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The effect of affiliation activities on drop-out, satisfaction, and performance in distance education Persons, Heather Jamieson 1985

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THE  EFFECT OF A F F I L I A T I O N A C T I V I T I E S ON  DROP-OUT, SATISFACTION, AND  PERFORMANCE  IN DISTANCE EDUCATION  by HEATHER JAMIESON PERSONS  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE DEPARTMENT  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND SPECIAL EDUCATION  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  to,, the, r e q u i r e d  THE  conforming  standard,.  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH October,  ©  as  COLUMBIA  1985  HEATHER JAMIESON PERSONS, 1985  In  presenting  requirements British freely that  this  available permission  Department  in  partial  f u l f i l m e n t of t h e  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e The U n i v e r s i t y o f  Columbia,  scholarly  thesis  I  f o r reference for  purposes or  agree  be  his  understood  that  copying  financial  gain  shall  or  the L i b r a r y  and s t u d y .  extensive  may  by  that  copying  granted her  by  be  of  allowed  make i t  further  of t h i s the  Head  this without  agree  thesis for  representatives.  or p u b l i c a t i o n not  I  shall  of  my  It  is  thesis my  for  written  permission.  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date: October,  1985  Columbia  AND  S P E C I A L EDUCATION  ii  Abstract  Students classes at  home t h r o u g h  programs  noted  study.  the causes  distance  problem  decrease  T h i s sense  i n these  of i s o l a t i o n  of t h e h i g h drop-out  study  A  experienced  the drop-out  i n such  may be one  r a t e s common i n  Columbia  rate,  students  "need  from  performance.  a community  foraffiliation",  or four other  group r e c e i v e d only  with  They  "need f o r They  the treatment  of the treatment  conferences  instructor.  college in  the p e r s o n a l i t y  f o r autonomy".  assigned to either  telephone  increase student  were i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y .  a c h i e v e m e n t " a n d "need  Members  interaction  c o n f e r e n c i n g would  a q u e s t i o n n a i r e measuring  constructs  randomly  was t h a t  a n d improve a c a d e m i c  Twenty-nine  completed  study  students v i a telephone  satisfaction  three  f o r students  h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s  other  group.  can o f t e n  education.  The  British  to attend  d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n programs.  c e n t r e s on t h e i s o l a t i o n  independent  with  or u n w i l l i n g  a t an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n  consistently  of  who a r e u n a b l e  were  or control  group p a r t i c i p a t e d i n  the course  i n s t r u c t o r and  students.  Members o f t h e c o n t r o l  individual  telephone  The c o m p l e t i o n  calls  r a t e s o f t h e two  from t h e  groups,  i i i  measures of s a t i s f a c t i o n Only dropped group with .03  a n d marks were  2 o f t h e 15 s t u d e n t s  out w h i l e  failed  one d e g r e e level.  A Yates  significance  correction  need  a l l students student  r  the  as measured  r=-.38, p=.10.  affiliation The  However, when t h e  education play  the e f f e c t  on s t u d e n t  may  a role  recommended.  group o n l y , the that for  interaction  of the students'  that  be b e n e f i c i a l  may  need f o r  student-to-student to students  and t h a t need  i n student  only,  performance.  indicate  courses  group  suggests  group student-to-student  results  interaction  This  correlation  by marks and  f o r the treatment  was r=-.70, p=.08.  have m o d e r a t e d  satisfaction  t h e r e was a m o d e r a t e  was computed  treatment  lowered  significant.  was -.11, p=.72, but f o r t h e c o n t r o l  correlation  a t the  of curve,  o f t h e s m a l l numbers,  achievement  for affiliation,  correlation  for continuity  i n measures of s t u d e n t  were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  between  The c h i s q u a r e  t o .08.  Differences  For  the course.  group  i n the c o n t r o l  o f f r e e d o m was 4.55 s i g n i f i c a n t  w h i c h was a p p l i e d b e c a u s e the  in the treatment  7 of t h e 14 s t u d e n t s  t o complete  compared.  success.  in distance  for a f f i l i a t i o n Further  may  study i s  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  i  Abstract Chapter  Chapter  v  i i I:  II:  Introduction  1  The  Problem  1  Definitions  3  Purpose  4  Review  of t h e Study of R e l a t e d  Distance  R e s e a r c h and T h e o r y  Education  Origins  5  and d e v e l o p m e n t  Distance  education  in  5 British 9  Columbia Characteristics  of d i s t a n c e 11  education Media  used  Strengths  in distance education  ....13  and w e a k n e s s e s o f  distance  education  Drop-out  14 16  Drop-out  in distance education  Calculating  drop-out  Causes of drop-out  rates  Preventing  18 19  in distance  education  Need  ...5  21  drop-out  in distance  educat ion  24  for A f f i l i a t i o n  27  Origins Measuring  28 need  for a f f i l i a t i o n  28  V  Research  relating  t o need  for  affiliation Need  29  for a f f i l i a t i o n  in  educational  settings Chapter  III:  Objectives  of  29 the Study  and  Hypotheses  34  Objectives  of  the Study  34  Hypotheses Chapter  IV:  Design  and M e t h o d o l o g y  Research The  34 of  36  Subjects  36  Control  38  Treatment  38 '.  Initial  questionnaire  39 39  Final  questionnaire  40  Other  Information Obtained  41  Scoring  and  Statistical V:  ....36  Design  Materials  Chapter  the Study  Results  Item  Analysis  tests  42  of t h e E x p e r i m e n t  Statistical Drop-out  Analysis  41  of R e s u l t s  rate  44 44 44  Student  satisfaction  44  Student  achievement  45  Need  for a f f i l i a t i o n  Factors  which  the  study  might  46 have a f f e c t e d 48  vi  Comparison  of sample  population Discussion  49  rate  49  satisfaction  50  Student  performance  52  role  o f need  Generalization Summary,  for affiliation  of r e s u l t s  Conclusions  ....52 54  and  Recommendations  55  Summary  55  Conclusions  63  Recommendations  64  Bibliography Appendix  48  Student  The  VI:  norms  of R e s u l t s  Drop-out  Chapter  with  66  A: I n i t i a l  APPENDIX B: F i n a l  questionnaire  questionnaire  APPENDIX C: D a t a C o l l e c t e d from S u b j e c t s  72 76 80  L I S T OF TABLES  TABLE ONE--CORRELATIONS BETWEEN  VARIABLES  v i i i  Acknowledgements I  wish  advisor over  to express  Dr. Lome  Koroluk  the material i n this  thank D r . Steve statistical regarding  Catchpole  analysis.  study.  many h o u r s  I would a l s o  D r . P a t Montgomery's  the l i t e r a t u r e  review  of North  c o u l d n o t have  was v e r y  be e x t e n d e d  for his assistance.  the support  study  who s p e n t  thesis going like to  F o s t e r f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e with the  T h a n k s must a l s o  and  my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my  Island  advice  helpful.  t o Dr. M i c h a e l  Without  his co-operation  Community C o l l e g e  been c a r r i e d o u t .  this  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The  Traditionally provided As  educational  to learners  programs  or s c r i b e s  and M e s o p o t a m i a  travelled  (Marrou,  scholars  1982).  universities centres  t o become  to learn  i n the t h i r d  under  which  learners  of  an i n s t r u c t o r  (Riche,  Young  and f o u r t h c e n t u r y  1982).  gather together  of Egypt  the t u t e l a g e  the f i r s t  emerged a s s t u d e n t s t r a v e l l e d  in  educational  location.  1982);  In t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y  of l e a r n i n g  been  to the l i b r a r i e s  t o study (Shimahara,  G r e e k s came t o t h e c i t i e s renowned  have  gathered at a central  f a r back as 3000 B.C. t h o s e w i s h i n g  priests  of  Problem  Today under  BC  western  t o European this  method  the d i r e c t i o n  r e m a i n s t h e p r i m a r y means o f p r o v i d i n g  programs.  However many p e o p l e w i t h a need o r a d e s i r e f o r further, e d u c a t i o n this  traditional  programs attend  are unable to p a r t i c i p a t e method o f p r o v i d i n g  at a central  such c l a s s e s  responsibilities,  location.  educational  They may be u n a b l e t o  because of f a m i l y  lack  through  and j o b  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  or p h y s i c a l  handicaps. Since gather  i t i s not always  at a central  delivering  feasible  location,  educational  modern t e c h n o l o g y have  other  programs been  f o r learners to methods o f  which  developed.  take advantage of Educational  2  p r o g r a m s a r e now p r o v i d e d world  by m a i l ,  by t e l e p h o n e  r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n these.  This  programs  to l e a r n e r s throughout the line  broadcast  a n d by  satellite,  o r by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f  a l t e r n a t e method o f d e l i v e r i n g  i s commonly  r e f e r r e d t o as  educational  "distance  education". Distance traditional direct  education  community  has n o t r e p l a c e d t h e  of l e a r n e r s m e e t i n g  s u p e r v i s i o n of t h e i r  been u s e d ,  i n most c a s e s ,  teacher.  economic  or personal  educational (Purdy,  education  Adults, educational motivation  One o f t h e m a j o r  personal  uses of d i s t a n c e  a d u l t s with  continuing  f o r t h e most p a r t , p a r t i c i p a t e i n  t o l e a r n must be s t r o n g as l a c k of time,  or j o b problems,  independent  t o an  for learning.  such o b s t a c l e s  additional  f o r geographic,  p r o g r a m s on a v o l u n t a r y  backgrounds,  opportunities to  to p a r t i c i p a t e in classes  h a s been t o p r o v i d e  opportunities  family  who  i t has  reasons a r e unable t o t r a v e l  institution  1983).  Instead,  to provide  new g r o u p s o f l e a r n e r s ; t h o s e  under t h e  limited  and l a c k of r e c e n t  problem study  needs.  characteristic  basis.  Their  enough t o overcome  the d i s t r a c t i o n s of educational study  experience.  An  f o r some i n d i v i d u a l s i s t h a t may n o t meet  As a r e s u l t  their  high  i n many d i s t a n c e  e d u c a t i o n a l and  drop-out  education  rates are programs.  3 Houle students  (1973) n o t e d  t h a t many- d i s t a n c e ^ e d u c a t i o n  may n o t be:  g i f t e d i n independent, p r i n t - o r i e n t e d l e a r n i n g . They need t h e s t i m u l a t i o n o f a mentor o r g r o u p o f l i k e - m i n d e d p e o p l e who w i l l c h a l l e n g e b u t n o t o v e r - a s s i s t them. ( p . 148) In many d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n alone with  and a r e o f t e n never each other.  interaction, detrimental for  or o n l y  For students  the l a c k of such to their  dropping  programs s t u d e n t s rarely  who need  work  in contact personal  o p p o r t u n i t i e s may be  progress.  They may be h i g h  out f o r m o t i v a t i o n a l r a t h e r than  risks  academic  reasons. Definitions Holmberg "distance  (1977) h a s p r o v i d e d  this  d e f i n i t i o n of  education":  The t e r m d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n . . . c o v e r s t h e v a r i o u s forms o f s t u d y a t a l l l e v e l s w h i c h a r e n o t u n d e r t h e c o n t i n u o u s , immediate s u p e r v i s i o n of t u t o r s p r e s e n t w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s i n l e c t u r e rooms o r i n t h e same p r e m i s e s b u t who n e v e r t h e l e s s , b e n e f i t from t h e p l a n n i n g , g u i d a n c e and t u i t i o n o f a t u t o r i a l organization. ( p . 9) One has  been  o f t h e major c o n c e r n s  of distance  educators  the l e v e l  in distance  education  of drop-out  programs. " D r o p - o u t " has been d e f i n e d a s " t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f students final  who e n r o l f o r a c o u r s e  examination  or t e s t "  but withdraw b e f o r e t h e  (Glatter  & Wedell,  1971,  4  p. 1 1 ) .  In t h i s  dropped  out i f they  the c o u r s e .  study  Formal  One p o s s i b l e education students  relations"  and  but f a i l e d  withdrawal  was n o t n e c e s s a r y .  f o r drop-out  i s the lack  to a f f i l i a t e  w i t h each  "Need f o r  o f need  to .establish  interpersonal  1956, p . 2 9 6 ) .  c a n be measured t h r o u g h  level  in distance  other.  warm and f r i e n d l y  ( F r e n c h & Chadwick,  complete  of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  s c o r e s c a n be o b t a i n e d w h i c h  their  to  h a s been d e f i n e d a s "a d e s i r e  and/or m a i n t a i n  construct  registered  reason  programs  affiliation"  s t u d e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o have  a variety rate  This  of t e s t s  individuals  as t o  for affiliation.  Purpose of the Study The providing  purpose  study  i s to find  an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n  would a f f e c t satisfaction, distance  of t h i s  the drop-out and a c a d e m i c  education  course.  rate,  out among  if students  the p e r c e i v e d  performance  of students  in a  5  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND Distance  Education  O r i g i n s and d e v e l o p m e n t . as d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n in  which  What we  through  the m a i l  who c o m p l e t e d a s s i g n m e n t s and m a i l e d One o f t h e e a r l y  education England,  i n v o l v e d Isaac  how  (Holmberg,  students  from  private  1977).  By  to students  i n t h e 1840's i n  i n shorthand Elliot  by p o s t c a r d  (1978) d e s c r i b e d  1858 onwards c o u l d o b t a i n  Many o f t h e s e  t u t o r s who s e n t  education  them back t o  P i t m a n who,  from London U n i v e r s i t y s i m p l y examinations.  t o today  examples of d i s t a n c e  sent h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s  to students  refer  began a s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  l e s s o n s were s e n t  tutors.  THEORY  credits  by s i t t i n g f o r students  learned  them l e s s o n s t h r o u g h  from the mail.  1887 t h e U n i v e r s i t y C o r r e s p o n d e n c e C o l l e g e a t  Cambridge was e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r e p a r e London U n i v e r s i t y exams. was i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h Britain first  i n 1964.  university  the U n i t e d Research  the N a t i o n a l Extension  The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o sponsored  Institute  study  Queens U n i v e r s i t y i n 1899  distance  correspondence  print  education  i n 1891  of B r i t i s h  Canada, c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  f o r the  This correspondence  States beginning  Although  students  was f i r s t  has c o n t i n u e d courses,  College in o f f e r e d the  programs i n  (Educational  Columbia,  (Selman,  school,  1982).  In  p r o v i d e d by  1966). t o be a s t a p l e o f  r a d i o h a s been  used i n  6  education  i n a number of c o u n t r i e s .  s e r v i c e was Australia and  launched  i n 1924  provided  radio broadcasts  secondary  students  living  (MacKenzie, Postgate  1940's t h e  Canadian  radio  farm  forums and  these  programs  Wisconsin CBS  1940  American  established  elementary areas  1975).  pamphlets The  and  broadcasts  co-ordinators. educational broadcasts  to  Cultural  r a d i o t o keep  went on  to p r i n t  produced accompany  Today ACPO i s one  and  local  the  and  local  first  (ACPO)  i n touch  with  booklets  to  the  and  (Cathcart,  i n 1957  1978).  Program o f A i r b o r n e and  and  local  still  uses,  (Perraton,  1980).  the needs of  students.  in Italy  In t h e U n i t e d Television  secondary  in  States  broadcast  schools  i n 1959  his  support  Television  f o r s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n F r a n c e  in B r i t a i n  was  largest  t o meet t h e  school  to  priest,  e d u c a t i o n a l u s e s of  secondary  1917.  1930  Popular  of  co-ordinators  in  from  t o c r e a t e a n e t w o r k of  m e d i a were d e s i g n e d  elementary  A  the  U n i v e r s i t y of  A i r ran  p u b l i s h e r s i n Colombia  Many o f broadcast  the  in Colombia.  