n g s "  Nun wandre, M a r i a , Nun wandre nur f o r t . Schon krahen d i e Hahne, Und nah i s t der O r t .  Go on, Mary, Go on. The cocks a r e crowing, And the p l a c e i s n e a r .  Nun wandre, G e l i e b t e , Du K l e i n o d mein, Und b a l d e w i r werden In Bethlehem s e i n . Dann r u h e s t du f e i n Und schlummerst d o r t . Schon krahen d i e Hahne, Und nah i s t der O r t .  Go on, b e l o v e d , My j e w e l , And soon s h a l l we be In Bethlehem. Then s h a l l you r e s t And slumber t h e r e . The cocks a r e crowing, And the p l a c e i s near.  Wohl seh i c h , Herr i n , D i e K r a f t d i r schwinden; Kann d e i n e Schmerzen Ach, kaum verwinden.  I see w e l l , Lady, Your s t r e n g t h i s waning; Your p a i n s I cannot, A l a s , subdue.  44  G e t r o s t ! Wohl f i n d e n Wir H e r b e r g d o r t . Schon k r a h e n d i e Hahne, Und nah i s t der O r t .  Take h e a r t ! We s h a l l f i n d Lodging there. The cocks a r e c r o w i n g , And the p l a c e i s n e a r .  War' e r s t bestanden Dein Stundlein, Marie, D i e gute B o t s c h a f t Gut l o h n t ' i c h s i e . Das E s e l e i n h i e Gab' i c h drum f o r t ! Schon k r a h e n d i e Hahne, Komm! Nah i s t der O r t .  Would i t were o v e r , Mary, your hour, Those good t i d i n g s Would I reward w e l l . The donkey here Would I g i v e f o r t h a t ! The cocks a r e c r o w i n g , Come! The p l a c e i s n e a r .  No.  4:  ( a t t r i b u t e d to Lope de Vega'; German t r a n s , by  Geibel)  D i e i h r schwebet Um d i e s e Palmen I n Nacht und Wind, Ihr h e i l ' g e n Engel, S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein K i n d .  You who hover About these palms, I n n i g h t and w i n d , Holy Angels, Silence their leaves! My c h i l d i s a s l e e p .  I h r Palmen von Bethlehem Im Windesbrausen, Wie mogt i h r h e u t e So z o r n i g sausen! 0 rauscht n i c h t a l s o ! Schweiget, n e i g e t Euch l e i s ' und l i n d ; S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein K i n d .  Palms of Bethlehem In b l u s t e r i n g wind, How can you today So a n g r i l y blow! Oh, r o a r not so! Be s t i l l , bow S o f t l y and g e n t l y ; S i l e n c e the l e a v e s ! My c h i l d i s a s l e e p .  Der Himmelsknabe D u l d e t Beschwerde, Ach, wie so mud' e r ward Vom L e i d der E r d e . Ach nun im S c h l a f ihm Leise gesanftigt Die Qual z e r r i n n t , S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein K i n d .  The Son of Heaven Is s u f f e r i n g ; Ah, so t i r e d has He grown Of e a r t h ' s sorrows. Ah, now i n s l e e p Gently softened, The p a i n m e l t s away. S i l e n c e the l e a v e s ! My c h i l d i s a s l e e p .  Grimmige K a l t e Sauset h e r n i e d e r , Womit nur deck' i c h Des K i n d l e i n s G l i e d e r ! 0 a l l i h r Engel, Die i h r g e f l i i g e l t Wandelt im Wind, S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein K i n d .  Fierce cold Comes r u s h i n g ; W i t h what s h a l l I cover The l i t t l e c h i l d ' s l i m b s ! Oh, a l l you A n g e l s Who winged T r a v e l on the wind, S i l e n c e the l e a v e s ! My c h i l d i s a s l e e p .  45  No. 5:  (Anonymous; German t r a n s , by Heyse)  Fiihr mich, K i n d , nach Bethlehem.' D i c h , mein G o t t , d i c h w i l l i c h sehn. Wem g e l a n g ' e s , wem, Ohne d i c h zu d i r zu gehn!  Lead You, Who, Come  R u t t l e mich, dass i c h erwache, Rufe mich, so w i l l i c h s c h r e i t e n ; Gib d i e Hand m i r , mich zu l e i t e n , Dass i c h a u f den Weg mich mache. Dass i c h schaue Bethlehem, D o r t e n meinen Gott zu sehn. Wem g e l a n g e s , wem, Ohne d i c h zu d i r zu gehn!  Shake me, so t h a t I awake, C a l l me, and I w i l l go; Give me your hand t o guide me, That I may s e t out upon the way. That I may see Bethlehem, There t o see my God. Who, who c o u l d Come to You w i t h o u t your a i d !  Von der Siinde schwerem Kranken Bin i c h t r a g ' und dumpf bekommen. W i l l s t du n i c h t zu H i i l f e kommen, Muss i c h s t r a u c h e l n , muss i c h schwanken. L e i t e mich nach Bethlehem, D i c h , mein G o t t , d i c h w i l l i c h sehn. Wem g e l a n g ' e s , wem, Ohne d i c h zu d i r zu gehn!  By the g r i e v o u s I am d e e p l y and I f you w i l l n o t I must stumble,  1  No.  me, c h i l d , to Bethlehem! my God, You w i l l I see. who c o u l d to You w i t h o u t your a i d !  s i c k n e s s of s i n d a r k l y oppressed. come t o my a i d , I must s t a g g e r .  Guide me to Bethlehem, You, my God, You w i l l I see. Who, who c o u l d Come t o You without your a i d !  ( a t t r i b u t e d t o Lopez de Ubeda; German t r a n s , by Heyse)  Ach, des Knaben Augen s i n d Mir so schon und k l a r e r s c h i e n e n , Und e i n Etwas s t r a h l t aus ihnen, Das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt.  Ah, the I n f a n t ' s eyes, So b e a u t i f u l and c l e a r they seemed, And from them something s h i n e s That c a p t u r e s a l l my h e a r t .  B l i c k t ' er doch m i t d i e s e n sussen Augen nach den meinen h i n ! Sah' e r dann s e i n B i l d d a r i n , Wiird' er wohl mich l i e b e n d griissen. Und so geb' i c h ganz mich h i n , S e i n e n Augen nur zu d i e n e n , Denn e i n Etwas s t r a h l t aus ihnen, Das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt.  For w i t h those sweet eyes He l o o k s a t mine! I f He then saw H i s image t h e r e , L o v i n g l y would He g r e e t me. And so I give myself w h o l l y To s e r v i n g o n l y H i s e y e s . For from them something s h i n e s That c a p t u r e s a l l my h e a r t .  No.  7:  ( a t t r i b u t e d to Don Manuel d e l R i o ; a c t u a l l y an o r i g i n a l German poem by G e i b e l )  Miihvoll komm' i c h und b e l a d e n , Nimm mich an, du Hort der Gnaden!  I n t o i l I come, and heavy l a d e n , R e c e i v e me, Refuge o f Mercy!  46  S i e h , i c h komm' i n Tranen h e i s s Mit demiitiger Gebarde, Dunkel ganz vom Staub d e r Erde. Du nur s c h a f f e s t , dass i c h weiss Wie das V l i e s s der Lammer werde. T i l g e n w i l l s t du j a den Schaden Dem, d e r r e u i g d i c h umfasst; Nimm denn, H e r r , von mir d i e L a s t , M u h v o l l komm' i c h und b e l a d e n .  See, w i t h b u r n i n g t e a r s I come, Bowed i n h u m i l i t y , Dark w i t h the dust o f e a r t h . You alone can make me white As lamb's f l e e c e . W i l l i n g l y w i l l You e f f a c e the wrong Of him who embraces You, r e p e n t a n t ; Take then, L o r d , the burden from me, In t o i l I come, and heavy l a d e n .  L a s s mich f l e h e n d v o r d i r k n i e ' n , Dass i c h iiber d e i n e Fiisse Nardenduft and Tranen g i e s s e , G l e i c h dem Weib, dem du v e r z i e h n , Bis d i e Schuld wie Rauch z e r f l i e s s e .  