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UBC Theses and Dissertations

a study of the major works of Hayashi Fumiko Brown, Janice 1985

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THE  CELEBRATION OF STRUGGLE:  A STUDY OF THE MAJOR WORKS OF HAYASHI FUMIKO by JANICE BROWN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department o f A s i a n  Studies)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  T H B O U N I V E R S I T Y ' OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  February 1985  (c)  J a n i c e Brown, 1985  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of A£(AN  5TUP/B$  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  AfrtlL  tfti^ i  DE-6  (3/81)  ii ABSTRACT  This thesis provides a c r i t i c a l evaluation of certain selected works of Hayashi Fumiko and demonstrates the unique l i t e r a r y achievement of t h i s important modern Japanese woman writer who  i s as yet l i t t l e known i n the West.  This thesis  contends that the element of struggle, so omnipresent i n t h i s writer's l i f e and works, i s the essence of her a r t i s t i c  vision.  Herein, struggle i s examined not only i n terms of theme, chara c t e r i z a t i o n , imagery, and style but also as a major determining factor i n the development and progression of narrative i t s e l f . Four p r i n c i p a l struggles are discerned:  (1) for a r t and beauty,  (2) for love, (3) for maturity and independence, and survival.  (4) for  I t i s shown also that the f i r s t three of these f  categories of struggle belong to what i n Hayashi s writings be designated as the inner world of human f e e l i n g .  may  This inner  world i s opposed to and i n c o n f l i c t with the outer world of hardship and necessity i n which the struggle for survival takes place. f  Five major stages i n the development of Hayashi s work are proposed, and representative works are discussed i n each period to i l l u s t r a t e the developments and modifications of the struggle element.  Chapter One, dealing with the period 1922^-1930,  discusses Hayashi's early poetry and her f i r s t major work, Horoki. Here, the inner struggle for art and beauty i s affirmed amidst  iii  the hardship of the outer struggle for survival.  Chapter Two  discusses the period 1931-1934,and focuses on the short stories "Fukin to sakana no machi'' and "Seihin no sho."  In these works  the inner struggles for love and for maturity are brought to the fore as Hayashi's early autobiographical fiction reaches the peak of l y r i c a l expression.  In Chapter Three, covering the  period 1936-1942, Hayashi's change to "objective" fiction i s examined, in particular her f i r s t full-length novella, Inazumaf in which the inner struggle i s weakened and debilitated by the struggle with outside circumstances * Chapter Four covers the years 1946-1949, a period which represents Hayashi's f u l l maturity.  In Ukigumo, her masterpiece, the forces of the inner  struggle assume demonic proportions, overpowering the outward struggle for survival and success.  In Chapter Five, Hayashi's  final years, 1950-1951, are examined. Here, in Meshi, the author attempts to reconcile the dichotomies of the inner and outer elements of struggle as she portrays the lives of ordinary people, striving to find self -^fulfillment in the modern world. The thesis concludes that the element of struggle provides a primary tool by which the works of this author can be fully appraised and appreciated.  By providing an explication of this  element, this thesis not only offers an insight into the mechanisms of Hayashi's genius but also presents a much^-needed introduction to and interpretation of this writer's work.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  1 1  Abstract Acknowledgements  V 1  Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 ^ ^ . Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Conclusion „ ^ Notes , Bibliography  13 •  7 7  1  ^'  8  148 201 " 234  ZUJ  240 260  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e to express my deepest thanks and appreciation to my supervisor, Professor Kinya Tsuruta, f o r his invaluable advice and consistent support throughout the writing of t h i s t h e s i s .  Also I would l i k e to express my  gratitude to Professors John Howes and Leon Zolbrod f o r their useful comments and c r i t i c i s m s on the preparation of the t e x t .  Further thanks are due to Mr. Tsuneharu Gonnami  of the Asian Studies L i b r a r y , U.B.C. for h i s help i n locating and obtaining source materials, and to Mr. Yim Tse of the same l i b r a r y for his c a l l i g r a p h i c contribution to the t e x t . The u n f a i l i n g support of my husband, William Brown, i s also acknowledged with appreciation and a f f e c t i o n .  1 INTRODUCTION  With the appearance of Horoki of  > f< ^Lt  (The Diary  a Vagabond, 1930), the b r i l l i a n t , unconventional  masterpiece that was to bring instant fame to i t s precocious young author, a new l i t e r a r y t a l e n t , Hayashi Fumiko (1903-1951), announced her presence i n the world of modern Japanese l i t e r a t u r e .  Coming from the lowest rungs of s o c i e t y ,  the daughter of i t i n e r a n t peddlers, t h i s young woman of l i t t l e education and impoverished background rose out of the dismal s o c i a l environment of Tokyo i n the 1920's to become not only one of the brightest l i t e r a r y stars of this century but also one of Japan's most popular w r i t e r s . Although Hayashi wrote c h i e f l y about the lower classes of  society —  the poor, the hopeless, and the dispossessed  —  her work i s nonetheless outstanding for a certain vigour and robustness that mark even the most tragic of her t a l e s .  Peopled  by characters who must struggle continuously against the adv e r s i t y of circumstance and the f a i l u r e of their  innermost  desires; Hayashi's writings are characterized by the depiction of  human existence as a never-ending battle for survival and  success. to  While her own biography r e f l e c t s a similar approach  l i f e , this attitude finds expression i n her works i n a  2  variety of d i s t i n c t i v e ways.  Important not only as a  major thematic element, struggle and i t s concomitant features are also' s i g n i f i c a n t factors i n the design and progression of narrative, i n the creation of character and incident, i n the patterning of imagery, and  indeed  so pervasive i s t h i s aspect i n Hayashi's work that i t may be viewed as the s i n g l e , unifying element of her a r t i s t i c vision.  An understanding of the element of struggle i n  Hayashi's works i s thus e s s e n t i a l to an understanding  and  appreciation of her a r t . This d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l assess Hayashi's work i n terms of t h i s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and at the same time w i l l examine the growth and development of t h i s writer through a c r i t i c a l evaluation of s i x major works which represent f i v e proposed p r i n c i p a l stages of her literary  career.  Aspects which w i l l be emphasized i n the  analyses include theme, imagery, characterization, narrative structure and  technique.  In Japan Hayashi Fumiko i s known and loved by the reading public; yet translations of her work i n English and other European languages are few and tend to focus on a handful of short s t o r i e s , while the longer, major works, such as Horoki, have so f a r been neglected.  Thus, Hayashi  remains, to a great extent, untranslated and unread outside  3  her own country.  The reason for this lack of recognition  by Western scholars seems due, f i r s t of a l l , to the peculiar p r a c t i c e , both i n Japan and the West, of separating modern Japanese women writers from the l i t e r a r y mainstream.  As a  r e s u l t , women writers have been ignored by Western c r i t i c s who tend to concentrate for the most part solely on the work of established male writers and l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s . While Western audiences are l i k e l y to be f a m i l i a r with the works of Kawabata Yasunari  (1899-1972) or Mishima  19  Yukio i . j|j v£££,£j 25-1970) , for example, they are equally unlikely to have any knowledge of celebrated modern Japanese women authors o r , indeed, to r e a l i z e that such a group of writers e x i s t s .  I t i s only within the past few years that  modern Japanese women writers have received even a modicum of attention by Western c r i t i c s and translators,"*" and such studies, although minimal, have revealed the existence of a f r e s h , v i b r a n t , and innovative l i t e r a r y current that has too long been ignored. A second reason for the lack of recognition l i e s i n the nature of Hayashi's l i t e r a t u r e i t s e l f .  Her work precludes  ready acceptance by Western audiences not because i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t or obscure, but, on the contrary, because i t i s exceedingly frank, down-to-earth, and  4  fervently emotional, being largely devoid of the imagery and subject matter many Western readers tend to associate, whether r i g h t l y or wrongly, with Japanese l i t e r a t u r e i n general.  Dealing primarily with the l i v e s and loves of  plebeian society, Hayashi's work would seem to have roots not i n the courtly t r a d i t i o n s of Japanese l i t e r a t u r e , but i n the colourful and l i v e l y world of such early urban writers as Ihara Saikaku the townsmen c l a s s e s .  (1642-1693) and h i s tales of Nevertheless, i n spite of her  a f f i n i t y for the lower classes and unlike many modern writers who deal with similar subjects, Hayashi does not assume any p o l i t i c a l or i d e o l o g i c a l stance and i s not, therefore, a writer of what i s c a l l e d i n Japan "proletarian literature"  (puroretaria bungaku 7 a I 9 ') 7$i'f  ).  Like many  modern Japanese women authors, Hayashi Fumiko i s not e a s i l y categorized and must be judged, f i r s t l y , within the bounds of her own l i t e r a r y group, that i s , modern Japanese women w r i t e r s , and secondly, as a writer on her own terms. In Japan, c r i t i c a l evaluations of Hayashi's writings tend to focus primarily on her l i f e rather than on her a r t , and thus c r i t i c a l biographies form the majority of single volume studies on t h i s author.  Chief among these are  Hayashi Fumiko no shogai; uzushio no j i n s e i  jfrjjL j£  \ ") % ;/£  5  — 5  i">tt "> ^  ti*k& \  by I t a g a k i N a o k o ^ * ! 13 and Hayashi Fumiko  by H i r a b a y a s h i T a i k o - ^ ^ . / :  k  >  J  .  As y e t , no  s i n g l e volume l i t e r a r y study of H a y a s h i ' s works has appeared i n Japanese o r i n E n g l i s h .  A r t i c l e s and essays on Hayashi  a l s o tend t o s t r e s s , w i t h some e x c e p t i o n s , literary analysis.  Since the s t o r y o f H a y a s h i ' s  tempestuous and e x t r a o r d i n a r y  understandable,  H a y a s h i , more so perhaps than many w r i t e r s ,  her works.  that  the b i o g r a p h i c a l emphasis  i f not e n t i r e l y j u s t i f i a b l e .  s u f f e r from undue a t t e n t i o n  life,  as i t was, e a s i l y r i v a l s  of any o f her f i c t i o n a l h e r o i n e s , is  biography over  Nevertheless,  i { £ i n c l i n e d to  to her l i f e a t the expense of  So widespread i s t h i s tendency and so c o m p e l l i n g  must Hayashi have been as a person t h a t one c o l l e c t i o n of l i t e r a r y essays on Hayashi Fumiko a l s o i n c l u d e s two s h o r t 2 n o v e l l a s by other w r i t e r s based on H a y a s h i ' s own l i f e . Besides the accent on c r i t i c a l b i o g r a p h y , Japanese critics  f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s Hayashi and her works i n  comparison w i t h other women w r i t e r s o f the same p e r i o d , most n o t a b l y w i t h the p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r , % ^ % ^ \  Miyamoto Y u r i k o  (1899-1951), and w i t h the a n a r c h i s t  H i r a b a y a s h i Taiko  ^fot~* \ >  author,  (1905-1972), who was a l s o  H a y a s h i ' s l o n g - t i m e f r i e n d and b i o g r a p h e r .  Strikingly  d i f f e r e n t i n s t y l e and l i t e r a r y o u t l o o k , the w r i t i n g s o f  6  these three women share l i t t l e i n common except perhaps to i l l u s t r a t e the great variety of women's writing during the  1930's  and  1940's  i n Japan.  Nakamura Mitsuo  tfiiJuK  ,  however, sees Hayashi as representing the emotive or "feminine" side of modern women's l i t e r a t u r e , while Miyamoto and Hirabayashi represent the i n t e l l e c t u a l or "masculine." While such contrasts and comparisons are by no means completely satisfactory as l i t e r a r y c r i t i c a l devices, Nakamura's observation does provide some insight into the nature of Hayashi's work with regard to her l i t e r a r y colleagues.  That i s , while Miyamoto and Hirabayashi focus  upon p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l issues i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s , Hayashi does not. Instead, i n company with other women authors such as Okamoto Kanoko l$\&il°> 'f*  f"t "f"^Xi (1897- ),  7  (1889-1939)  and Uno Chiyo  Hayashi chooses to base her l i t e r a t u r e  upon the depiction of the innermost feelings and s e n s i b i l i t i e s of men and women i n . l o v e .  In this respect at l e a s t ,  Hayashi shares common ground with the great c l a s s i c a l women writers of the past whose outstanding a b i l i t y to evoke the nuances of human emotion set the standards f o r a l l subsequent Japanese l i t e r a t u r e . While Hayashi's l i t e r a r y career was r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , spanning a l i t t l e over twenty years, i t exhibits a number of s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t s and modifications that make any  7  accurate evaluation of her works a f a i r l y complicated matter.  Chief among these i s the t r a n s i t i o n early i n her  career from poetry to prose.  F i r s t published as a poet  i n the 1920'sf Hayashi was slow to make the change to f i c t i o n a l w r i t i n g , experimenting with dowa ^ %fa (children's tales) and with the poetic diary format i n Horoki before producing her f i r s t prose works i n the early 1930's. Horoki, the f i r s t work to bring Hayashi success, i s considered to be her maiden work and w i l l be discussed herein as the work most representative of t h i s e a r l i e s t stage of Hayashi's career, the period 1922-1930.  Remarkable not only for i t s  mixture of poetry and prose, Horoki also chronicles Hayashi's early struggles to achieve success as a poet and author. This autobiographical emphasis with i t s focus on the l i f e and loves of a young, poverty-stricken poetess ensured Horoki's great popularity and helped establish Hayashi as an important woman writer early i n her career.  In Horoki,  Hayashi u t i l i z e d a number of themes and techniques which she would continue to develop i n her work as time went on. Of prime importance i n t h i s regard was the contrast between the outer struggle for survival and the inner struggle for a r t i s t i c success.  Hayashi depicted such struggles as  mutually antagonistic, , showing the outward demands of society and the inner dictates of the a r t i s t i c experience  8  to be i r r e c o n c i l a b l y at odds.  Nevertheless, with a  panache and boldness of s p i r i t that i s surely one of the great charms of this work, the young Horoki protagonist triumphs over every setback as the inner struggle for a r t and beauty i s reaffirmed amid the degradation of extreme poverty and hardship. In the years immediately following the publication of Horoki, Hayashi continued to experiment with autobiographical f i c t i o n as she struggled to f i n d her niche i n the l i t e r a r y world of the day.  During t h i s period 1931-1934, Hayashi  produced a number of excellent poetic-autobiographical pieces which represent the peak of her achievement i n this l i t e r a r y mode. Two representative works, the short stories "Fukin to sakana.no machi" l i l ^ t .& °> v*X Fish Town, 1931)  (Accordion and  and "Seihin no sho" J"J \ *> ~% (A Record of  Honourable Poverty, 1931) have been chosen to i l l u s t r a t e Hayashi's accomplishment at t h i s stage i n her career and, f u r t h e r , to underline new developments i n the use of the element of struggle.  In "Fukin to sakana no machi," for  example, the inner struggle centres upon a bid for personal growth and maturity as the realm of c h i l d and adult are brought into c o n f l i c t , while i n "Seihin no sho" the inner struggle i s that of the search for f u l f i l l m e n t i n love.  9  While t h i s story marks the culmination of Hayashi's early l y r i c a l prose works, both pieces disclose two further depictions of the inner struggle which, together with the struggle for beauty, would remain as constant factors i n Hayashi's work, undergoing but s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n throughout the  r e s t of her career.  Hayashi's fine sense of the inner  struggle as a poetic b a t t l e waged against the forces of d e s t i t u t i o n and adversity i s amply revealed i n these two exceptional early s t o r i e s . By the mid-1930's Hayashi's career underwent another s i g n i f i c a n t change of d i r e c t i o n .  Turning away from the  poetic-autobiographical f i c t i o n which had brought her so much acclaim, Hayashi began work on n a t u r a l i s t i c , "objective" novels, focusing upon the domestic situations of the urban lower c l a s s e s .  In the works of t h i s t h i r d period 1935-1942,  Hayashi depicts the struggles of women as they attempt to overcome the c o n s t r i c t i n g circumstances of t h e i r l i v e s and find t h e i r own happiness.  In contrast to the bright and  optimistic writings of Hayashi's f i r s t and second periods, third-period works, such as the representative Tnazuma fcq %; (Lightning, 1936), are unexpectedly dark and gloomy.  Here, the  inner struggle for maturity and independence i s overwhelmed by the  struggle with outer circumstances as Hayashi's i n t r e p i d  heroines f a i l to f i n d s a t i s f a c t o r y solutions to their desperate  10  situations. Hayashi continued to plumb s t i l l further the depths of darkness and misery as she chronicled the g r i e f and hardship brought by war and i t s aftermath i n her novels and stories of the fourth period, 1946-1949. After the rigorous censorship of the war years, during which Hayashi wrote l i t t l e , the end of the war saw an incredible increase i n Hayashi's l i t e r a r y production.  During these years,  Hayashi's l i t e r a t u r e reached i t s f u l l maturity as a variety of excellent works followed one another i n rapid succession. Foremost among these i s the work which may be considered Hayashi's masterpiece, Ukigumo >"| 1949).  (Drifting Clouds,  One of Hayashi's most t r a g i c s t o r i e s , Ukigumo i s  also one of her most complex.  In a reversal of e a r l i e r  themes and motifs, Ukigumo depicts the destruction of the outer struggle f o r s u r v i v a l by the inner forces of struggle as the protagonists pursue an unattainable beauty and happiness. Here, struggle becomes a mere exercise i n f u t i l i t y as every action and incident seems destined to end i n defeat. Just as the e a r l i e r "Seihin no sho" represented  the apex  of Hayashi's accomplishment i n the e a r l i e r periods of her career, so does Ukigumo represent the peak of Hayashi's achievement i n her l a t e r years.  Not only does Ukigumo  s k i l l f u l l y weld the various elements of past works into  11  a new whole, i t also represents a major s t y l i s t i c ?  triumph i n which Hayashi s poetic s e n s i b i l i t y finds i t s f u l l e s t expression within the prose medium.  Although  there i s evidence of further development i n Hayashi*s subsequent writings, her work was never again to a t t a i n such heights as those reached by Ukigumo. In the l a s t months of her l i f e , Hayashi continued to sustain her p r o l i f i c l i t e r a r y output.  At the same time,  much of her work began to exhibit fresh interests and concerns.  new  In t h i s f i f t h and l a s t period 1950-1951, Hayashi  turned her attention once again to the domestic arena, and i n novels l i k e Meshi  L (Meals, 1951) which r e c a l l the works  of the t h i r d period, she depicts the inner struggles of ordinary people as they search for s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t i n the modern world.  Circumscribed not so much by the darkness  and misfortune engendered by the struggle with outer circumstances as by the tedium of such a struggle, the protagonists of Meshi s t r i v e to come to terms with themselves and with each other as the author herself attempts a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the inner and outer struggles.  Unfortunately, Hayashi's  early death cut short not only her work on Meshi which remains unfinished, but also any further attempt to resolve further the c o n f l i c t s and dichotomies which characterize her work and which, i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s ,  12  lend i t i t s i n d i v i d u a l f l a v o u r . In order to discern more c l e a r l y the exact nature of Hayashi's a r t and thus of her contribution to modern Japanese l i t e r a t u r e , the above stages of Hayashi's career w i l l now be examined i n greater d e t a i l with p a r t i c u l a r attention to the representative work or works relevant to each proposed stage.  Although this d i s s e r t a t i o n focuses  primarily upon the l i t e r a r y evaluation and c r i t i c i s m of Hayashi's works, certain pertinent biographical material w i l l also be presented, not only to a i d i n the understanding and appreciation of her works, p a r t i c u l a r l y the early autobiographical f i c t i o n , but also to show how Hayashi's own experience of struggle and hardship came to be incorporated into a singular and unconventional a r t i s t i c consciousness that was to raise both Hayashi and her l i t e r a t u r e from the depths of ignominy to a place of prominence among the writers of modern Japan.  13  CHAPTER 1  EARLY YEARS: THE POET-VAGABOND OF HOROKI, 1922-1930  Early L i f e : The Poetic Substratum  Marked by the hardship and i n s t a b i l i t y engendered by the necessity of constant t r a v e l , Hayashi's early l i f e with her peddler parents offered l i t t l e opportunity for the development of l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y o r , indeed, for the development of any talent outside the d a i l y struggle for existence.  Instead, Hayashi l i v e d on the fringes of  society i n extreme poverty amid the homeless and outcast. Deprived not only of economic and domestic security, Hayashi also lacked the s t a b i l i t y of a conventional family background.  Born 31 December 1903 i n M o j i , a town situated  i n Fukuoka Prefecture across the s t r a i t from Shimonoseki, she was entered i n the Hayashi family register as Fumiko ( 7;3  ) , daughter of Kiku (b. 1867).  Since Kiku's  marriage was not l e g i t i m i z e d , the father's name was not recorded. Hayashi's father, Miyata Asataro, was the eldest son of a farming family i n Ehime Prefecture. He and Kiku met  14  at the Hayashi family's hot spring hotel on  Sakurajima  i n Kyushu, and after a b r i e f l i a i s o n , they l e f t  Sakurajima  together to take up th<e wandering l i f e of peddlers.  After  Fumiko's b i r t h , Asataro found work i n pawnshop auctions i n Shimonoseki, and eventually, due to h i s considerable business acumen, he opened h i s own shop i n that same c i t y with branches i n Wakamatsu, Kumamoto, and Nagasaki.  In  spite of his success, however, he never formally recognized Kiku as his wife nor Fumiko as his daughter.  In 1907  Asataro moved his headquarters from Shimonoseki to Wakamatsu, taking along his family and chief c l e r k , Sawai Kisaburo. Three years l a t e r , when Fumiko was seven years o l d , this attempt at settled family l i f e f e l l apart.  Asataro began  making arrangements to move a l o c a l geisha into the household, and Kiku together with the clerk Kisaburo l e f t the house one snowy New Year's night, taking Fumiko with them.  They went f i r s t to Nagasaki, but by the next  year, 1911, they were back i n Shimonoseki, where Fumiko L  began primary school again f o r the second or t h i r d time." Although Kiku and Kisaburo l i v e d together u n t i l h i s  death i n 1933, they had no children of their own, perhaps due i n part to the fact that Kiku was some twenty years older than Kisaburo. The unconventional and indomitable Kiku was to exert a l i f e - l o n g influence on her daughter,  15  and the two remained exceptionally close a l l t h e i r l i v e s . Kisaburo, i n contrast to Asataro, treated his foster daughter, Fumiko, with great a f f e c t i o n and kindness, as 2  i f she were i n fact his own  child.  Not as good a  businessman as Asataro, however, Kisaburo was  soon bankrupt,  and i n 1914 he and Kiku began to make their l i v i n g as peddlers.  Fumiko was sent to l i v e with her maternal  grandmother i n Kagoshima but soon returned to her mother and foster father and spent the next two years t r a v e l l i n g about the countryside with them. Although most of her young l i f e had been spent i n almost constant movement, Hayashi's early wanderings were about to draw to a c l o s e .  In May  1916 Hayashi,  now  thirteen years of age, and her peddler parents arrived i n Onomichi, a small seaside town located on the Inland Sea almost halfway between Okayama and Hiroshima.  Here,  Hayashi was to l i v e for the next s i x years, attending high school and l i v i n g a more or less s e t t l e d l i f e . indeed, from her e a r l i e s t years, Hayashi was  A vagabond,  considered  an eccentric by her classmates and had few f r i e n d s .  Her  f i r s t short story, "Fukin to sakana no machi," which w i l l be discussed i n Chapter Two, describes this period of her life.  Although Hayashi was the product of a l i f e - s t y l e  a l i e n to that of the ordinary Japanese s c h o o l g i r l , she  16  early showed a b i l i t y i n music, p a i n t i n g , and  literature,  talents which were noticed and encouraged by one of the teachers i n her elementary school, Kobayashi Masao. Kobayashi was instrumental i n getting Hayashi's parents to send her to the Onomichi G i r l s ' High School, which Hayashi entered i n 1918 at the age of f i f t e e n .  Here, Hayashi  made her f i r s t attempts at l i t e r a r y creation: she began to write l y r i c a l poetry, a pastime which would become the foundation of a l i t e r a r y career. Upon graduation from high school i n 1922 at the age of nineteen, Hayashi l e f t Onomichi alone for Tokyo, intent upon marrying a l o c a l boy who was a student at M e i j i University i n Tokyo.  The young man, Okano Gun'ichi, came  from a f a i r l y prosperous land-owning family on the island of In (In no shima).  Although the Okano family did not  approve of the match, Hayashi determined to marry Gun'ichi and went to Tokyo with t h i s as her f i r s t p r i o r i t y . ' Pursuit 3  of a l i t e r a r y career was secondary.  While waitxng for  Gun'ichi to f i n i s h school, Hayashi took a variety of jobs. She worked i n a bath house, i n a shoe shop, i n an e l e c t r i c a l goods shop, i n a c e l l u l o i d factory, as a clerk i n a mailing business and i n a stockbroker's, and f i n a l l y as a waitress i n a cafe.  Although the two d i d not l i v e together, on  several occasions Hayashi helped Gun'ichi with expenses.  17  Soon after her a r r i v a l i n Tokyo, Hayashi's parents joined her and started up a business dealing i n secondhand clothes. work.  From time to time Hayashi helped them with the  This humble occupation as well as Hayashi's other  temporary employment would be v i v i d l y portrayed i n the pages of Horoki, where the young protagonist must struggle through a similar succession of low-paying jobs just to survive. His  Gun'ichi, too, would appear i n Horoki.  graduation  After  that same year (1922), he decided not to  marry Fumiko, due primarily to repeated opposition from his  family.  This f a i t h l e s s f i r s t love appeared i n Horoki  as the "man from the island," the f i r s t of many similar male figures i n Hayashi's works: indecisive and self-centred young men incapable of any passionate long-term commitment. When the Great Kanto Earthquake devastated Tokyo i n September 1923, Hayashi was forced to evacuate to Osaka. Later she and her parents were re-united i n Shikoku where she began to keep a d i a r y , c a l l i n g i t "Utanikki" (poetic d i a r y ) ; l a t e r , i t became Horoki.  $  Also at t h i s  time Hayashi began to use the pen name she was to become known by:  Hayashi Fumiko  The character f u ^  i s the character for a type of rose mallow or hibiscus with large pink and white flowers. mi j(  i s the character for "beauty."  The character for Hayashi's love for  beautiful flowers not only influenced her choice of pen  18  name but also provided a source of inspiration for images that recur throughout her works. Many of Hayashi's novels and short stories bear flower names as t i t l e s , while the poem that became her epitaph praises flowers in a traditional Japanese way, yet with a characteristic Hayashi touch: The l i f e of a flower is brief f i l l e d only with the pain of countless sufferings. 4 In spite of the i n i t i a l emphasis on the ephemerality of beauty i n this poem, the poet seems less interested i n transience  than i n the struggle to survive. Rather than  a feeling of despair, this poem imparts a sense of the teeming v i t a l i t y of a l l existence where trouble and strife are the order of the day and where, but for struggle and pain, the flower and i t s beauty would not exist. For Hayashi, both in her final poem and throughout a l l her works, struggle i s the essence of l i f e and the means by which art and beauty come into being. Not one to be discouraged by previous hardship, Hayashi in 1924 again returned to Tokyo. There she found a job as maid i n the household of the writer Chikamatsu Shuko iitf^if^*  (1876-1944),  but dissatisfied after two weeks,  she l e f t and again worked at a number of insignificant  19  occupations.  During t h i s time she became acquainted  with Tabe Yoshio, a shingeki j r ^ ^ ' l  (new drama) a c t o r ,  poet, and singer, and the two l i v e d together for a short period.  Through Tabe, Hayashi met various anarchist poets  and writers who congregated above a French-style restaurant in the Hongo section of Tokyo. writers as Tsuboi Shigeji '3£ Tsuboi Sakae (1901-  This group included such  4  (1900*1967),  (1898-  Okamoto Jun  ) , and Hagiwara Kyojiro j^f$. %p ;£ f.f  ) , his wife, l£] ^ >#] (1899-1938).  Anarchistic ideas as well as the writers and poets who espoused them were to have a decided influence on Hayashi*s writings, p a r t i c u l a r l y on her early poetry and also to a -  -  5  certain extent on Horoki.  Among this group of people,  Hayashi also met Hirabayashi Taiko with whom she became fast f r i e n d s .  In later years Taiko would undertake the  task of writing a biography of Hayashi, primarily from the standpoint of Hayashi's love a f f a i r s . The relationship with Tabe, however, was s h o r t - l i v e d . Tabe was involved with an actress when he met Hayashi and soon returned to his mistress after three months. When Tabe l e f t , Hayashi went to l i v e i n student lodgings. together with the poet Tomotani Shizue  ^L<£"ff  There,  whom she  had met also through her association with Tabe, she began i n July 1 9 2 4 to publish a small poetry pamphlet e n t i t l e d  20  Futari  ~  During i t s short existence, F u t a r i  published a number of Hayashi's poems, including one of her best known early p i e c e s , (Lord Buddha, 1924): I've f a l l e n i n love with Lord Buddha. When I kiss his cool l i p s ah, I'm so undeserving, my heart i s benumbed. So unworthy am I, from head to toe my calm blood flows against i t s t i d e . Seated on the lotus so composed and g r a c e f u l , his manly bearing bewitches my s o u l . 0, Lord Buddha, you're not paying any attention to me'I 0, Lord Buddha, I don't believe itfs your intention to l e t into my heart, broken l i k e a bee's nest, the ultimate understanding of the cruelty of your chanted prayer. With your manly bearing leap into my flaming breast. Stained by earthly l i f e i s this woman. Embrace her unto death. g  0, blessed Lord Buddha. E r o t i c and f l i r t a t i o u s , "Oshaka-sama" i s generally .  .  .  -7  supposed to have been written with Tabe i n mind. ' Here, i n what seems to be a parting tribute to the man who  both  influenced and encouraged her early poetic career, Hayashi s k i l l f u l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y contrasts the tempestuousness of human passion with the s t a t i c perfection of the d i v i n e .  21  Imagining herself involved i n an i r r e g u l a r and rather impetuous love a f f a i r with the Lord Buddha, the poetess kisses his l i p s and finds herself benumbed, her blood flows backwards, her heart i s broken, she begs for h i s embrace; yet the Lord Buddha remains cool and impervious, s i t t i n g on his lotus seat.  Hayashi, however, i s captivated  not by the Buddha's s p i r i t u a l a t t r i b u t e s , but rather by his "manliness" (otokoburi), that i s , his physical q u a l i t i e s . I t i s the man she loves, not the god.  Hayashi also t e l l s  us that human love i s v i o l e n t , chaotic, demanding, yet f r a i l and perhaps longs for some p e r f e c t , b e a u t i f u l , and e s s e n t i a l l y unattainable i d e a l .  From t h i s time onward,  i n both prose and poetry, the search for a "pure" or "true" love was to become a consistent thematic feature of Hayashi's work. Tabe himself also had poetry published.  Some of h i s  poems appeared i n the left-wing l i t e r a r y magazine Bungei sens en  ^ &  during the summer of 1924, and i n the  August i s s u e , Hayashi made her own formal l i t e r a r y debut with a poem e n t i t l e d "Joko no utaeru" ~k  °> \ ^ h ot  (Song of a Woman Factory Worker): Although I am poor I think of f l y i n g up into the skyI - my legs are anchored with iron chains!  22  In j a i l my v i e w i s o b s t r u c t e d ! - t h r o u g h a s m a l l window t h e t r e m b l i n g o f one g r e e n l e a f t e a c h e s me t h e b r e a d t h o f t h e g r e a t sky. Don't make a f o o l o f me! I b e l i e v e i n my s t r e n g t h . E v e n t h o u g h I am p o o r , I am s t r o n g . I am n o t s a d . Because o f t h i s p o v e r t y , Because o f my s o l i t a r y s t r e n g t h , l i k e a worm s l o w l y c r a w l i n g f o r t h e s a k e o f x x x , day a f t e r day I l i v e i n torment. Between my c l a m p e d l i p s my b a c k t e e t h s t r i k e out s p a r k s i n unbearable vexation g and a r e g r a d u a l l y worn down.  When we find  compare  the  " J o k o no  utaeru"  with  "Oshaka-sama,"  same l y r i c a l e g o c e n t r i c i t y and  corporeal  images; y e t  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , and  here the  instead of  preference  to a c e r t a i n  for  l a n g u a g e e x h i b i t s much e r o t i c i s m , we  H a y a s h i ' s tremendous f o r c e f u l n e s s f o r the Influenced  we  e x t e n t by  the  less  encounter  first  time.  polemical  style  of  p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t i n g t h e n i n vogue i n J a p a n , H a y a s h i , i n " J o k o no at the  utaeru,"  prison-like  cries  out  i n claustrophobic  atmosphere of  unlike proletarian writers rhetoric;  political  as  brotherhood or humanity, nor she  strength  i n the  n e i t h e r d o e s she  a f f i r m s her face  of  a factory floor.  i n general, Hayashi  no  Instead,  frustration  own  d o e s she  Yet,  employs  espouse such demand  individuality  and  overwhelming poverty  and  causes  justice. personal destitution.  23  In a display of astonishing visceral force, Hayashi's v i t a l i t y bursts forth from every l i n e .  Although this poem  lacks the later refinement of her other poetry i n a similar vein, i t i s nonetheless remarkable as an expression of Hayashi's extraordinary determination to survive and succeed. Even i n the most hopeless of occupations, she manages to endure, emitting sparks of v i t a l energy like some powerful, indefatigable living machine. After the publication of "3"oko no utaeru," Hayashi continued her struggle to live and to write.  By the end of  1924, she had found a new love interest, twenty-three-yearold Nomura Kichiya, an anarchist poet and writer.  Hayashi  and Nomura were to live together for two years, but this arrangement proved to be even more disastrous than the i l l - f a t e d union with Tabe. Constantly without money and unable to make a satisfactory living from writing, Nomura often vented his anger and frustration on Hayashi by beating her.  To help make ends meet, Hayashi worked as a  cafe waitress and, together with her friend Hirabayashi Taiko, went from publisher to publisher trying to s e l l her children's stories and poetry, but with l i t t l e luck. The final s p l i t came i n 1926 when Nomura l e f t Hayashi to marry someone else.  Hayashi and Taiko then lived together  over a sake shop, worked as waitresses, and continued to write.  24  Taiko was the f i r s t to achieve success when her short story " A z a k e r u " 4 >  (Insult, 1926) won a prize sponsored  by the Osaka Mainichi newspaper.  Later that year, Hayashi  met the man who would become her t h i r d husband, Tezuka Ryokubin  (b. 1902).  Tezuka was the second son of a farmer  from Nagano Prefecture and also a Western-style painter. The couple were married i n December 1926 and began a happy but impoverished l i f e together.  "Seihin no sho," which  w i l l be discussed i n Chapter Two, deals with this period in Hayashi's l i f e . In the same month as her marriage, Hayashi also published her poem "Kurushii uta" ~£ C  1 k  (Song i n  D i s t r e s s , 1926) i n the magazine Bungei ichiba In  TJ»  t h i s , which may be considered one of her best as well as  one of her most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c poems, Hayashi c r i e s out against the poverty and hardship of her l i f e : Neighbours, relatives, lovers what are they to me? If that which we eat i n l i f e i s not s a t i s f y i n g the pretty flowers we have painted w i l l wither. Though I want to work cheerfully I squat so p a t h e t i c a l l y small amidst a l l kinds of curses. I t r y to raise both arms high but w i l l they a l l betray such a pretty woman? I cannot always hug d o l l s and keep s i l e n t .  25  Even i f I am hungry or without work I must not shout Wo-o! Lest the fortunate ones k n i t t h e i r brows. Although I s p i t blood and die i n agony the earth c e r t a i n l y won't stop i n i t s tracks. They are preparing healthy b u l l e t s one after another. In the show window there i s freshly baked bread. Ah, how l i g h t l y beautiful l i k e the sound of a piano i s the world I've never known. Then a l l at once, « I f e e l l i k e crying out, god damn i t ! Unable to keep s i l e n t l i k e the clenched-mouth factory worker of her e a r l i e r poem, Hayashi now curses her own helplessness i n a world that threatens to destroy her.  At the same time,  she i s a l l too p a i n f u l l y aware of the delicacy and beauty of that same world that seems to l i e forever beyond her reach.  This beautiful world was brought c l o s e r , however,  when Hayashi's f r i e n d , the author and playwright Hasegawa "1 ^ fa ( 1 8 7 9 - 1 9 4 1 ) , launched the magazine  Shigure  Nyonin geijutsu -jjfA. jUj i n July 1928 and began to publish the f i r s t installments of Horoki i n October of that same year.  At the early age of twenty-five, Hayashi's success  was assured.  Yet the p a t h e t i c a l l y crouching female figure  of "Kurushii uta," once created, was never to be abandoned. In spite of Hayashi's continued successes throughout her l i f e , both i n l i t e r a t u r e and i n journalism, this victimized  26  yet passionately determined creature continued to appear again and again i n poems, novels, and stories as a stock Hayashi character.  "Kurushii uta," i n spite of i t s tone  of despair, exhibits a f i e r c e v i t a l i t y that belies the poet's confessed v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  Ready to cast aside  family, f r i e n d s , and lovers i f she can but s a t i s f y her tremendous appetite for l i f e , the poet finds herself hindered at every turn.  As she recounts the numerous  d i f f i c u l t i e s that beset her, her sense of outrage and f r u s t r a t i o n increases.  Refusing to give i n or accept her  f a t e , she bursts out i n an expression of defiance, and  thus,  by the end of the poem, we no longer v i s u a l i z e her squatting amidst curses.  Instead, she herself c a l l s out a curse,  and thereby establishes the primacy of her own  existence.  This f i n a l imprecation reveals a strength and robustness that, instead of negating the poet's experience, reaffirms her own  tremendous w i l l as well as her unending struggle  against a l l hardship.  From t h i s point onward, the depiction  of such struggles, rooted firmly i n the d e s t i t u t i o n and distress of Hayashi's early l i f e experience, would continue to form the basis of her work, imparting to her l i t e r a t u r e a powerful v i t a l i t y that challenges continually l i f e ' s pain and s u f f e r i n g .  27  Horoki - The Diary of a Vagabond  Horoki i s an autobiographical work i n diary form. It i s divided into three p a r t s .  Depicting the hardships  and sufferings of Hayashi Fumiko i n her early years, Horoki recounts her attempts, f i r s t of a l l , to gain recognition as a poet and, f i n a l l y , when this f a i l s , as a writer of short stories and novellas.  A kind of " p o r t r a i t of the  a r t i s t , " Horoki deals with actual people and events i n Hayashi's early l i f e and records her early a r t i s t i c struggles. Although Horoki purports to be autobiography, i t i s also a work of f i c t i o n i n which characters and events have been  c a r e f u l l y manipulated to s u i t the author's purpose.  Hayashi a l t e r s her own b i r t h date, for example.  She t e l l s  us she was born i n May, when i n actual fact she was born i n December.  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r passage, Fumiko"^ and her  mother are eking out a bare existence together i n Tokyo, Fumiko s i t s out on the verandah i n the A p r i l sun, watching the spring haze climb up from the dark earth.  I t ' l l soon  be May, she thinks, I was born i n May.''"''' Like the spring haze which d r i f t s over the land, Fumiko, too, seems to have been born of the mists that wander here and there, close to the earth but never s e t t l i n g .  Given the wandering  28  / f< ) motif of Horoki, this b i r t h among the d r i f t i n g  (horo  haze of late spring i s thematically as well as p o e t i c a l l y more e f f e c t i v e than a b i r t h i n the c o l d , stagnant days of late December. In other instances, actual events are considerably altered or-otherwise exaggerated to create more dramatically satisfying situations.  Tabe Yoshio, for example, i s one  figure that suffers considerable v i l i f i c a t i o n for the sake of a r t . Identified only as the "Tokyo actor," Tabe i s portrayed as a b i t of a cad who pretends great poverty so that Fumiko w i l l go to work. to e a t .  " I ' l l soon have nothing l e f t  I'd join any troup at a l l , but I have my pride," 12  Tabe t e l l s Fumiko.  I  'Tabe, however, i s concealing savings  of two^thousand yen which Fumiko finds one night.  In later  years, Tabe was to maintain that the sum was not h i s , but represented the expense money for the t r a v e l l i n g troupe of 13  which he was a member.  At any r a t e , whatever the truth of  the matter, Hayashi u t i l i z e s t h i s incident to underline two of her p r i n c i p a l motifs, the selfishness of men and the basic disjunctiveness of male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Most notable of Hayashi's f i c t i o n a l i z i n g devices i s the rearrangement of actual events to s u i t the author's own f i c t i o n a l chronology.  This technique i s of special  29  significance i n the evaluation of structure i n Horoki as well as i n an assessment of the role of Nomura, Hayashi's second husband.  I t thus requires a closer examination of  the text i t s e l f . The Horoki text has had almost as chequered a career as the female figure i t portrays.  O r i g i n a l l y published i n  s e r i a l form i n Nyonin geijutsu from October 1928 14 - 1930,  Horoki was  to October-  subsequently divided into two sections  e n t i t l e d "Horoki" and "Zoku Horoki" and published as two single volumes by Kaizosha i n 1930.  By 1939 these  sections had become Part I and Part II of what was termed the f i n a l e d i t i o n (ketteiban S t i l l l a t e r , after World War  two then  £ tiK ) of Horoki.  II when the old censorship  laws were l i f t e d , Part III was added to complete the work as i t now  stands.  Part III was not a l a t e r piece of w r i t i n g ,  however, but had been written during the same time span as Parts I and I I .  I t had never been published due to the  author's fear of censorship. A l l three parts of Horoki are i n the form of a diary which covers a time span of about f i v e years.  The entries  consist of poetry and prose, beginning with the narrator's b i r t h i n Shimonoseki and moving from a p r o v i n c i a l childhood to young womanhood i n Tokyo where she goes with the intention of seeking her fortune.  This search proves  30  arduous as Fumiko soon discovers. Forced to work i n only the most menial jobs, Fumiko l i v e s i n squalor. reading, and writing become her only escape.  Poetry,  She manages  to write children's stories which occasionally s e l l , but she has no luck with her poetry, or indeed, with anything else.  Always on the move, unable to s e t t l e , she f l o a t s  from job to job and also from man to man. with women are also unstable.  Her relationships  The only l a s t i n g human  attachment Fumiko has i s the l i n k with her parents i n the country, p a r t i c u l a r l y her mother whom she often v i s i t s and to whom she sends money she can i l l a f f o r d . Although she never loses sight of her two-fold goal: to make a great deal of money and to become a successful poet, Fumiko seldom meets with any circumstances which indicate that such a p o s s i b i l i t y i s even remotely  likely.  She herself acknowledges t h i s as we can see i n the following poetic excerpt from Part I: What i s i n my heart? Money, money, money i s necessary! Money makes the world go round, they say but no matter how I work ^5 i t doesn't go round for me... Fumiko i s t r u l y down and out; her l i f e i n chaos.  Ill-treated  by men, cheated by others, out of work and hungry one day, finding a job i n a cafe and getting drunk the next, Fumiko  31  moves through a v i o l e n t and decadent world over which she has no c o n t r o l .  Eventually, driven by despair and l o n e l i -  ness, Fumiko attempts s u i c i d e , but the sleeping medicine doesn't work, and she l i v e s .  Deciding then and there to  give up her l i f e i n the cafes, she determines to devote herself to l i t e r a t u r e , and i n the f i n a l section, we see her writing and l i v i n g the peddler's l i f e once again with her beloved parents who have brought their business to Tokyo.  Unfortunately, her many unpublished manuscripts, 16  which look l i k e "rainbows" accepted for p u b l i c a t i o n .  to her eyes, have yet to be Horoki ends with a poem about  finding a two-sen coin and the narrator imagining what d e l i c i o u s treats i t w i l l buy. Horoki i s made of —  T h i s , then, i s the s t u f f  a seemingly random selection of diary  entries portraying a few years i n the highly irregular l i f e of an ingenuous, self-indulgent, romantic young woman. These q u a l i t i e s do not offend the reader.  On the contrary,  we are soon charmed by Fumiko's naivete and impressed by her sheer dauntlessness i n the face of constant setbacks and almost unrelenting misery and poverty. The chaotic l i f e - s t y l e portrayed i n Horoki i s concomi t a n t with the o v e r a l l structure of the work: a diary with sporadic e n t r i e s .  Actual dates are seldom given.  Although  32  at times months follow one another consecutively, there also may be gaps of one, two, or even s i x months.  Events  described i n one time period do not necessarily continue into the next time period, and new episodes often begin abruptly. a "diary"  Referred to by most Japanese c r i t i c s as either 17  or an "autobiographical novel i n diary form,"  18  Horoki seems too fragmentary to be c l a s s i f i e d as a novel. In some respects, unity and continuity are l a c k i n g .  This  i s no doubt due i n part to the manner i n which i t was w r i t t e n , being hurriedly jotted down at d i f f e r e n t places 19 and at d i f f e r e n t times over a four- to five-year period. While t h i s may imply the author has no story to t e l l , t h i s impression i s i n c o r r e c t .  However fragmented i t may be and  however much i t may lack a conventionally ordered narrative structure, Horoki emerges as an exceptional piece of f i c t i o n . It reveals, upon closer examination, a unique narrative and thematic framework which gives cohesion and s o l i d i t y to an otherwise amorphous composition. In order to see how such a framework helps support and sustain the n a r r a t i v e , i t i s necessary f i r s t of a l l to examine the s t r u c t u r a l relationship between Part I and Part II i n some d e t a i l .  In Part I, events follow a linear time  scale; one expects Part II to continue i n the same manner  33  since Part II i s the o r i g i n a l "Zoku Horoki" or "Horoki Continued."  However, this expectation i s not f u l f i l l e d .  Part II i s not a continuation but i s a kind of  supplementary  account that f i l l s i n sections l e f t out i n Part I.  For  example, Part I begins with a short prologue e n t i t l e d "Horoki izen" i n which we are given a b r i e f picture of the narrator's early l i f e .  The main story l i n e of Horoki then 20  begins i n December 1922  when Fumiko i s f i r e d from her  job  as maid i n the house of Chikamatsu Shuko.  I t then  progresses through accounts of her subsequent l i f e i n Tokyo, the relationship with the Tokyo actor, her travels i n Osaka and Kyoto, and her eventual return to Tokyo to l i v e with a young g i r l f r i e n d , Toki-chan.  Part I covers roughly a  three-year time span which comes to a close i n 1926 with Toki's departure to l i v e with a man who has bought her a r i n g and a coat. for  At the same time Fumiko receives payment  a children's story she has w r i t t e n . Part II tacks back almost to where the main story of  Part I began, but begins one month l a t e r i n January  1923  with Fumiko's journey to In no shima to v i s i t the "man the island."  from  Part II then proceeds to f i l l i n some of the  blank spaces of Part I and ends with Fumiko's suicide attempt one month after Toki-chan's departure. II  Thus, Part  covers almost exactly the same time period as Part I,  34  and both of these sections could be combined into one long chronological section by rearranging the various episodes. Part I I I , on the other hand, continues onwards from Part II as a true "Zoku Horoki."  Beginning i n March  shortly after Fumiko*s recovery from the suicide attempt, Part III deals with Fumiko's f i r s t and unsuccessful attempt to publish her poetry c o l l e c t i o n Aouma o mi tar i  l  .hj £ J L ^ )  (I Saw a Pale Horse, 1929), her decision to give up poetry i n favour of the novel, her relationship with Nomura, and her eventual return to peddling with her mother i n Tokyo. Of these events, the relationship with Nomura i s of p a r t i cular importance.  This a f f a i r demonstrates one of the  minor inconsistencies i n Horoki and highlights Hayashi's d i f f i c u l t y i n maintaining a conventional chronology given the complexity of structure.  At the same time, the  relationship with Nomura provides an important turning point in the n a r r a t i v e , bringing to the fore Fumiko*s struggle for a r t i s t i c success. For example, i n Parts I and I I , there are several v e i l e d references to a "man" or "husband" with whom Fumiko has a d i f f i c u l t and trying r e l a t i o n s h i p . 21  Various biographers  i d e n t i f y this man as Nomura, -; yet Fumiko does not make h i s i d e n t i t y c l e a r , and Nomura does not appear as himself u n t i l  35  Part I I I .  Although the appearance of t h i s man i n Parts  I and II does not coincide with what the reader knows of Fumiko's l i f e a t these points i n the story, h i s introduction i s not necessarily incongruous.  The introduction of t h i s  unidentified "man" serves to express a truth that, i n terms of the Horoki n a r r a t i v e , i s as v a l i d as the truth of r e a l i t y i t s e l f ; that i s , t h i s figure appears as j u s t one more f a i l u r e i n a long l i n e of Fumiko's unsatisfactory r e l a t i o n ships.  By his very anonymity, he seems to underline the  fact that men i n general are somehow i n i m i c a l to the heroine. When Nomura i s i d e n t i f i e d and enters the story i n Part I I I , i t i s as a poet and w r i t e r , which i s i n keeping with the tenor of this l a s t section i n which Fumiko's l i t e r a r y struggle is. emphasized.  Itagaki Naoko speculates  that  Hayashi hesitated to i d e n t i f y Nomura i n Part I and Part II because he was s t i l l a l i v e when those sections were being 22  published.  A e s t h e t i c a l l y speaking, however, the appearance  of Nomura as Fumiko's disgruntled husband throughout most of Horoki would c e r t a i n l y a l t e r the thrust of the narrative and detract from the image of Fumiko as the s o l i t a r y , struggling a r t i s t .  When Nomura appears i n Part I I I , he i s  the l a s t as well as the worst of Fumiko's l o v e r s , and thus the heroine's eventual commitment to a r t i s made a l l the more understandable.  36  In e f f e c t , Parts I and II could each stand alone as separate accounts of the same time p e r i o d . Their placement together, however, makes them interact i n an interesting fashion.  For example, c e r t a i n episodes or events i n Part II  are foreshadowed i n Part I . In one of these instances towards the end of Part I , Fumiko r e c a l l s the time she l i v e d with Hirabayashi Taiko above a sake shop.  We do not learn  any more about this period i n Fumiko*s l i f e u n t i l the end of Part I I , where the entire episode i s presented.  In another  example from the beginning of Part I , Fumiko writes a l e t t e r to the "man from the i s l a n d " ; yet this figure does not appear i n the story u n t i l the beginning of Part I I . Because of t h i s interlocking chronology, foreshadings such as these refer not to the future but to the past, and the event i t s e l f , when i t appears, does not forward the action but r e f l e c t s back upon i t . Although Part II i n i t s entirety might be considered a series of flashbacks that interlock with Part I , the necessary l i n k s are not scrupulously maintained.  Much of  the material presented i n Part II has no d i r e c t connection with events i n Part I . Such connections as noted above, however, are at t h e i r strongest both at the beginning and at the end of Parts I and I I . This gives cohesion to a loose and p o t e n t i a l l y confusing chronology.  At the same  37  time, i t sets d i s t i n c t parameters within which the narrative must take place.  Within these boundaries,  the interweaving of events has the e f f e c t of disrupting not only the normal flow of time but also any ordered motion i n space.  Fumiko i s now here, now  there.  Governed  as much by whim as by circumstance, her movements from place to place are e r r a t i c ; no job or lodging i s ever stable; seldom does one location lead l o g i c a l l y to the next.  The  reader i s forced to surrender to a chaotic and disordered world where time moves by f i t s and s t a r t s , now now backward.  forward,  One cheap, shabby room i s soon replaced by  another, and characters, too, fade i n and out with  great  rapidity. Besides providing an i n t r i g u i n g narrative structure that emphasizes the disjointedness of Fumiko's world, the interlocking segments of Parts I and II can be seen further as continually intertwining strands that form a kind of "plaited" narrative where past and present flow side by s i d e .  together  This creates a density of incident and  atmosphere that draws the reader ever deeperyinto the f a b r i c of Fumiko's chaotic world.  Thus, diary entries i n Part I  are l a i d down f i r s t as a kind of rough warp through which the diary entries of Part II are interwoven.  From t h i s  textual accretion grow the diary entries of Part I I I .  38  Such a framework provides a sense of compactness, yet at the same time maintains a f l u i d pattern of growth and development.  Although Hayashi does not make use of such  an unconventional arrangement again i n her w r i t i n g s , this technique may be seen as the e a r l i e s t attempt to treat e f f e c t i v e l y the interplay of past and present within a narrative format.  Such a technique Hayashi would not  master u n t i l much l a t e r i n such works as "Bangiku" (Late Chrysanthemum, 1948) and Ukigumo. Besides i t s complexity of structure, Horoki also exhibits a f a i r l y involved process of narrative development.  Deriving  momentum from the s t r i k i n g contrast between inner experience and outer circumstance, the Horoki narrative traces Fumiko's uneven course as she struggles along the road towards personal and a r t i s t i c f u l f i l l m e n t .  In Horoki, the attempt  to create a r t i s continually overwhelmed by the demands of l i f e ; yet Fumiko proceeds resolutely down the path she has chosen.  By Part III she has become even more devoted to her  c r a f t than she was at the beginning of the story.  Reading  widely i n the Japanese c l a s s i c s and Western l i t e r a t u r e , she now begins to think seriously about her own work. After a dishonest editor steals one of her children's s t o r i e s f o r his own, she gives up writing these and s e t t l e s down to t r y her hand at a n o v e l l a .  For Fumiko, the s t a r t has been  39  d i f f i c u l t , but now  she begins to make progress, and by the  end of Part III she t e l l s us she has f i n a l l y completed her f i r s t shosetsu ("Fukin to sakana no machi"). Nevertheless, unlike her private inner experience, the external circumstances of her l i f e never seem to improve. anything, they grow worse.  If  By Part III we see her embroiled i n  a relationship with a man who beats her; she i s forced to make money by working i n a steady succession of s t i l l more dreary dead-end jobs; her stepfather i s arrested for gambling debts, and Fumiko ends up once again as a peddler on the streets of Tokyo, where her beloved mother i s taken suddenly and seriously i l l .  1  Thus, Fumiko s struggle with l i f e i s marked by a  continual downward s l i d e of events.  This downward progression  of external events provides a contrasting background for the gradual upward swing of Fumiko's i n t e r n a l conviction.  The  contrast between Fumiko's inner and outer struggles, that i s , between the struggle for a r t and the struggle for l i f e , i s the basic method the author uses to develop narrative i n Horoki. Given the nature of such a contrast, t h i s method also provides the o v e r a l l narrative tension i n the story. Point of view i s also c l o s e l y a l l i e d to t h i s means of narrative development.  Written i n the diary form, Horoki  has only one point of view, that of the f i r s t person narrator, Fumiko h e r s e l f .  Yet from within t h i s context, three d i s t i n c t  40  Fumikos emerge.  Two of these, Fumiko the cafe waitress  and maid-of-all-work and Fumiko the d u t i f u l wife and daughter represent the outer s e l f engaged i n the b a t t l e for s u r v i v a l . The t h i r d Fumiko, the poet and would-be n o v e l i s t , represents the innermost s e l f endeavouring  to achieve a r t i s t i c success.  While a l l three aspects of the Fumiko character interact and overlap throughout the s t o r y , only one predominates, and that i s the figure of Fumiko as poet and a r t i s t .  The other  personae are c l e a r l y superseded by the end of the story. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d at the close of Horoki where Fumiko goes out peddling alone one hot August morning. Walking through the streets of Shinjuku, she comes across a lodging house where l i v e s a former lover from her cafe days. Yet Fumiko does not go i n . As she walks along, dragging her clogs for something to do to r e l i e v e the tedium, she ponders on:the monotony of looking after her parents.  The pack on  her back gets heavier and heavier, and i t i s clear that, l i k e the pack, her family and their business are burdens too great to bear any longer.  She r e a l i z e s she must cast them o f f .  Throughout Horoki Fumiko has suffered not only because of her susceptible affections and just p l a i n bad luck with  men,  but also because of her steadfast devotion to and f i n a n c i a l support of her mother and stepfather. Here, for the f i r s t time, she begins to put aside those matters which up u n t i l  41  now have kept her from working wholeheartedly to achieve her heart's desire: to become a w r i t e r .  That Fumiko the  a r t i s t emerges, as the dominant viewpoint by the end of Horoki p a r a l l e l s the narrative development i n which Fumiko's i n t e r n a l world i s also elevated i n contrast to her endlessly depressing surroundings. While the Fumiko figure takes on various r o l e s , the attitude of t h i s personality remains consistently l y r i c a l throughout.  This l y r i c i s m i s marked not only by emotional  i n t e n s i t y , but also by an unaffected good humour that imparts a d i s t i n c t l y bright and cheerful tone to an otherwise sombre tale.  Even when Fumiko's fortunes are at t h e i r lowest ebb,  as i n her suicide attempt at the end of Part I I , her plans for death are hardly convincing.  Indeed, the entire episode  i s treated i n a l i g h t , even nonchalant manner: Every time I passed a pharmacy, I bought a small box of Calmotin. If I don't d i e , t h a t ' l l be a l l r i g h t , t o o . Isn't sleeping a b i t longer a happy means of escape? I t ' s best to be cheerful about i t a l l . 23 Fumiko goes on to describe her recovery from the e f f e c t s of the p i l l s and immediately reaffirms her w i l l to l i v e on: I don't want to die...I want to go on l i v i n g . . . I want to l i v e . I think I s h a l l l i v e on and work i n any way I can, that's the t r u t h . 24  42  Just as Fumiko i s able to derive a sense of well-being and hopefulness from her unpleasant brush with death, so does she also f i n d encouragement i n even the most t r i v i a l of matters.  Her encounter with a cheerful waitress i n a shabby  restaurant serves to arouse her sympathies as well as her innate optimism: Rice and pickled vegetables were then set before me. A r e a l l y meagre serving of d a i n t i e s . When I paid my b i l l for twelve sen and went out through the shop c u r t a i n , the waitress c a l l e d out to me, thank you very much. Drinking one'.s f i l l of tea and exchanging morning greetings p a l l for twelve sen. I f e l t t h i s dead-end world had a paper-thin crack of l i g h t and was t r u l y c h e e r f u l . 25 This cheerfulness (hogaraka f<ft  ) that the heroine frequently  summons up i n the face of adversity also connotes brightness, serenity, c l a r i t y and happiness? t r u l y an unusually auspicious word for describing such unfortunate scenes and circumstances. Besides cheerfulness and optimism, Fumiko's l y r i c a l stance i s characterized further by a strong love for and devotion to her mother.  Throughout Horoki Fumiko sings her mother's  praises: No matter what sort of revolution comes which i s not i n accordance with my own thoughts, and though myriads of people point t h e i r arrows at me, I w i l l continue to l i v e i n agreement with my mother's ideas. 26  43  Although Fumiko bears much of the f i n a n c i a l burden, her mother continues to provide sustenance and support, just as i f Fumiko were s t i l l a c h i l d .  In f a c t , Fumiko's close  attachment to her mother, her simple cheerfulness as well as her interest i n dowa are q u a l i t i e s that would normally be associated with childhood.  They are also q u a l i t i e s which give  a sense of freshness and youthful vigour to the Fumiko heroine. This c h i l d l i k e  attitude i s further enhanced by the tendency  of the heroine towards self-absorption and  self-centredness  which, i f anything, increases i n intensity as the diary unfolds.  