used  the  of  since  In  Corporation  1980).  Accion  i n 1947  He  elementary  provided  School  parishioners.  1951,  Broadcasting  1983).  Salcedo,  services  to  began e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s  (Purdy,  Father  1978).  in isolated  & Scupham,  (Perraton,  BBC's s c h o o l  (Cathcart,  has  1932  The  The  in  1958 the  Midwest  programs from  an  to  7 airplane 1978).  circling Because  over  northern  television  met w i t h  community. in  (Cathcart,  was seen a s a  medium by many, use o f t h i s generally  Indiana  superficial  new t e c h n o l o g y  s c e p t i c i s m by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  As a r e s u l t  educational  e l e m e n t a r y and secondary  programming  schools  tended  u n d e r f u n d e d and u n d e r u t i l i z e d ( C a t h c a r t , Programming received.  for adults  tended  University  for adults  the f i r s t  first  non-commercial  in Houston; broadcasts  educational  station,  broadcasts; the  which  began  Semester which running  a program c a l l e d  a print  TEVEC was d e s i g n e d  grade e q u i v a l e n c y resources  TEVEC.  This  and t o t e a c h social  were  discussion  to enable adults  to effect  government  programs which  component and l o c a l  began  on CBS t o d a y  I n t h e 1960's the. p r o v i n c i a l  i n v o l v e d a s e r i e s of t e l e v i s i o n teamed w i t h  with  KUHT, on t h e a i r i n 1953  i n 1957 a n d i s s t i l l  i n Quebec d e v e l o p e d  1980).  t o be b e t t e r  television  i n 1956; a n d S u n r i s e  1983).  community  1978).  i n 1933 and c r e d i t e d  t h e C h i c a g o TV C o l l e g e  broadcasting  ninth  t o be  a r e the o f f e r i n g s of t h e  Of Iowa, b e g i n n i n g  being  groups.  f o r use  Among t h e e x a m p l e s o f t h e e a r l i e s t  programming  (Purdy,  was  to obtain  them how t o u s e change  (Perraton,  P r o g r a m s s u c h a s TEVEC w h i c h u s e d a v a r i e t y o f  components t e n d e d  t o be more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n  d e p e n d e d on t e l e v i s i o n  alone  (Perraton,  those  1983).  that  8 Cathcart educational potential seen  as  (1978) commented  b r o a d c a s t e r s had  of t e l e v i s i o n  just  one  w h i c h s h o u l d be Educators  also  design  was  placed  on  and  used  (Sewart,  the  1970's  approach  and  of  although  was one  media.  instructional  t o be more  institutions  for  tended  who  w h i c h were  to take  a  emphasis support  in a variety  was  involved  in  multi-media of a v e n u e s  through  experiencing d i f f i c u l t y  the  first  institutions was  Britain's  i n 1971.  I t now  and  enrolls  (1983) has  i n that  Open  could  over  described similar  of N e b r a s k a  university In  midwestern  1974  SUN  courses  In  known as  degree  1983).  1971  which the  began t o p r o v i d e  using t e l e v i s i o n ,  became p a r t  universities  largest  institutions  State University  (SUN)  students  (Waters,  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  two  enrolling,  80,000  i s the  country  these  University  w h i c h be.gan  t h e U n i t e d Kingdom and  institution  to take  were e s t a b l i s h e d  print.  It  f o r e d u c a t i o n and  t h e r e needed  c r e a t e d i n 1969  throughout  distance  the  1983).  i n t o account  w h i c h was  Purdy  to assess  !  support.  One  granting  1970'S  i n conjunction with other  to b u i l d  which a student  students  the  the needs o f d i s t a n c e l e a r n e r s  education  factors  by  more r e a l i s t i c a l l y .  became aware t h a t  distance  receive  begun  medium a v a i l a b l e  important,  advice In  that  radio  of a c o n s o r t i u m  of  the U n i v e r s i t y  of  and  Mid  9 America  (UMA)  .  The  courses  which are  UMA  develops distance  o f f e r e d by  the  Miami Dade Community C o l l e g e Community C o l l e g e distance  programs a r e  Educational  Research  to  in  1974.  broadcast  Institute  of  B.C.  use  U n i v e r s i t y of  consortium has  of  11  nations  been d e l i v e r i n g  Satellites deliver  agriculture,  vast,  provide could  not  travel  provincial  education to schools  correspondence courses at  the  service 1929  elementary was  (ERIBC,  systems  that  programs  since  The  education  a  area 1974. to  with (ERIBC,  1982).  Columbia.  Much of  i s s c a t t e r e d , throughout rural  areas.  s e r v i c e s to was  The  recognized in  level  1919  (ERIBC,  secondary first  by  to  who the  when students  1982).  school  The  students  opportunities  in a distance  need  students  were made a v a i l a b l e t o  expanded t o  post-secondary  has  Pacific  Education  school  1982).  (ERIBC)  southern  in B r i t i s h  undeveloped  M i n i s t r y of  The  s u c c e s s f u l l y in India  Columbia's p o p u l a t i o n  distance  and  South P a c i f i c ,  family planning  education  relatively  the  programming d e a l i n g  h e a l t h and  Distance British  educational  have been u s e d  educational  education  i n the  radio  via satellite.  distance  The  Coast  provide  educational  r e v i e w e d a number of satellites.  and  began  opportunities  In a number of c o u n t r i e s television  institutions.  in Florida  in C a l i f o r n i a  education  member  education-  in  for  education  format  10 were o f f e r e d by 1949  through  (ERIBC, of  the Guided  1982).  television  1960's and The the  The  university  via local  early  1970's  for people 1982).  (Rosen,  Further  Study Course education and  i n the  1984).  1962  called  a t t e n t i o n to  opportunities in  higher>education  The  institutions-  courses  Victoria of  Independent  first  distance  a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y i n  t h e U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a  offering  Directed  (DISC) Program o f f e r e d t h e  distance education  Extension  courses  the  areas  t h e U n i v e r s i t y of  colleges.  uses  late  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y as w e l l as a number  t w o - y e a r community  in  division  in outlying geographical  were e s t a b l i s h e d i n c l u d i n g and  Study  cable channels  of  Columbia  began e x p e r i m e n t a l  f o r more p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  province  British  Independent  Macdonald Report  need  (ERIBC,  the U n i v e r s i t y of  1975  Division  i n 1982  began  (Yerbury,  1985). In  1976  framework would ones  the p r o v i n c e  (ERIBC,  institutions department  1982).  institutions  Today most  i n the p r o v i n c e  which p r o v i d e s  at a d i s t a n c e .  to distance education Institute  the  f o r a s y s t e m of d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n  involve existing  students  began t o d e v e l o p  ( O L I ) , was  and  which  c r e a t e some  post-secondary  have an  outreach  e d u c a t i o n a l programs One  new  institution,  to  c a t e r i n g only  students,  The  Open  Learning  f o u n d e d by  the  provincial Ministry  11 of  Education  university, mainly  i n 1978 technical  through  To  (ERIBC, and  these  Knowledge Network was Education  i n 1980  satellite  broadcast  interest In to  are  1984  co-ordinate  aired.  the  and  distance  One  of  the  that u n i v e r s i t y  and  d i s t a n c e study  (Yerbury,  education  r o l e s of  can  was  formed  distance  provincial and  the  the consortium through  combined  to  from the Open  of d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n .  form Learning  programs which d i s t i n g u i s h  learner  separated;  there  available  According  six characteristics  These a r e :  institution  be  nature.  1985).  programs.  an  other  general  c r e d i t s , earned  traditional  by  of  educational  Institute  degree  (1980) t h e r e a r e  are  a variety  It includes a l l three  b a s i s of a u n i v e r s i t y  Keegan  universities,  It a l s o provides  t h e Open L e a r n i n g  a  televised  provincial  of a b r o a d l y  Characteristics to  which the  promote u n i v e r s i t y - l e v e l  courses.  to ensure  Institute  t h e M i n i s t r y of  It operates  over  o f f e r e d by  Knowledge Network.  classroom  1982).  channel  courses  the  t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y C o n s o r t i u m  universities,  is  e s t a b l i s h e d by  programming  education  programs  t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y and  institutions  provides  materials.  outreach  (ERIBC,  segments of c o u r s e s  It  adult basic education  correspondence  facilitate  colleges,  1982).  the  teacher  i s a curriculum t o the  of them  from  and organized  l e a r n e r which  i s not  1 2 the  c a s e when t h e l e a r n e r  private  learning;  television  unite  interactive  is> i n v o l v e d  t e c h n i c a l media the teacher  communication  of  educational  most p a r t there can mass  technology;  and l e a r n e r ;  be m a n u f a c t u r e d  there i s  learner  education  and  teacher  from o t h e r  students are taught  as i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r  i s an i n d u s t r i a l  such as p r i n t or  between  which d i s t i n g u i s h e s d i s t a n c e  in informal  aspect  in large  than  forms  f o r the  i n groups; and  i n that  course  components  numbers and p r o v i d e d  to a  audience. Keegan  (1982) c l a s s i f i e d  programs u s i n g  four  model t h e l e a r n e r  categories.  with the i n s t i t u t i o n .  offers  a wide r a n g e o f m e d i a ,  involves  interaction.  entirely  upon  postal  The m u l t i - m e d i a  system  including  i n some  The c o n s u l t a t i v e  cases,  model  a t t e n d a n c e a t s e m i n a r s a s w e l l , a s t h e u s e of.  self-instructional  materials  integrated  model d i s t a n c e  same s t a f f  and f o l l o w  are  c o u r s e s on campus.  taking  Holmberg education  education  In the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  depends a l m o s t  contact  face-to-face  distance  With the  are taught  these aspects of  the courses are normally  designed  the  i n s t r u c t o r and s t u d e n t  are separated  is crucial  distance  since  effective  to student  who  media-based  t o be l a r g e l y s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l ;  design  by t h e  t h e same s c h e d u l e a s l e a r n e r s  and  instructional  learners  (1981) o u t l i n e d  courses:  a t home.  success;  13 ideally  there  planning would  be s y s t e m a t i c  groups;  course;  g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s ;  determining  developing  administrative  supports;  for interaction  student;  producing  used  between  communications media; i n s t r u c t o r and  m a t e r i a l s ; e v a l u a t i n g the  t h e above a s r e q u i r e d .  between  traditional  and d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n  much o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n between  and  the student.  radio  occurs  and summer  Keegan in  through  or t e l e v i s i o n  seminars  most  involve  noted  audio,  the print  media,  b r o a d c a s t i n g and 10% schools  i n the programs t o meet.  10% t h r o u g h through  (Keegan, 1 9 8 3 ) .  that p r i n t  i s the primary  programs a l t h o u g h  media  used  many  also  v i d e o , c o m p u t e r s and k i t s .  media  i n c l u d e s books, manuals and c o u r s e s  v i a the newspaper.  cassettes  i s used  i n B r i t a i n , a b o u t 80.% o f t h e  distance education  Print offered  the i n s t r u c t o r  some o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s  t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y  teaching  media  methods o f  a s w e l l and many d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n  do p r o v i d e At  Of c o u r s e  One o f t h e  i s t h e u s e o f media  for  classroom  analysing  and s t r u c t u r e of  i n distance education.  major d i f f e r e n c e s education  choosing  the course  and r e v i s i n g  Media  the content  This  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  planning  course;  step-by—step  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l m e a s u r e s .  include defining  target the  should  and t e l e p h o n e  Audio  includes radio,  conferencing.  Video  audio  includes  1 4 television  broadcasts,  c a s s e t t e s and, extent,  although  television, used  to a  lesser  v i d e o d i s c , v i d e o t e x t and  slow  scan  television.  television  involves  the  use  assisted  instruction  increasing. samples,  of  they  video  are  Educational  or  cable  and  radio broadcasting  satellite.  games a r e  sent  special  to the  They p r o v i d e that  opportunity  an  role  or  listening,  f o r feedback  between  instructor  and  they  and  returned with  increasingly  assignment  However t h e  important  beyond . provide  the  telephone  (Perraton,  assignments  advice  through  an  communication  i s b a s e d on  c o n s i s t s of w r i t t e n comments and  1981).  models  active  instructor  most o f  student  for  w h i c h go  and  the  include  in distance  from t h e  In d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n and  programs i s  slides,  opportunity  1983).  (Holmberg,  computer  students.  is for a c t i v i t i e s  reading, watching  of  w h i c h may  equipment,  Assignments play a dual education.  use  in distance education  In some p r o g r a m s k i t s  specimens,  learning,,  The  often  attached  the  to  mail  i s becoming  in instructor-student  communication. Strengths  and  w e a k n e s s e s of d i s t a n c e  education.  T h e r e a r e a number of a d v a n t a g e s t o d i s t a n c e For  students  institution gain  who  cannot  i t provides  credits.  A student  a t t e n d an an  educational  opportunity  can  study  education.  at  to l e a r n the  and  location,  to  15 time  and  course  pace which  content  i s presented  planning  usually  delivery  structure.;  access  to top  i s most c o n v e n i e n t .  goes  the c o u r s e  subject s p e c i a l i s t s  through  print,  tapes  o t h e r media  and  television  (Holmberg,  to understand  until  a s s i g n m e n t s a r e marked and  process  w h i c h may  distance  learning  opportunity  procedure.  take  and  others w i l l  delivery  testing  miss the  not  redirected  be  r e t u r n e d by  be  Although  their  most  an instructors  i n t i m i d a t e d by  are accustomed ideas  mail, a  this  to  in conversation  with  p r o v i d e d , in. groups.  1982).  characteristics  also  programs.  students,  a d u l t s with  conflict  arise  of t h o s e  education  with  b e c a u s e of  to l e a r n i n g  lack  confidence  the  most  likely  to choose d i s t a n c e  Many a r e  likely  t o be  f a m i l y and  t h e demands of  returning both  student  to telephone  feedback  audio  When a  systems p r o v i d e  their  t o have  1981).  may  some s t u d e n t s may  Difficulties  may  and  educators  s e v e r a l weeks.  I n d i v i d u a l s who  developing  (Sewart,  m a t e r i a l he  for students  with questions  design  programs,  There are a l s o disadvantages. fails  the  media c o n s i d e r a b l e  i t i s p o s s i b l e for students  available and  into  through  Because  after and  part-time  j o b commitments study.  They may  a number of y e a r s and  study  skills  (Sewart,  which be may  1983).  16  Drop-out It their  can  be  success  complete  assumed  most e d u c a t o r s  i n t e r m s of t h e number of  a course  mastery.  that  with a r e l a t i v e l y  Beyond t h a t  they  w i l l measure  students  high l e v e l  would p r o b a b l y  who  of  like  to  some e x p r e s s i o n of p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n  on  their  learning  students.  Finally  become an  important  students'  lives.  significantly to  and  large  t h e needs of t h e i r  drop-out States  of  their  on  f o r undergraduate  s t u d e n t s who be  expected  Of  these  & Creedon,  enrolled  1978).  institutions  and  obtain their  which  S i x out  related  complete  of e v e r y  ten  could  from  the  in other  there.  (1978) i d e n t i f i e d  to student  who  f o u r - y e a r program.  o t h e r s would e n r o l  Creedon  United  or u n i v e r s i t y  degrees  if  an  students  would e v e n t u a l l y graduate two  factors  i n the  f a i l e d to  during their  and  want  of r e s e a r c h on  3 0 % , of, t h e  degrees  same c o l l e g e  P a n t a g e s and  will  in  met.  