Let me k n e e l b e f o r e You, p l e a d i n g , That over Your f e e t I may pour t e a r s and scent o f nard, L i k e the woman You f o r g a v e , U n t i l my g u i l t i s d i s p e r s e d l i k e vapour. You who t o l d the t h i e f : "Today i n P a r a d i s e s h a l l you be!" oh, r e c e i v e me. R e c e i v e me, Refuge o f Mercy!  Der den Schacher du geladen: "Heute noch i n Edens Bann W i r s t du s e i n ! " o nimm mich an. Nimm mich an, du Hort d e r Gnaden!  No.  8:  (Anonymous; German t r a n s , by G e i b e l )  Ach, wie l a n g d i e S e e l e schlummert! Z e i t i s t ' s , dass s i e s i c h ermuntre.  Ah, how l o n g the s o u l slumbers! I t i s time i t roused i t s e l f .  Dass man t o t s i e wahnen d i i r f t e , A l s o s c h l a f t s i e schwer und bang, S e i t s i e j e n e r Rausch bezwang, Den im S u n d e n g i f t s i e s c h l i i r f t e . Doch nun i h r e r Sehnsucht L i c h t Blendend i h r i n s Auge b r i c h t : Z e i t i s t ' s , dass s i e s i c h ermuntre.  So t h a t one may t h i n k i t dead, H e a v i l y and f e a r f u l l y i t s l e e p s , Overcome by i n t o x i c a t i o n , Drunk i n the venom o f s i n . But now fchetlight?;bf i t s i l o n g i n g : . ; Breaks b l i n d i n g l y i n t o the eyes: I t i s time i t roused i t s e l f .  Mochte s i e g l e i c h taub e r s h e i n e n Bei der E n g e l siissem Chor: Lauscht s i e doch wohl zag empor, Ho'rt s i e Gott a l s K i n d l e i n weinen. Da nach l a n g e r Schlummernacht S o l c h e i n Tag d e r Gnad' i h r l a c h t , Z e i t i s t ' s , dass s i e s i c h ermuntre.  Though i t may have seemed deaf To the sweet c h o i r o f a n g e l s , S t i l l timid,ly i t p r i c k s i t s e a r s , H e a r i n g God c r y as a l i t t l e c h i l d . As, a f t e r i t s l o n g n i g h t o f slumber, Such a day o f mercy w i l l s m i l e on i t , I t i s time i t roused i t s e l f .  No.  9:  1  (Anonymous; German t r a n s , by Heyse)  H e r r , was t r a g t d e r Boden hier-,Den du t r a n k s t so b i t t e r l i c h ? "Dornen, l i e b e s Herz, fiir mich, Und f i i r d i c h der Blumen Z i e r . "  L o r d , what does t h e s o i l bear here, Which You water so b i t t e r l y ? "Thorns, dear h e a r t , f o r me, And f o r you adorning f l o w e r s . "  47  Ach, wo soIche Bache r i n n e n , Wird e i n Garten da gedeihn? " J a , und w i s s e ! Kranzelein, Gar v e r s c h i e d n e , f l i c h t man d r i n n e n .  Ah., where such brooks run, S h a l l a garden f l o u r i s h there? "Yes, and know! Wreaths S h a l l be woven t h e r e , i n g r e a t variety."  0 mein Herr, zu wessen Z i e r Windet man d i e Kranze? sprich! "Die von Dornen s i n d f u r mich, D i e von Blumen r e i c h ' i c h d i r . "  Oh my L o r d , f o r whose adornment W i l l the wreaths be woven? Say! "Those of thorns a r e f o r me, Those of f l o w e r s I g i v e to you."  No.  10:  (attributed  to Jose de V a l d i v i v i e l s o ; German t r a n s , by  Geibel)  Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r , Und s i e schmerzen d i c h ; Triig' i c h s i e s t a t t deiner, i c h !  Wounds you bear, my b e l o v e d , And they cause you p a i n ; Would I bore them i n your s t e a d , I !  H e r r , wer wagt' es, so zu f a r b e n Deine S t i r n mit B l u t und Schweiss? "Diese Male s i n d der P r e i s , D i c h , o S e e l e , zu erwerben. An den Wunden muss i c h s t e r b e n , W e i l i c h d i c h g e l i e b t so h e i s s . "  L o r d , who dares so to s t a i n Your brow w i t h blood and sweat? "These marks are the p r i c e Of winning you, oh S o u l . Of these wounds must I d i e , For l o v i n g you so a r d e n t l y . "  Konnt' i c h , H e r r , f i i r d i c h s i e t r a g e n , Da es Todeswunden s i n d . "Wenn d i e s L e i d d i c h r i i h r t , mein K i n d , Magst du Lebenswunden sagen: I h r e r k e i n e ward geschlagen, Draus f i i r d i c h n i c h t Leben r i n n t . "  Would I might bear them f o r you, L o r d , s i n c e they are m o r t a l wounds. " I f t h i s sorrow touch you, my c h i l d , You may c a l l them l i v i n g wounds: Not one was made, from which L i f e does not flow f o r you."  Ach, wie mir i n Herz und Deine Qual so wehe t u t ! " H a r t r e s noch mit treuem  Ah, how my h e a r t and mind I s tormented by your p a i n ! "Even more h a r d s h i p s , w i t h t r u e courage, Would I g l a d l y bear, to win you; For o n l y he knows p e r f e c t l y how to love Who t h e r e d i e s f o r l o v e . "  Sinnen Mut  T r i i g ' i c h f r o h , d i c h zu gewinnen; Denn nur der weiss r e c h f zu minnen, Der  da s t i r b t v o r L i e b e s g l u t . "  Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r , Und s i e schmerzen d i c h ; Triig' i c h s i e ' s t a t t deiner, i c h !  Wounds you bear, my b e l o v e d , And they cause you p a i n ; Would I bore them i n your s t e a d , I !  APPENDIX 2 Dates and O r i g i n a l Order o f the " G e i s t l i c h e L i e d e r "  Heyse and G e i b e l ' s Order  Wolf's Date o f Composition  1  15 January 1890  No. 1, "Nun b i n i c h d e i n "  No. 2, "Die du Gott g e b a r s t , du R e i n e "  5 November 1889  No. 3, "Nun wandre, M a r i a "  4 November 1889  No. 4, "Die i h r schwebet"  5 November 1889  No. 5, "Fiihr mich, K i n d , nach Bethlehem'."  6  No. 6, "Ach, des Knaben Augen s i n d "  15 December 1889  21 December 1889  No. 7, "Muhvoll komm' i c h und b e l a d e n "  No. 8, "Ach, wie l a n g d i e S e e l e schlummert!"  No. 9, "Herr, was t r a g t der Boden h i e r "  No. 10, "Wunden t r a g s t du, mein G e l i e b t e r "  48  10. January 1890  8  19 December 1889  10  24 November 1889  9  16 December 1889  APPENDIX 3 Score of No. 9, "Herr, was tragt der Boden h i e r "  49  50  12.  so-lche B a'-che rin - nen, wrd i eni Gar - ten da "ge-detifn? „Ja, und wsi-ae! eB a'-che rin - nen, wrd i eni Gar - ten da "ge-detifn? „Ja, und wsi"Mr  r  i-'r  brooks qf tears are flow - ing  pr  • ' I J ^ J J J  will e'er bios - soms deck the heath?  "Yea,  I  tell thee!  Kar'n - ze-lein, gar ver-scheid - ne, flicbt man drn i - nen" 0 me ni  many  a wreath,  will  be twined  be - yondman's know-ing."  Tell  me,  sn id fiir mcih, dei von Bu l - men reich' cih dir."  twine  for  me,  those  of flowers  I  give  to thee'.-  APPENDIX 4 Score of No. 10, "Wunden tragst du, mein Geliebter"  Langsam and mit tiefer Empfindung  Won - den tragst du, On  the  Cross,  Love,  meni Ge - eilb - ter, und se i schmerz-en dcih;_ thou art  bleed - ing,  and  I  hear  thee  trig* cih se i etat dei - ner, cih I oh could I  re - lease thee, J!  51  eigh;.  52  53  23  lievt  My  smart?  "Doth m y  mffr-  mg  touch  <Ay  heart?  54  55  55a  RECITAL PROGRAMS UNSUITABLE FOR FILMING. FOR INFORMATION REGARDING THESE, CONTACT SPECIAL COLLECTIONS DIVISION, LIBRARY, 1956 MAIN MALL, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER, B.C. V6T 1Y3.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC Recital Hall January 25, 1982 8:00 p.m.  