Thus, although Fumiko eventually frees herself from  her dependence on her mother, she continues to r e t a i n a childlike  sense of s e l f .  Since Fumiko i s so rooted and  centred  in her own  being, when self-doubt and recrimination appear,  as i n the suicide attempt, i t i s not ultimately u n s e t t l i n g . 27  "Fumiko i s strong," she writes; to agree.  the reader i s compelled  By Part I I I , as Fumiko struggles to r e a l i z e her  inner a r t i s t i c p o t e n t i a l , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that she i s able to put aside her greatest loves —  mother and poetry  —  and embark wholeheartedly on a newly chosen path. In Horoki Fumiko's struggle for survival and success provides the central theme of the s t o r y .  artistic This  theme i s c l o s e l y related to the process of narrative development i n which the patterning of events also provides a  44  a vehicle for the main thematic progression. of  The theme  struggle, however, i s developed i n other ways throughout  the story, most notably through the recurrent motif of wandering or t r a v e l l i n g which i s central to Horoki.  Even  though Fumiko's diary aroused the animosity of various c r i t i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the p o l i t i c a l l e f t who saw i t as an example of runpen bungaku iV > ^ > iL'T 28 — — literature),  (tramp  Horoki's roots were nonetheless firmly  embedded i n the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s of the c l a s s i c a l past. In Japan, wandering poets and t r a v e l d i a r i s t s are many and include such i l l u s t r i o u s figures as Saigyo (1118-1190), Lady Ni jo Matsuo Basho  fa  t  & *<L  ffe >t (1644-1691) ,  ( b # 2 9  \$] X\  i 2 58) , and  a l l of whom found  i n s p i r a t i o n i n the wanderer's l i f e , seeing the mutability of a l l existence i n i t s vagaries and v i c i s s i t u d e s .  Similarly,  Horoki, too, chronicles the wandering l i f e of a modern poetess who, l i k e the many l i t e r a r y personages before h e r , must struggle to come to terms with l i f e and a r t . Unlike her predecessors, however, Fumiko does not take refuge i n Buddhism nor indeed i n any r e l i g i o n , nor does she find solace i n such t r a d i t i o n a l aesthetic concepts as mono no aware t, ^ °> in -kl (the sadness of things) or sabi ^ If (loneliness) . If anything, Fumiko takes courage and i n s p i r a t i o n from the struggle and hardship of t r a v e l i t s e l f .  I t i s t h i s aspect  45  of her wandering that seems to dominate her t r a v e l poems as well as descriptions of her journeys around Japan. Thus, Fumiko i s not " c l a s s i c a l , " nor i s she of the a r i s t o c r a c y , l i t e r a r y or otherwise.  Instead, she i s modern, romantic,  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , at the same time unabashedly plebeian, with a strength of w i l l that does c r e d i t to her humble o r i g i n s . In her hands, the t r a d i t i o n a l motif of the poetic journey as well as the t r a d i t i o n a l image of the poet-vagabond takes on a new  life.  Fumiko's capacity for suffering the abuses and of a wandering l i f e i s d i r e c t l y related to her own nature.  hardships impetuous  Quoting Basho, she remarks:  The old pond, the frog jumps i n , sound of water. I am that f r o g . No matter what, I can't help but jump into the old pond. Somehow I can't think about d i f f i c u l t matters at 30 a l l ; I can only jump into things w i l l y - n i l l y . This unrestrained, adventurous s p i r i t characterizes much of Fumiko's wandering and i s also largely responsible for the d i f f i c u l t i e s she must endure while roaming about. the conscientious Basho who  Unlike  patches his torn trousers and  burns moxa below his knee-caps, Fumiko makes l i t t l e or no preparation before a journey; she simply t i e s a few things in a cloth bundle and catches the next t r a i n .  Seldom does  she consider consequences before she acts; her movements  46  often seem the r e s u l t of the merest whim. Before her journey to Kyoto, for example, she writes: ''I received a l e t t e r from Natsu-san, a friend from high school, and I f e l t l i k e throwing away everything and going to Kyoto."  31 And on  the way to Onomichi: " I f there happens to be an interesting place along the route, then perhaps I ought to get down 32 there."  Fumiko thus travels i n response to her own f e e l i n g s ,  however unpredictable they may be. are  Although such journeys  impulsive, they generally occur whenever Fumiko i s bored  and d i s s a t i s f i e d with her l i f e i n Tokyo.  Journeys always  revive Fumiko's sagging s p i r i t s , providing as much a change of hardship as a change of scene, i t seems. for  On one journey,  example, Fumiko wanders about a distant town, t i r e d and  depressed.  Buying a dumpling to eat, she i s told these  p a r t i c u l a r dumplings are c a l l e d "keizoku dango" 33 (continuation dumplings).  M^,^ ^ *  As Fumiko r e f l e c t s on this  unusual name, she decides then and there to return to her l i f e i n Tokyo and once again work hard.  Thus, although t r a v e l  both sustains and encourages Fumiko i n her f i g h t for survival and success, i t remains primarily a source of struggle i t s e l f , impelling her ever onward through l i f e .  I t i s t h i s aspect  of her journeys, that i s , the o r d e a l , that she extols i n her t r a v e l poetry, as i n the following:  47  It's a wind-howling white sky! It's a splendidly cold winter sea. Even a crazy man whirling i n a dance would awaken to sanity i n such a great ocean. It's a s t r a i g h t - l i n e sea route to Shikoku. Blankets twenty sen, sweets ten sen, t h i r d class cabin l i k e a pot for half^dead loaches, A t e r r i b l e seething. Spray, spray l i k e r a i n , Gazing out at the wide white sky I grip my purse with eleven sen. Ah, I'd l i k e to smoke a Bat, but even i f I y e l l Wo! the wind w i l l keep on blowing i t out. In the white sky the face of the man who has given me vinegar to drink i s so b i g , so b i g . Ah, i t ' s r e a l l y lonely t r a v e l l i n g alone! P i t t i n g herself and her poor purse against the elements, Fumiko again encounters the "wide sky," a recurrent image i n a l l her early poetry.  Representing a remote, unattainable  world, the wide sky also partakes of a wonderful freedom and spaciousness that fascinates the poet and draws her again and again to contemplate i t s vast reaches.  Here, gazing at  a wild white sky, Fumiko considers smoking a cigarette even though i t w i l l surely be blown out.  This resolute poetic  stance accentuates not only the hardship of the voyage, but also Fumiko's powerful determination to struggle on, even against the forces of nature i t s e l f .  48  Besides journeys undertaken on impulse, Fumiko also makes obligatory journeys i n response to her mother's wishes, and these t r i p s , too, are not without t h e i r r i g o u r s .  Yet  journeys homeward are suffused with a warm, nostalgic glow that seems to both beautify and i d e a l i z e .  We can see this  i n the following passage where Fumiko, returning to her parents' home i n Onomichi, r e c a l l s the time when she and her parents l e f t Onomichi f o r Tokyo: ...that was s i x years ago. Again I've come back to Onomichi, the native place of my t r a v e l s , i n a miserable s t a t e . I've wandered around that v i o l e n t l y noisy Tokyo looking after my f a i n t hearted parents, but, ah, now, the seaside at Onomichi, the native place of my t r a v e l s . The lanterns of the brothels near the sea shine whitely l i k e camellias. The rooftops I remember, the warehouses I remember, the old ramshackle house where we lived;by the sea, a l l are peacef u l l y there as they were s i x years ago. Everything i s dear to my heart. I can't help but f e e l as i f the atmosphere of my youth, the sea where I swam, the mountain temple where I made love, have a l l come back again. 35 Fumiko i s reluctant to view past times as gone forever. With her c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h i l d l i k e  naivete, she attempts to  bring past and present together and thereby assuage the pain and suffering of her endless wandering.  In her eyes, the  past does indeed l i v e again; Onomichi remains unchanged. Such sentimental journeys not only affirm Fumiko's continuing love and devotion for her mother, they also act as a means of strengthening the protagonist's sense of s e l f through the  49  continual redintegration of past and present. For Fumiko, nostalgia for the past at once beautifies the present and makes a l l the hardships of t r a v e l worthwhile. Given Fumiko's sentimentality and impulsiveness as well as her appreciation of the hardships of t r a v e l , i t i s clear that the protagonist's attitude towards her incessant wandering i s e s s e n t i a l l y romantic.  I t i s a romanticism,  however, dominated by a powerful w i l l that constantly seeks to re-create the world e n t i r e l y i n terms of i t s own emotions and s e n s i b i l i t i e s .  As such, i t tends to set Fumiko and her  diary apart from the native Japanese t r a d i t i o n , reminding us instead of the i c o n o c l a s t i c bohemianism more prevalent in the West.  This i s r e a d i l y apparent i n the following  t r a v e l poem where Fumiko records her impressions of Mount F u j i glimpsed through a t r a i n window.  In keeping with the  unconventionality of her d i a r y , Fumiko seldom mentions t r a d i t i o n a l beauty spots, and when one does appear, as i n t h i s poem, rather than beauty, the poet emphasizes the magnitude of d i f f i c u l t i e s that she faces i n her struggle for s u r v i v a l : I've seen F u j i , I've seen Fujiyama. If there i s no red snow, then there i s no need to praise F u j i as a fine mountain.  50  I'm not going to lose out to such a mountain. Many times I've thought t h a t , seeing i t s r e f l e c t i o n i n the t r a i n window. The heart of t h i s peaked mountain threatens my broken l i f e and looks down coldly on my eyes. I've seen F u j i , I've seen Fujiyama. Birds! Fly across that mountain from dome to peak; with your crimson mouths, give a scornful laugh. Wind! F u j i i s a great sorrowful palace of snow. Blow and rage, Fujiyama i s the symbol of Japan. It's a sphinx, a thick dream-like n o s t a l g i a , a great, sorrowful palace of snow where demons live. Look at F u j i , Look at Fujiyama. In your form painted by Hokusai I have seen your youthful spark. But now you're an old broken-down grave mound. Always you turn your glaring eyes to the sky. Why do you f l e e into the murky snow? B i r d s , wind, rap on Fujiyama's shoulder so bright and s t i l l . It's not a s i l v e r c i t a d e l ; ItJs a great, sorrowful palace of snow that hides misfortune. Fujiyama! Here stands a lone woman who does not lower her head to you; here i s a woman laughing scornfully at you. Fujiyama, F u j i , your passion l i k e r u s t l i n g f i r e howls and r o a r s . U n t i l you knock her stubborn head down, I s h a l l wait, happily w h i s t l i n g . 36  51  Here, as i n "Kurushii uta," Fumiko f e a r l e s s l y asserts her own  individuality  independence.  and at the same time declares her  Impressed, awed even, by the sight of the  famous Mount F u j i , Fumiko at f i r s t feels threatened by the weighty mass of c o l l e c t i v e memories and associations that F u j i conjures up.  Yet she quickly recovers her aplomb, and  with a surprisingly bold but refreshingly quixotic touch, Fumiko denounces F u j i and challenges the mountain to a kind of duel.  Fumiko i s on her mettle, ready to do b a t t l e with  even the most powerful of adversaries i n her attempt to r e a l i z e her own dreams and ambitions. her circumstances  Instead of cursing  as she does i n "Kurushii uta," Fumiko  ends "happily whistling," a b i t of romantic bravado that emphasizes the poet's audacious nature. Thus, Fumiko*s poetic journeys take us not to Sarashina to view the moon nor to Hiraizumi to meditate upon the 37  grave of a long-dead warrior,  rather we are drawn to the  "broken-down grave mound" t h a t , to Fumiko, i s Fujiyama; to cheap inns, to storm-tossed  ferry boats, to a simple f i s h i n g  town, Onomichi, to bars, butcher shops, and c e l l u l o i d factories i n Tokyo, to any number of places that have l i t t l e i f any l i t e r a r y or aesthetic pretensions and y e t , for a l l that, have a deep and meaningful significance to the poet who  i s somehow able to f i n d a r t i s t i c i n s p i r a t i o n even i n  52  such humble and sordid surroundings.  I t i s an intensely  personal journey, glorying i n struggle and hardship, governed by impulse and sentimentality and tinged throughout with a vigorous romantic charm. In spite of the -emphasis on the desultory nature of Fumiko's t r a v e l s , these journeys nevertheless conform to a p a r t i c u l a r pattern that i s i n keeping with the o v e r a l l structure of the work.  For example, Parts I and II are  f i l l e d with accounts of Fumiko's travels around Japan.' Part I i s even prefaced by a nostalgic poem about t r a v e l l i n g . Fumiko then launches into the story of her early l i f e , her travels to Tokyo and other parts of Japan, a t o t a l of ten major journeys altogether. By Part I I , Fumiko i s s t i l l on the go, making a t o t a l of nine journeys i n this s e c t i o n . By Part I I I , however, Fumiko's endless t r a v e l l i n g has decreased considerably. She makes only three journeys i n this section, confining herself to v i s i t i n g various poets and writers l i v i n g i n Tokyo, as she attempts to e s t a b l i s h her l i t e r a r y career.  Here, even when overwhelmed by the  urge to t r a v e l , Fumiko does not immediately succumb to the impulse but continues to work on her w r i t i n g .  As her  penchant for wandering around Japan begins to wane, a latent desire to t r a v e l abroad seems to take i t s p l a c e . journeys to Korea, to P a r i s , to India and Russia.  She plans Neverthe-  53  l e s s , these journeys remain imaginary; Fumiko's urge to t r a v e l i s gradually suppressed and internalized as her determination to succeed as a writer reaches the ascendant. It i s t h i s new-found inner resolution which, more than anything e l s e , helps to curb Fumiko's wanderlust i n t h i s t h i r d and f i n a l section of Horoki. Emphasizing the unconventional l i f e - s t y l e and poetic wanderings of the protagonist i n ways which reveal much about character and motivation, the horo motif stresses the hardships of t r a v e l as well as the i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement to be had i n such experiences. Although Fumiko poeticizes her wanderings, they remain closely a l l i e d to the simple struggle f o r s u r v i v a l , being governed by such pressing physical concerns as food, money, and a place to sleep.  T r a v e l , or horo, i s thus an  expression of l i f e i t s e l f : dynamic, continuously i n motion, subject always to physical needs, f u l l of ever-changing v i s t a s and unexpected happenings.  Fumiko's wanderings are  seen primarily as part of an outward struggle, and therefore they tend to narrow considerably i n scope as Fumiko's inner a r t i s t i c struggle i s brought to the fore i n the l a s t part of Horoki. In Horoki the author does not deal only with personal or a r t i s t i c matters or with the hardships of a wandering  life.  She i s also concerned with human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  54  those involving men and women i n love.  This  preoccupation  with women-men relationships provides a major thematic element, second only to the theme of struggle and at the same time dependent upon i t .  Although a subordinate element  at this point i n Hayashi's career, the i n t e r e s t i n love relationships would gradually assume a place of prime importance i n her l a t e r works.  Thus, one c r i t i c even c i t e s  Fumiko's treatment of such relationships as one of the 38  p r i n c i p a l reasons her works came to be admired by so many. In t h i s early work, however, the view of love tends to be rather one-sided.  That i s , love i s seen primarily from  the woman's perspective, i n p a r t i c u l a r through the eyes of Fumiko h e r s e l f . Always looking for the i d e a l partner, she finds men who only disappoint, a tendency which increases as Horoki progresses.  Besides her r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Tokyo  actor (Part I ) , the erstwhile man from the island (Part I I ) , and the aspiring poet, Nomura (Part III) , Fumiko has a number of l i a i s o n s with other men.  Some are pleasant, others less  so; but a l l , i n the end, prove unsatisfactory. Ardent and passionate though she i s , Fumiko seems doomed to continual f a i l u r e i n love.  Thus, i n Horoki, relationships between men  and women are viewed as e s s e n t i a l l y d i s j u n c t i v e :  55  Although the bewitching white clover i s blooming now i n front of my eyes, when winter comes, these flowers and stalks w i l l dry up and crumble away. Serves them r i g h t . Relationships between men and women are just l i k e that, too. 39 Fumiko, however, i s susceptible to men of a l l types, and her bad luck on t h i s score notwithstanding, she frequently f a l l s i n love.  "I'm a woman who has a very soft heart for men,"  40 she declares; yet finding herself continually betrayed by husbands and l o v e r s , she also wonders: "Aren't there any 41 good men"?  Unable to form a l a s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p with any  one person, Fumiko i s forced to l i v e i n l o n e l i n e s s . At times Fumiko's loneliness reaches the point where she contemplates returning to lovers she has previously l e f t or fleeing; to anyone who w i l l have her, as i n the following poetic excerpt: [i am] small, l i k e a daruma, A hothead who c r i e s e a s i l y . No, i t ' s okay, Any man w i l l do. 42 Only to hold me and sleep with me. Poverty-stricken, hungry, forced into degrading and subservient p o s i t i o n s , Fumiko i s often portrayed as a v i c t i m of men, of society, of circumstances.  This i s also true of  most of the other female characters who appear i n Horoki, whether maids, p r o s t i t u t e s , mothers with small c h i l d r e n , factory g i r l s , or o f f i c e workers.  Hayashi provides a  —  56  wide and varied view of the lower-class working woman's world, a world i n which, as one of her fellow waitresses puts i t , women "seem to l i v e and suffer for the sake of 43 men."  Hayashi shows us a world where women are continually  manipulated and abused, where their education counts for nothing, and where t o t a l dependence upon men i s readily accepted.  Nevertheless, women continue to be attracted to  men and to f a l l audaciously and recklessly i n love.  Okimi,  for example, the waitress of the above quotation, has nine children> yet declares she has yet to f i n d her true love. 44 "My children are my lovers," she says.  But before long  she has f a l l e n i n love with a young student and abandoned her c h i l d r e n , a l l for the sake of true love. - 45 Throughout Horoki Fumiko openly admires such "purity" of commitment.  From an early age she has been fascinated  by posters and songs of the b e a u t i f u l Katyusha, the unlucky heroine of Tolstoy's novel Resurrection, who goes into e x i l e for the sake of love.  Later she comes to envy the excitable  Okimi her purity and strength of passion which i s reminiscent of the f i c t i o n a l Katyusha's.  Thus, i n spite of  the depiction of women's problems and the seemingly r a d i c a l feminist pronouncements, Horoki does not advocate s o c i a l change nor espouse any kind of p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l ideology that might a l l e v i a t e an apparently intolerable s i t u a t i o n .  57  " I t i s a woman's f a t e /  1  Fumiko observes,  and indeed,  Fumiko and her female associates appear to be victimized almost as much by their own desires and weaknesses as by the machinations of men and s o c i e t y . When young Toki s e l l s herself for a r i n g and a coat, when Okimi deserts her children for a young l o v e r , and when Fumiko c r i e s out for some man to hold her, the author i s descrying not so much the i n e q u a l i t i e s of the s o c i a l order as the f r a i l i t i e s of the human heart. In spite of the emphasis on love and on the struggle f o r f u l f i l l m e n t i n love, the protagonist f a i l s to find any s a t i s f a c t i o n i n such matters.  Instead, she moves through a  succession of f u t i l e , short-term a f f a i r s that only serve to increase her sense of loneliness and i s o l a t i o n .  The men  she meets do not r e a l l y have the power to comfort her.  Her  passion i s too great; by contrast, theirs i s too weak. Yet she never gives up hope of one day finding the i d e a l partner. By the end of Horoki, however, we f i n d that Fumiko's struggle for a pure and harmonious love has altered the outward thrust of i t s d i r e c t i o n and turned inwards.  This movement  inward i n terms of involvement i n love a f f a i r s corresponds to the general inward d i r e c t i o n of Horoki as the story draws to a c l o s e .  In the f i n a l scene, Fumiko l i e s i n bed alone,  rubbing a two-sen copper coin against her bare b e l l y and  58  planning how  to spend i t . The mood i s sunny, indulgent,  playfully narcissistic.  Fumiko no longer agonizes over  the idiosyncrasies of her lovers nor the caprices of fate i n love.  She i s alone, but content, glad to be a l i v e , pleased,  perhaps even pleasantly surprised to find that solitude i t s e l f can bring a sense of wholeness and peace. Thus, i n Horoki, both theme and structure move with concerted design away from the everyday world of hardship  and  disorder towards a r e l a t i v e l y calm inner world of a r t i s t i c concern and s e n s i b i l i t y . the inner —  These two spheres —  the outer  and  so s k i l l f u l l y juxtaposed by the author i n this  work are i n turn associated respectively with the plebeian struggle for survival and the a r t i s t i c struggle for l i t e r a r y recognition.  The external sphere i s therefore a place i n  which the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e are portrayed through the hardships of t r a v e l , the uncertainties of finding a job, securing a place to l i v e , and obtaining a suitable husband; through lack of s u f f i c i e n t money and food as well as through the tendency to meet with u n f a i t h f u l or irresponsible l o v e r s . The inner sphere belongs to the a r t i s t and i s represented by a r t , music, poetry and l i t e r a t u r e ; by nostalgia for mother, father, and her old home i n Onomichi; by the love of handsome men,  good food, romance. A l l these are part of the poetic  matrix that encourages and sustains the protagonist of Horoki.  59  While the interaction of these two spheres provides a basic tension that the protagonist attempts to resolve by achieving both a r t i s t i c and economic success, she i s not successful i n either sphere, and resolution comes about in another way,  that i s , through the modification of the  desires and expectations of the protagonist h e r s e l f . This modification i s due to f i n a n c i a l considerations as well as to a reassessment of her own  literary abilities  and ambitions, and thus i n the l a t t e r part of Horoki, Fumiko surrenders her youthful poetic aspirations and decides to begin writing shosetsu.  At the same time, she ceases to  i d e a l i z e parents and l o v e r s .  Centred ever more strongly  within her s e l f , she moves towards a new acceptance and understanding of r e a l i t y .  The inner world i s i n ascendance;  yet i t i s a world which w i l l find expression through the use of everyday language and everyday s i t u a t i o n s . you speak," novelist Uno Koji ' f f - f / - ^ ^  "Write as  (1891-1961) t e l l s 47  Fumiko when, i n Part I I I , she v i s i t s him i n his hotel room. Ahci iricleed* by the" en'd of Horoki, Fumiko's decision to forego poetry for prose f i c t i o n has been made.  S t i l l a vagabond,  but no longer considering herself a poet, Fumiko sets out to r e a l i z e new dreams. Even though Fumiko's decision to try her hand at novel writing i s not arrived at without considerable self-debate,  60  she has nonetheless been a c t i v e l y engaged i n a kind of prose writing ever since her a r r i v a l i n Tokyo, that i s , i n the writing of children's stories and f a i r y t a l e (dowa).  Although she has very l i t t l e luck with these and  manages to s e l l only a few, a groundwork i n writing prose f i c t i o n has been l a i d .  Basic techniques of narration and  plot construction are f a i r l y well prescribed by this 48 genre,  and thus Fumiko i s not without some experience i n  working within a set narrative form. v ,It i s therefore s i g n i f i c a n t that the f i r s t prose piece that Fumiko writes i n Horoki (and that Hayashi herself was to publish after Horoki) i s a dowa-like short s t o r y , "Fukin to sakana no machi," which e f f e c t i v e l y displays t h i s writer's a b i l i t i e s in prose. In Hayashi's case, the dowa appears as a kind of l i n k between the poetic and the p r o s a i c , providing a firm grounding i n f i c t i o n a l narration and at the same time allowing the exercise of the imaginative and poetic f a c u l t i e s .  According  to I t a g a k i , Hayashi wrote dowa only as a substitute f o r writing novels. 49 While t h i s judgment has some v a l i.d. ity, p a r t i c u l a r l y as regards the dowa written during the time Hayashi spent as an evacuee i n the mountains of Nagano Prefecture during World War I I , i t does not take into account Hayashi's early i n t e r e s t i n the dowa nor the continuing  61  appearance of dowa-like stories i n the early years of her l i t e r a r y career.  Rather than a "substitute," the early  dowa perhaps should be viewed as an intermediate or t r a n s i t i o n a l form that was primarily responsible for helping Hayashi develop a certain a b i l i t y i n the art of narrative.  Horoki, too, with i t s complex interlocking  structure as well as i t s c a r e f u l rearrangement and f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n of actual events, constitutes a successful i f singular experiment with narrative that further demonstrates t h i s writer's developing p o t e n t i a l . The author's a b i l i t y i s shown not only i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of narrative s k i l l s , but also i n the use of language.  In  spite of the emphasis on the muddle and disarray of the protagonist's l i f e , Horoki displays a remarkably clear and readable s t y l e .  Sentences tend to be short or of medium  length; the choice of words i s free from a f f e c t a t i o n or ornament; the dialogue i s n a t u r a l . language i s powerfully emotive.  At the same time the  For example, offered a  clerk's job for t h i r t y - f i v e yen a month, Fumiko writes: My! The wages are t h i r t y - f i v e yen including lunches! What a marvelous rainbow world i t i s . T h i r t y - f i v e yen, with just that, I would be able to take care of my parents. Mother! Mother! When I send you ten yen, your heart w i l l throb, overflowing at your daughter's success. 50  62  Or, f e e l i n g betrayed by the Tokyo actor: As I walk about staring at the ground, I become so t e r r i b l y l o n e l y . I shiver l i k e a sick dog. Damn i t ! This w i l l never do. Today on the pavement of this beautiful c i t y , w i l l someone buy me? I s h a l l s e l l myself , I say t h i s wandering around l i k e a stray dog. No matter how I hold onto the bond that t i e s us together, i f i t wants to break, then I must b i d that man a frank f a r e w e l l . There are clusters of small white b u t t e r f l i e s amidst the white flowers blooming i n some large tree outside my window. A lovely scent pours from them. In the evening when I go out onto the verandah where the moon i s shining, I hear the man [practicing] h i s lines from the play and memories of my girlhood suddenly a s s a i l me l i k e the scent of the flowers. Then I want to cry out to the moon i n a loud voice, "Isn't there a nice man anywhere?" 51 Dotted with exclamations, e x p l e t i v e s , and at times, i n v e c t i v e , Horoki soon overwhelms with i t s turbulent emotions. In the second quotation above, Fumiko moves through feelings of intense l o n e l i n e s s , s e l f - p i t y , acquiescence, and nostalgia to despair and f r u s t r a t i o n i n just a few l i n e s .  Such quickly  changing emotions are t y p i c a l of Horoki and constitute one of i t s most engaging s t y l i s t i c features. The author also u t i l i z e s r e p e t i t i o n to create elaborate mood pieces, such as the following: Chimata n i ame no furu gotoku, dokoka no dareka ga u t a t t a . Omotai ame. Iya na ame. Fuan n i natte kuru ame. Rinkaku no nai ame. Kusoteki n i naru ame. Bimbo na ame. Yomise  63  no d e n a i ante.. K u b i o k u k u r i t a k u n a r u arae. Sake ga n o m i t a i ame. Issho g u r a i zabu zabu t o s a k e ga n o m i t a k u n a r u ame. Onna d a t t e s a k e o n o m i t a k u n a r u ame. Kofun s h i t e kuru ame. A i s h i t a k u n a r u ame. O k k a s a n no yo na ame. S h i s e i j i no yo na ame. W a t a s h i wa ame no n a k a „o t a d a a t e mo n a k u a r u k u . 52 Somewhere someone was s i n g i n g l i k e r a i n f a l l i n g i n the s t r e e t . Heavy r a i n . Disgusting rain. Anxious r a i n . Shapeless r a i n . Fanciful r a i1 n . Poor r a i n . R a i n when no n i g h t s t a l l s are s e t u p . R a i n i n w h i c h one f e e l s l i k e h a n g i n g oneself. R a i n i n w h i c h one w a n t s t o d r i n k sake.. R a i n i n w h i c h one w a n t s t o d r i n k down h a l f a g a l l o n of sake. R a i n i n w h i c h one w a n t s t o d r i n k s a k e b e c a u s e s h e ' s a woman. R a i n i n w h i c h one becomes e x c i t e d . R a i n i n w h i c h one w a n t s t o l o v e . R a i n l i k e my m o t h e r . R a i n l i k e an i l l e g i t i m a t e child. In the r a i n I s i m p l y walk a i m l e s s l y .  Here, each phrase b r i n g s e i t h e r a new p e r c e p t i o n o r i n t r o d u c e s an e m o t i o n a l s t a t e , and w i t h t h e steady onomat o p o e i c - l i k e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e word " r a i n " as w e l l as the r e p e t i t i v e use o f t h e v e r b a l ending  "-taku naru"  s i g n i f y i n g d e s i r e , we a r e soon deluged by t h e author's emotional  torrent.  B e s i d e s Hayashi's keen e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l , the author a l s o has a remarkable v e r v e f o r c o n c r e t e s e n s u a l e x p r e s s i o n . I t i s t h i s s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e coupled with the e m o t i o n a l i t y of t h e prose t h a t most c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e sense o f b o l d a f f i r m a t i o n and romantic abandon t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e young  64  Horoki protagonist's, struggles for survival and success. For example, Hayashi makes extensive use of metaphor and s i m i l e , with simile being perhaps the more favoured figure of speech throughout Horoki.  The vast majority of these  similes are drawn from the everyday world, a fact which serves to increase e x p l i c i t n e s s and also adds to the informality and intimacy of the work: 53 ...I come home t i r e d as f i s h guts. With a weak l i g h t , the metal hand-lamps crept along the ground l i k e flowers on a bottle gourd. 54 Like a broken fountain pen, I throw myself down to sleep. 55 My fantasies fatten l i k e a p i g . ^  6  My body i s agitated, l i k e a f i s h being slowly cooked. 57 Such expressions as these add colour to Fumiko's struggles as well as contribute to the unpretentiousness of s t y l e . In addition to the u t i l i z a t i o n of simile to create homely yet fresh and unusual images, Hayashi also u t i l i z e s a wide range of sensual language and imagery that serves to heighten emotion as well as enhance v i t a l i t y .  Towards the  end of Part I I , when Fumiko begins to contemplate s u i c i d e , she writes:  65  ...when I wonder i f I should k i l l myself today, I take out a l l my rubbish and scatter i t about the room. The smell of my l i v i n g body, how fond I am of i t , how dear i t i s . I'm t i r e d , and on the c o l l a r of my soiled black muslin kimono, grime and powder shine. Like a c h i l d , my own smell reassures me. In t h i s kimono long ago I embraced that man. That thought! This thought! A lone woman drained and pale from passion hugs her breast, and from amidst both her arms a montage of body smells arises from every stain on her kimono, sash, and c o l l a r . 58 In t h i s passage, olfactory imagery i s used to evoke a sense of lonely eroticism as the protagonist contemplates s u i c i d e . So potent i s the scent of her l i v i n g body, however, that instead of death, she embraces herself i n a n a r c i s s i s t i c encounter made a l l the more poignant by the momentary s h i f t i n point of view from the f i r s t to t h i r d person.  Fumiko i s  at once both subject and object, her passion temporarily overwhelming a l l ordinary boundaries. The author also stresses images connected with the sense of taste for food).  (at least insofar as i t relates to the desire  Fumiko, of course, never has enough to eat.  At  one p o i n t , she and her companions are forced to s t e a l bamboo shoots from a nearby property i n order to make their supper. Thus, Fumiko  also, views.: l i f e as a continual struggle  against starvation, much l i k e the hero of Knut Hamsun's novel, Hunger, a work which provides Fumiko with i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement throughout Horoki.  "In the midst of  66  s t a r v a t i o n , Hamsun s t i l l plans,"  59  attempts  somehow or o t h e r had hopes and -  -  Fumiko r e f l e c t s near the end-;of H o r o k i , where a t s e l l i n g her w r i t i n g f a i l ,  h u n g r i e r than e v e r . without p l a n s .  and she f i n d s h e r s e l f  Fumiko, too, has hope and i s not  Even a t one of her h u n g r i e s t moments, she  has the e l a n to pen the f o l l o w i n g poem: Fly Fly Fly Fly  to to to to  me, me, me, me,  b o i l e d egg. bean paste bun. strawberry jam b r e a d . Chinese noodle soup.  6 Q  Almost as i f she i s c a l l i n g upon the m a g i c a l r i c e bowl o f 61 Mount S h i g i , Fumiko conjures up the food she longs t o e a t . And elsewhere  i n Horoki c u l i n a r y d e l i g h t s are always  w i t h g r e a t r e l i s h and a p p e t i t e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Fumiko does  not seem s a t i s f i e d w i t h such imaginary, touch and e a t . writes:  imagined  fare.  She wants t o  In l i n e s r e m i n i s c e n t of " K u r u s h i i u t a , " she  "Wherever I walk, d e l i c i o u s - l o o k i n g bread i s on  d i s p l a y , bread whose s o f t f a c e I ' l l never e a t , whose white 62 s k i n I ' l l never touch."  Yet such gourmet t r e a t s l i e  f o r e v e r beyond her grasp.  L i k e the s t a r v i n g w r i t e r of  Hunger, i t seems t h a t poets are not supposed t o e a t . " T h e i r immediate purpose i s simply t o chase a f t e r t h i n g s t o 63 e a t , " Fumiko observes.  Indeed,  the p u r s u i t of food seems  to occupy the p r o t a g o n i s t almost as much as the p u r s u i t of art.  By the end o f . H o r o k i , however, where the p h y s i c a l  67  s t r u g g l e i s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t subsumed by the we  artistic,  f i n d the author, basking i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of her  a r t i s t i c s e l f , seemingly  new  content a t l a s t w i t h her v i v i d  daydreams of d e l i c i o u s sweets. Before we  take a c l o s e r look a t t h i s f i n a l scene of  Horoki and i t s c o n c l u d i n g poem, i t i s necessary t o look i n some d e t a i l a t . t h e numerous o t h e r poems which dot the t e x t . I n c l u d i n g f i f t y - f o u r o r i g i n a l p i e c e s and a number o f other p o e t i c q u o t a t i o n s from h a i k u , k a n s h i , and popular songs, p o e t r y i s the most prominent of H o r o k i s 1  s t y l i s t i c features.  The work both begins and ends w i t h a poem; P a r t s I and I I I c o n t a i n the g r e a t e s t number o f o r i g i n a l poems (nineteen i n P a r t I and twenty-four least, eleven.  i n P a r t I I I ) , w h i l e P a r t I I has  Although  there are some s h o r t poems of o n l y  a few l i n e s , the m a j o r i t y are ,long, one of which over three pages.  the  extends,  A l l of these poems are i n the form of  f r e e verse w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , "Asa-^giri wa/fune y o r i 64 shiroku,"  i n whxch Fumiko experiments  w i t h the  traditional  5-7/7-5 metre p a t t e r n . Poetry i n Horoki appears may  at irregular  intervals.  There  be as l i t t l e as one page between poems and as much as  a twenty-six page gap.  Although  a few prose s e c t i o n s pass  without a poem appearing, t h e r e are s e v e r a l lengthy passages where no p o e t r y appears.  An examination  of these s e c t i o n s  68  (four i n number) shows that the protagonist i s either busily engaged i n writing something other than poetry, for  example, dowa i n Part I and "Fukin to sakana no machi"  i n Part I I I , or she i s involved i n some major l i f e upheaval, the Kanto earthquake i n Part II or the messy break-up with Nomura i n Part I I I . Fumiko, i t seems, feels more comfortable with prose at times.  Poetry, although an i n t e g r a l part of  the t e x t , nonetheless remains subordinate to the prose sections. In Horoki poetry functions primarily to i n t e n s i f y emotion. It also acts as a means of release or renewal.  This i n t e n s i -  f i c a t i o n and r e s u l t i n g catharsis can be seen p a r t i c u l a r l y well in the f i r s t poem that Fumiko writes near the beginning of Part I.  Recently rejected by the man  from the i s l a n d , Fumiko  has just been expelled from her job as maid i n the house of Chikamatsu Shuko and has nowhere to go.  Cold and-alone i n a  cheap inn room, she writes: In this world everything i s a l i e . Over my head runs the l a s t t r a i n bound for Koshu. I'm throwing away my l i f e which i s as lonely as a rooftop above a market And spreading out my veins i n the futon of a cheap i n n . I t r i e d to hold onto that corpse pulverized by the t r a i n as i f i t were someone e l s e . When I open the: s h o j i , blac&e?iec$ by the jdark night, I find the sky, even i n such a place as t h i s , and the moon joking about.  69  Goodbye to you, a l l ! I've become a warped d i e , and so again I ' l l r o l l back over Here i n t h i s cheap a t t i c room. Gripping a l l the loneliness I've accumulated on t h i s journey, I'm blown about aimlessly i n the wind. In this poem, Fumiko gives vent to her anger and resentment against those who have betrayed her.  Yet when she looks  outside, s u r p r i s i n g l y enough, the sky and the moon are s t i l l the same, evincing even a sort of good humour. At t h i s , a sense of r e l i e f sweeps over her, and she decides to carry on, l e t t i n g matters take t h e i r course.  Sometimes, however,  Fumiko's frustrations and bitterness are less e a s i l y assuaged, as i n the following poem from Part I I , written while working as a cafe waitress: If you give me ten cups of King of Kings to d r i n k , I s h a l l throw you a k i s s . Ah, what a p i t i f u l waitress I am. Outside the blue window, r a i n f a l l s l i k e drops of cut-glass. Under the l i g h t of the lantern. A l l has turned to sake. Is Revolution the wind blowing north?! I've s p i l l e d the sake. Opening my red mouth over the sake on the t a b l e , I belch f i r e . Shall I dance i n ray blue apron? Golden wedding, or caravan, tonight's dance music  70  S t i l l three more cups to go. How am I doing? you ask. I'm just f i n e . Although I'm a nice g i r l , a r e a l l y nice g i r l , I scatter my feelings generously l i k e cut flowers among petty pigs of men. 6 Ah, i s Revolution the wind blowing north?  6  Depicting the shabbiness and debauchery of the mizu shobai l"S|'/£* , the world of cafes, bars, and small clubs where women work both as waitresses and entertainers, the poet captures the jerky rhythms and inebriated truthfulness of a drunken waitress. suicide.  Soon after t h i s , Fumiko attempts  Part II closes with a short epilogue that includes 67  the poem, "A, nijugo no onnagokoro no itami ka na," which Fumiko deplores her unhappy circumstances time.  in  for the l a s t  After t h i s , she i s never again quite so miserable i n  her poetry. Part III opens with a poem about shining, singing b i r d s , 68  "Tori ga hikaru," "Fly  and soon a f t e r , the charming verse  to me, boiled egg" appears.  Throughout Part I I I  poetry acquires a l i g h t e r and brighter tone.,  Even Fumiko's  unflagging desire for money finds easy expression as she pens a mock-serious l e t t e r to an old lover: I came home a f t e r buying i n k . I'd l i k e to meet you somehow. I want money.  Just ten yen would be a l l r i g h t . I want to buy a copy of Manon Lescaut/ a yukata, and clogs. I want to eat my' f i l l of Chinese noodles. I want to go and hear Kaminari-mon Sukeroku. I want to go and work i n Korea or Manchuria. d l i k e to meet you just once. •Really I want money. In the Japanese text/ every l i n e but the f i r s t ends with a c l a s s i c a l verbal ending used i n the formal e p i s t o l a r y s t y l e of w r i t i n g .  Placing such a form at the  end of each l i n e i n the l i s t , of Fumiko s exceedingly mundane 1  wants has a d i s t i n c t l y incongruous as well as humourously emphatic e f f e c t .  Another poem that helps s t r i k e a l i g h t e r  note i n Part I I I i s a d e s c r i p t i v e piece that seems as i f i t could belong to the pleasant world of dowa, or children's story: Winter i s almost here? the sky says so. Winter i s almost here? the mountain trees say so. The d r i z z l i n g r a i n runs to t e l l us the postman has put on a round hat. The night came to t e l l us winter i s almost here. The mouse came to t e l l us i n the c e i l i n g he has begun to make h i s nest. Carrying winter on t h e i r backs, Q 7 many people are coming from the country. The r e f r a i n "winter i s almost here" and the other r e p e t i t i v e phrases underline the personified a c t i v i t i e s of the natural world, which bring about changes i n the human sphere i n a  72  gentle and harmonious manner.  Both mouse and human beings  are s e t t l i n g into the town together for the winter, and the prevailing mood i s one of r u s t i c s i m p l i c i t y and coziness. Although Fumiko has been a c t i v e l y engaged i n the writing of dowa throughout Horoki, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that t h i s l i g h t * hearted poem i s placed here i n the p o e t i c a l l y brighter Part III rather than i n the e a r l i e r and p o e t i c a l l y gloomier Parts I or I I . Although the protagonist decides to forego poetry for the sake of prose f i c t i o n i n Part I I I , she nevertheless continues to write poetry, and the greatest number of poems are found i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  These include her longest piece, 71  "Usu-gumori yonnen n i wataru Tokyo no," poem i n 5-7 metre mentioned e a r l i e r .  as well as the  There seem to be  several reasons for t h i s upsurge i n poetry, not the least of which i s the gradual emergence of the inner a r t i s t i c struggle to a place of dominance.  Although poetry w i l l  eventually disappear from t h i s writer's works, i t i s s t i l l of major importance at t h i s p o i n t .  The protagonist l i v e s  and breathes through the exercise of her poetic s e n s i b i l i t i e s . Through poetry she i s able to explore her inner world of f e e l i n g and, emotion,.no matter how i t may be.  tempestuous or extravagant  By Part III t h i s use of poetry i s becoming  tempered by the development of an i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r e s t i n  73  poetry per se, i n protracted study and experiment, i n the reading of such c l a s s i c s as the tenth century poem-tale, Ise monogatari, the works of poets l i k e Basho, Kobayashi Issa  (1763-1827), and others.  In short, Fumiko  seeks not only r e a l i z a t i o n of the a r t i s t within her, but control and d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s a r t i s t i c s e l f as w e l l , hence, the greater variety and number of poems i n Part III as well as a greater tendency towards more conscious c r a f t i n g of poetic work. By the end of Horoki, Fumiko no longer sees herself as a helpless figure cast a d r i f t i n a world f u l l of l i a r s and cheats. new  Instead, she seems to be readying herself for a  s t a r t i n l i f e , moving into a realm where the outer and  inner struggles may become r e c o n c i l e d . Here, i n a poem e n t i t l e d "Ni-sen doka" ~ £ ^ ^1*1 1£*  (Two-sen Copper Coin),  she celebrates with the homely, m a t e r i a l i s t i c imagery of food and money her new-found sense of a r t i s t i c f u l f i l l m e n t : You two-sen copper coin covered with blue mold! Two-sen copper coin I picked up i n front of the cowshed. You're b i g , heavy, sweet when I taste you. I can see i n you a pattern l i k e a coiled snake. Minted i n M e i j i 34, That's a long time ago, i s n ' t i t . I was not even born y e t . Ah, i t makes me happy to touch you. You f e e l l i k e I can buy anything with you. I can buy a bean-jam bun, four big t a f f y candies, too.  74  I ' l l polish you with ash u n t i l you sparkle. Removing the grime of h i s t o r y , I hold you on my palm and gaze a t you. You're r e a l l y l i k e a gold c o i n , sparkling two-sen copper c o i n . I'11 make you into a paperweight or put you over my naked b e l l y button. You two-sen copper coin that l e t s me play with you so intimately! 72 Fumiko, i t appears has indeed begun a new l i f e .  Perhaps  i t w i l l be outwardly just as arduous as before; yet there w i l l be one subtle difference: her inner world i s now whole and complete.  She w i l l survive.  The past, heavy and sweet  to c l i n g to though i t may be, has now been eradicated l i k e the mold on the copper c o i n , and the present sparkles l i k e gold.  For Fumiko, there i s a great deal of s a t i s f a c t i o n  i n caressing her new-found wealth, which, although i t may seem i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n comparison with her youthful dreams of great r i c h e s , i s no mere worthless t r i f l e . within has been r e a l i z e d .  The a r t i s t  A l l that i s l e f t i s to polish  her t a l e n t u n t i l i t shines.  From i t s f i r s t appearance on the l i t e r a r y scene i n early Showa <Japan, Horoki was an unqualified success.  This was  due as much to i t s d e l i g h t f u l d i v e r s i t y as to i t s passionate portrayal of a young woman from the lower classes and her struggle to survive, both as a woman and as an a r t i s t . Although Horoki dealt with a subject that was unique  75  in the l i t e r a t u r e of modern and pre-modern Japan, the author maintained links with the c l a s s i c a l past by choosing the form of a poetic diary and thereby provided a familiar vehicle for her unconventional t a l e .  Not only did Horoki  treat unusual subject matter, i t did so i n o r i g i n a l ways which emphasized the heroine's bohemian l i f e - s t y l e as well as her gradual growth as an a r t i s t . In 1929, while installments of Horoki w e r e . s t i l l appearing i n Nyonin g e i j u t s u , Hayashi, with the f i n a n c i a l help of her f r i e n d , Matsushita Fumiko, brought out her f i r s t poetry c o l l e c t i o n , Aouma o m i t a r i .  Published i n June by  Nanso Shobo, t h i s c o l l e c t i o n contained some thirty-seven poems, including ten pieces from Horoki, such as "Kurushii uta" and "Oshaka-sama."  The t i t l e poem was a nostalgic  piece i n which Hayashi yearned for the s i m p l i c i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y of her parents and o l d v i l l a g e .  Yet i t would  not be long before such youthful poetry as well as such youthful poetic sentiments would give way e n t i r e l y to Hayashi's developing a b i l i t y i n the novella and short story. Although Hayashi would continue to write poems throughout her l i t e r a r y career, poetry would never again be of such importance as i n t h i s early p e r i o d . At the same time, her poetic s e n s i b i l i t y , depth of f e e l i n g , and love of homely, sensual images would remain, becoming incorporated i n her  76  l a t e r works to produce a unique and memorable l i t e r a r y style. In Horoki, theme, structure, n a r r a t i v e , poetry — a l l work together i n a complex progression that not only stresses the contrast between the struggle for a r t and the struggle to survive but also attempts to bring these two  conflicts  into harmonious accord by the end of the work.  Here  in  embryo i n Horoki i s much of the material that Hayashi would develop i n l a t e r works: the preoccupation with  life's  randomness and r e s u l t i n g hardship, the deep i n t e r e s t i n relationships between men  and women, the desire for an i d e a l  partner, and, above a l l , her portrayal of the undaunted, passionate female figure who,  l i k e a character from some old  t a l e , struggles to find both love and happiness, but  who,  l i k e the modern heroine she i s , never quite succeeds. Although the l y r i c a l , c h i l d l i k e  cheerfulness of the Horoki  protagonist would become somewhat modified i n l a t e r works, i t i s never to be completely suppressed, and, l i k e the moldy two-sen copper coin which i s made to sparkle l i k e gold at the end of Horoki, the i r r e p r e s s i b l e courage of Hayashi's heroines never fades, but continues to shine b r i g h t l y throughout her works, an inextinguishable l i g h t that constantly illumines t h e i r unending struggles for survival and  success.  CHAPTER 2  77  FURTHER EXPERIMENTATION WITH AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL FICTION: 1931-1934  During the period that Horoki was being s e r i a l i z e d in Nyonin geijutsu, Hayashi wrote l i t t l e of i n t e r e s t . Instead, either alone or accompanied by her husband or other companions, she continued t r a v e l l i n g throughout  Japan.  Although Horoki was popular, her continuous submission of various other manuscripts to publishers met with success.  little  Most important f o r Hayashi, however, was the  selection of Horoki f o r inclusion as a volume i n a series of new l i t e r a r y works brought out by Kaizosha i n August 1930; as a r e s u l t , Horoki became a best s e l l e r .  With the  monetary gains from t h i s , her f i r s t major single volume publication, Hayashi was f i n a l l y able to extend the horizons of  her wanderings beyond Japan, and i n mid-August she embarked  upon a lone journey through Manchuria and China.  Upon her  return to Japan, Hayashi began working once again on the writing of novels and short s t o r i e s . e n t i t l e d Shunsenfu j | -  One of these, a novel  (A Brief Spring Record) ,:;;was  s e r i a l i z e d i n the Tokyo Asahi newspaper from 5 January to 25 February 1931  but met with f a i l u r e .  I t was not u n t i l  A p r i l 1931 when the short story "Fukin to sakana no machi" ^ t $.0)  was published i n the magazine Kaizo  /j^ i£  78  that Hayashi began to have further success.  This story  was followed by the publication and subsequent acclaim by such writers as Uno Koji of "Seihin no sho" ) \ j] °> 1  which  also appeared i n Kaizo i n November of the same year.''' Although Hayashi's journey to China lasted only a month, she seemed to have developed an appetite for foreign t r a v e l . T h i s , as much as her new f i n a n c i a l independence, encouraged her to t r a v e l abroad again.  In November 1931 she l e f t Japan,  t h i s time t r a v e l l i n g through Siberia to Paris and London. In Paris she continued writing miscellaneous essays and t r a v e l pieces, which she sent back to Japan for p u b l i c a t i o n . "Instead of having money sent to me, I had to send money to my parents" i n Japan," Hayashi remarks i n "Bungakuteki jijoden" i ' T ^ - V E l £ * J * (A L i t e r a r y Autobiography), an essay written i n 1935 that comments on her constant writing a c t i v i t y 2 during t h i s European t r i p .  Nevertheless, Hayashi was far  from the d e s t i t u t i o n of her Horoki days and l i v e d comfortably i f modestly i n a small pension i n Montparnasse.  When not  w r i t i n g , she spent her time v i s i t i n g a r t g a l l e r i e s and studying French.  Her experiences i n Paris are recorded i n  numerous essays as well as i n d i a r i e s and other works written l a t e r about t h i s period i n her l i f e . Except for a short v i s i t to London i n January  1932,  Hayashi remained i n Paris u n t i l June, when, low on funds, she decided to return to Japan.  With t r a v e l expenses  79  provided by her publisher, she s a i l e d home by way of Suez. Altogether she had been abroad eight months.  While the  t r i p was not p a r t i c u l a r l y successful i n terms of l i t e r a r y accomplishment, Hayashi returned home f u l l of new plans 3  for her w r i t i n g .  Throughout the next few years she undertook  not only the task of l i t e r a r y creation but also the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of an active l i t e r a r y  l i f e , including  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n lecture tours, symposiums, and other related a c t i v i t i e s ;  such involvement was to continue through-  out her career. In spite of her success and popularity, however, Hayashi was  not immune to the p o l i t i c a l persecutions which were then  sweeping the country, and i n September 1932 she was arrested and held i n detention for nine days on suspicion of left-wing activities.  Although Hayashi's offense constituted  little  more than subscribing to the i l l e g a l Communist party newspaper, Akahata, her arrest was no doubt meant as a 4  deterrent to other left-wing sympathizers.  While Hayashi's  short stay i n a police c e l l convinced her yet further that i t was primarily the poor and the unfortunate who suffered 5  from the machinations of society and p o l i t i c a l groups, she never became a supporter of left-wing causes nor, indeed, of any p o l i t i c a l philosophy.  Her early associations with  such left-wing publications as Bungei sensen and Nyonin  80  geljutsu were soon severed, and although her friendship with writers such as Hirabayashi Taiko continued, Hayashi proceeded along her own highly i d i o s y n c r a t i c path, seeking guidance from neither l e f t nor r i g h t . Acquiring a permanent residence i n Tokyo, Hayashi  still  continued to move incessantly about the country; yet these journeys, unlike her aimless wanderings of the past, were undertaken primarily i n connection with her work. With the making of Horoki into a f i l m of the same name i n May 1935, the early and experimental stages of Hayashi's career came to a f i t t i n g c l o s e .  The vagabond heroine thus passed into  h i s t o r y , becoming incorporated not only into the nation's l i t e r a r y consciousness but into i t s popular culture as w e l l . While Hayashi's l i t e r a r y output during t h i s post-Horoki period was meagre when measured i n terms of later years, i t i s nevertheless s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of her growth as an a r t i s t .  S t i l l developing as a writer and not yet e n t i r e l y  confident of her a b i l i t y i n prose, Hayashi continued to make use of Horoki-style narratives during t h i s time.  That  i s , the raw material of her own l i f e remained the p r i n c i p a l source of i n s p i r a t i o n for her f i c t i o n , while f i r s t person narration continued to provide a basic format.  Less  concerned with poetry per se, Hayashi's second-period works nonetheless remain e s s e n t i a l l y l y r i c a l , and i n t h i s period  81  the author produced some of her finest autobiographical fiction.  At the same time, Hayashi was no longer  preoccupied with the sufferings of the solitary artist; instead she concentrated on other aspects of the human struggle, particularly upon the problems of childhood and youth as well as upon the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent in malefemale relationships.  "Fukin to sakana. no machi" and  :  "Seihin no sho, " two works which best represent Hayashi's achievement during this period, w i l l now be examined with a view to assessing, f i r s t of a l l , their importance in relation to the overall development of Hayashi Fumiko as a writer and secondly, i f not more importantly, their value as works of a r t .  "Fukin to sakana no machi"  Portraying the l i f e of Masako, a fourteen-year-old g i r l , and her peddler parents, "Fukin to sakana no machi" could almost serve as an introduction to Horoki i t s e l f . Here again we find the seaside town of Onomichi with i t s fish shops and vendors; here also i s the young impressionable protagonist with her great appetite for l i f e , and here too are her loving but impractical parents who follow the gypsyish l i f e of itinerant peddlers. Yet "Fukin to sakana  82  no machi" i s i n many ways a very d i f f e r e n t type of story from that t o l d i n Horoki.  Although "Fukin" opens i n the  midst of a journey, i t i s i n fact at the end of a journey and i n f a i r l y settled circumstances that the story takes place.  Attracted by the national flags f l y i n g f e s t i v e l y  as t h e i r t r a i n passes through a town, Masako's parents decide to break t h e i r travels i n t h i s sunny seaside place and, hopefully, make some money with their peddling. Hearing a f l u t e from one of the many f i s h shops, Masako's father, wearing an o l d m i l i t a r y police uniform, takes out his accordion and begins to play as the family walks up the h i l l to town. Once a crowd has gathered, the father takes out h i s stock of patent medicines and begins h i s harangue. S e l l i n g medicines for the r e s t of the day, the family soon c o l l e c t s a large p i l e of c o i n s , and able to eat t h e i r  fill  that n i g h t , they decide to spend one more day i n t h i s pleasant town which they discover i s c a l l e d Onomichi. One more day lengthens into several, and before long the family rents a room, and Masako i s sent to school. Although Masako enjoys looking at lithographs of flowers and playing the organ, her school days are not p a r t i c u l a r l y happy.  Scolded by the teacher f o r her vulgar use of the  f i r s t person pronoun (she says washi wa ne when everyone else says uchi wa ne), Masako i s also teased unmercifully by her classmates who give her the u n f l a t t e r i n g nickname, "daughter  83  of the great accordion clown."  A f r a i d to t e l l her father  of t h i s since the name r e f l e c t s on him, Masako endures the unpleasantness. a boy she l i k e s .  I t i s not long, however, before she meets The son of a f i s h shop owner and the  captain of h i s class at school, he offers to take her f i s h i n g , and Masako flushes with pleasure. Yet her l i f e i n Onomichi does not seem destined to bring happiness.  Masako's father gives up h i s patent medicines  and begins s e l l i n g cosmetics i n b r i g h t l y coloured jars which he hawks throughout the area, accompanying himself with a catchy tune on the accordion.  Unfortunately, he i s s e l l i n g  adulterated goods; he i s caught and hauled into the p o l i c e s t a t i o n , where he i s made to sing and play h i s accordion while a policeman slaps him repeatedly.  The mother huddles  nearby, curled up i n a corner " l i k e a r a t . "  7  Although t o l d  to remain at home, Masako disobeys and arrives at the police station i n time to glimpse t h i s scene through the window. "Fukin to sakana no machi" comes to .an end as Masako i n tears turns and runs towards the s e a . Told i n the f i r s t person by Masako, "Fukin" i s a short story divided into ten sections; i t t e l l s the story of a g i r l struggling to grow up i n d i f f i c u l t and unusual circumstances.  Although there are one or two interpolations by  the adult author that tend to remind the reader that t h i s  84  i s a kind of reminiscence, the point of view i s primarily that of a young g i r l . of Horoki, who  Unlike the mature female protagonist  i s able to view the world with a cheerfulness  and determination derived from the successful integration of c h i l d l i k e  and womanly q u a l i t i e s , Masako must s t i l l  struggle with the c o n f l i c t between the two.  The t i t l e of  the story provides an insight into the nature of t h i s conflict.  The accordion, which represents the pure, b r i g h t ,  and happy realm of childhood, i s a symbol of Masako's own small inner world of mother, f a t h e r , and s e l f , while the f i s h town, which represents the adult outer world, i s a place which seems, on the surface at l e a s t , appealing and e x c i t i n g , yet i n i t s depths l i e corruption and misfortune. The dichotomy represented by the accordion and the f i s h town i s nicely maintained  throughout the s t o r y , providing  a well-wrought tension that s k i l l f u l l y portrays the uncertainties and p e r p l e x i t i e s experienced by Masako as she struggles to move away from the world of childhood and accordion to -the world of adults and f i s h town. to see how  In order  these two motifs i n t e r a c t throughout the s t o r y ,  enhancing and augmenting the main theme of growing up, i t i s necessary to look at both accordion and f i s h town i n some d e t a i l . The accordion, introduced i n the f i r s t l i n e s of the story, wrapped i n a white f u r o s h i k i  & $ ( w r a p p i n g cloth)  85  and held on the father's l a p , seems to be a kind of "child" i t s e l f , the white f u r o s h i k i adding an impression of purity and innocence.  This association of the accordion  with c h i l d l i k e q u a l i t i e s i s furthered when we learn that i t i s an old-fashioned accordion worn with a b e l t at the shoulders and held against the body, much l i k e a c h i l d might be h e l d .  And indeed, l i k e the accordion with which she i s  so c l o s e l y associated, Masako i s kept close at her parents* s i d e , guided, protected, and cherished.  When Masako's  father sets the accordion down beside a tree i n the medicine s e l l i n g scene on the h i l l at Onomichi, the l o c a l children are attracted to i t and attempt to play with i t , much to Masako's dismay.  Although she t r i e s to push them away,  the children only laugh and tease her.  I t seems that  Masako, too, l i k e the accordion, i s l i k e l y to suffer at the hands of the f i s h town's inhabitants. After these f i r s t scenes, the accordion drops from s i g h t , and Masako becomes more and more involved with the l i f e of the f i s h town.  Later, after Masako has started school, she  notices that her father's policeman's uniform has  disappeared.  Disappointed, she worries that one day the accordion w i l l disappear, too.  Although the accordion does not vanish,  i t s purity and charm are c e r t a i n l y marred i f not  lost  altogether i n the f i n a l episode, where the father i s made to  86  play i t i n a cruel travesty of i t s o r i g i n a l g l o r y . The accordion and the child's world i t represents take a serious beating at the hands of the adult world, and i t seems unlikely that they w i l l recover their former innocence. Unable to face the starkness of the s i t u a t i o n , Masako runs away towards the sea i n a scene that poignantly underlines the feelings of sadness and loss accompanying t h i s , her childhood's  end.  The f i s h town, however, i n contrast to the r e l a t i v e l y passive and gently beautiful image of the accordion, i s a v i b r a n t , e x c i t i n g , even v i o l e n t place of colour and contrast. The very f i r s t sight of Onomichi i s of flags f l y i n g , a rousing welcome indeed.  In the streets near the station are the  many f i s h vendors with their c o l o u r f u l signs, and a young boy whistling as he pounds up f i s h bones.  Masako i s  fascinated by the v a r i e t y of seafood and pesters her mother to but her some octopus.  Even though her mother says they  cannot afford i t , Masako continues to i n s i s t , and her mother f i n a l l y slaps her, causing a nosebleed.  The f i s h town,  although f u l l of l i f e and nourishment, seems also to foster elements of violence and i n j u r y , the unexpected nosebleed also indicating that Masako's innocent state i s l i k e l y to become s u l l i e d i n t h i s strange town. The violence and sordidness of the f i s h town i s developed  87  further i n the portrayal of the household where Masako and her parents rent a room.  Owned by an e l d e r l y couple  who are burdened with debts they cannot pay, the household i s tainted by the misery of poverty and plagued by the demands of unscrupulous money-lenders.  Adding to the  atmosphere of corruption and decay i s the shallow well i n the  garden which i s often polluted by the bodies of  neighbourhood cats and dogs which have tumbled i n a c c i d e n t a l l y . Its depths must thus occasionally be probed by means of an old corroded mirror.  One night the e l d e r l y landlady  throws herself into the well i n despair over her husband's debts and i s rescued by Masako's father.  The next morning  Masako must use the mirror to f i s h the o l d woman's clogs from the w e l l .  Although the landlady survives, i t i s clear  that the f i s h town i s a place of hidden dangers and p i t f a l l s , most of which are l i k e l y to be connected i n some way with the  debasing demands and hardships of adult l i f e . F u l l of f i s h and f i s h s e l l e r s as i t i s , Onomichi i n  every way i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d with the sea.  In f a c t , the  f i s h town seems to be a kind of extension of the sea i t s e l f . Thus, although exhibiting aspects of violence and impurity, the  f i s h town i s also c l e a r l y associated with the p o s i t i v e  forces of l i f e . the  An i l l u s t r a t i o n which underlines t h i s i s  scene where Masako and her mother go down to the harbour  88  at night to r e l i e v e themselves.  Masako notices that the  water, l i k e the f i s h town, i s also f u l l of f i s h .  The moon  i s out, and as Masako peers through her legs at the scene behind her, she sees r e f l e c t e d upside-down i n the water the sea, sky,  ship, and the white mound of her own bottom  as her urine covers the sea l i k e a mist.-  Although t h i s  view places Masako firmly among the r e f l e c t e d images of the f i s h town and at the same time evokes the uninhibited natural world of childhood, t h i s glimpse of the f i s h town as a topsy-turvy sort of place suggests that i n Onomichi things may be turned suddenly upside-down. what happens at the end of the story.  This i s i n fact  The sea, i n this  case, i s similar to the well mirror, acting as a kind of r e f l e c t i n g device that reveals the hidden hazards and i n s t a b i l i t y of the adult world. Also i n the f i s h town i s the school at the top of the hill.  Taken by her father to e n r o l l , Masako i s overcome  by nervousness and starts to run away, but her father shouts at her to come back.  Masako returns, "trembling l i k e a g  b i r d r i s i n g from the water.''  As t h i s image suggests,  Masako, too, summons up her courage, and struggling to r i s e above her new world yet at the same time to be a part of i t , she enters the school.  Masako's desire to take  part i n the new world of the f i s h town i s seen not only i n  89  her decision to enter school but also i n her a t t r a c t i o n to the boy i n the f i s h shop.  The measure of her  new  commitment i s shown by Masako's reluctance to leave when her parents suggest moving to Osaka.  Thus, both positive  and negative elements i n the f i s h town help to bring' change and new awareness into Masako's l i f e . Both accordion and f i s h town are recurring motifs that help to underscore the c o n f l i c t f e l t by the young protagonist as she struggles to come to terms with adult l i f e .  Thus,  the accordion represents the pure and cheerful world of childhood, while the f i s h town, on the other hand, has  two  faces: one, smiling and a l l u r i n g ; the other, treacherous and squalid.  Sometimes one of these faces may  conceal the other,  as i n the case of the a t t r a c t i v e jars of make-up which turn out to contain an adulterated product.  The tension between  these two spheres, the outer world of the adult (fish town) and the inner world of the c h i l d (accordion), i s similar to that evinced i n Horoki between the inner world of a r t i s t i c struggle and the outer world of struggle for survival; yet i n "Fukin" this tension i s not brought to a harmonious resolution as i s the case i n Horoki.  Instead, the story  closes on a note of sorrow and suffering as Masako witnesses her parents' humiliation at the hands of the p o l i c e . Nevertheless, the way  i s made clear for the protagonist to  90  r e a l i z e a new maturity, p a i n f u l though i t may be.  As she  turns away from her parents i n the f i n a l lines of the story and runs towards the sea and the f i s h town, i t i s clear that she has made her choice. Although "Fukin" follows a straightforward development i n terms of both time and space, the narrative i s constructed i n a manner that further delineates the inexorable progression from the world of childhood to the world of the adult.  Sections one to f i v e , for example, cover the f i r s t  day and night of the familyJs a r r i v a l i n Onomichi.  Time  here moves at a s n a i l ' s pace as the sights and sounds of the f i s h town and the family's experiences merge into an endless flow that r e c a l l s the timelessness of childhood. Sections s i x to ten, however, cover a time period of roughly three months as the season changes from spring to summer. Here, only certain events are highlighted, as the f i s h town reveals i t s e l f more f u l l y , and the childhood i d y l l i s caught up i n .new growth and change.  Each of these l a s t  f i v e sections bring Masako into contact with events that seem to represent many of l i f e ' s major transitions -r, section six: old age  (the story of the old destitute couple); section  seven: death (the attempted suicide of the o l d woman); section eight: education  (the school on the h i l l ) ; section  nine: f i r s t love (the boy i n the f i s h shop); section ten:  91  l o s s of y o u t h f u l  innocence  (the scene a t the p o l i c e s t a t i o n ) .  Thus, i n these l a s t s e c t i o n s Masako becomes more and more enmeshed i n the drama o f a d u l t l i f e , f a i r l y r a p i d succession  various  as she encounters i n  i n c i d e n t s which h i g h l i g h t  the h a r d s h i p s but a l s o the p l e a s u r e s  of the a d u l t w o r l d .  W i t h i n the above arrangement of the s t o r y ' s ten are other elements which f u r t h e r support and narrative structure.  sections  enhance the  For example, the mother's s l a p a t  the  b e g i n n i n g o f the s t o r y c o n t r a s t s markedly w i t h the p o l i c e beating and  i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n .  A childhood  i t s unexpected e f f e c t seem to p a l e beside the  v i o l e n c e o f the wider world. f a t h e r gathers h i s f i r s t  The  crowd and  another such element.  where Masako and  two  hills,  and  in section  the three  C o n t r a s t e d w i t h the gloomy  where Masako must go to s c h o o l accordion  gratuitous  h i l l where Masako's  l o c a l c h i l d r e n s p o r t w i t h the a c c o r d i o n is  remonstrance  i n s e c t i o n e i g h t , the h i l l  c h i l d r e n seems a j o y f u l p l a c e  l i k e the s l a p and  hill  the b e a t i n g ,  indeed.  These  f u r t h e r accentuate  the movement from s i m p l i c i t y to complexity, from c h i l d adult that characterizes  of  to  the o v e r a l l n a r r a t i v e framework.  There are other images, however, which, although a l i g n e d w i t h the above n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n , different effect. h a r d s h i p and  produce a  slightly  That i s , i n s t e a d of emphasizing  the  s u f f e r i n g of the f i s h town world, p l e a s u r e  and  92  beauty are brought to the f o r e , .a fact which helps to bring out the positive aspects of the f i s h town i n contrast to i t s darker s i d e .  Connected primarily with food and with  gustatory sensation, these images (similar to Horoki) are closely related to the peddler family's outward struggle for  survival and at the same time (unlike Horoki) reveal  much about the young protagonist's inner development. In "Eukin" food plays an important part from the very f i r s t lines of the story, where j o l t i n g along on the t r a i n , Masako i s given a banana to eat by her mother.  This i s followed  soon after i n Onomichi by a piece of tempura,. which Masako buys and shares with her mother.  Masako l i c k s the grease  from her hands as she follows her mother up the h i l l .  The  giving of food by the mother followed by Masako's purchase of the tempura and subsequent sharing indicate Masako's in-between state; she i s neither t o t a l l y c h i l d nor t o t a l l y adult.  Yet, as she absently l i c k s the grease o f f her hands,  the reader begins to suspect that Masako i s i n many ways s t i l l a c h i l d , an impression which i s confirmed i n the ensuing scene at the octopus s e l l e r ' s s t a l l .  Although  Masako i s not allowed to have the octopus, her parents do t h e i r best to make i t up to her.  Later that evening they  provide her with a dish of noodles that contains special additions of bean curd that theirs do not.  Masako sucks  93  up the l a s t of her noodles "as i f they were baby's milk," her behaviour continuing to be very much that of the greedy c h i l d . Like the young protagonist of Horoki, Masako, too, i s always hungry.  Yet t h i s hunger seems to stem more from  an adolescent growing spurt than from any kind of starvation. Her father, aware that Masako i s just reaching her f u l l height, t e l l s her that she can have a l l the white r i c e she wants to e a t .  He uses the word shir okamanma  fyij^ht^  a word that denotes a p a r t i c u l a r l y d e l i c i o u s and excellent grade of r i c e and therefore emphasizes not only Masako's state of c h i l d i s h dependence on such parental treats but also her father's eager indulgence.  Once Masako and her  parents s e t t l e down i n the f i s h town, however, food ceases to be treated i n such babyish terms, and although Masako s t i l l depends on her parents for sustenance, she i s curious about other new and strange f o o d s t u f f s , such as the piece of dried seaweed the e l d e r l y landlady uses i n her fortunetelling.  During the rescue of the o l d woman from the w e l l ,  Masako takes the opportunity to pop one of these into her mouth to see how i t t a s t e s .  The black pepper i n i t bites  her tongue, a sharp reminder of the a t t r a c t i v e yet a c r i monious nature of the f i s h town.  Masako soon acquires a  taste for her new environment, and near the end of the  94  s t o r y , she goes t o v i s i t the boy i n the f i s h shop. buying c h i n u g o ,  1 1  After  Masako engages i n a m i l d f l i r t a t i o n w i t h  the boy and d e c l a r e s t h a t she l i k e s a l l kinds o f f i s h . the aspect  Here  of change a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f i s h town and i t s  i n h a b i t a n t s i s seen i n a b r i g h t and happy l i g h t .  Even the  12 f i s h t h a t Masako buys i s "glowing,"  and i n t h i s scene which  b r i n g s s e c t i o n nine t o a c l o s e , Masako d e c l a r e s u n c e r t a i n terms her p r e f e r e n c e  i n no  f o r the f i s h town and i t s  a t t r a c t i v e promise o f new l i f e and l o v e . In the l a s t  s e c t i o n , food becomes a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h a d u l t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h Masako's f a t h e r .  entirely When  Masako's mother buys some cheap, s u s p i c i o u s - l o o k i n g meat from a l o c a l peddler  woman who c l a i m s  she i s s e l l i n g  beef, Masako's  f a t h e r suspects i t i s dog meat and e a t s some t o prove h i s suspicions.  T h i s spurious  beef s o l d by a peddler woman  again reminds us o f the c o r r u p t i o n and impurity  t o be found  i n the a d u l t world o f the f i s h town and a t the same time prepares the way f o r the appearance o f the a d u l t e r a t e d cosmetics s o l d by Masako's f a t h e r a t the end o f the s t o r y . Except f o r t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n , then, images o f food and e a t i n g i n "Fukin"  emphasize p r i m a r i l y the b r i g h t , i n t e r e s t i n g ,  and  pleasurable  aspects o f Masako's new l i f e i n Onomichi.  The  f a c t t h a t food i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n o f the s t o r y i s no  longer a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Masako b u t w i t h her f a t h e r emphasizes  95  the predominance of the adult world, which i s firmly established i n the l a s t scene at the p o l i c e s t a t i o n , Masako becoming a mere observer of her father's  disgrace.  Masako's d i r e c t involvement i n the bright and cheerful f i s h shop scene of the preceding s e c t i o n , however, i s also important, i n d i c a t i n g that growth and change for Masako have been e s s e n t i a l l y enlivening and stimulating, and thus the events at the end of the story, while sudden and  upsetting,  are not l i k e l y to be ultimately destructive but w i l l no doubt bring i n t h e i r wakeea new,if i n i t i a l l y p a i n f u l , s p i r i t of independence. In her 1945  postscript to "Fukin to sakana no machi"  and elsewhere i n her w r i t i n g s , the author refers to t h i s , her f i r s t successful shosetsu, as an "adult fairytale.-" Indeed, although there are no supernatural  manifestations  or f a n t a s t i c elements that might alienate an adult reader, a b r i g h t , enchanting atmosphere pervades the entire work, reminding us at times and i n c e r t a i n respects of the dowa' tale.  Thus, while the story i s presented i n a straight-  forward, r e a l i s t i c manner, various elements ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t i t l e , c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , and setting) tend to emphasize the unusual and extraordinary narrative realms.  and at times seem to evoke other  For example, the peddler family with  t h e i r outlandish musical instrument and odd concoctions that  96  cure a l l i l l s e a s i l y remind the reader of characters from some old nursery t a l e .  Like beggars come to town, Masako  and her mother t r a i l along after the father, who  easily  gathers crowds of children and other onlookers with his peculiar brand of music and chatter, his own a kind of modern-day Pied Piper.  figure suggesting  Although there are no  poems i n "Fukin," there i s the father's peddler song that adds to his image as a folk or f a i r y t a l e  figure.  Selling  the ersatz cosmetics, he sings: Use one j a r , l i g h t pink your skin w i l l glow, Use two j a r s , for skin as white as snow, Everyone, come buy from me, ^4 If you don't, a charcoal b a l l your face w i l l be. Here, with a subtle irony, the adulterated cosmetics are viewed as desirable items that have the a b i l i t y to provide freshness and p u r i t y , whereas i n r e a l i t y they are no better than the black charcoal b a l l the song warns against.  This  kind of reversal i n which the fresh and b e a u t i f u l figure or object conceals a harmful or hideous i n t e r i o r , i s also a f a m i l i a r feature of the folk=> or f a i r y t a l e . , Not only i s the family and their eccentric l i f e - s t y l e portrayed i n a way  that stresses elements of the f o l k t a l e ,  the f i s h town, too, seems a strange mixture of the odd the ordinary.  and  Peopled by an e l d e r l y luckless f o r t u n e - t e l l e r  and her hapless husband, curious as well as s p i t e f u l  97  c h i l d r e n , a handsome f i s h e r boy,  and a b r u t a l p o l i c e  o f f i c e r , the f i s h town seems i n h a b i t e d by persons who have stepped from the pages of a r u r a l f o l k t a l e .  might  Although  not a l l are malevolent, a l l are i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s occurrences t h a t b r i n g change and new of  the young p r o t a g o n i s t .  a k i n d of f a i r y t a l e  awareness t o the  Thus, the f i s h town appears  life as  l a n d , seemingly p e a c e f u l and p l e a s a n t  on the s u r f a c e , but harbouring a host of unusual and events t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y c h a l l e n g e the p r o t a g o n i s t and  violent her  parents. By p o r t r a y i n g the p e d d l e r f a m i l y and the f i s h town i n a manner which u t i l i z e s dowa elements,  the author i s able to  convey not o n l y a sense of the young p r o t a g o n i s t ' s s i m p l i c i t y , but a l s o a sense of her b r i g h t n e s s and charm. appears  not merely  Thus, Masako  as an u n f o r t u n a t e c h i l d of the  lowest  s o c i a l order but a l s o as a c h e e r f u l peddler g i r l , who many a f a i r y t a l e to  like  heroine of s i m i l a r background, i s f o r c e d  s t r u g g l e with the h a r d s h i p s and mysteries of l i f e armed  o n l y w i t h her innocence  and engaging  naivete.  Like a stranger  i n a strange l a n d , Masako must s t r u g g l e to come t o terms w i t h h e r s e l f , her odd but l o v i n g p a r e n t s , and the p e c u l i a r f i s h town i n which she f i n d s h e r s e l f .  The dowa elements  not o n l y impart a sense of the strangeness of the f i s h town but a l s o , by e x t e n s i o n , o f the world of a d u l t s w i t h which  98  Masako must d e a l . with folk  More importantly, however, the associations  and f a i r y t a l e  serve both to beautify and  1  poeticize Masako s experiences, creating a realm i n which the wanderings of poor peddlers are given a kind of magical veneer, i n which an ordinary f i s h i n g town and i t s impoverished inhabitants acquire unexpected dimensions, and i n which the young protagonist's struggle f o r maturity and independence i s imbued with a bright sheen of innocent hopefulness that, i n the end, tends to mitigate most e f f e c t i v e l y the overlying p a l l of darkness and despair. In order to highlight further the significance of "Fukin to sakana no machi," an analysis of "Seihin no sho," the second story selected f o r consideration i n this chapter, w i l l now be introduced.  Thereafter, an assessment of the  importance of these two stories w i l l be presented, thereby completing the evaluation of Hayashi's work i n t h i s second period.  "Seihin no sho"  In contrast to "Fukin to sakana no machi" which reads l i k e a kind of introduction to Horoki, "Seihin no sho" could almost serve as a sequel to Hayashi's diary t a l e . Based on the author's early married l i f e with her t h i r d  99  husband who appears here under the name Komatsu Y o i c h i , 1  "Seihin no sho' also deals b r i e f l y with the unpleasant years spent with the second husband.  This i s of course  the Nomura figure of Horoki, disguised here as Uotani Ichitaro.  Although "Seihin no sho," l i k e "Fukin to sakana  no machi," does not deal with the author's struggle as an a r t i s t , i t does concern i t s e l f with the author's personal a f f a i r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , her relationship with her t h i r d husband and her attempt to make t h i s relationship a success. Seen by some c r i t i c s as one of Hayashi's most representative 15 works,  "Seihin no sho" deals i n depth with an area hereto-  fore treated only fragmentarily i n Horoki and hardly at a l l i n "Fukin to sakana no machi": close relationships between men and women. While Horoki portrays such relationships as primarily unhappy and u n s a t i s f y i n g , "Seihin no sho" takes an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t view. A short story i n twelve sections, "Seihin no sho" i s t o l d i n the f i r s t person by the female narrator, Kanayo. Although t h i s female protagonist with her poverty-stricken parents i n Kyushu and her d i f f i c u l t second marriage i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e with the Fumiko figure of Horoki, the protagonist of "Seihin no sho" i s no longer a wanderer. Deeply involved with marriage and husband, she has turned her attentions toward settled domestic existence and seems  100  to have s e t wandering a s i d e .  The  s t o r y recounts Kanayo's  unfortunate r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Uotani and then proceeds  to  d e s c r i b e her p r e s e n t l i f e w i t h Y o i c h i , her t h i r d husband, as they move i n t o a s m a l l bungalow on the grounds of a l a r g e and d i l a p i d a t e d e s t a t e i n the middle of Tokyo. Surrounded by a z a l e a bushes, pomegranate t r e e s , and the house i s p a r t of an unexpectedly setting.  cedars,  luxurious pastoral  Here, Y o i c h i , a Western-style p a i n t e r , i s able  to work/and the p r o t a g o n i s t of the s t o r y s t r u g g l e s to be of help t o him i n every p o s s i b l e way, l e a r n how  to l i v e t o g e t h e r .  as the two g r a d u a l l y  Dogged a t every step by  extreme poverty and hunger, however, t h e i r path i s not  easy.  Not o n l y must the couple face the hardships of a d e s t i t u t e e x i s t e n c e , they must a l s o cope w i t h a r a i d from the Thought Police,^  the l o s s of Y o i c h i ' s j o b , constant requests by  Kanayo's parents i n Kyushu f o r money as w e l l as Y o i c h i ' s e v e n t u a l departure to serve a s h o r t term i n the m i l i t a r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , such e x p e r i e n c e s o n l y serve t o draw the c l o s e r t o g e t h e r , and as " S e i h i n no sho" comes t o an we  two  end,  f i n d Kanayo e a g e r l y a w a i t i n g Y o i c h i ' s r e t u r n , which w i l l  c o i n c i d e w i t h the appearance of tomatoes on the v i n e i n t h e i r garden.  T h i s event v i v i d l y u n d e r l i n e s the beauty  f r u i t f u l n e s s of t h e i r maturing  relationship.  and  101  The depiction of a s a t i s f y i n g and mutually b e n e f i c i a l male-female relationship i s rare i n Hayashi's works and thus the success of Yoichi and Kanayo i n t h i s regard sets t h i s work apart from many of her others and at the same time o f f e r s some insight into the preoccupation with f u l f i l l m e n t i n love that characterizes much of Hayashi's later writings.  Similar to the dowa-like q u a l i t y of  "Fukin to sakana no machi," "Seihin no sho," too, seems to incorporate something of the world of folk i n i t s theme of the search for love.  and f a i r y t a l e  As one study of  f o l k t a l e s , points out: The marital theme occupies a prominent place i n f a i r y t a l e s : i t consists of the search f o r a marital partner, the overcoming of obstacles i n the course of the search, the r i t u a l and marital tests...and the happy marriage to a princess or p r i n c e . 17 Although the protagonists, of "Seihin no sho" do not have to undergo a d i f f i c u l t courtship, they do proceed through a series of c r i s e s and events which i s reminiscent of the folk  or f a i r y t a l e  format and which leads, i n the end, to  an i d e a l state of marital b l i s s .  Concerned not only with  struggles that find s a t i s f a c t i o n through a r t i s t i c and personal growth and achievement, as i n Horoki and "Fukin," Hayashi now begins to lay stress on the quest for f u l f i l l m e n t i n love.  In f a c t , for Hayashi, such accomplishment can  102  mean the r e a l i z a t i o n of beauty and perfection i n t h i s l i f e . However, few Hayashi heroines a t t a i n such a s t a t e , and of those who  do, fewer s t i l l manage to make i t l a s t .  Neverthe-  l e s s , the unique narrator figure of "Seihin no sho" does both.  "Seihin no sho"  i s representative, then, i n that i t  depicts i n d e t a i l the growth and maturation of a close adult relationship and yet unusual and a t y p i c a l i n that i t portrays this relationship as happy and successful. sho,"  After "Seihin no  Hayashi's works depicting relationships between  men  and women e x h i b i t decidedly unhappy outcomes. The t i t l e of t h i s story, as i n the case of "Fukin to sakana no machi," provides an important key to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i t s few words encompassing c e r t a i n of the story's e s s e n t i a l features.  Of most significance i s the word s e i h i n  ^  translated usually as "honourable (or honest) poverty." f i r s t character of the compound, s e i 5"j|  , The  actually means  clean, c l e a r , pure as well as noble and thus denotes that not only i s the state of poverty i n which Yoichi and his wife l i v e "honourable" or noble, i t i s also pure and undefiled; i t i s , i n a very p a r t i c u l a r and t r a d i t i o n a l 18  Japanese sense, b e a u t i f u l .  The connection of purity and  beauty with the struggles of poverty both ennobles the couple's b a t t l e with adversity and also suggests that t h e i r struggle has aesthetic value i n i t s own  right.  Consequently,  103  this struggle i s worthwhile setting down i n a r t i s t i c form, i n t h i s case, as a "record" or sho  .  In order  to see how the author develops t h i s motif of seihin or "pure and beautiful poverty," i t i s necessary to look at the story i n closer d e t a i l . The f i r s t sections of the story deal with matters that are f a r from being pure or b e a u t i f u l .  In section one, f o r  example, the protagonist r e c a l l s b r i e f l y her l i f e with three d i f f e r e n t men over the past four years, a s i t u a t i o n her own mother finds unlucky and similar to her own misfortune with men.  We l e a r n , too, that the protagonist's t h i r d Jiusband,  Y o i c h i , i s a fellow who i s i n every way opposite to her own character, being an e n t i r e l y ordinary and matter-of-fact sort of person.  Describing the grounds of t h e i r new house,  for example, Kanayo exaggerates when she t e l l s her friends: "It's l i k e an old mansion with thousands of azaleas growing 19 around i t . "  But her husband says: "It's r e a l l y on the  overgrown s i t e of some old mansion; i t has only about two hundred azalea bushes and they're a .poor quality azalea.at that.."^  At t h i s p o i n t , we are not yet certain whether the  protagonist finds Yoichi's a r t l e s s adherence to mundane fact e n t i r e l y desirable.  Section two i s a flashback recounting  the two-year relationship with the v i o l e n t Uotani, h i s mistreatment of Kanayo, their separation, and her eventual  104  meeting with Yoichi at a New  Year's celebration.  Throughout  these f i r s t two sections the emphasis i s on misery and misfortune, the one bright spot being the b r i e f dialogue description of the azalea-surrounded house by Yoichi and the protagonist.  As the relationship with Uotani comes to an 21  end, Kanayo decides she must "wash her hands," him but of her work as a waitress as w e l l .  not only of  Thus we see that  her struggle against unfortunate circumstances i s also a struggle against the degradation and debasement caused by such circumstances.  The meeting of Yoichi at the New  therefore betokens brightness and hope for new  Year  beginnings,  suggesting that the protagonist may now be able to cleanse herself of the sordid past. This preoccupation with an impure or unclean past and the need to r i d oneself of i t i s developed throughout the next several sections (three to seven), where Kanayo and Yoichi move from their old rooms and s e t t l e into the large yet dilapidated bungalow. fellow who  Yoichi i s a calm and p r a c t i c a l  talks openly with Kanayo about her relationship  with Uotani, a fact which helps restore Kanayo to a sense of youthfulness and freshness.  Yet she remains uneasy,  unsure of how to treat this frank and open fellow behaves towards her with such honesty.  who  In section four,  asked what she intends to do with the ceramic j a r that holds  105  her savings from her c a f e days, Kanayo h e s i t a t e s to r e p l y , not y e t ready to break i t open.  Thus,; she and Y o i c h i must  c a r r y t h i s heavy pot along w i t h t h e i r o t h e r p o s s e s s i o n s t h e i r new  home.  frp,  jigokutsubo change.  In the Japanese t e x t , "ceramic  jar" i s  ( h e l l j a r ) , a s e c r e t e d cache of  J i g o k u a l s o connotes a house of p r o s t i t u t i o n  thus i n t h i s context suggests w i t h the mizu shobai world. scores s t i l l  to  spare and  the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s connection The use of t h i s word under-  f u r t h e r the u n d e s i r a b l e nature o f the past from  which the p r o t a g o n i s t wishes to d i s a s s o c i a t e h e r s e l f . The p a s t continues to plague  the p r o t a g o n i s t  throughout  s e c t i o n s f i v e , s i x , and seven, as the couple s e t t l e t h e i r new  life  together.  into  A p p a l l e d a t the l a c k o f e l e c t r i c i t y  as w e l l as the o v e r a l l c o n d i t i o n o f the house, Kanayo t e l l s Y o i c h i they are s t u p i d to have taken such a p l a c e and f o r such a steep r e n t (the r e n t i s more than double previous r e n t a l f e e ) .  their  Yet Y o i c h i seems r e l a t i v e l y unconcerned,  and eager to get s t a r t e d w i t h h i s p a i n t i n g , he t e l l s Kanayo 22 her i s a "romantic."  She w o r r i e s t h a t he may  leave her  and wonders i f he t h i n k s she would p r e f e r her o l d l i f e  of  pawnshops and unpaid b i l l s  to t h a t of l i f e w i t h a s t r u g g l i n g  artist.  their financial situation  By s e c t i o n seven,  worsened c o n s i d e r a b l y , and Y o i c h i , romantic down d i z z y w i t h hunger.  or not,  has lies  In d e s p e r a t i o n Kanayo c h i p s away a t  106  the ceramic j a r and manages to break i t , extracting enough money to buy r i c e and vegetables f o r t h e i r supper.  She  s l i p s out without t e l l i n g Y o i c h i , who chides her on her return f o r not t e l l i n g him what she intended to do.  "Poor  people cannot afford to be vague about things. 23  tell  me straight," he says. for  Just  He t e l l s her he i s planning to look  a painting job at an exhibition i n Ueno the next day.  Washing the r i c e , Kanayo weeps s i l e n t l y , stung by Yoichi*s criticism.  Yet from t h i s point on, she ceases to be uneasy  in her relationship with Y o i c h i .  Like the ceramic j a r ,  the hold of the past has been broken, and her t e a r s , very much l i k e the water that rinses the r i c e , seem to wash away a l l impurities. Thus, by the end of section seven, the couple are firmly established not only i n t h e i r new residence but also i n their new r e l a t i o n s h i p , a state of a f f a i r s n i c e l y anticipated by the quotation from Basho that opens this section of the story: The mountain i s s t i l l and fosters character; water moves and i s i n sympathy with emotion. Between s t i l l n e s s and motion i s the person who has a dwelling place. 24 Here an aesthetic dimension i s added to the couple's new l i f e together as t h e i r relationship i s viewed i n more poetic terms. The mountain reminds us of Yoichi and his simple, steady  107  nature, w h i l e the e v e r - r e s t l e s s water r e c a l l s the p r o t a g o n i s t and her v o l a t i l e p e r s o n a l i t y .  The broken-down cottage t h a t  i s t h e i r d w e l l i n g p l a c e u n i t e s these two o p p o s i t e y e t e s s e n t i a l l y complementary f i g u r e s who one,  now  begin t o l i v e  s h a r i n g together the j o y s and sorrows of the  as  "honourable  poverty." In s e c t i o n e i g h t , Y o i c h i g i v e s up h i s own the job i n Ueno.  painting for  The p r i n t s he has hung on the w a l l s of the  house b e g i n to fade i n the summer sun, mute evidence of h i s temporary s a c r i f i c e .  L i k e h i s w i f e , Y o i c h i , too, i s  prepared to r e l i n q u i s h something of the p a s t i n order t o s u s t a i n the p r e s e n t .  To pass the time w h i l e Y o i c h i i s gone,  Kanayo s i t s alone and hungry i n the garden, h o l d i n g a couple of c o i n s and l i s t e n i n g t o the d i n o f the c i c a d a . of food, she puts the two  Dreaming  c o i n s up t o her ears and  chinks  them t o g e t h e r , a sound the author p l a c e s i n a p p o s i t i o n to the sound of the c i c a d a . Hayashi  In the chink of the two c o i n s ,  s k i l l f u l l y d e p i c t s the "sound" of hunger and  poverty  t h a t c r i e s out w i t h a v o i c e a t once as p e n e t r a t i n g and eloquent as t h a t of the c i c a d a .  The  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of  as this  seasonal image o f t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese p o e t i c s w i t h images of poverty and d e s t i t u t i o n immediately  e l e v a t e s the  p r o t a g o n i s t ' s experience i n t o an a e s t h e t i c one, t h a t the couple's s t r u g g l e i s now  implying  suffused with a p u r i t y  and  108  beauty a l l i t s own. The sound of the cicada, however, i s soon drowned out by another sound, that of the kerosene stove the l o c a l junk dealer brings around.  So loud i t sounds l i k e an a i r p l a n e ,  t h i s noisy stove even brings the neighbour's c h i l d running to investigate.  The roaring stove, which soon becomes  Kanayo's constant companion during Yoichi's absences, seems to s i g n i f y the dynamism that underlines Kanayo's new-found domestic commitment and at the same time i n i t s association with cooking and with food appears as a p o t e n t i a l l y powerful weapon i n the never-ending b a t t l e against hunger and poverty. In the next three sections the couple's relationship i s put to the test by various events, and i n each case they hold together, reaffirming the strength and purity of their love. Section nine, for example, describes the unexpected intrusion of the Thought Police who  search the premises and attempt  to arrest Yoichi; however, i t turns out to be a case of mistaken i d e n t i t y , and the police have no choice but to leave empty-handed.  Yoichi immediately t e l l s Kanayo to scatter  s a l t about the house i n a b r i e f r i t e of p u r i f i c a t i o n .  Told  there i s no s a l t , he r e p l i e s , even kerosene or earth w i l l do, thereby emphasizing the importance of the bungalow as a place protective of the domestic sphere and thus unsullied by the coarseness of the outer world.  In section ten  109  Yoichi quits his job after suffering i n s u l t s and the abuse of another worker.  From his two-weeks wages, Kanayo i s  able to buy kerosene, and as the stove roars again, the two go out to the garden to bathe together at the w e l l , an a c t i v i t y which further reinforces their new bonds of intimacy and mutual cooperation, as together they wash away the t a i n t of adversity. This sense of harmony continues as they discuss Yoichi's departure i n a few days for m i l i t a r y service.  Yoichi t e l l s his wife he w i l l leave her a l l the  money except for the f i v e yen he needs for t r a v e l expenses. As Yoichi washes, he splashes water on the azalea leaves which are now withered.  Implied but unstated i s the thought  that perhaps their love, too, l i k e the beautiful azaleas, v / i l l now wither and d i e , and the protagonist feels a sharp sense of unease at being l e f t alone.  Thoughts of her mother  and father f i l l her mind, and she thinks of sending money to them i n Kyushu.  She never finds the opportunity to ask  Yoichi about t h i s , and section ten closes on a note of melancholy, as Yoichi goes about whistling a lonely, autumnal tune.  In the next to l a s t section Yoichi and Kanayo take  leave of each other at the t r a i n s t a t i o n , each holding back their t e a r s . In the l a s t section, Kanayo l i v e s alone i n the bungalow, l i s t e n i n g to the noise of the stove, sipping tea, and reading  110  Yoichi's l e t t e r s .  Soon the tomatoes begin to bear f r u i t ,  and Kanayo knows that Yoichi w i l l soon be home.  The  protagonist, who opened "Seihin no sho" with the  statement:  "For a long time I've cherished the idea of l i v i n g alone," now declares that to be alone and without Yoichi's love i s 26 akin to p e r v e r s i t y ,  and as the story draws to a c l o s e ,  she remains calmly at home, Yoichi's l e t t e r s p i l i n g up beside her, humble testaments to a rare and  wonderful  happiness: At autumn's onset cut reeds and susuki grass I gather, overwhelmed by longing these autumn grasses I send to you. 27 In  lines which conclude "Seihin no sho," Yoichi sends t h i s  poem to Kanayo, p o e t i c i z i n g not only his loneliness but h i s commitment to his wife as w e l l . In  "Seihin no sho," then, the ruinous hardships of l i f e  are held i n check by the couple's mutual devotion.  The  struggle to survive becomes a struggle to survive together, a shared commitment to l i f e that brings transcendance of poverty and hardship.  While the f i r s t half of the story  (sections one to six) depicts the protagonist's preoccupation with her past, and i n p a r t i c u l a r her anxiety that degradation and unhappiness from this past might somehow mar her  new  Ill  r e l a t i o n s h i p , the l a s t part of the story (sections seven to twelve) shows how  she manages to free herself of such  concerns and i n partnership with her husband begin to l i v e a l i f e of s e i h i n , that i s , a l i f e of poverty p u r i f i e d and made beautiful by their mutual love. Here, as i n Horoki and similar to "Fukin to sakana no machi," the author associates such aesthetic and emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n with an inner world circumscribed, i n this case, s p a t i a l l y , by theidilapidated bungalow and i t s flowerf i l l e d grounds, and temporally by the developing relationship between Yoichi and Kanayo.  This inner realm, i d y l l i c and  i d e a l , i s i n sharp contrast to the outer world, which intrudes in various forms, disturbing the lovers' t r a n q u i l l i t y with i t s poverty, violence, and peremptory demands. Yet without such hardships, l i t t l e growth or change would take place, and similar to Horoki and "Fukin to sakana no machi," "Seihin no sho" emphasizes the struggle with hardship that leads to personal f u l f i l l m e n t .  Unlike the e a r l i e r works,  however, "Seihin no sho'' indicates that such f u l f i l l m e n t i s not always attainable by the i n d i v i d u a l s e l f but i s also dependent upon and closely determined by others.  The even-  tempered and considerate figure of Yoichi i s of p a r t i c u l a r note i n t h i s case, being a standard against which a l l other Hayashi male characters may be measured.  Due largely to  112  the balance and equanimity of t h i s male f i g u r e , the female protagonist i s able to enter into and sustain a stable love relationship. Thus, "Seihin no sho" chronicles the gradual growth and development of a marriage i n i t s e a r l i e s t phases. Although the time span i s not long (from early to late summer), the changes experienced by the couple are profound and at the same time are affirmative of the struggle for a true and pure love.  The passage of time i s similar i n some respects  to that of "Fukin to sakana no machi."  For example, i n the  f i r s t half of the story (sections one to s i x ) , time moves f a i r l y slowly, as the protagonist depicts her past married l i f e and then describes s e t t l i n g into the new house with her t h i r d husband, Y o i c h i .  In the l a s t half of the story  (sections seven to twelve), time moves more quickly and covers two to three months, as events which promote change begin to occur f a i r l y r a p i d l y .  As time passes, Kanayo  breaks free of the past, as she gradually acquires confidence i n the present, a process which implies a movement away from a state of corruption and squalor towards that of purity and beauty.  This narrative progression i s further reinforced  by the use of various images which underscore Kanayo's changing circumstances.  For example, the story opens with  Kanayo perusing a l e t t e r from her mother and ends with her  113  sitting  beside a p i l e  of l e t t e r s  from Y o i c h i .  l e t t e r , which deplores her daughter's provides a t e l l i n g  contrast with  the  bad  The  mother's  luck with  letters  from  men,  Yoichi,  w h i c h e l o q u e n t l y a t t e s t t o t h i s h u s b a n d ' s l o v e and  concern.  The  image  ceramic  j a r f r o m Kanayo's c a f e d a y s i s a n o t h e r  which predominates a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the be  r e p l a c e d by  in  the  the r o a r i n g  last half  underlines pure over  of the  s t o r y , a replacement which  the e l e v a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t over the  n o t be  i s completely  r e s u m e d , and  like  t h e p a s t memories o f w h i c h i t  j a r comes t o l i e b r o k e n and  forgotten.  into  like  an a i r p l a n e , i t s p r e s e n c e completely  association with  vitality  the  t o i d e a l and  fuel,  airplane  overpowering.  imagery, not only but  The  roars  to the p r e s e n t , s i g n i f y i n g ,  of t h i s p e r f e c t marriage  of a relationship  Yet i t s  s q u a l i d e x i s t e n c e which  the o t h e r hand, once s u p p l i e d w i t h  its  the p a s t , the  destitute.  s t o v e , on  stove belongs  further  j a r p r o v i d e s money f o r  the r e s u l t o f a p r e v i o u s  p a r t a k e s , the  life  focus  impure.  f o o d when t h e c o u p l e holdings are  to  s t o v e as a c e n t r a l o b j e c t o f  L i k e a c o r n u c o p i a , the ceramic  will  story only  a l s o the  The  through the  sublimity  t h a t seems t o s o a r b e y o n d o r d i n a r y bounds  Utopian  heights.  I n s p i r e d by A l e x a n d e r  Pushkin's  Hayashi thought of emulating  poenv-novel Eugene O n e g i n ,  t h i s work she  s o much a d m i r e d  114  when she wrote "Seihin no sho."  Although the two works  have l i t t l e i n common i n terms of form and content, i t seems l i k e l y that Hayashi was attracted both by the exchange of love l e t t e r s i n the Russian novel as well as by the f a c t 29  that Pushkin's novel was i n poetic form.  S t i l l enamoured  of poetry and the poetic novel h e r s e l f , Hayashi thus set out to write "Seihin no sho," a work which renders i n prose the poetic sentiments and feelings of a woman i n her married life.  The style i s reminiscent of Horoki, yet much subdued.  Only one poem i n the Horoki vein appears, a short piece at the beginning of section two that protests the beatings the protagonist received from her brutal second husband. With the exception of t h i s poem, the Basho quotation, and the poem at the end, the story proceeds uninterrupted by poetic i n t e r p o l a t i o n .  These three poetic selections are  important, however, i n that they mark the l y r i c a l peaks of the story, that i s , the poem about being beaten: the protagonist's squalid and unhappy past; the Basho quotation: the protagonist!s present happy marriage; and the f i n a l poem: the narrator alone, longingly awaiting Yoichi*s return; she i s reassured of h i s love.  As a l y r i c a l prose work, "Seihin  no sho" has much i n common with Horoki, and yet at the same time by virtue of i t s emphasis on settled domestic l i f e and the t r a n q u i l nature of the relationship between husband and  115  w i f e , t h i s story bridges the gap between Horoki, Horokitype pieces, and l a t e r straight prose works which centre on domestic themes, such as Tria'z'uma, which w i l l be discussed i n the next chapter. Thus, while "Fukin to sakana no machi" and "Seihin no sho" both maintain l i n k s with Horoki, the work that brought Hayashi her f i r s t success, they also constitute experiments in new directions by the author,  i n spite of the fact that  both stories deal with very d i f f e r e n t matters and reach very d i f f e r e n t conclusions, both exhibit some s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s . Beyond the fact that both stories are based on autobiographical events related to the Horoki story, they are also remarkably alike i n terms of o v e r a l l narrative structure.  Each story  follows a similar narrative progression, that i s , the f i r s t h a l f of the story i n which time moves f a i r l y slowly contrasts with the f i n a l half of the story where time speeds up and events occur much more r a p i d l y .  Both stories are also  divided into numbered sections within which the various episodes take place.  Each section i s f a i r l y short and tends  to deal with only one event, a feature that i s c e r t a i n l y reminiscent of the diary entry.  Thus, while the author  makes use of the f a m i l i a r diary^entry-like format as a means of building up her n a r r a t i v e , she also experiments with a slow-fast narrative tempo which seems to lend i t s e l f  116  very well to her p a r t i c u l a r requirements at this stage i n her career.  For example, the slowly moving f i r s t sections  portray the deepest thoughts and feelings of the character narrating the story, thereby establishing a certain mood and setting the tone of the story.  In these sections,  outside events tend to be minimal and, when they occur, are either closely related to the narrator's s e l f , as i n "Fukin to sakana no machi," or viewed at secondhand through memory or flashback, as i s the case i n "Seihin no sho." In these f i r s t sections, a l y r i c a l note p r e v a i l s , while i n the more quickly moving f i n a l sections, narrative i s emphasized as sudden events and happenings burst on the scene, and the plot i s forwarded r a p i d l y .  This type of narrative pacing allows  the author to u t i l i z e her l y r i c a l p r o c l i v i t i e s and at the same time s a t i s f y the demands of narrative w r i t i n g , a matter she manages both s k i l l f u l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y i n both s t o r i e s . Just as these works exhibit developing narrative techniques, so do they also o f f e r a fresh insight into the evolution of Hayashi's treatment of the element of struggle. While the struggle f o r s u r v i v a l , that i s , the b a t t l e with the outer forces of l i f e , i s a consistent feature i n a l l of Hayashi's works, the inner struggle of the diverse protagonists varies.  Thus, i n Horoki we find the Fumiko figure  passionately committed to a r t and prepared to f i g h t against  117  a l l odds i f she can but a t t a i n her inmost d e s i r e s .  In  "Fukin to sakana no machi," however, the young Masako's inner struggle centres upon the attainment of maturity acceptance i n the wider world, while i n "Seihin no  and  sho"  the protagonist endeavours to r e a l i z e her deepest desires through the purity and beauty of true love. types of inner struggle —  These three  the struggle for a r t and beauty  (Horoki), the struggle for maturity  ("Fukin to sakana no  machi"), and the struggle for i d e a l love ("Seihin no developed i n these early works of Hayashi's f i r s t  sho")—  and  second periods are to appear as e s s e n t i a l thematic features i n a l l of Hayashi's subsequent work.  These inner struggles,  associated as they tend to be with the emotional and aesthetic s e n s i b i l i t i e s of the protagonist, are e s s e n t i a l l y poetic battles that,are waged alongside the more mundane struggle for existence.  Through the portrayal of these inner  struggles, Hayashi maintains links with her poetic past; and thus although she continues to depict the hardships of l i f e , she also manages to p e r s i s t i n celebrating these struggles i n poetic ways, thereby reaffirming not only beauty and value but also her own deepest a r t i s t i c  life's  desires.  CHAPTER 3  118  THE DOMESTIC NOVELLA: DEFYING THE DARKNESS OF CIRCUMSTANCE (1935^-1942)  In the years immediately following her return from Europe, Hayashi's early wanderings came slowly to an end. Henceforth, she embarked upon a more or less settled existence, becoming increasingly involved i n the Japanese l i t e r a r y world.  Her w r i t i n g s , too, during this period  exhibit a marked s h i f t away from themes of wandering to themes of a domestic nature, as we s h a l l see i n Inazuma (Lightning, 1936), the major work to be discussed i n this chapter.  Consequently, "Seihin no sho," with i t s  emphasis on everyday married l i f e , seems to presage such domestic novellas which Hayashi began to write during t h i s t h i r d period.  At the same time as Hayashi's preference for  writing poetic autobiographical-style f i c t i o n began to wane, more and more of her writings s t a r t to exhibit an o b j e c t i v e , t h i r d person format.  Thus, the t r a n s i t i o n from poetry to  prose i n Hayashi's writings seems to have been a f a i r l y gradual process, involving a movement from poetry i t s e l f towards the combination of prose and poetry i n Horoki to the poetic prose of ''Fukin to sakana no machi" and "Seihin no sho" and culminating f i n a l l y i n the t h i r d person  119  narratives that characterize Hayashi's middle and late periods. A major factor i n Hayashi's gradual evolution from poet to prose writer i s without doubt d i r e c t l y related to the author's own overwhelming desire to become a "novelist," that i s , a writer of objective or prose fiction.''"  non-autobiographical  Although poetry was  and always would remain  her f i r s t l i t e r a r y love, Hayashi also had a great admiration for the writers of the n a t u r a l i s t (shizenshugi |j 4* £ ^  )  school of l i t e r a t u r e , i n p a r t i c u l a r Tokuda Shusei (1871-1943) whose objective novels  (kyakkanteki  shosetsu  dO -1' «$L») of the late M e i j i period provide a d i s t i n c t 1  contrast to the more amorphous, l y r i c a l shi-shosetsu  >)'*9±,  (I-novel) format favoured by the writers of the subsequent Taisho period.  Enamoured of Shusei's l i t e r a r y style and  subject matter based on domestic themes, Hayashi struggled to emulate h i s work.  Her short story "Kaki"  tfi-^J&i  (Oyster,  1935), for example, praised by c r i t i c s as a fine example of shi zenshugi w r i t i n g , i s also held up aa:;a work c l e a r l y 3 reminiscent of the style of Tokuda Shusei.  Thus, although  Hayashi's poetic autobiographical f i c t i o n had brought her great success and acclaim, she set herself yet another goal, that of s t r i v i n g ever harder to write the kind of objective f i c t i o n she so much admired and which to a great extent  120  seemed incompatible with much of her early work.  Hayashi's  s h i f t to objective prose was accompanied not only by a new emphasis on settled domestic themes but also by an accentuation of the more prosaic events, s i t u a t i o n s , and characters of ordinary everyday l i f e .  Eschewing the  bohemian and the e c c e n t r i c , Hayashi turned her writer's eye upon the mundane, and with the shizenshugi writers of the past as her guide, she boldly embarked upon a new  literary  undertaking. Yet no matter how hard she worked at her writing and no matter how great her success, Hayashi was never able to f e e l f u l l y confident of her position as one of the leading women writers of the day.  Although she continued her association  with her chief publisher, Kaizosha, throughout the 1930's and remained their most prized and best published author, Hayashi continually behaved as i f she were involved i n a f i e r c e struggle for l i t e r a r y s u r v i v a l .  Actively discouraging  younger women writers she considered competitors, Hayashi went so f a r as to hinder t h e i r publication by Kaizosha i n 4  every possible way.  Needless to say, thxs unnecessarily  competitive attitude alienated most writers her junior and at the same time made Hayashi an object of c r i t i c i s m by women writers i n general.  Hayashi did not extend this  l i t e r a r y aggression towards male w r i t e r s .  Probably due i n  121  part to the fact,that i n Japan the work of male and female authors i s seldom compared and "tends to be judged 5  separately,"  Hayashi's relationships with such novelists  as Kawabata Yasunari remained c o r d i a l . C i t i n g Hayashi's d i f f i c u l t early l i f e as well as her compulsive, energetic nature, Itagaki sees Hayashi's competitive behaviour as a natural outgrowth of her early struggles.  Whatever the reasons behind her actions, however,  Hayashi, f e a r f u l of losing her success, seems to have l o s t the  trust and respect of many of her female colleagues  f a i r l y early i n her l i t e r a r y career, and due to her intense r i v a l r y , she fostered an attitude which was to gain her much opprobrium throughout the rest of her l i f e .  Thus, Hayashi's  struggle for a r t i s t i c success was to be never-ending, and the  embattled Fumiko figure of Horoki would continue to  remain Hayashi*s most cherished l i t e r a r y persona throughout her entire l i f e and career. Hayashi's combative energies were to find further expression during this t h i r d : p e r i o d , primarily i n the journeys she was to make abroad as a j o u r n a l i s t for various newspapers.  V i r t u a l l y a l l of these travels were connected  with the Japanese war e f f o r t , which by the late 1930's was beginning to escalate.  After the f a l l of Nanking i n  December 1937, Hayashi was sent for two months to Shanghai  122 and Nanking as a special correspondent for the Mainichi newspaper, and i n September 1938 she again returned to China 7  as a member of the Pen Brigade.  Once back i n China,  Hayashi was not content to wait for assignment, but instead went o f f on her own i n search of news from the f r o n t .  Joining  up with an advancing b a t t a l i o n , she secured a ride on an Asahi newspaper company truck and reached Hankow on 22 November, the o  f i r s t newspaper reporter to a r r i v e .  Although censured by  the Pen Brigade for her unauthorized actions, Hayashi remained undaunted.  Returning to Japan i n December, Hayashi spent the  next year t r a v e l l i n g throughout the country l e c t u r i n g as well as publishing numerous j o u r n a l i s t i c pieces on her war experiences.  Although not p a r t i c u l a r l y outstanding as works of  l i t e r a t u r e , Hayashi's writings on the war i n China are memorable primarily for t h e i r depiction of the ordinary Japanese  soldier  caught up i n the ordeals of war i n a strange land. In 1940 Hayashi v i s i t e d Korea on a lecture tour and i n 1941 she paid a v i s i t to Manchuria with a group of Asahi newspaper reporters.  Although r e s t r i c t i v e war measures were  then i n e f f e c t i n Japan, Hayashi, perhaps by dint of her own considerable popularity, s t i l l managed to publish three new novels throughout t h i s year and the next (1941-1942). Nevertheless, by the end of 1941, most of her works, l i k e those of other authors, had been prohibited from further publication.  In spite of such r e s t r i c t i o n s , Hayashi remained  123  active for a time i n journalism and from October 1942 u n t i l May 1943 travelled throughout Southeast Asia, the member of a Pen Club news team. Her experiences here were later to provide the inspiration for a number of stories and novels as well as the basis for one of her finest works, Ukigumo, which w i l l be discussed in Chapter Four. Although impulsive and inept in her dealings with colleagues and felchow journalists, Hayashi seemed to have erred l i t t l e in terms of her own work. With the appearance of Nakimushi kozo >JL & <h i g  (The Crybaby) which was serialized  in the Tokyo Asahi newspaper from October to November 1934, Hayashi demonstrated her a b i l i t y to move i n new  directions  while at the same time maintaining links with the past. A medium-length novella in the third person, Nakimushi kozo t e l l s the story of a young boy whose widowed mother pawns him off on relatives so as not to spoil her chance at a second marriage. One of Hayashi's most acclaimed works, Nakimushi kozo continued to make use of dowa-like elements in this poignant story of betrayed affection, which like "Fukin to sakana no machi," centres around a child's struggle with the adult world. Of particular regard in this work are the female characters, the mother and her three sisters, who, much like Fumiko in Horoki, find l i t t l e satisfaction in their relationships with men.  Of the four sisters, one  has never married, and although steadily advancing  124  beyond marriageable age,  she has no i n t e n t i o n o f s h a r i n g  her l i f e with e i t h e r husband o r l o v e r . sisters', marital a f f a i r s particularly  She f i n d s her distasteful:  C o n s i d e r i n g the circumstances o f Teiko's and Hiroko's household, she [Sugako, the unmarried s i s t e r ] f e l t as i f there was no need t o rush i n t o marriage, and anyway, marriage d i d n ' t seem t o give s a t i s f a c t o r y answers. As f o r the strange a r i t h m e t i c of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men and women, Sugako f e l t i n danger o n l y from the p i l i n g up o f the y e a r s . 9 Here, f o r the f i r s t time i n Hayashi's work, we f i n d a female c h a r a c t e r who i s n o t e s p e c i a l l y eager t o f i n d love nor enter i n t o marriage and who, d e f y i n g convention, a solitary l i f e .  prefers to lead  T h i s type o f female f i g u r e was t o a t t a i n  f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Tnazuma as w e l l as i n s e v e r a l other works w r i t t e n throughout the 1935-1942 p e r i o d , i t s most accomplished e x p r e s s i o n prize-winning  reaching  i n "Bangiku", Hayashi's  s t o r y o f the f o u r t h p e r i o d .  A f t e r Nakimushi kozo Hayashi moves w e l l beyond her lyrical  r o o t s and e n t e r s a new stage o f a r t i s t i c  Concentrating  development.  almost e x c l u s i v e l y upon the domestic arena,  Hayashi examines i n e x a c t i n g d e t a i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men  and women, e s p e c i a l l y those o f husband and w i f e .  In  "Kaki" Hayashi sets the tenor o f many o f these t h i r d - p e r i o d pieces.  R e f r e s h i n g l y , she w r i t e s from a male p o i n t o f view  /  125  recounting the hardships of a young man injured i n a f a l l in a shipyard.  Forced to eke out his l i v i n g doing piece-  work for a bag and pouch manufacturer i n Tokyo, the young man's l i f e seems, unlikely to improve.  He meets the l i v e l y  Tama, a maid at a nearby inn; the two f a l l i n love and are married.  The grinding poverty of t h e i r l i v e s as well as  the young man's growing mental i n s t a b i l i t y due to his f a l l conspire against them, and Tama eventually deserts her husband for a well-paying waitress job.  The young pouch-  maker, l e f t on his own, r a p i d l y disintegrates into a mental and nervous wreck.  The pathetic v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the  pouchmaker i s subtly underlined by the t i t l e "Kaki>" which denotes the s o f t , f l a c c i d nature of a defenseless  creature  suddenly exposed to the harshness of l i f e ' s realities.'*"  0  The vivacious figure of Tama stands i n marked contrast to that of her husband.  The pearl to which her name a l l u d e s ^  1  seems to represent the p o s i t i v e and v i t a l forces of human existence, which possess a kind of adamantine strength that both sustains and beautifies the human struggle.  Nevertheless,  unlike e a r l i e r works but similar to Inazuma and other t h i r d period w r i t i n g s , both "Kaki" and Nakimushi kozo depict the inner struggle for love and a f f e c t i o n as demonstrably weakened and d e b i l i t a t e d by the outward struggle for s u r v i v a l . At the same time such strong-willed female figures as Tama i n  126  "Kaki" and Sugako i n Nakimushi kozo are proto-typical of 1  Inazuma s rebellious protagonist, Kiyoko. • jitS e r i a l i z e d i n Bungei ^ 1936,  from January to September  Inazuma was the next major success to follow "Kaki."  The story of three s i s t e r s and t h e i r complex relationships with husbands, mother, brother, and each other, Inazuma i s remarkable not only for i t s frank and o r i g i n a l portrayal of lower working-class  urban family l i f e but also for i t s  depiction of one s i s t e r ' s struggle for s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and independence.  This figure remains one of Hayashi's most  outstanding portrayals of women who,  caught up i n unpleasant  domestic situations beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , refuse to give i n to their f a t e , and i n spite of family o b l i g a t i o n s , attempt to struggle on to achieve t h e i r own ends.  Many of Hayashi's  t h i r d period works deal with such types of protagonists  —  women who possess the daring and fortitude of the Horoki heroine yet are but ordinary creatures whose prosaic struggles centre upon either t h e i r desire for independence, as i n Inazuma, or upon their bid for romantic happiness forbidden by family circumstance, as i n such l a t e r novels as Junenkan 1941).  -f f£] (Ten Years, 1940)  and Ame ^  (Rain,  Here, i n these l a t e r works, the female protagonists  are intent on a t t r a c t i n g and holding the men they love. They are prepared to defy not only family and society (Ame)  127  but also hardships i n the wilds of nature (Junenkan) i n the pursuit of their d e s i r e .  Although such single-  mindedness i n pursuit of romantic happiness i s depicted with greater success and s k i l l i n works of the fourth period, and while f i f t h - p e r i o d works explore more f u l l y the quest for personal independence within the domestic s e t t i n g , Hayashi's t h i r d period i s s i g n i f i c a n t nonetheless as a necessary t r a n s i t i o n a l phase i n which e a r l i e r style and theme undergo a fundamental transformation.  Not only  i s a more prosaic mode of expression evinced, the presentation of the element of struggle i s also modified.  Thus, whether  centring upon the struggle for independence and maturity or upon the search for love, the inner struggle throughout the t h i r d period i s depicted as weakened and undermined by the power of outside circumstances.  In order to discern more  c l e a r l y the significance of the t h i r d period as well as to provide some insight into the works of the l a t e r mature periods, Hayashi's f i r s t successful f u l l - l e n g t h novel representative third-period work, Inazuma, w i l l now  and  be  examined.  Hayashi began Inazuma with the expressed intention of 12  writing an "ordinary novel,  M  ordinary, that i s , i n the  sense that the work would avoid poetic digressions and  128  would a t the same time express a more " o b j e c t i v e "  point  of view, f o c u s i n g upon o r d i n a r y c i t y people as they go about t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s .  Spurred on by her a d m i r a t i o n  f o r Ihara Saikaku 4 f / $ $ S A  (1642-1693) and h i s t a l e s of  the townsmen c l a s s e s as w e l l as f o r such European w r i t e r s 13 as Balzac and de Maupassant, Inazuma.  Hayashi began t o w r i t e  In s p i t e o f i t s emphasis on the unremarkable  l i v e s of lower-class  c i t y f o l k s and t h e i r mundane s t r u g g l e  f o r s u r v i v a l , Inazuma c o n t a i n s much t h a t i s i n t r i g u i n g l y unique.  Family r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  unconventional.  The mother,  f o r example,  are e s p e c i a l l y  O s e i , has never been p a r t i c u l a r l y  scrupulous i n her r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men, and of her f o u r children,  three have d i f f e r e n t f a t h e r s .  Kasuke, and e l d e s t daughter,  The e l d e s t s o n ,  Nuiko, are the unrecognized  o f f s p r i n g o f two d i f f e r e n t men, w h i l e the youngest  daughters,  Mitsuko and K i y o k o , are the unrecognized c h i l d r e n of the same f a t h e r ,  a w e l l - t o - d o p r o p e r t y owner.  d i f f e r e n t temperaments,  Of v a s t l y  the b r o t h e r and s i s t e r s seem t o  have v e r y l i t t l e  i n common save t h e i r unhappiness and  dissatisfaction,  and, of c o u r s e ,  their illegitimacy.  from the p o i n t of view o f both Mitsuko and K i y o k o ,  Told  Inazuma  t r a c e s events and developments i n the l i v e s of t h i s f a m i l y over an e i g h t - t o nine-month p e r i o d .  129  The story opens i n mid-December i n the secondhand clothes shop of Mitsuko and her husband, Robei.  A cold and  gloomy day, winter thunder can be heard i n the distance as Mitsuko chats with Nuiko who l i v e s with her husband, Ryukichi, in a nearby neighbourhood.  F l a s h i l y a t t r a c t i v e , Nuiko i s  also s l y and d e c e i t f u l , and the timid Mitsuko finds her rare v i s i t s u n s e t t l i n g .  Unsettling, too, are Mitsuko's  thoughts of how Nuiko inveigled her into marriage with Robei and also Mitsuko's nagging suspicion that Nuiko and Robei have also been l o v e r s .  Yet, being reluctant to a c t , Mitsuko  prefers to q u i e t l y bide her time, hoping that things w i l l work out somehow for the best. Kiyoko, the youngest daughter, finds Mitsuko's d o c i l i t y t o t a l l y unacceptable and i s equally disapproving of Nuiko's scheming and i n f i d e l i t y .  Employed at the telephone exchange,  Kiyoko l i v e s with Mitsuko and Robei and enjoys a certain amount of independence.  When Mitsuko t e l l s her that Nuiko  has come c a l l i n g with the o f f e r of a husband, Kiyoko r e b e l s . Refusing even to meet the man, Kiyoko declares she has no desire for marriage whatsoever.  D i s i l l u s i o n e d by both her  s i s t e r s ' unsatisfactory marriages, Kiyoko i s also s e l f conscious about the s l i g h t ' h a r e - l i p scar she f e e l s makes her an object of p i t y . The family's shaky s t a b i l i t y i s soon shattered by a  130  sudden series of events —  the unexpected death of Mitsuko's  husband, Robei, the subsequent loss of the shop, the discovery that Robei has a secret mistress and c h i l d , and the revelation that Nuiko i s having an a f f a i r with Goto Tsunayoshi, the proposed husband f o r Kiyoko.  When spring  comes, the family's circumstances are no b e t t e r .  After  witnessing a v i o l e n t and drunken row between Ryukichi and Tsunayoshi over Nuiko, Kiyoko moves out of the house i n disgust, quits her job, and makes plans to go to night school.  Soon a f t e r , Mitsuko, with the help of Tsunayoshi  and Robei's insurance money, opens a small cake shop. She, too, d r i f t s into an a f f a i r with the roguish Tsunayoshi by whom Nuiko meanwhile has become pregnant. I t i s not long before Nuiko's resentment against Mitsuko overflows,aand the two come to blows, destroying Mitsuko's new shop i n the process. Mitsuko f l e e s , and Tsunayoshi, ostensibly looking for her, comes to Kiyoko*s lodgings.  There he suddenly attacks Kiyoko who f i g h t s back  and manages to escape.  Concerned for herself and Mitsuko,  Kiyoko borrows money from her father's wife, a r e t i r e d geisha, and c a l l s at Mitsuko's devastated shop, confronting Osei and the h y s t e r i c a l Nuiko.  Revolted by her family's  f o o l i s h p l i g h t , Kiyoko returns to her own neighbourhood, where she spends the evening with Kunimune, a young music  131  student who l i v e s nearby.  Pleasant and cultured, Kunimune  represents a world Kiyoko has never known. As she leaves, he shakes her hand.  Back i n her room, Kiyoko finds Mitsuko  waiting for her, and together the two s i s t e r s survey the wreckage of t h e i r l i v e s .  A v i o l e n t storm springs up, and  unable to sleep, the two women continue talking; Kiyoko stands by the window, her unhappy face l i t from time to time by flashes of lightning: In the distance came the sound of thunder. From time to time lightning dyed the room with a clear light...Kiyoko spoke: "Nuiko and even you, you've never understood my true f e e l i n g s . You said you'd take care of me, but you've cared for me just l i k e you would a dog or cat and given me no hope. I just want to study and forget about everything. Who gave b i r t h to someone l i k e me who can never make an ordinary marriage?!" The r a i n began. Sounding as i f i t would tear the earth apart, i t quickly enveloped the housetops, and spray blew i n through the spaces around the glass i n the door. The mosquito netting swelled out with the wind, and the roof began to leak i n the hallway. Kiyoko continued standing by the window, gazing at the rooftops under the v i o l e n t l y f a l l i n g r a i n . In the downpour, Kunimune's heuse slept p e a c e f u l l y . I n the dark sky one or two bolts of sudden white lightning flashed i n the distance. 14 V i o l e n t , dark, and gloomy, Inazuma seems brightened only by the ominous flashes at the work&s stormy ending. Like the l i g h t n i n g , Kiyoko, too lashes out i n a l a s t  132  defiant t i r a d e , proclaiming her resentment of family, s i s t e r s , marriage, .Resentment does not necessarily imply surrender, however, and similar to the bolts of lightning which streak the night sky, Kiyoko*s defiance reveals the powerful spark of v i t a l i t y that sets her apart from the darkness around her.  Nevertheless, just as one or two  lightning bolts can never d i s p e l the night's darkness, the f l i c k e r i n g of t h i s f i n a l scene seems also to imply that Kiyoko's v i t a l i t y , too, powerful though i t may be, may  not  in the end prove strong enough to vanquish the darkness of fate and unhappy circumstance. Kiyoko's determination to break free of her c o n s t r i c t i n g l i f e and r i s e above i t i n spite of a l l odds i s an attitude found primarily i n Hayashi's early poems l i k e "Kurushii uta" and i n Horoki and i s l i t t l e seen i n her second-period work. Here, however, i n Inazuma, Hayashi again makes use of the dauntless heroine and creates a work i n which the struggle for  independence  i s characterized not only by the defiance  of the i n d i v i d u a l but also by the emphasis on violence and discord as concomitant factors of most human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Hence, the ".lightning" of the t i t l e i s an image which aptly conveys both the sense of s p i r i t e d resistance as well as the f e e l i n g of tension and menace that characterize t h i s work.  133  The ambivalence of t h i s image underscores the ambivalence of Inazuma's conclusion, and thus, rather than an image of c l a r i t y and i l l u m i n a t i o n , the lightning motif acts as a means of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , heightening the story's outcome and deepening, by contrast, the murky p a l l of misery and despair that hangs over t h i s s t o r y .  Therefore, instead of  images of l i g h t , images of darkness pervade t h i s work. Beginning with the rumbling of thunder i n the darkest days of winter, Inazuma concludes on a dark stormy night i n early autumn.  Dark i s the secondhand clothes shop where Mitsuko  and Robei eke out t h e i r meagre l i v i n g ; dark, too, i s t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , f i l l e d with hidden doubts and suspicions that surface only i n the depths of night when Robei c a l l s out Nuiko's name or mumbles about baby carriages i n his sleep. Dark and gloomy i s Robei's death which serves only to reveal a secret mistress and plunge Mitsuko and the r e s t of the family into further l u r i d and degrading s i t u a t i o n s . A certain amount of obfuscation also surrounds Osei and her relationships with her various husbands.  For example,  Osei does not inform her daughters that Kasuke and Nuiko have d i f f e r e n t fathers, and with her dyed hair and untidy ways, she appears as a rather unseemly, i f not altogether disreputable sort of parent.  The f i r s t time that we see Osei i s i n the  dark and dreary secondhand clothes shop, when she comes to  134  c a l l on Mitsuko and Kiyoko at the beginning of the story. Pretending not to notice a confrontation between Robei and Mitsuko over Nuiko, she sequesters herself i n a room u p s t a i r s . Later i n the kitchen, her shadow, mingling with those of 15  her two daughters, makes uneasy patterns on the w a l l ,  an  image which serves to further increase the sense of apprehension and disquiet that seems to surround Osei and her mismatched brood.  The f i n a l appearance of Osei i n the story  i s also dark, as she s i t s alone l i k e an o l d crone i n the shuttered kitchen of Mitsuko's ravaged shop, eating peaches, her eldest daughter i l l and h y s t e r i c a l u p s t a i r s . Of the s i s t e r s , Nuiko i s portrayed i n the darkest l i g h t . Cruel and manipulative, she has l i t t l e thought f o r anyone but h e r s e l f .  Her name, written with the character . ^ i ^  nui  meaning to sew, or to s t i t c h , indicates further her tendency to t w i s t , embellish, and embroider events to s u i t her own schemes.  Given to sudden f u r i e s and f o o l i s h whims, Nuiko  i s the most unstable of a l l the s i s t e r s .  F i n a l l y , used  and abused by Tsunayoshi, Nuiko explodes i n a v i o l e n t rage, attacking Mitsuko, threatening Kiyoko, and eventually retreating into a kind of crazed s e l f - p i t y .  Mitsuko, the  most timid of the s i s t e r s , i s also surrounded by dark and dreary events.  Her hopes for f i n a n c i a l security are soon  dashed by death and other unexpected losses, as her  135  faintheartedness leads her into a f i n a l ruinous dependency. Of a l l the family members, she i s the most benighted, a fact which makes the use of the character  ml'tsu (light)  for her name a l l the more i r o n i c . Male characters, too, are portrayed i n a sombre l i g h t . Both Robei, who dies a gruesome death, and Ryukichi, who loses h i s wife to Tsunayoshi, are heavy drinkers.  The  scene where a drunken Ryukichi begs Nuiko to come back to him and then vomits into the ashes of the charcoal brazier i s perhaps one of the most dismal of the story.  Kasuke,  who l i v e s i n Osei's shadow, i s himself i n e f f e c t u a l and a f a i l u r e , forced f i n a l l y to find work i n Manchuria.  Even  Kunimune whom Kiyoko finds a t t r a c t i v e i s rather an effete young man who entertains Kiyoko i n a dark room l i t only by the moon. Only Tsunayoshi escapes our compassion, h i s brash and abusive personality bringing violence and disruption to several households.  Although coarse and unsympathetic,  Tsunayoshi nonetheless impresses by h i s sheer brutishness. Described frequently i n terms of animal imagery a "sea monster,"  16  a "gorilla,"  17  a "lion,"  18  (being l i k e  and so on),  Tsunayoshi's crudity and rapaciousness are emphasized by his b e s t i a l nature.  Although wife-abusing husbands are  ^familiar figures i n Hayashi's work, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the early periods, few descend to Tsunayoshi's depths.  The  136  s l y , vulgar, money-grubbing Tsunayoshi figure w i l l appear again and again i n d i f f e r e n t and more sophisticated guises i n Hayashi"s l a t e r works, reaching h i s most c r a f t i l y despicable proportions as the scurrilous Iba i n Ukigumo. In contrast to Tsunayoshi's heavy^handedness and the gloomy atmosphere that permeates t h i s work, the figure of Kiyoko stands out as a p o s i t i v e and v i t a l force i n an otherwise unrelieved progression of unhappy events.  Her  v i t a l i t y does not diminish, and throughout Inazuma Kiyoko maintains her youthful i f rather awkward strength and s e l f centredness.  Kiyoko's defiant attitude i s not simply the  r e s u l t of her position as the "baby" of the family, who rebels when not allowed to have her own way, although t h i s explanation for her behaviour i s advanced by her older sisters.  Rather, Kiyoko i s , as her own mother observes, 19  "different." own  A high school graduate holding down her  job and intending to undertake further studies, Kiyoko  has other aspirations than marriage.  At the same time she  i s not averse to the attentions of suitable male f r i e n d s , but the experiences of her s i s t e r s convince her that the enforced dependency of married women i s not for her. Kiyoko's inner struggle i s twofold.  Thus  Similar to Masako i n  "Fukin to sakana no machi," Kiyoko, too, must s t r i v e to achieve maturity amidst trying circumstances; yet at the  137  same time she undertakes a f u r t h e r b a t t l e : the r e a l i z a t i o n of her own  independence.  R e f l e c t i n g Kiyoko*s p u r i t y o f c o n v i c t i o n , the c h a r a c t e r f o r her name >TJ  k i y o ; which means pure and c l e a n , h e l p s t o  u n d e r l i n e the sense o f y o u t h f u l s t r e n g t h and innocence t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s her person and her a c t i o n s .  Kiyoko*s p u r i t y  a l s o i n d i c a t e s a k i n d o f a p a r t n e s s , which i s r e i n f o r c e d by her r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n the s t o r y v i s a v i s the o t h e r characters.  Nuiko, f o r example, s i m i l a r t o her mother, i s  i n v o l v e d w i t h three d i f f e r e n t men;  she i s the c e n t r e of f i v e  love t r i a n g l e s : Nuiko-Ryukichi-Robei, Nuiko-Robei-Mitsuko, Nuiko-Robei-Ritsu  (Robei's s e c r e t m i s t r e s s ) , N u i k o - R y u k i c h i -  Tsunayoshi, and Nuiko-Tsunayoshi-Mitsuko.  Besides her  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Nuiko, Tsunayoshi, and Robei, Mitsuko i s a l s o u n w i t t i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n another t r i a n g u l a r w i t h Robei and R i t s u . w i t h no one.  relationship  Kiyoko, by c o n t r a s t , i s i n v o l v e d  A l l her r e l a t i o n s h i p s are maintained a t a  c e r t a i n remove from her own  person.  Kiyoko's s t r e n g t h and  v i t a l i t y are thus p a r t l y r e l a t e d t o her own v i r g i n a l  state.  Involvement w i t h the o p p o s i t e sex i n Inazuma, a t l e a s t i n the case o f the o t h e r female c h a r a c t e r s , seems t o p r e c l u d e any k i n d o f t r u e independence.  Thus, Kiyoko attempts t o  remain u n i n v o l v e d and unattached, r e s o l v i n g not t o surrender to the importunate demands and f o o l i s h a c t i o n s of o t h e r s .  138  Just how strong t h i s v i r g i n a l resolve i s can be seen f i r s t of a l l i n her decision to l i v e by herself and l a t e r i n her wild f i g h t with Tsunayoshi. Although she holds herself apart, Kiyoko i s not devoid of f e e l i n g for others, and of a l l her family, she feels closest to Mitsuko.  While the fact that Mitsuko and Kiyoko  are f u l l s i s t e r s seems to account for some of t h i s fellow f e e l i n g , there i s one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that the two women share which unites them more strongly than t i e s of blood, and that i s t h e i r deep-seated desire to transcend squalid circumstances.  their  Similar to Horoki and "Fukin to  sakana no machi," Inazuma depicts a struggle i n which the the inner wants and needs of the main protagonists are modified and tempered by the desire for achievement amid the external circumstances of l i f e .  Thus, Mitsuko's  innermost struggle to find f u l f i l l m e n t i n love remains subordinate to and dependent upon her outward struggle for f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y . At the same time Kiyoko's inner, personal b a t t l e for maturity and independence i s waged amid the setbacks and humiliations she must face as a lone woman struggling to l i v e outside the family group.  While  e a r l i e r heroines were successful i n achieving small personal v i c t o r i e s as they struggled with the v i c i s s i t u d e s of external hardship, such i s not the case i n Ina zuma. Here,  139  the inner struggle i s weakened and dominated by the outer. Hence, Mitsuko's b i d for love i s always dependent upon f i n a n c i a l concerns, and instead of escape from her s i t u a t i o n , she finds herself drawn ever deeper into the mire of circumstance.  I t i s l e f t to Kiyoko with her  contentious, no-nonsense attitude to f i n d the l i g h t , such as i t i s , at the end of t h i s winding tunnel of misery and despair.  Although Kiyoko does manage to escape the  r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on her by family obligation by the end of the story, i t seems to be at the expense of her own inner development.  Instead of displaying a new-found maturity to  match her hard-won independence, Kiyoko reacts to events l i k e an angry c h i l d , crying out i n vexation against family and sisters. Thus, i n Inazuma, the theme of struggle takes on a new, i f decidedly darker, tone.  Somewhat reminiscent of the  darkling atmosphere of "Fukin to sakana no machi" and the young Masako's struggle f o r independence and acceptance i n the adult world, Inazuma exhibits few features which, l i k e the dowa —esque elements of ''Fukin,'' would help to lighten the oppression and gloom that pervades t h i s work.  Instead,  struggle descends into a maelstrom of violence and degradation so overwhelming that even Kiyoko's defiance appears as the merest of flashes i n the dark night.  140  The brevity as well as the i n t e n s i t y of Kiyoko's dramatically defiant stance i s further reinforced by the narrative structure.  Divided into twenty-nine unnumbered  sections (numbered here for the sake of convenience), Inazuma i s t o l d primarily from Mitsuko's point of view. Occasionally i n the beginning of the story (sections f i v e , s i x , and e i g h t ) , Kiyoko's point of view i s presented for a few b r i e f paragraphs; yet i t i s not u n t i l the f i n a l sections that Kiyoko's point of view comes to the fore (sections twenty to twenty-six, and section twenty-nine). Of the twenty-nine sections, only e i g h t , a l i t t l e more than one quarter of the work, belong e n t i r e l y to Kiyoko.  The e f f e c t  of t h i s narrative d i v i s i o n i s to p a r t i c u l a r l y enhance Kiyoko*s point of view when i t does appear, and due to the generally s t a r t l i n g nature of her observations, i t also gives her point of view a doubly arresting impact.  The f a c t that  Kiyoko*s point of view also chronicles some of the more turbulent events of the story —  the f i g h t between Mitsuko  and Nuiko, Tsunayoshi's attack on Kiyoko, the lightning storm, and so on  further contributes to the unexpected  effectiveness of the story t o l d from her point of view. Nonetheless, i t i s primarily from the point of view of Mitsuko that Inazuma unfolds, and thus the sense of helplessness and foreboding, although somewhat mitigated  141  by Kiyoko's b r i e f appearances, i s never r e a l l y d i s p e l l e d . I t i s n o t u n t i l the l a t t e r p a r t o f the s t o r y  (sections  s i x t e e n t o twenty^-nine) , when the c o n t r a s t between Mitsuko's and Kiyoko's p o i n t o f view i s f i n a l l y made c l e a r , t h a t we see how both the depths o f misery of p a s s i o n  (Mitsuko) and the s t r e n g t h  (Kiyoko) t h a t move these two p r o t a g o n i s t s  c o n t r i b u t e t o the ambivalence o f the s t o r y ' s end. t o see how t h i s c o n t r a s t achieves i t s e f f e c t , these s e c t i o n s w i l l be looked  a t i n some d e t a i l .  final  In Inazuma  the author again makes use o f a f a m i l i a r n a r r a t i v e t h a t i s , the f i r s t h a l f o f the s t o r y  In order  progression  ( s e c t i o n s one t o f i f t e e n )  covers a p e r i o d o f about two weeks, w h i l e i n the l a s t of the s t o r y  ( s e c t i o n s s i x t e e n t o twenty-nine) events  proceed r a p i d l y , c o v e r i n g months.  part  a longer  time span o f s i x t o seven  The s l o w l y moving f i r s t h a l f i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f  Hayashi's e a r l y l y r i c a l works o n l y i n s o f a r as the n a r r a t i v e i s developed through the p o i n t o f view o f one f i g u r e , Mitsuko. Through her eyes the v a r i o u s  characters  their situations gradually delineated.  are i n t r o d u c e d ,  arid  L a t e r , a f t e r Robei's  death, when Mitsuko moves from the premises o f the secondhand c l o t h e s shop, the f o c a l p o i n t o f the s t o r y s h i f t s , and as f a m i l y and s e t t i n g slowly b e g i n t o fragment and p o i n t o f view becomes s p l i t between two c h a r a c t e r s , for  a much more r a p i d p r o g r e s s i o n  the stage i s s e t  o f events.  142  Although a b a s i c a l l y l i n e a r chronology i s f o l l o w e d , matters become more complex near the end o f the work. Kiyoko's t e l l i n g of the s t o r y  ( s e c t i o n twenty) and the  r e t u r n o f Mitsuko's p o i n t of view begin i n f l a s h b a c k .  Both  (section  twenty-seven)  While Kiyoko's s e c t i o n s promptly  r e t u r n to the p r e s e n t and forward the a c t i o n o f the s t o r y , Mitsuko's s e c t i o n s in flashback.  (twenty-seven and twenty-eight) remain  The f i n a l s e c t i o n twenty-nine, seen through  Kiyoko's eyes, once a g a i n r e t u r n s the reader t o the p r e s e n t and b r i n g s Inazuma to an end.  The f l a s h b a c k , i n both cases,  i s used t o c h r o n i c l e Kiyoko's and Mitsuko's departures from t h e i r i n t o l e r a b l e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , and a l s o to b r i n g  into  p a r a l l e l the two d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s o f two women who  now  f i n d themselves on t h e i r own. s e t s about making a new runs t o h i d e i n an i n n .  life  Thus, w h i l e Kiyoko immediately f o r h e r s e l f , Mitsuko o n l y  Kiyoko does not h e s i t a t e t o borrow  money from her f a t h e r ' s w i f e , but Mitsuko, who  also  visits  her f a t h e r ' s house a f t e r her f i g h t w i t h Nuiko, leaves without even s t a t i n g the reason f o r her v i s i t , when she f i n d s her f a t h e r i s not a t home.  Mitsuko t h i n k s o n l y of  the p a s t , a p a s t which, l i k e t h a t of " S e i h i n no sho," seems s u l l i e d and u n c l e a n .  She contemplates j o i n i n g Robei i n  death and r e t u r n s tp t h e i r o l d shop and paces i n f r o n t o f i t . F i n a l l y she goes t o the temple where Robei's ashes are  143  i n t e r r e d , but as she s i t s praying, the smell of Tsunayoshi r i s e s from her f i n g e r t i p s , and i n despair over her weakness, she leaves.  By contrast, Kiyoko thinks only of the present  and plans for the future.  She feels very happy i n her  hide-away, and after the s c u f f l e with Tsunayoshi and the f i g h t between Mitsuko and Nuiko, she determines to have nothing more to do with her r e l a t i v e s . Yet i n the f i n a l section of the story, Kiyoko demonstrates an unexpected v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  Watching Mitsuko weeping, she  feels a sudden rush of love f o r her hapless family, even for the  imprudent Osei and Nuiko.  As she and Mitsuko talk over  the  past, Kiyoko i s slowly overcome by feelings of despair,  and i n the f i n a l scene illuminated by the l i g h t n i n g , Kiyoko laments her f a t e , deeply resenting the hold her family and the  past s t i l l have over her.  The atmosphere of gloom and  unhappiness that surrounds Mitsuko and the others has now begun to creep and c u r l about Kiyoko as w e l l , seemingly undermining her self-confidence and d i s t o r t i n g her youthful enthusiasm.  Thus, the f i n a l scene of Inazuma, while attest-  ing to Kiyoko's indefatigable dynamism which compels her to continue to lash out at l i f e ' s unfairness, also suggests that the passion to struggle on i n l i f e ' s b a t t l e may not be enough to win out against the accumulative misery of oppression and misfortune.  144  Inazuma, Hayashi's f i r s t f u l l — l e n g t h "objective" novel centring upon the domestic l i f e of  lower-class  c i t y dwellers, presents an extremely gloomy picture of family's struggle with l i f e ' s v i c i s s i t u d e s .  one  Marked by the  depiction of violence and b r u t a l i t y as well as emphasizing the s t r i f e and discord to be found within the family group, Inazuma also chronicles i n d e t a i l the death of one of the central characters, the f i r s t time such an event occurs i n Hayashi's work.  Not only i s family l i f e viewed as  unfortunate and inharmonious but relationships between men and women are also portrayed as mutually unsatisfactory, characterized throughout by intrigue and vicious entanglements that wreak havoc and destruction.  Characterization, too,  stresses the darker side of human nature, while the dominance of Mitsuko's point of view, together with the f r u s t r a t i o n of Kiyoko's f i e r y nature at the end of the work, contribute further to the gloom that pervades the s t o r y . In order to portray the convolutions of relationships as well as the i n t r i c a c i e s of character, a more complex narrative structure i s i n evidence, more " n o v e l i s t i c " less diarylike-than e a r l i e r works, take place within one s e c t i o n , ^ f e i l e  and  That i s , several events ;one-section'leads  smoothly into the next, and a l l sections work together to produce a consistent, i n t e r l o c k i n g narrative sequence.  145  Absent i s the episodic segmentation of '•*Seihin no sho" and "Fukin to sakana no machi."  In i t s place i s a n i c e l y  constructed, well-ordered narrative b u i l t around Mitsuko's muddled search for love and security and Kiyoko*s struggle for independence and s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t .  The struggles of  these two characters provide the o v e r a l l narrative tension, which focuses on the c o n f l i c t between the inner struggle (Mitsuko*s pursuit of love, Kiyoko's of maturity and  indepen-  dence) and outward concerns (Mitsuko*s struggle for money, Kiyoko's for freedom from family t i e s ) .  Here, i n Inazuma  as i n other third-period works, the outer struggle weakens and d e b i l i t a t e s the inner.  Mitsuko's attempt to find love  and happiness i s thus mitigated and corrupted by the outer struggle for f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , while Kiyoko*s v a l i a n t bid for personal independence seems•likely to founder on the external demands of family and s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n .  The use  of the flashback as well as of alternating points of view not only enhance the dramatic quality of t h i s struggle but also provide an insight into two contrasting personalities that, although complementary, remain b a s i c a l l y incompatible. This technique Hayashi would develop l a t e r to great e f f e c t i n Ukigumo. At the same time, however, i n spite of the author's developing technical a b i l i t y , the bright and hopeful quality of Hayashi's early works i s missing from Inazuma.  Missing  146  a l s o i s Hayashi's i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l l y r i c i s m , and i n s t e a d emphasis i s on the l i v e s o f o r d i n a r y people and mundane c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  their  In Inazuma, n a r r a t i v e development  i s l e s s bound up with the d e l i n e a t i o n o f f e e l i n g than w i t h the d e l i n e a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r and the movement o f  events.  Even the s l o w l y moving f i r s t h a l f of the s t o r y focuses more upon the d e p i c t i o n and development o f c h a r a c t e r through s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n than upon the p r e s e n t a t i o n of experience.  emotional  T h i s can be seen p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l from the  opening l i n e s o f Inazuma where Mitsuko and Nuiko  first  appear, engaged i n c o n v e r s a t i o n : Because there was n o t h i n g a t a l l to s a y , the two were s i l e n t f o r a w h i l e . The sky had been gloomy s i n c e morning, and now thunder began to rumble as i f p o r t e n d i n g snow. Mitsuko poured water i n t o the t e a k e t t l e , and a f t e r a moment s a i d : "Then Kasuke has a different father." "That's r i g h t ; you d i d n ' t know?" "I d i d n ' t know a t a l l . I thought t h a t Kiyoko and I were Takanezawa's c h i l d r e n , and t h a t you and Kasuke were Soeda's. There's a f a m i l y , resemblance, I thought. ' "Kasuke and I look a l i k e ? That's r i d i c u l o u s . How can we?!" •'I s a i d t h a t because t h e r e ' s a l i t t l e resemblance i n your p r o f i l e s . You r e a l l y do look a l i k e . . . " Nuiko d i d n ' t r e p l y to t h i s but s a t _ o b s t i n a t e l y poking h o l e s w i t h a needle i n the s h o j i n e a r e s t the c h a r c o a l b r a z i e r , 20 D i a l o g u e , as i n the above passage, i s c e n t r a l to Inazuma. F o c u s i n g on the q u o t i d i a n r e a l i t i e s o f everyday, such  147  conversations contribute further to the sense of commonplace domesticity that characterizes this novel. Nevertheless, in spite of the fact that Inazuma demonstrates a " s l i c e of l i f e " kind of realism, there yet remains a small but persistent undercurrent of poetic s e n s i b i l i t y , observable primarily i n the s k i l l f u l contrasting of dark with l i g h t , weakness with strength that marks the development of both character  and  narrative and, as a r e s u l t , helps create and sustain the gloomy and brooding atmosphere that so e f f e c t i v e l y permeates t h i s novella*  Rather than a l l e v i a t i n g the tensions engendered  by such contrasts, however, the ascendance of the commonplace, and thus of the peremptory demands of outer circumstance over the exigencies of the inner struggle, produces a profound sense of unease and disquiet that cannot e a s i l y be dispelled and i n fact i s only heightened by the sudden shafts of l i g h t that shatter the dark night of the s i s t e r s ' despair.  CHAPTER 4  148  MATURITY: AMIDST THE HOPELESSNESS OF DEFEAT (1943-1949)  Hayashi's endeavours throughout the late 1930's as j o u r n a l i s t , war correspondent, and popular lecturer were to culminate i n her eight-month sojourn i n Southeast Asia from October 1942  to May  1943.  Although t h i s extended  period abroad was l a t e r to provide the i n s p i r a t i o n for one of her f i n e s t works, Ukigumo  l  fc  (Drifting Clouds,  1949), much of Hayashi's creative a c t i v i t y during t h i s time was not directed towards the writing of novels. Instead, her j o u r n a l i s t i c interests consumed much of her time and energy.  Thus, while there i s a notable increase  i n the volume of her writings from 1936 onwards, there i s not a corresponding increase i n q u a l i t y .  Nowhere i n the  l a t t e r part of t h i s middle period (c.1938-1942) do we  find  the bold innovation and impeccable a r t i s t r y that marked Hayashi's early work.  The late 1930's and early 1940's,  therefore, represent a creative l u l l i n Hayashi's career after the stormy early years, which l e f t i n their wake such fine poetic-autobiographical works as Horoki, "Fukin to sakana no machi," and "Seihin no sho."  As might be  expected,  then, works of the t h i r d p e r i o d , with the exception of  149  Inazuma, " K a k i , " or Nakimushi  kozo, are l a r g e l y i g n o r e d  by c r i t i c s , and although there i s much t h a t i s good, t h e r e i s almost n o t h i n g t h a t i s b r i l l i a n t . I n t e n t on working w i t h i n f a i r l y narrow c o n f i n e s o f p l o t and c h a r a c t e r , Hayashi chose to c o n c e n t r a t e on domestic themes and i s s u e s i n her n o v e l s and s h o r t s t o r i e s , conducting a k i n d o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h a t was f r u i t u n t i l a f t e r the end o f the war. p e r i o d may  seemingly  not to bear  Thus, the t h i r d  be viewed as a time o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the  full  f l o w e r i n g o f Hayashi*s a r t i n her mature f o u r t h p e r i o d . Before such a blossoming c o u l d o c c u r , however, a f i n a l p e r i o d o f g e s t a t i o n seems to have taken p l a c e . 1944,  In March  due t o the i n c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y o f a i r r a i d s on Tokyo,  Hayashi, her newly adopted i n f a n t son, T a i , and her mother were f o r c e d t o evacuate to the mountains of Nagano where they were t o spend most o f the next two y e a r s .  Lonely and  i s o l a t e d , Hayashi suddenly found h e r s e l f d e p r i v e d o f the s t i m u l a t i o n and a c t i v i t y o f the c i t y . Hayashi, who  was  accustomed  For a person  like  t o and indeed seemed t o t h r i v e  on an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y a c t i v e and busy l i f e ,  such p r o v i n c i a l  e x i l e must have been almost unbearable. In  her w r i t i n g s o f t h i s time, there are numerous  passages i n which the w r i t e r longs to r e t u r n to Tokyo as w e l l as one s t o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r i n which a group o f young  150  evacuees from Tokyo attempt to escape from the mountains and return to the c i t y they loye,;(Sakka no techo 4 [' ^ <?> $ f-fL A Writer's Notebook, 1946).  Amidst the peace and t r a n q u i l l i t y  of a mountain v i l l a g e and without the pressures and d i s t r a c t i o n s of l i f e i n Tokyo, Hayashi was free once again to give herself over e n t i r e l y to the dictates of her creative impulse.  Almost as i f she were seeking out her own l i t e r a r y  roots, Hayashi began again to write poetry and dowa. Although the dowa were written with the express purposes of amusing the v i l l a g e children and helping to pass the time,  1  these short pieces also r e c a l l an e a r l i e r era i n which the young Hayashi struggled to carve a niche for herself i n the l i t e r a r y world of the day.  In a sense, Hayashi seemed to  be using t h i s quiet time as a means of preparing yet again for another onslaught on the world of Japanese  letters.  Many of these dowa written i n the mountains are animal f a b l e s , for example, "Tsuru no fue" f?.$j °> vb Flute) and "Kitsune monogatari" 4&\ #3 Other s t o r i e s , such as ''Kaeru*' £ i (Kurara) , and "Onion kurabu" 4" I- £ ^  (The Crane's (Tale of a Fox) .  (Frog), "Kurara" (The Onion Club),  depict the world of childhood with sympathy and imagination. These tales along with others were brought out i n a single volume c o l l e c t i o n by Kokuritsu Shoin |f|jL"f" *£---'in.1947,. e n t i t l e d Kitsune monogatari.  In a l l these s t o r i e s , the world of  151  animals, l i k e the world of c h i l d r e n , i s a place of purity and innocence.  Forced into encounters with the world of  adult human beings, both animals and children tend to fare rather badly, and i n the majority of cases, they find refuge i n their own world of beauty and fantasy.  The desire to  escape from unpleasant r e a l i t y i s a feature common to a number of these s t o r i e s , and as a r e s u l t , the struggle to r e a l i z e beauty i s of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e . "Dowa no sekai" "§ *3 <5 -£ ^  In her essay  (The World of Children's Tales,  1946), Hayashi comments, on the f a c t that the Japanese portrayal of animal figures i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y dark, gloomy, 2 or absurd.  Hoping to avoid such biased notions, Hayashi  explains that she intends to depict creatures l i k e foxes or monkeys as e s s e n t i a l l y virtuous through an emphasis on their innermost f e e l i n g s , on their true "heart."  Thus, just as  Hayashi's early dowa once aided her attempts at prose by providing s t y l i s t i c and technical links with a poetic past, so, too, do these l a t e r mountain dowa serve as a means of joining past poetic and thematic concerns with those of the present.  For Hayashi, writing dowa seems to have functioned  as a means of a r t i s t i c exploration, and i n the case of these l a t e r dowa, i t seems that through these stories Hayashi once again had discovered the inner poetic struggle for a r t and beauty, not only as a f i t t i n g l i t e r a r y theme i n i t s e l f , but  152  also one which seemed to best express her own and impulses, both i n a r t and  experiences  life.  Nowhere i s t h i s more evident than i n Hayashi*s fourth period, where the search for beauty and a r t i s t i c perfection i s brought to the fore i n many of her f i n e s t works. among these i s the prize-winning fl^L £)  Chief  short story, "Bangiku"  (Late Chrysanthemum, 1948), one of Hayashi's best 4  known and also one of her most often translated works. Awarded the Women's L i t e r a r y Prize i n 1949,  "Bangiku" remains  one of Hayashi's most outstanding contributions to modern Japanese l i t e r a t u r e .  Cited as one of the ten best shizen-  shugi (naturalist) pieces ever written i n Japan  5  and seen  by other c r i t i c s as absolutely "flawless,"*' "Bangiku" has received a great deal of favourable c r i t i c a l attention. The story of Kin, an aging geisha, and her e f f o r t s to remain young and d e s i r a b l e , "Bangiku" represents work i n the short story format.  the apex of Hayashi's  It also offers a great  deal of insight into Hayashi's attainment as a writer during t h i s , her mature fourth period.  Taking the struggle for  aesthetic f u l f i l l m e n t as the p r i n c i p a l thematic element, Hayashi also brings together the various other aspects of the inner personal struggle that have occupied her i n the past (that i s , the struggle for love, the struggle for independence) and combines these i n a well-wrought, subtly  153  ironic  t a l e of an o b s t i n a t e o l d woman whose very s t r e n g t h  of w i l l proves  to be her undoing.  In K i n , the s t i l l b e a u t i f u l , but aging g e i s h a ,  Hayashi  f a s h i o n s a c h a r a c t e r i n which the s t r u g g l e f o r a r t i s t i c accomplishment overshadows and abrogates  a l l other  concerns.  Always the consummate a r t i s t , K i n s t r i v e s to o r c h e s t r a t e even the most d i f f i c u l t of s i t u a t i o n s to s u i t her t a s t e s and advantage.  own  When Tabe, a no longer young l o v e r  from Kin's p a s t , t u r n s up a s k i n g f o r money,  Kin's b e a u t i f u l l y  c o n s t r u c t e d facade begins to crumble under the combined weight o f p a s t memory and p r e s e n t r e a l i t y u n t i l f i n a l l y i t c o l l a p s e s a l t o g e t h e r , w i t h K i n dropping the only token of her p a s t l o v e —  remaining  a photo of Tabe as a young student  i n t o the f i r e of her e l e g a n t b r a z i e r .  Here, the search f o r  beauty becomes a s t r u g g l e to p r e s e r v e the p a s t and b o l s t e r p r o s a i c , e g o i s t i c concerns  r a t h e r than to a i d i n  the achievement of love and understanding moment. Kin  to  i n the p r e s e n t  Very much l i k e the Fumiko c h a r a c t e r of Horoki,  a t t a i n s a k i n d of n a r c i s s i s t i c p u r i t y of s e l f from which  o t h e r s are excluded.  Thus, although K i n wins out i n her  s t r u g g l e f o r beauty, i t i s a hollow v i c t o r y .  Her dogged  p u r s u i t of an ever i l l u s o r y g o a l , i n the end,  overwhelms  and d e s t r o y s her chances f o r happiness The  i n the o u t s i d e world.  f a i l u r e of l o v e , the emphasis on the p a s t and  i t s role  —  154  i n the present, the thematic concern with the attainment of beauty as well as the destruction of outer circumstances by the struggle to a t t a i n inner goals are a l l elements which characterize t h i s period of Hayashi's w r i t i n g , and which are nowhere used with greater s k i l l or to better e f f e c t than i n Ukigumo, the f u l l - l e n g t h novel which marks the peak of Hayashi's accomplishment i n prose f i c t i o n . When Hayashi returned to Tokyo i n October 1945, then, she brought with her new i n s p i r a t i o n and fresh ideas. Rested and refreshed, she was now ready to embark upon the most incredibly p r o l i f i c period of her career. Her popularity, i f anything, had increased, and she began to turn out s t o r i e s , novels, dowa, essays, and j o u r n a l i s t i c pieces with astonishing r a p i d i t y .  E a r l i e r works, such as "Fukin to  sakana no machi" and Inazuma, were r e p r i n t e d , and by 1946 at the age of forty-three, Hayashi stood once again firmly entrenched at the forefront of modern Japanese women w r i t e r s . In 1947, Part III of Horoki began s e r i a l i z a t i o n i n Ninon shosetsu  ^  <}.  .  In the same year i n the Mainichi  newspaper Hayashi also began s e r i a l i z i n g Uzushio  j ^" yfj^  (Whirling Tides)., the f i r s t of her novels written exclusively for newspaper s e r i a l i z a t i o n .  Meshi, which w i l l be discussed  i n Chapter F i v e , would be the l a s t of these long newspaper fictions.  155  The year 1949 proved to be Hayashi's most f r u i t f u l year.  Besides her work on Ukigumo and other serious long  f i c t i o n s , she also produced a considerable number of excellent short s t o r i e s , including "Suisen" 'IWJ*  (Narcissus)  which appeared i n the February issue of Shosetsu shincho "Hone" 'fl  (Bones) which came out i n the same  month i n Chuo koron ; ij> J£ £  , and "Dauntaun" T ^ X '(Downtown)  which appeared i n a special A p r i l e d i t i o n of Shosetsu shincho. So p r o l i f i c was Hayashi during t h i s period that Nakajima Kenzo 'T* {I7  fS^  , one of the early editors of Hayashi' s  collected works, on looking over the great amount of unpublished material l e f t after her death, remarked wonderingly on Hayashi's d a i l y output: "How much must she have written i n 7*  just one day"?  Indeed, Hayashi's prodigious accomplishment  surely r e f l e c t s the great strength, determination, and sheer perseverance that drove her throughout her l i f e and career, and perhaps i n the end proved to be the instrument of her ov/n early demise. Hayashi*s struggle to maintain her position as the foremost woman writer of the day must be viewed, of course, against the background of immediate postwar Japan, where l i t e r a t u r e , no longer silenced by wartime censorship, was once again given free r e i n .  Released at l a s t from the  r e s t r i c t i o n s of the war years, Hayashi eagerly resumed  156  her v a r i e d and a c t i v e l i t e r a r y c a r e e r ; y e t due perhaps to her own p a s t h i s t o r y of s t r u g g l e and h a r d s h i p , Hayashi remained s e n s i t i v e t o the sorrows and f r u s t r a t i o n s of the impoverished c l a s s e s and chose to w r i t e not of the new l i f e and new o p p o r t u n i t i e s h e r a l d e d by the d e f e a t but i n s t e a d o f the misery and s u f f e r i n g t h a t , f o r many, accompanied  the end o f the war i n Japan.  Without doubt, the end o f the war brought r e l i e f wartime h a r d s h i p and p r i v a t i o n . those o f the p o l i t i c a l l e f t ,  from  Some a u t h o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  such as Miyamoto Y u r i k o ,  who  had s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y a t the hands of Japan's m i l i t a r i s t s , saw the end o f the war as a k i n d o f l i b e r a t i o n / , which indeed f o r them, i t was.  'KKl&^K.  A t the same time, however, as Okubo N o r i o  p o i n t s out i n h i s a r t i c l e on Ukigumo, i t was  the works o f the s o - c a l l e d Osamu K  ?  "hiftilistic"' :v^iters-_lj;ker'-D;azai ,  (19 09-1948) and n o v e l s l i k e Hayashi Fumiko's  Ukigumo which b e s t succeeded i n plumbing the depths o f the d e f e a t and i t s e f f e c t on the Japanese psyche i n the  8 postwar y e a r s .  Rather than r e j o i c i n g i n l i b e r a t i o n as does  9 Miyamoto, Hayashi "catches h o l d of the d e f e a t "  and thus  consequently, of the g r e a t l o n e l i n e s s and unhappiness t h a t s e i z e d much o f the populace i n immediate postwar Japan. Although Hayashi d e a l s w i t h the war years both i n Japan and abroad i n a few o f her postwar w r i t i n g s , most o f her work  157  i n t h i s fourth period treats the aftermath of war and i t s e f f e c t on the minds and hearts of ordinary people.  By  "catching hold of the defeat," Hayashi also seems to have captured the hearts of her readers and thus, whether consciously or unconsciously, ensured her own immense postwar popularity.; Although Hayashi explores the emptiness and despair of postwar Japan i n the works of her fourth period, she continues to make use of the element of struggle f o r survival and success that characterized her early works. Thus, f o r Hayashi, defeat does not necessarily imply the i n a b i l i t y to carry on. Here, instead, the struggle i s i n t e n s i f i e d , as hardships become greater and inner needs more profound.  Throughout t h i s period, Hayashi presents  characters that find themselves caught up i n a world they can no longer understand, and unable to cope, they either turn to the past f o r i n s p i r a t i o n and reassurance, o r , unable to meet death or t o secure some other escape from an unbearable existence, they struggle b l i n d l y onwards, their continuing b a t t l e i n the face of hopelessness serving inadvertently to reaffirm the essence of their humanity. Of a l l Hayashi's fourth-period works. Ukigumo i s the most outstanding, both i n i t s portrayal of human beings caught up i n war and i t s aftermath and i n the depiction of  158  t h e i r struggle to come to terms with themselves and each other.  f  !  As i n 'Bangiku,' Hayashi brings together elements  of the inner personal struggle, p a r t i c u l a r l y the struggles for love and for beauty, and juxtaposing these with the struggle for survival as well as with other aspects from e a r l i e r works, produces a novel that must e a s i l y stand as one of Hayashi's f i n e s t .  Although a superlative work of  prose f i c t i o n , Ukigumo also possesses a strong poetic quality that r e c a l l s Hayashi's l y r i c a l past and adds greatly to the work's appeal.  In order to see how  the  author achieves such success, this chapter w i l l now examine Ukigumo i n terms of theme, characterization, structure, imagery, and s t y l e , thereby ascertaining not only the importance of this work within the context of Hayashi's l i t e r a t u r e but also i t s significance as a work of l i t e r a t u r e i n i t s own  right.  In her 1951 p o s t s c r i p t to Ukigumo, Hayashi comments on the fatigue and exhaustion she f e l t upon f i n i s h i n g t h i s long work, which occupied her for over three years and which she even grew to h a t e . ^ Although much of Hayashi's  weariness  may ho doubt be blamed upon her f a i l i n g health and propensity for overwork, she makes no other such comment about s i m i l a r l y lengthy pieces on which she was working during the same  159  p e r i o d , and thus Hayashi*s e x h a u s t i o n w i t h Ukigumo must i n p a r t be connected w i t h the nature o f the n o v e l  itself  a, work which has as i t s nucleus the emptiness and f u t i l i t y of  human e x i s t e n c e . Focusing on the aftermath o f war, Ukigumo c h r o n i c l e s  the  mental and emotional anguish, l a c k o f purpose, and  g e n e r a l malaise t h a t pervades the l i v e s o f those who f i n d themselves back i n Japan a t the end o f World War I I a l i v e , it  seems, o n l y i n body.  E x h a u s t i o n o f h e a r t and mind  coupled w i t h the trauma o f d e f e a t a r e major f a c t o r s i n t h e psychology o f the two p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s , Koda Yukiko and Tomioka K e n k i c h i , who must now, a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n from an i d y l l i c  stay i n wartime  Indochina, t r y t o r e b u i l d  l i v e s amidst the ashes and r u i n s o f Tokyo.  their  No matter which  way Yukiko and Tomioka t u r n , n o t h i n g seems to go r i g h t . Yukiko, f o r example, a r r i v e s back i n Japan t o f i n d  that  Tomioka has r e t u r n e d t o h i s w i f e and does not seem t o wish to  renew t h e i r wartime  affair.  The inconstancy t h a t marks Yukiko's and Tomioka's r e l a t i o n s h i p i s one o f the primary elements t h a t h e i g h t e n and s u s t a i n the sense o f f u t i l i t y  t h a t permeates" Ukigumo.  Yukiko's thoughts upon her a r r i v a l a t the p o r t o f Tsuruga emphasize  the c a p r i c i o u s n e s s o f mood and sentiment which  dominates  the a c t i o n s o f the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s from the  160  b e g i n n i n g pages o f the s t o r y .  Sending a telegram t o  Tomioka who does not r e p l y , Yukiko r e f l e c t s : ...he had promised he would make a l l p r e p a r a t i o n s and w a i t f o r her, but upon her a r r i v a l i n Japan, when she stood f a c i n g the c o l d wind o f p r e s e n t r e a l i t y , i t seemed l i k e the promises made between Urashima Taro and the p r i n c e s s . . . D u r i n g her three days [in TsurugaJ , Tomioka had n o t r e p l i e d . - I f matters had been r e v e r s e d , she might have done the same, Yukiko thought, somehow r e s i g n i n g h e r s e l f t o the i n e v i t a b l e . 11 Thus, even though Yukiko and Tomioka have pledged t h e i r l o v e , i t does not seem l i k e l y t h a t Tomioka w i l l uphold h i s p a r t o f the b a r g a i n , w h i l e Yukiko, although d i s a p p o i n t e d , i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s e d and can e a s i l y imagine h e r s e l f Tomioka i n the same way. emphasizes  treating  The Urashima Taro s i m i l e n i c e l y  both the w r a i t h - l i k e q u a l i t y o f Yukiko's and  Tomioka's broken promise as w e l l as Yukiko's R i p Van W i n k l e - l i k e r e t u r n from a d i s t a n t p a r a d i s e t o a r a d i c a l l y changed Japan.  The i n c o n s t a n c y o f l o v e as w e l l as the  u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f p r e s e n t e x i s t e n c e i n a war-torn country are enhanced  f u r t h e r when Yukiko and Tomioka meet f o r the  f i r s t time i n Tokyo amid the d e b r i s o f a bomb-site.  Yukiko,  s i t t i n g i n poor c l o t h e s on a tumble-down w a l l , e x c i t e s no emotion i n Tomioka, and Yukiko f o r her p a r t f i n d s Tomioka l o o k i n g o l d and t i r e c i ; l i k e a completely d i f f e r e n t man.  161  With nowhere t o go, Yukiko i s f o r c e d t o stay w i t h a c a r e t a k e r f a m i l y l i v i n g i n the house of her b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , Iba Iba,  Sugio, who  is still  a repulsive  l i v i n g as an evacuee  i n the c o u n t r y .  , o p p o r t u n i s t i c f e l l o w , i s roundly d e s p i s e d  by Yukiko f o r h i s s e x u a l abuse of her as a young g i r l . up f o r money, Yukiko thus f e e l s no compunction  about  Hard  selling  some o f Iba's b e l o n g i n g s to buy a c o a t and t o pay f o r a cheap h o t e l room. financially  Although Tomioka promises t o h e l p Yukiko  and v i s i t s her o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the shabby  hotel,  he soon f o r g e t s h i s promise and abandons Yukiko to her f a t e . Reduced once more t o penury, Yukiko r e t u r n s t o Iba's, s e l l s off  the r e s t of h i s p o s s e s s i o n s and moves i n t o a shed.  d i s h e a r t e n e d t o even b e g i n l o o k i n g f o r work, Yukiko e a s i l y i n t o a l i a i s o n w i t h Joe, an American  soldier,  Too  drifts who  s u p p l i e s her w i t h a number o f l u x u r i o u s items. When Tomioka f i n a l l y does come t o see Yukiko, i t i s o n l y a f t e r a b u s i n e s s venture has f a i l e d , and he has on hard times.  fallen  Yukiko, p l e a s e d i n s p i t e o f h e r s e l f , i s  quick t o d e s e r t the generous American when Tomioka proposes a t r i p t o Ikao, a h o t s p r i n g r e s o r t i n the mountains Gumma P r e f e c t u r e .  Ikao reminds Yukiko o f the b e a u t i f u l  D a l a t f o r e s t i n Indochina, where she and Tomioka d u r i n g the war.  of  lived  Although Yukiko and Tomioka p l a n to  commit s u i c i d e t o g e t h e r i n Ikao, t h e i r r e s o l v e  soon  162  dissipates i n the apathy engendered by drink and the false bonhomie of shared memories.  Later, Tomioka meets  Osei, the young, sleepy-eyed wife of a l o c a l bar proprietor, and becomes madly infatuated with her, spurning Yukiko with much less grace but just as quickly as Yukiko herself dropped the American, Joe.  Osei, who reminds Tomioka of  Nu, h i s mistress i n Indochina, returns his a f f e c t i o n with surprising ardour.  In a scene of dissolute abandon, with  Yukiko lying oblivious nearby and singing drunkenly, Tomioka recklessly clasps Osei to him, while her husband sleeps i n the next room: Although some kind of moral consideration clung to his brow, Tomioka deep i n his heart despised Yukiko and Osei's husband. He thought that Osei's charms could somehow make him l i v e again. He f e l t a f i e r y excitement and wished 1 wholeheartedly that both Yukiko and Osei s husband would disappear from his s i g h t . 12 From t h i s point onward, the relationship between Tomioka and Yukiko degenerates into a quagmire of petty squabbles and misunderstandings, as Yukiko p e r s i s t s i n pursuing Tomioka, while he determines to escape her attentions i n any way he can. The two return to Tokyo only to p a r t .  Osei, who has  followed Tomioka to Tokyo, i s pursued ,by her husband who murders her i n a f i t of jealous rage.  Meanwhile, Yukiko  163  finds herself pregnant with Tomioka*s c h i l d , and rejected by Tomioka, she must borrow money from the hated Iba f o r an abortion.  Frantic with jealousy when she r e a l i z e s she  cannot p r e v a i l over the dead Osei's memory, Yukiko i s even more furious when she finds Tomioka i n the company of a teen-age runaway.  In anger and desperation, she again turns  to the unscrupulous Iba for assistance.  Iba, a ruthless  and self-serving schemer, who has much i n common with such figures as Tsunayoshi i n Inazuma, i s the only person who seems to be getting along well i n l i f e .  Having obtained a  job as treasurer of a new r e l i g i o u s sect, the Ohinata-kyo, Iba, i n league with the sect founder, uses his position as a means of fleecing the p u b l i c .  Amused by Iba's t a c t i c s ,  which seem l i k e a simple way of making a l i v i n g , Yukiko takes a job as h i s assistant and begins to l i v e i n elegant circumstances. When Tomioka, i n search of money to pay h i s wife's funeral expenses, turns up at the Ohinata-kyo headquarters, he i s astounded at Yukiko's rejuvenation and suddenly makes love to her.  Yukiko, unable to forget Tomioka's embraces,  imagines that at l a s t there i s no obstacle to keep them apart.  In her euphoria, she steals ¥600,00& from -the  Ohinata-kyo safe and flees to an inn i n Mishima from whence she summons Tomioka.  Appalled yet stimulated by Yukiko's  164  actions/ Tomioka t e l l s Yukiko he  has no intention of  l i v i n g with any woman. He reveals a plan to work i n the lonely forests on the island of Yakushima, where he has just been offered a job. along.  Yukiko begs him to take her  Although Tomioka refuses at f i r s t , when Yukiko pays  o f f the legal debts f o r Osei's husband, he finds i t more and more d i f f i c u l t to o b j e c t . No longer i n ! l o v e , indeed, no longer able to love yet bound by the past to Yukiko, Tomioka f i n a l l y gives i n . On the run from Iba and the dismal r e a l i t y of their present l i v e s and bound f o r an unknown island where they hope to recapture the i d y l l i c past, Yukiko and Tomioka leave Tokyo on a night t r a i n f o r Kagoshima.  The journey to Yakushima proves to be a f a r cry  from the fondly remembered voyage to the wartime south, however, as Yukiko suddenly f a l l s seriously i l l .  Her  condition rapidly d e t e r i o r a t i n g , Yukiko nevertheless presses on with her lover u n t i l they reach the i s o l a t e d , rain-soaked Yakushima, where Tomioka i s sent to work i n the mountains, and Yukiko, alone i n a r u s t i c shack, dies a miserable and painful death, suffocating i n her own blood.  Left on h i s  own, Tomioka returns b r i e f l y to Kagoshima, and as he r e f l e c t s on h i s few remaining options i n l i f e , Ukigumo draws to a close:  165  Tomioka didn't have the heart to go back to Yakushima. But he couldn't bear to leave Yukiko's remains buried alone on that i s l a n d . Besides, what was there for him should he return to Tokyo now? Tomioka thought of himself as a d r i f t i n g cloud; a d r i f t i n g cloud that would just fade and disappear, sometime, somewhere. 13 Thus, rather than bringing r e l i e f to an intolerable s i t u a t i o n , Ukigumo builds to a claustrophobic conclusion, where amidst the s t i f l i n g atmosphere of thwarted hopes and l o s t dreams, Yukiko and Tomioka f i n a l l y c o l l a p s e , exhausted by their struggles.  While the cumulative e f f e c t of such a  hopelessly l i n g e r i n g , f u t i l e r e l a t i o n s h i p as that shared by Yukiko and Tomioka i s ultimately u n s e t t l i n g , i t i s also the contrast provided by Yukiko's persistence and dogged determination  i n the face of utter desolation that aids i n  arousing further the sense of loss and defeat.  Yukiko, who  t r i e s so hard and struggles so b o l d l y , w i l l never succeed. It i s the f a i l u r e of this p o t e n t i a l l y bright and  vital  figure rather than that of the plodding, emotionally apathetic Tomioka that contributes most poignantly to the sense of f u t i l i t y generated by Ukigumo. Similar to Inazuma and the other domestic novellas of the t h i r d period, Ukigumo, too, explores i n d e t a i l the disjunctiveness of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the d i f f i c u l t y and even i m p o s s i b i l i t y of sustaining a mutual  166:  love r e l a t i o n s h i p .  In Ukigumo Yukiko and Tomioka come  together only to part; neither i s t r u l y capable of cementing the a f f a i r wholly nor of ending i t c l e a n l y .  A  study i n inconstancy, Ukigumo depicts not only the i n s t a b i l i t y of postwar society i n a defeated country but also the fickleness of two people uncertain of t h e i r own as well as of each other's f e e l i n g s .  Kawazoe Kunimoto )•{  (*•) ^  ,  who discusses Hayashi's portrayal of male-female r e l a t i o n s h i p s , sees the farewell (wakare 14 Hayashi's works,  ii/  ) as a major theme i n  and while t h i s can also be observed i n  Ukigumo, i t must be noted that i n Ukigumo the farewell i s of a very peculiar type; never quite consummated, i t remains forever i n f l u x , very much l i k e the f l o a t i n g cloud that so appropriately serves as Ukigumo's p r i n c i p a l motif. A t y p i c a l and even, as some c r i t i c s say, "composite" 15 Hayashi heroine, and against her own  Yukiko fights against t h i s i n s t a b i l i t y fate up u n t i l the b i t t e r end.  Throughout  the story, her character remains a v o l a t i l e blend of passion, impulsiveness, determination, and romanticism that i s e a s i l y reminiscent of other e a r l i e r protagonists, p a r t i c u l a r l y of Fumiko i n Horoki.  At the same time, similar to the aging  geisha of ''Bangiku," Yukiko's inner personal struggle represents a merger of e a r l i e r aspects.  Uppermost i n her  desires i s the attainment of pure love (through her r e l a t i o n -  167  ship with Tomioka) as well as the recapturing of the beauty of that love (through a re-creation of the Indochina paradise).  Thus, she has no desire to return to her family  i n the country nor to Iba's, where she had f i r s t lived when she came to Tokyo before the war. t y p i s t does not appeal to her.  Even finding work as a  Living alone i n the shed,  however, proves to be exceedingly wearisome, and Yukiko i s soon overcome by the apathy and boredom engendered by such a s o l i t a r y existence: The flame of the candle f l i c k e r e d i n the draught from the chinks i n the wooden walls and at times began to go out. Feeling discouraged, Yukiko wondered whether she could continue to endure such a lonely l i f e . Even the bucket of water i n the corner made her f e e l c o l d . She thought there was a small happiness i n l i v i n g l i k e t h i s , but such an uneasy happiness that she could not know what tomorrow might b r i n g . 16 Desiring certainty and security i n an uncertain and insecure world, Yukiko lacks the one-pointed, v i r g i n a l determination of Kiyoko i n Inazuma or the strong sense of self-preservation evinced by Kin i n "Bangiku," and very much l i k e Kiyoko's s i s t e r , Mitsuko, Yukiko finds i t d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to sustain her own independence once involved with members of the opposite sex. Eventually forced to take up Iba's o f f e r of employment, Yukiko finds herself l i v i n g i n the lap of luxury and manages  168  to  a c q u i r e her own r a t h e r l a r g e bank account.  new  independence and p r o s p e r i t y does not b r i n g  Yukiko f e e l s a hunger t h a t cannot be s a t i s f i e d .  Yet t h i s contentment. Her  u n s a t i s f i e d c r a v i n g i n the midst o f freedom and p l e n t y i s a k i n to her f e e l i n g s of acute l o n e l i n e s s when u n i t e d w i t h Tomioka.  Somehow, the wonderful e x h i l a r a t i o n experienced  i n Indochina cannot be r e c a p t u r e d , as i n the f o l l o w i n g scene where Yukiko and Tomioka meet i n a cheap h o t e l i n Tokyo: Although warmed by Tomioka's body, i n s i d e Yukiko was annoyed. Wanting something more v i o l e n t , more p a s s i o n a t e , she f e l t h i s conduct was merely t h a t o f a man seeking temporary p l e a s u r e . Yukiko r e c a l l e d she had f e l t l i k e t h i s w i t h Iba d u r i n g the s e c r e t three y e a r s she had spent w i t h him. She had i m p a t i e n t l y wanted something s t r o n g e r , and Yukiko longed to search out something s t r o n g e r from Tomioka. Tomioka, too, embracing the woman, f e l t u n u t t e r a b l y l o n e l y and kept s t r e t c h i n g out h i s hand to r e f i l l h i s g l a s s w i t h beer. Yukiko sighed f r e q u e n t l y and, munching s u s h i , threw her warm legs out onto the t a t a m i . 17 Something her  i s m i s s i n g from Yukiko's l i f e even when she a t t a i n s  h e a r t ' s d e s i r e , something which i t seems not even  Tomioka can g i v e her.  E s s e n t i a l to an understanding of  Ukigumo, t h i s m i s s i n g j e ne s a l s quois i s c l o s e l y connected with  (1) the c h a r a c t e r o f Tomioka and a l s o w i t h (2) the  manner i n which both he and Yukiko come t o view t h e i r p a s t  169  l i f e together. These two aspects of their relationship w i l l now be examined i n order to determine the exact nature of this indefinable d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and of i t s importance i n r e l a t i o n to the rest of the work. Compared to Yukiko, Tomioka i s a much less v i t a l creature.  Confounded and shamed by the defeat, exhausted  by h i s postwar l i f e , weary of women, Tomioka contemplates suicide both alone and with Yukiko.  Although attracted  by her warmth andidetermination, Tomioka finds Yukiko, l i k e h i s wife, Kuniko, too demanding.  Sensing both  Yukiko's and Kuniko's possessiveness, Tomioka turns to the less demanding, more passive Osei, who, with her easy nonchalance, reminds Tomioka very much of Nu, h i s Indochinese mistress who bore him a c h i l d .  Yet these women, too,  although more suited to the phlegmatic Tomioka, possess a disturbing sensuality that Tomioka finds disconcerting: Looking out the window, Tomioka saw pSJu] standing i n the large flower garden. She was wearing a cool^looking l i g h t tan dress. , Tomioka f e l t envious of her t i r e l e s s n e s s , her healthy feminine strength. After that long kiss [last nightj , she had t i t t e r e d l i k e an i n s e c t , and Tomioka could not begin to fathom her true f e e l i n g s . 18 Unable to match Yukiko's fervour or to become f u l l y committed either to Nu or to Osei, Tomioka remains an outsider.to passion.  170  Although frequently consumed by l u s t , Tomioka brings l i t t l e emotional depth to his relationships with others, and i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , he seems to have more f e e l i n g for the great forest trees of Indochina and yakushima than for other f l e s h and blood human beings.  I t i s i n these  magnificent yet distant forest lands that Tomioka seems to find true peace and comfort.  Tomioka's inner struggle i s  therefore primarily a struggle for beauty, a struggle to recapture the now unattainable beauty of the l o s t Indochinese paradise.  His continuing relationship with Yukiko as well  as the new a f f a i r with Osei are but vain attempts to regain some small part of this vanished land. Occasionally Tomioka attempts to find beauty i n h i s present surroundings, yet even here he tends to focus on the past and on a nonhuman object. Walking with Yukiko i n Tokyo one night, Tomioka stops to look at an old palace: The misery of the defeated i s b e a u t i f u l , too. Don't, you think so? I don't know what t h i s building i s used for now, but long ago i t was an Imperial residence. Its memory s t i l l lingers here, and somehow i t has the power to move me. 19 Tomioka's s e n s i t i v i t y , however, seems limited to forests and old b u i l d i n g s , and by the end of the story h i s struggle for beauty has come to nought, as he finds himself caught  i7i  up i n a limbo from which there i s no escape.  Thus,  Tomioka's continued survival at the end of. Ukigumo contributes further to the sense of e x i s t e n t i a l despair evoked by t h i s novel, leaving the reader not with a f e e l i n g of the warmth and v i t a l i t y of l i f e as seen i n the figures of Osei, Nu, or Yukiko but rather with the sense of l i f e ' s f u t i l i t y , of existence as something that often continues to e x i s t i n spite of i t s e l f , unreasoning, uncacing, ..aimless, without meaning or s i g n i f i c a n c e , a mere d r i f t i n g wisp of empty sensation. I n s t a b i l i t y i s therefore very much a part of Tomioka's character.  From the beginning of the story to the end,  Tomioka i s the most unreliable of men. helpful.  Even Iba i s more  Tomioka's general unfaithfulness and shabby  treatment of Yukiko, however, i s related not only to his own  selfishness but also to h i s rather shaky hold on the  r e a l i t i e s of the new world i n which he finds himself.  Here,  i n the portrayal of a masculine psychology unable to cope with the shame, sorrow, and hardship engendered by war  and  defeat, