UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Mediation and the indirect metafiction of Randolph Stow, M. K. Joseph, and Timothy Findley Ingham, David Keith 1985

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MEDIATION AND THE INDIRECT METAFICTION OF RANDOLPH STOW, M. K. JOSEPH, AND TIMOTHY FINDLEY By DAVID KEITH INGHAM B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo, 1973 M.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo, 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of E n g l i s h )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July,  1985  © David K e i t h Ingham, 1985  4  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  \A&(?^A^  . <J The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  -6  (3/81)  ' Columbia  written  i i  A b s t r a c t  In  order  to  explore  the  range  p r e s e n t e d  i n  three  exemplary  examining  how  the  assumptions  "postmodernism"  on  the  s t o r y - t e l l e r ,  s t o r y ,  view  range  that  r e v e a l s  the  the  spectrum  of  m a t e r i a l s " r e a d e r ,  and  between  that  r e a l i s m of  Each  of  novel  d i s c u s s e s of  the  three  Randolph way  i t  Tale  reader  of  the of  t h i s  w r i t e r t e x t  (or  postmodernism,  one  begins hand  p a r a d i g m a t i c  f i c t i o n  the  the  context  determined  between  m e t a f i c t i o n  next the  three c o n t e x t  a  novel  m e d i a t i o n s . The the  G i r l  by  how to  between  w r i t e r  and  the  a  "raw and  h i s  realism")  r e v e a l i n g  of  i t  h i s  t e x t  and  t r i a d  between  the  by  emerges  according  "pretend  as  a  c h a p t e r s , of  the  whose  without  i n t e r mediates  b r e a k i n g  the  p l a c i n g  the  Green  as  of  of  notes  r e f l e c t s  the  m e d i a t i o n  demonstrates  how the  and  how  m e d i a t i o n  Chapter  author h i s  K.  of  the  II  (1980)  the  and  of  Famous  t e x t  whole, i s  and  by  on  A by an  one on  on  p r e s e n t i n g  reader  r e d a c t i o n  a  focusses  Joseph's  F i n d l e y ' s of  by  as  focus  p e r s o n a l  M.  l i t e r a r y  Timothy  work  E l d e r f l o w e r  I I I  shows  author's  the  s y n t h e s i s  i n i t i a l l y  m e t a f i c t i o n a l  Chapter  IV  a f t e r  A c c o r d i n g l y ,  m e d i a t i o n  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  Chapter  (1981)  the  of  d e t a i l  f i c t i o n  (1976)  w r i t e r ' s And  the  Stow's  e x p e r i e n c e s .  of  the  From i s  on  as  r e a l i s m .  r e v e a l s  w r i t e r ' s  that  that  and  w i t h i n i n  nature  to  m e t a f i c t i o n  d i s s e r t a t i o n  " r e a l i s m "  a u d i e n c e .  and  i n d i r e c t t h i s  r e l a t e  t e x t ,  I n d i r e c t  i l l u s i o n s  key  the  of  m e t a f i c t i o n  m e d i a t i o n : and  p r e t a t i o n .  of  processes  novels,  other  and  of  the  a  l i t e r a r y S o l d i e r ' s d e p i c t i n g o r a l  Last  t a l e .  Words  presenting  a  a  w r i t e r  whose  undercuts both  text  and  exposes  postmodern  demonstrating  and  them  i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n c e , i n d i r e c t The in  the  the  f i f t h  of  be  complementary;  m e t a f i c t i o n a l  a n a l y s e s  a l s o  d e f i n i t i o n s and  d i s s e r t a t i o n  draws  c h a p t e r s : m e d i a t i o n  and  f i c t i o n  language,  c r i t i c a l  e x p e r i e n c e  " r e a l i t y "  f i c t i o n ,  t r a d i t i o n a l  i t s elements;  " s t r u c t u r e s "  how  a n a l y s e s  chapter  p r a c t i c a l  d e l i n e a t i n g  of  i l l u s i o n s  The  t o  of  the  them.  the  and  of  of  the  f i c t i o n ,  key  then  t e x t s  employ  approaches, by  n o t i n g  t r a d i t i o n a l  h i g h l i g h t  the  the import  mediary  and  nature  of  m e t a f i c t i o n .  paradigm  both  " c r y s t a l l i z e s "  of of  from  from  through  through  r e a l i s t i c ,  concludes  " f i c t i o n , "  by  and  an a  "anatomy"  sense  of  t e x t s  comes  language.  both  " r e a l i t y . "  on  the  through  f i c t i o n , mind  " p h y s i o l o g y , " a d i s c u s s i o n  and  of sense  l e a d s  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s  and  the  ideas  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  T h i s  d i r e c t  remarking  a  from  r e v e l a t i o n s of  how  " f i c t i o n a l "  u n r e a l i s t i c ,  m e t a f i c t i o n ,  c o n c l u s i o n s  m e t a f i c t i o n a l  comes  f i c t i o n a l  works  t h e o r e t i c a l  i n d i r e c t ;  the  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s  of  to  iv T a b l e of Contents  Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  iv  Acknowledgements  »>v  CHAPTER I Through a G l a s s D a r k l y : Realism, M e t a f i c t i o n , and M e d i a t i o n  1  CHAPTER II "Come P l a y Your Games w i t h Me": Randolph Stow and the M e d i a t i o n of t h e Author  59  CHAPTER I I I M. K. Joseph and the M e d i a t i o n of the Reader: A Semiotician's Tale  142  CHAPTER IV Timothy F i n d l e y and the C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n  193  of I l l u s i o n  CHAPTER V The G h o s t l y Paradigm: C o n c l u s i o n s and S p e c u l a t i o n s  298  Bibliography  332  V Acknowledgements  I  wish  t o thank  support  through  M e r r i t t  of  h i s  a  e s p e c i a l l y these  Graduate  t h e CBC  t r a n s c r i p t s  i n t e r v i e w s  Timothy  encouragement  F i n d l e y and  B r i t i s h  Columbia  1979-80  and  a l l o w i n g  with  me  Timothy  himself  a l s o  i n reading  o f  F e l l o w s h i p ,  f o r generously  of  i n t e r v i e w s ,  t h e U n i v e r s i t y  F i n d l e y ;  f o r h i s g e n e r o s i t y ,  and  d i s c u s s i n g  1980-81;  access  f o r permission  with  me  f o r  i t s John  t o tapes  and  and  t o quote  support,  from  and  p o r t i o n s  of t h e  MS. For ways of  I  my  t h e i r  a l s o  support,  wish  research Diana  Robert  Jordan  And  of  Brydon,  (even  (for  t h e s u n s h i n e ) ,  I  i f he  and  me  t o  how  l i k e  more: read,  mes  parents;  about  and  sans  K r o l l e r ;  New, and  members  P a t r i c i a P r o f e s s o r s  qui  . . . " S p e c i a l  thanks  i n h i s acknowledgements), saw  me  t h i s  t e a c h e r s ,  many  H.  and  many  through  t o  Susan  t h e darkest  days),  e v e r y t h i n g ) .  t o d e d i c a t e t o my  s u p e r v i s o r  i n so  C h i a r e n z a .  amis  (who  my  encouragement  W i l l i a m  Eva-Marie  p u t me  B i l l  and  P r o f e s s o r s  and  d i d n ' t  ( f o rj u s t  would  above,  "a  course,  C h r i s t y  my  and Marguerite  Ihor  and  thank  committee,  M e r i v a l e , M.  t o  a s s i s t a n c e ,  other  d i s s e r t a t i o n  formal  t h i n g s  I  and  t o a l l of t h e  o t h e r w i s e ,  learned  l e s s  who w e l l .  taught  1  CHAPTER Through  a  G l a s s  " R e a l i t y , " c a t c h . "  Yet  sought  to  of  p l a c e  our  s c i e n c e , which But  the  the  i t  i n  which  Whether  to  these  even  i n t r i n s i c t h e i r  made  of  a r t  of  s t o r i e s .  words  w i t h i n  to  t o o ,  of form  from  t r u e ;  furthermore,  there  to  a  of  r e f l e c t i o n  a l l language  m e t a p h o r i c a l , and  beginning taken  mental  t h i n g s was  has  the  l i t e r a l l y  or  was  the i s  s e m i o t i c ;  c o n c e p t i o n  way  sense  t h i n g s  and  the  .  .  .  And  f i g u r a t i v e l y ,  a  the  i n  the t h i s  And  audiences.  legends,  t h e i r  or  meaning inward,  they  were  of  s t r u c t u r e ,  would "as  t h e i r  (or  imagine  i f " they  which  they  c o u l d  were  were  or  taken  should  be)  s y m b o l i c ,  of  s t r o n g  v e r b a l  p a t e n t l y  them  were  presumption been  o r d e r .  presumes)  most  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ,  always  Word.  some  that  s t r u c t u r e  audience of  and  a t t e n t i o n  (one  the  o u r s e l v e s ,  i n  r e a l i t y ,  and  range  would  words  a  to  have  ways  were  drew  which  the  or  whether  they  to  the  of  grammar  however,  of  s t o r y t e l l e r s .  w i t h  of  way  grammar  s t o r i e s ,  s p e c i e s  a  the  t h e i r  Even  as  shape  have  postmodern.  b i r d  and  outward,  the  hard  t h i n g s ,  two  themselves;  or  M e d i a t i o n  r a t i o c i n a t i o n ,  " l i f e , "  a r t i f i c e ) ,  them,  why:  of  (or  c o n v e n t i o n s ,  and  were  by  and  name  i s  And  whether  codes  be  most  we  of  but  to  e x t r i n s i c ;  S t o r i e s ,  " f i c t i t i o u s "  me  s t o r i e s  language.  p r e h i s t o r i c  are  or  words,  and  order  attempted  s t o r i e s  about  the  " i s a  that  P h i l o s o p h y ,  i n t e r e s t s way  wrote,  experiment  has  M e t a f i c t i o n ,  d e v o t i o n  of  o r d e r .  and  mind  once  s i g n a l  something  t h a t  the  Realism,  Shaw  w i t h  theory  i m a g i n a t i o n :  was  i s  human  way  myths--or  Bernard  e x p l a i n  by  D a r k l y :  I  a  connection  one.  Word image  Because  became has  between In  f l e s h .  e x e r t e d  the Whether  a  2  powerful  i n f l u e n c e  r e l a t i o n  between  are of  f u s e d . the  a u t h o r ,  apogee and  i f "  w i t h  the  world  the  of  text  i n  and  and  2  the i s  r e a l  f u s i o n  mind  of  that  i s  the  c l o s e n e s s  p e r m i t t e d  (1953). words  The  i n  E r i c  s i g n i f y i n g but  of  do  the  not  as  a  t h e r e , mere  sought  d e i f i c a t i o n  of  i t s  r e a l i s m ,  the  these  word-  comes  mental  reads  however:  one  of  and  e x e g e s i s  g e n e r a l , some  e x p l i c i t l y  u s e f u l  as of  ( c l e a r l y  I  the  "as  c o n c e p t i o n  the  words  words  and  of the  c o u r s e ,  of  merely a  " r e a l "  l i t e r a r y  " s e n t e n t i a . "  from on  the  removed the  i s  d i d  not  at  c l e a r  even  i n  c r i t i c i s m ) ,  i n  much  prose  i n  f i c t i o n ,  u p " - - i s  c o n t e x t . removal from  p a r a b l e  through  mean  I t  always  Very  made  as  s o l e l y  has  T h i s  not  f i c t i o n  aimed  c r i t i c i s m  I  Viewing  a  r e a l i t y .  never  "something  obvious  runs  of  i s  s i n c e  (though  accepted  " f i c t i o n "  as  i s  Modern  of  Mimesis  s i g n i f y .  then,  l i t e r a l .  and  word  n o n e t h e l e s s - - c f .  