GRADUATION RECITAL Margaret K u h l , Mezzo-Soprano Heather E n g l i s h , Piano A r i a n n a a Naxos. C a n t a t a a voce s o l a con accompagnamento f o r t e p i a n o Chansons de B i l i t i s  J o s e p h Haydn (1732-1809) Claude Debussy (1862-1918)  1. La Flute de Pan 2= La Chevelure 3. Le Tombeau des Naiades Therese (Op.86, N o . l ) Uber d i e Heide (Op.86, No.4) An d i e N a c h t i g a l l (Op.46, No.4) Van Ewiger L i e b e (Op.43, N o . l )  Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)  INTERMISSION From t h e D i a r y o f V i r g i n i a 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Woolf  The Diary (April, 1919) Anxiety (October, 1920) Fancy (February 1927) Hardy's Funeral (January, 1928) Pome (May, 1935) War (June, 1940) Parents (December, 1940) Last Entry (March, 1941)  Dominick A r g e n t o (1927)  3  *In p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the requirements f o r t h e Doctor o f M u s i c a l A r t s Degree w i t h a major i n V o i c e  Translations Arianna a Naxos Recit: Teseo, my beloved, Where are you? I seem to have you near but i t is a dream that deceives me. Dawn awakens like Phoebus rising from the sea with golden tresses. Dear husband, where have you gone? Perhaps your noble ardor calls you to pursue the wild beasts. Ah, come my dear, and I will offer a more pleasing prey. The constant, loving heart of Arianna tightens with ever firmer grasp, and makes fairer the splendid face of our love. 1 cannot bear to be separated. My heart sighs for you Come, my idol. Aria:  Where are you, my fair treasure? Who steals you from this heart. If you do not come I shall die, I cannot bear my grief. If you have pity, oh gods support my pleas. Let my dear one return to me.  Recit: But, to whom am I speaking? Only an echo replies. Teseo does not hear me or respond, and the wind and waves bear away my voice.  Chansons de B i l i t i s THE  FLUTE  For the Hy^cinthine festival he has given me a syiiox of well formed reeds, bound together with white was, which is sweet to m y lips as honey. H e teaches me how to play, sitting on his knees; bat I am a little nervous. H e plays after me, so softly I can scarcely bear. W e have nothing to say to each other, so close arc we to one another; but in songs WD converse, und sometimes our lips Conte together on the Utile. It is late; that is the song of the green frogs thai begins with the night. M y mother will never believe I have been so long look ing for my lost girdle. TOE  HAIR  l i e said: "Last night I dreamed. Jl had your hair around my throat. I had your tresses like a black collar around my neck and upon my breast.  " J caressed them, and they were mine; He cannot be far away. and wc were bound together forever thus, by Yonder rocky cliffs rise higher thai same hair, mouth to mouth, than Che heavens. as two laurel bushes often have a single root. I will find him there. What do I see •' Oh Heavens •' Misery me I " A n d little by little, it seemed to me, our There is Argonaut wood. limbs so lost their identity that 11 became Those are GreeksTesec f you, or you entered into me like my dream." He on the bow... Ah, if only I were mistaken but no, He is going, leaving me here abandoned. When he had finished, be softly put his There is no more hope. I am betrayed. hands upon my shoulders, and looked at me with Teseo, Listen to meTeseo . so tender a ga?.e that I lowered my eyes, Alas, in vain. with a shudder. The waves and wind bear him away forever from my sight. Oh, you unjust gods Why do you hot punish the impious one. Ungrateful, why did I save you from death. So that you could betray me? our promises? your oaths? Perjurer, Infidel 2 You have the heart to go.  To whom shall I turn? From whom hope for pity? I falter, in this bitter moment My trembling spirit fails. Aria: Ah, how I should like to die in this fatal moment, but heaven, unjust, preserves me in my cruel torment. Miserable, abandoned, I have no one to console me. He whom I so dearly loved has gone, barbarous and unfaithful.  Chansons de B i l i t i s  (cont'd)  TUP. TOMI! OF THI1. NAIADS  Through the wood covered with hoar frost 1 walked; "The satyrs and the nymphs too. For thirty my hair before my month blossomed with years there has not been so terrible n winter. . The tracks lh.it you sec are those of a he-goat. But little icicles, and my sandals were heavy lei us stop here, for here is their tomb." with muddy lumps of snow. He said to mc: "What are you looking f o r ? " — " ! am following the tracks of a satyr. The prints of his little cloven hoofs are spaced like holes in a white cloak." He said: "The satyrs are dead."  And with the head of his hoc he broke t\\r. ice »»tt the spring where lite naiads used lo laugh. He look up the big frozen pieces, and holding them toward (he pale sky, he looked through tbcrn.  Thereee You innocent young lad Why do you gaze at me so? What questions you have in your eyes. The wisest rulers in the world remain silent about the questions your eyes ask.  TO  NKH1TINUALB 0  A seashell is lying on the mantel, Hold i t to your ear... and you will hear something. Over the Heath  Then again 1 would lie sleepless, staring up with tear-filled eyes, and pale as death, and haggard, to heaven above. Flee, nightingale, into the green shadows, into the grove, ami in your nest spend your kisses on your faithful wifi I'lctt. uh ilcct  Over the heath echo my steps with hollow r i n g . . . Autumn is coming Spring is far away. Will there be one more blissful moment? Brewing mist, spirits hover, The earth is black, the shy is empty. Would that I had gone here in Hay... Life and love, how fast i t flies.  THH  D o not: pour so loudly your amorous songs rich strains down from the blooming bough oftoeapple. o nightingale! With your sweet throat you reawaken my love; for already the depths of my soul are stirred by your melting cry.  OI  :  t.TEUNAL  LOVR  Dark, how dark in-the woods Hnd llio ficlilst It is evening already; now the world is quiet. Nowhere a light and nowhere smoke, yes, even the lark is silent now. Out of the villa?.* comes the youth, bringing his sweetheart home. Ho lends her by I ho willow thickcta, liilklnj? n great deal ntut about w ninny things. "If you ore nshumcd and troubled, nshamcd of me before the others, let love be broken off as suddenly, as quickly as we first came together. Let us part in the rain, let us part in the wind, as quickly as wo first came together.". The girt spenks: "Our love shall not be parted I Iron is strong and steel very much so, our love is even stronger. Iron and sfcci ere shaped in the forge, but who shall change our love? Icon and steel may be melted, but our love shall endure forever 1"  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC Recital H a l l Monday, A p r i l 11, 8:00 p.m.  1983  •GRADUATION RECITAL  Margaret Kuhl, mezzo soprano assisted by Terence Dawson, piano Nahe des Geliebten (Goethe) Heiss mich nicht reden (Goethe) Suleikas Zweiter Gesang (Goethe) Rastlose Liebe (Goethe)  Franz Schubert (1797-1828)  from the Spanische Liederbuch  Hugo Wolf  In dem Sohatten meiner Looken Alle g.ingen, Herz, . zur Ruhe Herr was tragt der Boden hier Die ihr sohwebet  (1860-1903)  Vier Lieder, Op. 2  Alban Berg  Sehlafen, Schlafen, niahts ale Schlafen (Hebbel) Schlafend tragt man mich (Mombert) Nun ich der Riesen Stdrksten iiberwand (Mombert) Warm die Lufte (Mombert)  C  1 8 8 5  "  1 9 3 5  )  - INTERMISSION Le T r a v a i l du Peintre (Eluard)  Pablo Picasso Marc Chagall Georges Braque Juan Gris Paul Klee Joan MirS Jacques Villon A Charm of Lullabies  A Cradle Song (Blake) The Highland Balou (Burns) Sephestia's Lullaby (Greene) A Charm (Randolph) The Nurse's Song (Philip)  Francis Poulenc  (1899-1963)  Benjamin  Britten  (1913-1976)  *In p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Doctor of Musical Arts Degree with a major i n Voice.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC Recital Hall Monday, F e b r u a r y 13, 1984 8:00 p.m.  •GRADUATION RECITAL M a r g a r e t K u h l , mezzo soprano a s s i s t e d by Edward Norman s organ T e r e n c e Dawson, piano  from t h e K l e l n e G e i s t l i c h e Konzerte B r i n g t h e r dem H e r r e n , SWV 283  H e i n r l c h Schiitz (1585-1672) Franz Schubert (1797-1828)  E l l e n s z w e l t e r Gesang  Gretchens B i t t e  Sulelka Gruss  Neue L i e b e  Der Mond A l l n a c h t l i c h im Traume seh' i c h d i c h Die Liebende S c h r e i b t Pagenlied  F e l i x Mendelssohn (1809-1847)  - INTEEraSSION  from Songs and Dances o f Death Kalibyelnaya Syeryenadu  Modeste  Mussorgsky (1839-1881)  Tryepak  Canciones para N1nos Paisaje El Lagarto esta Llorando Caracola Cancion Tonta Canclon China en Europa Cancioncilla Sevillana  Xavler Montsalvatge (b. 1911)  *In p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e requirements f o r t h e Doctor o f Musical A r t s Degree w i t h a major i n Voice.  TEXTS Bringt her dem Herren  Bring to the Lord  Bringt her dem Herren, ihr Gewaltigen, Bringt her dem Herren Ehre und Starke* Halleluja...  Ascribe to the Lord, 0 mighty ones, Ascribe to the Lord glory and strength. Alleluia...  Bringt her dem Herren Ehre seines Namens. Betet an den Herren im heiligen Schmuck. Halleluja...  Ascribe to the Lord the glory due his name; worship the Lord i n the splendour of h i s holiness. Alleluia...  A l l e Lande betet dich an und lobslngen deinem Namen. Halleluja... (Psalm 29:1;2)  A l l the nations c a l l upon Thee, and sing praises to Thy Name. Alleluia...  §  5  S  5  S  5  S  5  5  Ellens zweiter Gesang  Ellen's second Song  JSger, ruhe von der Jagdl Welcher Schlutamer s o i l dich decken TrSume nicht, wenn Sonn' erwacht, dass JagdhBrner dich erwecken, JSger, ruhe von der Jagd.  Huntsman, rest from the chaseI Soft slumber s h a l l enfold you, Dream not, when the sun awakes, That hunting horns arouse you.  Schlaf! der Hirsch ruht i n der HShle, bei d i r sind die Hunde wach; Schlaf, nicht quSl es deine Seele, dass dein edles Ross erlag.  Sleepl the deer rests i n the hollow; The hounds keep watch beside you, Sleep! Let not your soul grieve For your gallant horse l y i n g dead.  JSger ruhe von der Jagd... (Sir Walter Scott)  Huntsman, rest from the chase  Cretchens B i t t e  Gretchen's Prayer  Ach neige, du Schmerzen relche, dein A n t l l t z gnSdig meiner Not! Das Schwert im Herzen, mit tausend Schmerzen B l i c k s t auf zu deines Sohnes Tod.  Oh, deeply a f f l i c t e d one, i n c l i n e thy face graciously towards my d i s t r e s s ! With a sword i n thy heart, With a thousand sorrows Thou beholdest thy Son's death.  Zum Vater B l i c k s t du, und Seufzer schickst du hinauf urn sein' und deine Not.  Thou lookest to His Father And sendest sighs To heaven f o r His and thy d i s t r e s s .  Wer ftthlet, wie wQhlet der Schmerz mir im Gebein? Was mein armes Herz — hier banget, was es z i t t e r t , was verlanget, Weisst nur du, nur du a l l e i n .  Who can f e e l the gnawing pain That i s i n my bones? My poor heart's fears, tremblings, i t s longings, Thou only knowest. Thou alone!  Wohin i c h immer gehe, wie wehe wird mir im Busen hierI Ich b i n a l l e i n e , Ich wein, i c h weine, das Herz zerbricht i n mir...  Wherever I go, . what woe i s i n my bosom! I am alone I weep and weep My heart within me breaks...  (Goethe)  Suleika  Suleika  Was bedeutet die Bewegung? Brlngt der Ost mir frohe Kunde? Seiner Schwingen frlsche Regung KShlt des Herzens t i e f e Wunde.  What does t h i s movement mean? Does the East wind bring me glad tidings? The fresh s t i r r i n g of i t s wings Cools the heart's deep wounds.  Kosend s p i e l t er mit den Staube, Jagt Ihn auf i n l e i c h t e n WSlken, Trelbt zur slchern Rebenlaube Der Insekten frohe s Volkchen.  Caressingly i t plays with the dust S t i r s i t up into l i t t l e clouds; Drives to the shelter of the vine-leaves The merry insect t r i b e .  Lindert sanft der Sonne Gliihen, KShlt auch mir die h e l s s e n Wangen, KUsst die Reben noch *.m Fliehen, Die auf Feld und Riigel prangen.  Softly i t tempers the sun's glow. And cools my hot cheeks; And i n i t s f l i g h t kisses the vines Resplendent on f i e l d and h i l l .  Und mir Von dem Eh noch GrQssen  And to me i t s l i g h t whisper brings A thousand greetings from my dear one: Ere yet these h i l l s grow dark > A thousand kisses w i l l greet me.  bringt sein l e i s e s Fltlstern Freunde tausend Grilsse; diese Hiigel diistern, mich wohl tausend Kiisee.  Und so kannst du welterZiehen! Diene Frohen und Betrtibten, Dort, wo hohe Kauern gliihen, Dort find ich bald den Vielgeliebten.  And so (East Wind), you may pass on your way, Ministering to friends and to those i n need, There, where the high walls are a l l aglow, I s h a l l soon dind my most beloved.  Ach, die wahre Herzenskunde, Liebeshauch, erfrischtes Leben Wird mir nur aus seinem Munde, Kann mir nur sein Atem geben.  Ah, the heart;s true tidings, Love's i n s p i r a t i o n , l i f e ' s renewal; For me come from h i s mouth alone; Only his breath can give them to me.  (Marianne von WHlemer) Aus dem westSstlichen Divan  S S $ §  in Goethe  i  i  §  S S  t  Gruss  Greeting  Leise zieht durch mein GemSth l i e b l i c h e s Gela"ute; Klinge, kleines Friihlingslied, k l i n g ' hinaus in's Weite.  Softly running through my mind, lovely strains, spring song, sound out into the distance.  Zieh' hinaus b i s an das Haus, wo die Veilchen spriessen; wenn du eine Rose schaust, sag) i c h l a s s ' sie grussen.  Echo out to the house where v i o l e t s bloom; should you see a rose there greet her from me.  (Heine) Neue Liebe  New Love  In dem Mondenschein im Walde sah i c h jungpt die E l f e n r e i t e n , ihre Hflrner KSrt i c h klingen, ihre GlScklein h8rt ich l l u t e n . . .  Not long ago I saw the elves r i d i n g through the moonlit woods I heard their horns sound and their b e l l s t i n k l e .  Ihre weissen RSsslein trugen gold'ties Hirschgeweih' und flogen rasch dahin; wie wllde SchvSne kam es durch die Luft gezogen...  