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Social service agents and Indo-Canadian immigrants in Vancouver : implications of models of social exchange.. Wood, Marjorie Rodgers 1984

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SOCIAL SERVICE AGENTS INDO-CANADIAN  IMMIGRANTS  IN  AND VANCOUVER:  IMPLICATIONS OF MODELS OF SOCIAL  EXCHANGE  FOR INTERCULTURAL TRANSACTIONS  by MARJORIE RODGERS WOOD .A., B a r n a r d C o l l e g e , M.A.,  University  Columbia  of B r i t i s h  University, Columbia,  1968  1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Department  of A n t h r o p o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s to  THE  thesis  the required  as conforming standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH October ©  and S o c i o l o g y  COLUMBIA  1984  M a r j o r i e R o d g e r s Wood,  1984  )E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of  British  it  freely available  agree t h a t for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  not  be  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  (3/81)  Or^h^leA,  /a>  Columbia  l^^H  of  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood that  the  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  written  i i  Abstract  The  present  implications  of  intercultural between  examine research  involved  analytical  social  transaction The  analytical  theory  culturally an  specific  exchange  underlying  exchange  specific  models  of  values,  goals,  and  and  to  relationships.  The  exchange  of  and  clients' of  clients. explicitly  modifications symbolic  to  classic  It  each actor's  culturally decisions.  and  interactionism,  analysis.  modes o f t r a n s a c t i o n  an  of the patterns  developed  as u n d e r l y i n g  to  perception  specific And  posits  goals  i t  as u n d e r l y i n g  as  posits  manifest  behaviour.  Accordingly,  agents,  t h e a g e n t s and  It posits  objective  exchange,  of the agents'  by  for  transactions  development  transactional  actor's  exchange  for  identification  three  the  a g e n t s and Indo-Canadian  steps:  suggested  values  situation.  each  culturally  and  social  of a g e n t - c l i e n t  framework  incorporates  ethnomethodology,  of  between  ascertain  i t meets a t w o - f o l d  basic  exchange, and  exchange  service  identification  obtaining  simultaneously social  three  of  to intercultural  context  framework,  of  social  theory  the c u l t u r a l  to  specifically,  In so d o i n g ,  exchange  seeks  models  transactions,  clients.  social  models  contrasting  Euro-Canadian  immigrant apply  dissertation  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  social  exchange  and  according  responsibilities  entailed  transactional to the s o c i a l  of the agents'  and  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n modes.  service  of the i n d i v i d u a l  For  clients' of  social  literature,  constitute  an  their  service  the  rights  ultimate  value.  To  realize  self-fulfillment, professional according family the  ideally  mutual  unit  exchange.  fulfills  i s  A comparison  in  client  relationship  will  and  clients,  client  and  confirm  problems,  attribution  of problems  the helping The  models  role,  interviews  hypothesis.  of d i f f i c u l t y  also  correspondences  self-  i n t h e mutual  with  a n d where  impinge  on  the  The p a t t e r n s o f 40  feel to  i s given.  Indo-Canadian agents,  frustrated disclose  Clients  personal  by and  withdrawal  prestations.  serve to explicate  agent-client  express  information,  life-style,  to accept  the  are  and continuous advice,  to provide  between  suggests  honour,  reluctance  exchange  i n the  the  service  Indo-Canadian  of d i r e c t  and r e f u s a l  of s o c i a l  of  transactions  to  Agents  t o Indo-Canadian  the p o i n t s the  agent  a g e n t s , a n d 21  reluctance  of  If  exchange  on f a m i l y  non-implementation of advice that a t agent  clients,  duties  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  expectations  of  agent/Indo-Canadian  by a g e n t s  to intervention,  irritation  from  where  are perceived  this  mode  friendships.  impinge  through  client  Honour a c c r u e s t o  others.  Euro-Canadian  emerge to  identified  resistance  discuss  to  of  honour  i t i s best transacted  the  37 E u r o - C a n a d i a n  to  the  value.  and s e r v i c e  responsibilities  transaction,  tend  clients  transactions  rights  Indo-Canadian  o f t h e two models o f s o c i a l  difficulties  by  For  literature,  characterizes  that  perceived  transactional  i t s dharma o r a s c r i b e d  required,  e x c h a n g e mode w h i c h  the goal  the  the ultimate  caste-purity,  others  agents pursue  through  constitutes  which  sufficiency,  client  value,  to the ethnographic  family  from  this  not only  relationship  agents'  and  but  clients'  iv  patterns  of  transactions.  information, direct tend  interpret  or extensive to  problems  report  independently. correspond do  problems  counselling,  that  willingly,  Agents  clients  background  cultural accept  suggestions,  the patterns  more t o t h e p a t t e r n s  to the ethnic  and  disclose  of  of agent  the  agents.  personal  terms,  client  d i s c l o s e problems  implement  Consistently,  in  who  provide  prestations  t o them, and  of c l i e n t  discuss  carry  on  transactions  transactions  than  they  Table  of  Contents  Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of F i g u r e s Acknowledgement Chapter  i v i i x  I  INTRODUCTION Basic  Research  Problem  T h e o r e t i c a l Framework Data C o l l e c t i o n  1  Basic  Conclusions  2  One  2  Research  Notes:  PART ONE:  Chapter  MODELS OF S O C I A L EXCHANGE  3  Chapter I I THE E U R O - C A N A D I A N A G E N T S : T H E I R C U L T U R A L R E F E R E N T S OF S O C I A L EXCHANGE Profile  of Euro-Canadian  Dimensions  of S o c i a l  Professional Transacting  Service  Values  versus Organizational  Goals  Power  The C o u n s e l l i n g Notes:  Agents Interviewed  Chapter  Relationship Two  Chapter I I I THE I N D O - C A N A D I A N C L I E N T S : T H E I R C U L T U R A L R E F E R E N T S OF S O C I A L EXCHANGE The V a l u e The G o a l  of F a m i l y Honour o f Dharma  Transacting  Status  ..  vi  Exchange  i n t h e Immigrant  Non-Exchange w i t h Notes:  Chapter  Context  Canadian  Social  91 Services  Three  110  Chapter IV THE I N D O - C A N A D I A N A G E N T S : T H E I R DUAL MODEL OF S O C I A L EXCHANGE Social  Service  Indian  Social  Notes:  Chapter  Providers Service  PART TWO:  P A T T E R N S OF  Chapter VI "WHO A R E Y O U ? " THE INTRODUCTORY Patterns  115  i n India  Providers  Overseas  Four  Chapter V MODELS OF S O C I A L EXCHANGE  118 ...125 132  COMPARED  INTERACTION  PHASE  of I n i t i a l  99  134  143  144 Contact  145  Identification  of Agent  as an O f f i c i a l  154  Identification  of Agent  as an I n d i v i d u a l  162  Notes:  Six  Chapter  Chapter V I I WHEN THE POT I S B O I L I N G : THE STUDY P H A S E  169  172  Disclosure  of the Problem  172  Discussion  of the Problem  182  Notes:  Chapter  Seven  198  vi i  Chapter VIII A MIRACULOUS SOLUTION: THE ASSESSMENT PHASE Client  201  Expectations  Agent  Response  Agent  Expectations  Mutually  of Agents  to C l i e n t  Expectations  - Client  Acceptable  202  Response  Treatment  Plans  Notes: Chapter Eight  206 215 225 232  C h a p t e r IX "WILL YOU TAKE TEA?" THE TREATMENT PHASE  235  Implementation  236  Independence  246  Notes: Chapter Nine  268  Chapter X CONCLUSION  271  P a t t e r n s o f Agent  and C l i e n t  Transactions  S i g n i f i c a n c e of C u l t u r a l R e f e r e n t s of S o c i a l Exchange Implications for Intercultural Social Services Implications  for Social  Exchange  Theory  272  283 289 293  Works C i t e d  296  APPENDICES  312  Appendix SAMPLING  A. PROCEDURES  313  Appendix B INTERVIEW SCHEDULES  323  vi i i  List  of T a b l e s  Table I CULTURAL ASPECTS OF EURO-CANADIAN AGENTS' PERSONAL BACKGROUNDS  36  Table II CROSS-CULTURAL CONTENT OF EURO-CANADIAN AGENTS' EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS  37  Table III MULTI-CULTURAL CONTENT OF EURO-CANADIAN AGENTS' OCCUPATIONAL BACKGROUNDS  39  T a b l e IV FORM OF I N I T I A L CONTACT BY MODE OF CLIENT RESPONSE  146  Table V AGENT. DISCLOSURE OF PERSONAL INFORMATION BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  '164  T a b l e VI CLIENT DISCLOSURE OF PROBLEM BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  175  Table VII CLIENT DISCUSSION OF PROBLEM BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  184  Table VIII AGENT INTERPRETATION OF PROBLEM BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  189  T a b l e IX AGENT INTERPRETATION OF PROBLEM BY CLIENT DISCUSSION OF PROBLEM  192  Table X AGENT APPROACH TO COUNSELLING BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  209  T a b l e XI CLIENT IMPLEMENTATATION OF SUGGESTIONS BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  237  Table XII AGENT APPROACH TO COUNSELLING BY CLIENT IMPLEMENTATION OF SUGGESTIONS  243  ix  Table XIII AGENT INTERPRETATION OF PROBLEMS BY CLIENT IMPLEMENTATION OF SUGGESTIONS T a b l e XIV CLIENT INDEPENDENCE DURING TREATMENT ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  ..244  BY  T a b l e XV AGENT ACCEPTANCE OF REFRESHMENTS BACKGROUND OF AGENT  BY ETHNIC  T a b l e XVI AGENT ACCEPTANCE OF REFRESHMENTS INDEPENDENCE DURING TREATMENT  BY CLIENT  247  252  262  T a b l e XVII DISTRIBUTION OF AGENT INTERVIEWS BY AGENTS' ETHNIC BACKGROUND AND AGENTS' SECTOR OF EMPLOYMENT  315  Table XVIII DISTRIBUTION OF AGENT INTERVIEWS BY AGENTS' ETHNIC BACKGROUND AND NATURE OF PROBLEM ADDRESSED  317  T a b l e XIX DISTRIBUTION OF DESCRIBED RELATIONSHIPS BY AGENTS' ETHNIC BACKGROUND AND AGENTS' SECTOR OF EMPLOYMENT  320  T a b l e XX DISTRIBUTION OF DESCRIBED RELATIONSHIPS BY AGENTS' ETHNIC BACKGROUND AND NATURE OF PROBLEM ADDRESSED  321  x  List  of F i g u r e s  Figure 1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF INTERCULTURAL EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIPS Figure 2 MODELS OF SOCIAL  EXCHANGE  COMPARED  18 135  Figure 3 PERCENTAGES OF AGENTS TRANSACTING POSITIVELY COMPARED WITH PERCENTAGES OF AGENTS REPORTING POSITIVE CLIENT TRANSACTIONS  276  Figure 4 PERCENTAGES OF EURO-CANADIAN AGENTS TRANSACTING POSITIVELY COMPARED WITH PERCENTAGES OF INDO-CANADIAN AGENTS TRANSACTING POSITIVELY  278  Figure 5 PERCENTAGES OF EURO-CANADIAN AGENTS REPORTING POSITIVE CLIENT TRANSACTIONS COMPARED WITH PERCENTAGES OF INDO-CANADIAN AGENTS REPORTING P O S I T I V E CLIENT TRANSACTIONS  280  Figure 6 PERCENTAGES OF EURO-CANADIAN AGENTS TRANSACTING POSITIVELY COMPARED WITH PERCENTAGES OF EURO-CANADIAN AGENTS REPORTING POSITIVE CLIENT TRANSACTIONS  281  Figure 7 PERCENTAGES OF INDO-CANADIAN AGENTS TRANSACTING POSITIVELY COMPARED WITH PERCENTAGES OF INDO-CANADIAN AGENTS REPORTING POSITIVE CLIENT TRANSACTIONS  282  Figure 8 CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN CLIENT TRANSACTIONS AND AGENT TRANSACTIONS COMPARED WITH CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN CLIENT TRANSACTIONS AND AGENT ETHNIC BACKGROUND  284  xi  Acknowledgement  I would my  respondents,  trust, of  like  first the  of a l l t o e x p r e s s  sincere  a g e n t s and c l i e n t s ,  gratitude  for their  and p a t i e n t d i s c u s s i o n s . I t i s my hope t h a t  their  t i m e and e f f o r t s  some way. Many o t h e r Maud D i a s ,  field  the  Beck h a s  my  and M a r i o n  of  valued  British  advisor  student  understood  where I wanted t o go and  world  Richard  of  provided  social  insights  the  their  i n t h e community,  graduate  Professor  serve  Poliakoff  acceptance, results  interests in in particular inspired  years.  Columbia, and  services.  me  a n d o r i e n t e d me  And  Professor  always  to  there.  get  t o t h e complex  Martin  Silverman  between t h e a c a d e m i c  selfless  of s e v e r a l  British  and t h o u g h t f u l c r i t i q u e  Columbia  for  Fellowship Research Fellowship  their  indebted  Council  of  Canada  for  to  the  University  MacMillan  Sciences  their  f o r her  chapters.  award o f an H.R.  ( 1 9 8 0 - 8 2 ) , and t o t h e S o c i a l  award  of  Family  and  Humanities  of  a Doctoral  (1982-84).  Finally and  I am  fields  word o f a p p r e c i a t i o n t o P r o f e s s o r o f S o c i a l Work, U.B.C.,  support  my  Belshaw  Anne-Marie F u r n e s s of the S c h o o l  financial  Brenda  throughout  .Cyril  helped  t o the connections special  Professor  friend  Professor  Nann i n t r o d u c e d  I hoped t o t a p . A v e r y  For  and  experience.  University  been  me w i l l  individuals  S h e i l a Munnalal,  e n r i c h e d my At  with  to  t o my  f a m i l y , who h a s t a u g h t  r e c e i v i n g , my d e e p e s t g r a t i t u d e .  me most  about  giving  1  Chapter  One  INTRODUCTION  The  present  implications  of  transactions,  social  clients.  In  and  patterns  agents I  between  how  ascertain  exchange  for intercultural  transactions and  between  Indo-Canadian  describe  the  values,  t h e two p a r t i e s '  contrasts  t h e i r adherents.  between In Part  to  which points  goals,  them Two,  to points  of contrast  between  Euro-  immigrant  social  and  exchange  may  affect  I describe  counselling  of d i f f i c u l t y  the  the  relationships and note  i n the relationships  the posited  models  of  exchange.  Two thesis.  related  issues  emerge a s c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e c e n t r a l  On a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l ,  proves  inadequate  transactions.  I  Secondly,  an  practices clients. recommend  for  for  to  Euro-Canadian agents and Indo-Canadian c l i e n t s ,  correspond  Thus,  social  modes c o m p r i s i n g suggest  extent  social  One,  seeks  of i n t e r a c t i o n characterizing  between the  of  service  Part  transactional  interaction  models  specifically,  Canadian  models,  dissertation  on  to  the  identify  classic  task  and  empirical,  employ applied  appear counter-productive Although changes  changes  intercultural  i n these  i n t h e manner  in ascertaining  of  exchange  analysing three level,  modifications.  key s o c i a l  practices  are  of introducing  the  of s o c i a l  present  theory  intercultural  when u s e d w i t h  the implications  transactions,  social  service  Indo-Canadian feasible,  I  them t o c l i e n t s . exchange  dissertation  models also  2 '  identifies for  social By  the  certain service  research  addresses  i t . I  I analyse  research  then  Euro-Canadian  I first  I discuss  literature  which  t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework  within  the nature  interest in explaining  agents  and  about  expressed  by  both  1975, when I r e t u r n e d  to  Indra, me  I  was  struck  1979: 1 7 9 ) .  personally  friends  felt  representing  to  research  various  arises  from a  1  influenced  t o which  abusers  of  incidents  unjustly  social  d i r e c t o r s of  that  Indo-Canadians c o n s t i t u t e d  They  were  i t off" known  i n which they or t h e i r by  Euro-Canadians  agencies. Again,  agencies,  I  heard  and  the  i n 1979  repeatedly  t h e most p r o b l e m a t i c  complainers"  stay  services.  Indo-Canadians  treated  service  interviewing  by  Indo-Canadians  the system," and " r i p p i n g  social  "chronic  I am  situation.  A t t h e same t i m e ,  or  that  In e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e  problem,  by t h e e x t e n t  while  the  clients  t o Vancouver a f t e r a two-year  recounted  rudely  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  parties.  research  were s a i d t o be " m i l k i n g  (see  used  i n d i c a t i o n s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h  were s i n g l e d o u t by t h e media a s They  methods  of the b a s i c  Indo-Canadian  n a t u r e and s c o p e o f t h e e m p i r i c a l  India,  theory.  e s t a b l i s h the parameters of  i n r e l a t i o n to the  define  parameters of t h e academic  In  exchange  Problem  concern  relationship  in  and f o r s o c i a l  t h e p r o b l e m , and i n d i c a t e t h e  My a c a d e m i c  the  of i n t e r c u l t u r a l t r a n s a c t i o n s  and note t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s .  Research  personal  problem  i t . Finally,  conclusions,  Basic  practice  way o f i n t r o d u c t i o n ,  basic  which  implications  clientele.  "belligerent  3 requestors."  Yet  establish  I  Euro-Canadian  relations  Before  sources  the  explanations  a  offered  sufficient"  it  is  of  f a m i l y and  be  perceived  assistance close as  unsympathetic? for  they  in  In o t h e r  area  of  One  survey  1947  the  research,  and  of 1961  remotely" with anthropological  social  words, t h e  of  the  the  notes  field  the  the  one  but  hand,  intimate  other and  of  hand,  the  circle  reasons given  by  not  to  social  caring.  being  the the  "necessary  On  the  r e l a t i o n s are  problem  intercultural has  developed  social  that  s e r v i c e s to and  view,  I n d o - C a n a d i a n s come  On  research  of  f o u r major  improved,  How  rude  and  agents  and  explanations  at  r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h begs e x p l a i n i n g .  the  field  are,  culture discourages  impression  negative  were a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g into  Indian  and  still  In my  are  s t r e s s empathy, o p e n n e s s ,  Thus a r t i c u l a t e d , squarely  clients  t h e n do  the  be  understood.  abusers?  replace  clients  extent  from anyone o u t s i d e  give  part  large  such understanding. that  to  help.  r e l a t i o n s h i p can  f r i e n d s . How  their  are  a  a g e n t s and  service  they  of  efforts  would  Indo-Canadian  must be  accepted  service professions do  by  to provide  generally  of  all;  troubled  difficulties  not  acceptance  between to  Indo-Canadian which  sources  a g e n t s were, and  troubled. of  mechanisms  Euro-Canadian  Obviously,  clients  a l s o aware of  self-help  "unsympathetic"  then  was  social  lodges  s e r v i c e . As  three  immigrants  articles  (Kent,  s t u d i e s of  this  they  period,  practice  were  1972:  an  recently.  work j o u r n a l s p u b l i s h e d  only  or  hand  relatively  sociological  service policy  at  between  deal  "even  42).  Although  immigrant  cultures  not  (Devore and  incorporated Schlesinger,  4  1981:  v ) . Instead,  principles clients,  of  the  helping  psychology  regardless  professions  to  inform  of c u l t u r a l  relied  their  background  heavily  on  approaches to a l l  (Triseliotis,  1972:  vii). In  retrospect,  influence strength British  of  social  psychology  of  the  t o be  treated equally,  basic  needs and  prevalent Any  image of  more  recent,  to  and  and  (Jenkins,  ideas  anthropology  c e r t a i n precepts well  pot  and  to  of  the  that  same  kind  and  (Green,  about  the  then  1982:  non-immigrant  3-4). clients  of a s s i m i l a t i o n . Even  s u p p o s e d l y more C a n a d i a n , p l u r a l i s t belief  the  4 ) . A l l p e r s o n s were  linked  through a process  to  i n North American  1981:  a melting  immigrant  d i s p e l the  desirous  of  in accordance with  between  soon d i s a p p e a r  d i d not  time  s o c i e t y as  would  that  i d e a l s embedded  d e s i r e s . Such  differences  society  over  egalitarian  c u l t u r e at  s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s a t t r i b u t e the  image o f  a l l p e o p l e were of  help  the  entitled  when i n s i m i l a r  circumstances. With the the  past  social that of  twenty y e a r s ,  s e r v i c e s has the  a  basic  --  survived  increase  i n non-European  the  for anthropological  a  culture  of  the  1972: ideal  1982:  4 ) . The  culturally  45).  same f o r a l l c l i e n t s ,  but  the  now  To  in i t s e l f ,  acceptable  service, client  input  to  are be  but  end  the  those truly  one  which  assistance them  self-fulfillment,  means t o t h i s  to  of  recognize  professions  s e r v i c e a g e n t s must p r o v i d e  i n ways w h i c h a r e of  helping  (Kent,  culture-bound  social  goal  immigration  become a p p a r e n t . Many s c h o l a r s  people  the  need  assumptions  particular  egalitarian has  dramatic  may  to  (Green, remains have  to  5  vary  considerably. Recent  Spector, Green,  works  1979), 1982),  in  multi-cultural and  to  respective  problems  apply  the  l e a r n about H a i t i a n the  high-school  In  the  (Leininger,  1978;  (Cheetham,  1981;  the  (Kleinman,  readiness  of  may a  need  themselves to  t h e i r own  1978;  and  a  lesser  provides to  the  a d d r e s s . Thus, a nurse  may  the  pertinent  worker  aspirations  extent,  social  1981;  the  Sikkema and  and  a  Greek  literature  also  (Herberg,  of  may  a  s e r v i c e agents  c u l t u r a l biases  Delaney,  their  Chinese daughter-in-law,  understand  for  helping  literature  particular cultures  of  1978;  understandings to  the  services  the  c h i l d b i r t h customs; a c h i l d c a r e  counsellor  Mizio  on  obligations  on  to  general,  various  s t u d e n t ' s p a r e n t s . To focusses  social-work  anthropological  information  which  realize  attest  services.  ethnographic  nursing  cross-cultural counselling  P e d e r s o n e t a l . , 1981) professions  transcultural  to  sensitize  1982;  Mayes,  Niyekawa-Howard,  1977) . However, w i t h one studies client  examine  c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s as  relationship itself.  immigrant  clients  (Ferguson,  1964;  attached  to  scholars  in  seeking  and  not  be  outside  Commission,  interaction  Canadian  studies  note  familiar  1981), and  help  (Green,  they p e r t a i n  Many a u t h o r s  p a r t i c u l a r weigh  agent-client  British  may  Vikram,  Community R e l a t i o n s  on  s i g n i f i c a n t exception  1976;  usually  with  to the passing  social  the  family  Selyan,  1971;  of  (Great 1978).  racial  Erikson,  mention  few  agentthat  services  o t h e r s emphasize the  the.effects  (Banks,  in  1982),  stigma Britain, American  differences  1979),  l a n g u a g e as  while a  major  6  barrier Head,  (Association 1979). But  nature  of  the  of  Directors  relevance  agent-client  of  of  Social  cultural  interaction  Services,  differences  remains,  for  the  1978;  to  the  most  part,  the  long-  unexamined. This standing  omission  is  somewhat  interest  of  the  relationships, science  and  thought.  the  rapport  with  identify  culturally  liking foster  client  culturally in  the  success  the  of  social  social  social their  perspective The  on  much t o  only  by  contexts, the  present  Euro-Canadian agents  and  problems  which  the  clients  cultural  factors  to  agent-client  relationships  that  go  relationship  of  are  et  al.,  providing  relationship the  problems on  the  found In  intercultural clients a  in  cultural  itself. relationship  clients,  However, on  of  on and  1977).  by  have.  depend  negotiation  p r o b l e m s of  Indo-Canadian  social  agent  the  on  the  may  placing also  indicate  between  (Glenn  to  unrecognized  field  focusses  client  scientists  a l . , 1968). In  styles  and  a g e n t s hope  the  agent-client study  trust  offer  but  establish  social  contract  across cultures  not  cultural  et  a helping  sciences,  s c i e n c e has  service,  social  social  communication  Service  self-assertion  a negotiated  vary considerably  sum,  1975).  (Triandis of  to  to  to  cross-cultural  input;  modes of  contexts  effectiveness in  and  agent-client  strive  approaches  Johnson,  initiative  intercultural  client; to  and  in  human i n t e r a c t i o n  agents  s t u d e n t s of  given  services  of  service  specific  specific  services, the  clients;  (Johnson  social  centrality  Social  2  surprising  the other  the one is  not  between on  relevance hand  the of  and  to  difficult  to  7  differentiate  within  the  relationship,  or  a number o f  even  similar  problems.  "reach"  families, either  concerning helping To client  I  from  examine  of s o c i a l  but  w o r k e r s . The address  also  A ) . The  to  services  themselves  term  of  clients  regardless  just  because  because  I  intercultural  of t h e  believe  social  and  a  dissatisfaction agents  beliefs  as  "rude"  and  between  agent"  refers social  and  school  but  h e a l t h , , and of  agents  they  family-  interaction  t h e employment  a  as  counselling,  relationship in  and  which Indo-  c o n t e x t of  from  been  cultural  the  terms  o v e r l o o k e d t o d a t e , but  omission  seriously  in practical,  applied  happens  of c l i e n t s ,  clients'  Indo-Canadian  workers  Euro-Canadian  its  client  the  agent-  client.  service  what  to  the  their  educational,  s u c h a f o c u s has  to understand  culture  to  i n modes of  employed  health  of  to  service  I i d e n t i f y patterns  between  or the problem  and  rendered a l l e n t a i l  I examine t h e a g e n t - c l i e n t  need  fail  specific  interaction  "social  community  p r o b l e m s . Thus,  Canadian  of  individuals  to various  themselves  pertaining  professionals  range  manifest  also  may  of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s  patterns  service  t o a wide  workers,  not  helping  r e l a t i o n s h i p s concerned with  of c u l t u r a l l y  those  the  (see Appendix  only  agent  given  i s o l a t e the c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g  variety  related  a  nutrition counsellors  because  d i e t , or because  of  b e h a v i o u r , or b o t h .  problems,  not  F o r example,  relationship  clients  context  between another  especially in  "unsympathetic."  an may  impedes terms.  The  from  one  in  the  perception  of  agent be  their The  seen  need  is  also  8  expressed call  by  some a g e n t s  for  an  relationship leaving 73).  i n which  Canadian  helping  agent  [practices].  Theoretical The  I just  present  the  persons  "professional/  i s made t o f e e l  who  client  inadequate....  t o m a n i p u l a t i o n " ( S o n d h i , 1982:  t h e need  to understand  relationships states:  the dynamics  i s evidenced  "I know about  72-  by  Indian  the  of  Euro-  child-rearing  c a n ' t get t h r o u g h t o the p a r e n t s . "  social  1907,  Georg  analyses  Euro-Canadian  has  scientists Simmel  the  agents  t h e framework of s o c i a l  theory  other  dissertation  between  within  exchange  open  cultures,  Framework  relationship clients  who  to  the c l i e n t  convincingly,  intercultural  immigrant  alternative  himself/herself  Most  from  and  exchange  l o n g been u t i l i z e d to account  problem  for  of  the  Indo-Canadian theory.  Social  by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s human  and  interaction.  In  wrote:  Most relationships among men can be considered under the category of exchange.... [E]very i n t e r a c t i o n i s p r o p e r l y viewed as a kind of exchange (quoted i n L e v i n e , 1971: 4 3 - 4 4 ) . The  first  scholar  explaining the  social  to analyse  social  b e h a v i o u r was  structural-functionalists  emphasized receive, accepted universal  a normative and  by  or  exchange  mankind  means  (trans.  who  h i s approach,  adopted  The  obligation  to  1954).  ( G o u l d n e r , 1 9 6 0 ) . As  on  the  of Like  Mauss  give,  "norm of r e c i p r o c i t y "  some s t u d e n t s as b o t h b i n d i n g to  a  M a r c e l Mauss  institutional  to repay a g i f t .  as  to  became  individual  such, the a n a l y s i s  and of  9  exchange c o n c e r n e d implications Other cultural  of these  group's  set  f o r group s t r u c t u r e notably  psychological injunction  of  are  minimize  costs  behaviour  but  1969).  the  consequences  factors, especially motivation.  t o e x c h a n g e and a c t u a l  people acted  (Belshaw,  required  and t h e  1961), a r g u e d  exchange  the process of i n d i v i d u a l decision-making  making a d e c i s i o n ,  rules,  (Levi-Strauss,  Homans (1958;  norms a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s  moral  lay  given  scholars,  individual the  a  the  (Barth,  that of  Between  behaviour 1966).  In  t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r r e w a r d s and t o  1965).  Thus,  analysis  of  the study  individual  o f exchange choice  and  strategy. Reconciling  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  exchange a r e s u g g e s t i o n s chicken-and-egg be  considered  (Arensberg, the  institutional Social transactional  (Blau,  of t r a n s a c t i o n s context  over social  the  " b e f o r e " and " a f t e r "  with i t s  1976).  appears w e l l  particularly  generally  and  Recent p u b l i c a t i o n s  security  should  l i n k s i n d i v i d u a l behaviour  analysis,  service  interaction  in  emerge,  theory,  literature pertaining  other  which  (Kapferer,  Wilding  the  on t h e p r o p e r t i e s  exchange  Paul  from  1964). Human  of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l  to the a p p l i c a b i l i t y  concepts. the  in light  services  specifically. attest  fashion  one "emerges"  1972). By f o c u s s i n g  analysis  social  that  and i n d i v i d u a l a p p r o a c h e s t o  and  as  suited  to  agent-client  i n the f i e l d relevance  of  developed the  study  by of  relationships  of s o c i a l  service  social  exchange  (1982) p r o v i d e s an e x t e n s i v e  review of  t o t h e "power" o f t h e s e r v i c e  "receiver."  system of the  Edward Wynne United  States  "giver"  (1980) a n a l y s e s t h e as  a  system  of  10  "reciprocity":  Each a c t o f d e l i v e r i n g a d o n a t i o n and e a c h subsequent return of a counter-donation constitutes a transaction, while the complete sequence of d o n a t i o n and counterd o n a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s an e x c h a n g e ( p . 1 0 ) . As  far  back  as  1968,  T r a n s a c t i o n a l Model he  argues  processes "enters  between  t h e consumer and p r o d u c e r "  for  despite the  intercultural concepts.  the  field  social  cost"  of  services  the c u l t u r a l  also  be  been,  social  of such due  and  in  intercultural The  interactive  goal.  Usually  suitability  refer  to  context  he  the  o f exchange  students  even  of  i n passing to  preoccupation  of c l i e n t  i s n o t examined,  problems. the  in  Since  explanatory  i s n o t p e r t i n e n t . But t h e  cost,  that s o c i a l form  In i t  and  transaction  exchange t h e o r y  cannot  be,  may  has not  applied  to  situations.  cultural  of  classic  contexts  social  exchange  rests  on  i t makes. As one a n a l y s i s  a l . , 1977: 524)',  have f o u n d  fact  i t s classic  assumptions which et  the  confinement  homogeneous  rarely  as g o a l ,  of  services,  exchange t h e o r y  concepts  to  Social  55).  social  the a g e n t - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p  omission  (p.  T h i s may be due i n p a r t  of  "A  ( p . 5 1 ) . The c l i e n t  some  the demonstrated  study  with  potential  are "products  the t r a n s a c t i o n to achieve  However,  published  f o r the A n a l y s i s of S o c i a l Welfare."  does so a t some s p e c i f i e d  its  Lawrence  that services to c l i e n t s  into  theory  R.J.  i t useful  "theorists  the  theory  underlying  p o i n t s out  (Michener  a s f a r back a s E d g e w o r t h  t o make r e s t r i c t i v e  assumptions  to  (1881)  regarding  11  the  exchange  processes."  Michener  et  a l . identify  four  such  assumptions:  1. A l l persons in the system have full information about the interests in and c o n t r o l over events [ i . e . commodities or services]. 2. A l l t r a d e r s a r e g u i d e d by i n t e r e s t and seek t o i n c r e a s e  rational selftheir gains.  3. Persons' interests s u b j e c t to change.  s t a b l e and  4. As  Events are  s t a t e d , the  regard The  to  first  the  i t i s that  modified  before  The  first  obviously  the  has  others may  i d e a or  the  interactant  social  assumption,  of  that  perception  objective of  the  i n which the  the  social  service  what an  immigrant  that  knows.  he  between  the  a s s u m p t i o n s be  c o n c e p t s of  considerably  cannot  exchange a r e of  full  of  "what t h e  e t a l . , 1977:  the  of of  in this  the  of  But  his  those  situation.  immigrant immigrant what  a  he  the  perception  others,  Conversely,  i n s t a n c e , does not  wants o r c o n t r o l s , but  most  transactions,  want and  immigration,  and  applied.  p l a c e . The  524).  more  information,  others  "facts" country  cultures.  i n t e r a c t a n t s i s a recent  exchange t a k e s  with  recognized  for i n t e r c u l t u r a l  perceptions  client  made  cultures,  explicitly  from t h e  agent  be  between p e r s o n s o f d i f f e r e n t  c o n t r o l " (Michener  vary  from  the  when one  country  an  assumptions  requires modification  particularly to  three  differences  critical  not  divisible.  transactions  greater  are  and the  Euro-Canadian always may  "know" believe  1 2  Michener interest,  et a l . regard  as  the  exchange t h e o r y . the  concept  most  the second assumption,  critical  They c r e d i t  and  Meeker  of s e l f - i n t e r e s t  that  limiting  (1971)  of  self-  one o f  with  social  having  placed  in perspective:  [Plersons can adopt any of several motivational orientations in face-to-face interaction. In addition to s e l f - i n t e r e s t , these include a l t r u i s m , competition, group gain, equity, status congruity, r e c i p r o c i t y , e t c . ( M i c h e n e r e t a l . , 1977: 5 2 6 ) .  Without  dismissing  idiosyncratically interest,  it  the  possibility  a c t on m o t i v a t i o n s  i s important  the  actor  to  orientation For  further  i s defined  example, an  behaviour that  his  decide  is  will  above may  that  whose  that  of  may self-  actions motivated be  self-interest  individual  individuals  than  that  a s an a c c e p t a b l e  he d e s i r e s no r e t u r n  receiver giver  may  other  to r e a l i z e  any one o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s l i s t e d  that  in  goal  considered so  within  culture  far  f o r s o m e t h i n g he  as the  altruistic  i n t e r e s t to  declare If  the  from a c u l t u r e w h i c h deems a l t r u i s m f o o l h a r d y ,  the  be r e g a r d e d a s a f o o l ,  lacking  has  by  his culture.  esteems  i t i s i n h i s best  by  given.  in strategy  t o promote  self-interest. Limitations stability  of  introduction properties. redefine Stability  imposed  by  interests, t o exchange  Properties the  the  third  have  been  theory  of  assumption,  partially the  situation  before  of i n t e r e s t s i s assumed  r e c e i v e - r e t u r n . Depending  on  the  the only  overcome  concept  w h i c h emerge from one  s e t of  next  outcome  of  of  of  by t h e  emergent  transactions  exchange  f o r one  that  occurs.  sequence of that  give-  exchange,  1 3  perception  and  hence  behaviour  may  vary  in  subsequent  interactions. Thus amended, t h e the  purposes  further not  of  in  cultural  A  shift  response  e x c h a n g e s but  also  modes of  of  interest  stability  intercultural transactional  modification.  only  assumption  to  in  analysis  i n i n t e r e s t s may properties  response  transaction.  to  As  serves with  manifest  emerging  shifts  from  between  M i l l e r points  out  one  itself previous  different  (1982:  182):  [A]ll m i n o r i t y group people i n t h i s s o c i e t y a r e b i c u l t u r a l a t l e a s t . The p e r c e n t a g e may be 90-10 i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n , but t h e y s t i l l have had the t a s k of i n t e g r a t i n g two v a l u e systems t h a t are o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t .  A conflict an one  actor's  between c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s of  employing a  exchange,  and  transactional  a  mode  from  mode from his  exchange.  To  return  to  individual  whose c u l t u r e  posits  altruism  pursue On act  self-interest  another  according  culture due the  occasion,  to  of  one  may  decide  emerging failed  for altruism. of  transactional  the modes."  But  from t h e to  by  to The  a goal  acting  be shift  previous  receive  the  b e h a v i o u r may  interactant's  as  i t i s in his  perceives  culture  example g i v e n  occasion  h i s exchange p a r t n e r .  transactant  function  he  t o what he  properties  expected  on  the  one  result  opposite's culture  subsequent  3  v a l u e s may  the  in a  choose  best  interest  goals  of  to  exchange:  shift of  to the  i n b e h a v i o u r may  awareness  an  altruistically.  non-material also  in  above,  may  in  be  perhaps return  simply  as  he a  alternative  14  To  summarize,  exchange  theory  modified  as  the  as  first  three  identified  f o l l o w s f o r the  by  assumptions Michener  a n a l y s i s of  of  et  social  al.  must  intercultural  be  exchange  relationships: 1. Each person has a p e r c e p t i o n a b o u t h i s and others' interests in commodities or services which i s based on culturally specific values. 2. E a c h p e r s o n makes decisions guided rational self-interest as defined c u l t u r a l l y specific goals.  by by  3. Each person's behaviour reflects c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c t r a n s a c t i o n a l modes, and may s h i f t a s t h e c u l t u r a l p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e shifts. In  other  words,  assumption, parties  t o an  therefore goals  one  classic  social  which u n d e r l i e s  exchange belong  agree  on  the  that  part  far  as  theory  As  Befu  of an  context  values  The  be  exchange t h e o r i s t s  on  the  suggested  example,  Kapferer's  i s assumed as  c o n t r i b u t i o n s by  a  one  they  on  the  context  social the  in  "is so  exchange cultural  "given."  or  by  many  another  social  of  (pp.  contemporary the  three  exchange t h e o r y .  volume T r a n s a c t i o n  Gilsenan  that  that  given  however,  employed  for classic edited  cultural  When a p p l y i n g  5  assumes  modes f o r t r a n s a c t i o n a l the  relationships,  accommodate  It  another  exchange c o m m o d i t i e s ,  i t (1977: 259),  frameworks  modifications  (1976), the  and  makes  same c u l t u r e , and  assumed. I t i s not  analytical  in  of  i s concerned."  intercultural  cannot  others.  e x c h a n g e model w h i c h  t h e model to  puts  the  to the  defining self-interest,  behaviour.  exchange t h e o r y  and  191-219) and  6  For  Meaning by  Cohen  15  and  Comaroff  each  ( p p . 87-107) f o c u s  other's  manipulation The  perceptions  of  of i n f o r m a t i o n  authors  rely  on ways exchange  on  a  behaviour  Schutz,  1966).  Also  symbolic  142)  and by P a r k i n  within  of  that a c t o r s  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s by M a r r i o t t  ( p p . 163-190) f o c u s  that  rationality  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s " c h o i c e s  or  i n t e r p r e t each  ( c f . Blumer,  (pp.  on t h e c u l t u r a l  w h i c h exchange d e c i s i o n s a r e made. P a r k i n  stresses  self-image.  interactionist  and r e a c t t o i t a c c o r d i n g l y  i n Kapferer,  control  s i t u a t i o n s through the  or the m a n i p u l a t i o n  p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l approach which h o l d s other's  i n which a c t o r s  in  1969;  109-  contexts  particular  a r e b a s e d on a n o t i o n o f  i n the terms of the p a r t i c u l a r  c u l t u r e " (1976: 165):  The distinction is essentially ( a n d not merely analogously) the c l a s s i c a l Saussurian one between parole, by which individual creativeness is manifested in unique utterances, and l a n g u e , w h i c h p a r a d o x i c a l l y d i r e c t s t h i s c r e a t i v e n e s s by r e q u i r i n g i t t o be e x p r e s s e d by reference t o , though not necessarily in slavish i m i t a t i o n o f , an e x i s t i n g body o f g r a m m a t i c a l rules (1976: 164) . Parkin  and  Marriott  account  f o r t h e exchange b e h a v i o u r  Finally, Handleman  Kapferer  and  partners time.  heavily  himself  by S t r a t h e r n  exchange s i t u a t i o n Handleman  rely  at each  feed  Strathern  back  ethnographic  d e t a i l to  of a c t o r s . and  also  the  articles  speak t o t h e need t o r e - e v a l u a t e  juncture  ( p p . 223-275) i l l u s t r a t e s may  on  into their  by an  of a t r a n s a c t i o n a l sequence. how  behaviour  of  relationship, altering  (pp. 277-287) d i r e c t s  exchange i t over  a t t e n t i o n t o the changes  16  in  t r a n s a c t i o n a l behaviour  socio-cultural  a f f e c t e d by  changes  in  e n v i r o n m e n t . Both a u t h o r s u t i l i z e  emergent p r o p e r t i e s  to  facilitate  the  the  the  processual  larger  concept  of  analysis  of  exchange. Thus, employed three  i f considered  by  of  symbolic  contemporary the  identified  according to  context  emergent  to the  culturally  properties  cultural  modes of  of  explicit  detail  defined  provides  If  most  on  social a  a  one  to  places  be  exchange  identify of  theory or  subjective  interactants.  exchange d e c i s i o n s  in  And  of  the by  concept  which  recognized,  individually,  or  all  phenomenological  mechanism  may  frameworks  accommodate  values  theorists  only  analytical  goals.  considered  exchange  attention  of  cultural  transaction  evaluated.  analyses  to c l a s s i c  approach serves  ethnographic  of  the  theorists  introduction  interactionist  Attention  impact  exchange  modifications  a b o v e . The  perceptions  the  corporately,  may  be  another  of  shifts and  their  however, seen  the  in  to  the focus  modifications  identified. I believe the  neglect  because  that or  symbolic  transactional intercultural with  different (1976:  be  implicit  focus  on  one  assumption  of  the  interactionists,  instead  7  of  Similarly,  if  the  and  i s possible  but  "cultural  Marriott's  and  themselves  Lebanese to  each o t h e r ,  symbolically meaningful, within  others  address  Were G i l s e n a n ' s with  modification  ethnomethodologists,  seldom  situations.  p a r t i e s , not  191).  explicit  analysts  Canadians  would s t i l l  the  their  interact  k i z b or  in d i f f e r e n t universe Indians  as  to  lying  ways a  to  whole"  refused  to  17  e x c h a n g e , not frame  of  w i t h each other  reference  reactions  of  reference  their to  would  with Canadians,  still  opposites  the  but  explain  could.only  Canadian  their  be  their  actions,  accounted  understanding  cultural  of  but  for  the with  transactional  behaviour. In into  other  sharp  goals,  and  relief  of  the  theoretical  social  modes,  must g i v e  and  relationship  for  and  i t must do  to  one  transaction  the  cultural  referents  so  1 ) . They  analysis  hence  Initially,  his values  perception,  goals  transaction  most  exchange ultimately one  actor.  situation behaviour  objectively appear most  relevant  relationship,  an  manifest In on  themselves  so d o i n g , which  i s based.  they  the  to the  modifications  values,  that  exchange to  the  But  opposite  actor's  of  that of  an  exchange, behaviour. of  and  modes of  i n an  on-going  observable  become p r o p e r t i e s  goals,  formation  referents  i n the  their  of  perception  regarding  the  constitute  members  actor's  in  indicate  culture  for  behaviour. three  the  intercultural  to decision-making,  to  all  that  exchange  relevant  relevant  to  emphasized as  observable  most  values,  of  in a given  e x c h a n g e s i t u a t i o n , hence h i s d e c i s i o n and  cultural  to a l l three  I suggest  influence  throws  i n exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  i n s u c h a way  social  exchange  relevance  alternatively  obtaining  of  of  their  weight  another.  modes of  (Figure  the  equal  theory  and  culture  interconnectedness  framework  exchange  literature,  intercultural  i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h emerge  relationships of  s t u d y of  transactional  patterns A  words, t h e  of  exchange  behaviour the  of  exchange  perception-decision-  Figure 1  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE ANALYSIS OF INTERCULTURAL EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIPS  Individual  A  Individual  B  -Perception  -Decision  -Behaviour  Perception-  Decision-  Behaviour  19  In of  sum, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework p r o p o s e d  interaction  clients  between  differs  three  ways.  on  from t h a t First,  interactionism, based .  Finally,  cultural emergent  of c l a s s i c  like  cultural it  within in line  exchange  service  the  values. places  the  the  context  behaviour  resulting  modes o f t r a n s a c t i o n  and  immigrant  exchange t h e o r y i n  framework  of  symbolic  o f t h e exchange s i t u a t i o n  Secondly,  borrowing  from  decisions  resulting  from  of  with t r a n s a c t i o n a l  agents  social  i t posits a perception  ethnomethodology, perception  social  f o r the a n a l y s i s  culturally  analysis,  from  defined  i t  decisions  w h i c h may  shift  goals.  examines  in  the  r e l a t i o n to  in  response  to  properties.  Data C o l l e c t i o n James social  Green,  service  client identify  one  of  the  few  s t u d e n t s of i n t e r c u l t u r a l  t o f o c u s on a g e n t - c l i e n t  problems,  calls  communication  these are manifest  for  patterns  in social  "research  r e l a t i o n s as w e l l procedures  in different  service  ethnic  encounters"  as  which groups  on will as  (1982: 1 6 ) :  Clearly, [such information] will have t o come from a v a r i e t y of sources, including academic research and publications, intensive participant-observation, and detailed consultation with ethnic and m i n o r i t y g r o u p s o c i a l w o r k e r s (1982: 1 7 ) .  I use a c o m b i n a t i o n interviews  with  of these  clients,  between E u r o - C a n a d i a n  social  sources of to explicate service  information, patterns  agents  and  and  also  of i n t e r a c t i o n Indo-Canadian  20  immigrants.  and  My  three  two  i n the  "feel" from  8  for  years  capital city  the  of  cultural  the  spent  New  i n the  Delhi,  frame of  hands-on  relationships (Marriott, Khetani,  (Das,  1976;  state  provide  reference  of  of  Studies  Blau  by  American  the  professions was  not  service  of  1964;  Goffman  goals  to  map  on  and  family relations  (Desai  issue  of  with  the  and social  cultural  service  (1963;  indicate  and  1969)  1972;  those  the  Perlman,  study,  texts  "good" ones on  of  literature  i n the  the  agents. North  Numerous o t h e r  values  a l l the  represented  out  Euro-Canadian  Keith-Lucas,  to cover  myself'  supplement  caste  the  a  helping 1979). all  I made an  which  subject  of  works  As the  effort  Euro-Canadian of  agent-client  9  an  anthropologist, to e s t a b l i s h the  a g e n t s and  activities.  For  clients  several  participant-observation w o u l d be,  help  e x c h a n g e of  practicable  endeavored between  also  specific  recommended as  As  a l l speak t o  with  Indo-Canadians  services  interaction generally.  professions  relations.  social  Gujarat  India.  (1964) and  (Hollis,  familiarize  agents  in  social  patterns  articulate  1978)  publications  referents  and  1975),  of me  Literature  Vatuk,  1968)  Weisner,  i t exists  Academic  experience.  1976;  Orans,  1979;  e x c h a n g e as  to  one  t h o s e a r e a s . However, s c h o l a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s  concretize  it  in India,  and  by  personal  "objectively  inclination,  observable  behaviour"  through p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e i r  reasons,  however, my  opportunities  were more l i m i t e d t h a n  b o t h q u a l i t a t i v e l y and  quantitatively.  I had  I  hoped  joint for they  21  In t h e f i r s t first-hand  interaction  Canadian  clients.  contain  a  More of  a g e n t s . The how  valuable  to permit  The  urban  rarely  where  the  meetings  e n c o u n t e r s which  I chanced  to  "be"  an  was  sites  of  impromptu  companions  were  mention:  the  accompanied  me  themselves  social  data own  not  not  in their such  i n the r o l e  four  t o about  client.  cultural  and  indicated few  of the  service  S e v e r a l .days  each  as of  once  these  intercultural  contributed  to  Two  exceptions  the i n t e r a c t i o n it  as c l i e n t s  as a E u r o - C a n a d i a n  interaction,  nicely  situations  interpreters  intercultural,  of Indo-Canadian  the  clients. the  or  s c h o o l - y a r d s and  c o n t e x t . Secondly, I t e l e p h o n e d each  on b e h a l f  b a s e d on  my  who  interviews with c l i e n t s  agents. While not  by  homes, t e m p l e s ,  Indo-Canadian  half  I interviewed,  once  obtained  the  t h e y were t o o  of c l i e n t s .  on t h e b e h a v i o u r o f I n d o - C a n a d i a n s  least  o r work  clients  constrained  i n the m a j o r i t y  t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s was  employees  but  not  prohibit  to witness  further  gatherings  s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . However,  during  does  live  between  be,  Indo-Canadian  week were s p e n t w i t h I n d o - C a n a d i a n s  bear  Vancouver  Indo-  generalization.  