neo-Platonism  so  p r e c u r s o r  focusses world  has  t h i n g s  f i g u r a t i v e ,  they  r e f l e c t i o n  r e a l i t y ,  the  or  masterwork,  c o u r s e ,  g e n e r a l ,  "sense"  use  h i s  one.  f i c t i o n  sense--such  i n d i c a t e d ,  c o n n e c t i o n  current  when  i n  as  the  between  other  P l a t o n i s m ,  t h i n g s ,  j u s t  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  d i s t i n c t i o n  unless  has,  beyond  w r i t e  between  i m i t a t i o n ,  powerful  "meaning"  medieval  a  he  as  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or  2  when  world  reached  that  the  t h i n g s ,  mimetic,  In  of  the  and  the  r o o t s  from  " i m i t a t e "  c r i t i c i s m  1  And  i s , of  "postmodern")  i t s  stems  i l l u s i o n  r e l a t i o n  to  mimesis  process a  of  Auerbach  concept  f i c t i o n  " f i c t i o n , "  the  Word  of  t e x t . It  stop  1  a p o t h e o s i s  r e a l i t y  reader  language,  l i e the  the  w o r l d .  w i t h  the  f u s i o n  a l s o  of  of  f i c t i o n .  whose  Here  s t r e n g t h the  of  t h i s  a r t i s t - c r e a t o r  the  the  c o n c e p t i o n s  t h i n g s ,  image  Romantics.  f i c t i o n ,  generated  t h i s  t h i s  the  Western  words  the  source  of  of  the  From  on  much  of  the  of  the  words  " i d e a l . "  from There  c a v e — a n d  Romantic  p o e t r y .  a  i s  3  t h i s of  v e i n  the  i s  Dante's  Commedia  polysemous, the  one  c a l l e d  that  c r i t i c a l f i n d  that  the  t r a d i t i o n  Dante  l e v e l  the  This  other  and  does  p o s s i b i l i t y  s i m p l e ,  but  i s  the  meanings.  l e t t e r ;  the  s i g n i f i e d  by  a l l e g o r i c a l  of  beyond  of  meaning.  q u e s t i o n i t  i s  process  meaning  the  l e t t e r .  at  i t  i s  one  The  f i r s t  i s  or  the  l i t e r a l  connection  r e p r e s e n t s :  c o m p l i c a t e d  i s  moral  "meaning"  c a l l e d  second  Moreover,  the  be  f i r s t  the  the  to  the  The  or  e x e g e s i s "  l o o k i n g  Comedy:  rather  " f o u r - f o l d  not  a  many  t h i n g s  r e a l i t y  of  D i v i n e  second  s o r t s  the  h i s  through  l i t e r a l , 3  of  i s , having  through  a n a g o g i c a l . "  to  " i s not  o b t a i n e d  o b t a i n e d  account  i s  heart l e v e l  of  worthy  of  between not  of a  does  of  s i g n i f i c a t i o n  work  note  the  he  the  l i t e r a l  r a i s e  the between  the  two. E x e g e s i s Augustine  i s  ( f o r  whom  s i g n i f y i n g " " ) the  w o r l d  the  i t s e l f  c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o i n t i n g should  may  be  t h i n g s p.  3  to  t o ,  use  t h i n g s '  of  or  we  " L e t t e r  l i t e r a l  and  i s , so  seems,  to  not  the i s  1962), p.  r e f e r e n c e s  8  by  w i t h i n  t e x t  world  the of  and  i s i s  i n such  t h a t  r e a l i t y  ("sense"),  of  i t , so  use  for  God's  that  t h i n g s  and  p l a n :  "we  the  ' i n v i s i b l e  t h a t  are  c o r p o r a l s p i r i t u a l "  and  made' temporal  (DDC  1.  4.  i n  r p t .  A l l a n  H.  D e t r o i t :  G i l b e r t , Wayne  L i t e r a r y  State  220. W.  Robertson  D o c t r i n a the  4;  word.  S c a l a "  t r . D. (De  a  means  e t e r n a l  (1940;  p.  w i t h  o b j e c t i v e  of  by  however:  whole  " s e n t e n t i a "  a l s o  D e l i a  word  enjoy  that  t e x t s ,  whose  w i t h  l e v e l  the  Dryden  D o c t r i n e ,  1958),  of  understood  Grande  P r e s s ,  subsequent  the  i t  Can  "signs  "read,"  comprehend  C h r i s t i a n P r e s s ,  be  that  U n i v e r s i t y A r t s  can  'being  P l a t o  v e r b a l  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  God,  F l e s h ,  to  are  s i g n i f y i n g  C r i t i c i s m : "On  words  world  may  to  c o n f i n e d  t h i s  seen,  10).  not  (New  C h r i s t i a n a  t e x t .  York: 1.  2.  L i b e r a l 2);  4  One  can  s t r u c t u r e of  d i s t i l l  which  i s  from  the  relevant  t r a d i t i o n  to  s t o r y t e l l e r / s t o r y / a u d i e n c e  d i s s e r t a t i o n . e x e g e s i s  Moreover,  p a r a l l e l s  A u g u s t i n e ,  the  r e p o s i t o r y  of  "enjoy") For  Dante,  spoken the  the  C r e a t o r  t e x t  the  word)  o c c u p i e s  assumes  a  of  the  discover  w r i t t e n  r e p o s i t o r y  e s t a b l i s h e d  to  which  a  one  the  of or  of  these  t h i s  elements  p o s i t i o n , "use" the  word  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y  as  opposed  more  " p r i v i l e g e d "  of  the  freedom  for  and  i s  the  not  C r e a t o r ' s  p o s i t i o n :  P r o t e s t a n t  i n For  (and  of  And  s t r u c t u r e  " p r i v i l e g i n g . "  must  he  t r i p a r t i t e  t r i a d i c  a l l  supreme  reader  a  can  meaning.  measure  on  what  the  informs  emphasis,  a l l meaning;  e x e g e s i s  l i t e r a t u r e :  emphasis  c r i t i c a l  of  to  the  p l a n .  the t e x t  i s  R e f o r m a t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of  scr i p t u r e . In  the  emphases. examples  h i s t o r y  T r i s t r a m which  of  Shandy  the  w o r l d  are  development  n a r r a t o r s  became  of  l e s s  became  moderns,  the  t e x t  i t s e l f ,  c a l l e d  "The  Though  Robert  modernist  c r i t i c s A l t e r ) ,  have as  "The  Jorge  Borges,"  His  L u i s  Work  209-224.  in  i t s  w r i t e r s , "  as L.  I  of  and of  c r e a t o r "  r e a l i s m ,  With  A r t i f i c e  what  once  the  in  use  W i s c o n s i n  theme.  however,  for  i s  i s  Nabokov; P r e s s ,  the of  commonly to  Bowering,  term  the  " f l a u n t i n g  again  V l a d i m i r  (ed.),  e a r l y  s e l f - e f f a c i n g :  George  f i r s t  Dembo of  as  two  n a r r a t o r i a l  i n t e r e s t . And  s h i f t s  S.  U n i v e r s i t y  (1749),  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s  of  s i m i l a r  extreme  more  w r i t e s  i t s  of  " w r i t e r  a p p r o p r i a t e d know  d e t e c t s  Jones  a t t e n t i o n .  emphasis  one  forms  the  centre  of  the  F l a u n t i n g  (Madison:  of  with  w i d e l y  f a r  M e r i v a l e ' s  Tom  c o n v e n t i o n s  the  focus  "postmodernism"  r e a d e r .  5  the  and  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s  t e x t  was  n o v e l ,  d i f f e r e n t  the  the  5  (1760)  models  of  a r t i f i c e , "  E n g l i s h  demonstrate  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , With  the  the "though  (presumably P a t r i c i a Nabokov The  Man  1967),  and and pp.  v i a  5  a b j u r i n g  t h e r e f e r e n t i a l  r e a l i s t s ,  &  t h e i r  i n d i v i d u a l , " completed d e c i p h e r .  .  t h i n g goes  of  on  t o take  6  a p p r o v i n g l y  of  t h e n o v e l ' "  as  from  " p r i v i l e g i n g . "  l e g i s l a t o r the  o f  primacy  r e a l i t y , which  was  l e s s ,  and  8  " I n t r o d u c t o r y  f i c t i o n  s t a b i l i t y ; (p. See  t o The  1980),  Novel  n e a t l y  from  t h e reader  onward, of  p o e t r y ,  as  as  H.  Abrams,  The  M i r r o r  o f t h e  a  and  sense  above  lamp,  a l l on  i l l u m i n a t i n g i t - - a  view  Lockean p r i v i l e g e s  d i c t i o n  t h e  poet  and  Contemporary  Canada  7. (Glasgow:  forms:  and  of t h e  "unacknowledged  C o l l i n s ,  " I n g e n e r a l ,  i n t o  1977),  t h e d e p a r t u r e t h e s t a b l e t h e novel  t h e Lamp  of  t h e n , t e x t  (1953).  p.  15.  postt h e  l o s t i t s  i n novel  1 1 ) . M.  one  s i m i l a r  r e f l e c t i n g  p o e t i c  of  a  i n s i s t e d  however,  F i c t i o n  i n v i t e d  part  and  involvement  t h e poet  t o d i s a p p e a r ;  was  c r i t i c s  e x h i b i t s  t o Newtonian  Today  becomes  f i c t i o n .  p a s s i v e l y  p.  view--he  postmodernism:  t o choose  t h e new  c h a r a c t e r i z e s  p r e v i o u s  tended  other  o f f .  t h e damned  i n t h i s  reader  i m a g i n a t i o n ,  t o The  h i m move  and  &  sometimes h i s  p l o t many  i t s e l e v a t e d  &  a  h i s hands  on  t h e Romantics  V i c t o r i a n  House,  c e n t r e  on  view  r e a c t i o n  keep  a l o n e  f o r example,  m i r r o r ,  more;  Bradbury  r e a l i s t i c  a  Notes"  Coach  i n t r o d u c t i o n modern  a  L a t e r  p o e t r y  (Toronto: E a r l i e r ,  than  l a r g e l y  e m p i r i c i s m .  t h e i r  t h e c r e a t i v e  r a t h e r  - - a n d  t h e Romantics With  h e l p  was  t o observe  Bradbury  i n postmodern  t h e u n i v e r s e , "  of  &  i s h a r d l y  commented  " c o - c r e a t o r "  ( P o e t r y ,  7  t o  o f t h e  t h e work  h i s r e a d e r s ,  c h a r a c t e r ,  R o b b e - G r i l l e t , have  had  Malcolm  t h e subject  f o r t h r i g h t )  s t i l l  Bowering  that  i n v i t e d  somewhere  w r i t e r ,  ( A l a i n  was  i n v i t e s  h o l d  t h e s t r u g g l e s  t h e sense  b u t he  o f  reader  8  a  t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  upon  reader  a l l i a n c e  most  6  "The  p o s i t i o n . "  t o quote  a u t h o r s  of  m a i n t a i n e d  p o s t - m o d e r n i s t  i n t o  "'The  s t i l l  t h e s t r u c t u r e ,  c h a r a c t e r s ,  o f  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  s t r u c t u r e .  . The  o r d e r  ways"  6  r e s t r i c t i v e  p o e t i c  " s e n s i b i l i t y . " Cohen's  And  phrase]  l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e s  D.  other  t o  The  c r i t i c i s m ,  d e i f i c a t i o n  w e l l  as  t h e New  i n t e n t i o n  t o pay or  t h e reader's  r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  e x p l o s i o n  century  or  The  s o , u n i t e d t h e t e x t ,  most  obvious  reader-response is  o f t e n  "there the  9  1  i s no  reader  V a l i d i t y  1967),  o f  p.  these  and  p u t  he  11, No.  1  can  focus  f a l l  on  sway  w i t h  beteween s u p p l i e s  (New  what  t o , F a l l a c y . "  who  t h e t e x t  Yale  1981),  7.  And  a  q u a r t e r both  t h e  p l a c e . occurs  i n  d e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s m ,  e v e r y t h i n g . "  Haven:  i s  author's  t o dethrone  i n t h e i r  F i s h ,  t e x t " )  c r i t i c i s m ,  t h e reader  along  nothing  t h e c r e a t i v e  i n t h e l a s t  t h e attempt  i s Stanley  be,  b i o g r a p h i c a l  t h e  postmodern  of  of  a r c h e t y p a l -  t o e i t h e r  t h e reader  ( S p r i n g  which  Romantics  ( t h e " a u t o t e l i c  216.  °Diacritics,  " i s , and  and  which  t h e o r i e s by  t h e  " p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s m " ) , and  i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  i s  poetry  from  t h e " A f f e c t i v e  come  (which,  c r i t i c s  which  p a t t e r n s  embraces  i s t o  or  enshrinement  d i s t i n c t i o n  s i m i l a r runs  and  a t t e n t i o n  l a r g e l y  t o as  s u p p l i e s ;  ) ,  t h e t e x t  has  and  [ i n Leonard  poetry  coherent,  t e x t  forms  c r i t i c a l  c r i t i c i s m  r e f e r r e d  audacious  of  9  a  response  l i t e r a t u r e  v i r t u a l  and  of  t h e " I n t e n t i o n a l "  postmodern  author  t o o much  f o l l o w s  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  C r i t i c s ,  l e a r n e d  t o w r i t e  t h e author  those  "sense,"  connections.)  