Their l i t t l e white horses bore golden stags antlers and flew s w i f t l y along; i t was as i f wild swans drew through the a i r .  LBchelnd nickte mir die KSn'gin, l&chelnd, im Worliberreiten, Gait das meiner neuen Liebe? Oder s o l i es Tod bedeuten? (Heine)  The queen nodded to me and smiled as she rode past. Did she mean my new love Or am I to die?  1  SOHGS AHB DANCES O F DEATH  Hodest Mussorgsky Poetry by A, A. Golenlshtchef-Kutusof I Lullabye  KAHBYELHAYA  The c h i l d moans; the candle, g u t t e r i n g . Dimly d i c k e r s around the room. A l l n i g h t , rocking the c r a d l e , The mother never dropped o f f to aleap.  STONYET REBYONAK, SVYECHA. NACARAYA, TUSKLA MYBRTSAYET WtUGOH. , TSYELUYU NOCH, KALIBYEUCU KACHAYA, HAT KYE ZAB1UVSYA SNOM. RANIM RANYOKHANKA V DVYER. ASTAROZHNA, SHYERT SYBRDAB61NAYA STUKt VZDROGNUU HAT, ACLYANULAS TREVOZHNA. "POLNA PUCATSYA, MOY DRUM  Very e a r l y , on the door c a u t i o u s l y . Tender-hearted death's knockI The mother shuddered, looked back u n e a s i l y . Death: " F e a r n o t , my f r i e n d I  BLYBDHAYE UTRA UZH SHOTRIT V AKOSHKA. PLACHA, TASKUYA, LYUBYA, i f UTAMILAS. VZDREHNIKA NYEMNOZHKA, YA PASlZfflJ ZA TYEBYA.  Pale morning already peeps i n the window. Weeping, g r i e v i n g , l o v i n g , You have grown t i r e d . Nap f o r a w h i l e ; I w i l l watch f o r you.  UCAMANtT T I DITYA NYE SUMYELAt SLASHCHYE TYEBYA YA SPAYU."  You could not calm the c h i l d ; I s i n g more sweetly than y o u . "  "TISHYBf  REBY(5HAK HOY MYECHYBTSYA, BYOTSYA,  DOSHU TYBRZAYET MAYUI" "NU, DA SA MNOYU AH SKORA UYMYOTSYA. BAYUSHKI, BAYU, BAY6."  Mothers "Be q u i e t i Hy c h i l d f r e t s , s t r u g g l e s . Tears spart my s o u l ! " "Indeed, w e l l w i t h me he w i l l soon f a l l asleep. Death I L u l l a b y e , hushabye."  "SHCHYOCIIKI BLYEDNYEYUT, 8LABYRYBT DIKHANYE... DA ZAMALCHI ZHYE, MALYGI" "D&BRAYE ZNAMYENYE: STIKHNYET STRADANYE, BAYUSHKI, BAYU, BAYU."  Mother: " H i s l i t t l e cheeks are turning w h i t e , h i s breathing weakens.. So be s t i l l then, I beg y o u ! " Death: " T h a t ' s a good signs h i s s u f f e r i n g ceases. L u l l a b y e , hushabye."  "PR&CH T I , PRAKIYATAYAI LASKAY SVAYEYU SOUBISH T I RADAST MAYU." "NYET, M1RN1Y SON YA KLAOYEKTSU NAVYEYU; BAYUSHKI, BAYU, BAYu\"  Mother: "Away w i t h you, damned one! With your caress You destroy my J o y . " Death: "No, I b r i n g peaceful sleep to the c h i l d ; L u l l a b y e , hushabye."  "SZHALSYA, PAZHDf DAPYEVAT, KHAT HCNAVYENYB, STRASHHUTU PYESNYU TVAYUI" "viDISH, USNuL AN PAD TkllAYE PYENYE. HAYUSIIKI, BAYU, BAYil."  Mother: "Have p i t y , w a i t , i f only a w h i l e , before you stop s i n g i n g Your dreadful s o n g l " Death: "You see, he f e l l asleep under my quiet singing. L u l l n b y e , hushabye."  II SYERENADA  Serenade  NYEGA VALSHYEBNAYA, NOCH GALUBAYA, TREPYETNIY SUMRAK VYESH1... VNYEMLYET, PANIKMOT CALOFKAY, BALNAYA SHOPAT NACHN6Y TISHIHI.  Magical d e l i g h t , blue n i g h t . F l i c k e r i n g t w i l i g h t of s p r i n g . . . Head drooping, the i n v a l i d hears The whisper of nocturnal s i l e n c e .  S6N NYE SMIKAYET BLYESTYASKCHIYE OCHI, ZILFZN K KASLAZHDYENYU ZAVYET; A PAD AKOSHKAM, V KALCRANI PALNOCHI, SHYERT SYERENADU PAY6T:  Sleep does not c l o s e her b r i l l i a n t eyes, L i f e c a l l s her t o pleaaure; But under the l i t t l e window, i n the midnight s i l e n c e , Death sings h i s serenades  "V HRAKYE NYE V VOL I, SUROVAY I TYBSNAY, HOLADAST, VYANYET TVAYA, RITSAR NYEVYEDAMIY. SftAY CRVDYESNAY 6sVABAZH(i YA TYEBYA.  "In the gloom of your severe and narrow p r i s o n . Your youth w i t h e r s ! As your unknown k n i g h t , w i t h marvellous s t r e n g t h , I w i l l l i b e r a t e you.  VSTAN, PASMATRf NA SYEBYA: KRASATOYU lit TVAY PRAZRACHNIY BLYESTIT, SHCROKI RUMYANI. VAUISTAY KAS6YU STAN TVAY KAK TvCHYEY ABVIT|  Get up, take a look a t y o u r s e l f t w i t h besuty Your transparent face ahlnesi Cheeks of rouge, wavy b r a i d . Your f i g u r e embraced as i f by a c l o u d ;  PRiSTALMtKH CLAz GAUIBOYE SIYANYE, YARCHYE NYEBYES I AGNYA; ZNOYEH PAU/DYEHNIM VYEYET DIKHAHYE... T! ABALSTILA HYENYA,  The blue radiance of steadfast eyes. Brighter than heaven or f i r e ; Your breath exudes the heat of midday... You have seduced me.  SliJKH TVAY PLYEN1LSYA HAY BY SYERENADAY, RITSARYA SHOPAT TVAY ZVAL. RITSAR PRISHYOL ZA PASLYEDNYBY HAGRADAYL CHAS UPAYEKYA KASTALI  Your ear has been caught by my serenade. Your whisper has summoned your knight. The knight hss come f o r t h i s l a s t reward: The hour of ecstacy has a r r i v e d I  NYEZHEN TVAY STAN, UPAITYEXYEN TRfiPYET. 0, ZADUSHu YA TYEBYA V WEPRIKH ABYATYAKHI LYUBOVN1Y KAY LYEPYET SLUSHAY . . . HALCtll . . . TI MAYA I  Your tender f i g u r e , rapturous tremour. Oh, I s t r a n g l e you In my strong embrace; my love p r a t t l e , L i s t e n . . . be s t i l l . . . you are mine I"  Der Hood  The Moon  Mein Herz 1st wie die dunkle Nacht, wenn a l l e Wipfel rauschen; da steigt der Mond i n v o l l e r Prac.ht aus Wolken aacht; und siehM der.Wald verstummt i n tiefem Lauschen.  My heart i s l i k e the dark night when a l l the treetops r u s t l e ; The moon rises i n f u l l splendour from behind the clouds; behold the woods i n deep silence.  Der Mond, der l i c h t e Mond b i s t du i n deiner LiebesfUUe, wirf einen, einen B l l c k mir zu v o l l HiBlmelsruh and sieh'! dies ungestiime Herz wird s t i l l e .  Dear moon, Oh, bright moon so f u l l of love cast me a glance of heavenly peace and behold - t h i s troubled heart w i l l become s t i l l .  A l l n g c h t l i c h im Traume seh' i c h dich  Nightly i n my Dreams I see you  A l l n S c h t l i c h im Traume aeh Ich dich und seh' dich Freundlich grUssen und laut aufwelnend etQrz' i c h mich 8u delnen silssen Fussen.  Nightly im my dreams I see you, and see your friendly greeting; and, loudly weeping, I throw myself at your feet.  Du sieh8t mich an wehutUthiglich und schQttelst das blonde K8pfchen aus deinen Augen echleichen sich die Perlenthr&nentrSpfchen.  You look at me sadly and shake your l i t t l e f a i r head; from your eyes steal teardrops of pearl.  Du sagst mir heimlich e i n l e i s e s Wort und gibst mir den Straues von Cypressen ich wache auf, und der Strauss i s t fort und'a Wort hab' i c h vergessen.  You murmur a quiet word to me, and give me a spray of cypress. I awake the spray i s gone and the word forgotten.  Die Llebende schreibt  The Beloved Writes  Ein B l l c k von deinen Augen i n die meinen, Ein Kuss von deinem Mund auf meinem Munde, Wer davon hat, wie ich, gewisse Kunde, Mag dem was anders wohl e r f r e u l i c h scheinen?  A glance from your eyes into mine, A kiss from your mouth on mine... To one who has, as I have, knowledge of these, Could anything else seem delightful?  Entfernt von d i r , entfremdet von den Meinen, Ftthr i c h nur d i e Gedanken i n die Runde, Und immer treffen s i e auf jene Stunde, Die einzige; da fang i c h an zu weinen.  