inability  my  observe  a g e n t s and  regulations  such o b s e r v a t i o n s c o u l d  to  parties  at  Participant-observation  on  of two  agency  parties  possible  Euro-Canadian  setting  critically,  third few  i t was  between  neighborhood  together. presence  instance,  did  noted  provide  within  their  agency  whose  inquirer  and a t  Again, although  information  overall  were  picture  thus which  emerged. The  main o p p o r t u n i t y  for participant-observation  presented  22  itself  in  meetings an  the  world of s o c i a l  with c l i e n t s .  agency  dealing  Approximately meetings,  service  with  once a week I a t t e n d e d  various helping  Indo-Canadian  social  profit  for  committee  w o r k s h o p s , o r c o n f e r e n c e s s p o n s o r e d by t h e  p r o f e s s i o n s . On a m o n t h l y  respectively  community  their  clients.  service  basis,  as a b o a r d o r c o m m i t t e e member i n t h e m e e t i n g s representing  from  Once a week I s e r v e d a s r e c e p t i o n i s t primarily  in-service  agents apart  government  services,  and  I  of t h r e e a g e n c i e s  services,  private  participated  private  non-profit  non-  immigrant  services. The  time  spent  as  a  participant-observer  s e r v i c e a g e n t s p r o v i d e d me w i t h frame  of r e f e r e n c e ,  to  the c u l t u r a l  my  inability  (except  for  much a s my y e a r s i n I n d i a  observe  chance),  agent-client  or  receptionist),  meant t h a t  obliged  rely  to  "feel"  r e f e r e n t s of Indo-Canadian  to  by  a  to  heavily  on  their  cultural  had s e n s i t i z e d  interaction in  my  the  social  me  c l i e n t s . Nonetheless,  participate  in analysing  among  i t  field  data  first-hand (except as a  notes  I  generated  was  through  interviews. Initially only  with  I intended t o conduct  Euro-Canadian  However, p r e - t e s t s Indo-Canadian service  of the  agents  agents  as o f t e n  distinguished describing  had  to  the  schedules  named a g e n t s  two  Indo-Canadian  on  interviews  Indo-Canadian  be i n c l u d e d .  as Euro-Canadian  between  their  and  interview  encounters, c l i e n t s  background  semi-structured  clients.  indicated  In r e c a l l i n g  from t h e i r  own  that social  cultural  agents,  and  cultural  grounds. A l s o , i n  cases,  occasionally  Euro-Canadian  agents  23  frequently having  mentioned  referred  having  consulted  c a s e s t o them. The  agents proved q u i t e Euro-Canadian  valuable,  agents'  Indo-Canadian  interviews  f o r t h e y shed  and  the  with  agents or  Indo-Canadian  light  on  both  Indo-Canadian  the  clients'  perspectives. Between September, total  o f 98  1981  and  respondents, i n c l u d i n g  Euro-Canadian  a g e n t s , and  Indo-Canadian  21  the c l i e n t s '  the  number of a g e n t s  total  Euro-Canadian) interviewed  (both  composition  of  Appendix  of c l i e n t s which  B).  presentation, or  rejection  also  asked  problem,  perceived clients  and  or  that  Interviews  their  own  the c l i e n t ,  and  rejection.  contrast  and  between  I  of Euro-Canadian  the  sampling  i n Appendix  A.  about  indications  the  of  the  the t r a n s a c t i o n s  (see  client and  signs  generally.  manner  responding  behaviour  Agents  to  inquired of  of  of a c c e p t a n c e  behaviout in e l i c i t i n g  systematically the  c o n c e r n i n g the  "facts"  about  relationship  and  Indo-Canadians  Details  followed  to c o u n s e l l i n g ,  describe  of  elicited  asked  of the h e l p i n g  counselling  acceptance  were  response  to  number  them a r e g i v e n  and  that  (both Indo-Canadian  and a g e n t s and a l s o  preceded  Agents  i t is significant  clients).  schedules  37  a g e n t s . In so f a r as  populations  in obtaining  interview  "feelings"  interviewed  three  clients,  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of both the  o f view,  and  I interviewed a  Indo-Canadian  t o my  the t o t a l  agents  the  p r o c e e d u r e s used  transactions  points  approximates  40  1982  Indo-Canadian  agents c o n t r i b u t e d  a g e n t s ' and  The  September,  were the  signs  of  about  any  Indo-Canadian  clients.  with agents u s u a l l y  took p l a c e  in their  offices  24  and  lasted  j u s t over  encounters. subjective degree  Although only information  of  interview  one h o u r . They t e n d e d  They  recognition  on  w i t h them a n d o f t h e i r In c o n t r a s t ,  long  homes periods  background  role  most  and  interview  convey  in serving  with  requested copies by p o i n t .  I  that  exchanged  schedule.  in  (see  i n meeting  took  information  Stebbins,  intended  place  t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y  of  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . Pre-tests  be  considerably  fuller  the  in  in were  personal periods  questions  of  the schedule except to paragraph assuring  had i n d i c a t e d t h a t  i f elicited  on  1972). T h e s e  t o answer  I r a r e l y produced  an  purpose.  clients  which  a  of the  sensed  o f my p u r p o s e  with  t o share  l a s t e d on an a v e r a g e o f two h o u r s . T h e r e  merged w i t h c o n v e r s a t i o n s the  responded  part  interviews  of s o c i a l i z i n g was  agents  i t point  their  business-like  reluctant  frequently  s c h e d u l e and f o l l o w e d  be  appeared  w i t h me, most  formality.  immediate  their  one a g e n t  to  the  responses  context  of  them would  casual  conversation. I about  usually their  started  experiences  and  financing  had  had r e g a r d i n g  and of  same  health,  contrast their  involved  information  transactions  in obtaining  i n Canada. I t h e n  how t h e y had d e a l t a problem  the i n t e r v i e w  that  their  about  education,  clients  employment,  any p r o b l e m s  they  and f a m i l y  life,  w i t h t h e s e p r o b l e m s . When t h e r e s o l u t i o n  a social on  service  "facts"  agent,  and  of s o l v i n g  of s o l v i n g them  problems  in India.  I  elicited  "feelings"  I d i d with agents. F i n a l l y ,  experience  experience  by a s k i n g  accommodation,  inquired  children's  proper  about  the the  I asked c l i e n t s t o in  Canada  with  25  The  interviews  information  about  transact  the  But  and  the  the  way  way  contributed  behaviour"  1973:  160).  Canadian  respondents described  social  service  agents  instances,  the  cases  sufficient  five me  in  able  to  sides,  himself  to  my  Of  34  enough  in  them w i t h  reconstruct to  the  my  detail  26  my  "facts"  compare  to  respond.  and  (76%)  their  the  two  or  In  with  several  Indo-Canadian  "a P u n j a b i  accident")  lady to  the  present  interaction  more  the  Indo-  with  enable  r e s p o n d e n t s . Thus I was  of  to  clients  were  sample.  (e.g.  in a sawmill client  other  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  in d e t a i l ,  of  the  a w a r e n e s s of  agents  a g e n t s a l s o gave e x a m p l e s of  match  and  produced a wealth  between  included  k i d s whose h u s b a n d d i e d to  clients  i n which each p e r c e i v e d  also  observable  Ichheiser,  a g e n t s and  i n which each b e l i e v e d  interviews  "objectively (see  with  often  from  perceptions  of  the  both same  relationship. In  sum,  data  for  combination  of  sources  a n o t h e r . The  cultural  emerge from a n a l y s e s accounts.  The  relationship direct the me  which  transactional  t o be  explicated  observations,  and  insights  ultimately identified  regarding  enabled  me  models f o r the  to  posit  identified  the  supplement  one  and  from  verbal  s o u r c e s of others.  a  exchange published  characterizing  derive  from e x t e n s i v e  from  social  observations  also  the  and  patterns  the  derive  e a c h model of  first-hand  p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . E a c h of to  complement  r e f e r e n t s of of  thesis  In  analyses  the of  r e c o l l e c t i o n s of  information  alerted  combination,  implications  of  they the  agent-client relationships.  26  Basic  Research In  Part  exchange  Conclusions  One, a n a l y s i s  reveals  Societal  values,  transactional  mutual  professional of  the  set  and  and  an u n d e r l y i n g  Family  honour  the  attainment  caste  purity,  necessary,  is  in  decisions  based  of  and  the  between  principle on  the  realization  client  as  an  the a l t e r n a t i v e  model  of  social  exchange  t o the value of f a m i l y  honour.  e n h a n c e d o r damaged d e p e n d i n g on  goals,  and s e r v i c e  modes.  on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a s e .  Indo-Canadian  maintained,  values,  interviewed  self-fulfillment,  depending  of a s c r i b e d  as  agents  orientation  controlling  individual  some a g e n t s may u t i l i z e  Indo-Canadians  transaction,  and  referents.  exchange t r a n s a c t i o n a l  behaviour,  of exchange r e f e r e n t s of the  model o f s o c i a l  cultural  goals,  responsibilities  In p r a c t i c e ,  reveals  of  alongside  the s e r v i c e  g o a l s of c l i e n t  Analysis  sets  mutual  exchange  rights  individual.  co-exist  goals,  exception,  favour  parallel  organizational  modes  professional Without  two  of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e  primarily  to others. favour  a  family  If service mutual  friends,  i n order  sufficiency, from o t h e r s i s  exchange  mode  to maintain  of  family  honour. Contrasts the  logical  between t h e two m o d e l s o f s o c i a l e x c h a n g e  expectation  that  agent  client's  pursuance of a s c r i b e d  client  transactions  professional problems and  mutuality  duties  hindering and c l i e n t  f o r each p a r t y .  response  transactions  described  In P a r t by  and m u t u a l  the  hindering  agent's  Two, t h e p a t t e r n s and  the  f r i e n d s h i p , and  self-fulfillment,  agents  lead to  clients  efforts will  at pose  of behaviour for  their  27  counselling  relationships  generally  support  this  Agents express p a r t i c u l a r f r u s t r a t i o n with c l i e n t disclose lack  of  problems, client  to  troubled  referrals,  life-style,  information The client  and  in  difficulty certain  transactions.  agents  of  who  d i s c l o s e and  implement  counselling  First, of  unanticipated  emerged agents  during  provide  several  the  intervention  and  in  relation  provide  personal  of  patterns  of  The  to  tend  social  models  the  of  points  of  also  to  but  transactions  personal  agent-  m o d e l s of  clients,  agent  and  information,  client  cultural  extensive  counselling,  to  that  report  p r o b l e m s w i t h them, and  clients  that  they  independently.  research the  of  during  clients,  concluded,  to  d i r e c t or  remarked on  Similarly,  are  problems  only  and  prestations  course  from c l i e n t s  officially  between  suggestions  questions  Clients  posited  not  factors pertinent  spontaneously  and  hypotheses.  agents  pre-testing  the  of  the  tests  discuss  l i m i t a t i o n s on despite  of  related by  accept  d i r e c t advice,  initial  identified  p r o b l e m s , and  willingly  Two  the  as  appear  A g e n t s who  interpretation and  well  correspondences  to  plans.  reluctance  terms  experienced  reluctance  prestations.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  exchange  agent  agent  of  treatment  agent d i s c u s s i o n  to accept  interaction  on  by  and  exchange p r o d u c e s ' as social  expectations  follow-through  particularly subsequent  client  hypothesis.  findings  interview to  the  the  they  number  interaction  example,  p h a s e of  after that  For  incidence  initial  usually  revealed  high  mention.  schedules, a  agent-client  research. the  warrant  of  several personal  counselling.  interview attribute  was their  28  p r o b l e m s t o a s p e c t s of C a n a d i a n explanatory have  insight  weighed  respondents  in  Secondly, confined Although  to  to the a g e n t - c l i e n t the  making  analysis,  the  specific  of  clients  and s o c i a l  Vancouver's,  In sum, data  of  models of  implications  relationships  may  or  o t h e r than  pronouncement  for  to  service  o r may  which  exchange agents  to  to  of c o u n s e l l i n g .  thesis  puts  i t , such  data  "embedded c a u s a l c l a i m s " ( M e n z i e s ,  their  than  engaged i n  1 0  do  permit  to  Indo-Canadian  agents  and q u a l i t a t i v e  present  pertain  compositions  service  be  refer.  generally,  not extend  social  may  they  not  reasons,  the  permit  the  o f g e n e r a l c a u s a l c l a i m s . I n s t e a d , a s one  interactionist  such  number o f  findings  socio-economic  that  the  certain  social  f o r both q u a n t i t a t i v e  analysed  provide  r e l a t i o n s h i p and a s  populations  populations having d i f f e r e n t that  remarks  d e s p i t e the l i m i t e d  significance  the i d e n t i f i e d  identified  Such  them.  the  Indo-Canadian  culture.  the  symbolic  formulation  of  1982: 3 5 ) :  [T]hese c l a i m s a r e embedded i n t h e a n a l y s i s and c a n n o t be d e t a c h e d from the situation about which they a r e made. An embedded causal claim states that some concrete action has a particular effect (another c o n c r e t e a c t i o n or b e l i e f ) . It  is  my  hope  interpretation relationship sensitizing  that of  will  the  causal  the Euro-Canadian foster  what  concepts, concepts  r e f e r e n c e and guidance  claims  agent/Indo-Canadian  Blumer which  i n approaching  embedded  calls  impart  (1969:  in  my  client 147-8)  a " g e n e r a l sense of  empirical instances."  29  Notes:  1  use  My  of  d a t a do  not p e r m i t an  services  predicted  that  by  the c a s e l o a d  ethnic"  339  were C a n a d i a n - b o r n .  stated  One  evaluation  Indo-Canadians.  and  C h i n a , and  Chapter  48  from  Only  India  "Immigrants  However,  of her o f f i c e  d i d a s t a t i s t i c a l summary 54 had  or F i j i .  are  of the  was  one  "about  f o r me.  Of  immigrated  The  proportionate agent 50-50  481  mainstream  of  literature  white  clients,  from Hong Kong o r  manager o f t h i s  the  who  as  office  far  as  had  we're  concerned." For  2  an  relationships 10)  that  overview see  intercultural  (1969:  exchange  modes: " P e r s o n s would  I  culture may  In  be  that  reluctant be  on  "emergent  global  the  (p.  critical  perception  value differences  that  behaviour  t o a c t i n new  of  the  borrowed sanctioned  the part  one  than  ways  f o r a p e r s o n of  their  values  themselves  another  culture's  applauded.  agent his  is familiar  w i t h the  transactional  e x c h a n g e t o t h e n e x t . However,  of an a g e n t  properties"  client,  in transactional fear  from or  constrain  for  cultural  so f a r as a E u r o - C a n a d i a n  from  shifts  inappropriate  argue  modes i s t o be  shift  study concludes  confirm  sanctioning  of a non-Euro-Canadian  also  changes  would  whether  tansactional *  findings  18)  by  s u c h b e h a v i o u r might  identity."  own  agent-client  relationship."  Barth argues  determine  the  t o outcomes o f t h e c l i e n t s '  counselor/client  that  (1983). Beck's  "Beyond a l l e l s e ,  importance  3  Beck  on  a r e more l i k e l y t o  from d e c i s i o n s  unrelated  result  mode such from  to previous  30  exchanges. 5  Befu  context  suggests  lies  culturally  a  (1977: 259-260) t h a t  "model  adapted  exchange  of  of  norm  the  behaviour  believe  perceptions  behaviour, including 6  are  factors  in  suggests a realized  I  a  an  to  a  Theoretically, even  Axelrod's  f o r the  study  but  be  is  r e w a r d s ; and  As  and  that  Axelrod  neither himself  values  to  be  symmetrical, be  all  but  rational, need  not  of  b a s e d on can  "run  notes  (1984:  simplicity.  in values,  irrelevant. i t s own  agent-client  actor  its  differences  information  him;  example,  behaviour  in  that  information  as  choice.  enforceable  except  the  need not  i t assumes t h a t  available  I  three  them  for  comparable,  things, no  17-18),  or  tempting  modes  all  eliminate  (1984:  "payoffs,"  their  recognize  11-12). Among o t h e r threat;  model,  referents  of  scale; actors  of  a  cultural  framework makes a s s u m p t i o n s  suitability  person's  range  i t renders c u l t u r a l  transactional  a  for  influence  explicitly  deliberate  framework  rules  that such  the  which a l s o  Axelrod  i n which  or  the  of  goals.  analyses.  maximize  conscious  agree  exchange t h e o r y  absolute  cultural  decisions,  wider and  and  b a s e d on  t h r o u g h e x c h a n g e , need not  Such  and  classic  framework  trying  reflect  While  theorists  their  or measured on or  b a s e d on  game  assumptions of  reciprocity  and  the  exchan.ge" c o m p r i s e d  is partially  c e r t a i n values  Some  of  culture.  transactional his  social  within  on  the  previous  However,  which l i m i t  relationships no  goals,  actor  can  opposite  its  (1984: make  an  actor  is  transactions  with  away f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . "  19),  the  analysis  of  abstract  31  interaction  "puts a s i d e  interaction  unique."  It  7  many v i t a l  is significant  Kapferer's  volume  to  that  Salisbury,  analyse  situation,  chooses to consider  dyad,  the  as  circumvents on  the  "locus  "the  of  basis  for  intercultural  the  values"  both  (1969:  patterns  of  contrast  Barth, and  I hold  patterns  of  reference  i s more a p p a r e n t as  My  "an  than  workers  element  the  Karshmer,  and  references,  address  the  topic  1978;  Sue,  For  the  He  are  thus  deciding  tend  both  t o p o s i t a common suggests  that  codes  and  own  p o s i t i o n would a p p e a r  of  studies  example,  the  cultural  be and  However,  the  treats ethnicity,  and  and  cognitive  constructs  which  9). social had  workers.  difficulty  in their  al.,  Westwood and  to  by  defined  symbolic  (1982:  ( c f . Gazda e t 1981;  be  behavioural and  redefined  contexts.  Green  counsellors  although  and  communication  defined  decisions  school  identify  as  S u g g e s t i o n s came p r i m a r i l y f r o m  relevant  than  themselves to  example,  need t o  real.  to communication"  meaning  1 0  they  to c u l t u r a l  supply  do  address  to  intercultural  (1976: 4 2 ) .  i n t e r a c t i o n to  in  health  an  g e n e r a t e s c o n g r u e n c e of  participation  9  do  for  ethnicity  interaction.  through  culture,  contributor  whether b o t h p a r t i e s  answer t o t h e  study  intercultural  redefined  in  actual  16).  i s to  reverse:  one  d e c i s i o n making"  requires  G r e e n ' s own  8  the  make any  i n d i v i d u a l , rather  exchange,  interaction.  "interaction  I  question  that  exchange  same b a s i s . " Where s c h o l a r s  sides  the  of  features  in  citing  respective  fields  1975;  La  Massey,  referents  Public  of  Monica  and  1982). social  exchange  32  appear between  t o have v e r y financial  Indo-Canadian  different assistance  clients.  implications workers  for  relationships  ("welfare workers")  and  33  PART ONE:  MODELS OF SOCIAL EXCHANGE  34  Chapter  Two  THE EURO-CANADIAN  AGENTS:  THEIR CULTURAL REFERENTS OF SOCIAL EXCHANGE  Who  are  student  of  the  the  individuals  with  Euro-Canadian  helping  of  power  over  indicated  and  interest  in  concern  the  people  scholars  and  in  but they  values  also  organizations and by  goals  values  service agents,  behaviour  base  regarding In  a degree  of  prestige  g e n e r a l l y a g r e e t h a t "an  affairs,"  and  a  "generalized  the s o c i a l  services  the  goals  society  that  criteria  Together,  for  The  the  values utilized  evaluating  values,  modes c o n s t i t u t e t h e c u l t u r a l perceptions,  The  o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and  represent.  20).  render  society.  t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l modes t o be  1973:  their  that  1951: 3 2 1 ) . As  of N o r t h American  and p r o v i d e  (Upham,  transactional agents  underlie  determine  they are  1981: 9 8 ) .  which the agents  help  One  profession  t h e amount  m o t i v a t e many who e n t e r  cultural  that  (Ginsburg,  s u c h m o t i v e s p o s i t i v e and h o n o u r a b l e w i t h i n same  a  agents?  one t o e x e r c i s e  dispute  their  1964: 84; Shenk,  Certain  people  of o t h e r s "  power e x e r c i s e d ,  for others,"  (Hollis,  lives  service  suggests  p r e s t i g e and a l l o w s  below, o t h e r  enjoyed  professions  "a need t o h e l p  enjoys considerable  social  goals,  referents  decisions,  agent  and  on  and which  behaviour  clients.  the present  which s c h o l a r s  chapter,  I  indicate  p o s i t as the f o u n d a t i o n s  the  cultural  of North American  values social  35  services.  I  pertaining  to the delivery  modes  also  employed  relationship. the  by  agencies?  In  within  Profile  of Euro-Canadian  services  content  raised  phase  the of  a  counselling  biographical  professions,  what  and  orientation  goals  transactional  profile  i n t h e s t u d y : who a r e t h e y  within  within  might  of  their  they  have  Agents I n t e r v i e w e d  respondents  in  (see Appendix  to clients  However,  each  and  a n d agency  clients?  Euro-Canadian  and  in  their  particular,  immigrant  born  of s e r v i c e s ,  involved  towards  All  professional  however, a b r i e f  agents  society,  the  agents  First,  specific  Canadian  discuss  raised  considerable  in  the  study  are  Canadian  A). A l l provide counselling  various  differences  of these agents' p e r s o n a l ,  non-European  exist  cultures.  i n the i n t e r c u l t u r a l  educational,  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  backgrounds. The  majority  information northern their  childhood of  travelled of  i s available  European  as many  background  them  put  about  I ) .  in  II).  explicitly  terms  background  All  Sixteen  but  four  recall  respondents  have  but four with the i n t e n t i o n  of the agents  of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  cultural  1  or B r i t i s h and  cultures.  S i x respondents  to  1  f o r whom  as predominantly Euro-Canadian o r ,  i t , "WASP."  different  respondents  from a B r i t i s h  (Table  environments  educational  restricted (Table  comes  a b r o a d , most a s t o u r i s t s ,  learning The  o f t h e 23 E u r o - C a n a d i a n  have  issues.  Five  is  somewhat  more  or m u l t i c u l t u r a l content taken  courses  devoted  o f t h e s e have c o m p l e t e d a  36  Table I CULTURAL ASPECTS OF EURO-CANADIAN AGENTS' PERSONAL BACKGROUNDS  Family  Origin  Childhood  B r i t . / N . E u r . 10  (44%)  Environment  WASP  19 (83%)'  Purpose o f T r a v e l  Holidays  12 (52%)  British  6 (26%)  Italian  1 ( 4%)  Study  2 ( 8%)  E.  European  5 (22%)  Jewish  1 ( 4%)  Live  2 ( 8%)  S.  European  1 ( 4%)  Ukranian  1 ( 4%)  (no t r a v e l ) 7 (30%)  1 ( 4%)  multi-ethnic  1 ( 4%)  Amer. TOTAL  (Brit.)  23  23  23  37  Table I I CROSS-CULTURAL CONTENT OF EURO-EUROPEAN AGENTS' EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUNDS  Degree Obtained  Cross-Cultural Courses by Degree  Cross-Cultural Courses i n T o t a l  S o c i a l Work: 7 (30%)  None:  5  None:  I n t r o . Anth.:  1  I n t r o . Anth.: 5 (22%) -  Adv. Anth.:  1  Adv. Anth.: 1 ( 4 % )  None:  4  I n t r o . Anth.:  2  None:  5  I n t r o . Anth.:  1  Nursing:  Education:  Arts:  6 (26%)  6 (26%)  4  ( 1 7 % ) None: I n t r o . Anth.:  TOTAL:  23  17  3 1  23  23  (74%)  38  single  course  in  anthropology. University, ethnicity,  introductory  The  has  sixth  taken  a  on  the  failure  for  "the  real  world"  graduate  s c h o o l s of eclectic tended refer  approach to  cite  more  Hollis,  and  Despite educational  Hollis  their  as  revised and  a t one  time  almost  Canadians  ( 1 ) . Three agencies'  were  twenty  one  nurse,  to  factors  the  ethnic  them  one,  that  a  cultural  context  of  "the  (at l e a s t a  in  more  of a l l ages  t e x t s . These  in counselling  editions  (compare,  texts  only  in  f o r example,  1981). mono-cultural  half  the  personal  respondents  have  w i t h non-European  and worked  clientele  i n programmes d e v e l o p e d ( 2 ) , or B l a c k  persons  in  clients  a school counsellor have  feels  years, agents  Indo-Canadians as  Only  from a F r e u d i a n t o  or a n o t h e r ,  designated  services  respondents, health  (4),  to prepare  although c u r r i c u l a  I I I ) . Some have been employed  Native  with  1 2  clientele.  within  Woods,  essentially  backgrounds,  exclusively, (Table  and  training  ego-psychological  differences  recent  1964  the p a s t  culture.  o f B.C.,  work) have s h i f t e d over  concerned  remarked d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s  of m u l t i c u l t u r a l  classic  to c u l t u r a l  their  Black  professional  Interestingly,  social  o f McMaster  courses  of  of t h e U n i v e r s i t y  courses.  graduate  variety  i s s u e s were a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s e d usual"  sociology-  a  spontaneously  of t h e i r  or  respondent,  non-Christian values,and  Many of t h e a g e n t s  recent  anthropology  and  in  charge general.  the o t h e r  e v e r worked e x c l u s i v e l y  with  a  for  Canadians of  their  Only  two  community  Euro-Canadian  clients. Seventy  p e r c e n t of  the  agents  have  attended  in-service  39  Table I I I MULTI-CULTURAL CONTENT OF EURO-CANADIAN AGENTS' OCCUPATIONAL BACKGROUNDS  N a t u r e o f Employment  Work i n E t h n i c Programmes  Participation i n Cross-Cultural Workshops  Family-related:  8 (35%)  5 (22%)  6 (26%)  Health-related:  8 (35%)  2 ( 9 % )  5 (22%)  School-related:  7 (30%)  3 (13%)  5 (22%)  TOTAL:  23(100%)  10  (44%)  16 (70%)  40  training  sessions  cultures.  In  agents their  agencies.  some  by  effort  social and  own  The  value  of  f o r the  hand,  that  an  of  lack  by of  a  education  own  two  immigrants:  have  surveyed On existence  of  an  most  the  140.)  these  One  of  Indo-Canadians are perceived indicates  hand,  bottom of  workshops  was  their  of  also  i t appears  that  agencies,  training  that persons  with  clients. scanty  in  the  b a c k g r o u n d and  with  respondents  the  m i x e d . On  the  his  level  than  --  do  of  attitude  academic  belong  found  degrees  feel other  more groups  264-266). studies  hierarchy"  in  which  posit  Canada  ranking order  the  place  (Kalin,  Indo-  1981:  t h a t t h e more h i g h l y  139skilled  f o r t h e economic c o m p e t i t i o n  (Frideres,  1978:  26).  Indo-Canadian a c c e n t s  for s k i l l e d  However,  p r e d i c t o r s of h i s  persons  several  the  and  attitudes  o f Canada's p o p u l a t i o n  immigrants  disliked  to represent  suitable  95%  s t u d i e s suggests  are  whether  o c c u p a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s of  important  toward  "ethnic  Canadians at  their  directives  implications for their  cultural  ( B e r r y e t a l . , 1980: other  the  the a g e n t s or by  A n g l o - C e l t s and  disposed  the  judge  Nevertheless,  immigrant  c a t e g o r i e s t o w h i c h my  positively  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s i s both  the  or on  multicultural  random sample of  are  to  and  background.  individual's  least  some  regarding  f o r such  one  as  initiative  i s made, e i t h e r  expectations  both  difficult  p e r s o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and  evidence  --  their  s e r v i c e a g e n t s may  toward  i t was  on  educational  The  non-European c l i e n t s  s e v e r a l respondents.  t o compensate agents'  on  some i n s t a n c e s  attended  questioned  focussed  jobs  (Kalin  A  second are  they study  pre-judged  e t a l . , 1980).  41  If and  any  suggestion  may  be made on  somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y e v i d e n c e ,  social  service  immigrant  agents  clients,  but  are  it  unlikely  i f they  towards Indo-Canadian c l i e n t s  do,  the is  that  to f e e l  they  before  b a s i s of  may  minimal  Euro-Canadian  negatively  direct  clients  such  of  such  towards feelings  other  cultural  groups. The or  present  r a c i s m as  on  study  these  perceptions  Taylor  focus  phenomena a r e  of  p o i n t s out  does not  stereotyping, prejudice  commonly c o n c e i v e d .  intercultural  (1981:  on  behaviour.  It  focusses  Nonetheless,  as  151):  [P]ast experience must be organized and s t o r e d c o g n i t i v e l y so t h a t i t can s e r v e a s a guide t o b e h a v i o u r . . . . The major c o g n i t i o n s i n the f i e l d of intergroup relations are ethnic s t e r e o t y p e s and e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s ... [or] prejudices.  Stereotypes, refer of  to people's  people."  In  Canadian agents the  a s T a y l o r d e f i n e s them p e r c e p t i o n s and this  was  clients designed  example,  when  presenting  problems,  usually  ..."  recounting often Only  or  "Most  agent  such  but  some  with  to  response  r e m a r k s as  consistently  about one  other  or  two  they  often  the began  them  tend  such  of t h e  to  "this  is typical  and,  I  believe,  images  of  Indeed,  my For  manner  "East  client,  of E a s t  of  Indians  Also,  from a p a r t i c u l a r  Euro-  images.  client's with  "clearly categories  work.  precisely  describe  of  155),  stereotypical  whom  to e l i c i t  agents  a specific  added one  asked  beliefs  all  interviewed hold  Indo-Canadian  questionnaire  sense,  (1981:  while agents  Indians."  conscientiously  42  answered q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t In  contrast,  evaluative  prejudice  orientations,  159).  Applying  agents  t o have r e v e a l e d  Canadians  reference  this  during  usually  to  get  my  attitudes, 37  you  Euro-Canadian  prejudiced The due  ones  I consider  (Taylor,  a maximum  1981:  of three  against  Indo-  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h them. Comments l i k e  of  or  "they'll  [their  stereotypical agents  home]"  beliefs.  responded  l i e through  "they their  indicate negative  However, 92%  of  the  t o my q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t  such  remarks.  apparent  i n part  lack  of p r e j u d i c e  to the fact  professions also  negative  as a t t i t u d i n a l or  t h e m s e l v e s as p r e j u d i c e d  out  not j u s t  be d e f i n e d  definition,  want a n y t h i n g t h e y c a n g e t , " teeth  may  to stereotypes.  that  discourage agents  among t h e r e s p o n d e n t s may be  t h e v a l u e s and g o a l s o f t h e h e l p i n g from a c k n o w l e d g i n g ,  t o themselves, g e n e r a l i z i n g  to others  but  negative a t t i t u d e s :  A d m i t t i n g t h e r e i s a [ r a c i s m ] p r o b l e m c a n be extremely t h r e a t e n i n g t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s who have an e m o t i o n a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a k e i n viewing themselves as a b l e to cut across class, racial, and e t h n i c lines (Mizio, 1972: 8 3 ) . About  half  themselves "Heavens,  of at  I  generalizing an  individual In  present  sum,  the  some sound  Euro-Canadians  point so  with  apologetic  prejudiced!"  h e r e . I don't  do t h a t  interviewed  or  interrupted  remarks  such  as  understand  I'm  Each c l i e n t  is  "You  with c l i e n t s .  case." the  Euro-Canadian  social  s t u d y b e l o n g t o a segment o f  service  Canadian  agents of the  society  and  to  43  professions  within  that  prejudicial  attitudes.  about  immigrant  may  the well  effect  significance fact  that they  g r o u p do is  the  and  not  are  The their  clients  impact  which  Social  cultural all  manifest  continua, value  not  whom t h e y with  f o r the  rise  to  express beliefs  work, b e l i e f s  those  present  "One  to  stereotypical  which  clients.  study  person's  lies  beliefs  (Taylor,1981:  of many i n d i v i d u a l s '  Service of  The in  the  about a  155).  1 3  It  shared  perceptions  t h e p a t t e r n s of  interaction  Values  social  s e r v i c e agents to  experience  groups, reflect  in  North  absolute  even  of  standards. " 1  individual Autonomy Self-help Self-determination Freedom Personal l i b e r t y Heterogeneity Progress A c t i v i sm "value  people,"  designed  reluctance  to  out  social  for  appear  the p r o f e s s i o n s which  points  American  "help  programmes  their  values  d i m e n s i o n s p e r t i n e n t t o the  Loewenberg n o t e s ,  in  Loewenberg  I m p o r t a n c e of  As  unlikely  others.  r e p r e s e n t . However, as values  with  beliefs:  give  professional  prejudiced,  hold  behaviour  shared  motivation  specific  do  constitute a stereotype"  between them and  D i m e n s i o n s of  they  stereotypes  cumulative  beliefs  But  their  of  s o c i e t y which are  (1977:38),  they the  services constitute  Loewenberg  identifies  nine  helping professions: I m p o r t a n c e of g r o u p Interdependence Co-operation D e c i s i o n by e x p e r t s Limits Social control Homogeneity Stability Fatalism  heterogeneity  is itself  a value  " of  44  North American Seven rights  and  those  of  social  of  the  nine  s o c i e t y . The  schizophrenia"  has  (Wynne,  system  of  social  extent  t r e a t i n g the  the  An  95).  "a  In  the  opposed  to  co-existence  of  uniquely  discussing  States,  policy  concern  as  from the  termed  United  but  individual  emerging  r i g h t s and  predominant value,  predominant  the  1980:  service  39).  dimensions p o s i t e d  been  the  American by  of  tension  positions  (1977:  value  responsibilities  these polar  security  services  Wynne  resolves  the  of  the  the  social  suggests tension  responsibilities  those  American  of  that  to  some  society  individual  as  as the  norm.  examination  of  Canada's Unemployment between t h e  the  development  of,  Insurance p o l i c y r e v e a l s  i n d i v i d u a l and  societal  ends of  the  for  instance,  a similar value  tension  continua:  In t h e 1920's, most C a n a d i a n s b e l i e v e d that obtaining and retaining employment and p r o v i d i n g t h e b a s i c e s e n t i a l s of life were largely an individual matter.... The economic d e p r e s s i o n of t h e 1930's forced a change in the social attitudes...[which] gave r i s e t o p r e s s u r e f o r a w i d e r range of social programs.... The preamble to the [1935] A c t s t a t e d t h a t i t was e s s e n t i a l for the peace, order and good government of Canada ( D i n g l e d i n e , 1981: 5). B o t h the right  of  r i g h t of  the  society  i n d i v i d u a l to  to  unemployment  insurance.  But  the  was,  or  neither is,  responsibility.  peace  and  basic order  were  i n d i v i d u a l Canadian  completely Repeated  comfortable  s u r v e y s of  essentials  nor with  public  held  and to  Canadian the  opinion  the  justify  society  transfer indicate  of that  45  fluctuating of  the  1981:  significant  system  and  takes  terms:  "aid  care  the  be  their  In value  services,  of  the of  case,  tension  which  social  control.  and  dignity  Yet  they  the  in  restricted it  the  potential  accord  itself  mirror the  52-59).  image  of  rights  predominant  and  value,  while  predominant  i n the h e l p i n g  provide on  exist  norm.  values  individual," 1958;  by  attributed inevitably  his  Hollis,  value  e x p e r t s , and  to  the  concern  rights,  the  professions.  b e c a u s e of t h e  decision-making  themselves  (Boehm,  1981:  between t h e p o l a r p o s i t i o n s of  core  professionals of  in a  s o c i e t y c o n s t i t u t e the  interdependence,  the  government  "protection";  (Dingledine,  individual  does m a n i f e s t  on  on  services "the  worth  responsibilities,  1964;  Loewenberg  and  1971).  In t h e i r interviewed individual  aware  counterparts,  that those  continua  more g e n e r a l  statements,  consistently  expressed  ends o f t h e  stated  to accept  only  social  placed  they  offers  that Canadian  by  by  its reponsibility  market  any  Dolgoff,  represented  labour  services  and  stigmatizing (Dingledine,  the  responsibilities  The  insurance  American  assuring  phrase  as  disapprove  " t e m p o r a r i l y " unemployed; a b a s i c o b j e c t i v e i s t o  re-entry" into  may  of C a n a d i a n s  i t s use  society,  to  unemployment  concerns  percentages  consider  72-114). Canadian  policy,  It  but  a belief  value  of a  Euro-Canadian  agents  "client's  For  "responsibility also  strong  c o n t i n u a . For  i n the  s e r v i c e or n o t .  the Euro-Canadian support  right  inform c l i e n t s  indicated  an  for  non-statutory to choose"  statutory cases,  to  agents  they of  cases, whether  were  their  orientation  the  very  rights." toward  46  "getting in  the c l i e n t  to think  for himself"  c l i e n t s "a s e n s e of p e r s o n a l However,  agents'  exists  between  manifest Two  illustrate,  clients," to  indicate  that  transactions. agents  a  transactions  discrepancy  to  reflect  the  value  h o m o g e n e i t y , and s o c i a l c o n t r o l .  The  discrepancy  between t h e v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s  the  ends  of  exemplifies  social  t h e r e t o emphasize upon in  to  an  in particular  Professional The positions  of  helping  fulfillment'" client  whatever  exists  between  agents  feel  of t h i s p o t e n t i a l .  called Ideally,  professions  services goals  of  in  transactions  t o be r e a l i z e d may  be  deemed  Goals  appear by  to  reconcile  defining  "individual-value"  help  (Keith-Lucas,  relationship  value  client  cases.  of t h e i r value c o n t i n u a  the  the  the ultimate  versus Organizational  "social-value" "one  constitute  on  of d i f f e r e n t  t h e r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e  social service,  necessary  that  placed  v a l u e c o n t i n u a . The p o t e n t i a l i s  s o c i e t a l ends, but  individual  through  the tension  r a t i o n a l i z e the e x e r c i s i n g  their opinion,  as  service  Part  behaviour,  by e x p e r t s ,  transactions  in  " s p e c i a l needs o f i m m i g r a n t  decision  agent  and t h o s e  presented  f r u s t r a t i o n s with c l i e n t which  with  sometimes  i d e a l behaviour  As t h e d a t a  refer  and t o t h e i r own  explain  on s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s  the values underlying  in actual  developing  identity."  comments  Indo-Canadian c l i e n t s  and t o w a r d s  is  something  the  the polar purpose  terms. called  1 5  of  Thus, 'self-  1972: 1 2 ) . The p u r p o s e o f t h e a g e n t -  i s " t o enable a person  to resolve  o r cope i n  47  some more e f f e c t i v e 1979: to  62).  ways w i t h  some i d e n t i f i e d  Counselling itself  manage  for  himself  problem"  i s d e f i n e d as p r e p a r i n g  the  source  of h i s p r o b l e m  (Perlman, the  client  (Green,  1982:  15-16). But  f o r h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s employed  agencies,  the  ends of t h e may  reconciliation  value  concur  with  fulfillment,  the  but  their  realization  some  agencies  contacts with Other  continua  (Mencher,  encourage clients'  ones as  rapidly  case,  interests  of c l i e n t s  decisions  regarding  like  of  education  professionals other  and  f e a t u r e s of  self-  with  strive  impede  funding,  clients,  expand  "outreach"  work.  to c l o s e f i l e s  is  played  which  the  sole determinants  1976:  and 228).  prevents of  the  agents'  and  training, 1969:  salaried  organizational goals,  societal On  the  v a l u e s , may  one  hand, by  most a g e n t s c o n s i d e r v i ; Scott,  employees,  1969:  catch virtue  themselves  8 2 - 8 3 ) . On  subject  to  all  the the  bureaucratic structures.  According identification on  are  client  maintain  emphasize  i n the m i d d l e .  and  agents  1 6  individual  (Etzioni,  hand, t h e y  effect  them.  individual Such  as p o s s i b l e ( c f . Handleman,  from b e i n g  between  of  To  visits  reasons,  a numbers game  s e r v i c e agents  their  goals  c o n t r a s t between p r o f e s s i o n a l and  that  social  incomplete.  138).  repeat  families,  and  service  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s can  1967:  for similar  In e i t h e r  The  professional  social  societal  o f t e n remains  more p r a c t i c a l  agencies,  open new  between  by  to of  their  Blau social goals  and  Scott  service  (1962: agents  regarding c l i e n t s .  60-61), should Both  the  have  dual little  independent  and  48  salaried  professionals  are expected  1. B a s i s of professional 2. Nature affectively  t o meet  i n t e r a c t i o n confined expertise. of interaction neutral.  The  main  feature  distinguishing  i s the nature  Scott,  6 2 r 6 3 ) . The  the  1962:  authority  76).  The  of  structure  of  a  judged  service  authority  (Etzioni,  by  directed  by  independent  and  control  independent  knowledge as  employee  administrative  of  as  1964:  over  them  professional by  peers  salaried (Blau  and  i s subject  (Etzioni,  organization  exercised 88;  as  determined  interaction  professionals  t o a r e a of  maintained  3. Content of interaction u n i v e r s a l i s t i c standards. 4. Course of c l i e n t ' s needs.  s i m i l a r standards:  by  to  1964:  i s subject  a  to  hierarchical  see a l s o Loewenberg,  1977:  116,  1 35) . But itself  this central contrast  appear  interaction  t o have (see  between  implications  Toren,  1969).  f o r the goals B l a u and  principle  of c l i e n t  realized  by a s a l a r i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l  since  the l a t t e r ' s  i n t e r e s t over  independent  professional,  of  his  which  interest (Blau  dependent  and 1  Scott,  would  than  "tends  i t i s only to  on h i s s e r v i n g 1962:  argue  make the  of  Scott  self-interest by an  income d e p e n d s on c l i e n t  the  peers  s o u r c e s of c o n t r o l  agent-client  argue  is  more  that  fees.  the  easily  independent  one,  In t h e c a s e  the p o t e n t i a l the  would  sanction  practitioner's  i n t e r e s t s of h i s  of  own  clients"  62).  that  the p o t e n t i a l s a n c t i o n  of  bureaucratic  49  s u p e r v i s o r s may professional  exert  The  d e t e r m i n e an  d e p e n d s on t h e i r  feel the  rate  of  exerts  and  status  and  evaluation  turn-over,  to offer  on  the  the  independent  hierarchy  career  above  him  advancement.  His  of h i s p e r f o r m a n c e . Thus, i f  demand more c l i e n t s ,  client  pressured  or i f  the s a l a r i e d  or t o w i t h h o l d  they  demand  a  p r o f e s s i o n a l may  services,  regardless  of  needs o f t h e c l i e n t . In  is  goals  an i n f l u e n c e on t h e s a l a r i e d  fees  supervisor  employee's  organizational high  as great  as a d e s i r e f o r  professional.  income  just  other  subject  words, a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l , a s o c i a l  t o peer c o n t r o l  self-fulfillment. administrative management. conflict,  As  control Where  professional workers,  data or  the  same  only  feel  the  Two  goals  he  and  is  of  client  subject  goals  of  to  client  organizational  goals  p u l l e d i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s . the  potential  or  conflict  workers  bureaucratic  regarding  professional  goals  clients, of  a l l indicated that  the l a t t e r  As  their  the hopes  the agents  client  commented on t h e i r  health  interviewed  goals.  i n d i c a t e , when e x p r e s s i n g  decisions  between  none o f t h e p u b l i c  social  by  M o r e o v e r , a g e n t s who  regard  self-  supervisors  a r e s u p p o r t i v e of  goals.  About of  organizational  pressured  their  this  lack  feeling  explaining  in  and  counsellors,  i n Part  fulfillment.  employee,  despite  presented  reflected  an  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s ,  school  acknowledged  professional  professional  an a g e n t may  Interestingly,  and  s e r v i c e agent  h a l f of the agents n o t e d time,  or  restrictions  that  lack of  in their  office  space,  mandates and b u d g e t s  50  prevent  them from p r o v i d i n g t h e  clients  r e q u i r e . But  result  from  hierarchy  priorities of  of  employees  personnel  r e s o u r c e s . Without  to  pursue  unhindered  by  any  as  exception,  cultural  and  and  clients  goals  agent-client  Grosser  suggests  practice...makes new]  of  are  up  in  the  client  and  perceived  frustrations  over  agents  by  lack appear  self-fulfillment,  of c l i e n t  do  those  service receive  values" range  management.  continua,  social  provides  specific  one  vary  that  a  exchange  their  clients.  an  1972:  end  to  along  basis  for  that  old  which Since  other  of  patterns  similar  the  instrument  viii).  the  surprising  whereas  "help,"  helping goals,  (Keith-Lucas,  can  work  and  and  orient  (or r e f u s e t o r e c e i v e )  i t i s not  (1972: 379)  professional  goals  agents  from  interaction  perspective  underlie  " i n t e r m s of  on  individual-societal of  so  social  ultimately  values  goals  agents,  supervisors  agencies  their  high  the Euro-Canadian  values  goals,  a commodity e v a l u a t e d  the  to share  organizational goals  between  Agents o f f e r  depend  the  their  to the  persons  Immediate  feel  Power  organizational behaviour  according  "them,"  within  professional  Transacting Just  s e t by  interviewed  s e r v i c e they  limitations,  government.  administrative the  these  k i n d of  lines.  "residual  of c o n t r o l . . . [ t h e partisanship  and  advocacy." Ideally client and  then,  in accordance  self-fulfillment,  client  as  a mutual  help  effort:  with  should  be  the p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l p e r c e i v e d by  both  of  agent  51  [Glenerally the worker a t t e m p t s t o promote an e n v i r o n m e n t of e q u a l i t y i n which he or she and t h e c l i e n t work t o g e t h e r t o s e a r c h f o r answers t o t h e p r o b l e m s a t hand. Worker and client are both e x p e r t s i n t h e i r own r i g h t ; they both share responsibility for how the treatment progresses ( H o l l i s and Woods, 1981: 285-299). The  goal  of s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t  individual  realized,  information, (Loewenberg 1973:  met,  and  the  value  a c o n t i n u o u s , mutual  feelings,  Dolgoff,  1971:  and  the  however, an  realization  interest  of s o c i e t a l  in client  v a l u e s may  v a l u e s or between  individual  organizational  controls  and  societal  g o a l s but a l s o  what t h e o t h e r wants?  wants i t , h i s " i n t e r e s t  value-orientation obtains  his  and  desired  ends  control  137;  little.  t h e one  Upham,  has  the agent homemaker even  been can  i n the event,"  service,  agent's  not  just  professional  wants,  and  wants.  the  which  an  agent  of c o n t r o l  client's  1 7  may  to control  he has a f f i l i a t e d  himself  w i t h an  because  i f he c o n t r o l s c o m p a r a b l e  client  medical  cannot  r e s o u r c e s the  repay agent  very  agent,  he has needs  counselling, The  he  reciprocal  thought  etcetera.  much  i s d e t e r m i n e d by h i s  be  employment  who  wants and how  the extent to  c o n t a c t e d by an a g e n t , meet:  and  between a g e n t and c l i e n t :  hand, t h e c l i e n t  By d e f i n i t i o n ,  control,  depends upon t h e d e g r e e  o v e r what t h e a g e n t  On  of  What an a g e n t  g o a l s . But  has o v e r what t h e c l i e n t  for  these  d e t e r m i n e an  between  or  of  management  i s one  he  on  1979:  mode o f t r a n s a c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n  and  the  exchange  feedback  11; P e r l m a n ,  of  10). Potentially,  in  through  meaningful and  is  which  advice, in kind, is  not  52  permitted receive  to  an  interest  in  them  and  would  r e f u s e to  them.  Rather, on  have  and  the c l i e n t  indebtedness  repays  by  not  t o the agent  repaying.  translates  His  dependency  i n t o power  f o r the  agent: [ I f ] one p e r s o n needs s o m e t h i n g a n o t h e r has t o o f f e r ... but has n o t h i n g t h e o t h e r n e e d s to reciprocate ... he must subordinate h i m s e l f t o the o t h e r and comply with his wishes, thereby rewarding the other with power o v e r h i m s e l f ( B l a u , 1964: 2 1 ) . According basic  to Blau  (1964: 2 2 ) ,  "unilateral  needs a r e t h e p e n u l t i m a t e On  the  source  o t h e r hand, t h e v e r y  to express  g r a t i t u d e and  donation,"  itself  deference,  of  fact  services  that  power."  that  a client  is willing  t o make a " s y m b o l i c  amounts t o a s o u r c e  meet  of c l i e n t  counter-  power:  The norms which require symbolic c o u n t e r d o n a t i o n s ... s e r v e [ a ] v i t a l p u r p o s e ... blame is levied only against those wealthy groups which f a i l to meet requests for h e l p ... w h i c h t h e p o t e n t i a l d o n e e s a r e obviously w i l l i n g to treat as reciprocal o b l i g a t i o n s (Wynne, 1980:30). The  expression  of  power t o t h e a g e n t .  gratitude But  counterdonations  aids  A g e n t s may  o r may  not  deference,  but  they  and  initially, the  be  client  interested  are  quite  deference the promise in  ultimately of  getting  in receiving likely  such  shifts  symbolic  what he  wants.  