A review  in a college  to drop-out  s i x , one  of c o u r s e s  programs to determine  universities  average,  to  their  t o d e c i d e what c o n s t i t u t e s  i n c o l l e g e s and  (Pantages  out  students are being  of d r o p - o u t .  showed t h a t  enrolled them  level  c o n t i n u i n g p a r t of  t h e p a r t of  numbers, most e d u c a t o r s  is difficult  acceptable  like  When s t u d e n t s d r o p  examine t h e d e s i g n  It  t h e y would  see  drop-out.  a number High  of  school  17 grade p o i n t at  college  average or  is highly  university.  Inability  unrewarding experiences with clear  educational  habits  and  or  financial  c o r r e l a t e d with  the  vocational  to  success  persevere,  peer  group,  lack  goals,  poor  study  p r o b l e m s were a l s o  related  of  to  drop-out. In  his  review  (1975) a r g u e d explained student  by  that  the  literature  drop-out  examining  i n t o the  college.  of  the  social  Academic  and  could level  be of  academic  development, p e r c e p t i o n  for  and  contacts and  with  career  informal  activities,  peer  i n t e r a c t i o n s with  Tinto who  Social  found t h a t  leave  as  overall  a r e s u l t of t o be  development some s t u d i e s  may  not  forced  informal intellectual extra and  faculty. dropped-out,  opposed  to being  that  forced  performance,  and  persisted.  is to  tended  intellectual He  suggests  that  have d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between  voluntary  and  w h i c h may  have a f f e c t e d t h e  f o u n d between t h e  f a c u l t y concern  group r e l a t i o n s h i p s  aptitude  t h a n t h o s e who  of  integration involved  poor academic  of h i g h e r  of  the  grades,  academic,  s t u d e n t s who  w i t h d r e w v o l u n t a r i l y as  Tinto  easily  systems  d e v e l o p m e n t , and  f a c u l t y concerning  matters.  curricular  most  integration involved  student  drop-out  i n t e g r a t i o n of  intellectual teaching  on  withdrawal high  of  students,  negative  measured a b i l i t y  of  a  fact  correlations  students  and  18 drop-out. on  P a s c a r e l l a and T e r e n z i n i  T i n t o ' s research with  students  would p e r s i s t  a study  i n t o one s y s t e m  integration  into  this  social  gathered  may  system.  result  to students.  together  at a c e n t r a l  as a r e s u l t  are  or n o n - e x i s t e n t ,  agreed  students  t o average about  i n the course  system which  i s related  courses  The  drop-out  i n the past  for educators. 50% (Graham,  subject  the design  has been  It i s generally  1984) a l t h o u g h  i n the r a t e of a t t r i t i o n  be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  who e n r o l ,  In  u s u a l l y must do  i n d i s t a n c e education..  t h e r e a r e wide v a r i a t i o n s  the  integration.  activities.  of f r u s t r a t i o n  w h i c h may  social  students are  t h e r e may be  who a r e e n r o l l e d  i n distance education  a source  voluntary  the importance of  location  of a s o c i a l  educational  Drop-out rate  others  the support  to t h e i r  involving  p r o g r a m s where o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  with  without  t o o much  d i s m i s s a l but  Even when  of poor  interaction limited  Of c o u r s e  research confirms  education  that  high  i n academic  system  difficulty distance  Such  found  i f t h e r e was  i s n o t t h e same a s d r o p - o u t  withdrawal. the  the other  interaction  which  even when t h e r e was p o o r  integration  social  (1979) f o l l o w e d up  of t h o s e  o f t h e p r o g r a m and t h e n a t u r e o f  matter.  M c K e n z i e and C h r i s t e n s e n correspondence  schools with  (1971) d e s c r i b e d p r i v a t e  a drop-out  r a t e of 70% i n  19 the  United  note  that  entirely  S t a t e s and up t o 90% that  The About  per  w i t h the o n l y  occurring  by  Open U n i v e r s i t y  a degree  should  were  form of  letter.  has  been  55% o f t h e s t u d e n t s who  complete  One  these correspondence schools  print-based  communication  i n Japan.  (Keegan,  much more  enrol  1980).  course averages around  21%  successful.  are expected to The  drop-out  (Kennedy  rate  & Powell,  1976). The  NKI  S c h o o l i n Norway w h i c h  and v o c a t i o n a l of  d e g r e e s has  the c o n t i n g e n t  84.8% half  of s t u d e n t s who  had d i s c o n t i n u e d years,  were s t i l l The  12.2% active  load  (Rekkedal,  responsibilities. complete  their  Calculating the  drop-out  difficult to the  their  on. c o u r s e  two  Almost year  drop-out  who  50%  two  and  program,  and  a 3.0%  performance.  (Millard, rates.  The  students f a i l  Comparisons institutions  rate  to  1982). between  are  o f methods a r e  correspondence  S t a t e s based t h e i r  fairly  has o t h e r  of t h e i r  rates at d i f f e r e n t  drop-out.  i n 1972-73,  courses a year, a  t o make s i n c e a v a r i e t y  calculate United  enrolled  out  1983).  individual  first  show t h a t  (Distance University) i n  not g i v e ^ d a t a  f o r an  which  studies after  had c o m p l e t e d  S t u d e n t s must c o m p l e t e heavy  their  Fernuniversitat  Germany d o e s  figures  provides technical  used  schools in  on t h e number of  20 s t u d e n t s who At  registered  o f two  and  a half  course before they They have an  the  A study  fail of  University  their  i n Open begin  w h i c h means  have a p p e a r e d  that i n the  Parlett  in Alberta  uses  t h e term  drop-out Their  register. those  (1983) n o t e d  and  "wastage"  those  wastage r a t e  T h i s drops  s t u d e n t s who  that  who i s 71%  t o 42%  i f the  submitted  the  assignment. The  Open L e a r n i n g I n s t i t u t e  quoted  a 32%  1982.  This figure  completed 1983).  wastage r a t e  their  The  completed who  listed  not.  courses.  t o be  can  register,  o f t h o s e who  otherwise  t h o s e who  s t u d e n t s who  i s taken  first  both  25%  first  1980).  finally  officially  registration  might do  are  trial  their  (Keegan,  b e f o r e they  by Woodley and  to pass  base  who  includes  the  register  About  their  statistics  Athabasca  and  statistics.  some o f t h o s e  which  level  tuition  to complete  drop-out  course.  o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e c i d e whether t h e y  full  University  a  students are given a  months t o t r y out  finally  manage t h e a c a d e m i c  fail  d i d not complete  t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y  period  pay  but  i s based  first  argument  the  first  have r e g i s t e r e d  Instead  they  find  f o r the  in British  summer s e m e s t e r  o n l y on  assignment  those  i s that  for a course  never  of  students  (Woodley &  f o r u s i n g o n l y those assignment  Columbia  Parlett,  students  often  who  who  students  actually  other c o u r s e s which are b e t t e r  begin. suited  21 to  their  than be  requirements  learning  argued  committment early  on.  getting  usually  their  seek  refunds  Baath  pay  no  way  but  t o do  because  student  the course  who and  who  some  fail  their  (1982) n o t e s  that  strategies  started  s h o u l d be  never  send they  in their  For  registered receive a  motivation  case  whether  i s something  students  the  who  mark was  activities  study  failed  who  assignments  other  the purposes  final  aimed a t  there i s  first  found  about  but  to  incorporated into  In any  have  also  initial  lost  so b e c a u s e there  f e e s and  other  i t can  but  of d e t e r m i n i n g  who  However  began w i t h  t o the c o u r s e  w h i c h d i s c o u r a g e s them. any  time.  e d u c a t i o n programs.  register  or  they choose a c t i v i t i e s  s t u d e n t s who  students  distance  fail  to f i l l  that  w i t h d r a w and  or  situation  of t h i s to  study  complete  deemed a  drop-out. C a u s e s of d r o p - o u t  in distance education.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s aimed a t p i n p o i n t i n g drop-out  have  identified  deter  students  about  isolation  occur  regularly. The  third or  and  m a j o r i t y of  year  domestic  complete  from  completing lack  factors  courses.  of  which  Complaints  of c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r  s t u d e n t s who  math c o u r s e  of a  a t t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y  gave  the  dropped  students  out  p r e s s u r e s as  the course  a number of  the causes  reason  for f a i l i n g  (Phythian & Clements,  1983).  to  job  22  However  a free  indicated  response  section  t h e r e were a d d i t i o n a l  w h i c h was n o t a n a l y s e d reasons  Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t difficult their  t o d e a l w i t h a sense  own.  students  They commented  in their  part-time  study  complained level  course.  reasons multiple  after  their  about  they  found i t  o f b e i n g a l o n e and on  on t h e l a c k  of o t h e r  a r e a who were t a k i n g  Some m e n t i o n e d t h a t  i n many c a s e s .  the course.  three to five  energy  level  years of  had waned.  the i n c r e a s e d d i f f i c u l t y  The a u t h o r s  f o r dropping  suggested  out a r e u s u a l l y  accurately  p o r t r a y the reasons  of the t h i r d  that  because the  fairly  c h o i c e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may o f t e n  Others  complex,  f a i l to  for failing  to continue  with a course. At  t h e NKI S c h o o l  questionnaire lack  of time  primary  i n Norway, a p r e l i m i n a r y  indicated  that  due t o f a m i l y  reasons  external  factors  or j o b requirements  f o r dropping  out.  study  related  w,er.e,„the  However more  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s s u g g e s t e d usually  such as  problems as w e l l  that  probing  t h e r e were  (Rekkedal,  1983). In Britain,  another  of d i s t a n c e education students i n  problems c i t e d  difficulty their  study  were i n a d e q u a t e  with the m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y  courses, i s o l a t i o n ,  anxiety  lack  time, p e r s p e c t i v e s of  o f m o t i v a t i o n and  and u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g t h e i r  learning  23 abilities  (Brookfield,  Woodley and drop-out  him  Push  the  that  has  been  family;  the c o u r s e course other  finding tutor;  and  s t u d e n t s was noted  a  need  wanting  of  to  for a finish  spouse.  difficult;  the a v a i l a b i l i t y where  in  Pull  t o s p e n d more t i m e  situation  pull  strong interest  encouraging  the course  in a classroom  They  i n c l u d e the  i n c l u d e wanting  course  towards h i s g o a l or  started;  o r an  that  of  between a number  to get a promotion;  subject matter; would  student  review  suggested  balance  f a c t o r s might  in order  factors  (1983) i n t h e i r  the  w h i c h push t h e  something the  depends on  away.  degree  Parlett  i n t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y  completion factors  19&2K  with  dislike  of a  of  similar  interaction  with  possible.  in their  review:  What t h e u n i v e r s i t y seems t o r e q u i r e i s a s e t of i n i t i a t i v e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l y c h e a p , p r a c t i c a l and h u m a n i t a r i a n and w h i c h a r e a i m e d a t i m p r o v i n g t h e r a t i o of " p u s h " t o " p u l l " factors for i t s students. (p.23) Many o f distance are  the  c o n t r i b u t e to drop-out affect  i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l  t h e r e a r e major  differences.  i s usually  an  adult  part-time  b a s i s and  w h i c h may  take p r i o r i t y  involved  that  e d u c a t i o n programs a l s o  learning  student  factors  who  setting.  who  However  A distance education who  i s s t u d y i n g on  o f t e n has over  students  other  study.  A  in earning educational c r e d i t s  a  committments student through  who  is  in  24  classroom learner There  education  i s more l i k e l y  whose p r i m a r y  is little  change t h i s between  that  and  education classes  the  situation.  students  location  occupation  those  in l i f e  d i s t a n c e educator  are  social  usually  not.  who  study  setting.  that t h i s  students  who  do  opportunities non-existent students.  who  i s an  are  will  area  case.  home,  students' met  research However  have  which are  often  for distance  w h i c h can  developing  at  a l w a y s be  (1975)  institution  limited  attend  mean t h a t t h e  always the  a t t e n d an  or v e r y  to  other  independently  Tinto's  for a f f i l i a t i o n  This  educators  not  who  t o meet  needs f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n  suggests  do  central  Students  opportunity  T h i s does not  classroom  can  involved in distance  system.  u s u a l l y have an Students  the  is learning.  Another major d i f f e r e n c e  who  students.  in  full-time  l e a r n i n g i n a group at a  i s the  do  t o be  be  distance  education  addressed  by  education  programs. Preventing researchers at with  their  drop-out  t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y may  completion  among t h e most  in distance education.  rate,  key  with  to such  be  institution  successful in limiting  number of d i s t a n c e e d u c a t o r s students  this  not  satisfied has  drop-out.  been A  b e l i e v e that p r o v i d i n g  opportunities for interaction  success  While  (Daniel & Marquis,  1980;  may  be  one  Keegan,  25 '1980). the  The Open U n i v e r s i t y  total  designed be  budget  on s t u d e n t  t h e o p e r a t i o n o f some  where s t u d e n t s  every  S i r Walter  As w e l l ,  t o know e a c h o t h e r  experiences  study  (Perry,  centres  i n d i v i d u a l l y or  week-long universities than  l a b o r a t o r i e s and  the f i r s t v i c e - c h a n c e l l o r  noted  i s t h a t t h e summer  may  These s e r v i c e s  250 l o c a l  as l i b r a r i e s ,  t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y ,  benefit  1975).  the t u t o r  Perry,  which  students  Summer s c h o o l p r o v i d e s more  b e n e f i t s such  tutoring.  of i s o l a t i o n  sessions are held at local  summer.  academic  get  c a n meet w i t h  s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n .  residential  of  & Scupham,  a q u a r t e r of  s e r v i c e s which a r e  by d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n  (MacKenzie, P o s t g a t e ,  in  support  t o combat t h e f e e l i n g s  experienced  include  spends r o u g h l y  that perhaps the g r e a t e s t  schools enable  students to  and t o e x c h a n g e v i e w s and  1975).  In t h e f u t u r e t h e amount o f f a c e - t o - f a c e t u t o r i a l support  available  University  t o an i n d i v i d u a l  i s expected  to decrease.  pointed-out  that  on  o n l y two s t u d e n t s  average,  too c o s t l y study  c e n t r e might case. has  i n post  foundation  to provide a tutor  centre.  In t h e l e s s  this  courses  (1983) t h e r e were,  centre.  f o r each course areas  f o r easy  problem  been p r o v i d i n g t u t o r i a l  a t t h e Open  Sewart  per study  settled  be t o o f a r away  To d e a l w i t h  student  support  a t each  the study  access  t h e Open  I t was  i n any  University  by t e l e p h o n e  on a  26 o n e - t o - o n e b a s i s and (Robinson, and  the  s e s s i o n s are  Open U n i v e r s i t y  education  institution  p r o v i d i n g support  has  student  (Orton,  with  1978).  telephone  conference  calls  study  the  telephone  as a means  Since  the  problems v i a the both  calls  1972  with  the  and  Although  the  students  they  were d i s c o n t i n u e d b e c a u s e of t h e e x p e n s e . to  t h e c o s t of a t e l e p h o n e  students  with  distance  charges  the  telephone,  students roughly used and  the  s i n c e the  listening  universities  spent  the q u e s t i o n s  Graham. ( 1 984.)  ;  and  In  a g r o u p of  of  appears  t o be  Another declining students support noted  lower  reported that  tutorial t o form  t o t h e p r o b l e m of  support  has  independent  each o t h e r  that negative  (Whitlock,  been t o  study  education used.  isolation  and  encourage  g r o u p s and  1975).  have  programs  when t e l e c o n f e r e n c i n g i s  solution  on  other  c o l l e g e s i n Canada  rate in distance  long  more t i m e  teleconferencing in distance education t h a t the a t t r i t i o n  addition  t h e r e were h i g h e r  students  as  wer.e d i s c u s s e d . 30  bridge to l i n k  intructor,  in Ontario  telephone  individual  were u s e d .  were p o p u l a r  centres  the o n l y d i s t a n c e  of Queen's U n i v e r s i t y  Originally  conference  at the  to students.  branch  calls  optional.  i s not  t o use  correspondence dealt  conference  Both t u t o r i a l s  telephone  The  of  1981).  through  Bailey  to (1983)  f e e l i n g s which are o f t e n a  prelude  27  to  dropping  be  expressed  such  out  in a distance learning situation,  or a s s u a g e d  independent  a s s i g n m e n t s and contacted  study  i n such  g r o u p s were a b l e  examination  each other  groups.  outcomes.  o u t s i d e of  Students  in  to d i s c u s s They  these  may  often  meetings  to  d i s c u s s course m a t e r i a l . S e l f - h e l p g r o u p s a r e a l s o u s e d a t U n i v e r s i t y of New  England  course,  a list  student. are-led area  in A u s t r a l i a .  by  graduates  Although available isolated  for  the  Need  t h e r e appear  evaluated  benefit.  students  for  the  i s sent  local  t o be  effect  of  no  they  studies groups i s  educators  where s u c h  who  groups e x i s t e d  They p r o v i d e d , an  choose t h i s  opportunity  others.  i t i s the t o them  only  educational  (Holmberg,  1981).  i n a more i n t e r a c t i v e  p r o g r a m s show t h a t  form of  p r e f e r t o work i n d e p e n d e n t l y ,  learn  in that  Affiliation  available to  a  each  living  formal  statistically,  to a f f i l i a t e with  many s t u d e n t s  because  to  self-help  S t u d i e s of d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n while  of  d i s c u s s i o n groups  university  involved in courses  them of  beginning  1978).  i n which the and  have been  of  the  students  Where p o s s i b l e t h e  (Mills,  found  of n e a r b y  At  study  others  because  enroll  simply  opportunity They m i g h t p r e f e r  situation  but  they  do  28 not  have  that  option.  A personality differentiate study of  and  other  between  t h o s e who  by H e n r y  t h e s e was Murray  with  was  In  1938  originally as a  Murray  twenty b a s i c  measured  test,  conceived  hierarchy  published  human n e e d s .  a One  need  for  affiliation  the Thematic A p p e r c e p t i o n  Test  r e s e a r c h e r s have d e v e l o p e d  personality  more r e l i a b l e  s t u d y i n t h e company  for a f f i l i a t i o n .  More r e c e n t l y  self-report  independent  p s y c h o g e n i c needs o r m o t i v e s  1978).  originally  a projective  (TAT).  rather  viewed p e r s o n a l i t y  included  need  prefer  be u s e d t o  for a f f i l i a t i o n " .  of b a s i c  & Birch,  taxonomy w h i c h  a  who  configuration  of  would  This construct  Murray  (Atkinson  which might  t h o s e who  p e o p l e i s "need  Origins.  or  construct  scales  which appear t o p r o v i d e  measure o f t h i s  construct  (Clarke,  1973). Measuring variety  of  affiliation Form was 1973). strong  need  A review of a  i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h measure need f o r indicated  Jackson's Personality  among t h e most a c c u r a t e Clarke  reported  relationship  and  b e h a v i o r s which  and  need  between  for a f f i l i a t i o n .  that  between  the s c a l e  1978;  Clarke,  t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be a high  indicated  f o r achievement.  (Hogan,  Research  The  and v a r i o u s  s c o r e s on t h e  h i g h need  for a f f i l i a t i o n  correlation behavioral  scales  coefficients  ratings  ranged  29 from  of  +0.40 t o +0.80  (Jackson-,  The  who r e c e i v e s a h i g h  need  individual  for affiliation  who " e n j o y s accepts  being  people  friendships (Jackson,  makes e f f o r t s  high  score  with  behaviors  person  in general;  t o win  a s s o c i a t i o n s with  t o need  people"  for affiliation.  a r e not a great  this  on a t e s t  p.6).  relating  there  examining  f r i e n d s and p e o p l e  and m a i n t a i n  1974,  score  h a s been d e s c r i b e d a s a  readily,  Research Although  with  197*4-) .  construct,  on a need  number  of s t u d i e s  r e s e a r c h does  for affiliation  d i r e c t e d towards  i n d i c a t e that a  scale correlates  interaction  with  other  people. In one s t u d y were  found  subjects high  for  1959).  potentially  were more l i k e l y  divisive  same g r o u p t a s k was p o s i t i v e l y conversations  comments  (Exline,  c o r r e l a t e d with and l e t t e r s  who a r e h i g h  (Lansing &  o f a number i n need  making  working  on t h e  Need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n t h e number o f  instigated  by an  individual  1983).  for affiliation  results  to avoid  t o others  1962).  (McAdams & C o n s t a n t i a n ,  The  work a s s o c i a t e s  M a l e s a n d f e m a l e s who were h i g h , i n need  affiliation  Need  for affiliation  t o make more n o n - b u s i n e s s phone c a l l s and  communicated more o f t e n w i t h Henes,  i n need  in educational settings.  of s t u d i e s suggest  foraffiliation  that  perform  people  b e t t e r and  are  happier  in educational settings  opportunities One French  of  and  the e a r l i e s t Chadwick  affiliation in  need  for' personal  was  for a f f i l i a t i o n  McKeachie  (1961) n o t e d  scores  college  do  on  correlate  correlations that  s t u d i e s was found  were f o u n d  exams and  useful  0.5.  to f i n d  including  need  significant He  also  in  need  classes  that factors  used  such  suggested  such  with  as  i n some  education.  need f o r  particular  teaching  some s t u d e n t s  s t u d i e s he  for a f f i l i a t i o n  obtained  b e t t e r grades  instructors  p r o v i d e d many  i n which the  Cues  students  by  in students.  for a f f i l i a t i o n  the c l a s s e s with  found  than  In a g r o u p of  the  grades  predictive  in higher  t o examine why  calling  in  success,  would a c c o u n t  for success  cues.  need  school  differences  affiliative  interest  high  In h i s o p i n i o n i n d i v i d u a l  measure  be  as  variance in  methods a r e more e f f e c t i v e others.  data  remaining  for a f f i l i a t i o n  suggested  affiliation  such  other  high  more.  McKeachie  m e a s u r e s w h i c h would e x p l a i n t h e grades.  were  to learn  that although  seldom e x c e e d  by  t h a t when  very h i g h l y with c o l l e g e  i t would be  college  undertaken  g i v e n , s u b j e c t s who  entrance  are  interaction.  (1956) who  feedback  i n which t h e r e  i n c l u d e d such name and  t h a t men  high  in  behaviors  as  taking a personal  Women whether h i g h or r e c e i v e d b e t t e r grades  i n s t r u c t o r s who  low  in  relatively  gave many  31 affiliation highest need  cues.  number o f a f f i l i a t i o n  for a f f i l i a t i o n  who were r a t e d he  In t h e course which p r o v i d e d the  received might  from  other  he f o u n d  for a f f i l i a t i o n .  area  f o r study.  men h i g h  made r e l a t i v e l y  better  grades  by  of a f f i l i a t i o n  need  f o ra f f i l i a t i o n  low  in affiliation  not  consistent  1966). which in  suggests  need  cues.  that  cues,  findings  a c h o i c e of independent  option  indicated  autonomy t h a n Although  these  affiliation group format  that  whereas men low i n better  in classes  f o r women were & Isaacson,  i n the e a r l i e r  t e n d t o do w e l l  rate  in situations  cues.  when s t u d e n t s were g i v e n  study,  l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n or the independent  a significantly  t h o s e who c h o s e  study  g r e a t e r need f o r  t h e o t h e r two o p t i o n s .  s t u d e n t s were n o t m e a s u r e d  noted as a b e n e f i t  study  that  who c h o s e  90% o f t h o s e  this  affiliation  women, r e g a r d l e s s o f how t h e y  (1973) f o u n d  only, those  cues  characterized  Lin, Milholland  where t h e r e a r e many a f f i l i a t i o n  lecture  for  in classes  The r e s u l t s  i n with  for a f f i l i a t i o n ,  Pascal  Although  In t h r e e o t h e r  i n need  didrelatively  (McKeachie,  This f i t s  students  s t u d e n t s , McKeachie notes  that  a high level  than  t h e v a l u e of t h e a f f i l i a t i o n  be a f r u i t f u l  studies  students high i n  were more s a t i s f i e d  low i n need  does n o t study  cues,  f o r need f o r  i n the l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n that  t h e group  discussion  a l l o w e d them an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r a c t  with  their  peers Chan  who  and  learning. followed need  i n need  situations  affiliation  in  instructor.  (1975) f o u n d  were h i g h  learning  the  that secondary for a f f i l i a t i o n  while  by  independent  a group l e a r n i n g  for a f f i l i a t i o n  improvement generated  i n the  than  Schneider  in  situations.  s c a l e s measuring both  in  need One  who for  low  the  i n need  was  students more  affiliation.  t h a t the  need f o r  for achievement"  with high lower  scores grades  f o r achievement  on than  but  low  affiliation.  study  (Lefcourt, Martin  affiliation  and  "need  possibility  that students  affiliation  may  be  &. Sal,eh,  between need f o r  f o r autonomy".  lower  19.84). showed,  who  This raises  are higher  i n need  f o r autonomy and  to study  a t home.  The  suggests  t h a t f o r some p e o p l e  evidence  opportunity  to  interact  educational  settings. i n need  with I t may  others be  will  may  the  i s important  assumed t h a t  for a f f i l i a t i o n  the  i n need f o r  it difficult  are high  high  hypotheses  for  "need  Students  correlation  who  situation  literary  needs o b t a i n e d  were h i g h  i n need f o r  independent  study  i n need  with  a high negative  find  for  (1977) f o u n d  conflicted  academic  low  showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  students & Green  students  p r e f e r r e d group  situation,  number of  affiliation  students  students  stated a preference When an  school  in  students  usually  be  33  able the  to satisfy instructor  expressive through  questions  limited  for form  other  factor  to individuals  students.  c a n make  learning  either  through  Such o p p o r t u n i t i e s and may be a drop o u t . learning opportunities  i n c r e a s e s these  As t h e demand  individuals  may  body a t e x i s t i n g  However components may need t o be added  to d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n  needs.  or  institutions.  a l a r g e p a r t of the s t u d e n t  choose  warm o r h i g h l y  who have n o t been a b l e t o  classes at existing  lifelong  Even when  ways t o i n t e r a c t ,  when s t u d e n t s  education  institutions.  for  find  in distance education  Distance available  will  to the i n s t r u c t o r  with  contributing  attend  i s not p e r c e i v e d as being  students  interactions are  t h a t need' in- t h e c l a s s r o o m .  learning  activities  Developing  interaction  c h a l l e n g e s ahead  programs which a l l o w w h i c h meet t h e i r  the r i g h t  mixture  and i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r educators.  students to individual  of o p p o r t u n i t i e s  is.one o f the  34  CHAPTER I I I OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY AND Objectives The  review  some l e a r n e r s .  individual allow  of t h e Study  of r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e  student-to-student  opportunities  HYPOTHESES  interaction  such  such  as B r i t i s h  Columbia  l e a r n e r s may be some d i s t a n c e a p a r t  students  t o communicate  that  would be b e n e f i c i a l t o  One means o f p r o v i d i n g i n an a r e a  indicated  with each other  where  i s to over the  telephone. The  o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s  determine  whether  opportunities telephone  students  to interact  and s e c o n d ,  personality associated  are f i r s t , to  can b e n e f i t with  from  each other v i a the  t o examine whether t h e  c o n s t r u c t need with  study  students  for affiliation is  who b e n e f i t  from  such  interaction. Hypotheses The are:  r e s e a r c h hypotheses  (1) t h e d r o p - o u t  s t a t e d i n the n u l l  r a t e would not d i f f e r  form  between a  g r o u p of s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d w i t h  opportunitiesfor  affiliation  and a g r o u p w h i c h was  not;  with  other  students  (2) m e a s u r e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n  between a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s  would n o t d i f f e r  provided with opportunities  for  affiliation  was  not;  (3)  with  other  t h e r e would  students  and a g r o u p  be no d i f f e r e n c e  i n the  performance of a group of s t u d e n t s  who  with  and a g r o u p  was  opportunities for a f f i l i a t i o n n o t ; and  affiliation drop-out,  (4) would  student  the p e r s o n a l i t y  were  provided which  c o n s t r u c t need f o r  n o t be c o r r e l a t e d satisfaction  which  with  or s t u d e n t  student achievement.  CHAPTER IV DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY Research  The  Subjects.  The 29 p a r t i c i p a n t s  were s t u d e n t s who were Island  Community  developmental  the  psychology.  group  results  registered  for- c r e d i t  instructor  i n telephone  of such  the study  Thirty-two  was w i l l i n g conferences  a treatment.  by f i l l i n g  students volunteered.  Data  calls.  members o f t h e c o n t r o l considered  Dr.  Data  texts.  or c o n t r o l  other  students.  t o Age S i x " , i n c l u d e d satellite  The Knowledge Network b r o a d c a s t s  Catchpole.  as. t h e y  were t h e r e f o r e  component c o n s i s t i n g  member  at the  i n the course (not  programs p r o v i d e d through  by t h e f a c u l t y  Michael  from  was  on two o f t h e  g r o u p ) and t h e y  "From C o n c e p t i o n  b r o a d c a s t s and a p r i n t  hosted  questionnaire.  i n the treatment  students  n o t t o be i s o l a t e d  course,  television  and  to volunteer  i n t h e c o n t r o l , g r o u p were, n o t u s e d  were a c q u a i n t e d w i t h o t h e r  The  was s e n t o u t  student  the treatment  selected  and t o c h e c k  a s s h e was n o t a v a i l a b l e  of the conference  students  Each  on one o f t h e s t u d e n t s  g r o u p were n o t u s e d time  North  to involve a  A letter  out the i n i t i a l  randomly a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r group.  in a  T h e s e s t u d e n t s were  with course m a t e r i a l s asking the students for  i n the study  College distance education course i n  because the course treatment  Design  i n charge  o f a manual were  of the c o u r s e ,  37  The  course  credit  B.C.  universities  also  be  as  l i c e n s e d day  a  u s e d as  enrolled careers obtain  i n the or  gain  and  part  feedback  on  The general  own  t o advance  Others child  credit  as  personal  of d i s t a n c e  learners  part-time  study  f o r a v a r i e t y of  from t h e  distance.learners  in t h i s  province  i n the  p r o g r a m s were b r o a d c a s t assumed t h a t most of  day-time All this  during  British  finished  their  undertaken  However  population i n two  from this  of  respects.  sample were f e m a l e and i n the  afternoon  students  since  i t could  would not  have  had  jobs. the  course  collect  the  the  the  reasons ranging  general  the  Dr.  students  used  obtain  in  advancement.  of  be  the  had  They had  All  and  i n many ways t o  education.  sample d i d d i f f e r  to  learning.  basic  to c a r e e r  wanted  a means t o  They were a d u l t s who  interest  simply  were  their  development  full-time  general  to gain a c c r e d i t a t i o n  in order  were s i m i l a r  population  could  Thus some s t u d e n t s  about  final  It  worker.  degrees.  students  Columbia.  of a p r o g r a m  course  their  t r a n s f e r a b l e to a l l  community c o l l e g e s .  care  information  a s s i g n m e n t s and  w o u l d be  distance  were e n c o u r a g e d  i f they the  education  three  Catchpole  students  to c a l l  their instructor  encountered problems with and  tried  a h a l f month t e r m . to telephone  e n r o l l e d in  their As  e a c h of h i s  studies  well students  around  the times  discuss  their  received  progress  about  from  discussed with  Students  their  format  treatment  also  time.  a s s i g n m e n t s and p r o g r e s s  The t r e a t m e n t  He  i n the course  calls  to include  Two  which  students  of t h e c a l l s  calls  lasting  f o r about  one c l u s t e r  calls.  100 m i l e s  not o n l y t o the students  telephone on F e b r u a r y  the course  each student  instructor  a t t h e same  according  T h e r e were f o u r  the students  who  lived  The  to region  clusters. lived  from  i n the.,  about  15  apart.  first  Catchpole  were  15 m i n u t e s .  t h e r e were two s t u d e n t s  Otherwise  other  i n the  Dr. Catchpole  t o three or four other  the conference  after  and  basis.  c o n s i s t e d of v a r y i n g  The s t u d e n t s were c l u s t e r e d  The Dr.  group r e c e i v e d  of the telephone  same c i t y . to  instructor.  on an i n d i v i d u a l  s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o t a l k  In  the  student  i n the c o n t r o l  g r o u p r e c e i v e d from  conference  for  Each  them.  students.  but  them.  from  the i n s t r u c t o r  Treatment. the  with  four c a l l s  Control. calls  t h a t m a j o r a s s i g n m e n t s were due t o  began.  to t e l l  her reasons  call  was  initiated  16, 1984, r o u g h l y Dr. Catchpole  the group a l i t t l e  f o r t a k i n g the c o u r s e .  discipline  i n t h e home, t h e t o p i c  broadcast,  and t a l k e d  by a  began by a s k i n g about They  of a r e c e n t  a b o u t whether  month  herself discussed course  the students  had  39 found of  t h e most  the c a l l  give  their  group.  A l l a g r e e d t o do t h i s .  close  In  coping  i f they wished t o  numbers  The c a l l  was f o l l o w e d up p r o v i d i n g the  of o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n the group. on M a r c h 29, t h e s t u d e n t s  a course topic  and t a l k e d  about  with the course assignments.  attention  of t h e  e a c h o t h e r i f t h e y were  from t h e i n s t r u c t o r  the second c a l l  discussed  A t the- end  Dr. Catchpole  the students to c a l l  enough p r o x i m i t y .  telephone  difficult.  t h e s t u d e n t s were a s k e d  with a mailed notice  The  assignment  t e l e p h o n e numbers o u t t o t h e r e s t  encouraged in  recent  t o problems  which  D r . C a t c h p o l e drew  were common  s t u d e n t s were a g a i n e n c o u r a g e d  how t h e y were  t o the group.  to c a l l  each  other.  Materials Initial questionnaire in  which  of  was s e n t  The  studies.  i n Appendix  A copy A.  52 i t e m s from t h r e e  Personality  1984, t h e month  f o r t h e c o u r s e and  of the questionnaire  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e scales  from  autonomy.  was  related  The s c a l e  t o need  o f most  interest  foraffiliation.  achievement  a n d autonomy  the  of the items measuring  was made up  Jackson's  R e s e a r c h Form E : a f f i l i a t i o n ,  and  purpose  initial  out i n January,  the students registered  began t h e i r appears  questionnaire.  s c a l e s were  achievement in this  study  Items f r o m t h e intermixed  affiliation  so t h a t would  40  not  be o b v i o u s .  The s c a l e s c o n s i s t e d o f  which the viewers  were a s k e d  statements  t o r a t e as e i t h e r  t r u e or  false. Because e a r n i n g factor  in itself,  of  the course  of  one t o f i v e . Final  the c r e d i t  students  credit  be a m o t i v a t i n g  were a s k e d  to their  questionnaire.  might  to r a t e the value  career plans  The f i n a l  out i n June.  this  questionnaire a Likert-type scale  this  researcher.  education whether they had  with  Questions  the student  they  education  their  included-as to and i f they  s t u d e n t s ; and  f o r other, d i s t a n c e  about  their  contacts  with  t o s e e i f members o f t h e  f o l l o w up w i t h  c o n f e r e n c i n g group.  other I t was  students i n also  t o know whether members o f t h e c o n t r o l  indeed  distance  to register  i n order  g r o u p would  telephone  important  a distance  the course  other  by  student  t o do s o , why n o t ; whether  were a s k e d  students  treatment  For  courses.  Students other  of being  were a l s o  any c o n t a c t s w i t h intended  B.  was d e v e l o p e d  to assess  had c o m p l e t e d  h a d n o t been a b l e  whether  were  the experience  student.  initiated  i n Appendix  I t was d e s i g n e d  scale  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  sent  satisfaction  A copy a p p e a r s  on a  isolated  education  as i s u s u a l l y  setting.  g r o u p who knew a n d i n t e r a c t e d  the case  Students with  group  in a  i n the c o n t r o l  other  students i n  41 the course Other obtained  would be e l i m i n a t e d from  the study.  -  Information  on e a c h  Obtained.  students'  Information  was  previous educational  b a c k g r o u n d and marks i n t h e c o u r s e . North on  I s l a n d C o l l e g e c o u l d not p r o v i d e  the degrees  earned. had  The  However, a t t h e t h e t i m e  been a s k e d  previous  which the s t u d e n t s  about  institutions  high  scale  of r e g i s t r a t i o n  they  had been  academic  school  high  s c h o o l and t h e p r e v i o u s d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n by D r . C a t c h p o l e  community c o l l e g e (5) c o m p l e t e d  June t h a t a l t h o u g h  the  Package  student  of E d u c a t i o n (Nelson,  courses or  a t t h e end o f the course,  i f they  had done s o .  Item a n a l y s i s  Research  using  Test A n a l y s i s  1974) was r u n on t h e t h r e e  s c a l e s and t h e L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e  satisfaction.  other  A f o l l o w - u p was made i n  a n d Item A n a l y s i s .  (LERTAP)  personality  had i n d i c a t e d  1984 t o d i s c o v e r  Laboratory  course  courses.  had n o t c o m p l e t e d  t o do s o .  mid-September Scoring  they  completed  some  or v o c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e  some u n i v e r s i t y  intended  (3)  (4) c o m p l e t e d  Some o f t h e s t u d e n t s  they  school  completed  high  offered  high  on a  backgrounds.  were a p p l i e d a s f o l l o w s : (1) had n o t (2) c o m p l e t e d  they  enrolled.  t o r a t e the students  of 1 t o 5 a s t o t h e i r  Ratings  had p r e v i o u s l y  s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n and  a t which  i n f o r m a t i o n was u s e d  information  The Hoyt  estimate  of  measuring reliability  for  the s c a l e  for  need  m e a s u r i n g need  for a f f i l i a t i o n ,  f o r a c h i e v e m e n t was  .71; and  autonomy,  .68.  the  scale  measuring  satisfaction  education  situation  was  satisfactory for  The Hoyt  Packages (SPSS,  distance deemed t h e need  a b i t lower than  one  tests. were computed  i n the S o c i a l  Inc.,  Science  of the s m a l l  non-parametric  statistical  A c h i square t e s t treatment  and  intention  to register  courses  and  Final three  with  control  was  marks,  o f t h e sample  tests  using  correlation.  i n t e r m s of d r o p - o u t ,  for further  distance  education  background.  scales  were compared  scale  and  using  tests. on a number of  t h e P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment T h i s was  c o n t i n u o u s and The  were u s e d .  s c o r e s on t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n  personality  two  u s e d t o compare t h e  C o r r e l a t i o n s were computed  obtained.  Statistics  (SPSSX) f o r c o m p u t e r s  size  groups  educational  Mann-Whitney U  variables  the  1983).  Because  are  with a  for  wish.  Statistics  of  of r e l i a b i l i t y  T h i s was  n o t e d as b e i n g  Statistical  the  .88.  f o r need f o r  f o r research purposes except that  autonomy was  would  estimate  .74;  used because  sufficient  relationships  the  coefficient variables  d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m among t h e  were  affiliation,  43 achievement  and  Likert-type  s c a l e measuring  distance  education  completion for  the  autonomy  scales-, s c o r e s  whole sample and  groups separately.  The  treatment  objective  h e r e was  potential  the  personality  the  outcome measures s u c h as  satisfaction The s a m p l e on  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which might  and  student  mean and the  median  three  with population  (Jackson,  developed  by  need  scores  personality  1974).  i n Canada and  s t u d e n t s might  computed  and  control  to i d e n t i f y  exist  between  for a f f i l i a t i o n ,  drop-out  of  and  rate,  student  students  in t h i s  scales  females  were  supplied  compared by  These p o p u l a t i o n  t e s t i n g psychology  Comparisons with a  course  marks.  norms f o r  developer  universities  were  f o r the  any  the  marks, and  Correlations  construct,  the  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  situation, final  were e x a m i n e d .  on  the  students United  larger population  indicate a potential  the  test  norms were  at  States. of  for  psychology generalization.  CHAPTER V RESULTS OF Statistical Drop-out the drop-out  rate.  rate  THE  EXPERIMENT  Analysis The  would  of R e s u l t s  first  h y p o t h e s i s was  not d i f f e r  between a g r o u p  students provided with opportunities and  a group  which  was  14  contained done on with  level. for  i n Appendix  degree  t o 3.00  speaking,  was  data.  The  freedom,  an  effect  provision here  the  just  c h i s q u a r e was  lowered  at the  .08  at the  level.  short  of  rate  .03  square Strictly  but  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  sciences research.  but  that, t h e r e ,  e x e r t e d by  activities,  was  correction  the c h i  I t appears  the  the effect  level  usually  Replication  s t u d y w i t h a g r e a t e r number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i s  indicated  by  Student stated  this  i n the n u l l  satisfaction  finding.  satisfaction. form,  was  would n o t d i f f e r  The that  of  4.55  h y p o t h e s i s must be a c c e p t e d  the drop-out  in social  analysis  significant  made which  7 out  A l l data i s  s m a l l numbers a Y a t e s  of a f f i l i a t i o n  falls  accepted  on  group  the c o u r s e .  r e s e r v a t i o n s can. be. expressed.. is  affiliation  15 s u b j e c t s f a i l e d  A c h i square  significant  the n u l l  of  In t h e c o n t r o l  C.  B e c a u s e of t h e  continuity  value  of  2 out  to complete  the drop-out  one  group  the c o u r s e .  students f a i l e d  for  of  not.  In t h e t r e a t m e n t to complete  that  second h y p o t h e s i s , measures of  between a g r o u p  of  of  students with on  provided with  other  opportunities for  s t u d e n t s and  a g r o u p w h i c h was  a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e measuring  distance  education  situation  Mann-Whitney U t e s t . g r o u p s was  not  The  course  did correlate  education  measure o f  student  statistically responses hypothesis  of  o f no  Student that of  not.  The  course The  seven  the c o u r s e  two  to r e g i s t e r  was  also  the  with  two  the  completion,  performance,  g r o u p s on  no  students  T h e r e was  this  must The  be  and  students  the  significant  two  The  accepted. hypothesis  i n the  with  a group which who  completed  g r o u p s was  was  performance  u s i n g t h e Mann-Whitney U  between t h e  a  no  question.  were p r o v i d e d  for a f f i l i a t i o n  t o be  between  third  differences who  for future  intended  difference  difference  students had  student  satisfaction.  were compared  statistically The  courses  s c o r e s of t h o s e  difference  with course  with  intention  t h e r e w o u l d be  opportunities  the  (U=81,  satisfaction  positively  achievement.  a group of  with  between  significant  Rated  significant the  Scores  df=20.  A q u e s t i o n on distance  satisfaction  difference  r=.30 w i t h p=.11, df=29, and r=.54 w i t h p = . 0 l ,  not.  were compared u s i n g a  statistically  z=-1.05, p=.29, d f = 2 9 ) .  affiliation  was the  test.  not  (U=42, z=.28, p=.78, d f = 2 0 ) .  i n the c o n t r o l  a mean a v e r a g e  g r o u p who  achievement  completed  score  that  46 was  two p o i n t s h i g h e r  group.  The h y p o t h e s i s Need  that  than  those  must be a c c e p t e d .  fora f f i l i a t i o n .  the personality  i n the treatment  The f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s was  c o n s t r u c t , need  would n o t be c o r r e l a t e d  with  satisfaction  performance as i n d i c a t e d  students' mild the  or student  final  marks.  Need  negative c o r r e l a t i o n whole  level  drop-out,  foraffiliation  with  sample was u s e d ,  significance  student  for affiliation,  student  with  student by t h e  showed a  p e r f o r m a n c e when  r=-.38 w h i c h r e a c h e d  o f .10 , d f = 2 0 .  The n u l l  a  hypothesis  must be a c c e p t e d . T h e r e was, however an i n t e r e s t i n g neared and  statistical  control  significance.  different. examined,  group alone  When t h e c o n t r o l  satisfaction Students  C o r r e l a t i o n s with  m i g h t have been e x p e c t e d  student  i n need  r=-.70  with  drop-out and  significant. for affiliation  t o f o l l o w up on t h e  teleconferences  with  of  i n the treatment  the students  with  g r o u p was e x a m i n e d  were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y who were h i g h  was  r=-.ll.  t h e r e was a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n ,  p=.08, d f = 7 .  done s o .  were somewhat  t h e r e was a low c o r r e l a t i o n ,  p=.72, d f = 1 3 . separately  a n d c o r r e l a t i o n s made  the r e s u l t s  When t h e t r e a t m e n t  which  When t h e t r e a t m e n t  g r o u p s were s e p a r a t e d  between t h e v a r i a b l e s ,  finding  their  own t e l e p h o n e  calls.  group r e p o r t e d  None having  47  TABLE ONE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN All Ach Af f Aut Sat Per CC  Ach 1 .00  Af f -.32 1 .00  Subjects  Aut -.08 -.57 1 .00  Ach 1 .00  Af f -.44 1 .00  Aut -.14 -.47 1 .00  Per .55 -.38 -.21 .54 1 .00  CC .58 -.21 .26 -.30  Group Sat .39 -.21 -.06 1 .00  Per .44 -.11 -.01 .61 1 .00  CC .12 -.23 .07 -.22 1 .00  Control Ach Af f Aut Sat Per CC  Sat .18 -.10 -.10 1 .00  1 .00 Treatment  Ach Af f Aut Sat Per CC  VARIABLES  Ach 1 .00  Ach=Score Aff=Score Aut=Score Sat=Score Per=Final CC=Course  Af f -.20 1 .00  Aut -.01 -.68 1 .00  Group Sat -.03 -.02 -.24 1 .00  Per .75 -.70 .41 . 55 1 .00  CC .21 -.22 .30 -.24 1 .00  on need f o r a c h i e v e m e n t on need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n on need f o r autonomy on s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e mark o f s t u d e n t completion  N o t e : A l t h o u g h need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n was t h e p r i n c i p a l a t t r i b u t e b e i n g s t u d i e d , need f o r a c h i e v e m e n t and autonomy r a t i n g s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x b e c a u s e t h e y were a v a i l a b l e .  48  F a c t o r s w h i c h might have a f f e c t e d - t h e s t u d y . Although  t h e s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d  treatment  and c o n t r o l g r o u p s , a p o s t  made t o s e e i f t h e r e two  between  T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t in self-rated  previous  educational  for  need  for affiliation,  for  autonomy.  B o t h g r o u p s were a b l e  the  instructor  and thus  affiliation  treatment  with  Population  score  percentile  was  with  However o n l y t h e  with  for a f f i l i a t i o n  population  initially with  students.  norms.  measured  a general  In need  o f t h e sample  level  9, e q u i v a l e n t  to  were  using  and were p o p u l a t i o n of  g r o u p was 9.7 and t h e t o a 50  J a c k s o n ' s norms f o r women.  t h e mean s c o r e  was 6, t h e median  t h e 37 p e r c e n t i l e l e v e l  In  was 9.3, t h e median  t o a 50 p e r c e n t i l e l e v e l .  t h e mean s c o r e  s c a l e s on  f o r achievement  10 w h i c h was e q u i v a l e n t  for a f f i l i a t i o n  autonomy  to interact  students.  t o compare t h e sample  t h e mean s c o r e  scores  f o r a c h i e v e m e n t and need  norms were a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e t h r e e  female psychology  need  him.  o f sample  which the students  median  motivation,  had some o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  with  other  Comparison  used  need  of the  differences  b a c k g r o u n d , o r on p r e - t e s t  g r o u p had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  activities  hoc c o m p a r i s o n was  have a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s  t h e two g r o u p s  limited  to the  were any d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  g r o u p s w h i c h might  experiment.  randomly  In need f o r 6, e q u i v a l e n t  f o r the p o p u l a t i o n .  49  Discussion  of R e s u l t s  Drop-out drop-out  rate.  The  difference  between  the  treatment  dramatic.  Only  2 out  of t h e  treatment  group  in  the c o n t r o l  Chi  square  correction  level  because  significance Adding an  part  level weight  effect  of t h i s  highly  group  analysis  significance  had  dropped  out  failed  15  of p=.03 but of the was  low  t o t h e argument  The  completers  Another  final  final  i n the  involvement perhaps  on  students  a  Yates s u b j e c t s the  that  the  treatment  other which  t o the  rather  was  The  group.  The  group.  the p a r t  some  the  the p a r t  speed  students were  the  required  a  a greater  of the treatment  more r e l u c t a n c e on  to  slowest  They  This suggested  be  their  than  indicated  group  to  Many of  t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e were  treatment  the  s t u d e n t s appeared  q u e s t i o n n a i r e most q u i c k l y  number of r e m i n d e r s .  was  course.  had  the  questionaire.  i n the treatment  students to return drop-outs  the  i n the t e l e c o n f e r e n c e s .  o r committment  the  14  i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on  researcher.  of t h e  groups  of  of  of  .08.  factor  returned  with  rate  i n the  rate  number  the p r o f e s s o r .  return  7 out  to complete  t o each  of  students  while  comments were a d d r e s s e d  involvement  control  of the d r o p - o u t  were two  involved  and  i n the  of  group  those  with who  who the  dropped Both  out  members of t h e t r e a t m e n t  control study  g r o u p knew t h a t  was  with  the  g r o u p may with  the  call. each  not  g r o u p and  their  possible  t o t a l time  line  spent  t o keep an  that  to a  by  the  instructor.  a c c u r a t e r e c o r d of  students Students  on  instructor  simply  because  the  i n the  have l o g g e d more m i n u t e s on  the  telephone  i t was  a  calls  lasted  while  individual  calls  t o s t u d e n t s may  more  15  conference minutes have  quickly.  t h e r e was control  about  telephone treatment  conference  correction, not  the  a n s w e r s were r e l a t e d  A common-sense e x a m i n a t i o n  and  complete.  members of  The  finished  that  f a i l u r e to  of d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n . It  the  to acknowledge t h e i r  some d i f f e r e n c e  groups. the  as h i g h as one the treatment  after  the  statistical  would w i s h had  t h e numbers  between t h e  Although,  l e v e l of  of  an  on  treatment  Yates  significance  t h e evidence,  effect  suggests  the  was  suggests  l e v e l of  drop-out. Student  satisfaction.  There  were  statistically  significant differences  scores  two  of t h e  g r o u p s on  m i g h t have been e x p e c t e d rate  of d r o p - o u t .  the  given  correlated  with  lesser  extent with course  between  the  s a t i s f a c t i o n scale the d i f f e r e n c e s  However s t u d e n t  highly  no  i n the  satisfaction  t h e marks o b t a i n e d and completion.  This  as  was  to a indicates  51 that  feelings  about  about  the d i s t a n c e  responses  achievement  rather  education setting  to the s a t i s f a c t i o n  o b t a i n e d marks from t h e i r points  throughout  mailed  t o them a t a b o u t  The  assignments  the  feelings  were r e f l e c t e d  scale.  t h e c o u r s e and  than  in  students  at a v a r i e t y  their  final  of  marks were  same t i m e as t h e  final  questionnaire. A q u e s t i o n about distance of  e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s was  satisfaction.  groups  were not  either. which from  One  had  statistically  the treatment  t h o s e who size  on  o u t might  not  differences.  As  personal  r e a s o n s about  which  that  might  well  might  credit.  regardless  have  differed  this  eager as  It is possible  that  enough t o  t h e r e may  have  reflect been  r e s e a r c h e r had f o r the l a c k  differences.  o f whether  group  education course  large  have been o f s u c h h i g h i n t e r e s t  case  the c o n t r o l  f o r t h e mothers o f young c h i l d r e n ,  experience  in this  n o t have been as  have a c c o u n t e d  significant  two  question in that  successfully.  existing  statistically  that  distance  o f t h e sample was  further  i n t e n d e d as a gauge  significant  this  for  between t h e  of d r o p - o u t  group  f o r another  knowledge w h i c h  also  have e x p e c t e d  dropped  finished  to register  differences  a higher rate  register  the  The  could  s t u d e n t s who to  intention  that  no of  It i s possible the t o p i c  may  they enjoyed  the  o r not  they earned  the  52  Student statistically groups  research  influenced  therefore control  that  differences  findings.  by t h e low  control  higher  significant  T h e r e were  i n t h e marks a s m i g h t have  previous  the  performance.  completed  been  not c o m p l e t e d  d i d n o t have  marks.  The  have  since  fact  (83.6)  that  was  half  of  marks  (81.5) may  However b e c a u s e  number o f c o m p l e t e r s i n t h e c o n t r o l  the  two  s t u d e n t s i n the c o n t r o l  the c o u r s e .  been  t h e c o u r s e and  of t r e a t m e n t group  the best  two  expected given  R e s u l t s may  g r o u p mean p e r f o r m a n c e  only  between t h e  numbers of s u b j e c t s  g r o u p had  than that  no  indicate  group  of t h e  group  small  this  remains  conjecture. The  role  of need  notable c o r r e l a t i o n involved This  relating  the students'  suggests that  related  for a f f i l i a t i o n .  higher  and c o n t r o l  emerged.  For the c o n t r o l  r=-.70, p=.08.  correlation  may  affiliation  need  for a f f i l i a t i o n  could  be  t o a l o w e r mark f o r a l l s t u d e n t s .  treatment  only  for  most  p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h r=-.38, p=.10.  When t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s  of  t o need  The  g r o u p a more i n t e r e s t i n g g r o u p t h e r e was  have m o d e r a t e d  a  For the treatment group  between mark and need  r=-.11, p=.72.  construct  were made s e p a r a t e l y  This  i n some way.  pattern  correlation the  for a f f i l i a t i o n  suggests that  the e f f e c t s  f o r the  of t h i s  It i s possible  was  the treatment personality that  when t h e  53  students'  need  for a f f i l i a t i o n  telephone  calls,  this  However when t h e met,  t h e r e was  findings important  factor  There together why,  effect  indicate  that  through  affect  for a f f i l i a t i o n  for a f f i l i a t i o n  on c o u r s e  assignments.  However one  o p p o r t u n i t i e s were  i n the treatment  group,  the c o n f e r e n c e  for  affiliation  conjectured.  calls.  I t may  was  met  have been t h a t  through  that  c o n t a c t s with  A l s o Dr.  l o n g d i s t a n c e phone c a l l s  to  h i s s t u d e n t s even  were not  great.  As  groups  addition,  or s e l f - h e l p  o t h e r s might Finally  a s an  they might detract  because the  need calls other  their  the c o s t  w o u l d have been a  networking  this  causes  to  that  arty i n f o r m a t i o n on  have seen  each  barrier  t h o u g h t h e d i s t a n c e s between  i n most c a s e s  practice.  have been a f r a i d from  well,  their  s t u d e n t s had  own  the few  the v a l u e  i n e d u c a t i o n and  accepted  to  the  s t u d e n t s would have had  not  call  their  similar  Catchpole,., s u g g e s t s  of  important  t h e r e were  own  students  an  ask  the conference  concerns  additional  may  A number of  s t u d e n t s w i t h p r o b l e m s and  instructor.  be  t o work  t h e y d i d not  w h i c h p r o v i d e d them w i t h a s e n s e  through  not  in distance education. for students  be  and  may  requirements  can  was  These  were no  >other a f t e r  group  performance.  on p e r f o r m a n c e .  need  i f the a f f i l i a t i o n  students  met  need d i d n o t  s t u d e n t s need  an  was  of  might  In  that h e l p i n g  achievement.  far less  famililiarity  54  with  each other  setting,  than  t h e y may  results  to a l a r g e r  limited  by  the  of  study  f o r achievement lower  increase  the p o t e n t i a l  study  level that  autonomy  to female  courses. females  not  to  males., p a r t i c u l a r l y interest further  further  female need  sample a l t h o u g h  t o be  very  ratings.  psychology  These  that previous they  students  the  in  s c o r e d on  indicated a  need  to a f f i l i a t i v e  cues,  results  those, i n n o n - u n i v e r s i t y or  investigation.  of  of  university  research  This series  in  with  results  p o s s i b l e to g e n e r a l i z e the  courses.  to  similarities  for generalizing enrolled  the  similar  for a f f i l i a t i o n  measure r e s p o n d e d  i s probably  requires  this  r e g a r d l e s s of how  it  general  of  students  Given  affiliation  initiate  G e n e r a l i z a t i o n of  appeared  and  somewhat  the  to  classroom  p o p u l a t i o n of d i s t a n c e l e a r n e r s i s  g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of  need  for  results.  small size  in this  shy  in a  other.  Generalization  students  meeting  have been t o o  c o n t a c t s with each  the  students  questions  55  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  Summary  Distance for to  education  l e a r n e r s a l l over an e d u c a t i o n a l  under  the d i r e c t  learners  i s p r o v i d i n g new  the world.  institution  Instead  opportunities of t r a v e l l i n g  and a t t e n d i n g  classes  s u p e r v i s i o n of an i n s t r u c t o r  r e c e i v e e d u c a t ionavl- programs  communities  through p r i n t  and p o s t a l  television,  r a d i o and s a t e l l i t e  these  in their  home  correspondence,  broadcasts,  and  telephone. Distance purposes  are  school  curriculums,  awareness.  basic  b u t who want t o s t u d y education  skills  their  Many p r o g r a m s  Columbia  courses  to adult  classes  on a r e g u l a r  basis.  them t o upgrade o r o b t a i n of changes  i n t e r e s t s or  of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  offer  early  on a p a r t - t i m e  o f work and t o p u r s u e  The m a j o r i t y  British  their  and knowledge, t o keep a b r e a s t  field  hobbies.  allows  of elementary  and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f  aimed a t a d u l t s who have c o m p l e t e d  Distance  in  f o r a v a r i e t y of  the enrichment  change o r community  education  in  t o farmers,  secondary  social  i s used  i n c l u d i n g the p r o v i s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l  information and  education  some d i s t a n c e  institutions education  l e a r n e r s who a r e u n a b l e t o a t t e n d basis.  56  that of  The  principal  the  individual  study  advantage o f d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n can  choose the  time,  is  p l a c e and  most a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s needs and  pace  personal  situation. There are a l s o education. part-time study  The  those  significant student  time  sends  receives  who  of  f a m i l y and  assignment  I f he  usually  have  as  he  job.  and  has  would  explore  ideas.  which  sense  students  of  isolation  which  one  of t h e  way  unreasonable enroll  are  to suggest  he  of been  affiliation  f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to  i t is difficult  statistics  he  w i t h whom  rate in distance education  r a t e of d r o p - o u t  such  he  they  appears  average  well,  programs has  l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  Although  which  the  As  The  high drop-out  is a  student  to  experienced.  the  of  the  on  A c o n s i s t e n t complaint  in distance education  t o be  there  the date  in a classroom.  might  to the  Often  immediate a c c e s s  t h e c o m p a n i o n s h i p of o t h e r  related  requirements  q u e s t i o n s , the  lacks  students  the  i n t h e m a i l w i t h c o r r e c t i o n s and  clarifications. does not  must b a l a n c e  l a g between t h e d a t e - o n  i n an  i t back  instructor  to d i s t a n c e  m a j o r i t y of d i s t a n c e l e a r n e r s a r e  students  with  disadvantages  t o come up  programs.  with  b e c a u s e of v a r i a t i o n s reported,  i t would not  t h a t about h a l f  in a distance distance education  of  an i n the be  students  course  will  who  57 fail  to complete i t . Institutions  interaction drop-out may  w h i c h make o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  a v a i l a b l e to students  rates, although  appear  f a c t o r s other  t o have  than  lower  affiliation  be i n v o l v e d . Lack  for  some  of s o c i a l students  i n d i v i d u a l s may situation without will  motivation  thrive  i n an i n d e p e n d e n t can d i r e c t  It  was o r i g i n a l l y  and m a i n t a i n  their  others  interpersonal  that  students  obtain  in  situations  with  others.  was d e s i g n e d  a r e more  to explore  interaction  conferences  through  would h e l p  found  to  Research  i n need f o r  b e t t e r marks a n d a r e more  c u e s and more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e r s o n a l  student-to-student  i n 1938.  have been  who a r e h i g h  where t h e r e  desire  relationships.  by Henry M u r r a y  more c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  study  to their  succeed.  for a f f i l i a t i o n  affiliation  telephone  own l e a r n i n g  i s a personality construct  advanced  i n need  suggests  This  study  t h e s t r e n g t h o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  establish  academic  some  the needs of a c l a s s ,  and t o  for a f f i l i a t i o n  to  also  While  and d i s c u s s i o n i s d e t r i m e n t a l  which d e s c r i b e s  instigate  be more o f a p r o b l e m  the l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  to continue  People high  may  for others.  to consider  that  interaction  Need  than  i n which they  having  find  contact  satisfied affiliative  interaction. whether  small  group  t o r e d u c e d r o p - o u t and  58  increase and  satisfaction  i f s o , whether  affiliation would  could  most  which area  learners are scattered and  actually  thus might meeting  find  because  Columbia  chosen as a focus because  interaction  was  most  The were:  research hypotheses s t a t e d  affiliation  and  satisfaction  this in a  k i n d of distance  would  not d i f f e r  not;  not;  form  between a  (2) m e a s u r e s  for  affiliation be  no  o f a g r o u p of s t u d e n t s  (4) t h e  for  affiliation  personality not be  correlated  student drop-out, student s a t i s f a c t i o n  or student  achievement.  for a f f i l i a t i o n  of  between a g r o u p o f  with opportunities  and a g r o u p w h i c h was need  not;  (3) t h e r e would  i n the performance  were p r o v i d e d  not d i f f e r  with opportunities  and a g r o u p w h i c h was difference  i n the n u l l  with opportunities for  a g r o u p w h i c h was  students provided  with  t o be a b s e n t  (1) t h e d r o p - o u t r a t e would  construct  by  setting.  g r o u p of s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d  who  in  Student-to-student  was  education  setting  to i n t e r a c t  interaction  likely  i t seemed  o v e r a wide g e o g r a p h i c  it difficult  together.  who  for a f f i l i a t i o n .  