Far away from you, estranged from my k i n , I carry these thoughts unceasingly, And they always rest upon that hour, That, one hour; then I begin to weep.  Die TrSne trocknet wieder unveraehens: Er l i e b t j a , denk ich, her i n diese S t i l l e , Und e o l l t e s t du nicht i n die Ferae reichen?  My tears dry again unexpectedly; "His love," X t e l l myself."touches t h i s s t i l l n e s s , And should not you, too, reach across the distance?"  Vernimm das Lispeln dieses Llebewehens; Mein einzig Glttck auf Erden i s t dein W i l l e , Dein freundlicher zu mir; gib mir e i n Zeichenl  Listen to the longing of this love, My one joy on earth rests with you Your goodwill towards me: Give me a signl  Pagenlied  Page's Song  Wenn die Sonne l l e b l i c h schiene wie In WSlschland lau und blau, ging' i c h mit der Mandoline durch die UberglSnzte Au'.  I f , as i n southern climes, hazy and blue, the sun were here to shine I'd go, mandoline i n hand, over the radian£ meadow.  In der Nacht das Llebchen lauschte an dem Fens car, sties verwacht; wQnachte mir und i h r , uns Beiden, heimlich eine schSne Nacht.  By night my love would l i s t e n at the window, i n sweet awakening, as I wish us both, secretly, "eine schone Nacht."  ,  1  Canciones para turioa I. Landscape  I. P a l s a j e  La tarde equivocada sa vistlo de frio Detras de los crlstales turbios todos los ninos, ven convertirse pajaros un arbol amarillo.  Th<* confused afternoon has clothed itself in cold Behind the muddy windows all the children see a yellow tree transforming itself into birds  La tarde esta tendida a l o largo d e l rio. The afternoon is spread out along the river. t un rubor de manzana tienbla And a blush of apples trembles en los tejadillos. over the shed roofs. II. El Lagarto ea^a llorando...  Tl. The Lizard is crying...  El lagarto esta ilorando, La lagarta esta liorendo.  The he-lizard is crying, The she-lisard is crying.  El lagarto y la l a g a r t a con delantalitos blancos.  The he-lizard and the she-lizard with l i t t l e white aprons.  Han perdido sin querer su anillo de deeposados.  Have locit without wanting to their wedding ring.  Ay, su anillito plotno, ay, su anillito plomsdol  Ah, their l i t t l e leaden wedding ring, Ah, their l i t t l e ring of lead!  Un cielo grande sin gente montaba en globo a los pajaros.  A large sky without people carries the birds in i t s balloon.  El sol, capitan redondo, lleva un chaleco de raso.  The sun, rotund captain, wears a satin waistcoat.  Mlradlos que viejoa son! Que viejos son las lagartos!  Look how old they are! How old the lizards are!  Ay, como lloran y lloran,  Oh, how they cry and cry, Oh, Oh! How they go on crying.  ay, ay! c6mo estin llcrando!  til.  Caracola  III. Snail  Me han trafdo una caracola.  They have brought me a snail  Dentro le canta un mar de mapa. Mi corazon se llena de agua, con pececillos de sombra y plata.  Inside it sings a map-green ocean. My heart owe 1.1 a with water, with small fish of brown end silver.  Me han t r a f d o una cs.racola.  Tf>ey have brought me a snail.  IV. Canclon Tonta  IV.  Silly Song  Mama,  Mama,  Yo quiero set d» p l s t a .  I wish I were silver.  Hijo,^ tendras mucho f r ' o . Mama, Yo quiero set de agua. Hijo, tendras mucho frio. Mami, Bordame en tu almonada. Eso s imiemo! ! Ahora  Sort, You'd be very cold. Mama, I wish I were water. Son, You'(i ba very cold Ma .vi, Embroider me on your pillow. That, -ht away! yes!  It!  TRFTAK  Trepak  LYES, DA PALYAN1, BYEZLYUDYE KRUGOMj VYUGA I PLACHYET I ST6NYETi CHUYETSYA. BUDTA VA NRAKYE SACIfNOM, ZI.AYA KAVO TA WIAR&HIT.  The forest and meadows, desertion a l l around! The snows t o r s weeps and •nana; It f e e l s , as I f tn the dark of n i g h t . Someone wicked i s l u r k i n g .  CLYADI TAK I YESTI V TYEfWATYE KUZHIKA SMYERT ABNIHAYET, LASKAYET; S,PYANYENKIH PLYASHYET VDVAY6M TREPAKA, NA t/KHA PYESN NAPYEVAYETi  Look! Over there1 In the darkness, death Embraces, caresses a peasant; Together w i t h the drunkard he dances a trapak. In his ear he hums a song!  " O K H , HUZHICHOK, STARICHOK, UBOGAY, PYAN WUJILSYA, PAPLYELSYA DAR6CAYJ A MYATYRL TA, VYEDMA, PFIOKYALAS, VZ1GRALA. S I'OLYA V LYES DREMUCHIY NYSVZNACHAY ZAGHALA GOREM, TASKOY. DA NUZHDOY TAMfMIY, LYAK, PRIKARNI DA USHI, RADIMIYJ YA JYKBYA, GALGBCHIK HOY, SNYESHKOM SAGREYU, VKRUC TYEBYA VYELIKUYU ICR!) ZATVftyy. VZBYllY KA PASTYEL, T l HYATYEL LYEBYOTKAI GYIY, NACHIHAY, ZAPYEVAY, PAG6TKAI SKASKU, DA TAKUYU, SirrfB VSYU MOCH TYANULAS, SIITOB PYAHCHUGYE KREPKA POD HYEYO ZASHfitAS. 6Y, Vf LYEsA, HYEBYESA, DA TUCH1, TYltH, VYETYER6K, DA SNYEZH6K LtfETUCHIY, SVYlSYTYES PYE1.YEN6YU, SKY^ZHNAY ptfKRAVOYU; YEYtl, KAK MLADYENTSA, STARICHK* PRIKR6YU. s r i , MAY DRUZII6K, MUZHICU6K SCHASTLIVIY, L Y E T A PRISIIL6, RAZTSVYEL6| HAD NIVAY SOLNISHK6 SHYEY&TSYA, DA SYERPI GULYXYUTI PyfcSYEHKA HYESY6TSYA, GALUPKI LYETAYUT . . .  "Oh, l i t t l e peasant, o l d f e l l o w , wretched one, You drank your f i l l , and dragged yourself along, ay dear; And that snows t o r s , the w i t c h , arose, grew rough, Unexpectedly drove you from the f i e l d Into the primeval f o r e s t . G r l e f - e t r l c k e n , sielancholy, toraented w i t h need, Lie down, c u r l up and s l e e p , ay good s t a n ! 1 w i l l war* you w i t h snow, ay f r i e n d , I w i l l s t a r t a great gam around you. F l u f f up the bed, you swan of a anowstorat Hey, begin your song, l i t t l e s l a t e r ) Such a t a l e she s t r e t c h e d through the whole n i g h t , U n t i l the drunkard f e l l soundly asleep under her s p e l l . Oh, you f o r e s t s , heavena, and clouds, Darkness, b r e e i e , and f l y i n g snow, Hake a shroud out of downy snow; With i t I w i l l cover the o l d f e l l o w l i k e a baby. Sleep, my f r i e n d , lucky peasant, Suamer has cone, has bloosed I Over the f i e l d The dear sun lsughs and the acythes are aweeplng; A l i t t l e aong l a heard, the doves are f l y i n g . . . "  V. Canci6n China en Europa La del ya del  V. Chinese Song i n Europe  senorita abanico, por e l puente fresco r i o ,  The lady With the fan goes over the bridge of the cool r i v e r .  Los caballeros con sua l e v i t a s , miran e l puente sin barandillas.  The gentlemen in their frock-coats Look at the bridge without balustrades.  La senorita del abanico, y los valances, busca marido.  The lady of the fan • And of v e i l s Looks for a spouse.  Los caballeros estan casados, con altas rubias de idioma bianco.  The gentlemen are married to t a l l blondes with white speech  Los g r i l l o s cantan por e l Oeste,  The crickets sing in the west.  (La senorita, va por l o verde.)  (The lady goes toward the green)  Los g r i l l o s cantan bajo las f l o r e s .  The crickets sing beneath the flowers.  (Los caballeros, van por e l Norte.)  (The gentlemen go north.)  VI. Cancioncilla Sevlllana  VI. Small Song from S e v i l l a  Amanecfa en e l naranjel Abejitas de oro buscaban l a miel.  Daybreak in the orange grove. L i t t l e golden bees were looking for honey.  Donde estara l a miel?  Where w i l l the honey be?  Esta en l a f l o r azul, Isabel. En l a f l o r , del romero aquel.  In the blue flower, Isabel. In the flower of the rosemary there.  ( S i l l i t a de oro para e l raoro. S i l l a de oropel para su mujer.)  ( L i t t l e gold chair for the moor. Tinsel chair for h i s wife.)  Amanecla en e l naranjel.  Dawn was breaking in the orange grove.  (F. Garcia Lorca)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC Recital H a l l Saturday, July 28, 1984 1:00 p.m. GRADUATE LECTURE-RECITAL* Margaret Kuhl, mezzo-soprano assisted by P h i l i p T i l l o t s o n , piano  ON PERFORMING WOLFs PROBLEMS INHERENT IN THE "GEISTLICHE LIEDER" FROM THE SPANISCHES LIEDERBUCH  *In p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Doctor Musical Arts Degree with a Major i n Voice Performance.  Tezts of the "Geistliche licdat"* Ho. 1:  (attributed to Erzpriaster von H l t a ; German trans, by Heyse)  Nun b i n Ich deln, Du a l l e r Blumen Blume, Und sing' a l l e i n Allstund su deinem Ruhme; W i l l e l f r l g sein, Mich d i r zu weihn Und deinem Duldertume.  Now I am yours. Flower of a l l flowers, And sing s o l e l y At a l l times to your praise; I w i l l be zealous, Dedicate myself to you And to your sufferance.  Frau auserlesen, Zu d i r steht a l l mein Boffen, Mein innerst Wesen 1st a l l e z e i t d i r offen. Komm, mich zu lBsen Vom Fluch des B6*sen, Der mich so hart betroffen!  Lady e l e c t , I n you i s a l l my hope, My innermost being Is forever open to you. Come, free me From the curse of the E v i l One Who hae so sore a f f l i c t e d me!  Du Stern der See, Su Port der Wonnen, Von der im Web. Die Wunden B e l l gewonnen, Eh' Ich vergeh, B l i c k ' aus der Bb*h, Du KSnlgin der Sonnen!  Star of the Seay Haven of d e l i g h t s , From whom, i n agony, The a f f l i c t e d have found salvation, Before I pass away, Look from on high. Queen of Suns!  Nie kann versiegen Die FOlle delner Gnaden; Du h i l f s t zum Siegen Dem, der mit Schmach beladen. An dich s i c h schmlegen, Zu deinen FQssen liegen He l i t a l i e n Barm und Schaden.  Never can the abundance Of your mercy be exhausted; Tou help towards triumph Bim who i s laden with shame. To c l i n g to you, To l i e at your feet, Beals a l l I n f i r m i t y and g r i e f .  Ich l e i d e schwer Und wohlverdiente Strafen. Mir bangt so sehr Bald Todesschlaf zu schlafen. T r l t t du einher. Und durch daa Meer 0 future mich zum Bafen!  X suffer severe And well-merited punishments. I am i n great fear Of sleeping soon death's sleep. Come f o r t h , And through the sea, Bring me to the harbour!  No. 2:  (attributed to Nicolas NuSez; German trans, by Heyse)  Die du Gott gebarst, du Belne, Und a l l e l n e Uns gelSs't aus unsern Ketten, Kach mich frtthlich, der Ich waine, Denn nur deine Huld und Gnade mag una r e t t e n .  You who bore God, Pure One, And alone Delivered us from our chains, Make me, who weep, glad, For only your Grace and mercy can d e l i v e r us.  Herr i n , ganz zu d i r mich wende, Daes s i c h ende Diese Qual und dlesea Grauen, Dass der Tod mich furchtlos fSnde, Und nicht blende Mich das L i c h t der Himmelsauen.  Lady, I turn to you, That t h i s torment and dread May cease, That death may-find me unafraid, And I be not blinded By the l i g h t of the Heavenly Pastures.  Well du unbefleckt geboren, Auaerkoren Zu dea ew'gan Ruhmes Stfitten — Wie mich Leiden auch umfloren, Unverloren Bin Ich doch, v i l l a t du mich retten.  Because you were born Immaculate, Chosen For abodes of eternal glory — However much v e i l e d i n sorrow, I am not l o s t , I f you w i l l d e l i v e r me.  So. 38  (attributed to Ocana; German trans, by Geibel) "Der h e i l i g e Joseph singe"  "Saint Joseph sings"  Hon wandre, Maria, Nun wandre nur f o r t . Schon krShen d i e HShne, Und nah 1st der Ort.  Go on, Mary, Go on. The cocks are crowing, And the place Is near.  Nun wandre, Geliebte, Du Kleinod mein, Und balde wir werden In Bethlehem s e i n . Dann ruhest du f e i n Und schlummerst dort. Schon krShen die HShne, Und nah i s t der Ort.  Go on, beloved, My jewel, And soon s h a l l we be In Bethlehem. Then s h a l l you r e s t And slumber there. The cocks are crowing, And the place i s near.  Wohl eeh i c h , Herrin, Die Kraft d i r schwinden; Kann deine Schmerzen Ach, kaum verwinden. Getrost! Wohl flnden Wir Herberg dort. Schon krShen die HShne, Und nah i s t der Ort.  I see s e l l , Lady, Tour strength i s waning; tour pains I cannot, A l a s , subdue. Take heart! We s h a l l f i n d Lodging there. The cocks are crowing, And the place i s near.  WSr' e r s t beatanden Dein Stflndlein, Marie, Die gute Botschaft Gut lohnt' i c h s i e . Das E s e l e i n hie ' GaV i c h drum f o r t ! Schon krShen die HShne, Hah i s t der Ort. No. A;  Would i t were over, Mary, your hour, Those good t i d i n g s Would I reward w e l l . The donkey here Would I give for that! The cocks are crowing, Come! The place i s near.  (attributed to Lope de Vega'; German trans, by Geibel)  Die i h r schwebet Urn diese Palmen I n Nacht und Wind, Ihr hell'gen Engel, S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein Kind.  You who hover About these palms. In night and wind, Holy Angels, Silence t h e i r leaves! My c h i l d i s asleep.  Ihr Palmen von Bethlehem' Im Windesbrausen, Wie rnBgt i h r heute So zornig sausen'. 0 rauscht nicht a l s o ! Schwelget, neiget Euch l e t s ' und l i n d ; S t i l l e t die Wipfel*. Es schlummert mein Kind.  Palms of Bethlehem In b l u s t e r i n g wind, How can you today So a n g r i l y blow! Oh, roar not so! Be s t i l l , bow S o f t l y and gently; Silence the leaves! My c h i l d i s asleep.  Der Himmelsknabe Duldet Beschwerde, Ach, wie so mUd* er ward Vom Leid der Erde. Ach nun im Schlaf ihm Leise gesanftigt Die Qual z e r r i n n t , S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein Kind.  The Son of Heaven Is s u f f e r i n g ; Ah, so t i r e d has He grown Of earth's sorrows. Ah, now i n sleep Gently softened, The pain melts away. Silence the leaves! My c h i l d i s asleep.  Grimmige KSlte Sauset hernieder,. Vomit nur deck' i c h Des Kindleins Glieder! 0 a l l i h r Engel, Die i h r geflflgelt Wandelt im Wind, S t i l l e t die Wipfel! Es schlummert mein Kind.  Fierce cold Comes rushing; With what s h a l l X cover The l i t t l e c h i l d ' s limbs! Oh, a l l you Angels Who winged Travel on the wind, Silence the leaves!  My child i s asleep.  No. 5:  (Anonymous; German trans, by Heyse)  F3hr mien, Kind, nach Bethlehem! Dich, mein Gott, dich w i l l i c h sehn. Wem gelling' es, wem, Ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn!  Lead me, c h i l d , to Bethlehem! You, my God, You w i l l I see. Who, who could Come to You without your a i d !  