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The white pine industry and the transformation of nineteenth-century Michigan Neithercut, Mark Edward 1984

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THE WHITE PINE INDUSTRY AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF NINETEENTH-CENTURY MICHIGAN By MARK EDWARD NEITHERCUT A.B. ( H o n s ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1974 M.A., M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The Department o f Geography We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1984 (c) Mark Edward N e i t h e r c u t , 1984 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y ' p f B r i t i s h C o l 1956 Main Mall ^ , V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 D e p a r t m e n t o f )E-6 (3/81) THE WHITE PINE INDUSTRY AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF NINETEENTH-CENTURY MICHIGAN Mark Edward N e i t h e r c u t The w h i t e p i n e i n d u s t r y d o m i n a t e d t h e i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t and s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n o r t h e r n t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e S t a t e o f M i c h i g a n ' s Lower P e n i n s u l a . Between 1860 and 1910 n o r t h e r n Lower M i c h i g a n was t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m f o r e s t t o c u t o v e r ; d u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y was u t i l i z e d i n c r e a s i n g l y t o c u t , t r a n s p o r t , and m i l l w h i t e p i n e . T h i s s t u d y i s a h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h y o f a n i n e t e e n t h — c e n t u r y p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e r e g i o n . I t i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e g e o g r a p h y o f t h e M i c h i g a n w h i t e p i n e i n d u s t r y , and a n a l y z e s t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The e v o l v i n g p a t t e r n o f r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n i s examined, w i t h d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o (1) e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t , (2) s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , (3) p a t t e r n s o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p , (4) s c a l e o f p r o d u c t i o n , and (5) t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f l o g s f r o m stump t o s a w m i l l and o f lumber f r o m m i l l t o m a r k e t . P e r s o n a l l e t t e r s and d i a r i e s , n e w s p a p e r s , a n n u a l r e p o r t s o f government a g e n c i e s , and a c c o u n t books and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f lumber f i r m s a r e u s e d as p r i m a r y d a t a s o u r c e s . The w i d e s p r e a d a d o p t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s was f o u n d t o have d r a m a t i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d t h e lumber i n d u s t r y d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . I n 1860 l u m b e r i n g was a s m a l l — s c a l e , s e a s o n a l i n d u s t r y b a s e d on human l a b o r and w a t e r , w i n d , and a n i m a l power. By 1880 t h e s c a l e o f p r o d u c t i o n had grown s i g n i f i c a n t l y , l o g g i n g was l e s s d e p e n d e n t upon s e a s o n a l r h y t h m s , and steam power had i n c r e a s e d t h e d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f l o g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A m e c h a n i z e d , r a t i o n a l i z e d , c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r y had emerged. I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was f o u n d t o have g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d t h e i m p a c t of l u m b e r i n g on t h e l a n d s c a p e . L a r g e c o n t i g u o u s t r a c t s o f t i m b e r l a n d r e m a i n e d u n b r o k e n due t o t h e g r o w i n g s c a l e o f f o r e s t p r o d u c t i o n and t h e f r e q u e n t r e — c u t t i n g o f t r a c t s . L o g g i n g became i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s s e l e c t i v e as i m p r o v e d m i l l i n g m a c h i n e s u t i l i z e d s m a l l e r l o g s and woods o t h e r t h a n p i n e . The use o f r a i l r o a d s t o h a u l l o g s and t o s u p p l y camps e x t e n d e d th e lumber economy t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n and f a c i l i t a t e d t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f m i l l i n g and wood m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n l a k e s h o r e m i l l towns. TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES i v L I S T OF FIGURES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION . 1 C h a p t e r 1. MICHIGAN WHITE PINE AND AN EXPANDING NATION 5 2. LOGGING c. 1860 48 3. GROWTH AND EXPANSION OF THE LUMBER ECONOMY 100 4. INDUSTRIALISM IN THE FOREST: LOGGING IN THE 1880's . 143 5. MILLS AND MILL TOWNS IN AN INDUSTRIAL AGE . . . . . . 189 6. LOGGING IN THE WANING YEARS OF THE INDUSTRY 234 7. A REGION ABANDONED: NORTHERN MICHIGAN AFTER 1893 . . 278 8. NORTHERN MICHIGAN AND TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICA . . 314 NOTES 333 BIBLIOGRAPHY 411 i i i L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page I . POPULATION OF MICHIGAN 9 I I . MICHIGAN POPULATION BY BIRTHPLACE, 1860 10 I I I . LAND PURCHASES OF HANNAH, LAY & COMPANY (1851-1886) 58 IV. LAND OWNERSHIP BY DELOS A. BLODGETT—1873, BY METHOD OF PURCHASE 61 V. PEAK PRODUCTIVITY IN PROCTOR'S 1870/71 CAMP . . . . 79 V I . J . PROCTOR'S 1872/73 LOGGING SEASON 82 V I I . DESTINATION OF SAGINAW RIVER LUMBER 125 V I I I . MANUFACTURING IN SELECTED COUNTIES c . 1873. . . . . 132 IX. THE MICHIGAN LUMBER INDUSTRY 1860- 1870 140 X. LOG MARKS IN A 1876/77 LOGGING CAMP 151 X I . DESTINATION OF SAGINAW LUMBER SHIPPED VIA THE GREAT LAKES 217 X I I . EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURING — 1889 224 X I I I . MICHIGAN LUMBER PRODUCTION 236 XIV. PRODUCTION OF A HARDWOOD LOGGING CAMP — 1905 . . . 261 XV. MICHIGAN STUMPAGE PRICES 1892-1905 266 XVI. LOGGING COSTS IN A HARDWOOD LOGGING CAMP c. 1905. . 268 X V I I . DECLINING MILLTOWN MANUFACTURING, 1890 TO 1900. . . 301 X V I I I . MANUFACTURING IN MUSKEGON AND ALPENA, LARGEST EMPLOYERS IN 1900 305 XIX. DELOS A. BLODGETT ASSETS — 1901 312 i v L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. RIVERS OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 6 2. MICHIGAN COUNTY NAMES 8 3. MICHIGAN RAILROADS - 1860 12 4. POPULATION DENSITY - 1860. 14 5. LUMBER PRODUCTION - 1860 26 6. FEDERAL LAND DISPOSAL IN MICHIGAN 1800-1900 52 7. BLODGETT LAND OWNERSHIP IN HARING TOWNSHIP - 1873 . . 62 8. BLODGETT LAND OWNERSHIP IN LAKE TOWNSHIP - 1873 . . . 63 9. A CUTTING CREW AT WORK 68 10. LOGGING CAMP LOCATION c. 1870 86 11. ORGANIZATION OF LOGGING PRODUCTION c. 1870 87 12. NORTHERN MICHIGAN RAILROADS 1874 103 13. POPULATION DENSITY - 1874. . 106 14. LUMBER PRODUCTION - 1874 107 15. MICHIGAN RIVER DRIVE c. 1870 115 16. EAST SAGINAW, MICHIGAN, 1867 133 17. LAND OWNERSHIP PATTERNS IN A LUMBER TOWNSHIP - 1889 . 146 18. LOADING THE "BIG WHEELS" 153 19. THE CLAM RIVER RAILROAD c. 1888 161 20. THE HACKLEY AND HUME RAILROAD c. 1885 163 21. ORGANIZATION OF LOGGING PRODUCTION c. 1 8 8 3 — S L E I G H S . . 176 v 22. ORGANIZATION OF LOGGING PRODUCTION c . 1 8 8 3 — LOGGING RAILROADS 178 23. ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION C. 1 8 8 3 — P U B L I C CARRIER . . 179 24. LOGGING CAMP LOCATION c. 1885 180 25. NORTHERN MICHIGAN RAILROADS - 1885 200 26. LUMBER PRODUCTION - 1883 202 27. POPULATION DENSITY - 1890 204 28. LOG TRANSPORTATION c . 1883 206 29. AU SABLE AND OSCODA, MICHIGAN, 1880 222 30. BLODGETT STUMPLAND - 1901 243 31. BURNED-OVER SLASH IN NORTHERN MICHIGAN 247 32. A STEAM LOG LOADER 256 33. ORGANIZATION OF LOGGING PRODUCTION c. 1905 272 34. NORTHERN MICHIGAN RAILROADS - 1913 283 35. IDEALIZED LOG FLOW c. 1895-1905 286 36. LUMBER PRODUCTION - 1902 287 37. DEWARD SAWMILL UNDER CONSTRUCTION. . . 291 38. SECOND STREET, ALPENA, MICHIGAN ' 310 39. MILLERSBURG, PRESQUE I S L E COUNTY, MICHIGAN, c. 1898 311 40. CHANGE IN RURAL POPULATION 1910-20 315 41. ABANDONED RAILROADS IN NORTHERN MICHIGAN ( c . 