gratitude  interested  and  in avoiding  blame. To  a lesser  e x t e n t , the c l i e n t  who  is unwilling  to  promise  53  or  d e l i v e r symbolic  agent-client agent  t o be  client  may  relationship "owed" the  also  r e s o u r c e s and Scott,  thereby  tax  so  exercises  f a r as  he  himself  as  Agents  d o l l a r s , but,  in  the  by  the  a taxpayer,  the  a contributor  may  from  have  again,  power  i s perceived  c o m m o d i t i e s . As  e n t i t l e d to b e n e f i t  75).  redistributing  in  requested  perceive  1962:  avoiding  counterdonations also  t o the  them  little  agent's  (Blau to  t h e y have an  and  gain  by  interest in  blame: [B]lame is [also] levied against those wealthy groups w h i c h f a i l t o meet r e q u e s t s for help that are already obligations due through the previous d o n a t i o n s of t h e now d e p e n d e n t d o n o r s (Wynne, 1980: 30).  which  However, as  Etzioni points  a given  of  inversely  segment  r e l a t e d to  even where a c l i e n t as  a consumer  the  out  (1964: 9 5 ) ,  public  "the  consumes p u b l i c  degree  to  services  is  i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n in financing." has  paid  or  is s t i l l  paying  Moreover,  taxes,  his  power  is limited:  The s m a l l e s t d e g r e e of c o n t r o l by c o n s u m e r s w i l l be f o u n d i n p u b l i c m o n o p o l i e s ... next are public s e r v i c e s s u c h as p u b l i c schools ... health services, and social welfare a g e n c i e s ( E t z i o n i , 1964: 95). Consumer  influence  political  organization  characterize .103-104; see Thus, a  social also  over and  public  a r t i c u l a t i o n , features  service  B l a u and  organizations  clients  Scott,  l i m i t e d d e g r e e of  as  1962:  power  a group  depends which  on  seldom  (Etzioni,  1964:  81-82).  rests with  the  client  on  54  the  basis  of  make s y m b o l i c material they  h i s r i g h t s as a person  c o u n t e r d o n a t i o n s a n d / o r who  not  represent  anything  s o m e t h i n g he wants t o a v o i d : a commodity  The agents  more  their  blame  significant  agent  for  source  goal  peers,  of c l i e n t  the approval  cooperation  Finally,  To t h e e x t e n t  professional  a g e n t s want  the  previously  made  refusing  of  client  but o n l y  to  grant  of  himself  that they  of t h e i r  clients  in  a  the  agents'  the approval  strive  realize  the  To t h e e x t e n t  that  to  meeting  they  t r y to  organizational  degrees, d e s i r e  as m a n i f e s t e d  v i sa v i s  a g e n t s want  supervisors,  in  power  play  self-fulfillment.  a g e n t s may, t o v a r y i n g  client  wants,  f o r w h i c h he p a y s .  of g o a l s .  professional  the  the  r e l a t e s t o the r o l e which c l i e n t s  attainment of  has  d o n a t i o n s . These s o u r c e s of c o n t r o l a r e l i m i t e d because  do  client  i n need who i s w i l l i n g t o  gain goals.  the approval  i n expressions  of  o f l i k i n g and  appreciation. The a g e n t s ' cooperation, power.  interest  and  in  possibly  client  in client  I t e s t a b l i s h e s a b a l a n c e of  giver  and  the  relationship,  help-needer.  the c l i e n t ' s  combines  with  influence  the patterns  self-fulfillment, approval  control Throughout  c o n t r o l over  what  o f a g e n t and c l i e n t  in  the  the the  the c l i e n t the  help-  counselling agent  the c l i e n t  wants  wants t o  transactions.  Relationship  Textbooks of the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s phases  between  t h e a g e n t ' s c o n t r o l o v e r what  The C o u n s e l l i n g  grants  client  counselling  relationship:  often  identify  introduction,  five study,  55  assessment, thesis  treatment,  amply  and  ending.  illustrates,  the  As  1 8  P a r t Two  one  step  p u r p o s e s of  forward,  r e s e a r c h and  phases p r o v i d e s The the  texts  cited  by  gives  the c l i e n t ' s of  his  the  should  stress  e x e r c i s i n g of h i s own a way  helper.  In  suggest  control  of  helping  a g e n t , but  that  in order  self-fulfillment effective, the  the  client. To  helper's  will  In t h e himself  to the one  process  in  agent gains  these rests  and  texts  with  order  a  the  client to  be  a p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l  in  counselling relationship,  an  of  enabler,  feelings  enhance, any  excessive  i n the  authority. may  reassures  have  him  t h r e a t e n , h i s own  expectations and  message i s one  assures of  the him  trust  towards  that  the  role.  The  client  t h a t he  i n the  He  may  is his  agent  and  self.  t e r m s of  t o be  not  the c l i e n t  not  helping relationship,  r e s o u r c e . The  confidence  as  negative  also modifies  best  phase,  The  client  words,  importantly,  a p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r , and  role  have of t h e  five  w h i c h promote  p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l of  facilitate  client  his role  any  working with  own  a g e n t must  i n t r o d u c e the  identifies  more  i n each  abilities.  other  t o meet t h e  of  for  1 9  agent c l a r i f i e s  agent  and,  that,  t h a t the  h i s own  the  they  Nevertheless,  exercise s k i l l s  i n such  that  be  framework.  s e n s e of b e i n g that  present  identification  convenient  the agents  expertise  feeling  s t e p s backward."  analysis,  a u s e f u l and  p r o f e s s i o n a l helper  support  two  the  f u n c t i o n s of e a c h p h a s e may  m i x e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . A g e n t s o f t e n have t h e "take  of  giving  social  exchange t h e o r y ,  t o the c l i e n t .  He  the agent  offers  the  perceives  client  not  56  only  an  opportunity  for  opportunity  to c o n t r o l the  explicitly  promises  may him.  exercise He  h i s . In  wants c l i e n t  may  be  discretion helping  of  return,  this  agent.  a good b a r g a i n i n g  under  of  that  agent  also  the  relationship.  He  wants t h e  h i s o f f e r of  introductory by  the  If a c l i e n t  phase, client  has  i s perceived  p o s i t i o n . To  identify  condition  the  determined  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p , but  r e s t r a i n h i s powers so  r e l a t i o n s h i p , or  a g e n t must  outcome  a c c e p t a n c e of  However, d u r i n g powers  to  a helping  something which  obtain the  the  the  client  to t r u s t  as  balance  well  as  uninterested,  in  he  relationship  of the a  holds  trust,  does want, t h a t  proffered  at  interest  such a c l i e n t ' s  client  client  help. the  little  as  that  an  i s , the will  be  accepted: [A] s e n s e of r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e h e l p n e e d e r ... w i l l o f t e n be the c o n s e q u e n c e , not the b e g i n n i n g c o n d i t i o n , of t h e h e l p e r ' s m e e t i n g of b a s i c s u r v i v a l needs or t h e r e c e i v i n g of some wished-for resource (Perlmam, 1979: 15) . In  the  social  service  w i s h e s have been  termed  services  that  In  exchange  social  acceptance  literature,  would be  " 'gifts given  terms,  desired  by  In  the  opportunity empathetic for  study  phase,  to discuss listening  himself  the  they  he  of  love'  I f an  of  [which]  (Hollis,  constitute  go  1964:  payments  clients' beyond 88-89). for  the  a g e n t wants a r e l a t i o n s h i p  p a y s more f o r i t . an  agent  offers  h i s p r o b l e m . He  techniques  "reality"  fulfillments  routinely"  agents.  more t h a n d o e s h i s c l i e n t ,  such  of  utilizes  to enable his  the  the  client  an  non-judgmental,  client  s i t u a t i o n and  to  explore  his  feelings  57  about not  i t . Once a g a i n , t h e a g e n t only  of  power. He  h i s support  r e s t r a i n s any  (Shulman,  1979:  reveal  facts  client  openness  But  49).  and  just  in as  the c l i e n t  will  the  the agent  will  r e v e a l s . Armed  of  He  he  establish  to  desires  first  such  behaviour  (Hollis,  appear both  instance, a client  wants  d e s p i t e the  facts  understandings  agents  e x p r e s s i o n o f good w i l l  the  clients,  a c c e p t him  with  many o f  disclosure  t o demands o f  of  conditions  f o r t h c o m i n g . Indeed,  purposiveness,"  unacceptable  wants t h e c l i e n t  to the problem.  may  be  In  f e e l i n g s he  "an  suggestions"  s e t terms f o r the a c c e p t a n c e  i n response  that  acceptance,  the agent  of h i s p o t e n t i a l  with  i n t e n d e d t o promote c l i e n t  unspoken.  has  may  so t o o  reassurance  behaviour  in  giving,  self-disclosure.  skills  and  but a l s o  to rush  feelings pertaining  t o have been d e v e l o p e d spoken  skills,  In r e t u r n ,  which d i s c l o s u r e  professional  and  "impulse  the h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , under  p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f t o be  are  trained  toward 1964:  the 85;  as to  and  "all convey  perpetrator" Perlman,  1979:  105). . Moreover, c l i e n t s feedback p.  than  48). Recent  personal within Woods,  may  demand f a r more  the p r e s c r i b e d texts posit  thoughts  and  professional  the  importance  feelings,  and  suggest  the c o n f i n e s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l 1981:  disclosure  does  290-291; not  extend  biographic  information.  the  has  agent  Shulman,  children,  to  For the  1979: the  example, agent  personal  input  and  standards permit  (see  of how  sharing t h i s may  relationship 78-82).  be  i f a client  done  (Hollis  Such agent  revelation  should  relevant  of  self-  personal,  asks  reply  and  whether  "are  you  58  wondering  i f I can  the  who  and  client  feelings  "holds  out"  during  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p may Once helping  a  client  his  p r o b l e m and client  what can  information  the  accept,  client  and  resolution  the  to  priorities, and  attain  these  arrive client  at  this  assessment  done a b o u t specific,  of c l i e n t decide  to  decide  of  a  In  trust  But  thoughts  counselling  to the  the  To  agent  self-fulfillment,  he  Through  his client  to  establish  short-range  "partialize"  e x t e r n a l a i d s he  r e t u r n , the himself  agent to  wants  a treatment  t o meet  agent  must to  make t o  "professional  the  use  the  a  the  resources can  a of  assess  But  the  which  himself  his  of  offers  relevant resources.  himself  offer  opportunity  phase b e g i n s .  it,  for  which  commit  point  exchange  accepted problem, problem.  the  counselling process,  relationship offer  is likely He  i n the  wants  of  t o be  diminishes.  help,  and  self-determination,  something  acceptable  or  the  The  of  problem,  and  long-range  will  utilize  to  the  client  to  p l a n . He  the  wants  agent  has  with  even  i t i s the  c o n t r o l of  client  who  has  to share  his  resolution  i f his self-determined  t o the agent,  client  opportunity  i n t e r e s t e d i n the  u n a b l e or u n w i l l i n g t o r e c i p r o c a t e  not  of  d i s c l o s u r e to the  contributions  goals. and  14-15).  self-determination.  At the  the  agent h e l p s  to  phase  with  problem.  the  goals,  study  and  be  to  self," set  1979:  f o r two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n  responded with  on  which  of  (Shulman,  has  problem,  p r o f e s s i o n a l goal  enable  you?"  well receive i t .  relationship,  sharing  the  understand  to o f f e r . a  that  I f he  semblance  treatment  a g e n t who  of  decides  plan  is of is  whether  59  the  desired The  resource  question  represents social  the  1972:  36).  exhibited of  to  client  the  is  a g e n t , and  a g e n t has  interest  the  as  the  client  cultural,  (Keith-Lucas,  illusion"  professionals,  tell  the one  power of  in resources described  placed that  their  choice  may  strive on  the  to  authority  rests with  the  held  by  a l s o be  deal  the  Part  the Two  subject  background.  of  interest in  reflect  in  i n d i v i d u a l . To  client  degree  and  in  especially educational,  They  another  upon the  self-fulfillment, has  as  self-determination  extent  a g e n t s have a g r e a t  value  because  of  self-determination  and  American  an  transactions  for  in North  treated  degree  in c l i e n t  the  capacity  the  as  probably  "alternately  depends t o a l a r g e  self-fulfillment.  the  It  issue  a client  "inevitable" that  debated  by  transactions they  widely  self-determination  that  f a c t o r s of As  client  suggest  a g e n t . However,  to  of  I  of  suggest,  delivered.  literature.  up  i n t e r e s t the  degree  be  most  service  inevitable,  will  their  this  end,  self-determination  is  i s only client  one  of  knowledge,  (Perlman,  1979:  72) : [T]he worker is responsible for o f f e r e d ... but the c l i e n t e x e r c i s e s o v e r what i s accepted (Hollis and 1981 : 301) . An  agent's  influence  successful  in acquiring  him  disclose  to  the  what  treatment  of  recognized  the  t r u s t of  the  "ultimately," kind  is  choice  "reality" i s the  plan  he  as  client's: will  greater  his client of  what i s control Woods,  his he  follow,  i f he  and  been  enabling  situation.  i s free or  in  has  to  But, decide  t o withdraw  from  60  the  helping  Scott,  1969:  As in  (Keith-Lucas,  1972:  15;  123-127).  behaviour  values  the  b u r e a u c r a t i c g o a l s of c l i e n t  underlying  responsibilites an  altogether  e m p l o y e e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , however, a g e n t s may  their  The  relationship  these  priority,  and  goals render  grant  management.  societal  client  reflect  rights  and  self-determination  "illusion":  [T]he consumer's freedom of choice is r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e name of o t h e r v a l u e s such as health, education, or increased p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c h o i c e in the future.... [ S e p a r a t i o n between c o n s u m p t i o n and c o n t r o l is supported by a strong ideology ... namely, that those who administer the service are in a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o judge what i s good f o r t h e consumer than he is h i m s e l f ( E t z i o n i , 1964: 97-98).  To  the  extent  continua  over  required  ones,  plans.  assistance  The  of  the of  balance  of  that  agent  the  is,  societal  their  continues  option  is  to  decide  that  problem,  t o use  control  h i s own  resources  i f the  rests  into  with  his  resources.  In  r e t u r n , he  over  determine forfeit  the  the  payment  wants  the  at  the self-  agent.  treatment  skills  goals  to  r e l e v a n t to the  including  value  wants t h e  during the  the  may  client  the agent  of power w h i c h emerges  to o f f e r  clients  one  than  continues  ends of  organizational  not  more  client,  counselling  the c l i e n t ' s client  and  or  client's  altogther,  determination  agent  ends,  they The  accept  f o r i t i s too h i g h . Otherwise,  resources  phase  agents  individual  professional treatment  that  2 0  assessment phase.  resolution enabling  wants t h e  The of the  client  61  to  implement  the  A client manner upon  too  treatment  may  fail  to follow  independent  and  Ideally,  a  fulfillment the  89;  upon,  toward  and/or  may  (Hollis,  respond  client  1979:  than in  1964:  l o n g as  the agent  control.  request  He  if  r e l u c t a n c e to  8 9 ) . An  to c l i e n t  apathy  as  the c l i e n t  the a c t u a l agent  or  agency.  client  self-  indications  that  must  be  client  input  (Perlman,  "take  over"  at  reservation  techniques,  the  how  are  t o be  fail  to follow  (Scott,  agent's  self-fulfillment,  the c l i e n t  held  this by  pursuing organizational  with coercive  wants  wants c l i e n t  benefits  the  counselling  with bureaucratic a u t h o r i t y  "teaches  mutually  76).  s t r o n g e r than  hostility  128). As  of  to  a  dependent  been  or  committed  phases  in  "drag h i s f e e t "  agent,  or h o s t i l i t y  study  not  may  even g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on  Shulman,  i s often  agent  helper  by a c t i n g  p l a n or t o o  has  the p l a n , the  However, t h e o f f i c i a l point  plan  follow-through.  either  the c l i e n t  r e c o g n i z e s apathy  r e p e a t e d w i t h an  through  the  professional  assessment  1979:  of  agreed  express h o s t i l i t y  wants c l i e n t  of t h e t r e a t m e n t  i t . I f the content  developed  p l a n . He  to  forthcoming"  goals  and  to  1969:  125-  resources the agent  behave  the  and  more  remains what  (Handleman,  to 1976:  229) . A client  may  also  the treatment  p l a n : he may  an  of  attitude  educated to  person  expect  (Hollis,  d e p e n d e n c y on w i t h no  advice 1964:  implement  and  149).  through  w i t h the  i t s content  the agent.  but do  will  "tend  a somewhat more a u t h o r i t a t i v e the  agent  so  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  e x p e r i e n c e as a c l i e n t  For  intent  interested  in  of  with a  less more  approach" client  62  appreciation  or  responsibilities problem  --  one  priority,  indeed,  and  until  and  that the c l i e n t The  must  agent  respond  i t may  be a b l e  committed to  serve  of  necessary,"  and  by  by  he  his life  is  closed,  unaided.  the  his client,  provides  little  be  self-fulfillment,  clarifying  and  and  h i s wants -- u n l e s s  however,  attitudinal  by e n s u r i n g  no  that  stronger  than  a g a i n s t t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n o f what  (Hollis,  1964: 95; K e i t h - L u c a s ,  Perlman,  7 3 ) . The p r o f e s i o n a l l y  his  b u r e a u c r a t i c a l l y oriented colleague, accepts also applies skills  rights  presents  9;  he  1979:  to f u l f i l l  to c l i e n t  guarding  be a p a s s i n g p h a s e  dependency  to continue  himself  dependence  societal  require that the f i l e  dependency  between  bridge  should  client  organizational goals  differences "the  according  developed  1972:  o r i e n t e d agent,  like  dependency, but  t o overcome i t :  N o t h i n g i s more cruel or l e s s productive than t o t e l l someone t h a t t h e c h o i c e i s h i s and, so t o s p e a k , t o t e l l him t o go into a corner and d e c i d e . . . . [0]ur job i s to p r o v i d e him w i t h a medium, a s i t u a t i o n , and an experience i n which c h o i c e i s p o s s i b l e ( K e i t h - L u c a s , 1972: 4 6 ) .  Thus, whether t h e c l i e n t  expresses  t o o much d e p e n d e n c e , a s l o n g a s resources control achieve  exceeds the agent's  his  t o o much i n d e p e n d e n c e o r  interest  interest  goals,  accept  d e p e n d e n c y . To t h e e x t e n t  goals,  a g e n t s may b a l a n c e  they  that agents  may command  t h a t they  directive  the  agent's  in his self-fulfillment,  r e s t s . w i t h t h e a g e n t . To t h e e x t e n t organizational  in  aim  to  compliance  or  f o c u s on p r o f e s s i o n a l  techniques  with  the exercise  63  of c l i e n t s ' with  stimulation  balance the  powers; a c c e p t a n c e (Perlman,  of power d u r i n g  discretion This  of  the  and  less  "out"  when t h e  some of t h e c o n t r o l phases. client  However, feels  In g e n e r a l ,  professional the in  best  1972:  or  success If wants has  to  wanted  explicitly Since  the  on  which p a r t y  ties, the  end  if  prolong f r o m him and  at  has  the  client  client  relatively  of  i s considered  the  may  client:  1976:  all  study  (but  using  9 2 - 1 0 5 ) . An both  best a  the  his  to  non-  end  to  inevitable  and  is  nothing  so  (Keith-Lucas,  interest  criterion  of of  the  agency  228). want  may  the  along:  states additional  relationship  renew h i s o f f e r s acceptance,  follow-through.  t h e p u r p o s e of t h e  wants  regains  transition  "There  i n the is  to  powerless  u n l i m i t e d time"  turnover  does not i t , he  as  a l s o be  client  1979:  a  tactics).  f o r the  (Shulman,  more  termination before  delaying  the c l i e n t  of  i n t r o d u c t o r y and  initiates  client  debilitating  client  determination  at  remains  relationship  (Handleman, the  on  systems  57). Termination  organization,  the  somewhat  during  client  234  interest  frightening  enjoyed  the  support  case,  established  from t e r m i n a t i o n . I f t h e  prepares  counselling the  either  i t i s t h e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l who,  skills,"  support  is  depending  i f the agent  1976:  In  and  phase  wants t o m a i n t a i n he  ready,  see Handleman,  "ending  change  lose  agent  149).  treatment  may  to  1979:  the  relationship,  gain  expectation,  agent.  situation  counselling  with  offers  t o end,  o f what t h e disclosure,  In  so d o i n g ,  of  liking  r e l a t i o n s h i p has  he  and  supposedly  if  he  agent self-  i m p l i e s or gratitude. been met  --  64  the  problem  client's  has  come as  resources permit  fulfill  the  agent's  However, t h e y may the is  pull so  to  such  offers  needed and are  indicate  "the  client  e x p e c t s the  with  the  agent  discussion  (Hollis,  a g e n t s and  clients  (Perlman,  1979:  Such of  well  as  of  to  or  be  of  praise  r e l a t i o n to  willing  removed  1964:  no  liking  But  109). "met  the  doubt by  the  agents are  professional  (1979: 208)  offer  often --  1979:  64).  attentiveness  or be  t o make  more it"  67). may  personal (Etzioni,  relationships  recognition  and  needs f o r  both  Relationship i n our  of  liking  personal  through  it  natural  environments"  64).  and  relationship.  is  client  (Perlman,  1972:  " f a n t a s i e s " of  s h o u l d be  training  gratitude  (Keith-Lucas,  i s able  client are  "[T]here  appreciative  to  goals.  47-48, 50,  expressions  Such  to  liking  that  10).  serve  expectation  advised  1964:  and  a one-way s t r e e t , w i t h o u t  They a r e  professional  agent's  longer  needs:  trained  or  the  the  organizational  wanted!"  gratitude  than  no  or  responsive,  agents  r e s p o n s i v e n e s s on  r e s o l u t i o n as  more p e r s o n a l  w i t h the  service  to  professional  g r a t i f y i n g t o be  client  --  satisfy  stay  Social and  close  and  need  reduces the client  have  on  the  which  o n e s . As  Perlman  "immediate e x p e r i e n t i a l  offers  counselling  human; t h e y have p e r s o n a l  organizational for  influence  goals  writes  rewards:"  [ T ] h e warm g l a n c e and s i g h of r e l i e f ... t h e verbal expression of gratitude ... the determined effort, to behave in some more constructive ways.... How n o u r i s h i n g to the ego i d e a l of t h e h e l p g i v e r t h e s e instances are.  as  65  To  the extent  gratitude, control than  that  an a g e n t  the c l i e n t  the  who o f f e r s s u c h e x p e r i e n t i a l  ending  phase of t h e c o u n s e l l i n g  the l e s s rewarding  To  conclude,  the agent,  consequent relationship manifest  to  pursue  goals these  transaction.  depends  of c o n t r o l  goals  the  agent  Part  nature  client's  transactions  They  the  a l l  And  transactional  relationship  of  of e x p e r t i s e , regard  to the  subscribe  they  only strive  mode o f m u t u a l  mutual  exchange  is  but i t encourages the  to that  but p e r m i t s t h e agent  area.  I t remains  to share h i s thoughts  the c l i e n t .  social  which  goals,  are  exchange.  which appear  organizational  the  acknowledge  Two, I examine t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n  of  of  response  self-fulfillment.  in  transactions  referents  to  based  But  reflect  client's  response  these  cultural  on  I  also  identify  agent  a  societal-orientation,  and a c o n t r o l l i n g t r a n s a c t i o n a l mode, and  I examine t h e r e s p o n s e o f c l i e n t s well.  the  and h i s  of h i s agent.  o r power w i t h  neutral,  f e e l i n g s with In  to  But  values.  t o the agent's area  affectively and  on  of c l i e n t  exchange. A p r o f e s s i o n a l confined  the f i v e  on w h i c h he b a s e s h i s d e c i s i o n s ,  individual-oriented  sharing  r e l a t i o n s h i p more  E u r o - C a n a d i a n a g e n t s whom I i n t e r v i e w e d  professional to  of  also  may  depends v e r y much on t h e v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n  a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r  The  rewards  client.  the goals  mode  l i k i n g or  the r e l a t i o n s h i p which e v o l v e s d u r i n g  phases of c o u n s e l l i n g of  has an i n t e r e s t i n c l i e n t  t o these agent  transactions  as  66  Notes: Chapter  Biographical  1 1  Canadian persons,  agents  information  who  respectively  were  general, courses,  the but  multicultural As  1 3  younger agents  agents a l s o hold clients  as  a  interviewed  in  age  agents of  in-service noted  i s not a v a i l a b l e  i n two g r o u p s  from  had  a l l training  stereotypical but  22  taken  ages  to  53  the  had  ( p p . 129-130),  beliefs,  about  not about  Canadian  different  r o o t s of s o c i a l  Judaic-Christian 1980:  pattern  99-102).  tradition  However, even  been  expressed i n a d u a l i s t i c  "The  altruistic  contradictory who h e l p 1 5  of  value to  of  interaction  These  tend to  be  little  between  Indo-  clients.  service  (cf.  in  sub-groups.  and a s s u c h p r o b a b l y have  a g e n t s and I n d o - C a n a d i a n The  1<t  overall  In  Indo-Canadian  to  agents  years.  Indo-Canadian  unique  on t h e  o f 6 and 8  participated  a r e n o t s h a r e d o r a g r e e d upon, however. They  effect  Euro-  cross-cultural  beliefs  individual  14  workshops.  i n Chapter Four  group,  for  (see Appendix A ) .  The a g e n t s r a n g e d  1 2  Two  v a l u e s l i e deep w i t h i n t h e  Caponigri,  within  104;  Wynne,  tradition,  v a l u e s have  manner. As Shenk n o t e s  (1981: 9 9 ) :  being  this  1971:  one's  the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  'brother's  keeper'  is  v a l u e o f 'God h e l p s t h o s e  themselves.'" Green  intercultural  identifies social  (1982:  service  counselling.  13-22)  delivery: Although  four advocacy,  many  of  styles  of  brokerage,  regulation,  and  the  interviewed  p r o v i d e e a c h o f t h e s e from t i m e t o t i m e , my  agents thesis,  67  and  h e n c e my  focus the  on  discussion  of  counselling.  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  agent  goals  Further  and  transactional  research  i s needed  exchange models f o r other  modes,  to e s t a b l i s h  forms  of  social  service relationships. Considerations  1 6  clients' that and  i n t e r e s t s . For  "the  the  the  importance  relation  of  Handleman power"  obtain  of  from  how  that  tactics  suggest  that  one  client  tactics  the  degree  client  can  withhold.  1 8  some of  the  The  five  schools present  differences  phases d e r i v e  of  of  social  thesis opinion  repay  coerce  power.  has  an  to  the  of  which  the  evaluation  of  interest  can  on  "the  introduce  goes  the  beyond  other  other.  He  to  and  age,  demand, c o n s t i t u t e that  client  i n t e r a c t i o n , but so  d e p e n d s upon  in  something  i s beyond  many  exist within  the  the  variations social  I the the  " m e d i c a l model" b a s i s  the  a  suggests  health  agree  thought. I t  describe  of  he  s u c h as  I  from t h e  service  stable  sacrificed  depends  Thus,  t o w h i c h t h e y do  agent  was  "the  relations  affect agent-client  t o w h i c h the or  that  diversification  extent  give  22.5)  can  can  of a  78)  another."  circumstances  coercive  client  (1962:  principle  other."  party  party  note  which e i t h e r p a r t y  the  one  s u c h as  client  c i r c u m s t a n c e s and  (1976:  resources  of  of  for  the  consideration  sources  worker  agent-client  what  client  one  benefits  231-234)  bureaucratic  in  of  and  between w o r k e r and  writes  consideration  (p.  also affect  p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i n c i p l e of  identification to  ones may  Scott  distinctly  relative  funding and  interchangeability 1 7  than  example, B l a u  continuing  for  other  of  scope and  service  68  literature  regarding  compilation of  these  counselling  b a s e d on present  counselling.  (The  comprehensive  the a  one  texts  or  exception  Turner  (1979).  intercultural  counselling  attempted  by  several For  see  a  different  a  counselling approach  H i g g i n b o t h a m and  on  1979.) F o r  behavioural  a  a g e n t s . Most  neo-Freudian perspective  i s Bronfenbrenner,  of  a p p r o a c h e s see  I have  recommended t o me  Freudian  analysis  practices.  to  Tanaka-Matsumi  (1981). E x p e r i e n c e and  1 9  North American the  clients,  agent-client  p r o g r e s s and Furness,  e x p e r i m e n t s have shown t h a t , a client's  relationship  s a t i s f a c t i o n within  personal  perception  is  positively  that  communication;  of  at  control related  relationship  see  least  for over  to  his  (Anne-Marie  a l s o Rogers,  1973:  240-  245) . 2 0  Handler  primarily advice  suggests  "talking"  (1973:  services,  t h a n when " h a r d "  services  137)  that  clients are  at  if  feel  the freer  stake.  agent to  offers  refuse  his  69  Chapter  THE  Three  INDO-CANADIAN  CLIENTS:  THEIR CULTURAL REFERENTS OF SOCIAL  Indo-Canadian  i m m i g r a n t s who  interact  EXCHANGE  with  social  a g e n t s do so from a h y b r i d p e r s p e c t i v e . In v a r y i n g view e x c h a n g e e n c o u n t e r s obtaining their  in  local  their  their  these  bases  emigration  and r a c i a l  the  however, a c o r e analysis  regions  model o f I n d i a n  r e f e r e n t s of t h i s  reference  to  in  turn  in  the  countries  of  by  several  regions  of  immigration  of e m i g r a t i o n . identify  the Sikh  However,  of  social  superimposed  variables,  exchange emerges from  and s o c i o l o g i c a l  literature.  chapter,  m o d e l : t h e main  I identify  values,  an  In the t h e key  goals,  and  modes p e r t a i n i n g t o exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e Since  28 o f t h e  t h e m s e l v e s as J a t S i k h s  P u n j a b S t a t e , most  Hindus  the  s e c t i o n s of the p r e s e n t  transactional  class,  with  obtaining in  exchange p a t t e r n s . E a c h o f  heritage  heterogeneity  of t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c  three  cultural  (70%)  in  they  1982: 9 1 - 9 5 ) .  Despite  first  biases  to that  and/or  i s influenced  colonial  degrees,  t o t h e model o f exchange  of e m i g r a t i o n ,  Euro-Canadian  for perspective including  reference  communities,  of  factors,  (Djao,  regions  immigrant  perception  with  service  40  clients  from v i l l a g e s  references are t o the J a t  religion,  the c u l t u r a l  and t h e r u r a l  farming  Punjab  interviewed i n India's caste  or  (see Appendix A ) .  r e f e r e n t s o f exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  i n I n d i a and H i n d u s  in F i j i  are also  noted.  70  In t h e  final  two  extent  to  regions  of e m i g r a t i o n ,  Within  the  possibly, also  which  The  on  seen  i s no  m a r r i a g e or as  involved. A  to  i n the  c o u n t r i e s of  communities,  the  only  goals,  and  to obtain  life. the  the  immigration.  values,  populations,  Between  same  but the  cultural  specifically  with  social services.  of  information  Most e t h n o g r a p h i c caste,  symbolic few  the  Honour  dearth  on  indicate  exchange, p o s i t e d f o r  create d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  d e l i v e r y of  culture.  exchange  I  social  non-immigrant  of F a m i l y  There Indian  the  are  to the  Value  immigrant  chapter  i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of community  i m m i g r a n t s and referents  persists  the  t r a n s a c t i o n a l modes a p p e a r not  to a s s i s t  regard  t h e model of  Indian the  s e c t i o n s of  on  of and  on  accounts,  p o l i t i c s or central  focus  i n and  on  t o the  s c h o l a r s have s u g g e s t e d  a phenomenon demanding  social  of  exchange  whether  they  religion,  in  focus  document  social relationships  South A s i a n  exchange  as  itself:  I f I were t o sum up t h e c o r e theme of I n d i a n culture in one word, I s h o u l d choose the word giving .... Giving as a kind of repeated exchange i s a t t h e c e n t e r of t h e natural and moral universe (McClelland, 1975: 134). These  s c h o l a r s p o i n t not  complexity  of  exchange  only  t o the  pervasiveness  but  in India:  South Asian society has developed transactional t h i n k i n g perhaps f u r t h e r than has any other. It e x h i b i t s an elaborate transactional culture, characterized by explicit, institutionalized concern for  also  the  71  givings 109) . But is  e x c h a n g e , even not  an  end  value-related Most and  without at  from t h e and  be  of  cycle  be  re-united  reborn  to  a  decision-making  izzat  the  culture,  attainment  related  suggests that to  d e a t h , and  of  the  higher  fulfill  E s p e c i a l l y for  i n the  of  moksha  A  Hindu  the  in  literature  dies or  h i s next  desirability  associated  who  life-force,  although  t o o n e ' s dharma  behaviour  value  eternal  Sikhs,  form  dharma,  rebirth.  station  For  and  correct  t o h i s dharma, and  with  135-136).  behaving according  frequently  life,  according  reincarnation  the  to  in Indian  dharma r e l a t e s t o t h e of  believe of  means  1976:  t o one's s t a t i o n i n l i f e .  1975:  goal  ethos  r e c e i v i n g serves  (McClelland, in  is a  literature  receives  d e b t , may  least  It  the  fulfillment  gives  (Marriott,  goals.  according  the  release  who  in i t s e l f .  i n g i v i n g and  duty  Hindus,  receivings  i f i t c o n s t i t u t e s an  frequently,  content  one's  or  and  life  they  also  of  moksha,  the  (Punjabi:  dharam)  and  with  to the  that  goal  value  of  is  more  honour  or  may  be  ( a l s o : mann). Honour, d e f i n e d  bestowed  by  g r o u p . But is  the  its  public  a  as  positive  community  most commonly  family  on  community an  reflection,  individual, a  in p a t r i l i n e a l ,  which c o n s t i t u t e s reputation"  appraisal,  "the  family,  agrarian bearer  (Wolf,  1966:  of  or  on  a  societies  it  v i r t u e , and  of  8):  B e c a u s e t h e f a m i l y i n v o l v e s the "whole" man, p u b l i c e v a l u a t i o n s of a man are ultimately led back to c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of h i s f a m i l y . M o r e o v e r , any g r o s s i n f r i n g e m e n t of virtue by one of i t s members r e f l e c t s on t h e amount  72  of  Family  honour  behaviour In so  circles  villages  valued  may  based  reputation  residential  its  members'  be  conceived  Punjab, the  agnatic  first  of  of  of a g n a t i c  k i n s m e n , the When  kinship  and  honour of  the  of  l a r g e r grouping  family which  of An  individual's  family,  household's  secondly  exhorted  izzat, i s at  joint  or  "brotherhood"  families  is  is  concentric  patrilineally  their  individual  in consideration  ties.  be  h e a d of  baradari,  behaviour  Members'  whose honour  a series  a l l to h i s nuclear  to the  an  standing.  "family"  as  h o u s e h o l d w h i c h may  thirdly  social  honour.  the  and  94-106).  others.  of  on  accrues  the  family's  extended,  1981:  by  affects  a f f e c t s the  the  highly  to h i s  v i r t u e held  (Hershman, to a l t e r  his  i t is ultimately  the  stake:  An individual's izzat is especially vulnerable as it i s considered largely in the context of group membership.... One family member's b e h a v i o u r a f f e c t s t h e whole k i n g r o u p (Helweg, 1979: 11,18).  In H i n d u I n d i a , joint to  family,  articulate  conformity  to  the  and  standards  of  them,  dharma. In  at  and  or  sub-caste  honour most  concentric  sub-caste,  members' c o m p l i a n c e been  the  stake  these  the  r o l e was  in relation  functions:  to  India,  nuclear  family,  i n a s i m i l a r manner  apply  pressure  for  c o n s e q u e n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l  n o n - c o m p l i a n c e . At whose  of  function  behaviour,  reap  contemporary Hindu  have assumed  caste  circles  one  most  time  significant  i t s members' the  it  joint  may  have  and  whose  fulfillment  family  appears  of to  73  The b a s i c r o l e of t h e j o i n t f a m i l y i s t o do honour t o i t s h e r i t a g e , improve upon it if possible, and enable youth to c a r r y t h i s h e r i t a g e i n t o the next generation (Howard, 1971: 18).  As  in  Sikh  society,  subordinated  to  the  accorded  in  honour Hindu  than  that  In F i j i , and  system  of  Hindu  individual's  a g r o u p , and  h i s behaviour  that  may  in  clusters  the  locus  A  2 1  nuclear  groupings  in F i j i  147).  one  Any  a brotherhood, of  honour  have s h i f t e d s i n c e  1 920.  of  of  recent  units  prestige will  g r o u p . However, i n d i v i d u a l  s o c i e t y a p p e a r s t o a f f e c t and  grouping  clear,  that  the  more  namely, t h e  joint  the  society"  s u c h c l u s t e r , termed a  family.  the  suggests that kinship  confined  society  a b o l i t i o n of  study  rural  Hindu  affect  reputation  a  in rural  r e l a t e d by  Indian  reflect  is  is less indenture  residential  "constitute  the  (Jayawardena,  key 1983:  "household,"  ...carves out of r e l a t i o n s between k i n and a f f i n e s a u n i t t h a t can be c a l l e d a family: producing the new generation, socializing them and f o s t e r i n g s e n t i m e n t s of solidarity between c o n c e n t r i c a l l y widening rings of c o n s a n g u i n e s ( J a y a w a r d e n a , 1983: 178). However,  participation  Individuals  or  nuclear  c o n s a n g u i n e a l and cluster  "household"  u n i t s can  shift  networks to or,  Once ties  their  outside "dissolve  izzat,  the  being  presumably, honour  residential  into kinship."  nor  does  is  residence  "avoid  w i t h a c l u s t e r of q u e s t i o n a b l e  148).  individual's affect  a  with d e c l i n i n g resources,"  association 1983:  affinal  in  the  voluntary. within  their  enmeshed to  terminate  (Jayawardena,  "household,"  His latter  in a  behaviour  an  cannot  determine  his  74  reputation. In with  sum,  the  the size  affects  and  nuclear  units  to  the  the  immutability its  i n Hindu F i j i ,  placed on  on  1979:  67).  original).  as To  kinship-based  support  family  at  residential  i n t i m e of  society rank  units  despite  ...  difficulty"  i n Hindu  of  India,  of  to  the  the  indenture  (Ali,  (Brenneis  between  160,  italics  1973:  increase  Fijian  Hindu  upon and  itself,  much  apparent  call  with  individual  reestablished  rural  of  Correspondingly,  i t was  (Mayer,  a  prestige  cluster  "were as  the  patterns,  whose  appraisal  time  relative  increase  appears to decrease  Fiji,  the  "individual reputation him  se,  to  the  Punjab.  community  Hindu  and  day,  Sikh  per  between o t h e r this  joint  in r u r a l  as  "family"  the  i n the  izzat  in prestige  individuals"  upon h i s  l o s s of  the  from  honour  Afterwards,  differences  of  positive  personal  honour a p p e a r s  members,  to  f a c t o r s . Among H i n d u s  suffered a  57).  family  e n t i r e brotherhood  individual,  who  and  i s a f f e c t e d by  value  these  emphasis on  in  relies  friends  Padarath,  to 1979:  2 2  In  contrast,  objects  of  duty are person's  for  Hindus  more l i k e l y  True,  a  attain  moksha s u g g e s t s a t  individual security desires  honour  in t h i s to the  interest  as  life  a  family's  goal  good"  sources  t o be  family  in  least  requires  in India, the  fulfilling a  potential  in i t s e l f the  for  (Wood,  1971:  support  than  dharma  "subordination  (Howard,  of  the  self.  in order emphasis  1975: of  18):  [Members] must u n d e r s t a n d t h a t m a i n t a i n i n g a strong family means that they themselves w i l l have a s e c u r e and d i g n i f i e d life.  and  53).  to on But  individual  75  The  n a t u r e and  promote s u c h  allocation  familial  of  roles  within  the  joint  family  loyalties:  [T]raditional p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n ... ensured d i f f u s i o n of identification and partial i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . He t h e r e f o r e t e n d e d t o r e l y upon norms, rules and c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h were more a g g r e g a t i v e in nature and this reliance was psychologically validated by h i s extended f a m i l y , c a s t e , and v i l l a g e r e p u b l i c (Nandy, 1970: 67). In  other  words, t h e  to  maintaining  "Personal ideas  its  they  particularistic  on  (James,  1974:  1979:  be  the  ...  are  sanctified  (Nandy, stated  Sikh  1970:  conducive  such  behaviour.  even now  pejorative  with  reference  prestige  and  in  Sikh  personal  philosophy  religious  prestige  quite  and  moksha  emphasizes  for h i s brotherhood's interests  to  68).  emphasis  social  responsibility  over  reinforces  initiative to  behaviour  i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own 30),  group  precedence  have  despite  an  individual's  and  facilitates  and  group g o a l s "  Similarly, doctrine  both  honour  achievement  and  Sikhs,  family  an  izzat.  Among  explicitly  take  i n t e r e s t s (C.  Ballard,  111):  One who claims to be a Sikh claims a framework w i t h i n w h i c h he can be e x p e c t e d t o honor general practical obligations and defer i n d i v i d u a l and family requirements ( L e a f , 1972: 220). In  return,  looks  for  support  it  i s to  financial  i n any  and  crisis"  the  larger  practical (James,  kin group that help,  1974:  17).  as  well  "the  individual  as  emotional  76  To  summarize,  appraisal,  constitutes  Indian Hindus, nature degree and  of  and  the  maintain  Hindus  as  positive  value  alike.  for  Each  members p r e s s u r e one  i t . But  for  each  group  the  Sikhs,  varies  i n the  hence  i n the  another  group,  community  Indian  l o c u s t o w h i c h honour a c c r u e s , and  community a p p r a i s a l  behaviour  defined  a significant  Fijian  t o which group  positive  The  honour,  to  achieve  v a l u e p l a c e d on  r e n d e r s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and  s u b j e c t t o community  related  standards.  G o a l o f Dharma The  family people  community honour  handle  inherited based  on  relevant  "invariably their  and  intra-familial the  of a f f e c t "  ...  domestic  reputations  socialization, bestowal  standards  refer  affairs" those  (Wolf,  of  1966:  the  of  evaluation  back t o t h e way (Wolf,  generated  patterns  exchange  to  sexual  i n which  1966:  8).  Both  i n the p r e s e n t  "economic  of  are  provisioning,  services,  [and]  the  7):  A r e l a t i o n continues to exist between the way i n which a family c a r r i e s out t h e s e multi-purpose f u n c t i o n s and the ways in which i t i s evaluated i n t h e e y e s of t h e l a r g e r community ( W o l f , 1966: 8 ) . In making d e c i s i o n s , that  community But  so h i g h l y  just  standards as  Particularly  regarding f a m i l i a l  from  standards in  individual's  the d e f i n i t i o n s  valued vary  agreed-upon  i t i s i n an  Indian  one for  of t h e  group  f u n c t i o n s are  to another,  where  to  ensure met.  " f a m i l y " whose honour i s  evaluating  culture,  interest  so t o o  familial the  overall  do  the  behaviour. goal  of  77  fulfilling  one's  dharma  codes as a p p o i n t e d and  (Nandy,  For entails  the  1970: Sikhs  specific  individual  with  ...  caste,  creates  the  "as  concept  occupation,  many m o r a l  of  age,  Tightness and  sex  72). of  India's  modes of  and  definition  stations in l i f e  goodness v a r i e [ s ]  roles"  by  his  Punjab,  behaviour  immediate  the  fulfillment  relating  family  not  but  of  only  dharam to  the  a l s o to h i s l a r g e r  community: Man's Dharam i s t o l i v e i n s o c i e t y , raising a family, helping his fellows, trying to f r e e h i m s e l f of i n s t i n c t s of greed, fear, anger and so on.... C e r t a i n l y duty to the family and community, including the maintenance of their traditions, is e s s e n t i a l l y a r e l i g i o u s Dharam (James, 1974: 31 ) .  The  o b s e r v a n c e of  part set  of of  dharam,  beliefs  'religion'" The  w h i c h may  by  of  (James,  the  izzat. be  c u s t o m s and  "probably  emphasis  evidenced to high  social  a  more i m p o r t a n t  metaphysical  1974: on  kind  behavioural  identifies  summarized  as  than  is  an  integral  s u b s c r i b i n g to a  that  we  would  call  24).  community-related  specific  Helweg  relations  seven  follows:  goals  aspects  of dharam i s  considered  such g o a l s  conducive  (1979:  2 3  1. B r o t h e r l y l o v e : deep affection and l o y a l t y manifested through lending money, aiding in s i c k n e s s , and p r o v i d i n g f o o d and s h e l t e r without e x p e c t a t i o n of r e t u r n . 2. H o s p i t a l i t y : provision of food and shelter for indefinite periods of time w i t h o u t e x p e c t a t i o n of any return save a bond o f m u t u a l f r i e n d s h i p .  12-15)  78  3. S e r v i c e t o o t h e r s : individuals or the w i t h o u t e x p e c t a t i o n of  help or community return.  4. C a s t e p u r i t y : behaviour polluting, defiling, and consequences. 5. Power: measured by f o l l o w e r s aquired through goods and f a v o u r s .  gifts for rendered devoid of immoral  the the  number bestowal  of of  6. W e a l t h : an end in itself, but a l s o a means t o power t h r o u g h p a t r o n a g e , or t h r o u g h t h e a q u i s i t i o n of c o n t a c t s w h i c h can b e n e f i t others. 7. L a n d o w n e r s h i p : e s s e n t i a l f o r a personal sense o f m a n l i n e s s , i t i s a l s o a measure of w e a l t h and hence a means t o power.  Six of  out  izzat  resources. and  these  seven c o n c e p t s  in  Sikh  society  The  first  three  service to others  pertaining The  last  construed to  of  the  represent  as  goals  ends  Sikh gurus behavioural  give.  standards  in themselves, but,  For  adherence  to  modesty, and conditions,  rejecting  caste"  unrelated the  certain  the  directly  community.  l a n d o w n e r s h i p may  i f they  are  to  must be  in Punjabi (Helweg,  maintenance moral codes,  c o d e s of d r e s s  life  be  contribute  employed a s  1979:  ...  13),  t o one's p r o p e n s i t y  adherence to c e r t a i n and  one's  a  members.  "present  Sikhs,  and  in  or  hospitality,  evaluation  others  f a m i l y honour, they  purity,  goal  of  evaluation  oneself  brotherly love,  of power, w e a l t h ,  enhancement of  Only c a s t e  a  of  t o one's t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h three  to the  i n v o l v e g i v i n g of  goals  means of g i v i n g t o community  the  relating  and  of  caste  diet  of  constitutes  or c a p a c i t y purity  in p a r t i c u l a r  ritual  in spite  to  entails  t h a t of  female  practices, occupational (James,  1974:  24,  81).  79  Caste  purity  also  influences  exogamy when m a r r i a g e s a r e it  does not  I n d e e d , one kitchen,  restrict central  both  for patterns  1972:  153;  Although  handling wealth  of  the  (H.  Singh,  in practice  interaction  1982:  129).  landownership  demonstrations  of  socializing  the  y o u n g . And  manifesting  brotherly  love  are  evaluated  for  they  by to  which  affairs.  However,  or  of  as  a  40;  izzat  i s gauged  a  Leaf,  brotherhood's attainment  caste  success purity  familial  service  common  caste  family's  non-family  their  and  1974:  The  a  indicate  providing  langar  reflect  maintenance  hospitality  the  (James,  establishes  The  1977).  rejects  s t a n d a r d s by  orientation,  endogamy  inter-caste relations.  Sikhism,  social  "economic p r o v i s i o n i n g . "  also  of  i t s i n t e r n a l , domestic  and  d e f i n i t i o n s of  d i m e n s i o n s of  behavioural  community of  other  institution  Mukherjee,  emphasize  arranged  i n p r i n c i p l e and  basis  the  success  t o o t h e r s and  members,  intra-familial  of in and in by  individuals "bestowal  of  affect:" The b a s i c e l e m e n t i n S i k h m o r a l t e a c h i n g is sewa, service done without desire for r e w a r d . . . . In d a i l y l i f e , i t i s t h e i d e a l of s e l f l e s s s e r v i c e t o t h e community, but above a l l d o i n g one's d u t y (Dharam) i n one's own family and immediate c i r c l e " (James, 1974: 46) . A Sikh  brotherhood acquires  contribute reflect  to  the  community,  i n t e r n a l order,  h o n o u r not but  also  l o y a l t y , and  only  because  because  such  its  contributions  good management:  Service within the kin group is i m p o r t a n t , i f not more so, t h a n service outsiders.... [C]oncern of c o n s a n g u i n e s  members  as to. is  80  very important i n g a i n i n g a h i g h e v a l u a t i o n . I f f a m i l y members a r e l o y a l and helpful to one another, they are considered an izzatwali family, a family with high honour (Helweg, 1979: 18).  For  Hindus  in  India,  a p p e a r s more r e l e v a n t t o general, reflect  and caste  individual persons, higher  but  foods  A communal  give  are  considered  both  1970:  69).  But  earns  religious  merit  the  example,  Indian  with  in Sikh  the  lower  an  caste  persons  on  between  of  equals.  t e m p l e s c o u l d not itself,  exist  hierarchy  (Galey,  c o n f i n e s of  i s placed  f o r H i n d u s as  honour,  from  received only  exchange  within  To  same k i n d .-- s y m b o l i c a l l y ,  the  giving,  must  1983:  120;  hierarchical  an  act  i t does f o r S i k h s  it  to  give 1975:  family  standards  and  Hindu's  dharma  according  to stage  of  and  is  i t i s a duty  (Vatuk, the  found  s e t of b e h a v i o u r a l  dharma a c c o r d i n g  and  and  in  which  (Hershman,  192). A second  wife;  the  dharma  particular.  to  only  of  goals  family  "immutable" of H i n d u c u l t u r e  s t r u c t u r e , emphasis  to  of  given  such as  caste  1983:  commodities  commodities  and  in  certain  Hindus. Along an  transactions maintain  Commodities  --  standards  thereby  r e c e i v e those  kitchen  among s t r i c t  Nandy,  inter-caste  should  c a s t e - p u r i t y aspect  behavioural  s t a t u s and  caste.  cooked  be  to  the  her  a  life  mother-in-law's of  the  husband's  mother  149-155). P o s i t i v e whose members  in  duty  to  the  not  to h i s  family.  instruct  devoted  with  but  her  to r e c e i v e the  community  interact  relates  to caste  role  daughter-in-law  goals  For son's  advice  s e r v i c e , or  seva  a p p r a i s a l accrues  one  another,  as  well  to as  81  w i t h members o f o t h e r with of  the decreasing honour,  relations  i t  reputation, Among and  but  behavioural  "to in  o f c a s t e and s u b - c a s t e  most  in rural  family  no l e s s  others"  directly  have  on  an  Indeed,  as a  locus  individual's  where t h e s y s t e m s o f b o t h  been h i g h l y t r a n s f o r m e d ,  caste  the r e l i g i o u s  t o o t h e r s a p p e a r s t o have s u r v i v e d i n a d i f f u s e d  commanding guidance  most  Fiji,  state. they  When  derive  frequently indicate  (Wilson,  1979:  asked from  "the  need o f y o u r h e l p . " No receiving,  to  their ideal  indicate  what  religion,  Hindu  of  concern  for  9 8 - 9 9 ) . They d e f i n e dharma a s t h e d u t y  feed the hungry, t o h e l p the b l i n d  toward  dharma.  be t h e dharma p e r t a i n i n g t o f a m i l i a l  reflects  Hindus  of duty  villagers  well  to their  and hence on f a m i l y h o n o u r .  joint  precept  relevance  may  which  castes, according  mention  ... t o h e l p t h o s e  was  but l a u d a b l e b e h a v i o u r  made  of  involved  the  who a r e attitude  benevolence:  The framework p r o v i d e s what m i g h t be termed selfish motives f o r being unselfish.... Religion has inculcated the feeling e x p r e s s e d by some t h a t t h e v e r y purpose of l i f e i s t o be found i n s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s . . . . Self-interest and t h e i n t e r e s t of others c o i n c i d e t h e n ( W i l s o n , 1979: 100-101).  Within  the  "households," it  i s known  clusters  much in  acknowledged  the  less  literature  may  an i d e a l "  165-166). I n p a r t i c u l a r , appears  nuclear  of the d u t i f u l  India  "as  of  be  the r o l e  behaviour  observed  (David,  family  units,  between members a s  " i n the  breach"  or  1964: 391-393; Mayer, 1973:  o f women w i t h i n t h e  bound by t h e dharma o f s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s , disagrees  the  somewhat on t h i s  household although  p o i n t . " However, 2  the  82  behaviour sources  o f women o u t s i d e of  reputation  honour  rely  or dishonour  i s linked to  (Brenneis,  the family  1979:  that  on t h e c h a s t i t y o f t h e i r  standing  (Brenneis  Despite Indian  Indian  features.  duty which class,  by  group the f u l f i l l m e n t  of t h i s  patterns  intra-familial  duty v i s a  involves  giving, helping,  A member o f a S i k h  duties turn  contributes  to  e s t a b l i s h e s h i s own  Given  the family  the  have  g o a l s of  in  common  of a s c r i b e d social  duty,  caste  u n i t . Secondly,  of b e h a v i o u r , and t o  or  i n each  certain  t h e l a r g e r community. F i n a l l y , t h e larger  fulfills  community without  in  each  case  thought  of r e t u r n .  Hindu j o i n t  f a m i l y , or  his familial  honour o f t h e s o c i a l  and community unit  which i n  prestige.  the goal  of it  maintaining comes  as  no  members' p r o b l e m s a r e s o u g h t  exception,  emigration,  community  dharam o r dharma e n t a i l s a d h e r e n c e  and s e r v i n g  who  own  men  Status  self-sufficiency, family  the  Hindu  the a s c r i b e d  Hindus  b r o t h e r h o o d , an I n d i a n  Hindu household  Transacting  one  vis  Fijian  their  religion,  patterns  of i n t e r a c t i o n with  ascribed  a Fijian  for  relatives  1979: 5 7 ) .  one's  within  female  Sikhs,  A l l a r e b a s e d on a c o n c e p t  position  to c e r t a i n  Punjabi  H i n d u s , and F i j i a n  i s determined  and  close  the obvious d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  Sikhs,  several  his  women  and P a d a r a t h ,  one o f t h e key  f o r h o u s e h o l d members. A man's  of  5 0 ) . As among  constitutes  respondents  relatives  and  surprise that within  i n d i c a t e d that  would  demonstrating  family  solutions to  the f a m i l y . With in their  have h a n d l e d  countries  only of  the d i f f i c u l t i e s the  83  respondents are  now  experiencing:  In I n d i a , you t e l l y o u r r e l a t i v e s according t o t h e f r i e n d s h i p you have [ w i t h them]. They will talk w i t h y o u r c h i l d r e n , t e l l them t o show r e s p e c t , how you a r e s u f f e r i n g . T h e r e i s no d i v o r c e i n t h e Punjab. Parents t h i n k " i t i s our d u t y t o make them r e u n i t e . " Or your b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s h e l p i f t h e r e is a dispute. In  the  way  exceptional  his  case,  brothers  a  respondent  treated  him  who  felt  s a y s he  "ashamed" of  the  shared h i s problem  with  friends: I g o t no h e l p f r o m my f a m i l y in Fiji. But f r o m f r i e n d s , y e s . They w i l l g i v e you i d e a s , d i s c u s s t h i n g s when y o u r mind i s not w o r k i n g properly. None  of  advice  the  prior  forty to  respondents  immigration  had  except  ever from  received  counselling  relatives  or  close  friends. To  identify  between  non-family  extrapolate society  of  four  employing and  the  i t , and  prestige  has  of  give  (Marriott,  to  is  helping  modes  analysis or  stand 1976:  done  by  "transactional  n o n - e x c h a n g i n g , and  family  necessary  interaction posited  the  for his  relationships  therefore  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  hence  realization  P e r s o n s who  of  Following  interactive  modes  it  patterns  g i v i n g , exchanging,  these  relevant  members,  from the  generally.  (1976), obtain:  factors  fulfillment  Indian  Marriott tactics"  receiving.  status of  for  to  of  Each  the  person  ascribed  goals  honour.  above t h o s e who 112).  2 5  In  the  receive  hierarchy  i n power of  the  and  caste  84  system,  Brahmins at  the  transactional  tactic  none. They a r e  accorded  things,  "their  knowledge the  ...  elders  who,  bestow  rank above t h o s e  i s important  are  "The  s y s t e m has 1975:  a  less  rank  to other  advice"  purposes"  r e c e i v i n g from  through,  among  terrestrial  (Marriott,  men  --  1976: rank  i s held  by  have a c q u i r e d  knowledge w h i c h i s  (Wynne,  57).  1980:  Persons  who  for present  r e c e i v e them, but  highest who  ranking  gives the  cosmic In  or  the  other  129).  money, c l o t h i n g , f o o d  person  perspective  important  goals.  assertive  other  positions i n the  receiving  who  commodities purposes  knowledge and  advice,  one  selfless  Indeed,  are  to  i s the  earning  appraisal.  For  him  the  it  is  of Indian  it"  g i v e r , power o v e r  1975:  fact  g i v i n g than  necessary  form of d o i n g  qualify  (McClelland,  giver  of  c o n s e q u e n c e of  powers i n t h e  prestations  thus  a l l but  the  advice Indian value  (McClelland,  159).  other  the  on  epitomize  f a m i l y u n i t , a comparable  more power t h a n  From t h e be  and  pyramid  t o n o t e t h a t p r e s t a t i o n s of  a s s o c i a t e d with  society:  highest  gifts  the  for s o c i a l  unilaterally  it  of  the  bestowing  the  teaching,  of  through experience,  "'donated'  also  of  great  hierarchy  apex  that  as  truly  g i v i n g serves merit  "to  good t o and  146-147). Of  religious  the  and  receivers  may  attainment  of  disguise  for others" i f  unilateral greater to  one's  and  truly  s i g n i f i c a n c e to  fulfill  h i s dharma,  positive  example:  Hospitality in t h e i r own homes i s r e g a r d e d by S i k h s as p a r t of t h e i r Dharam o r d u t y . . . . A l l work c e a s e s , and no e f f o r t i s s p a r e d to make [a guest] comfortable — this is t h o u g h t t o b r i n g g r e a t c r e d i t and blessings  community  85  to  the host  (James,  While  the  return  for prestations  accrues  attainment  indirectly  1974:40).  o f power o v e r and s h o u l d  others  constitutes a  be d i s g u i s e d ,  and d o e s not compromise  social  direct  approval  the g i v e r :  Although a J a t does not a s k f o r a n y t h i n g i n return for help, i t i s proper f o r him to expect and r e c e i v e r e c o g n i t i o n f o r i t . . . . a humble p e r s o n s e r v e s o t h e r s and i s p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i z e d f o r i t (Helweg, 1979: 1 6 , 1 5 5 ) . Since  community  on h i s  appraisal  family,  the  whether  contributes  t o the honour  power the  results  h o n o u r . On already  established,  and  the  of  gratitude,  inevitable  (Marriott,  higher  u n i t , members o f l e s s e r s t a t u s those  of  higher  status.  2 6  f u l f i l l . t h e i r dharma and p r e s e r v e from,  and  females On  demonstrating,  (Marriott, the other  1976: hand,  of  i n power and  status  1976:  is  on  family  to accept  through  acts  system,  considered  128). W i t h i n  expected  Junior  indebtedness  of  prestige  the caste  castes  are  family  or not,  allocation  maintenance  subordinate  to  from  the  be t h e r e c e i v e r ' s d u t y  i n d e b t e d n e s s of l o w e r c a s t e s  family  others  and h i s f a m i l y .  and d e f e r e n c e . W i t h i n  appropriate  without  b e a r s more d i r e c t l y  where d i f f e r e n c e s i t may  reflects  giving  over  receiver,  on  and t o a c k n o w l e d g e  and  of  power  transactions  prestations, servitude,  in  of t h e  o f dharma  t h e one hand,  tactic  of b o t h t h e r e c e i v e r  by u n i l a t e r a l  fulfillment  are  it  the p e r s p e c t i v e  implied  i n d i v i d u a l ' s behaviour  transactional  receiving,  From  of an  to  the  receive  females  in particular  honour  by  to,  males  receiving and  senior  137). where d i f f e r e n c e s  i n power and  prestige  86  do  not  already  requesting relative  or  exist, unilateral  accepting  prestations,  s u p e r i o r i t y of  acknowledged  transactions  the  giver,  a receiver  regardless  create  them.  acknowledges of  his  In the  socially  rank:  The person who a s k s f o r h e l p a u t o m a t i c a l l y assumes an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n and a d m i t s from the outset: "You are stronger and more powerful than I am, t h e r e f o r e g i v e t o me" ( M c C l e l l a n d , 1975: 155).  As  Marriott  notes  'interactional' t o two  aspects  If rather  (1976:  rankings of  the  receiving than  114), ...  from a s u p e r i o r , acknowledge  gratitude  and  deference.  or  of  power  it  is  hence a t h r e a t  In  such  transactional gains  him  appraisal Given and  the  tactic power,  —  shame — the  155).  implied  by  family  contributes the  and  theory  subordinate, upon  the  of  i n g i v i n g might  does  a  be  izzat  the  receiver's the  or  negative has  lost  of of of re-  between dharma,  giver,  whether  invites  whose  not  it  community power.  2 7  bestowing  prestations,  r e c e i v i n g them, a  potlatch-1ike  expected.  c e r t a i n amount of  a sign  transactions  the  p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e he  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  act  in i t s e l f  honour. U n l i k e to  very  Nevertheless,  unilateral  receiver  competition note  or  the  "is  p o s i t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s of  negative  Asian  incumbent  instances,  prestations  1975:  to h i s  equal  less  would-be e q u a l s amounts t o a v i o l a t i o n and  ...  indebtedness through demonstrations  accepting  (McClelland,  allocation  i n South  from a would-be s o c i a l  to  respect"  t h u s amount  rankings  1  same t h i n g . "  receiver  requesting  "'attributional  In  competition,  fact,  the  literature  e s p e c i a l l y between  87  Punjabi  Sikh  brotherhoods,  temple  and  other  community  However, s u c h c o m p e t i t i o n izzat.  No  received  one  i n d i v i d u a l or  generalized  Three  other  tendencies  encouraging  giving.  hierarchical  structures  dutiful  givers  prestations,  only  Secondly, than  groupings  to from  Sikh  the  frees of  nuclear  rather  1979:  154). of  b e c a u s e none  has  on  the  behalf  of  also  modify  receiving  noted  receivers. family who  bestow  them.  to  social  joint  f a m i l i e s give (1972:  193)  accepting  fulfill  transactions  Hindu  In  and would  the  f o r most  rank  honour  while  above,  ensure that  indebtedness.  Indian  i n what S a h l i n s  generalized  as  superiors of  the  acquisition  culture  family  or  to  whole.  dutiful  implications  izzat  accepted  a  and  accruement  b r o t h e r h o o d , an  among t h e m s e l v e s  are  in caste  individuals  Ballard,  r e s u l t i n the  all,  caste  the  donations  discouraging  of  are  do  H i n d u c l u s t e r of  s y s t e m of  of  there  much as  ( c f . R.  Indian  not  First  to  group l o s e s  of  by  subordinates  dharma j u s t as  Fijian  causes  community as  features  competitive  Punjabi  can  regard  from a n o t h e r : p r e s t a t i o n s  impersonal,  rather  with  their  groupings  within  those  Members  of  a  family,  or  a  receive  freely  r e f e r t o as  a  than b a l a n c e d r e c i p r o c i t y :  The more i m p r e c i s e the r e c i p r o c i t y system, t h e b r o a d e r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t can be g e n e r a t e d t o t h e b e n e f i t of a l l . P r e s u m a b l y , t h a t i s why many pre-industrial societies p l a c e s u c h a h i g h premium on h o n o r , l o y a l t y , courage and other evidences of fidelity w i t h i n t h e i r b a s i c group: the assumption is that what t h e members of s u c h g r o u p s "owe" one a n o t h e r i s incalculable (Wynne, 1980: 41).  By  engaging  freely  in generalized  e x c h a n g e , members of  the  units  88  to  which  honour  common g o a l s also  —  a c c r u e s not  to  one  Finally, competition  is controlled  through tactic,  the  that  themselves  social  equals  prestations  receive  from  relative may  prestige  in fact  constitute  Marriott of  bases  the  of  Indian  the  of  who  one  (1976:  Todorov replaces the  best  loyalty  and  rendered  Marriott's  Persons  who  afford  to  give  altering both  exchange  Kshatriya  fast  folktale  transfer  of  t h e i r exchange  (Helweg,  featuring 48-51):  parties  North  warrior of  themselves.  By  relationships,  of  (Leaf, mutual  1979:  Indian  "Affective  or  tactic  majority  alliances  repeated acts  friendships  (1983:  the  associate  political  individual level, create  w i t h which  c l i e n t s interviewed number of  their  friendships.  the  castes  equal  relationships  exchange c h a r a c t e r i z e s --  third consider  transactional  society  a  of  groupings,  the  concludes the  but  is  a b s o l u t e power of  125)  At  of  of  —  family  without  f o r a l l i a n c e s and  109).  analysis  their  of  can  such mutual  groupings b u i l d powerful  receiving  outsiders  receiving  another  social  and  and  exchange.  and  since  s i z e and  the  attainment  that  Indo-Canadian  maximizing  to  for  employment  power. The  suggests  symmetrical  castes  or  increase, the  appraisal  s o c i a l equals outside  in giving  non-stigmatic  service  the  another.  among  transactional  facilitate  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and  e a r n p o s i t i v e community  generosity  only  12).  1972: giving In  an  Kshatriyas,  transformation  goods..... f r i e n d s h i p ,  f o r example,  is  credit."  Once considerable  an  exchange pressures  relationship exist  to maintain  has  been  i t . Refusal  initiated, to accept  a  89  p r e s t a t i o n ' would t e r m i n a t e shame or return  anger a  receiver.  the  giver  the  a l l i a n c e or  (Hershman,  1981:  p r e s t a t i o n would a l s o d i s r u p t As  one  social  f r i e n d s h i p and 204).  shame,  like  pressure  to  material  support  family  maintain  grouping  In  sum,  familial mutual  the  giving. Giving  or  from  a  discouraged  modify  fulfillment  of  exchange their  and  the is .  family  grouping,  relationships  and  m a i n t e n a n c e come f r o m  most  the  accept  punished.  dharma, and  and  benefits  o n e ' s own  return  obtained  the  it  the  the  through  competitive  receiving — family  prestations  Rather,  hence t o  family,  toward  r e w a r d e d , but  from members of  e q u a l s who  caste  tendencies  i s e n c o u r a g e d and  or  the  the  whole.  izzat,  superiors, social  approved  to  h i e r a r c h i c a l n a t u r e of of  exchange  accrues  facilitating  as  locus  ascribed  honour,  shame  to  put i t :  Once t h e c y c l e of r e c i p r o c i t y i s b r o k e n , person gets condemned, despised. He r e a l l y excommunicated. Since  Failure  r e l a t i o n s and  s e r v i c e agent, a Punjabi,  might  from  grouping,  --  is  not  contributes  to  the  maintenance  of  family  honour. However, superior cannot family  r e c e i v i n g between p e r s o n s who  to each afford  other,  or  between  equal p r e s t a t i o n s ,  p r e s t i g e . As  Todorov  notes  consider  acknowledged  themselves equals  v i o l a t e s dharma and (1983:  65):  [W]hereas maximum inequality seems to guarantee an harmonious conducting of transactions, near equality of status combined with great material discrepancy l e a d s t o power s t r u g g l e s . . . .  who  threatens  90  T h u s , where p a r t i e s r i v a l receive  from  Similarly, status,  fourth  i f an  but  decline  the  one  another  other,  so  cannot  reciprocate  them. B o t h  employment by  receiving  an  society  the  to  that  same f e a t u r e s  from one be  equality  initiation  greater rank,  the  b e n e f i t s are non-exchange  there  brings  since one  the  honour  i n not  "down t o t h e the  necessity not  of  only  not  to  another's he  will  Marriott's  transaction  culture  which  hierarchical structure  or  not. the  groups to At  noted  acknowledgement  of  to  a competition  t o them,  accruing  o f honour  to  familial are  scarce,  with  because i t  family  132). grouping  to maintain  support t h e y may  if  superior  1976:  the  reciprocating prestations in  of  in giving,  i s avoided,  (Marriott,  of  decide  t i m e s , as  from a c l a i m  is  render  e x c h a n g e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . But  common l e v e l "  result  in  other.  r e c e i v i n g . Even c o n v e r s a t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Where r e s o u r c e s decisions  The  to accrue  i t means l i s t e n i n g  Similarly,  Indian  r e s u l t s . Instead  i s a competition  rivals,  and  thought  result  a mode of  through of  the  prestations,  i n d i v i d u a l s and  gained  to  will  non-exchange.  another  a b o v e , b e n e f i t s may and  of  neither  e q u a l i t y of  other's  of  tactic.  c l o s e l y ranked  receive  the  non-exchange as  acceptable  obliges  whether  of  the  gives  situations  transactional tactic,  influenced  neither  individual perceives  to accept  The  for status,  for also  that  exchange lead  to  exchange:  The h e l p needed by any one h o u s e h o l d c a n be provided by a few o t h e r h o u s e h o l d s , and a l a r g e number of f r i e n d s i s , i n a s e n s e , l e s s u s e f u l t h a n a few f r i e n d s ( L e a f , 1972: 77).  Rather  than  risk  their  material  well-being  by  having  to  make  91  return  prestations,  families the  family  within or  r e l y on  the  giving To  point  status  resources.  After  i s s i g n i f i c a n t p r i m a r i l y as  i s the  for  of  c o r n e r s t o n e of each  Indian  the  of  family the  culture  person  succinctly  an  by  not  making  has  outside  i n d i c a t i o n of  success  (1976:  133)  exchange  honour.  four  transactional  implications  employing  them,  a l l , giving  S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y more t h a n e x t e r n a l  summarize,  status  their social  t h e i r own  family.  identified  or  f o r the  i t . Marriott  with observations  tactics relative  illustrates from N o r t h  this  India:  Feast encounters ... yield ranked categorizations of the a c t o r s as " r e f i n e d men" ( t h o s e who a r e f e e d e r s but not fed), "men" (those who are sometimes feeders, sometimes f e d ) , "their own men" (neither feeders nor f e d ) , and "dogs" ( f e d , but not feeders). Conversely, measure  the  the  r e l a t i v e status  transactional  situation:  giving  exchanging  with  rivals.  In  status,  other and  transaction: separated 1976:  to  a person determines he  subordinates, and  words, t h e the  from  tactic  equals,  "Actors  of  and  each  receiving  they  from  from  influences  interactions  large  in a p a r t i c u l a r superiors,  exchange  employed a f f e c t s t h e  status  their  other,  employ  refraining  tactic  actor's  will  in  are  actor's  his never  change t o g e t h e r "  with  mode  of  to  be  (Marriott,  112).  Exchange  i n the  Studies social  of  exchange  Immigrant Indian as  Context  immigrant  communities  do  a c e n t r a l c u l t u r a l theme t o  not the  focus extent  on that  92  studies  of I n d i a n  exchange  posited  relevant  of the  for  communities at least  family  context.  and d a t a  honour, the g o a l  status  But  particularly  of  emigration published  generated  do  accounts  ascribed  of  appear  f o r the present  of f u l f i l l i n g  appears a l i v e  referents  on exchange b e h a v i o u r  the value  among P u n j a b i  cultural  Both  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the four  community  the  regions  an i n f l u e n c e  Most n o t i c e a b l y , the  the  t o t h e immigrant  overseas suggest  s o c i e t y do.  of  thesis  of the v a l u e duties,  and  t r a n s a c t i o n a l modes.  of f a m i l y  and w e l l  honour as a p p r a i s e d  i n the immigrant  by  context,  Sikhs:  [ T ] h o s e who have gone o v e r s e a s a r e v e r y much c o n s c i o u s o f t h e bonds o f d u t y and a f f e c t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y . . . . [They] a r e s u b j e c t to p r e s s u r e from t h e i r own e l d e r s , and f e a r f o r the good name o f t h e i r f a m i l y (James, 1974: 15,18). The  community  fellow  which a p p r a i s e s  a family's  i m m i g r a n t s and o f f e l l o w  Punjab.  Yet  interaction  concern  with  with natives  reputation  villagers  family  still  honour  of the country  consists  resident  also  of  i n the  influences  of immigration:  The cultural notion o f honour or i z z a t , along with r e l a t e d concepts, g r e a t l y colours the Punjabi migrant's attitudes and p e r c e p t i o n s of h i s experience i n England.... Izzat i s so e n t r e n c h e d i n S i k h J a t c u l t u r e t h a t an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i t c a n be projected on t o o u t s i d e r s (Helweg, 1979: 1 0 - 1 1 ) .  Although  my  transactions family  interviews between  reputation  Interviews  them  with and  Punjabi  Euro-Canadians,  constituted a recurring with  Sikhs  non-Punjabi  Indian  focused  on  references  to  theme. Hindus and w i t h  Fijian  93  Hindus a l s o c o n t a i n e d inevitably couple to  it  t h a t was  this  above,  Secondly,  that a  in  the absolute small.  that  of a l l ,  of e m i g r a t i o n  confined  Vancouver,  maintenance size  the  immigrant  contribute as d e s c r i b e d to  have  not  that Sikhs  have  of  significant  Hindus  relatives,  (Buchignani,  analyses  which  for Sikhs.  1981). F i j i a n  of Vancouver's Hindu  attitude"  married  Hindus  on a s e l e c t i o n  became a c o n c e r n ,  laissez-faire  of a  loci  to the extent  Historical  2 8  almost  f o r Hindus than  of k i n t i e s "  i t was o n l y w i t h  " f a m i l y honour  more  more  Sikhs. F i r s t  i n t e r p e r s o n a l networks  relatively indicate  are  but  probably  277; b u t see a l s o D u s e n b e r y ,  a slavish  Finally,  Punjabi  o r t h e honour  factors  i n t e g r a t e d communities  1980:  base t h e i r "not  indicated. Several  at least  established  pride  i n the r e g i o n s  accrues  (Wood,  personal  c o n t r a s t with  already  honour  was  r e f e r e n c e s t o p r i d e or honour,  1983: 8 3 ) .  communities  of  overseas  is  Sikhs  numbers o f i m m i g r a n t s  even o b s e s s i o n ,  (LaBrack,  replacing  1983: 228; see a l s o  Helweg, 1979: 5 6 - 5 8 ) . Whether p e r s o n a l honour is  at stake,  the  immigrant c o n t e x t  in  the  extent  the a s c r i b e d goals  in  way  to others orient  relevant to attaining  honour i n  related  to  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  exchange  interact  posited  s c h o l a r s note the  relationships  Indians  those  caste  same g o a l s a l s o have  i n which overseas  the c o u n t r i e s of The  grouping  the g o a l s of landownership,  I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . These the  of a family  appear d i r e c t l y  r e g i o n s of e m i g r a t i o n .  to which  service  o r t h e honour  purity,  within  and  overseas  implications for  with  non-immigrants  immigration.  d e s i r e t o own  property  constitutes  "the  fundamental  94  material  objective"  (Buchignani,  1983:  of  Fijian  Hindus  and  Indian  Sikhs  alike  77):  Owning a home means s e c u r i t y and symbolizes p r o s p e r i t y and t h e s t a b l e f a m i l y . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t as a s t a t u s m a r k e r . Indeed,  cooperative  efforts  Indian  immigrant  at  t i m e of m a r r i a g e ,  the  1981).  To t o buy  25),  a  perception  feeling  The  improved  primary  significance  The  of  goal  immigrants indicated  possess  in  be  are"  living, the the  albeit  of  to  due  appears  Hindus,  to the  and  migration.  value  fact  less  that  seem f a r more  of  more c o s m o p o l i t a n  1980b: and  go  to  accommodation  thesis,  however,  landownership l i e s  the  in i t s  family. more  of  relevant Fijian  to  Sikh  Hindus.  family  As  honour,  the  the Hindu communities  behaviour  Sikh tend  that F i j i a n  outlook.  negative  should  to  attention increase  In a d d i t i o n , i t i s a r g u e d  s e r v i c e agents  1959:  also perplex  in rented  integrated:  ritual  Leonard,  (Buchignani,  especially  t o the  even  (Mayer,  priority  present goal  1983;  source  l a n d o w n e r s h i p may feel  purity,  Indians  general  stable, sufficient  diet,  some s o c i a l a  of  s m a l l e r and  c o d e s of d r e s s , increases  of  reference  may  Vancouver are  in  of c a s t e p u r i t y  with  difference  the  than  "East  themselves  s e r v i c e a g e n t s who  1972:10). F o r  symbolization  by  accorded  standard  (Triseliotis,  and  they  characterize  of c a s t e  ( c f . LaBrack,  Canadians,  than  l a n d may  w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s a main  priority social  goal  i s ignored  towards Indo-Canadians  frustrate an  property  obtain  when t h e  non-immigrant  eager  83).  behaviour  to  and  They a p p e a r  by  Indian  in to  with  scholars Hindus  "pre-adapted"  95  to Canadian v a l u e s (Buchignani,  1980b:  moral codes, position apart  90;  female  towards female  social,  women  those  immigrants  which  poses  to  society.  and  they  for  from F i j i ,  themselves  Fijian  initial  study,  friends  the  and Hindus agents  Indian  attitude  a g e n t s and f o r t h e i r  for to  immigrant  recent  arrivals. i n India  1979: 1 2 ) . Of t h e  to their  A l l of  for  hosts  with  and/or purchased  40  Facilitating  important  either  through  country  of  although food  for rented  through  immigration  forms o f s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s  arrival  countrymen.  a  others common their direct  loan's, and o r i e n t i n g constitute  (Buchignani,  Helweg,1979: 5 9 - 6 1 ) . Of t h e 47 j o b s h e l d by t h e their  one,  relatives.  employment, g u a r a n t e e i n g  newcomers g e n e r a l l y t o t h e  often  immigrants  Only  14 r e s p o n d e n t s  friends,"  arrangement or i n d i r e c t l y  New  k i n or f i c t i v e k i n  room a n d b o a r d ,  the remaining "from  Indian  f o r extended p e r i o d s of time  26 (65%) l i v e d  cash  accommodation  previous  noted  hospitality  or  paid  gifts  consumption.  fellow  and  counsellinga l l  f o r between s i x weeks a n d two y e a r s .  Hindu,  presented  others"  1983: 74; Helweg,  present  upon a r r i v a l  since  role  Interviewed  as  them  adherence t o  Sikhs  educational  perceive  of  the  P u n j a b S t a t e and e l s e w h e r e  relatives  (Buchignani, the  to  includes  with  134;  pertaining  Canadian  health,  "service  communities  other  accepting  clients.  The  stay  of  problems  more  f a m i l y members, s e t s b o t h  from t h e b u l k  describe  and  1983: 7 3 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  in particular  of  providing  in  and p r a c t i c e s ,  i n Canada, 28 (60%) were A l l b u t two f a m i l y d o c t o r s  1980a:  respondents  obtained  through  were s e l e c t e d on  96  the  basis  of  recommendations doctors  from  although  the  Canadian.  I n f o r m a t i o n on m e d i c a l  registration written  for  Since  from  school,  relatives  a l l but  one  relatives,  i t cannot  motivated  by t h e g o a l  commitment  t o the Canadian  Clearly,  and  so f o r t h ,  and  friends.  of  the  be s u g g e s t e d  ascribed  emigration. service  insurance,  of s e r v i c e  family  even  goals  Assistance  or seva w i t h i n  that  acted  their  received in upon  under  benefactors are  to others rather terms  receiving  recognized  from  when  allowance,  i m m i g r a n t s were s p o n s o r e d by  government's  however, t h e i m m i g r a n t s  fulfill  friends,  t h e m s e l v e s t e n d e d t o be C h i n e s e o r E u r o -  f o r m a t t h e t i m e o f i m m i g r a t i o n , was  instruction  to  Indo-Canadian  of  their  sponsorship.  the h e l p consider i t  in  relatives  t h a n by  the  regions  demonstrates  of  devoted  the f a m i l y :  My husband's f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r met us a t t h e airport and t o o k us t o h i s house....He t o o k my husband t o t h e Manpower o f f i c e . . . . T h i s i s our way. In t h e Punjab, families do e v e r y t h i n g f o r each o t h e r . Assistance  from  others.  It quite  kinship  terms  f r i e n d s demonstrates often  leads  brotherly  to k i n - l i k e  ties,  l o v e and s e v a t o or  at  least  to  kinship  or  of r e f e r e n c e :  One family from t h e same village a s my h u s b a n d saw t o a l l o u r n e e d s . After them t h e r e was nobody. They a r e our f a m i l y h e r e . Finally, friendship  the  services  receive  acknowledgement  of  persons  particular  ( c f . Helweg,  unrelated gratitude  1979: 6 0 - 6 1 ) .  by  and  The o l d S i k h  public lady  who  97  befriended who  a deserted  found  openly  employment  praised  help"  for  for having  repeatedly-mentioned needs  G u j a r a t i b r i d e , and his Sikh provided  S i k h man  holds  an  who  Fijian  neighbor truly  "helps  elected  the  Hindu  from C a l c u t t a  selfless  anyone and  position  youth  in  a  are  seva.  One  everyone  who  Sikh  temple  association. Other material  i n d i v i d u a l s who remuneration  demonstrate true  also assist  for their  newcomers  s e r v i c e s are  s e r v i c e to others  (Helweg,  but  not  who  ask  considered  to  1979:77-78):  I n d i a n l a n d l o r d s and ' j o b - f i x e r s ' were i n a position to extract a l o t of money from [recent immigrants], though the ethics of t h e v i l l a g e - f a m i l y s y s t e m made t h o s e who d i d this social outcastes in the end (James, 1974: 11). However,  response  to  remunerated  contractors  unrelated  ties  are  not  condemned, a l t h o u g h  from  the  wages e a r n e d a n d / o r c h a r g e h i g h  to  job-sites.  profit relative "has  no  so  "This  they  or  do  t o the  service  is their this"  fellow v i l l a g e r  p r i d e . He  does not  r e s p o n d e n t s by  varies. k i n s h i p or  i t i s known t h a t  business,"  fees  care  profits  they  " They want  from  for others,  village  take  cuts  for transportation  (see a l s o Helweg, 1979: who  Labour  to  make  4 2 - 4 3 ) . But  similar  what t h e y  a a  services think":  My husband's c o u s i n - b r o t h e r h e l p e d w i t h my I.C.B.C. c l a i m . But we should [e.g. were expected to] g i v e him s u c h b i g d i n n e r s , so many bottles of Black Label. It was terrible. How can he do t h a t ? He i s our brother.  Just  as  expressions  of a p p r e c i a t i o n  for free  services  increase  98  with of  the s o c i a l  scorn  distance  for paid  services  Euro-Canadians, communities involved  caste one of  increase  however,  is  and h e l p e d ,  with  social  exploitation  abhorrent  (Buchignani,  In  between h e l p e r  regardless  the  the  ascribed  goals  p u r i t y , and s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s ,  They g i v e ,  in their  immigrant  in  obtained. appears clear  the  Judging  is  rivals  provide  has  Indians  utilize  for their  regions  implications  to  about  the  of  others,  honour and s t a t u s .  from  honour. each  y e t t o be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  service  among  employment  giving  But i t i s n o t  f e l l o w countrymen  of exchange t a c t i c s  Indian  answers  presently  results in a land  social  indicate  equals,  o f non-exchange  but  between  for  the  exchange b e h a v i o u r referents  to  immigrant  many  context  questions  would,  raised  I  believe,  by t h e l i t e r a t u r e  available .  summarize,  posited  Social  distance  f o r s t a t u s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f M a r r i o t t ' s model o f s o c i a l  exchange t o t h e  To  social  Collaborative e f f o r t s to acquire  3 0  known  immigrant  o r enhance f a m i l y  the s o c i a l  from t h e d a t a on  receiving help  utilization  the  exchange a n d / o r d e c i d e n o t t o  context  to r e s u l t in increased  whether  less  concerning  immigrant  l o s s of s t a t u s . the  receive,  e f f o r t s to maintain  However, i n f o r m a t i o n mode  To  of family s u f f i c i e n c y ,  o r more o f t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l modes p o s i t e d  exchange  2 9  1980b: 8 3 ) .  fulfilling  emigration.  proximity.  within  of  expressions  receive  the c u l t u r a l regions within  of  referents emigration  the communities  greater  notice  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the v a r i o u s  from  of  social  appear of  exchange  relevant  immigration.  scholars  transactional  than  modes  to Some  others. remain,  99  for  the  are  a l l but  they  most p a r t ,  do  sub-conscious  with  with concern The  for  sufficiency,  in  of  well  problems  modes, for  subtle  hence  and  and  the  goals  service  Immigrants  of  to  family  others  themselves  t h e i r own  contrasts  p r e s e n t . The  implications  t h e y may  be,  might  are  readily  v a l u e s and  f o r the  their dealings  immigrants the  are  with indeed  Social  Services  present  thesis  social  service  influenced  by  goals,  ways  and  question  for  remains  of  the  transactional  not  also  pose  problems  Part  Two,  the  examined  interaction course  lead  warrant  Indian  implications in  to a  of  relation  identified. lack  little  non-utilization, literature,  the  as  of  The  it  exemplifies  well  the  is  patterns  the  h e r e . But in  e f f e c t s of  of  as the the  the  least  implications by  social  implications  known  as  at  Indo-Canadian  the  of not  such  of  goals  and  exchange.  In  r e c e i v i n g , and  i n t e r a c t i o n , and  attention  social  model of  giving,  to  i n d i c a t e that agents,  the  a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s a c t i o n a l modes, as  values c h a r a c t e r i z i n g  to  and  as  i n t e r c u l t u r a l exchange.  Data o b t a i n e d  are  duties  with  Non-Exchange w i t h C a n a d i a n  in  ascribed  blending  i d e n t i f y them f o r the  the " s o c i a l  however  transactors,  they  non-immigrants  which the  t o whether  honour  purity,  and  in India,  honour.  documented.  them,  on  a w a r e n e s s of  family  which they c o n t r a s t  the as  family  caste  comparatively  influences  explicit  value  articulate  r e l a t i v e unknowns. P e r h a p s , as  exchanging agent-client  exchanging might  pattern social  of  of  appear service service  cultural referents  of  100  exchange,  and  p a t t e r n s of Much  of  structure  some of t h e main  factors  involved in  utilization.  utilization  1964:  foreshadows  the by  literature  immigrants  of s o c i a l  100;  accustomed  to  relationship  the may  Furthermore,  very  simply  skills  may  counter-referrals, procedures.  idea  are l i k e l y  to  to  of  1972:  a  who  lack  the  6 ) . For a person personal  to  i n t h e maze o f  and  other  referrals  and  and  appointment  socio-economically particularly  helping  entertain.  language  forms,  and  (Ferguson,  professional  foreign  from  non-  concept  established  too  to f e e l  the  newcomers  be  get l o s t  service  alien  via  application  Newcomers  backgrounds  be  help  immigrants  communication  can  how  3; T r i s e l i o t i s ,  seeking  relationships,  notes  services  S e l y a n , 1978:  pertaining  distinct  intimidated:  It i s d i f f i c u l t f o r C a n a d i a n s b r o u g h t up i n an u r b a n s o c i e t y t o u n d e r s t a n d the shyness and the f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y w i t h w h i c h [ r u r a l immigrants] approach even a minor c l e r k ( F e r g u s o n , 1964: 100). Certainly account  lack  for  of f a m i l i a r i t y  some  w i t h the c o n t e x t of s e r v i c e s  non-utilization  of  those  services  by  must new  Canadians. However, study  reveal  barriers  the i n t e r v i e w s with Indo-Canadians few  3 1  immigrants  Instead, references  non-utilization arising  e x a m p l e s where s h y n e s s , c o n f u s i o n ,  restricted  services.  of t h e p r e s e n t  prevail:  i n the f i r s t  place,  how how  from  availing  to the r o l e the family the  of  or  language  themselves the  family  p r e v e n t s problems  family  resolves  of in from  problems  101  which  do  outside  arise, help  Underlying ascribed the  even  each  goals  family  how  for  of  which,  the  family  problems  these  which  roles  i f met,  d i s c o u r a g e s t h e use o f it  cannot  i s an o r i e n t a t i o n  demonstrate  the  of  that  toward  the  honourability  of  North a  American  close-knit  service  family,  utilization  an  and a s e n s e o f community d i m i n i s h  social  (cf.  services  Canadians,  relative of  these a  factors  majority  of  "This  Indo-Canadian  Similarly,  the  with t h e i r  young  need  r e s p o n d e n t s c a r e f o r an  aged  i n some c a s e s u n t i l  must  extensive children  for services  to that  the death  alone, either  look a f t e r  that  their  are d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  East Indian supportive of v e n e r a t e d so we service].  IndoFor  and Homemakers b e l i e v e elderly  t h e need f o r  relevant.  None has a p a r e n t l i v i n g we  connected  For Vancouver's  particularly  immigrant  i s not our way,  h e a l t h workers  1977).  appear  o r h a v e done so r e c e n t l y ,  the r e l a t i v e .  abroad:  Pattison,  patterns  actively  extended network,  example,  resolve.  unit.  Studies indicate  and  here  them."  case  or  Public  loads  of  light:  families are much more o l d people. Old age is d o n ' t g e t many r e q u e s t s [ f o r  i n v o l v e m e n t of I n d o - C a n a d i a n i s thought age  by  some  to  mothers  diminish  the  group:  It isn't the East Indian kids who are m a l a j u s t e d . They g e t what i t t a k e s a t home. The problem j u s t i s n ' t t h e r e t h e way i t i s for whites.  For  the mothers  themselves, at l e a s t  one  post-partum  counsellor  102  feels  that  the  Indian  family  system o b v i a t e s  the  need  for  her  services: E a s t I n d i a n mums have s u c h a lot of help. They have such l a r g e extended f a m i l i e s . I d o n ' t need t o w o r r y so much a b o u t them. As  illustrated  in Part  exceptions  exist  and  there,  among i m m i g r a n t s and  problems  may  Two,  do  all  r e s u l t in service u t i l i z a t i o n .  characterizing  families  to  not  agents less  occur  as  alike,  close-knit  frequently  these  But  examples  the  that  belief  is  of  the  many  and  less  within  extended  Indo-Canadian  families. When and  problems  do  a r i s e , the  f r i e n d s become i n v o l v e d  the  inner-most  perceived family agent  grouping  in their of  as  naturally deals  circles  resolution,  resident  to c o n s t i t u t e a n a t u r a l  just  concentric  part with  family  them. As  family  starting  k i n . Minor of  of  troubles  life,  one  and  with are the  Indo-Canadian  put i t : Family problems are important for East Indian ladies. They spend a l o t of t i m e t a l k i n g a b o u t them. I t ' s a W e s t e r n p o i n t of view to go t o an a g e n c y w i t h a p r o b l e m t o " s o l v e " i t . In I n d i a , e v e r y o n e has problems and t h a t ' s what you d w e l l on.  Extra-ordinary  troubles  genealogical  geographical  " d u t y " of  and  family  and  close  often  require  distances,  but  f r i e n d s to a s s i s t  help it those  from is  greater  still  i n need:  Two years ago I had o p e n - h e a r t s u r g e r y . I was v e r y weak. They s a i d t h e y would send one l a d y t o h e l p me i n t h e house. But we had already called [ e . g . i n v i t e d ] my h u s b a n d ' s  the  1 03  cousin-brother's wife a l l the necessary.  Some service  scholars  agencies  suggest  from G u j a r a t .  that  i t  is  which throws immigrants  She d i d  the  back  alien onto  n a t u r e of their  own  resources: Because of these d i f f i c u l t i e s , immigrants come to rely heavily on relatives and friends f o r advice, a s w e l l a s sometimes d e p e n d i n g on t h e s e r v i c e s of unscrupulous f e l l o w c o u n t r y m e n ( T r i s e l i o t i s , 1972: 6 ) .  But  judging  present to will  the  from  study,  t h e examples g i v e n  non-utilization  general  belief  that  by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s o f t h e  more o f t e n  appears  attributable  f a m i l y and f r i e n d s c a n , s h o u l d , and  r e s o l v e problems which a r i s e .  As one young woman  said,  When my h u s b a n d d e s e r t e d me, I d i d n ' t think of going t o an a g e n c y . S i n c e I was new t o this country I would naturally rely on people I know, rather t h a n go t o unknown people. In o t h e r  words, even b e f o r e  immigrants  turn  t o customary,  When f a m i l y satisfaction discourage  they  of  members the  do  the s e r v i c e s i n t i m i d a t i n g ,  familiar not  individual  the i n d i v i d u a l  find  sources  resolve concerned,  from u s i n g  outside  a  of h e l p . problem they  sources  may  t o the actively  of h e l p .  My husband was b e a t i n g me t o o much [i.e. a l o t ] . H i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r t o l d him " S t o p i t ; she h a s done n o t h i n g . " When i t g o t t o o much for me I wanted t o go t o [ a f a m i l y c r i s i s w o r k e r ] . B u t he [HuYoBro] d i d n o t l i k e t h i s . He s a i d "When I c a n h e l p , why go o u t s i d e ? "  3 2  1  Accepting  help  admission  of  Depending on  from  social  failure  to  service meet  agents  ascribed  on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e r v i c e ,  the family's  socialize  ability  i t s young,  familial  i n any one  areas  jeopardizes  unit.  regard  financial  to  income,  those  services  which  enhance  recipient.  which  benefits  directly. stated  Indeed,  that  because  that  economic  a l l o w a n c e cheques  services  insufficiency  between and t h o s e  compromising  benefits  the  s u c h a s o l d age  a r e welcome:  i n Canada g e t t h e s e c h e q u e s . I t the great things about this .  (i.e. the  medical, automobile) are a l s o accepted individual  two I n d o - C a n a d i a n  have  these  involving  distinguish  without  universal  of  has  contributed  put  e x p r e s s e d mixed  into  it."  feelings  to  them  a g e n t s a n d one E u r o - C a n a d i a n  "some p e o p l e t r y t o g e t a l l t h e y c a n , even  they  immigrants  of  clearly  finances  exception,  All seniors is one o f country.  the grounds  acceptance  imply  family  p e n s i o n s and f a m i l y  on  of the f a m i l y  Indo-Canadians  Without  Insurance  the  to  t o manage t h e " b e s t o w a l o f a f f e c t "  i t s members. An a d m i s s i o n o f f a i l u r e  With  3 3  reflects  economically,  among  t h e honour  an  goals.  its utilization  to provide for i t s e l f and/or  constitutes  0 4  3  4  However, a b o u t  about  cheating,  half  of the  unemployment i n s u r a n c e  benef i t s :  I a p p l i e d f o r U.I.C. when I was l a i d o f f . I t i s n o t good t o t a k e i t b u t sometimes there is n o t h i n g e l s e so we a r e g l a d t o f i n d o u t a t l e a s t t h e r e i s some h e l p . I didn't want U.I.C, living off some government g r a n t a s i f y o u were so h e l p l e s s .  105  It wasn't a good i d e a f o r me a t a l l . But my f r i e n d s s a i d " a f t e r w o r k i n g y o u g e t U.I.C. T h e r e i s n o t h i n g wrong w i t h i t . " They d i d n ' t mean I s h o u l d r e l y on i t . Respondents  who  had  w i t h p r i d e and/or  never  and  assistance  income  generally  insurance  ("welfare")  disclosed  unemployment  insurance  s a i d so  attitude  towards  relief.  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e universal  used  at least  benefits, is  five  accepting  the a t t i t u d e  singularly  cases  towards  rejecting.  of r e f u s a l  to accept  social  Interviews this  form o f  supplement: My [ e l d e r l y ] f a t h e r would n o t p u t us on welfare, even t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s a i d he s h o u l d . We g o t h e l p from t h e community, and I worked berry-picking and then housecleaning.  Most  respondents  with  dependent  under  such  who have a c c e p t e d  social  children  without  living  circumstances,  however,  assistance their  other  are  women  h u s b a n d s . Even  respondents  have  declined: After my h u s b a n d was k i l l e d , I managed t h e [ t h r e e ] c h i l d r e n on my [widow's] p e n s i o n and I got a j o b washing dishes. My E.S.L. teacher told me t o a p p l y f o r w e l f a r e b u t I s a i d " i t i s not d i g n i f i e d . "  Respondents r e l a t e quite  explicitly  value  of p o s i t i v e  to  their the  community  rejection  of  g o a l o f economic  social  assistance  sufficiency  appraisal:  I have n e v e r taken welfare. I am afraid i t will come t o t h a t . Then  always people  and t h e  106  will take  t a l k . Your p r e s t i g e goes welfare.  down  i f you  In I n d i a i t i s v e r y bad t o beg and when y o u get w e l f a r e i t ' s l i k e begging. To g e t a monthly cheque from w e l f a r e i s demeaning, i t ' s obviously indebting. We s a y " m o f f a t That i s very good. He c a n ' t Unlike  b e n e f i t s which a l l persons r e c e i v e or t o which r e c i p i e n t s  contribute directly, needy, thus  ka khanna," t o e a t f o r f r e e . b a d . P e o p l e w i l l s a y "he's no p u l l h i m s e l f up."  as having  social  failed  i t imperils family A few o f t h e  assistance  to provide honour.  services  Canadian seemed of  the  fact  response aware  of  commented  which  affects  the  of  requiring financial  respondents  are  by  outlay  two  the  and  by u s e r s . In  question  one  Indo-  respondents  utilization.  a g e n t s , one o f them I n d o - C a n a d i a n service  and  f e e s do n o t c o v e r  i t is  pattern  as  economically,  does not i n f l u e n c e  s e r v i c e s : only  the users'  t h e programmes. R a t h e r ,  on  financial  subsidization  t o these  that  for itself  family  3 5  s u b s i d i z e d programmes w h i c h e n t a i l general,  s i n g l e s out a  even  the t o t a l of  costs  expenditure  According  t o two  Euro-Canadian,  any  o u t l a y may be r e j e c t e d :  E a s t I n d i a n men r e s i s t any s e r v i c e t h e y have to pay f o r . They want a b i g h o u s e , a b i g c a r , a c o l o u r TV. I f t h e i r w i v e s need help i n t h e house t h a t ' s j u s t t o o bad.  However,  data  from  interviews,  with  themselves suggest  t h a t a c c e p t a n c e does o c c u r ,  service  offered.  If  normally  provide  in  the  the s e r v i c e —  region  of  the  immigrants  d e p e n d i n g on  emigration  f o r example, d e n t a l  the  outsiders  examinations  107  --  Indo-Canadians g e n e r a l l y  have  the  service  fee  --  results.  w a i v e d . But  attainment  family's  of  goals  to  i f family  f o r example, d a y c a r e The  rejected  agree  --  resources  having higher  daycare  for  his  son  i t and  usually  members n o r m a l l y  decline  to  provide  the  non-utilization must  be  priority. accepted  frequently  conserved  3 6  the  One  man  idea  of  for who  the had  pre-school  enthusiastically: T e l l me where t h e b e s t send him t h e r e . We can As  with  services  with  regard  the  way  to  in  familial  involving  services which  goal  of  income  nor  financial  requiring  i t s young and  members.  Even a c k n o w l e d g i n g  admission  of  (Allodi,  1978:  1976:  32).  8;  affects  services  reflects  socialize  failure  on  If outsiders  critical  outlay and  which a  factor  appears to  reflects  behavioural  Britain,  involve  family's  t o engender d e v o t e d  i n t h e s e a r e a s and  Great  will  on  be the  provisioning."  counselling  expenditure  We  income, t h e  financial  utilization  "economic  A c c e p t a n c e of  school is. afford.  neither  ability  service  among  to its  problems c o n s t i t u t e s threatens  family  Community R e l a t i o n s  become i n v o l v e d ,  the  threat  an  honour  Commission, increases:  [Family members] expect to s o r t out e a c h o t h e r ' s t r o u b l e s , not l e a s t b e c a u s e i f t h o s e t r o u b l e s were t o become public -to the British, but particularly to their c o m p a t r i o t s -- t h e i z z a t of t h e g r o u p as a whole would be a f f e c t e d (R. B a l l a r d , 1979: 154) . The  following  e c h o e d by  observation  most of  the  by  agents  a Vancouver mental h e a l t h interviewed,  worker  both Euro-Canadian  is and  108  Indo-Canadian  ( s e e a l s o Lobo,  1978:  55).  There remains a tremendous stigma particularly pronounced among minorities, E a s t I n d i a n and C h i n e s e e s p e c i a l l y . They t r y to deal with the problem w i t h i n the f a m i l y . If i t ' s a b s o l u t e l y n o t c o n t a i n a b l e , t h e n we see them. We g e t them a f t e r t h e c r i s i s h a s been r e a c h e d .  The personal  acceptance insult  responsible interview they  by t h e head o f  f o r the family's  with  thought  father  of o u t s i d e  two g e n e r a t i o n s marriage  h e l p may a l s o be p e r c e i v e d the  household  attainment  feels  of i t s goals.  most  D u r i n g an  o f a f a m i l y , a young c o u p l e  counselling  o f t h e woman t u r n e d  who  as a  could  be  said  b e n e f i c i a l . The  t o me:  You s e e , when p e o p l e come h e r e a n d s t a y f o r a longer period, t h e y have l i t t l e r e s p e c t f o r t h e f a m i l y . They d o n ' t appreciate what the family says. When my c h i l d r e n have no more r e s p e c t f o r me, t h e n t h e y will go t o these agencies. Before  i n d i v i d u a l s decide  t o seek a s s i s t a n c e  t h e y must w e i g h s i g n i f i c a n t on  battered  often  relatives  that  goals  sum,  and i t s  diminish  person  ... i f y o u go  extremely d i f f i c u l t In  a  the  service  unnecessary  "will  outside  to social  the  family's  concern  wih  family  circled i t ' s  family  the  1977).  pursuance of a s c r i b e d  by r e n d e r i n g  o r u n a c c e p t a b l e . Whether  services  shunned by f r i e n d s a n d  i n " (Globe and M a i l ,  Indo-Canadian  utilization  t o turn be  of  t o come back  overriding  the family,  p r o b a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s . As a w o r k s h o p  women i n V a n c o u v e r n o t e d ,  means  outside  honour  clearly  the services e i t h e r  service  in  question  109  reflects  on  a  family's  emotional  sufficiency,  Indo-Canadian agent  economic  it still  sufficiency  imperils  family  o r on  i t s socio-  honour.  As  one  remarked:  It's demeaning to accept money. I t ' s demeaning t o a c c e p t counselling. They are v e r y d i f f e r e n t but t h e y a r e b o t h r e s i s t e d . The  intensity  of r e s i s t a n c e  and t h e b r e a d t h  derive,  I believe,  from t h e f a c t  family  perceives  itself  responsibility: the of  resolution unresolved  to  the p r e v e n t i o n  that  have  non-utilization  in accepting failed  of p r o b l e m s  at i n the  o f p r o b l e m s w h i c h do a r i s e ,  problems w i t h i n  of  the f a m i l y  and  circle.  a  three  service  a  levels  of  first  place,  the containment  1 10  Notes: Chapter  Although David  2 1  relations"  appeared  "propinquity," expectations nuclear 2 2  which  *  feel  on  "kin-style  the  basis  173-175, 202-203)  a  decrease  Fijian  obliged  in  of  "strong  c l u s t e r s of  natives  f o r the  t o meet demands from k i n  180). (1979:  15) an e i g h t h c o n c e p t , p i r h i ,  to the p r e s t i g e that However, p i r h i  has accrued  represents  which  t o a family through i t s  an a s c r i b e d g o a l  f a m i l y members make d e c i s i o n s w i t h  only  i n so  t h e honour o f f u t u r e  i n mind.  David  scarcity acquired  and  are c r i t i c a l  they  Helweg n o t e s  generations  the  agnates"  (1973:  of  history."  2  reported  established  Hindu F i j i a n s  1973:  as  be  ties.  (Mayer,  far  (1964:391-393) t h a t  f a m i l i e s b a s e d on s h i p m a t e  to  "refers  to  Mayer among  extent  2 3  suggested  Three  suggests  during  the  (1964: indenture  "an i m m e a s u r a b l y  household.  392)  stronger  that  period,  because Fijian  bargaining  But J a y a w a r d e n a a r g u e s  (1983:  of  Hindu  position"  their women within  143-144) t h a t t h e  scarcity  o f women l e d t o " t h e e x e r c i s e o f a g r e a t e r  control  females  by  a much more  traditional  males....  Fijian  and c i r c u m s c r i b e d  Indian role"  women  than t h e i r  play  counterparts  of  in  India. 2 5  of  i s one major  exception  to the r u l e of s u p e r i o r i t y  g i v e r s . Where hypergamous m a r r i a g e s p r e v a i l ,  Punjabi a  There  Sikhs,  position  the f a m i l y which g i v e s  of  inferiority  including  the b r i d e places  v i s a v i s t h e f a m i l y which  among  itself in receives  111  her  (Hershman,  bride's can,  family  and t h e y  token  gives  attempts  a bride  as  carefully  prestations  Marriott of  1981: 1 9 1 ) . To c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e dowry and o t h e r  avoid  from  to explain  groom's  this  an a c t o f v i o l e n c e  status,  prestations  receiving  the  their  any  but  family  the  a l l they  prescribed,  (Das, 1976: 2 7 ) .  a n o m a l l y by t e r m i n g  which  the  bride  the taking  giver  receives  (1976: 1 3 3 ) . According  2 6  to t h e i r 1983:  to Vedic  ancestors,  There  community person  privately" person  may  Veda adds a d e b t be  is  should  operating  Fleuret,  1974: 3 2 ) .  in  Statistics  2 8  vernacular  agree there  a r e roughly  population, believe and  they  Indian  communities 2 9  and  My  secret"  Hindus  claim  Hindus b e l i e v e  33%.  do,  living  are  one e x c e p t i o n  t o her husband t h a t  City  i n the  up t o 85% o f t h i s Fijian  of the Hindu  once  see a l s o  representatives  Similarly,  the majority they  155;  a  does not  unavailable.  claim  ...  although  "humility  temple  "the  resources  1979:  and  and S i k h  Hindus,  Sikhs,  Indo-Canadians  G u j a r a t i , etc.)  includes  woman, who c o m p l a i n e d  (Helweg,  However, S i k h s  constitute  data  Among  frustratingly  60,000  Among  as g i v e r ,  newspapers,  area.  (Bengali,  156).  (Malamoud,  Hindu  share h i s greater  in h i s role  are  officials,  Vancouver  to  saints  between  transactions.  1975:  be humble  the  indebted  t o men.  difference  supposed  (McClelland,  require  Greater  a  awareness of such  asked  a l l men a r e b o r n  t o t h e g o d s , and t o  26-27). A l a t e r 2 7  tradition,  the  Hindus  population,  disparate  sub-  considered. to t h i s h i s uncle  suggestion. had  A  charged  1 12  her  for taking  "If  someone  The  her t o the Workers' helps  woman added  friends  One  3 0  you, what does  that  with their  Compensation  her husband  income  young  tax  Fijian  i t matter  also  took  i f you pay money  told:  them?"  for  helping  h i s a i r fare  from t h e  returns.  Hindu borrowed  relatives  w i t h whom he now  lives.  "treated  like  I f t h e y want a d r i n k  a servant.  B o a r d , was  His wife  reports  that  he  is  o f w a t e r , he  has  contributes  to  t o g e t i t f o r them." Lack o f a w a r e n e s s  3 1  non-utilization factor. to  as  well,  Hypothetical  this  agency  of s e r v i c e s but  questions  had you  satisfactory.  They  The  few  obtained  two  of c l i e n t s  known a b o u t  very  answers  only  probably  received  a g e n t s s u g g e s t i t as a ("Would you have  i t a t t h e t i m e ? " ) were n o t  f o r t h e most p a r t  reflect  as do t h e r e a s o n s f o r n o n - u t i l i z a t i o n  exist:  "We  way.  We 3 2  can s o l v e  o u r s e l v e s . We  i f our  toward  when a w a r e n e s s  son  behaved  know more a b o u t  our  does  in  this  children."  I n d o - C a n a d i a n s c a n and do go t o m e d i c a l d o c t o r s w i t h t h e  physiological weight  not go t o anyone  non-replies.  t h e same o r i e n t a t i o n  family  would  gone  loss,  and  consciously culturally  manifestations  problems:  "nerves." A doctor's advice  chosen  alternative  familiar  consequences  of t h e i r  and  to  acceptable  of c o n t a i n m e n t ,  namely,  sleeplessness,  i s s o u g h t , n o t as a  counselling, response  to  somatization  but  as  one (cf.  the  of the Leff,  1973). 3 3  public before,  When library, but now  a s k e d whether  members o f h i s f a m i l y  one man  replied  with pride:  we  our own  encyclopedia  have  "My  son  so we  ever used the had  to  d o n ' t need  go to  1 13  go." 3  "  Indo-Canadians  are  insurance contributions unanimous  in  respondent the  little  their  and c l a i m  and  your  Triseliotis  stereotype" to explain Three  among  period  would  But  less  w r i t e s (1972:  practice.  One  would  who  "have  like  get a  It i s cheating to  6) t h a t  I n d i a n immigrants  your  applies  "there i s  to B r i t a i n .  own  to people  intimate  that  acceptance  And  one  relatives  client  refused  render her i n e l i g i b l e agree  that  welfare u t i l i z a t i o n  even  to  welfare  and  i n c r e a s e were i t n o t f o r t h e f a c t their  no  I am a t a  between h i s f i n d i n g s  agents  time.  respondents  factors,  this  they  of Euro-Canadians  disability.  by law t o s u p p o r t  of  acceptance  critical  the sharp c o n t r a s t  are o b l i g e d  towards  nor a r e  countries."  Indo-Canadian  assistance  1981: 4 4 - 4 7 ) ,  own p e o p l e . The same t h i n g  who come f r o m o t h e r 3 5  attitude  i n attempting to recover  t h e y s h o u l d be s u p p o r t e d by g o v e r n m e n t ,  injury  country  (Dingledine,  i s particularly  feeling  not a l o n e  my  own.  of s o c i a l  that  for  loss  sponsors  a  certain  welfare  because  sponsor  her  with the e l i m i n a t i o n  among I n d o - C a n a d i a n s  mother. of these  would s t i l l  be  patterns  of  t h a n among t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . 3 6  service agents  The  priority  utilization note  a  as w e l l  lightening  during  berry-picking  they've  gone t o t h e  Others  remark  enrollment  accorded  on  season:  the  their  Indo-Canadian  "Business  That's  noticeable  in English classes  affects  as p a t t e r n s of n o n - u t i l i z a t i o n .  of  farms.  earning  since  top  is  slow  priority  decrease  in  the f i n a n c i a l  case  loads  right with  Two  now; them."  Indo-Canadian incentive  for  11 4  taking  them  Canadian jest,  was  enrollment  that  services:  there  "To  financially  removed  (no  significant  o c c u r r e d ) . One  agent  ought  a  convince  to  be  change  proposes,  i n Chinese somewhat  in  tax  b e n e f i t to c o u n s e l l i n g  man  t o change  an  East  Indian  advantageous"  (see  Chadney,  1976).  i t has  to  be  11 5  Chapter  THE  Four  INDO-CANADIAN  AGENTS:  THEIR DUAL MODEL OF SOCIAL  Persons services in  born  and r a i s e d  i n another  both worlds.  immigrants  major  and  Canadian  colleagues.  But cultural more  while systems,  than  interaction he he  an  he  shares  operate  may  often  be  i n both  speak two l a n g u a g e s  with  ease  fellow  the v a l u e s ,  the  country  of  o f employment. A referred  to  in  idiom but a l s o  to  their  Euro-  q u i t e aware o f two simultaneously,  be b a s e d  either  any  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . H i s own  r e g a r d l e s s of the c u l t u r a l on t h e model  information of  exchange  o r on t h e model he s h a r e s w i t h h i s  c o l l e a g u e s -- o r on a t h i r d  model  which  combines  o f t h e o t h e r two.  Biographical present  and  with  with  a linguistic  worker  with h i s c l i e n t s ,  professional elements  he c a n n o t  will  in  social  3 7  with c l i e n t s ,  i s conveying,  work  as they a r e  clients  ethnic  can  to  familiarity  not j u s t  provide  to operate  of the c o u n t r y  e t h n i c workers,  idiom t o t h e i r  who  obtaining  those  i s to interpret  a cultural  them  their  interaction  also with  task of such  Vancouver,  hiring  f o r granted  g o a l s and modes o f emigration  i n one c u l t u r e  a r e g e n e r a l l y presumed  The a g e n c y  takes  EXCHANGE  study  predisposition  data  reveal to  on  the  Indo-Canadian  at  least  a  Euro-Canadian  r e l a t i o n s h i p with c l i e n t s .  two  Firstly,  factors  agents which  professional  few o f t h e a g e n t s  of  suggest  the a  exchange share  the  1 1 6  same  regional  21 a g e n t s states from  background  interviewed emigrated  within  India  villages  State.  as the m a j o r i t y to  or c o u n t r i e s  S i x e m i g r a t e d from c i t i e s  elsewhere  from  from  clients. 11  from c i t i e s in  England, Pakistan, those  Fiji.  As  noted: " C u l t u r a l  considered  South  Asian  by  service  marginal as f a r as the e t h n i c Secondly, similar  of  educational  colleagues. education, credit  many  Six  earned  related  institutions.  degrees'  from  leading  approach to  philosophy studies without  South  such  in  the  style  of  also  Perlman,  professional  the  probably  learned  is  degrees  the majority  with  fields  ethnic  do s h a r e a  in nursing, have  the  1971:  taken  soon  (R. B a l l a r d ,  from  North  curricula  social  14).  suggest  workers  3 8  a basically  American  Nagpaul,  are  professional  based  worker"  they  provide  since  service  training,  five  services, on  from  Euro-Canadian  they  agents  1970: 8;  social  services  the four  social  degrees  work  Moreover,  that  w i t h or  "conform  to  1979: 160; see  1979: 144-146).  Nevertheless, the p r e s e n t t h e s i s Indo-Canadians  Even  to  professional  the  to  Asia  (Gangrade,  their  of East is  but  agents  work i n C a n a d a . A n o t h e r  Canadian  American  their  with  the  brokers are  are concerned."  Indo-Canadian  background  and s o c i a l  courses  the  and  interviewed  agencies,  clients  of Punjab  and c o u n t r i e s  and S o u t h e a s t A s i a . None o f one workshop p a r t i c i p a n t  two came  India,  Africa  The  different  o t h e r than I n d i a . Only and f i v e  eight  the  Canada  Punjab,  remaining  of  of t h e i r  and  as t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s  described  indicate,  in style  contrasts  Euro-Canadians  i n Part do e x i s t  Two  of.  between  as p r o v i d e r s of s e r v i c e s t o  1 17  Indo-Canadian to  handle  well  late one  able as  training  hand,  lives  idioms.  and J o h n s o n  been  note  life  of  they  in appropriate  Indian  are  cultural  are  453)  will  resistant  with  relatively  upbringing.  interaction  and  (1975:  because  superimposed  upon a b a s i c a l l y  in  agents are asked  F u r t h e r m o r e , any p r o f e s s i o n a l  has  patterns  early  precisely  to the c l i e n t s  have r e c e i v e d  general  established Johnson  to r e l a t e  their  Indo-Canadian  cases  linguistic  they  in  After a l l ,  Indo-Canadian  considered as  clients.  regard  have  On  the been  to change. to  As  Japanese-  Americans: Although a s s i m i l a t i o n i s evident in dress, speech, style of home, and religious affiliation, i t . w i l l be shown t h a t i n norms governing day-to-day interaction, the effects of the culture of o r i g i n remain influent i a l . On  the o t h e r  service  provider  enrollment Canadian region  in who  a  perceptions will  has  also  has  chosen or  to  an  identified  about have  professional  of e m i g r a t i o n  community to  hand,  been  role  of  become  a "social  himself  cultural  training.  worker"  with  of  established  course  "ethnic  such p e r s o n s w i t h i n those  the  in  a specific  a  social prior  to  An  Indo-  worker"  in his  an role  contexts:  [ T ] h e v e r b a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l t y p e , w h i c h we c a l l a c u l t u r a l l y recognized role, contains w i t h i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r symbolic c o n f i g u r a t i o n s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about the e x p e c t a t i o n s , aims, and qualities of actors, and even a b o u t some of the rules for interaction ( P a r k i n , 1976: 177).  immigrant ascribed  1 18  The  present  service  providers  communities. transaction  examines the  in Indian  It  culture  identifies  associated  c o n t e x t . Having the  chapter  with  done so,  differences  the the  the  suggest,  the  Social  of  Since has  in  India  i t s inception  as  an  acknowledged  its  citizens.  most a s p e c t s sources colonial  While  of  of  state  the  education  continue  also  influence  i n number, g r a d u a t e  traditional for  the  areas  Indian  India  the  of  in  Five  and  Year of  voluntary  Through  other British  work, now in  the  on  the  associations  especially  a grant-in-aid  the  (Nagpaul,  rely heavily welfare  over  groups,  society  and  (Weisner,  hope t o work  Plans  of  community  areas  social  urban  their policies,  5).  three  welfare projects  rural of  welfare  for underprivileged  r u r a l and  institution  1983:  1947,  activities.  and  i n d i v i d u a l s who  Indian  implementation (Caplan,  schools  services  Finally,  I  respective  in  Plans,  extension  health  thirty  7).  Indo-  which,  their  nation  Year  agricultural  American-style  1971:  e x c h a n g e of  of  clients.  direct  222).  of  summary  s e l f - h e l p pervades  1978:  special  each  a G a n d h i a n e m p h a s i s on  programmes, p r i m a r i l y  "weaker s e c t i o n s "  between  independent  demonstration  government's  in  social  in to  modes of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  policy  experiments  and  professionals  social  social  immigrant  agents, d i f f e r e n c e s  Government's F i v e  social  goals,  Indo-Canadian  Providers  to  Indian  concludes with a  differences  i n t e r a c t i o n with  Service  values,  m o d e l s of  Euro-Canadian  patterns  in  helping  C a n a d i a n a g e n t s and underlie  and  chapter  between t h e  role ascribed  in  urban  system,  the  119  Government  of  India  organizations, 1971:  and  6). According  India  "has  voluntary  funds  some  3000  another  3000  newly c r e a t e d  t o Nagpaul  always  been  understood  voluntary  welfare  to  organizations,  caste,  s e c t , o r common c a u s e ,  upper  class  are  3),  ones  social be  voluntary (Nagpaul,  service  synonymous  in with  serivce."  The  usually  (1971:  established  women.  39  In  tend  fulfilling  their  on  t o be r u n by u p p e r - m i d d l e and  providing  t o p e r s o n s b e n e a t h them  w h i c h may be b a s e d  unpaid  i n the  social  service to others, hierarchy,  they  dharma.  Women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . . p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c l a s s b o u n d a r i e s by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between a c l a s s whose d u t y i t is t o d i s p e n s e c h a r i t y , a n d one w h i c h n e e d s t o r e c e i v e i t ( C a p l a n , 1983: 1 1 ) . The  women's a c t i v i t i e s  their  reflect  f a m i l i e s . I n one c a s e ,  "shamed" h e r f a m i l y the  also  family's  village  welfare  deserted  through  by  is  transactional  the  differences  redeemed  by t h e v o l u n t e e r s that  of her  chosen  with  may  the  argue,  contributes  "One  [in their  have-nots"  as Caplan to  of s o c i a l  o f g i v i n g . As t h e  h e r members,  p e o p l e who have s i n n e d  1 5 ) . One mode  husband  of  who had  service to g i r l s  outspokenly  and s h a r e what we have 1983:  her  selfless  o f one a s s o c i a t i o n e x h o r t e d with  izzat  19).  organizations  sympathize  on t h e  f o r example, a young b r i d e  t r a n s a c t i o n a l mode u t i l i z e d  president  Caplan,  reputation  ( H e l w e g , . 1979:  The  lives]  by b e i n g  positively  the  should previous  (cited  in  does, that the creation  i n c l a s s s t a t u s . However, t h e i n d i v i d u a l s s e r v e d  of by  120  the  volunteers already  India's  population: children,  or means o f s u p p o r t 1970:  represent  10;  unilateral persons  giving  1971:  usually  elements  women, a n d s e n i o r s w i t h o u t  ( D e s a i and  Nagpaul,  t h e most d e s t i t u t e  Khetani,  1979:  1 3 ) . As i n d i c a t e d characterizes  110;  of  family  Gangrade,  i n Chapter  Three,  transactions  between  o f p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d s u p e r i o r rank a n d t h e i r  social  subordinates. The  transactional  voluntary the  welfare  of  service reflects  giving  welfare  of  speeches  and  a s s o c i a t i o n s , Caplan  "constantly  context  not  only  T h e s e terms a r e p r o b a b l y might  have y e t t o  about  the service r e c i p i e n t .  In an  notes  (1983:  16)  five  pairs  t o North  adopt  the to  helpless deserving ignorant backward grateful  not intended  sound  Still,  -  American  euphemistic some  extent  to  be  as  pejorative  e a r s . Perhaps South English  phrases  employed  e a c h t e r m does r e f l e c t t h e  social  service. in  organizations.  I n d i a , I became f a m i l i a r One,  in  for battered  Gujarat, and  as  Asians  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p r o v i d e r and a r e c e i v e r  programme  of  on t h e o t h e r :  nature  While  of  p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l p r o d u c e d by s o c i a l  active/dynamic generous enlightened forward munificent  elsewhere.  the  r e c u r r i n g " terms u s e d t o d e s c r i b e v o l u n t e e r s on t h e  hand a n d b e n e f i c i a r i e s  they  in  assumptions  s e r v i c e p r o v i d e r but a l s o about  analysis  one  mode  with  two s o c i a l  administered  deserted  wives.  an  of  welfare  employment  The o t h e r ,  i n New  121  Delhi,  ran  a pre-school/daycare  cases,  I was  struck  by  volunteers  described  in  they  which  illustrates three  m i x t u r e of  their  and  with  them.  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the  beggars.  compassion  clients,  interacted  the  the  with  almost  In  both  which  the  abrupt  manner  I believe this  above  pairs  of  mixture  terms  in  ways. Firstly,  little  beyond what t h e interest, factors the and  the  f o r c h i l d r e n of  client  and/or  in this  need  respect  already s i g n s " of  dress,  the  the  (Wynne,  deservingness  of  volunteers  1980:  the  client  to  proceed  25).  s i n c e the  assumed: who  was  gathered  With  have  been  "helplessness" a  totally  prestations?  were n o t ,  the  the  were  "visible necessary  helplessness  e s t a b l i s h e d , i t was their  and  certainly  but  demeanor c o n v e y e d  in  But  time  circumstances  Where t h e y  49).  may  unilateral  recipients'  volunteer.  g r o o m i n g , and  information  the  reduced was  izzat  1981:  request  i n some i n s t a n c e s to  p r i v a c y and  was  would  information  s p o n t a n e o u s l y . Lack of  (see D a s g u p t a ,  of c l i e n t s  person  known  background  for  information  "deservingness"  Moreover,  no  provided  pattern  for  destitute  or  and  encumbent  "dynamic" and  upon  "generous"  roles. Secondly, women  and  attitude.  the Since  "backward," advise,  the  and  beggars the  the direct the  volunteers  manifested  recipient role him.  regard  to  children  t o w a r d s one  interacting  of As  of the  the  assertive,  service  was  battered even  bossy  "ignorant"  service provider  McClelland  exceptionally  an  with  was  to  and  inform,  notes  (1975:  147)  domineering  manner  of  Indian  and  other-  another, a s e l f l e s s  motivation  with  122  orientation  on  instruction  the  part  of  advice-givers  renders  direct  acceptable:  F o r a c h i l d t o say t o a n o t h e r "Stop eating that, i t will make y o u s i c k " i s p e r f e c t l y a l l r i g h t i n the value system: i t i s prosocial dominance o r g i v i n g good a d v i c e t o another. The  fact  that  volunteers  "enlightened" their  and  "grateful"  "forward"  despite  of  touching Others  the  to describe  both the G u j a r a t i  range  welfare  relative  to their  clients  are  renders  appropriate.  recurrence  of  the  phrase  programmes e x h i b i t e d  benefactors.  volunteers  no o u t w a r d  majority  associations  b e n e f i c i a r i e s , the r e c i p i e n t s of s e r v i c e  to their  the f e e t of gave  constant  a n d New D e l h i  reactions  uncommunicative The  social  p r o - s o c i a l dominance p a r t i c u l a r l y Finally,  in  of  and  Some were  likening  of c l i e n t s  their fell  time a t  the  wide  obsequious,  them  to  s i g n o f d e f e r e n c e and remained  throughout  a  service  gods.  verbally centres.  somewhere i n between, s m i l i n g a n d  articulating  o c c a s i o n a l l y what t h e s e r v i c e meant t o them. I n  experience,  the degree t o which a c l i e n t  not  greatly  Servile short.  affect  the  expressions Lack  Perhaps,  volunteers'  of a p p r e c i a t i o n  of v e r b a l  to e s t a b l i s h h e l p l e s s n e s s ,  were g e n t l y  for unilateral  their  gratitude d i d  interaction  thanks d i d not r e s u l t i n  j u s t as the request  g r a t e f u l n e s s , ' and  declared  acceptance  my  with  them.  but f i r m l y c u t  lesser  prestations  service. suffices  i s assumed t o e n t a i l  to indicate the "munificence"  of the s e r v i c e  provider. The  paid  workers of I n d i a ' s  community d e v e l o p m e n t  projects  123  and  of  i t s special  attracted of  to their  with  they in  in  their  hostility and  personal not.  social  utilization  patterns  social  accrues  honourable,  for their  1971: 19; I y e r ,  are  (1978:  235)  in  initially,  are  State,  is  the  implications  1969: 3 9 ) .  If  does  may be v i e w e d a s "not t o t r u s t  Weisner's  non-impact  planners  assessing  "look  potential  graduates  to relieve  that  initial  before  of o v e r s t r i c t  for  many o f t h e p a i d  suspicions.  proceeding. ill  (see S c h l e s i n g e r ,  comical:  of  paid active  utilization  of A m e r i c a n - s t y l e  p r a c t i c e techniques  i n India  "most  facilities."  the f a c t  relationship,  almost  between  service, izzat  thus t r a i n e d seeks t o e s t a b l i s h rapport  work  and  i n Gujarat  work may h e l p  social  that  s e r v i c e s can r e s u l t  workers,  from p u b l i c  at  patterns  providers  American  (Howard,  1979: 1 5 5 ) . In an a n a l y s i s o f h e a l t h  a c e r t a i n extent,  trusting  value  (Helweg,  associations  worker  these  castes"  activities  w o r k e r s . He recommends t h a t  respects,  lower  voluntary  (Howard,  and l o c a t i n g h e a l t h  service  "emphasis on t h e  1969: 3 8 - 3 9 ) . But t h e f a c t  worker, a t l e a s t  finding"  voluntary  To  gain  sections are also  a s an e x p l o i t i v e government b u r e a u c r a t ,  striking  for  clients  to  their  (Iyer,  between them and  to manipulate"  community  weaker  t o t h e u n d e r d o g " and " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  render  own e y e s  financial  A paid  centre  a  "commitment  their  "suspect,"  the  service  r e c e i v e monetary compensation  them  but  and  s u f f e r i n g humanity"  least  for  r o l e s by t h e c u l t u r a l  self-sacrifice  1971:81). T h e i r  programmes  students  toilet  learn  training  schools of Presumably  with  But  social  clients,  in several  p r e p a r e an i n d i v i d u a l 1960: 2 6 4 ) . "about  Some  of  the traumatic  i n a country  with  an  124  extraordinarily 1969:  casual  attitude  3 1 ) . O t h e r s a r e more  to  defecation"  (Mukundarao,  sobering:  Indian s o c i e t y i s s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g with the basic problems of poverty, deprivation, unemployment, i l l health, inadequate housing, m a l n u t r i t i o n and i l l i t e r a c y . . . . In t h i s context, s o c i a l work education based upon American social work p h i l o s o p h y .... o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y towards the problems of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ... seems n o t o n l y i r r e l e v a n t but potentially dysfunctional (Nagpaul, 1971: 13-14).  The  needs o f I n d i a ' s  population  a r e so g r e a t ,  currently  a v a i l a b l e so few, t h a t  individual  rehabilitation  service  (Desai  Even  approaches  relationships to  workers  view  the  "centripetally 7).  An  using  25).  worker  that  resignation life  rather  In  propelled"  "the e n t i r e  than  is  as  of  more  rather  common  than  form  of  1970: 1 0 ) . where  one-to-one  possible,  North  American  first  precisely for their Indian  social  an i n e x t r i c a b l e p a r t  o f , and  should family  experience  resources  few i n s t a n c e s  place,  towards, a f a m i l y  network  a client  t h e most  criticized  the  problems  Moreover,  to  are  individual  individual's  1971:  are  counselling  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  care  1979: 110; G a n g r a d e ,  i n the proportionately  agent-client  focus  institutional  constitutes  and K h e t a n i ,  and t h e  (Gangrade,  be a n a l y s e d  to  (Howard,  the Indian  change,  6-  and r e s o l v e d  relationships"  has taught  likely  1970:  to  f a t e , i f he i s r e m i n d e d o f h i s a s c r i b e d of h i s r i g h t t o s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t :  [A] s t y l e of m o b i l i z a t i o n which stresses personal ambitions, hopes and a c h i e v e m e n t c o n c e r n s ... c a n n o t be e f f e c t i v e f o r many (Nandy, 1970: 6 2 ) .  social  overcome duty i n  125  Finally, an  the  Indian  element  of  determination, The him  social choice  t o be  clients,  practical  advice  paid  volunteers,  not  but  should  "use  and  assistance"  interact a 0  subsequent Both  f o r the  There  is a  inferior"  American" deny any this  and  most p a r t w i t h  "hidden  1971:  1971:  prevalence  19). T h i s of  may  from the  social  that  1970:  8).  may  initially way  not  service  served  assumption,  institutional  they be  do too  providers  disadvantaged  those  direct  26).  India  extremely  assumption  self-  authority, offering  interaction  unpaid  client  of  a u t h o r i t y a t t r i b u t e d to  (Howard,  of  "desirability  (Gangrade,  differently  patterns  paid  (Howard,  necessary  workers  the  individual,"  service r e c i p i e n t s in  social  dissimilar.  the  should  Thus, a l t h o u g h regard  for  "peculiarly  service provider by  worker c o n s i d e r s  are  combined care,  persons. basically with  the  minimizes  information-gather ing: [Workers are] tempted to see particular community members in predetermined perspectives ( i . e . t o a p p l y s t e r e o t y p e s and r e l y on t h e c r i t e r i o n of s o c i a l status) to escape the burden of making endless segmented judgments (Wynne, 1980: 49). The  same  assumption  maternalistic, Howard,  1971:  requests person  with  Indian  Social  In  the  approach 19).  help  also  As  leads  to  noted  Service  immigrant  a  advice-giving in Chapter  automatically  superior  to  context,  (Caplan,  Three,  the  assumes a s u b o r d i n a t e  s t a t u s assumes t h e  Providers  paternalistic,  role  of  or  1983:  17;  person  who  status;  the  advice-giver.  Overseas social  welfare  s e r v i c e s may  also  1 26  be  delivered  Voluntary  by  volunteers  and  fellow  may be t e r m e d  "social  their  through  izzat  for  villagers.  the l i n e s  some  their  workers"  by  selfless  of I n d i a n  immigrants with  volunteers  both  community  a c t i o n taken  welfare  an o p p o r t u n i t y  provided  to  individuals,  who  members, on b e h a l f  volunteers,  social  exist  individual in  enhance of o t h e r s  organized  very  associations, also t o "do good  t o note  consider  voluntary welfare  t h e immigrant  t h a t most o f  context.'  get "caught  volunteers  Vancounver  important  immigrants  of the seva  persons.  works"  f e l l o w countrymen.  Although  in  a s by s a l a r i e d  Volunteering  1979: 80, 1 5 7 ) . G r o u p s o f  much a l o n g provide  well  work c o n s t i t u t e s an e x t e n s i o n  relatives  (Helweg,  as  1  as  the  activity  and  described  groups below,  Indo-Canadians  t h a t , once  i t is  interviewed  t o be c o m p a r a t i v e l y  Some s u g g e s t  of  in  lacking Canada,  up i n t h e r a t r a c e : "  People here do n o t have time f o r other p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . E v e r y o n e j u s t works. T h a t i s why t h e y come t o Canada, t o g e t more money and g e t a h e a d . Everybody i s busy w i t h h i s own a f f a i r s so t h e y s a y "I c a n ' t l e n d a hand." You a r e a l l alone, nobody cares, nobody has time t o spare. Comments by o t h e r middle-class  Indo-Canadians  suggest  that  the  rural  background of the m a j o r i t y of immigrants  much f a m i l i a r i t y  with  voluntary welfare  h e n c e any p r e d i s p o s i t i o n  to volunteering  services in  precludes  India,  here:  We do n o t have t h e c u s t o m o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s in our c o u n t r y . J u s t , your f a m i l y i s t h e r e , and y o u make c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e t e m p l e .  and  and  1 27  One l a d y from [a N e i g h b o r h o o d House] t o l d me t o come t o V o l u n t e e r E v e n i n g . In t h e P u n j a b there i s no v o l u n t e e r p o s i t i o n . O n l y i f y o u a r e i n bad t r o u b l e , t h e n y o u go o u t and g e t h e l p . But we were w e l l o f f .  Voluntary but  social  most  of  s e r v i c e s do e x i s t  the  i n the regions  Indo-Canadian  of e m i g r a t i o n ,  r e s p o n d e n t s were n e i t h e r  enough t o have r e c e i v e d s u c h h e l p n o r  wealthy  enough  poor  to  have  provided i t . Backgrounds service both  community  of  the  w i t h i n Vancouver's  relief  Five  of  from  immigrant  two  individuals  formerly that  of  them  the remaining  or  Fiji  there.  comfortably  be c o n s i d e r e d  But  and  amply  with  the  centres.  service  their  providers,  honorability  reasons  familiariy  with  volunteer  role.  fieldwork,  three  had  Three  anything  moving t o C a n a d a .  work help  welfare as  of I n d i a  associations  unpaid  staff  run v o l u n t a r y  f o r becoming  each of the f i v e  in  from u r b a n c e n t r e s  voluntary  five  families,  one o f t h e s e ,  engaged  g r o u p s , one f o r s e n i o r men and two f o r i m m i g r a n t In g i v i n g  that  for their  community work b e f o r e  were f a m i l i a r  services  a  voluntary  indicate  r e t i r e d men. O n l y  four had emigrated  I n Canada, two o f  immigrant  of  were e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g  t h e headman o f h i s v i l l a g e ,  could  communities  the s e l e c t i o n  them women whose h u s b a n d s p r o v i d e  and  who do p r o v i d e  t h e " r a t r a c e , " and p r e v i o u s  work, f a c i l i t a t e  such  individuals  of the r o l e , g i v e n the neediness  service  women.  volunteer  individuals  at  social  alluded t o the  of the c l i e n t s :  My c h i l d r e n were busy w i t h t h e i r s c h o o l w o r k , their friends. I was g e t t i n g irritated sitting a t home. So my friend g o t me i n v o l v e d i n immigrant s e r v i c e s . I t was a  128  respectable thing t o d o . Some of these p e o p l e c a n ' t even r e a d . I tell them what t h e i r p a p e r s [ o f f i c i a l f o r m s ] s a y ; what t h e y must d o . T h e r e a r e so many p r o b l e m s h e r e f o r s e n i o r s . It i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f I n d i a . The d a u g h t e r in-law says "get a job d e l i v e r i n g papers." You must beg y o u r own son f o r p o c k e t money e v e n . But many [ s e n i o r s ] won't do t h a t . They come here and we give them a l l the information, like about bus pass.... E v e r y d a y I am g o i n g with them to doctor, citizenship court. I do t h i s f o r no p a y . I am " c o u n s e l l o r o f s e n i o r citizens" i n our community [ t h i s s a i d w i t h a c h u c k l e ] . I was unanimously elected President of this Society. In  other  client that  words,  not only that  counterparts,  the in  or  social  comparison  familiar  as i n I n d i a , the neediness of the  fulfills  activity,  the goal  but  also  ensures  o f s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s and  to i z z a t .  W i t h two  in  Canada  prompts v o l u n t e e r  activity  contributes  Canadian  in  with  salaried  three  notable  exceptions,  service providers  with  most o f t h e i r  most e m i g r a t e d social  are also  their  from u r b a n c e n t r e s  to explain  the their  terms of p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  paid  financially  c l i e n t s . Like  services. Unlike  workers tend  the  choice  rather  well o f f volunteer  where t h e y  volunteers, of  I had been i n charge of insurance and p e n s i o n s f o r t h e f a m i l i e s [ o f employees i n former business], so when'I came h e r e and heard about t h i s j o b I thought I c o u l d use my s k i l l s . My e x p e r i e n c e was r e l e v a n t .  were  however, occupation  than c l i e n t  I a l w a y s t h o u g h t I wanted t o be a teacher, but I s w i t c h e d t o p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y a f t e r two y e a r s [ i n e d u c a t i o n ] . . . . It just seemed more i n t e r e s t i n g t o me.  Indo-  need:  1 29  A  few  their  of t h e p a i d salary,  either  work, or as a backgrounds apology  to  If  of  not  paid  they  free  of  and  still  their  as  helpless  different  Their  need  may as  their  or  and  be a b l e  most  do  for  no h i n t  of  delivering  conveyed  discernible  from E a s t blood  Punjabis.  to  agents  to c l i e n t  they "can't s o r t  Africa  has been  the  exists  clients  of  unilateral  mutual also  a l t h o u g h few role  clientele.  a r e not exchange  be  open  to  Indo-Canadian  t o the n e e d i n e s s of beliefs  Whereas  regarding  Euro-Canadians  o u t who's f r o m where," and and  as  transactional  i f clients  if  on  self-determination.  Sikhs,  rarely  Indo-Canadian  agents  p e r c e p t i o n s of each  group.  emerges f r o m t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s .  depicts Fijian mixed  their  that  may  sociological  pattern  possibility  stereotypical  Hindus  firm  s e n s e of honour  t o use  ignorant,  hold  between  their  g o a l s . And  Hindus  with that  from S o u t h e a s t A s i a d e s c r i b e s F i j i a n than  money  their  professional  T h e r e was  to d e f i n e  opposed  c a t e g o r i e s of t h e i r  said  inevitably  their  the  t h e w o r t h i n e s s of t h e i r  differentiated  agent  the  role,  must be n o t e d , however, t h a t  clients,  No  a g e n t s base  interaction,  relate  usually  for accepting  fulfill  information-gathering,  agents  that  remunerated.  n a t u r e of t h e i r  exchange,  characterizes  It  better  s p o n t a n e o u s l y on  of t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  irritation  i g n o r a n t . They  mode o f m u t u a l  perceived  indication  Indo-Canadian  are  h e l p l e s s and  giving,  remarked  others.  professional  that  as an  source were  agents a l s o  or r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  services  the  service  "very  of t r i b e s . "  Hindus  P u n j a b i s c a r e more a b o u t  as  as  their  One  religious.  Another  agent  "more W e s t e r n i z e d religion."  But  a  130  general  class  certain  groups  other  groups  agent  may  of the  Indo-Canadian  Their  urban  cultural  referents  Euro-Canadian  their  familiarity they  values,  are  Canadian within  goals,  the  information  family, the  colleagues.  asked  to  service  clientele,  but  be i n f l u e n c e d by  when  might  two, would  Indian  exchange their  model  in  suggest  well  be  based  similar  t o those of  Indian  upbringing, and t h e  Canada s u g g e s t t h a t be  that  based  on  their Indian  modes.  client an  and  and  might  f o r IndoOperating  elicit  counselling.  the  p h a s e . Most exchange  relationships.  of  or s h i f t s  implications  agent  phase  directive  with  model v e r s u s t h e o t h e r ,  family,  of  interacting  welfare service,  logically  framework,  client's  refer  providers  have s i g n i f i c a n t  the study  a g e n t s may  W e s t e r n - s t y l e t r a i n i n g , and  But  play  t o one exchange  more  service  with Indian voluntary  i n the assessment  transactions  still  service  social  and t r a n s a c t i o n a l  during  the  Indian  the  hold  t h e same o r  social  and b e h a v i o u r m i g h t  agent/Indo-Canadian the  include  of  with c l i e n t s  Reference between  may  exchange  backgrounds,  decisions,  their  interaction  of  social  r e a s o n s f o r becoming  perceptions,  roles  agents  n o t i o n s o f "we" and " t h e y . "  professional  on  of a p a i d  neediness  t o one o f two m o d e l s o f s o c i a l  their  Certain  Other agents h o l d  between a g e n t and c l i e n t  summarize,  clients.  there.  t o be " u n e d u c a t e d . "  n o t depend  established  is  t o be "modern." The honour  interaction  To  consciousness  client's  obviously, would  render  authoritarian  He  less might  duty t o h i s reference an  to  agent's  during  the  131  assessment In  Part  and Two,  Indo-Canadian  treatment phases contrasts  of t h e c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p .  between t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s  a g e n t s and E u r o - C a n a d i a n  such m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  of t h e two  agents are  models of s o c i a l  examined  exchange.  of for  1 32  Notes: Chapter  The  3 7  and who  are themselves  non-immigrant  11 d e a l The  3 8  more are  immigrants.  religious  8 Hindus,  status the  would  was  (1978:  1  Examples  ethnic  Among t h e 21 and  agents  backgrounds,  clients. agents i s  agents,  there  1 Muslim.  sex may  also  perform  community  s t a g e of l i f e  at  local  confirmed  given  243-244) t h a t  be o f f e r e d  the h i g h e r the r a t e  *  many  (Desai  101).  castes  workers  Indo-Canadian  o f t h e dharma o f t h e i r  assumed  assumption caste,  2 Christians  Weisner  paid  since  of t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n  persons of e i t h e r  K h e t a n i , 1979:  21  with Indo-Canadian  of the c l i e n t s .  agents  heterogeneous case-loads  of v a r i o u s  affiliation  to that  Elderly  ft0  the  agents  service  I t c a n be m i s l e a d i n g ,  a g e n t s do. Of  exclusively  10 S i k h s ,  to s o c i a l  t h e same c u l t u r a l l y  w e l f a r e work as p a r t and  i s u s e d by E u r o - C a n a d i a n  10 d e a l w i t h c l i e n t s  similar  3 9  worker"  personnel to refer  persons carry  interviewed, and  "ethnic  administrative  such that  term  Four  by  support  often  include  consider  supportive. For  by of  more r e s p e c t  health his  members and  centres. finding  that  of  higher  better  c a r e by  He  feels  his  the h i g h e r the  utilization.  Indo-Canadians behaviour  which  to i l l u s t r a t e  lack  Euro-Canadians  example:  In. F i j i , my husband went two-three times with other women. Then I went to my b r o t h e r ' s h o u s e . Now he [Hu] has gone to this lady. I have f a m i l y h e r e b u t nobody wants t o g e t i n v o l v e d . They say, "If you want t o l e a v e him, t h a t i s y o u r p r o b l e m . " My  of would  1 33  [other] brother's wife drove me a g e n c y ] . I should get h e l p t h e r e .  to  [an  134  Chapter  THE  To not  MODELS OF SOCIAL EXCHANGE  understand  only  intercultural  COMPARED  transactions,  t o examine t h e models o f s o c i a l  the c u l t u r e s  involved  differences  and  suggest  Five  likely  compatibility  but a l s o  to  similarities sources  to  be  of  found  conflict  is  necessary  exchange o b t a i n i n g i n  compare  emerging  i t  those  from and  models.  such a  likely  in relationships  The  comparison points  of  between members o f  t h e two c u l t u r e s . The social  present chapter exchange  Canadian  agents  identifies  compares  as p o s i t e d and  the  i n Chapters  Indo-Canadian  differences  cultural  and  Two and T h r e e  clients  in  influencing  p e r c e p t i o n o f an e x c h a n g e s i t u a t i o n ,  underlying  decision-making,  guiding  the  implications  of the  exchange  for  and  counselling  ends,  by  values  the  goals  transactional the  basis  It  modes  of  this  suggesting the l o g i c a l  between  the  models  between  of  social  Euro-Canadian  clients.  Indo-Canadian their  On  relationships  interviews  conducted,  clients  value  continua  the Euro-Canadian  both  Euro-Canadian  f o c u s on s i n g l e , p r e d o m i n a n t  respective cultures  services posit  individual  concludes  contrasts  by t h e  values within social  chapter  and I n d o - C a n a d i a n  Judging agents  the  o b s e r v a b l e exchange b e h a v i o u r .  comparison,  agents  in  the  in  of  f o r Euro-  respectively.  similarities  and  referents  (Figure with  agents  2 ) . Although the  both  s o c i e t a l ' and  consistently  express  135  Figure 2 MODELS OF SOCIAL EXCHANGE COMPARED  Euro-Canadian Agent Model  Indo-Canadian C l i e n t Model  Primary value underlying perceptions:  Individual rights and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  Family  Primary g o a l underlying decisions:  Client self-fulfillment t h r o u g h  Fulfillment of dharma t h r o u g h  a) d i s c l o s u r e o f problem  a) f a m i l y sufficiency  b)  determination of treatment  b)  caste purity  c)  follow-through with treatment  c)  service to others  Cultural  Referent  P r i m a r y mode underlying behaviour:  honour  Mutual exchange which i s  Mutual exchange which i s  a) c o n f i n e d t o a r e a of e x p e r t i s e  a) p e r v a s i v e  b)  affectively neutral  b) d e e p l y  c)  universalistic  c) i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  affective  1 36  support  f o r the r i g h t s  Although  Indian  concern  with  clients  reveal  emphasizing The one  personal  release  from  concern  values  with  of  in  so  unit  f a r as they  to  i s based  philosophy  refer  situation,  an a g e n t  "What  or r e c e i v e , from  social  on  the  asks  does  party's  considerations  differ  to different  an exchange  asks  Each  on  values  resemble  this-worldly  c a n and s h o u l d g i v e  perceiving  The c l i e n t  immigrant  honour.  units.  on t h e one hand and t o f a m i l i e s  f o r him?"  the  present,  individuals  mean  individual.  social  family  social  h e r e a n d now. The a g e n t s ' and c l i e n t s ' another  rebirth, Indian  pertain  o f an exchange s i t u a t i o n social  the  o f t h e a g e n t s and c l i e n t s  responsibilities  the valued  of  e m p h a s i z e s an o t h e r - w o r l d l y  toward  i n so f a r a s t h e y  and  what  philosophy  an o r i e n t a t i o n  fundamental  perception of  religious  a this-worldly  another  rights  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  one  units,  to  other.  "What does  this  mean  as  means  In this  for  my  family?" Overall realization achieve  goals  of the primary  the  professional works  approval goal  toward  fulfilling  present  values.  appraisal  duty,  to  Euro-Canadian  aims  the to  p e e r s by p u r s u i n g t h e  s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t . The  positive  h i s ascribed  The  of h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l  of c l i e n t  the  themselves  of  Indo-Canadian  his  o r dharma, t o t h a t  community community  by and  even more so t o h i s f a m i l y . The  decisions  exchange s i t u a t i o n s Euro-Canadian prestations  w h i c h t h e a g e n t s and c l i e n t s reflect  self-interest which  further  .these lies the  culturally  regarding  specific  i n the o f f e r i n g fulfillment  make  goals.  or a c c e p t i n g of  of a c l i e n t  a s an  1 37  individual.  Indo-Canadian  transacting family  and  at  underlying  further client  prestations  heart,  them e f f e c t  self-fulfillment sub-goals.  serve  plan.  the and  clients  fact  that  family  fulfill  and  that  of  client's the  values  interest  overall  clients  and  try  sufficiency,  to to  caste  is  goals  dharma e a c h  to d i s c l o s e  plan,  to  interest.  client two  the  duties  have the  of  the  in  his  client  problem,  f o l l o w through fulfill  p u r i t y , and  of  contains  agents t r y to achieve  a client  treatment  itself  goals  definitions  fulfillment  enabling  Indo-Canadian  demonstrating  to  cultural  Euro-Canadian  by  expresses  of what c o n s t i t u t e s by  d e t e r m i n e h i s own  that  their  distinct  understanding  self-fulfillment to  but  complicated  several  which  community. B o t h a g e n t s and  interest  The  of  self-interest  with  dharma  by  service  to  others. Whereas t h e the  client,  the  Indeed, they admitting  sufficiency.  to  serve The  street.  those  to  contra-indicate  others  but  modes of  goals  and  a  p r a c t i c e s . The only  a l s o renders  Ideally,  very  as  than  at  a  recipient  the  in  mind  the  By  belies family he  risks  existence  of  of  one  service.  from t h e level.  a potentially goal  a  capacity  Euro-Canadian  general  t r a n s a c t i n g power on  bearing  i n common.  implicates a client's him  of  another.  plan,  transaction characterizing  rather  little one  treatment  exchange b e h a v i o u r a l s o v a r y  himself  have  interests  Indo-Canadian c l i e n t  implementing mores  i n common t h e  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p not  specific  perceives  means  have  p r o b l e m , an  In  Indo-Canadian the  a  caste  counselling  goals  would appear  to  violating  overall  and  other An  at  agent two-way  of c l i e n t  self-  138  sufficiency foster  a n d t h e v a l u e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , an  i n the c l i e n t  aims  a s e n s e o f h i s own power, b o t h w i t h  to  the counselling  at  h a n d . I n p a r t i c u l a r , an a g e n t  the  agent  r e l a t i o n s h i p and with  power o f d e t e r m i n i n g  regard  to  wants t o t r a n s f e r  f o r himself  the  to  regard problem  to the c l i e n t  what t r e a t m e n t  plan  he w i l l  follow. An  Indo-Canadian  status,  i n one o f f o u r  status  as s u p e r i o r ;  client  the  i f he  question  i n mind t h e g o a l Indo-Canadian  himself  ways. I f he g i v e s ,  s t a t u s . M u t u a l exchange leaves  perceives  receives,  he e s t a b l i s h e s  he  i n d i c a t e s equal  acknowledges status,  of r e l a t i v e s t a t u s  might  logically  an  the Indian  option  service the  available  cannot  also  determining Of  model o f s o c i a l  family  be e x p e c t e d  the  of that  status,  modes  at  to  i s required,  mode w i t h i n  which  remaining, unilateral  least  However, non-exchange means t h a t help  help-needer, g i v i n g as requiring accompany  service.  transactional  increasing  an  t o favour the  the person  t h e power and s t a t u s  mutual exchange a r e p r e f e r a b l e not  as  Bearing  honour,  exchange, e l i m i n a t e s  t o h i m . By d e f i n i t i o n , enjoy  inferior  a n d non-exchange  t r a n s a c t i o n a l mode o f g i v i n g . B u t h i s p o s i t i o n within  h i s own  open t o d e b a t e .  o f dharma a n d t h e v a l u e o f  client  as t r a n s a c t i n g  then mutual  help  they  do  cannot  non-exchange a n d receiving. not be  exchange r e p r e s e n t s  While  diminish i t . received.  If  the p r e f e r r e d  which t o t r a n s a c t i t .  Thus, a t a g e n e r a l  level,  Euro-Canadians and Indo-Canadians  agree that  u n i l a t e r a l r e c e i v i n g by c l i e n t s  preferable  mode o f t r a n s a c t i o n .  Agents f e e l  constitutes i t  the l e a s t  renders  client  1 39  self-fulfillment  u n o b t a i n a b l e and i g n o r e s  responsibilites.  Clients  fulfilling the  dharma  or  two p a r t i e s would  appear  the optimal  "environment  of e q u a l i t y "  f e e l i n g s leads  kinship-style implications  i t  of r e a l i z i n g  constitutes  and  feel  to  i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and  sacrifices family  agree  any  honour.  that  hope  of  Furthermore,  mutual  exchange  mode o f t r a n s a c t i o n . A g e n t s d e s c r i b e i n which mutual  to c l i e n t  sharing  self-fulfillment.  relations within  of  information  Clients refer  which t r a n s a c t i o n s  o f i n d e b t e d n e s s by v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t  an  to  are free that  from  they a r e  mutual and g e n e r a l i z e d . However, a s w i t h goal,  the  the understanding  understanding  mode i s s u b j e c t Euro-Canadian  of mutual  to c u l t u r a l agents  feel  professionally  to their  area  affectively  neutral,  notwithstanding  they  should  Canadian c l i e n t s or  personal  latter  be  expertise.  based  associate  mutual  —  standards. Within advice  from  provider  also  indications To Canadian  and  ironically  this  context,  receives,  obliged  Transactions  love  affection. —  to confine must  be  the  on  is  alliances  pervasive,  individualistic  receives direction  i t . But  person  Indo-  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the It  based  to provide  from  level.  standards.  exchange w i t h g r o u p  a help-needer  the f r i e n d able  a  t h e empathy t o be c o n v e y e d ,  f r i e n d s h i p s . The b r o t h e r l y  and  specific  on u n i v e r s a l i s t i c  e n t a i l s deep l o y a l t y  timeless,  and  of  i n t e r e s t as  exchange a s a t r a n s a c t i o n a l  d i f f e r e n c e s a t the  interaction  and  of c l i e n t  he  the  helps,  helpother  of f r i e n d s h i p .  summarize, and  the  basic  similarities  Euro-Canadian models of s o c i a l  between exchange  the  Indo-  reside i n  1 40  the  empirical,  oriented of  bases  The  r e l a t e to the d i s t i n c t  referents.  realize  their  advice-givers fulfilling  the  would suggest  immigrant  i n turn  i n such  decisions  reflect in  and  status,  service  accordance  with  contrasts  affect  behaviour and s i n c e  perception cultural  between  thus  a g e n t s and  transactional  party's  of  honour.  made by e a c h p a r t y ,  each  help-  status  similarities  social  reside at the l e v e l  the following  own  family  a  self-sufficient  them t h e  their  c l i e n t s ? Since  i m p l i c a t i o n of  logically  t h e two  t h e s e common  with c l i e n t s  so a s t o g r a n t  Euro-Canadian  situation  fundamental  between  t h e y may become  differences  goal-oriented  decisions  exchange  differences  d u t y and r e a l i z i n g  these  between  Indo-Canadian reflects  a n d t h e m u t u a l exchange mode  maintaining  an a s c r i b e d  interaction  client-  p o t e n t i a l as i n d i v i d u a l s . Indo-Canadian  while  might  the  d e f i n i t i o n s accorded  them power, t h a t  n e e d e r s exchange w i t h o t h e r s  How  perception;  Euro-Canadian agents t r a n s a c t  as t o grant  and  of  bases of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  t r a n s a c t i o n a l behaviour.  models  way  social-unit  of the  values, the  exchange  of perception  models  and v a l u e . I  hypothesis:  DIFFICULTIES IN THE EURO-CANADIAN AGENT/INDO-CANADIAN CLIENT RELATIONSHIP WILL EMERGE WHERE AGENT TRANSACTIONS ARE PERCEIVED BY CLIENTS TO IMPINGE ON FAMILY HONOUR, AND WHERE CLIENT TRANSACTIONS ARE PERCEIVED BY AGENTS TO IMPINGE ON INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S .  Furthermore, client clients  I expect  transactions will  agents w i l l  oriented  respond  feel  toward  similarly  f r u s t r a t e d o r c o n f u s e d by family  t o agent  honour,  transactions  and  that  oriented  141  toward  individual  In  Part  obtaining clients of  self-fulfillment.  Two,  between  interviewed,  hypothesis.  Four  introduction, examined  describe  the  compatibility  the  I  and s u g g e s t and  points  phases  of  study,  transactional of  of the  of  t o which the  conflict  support  counselling and  and  i n which they c a r r y parties  to  points  t h e above  relationship  treatment  which the agents  opposite  interaction  a g e n t s and I n d o - C a n a d i a n  the extent  assessment,  modes  the  patterns  Euro-Canadian  f o r the decisions  responses  the  --  a r e each  clients  make,  them o u t , and t h e  those  decisions  and  transactions. The data.  ending  Only  phase o f c o u n s e l l i n g  four  of  the  currently  engaged w i t h  However,  client  associated the  with  analysis  and  much a s p o s s i b l e Briar  and M i l l e r ,  evaluation and  of  the  phase o f c o u n s e l l i n g  approaches  also  of the f i r s t  examine  offer's to  interviewing.  and c r i t i c a l  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p s -- i s i n c l u d e d  of  four  counselling,  of  agent  self-determination,  clients' help,  as  phases (see  indications  acceptance, d i s c l o s u r e ,  agents'  of  o f outcome -- n o r m a l l y  1971: 167-170). I n o t e  I  f o r lack of  i n t h e s t u d y were n o t  time  evaluation  i n the d i s c u s s i o n  follow-through.  problems,  agent  at  agent-client  of c l i e n t  evaluations  immigrants  agents  the ending of  40  i s not i n c l u d e d  statements f o r  interpretations and  support  of  during  treatment. As designed  indicated to  i n Appendix  elicit  Canadian c l i e n t s  relative  i n comparison  B, t h e  interview  information,  schedules  not  with Euro-Canadian  only  were  oh I n d o -  clients,  but  1 42  also  on  Indian  comparison A,  Sikh,  w i t h one  Indian  Sikhs  of  constituted  distinguished  religious  agents  in  between  affiliation  did differentiate  generated,  the  posited  as p e r t a i n i n g  social  service  clients.  t h e b u l k of my  Chapter  on  Hindu c l i e n t s  population.  clients  on  of  pattern  given Part  relationship  a g e n t s and a l l t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s  basis  Indo-Canadian  Thus, in  agents  the  but no c l e a r  described  in  Appendix  Euro-Canadian  they suggested.  counselling  in  client  of e m i g r a t i o n .  these grounds,  transactions t o the  Four,  Indo-Canadian  or r e g i o n  emerges from t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s data  and F i j i a n  a n o t h e r . However, as e x p l a i n e d  F u r t h e r m o r e , as n o t e d seldom  Indian Hindu,  Two  the are  between  Indo-Canadian  PART  PATTERNS OF  TWO:  INTERACTION  144  Chapter S i x  "WHO THE  In agent and  ARE YOU?"  INTRODUCTORY  t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y p h a s e o f a c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , an  and c l i e n t about  their  g i v e and r e c e i v e perceptions  i t  social on  the nature  about  i t i s transacted  i s r e c e i v e d and r e s p o n d e d  conducted,  information  o f one a n o t h e r . What  c o n v e y e d and t h e way i n w h i c h how  PHASE  t o . Judging  information is"  bear d i r e c t l y  on  by t h e i n t e r v i e w s  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d between  s e r v i c e a g e n t and an I n d o - C a n a d i a n c l i e n t  the l a t t e r ' s  themselves  understanding  o f who t h e a g e n t  t h e r e . As one I n d o - C a n a d i a n a g e n t  a  depends h e a v i l y i s and why he i s  puts i t :  A s t r a n g e r w a l k s i n and s a y s "I am c o n c e r n e d a b o u t y o u . " But who a r e you? You a r e n o t a d o c t o r . Who a r e you?  The between  present agents  counselling. party  client, the  and  First,  perceives  contact.  chapter clients  during  I describe  patterns the  how c o n t a c t  and how t h e c l i e n t concludes  identify  agents t o t h e i r  to  efforts.  with own  an e x a m i n a t i o n satisfaction,  interaction phase  of  i s made, and how  each  response  identifies  interprets this  of  initial  h i s own and h i s o p p o s i t e ' s  I t h e n d i s c u s s how an a g e n t  chapter  these  examines  to  himself  information. of c l i e n t and  initial  agent  to  a  Finally,  e f f o r t s to responses  1 45  P a t t e r n s of I n i t i a l Social first  tends  to  by  behaviour examination  the  helps to explain  Each  t h e s e means o f c o n t a c t  three  (Table  positive  in  received  Although  workers,  services, to  and  contact  modes  I V ) . In g e n e r a l ,  Indo-  into  dependent through  the  jargon  from  by  someone  may  also  contact  believe  with the  bring with  o f E a s t and S o u t h  that  in  o t h e r than  public  abuse o f w i v e s  a b u s e , and  and a d o l e s c e n t s . "  Depending  on  their  a g e n c i e s , workers r e c e i v e referrals  more  from  police  role  By  social  definition,  need on t h e p a r t o f  are  and  Euro-Canadian  equally  Indo-Canadian  likely  cases cases  to  concern concern  2  within  the m a j o r i t y and  of  h e a l t h w o r k e r s and  Indo-Canadian  Vancouver  to  the p r o s p e c t i v e  i n t e r v e n t i o n . However, more E u r o - C a n a d i a n and c h i l d  An  contacts  response  roles  clients.  Agents  infant  first  agents  the  require  receiving  of the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s ,  i s p r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d and i m p l i e s  residents  or  correspondence.  intervention client.  in  behaviour  self-referral.  surrounding  normally associated  intervention workers  routine  transactional  or mutual exchange  to those c o n t a c t s i n i t i a t e d  client.  of  of  circumstances  this  INTERVENTION,  information  they  intervention,  clients  response  of  i n which  m a n i f e s t n e g a t i v e or non-exchange b e h a v i o u r  to routine in  t o t h r e e ways  clients:  one  to intervention;  response  school  with  with  employed clients  response  refer  self-referral.  correspond  Canadian  refers  agents  contact  and  initially  in  service  come i n t o  services,  Contact  other  the of  network o f h e l p i n g  their  emergency  Indo-Canadian services,  and  146  T a b l e IV FORM OF I N I T I A L CONTACT BY MODE OF CLIENT RESPONSE  Initial  Intervention w o G, w <u  cn  •p  NonExchange Mutual Exchange  11 (32%)  -  Contact  Routine  1  Self-Referral  -  ( 3%)  TOTAL  12 (35%)  7 (20%)  2  ( 6%)  9 (26%)  2  ( 6%)  6 (18%)  13 (39%)  10 (29%)  8 (24%)  34(100%)  G  OJ •H U  Dependent Receiving  TOTAL  5 (15%)  16 (47%)  147  secondarily workers  from h o s p i t a l s ,  making  "friends"  routine  private  visits.  of the p r o s p e c t i v e  attention  of  may  representative,  n o t be  agents.  doctors,  client  bring  b a s e d as  his  pattern  i t i s on  non-random d a t a , i t does make  sense  preference  for familiar  Agents  indicate  consequent  that  intervention  and  whatever usually  c l i e n t s . Whereas t h e r e a c t i o n defensive the  ("I'm  reaction  a good  in  health  t e a c h e r s and  problem  to  of r e f e r r a l  may  of  the  of  or  s o u r c e s of  a hostile  Euro-Canadians  help."  tends  3  their  response  done a n y t h i n g  tends t o convey  and  Indian  the source of r e f e r r a l ,  elicits  the  impressionistic  light  p a r e n t . I haven't  of Indo-Canadians  public  Less frequently,  Although t h i s  f o r containment  and  to  from be  wrong"),  resistance:  I t ' s not y o u r c o n c e r n what happens in my family. This i s t h e way t h i n g s a r e done i n o u r community. T h e r e was a l i t t l e p r o b l e m but there's no n e e d f o r you t o be i n v o l v e d . Next t i m e w e ' l l get i n touch w i t h you. He's him. out. The  Indo-Canadian's  agent's r i g h t "Whites it's  a p i e c e of my h e a r t . I w i l l l o o k a f t e r I d o n ' t need y o u . I d o n ' t want y o u . Get  to  don't  just  dispute  intervene. want t o be  'none o f y o u r  Agents  note that  intervention  men  resent  the " i n t r u s i o n one  one  family  seen a s c a u s a l ,  agent,  worker  puts  but w i t h E a s t  while both Euro-Canadian  resist  of  As  he c h a l l e n g e s  the i t :  Indians  business.'"  men  opinion  is jurisdictional;  more t h a n do into  their  they a c t as  their  and  wives,  Indo-Canadian Indo-Canadian  domain" most o f a l l . i f t h e y have been  In t h e  personally  148  attacked.  When c h i l d r e n a r e i n v o l v e d ,  initially  appear  relationship. resistance,  "really  However, the  "onqe  mother  l e t t h e worker  to  the  usually  involves wife-battering, to  open"  Indo-Canadian the prospect  father  goes  Indo-Canadian  in," particularly  women  has  may  of a h e l p i n g  expressed  along."  his  Where t h e c a s e  women o f t e n  i f t h e husband  refuse  "even  i s present:  A typical p a t t e r n i s t o have t h e w i f e deny t h e p r o b l e m and t h e man t r i e s t o g e t us o u t of t h e r e . H e ' l l s a y , " S u r e , I g o t drunk one day a n d h i t h e r . I f i t h a p p e n s again we'll phone y o u . " Of  the  34 r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h c l i e n t s  16 were e s t a b l i s h e d a s these,  11  ( 6 9 % ) were  resistance. were  in  result  process  5 cases  of  these  a  for  matter  of course  example,  services  to  are  persons within them.  They  public of  health  the outset  a l l involved  cases  was  Of  by c l i e n t women  o r were a l r e a d y  who  separated  characterized  equally  task-oriented Although  workers,  implies, are services offered  mothers.  the geographical  problem-oriented.  interventions.  t o a l l i n d i v i d u a l s of a given  post-partum  considered  are  at  in detail,  dependence.  ROUTINE SERVICES, a s t h e t e r m as  agent  (31%)  of s e p a r a t i n g ,  husbands. Each  by c l i e n t  of  characterized  The r e m a i n i n g  the  from, t h e i r initially  a  recalled  school  By  available  definition,  of t h e agency  or  preventative, frequently  workers and s o c i a l  t h e M i n i s t r y o f Human R e s o u r c e s may  also  such  to a l l qualifying  area  most  category,  administering rather  than  associated  with  workers  establish  outside contact  149  with c l i e n t s In  through the d e l i v e r y of r o u t i n e  stark  intervention, quite  client  positive.  Indo-Canadians consistent less  contrast  to  usually  indicate afford  but  that  who  received  i t "say 'yes' b e f o r e  have  h e a r d about  When any r e s e r v a t i o n s  that  that  their  client  response  services  is  to  generally  b o t h E u r o - C a n a d i a n s and offers  Indo-Canadians  of  service  a  seem t o t a k e them  f o r g r a n t e d a n d t o be more g r a t e f u l f o r them.  persons  are  hostile  response t o routine  Agents  welcome,  the  services.  Particularly  t h e s e r v i c e b u t who have  not y e t  I c a n g e t my s p i e l o u t . "  t o the acceptance of r o u t i n e  e x p r e s s e d , t h e y t e n d t o be e x p r e s s e d by men. w h i l e E u r o - C a n a d i a n men r e m a i n n e u t r a l  involved,  I n d o - C a n a d i a n men r e m a i n n e u t r a l  what t h i s  i s a l l about":  services  Agents  report  o r become p o s i t i v e l y o r "need  t o check out  East Indian men have more q u e s t i o n s a b o u t why y o u a r e t h e r e . I t ' s t h e more protective role t h e y f e e l t h e y have t o p l a y . They want a v a l i d reason f o r your being t h e r e . I n d o - C a n a d i a n s a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y a s k whether anything,  a n d how t h e a g e n t  got t h e i r  the  service  costs  name:  Sometimes they seem t o wonder why I am t h e r e . They t h i n k I am d e f i n i n g them as a problem, just because they a r e immigrants. As soon a s I e x p l a i n t h a t i t i s r o u t i n e f o r a l l mums, i t ' s o k a y .  As  one  man s a i d w i t h r e g a r d  his  grandson:  to routine  dental  examinations f o r  1 50  We have t a k e n a l l the necessary help we t h i n k i s e s s e n t i a l . But we would n o t want t o r e c e i v e more t h a n t h e n e x t f e l l o w .  Of as  the  a  10 a g e n t - c l i e n t  result  characterized two-way  of  routine  from t h e  The  assumed d e p e n d e n t  attitudes  very  and  did  an  reject  Indo-Canadian  clients  referrals social  are  self-referral problem  relatively  of the p r e s e n t  those  Like  and  unlike  some client  w i t h w h i c h he would  like  outside  the  agents  interviewed  that  of  Euro-Canadians.  12%  of  their  and  referred,  in contrast  depending  on  agents  the  attribute  referrals  to  transportation  the  factors  of  of  difficulties.  and a g e n t s , e x p l a i n  of t h e i r service.  the p a t t e r n  self-  Most in  with  intervention, f e e l s he  has  on  They  a  lack  in  that  cases are  self-  Euro-Canadian cases, Most  Euro-Canadian  of  awareness,  Indo-Canadians, terms  the  estimate  s c a r c i t y of Indo-Canadian  language,  and  self-referrals  Indo-Canadian  the  relative of  case  initially  remarked  Indo-Canadian  t o up t o 50%  nature  in  assistance.  comparison 5%  rate  of  himself  low  between  one  interventions,  proportionately with  women  between a g e n t s  cases  the  of  client  t e n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d  when  All  the  In o n l y sample  contacts  client.  problem-oriented  occurs  were  free-flowing,  involved  straits.  7  services.  the  w o r k e r s . However,  established  services,  from t h e o u t s e t  immigrant  by  of  were  2 r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which  denotes  initiated  by  severe f i n a n c i a l  an o f f e r of r o u t i n e  SELF-REFERRAL  delivery  beginning  transactions.  poor h e a l t h  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  of  both  Indian  selfand  clients cultural  151  values: They see i t as a n e g a t i v e t h i n g t o get h e l p . The a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e t h e i r own p r o b l e m s i s t h e s t r o n g e s t v a l u e . The f a m i l y i s the beall and the e n d - a l l . You j u s t d o n ' t t a l k outside.  When I n d o - C a n a d i a n s situation is  is inevitably  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  do  refer  themselves  a s e r i o u s one.  a dependent c l i e n t  Almost  for as  note that  themselves had  "rarely"  or  f o r a p r o b l e m . Of  demeanor:  initiated  contact  with  " n e v e r " do the  an  11  the  inevitably, i t  No E a s t I n d i a n c a s e is not desperate. they a r e a s k i n g f o r h e l p , i t means t h e y c o m p l e t e l y d e p e n d e n t on y o u . The f a m i l y b r o k e n down. Agents  help,  men  If are has  I n d o - C a n a d i a n men interviewed,  refer  only  one  agent:  I was so ashamed. My d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w s h o u t e d at me, I s h o u l d get a j o b . My son l i s t e n s o n l y t o h e r . . . . I t o l d my f r i e n d s how i t was f o r me. One guy t o l d me a b o u t [an agency]. Another guy t o l d me t o go t h e r e a l s o . So I o p e n l y went t o t h a t p l a c e .  Several likely  agents  to  come  to" within  their  referring  clients  turn  but  to  advised  by  suggested  from own  them t o  i n d i v i d u a l s who  community. But  i n d i c a t e not  also  that  that  they  only  self-referrals have  "no  interviews that  they  have t u r n e d  seek p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p :  one  most  e l s e to  turn  the  self-  with do  are  have someone  t o them and  have  to  been  1 52  I d i d n ' t t e l l anyone f o r a l o n g t i m e . Then I t o l d a f r i e n d how my husband was bothering me. She t o l d me t o go t o [a p a r t i c u l a r a g e n t ] . She gave me t h e number. When my husband left to live with t h a t woman, I c a l l e d [that agent]. On  t h e one hand, encouragement  of  what  cannot  people  would  say  v i o l a t e community  members  suggest  contact  as  i t . On  the  self-serving.  the  situation,  after  themselves. Eight  involving  made by them. S i x  client  The  general  pattern  they  others  of  sufficiency family  through  of a c l i e n t ' s  in  routine  of  i t implies  honour c a n s t i l l  intervention  the  that  to  initiated p u t up" they  by c l i e n t s  look  resulted  self-referred  cases  at the outset  relationships,  between t h e form o f c o n t a c t  to contact  referents because  or  .have  "insisted"  from  by one  and one a f e m a l e , were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  correspondence  clients'  oneself  "would  these  community  from t h e b e g i n n i n g .  of response  intervention,  If  to  manner. The two r e m a i n i n g  a male c l i e n t  if  encouragement  appearing,  that  fear  Help-seeking  Most o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s who  but t h a t  open, m u t u a l e x c h a n g e s  the  hand,  a l l i n v o l v i n g women, were c h a r a c t e r i z e d  a dependent  the  "found out."  o f t h e 34 r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e s c r i b e d  from c o n t a c t s  the  they  other  of  w i t h agents emphasized  with  (75%),  if  friends a l l e v i a t e s the  s t a n d a r d s as d r a s t i c a l l y  f r i e n d s a l l e v i a t e s the fear others,  from  may be u n d e r s t o o d social  exchange.  exceptional family  be p r e s e r v e d ,  i n terms of Contact  need,  and t h r e a t e n s the c l i e n t  i s more a c c e p t a b l e ,  by  implicates i t s honour. responds  non-exchange mode o f t r a n s a c t i o n .  services  and  once t h e  to  Contact  universal  1 53  nature  of  the  service i s understood. A c l i e n t  mutual exchange  mode,  assured  that  particular  family  i s not being  referral,  while  problem-oriented,  family  -- t h e o b j e c t  broken  down.  unilateral as  having  of goals  of  relevance  contact  to this  cultural  of  they  of h i s  values with  —  honour  they  The  position  her  agents as  perceive  general  themselves  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  further underscore the  r e f e r e n t s . The c l i e n t s  protect  except  perceived  strength.  righteous  indignation  h e r t o seek h e l p .  village  brothers  their  help  who  responded  i n the mutual  resident  who s h a r e d  one c l i e n t  who r e s p o n d e d  He  feared deportation,  person.  I  exchange mode  Hindu  a senior Punjabi  h i s righteous  to  n o n - e x c h a n g e mode had a c o m p l i c a t e d  cost.  woman,  Sikh  indignation  him t o seek  had  shared  husband's b e h a v i o u r ,  h i s d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w ' s behaviour and a d v i s e d The  whose  i n V a n c o u v e r . They  her  The o t h e r ,  none  t o be a c t i n g f r o m a  One, a F i j i a n  over  and  personal  themselves  services  h u s b a n d s . They h a d  them,  at great  who t r a n s a c t e d  self-referral of r e l a t i v e  would  own f a m i l y o f p r o c r e a t i o n  advised had  could  two c l i e n t s  following  her  i n V a n c o u v e r who  has  need t o r e c e i v e .  (2) were a l l women more o r l e s s w i t h o u t family  self-  because t h e  i n a d e p e n d e n t manner t o i n t e r v e n t i o n (5) o r t o r o u t i n e  no  i n the  through  acceptable  and r e s p o n s e t o c o n t a c t  of these  Contact  transact  family,  and a g r e a t  Most o f t h e e x c e p t i o n s form  is  clients  r e c e i v e r s . Without to give  challenged.  sufficiency  and t h e b a s i s  Self-referred  little  the  responds  and man, over  help.  routine  services  i n the  situation  o f bigamy  to hide.  and was r e l u c t a n t t o t a l k  t o any o f f i c i a l  r e t u r n t o the f a c t o r of fear of d e p o r t a t i o n  later in  1 54  this chapter.  Identification  o f Agent  When t h e y  first  typically  introduce  name  the  of  reason  phone o r v i s i t themselves  agency  which  may  caller.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e  relation If  surmise  mentioned  unless  client, then  of t h i s  statement  reinforce  the  client  happens then  school."  As the  to  "I am  for  on t h e name with  the  son's c o u n s e l l o r a t the  the  call  subsequent has  broad  t o i t . However, t h e  i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e agent this  individual.  nurse  above,  f o r the n a t u r e of response  below  have h e a r d t h e name  a  o r "I am y o u r  reason  about t h e  one, no i n f o r m a t i o n i s  relies entirely  indicated  by t h e i r  i s discussed a s an  the  one, t h e  information  information  He h e a r s , f o r example,  concerning  implications  of  i s a European  H e a l t h Department,"  such-and-such  words u s e d  items  agents by  they r e p r e s e n t , and f i n a l l y  by o t h e r s . The c l i e n t  Vancouver  to  name,  t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e agent  the agency.  In  by p e r s o n a l  several  t h e name p r o n o u n c e d  conveyed,  of  a prospective  f o r c a l l i n g . I f t h e p e r s o n a l name i s an I n d i a n  client  in  a s an O f f i c i a l  key  serve t o modify or  response.  the f i r s t  example,  t h e key t e r m  f o r Indo-Canadians  seems  be " n u r s e " :  A nurse i s o k a y , b e c a u s e n u r s e s t h e y know. But i t is difficult for them to differentiate between nurses, to conceptualize the d i f f e r e n t roles.  The  immigrants  interviewed  explicitly  associate  public  health  155  workers  i n Canada w i t h  regions  of  unexpected  emigration.  and  example,  for injections."  for children  Visits  from  most w i d e l y because ease with  which  categories,  I m m i g r a n t s who "hospital Service,  "nurse"  sister"  When  the  counsellor  of  are  a  "the h o s p i t a l  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e  i s that  t o come  to  people's  homes,"  "nurses,"  a r e the  routine service. but a l s o  sometimes  confused  help  out  to  from  a  have  had  w i t h no n u r s i n g  provider  introduces  t h e key t e r m  Perhaps  because of the  existing  turned  school,  from  previously  receiving  by i n d i v i d u a l s  service  from  fits  often  delivered  an  we have  high p r o f i l e ,  persons  spoke  that  sisters.  h e a l t h workers,  agents'  other  accepted  i n the schools.  public  these  man  in their  In F i j i  known p e r s o n a l l y d e l i v e r e d  of  one  understanding  t h e government p a y s n u r s e s  to care  o f government c l i n i c s  our r e c o r d s t o the area  i n urban a r e a s  "here,  For  post-operative v i s i t  must have g i v e n this  the nurses  cognitive with  them.  "nurse"  or  Homemaker  background.  himself  as  a  f o r Indo-Canadians i s  "school": I f I phone E a s t I n d i a n s and s a y I am c a l l i n g from t h e s c h o o l , t h e y a r e r e a l l y open. They have r e s p e c t f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . They a r e w i l l i n g t o come t o t h e s c h o o l a t o n c e . The  respect accorded  authoritarian the the  other  education  consistently  system  here.  perceived the  on  the  one  hand  system of t h e r e g i o n s of o r i g i n ,  hand t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e  school  education,  schools relates  as  p l a c e d on a c h i l d ' s  Although placing  "successful  Chinese the  to  the  and on  success  in  Canadian parents a r e  greatest  a d a p t a t i o n of a c h i l d  emphasis  on  i s extremely  1 56  important school  t o a l l immigrant  are readily  recognize  parents.  accepted."  Services  School  the a t t i t u d e of underlying  workers  respect  offered  by  the  f o r t h e most  part  and u s e i t :  I always present myself as working i n the s c h o o l , f o r t h e s c h o o l b o a r d . I want them t o connect me w i t h t h e s c h o o l . E a s t I n d i a n s -all ethnic groups -- have a positive relationship to the school. It i s often negative with s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The  only  two a g e n t s who p e r c e i v e  receptive"  t o s e r v i c e s as females a r e both s c h o o l  While of  the education  i t s services  functions  of  is  system  limited  teacher  and  "teacher" maybe  the  accorded  the  school  of  delivering  i t s services,  them a r e n o t  known,  With  by a c o u n s e l l o r  principal"). system  workers.  t o the d i s c i p l i n a r y  or as " p r i n c i p a l "  teacher;  acceptance  i s previously  principal.  i m m i g r a n t s who were c o n t a c t e d either  Indo-Canadian males as " j u s t as  ("He  an  even  and a c a d e m i c  one  exception,  r e f e r r e d t o him a s  i s n o t [my d a u g h t e r ' s ]  Nonetheless,  as  the  institution if  awareness  the  respect  facilitates  roles  of  those  recognized:  East Indian p a r e n t s have t h e same a t t i t u d e to the c o u n s e l l o r and t h e t e a c h e r . They d o n ' t know t h e d i f f e r e n c e . They a r e n o t u s e d t o s c h o o l c o u n s e l l i n g , b u t once y o u e x p l a i n , i t ' s okay. Counsellors  report  that  Vancouver a l s o  respond  already  about  by  know  Euro-Canadian  favourably  us. East  b i t . I t ' s new t o them."  to  Indians  parents contact,  i n S o u t h and E a s t but  that  "they  have t o g r a s p t h e i d e a b i t  1 57  Perhaps to  deal  with  especially "nurse," of  t h e most c o n f u s i n g cognitively  agents  "social  emigration.  tells  i s not a well  Unlike  "school,"  clients  i n Chapter  assistance  i sestablished financial  "the welfare  " w e l f a r e worker" on  worker with  office,"  known r o l e  or " s o c i a l  arrival  when a s k e d whether  worker."  a  o f Human  financial  o f Human R e s o u r c e s  t h e r e was a n y t h i n g l i k e  may  "We s p e n t o u r whole l i v e s there  do  i t was n o t h i n g . " The f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h by c a l l s  reinforce  regard  "just  F o r example,  t h e r e and never  children  any t e n d e n c y  Ministry  of  laughed and t o l d t h e  from s o c i a l  power o f M.H.R. t o a p p r e h e n d a c t to  associated  worker  h e r husband  i s followed  be  a social  who was c o n t a c t e d by a s o c i a l  police  by  person  about  being  to  Resources  not bother  after  Canadians  Persons  M.H.R. i n t h e P u n j a b ,  p r o b l e m s . " One woman beaten  social  a i d worker a s  category of "police."  o r , "The p o l i c e  As  to visit?  family  certainly  toward  Who, t h e n , i s t h i s  wanting  existing  replied  thep o l i c e , "  statutory  misleading.  the evidence i s scanty, i t suggests that  thepreviously  intervention  i n the regions  i n Canada.  t o the M i n i s t r y to  Unlike  o f Human R e s o u r c e s "  a n d i t c a n be  and  workers,  Resources.  "Ministry  soon a f t e r  a i d refer  with the Ministry  Indo-Canadians  made by s o c i a l  Three, a negative a t t i t u d e  t h e other end of t h e l i n e Although  saw  little,  f o r Indo-Canadians  o f Human  worker"  indicated  as  a r e those  from t h e M i n i s t r y  prospective  receiving  of c o n t a c t s  Human  actual  police  workers, and the at  risk,  on t h e p a r t Resources  would  o f Indo-  agents  as  police. Workers  calling  from  t h e Immigrant  S e r v i c e s C e n t r e (now  158  OASIS) a p p e a r by  t o be most  prospective  ones,  but  familiar. their  clients.  the  name  Vancouver  the  board"  about  Thus, agency  the  are their  institution; immediate  interviewed  Centre  during  i n Indian  had been  their  insurance,  over  Indian  first  etcetera.  taken  by  days  in  Others  language newspapers as a  not  had place had  t h e s t o r e - f r o n t d o o r a n d h a d come i n t o relatives.  i n the case of the is  names  o r c i t i z e n s h i p c l a s s e s . A few r e s p o n d e n t s  sponsoring  name  personal  identified  a g e n c y and i t s l o c a t i o n a r e a l s o  f o r medical  the Centre  t o go f o r E n g l i s h  inquire  of  t o • the  t o apply  about  "seen  Not o n l y  Some o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s  sponsors  read  r e a d i l y and most a c c u r a t e l y  Immigrant  associated  i t i s accurately  Services  with  any  identified  Centre,  previously  a s an o f f i c e  the known  that  meets  needs:  T h a t i m m i g r a n t o f f i c e i s t h e most They t o l d us a b o u t U.I.C.  important.  I went t o I.S.C. t o g e t my papers filled out. When my h u s b a n d was a l c o h o l i c I went there a l s o . Because  the  Centre's  uncompromising clients  they  p r i o r to intervention  The in  needs,  workers  many  identification instances  discussed associated associated  meet  are often or  of agents  with  gamut  stigmatizing  impersonal,  known t o a n d a c c e p t e d by  in their  r e i n f o r c e s the pattern  stigmatizing  of  self-referral.  above. S o c i a l workers a r e with  a  not  official  capacities  of response  to contact  only  frequently  intervention, welfare  most they  assistance  are and  also  police  1 59  services. Resistance resistance  to help  Public  to c o n t a c t  o f f e r e d by  health  workers  are  with non-stigmatizing  associated  with  origin.  Acceptance  service  d e l i v e r y may  agents  identified  Workers five  out  of  themselves  the  are  rather  as  and  the than  Indo-Canadian c l i e n t s  known f r o m  of  Services  frequently  the  also  regions  course help  Centre,  self-referral, w o r k e r " or  accepted  service  associating  do  of  of  routine  offered  who  by  received  not  identify  "counsellor."  b e c a u s e , as  non-stigmatizing  identify  be  light.  p o s i t i v e l y known t o  social  most  s e r v i c e s , they are  acceptance  "social are  also  identified.  only  made i n t h e  Immigrant  c a s e s of  other,  of  be  services  previously  Several that,  the  to c l i e n t s  d e l i v e r y of  "nurse"  contacts  also  eight  problem-oriented they  of  not  routine  in a p o s i t i v e  from the  r o l e of  i n t e r v e n t i o n may  agents n e g a t i v e l y  associated  the  through  the  Their  individuals,  clients  through  services.  agents  interviewed  them w i t h any  them w i t h  suggest  particular role,  government  officials  in  general: E a s t I n d i a n s new t o t h e c o u n t r y g i v e me the impression t h a t t h e y f e e l t h e y d o n ' t have a c h o i c e . I say I'm from t h e H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t and t h e y s l o t me i n w i t h g o v e r n m e n t . Pretty soon they find out we don't have any authority. Newcomers a c c e p t i n t e r v e n t i o n more easily. There is some feeling that "This is a government a g e n c y . We s h o u l d ' t r e f u s e or it might go a g a i n s t u s . " L a t e r i t ' s more l i k e whites; you're j u s t doing your job.  Agents  feel  that  Euro-Canadian c l i e n t s  also associate  them  with  1 60  government, are  but that  they a r e l e s s  I n d o - C a n a d i a n s , and more aware  intimidated  by t h e f a c t  of the l i m i t s  than  t o the  agents'  suggestions  i s two-  authority. The fold.  question  First,  t o what e x t e n t  w i t h government? When clients idea  almost  medical Also,  invariably  is  get  that  government.* As  of c h o i c e .  one  the s e r v i c e s that  school  school,  health  respondents  board  majority  few  woman b e l i e v e s  of p u b l i c  several  regarded?  of the v a r i o u s  "government." A  and  the  health,  whether  or p o s i t i v e  the  workers i n "  and of  and s o c i a l  agents, have  no  that her workers.  distinguish  those  clients  paid  by  answered  workers a r e p a i d  by  ft  to  negative  paid,  by t h e  However,  immediately  the s a l a r i e s  replied  interesting  workers p a i d  government.  do I n d o - C a n a d i a n s " s l o t  pays  insurance covers  between  hand,  who  agents  i t  from t h e a g e n t s '  And, s e c o n d l y , how i s "government"  asked  how  arising  this  association  one, t h e e v i d e n c e  C a n a d i a n government Persons are u n l i k e l y  they c o n s i d e r  t h e government  As one community  with is  government  mixed.  i s t h e government t o immigrate t o  terribly  oppressive  On  is a  the  one  of the country a  place  where  or f r i g h t e n i n g .  worker r e m a r k e d :  There i s no n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t we a r e f u n d e d by g o v e r n m e n t . You a r e i n Canada and t h i s i s t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t . Clients  from both  government services:  as  Fiji  and  trustworthy  India and  characterize  benevolent  the Canadian  i n i t s p r o v i s i o n of  161  The government i s so n i c e h e r e ; t h e y p r o v i d e t h i s k i n d of h e l p . A f t e r my baby was born and I had the a c c i d e n t , whoever came and said "I am here to help you from the government," I was v e r y g l a d . •In  a recent sampling  of a l l i m m i g r a n t s  expressed  satisfaction  with  services  (Canada,  Certainly  great appreciation, by  interviewed  f o r the p r e s e n t  On  government  Manpower  expressed  no  less  and  a  not  paid  that  the a l t e r n a t i v e  fellow  on  your  s o u r c e s of h e l p  who  f e a r e d d e p o r t a t i o n f o r reasons  notes  that  ensure  the a c q u i e s c e n c e  positively  while  of an  agent  government.  with  not  111-118).  fear.  of  been  A  film  on  doubts  of  I  Three  with agents,  B.C.'s  is resistance  and  status to  1980).  cooperation,  to  or  farmworkers  immigrant  that  them  clients  e n t r y , bigamy,  immigration  suggest  by  who  government.  services  is  authority  may  In most c a s e s , however, t h e promotes  residual  told  the  102).  illegal  a  Indo-Canadians  l a b o u r e r s (Patwardhan,  resistance.  intervention  was  Indo-Canadians  that  "side with  t h e government as  w i t h government  cooperation, government  t o me.  of  1974:  t h e government as a p r o v i d e r of  regarded,  regarded  Two  ( s e e F e r g u s o n , . 1964:  c o n t r a c t o r s manipulate  In sum,  suggests  were most c a u t i o u s i n i n t e r a c t i n g  also cautious in t a l k i n g  education  the  f o r s e r v i c e s had  are  tuberculosis  86%  and  satisfaction,  of  does e x i s t .  countrymen  side"  Columbia,  study.  We  be  t o mention  percentage  of government a g e n t s  had  health  Immigration,  t h e o t h e r hand, some e v i d e n c e  mistrust  to B r i t i s h  association or  feigned  resistance  intervention,  not  to to  162  Identification  of Agent  Identification demands  more  statement Indian,  the of  conveys.  A  an  In  Individual agent  than  the  for  an  of  usual  opinion  o f one  13 a g e n t s  of I n d o - C a n a d i a n  Indo-Canadian  the  t o know you means g e t t i n g  total  tendency  of  information  getting  society."  as an  (38%)  clients  client  name-role-agency agent,  " t o an  East  t o know your p l a c e  in  s p o n t a n e o u s l y remarked t o ask  personal  on  questions  them:  East I n d i a n s want t o know a l o t a b o u t y o u r p e r s o n a l l i f e . A r e you m a r r i e d ? Where do you l i v e ? How much money do you make? I t u s e d t o be j u s t t h e men but now t h e women ask too. C h i n e s e d o n ' t ask t h a t much.  When questions "flesh  a  Euro-Canadian  serve to e s t a b l i s h  out" the o f f i c i a l  agent who  he  initiates is  as  an  contact,  such  individual,  to  person:  E a s t I n d i a n s ask t h e i n t e r p r e t e r t h i n g s l i k e "Does the nurse have k i d s ? " I t e l l h e r t o say "She's t r a i n e d t o a d v i s e y o u . " I don't l i k e t o g i v e p e r s o n a l d a t a . But t h a t i s what t h e y want; t h e y ' r e a s k i n g a b o u t y o u . T h e r e ' s no challenge to y o u r a b i l i t y l i k e you g e t from w h i t e s . As n o t e d below, however, precisely  the  qualifications. When an questions soc  iety:  personal 0  the data  Indo-Canadian which  client  establish  an  it  is  agent's  5  Indo-Canadian  from  to  clients  agent usually  initiates concern  contact, his  place  the  first  i n Indian  163  A H i n d u grandmother w i l l ask what c a s t e are. The mother wants to know what f a t h e r or husband d o e s .  you your  My S i k h c l i e n t s n e v e r ask a b o u t my r e l i g i o n . Maybe t h e y know from my name. But they a l w a y s ask w h i c h v i l l a g e I am from. After  establishing  the I n d o - C a n a d i a n  society,  clients  questions  that  t h e y pose  a l l  social  Not personal their  questions  with  Indo-Canadian clients,  consider they are taught  of  and  from  agents  them  the  that  Of  react the  background  respond  agents  to  to  a positive  f o r two  Social  of t h e i r  relationship.  In  to  general, from with  service  (Aquilar,  Euro-Canadian and  of  all,  professionals  are  is crucial; i t  1972:  the  67;  quality  see  also  considered conducive Indo-Canadian  agents a l l o w time to  responsibilities  Indo-Canadian  questions  reasons. F i r s t  r e l a t i o n s h i p v a r y between  rights  tends  personal  phase of c o u n s e l l i n g  cultures.  or p r o v i d e  6  e x p r e s s m i s g i v i n g s about  are determined  on  provide  respond  t h e "dynamics o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and  Euro-Canadian clients  or  questions  tend  to  commented  of t h e a g e n t .  8 3 ) . However, t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s  initiating  13 who  the d i v i s i o n  favourably  misgivings."  introductory  favourably  withhold information,  i n T a b l e V,  "time-consuming."  1972:  proposed  Five  Indian  agents.  t h e y answer w i l l i n g l y ,  "inappropriate,"  interaction"  assure  said  within  family-residence-salary  providers  Euro-Canadian  or w i t h  same  clients.  indicated  a g e n t s who  that  then  Mizio, to  service  the e t h n i c  while  indifference The  As  the  Euro-Canadian  voluntarily.  reluctantly.  correlate  is  ask  o c c u r e n c e , 8 (61%)  information it  then  agent's p l a c e  clients  within  allot  time  the to  164  Table V  AGENT DISCLOSURE OF PERSONAL INFORMATION BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  Agent D i s c l o s u r e C O M tn X O  (0 m  Willing  Unwilling  TOTAL  IndoCanadian  6 (46%)  1  ( 8%)  7 (54%)  EuroCanadian  2 (15%)  4 (31%)  6 (46%)  TOTAL  8 (61%)  5 (39%)  13(100%)  +J  c tn  165  ascertain  personal  partner.  In  information offerings merely  general,  in  the  our  an  exchange  Canadian  of  Hawaii  points  exchange  requests for  their  sequence.  answers  as  Personal questions  to  in  of a  perfect  offend  the  their  North  between  i n Indian  determining  the  stranger  own  role  to  Indo-  sensibilities.  played  extent  don't  and t o e s t a b l i s h  satisfaction,  American  in  society.  Japanese-Americans  critical  said,  T h r e e , however, y o u j u s t  stranger  to  inappropriate  As one a g e n t  t o g e t t o know t h e a g e n t  relationship may  considered  or "rude."  that  i n Chapter  attempts  relations  relationships  regard  also  like  with a perfect  clients  study  etiquette  ask t h i n g s  As n o t e d  share problems In t h e i r  are  a r e "too p e r s o n a l "  don't  society."  proposed  a g e n t s do n o t p e r c e i v e  transactional  questions  they  just  the  time."  Personal  "you  the  about  a s r e q u e s t s , n o r do t h e y  "waste  because  information  A  and w h i t e s i n  by  concepts  which  of  intercultural  can develop:  The i n t e r a c t i o n r u l e s w h i c h tend to deter the development of m u t u a l i t y c e n t r e around the polar differences in styles of d i s c l o s u r e ( J o h n s o n and J o h n s o n , 1975: 4 6 1 ) . While may  the i n t e r a c t i o n not  contain  "polar  how, when, a n d w h i c h A Euro-Canadian requests that  r u l e s of North American  agent  differences,"  and I n d i a n  the e t i q u e t t e surrounding  p e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n s t o ask c e r t a i n l y may  feel  society  imposed  upon  for  information,  and an I n d o - C a n a d i a n  a helping  relationship  i s u n a c c e p t a b l e from  by  a  client's  client an  varies.  may  feel  agent  who  1  refuses  to disclose  The many trust  agents  i n f o r m a t i o n about  who  respond  himself.  positively  to personal  o f them I n d o - C a n a d i a n s , do so i n t h e b e l i e f i n t h e a g e n t comes e a s i l y  6 6  once t h e c l i e n t  questions,  t h a t a sense of "knows" who  the  agent i s : In the beginning, East Indian c l i e n t s are a l l t e n s e . They are s i t t i n g tight, using brief answers which a r e v e r y f o r m a l , and t h e i r f a c i a l expressions are very limited. Then we c h a t : "Where a r e y o u f r o m ? " I have l i v e d e v e r y w h e r e . The whole thing changes then. They start t a l k i n g l o u d l y . I t takes j u s t f i v e m i n u t e s . I f n o t , I know i t ' s g o i n g t o be a b i g p r o b l e m .  Euro-Canadian  a g e n t s who p r o v i d e  a  trust  sense  of  which t o " i d e n t i f y  develops  personal  information  once t h e c l i e n t  feel  has found  that  a way i n  w i t h " them:  I f t h e y ask how much I make, I just say "lots, and I love i t ! " But I t r y t o establish a non-threatening rapport before g e t t i n g i n t o a p r o b l e m . I t comes o u t t h a t my mother [from Europe] never spoke good E n g l i s h . T h a t makes a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e . Several  Euro-Canadians,  indifference, clients  of t h e i r  religion), The an  note  a few who v i e w q u e s t i o n s  "remarkable  special  interest  effect"  in  Indian  when  they  culture  with inform  (cooking,  or i n v i s i t i n g I n d i a . importance  individual  referrals  a  including  in  t o an I n d o - C a n a d i a n o f knowing h i s a g e n t a s  i s evidenced the  by t h e f a c t  present  known t o t h e c l i e n t s ,  either  study  took  that  a l l of  place with  the  agents  p e r s o n a l l y o r by r e p u t a t i o n :  self-  already  167  C u l t u r a l l y , E a s t I n d i a n s would never think of using t h i s a g e n c y . But t h e y come anyway b e c a u s e t h e y have h e a r d a b o u t me. I am known i n t h e community. E a s t I n d i a n s s e l f - r e f e r t o t h e baby clinic only i f t h e y speak E n g l i s h , l i v e c l o s e by, and i f t h e y know t h a t I am the nurse that will be t h e r e . I t ' s a t t h e c l i n i c t h a t l o t s of p r o b l e m s come o u t . Frequently, with  a  when I a s k e d c l i e n t s  particular  when I t h e n workers  agency,  they  a s k e d whether t h e y  from  that  i f they  agency,  had  answered  ever  had  contact  i n t h e n e g a t i v e ; but  h a d had c o n t a c t  with  particular  t h e answer was a f f i r m a t i v e . As one  s e r v i c e a g e n t p u t i t , "They go on p e r s o n a l i t i e s . " The least  personal  two  client.  purposes  the  respectability  certain  regarding  a  the  to  of  unknown  i n a s c e r t a i n i n g an a g e n t ' s evaluates  potential  his  source  serve  at  "place i n  qualifications  and  of c o u n s e l l i n g . S i n c e ,  exchange,  or higher  information  help  status,  a b o u t an a g e n t  may  only  i t i s necessary  before  a decision  questions  serve  made  to  to establish  accept  help,  the nature of  r e l a t i o n s h i p a s one o f m u t u a l e x c h a n g e . Agent d i s c l o s u r e  personal  information  disclosure  of problems, as the f o l l o w i n g chapter  sum, b o t h  the content  offered  facilitate  be  r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n be made.  once a d e c i s i o n h a s been  personal  agents  p e r s p e c t i v e o f an I n d o - C a n a d i a n  model o f s o c i a l  the proposed  Secondly,  the  as  also  asked  from p e r s o n s of e q u a l  have  answers  place,  client  the Indian  received to  from  In t h e f i r s t  society,"  within  questions  appears  a  pre-requisite  of  a  client  indicates.  o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e f a c t acceptance  to  proferred  of  that  i t  In is  helping  168  relat ionship.  To  conclude,  relationship immigrant three of  depends  the agent  disclosing  on  offering  the  implications  the  perceives  agent  prospective  for  i t , and  the  i n f o r m a t i o n . An  relationship the  depending  to  w i t h any  have of  given agent  toward  relationship.  introductory  any  one  are  you?"  hence  the  toward  or  the  lesser  sufficiency.  t o be more o r i d e n t i t y . And  of  t h e i r a g e n t s may  He  less he  t o have  honourabililty phase  of  role  perceives  personal questions  the  c l i e n t s and  attitude  family  and  Indo-Canadian  Indo-Canadian  greater  f o r the m u t u a l i t y  between  an  the o f f i c i a l  agent's  implications  The  counselling  c l i e n t ' s perception  on t h e a g e n t ' s o f f i c i a l  an a g e n t ' s a t t i t u d e  proposed  and  a  Indo-Canadian  maintenance  perceives a relationship stigmatizing  of  the reason f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  personal  for  establishment  between a s o c i a l s e r v i c e  things:  reason  the  of  counselling falter  of t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n ,  over "Who  169  Notes:  *  Throughout  2  Euro-Canadian  this  clients  Chapter  Six  dissertation,  derive  solely  statements  from  my  concerning  interviews  with  agents. The  U 3  reflects  number o f r e f e r r a l s  t h e emphasis  police  as  problem  does  is  large  a  on c o n t a i n m e n t  resource  (see  D.  from emergency  and  the  Singh,  n o t come t o t h e a t t e n t i o n  services  familiarity  1975:  29-39).  of o u t s i d e r s  with  Often a  until  a  life  by  the  i n danger: I n e v e r wanted t o go a g a i n s t my h u s b a n d . In India a woman must always b e l i e v e i n her h u s b a n d . But t h e n he t h r e a t e n e d my daughter with a knife. Then I t h o u g h t t o phone 911 [emergency services].  Not  a l l referrals  prospective those  clients.  involved  before  acceptability  from help  number  illustrates  hospitals  and  family  of  medical The  or  often  the  violence, of  nurses.  lesser  made  disturbances before  have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o do  incidence  of  so  or  referrals  from m e d i c a l and  the  a d v i c e . A l t h o u g h some r e f e r r a l s  from  doctors concern p a t i e n t s  services  calls  report  of Indo-Canadian  medical  for a variety  doctors  Neighbors  from  i t necessary.  large  sources  result  i n them e i t h e r  t h e y deem  The  from p o l i c e  somatization  with  injuries  o t h e r s c o n c e r n p a t i e n t s who  ills Still  only a f t e r  and  who  have  then  other patients,  by  have  "opened  however,  e x p e r i e n c i n g mental  frequency of r e f e r r a l s  resulting sought up"  reach  to even  breakdown.  friends  may  also  be  170  understood stigma  in  light  attached  prospective until,  to  clients  of  the  emphasis  emotional are  on c o n t a i n m e n t  problems.  likely  On  the  t o keep p r o b l e m s  one  hand,  from  friends  a s one I n d o - C a n a d i a n woman p u t i t , " i t becomes  to  bear."  On t h e o t h e r  hand,  are  a l s o aware o f t h e s t i g m a  and t h e  too  much  f r i e n d s who a r e aware o f p r o b l e m s  attached  to revealing  them  further:  I f an E a s t I n d i a n p h o n e s , t h e y want t o be anonymous. Sometimes t h e y won't even s a y who they are c a l l i n g a b o u t ; t h e y j u s t want t o f e e l o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . When I a s k why they won't give any i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e y s a y t h e y must protect the reputation of the family. It  is  also  gratitude  possible  from  the  number  of  that  f r i e n d s a n t i c i p a t e anger  prospective  client  for  rather  referring  than their  problem. The greater not the  than  from  present  chapter,  academic  children  learn  principals  matters.  In  i n India  a l t h o u g h n o t much  pattern. and F i j i  Canada,  teachers,  may be t u r n e d  Massey,  schools,  help-seeking  schools  that  from  f r i e n d s , i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n that  r e l a t e t o any p r e v i o u s  with  and  those  referrals  to f o r personal  does  As i n d i c a t e d i n assist  however,  counsellors,  i t  Indo-Canadian  school  problems  primarily  n u r s e s and  ( s e e Westwood  1982):  Kids who came here when t h e y were young a t t a c h much l e s s stigma to getting help. They s a y " I t ' s my r i g h t t o t a l k t o someone." School  workers  report  "speechless"  when t h e y  contact  them.  with  that learn  Indo-Canadian that  their  parents  child  has  are often initiated  171  ** ** s u c h as at  No the  least  and  United  m e n t i o n e d community-based  Way,  partially  two  although through  Indo-Canadian  clients' sector's  client  failure role  expressed  recognize  in social  and  s e r v i c e s . In  criticized  Indo-Canadians  t e m p l e s but  not  the  them. S e v e r a l  agents  to  t o the  some of  for  sources  funded  Euro-Canadian  agents  irritation  particular,  s e r v i c e agencies  at  the these  assist  the  private agents  contributions who  funding  a g e n t s were  appreciate  making  of  to  their  them:  They want a l l t h e b e n e f i t s of living here but they don't want t o g i v e a n y t h i n g . The temple backs the wife staying with her husband even i f her l i f e i s t h r e a t e n e d . We [social service agencies] are their only hope, but t h e y g i v e o n l y t o t h e t e m p l e . The are  m u l t i p l e , p o s i t i v e r o l e s w h i c h temple o r g a n i z a t i o n s discussed *  5  by  Dusenbery,  Works  in  interconnectedness getting-to-know 1973; are  Jourard,  social  examined w i t h  psychology information  i n Western c u l t u r e  1973). F o r regard  the  play  1981.  of p e r s o n a l  you  do  ( c f . A l t m a n and  rather  the  exchange, l i k i n g ,  most p a r t , however,  to personal  indicate  than  such  and  Taylor, factors  to p r o f e s s i o n a l  relationships. *  6  clients  When jointly,  Indo-Canadian this  and  c o n t r a s t may  Euro-Canadian produce  agents  inter-agent  If [an Indo-Canadian worker] is there, everything takes l o n g e r . She l i k e s t o have chatty times with the clients: "How long have you been h e r e ? " Things l i k e that.  visit  tension:  172  Chapter  WHEN THE  POT  THE  During a g e n t and about  the  convey  problem  confidentiality openness proverb  in  BOILING:  STUDY PHASE  i n f o r m a t i o n and  at  and  hand.  In  and  "When t h e  the  pot  get  the c l i e n t  client  present  transactions  p r o b l e m s and agents'  chapter  t o the  the  pot  identifies  subsequent  for client  of a g e n t s '  efforts  The  concludes  by  social  patterns during  Disclosure  the they  of  initial  client  how  study  During  agent  i s to  agent  and  d i s c l o s u r e of  the  is  cultural  cultural  Indian  them. I t n o t e s  t o d i s c u s s what  of  i t s contents.  patterns  the  other  the  clients'  disclosed. r e f e r e n t s of  factors  to  affect  p h a s e of c o u n s e l l i n g .  Problem deal  with  family,  a g e n t s d e s c r i b e two  clients  present  a restricted  the  f o r an  n o n - d i s c l o s u r e and  other  transactional  Whether  to  suggesting  e x c h a n g e combine w i t h  of  the  d i s c u s s i o n of  understanding chapter  desires  t o examine  an  assurances  i t i s covered."  challenge  and  pertaining  explanations  agent  is boiling,  s t u d y phase o f . c o u n s e l l i n g , the  The  for  d i s c u s s i n g h i s p r o b l e m . An  the  t o uncover  a t t i t u d e s to each  exchange  acceptance,  disclosing  states:  IS  s e c o n d p h a s e of a c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  client  the  Seven  their  p r o b l e m s of h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n ,  b a s i c ways  in  p r o b l e m s . Over h a l f  p a t t e r n of  communication:  which of  the  or  Indo-Canadian agents  refer  to  1 73  East I n d i a n s d o n ' t r e a l l y come out and t e l l you what's wrong. You come i n cold through t h e d o o r . P e o p l e open up o n l y i f you s t u m b l e onto something. It comes out t h r o u g h my asking questions. S i k h s and F i j i a n s w i l l o n l y p r e s e n t p a r t of the problem. They'll say "my husband l e f t me," and l a t e r you find out there was a third party involved. Whites are less w i t h h o l d i n g . T h e y ' r e p r e t t y open compared t o E a s t I n d i a n s , u n l e s s common-law i s i n v o l v e d .  In c o n t r a s t , t h e e m o t i o n s and  remaining  details  on  the  agents  describe  an  outpouring  p a r t of  Indo-Canadian  of  clients:  They have a d i f f e r e n t way of d e s c r i b i n g a p r o b l e m . I t ' s e x t e n s i v e . You g e t d e t a i l s of what is wrong today, what happened y e s t e r d a y . G r u d g e s from y e a r s ago come out. Every story has a l o n g h i s t o r y d a t i n g back to I n d i a . Ethnic groups, especially East Indians, speak more from t h e h e a r t . They a r e not as r e s e r v e d ; t h e y e x p r e s s more v e r b a l l y . W h i t e s a r e more intellectual, less emotional in p r e s e n t i n g a problem.  Clients' impression  accounts  However,  that  clients  "most"  pattern example, "tell know?"  meetings  t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s may  restricted.  follows  of  the  whereas follow  other,  a  given  of c o m m u n i c a t i o n  regarding  what e n a b l e s  to a  one  agents  either  given  client  often  an  to  with  certain  to b e l i e v e "exception"  another.  marital difficulties asked  "why  felt  to  his For  free to  should  question  agents,  the  quite  i n d i c a t e d that  agent  s c h o o l w o r k e r , but  clients,  tends  and  a p u b l i c h e a l t h w o r k e r . The  certain  support  wide open or  agent  pattern  v a r i e s from one  a woman e x p e r i e n c i n g  everything"  any  be  with  she  i s , then, disclose  174  their  problems? Many o f t h e E u r o - C a n a d i a n  in  disclosure  they the  attribute  agents r e p o r t i n g  the p a t t e r n  correlate percent  of c l i e n t  disclosure  with the ethnic  Canadian  agents,  report  74%  correspondence e x i s t s  and  their  cultural  the  one  hand,  differences  communicate  that  indicates,  initial  initial  30% o f  the  Euro-  presentation. Overall, a background  disclosure.  some E u r o - C a n a d i a n  render the c l i e n t s  to  of the a g e n t s . E i g h t y - o n e  between t h e a g e n t s ' e t h n i c  e x p e r i e n c e of c l i e n t  On  As T a b l e VI  7  a g e n t s , but o n l y  open  fact  and n o n - d i s c l o s u r e do t e n d  backgrounds  of the Indo-Canadian  reticence  t o the u n a l t e r a b l e  a r e not themselves Indo-Canadian.' patterns  client  agents suggest  unable or  that  unwilling  to  t o them:  East Indians have great difficulty in u n d e r s t a n d i n g what we do. I am a foreigner t o them. Most c l i e n t s s a y I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r way. They have a d i f f e r e n t l i f e - s t y l e . On  the  other  hand, o t h e r E u r o - C a n a d i a n  non-Indian  background  effectively  with c l i e n t s .  do  harm  more  particular, used,  than  the language  i s perceived  renders  them  agents f e e l  unable  to  that  communicate  As one a g e n t p u t i t , "I'm a f r a i d  good  not  barrier,  t o compromise  knowing even  their  when  their  I can  culture."  interpreters  communication:  It's a q u e s t i o n o f n u a n c e s . W i t h w h i t e s we c a n p i c k up on a p r o b l e m , pursue i t . With East I n d i a n s y o u m i g h t be g e t t i n g o n l y onet e n t h o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . You j u s t d o n ' t know b e c a u s e y o u c a n ' t p i c k up on t h e n u a n c e s .  In are  175  Table VI CLIENT DISCLOSURE OF PROBLEM BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  Client  c o  Open  Disclosure  Restricted  TOTAL  .u  Cn I n d o -  17 (29%)  4(7%)  21 (36%)  OJ C a n a d i a n  11 (19%)  26 (45%)  37 (64%)  TOTAL  28 (48%)  30 (52%)  58(100%)  u  Canadian  PQ  +J  c  Euro-  <  176  Indo-Canadian significance disclosure Canadian that  agents hold  sharply  of an a g e n t ' s e t h n i c of  a  problem.  a g e n t s who  factors  contrasting  background  Interestingly,  are best  liked  other than e t h n i c i t y  by  to most  their  own  v i e w s on the  the  client's  of  the  clients  Indo-  suggest  a r e more i m p o r t a n t :  It is a q u e s t i o n of p e r s o n a l a p p r o a c h . I t makes no d i f f e r e n c e i f y o u a r e not Punjabi. You must be s i n c e r e . I f t h e y see you c a n be t r u s t e d then they w i l l t r u s t you. Two  Indo-Canadian  between their  East  clients The  Canadian  the  I n d i a n s and whom I  view  immigrants:  that  as t h e i r  "best  personal  clients  "I c a n ' t t e l l  my  says  the c l i e n t s friend" a  " i t just  doesn't  work  w h i t e s " a r e t h e m s e l v e s not t r u s t e d  generally  Many named l a n g u a g e  8  Apparently, problems,  that  l a n g u a g e p o s e s a major  interpreter  Nevertheless,  feel  by  interviewed.  Indo-Canadian  relationship." as  a g e n t s who  or  obstacle  as t h e i r  feelings.  the to a  "biggest  two-three  named n i n e  Euro-Canadian  also  "biggest  cultural  help" agent  Eurohelping  problem"  I say so much and  [translates]  Euro-Canadian  despite h i s  support  then  words." agents  i n Canada. may  background,  be e n t r u s t e d depending  manner:  One lady from [an a g e n c y ] saw me o u t s i d e . She was v e r y f r i e n d l y . She saw I felt shy. She s a i d , "Don't be a f r a i d . " B e c a u s e of h e r o n l y I came t o know a l l t h e s e s e r v i c e s . Now my worker t r e a t s me so r u d e l y : "Do t h i s ; d o n ' t do that." Before, I had [another E u r o - C a n a d i a n ] . Then e v e r y t h i n g was so f i n e .  on  with his  1 77  She was l i k e my s i s t e r . Even i f my i s n o t good, we t a l k e d so much. As  one c l i e n t  good  put i t , " I t ' s just  disclosure their  of Euro-Canadian  attribute  ethnicity.  to discuss  themselves  superior"  worker"  because  authority." "part  the  Five  refuse  are  t h e P u n j a b . T h e r e a r e some  p e o p l e a n d some b a d . " A minority  men  like  English  pattern  to their  female agents  to  because  believe  that  success with c l i e n t s  9  One male  women  t o t h e same  agent  consider  respect  a g e n t s have r e a d o r h e a r d t h a t  of I n d i a n c u l t u r e . " "  than t o  Indo-Canadian  "they  women. The men " d o n ' t  don't  restricted  sex r a t h e r  suggested that  t h i n g s w i t h them  "they  These  agents experiencing  such  a woman  have  any  attitudes  attributed  his  factors:  The men accept me b e c a u s e I'm m a l e . They t h i n k I ' l l understand t h e i r p o i n t of view. I have a l o t e a s i e r t i m e o f i t t h a n some o f t h e women [ a g e n t s ] .  No is  Indo-Canadian  a factor  discussed service jest, cases with  in client  involves  training that  agent  disclosure,  intimate  t h e sex o f an a g e n t  e x c e p t where t h e p r o b l e m  topics  such as impotence.  A t one  workers  males. A female  s h o u l d be g i v e n E a s t  Indo-Canadian  agent  vehemence:  Women Indian always  t o be  workshop, t h e s u g g e s t i o n was made, somewhat  o n l y male s o c i a l  involving  suggested that  have [command] great respect i n the f a m i l y system. Family problems a r e looked a f t e r by women. In Indian  inin  Indian  responded  1 78  s o c i e t y too, look a t I n d i r a Gandhi. These men a r e j u s t t r y i n g t o i n t i m i d a t e y o u . They d o n ' t want anyone to interfere in their b u s i n e s s . I t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r whether y o u ' r e a l a d y o r a man.  Certainly  the  differing few  male  attitudes  clients towards  interviewed  their  i n s t a n c e s where p a r t i c u l a r  agents based  respect  to  t h e employment  s t a t u s o f an a g e n t  to  an e x c e p t i o n a l  service  The  experience  of  p e r c e p t i o n s of i t cannot something  of  a  which female  Indo-Canadian  which  family,  any  reputation, establishes does. the  agents  individual's h i s caste  Moreover,  family  arise. greater  threat  establishment  to of  by  authority disclose  or  less  a problem  to  another  a  In  female  authority  represent  perception  of the  Outside  on  agent  of the  his  deal  just  pointed with  might  prevent  family's  as out,  agent  t o h e r s h o u l d n o t be l e s s  inside  postpone  having  a male,  man  that  be p e r c e i v e d a s a  or  as  a  problems  o t h e r words, whether  than  of the  a n d h i s employment. A woman  male  and  mutuality.  C a n a d i a n man p e r c e i v e s  the  on t h e s e g r o u n d s  role  honour,  now"), o r  fact  logical.  as the Indo-Canadian  Intervention  In t h e  a g e n t s and t h e i r  in  depends  or v i l l a g e ,  of  had p r o v i d e d .  may  i tis  status  i t i s a woman's  sex.  p r o p h e c y . B u t i n terms  appears  her r e s p e c t a b i l i t y  sign  ("she i s D i r e c t o r  be d e n i e d a n d  exchange,  on  Euro-Canadian  self-fulfilling  no  was e x p r e s s e d , i t r e f e r e d  the agent  I n d i a n model o f s o c i a l  showed  the  an I n d o comparable  h i s willingness to than  i f she were  a  ma 1 e. The  agents  Indo-Canadian  reporting  clients  an  attribute  open p a t t e r n i teither  to  of d i s c l o s u r e the  severity  with of  179  their in  clients'  problems or  them, e s t a b l i s h e d  problems  may  others,  be  it  is  t o the  during  the  withheld the  t r u s t which t h e i r  introductory  from  factor  some  of  phase. Since  agents  trust  clients  that  but  have  severe  revealed  warrants  to  special  examination. Judging disclosure  by  of  the  personal  shades  imperceptibly  Without  exception,  information present  The agents  alone  pattern  issue  to  of  say  clients  of  them.  agent  Chapter  Six,  The  disclosure.  provide  report  that  the  from c l i e n t s  part  only (see  clients  who  information  on  personal  agents  from c o n c l u s i v e :  questions  of  client  they  also  communication  in determining c l i e n t  verbal  behaviour  subtle,  of  client's  decision  a t t i t u d e to  related variables likely  rejection  personal  have  a l l describe  of  clients.  13  of  T a b l e V,  the p.  58 164).  to  divulge  an  and or  disclosure.  in personal  accompany  questions,  problem  manner and  agent's together  to withhold  not A  non-  acceptance  or  influence  the  information  (cf.  1978).  Nevertheless,  in  d i s c l o s u r e and  m o d e l s of family  to e n t a i l  in  issue  agent a t t i t u d e toward s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e i s p r o b a b l y  of  of  the  to  i s far  r e m a r k e d on  Gumperz,  discussed  about d i s c l o s i n g p e r s o n a l  cluster  agent  into  openly  evidence  Moreover,  the  t h o s e a g e n t s who  problems  restricted  conducted,  information,  willingly  reservations a  interviews  social  several client  ways  disclosure  exchange p o s i t e d .  sufficiency, clients certain costs.  In  the  follows  First  perceive  revealing  relationship  of  the  logic  a l l , given  d i s c l o s u r e of  a problem  between  t o an  the  of  the goal  problems outsider,  180  a  client  prevent,  acknowledges resolve,  entrusted  with  and  this  failure  on  the  contain  the  of h i s family t o  problem.  The  knowledge must be r e s p e c t a b l e ,  equal  or higher  lower  s t a t u s w o u l d compromise t h e c l i e n t Through  part  s t a t u s . To r e v e a l  personal  information  information  determines h i s r e s p e c t a b i l i t y .  still  about  As one  to  outsider  a person of  a  person  of  further.  an a g e n t ,  Indo-Canadian  the c l i e n t agent  put  it: In I n d i a y o u do n o t go t o a s t r a n g e r w i t h a p r o b l e m . You go t o someone y o u know a n d r e s p e c t . Here I have a u t h o r i t y , b u t I do n o t command respect just because I have a u t h o r i t y . Before t h e y ' l l talk, they must come t o know me.  Respectability  must  a c c e p t a n c e o f an o f f e r the  entrusted giving  of h e l p  not  (Chapter  the i m p l i c i t  with  of mutual  a problem  prior  renders  woman  had  to the to  said,  an a g e n t  includes  concealed  I f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  seems "more l i k e  information  her  main  like  a bigofficial,  to the person  t h e a c t o f d i s c l o s u r e an a c t o f  from  problem  w o r k e r , one o f t h e a g e n t s who c o n s i d e r s acted  of s t a t u s  e x c h a n g e , t h e a g e n t must a l s o g i v e .  conversation  woman  "She  only  S i x ) , but a l s o p r i o r  attribution  i n the eyes of the c l i e n t .  Canadian the  established  d i s c l o s u r e of a problem. Secondly,  one  be  both from  personal  5 0  to  be  As one I n d o -  a friend"  when  parties.  This  a public  health  questions  t a k i n g down i n f o r m a t i o n  rude:  on o u r  lives." Since information  d i s c l o s u r e i s an a c t o f g i v i n g , a g e n t s who  volunteer  about  sequence.  themselves  initiate  a transactional  181  As  one  family  t h e y must be about  me."  tell  clients  parenting,  psychiatric  clients'  problems.  mode of t r a n s a c t i o n , "area  of  behaviour  expertise."  But  the  sense  own  only also  faced  in children, if  these  go beyond  problems  and  — even  relate  to  professional  the  limits  agents  serves  set  perceive  to  reduce  conducive  disclosure:  Finally, client  family  have  o f s t i g m a and p r o m o t e a s e n s e o f m u t u a l i t y  I always say, " W e l l , don't Everyone faces problems, and I want someone t o t a l k t a l k t o me.  and  they  Indo-Canadians  the Indo-Canadian  an acknowledgement of t h e i r  client  four  information  of the p r e s c r i b e d  such d i s c l o s u r e s  that  to  member —  In t e r m s  confine  but  problems  in a family  open w i t h them, t h e n  agents facts,  about  "Canadian"  problems  " I f I am  Most  themselves to b i o g r a p h i c a l  single  by  remarked,  open w i t h  occasionally  the  worker  the apparent disclosure  honour. incurs  risks  When an definite  possible  information  about  the  relationship  makes  sense  Indo-Canadian costs  costs  worry about i t . I face problems, t o . " Then they  between a g e n t given  of f a m i l y  to h i s family's  a g e n t , h e l p s d e t e r m i n e how  great  the v a l u e p l a c e d  d i v u l g e s a problem,  i n terms  agent,  reputation.  particularly  an  first  thing  I do  he  sufficiency,  on not he  Personal  Indo-Canadian  these r i s k s are:  E a s t I n d i a n men need t o c l a r i f y who I am, p a r t l y t o d e t e r m i n e how much t h e y c a n s h a r e , i f I c a n be t r u s t e d . The  disclosure  i s make s u r e a P u n j a b i  182  Sikh understands offer absolute more c o m f o r t a b l e from, as long nothing.  Confidentiality clients  ("I  meeting"), and  think  but  falls  by  according  English-speaking  Euro-Canadians  she  neither  where I am from and t h a t I confidentiality. He feels when he knows where I'm as he knows I ' l l , repeat  talked  about  i s not  a l w a y s assumed  our  son  i s i t a major c o n c e r n .  t o o n e ' s own  Indo-Canadian  to her  Family  by  office  izzat  rises  community's e v a l u a t i o n . As  one  said:  I w o u l d not go t o an I n d i a n worker b e c a u s e I w o u l d f e e l v u l n e r a b l e . I would go t o a w h i t e worker because I am not known in their community and t h e y a r e not known i n m i n e .  In  sum,  personal  the  suggest  information  communication agents  data  from  their  facilitates  respectability, relationship.  are  well  be  more  mutuality, The  fact  related  likely  clients.  client  and  t o the  greater  initial fact  of  the  study  them  p h a s e by  in  experience  open  information  from  by  indicating of  percentage  d i s c l o s u r e from  that a greater  the the  of  Indo-  clients of  initially  or  manner, a g e n t s p r o c e d e w i t h  the  to c l i e n t s .  Problem  Whether c l i e n t s present  provide  percentage  them w i l l i n g l y d i s c l o s e i n f o r m a t i o n  Discussion  to  confidentiality  a  open  willingly  Personal  disclosure  that  Canadian agents experience may  t h a t a g e n t s who  a  asking  "pour  out"  restricted  their  further questions  problems  about  the  information  183  w h i c h h a s been p r o v i d e d agents  experience  them. As w i t h  two d i s t i n c t  problems. P r e c i s e l y h a l f willingly (Table are  answer  half  of c l i e n t  agents  report  and  explore  the  believe  that  e i t h e r u n a b l e or u n w i l l i n g  agents.  to  some  However,  experience  71% r e p o r t  the  percentage  openness  whereas  initial  only  extent  client  willing of  increases  subsequent  81%  issues  involved  Indo-Canadian  clients  suggest  of  initial  interviews  possible  contrast,  experiencing  between  The  agents  ( s e e T a b l e V I , p . 175),  agents  30% t o 38%  a number  background of the  of the p r o b l e m . In  Euro-Canadian  discussion.  discussion  Indo-Canadian  disclosure  discussion  from  the  problems.  of c l i e n t  the e t h n i c  of  d i s c u s s i o n of clients  t o examine t h e i r  with  disclosure,  that  i n d i c a t e d by T a b l e V I I , t h e p a t t e r n  correlates  clients  patterns  client  the  questions  V I I ) . The o t h e r  As  and  of  initial  with  client  disclosure agents  explanations  for  and these  patterns. Judging further  by  questions  relationship. consider mentioned  On  statements is the  a  the  critical one  a p a r t i c u l a r agent that  from  issue  hand,  for  the a s k i n g of  the  when e l a b o r a t i n g  "good,"  the agent q u e s t i o n s  clients,  at  least  them  fully:  counselling on why  four  they  immigrants  The court w o r k e r i s v e r y n i c e . She l i s t e n s t o w h a t e v e r I have t o s a y . She a s k s so many questions. She asks a l l the background information. One a g e n t he  would  i s " n o t good. He d i d n ' t t a l k t o my s o n ' s t e a c h e r .  a s k me a b o u t What does  anything.  He s a i d  [the teacher]  know?  184  Table V I I CLIENT DISCUSSION OF PROBLEM BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  Client C  Willing  o  i-1 Cn  M  O  Discussion Reticent  TOTAL  IndoCanadian  15 (26%)  6 (10%)  21 (36%)  EuroCanadian  14 (24%)  23 (40%)  37 (64%)  TOTAL  29 (50%)  29 (50%)  58 (100%)  CO -P d)  185  We  know our son b e s t . " On t h e o t h e r hand, s e v e r a l  Canadian  agents  offensive,  and c a n c r e a t e  and  agent  feel  (see Vikram,  that  clients  and a l s o  questions  a wall  of  from  several agents  resistance  between  Indocan  be  client  1981: 8 ) :  When t h e n u r s e v i s i t e d I was v e r y g l a d . She t o l d me so many t h i n g s , what t o do f o r the baby. Then she came a g a i n , I d o n ' t know why. She a s k e d rude q u e s t i o n s , "How do y o u s i t so many people a t t h e t a b l e ? " I t o l d h e r we w i l l move, we are saving o u r money. She wanted t o come a g a i n , b u t I s a i d we w i l l be away. T h e r e was no p o i n t .  Most c l i e n t s  who o b j e c t  or a s c h a l l e n g e s clients certain  clients  to previous  express  nothing  agents about  Many o f to  to questions perceive  the  short  their  complicate  and a l a c k  their  problems They  t h e s t u d y phase  In  particular,  a t q u e s t i o n s from  money. difficulty  attribute  suggest  o f emphasis  made.  outrage  experiencing  a s p e c t s of I n d i a n c u l t u r e . containment,  of  how t h e y spend  agents  discuss  statements  them a s c r i t i c i s m ,  that  in  getting  the p a t t e r n t o  the  emphasis  on  on i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e a s o n i n g ,  of c o u n s e l l i n g :  I n d i a n s a r e m o s t l y r e s e r v e d p e o p l e . They do not like to talk about their problems o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y . The men feel they are not d o i n g t h e i r d u t y . The women don't show their feelings. F e e l i n g s have a l w a y s been s h o v e d aside a l l their lives. Their feelings might i n c o n v e n i e n c e someone e l s e . A g e n t s who e x p e r i e n c e no d i f f i c u l t y  with c l i e n t  discussion,  but  186  who do e x p e r i e n c e to  difficulty  l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y  must  "elicit  with  the d e t a i l s  with  initial  d i s c l o s u r e , also point  i n t r o s p e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . The a g e n t  but they  are forthcoming":  People from India a r e not used t o t a l k i n g l i k e t h i s . You must n o t be so f o r m a l , b u t be f r i e n d l y . They a r e n o t h i d i n g , b u t y o u must lead them t o what y o u want. Be d i r e c t a n d t h e y w i l l be d i r e c t a l s o .  A  few  of  the  agents  discussion  suggest  particularly  i fa client  Chapter fear  Six,  unless  interviews decide  woman  child,  as  It pivotal by  information  the to  problem  because  of  f o r her  a  deserted  child's  by h e r husband a f t e r  disclosure, a client  that  client  the attainment more  than  consistently suggests  However,  to  may  limit  h e l p . One behavioural  the b i r t h  Homemaker S e r v i c e b u t would n o t t a l k  seem  with  that a c l i e n t desire  in  t o d i s c u s s h e r husband's d r i n k i n g problem.  the c o s t s t o family s u f f i c i e n c y  would  interviewed,  agents  f o r w h i c h he has a c c e p t e d  counselling  In l i m i t i n g  agents with  agent,  to regard  suggest  two c l i e n t s  occur,  indicated  at least  accepted  to  As  5 1  with  to  limiting  threatened.  client  may  i s i n question.  woman,  marriage.  feels  withholding  s t a t u s as immigrants  agreed  second  conscious  with  their  problems, but r e f u s e d A  difficulty  I n d o - C a n a d i a n s do n o t a p p e a r  to withhold  discussion  that  having  openness  of agents' assurances  held  in  that a general  may p e r c e i v e and f a m i l y to  her  himself  honour.  discussion,  so  g o a l s , must be e n c o u r a g e d of  high  about  of a  confidentiality.  esteem  explanation  by  the  One  clients  of expectations  187  should preface s p e c i f i c  questions:  In t h e f i r s t hour p e o p l e c a n s a y a n y t h i n g . In t h e same c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e s t o r y c h a n g e s . Don't label them as liars, as uncoo p e r a t i v e . Say " T h a t ' s okay, I understand. You a r e n e r v o u s , c o n f u s e d . Come o u t i n t h e open w i t h me. I am n o t g o i n g t o j u d g e you. If I am t o h e l p y o u , I must know t h e t r u t h . I w i l l n o t make i t worse f o r y o u . " Such an e x p l a n a t o r y p r e f a c e c o v e r s t h e range n o t e d above  for  client  defines counselling which w i l l In  cost  explanatory expected  of  of  the  statement  Indian  clarifies  model for  " I t ' s u s e l e s s t o ask q u e s t i o n s  won't  tell  understands  anything  he may  i t may  feel  explanation  such  client  all  discloses  of a c c e p t a n c e  both  his  client  a  such  an  he  is  what  i n r e t u r n . As one a g e n t  in  the  beginning. to." If a  necessary  engender  t o share  part  fuller  They client  of  support  i n f o r m a t i o n sooner  the from  than i f  understanding.  problem.  when a c l i e n t  suggests  one  further  regarding agents' q u e s t i o n s ,  acceptance  b u t one o f t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n  sense  is  reticence  namely, t h e n a t u r e o f a g e n t initially  the  of the i n t e r v i e w s conducted for  exchange,  t h e y ' r e ready  i n fact  ready  questions without  Analysis  until  open d i s c u s s i o n  of h e l p , that  the agent, asked  that  It  openness as behaviour  of  t o g i v e and what he may e x p e c t  you  reasons  and may g a i n a l o t .  notes,  price  information.  c o n t e n t and i d e n t i f i e s  little  terms  withholding  of p o s s i b l e  conveyed  when t h e  A l l Euro-Canadian  agents  say they  discloses  a  client  a g e n t s and  t r y t o convey  problem:  a  188  I have t o be n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g i f I want to get anywhere. I a s k "How do you h a n d l e y o u r d a u g h t e r ' s r a g e s ? " I keep p u s h i n g : "What i f t h a t d o e s n ' t work?" They f e e l g u i l t y . I have t o v a l i d a t e them: "Sometimes y o u g e t t o t h a t point."  Yet,  in  reveal the  relating  certain  s t u d y phase  I  believe  such  for continued  t o me,  generalized  by  have  significant  clients  during  the  half  o f t h e a g e n t s , most o f them E u r o - C a n a d i a n s ,  base  interpretation  of c l i e n t s '  primarily  on  (Table V I I I ) .  F o r example, when a mother phones t o c o m p l a i n  the problem  time w i t h o t h e r Indo-Canadian  direct  made  baby c r i e s  over  problems  observations  her  also  explanations for  explanations  disclosure  the agents  of c o u n s e l l i n g .  Over their  problems  p r e - c o n c e i v e d and  problems.  implications  the c l i e n t s '  t o o much, a p u b l i c  health  worker  may  families that  attribute  to "overstimulation":  When y o u go i n t o E a s t I n d i a n homes, t h e r e i s so much g o i n g on a t o n c e . The baby i s a l w a y s with them; i t ' s r i g h t there i n the kitchen w i t h t h e p o t s and pans b a n g i n g .  Most  of the r e m a i n i n g agents  information Canadians, Canadians, interpret  about  rely  Indian culture  for  acquired,  the  most  part  i n t h e case of Indo-  through p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o r , i n t h e c a s e of through a problem  formal  learning  i n i t s wider  and t r a v e l .  cultural  when a S i k h boy i s b e a t e n  by h i s f a t h e r  Canadian  worker  informed  following  explanation:  or  an  on  5 2  Euro-  They t e n d t o  context. For instance,  for  smoking,  Euro-Canadian  ah  Indo-  may o f f e r t h e  189  Table  VIII  AGENT INTERPRETATION OF PROBLEM BY ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF AGENT  Agent I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Indian Culture  C  o  Indo-Canadian Life-Style  TOTAL  u  IndoX o Canadian (0  15 (26%)  6 (10%)  21 (36%)  12 (21%)  25 (43%)  37 (64%)  27 (47%)  31 (53%)  58 (100%)  PQ  -P  C Euro-  0)  Cn C a n a d i a n  <  TOTAL  190  Cigarettes are shocking t o the Punjabi family. But t h e y are important to peer interaction. If a teen explores this new behaviour, the f a t h e r takes i t as a p e r s o n a l a f f r o n t , o r h u r t . I t ' s an i n s u l t t o h i m .  The the  different  nature  problem —  of "acceptance" f o r example,  may be r e s p o n d e d agent's direct  bases of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  c o n v e y e d by a g e n t s .  the exhaustion  to i n very d i f f e r e n t  understanding  implications for A single  of post-partum ways,  of the s i t u a t i o n .  o b s e r v a t i o n may f o c u s  Canadian  have  questions  on  mothers  depending  An a g e n t  k i n d of  on  —  the  who d e p e n d s on  features  of  Indo-  life-style:  When I s e e an E a s t I n d i a n mum i s r u n down, I ask what h e r h u s b a n d ' s s c h e d u l e i s . So o f t e n they have two j o b s , o r s h i f t work. I t e l l h e r she s h o u l d l i e down f o r h a l f an hour i n the morning and a f t e r n o o n . I a s k i f he c a n h e l p o u t when h e ' s home. An  agent  culture  who r e l i e s may  on b r o a d e r ,  accurate  knowledge  focus c o u n s e l l i n g i n quite a d i f f e r e n t  of  Indian  direction:  In India everyone has t h e i r own s u p p o r t n e t w o r k . Not a l l women c a n c o p e w i t h o u t i t . E s p e c i a l l y new m o t h e r s need e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o let friends o r r e l a t i v e s h e l p . Sometimes I can a r r a n g e i t . In b o t h  of these  accepting,  but  cases, the  c o n v e y an a t t i t u d e  the  questions  attitude based  toward on d i r e c t  the  t h a t q u e s t i o n s which  features  of  life-style  implicate aspects  may a l s o  is  o b s e r v a t i o n may  of non-acceptance of the c l i e n t ' s  I suggest  client  behaviour.  of behaviour  or  be p e r c e i v e d by I n d o - C a n a d i a n  191  clients  to threaten  challenge is  c a s t e mores and p r a c t i c e s ,  I f the  the cost  questions  of answering  them  considerable. No a g e n t  clients' of  s t a n d a r d s of c a s t e p u r i t y .  explicitly  problems,  problems  However,  identified  t o h i s e x p e r i e n c e of  reticence  correlation discussion  The  in  their  own  did  not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  responsible conversation culture  (see basis  Particularly Western  influences  Ghosh,  1983: 1 3 3 ) .  VII,  in  reported  and  p.  of i n t e r p r e t i n g  goal  of problems  of  the client  184), t h e p r o b l e m s and  caste  purity  to  Indo-  i s s u g g e s t e d by an e x a m i n a t i o n  ask a l l of the  those problems. Although I clients  difficulties,  e l e v e n o f them i m p l i c a t e d  or Canadian  t o me  i s 89%. the  their  exists  Whereas  background  Table  bases of i n t e r p r e t i n g  for  problems  problems.  ethnic  i s 66%  of  of  of o v e r l a p  the  o f them  Canadians' d i s c u s s i o n  clients'  disclosure.  discussing  agent  relevance  a h i g h degree  interpreted  agent  between  client  and t h o s e a g e n t s who  of problems  discussion  interpreting  life-style,  between  correlation client  continued  a s T a b l e IX i n d i c a t e s ,  of the c l i e n t s '  client  for  nor d i d any a g e n t c o n n e c t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  between t h o s e a g e n t s who terms  h i s basis  what  in  they  the  some a s p e c t  course  of  held of  Canadian  life-style. in to  cases involving explain  children,  difficulties  p a r e n t s look t o  (see  Kurian  My daughter i s getting i n t o bad company. They t e l l h e r she s h o u l d go w i t h them; d o n ' t come home a f t e r school. Canadian children have no r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r p a r e n t s .  and  192  T a b l e IX AGENT INTERPRETATION OF PROBLEM BY CLIENT DISCUSSION OF PROBLEM  Agent  G  Indian Culture  0  ien1t Discus  •H W  Willing Reticent  Interpretation  Indo-Canadian Life-Style  TOTAL  25 (43%)  4(7%)  29 (50%)  2(4%)  27 (46%)  29 (50%)  27 (47%)  31 (53%)  58(100%)  rH  u  TOTAL  1 93  The k i d s see e v e r y t h i n g on T.V. They s e e y o u get married just like that [simply, quickly], then get divorced. They stop l i s t e n i n g t o me. The  problems  culture  which  a g e n t s term  "Immigrants Perhaps  don't  clients  them t o c a l l  clients  attribute  "cultural  conflict."  identify identify  cultural  husbands  men  Study  involved:  "We  "blame  the  "usually  adjustment  worker  problems,  said, we d o . "  b u t do n o t p e r c e i v e  conflict, women  agents  for  report  everything"  accuse each o t h e r "  of  who were a s k e d  on t h e i r why  way t e n d e d t o i m p l i c a t e  attitude  that  or that  causing  t h e n f o c u s e s on t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l  work w i t h t h e men  However, c l i e n t s particular  one  f o r "adjustment."  and w i v e s  problems.  As  t h e same p r o b l e m s ,  In c a s e s c o n c e r n i n g m a r i t a l Indo-Canadian  t o f e a t u r e s of Canadian  relationship  toward  their  spouses  Canadian  culture:  the  women."  act  in  a  My husband h a s t o o much money h e r e . He c a n d r i n k b e c a u s e t h e r e i s so much money; he doesn't c a r e . A l l h i s f r i e n d s have t o o much money. I n d i a n l a d i e s see white ladies c a n do a s they please. Then t h e y s a y , "Why s h o u l d I s t a y home and do a l l t h i s drudgery?" So, many people get divorce here. I t i s not good. Agent  discussion  of c l i e n t  would  p r o b a b l y ease d i s c u s s i o n Indo-Canadians  Canadian  culture  members  and  understandings of c l i e n t  who a t t r i b u t e  may t r y  the outside  to  their  restrict  of  Canadian  adjustment problems contact  culture  to i t .  t o f e a t u r e s of between  w o r l d . One woman's husband  family  f o r b i d s her  194  to  leave  video  t h e house  equipment  w i t h o u t him. S e v e r a l so  that  Indian  t e l e v i s i o n . .Many p a r e n t s r e f u s e participate The client that  counselling  worker  constitutes  will  1981:  dimension  of Canadian  for  problem  utilizing  than  "liberate  9).  than  culture  —  itself  permission  may be p e r c e i v e d  resolving  problems.  wives  —  services,  men  expose  the  may  and  to  the  culture  to  "whisk  fear girls"  services  family  held  by a  The  young  to this  responsible  t r y to prevent t h e i r  and p a r e n t s may  Canadian  activities.  the  Rather  purchased  replace  y e t a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r male r e s i s t a n c e  (Vikram,  the  rather  can  have  children  school  relationship  as e x a c e r b a t i n g a  films  their  in extra-curricular  families  wives  away" t h e i r  from  children:  I f M.H.R. [a M i n i s t r y o f Human Resources a g e n t ] comes anywhere n e a r , t h e c h i l d s i m p l y disappears. She's o f f on a visit to a r e l a t i v e somewhere. We n e v e r s e e h e r a g a i n . One boy, whose p a r e n t s had been talk  with  northern learn  B.C.: "We  respect In  clients  enter  attribute  problems  lives  to l e t a  youth  worker  w i t h an a u n t and u n c l e i n  m i s s him t o o [ v e r y ] much,  but  now  he  will  from our p e o p l e . " s e r v i c e a g e n t s and t h e i r  t h e s t u d y phase  a t hand. Agents  Indo-Canadian  culture.  a week, now  sum, b o t h s o c i a l  problems of  him once  advised  tend t o i n t e r p r e t  life-style  difficulties I suggest  that  with c e r t a i n  to  and I n d i a n Canadian  the  agent's  Indo-Canadian  understandings of the difficulties  culture.  Clients  life-style basis  for  and  i n terms tend  to  Canadian  interpreting  d e t e r m i n e s t o some e x t e n t t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h  he p o s e s  195  clients, to  and hence  them.  The  perception decisions In  regarding  goal  to  necessitated  lies  Indian  Canadian it  model  easier  by c i r c u m s t a n c e s  of  to  beyond  to agree with  this  client,  although  within  the c l i e n t ' s  contrast,  agents  difficulties, appear  to  who  without place  things.  indebtedness, continuing  In disclosure  and  his  they  on  to  convey  of  help  is  Agents  of I n d i a n  who  culture  They  convey  of the problem  direct  for  its  observation  Indian  the  to  cultural  f o r both the problem the impression  that  b e c a u s e o f h i s own  increase  estimation  of  powers.  reference  They  sense  if  responsibility  i s receiving help  Thus,  help  of  attribution  his  f o r the o r i g i n  rely  the  perception  perception.  responsibility  i t s s o l u t i o n on t h e c l i e n t . b e l i e v e the c l i e n t  diminish  knowledge  the  doing  exchange,  one's c o n t r o l .  outside  patterns,  social  receive  responsibility  is s t i l l  his  i m p l i c a t i o n s not o n l y f o r  may  i n terms of t h e i r  to c l i e n t s  and  them, a f f e c t h i s  f o r the c l i e n t ' s  culture  is  conveys  d i s c l o s u r e and d i s c u s s i o n .  that  explain  of  towards  attitude  In  they  continued  p u r i t y but a l s o  problems  resolution  and  attitude  problems,  h i s a g e n t as t r a n s a c t o r s . The c l i e n t ' s  indebtedness:  appear  of  o f f e r e d f o r p r o b l e m s have  and  interpret  o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e w h i c h he  understanding  agent's  the  of c a s t e  of p r o b l e m s  the  the  terms of  himself  may  client's  of  explanations the  the nature  the c l i e n t ' s costs  way  s e n s e of  entailed  in  the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  conclusion, and  agent  attainment  of  client  initial  s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n of p r o b l e m s a p p e a r s r e l a t e d  196  to  several  factors.  introspective models factor the p.  One  or r e f l e c t i v e  of s o c i a l  p h a s e and a g a i n  2 2 3 ) . To some e x t e n t , familiarity  explanatory discuss  goal  problem  purity and  during  offered  for  client  t o the  a significant during  and t r e a t m e n t ( s e e  p o s e d by a c l i e n t ' s  may  be  by t h e a g e n t  overcome  lack  by  an  b e f o r e he b e g i n s t o  of c l i e n t  to the Indian  itself  and i n h i s d e s i r e  to  and  exchange.  i n the  to l i m i t  w h i c h he h a s a c c e p t e d h e l p .  response  disclosure  model o f s o c i a l  s u f f i c i e n c y manifests  i s reflected in clients'  in  assessment  with  problem.  e m p h a s i s on c o n t a i n m e n t the  does n o t p e r t a i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , however, b o t h  the d i f f i c u l t y  pertain  of f a m i l y  familiarity  It constitutes  factors a f f e c t i n g patterns do  client  counselling,  introspection  statement  discussion The  with  the c l i e n t ' s  Other  these,  exchange p o s i t e d .  f o r some c o u n s e l l i n g  study  of  of  client's  discussion to  The g o a l  of c a s t e  understandings of t h e i r problems agent  interpretations  of  those  problems. But greatest to  the  cultural  referent  exchange  having  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e s t u d y phase o f c o u n s e l l i n g  appears  social  be t h a t  of  the  discussion  of  p r o b l e m s , an a g e n t ' s b a s i s  only for  has i m p l i c a t i o n s the extent  Similarly, desire family  a  to limit  to  transactional  of  f o r caste  which  client's  indebtedness,  sufficiency.  modes may be seen  purity,  clients desire  Finally,  i n the high  mode.  feel  to limit as w e l l  With  regard  to  the  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n not  i t also  has  implications  beholden  or  indebted.  discussion  may  reflect  as a  desire  to  a  maintain  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t r a n s a c t i o n a l degree of o v e r l a p  between  agents  197  who  disclose  communication exchange, the  family,  context  if  personal from a  information  clients.  In  p r o b l e m must be  i t should  be  and the  Indian  revealed  revealed  of a m u t u a l e x c h a n g e  t h o s e who  and  relationship.  experience  model  open  of  social  and d i s c u s s e d  outside  discussed  within  the  198  Notes: Chapter  *  The  7  disclosure  four  factor  Indo-Canadian  by c l i e n t s  deportation,  agents  a t t r i b u t e the pattern  child-apprehension,  in client  Seven  communication  experiencing to c l i e n t  etcetera.  patterns  fears  I discuss  later  in  nonof  fear as a  the  present  chapter. * Beck  8  In  a  reports  study  of a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l i e n t e l e  (1983:22) t h a t  was a s s o c i a t e d  ethnic  of agent  w i t h p o s i t i v e outcomes b u t n o t a t a  significant  level.  However,  for  clients  is  Hispanic  matching  the "unusually  undoubtedly  i n New  client  statistically  large  influenced  and  York,  differential  by  the  added  language b a r r i e r . " "  9  Beck  notes  clientele,  male  counselling  outcomes when t h e i r  5 0  If  receiving,  as  (1983:19-20) t h a t ,  the  well  as  relationship  female agent is  r e c i p r o c a l information  n e c e s s a r y . None of t h e d e s c r i b e d  by  client  (see  Table  dependence a t t h e o u t s e t questions  report  self-referrals,  one o f u n i l a t e r a l ,  relationships was r e p o r t e d  t o agents u n t i l  the  7 .initially  intervention  the c l i e n t s  dependent  and r o u t i n e  a g e n t s nor d i d  they  their  ask own  better  i s female. dependent  characterized  t o have  a f t e r the f i r s t  already  were  established  s e r v i c e s , the c l i e n t s  problems.  sessions based  knew t h e a g e n t s . But i n  relationships  personal  included  few  IV, p . 1 4 6 ) . In t h e 6 o f t h e s e c a s e s t h a t  on  describing  clients  f r o m t h e a g e n t does n o t a p p e a r  as  personal  among h e r m u l t i c u l t u r a l  questions The  through  neither of  knew t h e  them  clients'  before  desperate  199  circumstances contemplate  rendered the mutual  from t h e a g e n t 5 1  A few  misrepresent feel  and  quality  very  e x c h a n g e mode w h i c h p e r s o n a l  T h r e e of  these  connotation culture,  culture,  of  beholden,  agents b e l i e v e that c l i e n t s  Canadian  Indian  totally  unable  to  information  would have e s t a b l i s h e d .  facts.  t h a t the  between  them  i n which  i n which  simple-minded  of  it  is  may  also  agents, the  consciously  a l l Indo-Canadians,  word  honesty  i t i s considered considered  a  varies virtue,  foolishness,  a  persons:  In India, t o not h u r t f e e l i n g s or t o a v o i d h a s s l e , i t i s okay t o l i e . I t i s not the official system but the standard way of doing things. Even educated, intelligient p e o p l e won't t e l l you t h e e x a c t t r u t h . These the  agents  inform  their  clients  that  " i n Canada you  must  tell  truth": An average Indian doesn't know that by telling t h e t r u t h he can g e t what he w a n t s . He i s c o n s t a n t l y a s k i n g "What s h o u l d I tell them?" F o r example, "How l o n g s h o u l d I say I've been h e r e ? " I a l w a y s t e l l them t o t e l l t h e t r u t h . Now my c l i e n t s have come t o know and t h e y d o n ' t c h e a t .  5 2  of  A  m i n o r i t y of E u r o - C a n a d i a n  the p r e s e n t  substantiated  sample, i n the  refer  to  agents,  i d e a s about  no  more t h a n  Indian  culture  literature:  One woman t o l d me h e r h u s b a n d was b r i n g i n g home o t h e r women. They d o n ' t have the same scruples we h a v e . T h e r e a r e no s h o u l d ' s and shouldn'ts.  three not  200  I have c a t e g o r i z e d t h e s e  agents  terms  life-style.  of  Indo-Canadian  explanations personal  i n broad c u l t u r a l  judgement  rather  as  interpreting  problems  Although they phrase  terms,  than a c c u r a t e  the  terms  knowledge.  derive  in  their from  201  Chapter  Eight  A MIRACULOUS THE  During  the  third  exchange  information  to  problems  the  agent  identifies  problem return, will  and  ASSESSMENT PHASE  phase  of c o u n s e l l i n g ,  and a t t i t u d e s  disclosed  regarding  during  the agent  to  make  a g e n t s and c l i e n t s possible  to  the  resolution  them a v a i l a b l e  wants t h e c l i e n t  He wants c l i e n t  solutions  t h e p r e c e d i n g s t u d y p h a s e . An  resources relevant  offers  utilize.  SOLUTION:  of  the  t o t h e c l i e n t . In  t o d e c i d e which  self-determination  resources  he  of a treatment  plan. According  t o the agents  seem  less  plans  t h a n do E u r o - C a n a d i a n  want  a  produce one  able  or l e s s  miraculous it."  of  interviewed,  willing  This perception  the  most  to develop t h e i r  clients.  solution,  As one a g e n t  on t h e p a r t  quantitatively  clients  during  The agents in  remarked  light  exchange. solution"  clients  of  their  First, and a g e n t  I  regarding  put i t ,  "They  agents  findings  Euro-Canadian  dependency  represents of the  or  Indo-  of Indo-Canadian  the d i f f e r i n g  expectations  d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a treatment  differing  cultural  s u g g e s t how c l i e n t response  own t r e a t m e n t  phase.  p r e s e n t c h a p t e r examines and  of  significant  on t h e r e l a t i v e  the assessment  clients  and t h e y want y o u [ t h e a g e n t ] t o  r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d : e v e r y a g e n t , whether Canadian,  Indo-Canadian  to  these  referents hopes hopes  of  of plan  social  f o r a "miraculous relate  to  each  202  party's  understanding  identify  how a g e n t  plans  and c l i e n t  party's chapter  of mutual exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Next, I  expectations  response  appear  with  an  satisfactory  differences  Client  i n the c u l t u r a l  Expectations  related  will  regarding  expectations  and t h e v a l u e s  analysis  of  both  agent  to  treatment  relate  to  underlying  treatment and  models o f s o c i a l  each  them. The  plans  client,  which despite  exchange.  of Agents  Whether a g e n t s d e a l  client  t o these  t r a n s a c t i o n a l goals concludes  of d e c i s i o n s  concerns,  they  with  family,  educational,  a l l report  that  or  health-  once an I n d o - C a n a d i a n  d i s c l o s e s a problem, h i s e x p e c t a t i o n  is  that  the  agent  solve i t : C l i e n t s e x p e c t me t o s o l v e m a r r i a g e d i s p u t e s single-handedly. They s a y "you t a l k t o h e r , you t e l l h e r " and t h i n k t h a t t h a t w i l l b r i n g about r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . They t e l l t h e s c h o o l w o r k e r : "You a r e t h e teacher, y o u know, y o u do t h e n e c e s s a r y t o make my k i d behave." East Indians want p r o b l e m s d e a l t w i t h by t h e s c h o o l . East Indian mums want me t o produce m i r a c u l o u s s o l u t i o n s . I f t h e baby c r i e s too much, t h e y want me t o do s o m e t h i n g d e f i n i t e , r i g h t away. T h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e u n r e a l .  This  pattern  described  client  counselling  established referral.  of  through  Even c l i e n t s  transaction counselling  during  expectation  c h a r a c t e r i z e s most o f t h e  relationships  intervention, who employed the  are generally  routine the mutual  introductory described  whether  as  and  they  were  s e r v i c e s , or s e l f e x c h a n g e mode  of  study  of  dependent  phases during  the  203  assessment  phase.  Given  the  transacting pattern model  as  of  social  i n the  client  a d v i c e , how  In  way  the  direct the  Indo-Canadian  agents,  minimizes  advice  first  expectations  the  of  "doing  instance,  miraculous  job,  isn't  their  duty."  Indo-Canadians  pervasiveness the  familiarity  of with  If  the  clients  their  ideal  understanding  agent-  of  negative  the  implications  of  relationship. the  core  of  rests  answers t o the  direct  of  answer  solutions  Clients'  the  exchange? I b e l i e v e the  the  at  culture.  of  of  validity  a l s o have a s  Indo-Canadian  the  belief  problems  comments s u c h  i t ? " were f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d by  expectations of  they  within that  in providing direct  are  can  mode t h a t of m u t u a l  relationship  receiving  lack  receivers,  to  exchange p o s i t e d f o r I n d i a n  unilateral  transactional  hand,  dependent  implications  of e x p e c t a t i o n s a p p e a r s t o c h a l l e n g e  request  lies  status  as  solutions relate  presented,  "that  agents.  that  On  i s your the  to the  one  clients'  counselling processes:  To t h e E a s t I n d i a n w i t h a d r i n k i n g problem, treatment means medical treatment. Counselling and therapy are unknown in I n d i a , a t l e a s t by t h e s e p e o p l e . On  the  other  hand,  identification "police" requests who  agents  with  expectations "nurses,"  relate  "a p i l l  of  the  and  understanding  of  exhausted  t h e whole t h i n g done w i t h , "  or  s c h o o l to modify h i s son's behaviour  i t s authority, the agents'  base  their  to  their  "principals,"  i n t h e c o u n t r i e s of e m i g r a t i o n . The  wants,  exercise  of  clients'  expectations  prescribed roles.  In  and  wife  the  who  father  through on  so d o i n g ,  the  their they  204  limit the  the  costs  requested services.  the  duty  provided  of  the  through  Secondly, clients' costs  the  the  may  be  attributes  the  agents'  in receiving  for anything in return  beyond  for salary  perceived  as l i m i t e d  i s also perceived  advice  s o l u t i o n s which  the  i n so f a r as t h e as l i m i t e d .  Thus,  the extent  during  to which  on t h e p r o b l e m d u r i n g  phase. Agents note a g e n e r a l on  the  roles,  the problem to Canadian c u l t u r e  in requesting  to i n s i s t  r e q u e s t e d exceed  prescribed  (pp. 1.91 - 1 9 3 ) , he c u r t a i l s  compromised  clients  o r not t h e s o l u t i o n s  i n the problem  study phase  assessment  a r e not a s k i n g  agent, a duty performed  whether  role  status entailed  taxes.  incurred  the c l i e n t  feels  They  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  client's if  to t r a n s a c t i o n a l  t e n d e n c y on  reflect  their  the  the p a r t  own  he  views  of of  problem: Teenager problems are v e r y d i f f i c u l t . The p a r e n t s have d e f i n i t e i d e a s a b o u t r e s t r a i n t s and t h e y e x p e c t t h e worker t o s u p p o r t their view, to agree with them a b o u t what t h e y want f o r t h e i r k i d s . When i t ' s a h u s b a n d - w i f e d i s p u t e , e a c h wants you on t h e i r s i d e . We are here to bring about reconciliation, but t h e y t h i n k t h e r e i s a r i g h t and wrong and you w i l l s e t t h i n g s straight.  Euro-Canadian agents Lucas,  clients  as  to support t h e i r 1972:  23).  solutions  which  important  not  responsibility  For  well  for  Indo-Canadian  views of the problems Indo-Canadian  suggest that only  as  because the  clients,  a client they  problem,  clients  presented  (Keith-  however,  i s " i n the r i g h t "  relieve  want  the  but a l s o b e c a u s e  agent may  client they  be of  relieve  205  him  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r the c o s t s  incurred  in  resolving  the  problem. Finally,  when I n d o - C a n a d i a n  r e q u e s t s of agents exceed limit  the  costs  they  the agents' might  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the agent definition place  logically  during  and  status  follows  he h a s g i v e n  of a p e r s o n a l  reciprocate  with advice  their (see  otherwise incur  of the c l i e n t s  relations  and s t u d y p h a s e s .  t o the agent  Fleuret,  duties,  they  by d e f i n i n g  their  which  have  In t h e  by a c c o r d i n g of  Such  a  taken  client's  him r e s p e c t  help  and  the  I t i s now t h e a g e n t ' s t u r n t o  and s o l u t i o n s  regarding  e x p r e s s the mutual  with agents  their  exchange.  the t r a n s a c t i o n s  problem.  that  prescribed  t h r o u g h t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f an o f f e r  disclosure  Most  do p e r c e i v e  a s one o f m u t u a l  the i n t r o d u c t o r y  perspective,  clients  i n terms  that  problem.  exchange  nature  of  o f k i n s h i p and f r i e n d s h i p  1974:31):  When [an I n d o - C a n a d i a n a g e n t ] comes, we t a l k a b o u t my c h i l d r e n , how I am m a n a g i n g . She i s my b e s t f r i e n d . I have many friends but I would n o t c o n f i d e i n them. Our f a m i l y i s v e r y t h a n k f u l [a E u r o - C a n a d i a n agent] i s o u r f r i e n d . Whatever she t e l l s me I d o . My sons c a l l h e r A u n t i e . They s e e she i s v e r y good t o u s . When y o u have p r o b l e m s , y o u want someone t o t a l k t o , a brother or s i s t e r . I had this kind of t a l k with [a male I n d o - C a n a d i a n a g e n t ] when I went t o t h e C e n t r e . Only  one  Euro-Canadian  agent  mutual  exchange  relationship  during  assessment  friend  and want y o u t o t e l l  might  explicitly and  be r e l a t e d :  the "They  suggested dependent  that  the  expectations  put you i n the r o l e of  them what t o do."  However, a s n o t e d  206  in  Chapter  giving  Three,  of  receiving context  d i r e c t advice. of  of  In  such a d v i c e  an  on-going  sum,  miraculous  the  More  by  importantly,  placing  of  from t h e i r  agents  fall  within  given  prescription"  solutions constitute  of  social  countries  of  requested  for  the  person  Thus,  d o e s not  perceive  already problems  of  or  social  indicated service  in  t o be  his the  his the  the  the  as  a  costs  of  prescribed  the  be  control  of  of  whom  Indo-Canadian his any  client  status,  further  than to  t h o s e p r o b l e m s and  relationship established  has  unilateral  receiving solutions of  advice  5 3  dependent,  honour  the  may  counselling  compromising  family  exchange "medical  solutions  other.  the  known i n  one  for  however,  mutual  these are  friends,  understanding  to  resolve  his he his his  them. " 5  Expectations  Chapter  agents  by  clients,  e s s e n c e of as  t r u s t to the  himself  Response to C l i e n t As  the  assessment phase, the  limits  through  understanding  Agent  He  between  the  clients  considered  Extensive  transacting  the  dharma,  has.  are  involved  them.  and  although during  of  More  the  generalized reciprocity.  bounds of  providers  interaction respect  within  Indo-Canadian  the  the  facilitate  p r o b l e m s whose o r i g i n s l i e beyond  receiver  goals  service  experiencing  given  they  include  p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n e d . Immediate,  emigration.  characterizes already  the  the  much  transaction  d e p e n d e n c y . To  relationship,  roles  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  i n d i c a t i o n s of  expectations  f r i e n d s h i p very  expectations  solutions  a g e n t s t o be such  k i n s h i p and  Two,  all  of  the  Euro-Canadian  in p r i n c i p l e express strong  support  for  207  the of  professional  goal  of  i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and  phase,  client  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and  responsibilities.  Indo-Canadian expectations  strength  of  these  of  During  solutions  the  the  value  assessment  directly  test  the  convictions:  East I n d i a n s ask "What do I do?" They l i k e direct advice. We're supposed to provide client-centered counselling. The most I s h o u l d say i s "Have you t h o u g h t of this?" But t h e y ' r e not i n t e r e s t e d . They want t o be t o l d what t o do. Similarly, own  client  v i e w s of  expectations  that  problems challenge  solutions  established  will  reflect  practice  their  techniques:  P r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g says don't take s i d e s . We must m e d i a t e , not f o r m an a l l i a n c e or a coalition with the c l i e n t . We a r e not h e r e t o become i n v o l v e d i n a dispute, but that can cost you the c l i e n t ' s cooperation in some c a s e s . . From t h e Canadian  professional clients  can  immediate p r o b l e m the  respond client." the  but  one  "no-win  agent  noted,  p r i n c i p l e s are  maintained  but  the  p r o b l e m goes  of  the  social  service  expectations  which between  the is  manner  by  Indo-  situation": either  the  However,  considerably  a  one  but  to c l i e n t  attitude  pose  as  i s "solved"  p r i n c i p l e s are All  perspective,  a g e n t s say  "putting  it  ignored,  towards  the  or.  unresolved. they  initially  back'  to  i n w h i c h t h i s i s done and  conveyed  the  client  agents:  I e x p l a i n : "The government p a y s me t o b r i n g s e r v i c e t o you, not t o b r i n g my i d e a s t o you but t o h e l p you r e a c h y o u r own decisions." Some c l i e n t s n e v e r g e t t h e i d e a . O t h e r s do,  the hence vary  208  but  i t can take a long  time.  East Indians f e e l I should be all-knowing. They p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s i n my h a n d s . I t r y t o c l a r i f y my r o l e : "I am h e r e j u s t t o repeat what you t e l l me." But i t t a k e s t i m e . You're d e a l i n g w i t h a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e . T h e s e c l i e n t s want me gain t h e i r t r u s t and t o make a l l b e t t e r . I help themselves. I indef i n i t e l y . In  terms o f t h e I n d i a n  to play God. Once I r e s p e c t t h e y e x p e c t me tell them they must c a n ' t h o l d t h e i r hands  model o f e x c h a n g e , a g e n t s who  a positive  r o l e w h i c h t h e y do want  probably  stand  cooperation.  a  better  An a g e n t  to play  chance  who s i m p l y  of  t o do a p p e a r s ,  from t h e c l i e n t ' s  fulfill  h i s prescribed  duty  and  t r u s t the c l i e n t Despite  providers direct  the  say they advice  relationships employed. ranging  from  nor t o r e c i p r o c a t e  with which  respond  initially  to  solutions,  reveal  a  variety  approaches  may  non-directive  counselling  technique  X).  neither to respect  social  service  At  requests  descriptions of  of  counselling  the centre  specific approaches  to  of t h e c o n t i n u u m  involves  with  extensive  clients:  the  with  the c l i e n t ,  their  own  accounts  client  a c c o u n t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h them, I  direct lies a  "thinking-  decision  i s not  n o r i s i t made by t h e a g e n t . J u d g i n g  of a c t u a l  fall  more  for  be v i s u a l i z e d on a c o n t i n u u m ,  information-giving  which  alternatives  agents  the  the  client  "left"  Euro-Canadian  for  client's  wants  perspective,  uniformity  (Table  of  the he  apparent  instruction  through"  gaining  the c l i e n t  h a s shown h i m .  or  These  in helping  r e i t e r a t e s what  client  articulate  counselling  transactions, believe  or l e s s e q u a l l y  along  by  a n d by  that  the  the e n t i r e  209  Table  X  AGENT A P P R O A C H TO C O U N S E L L I N G BY E T H N I C BACKGROUND OF AGENT  Agent Directive o u  cn M o m +J  c 0) Cn  Approach  Extensive  Non- • D i r e c t i v e  TOTAL  IndoCanadian  16 ( 2 8 % )  3  EuroCanadian  14 ( 2 4 % )  6 (10%)  17  (30%)  37 ( 6 4 % )  TOTAL  30 ( 5 2 % )  9 (15%)  19  (33%)  58(100%)  ( 5%)  2 (  3%)  21 ( 3 6 % )  <  210  range  of t h e continuum.  exceptions, the  fall  continuum. Agents  counselling Canadian are  Indo-Canadian  agents,  i n t h e c e n t r e and towards  with  only  the d i r e c t i v e  two  end o f  5 5  who  practice  say  they  take p a r t i c u l a r  c a r e t o do so w i t h  Their  general  is  clients.  as  well  as  feeling  a l l t o o r e a d y t o do whatever  preach  non-directive  that  "East  Indo-  Indians  you s u g g e s t " :  I don't come on s t r o n g w i t h E a s t I n d i a n s . They a l w a y s f e e l I have more a u t h o r i t y than I do. I u s e a u t h o r i t y with mainstream clients. As a male, I have t o be c a r e f u l n o t t o tell an E a s t I n d i a n woman what t o do, e s p e c i a l l y i f she's j u s t s e p a r a t e d . I j u s t l a y out t h e c h o i c e s and a l t e r n a t i v e s . These  agents  which,  they f e e l ,  the  clients  client,  amount  the  as  at  o f more d i r e c t i v e  t o "Band-Aids"  since  approaches  they f a i l  to get  f o r themselves."  "information  Above a l l ,  illustrate. battered  t o be c r i t i c a l  t o "think  However, drawbacks.  tend  only"  approach  i t c a n be f r u s t r a t i n g  least  F o r example,  s i x of an a g e n t  woman f o r two y e a r s  the  to  both  described  who h a s been  also  has i t s  agent  and  relationships  working  with  a  reports:  She d o e s n ' t want me t o t a l k t o h e r h u s b a n d . I've t o l d h e r about Transition House, b u t she keeps on p h o n i n g me. I t c a n be v e r y frustrating. Once you offer the alternatives, they have to make t h e d e c i s i o n s . She i s making a c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e .  Occasionally,  frustration  leads  to  a  manipulative  or  even  21 1  coercive  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  "alternatives":  Problems with East Indians are more i n t r a c t a b l e . I f i n d myself t e l l i n g a woman we can do n o t h i n g t o h e l p h e r as l o n g as she s t a y s w i t h her h u s b a n d . I f she s e p a r a t e s , we can s u p p o r t h e r , g e t her Income A s s i s t a n c e . The d e c i s i o n i s h e r s . Essentially,  such  a  an  admittedly  the  responsibility  with  directive  the c l i e n t Other  directive  " n o n - d i r e c t i v e " approach h a r d l y v a r i e s  (see note  54,  who  use  p.  also  counselling to  except  i n one  f o r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of  agents,  necessary  one,  with  a  important  the  from  respect:  decision  rests  232). practice  as  Euro-Canadian  directive  w e l l as p r e a c h clients,  approach  with  non-  feel  it  Indo-Canadian  clients: With w h i t e s , I l a y out the a l t e r n a t i v e s l i k e a s a l e s m a n : "You've g o t a choice: you can send the kid to another school, accept s o c i a l work c o u n s e l l i n g , or move to a new home." With East Indians, I assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I s u g g e s t what I think is the best s o l u t i o n . On out  the of  one  alternatives  education; hand, t h e  hand, t h e s e  they're agents'  directive  who  d o e s not  or. t h e y "put  In t h e give  feel  t h a t the  lacks  compassion:  adjusting  t o a new  experience  approach  authoritarian  agents  "gets will  has  "They've culture."  taught  results:  "cold-fish"  them  I  i g n o r e what I s a y . "  i t back t o t h e c l i e n t , "  s o c i a l s e r v i c e s we advice. We are  even  laying  had On  less  the  other  a  more  that  have  to  be  more  As  the  one  agent  initially,  are told not to told to make  says:  212  s u g g e s t i o n s , and l e t them make the choice. But I don't b e l i e v e i n t h i s . East Indians want you t o t e l l them what t o do. They d o n ' t have t h e b a s e s f o r making d e c i s i o n s .  Between t h e n o n - d i r e c t i v e ,  "cold  which  f o r a thorough e x a m i n a t i o n , w i t h the c l i e n t ,  solution  agents,  s i x Euro-Canadian  strive  t o employ  and  its  likely and  a  and  "Band-Aid"  possible  lies  approach  directive, calls  approach  fish"  counselling  consequences.  three  the  technique of  each  Perhaps  Indo-Canadian,  nine  consistently  this technique:  We must b r i n g t h e c l i e n t s t o reality. What are their c i r c u m s t a n c e s ? What are the c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r a c t i o n s ? They must see the t r u t h . Then o n l y c a n t h e y d e c i d e what i s b e s t f o r them. A few these  proponents of the agents  to  through" agents direct  be  in turn  a d v i c e who  non-directive "providing feel  that  deny c l i e n t s  approach  consider  crutches."  But  it is  agents  the  the  even  "thinkingwho  offer  a growing e x p e r i e n c e :  [A particular Indo-Canadian agent] gives c o m f o r t , a d v i c e , and h o p e . T h i s i s what you must give i n Indian culture i f you a r e t r y i n g t o h e l p . But we believe i t i s not helping anyone to do t h i s . We b e l i e v e you must work w i t h t h e client until they see what t h e y must do. By  a l l  accounts,  agents  employing  the  extensive,  through approach  t e n d t o spend more t i m e w i t h  agents  at either  who  the  extra  the  "no-win  fall  end o f t h e c o n t i n u u m .  t i m e , however, b e l i e v e situation"  clients  posed  by  i t pays  Agents  thinkingthan who  do take  o f f by b r e a k i n g t h r o u g h  the c o n f l i c t i n g  expectations  of  213  agents  and  clients.  In terms o f t h e exchange t a k i n g thinking-through  approach  would  more c o n c r e t e t h a n  agents  clients.  describing  clients  Yet  in  who  express a p p r e c i a t i o n  transacted: everything  "She so we  non-directive respond  talks  can  what  less  to o f f e r  for  many  the  anything  decisions  with  agents  f o r them,  me;"  do  values "She  In c o n t r a s t ,  with  employing  concrete  with  done  then  the these  nicely  suggestions,  appear  leave  for  have  w i t h a s h r u g and  counselling  not  understand."  agents  p l a c e , agents  them,  when a s k e d  recollections which  exists  between  being  explained  clients  of  the  typically  of  have  what  specific not  been  implemented. An  interesting  approaches  which  correlation agents  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e y the  study  phase  188).  problems to Indo-Canadian Their can  general f e e l i n g what  client  can  the  counselling  employ d u r i n g t h e a s s e s s m e n t  interpret  (p.  the  the  Most  life-style  i s that  clients'  the c l i e n t  s o u r c e of the problem  d e c i d e what t o do  problems  of the a g e n t s tend to  be  can  phase  who  during  attribute  non-directive.  see a s w e l l  i s , and  and  that  as  they  t h e r e f o r e the  about i t :  I t e l l them my concerns and suggest what measures they can t a k e . The demands on t h e woman a r e u n r e a l . But a f t e r a p o i n t i t ' s up to them. They know t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . T h e r e ' s n o t h i n g more you can do.  The context  agents of  who  interpret  Indian c u l t u r e  problems  within  tend to provide d i r e c t i v e  the  broader  or e x t e n s i v e  214  counselling. p r o b l e m as  They  too  view  the  pervasive  cultural  for c l i e n t s  factors  to deal  with  involved  in a  on  own:  their  W i t h w h i t e s I a p p r o a c h t h e mum, t e l l her why something is important, and leave the decision with her. With East Indians, I t r y t o t a l k t o Dad. I tell him Mum is very t i r e d ; who's g o i n g t o l o o k a f t e r Baby i f she g e t s s i c k ? I know she would n e v e r ask him on h e r own, and i t would n e v e r o c c u r t o him. Moreover,  these  Canadian,  also  effectiveness  agents, hold  of  many  of  cultural  direct  whom  are  factors  themselves  responsible  Indo-  for  the  advice-giving:  The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , t h e h i e r a r c h y of the family system, and the r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y a l l l e a d t o the constant giving and seeking of advice. Look at Krishna [speaking ] to Arjuna in the Mahabharata. The e n t i r e l i t e r a t u r e i s f u l l of a d v i c e . How can we say we must n o t g i v e a d v i c e a s s o c i a l workers?  The client's  correlation p r o b l e m and  implications  for  relationship  between  agent  who  a greater the  need  decision client that  between  an  client's them.  up  to  perceives  little  e x p o s u r e of  or the  perception  As  a t t r i b u t e s a problem  for help,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  h i s c o u n s e l l i n g approach to  the  s e n s e of  agent's  suggested  to the  f o r the  on  I f the  the  client,"  that a  nothing  client.  the  same a g e n t  situation  problem.  been  received  Seven,  an  places  hence  "leaves  for the  i s compounded: a  been made of him, in  has  exchange  life-style  p r o b l e m , and  f u r t h e r demand has has  the  in Chapter  client's  responsibility the  of  that c l i e n t  a  exchange  for  and his  215  Conversely, its of  the agent  broader c u l t u r a l h i s sense  direct  of  received.  context r e l i e v e s  and  a problem  the c l i e n t  assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the c l i e n t  He  understands  has  perceives  benefited  that  in  i n terms  also  provides  f o r the r e s o l u t i o n  concrete  accordance  of  t o some e x t e n t  i n d e b t e d n e s s . When t h e same a g e n t  advice  the problem,  who  help with  has  of  been  what he  has  invested. To  sum  clients'  up,  in principle  requests  responsibility however,  for  agents  appear  they a c c o r d c l i e n t  with  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  Agent  severity  from  agents, solutions  by  may  be  secondary  the a g e n t - c l i e n t  agent's part  be  factor  clients  hope f o r  agents  hope  divided  on  the  experience  their  perception  influenced  discussed  by  the  below.  solutions  decisions  regarding  two  The  solutions  categories:  themselves,  relationship  confines  secondary  of t h e s e t of a l t e r n a t i v e —  practice,  depending  and  often  suggestions offered  one  school  counselling  worker  and  a  to  definition  interaction  referrals  offered  referrals  r e s o u r c e s . Since the p r o f e s s i o n a l  of agents  placing  miraculous  for  clients.  into  agents  a r e a of e x p e r t i s e ,  A minority  a  In  their  and  also  by  Response  from t h e i r  s u g g e s t i o n s made by t h e further,  clients.  advice,  They may  of t h e p r o b l e m ,  alternative agents  the  of o u t r i g h t  Indo-Canadian  solutions"  self-determination,  Indo-Canadian  their  to  more o r l e s s d i r e c t i v e  Expectations - Client While  of  with  the s o u r c e of the problem.  n a t u r e and  respond  "miraculous  for decisions  value  of  agents  to  the  constitute client. two  health  216  workers  —  receptive the  feel  that  Indo-Canadian  than whites" t o secondary  external  obstacles  to service  clients  are  referrals,  utilization  "even  more  particularly  if  a r e not too g r e a t :  They question less i f y o u r e f e r them. "I have t o go there? Okay." There a r e no "if's" or "but's." They are being r e a s o n a b l e , n o t dumb. East Indians place more t r u s t i n t h e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s . Once they've shared the problem, they take me up on t h e l i s t o f services. There's no p r o b l e m w i t h t h a t . Language c a n be a p r o b l e m but even t h e n t h e y ' l l accept,- e s p e c i a l l y i f i t ' s c l o s e and d o e s n ' t c o s t much.  These  agents a t t r i b u t e  to  their  end  of t h e i r  which  readiness rope")  client to solve  acceptance  the problem  and t o t h e i r  r e p r e s e n t "such a c o n t r a s t In  ("they've  appreciation with  India."  t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f most s o c i a l  service  Indo-Canadian Canadians  clients  t o secondary  tend  to  be  referrals.  e x p l a n a t i o n , or they appear  follow  through with the s e r v i c e e x p e r i e n c i n g such  ways. Some s u g g e s t  that  less  Either  without  Agents  of secondary  logistical  come t o t h e  of s o u r c e s of h e l p  agents,  receptive  they  however, than  decline,  Euro-  usually  t o a c c e p t but do n o t i n f a c t  recommended  resistance  referrals  interpret obstacles  (see Chapter i t i n one deter  Nine). of  two  acceptance:  I'm more l i m i t e d a s t o r e s o u r c e s f o r them. You must f i n d resources within their own community, w i t h i n t h e i r own n e i g h b o r h o o d i f p o s s i b l e . Even t h e n t h e r e ' s a r e l u c t a n c e .  Others  suggest  sensibilities. to  t h a t . t h e c o n t e n t of the For  attend pre-natal  example, c l i e n t s classes:  services  offend  seem p a r t i c u l a r l y  Indian reticent  217  I c a n push p r e - n a t a l c l a s s e s with t h e new b r e e d o f c o u p l e . The women a r e more e d u c a t e d and t h e husbands seem more W e s t e r n i z e d . But u s u a l l y I g e t nowhere. Even i f t h e woman accepts, t h e h u s b a n d v e t o e s i t . The m o t h e r in-law f i n d s i t threatening. Agents report and  less difficulty  citizenship  continues No  classes,  doubt  logistical  to  reluctance  to accept  Chapter  the  the  into  geographical  Three). may  disclosed  expose h i m s e l f  obstacles  services  offered  secondary  general  relationship just  although  clients  English proximity  t o be a f a c t o r .  reactions  explain  i n getting  pattern  But also  the affect  and explain  much a b o u t  just  of  n o n - u t i l i z a t i o n (see  service  already client  as  client  referrals,  h i s p r o b l e m t o one a g e n t ; still  culturally-based  they  established  help  exchange  r e s p o n s e . The c l i e n t h a s now  he  i s asked  to  further:  If i t ' s an o n - g o i n g f a m i l y c r i s i s , I have referred clients t o [another agency] f o r c o u n s e l l i n g . But a c o u p l e o f t i m e s t h e y have been afraid t o be i d e n t i f i e d . They d o n ' t want y e t a n o t h e r o u t s i d e r involved. I get a l l kinds of excuses i f I r e f e r to a [parenting] group. One woman t o l d me t h e o t h e r l a d i e s would be j e a l o u s b e c a u s e she has four k i d s . Even i f t h e y go, t h e y won't open up i n f r o n t o f t h e g r o u p . Conversely,  the suggestion  established  relationship  e x p e c t s t o be h e l p e d w i t h  of  a  between  referral  may  influence  agent and c l i e n t .  the problem presented,  the  The c l i e n t  not "put o f f " :  B e f o r e i t was d i f f e r e n t , [my w o r k e r ] h a d time f o r me. Now when I phoned a b o u t [ t h e p r o b l e m w i t h ] my t e n a n t s , he j u s t referred  218  me no  [ t o t h e R e n t a l s m a n o f f i c e ] . Why i n t e r e s t i n me now? I d o n ' t f e e l  In o t h e r words,  the  of  a  secondary  client  as  a  request  perceived  by  prestation,  and p o s s i b l y  to a l t e r  the  offer  a s an a t t e m p t  the e s t a b l i s h e d  Agents  respond  mutual  to  In  principle,  many  rather  may  than of the  be  as  a  agent  relationship.  reluctance  s e r v i c e s much a s t h e y r e s p o n d t o c l i e n t resolution.  referral  on t h e p a r t  exchange  client  i s there good.  to  accept  e x p e c t a t i o n s of  leave  the d e c i s i o n  further problem  up t o t h e  client:  I t e l l the parents these are the services available, but I don't push them. The f e e l i n g must come from them. I f t h e y don't want t o make a move t h e r e i s n o t much y o u can do. In p r a c t i c e , all  however, a b o u t  b u t one o f  occasionally  the  half  of the Euro-Canadian  Indo-Canadian  they p o i n t  agents  say  out the consequences  that  agents and at  least  of not a c c e p t i n g :  We a r e c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g t o persuade people to g e t i n t o t h i n g s . I t ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n i f you w i l l , p o i n t i n g o u t how t h i n g s will benefit them. Sometimes I b r e a k a l l t h e r u l e s and threaten. One  agent  who  routinely  acceptance t o Indo-Canadians service In  articulates  consequences  s a y s he h a s " n e v e r  of  non-  had a r e f u s a l o f  i n eight years." piecing  together the t r a n s a c t i o n a l  the a c c e p t a n c e o f s e c o n d a r y consistent  discrepancy  referrals,  between  I  sequences  encountered  a g e n t s ' and c l i e n t s '  preceding a  fairly  accounts.  219  Agents,  as  described  suggestions of  not  selecting  inevitably of  the  and,  above,  perceive  o c c a s i o n a l l y , as one  of  them.  s t a t e that they  themselves  p o i n t i n g out  Clients,  have been  on  "told"  the the  as  making  consequences other  to a v a i l  hand,  themselves  s e r v i c e concerned: [My w o r k e r ] s a i d my son must go [ t o a camp]. He must have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y .  summer  I was not thinking to do anything, just manage with my baby. Then my w o r k e r saw I was so tired, she told me I must have someone t o h e l p me, so a n u r s e [homemaker?] came.  In many i n s t a n c e s , t h e agent  may  appears  for  an  of  the  of  the  decision  of p h r a s i n g .  But  the  phrase  of  the  clients'  Indo-Canadian c l i e n t  perception expects  t r a n s a c t i o n a l s e q u e n c e u n f o l d i n g , he his  direct the  merely a matter  indicative  situation: the  be  attributing  exchange  advice  i n so  c o n s e q u e n c e s . As  partner f a r as one  to  feels  provide  i t relieves  client  direct  to  itself  exchange  advice  the  and,  t i m e has  i t . M o r e o v e r , he  him  of  the  in  come wants  responsibility  for  said:  My [ p r e v i o u s ] w e l f a r e w o r k e r was v e r y f r a n k , t e l l i n g me "you s h o u l d do t h i s , you may not do that." Then t h e r e was no t r o u b l e w i t h M.H.R. Just  as  the  original  accept  self-referring  clients  agents,  secondary  However, appear  clients so a r e  have been clients  "sent"  "told"  by  by  friends  those  agents  to to  resources.  i n f o u r or  five  of  t o have been t r u l y  the  34  described  coerced  into  the  relationships acceptance  of  220  referrals. child  A c c o r d i n g to the a g e n t s ,  each  abuse. A c c o r d i n g to the c l i e n t s ,  variety  of problems  allocation  (wife-battering,  o f w e l f a r e moneys), b u t  with c h i l d  apprehension.  As  one  of  of t h e s e c a s e s  involved  the c a s e s p e r t a i n e d t o a  a child's  illness,  the agents the agents  or  the  " t h r e a t e n e d " them involved  conceded:  [When t h e c l i e n t r e f u s e d t o have an infantstimulation worker], I t o l d her she had no c h o i c e . I s a i d " I f you o b j e c t , I w i l l i n f o r m M.H.R. and they will apprehend your c h i l d r e n . So d o n ' t say i t . "  It  is  beyond  allegations  my  ability  of c h i l d  were, t h e a g e n t s '  account  f o r the c l i e n t s '  the  the  expertise,  alternative himself.  Presuming  various  that  children  e x p e c t a t i o n s of d i r e c t  at  they risk,  a d v i c e , would  p e r c e p t i o n of the a g e n t s '  own  needs o f a c l i e n t and  occasionally  solutions  Particularly  parenting  East  clients'  the  "advice"  as  instruction.  When  their  whether  s t a t u t o r y mandate t o p r o t e c t  than  of  suggest  abuse were j u s t i f i e d .  rather  direct  to  skills  Indian  fall  when t h e y  offered  is  marital  often  within do  for  the  communication,  constitutes  an a g e n t ' s  not,  counselling  in cases c a l l i n g  and/or  counselling  do  one by  area  of  the  the agent  development agents  " t h e o n l y way  clients":  I tell w h i t e s a b o u t f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g and l e t them d e c i d e . I e x p e c t them t o t a k e more advantage. I may s u g g e s t i t t o E a s t I n d i a n f a m i l i e s , but I know i t won't work. The father wouldn't be involved and they wouldn't f i t i n to a middle-class white group anyway. I j u s t c a r r y i t out m y s e l f . I go o v e r t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s w i t h them.  feel to  of that  reach  221  In  terms of t h e I n d i a n  offer does  of  i t avoid  their they  direct  model o f  expectation  that  help w i l l  counselling,  the  agents'  a c c e p t a b l e . Not o n l y  f o r the c l i e n t s ;  i t also  come from t h e p e r s o n  meets t o whom  r e s p e c t and t r u s t .  However, a s t h e a g e n t s o f f e r i n g Indo-Canadian  exchange,  counselling i s relatively  f u r t h e r exposure  have g i v e n  social  clients  often  do  as i t i s normally  direct  not  counselling  interpret  conducted,  note,  or respond  a s a means o f  to  problem  resolution: Their view o f h e l p i s d i f f e r e n t . What does counselling mean? I f I say " b r i n g your wife," t h e y t h i n k i t ' s g o i n g t o be a s o c i a l occasion. If I talk about husband-wife communication, t h e y t h i n k I'm w a s t i n g t h e i r t ime. If you counsel white parents, they a r e mentally a b l e t o a p p l y your s u g g e s t i o n s and come back w i t h i d e a s o f t h e i r own. You know they've understood. But E a s t I n d i a n s j u s t l e a v e i t up t o y o u . We t r y t o encourage questions but they've been t a u g h t even a s children in public school not to ask questions. In o t h e r  words, even a f t e r  treatment agent,  plan  they  may  clients  by s e l e c t i n g fail  appear  or agreeing  to determine  their  own  t o c o u n s e l l i n g by t h e i r  t o make t h e s p e c i f i c s  of  that  plan  their  own. In recounted  the  course  such  interviewing,  both  numerous e x a m p l e s o f s p e c i f i c  Most o f t h e f a c t o r s pertain  of  to  the  l i e beyond  relevant to their  problems they  a g e n t s and c l i e n t s  counselling suggestions. acceptance  were i n t e n d e d  t h e scope of t h e p r e s e n t  or  rejection  to address,  thesis.  and a s  However,  two  222  factors  pertain  client:  the  level  suggestions, expect  that  and  clients  With  t o t h e n a t u r e of of a b s t r a c t i o n the degree  to  to the  t h e y have been  the  impression that  In  both  they  of  perception on  of  the p a r t  than  both  For  child's  Similarly, worth"  the  again,  by  factor,  just  agents  to  emerge from  clients'  as c l i e n t s p e r c e i v e accept  p e r c e p t i o n s may  a  secondary  be due  to  a d v i c e , as d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . B u t ,  Euro-Canadian  and  instructions to "take  one  Indo-Canadian  also  relates  their  in  agents,  the the  to a propensity  i n " concrete suggestions  social  understanding  told  my  a woman who  and  agents  rather  ideas.  my  "He  which  instructions.  development."  reported:  with  the  t h e y have been g i v e n s p e c i f i c  of c l i e n t s  example,  "explaining  communicate  s e s s i o n s under  specific  abstract  and  counselling  e x p e c t a t i o n s of d i r e c t opinion  on w h i c h a g e n t s  introspection  first  "told"  so t o o do  cases,  between a g e n t  respond.  regard  resource,  of  interaction  "rights"  The  devoted  of v i o l e n c e client's  husband had  worker  'Do  and  how  w i f e , who  not  beat.  a  session  i t affects  had  It i s  only that  I s h o u l d phone t h e p o l i c e . "  As  " i f my one  not  husband  agent  the  been p r e s e n t ,  been c o u n s e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y  recalls  to  good.'" on  "self-  threatens  puts i t :  I t ' s hard f o r East Indians to c o n c e p t u a l i z e . I t ' s l i k e w i t h p o o r w h i t e s . You have t o t a l k a b o u t s p e c i f i c s , not i n t h e abstract. You can't assume anything. Even o b v i o u s i d e a s may not be u n d e r s t o o d . They d o n ' t r e l a t e to them. 5 6  With  regard  to  the  degree  of  introspection  which  agents  223  expect  of c l i e n t s ,  "hard  work"  interpersonal One  several  Indo-Canadian  involved family  Euro-Canadian  in  dynamics  declared  getting  a g e n t s remarked clients  and on t h e i r  such e f f o r t s  to  on  the  reflect  f e e l i n g s about  on  them.  "useless":  You have t o s t i c k t o t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . Don't t a l k a b o u t i s o l a t i o n , t a l k a b o u t g o i n g to the temple. T h e r e ' s no p o i n t i n s a y i n g "you seem depressed about things." It d o e s n ' t g e t you anywhere. The  literature  counselling  which  of I n d i a n  from Southern Europe discussion  notes  immigrants (Allodi,  similar  difficulties  to Great B r i t a i n  1978:  8) a l s o  in  the  and  immigrants  suggests  confining  to observable s p e c i f i c s : This i s a t i m e when t h e y need d i r e c t i o n and g u i d a n c e , and e f f o r t s to involve them in self-examination and discussions about reaching their own solutions to their problems may only throw them i n t o f u r t h e r confusion ( T r i s e l i o t i s , 1972: 1 3 ) .  However, t h e comment o f one benefits the  of  client  the  young  woman i n d i c a t e s t h e  " h a r d work" some a g e n t s put  i n touch w i t h her  potential  i n t r y i n g t o "get  feelings":  [My w o r k e r ] s a y s I can t a l k a b o u t everything I f e e l . Maybe I wonder why this [desertion by h u s b a n d ] has happened t o me. I d o n ' t have the c o u r a g e t o t a l k t o M.H.R. They w i l l say "I d o n ' t c a r e . " At t h e C e n t r e , t h e y t r y t o understand a l l the c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  Neither communicate introspection  the with  level  of  abstraction  Indo-Canadian  w i t h which  on  clients,  they expect c l i e n t s  which  nor  the  the  agents  degree  to respond,  of  relates  224  to  the  party.  differing  Indeed,  proposed explain  they  of s o c i a l  indicate  f o r t h e study  that  agent  expectations  and  those posed the  Canadian c l i e n t .  the  theoretical  that  framework  But t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  5 7  are r e l a t i v e l y  As one i n - s e r v i c e l e a d e r  fully posed  and i n t r o s p e c t i o n ,  of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ,  they  f o r each  i n t e r a c t i o n cannot  of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  by e x p e c t a t i o n s  fact  exchange p o s i t e d  of a g e n t - c l i e n t  the r e l a t i o n s h i p o b s e r v e d .  by  common  referents  novel  put  have  in  t o t h e Indo-  i t :  We [social service agents] have the impression that age, e d u c a t i o n , English, e t c . makes a t a s k more or l e s s difficult. But my study [ o f i m m i g r a n t s from I s r a e l ] indicates that the extent of cultural innovation required by t h e t a s k c o r r e l a t e s highly with the d i f f i c u l t y experienced i n p e r f o r m i n g t h a t task (see M a s t a i , 1980). For  many  Indo-Canadians,  expectations  treatment agents their  agents  plans  on t h e b a s i s In  expect  meeting  family  now e x p e c t  clients  sources  to  of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s which  the  clients  develop  participation  novelty  They  referrals  suggestions i n secondary  tend  a g r e e t o c o u n s e l l i n g by  by  the  resources,  self-determination,  to  respect  resist  which might  t o the agent. H i s expectation of  5 8  own  h o n o u r . Whether t h e t r e a t m e n t  counselling  content  —  abstract  their  general,  help.  counselling  considerable . innovation.  a g e n t s - - p e r s o n s t o whom t h e y have g i v e n  secondary  of  sum,  of  i n t r o s p e c t i o n , and  appears t o r e q u i r e  identify.  whom t h e y  to  task  of self-determination,  conceptualization In  the  plan  referrals  entail  agent  the c l i e n t of  further  eventually  original  and f r o m  direct  to  costs  consists or  of  attributesi t s advice,  the  a b s t r a c t i o n , and i n t r o s p e c t i o n ,  225  and h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n agents  as  of  "threats,"  the  "consequences"  a l l lead  agent d e t e r m i n e s the treatment  Mutually  A c c e p t a b l e Treatment  T w e l v e of t h e 34 respondents  included  satisfactory  by  concerned  from h i s a g e n t .  equally  among  five  of by  cases  the  described  by  None  agents  lack  of c l i e n t  felt  that  he had  12  cases  non-directive  ( 4 ) , and d i r e c t i v e  self-  received  divide  almost  techniques (3), a approaches  were h a n d l e d by E u r o - C a n a d i a n  the  of r e s p o n d e n t s ' r e c o l l e c t i o n s  satisfactory  assessment  phases  t o t h e same e x t e n t i n t h e  less  assessments.  satisfactory  concerned  a l l  involvement  the  place  of  the development  the  the  greater  spouses  refers  to s p e c i f i c  in relation  (5).  a g e n t s , and  the a l t e r n a t i v e  solutions  reveals  two  factors  recollections hand,  of  the agents  emphasis  the o t h e r  a c t i o n s which  t o the treatment  involved  transactions  on  the  or o t h e r s e c o n d p a r t i e s i n  c a s e s where a h u s b a n d  agents  of  one  o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p l a n . On  In t h e e i g h t together,  On  relatively  the c l i e n t s '  clients  on h i s b e h a l f  about  the  the  w h i c h do n o t a p p e a r  of  of  considered  Indo-Canadians.  An a n a l y s i s during  at  These  agents employing  the  that  ultimately  clients.  e a c h of t h e c l i e n t s  "thinking-through" approach Seven  phases  frustration  effective  to perceive  relationships  assessment  and  by  Plans  counselling  determination,  out  plan.  b o t h a g e n t s and  expressed  help  the c l i e n t  pointed  each  the agent  took  plan.  and  wife  b o t h of them i n t h e available  hand,  to  them.  were  living  discussions The  men's  226  presence  was  influence.  Talking  t h e dummy also  considered  instead  important  t o an E a s t  because  I n d i a n woman i s  of the v e n t r i l o q u i s t . "  "men like  have  more  talking  to  However, t h e w i f e must  be p r e s e n t : [The p a t t e r n o f ] communications i n the Indian family means that i f you don't explain things t o h e r , she may n e v e r h e a r them. A l l she h e a r s i s blame f o r t h e p r o b l e m t h a t brought you t h e r e .  B e c a u s e h u s b a n d s may be " h a r d agents  say they  Nevertheless, included  "soft-pedal  these agents  on  the  women  t h e problem"  feel  that  i n dev