Rattle mich, dass i c h erwache, Kufe mich, so w i l l i c h achreiten; Gib die Hand mir, mich zu l e i t e n , Dass i c h auf den Weg mich mache. Dass i c h schaue Bethlehem, Dorten meinen Gott zu sehn. Wem gelSng' es, vem, Ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn!  Shake me, so that I awake, C a l l me, and X w i l l go; Give me your hand to guide me, That X may set out upon the way. That X may see Bethlehem, There to see my God. Who, who could Come to You without your a i d !  Von der SOnde schwereu Krsnken Bin i c h trSg' und dumpf bekotmnen. W i l l a t du nicht zu llttlfe kommen, Huss i c h straucheln, muss i c h schwanken. L a i t e mich nach Bethlehem, Dich, mein Gott, dich w i l l i c h sehn. Wem gelSng' es, wem, Ohne dich zu d i r zu gehn!  By the grievous sickness of s i n X am deeply and darkly oppressed. Xf you w i l l not come to my a i d , X must stumble, X must stagger. Guide me to Bethlehem, You, my God, You w i l l X see. Who, who could Come to You without your a i d !  6: . (attributed to Lopez de Ubeda; German trans, by Heyse) Ach, des Knaben Augen sind Mir so schSn und k l a r ers'chienen, Und e i n Etwas s t r a h l t aus ihnen, Das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt.  Ah, the Infant's eyes, So b e a u t i f u l and clear they seemed, And from them something shines That captures a l l my heart.  B l i c k t ' er doch mit diesen sttssen Augen nach den meinen h i n ! SSh' er dann sein B i l d darin, WBrd' er wohl mich liebend grtissen. Und so geb' i c h ganz mich h i n , Seinen Augen nur zu dienen, Denn e i n Etwas s t r a h l t aus ihnen, Das mein ganzes Herz gewinnt.  For with those sweet eyes He looks a t mine! Xf He then saw His image there, Lovingly would He greet me. And so I give myself wholly To serving only His eyes. For from them something shines That captures a l l my heart.  (attributed to Don Manuel d e l Rio; a c t u a l l y an o r i g i n a l German poem by Geibel) Miihvoll komm' i c h und beladen, Nimm mich an, du Hort der Gnaden! Sieh, i c h komm' i n TxSnen heiss Mit demfitiger Gebitrde, Dunkel ganz vom Staub der Erde. Du nur achaffest, dass i c h welss Wie das V l i e s s der LSmmer werde. Tilgen w i - l s t du j a den Schaden Dem, der reuig dich umfasst; Himm denn, Herr, von mir d i e Last, Miihvoll komm' i c h und beladen.  In t o i l I come, and heavy laden, Raceiva me, Refuge of Mercy! See, with burning tears X come, Bowed i n humility. Dark with the dust o f earth. You alone can make me white As lamb's fleece. W i l l i n g l y w i l l You efface the wrong Of him who embraces You, repentant; Take then, Lord, the burden from me In t o i l X come, and heavy laden.  Lass mich flehend vor d i r knie'n, Dass i c h iiber deine Fiisse Nardenduft and TrSnen giesse, Gleich dem Weib, dem du'verziehn, Bis d i e Schuld wie Rauch z a r f l i e s s e .  Let me kneel before You, pleading, That over Your feet X may pour tears and scent of nard, L i k e the woman You forgave, U n t i l my g u i l t i s dispersed l i k e vapour. You who told the t h i e f : "Today i n Paradise s h a l l you be!" oh, receive me. Receive me, Refuge of Mercy!  Der den SchScher du geladen: "Heute noch i n Edens Bann Wirst du s e i n ! " o nimm mich an. Himm mich an, du Hort der Gnaden!  No. 8:  (Anonymous; German trans, by Geibel)  Ach, v i e lang d i e Seele schlummert! Zeit i s t ' s , dass s i e sich ermuntre.  Ah, how long the soul slumbers! Ie i s time i t roused i t s e l f .  Dass man tot s i e wShnen dtirfte, Also schlSft s i e achwer und bang, Seit s i e jener Rausch bezwang, Den im SUndeagift s i e schlflrfte. Doch nun i h r e r Sehnsucht L i c h t Blendend i h r i n s Auge b r i c h t : Zeit i s t ' s , dass s i e sich ermuntre.  So that one may think i t dead, Heavily and f e a r f u l l y i t sleeps, Overcome by i n t o x i c a t i o n , Drunk i n the venom of s i n . But now the.-.lightiof itsilongingr". : Breaks b l i n d i n g l y into the eyes: I t i s time i t roused i t s e l f .  Mochte s i e g l e i c h taub ersheinen Bei der Engel sussem Chor: Lauscht s i e doch wohl zag empor, HBrt s i e Gott a l s K i n d l e i n weinen. Da nach langer Schlummernacht Solch e i n Tag der Gnad' i h r l a c h t , Zeit i s t ' s , dass s i e sich ermuntre.  Though i t may have seemed deaf To the sweet choir of angels, S t i l l timidly i t pricks i t s ears, Hearing God cry as a l i t t l e c h i l d . As, a f t e r i t s long night of slumber, Such a day of mercy w i l l smile on i t I t i s time i t roused i t s e l f .  No. 9:  (Anonymous; German trans, by Heyse)  Herr, was t r l g t der Boden hier-, Den du trankst so b i t t e r l i c h ? "Dornen, liebea Hers, fur mich, Und fu"r dich der Blumen Z i e r . " Ach, wo solche Ba*che rinnen, Wird e i n Garten da gedeihn? "Ja, und wisse! KrSnzelein, Gar verschiedne, f l i c h t man drlnnen."  Lord, what does the s o i l bear here, Which You water so b i t t e r l y ? "Thorns, dear heart, f o r me, And for you adorning flower**" Ah, where such brooks run, S h a l l a garden f l o u r i s h there? "Yes, and know! Wreaths S h a l l be woven there, i n great variety."  0 mein Herr, zu wessen Zier Windet man die Kranze? spricht "Die von Dornen sind f u r mich, Die von Blumen r e i c h ' i c h d i r . " .  Oh my Lord, for whose adornment W i l l the wreaths be woven? Say! "Those of thorns are f o r me, Those of flowers I give to you."  No. 10:  (attributed to JosS de V a l d i v i v i e l s o ; German trans, by Geibel)!  Wunden trSgst du, mein Geliebter, tJnd s i e schmerzen dich; TrQg' i c h s i e s t a t t deiner, Ich!  Wounds you bear, my beloved, And they cause you pain; Would I bore them i n your stead, I !  Herr, wer wagt' es, so zu fgrban Deine S t i r n mit Blut und Schweiss? "Diese Male sind der P r e i s , Dich, o Seele, zu erwerben. An den Wunden muss Ich sterben, Well i c h dich geliebt so heiso."  Lord, who dares so to s t a i n Your brow with blood and sweat? "Theoe marks are the price Of winning you, oh Soul. Of these wounds must I d i e , Por l o v i n g you so ardently."  KSnnt' i c h , Herr, fu*r dich s i e tragen,Would I might bear them for you, Da es Todeswunden sind. Lord, since they are mortal wounds. "Wenn dies Leid dich ruhrt, mein Kind, " I f t h i s sorrow touch you, my c h i l d You may c a l l them l i v i n g wounds: Magst du Lebenswunden sagen: Not one was made, from which Ihrer keine ward geechlagen, L i f e does not flow .for you." Draus fur dich n i c h t Leben r i n n t . " Ach, wie mir i n Herz und Sinnen Deine Quel so wehe t u t ! "HHrtres noch mit treuem Mut  Der da s t l r b t vor Liebesglut."  Ah, how my heart and mind l a tormented by your pain! "Even more hardships, with true courage, Would I gladly.bear, to win you; For only he knows p e r f e c t l y how to love Who there dies f o r love."  Wunden trSgst du, mein Geliebter, Und s i e schmerzen dich; TrSg' i c h s i e s t a t t deiner, i c h !  Wounds you bear, my beloved. And they cause you pain; Would I bore them i n your stead, I !  TrGg' i c h froh, dich zu gewinnen; Denn nur der weiss recht zu minnen,  

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