1915-1935) 319 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A p r o j e c t such as t h i s r e f l e c t s the a i d and suppport of many people. In p a r t i c u l a r , Cole H a r r i s , who acted as my ad v i s o r d u r i n g my years at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, shared w i t h me h i s sense of c u r i o s i t y and h i s s c h o l a r l y v a l u e s . In Ann Arbor, Robert M. Warner made me f e e l welcome at the Bentley H i s t o r i c a l L i b r a r y , where Mary Jo Pugh pr o v i d e d enormous a i d d u r i n g my years of a r c h i v a l work. The f i n a l pages of t h i s t h e s i s were w r i t t e n at the U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama, where my co l l e a g u e s i n the Department of Geography helped reduce my workload so that I might f i n i s h my degree. The t h e s i s was w r i t t e n under the c a r e f u l s u p e r v i s i o n of Graeme Wynn, who labored f a r beyond the normal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r . Without the e d i t o r i a l s k i l l , i n t e l l e c t u a l breath, and p a t i e n c e of Wynn, that which f o l l o w s would be a much l e s s e r work. The r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s was conducted d u r i n g the years I h e l d a U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia graduate f e l l o w s h i p ; I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h i s f i n a n c i a l support. My r e s e a r c h has a l s o been aided i n many ways by my wonderful f a m i l y . Though they may not have understood the d i s s e r t a t i o n process, they have supported me s t e a d f a s t l y . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l to Maureen McDevitt who aided t h i s p r o j e c t enormously. As a f r i e n d , and through her own work, she has shown me the s e n s i t i v e , humane s i d e of the human experience. And f i n a l l y , I have w r i t t e n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n f o r Anna and Hazel, and i n the memory of Charles and A l b e r t . v i i INTRODUCTION I n 1860 n o r t h e r n Lower M i c h i g a n was a w i l d e r n e s s , by 1910 i t was a d e v a s t a t e d w a s t e l a n d . No f a r m e r wrought t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; t h e r a p i d , s p e n d t h r i f t e x p l o i t a t i o n o f f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s was r e s p o n s i b l e . I n t h e n o r t h e r n t w o — t h i r d s o f t h e Lower P e n i n s u l a o f M i c h i g a n , l o g g i n g f o s t e r e d i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t and s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r e d w i t h r e m a r k a b l e r a p i d i t y due t o t h e a r e a ' s enormous endowment o f w h i t e p i n e . White p i n e , a s o f t e a s i l y - w o r k e d wood, was much i n demand i n e a s t e r n c i t i e s , b u t i n c r e a s i n g l y s c a r c e t h e r e due t o t h e d e p l e t i o n of s t a n d s i n M a i n e , New Y o r k , and s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o . By 1870 M i c h i g a n was t h e l a r g e s t lumber p r o d u c e r i n t h e n a t i o n ; i n 1880 o v e r 4500 m i l l i o n f e e t o f lumber was s h i p p e d f r o m M i c h i g a n t o e a s t e r n u r b a n and w e s t e r n a g r i c u l t u r a l m a r k e t s . D u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s f o r e s t — r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s employed o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s t a t e ' s i n d u s t r i a l l a b o r f o r c e d e s p i t e t h e g r o w t h and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f D e t r o i t . Taken t o g e t h e r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s — l o g g i n g , lumber m i l l i n g , and s h i n g l e m a k i n g — l e d t h e s t a t e ' s o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s i n v a l u e added by m a n u f a c t u r e , c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t , and number o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . Y e t by t h e e a r l y 1890's l i t t l e w h i t e p i n e r e m a i n e d i n Lower M i c h i g a n . The P a n i c o f 1893 h a s t e n e d t h e i n d u s t r y ' s d e c l i n e . F o r e s t f i r e s swept t h e o l d l o g g i n g a r e a s e v e r y few summers and e r o s i o n removed t h e t h i n sandy s o i l s . M i l l towns were abandoned, and h u n d r e d s o f m i l e s o f r a i l r o a d t r a c k were r i p p e d up. F a r m e r s , h a v i n g l o s t t h e i r l o c a l m a r k e t s , moved t o t h e g r o w i n g f a c t o r y towns o f s o u t h e r n M i c h i g a n . By 1910 n o r t h e r n M i c h i g a n was a s c o r c h e d w a s t e l a n d . A f t e r c e n t u r i e s of B r i t i s h and F r e n c h r u l e t h a t had s c a r c e l y a l t e r e d t h e l a n d , t h e lumber i n d u s t r y had remade t h e f a c e o f n o r t h e r n M i c h i g a n i n a few d e c a d e s . T h i s abandoned, b u r n e d — o v e r r e g i o n , l i k e much of t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a n V e s t , was a b y p r o d u c t o f e a s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l i s m . The M i c h i g a n w h i t e p i n e i n d u s t r y s e r v e d u r b a n — i n d u s t r i a l m a r k e t s . I t grew as a p a r t o f an e m e r g i n g , i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g n a t i o n a l economy. M o r e o v e r , t h e b a r r e n l a n d s c a p e o f n o r t h e r n M i c h i g a n i n 1910 was no i n c i d e n t a l c o n s e q u e n c e o f e a s t e r n demand. On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t stemmed d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y and i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n M i c h i g a n lumber economy. I n s h o r t , t h e M i c h i g a n c u t o v e r was an i n d u s t r i a l l a n d s c a p e , a d i r e c t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g n a t i o n . T h i s i s a s t u d y o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m . I t a r g u e s t h a t t h e f o r c e s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n g r e a t l y t r a n s f o r m e d t h e w h i t e p i n e i n d u s t r y , and t h u s g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d i t s i m p a c t upon t h e l a n d s c a p e o f n o r t h e r n M i c h i g a n . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r r e d d i r e c t l y , t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new t o o l s , m a c h i n e s , e n e r g y s o u r c e s , and modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and i n d i r e c t l y , t h r o u g h t h e o p e n i n g of new m a r k e t s . The i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f l u m b e r i n g made an i n d e l i b l e mark on t h e f a c e o f modern M i c h i g a n . I n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y g r e a t l y c h a n g e d t h e n a t u r e o f p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e i n d u s t r y ; i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m t r a n s f o r m e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n 3 of p r o d u c t i o n and the management of land and l a b o r . T h i s process fundamentally a l t e r e d the environmental impact of the i n d u s t r y , the s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of lumbering, and the p a t t e r n s of land use and land ownership i n northern Lower Michigan. Broadly, t h i s study i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the geography of an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g resource economy. As such i t d e s c r i b e s the nature of the Michigan lumber i n d u s t r y , with s p e c i a l emphasis upon the geography of lumbering, and i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l impact. I t d e t a i l s the e v o l v i n g p a t t e r n of resource use, land use, land ownership, the s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n , settlement, and environmental impact. Given the study's s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the impact of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , i t w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e i t s impact upon the i n d u s t r y and the r e s u l t a n t changes i n the landscape. To assess the e v o l v i n g impact of the Michigan lumber i n d u s t r y i t w i l l be necessary to d e s c r i b e 1). the nature of lumbering, 2). i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with, and impact on, the landscape, and 3). the changes f o s t e r e d i n the i n d u s t r y and, as a r e s u l t , i n the landscape by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . That n o r t h e r n Michigan stood i n the e a r l y 20th century as an abandoned wasteland has been widely documented. The purpose of t h i s work i s to c h a r t the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from f o r e s t to cutover and assess the r o l e of i n d u s t r i a l technology, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and management i n that t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The study w i l l argue that i n d u s t r i a l i s m g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d p a t t e r n s of land ownership, the environmental impact of l o g g i n g , and the r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n s of lumber manufacturing. Toward t h i s end d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i v e n to t imberland h o l d i n g s , technology of f o r e s t p r o d u c t i o n , s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n , and l o c a t i o n of saw m i l l s . C h a p t e r 1 a n a l y z e s t h e c o n t e x t o f M i c h i g a n l u m b e r i n g i n t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . I t s u r v e y s e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t and l u m b e r i n g i n M i c h i g a n , t h e e v o l v i n g p a t t e r n s o f f o r e s t e x p l o i t a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e emergence o f an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g n a t i o n a l economy a t m i d — c e n t u r y , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f W e s t e r n p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e e c o n o m i e s w i t h E a s t e r n u r b a n — i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s . T h r e e p a i r s o f c h a p t e r s f o l l o w C h a p t e r 1, e a c h g i v e n t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e g e o g r a p h y o f t h e lumber i n d u s t r y , and o f n o r t h e r n M i c h i g a n , a t a s p e c i f i c t i m e and s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . C h a p t e r s 2, 4, and 6 i n v e s t i g a t e t h e n a t u r e o f l o g g i n g and f o c u s upon p a t t e r n s o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t o f l o g g i n g and t h e s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f o r e s t p r o d u c t i o n . C h a p t e r s 3, 5, and 7 d e s c r i b e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n o r t h e r n M i c h i g a n as a r e g i o n , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e l o c a t i o n o f lumber p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e r e g i o n ; t h e s e c h a p t e r s a l s o d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f m i l l s and m i l l t o w n s and e m p h a s i z e t h e use o f t h e t i m b e r r e s o u r c e , t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f lumber t o m a r k e t , and t h e r o l e o f t h e lumber i n d u s t r y i n t h e m i l l town economy. C h a p t e r s 2 & 3 d e s c r i b e M i c h i g a n l u m b e r i n g c. 1870, t h e y e a r M i c h i g a n emerged as t h e l a r g e s t lumber p r o d u c e r i n t h e n a t i o n . C h a p t e r s 4 and 5 ( c . 1883) f o c u s upon the i n d u s t r y a t i t s peak. C h a p t e r s 6 and 7 d e a l w i t h t h e i n d u s t r y i n d e c l i n e , c . 1900. Chapter 1 MICHIGAN WHITE PINE AND AN EXPANDING NATION The Great Lakes and the two p e n i n s u l a s which comprise present—day Michigan were l a r g e l y the c r e a t i o n of c o n t i n e n t a l g l a c i a t i o n . Ice advanced through what i s now the Midwest many times d u r i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e , p r o g r e s s i v e l y e r o d i n g p a r t s of the Michigan Basin, and l e a v i n g behind a jumbled, e r r a t i c landscape-Lakes Huron and Michigan occupy i c e — c a r v e d v a l l e y s , ^ and Michigan's present borders are formed l a r g e l y by the shores of four of the f i v e Great Lakes. The physiography of Michigan i s a tang l e of d e p o s i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s . Moraines, t i l l p l a i n s , and outwash p l a i n s are i n t e r l a c e d through much of the i n t e r i o r of Lower Michigan, and l a c u s t r i n e p l a i n s cover the s h o r e l i n e 2 areas. Michigan's r i v e r system i s consequently r a t h e r young; i t s p a t t e r n was l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by p r o — g l a c i a l drainage and the s t a t e ' s widely s c a t t e r e d moraines. A h a l f dozen major r i v e r s d r a i n i n t e r i o r Lower Michigan; the Saginaw, Muskegon, Manistee, Grand, and Au Sable River systems are the l a r g e s t and f i g u r e d prominently i n the development of the lumber i n d u s t r y (F igure 1 ) . E c o l o g i c a l l y , Michigan spans two s m a l l — s c a l e ecotones, or b i o g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s . In southern Lower Michigan (or "southern Michigan") b r o a d l e a f f o r e s t s predominate on c l a y or loam s o i l s (mainly h a p l u d a l f s , that i s w e l l - d r a i n e d a l f i s o l s ) , w hile i n no r t h e r n Lower Michigan (that i s roughly n o r t h of a l i n e 5 FIGURE 1 R I V E R S O F L O W E R M I C H I G R N ( W I T H F O R E S T Z O N E S ) JflNISTEE CLHM CRSS MUSKEGON SHGINfl> FOREST BOUNTORY rLINT GRAND SOUTHERN EXTENT OF WHITE PINE 7 from Bay County to Muskegon County) and i n the Upper P e n i n s u l a pine and mixed hardwoods occur on coarse sandy s o i l s ( l a r g e l y h a plorthods, or w e l l — d r a i n e d spodosols) ( F i g u r e s 1 and 2). In southern Michigan the p r e — s e t t l e m e n t f o r e s t c o n s i s t e d of (A) black oak, white oak, red maple, and shagbark h i c k o r y on sandy upland s o i l s , (B) basswood, beech, red oak, and sugar maple on the f i n e , moist upland s o i l s , and (C) ash, American elm, s i l v e r 3 and red maple, and swamp oak on low a l l u v i a l or muck s o i l s . The b o r e a l ecotone of northern Lower Michigan (or "northern Michigan") and the Upper P e n i n s u l a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by coarse sandy s o i l s , a c o o l e r c l i m a t e , s h o r t e r growing season, and a pine-hardwood f o r e s t . Haplorthods, that i s spodosols that were formed under a c o n i f e r and mixed hardwood cover, predominate. The p r e — s e t t l e m e n t f o r e s t c o n s i s t e d of beech and sugar maple combined with white pine, y e l l o w b i r c h , and hemlock; on the d r i e s t uplands jack pine and oak dominated. In g e n e r a l white and red (or "Norway") pine dominated the l i g h t e r , sandy s o i l s from Alpena and Montmorency Counties i n the n o r t h e a s t corner of the Lower P e n i n s u l a to Oceana and Newaygo i n the southwest. Yet white pine was found i n l a r g e , though i s o l a t e d stands as f a r south as St. C l a i r , Genesee, G r a t i o t , Kent, and A l l e g a n Counties 4 (F igure 1). T h i s f o r e s t e d , g l a c i a l landscape was an untouched w i l d e r n e s s i n 1825 when a northern m i g r a t i o n route was c r e a t e d by the opening of the E r i e Canal. Tens of thousands of s e t t l e r s came west to Michigan on c a n a l barges and Lake E r i e steamboats, and the p o p u l a t i o n of the s t a t e soared d u r i n g the t h i r t i e s and 8 FIGURE 2 M I C H I G A N C O U N T Y N A M E S (LOWER PEN INSULA ) SAINT CCkfllR 9 n e a r l y d o u b l e d e a c h decade u n t i l 1860 ( T a b l e I ) . The E r i e C a n a l was l o c a t e d due west o f New E n g l a n d and t h e c a n a l p r o v i d e d a r o u t e f o r m i g r a n t s from New E n g l a n d t o n o r t h e r n O h i o , Upper Canada, and Lower M i c h i g a n . Land had grown s c a r c e and e x p e n s i v e i n New E n g l a n d and many p e o p l e l e f t t h e i r s t o n y f a r m s f o r c h e a p e r and more f e r t i l e l a n d i n t h e w e s t . I n i t i a l l y t h e s e s e t t l e r s s o u g h t l a n d i n w e s t e r n New Y o r k and Upper Canada, b u t as t h e s e a r e a s were s e t t l e d Lower M i c h i g a n became a common d e s t i n a t i o n f o r n o r t h e r n