chosen  to the B r i t i s h  need f o r  those students  from o p p o r t u n i t i e s was  programs  construct  be u s e d t o p r e d i c t  interaction  most a p p r o p r i a t e  education  the p e r s o n a l i t y  benefit  Telephone  in distance  would  59 Twenty-nine  students  were e n r o l l e d  education  by N o r t h  I s l a n d C o l l e g e were t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e initial  from J a c k s o n ' s  study.  other  the  t h e s c a l e of most scales relating  and need  in this  i n c l u d e d so t h a t  would n o t be o b v i o u s  of i n i t i a l  scales  t o need f o r  T h e r e was a l s o a q u e s t i o n  measure t h e l e v e l  study.  Need f o r  interest  f o r autonomy were  p u r p o s e of t h e s t u d y  subjects.  three  P e r s o n a l i t y R e s e a r c h Form.  was  achievement  development o f f e r e d  questionnaire contained  affiliation Two  on c h i l d  in a  -  distance  The  course  who  t o the  designed  motivation  to  t o complete the  course. The scale  final  questionnaire contained  a Likert-type  designed  t o measure s a t i s f a c t i o n  with  T h e r e were a l s o q u e s t i o n s students  completed  instigated whether  At  the course;  intended  to r e g i s t e r  a later  date  course  and  educational  student  had  students;  and  for further distance  were  checked  on t h e s t u d e n t s '  marks  background.  students  instructor  course.  other  completions  i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d  the  they  courses.  and  All  t o whether t h e  whether  any c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h  they  education  relating  the course.  i n the course  whenever t h e y  had a q u e s t i o n  As w e l l t h e i n s t r u c t o r s e v e r a l times  during  were e n c o u r a g e d  tried  to c a l l  about the  to c a l l  each  t h e t h r e e and a h a l f  month  60  term.  F o r members o f t h e t r e a t m e n t  calls  were s m a l l g r o u p t e l e p h o n e  involving  t h r e e or f o u r o t h e r  same r e g i o n . other. asked  i f they  had e n c o u n t e r e d  encouraged  the students  was  containing involved control  the telephone  i n that  a note numbers  conference  study,  available  32 s t u d e n t s  data  considered isolated The  The  other.  call.  The  instructor  of t h e o t h e r  students  Members o f t h e  individual  originally  telephone  calls  volunteered for  data  i n the  treatment  she was n o t  of the telephone  conference.  In  on two o f t h e s t u d e n t s were n o t q u e s t i o n n a i r e revealed that  in contact with  the c o n t r o l  not  group,  because the f i n a l been  the  on one o f t h e s t u d e n t s  a t the time  the c o n t r o l  had  each  from  g r o u p h a d t o be e l i m i n a t e d b e c a u s e  used  and were  instructor.  Although the  topic  t o any common p r o b l e m s and  group r e c e i v e d o n l y  the  from t h e  any d i f f i c u l t i e s .  to telephone  f o l l o w e d up w i t h  calls  i n t r o d u c e d t o each  They d i s c u s s e d a r e c e n t c o u r s e  drew a t t e n t i o n  from  conference  students usually  The s t u d e n t s were  instructor  call  g r o u p two o f t h o s e  other  students  they  ( n o t members of  g r o u p ) a n d c o u l d t h e r e f o r e n o t be t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s t u d e n t s  i n an  situation. first  differ  hypothesis, that  the drop-out  rate  between a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d  opportunities  f o r a f f i l i a t i o n and a g r o u p w h i c h  would  with was  61 not,  was a c c e p t e d  students of  conditionally.  i n the treatment  t h e 14 s t u d e n t s  the course.  drop-out  r a t e s between  significant  correction of  dropped  significance examination at  a t t h e p=.03 l e v e l .  for continuity  this  i s below  treatment The  second  with  of s t a t i s t i c a l s c i e n c e s , an  on t h e l e v e l  of  the  drop-out.  t h a t measures o f between a g r o u p o f  opportunities for a f f i l i a t i o n  significant  two g r o u p s a s t o l e v e l the L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e .  highly  correlated  with  P=.01 and t o a l e s s e r This  suggests  satisfaction influenced  differences  of s a t i s f a c t i o n Scores  extent  with course  by t h e i r  marks w h i c h  they  between  were  r=.54,  completion.  self-rated  the distance education  There  a s measured  on t h e s c a l e  t h e s t u d e n t s ' marks,  that the student's with  look  that the  a g r o u p w h i c h were n o t , was a l s o a c c e p t e d .  were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  by  level.  numbers and an i n f o r m a l  would n o t d i f f e r  provided  Yates  the c h i square  i n the s o c i a l  hypothesis,  was  was a p p l i e d b e c a u s e  f u n c t i o n e d suggests  had an e f f e c t  satisfaction students  the l e v e l  of t h e a c t u a l  When a  a t t h e p=.08  sought  t h e way t h e g r o u p s  and  of curve  i n t h e sample,  usually  o b t a i n e d when t h e  t h e two g r o u p s were compared  t o 3.0 s i g n i f i c a n t  Although  7 out  group f a i l e d t o  The c h i s q u a r e  t h e s m a l l numbers  2 o u t o f t h e 15  group dropped out w h i l e  i n the c o n t r o l  complete  4.55  Only  l e v e l of  experience  was  o b t a i n e d about t h e  62  time  the f i n a l This  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t o u t .  third  difference  hypothesis  i n the performance of a group of s t u d e n t s  who were p r o v i d e d w i t h and  was t h a t t h e r e would be no  opportunities for a f f i l i a t i o n  a g r o u p w h i c h were n o t .  statistically  significant  T h e r e were no  differences  g r o u p s a s t o marks o b t a i n e d . differential hypothesis The  attrition  was  T h i s may have been due t o  and o t h e r  factors.  was t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  construct,  need  fora f f i l i a t i o n ,  correlated  with  student  drop-out,  or  performance.  The n u l l  accepted. with  When need  student  The n u l l  accepted.  fourth hypothesis  student  between t h e two  would n o t be student  satisfaction  h y p o t h e s i s was  fora f f i l i a t i o n  performance the r e s u l t  was c o r r e l a t e d was r = -.38,  p=..1u.  When c o r r e l a t i o n s were r u n s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t and  control  groups  i t , appeared  strength  of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  students  i n the c o n t r o l  t h a t much o f t h e  resulted  treatment  the  s p e c u l a t i o n that the e f f e c t s need  g r o u p r=-.11, p=.72.  fora f f i l i a t i o n ,  on p e r f o r m a n c e m i g h t be  When a s t u d e n t ' s  foraffiliation  construct  for interaction  d i d not a f f e c t  In  of the p e r s o n a l i t y  of treatment  opportunities  from  T h i s gave r i s e t o  m o d e r a t e d by t h e t y p e need  data  g r o u p where r=-.70, p=.08.  the  contruct,  from  with  investigated was met  others,  performance.  here.  through  this  When t h e need  63 was n o t met, t h e r e was a n e g a t i v e performance. be  necessary  Further  relationship  s t u d i e s of t h i s  to confirm  this  with  phenomenon  would  pattern.  Conclusions Examination treatment drop-out  rate.  the  size  students  level  o f p=.08 was  seemed t o r e f l e c t  obtained  i n the course.  that  With  the s c o r e s of the  The f i n a l  t h e same t i m e  w h i c h h a d a 50 p e r c e n t willing  c h i square  obtained.  satisfaction  However one would have e x p e c t e d  less  i nthe  o f 3.0 w i t h a  the distance education  actually  out a t about  i n the  a t t h e p=.03 l e v e l .  on a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e d e s i g n e d with  on t h e  f o r c o n t i n u i t y made b e c a u s e o f t h e  was n o t s u r p r i s i n g  satisfaction  sent  The i n i t i a l  of the group, a c h i square  significance It  effect  t o 7 o u t o f 14 s t u d e n t s  was 4.55 s i g n f i c a n t correction  that the  2 of t h e 15 s t u d e n t s  g r o u p compared  Yates  small  Only  group dropped out.  obtained  suggests  may have h a d a p o s i t i v e  treatment control  of the r e s u l t s  situation with  t h e mark  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  as the course  marks.  that the c o n t r o l  drop-out  to register  t o measure  r a t e would have  for further distance  group been  eduction  courses. The the  correlations  students'  between need  performance  suggest  f o r a f f i l i a t i o n and that the p e r s o n a l i t y  64  construct for  played a role  affiliation  achievement. interaction  i n student sucess.  appears  t o be r e l a t e d  Additionally between t h i s  there  separately and  need  control  foraffiliation group  suggests affects  the c o r r e l a t i o n  of the c o n t r u c t  general  population  consisted  groups  between  were  student  was s i g n i f i c a n t  examined performance  f o r the This  on s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e .  the s u b j e c t s appeared  North America, it  and t h e t r e a t m e n t .  t h e t r e a t m e n t may have m o d e r a t e d t h e  Although the  t o lower  but n o t f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p .  that  need  seems t o have been an  construct  When t h e t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l  Higher  of female p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s i n  the s i z e  entirely  results  only  British  Columbia.  t o be s i m i l a r t o  o f t h e sample  and the f a c t  that  o f women a l l o w s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f  t o other female d i s t a n c e  learners i n  Recommendations The  results  different just  from the c o n t r o l  short  probable yielded  show t h a t  of s t a t i s t i c a l  that  results  statistically  t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p was group  i n rate  significance.  from a l a r g e r significant  the  evidence gathered, i t appears  for  interaction  the  d e s i g n of d i s t a n c e  of drop-out I t seems  group c o u l d  differences. that  have With  opportunities  among s t u d e n t s should" be i n c l u d e d i n e d u c a t i o n programs  where  65 possible. Small provided  group telephone  e v e n when s t u d e n t s  geographically.  I f such  p r o v i d e maximum information  conferences  are i s o l a t e d  group telephone  b e n e f i t s to the students,  P r o v i s i o n of t h e t e l e p h o n e  students  i n a geographical  interaction. students It a  larger  apparent role  be  area  I n some c o u r s e s t o form s e l f - h e l p  would be w o r t h w h i l e number of s t u d e n t s in this  t h a t need  constructs play and  calls some  on g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n a n d n e t w o r k i n g  useful.  ask  c o u l d be  activities beneficial.  prior m i g h t be  numbers o f a l l  might  i t might  facilitate be p o s s i b l e t o  groups.  to replicate to confirm  study. • Further  for a f f i l i a t i o n  are to  the study  with  the trends  e x p l o r a t i o n of the  and o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y  in distance education,  and of programs  which might moderate t h e i r  effects  would  66 Bibliography A t k i n s o n , J.W. & B i r c h , D. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . 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In Measurements P a r k , NJ:  H o l m b e r g , B. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Distance education: bibliography. L o n d o n : Kogan Page. H o l m b e r g , B. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S t a t u s and t r e n d s education. L o n d o n : Kogan Page.  by  of  A  survey  and  distance  H o l m b e r g , B. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Guided d i d a c t i c conversation i n distance education. In D. S e w a r t , D.J. Keegan & B. Holmberg ( E d s . ) , D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n : I n t e r n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s (pp. 114-122). London: Croom Helm.  Houle, C O . ( 1 973). F r a n c i s c o : Josey  The e x t e r n a l d e g r e e . Bass  San  J a c k s o n , D.N. (1974). P e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h form m a n u a l. Goshen, NY: R e s e a r c h P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s .  68  Keegan, D . J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . D r o p - o u t s a t t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y . The A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , 24, 44-55. Keegan, D . J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . From New D e l h i t o V a n c o u v e r : Trends i n d i s t a n c e education. In J . S . D a n i e l , M.A. S t r o u d & J.R. Thompson ( E d s . ) , L e a r n i n g a t a D i s t a n c e : A world p e r s p e c t i v e (pp.40-43). Edmonton: A t h a b a s c a U n i v e r s i t y . Keegan, D . J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . On d e f i n i n g d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n . In D. S e w a r t , D . J . Keegan & B. Holmberg ( E d s . ) , D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n : I n t e r n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s (pp. 6-33). L o n d o n : Croom Helm. Kennedy, D. & P o w e l l , R. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Student p r o g r e s s withdrawal. T e a c h i n g a t a D i s t a n c e , 7, 61-75.  and  L a n s i n g , J.B. & Henes, R.W. (1959). Need a f f i l i a t i o n and f r e q u e n c y o f f o u r t y p e s of communication. J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 58, 365-372. L e f c o u r t , H.M., M a r t i n , R.A. & S a l e h , W.E. (1984). L o c u s of c o n t r o l and s o c i a l s u p p o r t : I n t e r a c t i v e moderators of s t r e s s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y & S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 47, 378-389. McAdams, D.P. & C o n s t a n t i a n , C. (1.983). I n t i m a c y and a f f i l i a t i o n m o t i v e s i n d a i l y l i v i n g : An e x p e r i e n c e sampling a n a l y s i s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 45, 851-861. M c K e a c h i e , W.J. (1961). M o t i v a t i o n , t e a c h i n g methods and c o l l e g e l e a r n i n g . In M.R. Jones (Ed.), P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e N e b r a s k a Symposium on M o t i v a t i o n (pp. 111-142). L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of N e b r a s k a Press. M c K e a c h i e , W.J., L i n , Y., M i l h o l l a n d , J . & I s a a c s o n , (1966). Student a f f i l i a t i o n motives, teacher warmth and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4, 457-461.  R.  69 M a c K e n z i e , 0. & C h r i s t e n s e n , E.-L. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . The changing w o r l d of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e education. University Park: Pennsylvania S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Press. M a c K e n z i e , N., learning.  P o s t g a t e , R. & Scupham, J . P a r i s : UNESCO.  M a r r o u , H. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . B r i t a n n i c a , 6,  Ancient Greeks. 322-326.  M i l l a r d , J . (1982). Fernuniversitat.  (1975).  Open  Encyclopedia  S u p p o r t i n g s t u d e n t s i n the T e a c h i n g a t a D i s t a n c e , 22,  4-9.  M i l l s , R. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Off-campus s t u d i e s i n a f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n network. T e a c h i n g a t a D i s t a n c e . 16, 25-32. N e l s o n , L.R. (1974) L a b o r a t o r y of e d u c a t i o n t e s t a n a l y s i s package" Dunedin> NZ: U n i v e r s i t y of O t a g o , D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n . O r t o n , L . J . (1978). I m p r o v i n g two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n correspondence teaching. Teaching at a D i s t a n c e , 11, 80-92. P a n t a g e s , T . J . & C r e e d o n , C.F. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Studies c o l l e g e a t t r i t i o n : 1950-1975. Review, of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 48, 49-101.  of  P a s c a r e l l a , E.T. & T e r e n z i n i , P.T. (1979). Interaction e f f e c t s i n S p a d y ' s & T i n t o ' s c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l s of c o l l e g e drop-out. S o c i o l o g y of E d u c a t i o n , 52, 197-210. P a s c a l , C.E. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and p r e f e r e n c e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods. Canadian J o u r n a l of B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e , 5_, 272-279"! P e r r a t o n , H. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Overcoming the d i s t a n c e i n community e d u c a t i o n . Teaching at a Distance, 54-61.  18,  70 P e r r a t o n , H. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A theory for distance education. In D. S e w a r t , D . J . Keegan & B. Holmberg ( E d s . ) , D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n : I n t e r n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s (pp. 34-45). L o n d o n : Croom Helm. P e r r y , W. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Open u n i v e r s i t y . Open U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  M i l t o n Keynes:  P h y t h i a n , E . & C l e m e n t s , M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . D r o p - o u t from t h i r d l e v e l math c o u r s e s , T e a c h i n g a t a D i s t a n c e , 23, 35-45. P u r d y , L.N. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The h i s t o r y of t e l e v i s i o n and radio in continuing education. In L.N. P u r d y ( E d . ) , R e a c h i n g new s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h new t e c h n o l o g i e s (pp.28-38). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. R e k k e d a l , T. Norway.  (1983). Teaching  Enhancing student progress a t a D i s t a n c e . 23, 19-24.  R i c h e , P. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The m e d i e v a l r e n n a i s s a n c e . E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 6, 335-339. (pp. 335-339). Chicago: Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a ,  in  Inc.  R o b i n s o n , B. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . T e l e p h o n e t u t o r i n g i n t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y : A review. T e a c h i n g a t a D i s t a n c e , 20, 57-65.. S c h n e i d e r , F.W. & Green, J.E. (1977). Need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n and sex as a m o d e r a t o r of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between need f o r a c h i e v e m e n t and academic performance. J o u r n a l of School P s y c h o l o g y , 15, 269-277. Selman, G. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A h i s t o r y of f i f t y y e a r s of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e by t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : 1915-1965. Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n for Adult Education. S e w a r t , D. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Distance teaching: A contradiction i n terms? In D. S e w a r t , D . J . Keegan & B. Holmberg (Eds.), Distance education: I n t e r n a t i o n a l  71 perspect ives  (pp. 41-61).  L o n d o n : Groom Helm.  S h i m a h a r a , N. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . E d u c a t i o n i n the e a r l i e s t civilizations. E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 6, 317-319. Rosen, T. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . C o m m u n i c a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s . New t e c h n o l o g i e s i n C a n a d i a n e d u c a t i o n Paper 4. T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o E d u c a t i o n a l Communications Authority. SPSS I n c . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . McGraw H i l l .  SPSSX U s e r ' s G u i d e .  New.  York.,  NY:  T i n t o , V. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . D r o p - o u t from h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n : a t h e o r e t i c a l s y n t h e s i s of r e c e n t r e s e a r c h . Review of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 45, 89-125. W a t e r s , G. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . L e a r n i n g f r o m t h e Open U n i v e r s i t y : t h e l i m i t s o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . In L.N. Purdy ( E d . ) , R e a c h i n g new s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h new t e c h n o l o g i e s (pp. 2 6 0 - 2 6 6 ) . Dubuque, LA: Kendall/Hunt. W h i t l o c k , K. (1975) S t u d y g r o u p s : Some f o l l o w - u p proposals. T e a c h i n g a t a D i s t a n c e , 3, 44-47. Woodley, A. & P a r l e t t , M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Student T e a c h i n g a t a D i s t a n c e , 24, 2-23.  drop-out.  Y e r b u r y , J . C . (1985, A u g u s t ) . The Open U n i v e r s i t y C o n s o r t i u m o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : What a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ? Paper presented at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n Conference, Melbourne, A u s t r a l i a .  72  Appendix Initial  A  :  Questionnaire  Q U E S T I O N N A I R E T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s designed to measure student l i k e s and d i s l i k e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r area. There i s a l s o a q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d to why you are t a k i n g the course. Tour p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study i s v o l u n t a r y and w i l l not e f f e c t y o u r g r a d e , but i t w i l l a s s i s t us i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about d e s i g n i n g e f f e c t i v e d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n courses. R e t u r n i n g t h i s completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l I n d i c a t e your agreement to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. You w i l l r e c e i v e a f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t the end of the c o u r s e . Once the study i s completed, those who p a r t i c i p a t e d w i l l be sent i n f o r m a t i o n on the f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be t r e a t e d s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l l y and names w i l l not be used. T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l take about 15 minutes to complete. your o t h e r course m a t e r i a l s to Dr. M i c h a e l Catchpole.  NAME  Please return i t w i t h  PHONE  ADDRESS  Part A INSTRUCTIONS For some o f you, the major reason f o r t a k i n g t h i s course i s y o u r personal i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t area. For o t h e r s , o b t a i n i n g the course c r e d i t may be more important. Read the statement which f o l l o w s . Then c i r c l e the number on a s c a l e o f one t o f i v e which best r e f l e c t s your p o s i t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h a t statement. O b t a i n i n g the c r e d i t f o r t h i s course plans. Strongly Disagree  1  2  3  4  i s very Important to my f u t u r e c a r e e r 5  Strongly Agree  (2)  Part B INSTRUCTIONS In t h i s p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e you w i l l f i n d a s e r i e s o f statements, some of which you might use t o d e s c r i b e . y o u r s e l f o r your a t t i t u d e s . Read each statement and d e c i d e whether o r not i t a p p l i e s t o you. I f you agree w i t h a statement, c i r c l e the T, w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t the statement i s g e n e r a l l y true f o r you. I f you d i s a g r e e w i t h a statement, c i r c l e the F, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the statement i s g e n e r a l l y f a l s e f o r you. Answer every statement e i t h e r t r u e o r f a l s e , even i f you a r e not c o m p l e t e l y sure of your answer. This I s not a t e s t . This p o r t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures a t t i t u d e s . Example  When I g e t t o a hard p l a c e i n my work I u s u a l l y  —.  stop and go back to i t l a t e r .  CD  ?  I f your f i r s t r e a c t i o n t o the statement was that I t g e n e r a l l y described y o u , you would c i r c l e t h e T.  1.  I choose h o b b l e s t h a t I can share w i t h other people.  T  F  2.  People s h o u l d be more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r work.  T  F  3.  I find  4.  I am q u i t e Independent of t h e people I know.  T  F  5.  I seldom s e t standards which a r e d i f f i c u l t f o r me t o reach.  T  F  6.  I d e l i g h t i n f e e l i n g unattached.  T  F  7.  I enjoy d i f f i c u l t work.  T  F  t h a t I can t h i n k b e t t e r when I have the a d v i c e o f others. T  8.  I seldom put o u t e x t r a e f f o r t to make f r i e n d s .  9.  Family o b l i g a t i o n s make me f e e l  10.  My l i f e  11.  I have r a r e l y done e x t r a s t u d y i n g i n connection  F  T  F  important.  T  F  i s f u l l of I n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  T  F  T  F  w i t h my work.  12.  I go out o f my way to meet people.  T  F  13.  People who t r y t o r e g u l a t e my conduct w i t h r u l e s a r e a b o t h e r .  T  F  14.  I w i l l not be s a t i s f i e d u n t i l I am the best i n my f i e l d o f work.  T  F  15.  I don't r e a l l y have fun at l a r g e p a r t i e s .  T  F  16.  I would f e e l l o s t and l o n e l y roaming around the w o r l d  alone.  T  F  17.  •I t r y to work J u s t hard enough to get by.  T  F  18.  People c o n s i d e r me t o be q u i t e f r i e n d l y .  T  F  19.  I c o u l d l i v e alone and enjoy i t .  T  F  20.  I would work j u s t as hard whether or not I had t o earn a living.  T  F  I would n o t be very good a t a j o b which r e q u i r e d me t o meet people a l l day long.  T  F  21.  75  (3)  22.  I r e s p e c t r u l e s because they guide me.  T  P  23.  I get along w i t h people at p a r t i e a q u i t e w e l l .  T  F  24.  I do not l e t my work get i n the way of what I r e a l l y want t o do.  T  F  25.  I t r u l y enjoy m y s e l f a t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s .  26.  I would not mind l i v i n g i n a v e r y l o n e l y p l a c e .  27.  My g o a l i s to do a t l e a s t a l i t t l e b i t more than anyone e l s e . has done b e f o r e .  T T  28.  Things w i t h sugar i n them u s u a l l y t a s t e sweet to me.  29.  When I see someone I know from a d i s t a n c e , I don't go out o f my way  to say h e l l o .  P F  T  P  T  F  T  F F  30.  Adventures where I am on my own are a l i t t l e f r i g h t e n i n g .  T  31.  I n my work I seldom do more than i s necessary.  T  F  32.  I spend a l o t o f time v i s i t i n g f r i e n d s .  T  F  33.  I would l i k e to be alone and my own boss.  T  p  34.  I o f t e n s e t g o a l s t h a t are v e r y d i f f i c u l t to r e a c h .  T  F  35.  Sometimes I have to make a r e a l e f f o r t t o be s o c i a b l e .  T  F  36. ' I l i k e t o do whatever i s proper.  T  F  37.  People seldom t h i n k o f me as a h a r d worker.  T  F  38.  My f r i e n d s h i p s are many.  T  F  39.  I would l i k e to have a Job i n which I d i d n ' t have t o answer to anyone.  T  y  40.  My d a l l y l i f e i n c l u d e s many a c t i v i t i e s I d i s l i k e .  T  F  41.  As a c h i l d I worked a long time f o r some o f the t h i n g s I earned.  T  F  42.  I don't spend much of my time t a l k i n g w i t h people I see e v e r y day.  43.  I u s u a l l y t r y t o share my problems w i t h someone who  44.  I t doesn't r e a l l y matter to me whether o r not I become one of  can h e l p me.  the best i n my f i e l d .  45.  I t r u s t my f r i e n d s c o m p l e t e l y .  46.  I aa q u i t e independent of the o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s .  T  F  T  F  X  F T  T  P F  47.  I don't mind working w h i l e o t h e r people are h a v i n g fun.'  T  F  48.  O f t e n I would r a t h e r be alone than w i t h a group o f f r i e n d s .  T  F  49.  I don't want to be away from my f a m i l y too much.  T  F  50.  I am not r e a l l y v e r y c e r t a i n what I want to do or how  t o go  about doing i t .  T  F  51.  I t r y to be In the company of f r i e n d s as much aa p o s s i b l e .  T  F  52.  My g r e a t e s t d e s i r e i s to be independent and f r e e .  T  F  Appendix Final  B  :  Questionnaire  77  QUESTIONNAIRE  NAME  _  ADDRESS  assignments  2.  I b e l i e v e I would have done b e t t e r i n a classroom setting.  3.  There was n o t enough student p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  4.  I enjoyed t h e course.  5.  I p r e f e r t h i s method o f l e a r n i n g .  6.  I found the course m a t e r i a l s d i f f i c u l t t o understand.  7.  I l e a r n e d a l o t from t h i s course.  8.  I f e l t somewhat I s o l a t e d d u r i n g my s t u d i e s .  9.  I found I t d i f f i c u l t to s t a y motivated.  10.  I would take another course that was taught t h i s way.  Strongly Disagree  I f e l t . c o n f i d e n t t h a t I was p r e p a r i n g my as r e q u i r e d .  Disagree  1.  Agree  Please read Che f o l l o w i n g statements. Then check the box which best r e p r e s e n t s your r e a c t i o n t o to each. T h i s i s not a course e v a l u a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n I s designed t o Improve'our understanding of your e x p e r i e n c e as a d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n student.  Strongly Agree  A.  3  78  1. 2.  Were you a b l e t o complete the course? Yea No I f you were not able to complete the c o u r s e , what, was the main' reason?  1.  Were you I n c o n t a c t w i t h any o t h e r s t u d e n t s I n your d u r i n g your s t u d i e s ! Yen No __  course  I f you answered "yes" to the p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n , p l e a s e continue w i t h q u e s t i o n s 2, 3, and 4. I f you answered "no" s i m p l y move on t o s e c t i o n D. 2.  The s t u d e n t s w i t h whom I was i n c o n t a c t were people w i t h whoa I i ) was acquainted p r e v i o u s l y 11) became acquainted w i t h d u r i n g o r g a n i z e d course a c t i v i t i e s i i i ) became acquainted w i t h d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e through ay awn activities . Please describe.  3.  E s t i m a t e the number o f students. (In order t o o f t h e people I n v o l v e d , c a l l s i n which you made 1) 0 11) 1 t o 3 I i i ) 4 to 6 i v ) 7 to 9 v) 10 o r more  4.  E s t i m a t e the number o f meetings which you arranged w i t h other s t u d e n t s . (Again, i n order t o avoid h a v i n g one meeting r e p o r t e d by everyone Involved i n i t , p l e a s e p r o v i d e an e s t i m a t e o f o n l y those meetings i n which i n i t i a t e d the c o n t a c t . ) i) 0 i i ) 1 to 3 i l l ) 4 to 6 i v ) 7 to 9 v) 10 o r more  1.  Do you i n t e n d to r e g i s t e r f o r another d i s t a n c e education course i n t h e f u t u r e ? Yes No Why?  2.  telephone c a l l s you i n i t i a t e d to other a v o i d having one c a l l r e p o r t e d by both p l e a s e p r o v i d e an e s t i m a t e o f o n l y those the i n i t i a l c o n t a c t . )  79  3.  E.  I f you have any comments about the e x p e r i e n c e o f being a d i a t a n c e e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t , p l e a s e note thea i n the space p r o v i d e d below.  Appendix Data  Collected  C:  From  Subjects  81  DATA COLLECTED FROM SUBJECTS Treatment Sub 101 102 1 03 1 04 105 106 1 07 1 08 109 11 0 11 1 11 2 11 3 11 4 11 5  Ach 10 1 3 1 3 06 13 10 1 3 1 1 1 1 05 08 03 1 3 10 12  Af f 10 08 09 13 09 09 07 08 12 05 12 15 09 13 02  Aut 06 04 1 1 01 05 03 05 07 03 12 04 07 01 04 08  Sat 44 68 62 54 47 59 68 68 50 42 60 51 50 44 56  Control  Group CC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2  EB 5 1 5 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 5 5 1 1 1  Per 82 90 86 80 87 83 82 85 77 74 85 77 72  FR 1  -  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1  —  Group  1 201 10 10 70 5 93 04 -2 1 202 68 10 08 06 1 54 2 203 05 14 01 73 1 92 02 49 4 204 15 10 1 1 07 52 2 205 4 14 85 1 1 1 1 1 3 206 08 50 207 1 1 4 82 10 02 54 1 42 1 10 4 73 208 06 04 __ 1 08 09 36 4 209 09 -2 2 210 06 08 08 58 1 87 21 1 12 50 4 04 09 52 2 212 2 10 10 03 2 1 1 36 5 213 12 08 — 2 2 13 30 214 10 03 — Sub=Subject A c h = S c o r e on n e e d f o r a c h i e v e m e n t s c a l e A f f = S c o r e on need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n scale A u t = S c o r e on n e e d f o r autonomy s c a l e S a t = S c o r e on s a t s i f a c t i o n s c a l e CC=Course c o m p l e t i o n E B = E d u c a t i o n a l background P e r = P e r f o r m a n c e a s measured by mark i n c o u r s e FR=Intention to r e g i s t e r for further courses  i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .  -1 1 1 2 2  

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