m e a n i n g "  p r o c e s s .  paramount:  t h e  of  some  have  i m a g i n a t i v e l y  ( t h e "meaning"  c r i t i c i s m :  F o r  o n , poets  c r i t i c i s m  t h e author's as  i t s" p o e t i c - n e s s , "  nothing,"  t o make  m y t h o l o g i c a l  w i t h  E l i o t  but  l i t e r a r y  H i r s c h  than  s t r e s s  "connect  t h e reader  emphasis. E.  from  d i s c o n t i n u o u s  F i n a l l y ,  to  forms  1 0  t h e  a s s e r t s g i v e s One  most that  and  reason  U n i v e r s i t y  what f o r  P r e s s ,  7  the is  d i v e r s i t y informed  c r i t i c i s m  of  by  thought  c l a i m s  terms,  h i s  form  s e m i o t i c s  (to  reader.  The  though "The  putsch  of  of  t e x t s  ( u s i n g  "The  the  I  omit  I  p a r t  s h i f t i n g  p o l i t i c a l  and  Eco  i t s concerns  I  i n him  in  has  informed  away  from  and  s o c i o l o g i c a l  t e x t s ,  p o l e m i c a l  and  of  r a i s e d  these  i s  h i g h  have  a l s o  t o p p l e  the  t e x t  i n  h e a v i l y  p o l i t i c a l  Author"  ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  p l a c e s or  the  the  of  the  449,  more  a  s h a l l the  To  q u o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e o r i g i n a l  F e m i n i s t  where  i n  New  a v o i d i s t h i s i n  the by  of  a  i f  author's three  s h a l l  a l s o  use  v e i n , B a r t h e s '  c r i t i c i s m ,  above  would  "dismantle" and  "engage"  13,  No.  q u o t a t i o n s ,  ( i . e . ,  unspaced  i t , the  l i k e  reader  H i s t o r y i n  "an the  Roland  n e c e s s a r y ) ,  L i t e r a r y  who  espouses i n s t a l l  i s  the  of  " b r u t a l l y  s i m i l a r  Eagleton  ambiguity  q u o t i n g  He  and  In  banner  E a g l e t o n ,  long  o v e r l a y ,  v i o l e n c e "  Reader" 451.  1 2  1 1  i n t e n t i o n s  t e x t :  too  a l t o g e t h e r  i t s p l a c e . "  the  Terry  a u t h o r i a l c l a s s . "  c l a s s  for  bent  the  "hermeneutical  of  or  i n  p e r i o d s ;  p e r i o d s  the  where  w i l l h i n  3 where  appears  italics when the emphasis w i t q u o t a t i o n i s the a u t h o r ' s , and u n d e r l i n i n g when i t i s 1 2 Image - Music - Text, t r . Stephen Heath (New York: H Wang, 1977), pp. 142-48. Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s i n the spaced.  Wolfgang  before  t h i n k i n g  by  author  w i t h i n  o r i g i n a l )  whose  . . .  the  1982),  e l l i p s i s  f i g u r e s  and  (and  psychology,  reader,"  the  R e v o l t  (Spring  are  i n  the  c r i t i c i s m ,  those  1 1  P i a g e t  Chomsky  of  reading  Death  ( i n  phenomenology;  r e v o l t  to  without  M a r x i s t  a  most  "the  v i c t o r i o u s  on  i t  reader-response  hermeneutics  anthropology,'  few)  authors  p r o l e t a r i a n i z e d a l l - o u t  i n  based  c r i t i c i s m ,  with  de-emphasised  announced  of  which  f o c i .  C r i t i c s  the  be  l i n g u i s t i c s ,  t r a d i t i o n a l  d i s c i p l i n e s :  to  H u s s e r l ' s  i n  contemporary  use  degree  to  Saussure)  much  makes  the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g " ) ,  L e v i - S t r a u s s  a  other  i s  "understanding  a d d i t i o n ,  name  c r i t i c i s m  from  p a r t i c u l a r l y  p h i l o s o p h i c a l Iser  postmodern  be  a  mine. i l l  and  t e x t .  8  w i t h  t h e i r  "unconscious"  " m i s p e r c e p t i o n s  of  r e p r o d u c t i o n  the  c r i t i c s  of  would  f e r r e t i n g i m p l i c i t  dominant  s e x u a l  and  b i a s e s ,  t h e i r  c o n t r i b u t e  s o c i a l  r e l a t i o n s "  by  engaging  d i s c o v e r i n g  views  male-dominated  i d e o l o g i e s —  which  proceed  unconscious  and  d i s c o v e r  ' r e a l '  s i m i l a r l y  out  p o l i t i c s ,  the  t o  of  power  1 3  and  the  women,  t o  the  —  f e m i n i s t  d i s m a n t l i n g ,  t e x t ' s  o f t e n  s e x u a l i t y ,  s t r u c t u r e s :  the  sexual t e x t ' s  s e x u a l  i d e o l o g y . Such  c r i t i c i s m  p o l i t i c a l the  onus  r e a l i t y , on  the  i n v o l v e s but  (and  s t r u c t u r e s  the  from  awareness the by  from  the  i n t e n t i o n s  of  t r a d i t i o n a l  work  i s  t o  C r i t i c i s m  91, 1  r e a d e r ,  of  and  i m p l i c i t  and  the  Ideology  a  kinds  of  by  reader  and  by  p l a c i n g  unconscious and  kind  of  nothing  to  meaning  s o c i a l  do  w i t h  brought  out  "  the  "take  text  s p e c i a l  the 1  and  p o l i t i c a l  have  t o  (1975;  of  may  c r i t i c i s m .  i s answered  make  reader  over  the  B a r t h e s ' no  l o n g e r  t o  d i s d a i n  means "the a  r p t . London:  of  the p r o d u c t i o n "  goal  of  consumer,  V e r s o ,  l i t e r a r y but  a  1978),  pp.  54.  "When  I  a p p l y  the  c r i t i c i s m ,  I  l i m i t e d  t o  New  p l a y  i m p o r t a n t  an  Watt,  mean  Booth,  terms  " t r a d i t i o n a l "  e s s e n t i a l l y  C r i t i c i s m F r y e ,  and  but  and  " c o n v e n t i o n a l " ;  Henry  James  there  are  up  many  t o  c r i t i c i s m (but  not  example--who  s t i l l  as  contemporary  there not  a r e  the  w r i t e  " p o s t m o d e r n i s t s . "  of the  concept That time  w i t h i n  w r i t e r s  of  du am  f i c t i o n frame  t h i s  t h i s  t e x t e , "  they  t o  B a r t h e s ,  who  the from  though  f o r  t r a d i t i o n a l  f i c t i o n  they  developed  b a s i c a l l y  Gardner,  not  L e a v i s ,  r e f e r r i n g as  t o  i s  though  i n c l u d e s  runs  Roland  c r i t i c s — J o h n  from  " c o n v e n t i o n a l "  a l s o  i s , I  prose  i n c l u d i n g )  contemporary  and  "pre-postmodernism":  " e x p l i c a t i o n s  o t h e r s .  of  became  the  p a r t ,  or  t r a d i t i o n s  and  the  s o c i a l  and  which  or  c r y  w i t h  author  r e q u i r e  one  author  r e v o l u t i o n " 452)  1 3  they  r a l l y i n g  p.  a g a i n s t  e x t r a c t  t e x t :  the  ("Revolt," . . .  t o  l i n k s  m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s )  forms  E a g l e t o n ' s "consumers'  works  reader  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  strong  are  frame,  j u s t  " r e a l i s t s "  9  producer  of  t h e t e x t . "  p r i v i l e g e s , language, that  however,  and  other  or  i n t o  of  poetry  i t s e l f . w e l l :  More  text  e x i s t s  1 6  by  only  way  e n t i r e l y  these  a d r i f t  w i t h i n  he  a  has  reference  i n which  1 5  ,  phenomenology,  t r . R i c h a r d  1 7  ) ,  of  t e x t  other  2.  ( o r  i s t e x t s ,  has  e l o q u e n t l y  r e f e r r i n g  t h i s  n o t i o n  1 7  t o  That  t o any  t o  e x t e r n a l  of  and  " e v e r y t h i n g  as  novel's  t o  i n t e r p r e t  t h e  language  f u n c t i o n s  r e a l i t y . t h e t e x t  i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , e x t e r n a l  a  t o  f i c t i o n  i s , l i t e r a r y  i s dead, of  only  t h e  i s a b l e  developed  r e a l i t y :  F o r  many  c a s t  of an  "endless  s i g n i f i e s  postmodern  c r i t i c i s m — s t r u c t u r a l i s m  psychologism,  (New  i n t h e  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , "  York:  h e r m e n e u t i c s ,  s e m i o t i c s ,  H i l l  Marxism,  and  and Wang,  1974),  p.  t e x t . Sewanee  Review,  4 1 , No.  3  (Summer  410-11.  " F l a u b e r t ' s  1981  of  M i l l e r  r e f e r e n c e s  " M a s t e r i n g  1983),  l i t e r a r y  system  p o s t r u c t u r a l i s m ) , d e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s m ,  S/Z  t e x t  ( S / Z , p. 5 ) .  t h e agglomeration  subsequent 1 6  any  s t r u c t u r e s , and  indeterminacy,  s i g n i f i e r s , "  feminism,  demonstrates  ' i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y '  i s t h e key  t h e author  galaxy  (and  t h a t  s e , but  knowable  of  t h e reader  t h e shore  In  idea  a p p l i e d  c u t o f f from  c e a s e l e s s l y "  so  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d  sea of  s t a b l e ,  i n t e r t e x t . "  then,  P a s c h a l l  i n t e r t e x t u a l ,  language, of  a  i n f i c t i o n  t h e  without  c r i t i c s ,  on  of  R i f f a t e r r e  " I n s h o r t ,  of  Douglas  p e r  structure-dominated  M i c h a e l  and  t h e reader  r e g r e s s i v e  other  r e c e n t l y ,  autonomously, of  and  " I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y  only  much  i t i s t h e  i n f i n i t e l y  as  s i g n i f i c a n c e , "  so  ' l i n g u i c i t y ' ) ,  an  c o n s c i o u s n e s s e s . "  s t r u c t u r a l i s m u l t i m a t e l y  i t s e l f .  r e p l a c e s  languages,  view  i s n o t  " t h e n o t i o n  What  ' n a r r a t i v i t y ' d i s s o l v e d  What  c r i t i c i s m  f o r D e r r i d a ,  d i s a p p e a r s .  1 5  P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , "  D i a c r i t i c s  11, No.  4  (Winter  4;  10  reader-response  t h e o r y — t h e r e  b r i l l i a n c e .  But  n o n e t h e l e s s ,  w o r d s u r f e r .  We  the  g l o r y  g r e a t e r  c o n t e m p l a t i o n Thus when not  of  y e t another  which  sure,  through  and  of  a p p a r e n t l y of  t h e same  Scholes  1 8  24-25.  t h e word  of  a  l i t t l e  t h e l i t e r a r y or  b r i c k  which  of  were  That  W i l l i a m  Gass  become,  l i t e r a t u r e  i t s e l f  p r a c t i t i o n e r s was  C r i t i c .  purpose  i n t h e formidable  term  t h e  t h e p r a c t i c e  had  f o r  years  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  whose  of  was  t h e  l i t e r a r y  (and  sometimes  r a t h e r  (though  I t  a  t o  v a r i o u s  " m e t a f i c t i o n . "  i n h i s e s s a y ,  was  of  b u t  year  and  Gass's  adopted  essay  be  forms was  "Philosophy  and  t h e term  t h e F i g u r e s  Subsequent  of  r e f e r e n c e s  i n mathematics and l o g i c , v e r s o u l , everywhere l i n g o s t o e i n g c o n t r i v e d , and t h e case l . I d o n ' t mean m e r e l y those a b o u t w r i t e r s who a r e w r i t i n g , b u t t h o s e , l i k e some o f t h e F l a n n O ' B r i e n , f o r example, i n s e r v e a s t h e m a t e r i a l upon i m p o s e d . I n d e e d , many o f t h e 1 8 a l l y m e t a f i c t i o n s .  f i r s t  appeared  " f o l l o w i n g  L i f e  W i l l i a m  (Boston:  i n t h e  t e x t .  (1970),  Robert  Gass's  N o n p a r e i l ,  a  t o t h e  i n recent  c r i t i c a l  - o l o g y )  c r i t i c i s m t o  r e l i e f  as  F i c t i o n " :  (who  F i c t i o n  of  g l o r y  There a r e metatheorems e t h i c s h a s i t sl i n g u i s t i c o converse about l i n g o s a r e b i s no d i f f e r e n t i n t h e n o v e d r e a r i l y p r e d i c t a b l e p i e c e s about what they a r e w r i t i n g work of B o r g e s , B a r t h , and which t h e forms of f i c t i o n which f u r t h e r forms c a n be s o - c a l l e d a n t i n o v e l s a r e r e  In  t h e c r i t i c  f o r t h e g r e a t e r  p r i m a r i l y  by  of  r e a d e r ,  i t s exponents  c o i n e d  remains  t e x t ,  s p l i n t e r i n g  c r i t i c i s m ) .  u n d e n i a b l e  a u t h o r ,  - i s m ( o r - i c s ,  r e f e r r e d  many  Form  of  image  of  t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n  f o r not  byword  e d i f i c e  postmodern  the  God,  cause  t h e  from  not y e t another  s e l f - s e r v i n g ) term  of  c e l e b r a t i o n  c r i t i c i s m ,  come  t h e word  i t was  t h e l a t e s t  f u r t h e r  of  have  a r e examples  1971),  pp.  11 suggestion" all  the  1 9  ) defined  perspectives  itself."  of  criticism  C r i t i c i s m i s by  2 0  discourse  i s within  language"  fiction.  whether or fictional  metafiction  not  a  fiction  i n t o the  which  "assimilates  fictional  process  definition metafictional: i t s level  " m e t a - l a n g u a g e " w h i c h has  as  its  of  "object  Hence a rough g u i d e t o m e t a f i c t i o n a l i t y i s  2 1  the  as  s i g n i f i c a n c e or meaning of  text could  equally  w e l l be  the  a passage  meaning of  in a  a passage  of  "criticism. Without exploring critical can  see  something of  what a g i v e n  piece  of  w o r k s may  "how"  w i t h o u t h a v i n g an  traditional  criticism  attention  to the  exegetical  define  three  the  idea  terms  of  can  some n o t i o n  of  can  "what," r e c e n t  especially structuralism, has  of  scripture  hardly  "what." N o n e t h e l e s s ,  reader-response theory,  with  "allegory,"  ways t h a t  same t o k e n , one of  itself  r e l a t e d concern  "what" i m p l i e s  c o n c e n t r a t e s on  contemporary c r i t i c i s m , h e r m e n e u t i c s , and  "means." The  (the  by  s u p e r f i c i a l ) view  c o n s i s t e n t l y concerned  e x a m i n a t i o n of  mean, and  rather  and  particularly in i t s traditional  literature  "tropology"  m e a n ) : i n d e e d , any  of  f o r m s , has  n e v e r been f a r away  " a n a g o g y , " and  "how"  (and  and  other—one  r e l a t i o n s h i p of m e t a f i c t i o n  Literary criticism,  (pre-structuralist)  has  the  through a generalized  latter.  how  complex s y m b i o s i s between f i c t i o n  t h e o r y - - t h e ways i n w h i c h e a c h i n f o r m s t h e  criticism the  the  paid  talk  where  and  semiotics, increasing  "how." J o n a t h a n C u l l e r ' s v i e w , f o r e x a m p l e , i s  t a b u l a t i o n and M e t a f i c t i o n ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s ) , p. 4. " M e t a f i c t i o n , " Iowa R e v i e w 1, No. 4 ( F a l l 1 9 7 0 ) , 109. F o r a f u l l e r a c c o u n t of " m e t a " - s y s t e m s , see D o u g l a s H o f s t a d t e r , G o d e l , E s c h e r , B a c h : An E t e r n a l G o l d e n B r a i d (New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, 1979). 1  2 0  2 1  12 that c r i t i c i s m  should  go a b o u t m a k i n g coincidental itself  s e n s e o f them. And  that  literature,  h a s a l w a y s been  increasingly interest "how"  s t u d y n o t what t e x t s mean, b u t how  works  itself  means  i t means. T h a t  ("self-reflexivity").  is fairly  M c C a f f e r y , who directly  i s , "what"  examines  of m e t a f i c t i o n  "that  i t s own  o r how  that  work  called  w h i l e t h a t of which  Larry  either  language of  previous  a s w e l l a s "a s e c o n d , more g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y , "  operate,"  2 2  i s quite  consider metafiction and n a t u r e of T h i s new  how  loose—but  all  fictional  systems  as a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n  t o be f i c t i o n  namely,  I  shall  which d e a l s w i t h the p r o c e s s  fiction. t e r m became e x t r e m e l y f a s h i o n a b l e , and was  t a k e n up by c r i t i c s  in a l lfields,  who  t o C o n r a d h a d been m e t a f i c t i o n i s t s  along.  situation  was  quickly  r u s h e d t o show how  from Chaucer The  be  c o n s t r u c t i o n as i t p r o c e e d s or w h i c h  "books w h i c h seek t o examine  2 3  in this  vary--Gass's, for  t y p e of f i c t i o n  comments o r s p e c u l a t e s a b o u t t h e f o r m s a n d fictions"  nor  a concomitant  S u c h w o r k s a r e now  f o r m a l and r e s t r i c t i v e ,  includes  (especially  a work means c a n  ("reflexivity"),  "metafictions." Definitions example,  should  age) come t o r e f l e c t  i n g e n e r a l mean  surprising  though the impulse t o e x p l a i n  c l o s e a t hand,  introspective  i n how  i t i s neither  readers  writers  in disguise a l l  compounded when a f i g u r e o f t h e  T h e M e t a f i c t i o n a l Muse ( P i t t s b u r g h : U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) , pp. 16-17. S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , R o b e r t M. J o r d a n , " L o s t i n t h e F u n h o u s e o f Fame: C h a u c e r and P o s t m o d e r n i s m , C h a u c e r R e v i e w 18, No. 2 ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 100-115; G o r f a i n , P h y l l i s , " P u z z l e and A r t i f i c e : The R i d d l e a s M e t a p o e t r y i n P e r i c l e s . " S h a k e s p e a r e S u r v e y , No. 29 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 11-20. M. J . B e n n e t t , "'The M a d n e s s o f A r t ' : P o e ' s ' L i g e i a ' a s M e t a f i c t i o n , " Poe S t u d i e s 14, No. 1 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 1-6; G a r y S a u l M o r s o n , " R e a d i n g Between G e n r e s : D o s t o y e v s k y ' s D i a r y of a W r i t e r , " Y a l e R e v i e w 68, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 2 2 4 - 2 3 4 ; James T o d d Day, 2 2  2 3  13  stature that for  of  him,  the  "secret"  that  of  (as  to  delighted  to  There criticism  react  like  find  has  he  been,  (informed  critical  idea  literature,  be  the  has  been  experimented  with—over  simple  i s that  truth  creation  has  that  should  one  never  the  been  far be  and  be  with from  the  surprised  literary  texts. A  work o f  i s a constructed  who  less verbal  life?  postmodern  allied  when a  schools  new into  i n t o the  most  at  least  literature. of  And  the  literary  consciousness find  "  is  insight  process  2  critics,  in  applied--or  to  "first  metafiction  that  inquiry  the  its  a l l his  and  w h o l e c o r p u s of  w i d e v a r i e t y of fiction  prose  a p p r o a c h or  i t should  concern  hardly  readers  i t i s appropriate  from  themselves:  essential object."  t o make f i c t i o n  i f i t springs works,  is also  s t r u c t u r a l i s m and  a new  proclaimed  about  w o r d s , a movement  l a r g e l y by  of  as  speaking  in other  contemporary  only  B o u r g e o i s Gentilhomme,  comes a l o n g ,  even  many o t h e r s )  i t s own  Were we,  2 5  sure,  as  ultimately,  remains  thought) which appears  s y n o n y m o u s . To  well  literature—which  "literature  a word, m e t a f i c t i o n .  expected  of  Todorov  a l l s t o r i e s were r e a l l y ,  law"--is In  Tzvetan  of  writers,  so  i t reflected in a  simple  truth  artifact,  i s that  and  a  however  ( c o n t ' d ) P a p e r M i r r o r : The M e t a n a r r a t i v e Code i n S t e n d a h l ' s N o v e l s , Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n T u n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1978). Mary B e t h P r i n g l e , " F u n f e r s u m : D i a l o g u e as M e t a f i c t i o n a l T e c h n i q u e i n t h e ' C y c l o p s ' E p i s o d e o f U l y s s e s , " James J o y c e Q u a r t e r l y 18, No. 4 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 397-416; and Penn R. S z i t t y a , " M e t a f i c t i o n : The D o u b l e N a r r a t i o n i n Under W e s t e r n E y e s , " E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y 48, No. 4 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 817-840. " T h e P o e t i c s of P r o s e , t r . R i c h a r d Howard ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 107. F o r e x a m p l e , W i l l i a m Bache ( i n a r e v i e w of s e v e r a l c r i t i c a l w o r k s d e a l i n g w i t h m e t a f i c t i o n ) a s s e r t s t h a t " a l m o s t by d e f i n i t i o n any t r u e p i e c e o f l i t e r a t u r e i s m e t a f i c t i o n a l " (Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s 28, No. 4 [ W i n t e r 1982-83], p . 733.) 2 3  2  2 5  14 much  i t might  s t r i v e  o b j e c t i v e  r e a l i t y ,  e n t i r e l y .  As  out  f o r some  the  same  as  p a t t e r n s i t s e l f ,  h e l p  t i m e ,  that  be  a  appear some  "book  i s  t o  So  a t  more  o v e r l o o k e d .  With  regard there  Shandy  Flanders  L i e u t e n a n t ' s d i f f e r e n c e s F i e l d i n g , and  as  and  Fowles,  f i n a l  Woman w e l l  (1969)  and  between  d i r e c t  words  of  p a t t e r n s  A  n o v e l ,  aren't i n  language and  then,  t o  cannot  w e l l  F i f t h  that  t h e  or  a t  of  a r e be  T r i s t r a m  between  I  The  (1970).  such  them  f i c t i o n  l e a s t  m e t a f i c t i o n s  m e t a f i c t i o n s ,  t h e i r  r e d u c t i v e ,  between  as  of  " a l l  cannot  Business  t h e e a r l y  aware  there  some  a c c u r a t e l y ,  dangerously  C l e a r l y ,  as  that  more  reader  d i f f e r e n c e s  examination  t r u t h  or  t r u t h  degree,  (1722),  contemporary  b u t  t h e  i t i s i f not  a r e vast  p o i n t i n g  a r e grouped  s t r u c t u r e  o t h e r s ,  i s some  as  and  words  simple  t o m e t a f i c t i o n ,  s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , M o l l  than  t o make  w e l l  been  bookness."  f u r t h e r  there  a s  words,  t h e  of  i t s nature  have  imposed  c o n f l a t i o n a r y .  k i n d ,  of  l i t e r a t u r e . i t s  seek  while  rudely  of  and  of  p o s i t i o n ,  d i f f e r e n c e s  of  t h e  r e f l e c t i o n  c o n c e a l  those  through  aware  a c t i v e l y  that  l e a s t  i s made  i t i s y e t a  be  m e t a f i c t i o n "  then  aware  simple  i n p a r t i c u l a r  through  c o n v e n t i o n s  more  bookness.  f i r s t  s e c o n d a r i l y and  a  f u r t h e r m o r e ,  s i g n i f y  N o n e t h e l e s s , books  c r i t i c s  and  t o be  u l t i m a t e l y  l i t e r a t u r e  t h i n g s ,  and  but  i t cannot  European  which  s t r u c t u r e s  t o appear  as  (There  of  those  s h a l l  French a r e  Sterne of  defer  and  Barth t o t h e  chapter.) The  i t s e l f )  mainstream moves,  fundamental  of  however,  d i s j u n c t i o n  m e t a f i c t i o n a l  c r i t i c i s m  i n t h e opposite between  (and  d i r e c t i o n ,  m e t a f i c t i o n  and  m e t a f i c t i o n  seeing  " o r d i n a r y "  a or  15  " c o n v e n t i o n a l " side and  are  the  t h e i r  (1isible)  or  r e a l i s t s ,  r e a l i s t i c  or  t e x t s ;  the  " w r i t e r l y "  i n  c o n j u n c t i o n  s p e c i f i c a l l y r e a l i t y . (the as  In  two  or  be  problems  My  p r a c t i c a l .  few  become  I  who  i f  and  words),  the  from w i t h  which  i n c l i n e  any  d i f f i c u l t i e s ;  an  apparent,  wholly  purpose,  s h a l l  the  dominant novels  however, the  i s  work  i s  I  have  but  f i g u r e are  combine  l e s s of  form  and  what or  the  are  the  both?  (To  has  s c h o o l ,  seems  no  these me  that  e l e c t e d  to  take  (indeed,  as  w i l l  of  to  t h i s  n e i t h e r  b l a t a n t l y  elements  t h e o r e t i c a l  three  and  r e a l i t y .  " a l l f i c t i o n  i t  which  (the  r e a l i t y - - a n d  e i t h e r ,  but  t e x t  m e t a f i c t i o n  i t s e l f "  approach  r e a l i s t i c ,  examine  to  i n t e r m e d i a r y  " m e d i a t i o n " ) ,  nor  only  (the  r i s e ) ,  of  to  r e f e r e n t  w i t h  f i c t i o n ,  the  r e f e r s  of  nodes  examine  but  r e l a t i o n  s i g n  g i v e s  about  more  i n t e r p r e t a n t  a r i s e :  to  or  the  the  conceptions  towards  The  i n t o  s i g n  " o r d i n a r y "  t h e i r  d i f f e r  t h e i r  a u t h o r ) ,  problems  enough.)  examples  primary  the  and  t h i n g s ,  t r a n s l a t e s  d i f f e r e n t  c r i t i c a l  r e a l i t y ,  m e t a f i c t i o n a l  of  v a s t l y  t o o l s  those  i s  reader,  one  c r i t i c s ,  assumptions  and  three  they  d i s s e r t a t i o n  by  words  and  these  pose  p r e s e n t l y  of  t h i s  c r e a t e d  d i f f e r e n t  examine  towards  t e x t ,  terms,  s i d e s  of  questions  to  a t t i t u d e s  two  d i s j u n c t i o n  to  is  These  on  " r e a d e r l y "  postmoderns  the  reference  have  t e x t s .  the  term)  which  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  are  speaking,  " t r a d i t i o n a l "  Barthes'  other  author,  and  to  ( r e l a t e d )  sure,  use  Roughly  conception  have  fundamentally most  (to  arrangement  s i d e s  Two  C r i t i c s ,  d i s j u n c t i o n  world  mental  c o n j u n c t i o n the  or  s e m i o t i c  ordered  reader's  t h e i r  about  f i c t i o n a l  an  on  f i c t i o n .  New  ( s c r i p t i b l e )  fundamentally the  " r e a l i s t i c "  n o v e l i s t s ,  of  both.  than f o c u s s i n g  16  c h i e f l y  on  three  novels  which  the  d i s s e r t a t i o n , and  l a t e r  are  novels  not  deserve; to I  take  which  moreover, i n t o  hope  have  to  much  account  f u r t h e r ,  thereby  f i c t i o n ,  while  As  c r i t i c a l  v o c a b u l a r y ,  c r i t i c i s m  need  m e t a f i c t i o n does the so  so  as  of  t e x t s , used  f i c t i o n ,  K.  two  K.  notable  as  of  to  e n r i c h  order  to  a d d i t i o n ; can  the  Ruthven's  of  I  The hope  i s  debate  and  on  very  Famous  of  M.  f i r s t  " r e a l i s m  K.  Last  to v s .  Joseph's  Words  o l d  i t s e l f .  t o o l s , l e s s  used  i s  set  so of  t r a d i t i o n a l  m e t a f i c t i o n a l can  a l s o  novels.  i n d i r e c t out  i t  n e i t h e r  nor  m e t a f i c t i o n  of  Act:  Moreover,  one  the  on  and  f i c t i o n ,  e s p e c i a l l y ,  meta-  more  c l e a r l y  postmodernism."  The  A  i s  a r t i c l e s have  t o o l s  Measures  t r a d i t i o n a l  m e d i a t i o n  r e c e n t l y  and  that  to  but  c o n c o m i t a n t l y  beyond"  show  response  necessary  l i k e  to  in  meta-  " t r a d i t i o n a l "  i s  p r o f i t a b l y  d o i n g ,  and  and  a  process  of  so  f a i l s  m e t a f i c t i o n  and  c r i t i c a l  be  the  of  f i c t i o n  w i t h ,  they  d i f f e r e n t i a b l e ,  "goes  newer  understanding  a r t i c l e  e x c e p t i o n ,  m e t a f i c t i o n a l i t y  s t i l l  created  i t  of  the  In  f i c t i o n  Weights  to  2 6  They  them  i n t e r m e d i a r y ,  to  i t  for  schema.  about  a s p e c t s .  scrapped,  new  r u b r i c  a t t e n t i o n  w r i t t e n  c o n c e p t s ,  while  o l d e r .  demonstrate  however, s i d e s  the  the  a  to  c r i t i c i s m  d e a l i n g  o b v i a t e  t o o l s  and  summarily  be  my  e n t i r e l y  i t s a t t e n t i o n  s h a l l  to  been  the  of  s u i t e d  r e a l i s t i c  not  f i c t i o n ;  obviate  than  the  aegis  I  c r i t i c i s m  and  In  2 6  form  to  the  the  c r i t i c a l  a p p r o p r i a t e  be  suggested  indeed  that  t o o l s  a l l  r e t u r n  has  while  those  s t i l l  to  t r a d i t i o n a l  t o o l s  the  i s  i n d i r e c t  replacement  be  under  only  r a d i c a l  not  the  are  are  w e l l ,  d i f f e r e n t  w e l l  m e t a f i c t i o n a l  they  d i f f e r e n t ,  new  nomenclature  what  demonstrate  i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g . n e c e s s i t a t e s  of  that  proved  received  t h e i r  e s t a b l i s h  i n i t i a l l y  S o l d i e r ' s d i s c u s s i n g  begun  to  Tale the  appear.  a  17  main  t h r u s t  of  much  m e t a f i c t i o n  i t s e l f )  that  of  i t  a  work  a r e not  d i c t u m ,  "There  much  which  a r e no  "Postmodern"  what or  has  or  i n a d e q u a c i e s  of  i s  break  of  and  Each  explore  debate o t h e r and of  has of  outmoded  d e a t h  of  t h e  on  words,  of  and  informs  there  r e a l i s m  of  that  Gass's  a r e  f u s i o n  that  only word  with  i s replaced  f i c t i o n )  by  an  i n  a c u t e  sense  which  m e t a f i c t i o n  "against,"  from  that  i s a  i n r e a c t i o n  o r  t o ,  " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l "  r e a l i s t i c  forms  " n o v e l " ) ,  p r e s c r i p t i v e and  or  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  t o be  forms,  p r o c e s s e s — a n d  i t s proponents  t o an  of  acrimony,  inadequate  tenets--of  t h e other  d e r e l i c t i o n , novel."  " u n c o n v e n t i o n a l "  "mimetic"  c o n t i n u e and  or  a  or  w i t h  t h e  have  been  d e s i r e  t o  merely  t o  p a r t i c u l a r l y  t h e  r e a l i s m .  free  c r i t i c a l  l i t e r a t u r e ;  n a r c i s s i s m ,  had  been  c l i n g i n g  a  must  or  whether  t h e nature  has  not  w r i t t e n  " r e a l i s m "  f i c t i o n a l  side  only  apparent of  awareness  language,  awareness  "postmodern"  thus  r e s t r i c t i v e  i l l u s i o n s - - o f  1 7 ) . The  t h e  l i t t l e  t h r o u g h  i n f i c t i o n ,  f i c t i o n - - o f  r e a l i s m ,  ( t h e novel  expose  p.  f i c t i o n ,  exhausted out  This  " e x p e r i m e n t a l "  c a l l e d  " c o n v e n t i o n a l "  c o n s i s t s  on  a  d i s j u n c t i o n .  subset —  been  i n and  t h i n g s .  (and not  language:  t h e development  " a n t i - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l " s i g n i f i c a n t  on  only and  (and other  t h e i r  m e t a f i c t i o n  d e s c r i p t i o n s  p e r m i t t e d  of  as  ( F i g u r e s ,  m e t a f i c t i o n  awareness  e x i t s  same  of  focussed  "made-up,"  t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n s " t h i n g  has  f i c t i o n  i s f i c t i o n a l ,  words  c r i t i c i s m  and  s i d e  and  and with  one  side  exhausted  f a i l i n g were  p r a c t i t i o n e r s , and  t o  c r i e s  i r r e l e v a n c e — o f  g r a s p o f  a c c u s i n g  form,  t o  b r i n g i n g  t h e  a n t i q u e  t h e true  b e t r a y a l ,  t h e  n a t u r e  of  about  " t h e  18  The of  the  axes  of  disagreement  p r i n c i p l e s  of  d e s c r i p t i o n  of  namely,  " t o  render  for  reader  i s  the t o  e f f a c e  coterminous Jordan focus  i n t e n t l y  to of  i s  not  While (the  degree me  does The  to  make  give two  above)  a  unmediated p r i s m i n t o 1.  of  of  2 7  " L o s t Chaucer  the  a  but  of  seamless  images  of  and of  i n  (one  window.  r e a l i t y  can  s t o r y ,  from of  r e a l i t y :  James's  d i f f r a c t e d  s t o r y t e l l e r ,  Jordan  an the  audience  the  f i c t i o n a l  unmediated  by  w o r l d — i s  the  the  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  a u t h o r ;  i n the Funhouse Review, 18, No.  seem  the  through and  7  i l l u s i o n .  i n f u s e s of  of Fame: Chaucer and 2 (1983), 105-06.  .  the  would  r e a l i s t  i l l u s i o n  2  .  f i c t i o n  t r a n s p a r e n t ) ,  which  utmost  absence.  i s apparent  of  and  the  r e a l i t y . "  the  to  i l l u s i o n s :  c r e a t e s —  r e a l i t y ,  be  James,  r e a d e r ' s  w i t h  of  T h i s  i n  a u t h o r ' s  than  "aim  f i c t i o n  d i r e c t l y  the  view  James  essence  r e a l i s m  of  t h i s  opaque  s e p a r a t e  author  o b j e c t i v e  the  the  t r i a d  q u i t e )  the  i n e l u c t a b l y  more  of  the  i t s  Henry  reader  t o  produce  t r a n s p a r e n c y ,  but  c o n j u n c t i o n  w i t h  t o  a  by  f o r  apt  f i c t i o n , "  p r o d u c i n g  the  of  an  p e r c e p t i o n " ;  [ i t s e l f ]  i l l u s i o n  a r t i f i c e  account  thereby  passage  p l a c e  e x a m i n a t i o n  g i v e n  and  E s s e n t i a l  f l o w s  the  on  an  r e a l i s t  of a  has  "designed  t o  d i s a g r e e  m i r r o r  (not  w o r l d  world  of  language  e t e r n a l  not  . . . . the  p e r c e p t i o n  the  t h r e e The  f a i r  i s  . . .  i s  might  h i s  i n t e r e s t  D e s c r i b i n g  o b j e c t  which  the  the  from  of  unmediated  language  o b j e c t  dominant are  i n  a t t e n t i o n  made,  t o  e n t e r p r i s e  of  that  some  Jordan  i l l u s i o n  presence i s  Robert  t r a n s p a r e n t  the  the the  i l l u s i o n  f i c t i o n  to  that  c l e a r l y  language  r e a l i t y . "  r e a d e r ' s  p r o x i m i t y  The  w i t h  upon  i l l u s i o n  the  e s s e n t i a l  language  notes the  "the  r e a l i s m .  emerge  Postmodernism,"  19  2.  t h e  t e x t  i s t r a n s p a r e n t  p e r c e p t i o n  of  t h e  and  o b j e c t i v e ,  f i c t i o n a l  r e a l i t y  a l l o w i n g  unmediated  t h e by  reader  a  language;  and 3.  t h e  reader's  corresponds  p e r c e p t i o n t o  t h e  i s d i r e c t  f i c t i o n a l  and  r e a l i t y  o b j e c t i v e ,  and  unmediated  by  h i s  own  c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  c r i t i c i s m ) 1.  postmodern  h o l d  t h e world  a n t i t h e s e s  ( i n both  f i c t i o n  and  that  t h e author  f i c t i o n a l - - a n  c r e a t e s  i n v e n t i o n , a  i s s u b j e c t i v e , and  c o n s t r u c t - - a n d  has  u t t e r l y  no  r e f e r e n c e  t o  " r e a l i t y " ; 2.  t h e  t e x t  i s a l l language,  d e f i n i t i o n i t s e l f ; 3.  t h e  s u b j e c t i v e — a n d  reader's  r e a l i s m ,  mental  then,  t h e  nodes,  postmodernism  down and that  i l l u s i o n  f i r s t  these  t h a t — a  step  r i g i d  seeking t h e  a  a r e  i l l u s i o n , approaches  of  and  middle  p r e t e n c e ,  appears  seeks  r e f e r s  stem  only  t o  p o r t r a y  i l l u s i o n . t h e  w o r l d ,  t h e  and  which t h e  o f  a t  the  t h e  r e a l i t y . word  d i s j u n c t i o n . be  out  t o  t h e i r  break f l a w s ,  s i d e ,  t h e  pretence  has  always  been  always  known  s p e l l ,  of  f i c t i o n a l  techniques  w i t h  a l l three  would  p o i n t i n g  have  of  u t t e r  world  Readers  s t r e n g t h w i t h  r e a l i t y  r e a l i s t  " r e a l "  t o  f u s i o n  t h e r e f o r e ,  On  i s t h e  a  t h e i r  ground.  s u b j e c t i v e — a n  correspond  from  w i t h  m e d i a t i o n ,  i s t h e c l o s e n e s s r e a l  t o  not  p o s i t i o n s ,  f i c t i o n a l :  t h e  t o  i s e n t i r e l y  extreme  world an  does  c o n j u n c t i o n  toward  f i c t i o n a l  f i c t i o n s  language  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  c o n s t r u c t — a n d  t h i n g ,  A  t h i s  a l l c o n s t r u c t — b y  and  i m a g i n a t i v e Where  a l la r t i f i c e ,  of  that  t h e  world  r e a l i s m  have  20  been  d i r e c t e d  impression p e r f e c t l y  to  evoking  p o s s i b l e w e l l  t h a t  techniques  (as  a b i l i t y  imagine  render  to them  such  t h i n g s ,  and of  coding  number  of  who  met  Quixote  Found  i n  (1966). c a l l s  a  n o v e l s ,  "Such  h i m s e l f  a  t e r r i b l e of the  2 8  (1605)  i n  sacred  as  an  of 2 8  to  a The  the  s a c r e d degree  i n v e n t o r , as  o f f i c e to a  F i c t i o n " (1884) i n Rupert H a r t - D a v i s ,  a  and  f i c t i o n a l  of  i s  to  no  conjure  c o u n t i n g  make  i t  the  outcome  of  m a n u s c r i p t s ,  i t ;examples A  G i l e s  author  me,  i s I  n a r r a t o r  t a b u l a t o r — t o p a r t i c u l a r  The House 1957), p.  Goat  which  an from  Boy Dickens  comments  s t o r y  to  but  Manuscript  (1857)  James  the  the  some  range  Strange  D o r r i t t  seems  the  the  1 16)--anything  Henry  away  ' d i s i n a u g u r a t i n g ' i t :  Barth's  which  t h i s  i s  n a t u r a l i z e  t h a t  and  i l l u s i o n  to  L i t t l e  h i s  events,  pains  M i l l e ' s  to  reader  o f f i c e - - u n d e r m i n e s  "The A r t of Edel (London:  de  knows  S p e c i f i c  seek  invented  and  the  text  t h e r e  i t were,  (1888)  b i o g r a p h e r " ; t o  the  I.-M-T, p .  James  reader  events,  people,  r e d i s c o v e r e d  P r e f a c e  admission  c r i m e . "  h i m s e l f  h i s  f o s t e r  g r e a t e s t  to  as  author  C y l i n d e r  "her  b e t r a y a l  t h u s ,  through  the  " l i f e . "  convention  which  v e r i s i m i l a r  " c r a f t s m a n s h i p , "  t h a t  the  ( B a r t h e s , the  not  r e a l  s i t u a t i o n :  supposedly  t h a t  to  the  f e i g n i n g  and  n a r r a t o r "  Copper  as  d e v i c e s by  w h i l e  i s  which  deny  "take  n a r r a t i v e  n a r r a t i v e  author's  r e f e r e n c e s  authors  l i f e l i k e ,  mind,  reading  words)  such  Hence  T r o l l o p e ' s  i n  a u t h o r ,  the  v i v i d ,  c h a r a c t e r s , p l a c e s ,  the  acknowledgement Don  the  which  circumstance  the  i s  conventions  n a r r a t i o n a l  e p i s t o l a r y  he  to  as  most  reader's  l i f e l i k e  t h i n g s  of  subsequent n a t u r a l  what  opposed  d i s i n a u g u r a t i o n : the  the  e f f e c t i v e l y  include  c r e a t i o n  i n  the  on  f i c t i t i o u s ,  c o n f e s s ,  a  i s  c o n s c i o u s  he  b e t r a y s  i l l u s i o n  of F i c t i o n , 26.  of  ed.  Leon  21  r e a l i s m ; much  such  postmodern  begins prop  w i t h  of  to  f i c t i o n ,  Sterne  the  f i c t i o n of  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s  r e a l i s t be  on  how  or  c l o s e l y  be,  yet  the  knowledge the  r e a l "  terms"  by  the  The  2  9  i s  " q u i x o t i c which  (p.  i t  x ) .  As  there i s an u l r e c o g n i t i o n of them as r e a l i t these two awar f i c t i o n i s , a f s u b v e r s i v e of a t t r i b u t e d to to the r e a l i t y process t h a t c o r d i n a r i l y t h i  world of  has  not  been to  what  power  and  of  a  what  i s  p o i n t  which some Percy  extent  R o b e r t  Genre  some made  Lubbock  f i c t i o n )  2 9  to  as  much  A l t e r ,  ( B e r k e l e y :  Subsequent  has  extent up:  and  i t p r e t e n d s stems  be:  i t  to  from  i s and  what  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  i n  t i m a t e l y s e r i o u s t e n s i o n between the f i c t i o n s as f i c t i o n s and the acceptance of y , however easy i t may seem t o maintain enesses s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Knowing that a t e r a l l , only a f i c t i o n , i s p o t e n t i a l l y any meaningful r e a l i t y that might be the f i c t i o n , w h i l e a s s e n t i n g i m a g i n a t i v e l y of a r e p r e s e n t e d a c t i o n i s a step i n a o u l d undermine or bewilder what one n g s of as h i s sense of r e a l i t y .  i s , f i c t i o n  are  depends  out,  (p.  The  thus  f i c t i o n a l  " t a n t a l i s i n g  of  h i s t o r i c a l  f i c t i o n to  attempt  p e r c e p t i o n s  even  what  i t  s t r o n g e s t  the  i l l u s i o n  i t pretends  between  p o i n t s  the  The  i n  of  though  c u r r e n t  approaches  the  r e a l i s m  A l t e r  of  hallmark  Cervantes.  p o l i t i c a l ,  s t r e n g t h  t e n s i o n  makes  not  a  e s p e c i a l l y ,  i t s f i d e l i t y  f i c t i o n a l  t h a t  i f  however,  s o c i o l o g i c a l ,  p a r a d o x i c a l l y , much  l a r g e l y i s  i l l u s i o n ,  " t r u t h . "  course,  m e t a f i c t i o n  F i e l d i n g ,  " l i f e - l i k e "  p s y c h o l o g i c a l ,  " r e a l i t y "  and  and  i s , of  made  Madame  o t h e r s as  always  the  P a r t i a l i n  t h a t  about  people  used  episode  Magic: the  known  Bovary  have  U n i v e r s i t y  r e f e r e n c e s  up  of  15)  of  The  (1856) as  a  (to  t e l l s who  Paulo  and  Novel  as  s t o r i e s  are  a l s o  choose  paradigm  C a l i f o r n i a t e x t .  i t  of  a  novel  that  r e a l i s t i c  Francesca  a  to  i n  the  S e l f - C o n s c i o u s  Press")  1975),  p.  224.  22  D i v i n e  Comedy,  i s a  c a u t i o n a r y  t a l e  a g a i n s t  m i s t a k i n g  f i c t i o n  f o r  l i f e . On w i t h  t h e o t h e r  r e a l i t y  s i d e ,  i s u n p a l a t a b l e :  u n p r o f i t a b l e  would  i s  even  t o  t o u c h ,  w o r l d  a t  human. i s , he  some  No  t h e h a s  r e a d e r  t o  w o r l d .  f i c t i o n a l  w o r l d  of  and  c e l e b r a t i o n  r e a l i t y and  words, the  h i s own  I n  t h a t  s t r i n g ,  by and  t h i s  gone  use  w o r l d has  might  which  A l t e r  O ' B r i e n ' s i n which  s l a c k  because  i m a g i n a t i v e k i t e  does  n o t  what  f i c t i o n o u r be  f i c t ' i o n a l  w o r l d  s t r u c t u r e s of  t h e  on  of  t h e  a l l l e v e l s be  how  i m p o s s i b l e , tenuous,  ( " u n r e a l i s t i c " ) c o m p l a i n s  about  o f f from  f i c t i o n of  f i c t i o n  t h a t t h e  s o r t ( p .  (1939) " i s  s e l f -  i s everywhere" i t s v e r b a l i s a  k i t e  t o earth-bound i n t o  how  l i f e "  Swim-Two-Birds  n o v e l i s t i c  soar  o f  i t i s t o  t h e  do  i n c o n c e i v i n g  j u s t  A t  t o  and  i n d i r e c t l y ,  w e l l  because  s t r i n g  f l a t ,  t h e mental  i s " c l o s e d  i t i s f i c t i o n a l ,  t h e  o f  w o r l d  shown  ( p . 2 2 4 ) . P a r t l y  an  some  n o t h i n g  t h e p o i n t  of  d i s j u n c t i o n  v e i n ,  F l a n n  of  w o r l d  f i g u r a t i v e  t a b u l a t i o n  because  h e l d  or  f i c t i o n  has  nowhere  p a r t l y  w i t h  b e .  of  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  d e a l  s y m b o l i c  n o t e s  " r e a l "  t o  r e a l  Much  g l a n c i n g l y ,  a b l e  t h e  has  s t a l e ,  something  t h e  complete  f i c t i o n  weary,  t h e n .  r e v e a l  l i t e r a t u r e  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s  232), a  c a n  be  u n l i k e  The  postmodern  c o n n e c t i o n  how  be  and  o r  t o  how  must  f i c t i o n a l  t h a t  i f f l e e t i n g l y ,  m a t t e r  m e t a p h o r i c a l  f i c t i o n  p o i n t ,  c r e a t e d  though  t h e view  realms  and  n a t u r e , made  o u t  r e a l i t y .  o f  Cut  unknown, i t  plummets. The because and  t r a n s p a r e n c y r e a l i s m  t h e word  has  which  of  language  always  i s a n o t h e r  r e l i s h e d  i n d i c a t e s  much  of  i l l u s i o n  t h e o p a c i t y t h a t  of  o p a c i t y  i n  r e a l i s m ,  i t s language, i s " s t y l e . "  The  23  concept than  a  of  s t y l e  l i t t l e  d i s s e r t a t i o n more  than  f i c t i o n  the to  Jane  b a s i s be  of  but  i s has  s t y l e  i s  t o  gap  world) t r i e s  the  t o  p r e t e n d  that  proper)  that  that  capable  a c c u r a t e l y  on  the  other  expands,  and  words  hand, i n  r e a l i s t i c  f i c t i o n  est  un  comme  danser  3 0  l e s  o f t e n  the  c o n v e n t i o n s the  d e p i c t i n g  of  been  aware  chaudron  f e l e  ou  o u r s ,  quand  S t a n F o g e l , "Ways You Waterloo C o u r i e r , March  on  what a  t o  of  nous  v o u d r a i t  that  t o  (as  Read,"  be  (the and or gap.  Thus  opposed  to  the  language  i s  Postmodernism, e x p l o i t s ,  i t .But  melodies  l e s  of  views  " l a p a r o l e  des  a t t e n d r i r  i n , and  that  exposes,  e x p l o r e s  b a t t o n s  Weren't Taught 1984, p. 25.  of  r e a l i t y .  gap:  aware  e v i l ,  i l l u s i o n :  gap,  be  says,  language  o b j e c t i v e  d i s c o v e r y ,  s i g n i f y  that  p u r p o r t the  c o n c e a l ,  awareness  t h i n g s ,  the  To  e x i s t  to  on  s e n s i b i l i t y :  necessary  of  o f ,  recent  they  e x i s t ,  m e t a f i c t i o n ,  has  unique a  s o l e l y  which  Donoghue  r e a l i s t  embraces  case  James,  product  n e c e s s a r i l y  doesn't  c o r r e s p o n d  ( f o r  f i c t i o n .  r e a d e r ' s  u n d e r l i e  c o n v e n t i o n of  the  of  of  of  w i t h  prose  p a r t  and  reader  r e a l i s t  not  (words)  a n a e s t h e t i z e the  a  as  t h i s  s t o r i e s  the  of  of  of  Henry  t e l l s  more  works  i s  " R e a l i s m ,  gap  any  the  and  scope  t h i s  something  the  the  major  or  time  l a r g e ,  But  r e a d i l y  same  i t must  as  here,  the  f i c t i o n  and  language.  3 0  l e n g t h .  w i t h  r e c o g n i z e d that  r e g r e t , "  o u t s i d e  a r t i c u l a t i o n  about,  a  complex,  D i c k e n s ,  the  s i g n i f i e r s  i s c o n v e n t i o n  f i c t i o n  i s at  aware  through  or  C h a r l e s  i s  be  r e c o g n i z e  unique  been  between  o b s c u r e , i t  be  w i t h  t o  i s  any  R e a l i s t i c  i t  s t y l e  always  r e c o g n i z e d the  s t y l e .  o f ,  what  a b l e  but  i t at  f a m i l i a r i t y  Austen,  " t r u e , "  e x p r e s s i o n t h i s  be  f i c t i o n  i t would  d i s c u s s  nodding  would  example)  prose  nebulous; to  a  i n  even humaine  a  e t o i l e s "  U n i v e r s i t y  f a i r e [our  of  24  words  a r e l i k e  dancing  bear,  Another r e a l i s t i c through  when way  and  of  sense  t o have  c h a r a c t e r s  c o n v e n t i o n s  of  o m i t t e d ;  a  and  I t  v e r b a l  t e x t ,  conventions  d i s c o u r s e ,  and  not a  " f i g u r a t i v e , "  which  3 1  or  i s there  G u s t a v e  of  of  p.  Prose,  196 p.  of  a  a r e  n o t e s ,  t h e presence  Bovary  of  (1856; mine].  example--in t o  be  There  example, t o  t h e i r  a c t i o n s a r e  those  of  t h e  d e t e c t i v e  t o mask  t h e u n r e a l i t y  t h e gap  between  " n a r r a t i v e  t h e  t h e  i n t r o d u c e d ;  a l l n a r r a t i v e  .  t h e  i n v o l v e  f o r  they  of  mediation  denouments.  regard  b r i d g e  .  t o  w i t h  as  and  s t o r i e s  whereby,  such  t h e  i s  here,  world  ready  ends,  i t ,  "grammar"  a r e among  i n s i g n i f i c a n t  [ t r a n s l a t i o n 55.  and  f i g u r a t i v e " : .  known  t h e  and  expected  as  events";  another,  being  d e t a i l  t o  e s p e c i a l l y )  f i c t i o n a l  c o n v e n t i o n  "doubly  t o conceal  always  r e s o l u t i o n s ,  genre,  Todorov  F l a u b e r t , Madame  1971),  P o e t i c s  as  r a t h e r , by  middles  h i s t o r y  s t o r y ,  s e r i e s  i s seconded  F r e r e s , 3 2  world:  a  have  c o n v e n t i o n s  always  whereby of  ( o r  t h e t e x t ,  3 1  t h e s t a r s ] .  even  t h e  e x p o s i t i o n ,  past  i s i n t h e nature  word  f i g u r e  and  of  and  move  f o r a  i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g  mythography  i n some  n a r r a t i o n ,  r e n d e r i n g  and  have  of  a r e d e s c r i b e d n a t u r e ,  a s  k e t t l e  through  a r e  t o  c l i m a x e s ,  conventions  of  readers  w e l l  codes  beginnings  appearance,  and  apply  as  readers  cracked  our music  t h e i l l u s i o n  c r i s e s ,  a  c o n v e n t i o n s ,  c o n v e n t i o n s  i n which  w e l l  s t o r y .  of  on  t h e " g l a s s "  and  S t r u c t u r a l  c o m p l i c a t i o n s , a s  codes  out  w i t h  t o p e r c e i v e - - F r y e ' s  shaped,  are  would  t h e a u t h o r ,  language.)  the  beat  i s opaque,  (The terms  codes  e a s i e s t  we  we  i n which  n a r r a t i v e  m e d i a t i o n of  tune  f i c t i o n  s t o r i e s . since  a  l i f e  of and  i s a i s  " t h e  thus  o b l i g a t o r y  ' c o r r e c t i v e ' :  a  f i g u r e  t h e other  f i g u r e s . "  r p t .P a r i s :  G a m i e r  3 2  25  But  I  s e r i o u s l y  doubt  e n t i r e l y  unaware  they  c o n v e n t i o n a l .  are  q u i t e  e a r l y .  of  t h a t  The  and  l i k e l y  i n e x p e r i e n c e d ) be  i l l u s i o n  f u l l y  of  do  r e a l i s t i c  f i c t i o n a l  t e x t s  c o n v e n t i o n s  r e v e a l e d ,  and  h a r d l y t e x t s  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  (or  to  the  of  d i f f e r e n t  ways)  d i s t i n g u i s h S t i l l , f e i g n e d merely  words,  t h a t  y e a r s ,  the  Parody to  i s  the  codes  postmodern a  "That  your  n o v e l s  w i f e  are  one  and  be  c o n v e n t i o n s  l e s s  these What  concealed the  way  i s or  best  and  i s  postmodern  i l l u s i o n s ;  l a n g u a g e — a n d can  the  u n o b t r u s i v e .  c o n v e n t i o n , i s  an  i t  e x i s t s  w i t h i n  t h e s e , i n  structured of  n a r r a t i v e ,  does  t o  p o i n t  w i t h  f i c t i o n .  l i t t l e  s h o c k i n g ,  work,  i d e n t i t y - - h o w  concept and  ever  u n r e a l i s t i c .  l i k e l y  r e a l i s t i c  them—the  a  they  expose  of  i t  (and  themselves.  m e t a f i c t i o n )  i t s l i n g u i s t i c  as  a r e ,  but  seems  i s  which  see  they  t e x t s ,  of  s u r p r i s e ,  d i s c o v e r e d those  i t  t o  to  l e s s  conceal  a t t e n t i o n  c o n v e n t i o n s  h a p p i l y  naive  are  postmodern  on  much  extent  drawing  and  superimposed  o l d e r  what  e n t i r e l y  i s  f i c t i o n  the  being  d e m o n s t r a t e d .  both  codes  the  though,  the  o f t e n  h e l p  t h a t  r e a l i z e s  l i v e  extremely  been  and  reader  not  i t s c o n v e n t i o n s  cannot  i s  of  ( i n c l u d i n g  w i t h i n  cannot  d i s p l a y e d ,  c o n f i n e d  t h a t  ever  f i c t i o n .  c o n v e n t i o n , see  the  w i l l i s  to  have  e x p e c t a t i o n s , and  w i l l  regard  because  codes  form  so  d i e ,  he  e x p o s e d — t o  however,  e s t a b l i s h e d  of  f i c t i o n  C a s t e r b r i d g e  w i t h  change,  seems,  must  hopes  aware  i t  i m p o r t a n t ,  who  r e a l i s m  Conventions  But  reader  of  of  c o n v e n t i o n a l  Emma  mayor  a f t e r ,  To  a  t h e i r  readers  u n f a i r should  r e a l l y . were  f e a r s . . . f r o m  of  made  Gass  be  made  I t ' s as of  sponge"  words,  though  rubber: (p.  of  27).  you  the A  out, and had  b l i s s  more  of  a l l  a p p r o p r i a t e  26  image  would  shocking  than  r e a l i s t i c as  The  were,  extreme  i l l u s i o n more  than  more  an  that  3 3  symbolic,  But  between  and  metaphorical something doubt  and  these  3 3  have  T e r e n c e  1977),  p.  "'New'  New  and  t h e world  i n f i c t i o n  which  t h a t  C r i t i c i s m . "  takes  u t t e r l y  t h e  (which t o do of  a r e  w i t h  i s a  there  a r e  t h e n o v e l i s t  ( p . 6 0 ) .As  c a n be  i s  i f there  and  i s d e s c r i b i n g Subsequent  that  long as  they  r e f e r e n c e s  i t  a r i s e .  r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n c u r a b l y  as  a  there  " s t o r y "  i s n ' t ) ,  t h e view  s i n c e  i s always  S e m i o t i c s  ( a s I  themselves  " i s  construed  of  i s mental  r e a l i t y ,  makes  only  s o l e l y  Language  dynamic  f i c t i o n  of  l i n g u i s t i c  i s composed  r e a l i t y  there  as  f r e e  ( i na  i n f i c t i o n ,  i t represents  r e a l i t y :  S t r u c t u r a l i s m  156. Hawkes  of t h e  i t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l , and  d e a l  f i c t i o n  node  s i g n i f y i n g  " p r i s e d  f i c t i o n  many  i n t e r t e x t u a l ,  i s n o t v e r b a l .  what  o u r own"  c a l l e d  Hawkes,  t h a t  business  And  who  e n t i r e l y  indeed  t o p e r c e p t i o n s  of  a s  and  t h e i r  t h i s  i t . I t i s true  r e a l i t y  b e l i e v e s  a t  more  f a c t .  t h e r e a l i s t  d e s c r i p t i o n s  good  t h e  i s no  words;  about  s i g n i f i e r s ,  conceptions a  f i c t i o n  model  i tc a n be  o f  T h i s  i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  of  o f , and  length)  go  p o s i t i o n  f i c t i o n  s e m i o t i c ;  a t  and  o f t e n  b u t  that  galaxy  of  o u t of  p e o p l e - - f l a u n t  i t i s t r u e  l a t e r  c e r t a i n l y  f i g u r a t i v e ,  view  need  f i g u r a t i v e ,  v e r b a l  than  a r e no  i n response  Gass  people,  some  g e n i t a l s .  a r e made  i s t o misrepresent  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ) l a r g e l y  To  t h e nature  c o n c e p t i o n s ,  have  t h e postmodern  no  "there  argue  novels  not f a l s e ,  endless  c o n s t r u c t i o n s , " and  people  many  s o l i d  having  s i g n i f i e d s , "  s h a l l  of  f o r t r u t h .  e n d l e s s l y ,  words,  l i k e  n o v e l s - - l i k e  i s no  sense)  t o say that  f a c t  postmodern  no  t o say that  n o v e l s ,  i f that  debate  be  i s  (and I  t h e reader  (London: o f what i n t h e  he  must  Methuen, c a l l s  t e x t .  i s  27  r e l a t e  i t t o , see  w o r l d .  Words  i n e l u c t a b l e The  the  is  i l l u s i o n ,  who  something  do  j u s t of  no  one  than  those  framework;  f i c t i o n  concepts  presuppose o f  i s not  and  d e s c r i p t i o n never  as  not  b u t be") and  t h e  t h e r e  that  no  t o  w i t h i n  r e a l i s an  read  an  a r e "no  t h e mere  even  has  and  and  book  a e s t h e t i c s o c i o l o g y ,  and  o f  "passe"  which  t h e  been  t h e  t o be,  that  " i s " ( c f . "a  i s . A  or'  i t s most  i t p u r p o r t s  i s not e x h a u s t i b l e s i n g l e  read  t o  a c t u a l l y  i t s e x i s t e n c e  a r e e n t e r p r i s e s  element  "symbolism"  v i s u a l i z a t i o n  "means"  be  i m a g i n a t i o n on  never  r e a l i t y  and  d e s c r i p t i o n s ,  a t  and  i s  i s t o  t h e reader  b i o g r a p h y ,  and  world  may  way  a r t i s t i c ,  i n t e l l e c t  upon  a  i n d i c a t e  v i c a r i o u s  t h i s  "theme"  f i c t i o n  Reader,  t h e r e  t h e "outmoded"  of  wrought  i n t h e words  they  s u r e ,  i t i s a r t . And  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  " L i t e r a t u r e  reason  be  h a s  t h e f i c t i o n a l  i t behooves  o f  both  i t s meanings  i n e x h a u s t i b l e .  o f  I f t h e r e  c o r p o r e a l  been  t a k e s  v o y e u r i s t i c ,  i t .E v e n  as  of  l i t e r a t u r e ,  i n t e r p r e t i n g  s u f f i c i e n t  of  e f f o r t  F i c t i o n , mean  of  b u t  R e a l i s t  events  t h e h i s t o r y ,  t o b e ,  Just  and  But  c o n v e n t i o n s  a c t i v e  i t has  then  c o n s t r u c t i o n s  t h e r e a d e r .  o b j e c t i v e reading  an  t h i s  r e a l i s m .  i t i s aware  s i m p l y  a r e . To  l i t e r a t u r e .  i t pretends  r e a l i s t i c ,  p a r t  of  who  t h e r e a l i t y  and  c r i t i c i s m  t h e P a s s i v e  o b j e c t s ,  as  more,  a p p r e c i a t e  of  reader  c o n s t r u c t i o n s , "  reportage  understands  d i f f e r e n t ,  postmodern  t h e t e x t  part  other  o n l y  r e a l i s t  The  t h e c h a r a c t e r s ,  c l e a r l y  but  i n j u s t i c e  man."  t r a n s p a r e n c y  readers  he  c o n n e c t i o n .  "straw  an  o f , what  a r e unarguably  i s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  imagines a l s o  t h i n g s  g r e a t e s t  r e a l i s m common  and  i t i n terms  r e a l i t y .  poem  should  and  a r e  f o r t h e simple  book  so  i s n o t  an  and  28  i s o l a t e d  e n t i t y :  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " "what  the  as  prose  not  The  l i t e r a l  for  modern exposes  he  of  h i s  take  become must  a  The e n t i r e l y  e x i s t s of  as  w e l l  of  the  through  of  a  r o l e  i n  meaning  the  f i c t i o n .  process,  way  of  the  t e x t  s i d e  of of  the  with  and  Much  t h i s  postand  the  reader  demanding  the  view  reader  has  approximately  conceive  of  depends  upon  s e n s a t i o n ,  and  I t  i s  r e a l i t y But  the  r e a l 5  the  the  we  3  e f f o r t  c o i n ,  e v e r y t h i n g  3  conscious  228),  not  the  that he he  own.  c o n s t r u c t i o n  i t .  to  supply:  that  b e l i e v e  i s  does  true  to  t h i s  that  mental.  p a l p a b l e ,  no  process,  e n t i r e l y  a  of  l e v e l - - i n  j o s t l i n g  as  m e n t i t i o n .  know  e x p l o i t s  r e a d i n g ,  f i c t i o n a l  which  p.  l e v e l ,  which  f i g u r e s  ( A l t e r ,  and  a l s o  I  for  t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r ,  f i c t i o n a l  And  c o l l a b o r a t i v e  postmodern i n  i s  f i g u r a t i v e  l i t e r a l .  i t s readers" as  a  r a i s i n g  l e t t e r "  (which  " f i g u r e - o u t "  accustomed  a c t i v e  and  innumerable  "the  " l i t e r a t u r e "  and  m e t a f i c t i o n  postmodern a  must  i s  l e v e l  the  of  believabi1ity  claim  to  f a c e t  h i s  name  a x i s  there  l i t e r a l  beyond  the  each  and  producer  c r e a t e  w e l l of  book  of  more  a  w e l l ,  an  f i g u r a t i v e ) ,  then,  (supposedly) a  i s  goes  r e a l i s t i c  t h i s  knew  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  "Every  f i c t i o n ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  s i g n i f i e s , "  worthy  imagination  holds  a  Dante  reader,  sense  awareness.  from  As  s i g n i f i c a n c e  t r u e .  i s  language  f i c t i o n a l  the  "  l e t t e r  f i g u r a t i v e , whose  3  i t  evidence  world And  "Jorge L u i s Borges, L a b y r i n t h s t r . James 1964), pp. 213-14. 3 5 C f . Thomas Reid:  "out  p r o p o s t i t i o n that  of  our  there,"  i t  seems  "A E.  Note Irby  that  to  me  senses and  we  meaning  reality p e r c e i v e  t e l l s have  presumptuous  the  that  l i t t l e  and on  there  i s  choice  e f f r o n t e r y  on ( t o w a r d ) B e r n a r d Shaw" (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and  same  i s  c o g n i t i o n , us  i s  but to  i n Stewart,  29  b e l i e v e  that  I  c a n c r e a t e  Madame  l i t t l e  h e l p  from  appear  that  t h e i m a g i n a t i v e  f i c t i o n  i s d i f f e r e n t  h e s i t a t e  t o c a l l  e s p e c i a l l y complete r e a l i t y has  those  been  i s t h e nature  book  o f  r e a d e r s ,  l i t e r a r y  the  i l l u s i o n s  postmodern t h i s  I  a r t ,  as  t e x t ,  3 5  of  of  well  w i t h as  a  l i f e  without  b u t I c r i t i c s ,  .  t o  see  that  m e t a f i c t i o n  i n  t h e r e a l  t h e f i c t i o n a l e f f o r t  . and  so  and  t h e i r  w i t h  a  and  t h e f i c t i o n  between  of  would  fact  world  world: t h e  i t changes  w i t h  accrued  p. 2 2 8 ) . as  The  c l o s e l y  wedded  nor as  d i v o r c e d  s i g n i f i c a n c e  i t s a e s t h e t i c  t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n  reader,  of  that  experience  pretend,  t o  .  does  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  c o l l a b o r a t i v e  i s n e i t h e r  portend.  r e a l i s m ;  most  t h e connection  ( A l t e r ,  regard  o f  t h e areas  i t s readers  r e a l i s m  c r i t i c s  mean  and  then,  t h e reader's  of  I t  a  postmodern  postmodern  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  t h e i r  experience"  F i c t i o n ,  of  many  by  f o r by  than  m e t a f i c t i o n . Moreover,  t h e g r a i n  through  each  w i t h  w i t h  One  mental  e x i s t s  i m a g i n a t i o n i t s  w r i t t e n .  do  more  F l a u b e r t .  c a l l e d  r e q u i r e d  as  between  a g a i n s t  t h e reader's  "Every  a c t i v i t y  that  concerned  i s t o go  ever  from  without  not t o mention  i t "more,"  d i s j u n c t i o n  e x p l o r e s and  t h e t e x t ,  Bovary  of  p r i v i l e g i n g  of  t o r e a l i t y from  i t as  f i c t i o n - - a n d  dimension,  as  m e a n i n g — e m b r a c e s one  as  a  some by  work  of  author,  t o t h e e x c l u s i o n  o f t h e  ( c o n t ' d ) E v e r y man f e e l s that p e r c e p t i o n g i v e s him an i n v i n c i b l e b e l i e f o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h a t w h i c h he p e r c e i v e s ; and that t h i s b e l i e f i s n o t t h e e f f e c t of reasoning, but t h e immediate consequence of p e r c e p t i o n . . . . I t puts t h e p h i l o s o p h e r and t h e peasant upon a l e v e l ; and n e i t h e r of them c a n g i v e any other reason f o r b e l i e v i n g h i s senses, than t h a t he f i n d s i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o do o t h e r w i s e .  (From Essays on t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l Powers o f Man, On B e i n g Blue: A P h i l o s o p h i c a l I n q u i r y [Boston: T9~76J, p . 70.)  quoted by Gass, David Godine,  30  others;  and  f o r a l l  extends  i n t o  i t si n t e n s i o n a l i t y  r e a l i t y :  3  6  a t  i t i s i n e x h a u s t i b l e ,  each and  p o i n t ,  i t a l s o  u l t i m a t e l y  inef f a b l e . This  i n i t i a l  a n t i t h e s e s  of  r e a l i s m  s y n t h e s i s  (though  c h a p t e r ) ,  but  subsequent  attempt  I  i n d i r e c t  m e t a f i c t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e  and  than t a i l  decade"  of  The  return  u n d e r p i n n i n g s  of  and  1 1 ) . R a t h e r ,  views with  of t h e  e s p e c i a l l y n i n e t e e n t h  and  a  i n s e n s i b i l i t y  was  an  o b j e c t i v e ,  pragmatic, 3 7  seem"  3 6  A  )  eroded;  word  used  t h e i r  s p e c i f i c  communally  p r e p o s t e r o u s  r e f e r e n t s o b j e c t s ;  or  c e n t u r y But  r e a l i s m  o c c u r r e d .  a  Confidence  w o r l d ,  among  order  concepts  i t so p p o s i t e  t o  that  "anchored"  i s " e x t e n s i o n a l . "  338ff. 37  W.  B.  Y e a t s ,  "Blood  and  t h e Moon"  I I ,  1.  26.  r e a l i t y . above  came  e m p i r i c i s m , of  World  that  e n t i t y  with  i n  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  t h e  War  I,  w o r l d  ("this that  i n i t s e l f ,  those,  be  and  i t sf a r r o w  o t h e r s ,  s t r u c t u r e s :  a r e  views  and  o u t l i n e d The  horns  l a s t  changing  t h e time  comprehensible  with  t h e  r e a d e r ,  Woolf.  around  o b j e c t i v e  H o f s t a d t e r , i n t e r i o r  and  of  l i n g u i s t i c s ,  r e a l i s m  of  d i d n o t , any  formed  from  s o r t  of  nature  a  postmodern  f u l l y  t e x t ,  p i g of  l a c k i n g  by  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , for  p o s i t i v i s m .  But  a u t h o r ,  Joyce  i t suggests  atmosphere  i n p h i l o s o p h y ,  f i n a l  f o r t h e  i n p a r t i c u l a r  i t arose  a  i n my  t h e mediary  " s p r i n g ,  P a r i s i a n  c r i t i c a l  produced  Moreover,  m e t a f i c t i o n  c r i t i c i s m ,  not  c o n t e x t  apparent.  determinism, r e v o l u t i o n  c r i t i c a l  t h e  q u e s t i o n s  become  break  t h e moderns,  these  w i l l  changing  f i r s t  a  has  which  t h e sulphurous p.  t o  m e t a f i c t i o n .  t o developments  p s y c h o l o g y ,  postmodernism  w i t h i n  postmodern  (Hawkes,  between  w e l l ,  i n g e n e r a l ,  from  response  with  as  m e d i a t i o n  p r o v i d e d  d i s c u s s i o n  c o n t e x t  more  and  s h a l l  i t has  l i t e r a r y  a t  so  t h e  w o r l d  reference i s , with t o See  s o l i d  t o no  e x t e r n a l , GEB,  p p .  need  31  c o u l d  o n l y  be  ordered  c o n s c i o u s n e s s . of  World  t h e i r than  War  I,  t r y  to  A l t e r  i n  s u b j e c t i v e i n  t h i s  the  a p p l i e s  who  i t who,  end."  h i s  i n d i v i d u a l  e x c e l l e n t  d i r e c t i o n :  s t r u c t u r e s "  r e c a p t u r e i n  the  F u s s e l l ,  nods  " a r t i f i c i a l  h i s t o r i a n s  he  Paul  by  aim  i n  one  i t  to way,  i s  on  the  " a r t i s t s "  " r e c r e a t e prove  w i t h  l i f e  the  impact  r a t h e r  good  3 8  t h i s  n o t i o n  s p e c i f i c a l l y :  r e f e r r i n g  ply a n i n e o n l y t h a t s t a n t e r i e n e i t  f f e c t e d by the immense a v i d n e s s t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n o v e l , he has a m t h a t r e a l i t y i s always mediated consciousness i t s e l f i s an a r t i l y making something of the f o r m l c e , i n v e n t i n g images and c h a i n s shape and substance.  f o r oder by f i c e e s s of c  (p.  There  i s  a  gap,  i n  other  s u b j e c t i v e ,  m e d i a t i n g  former,  a  way,  and  t h i s  and  i m a g i n a t i v e , Horse's  Unnamable Such world through  i s  view  the  i n c r e a s e  remarkably  to  Joyce  And  s o l i p s i s m  the of  a  of  who  144)  r e a l i t y  l o s s  of  f a i t h  f a i t h  i n  the  to  viewed  r e c r e a t e d apogee  r e a l i t y of n r e c o g n i t i o n consciousness r i n f l u x of o n n e c t i o n to  o b j e c t i v e  s i m i l a r  B l a k e ,  f a i t h f u l l y  (1944).  between  c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  e s p e c i a l l y  a  Mouth  probably  words,  concomitant  p o s i t i o n  Romantics,  3 8  work  says,  Dee the not but c o n e x p g i v  is  ( a r t i s t i c )  of  B e c k e t t ' s  i n  t h a t  of  Joyce  M o l l o y ,  In  a  the as  p u r e l y  Cary's  sort  the  the  l a t t e r .  r e a l i t y  t h i s  i n  and  of  The  s u b j e c t i v i s m  Malone  D i e s ,  The  (1959). s u b j e c t i v i s m a l s o  (whatever mental  has  i t s o n t o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s ,  The Great War and Modern P r e s s , 1975), p. 311.  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s s t a t u s ) words  Memory  (New  c o u l d  through  York:  f o r  the  only which  Oxford  be  t e x t :  i f  the  p e r c e i v e d  t h a t  U n i v e r s i t y  32  p e r c e p t i o n a l s o :  was  i f t h e  p e r c e p t i o n s T h i s  expressed  p e r c e i v i n g can  t r a n s m i t t e d  " f l a u n t i n g  of  a r t i f i c e "  i s  much  i n  t h e  r e a l i t y ,  p a r o d i s t i c ,  of  t h e  draws seek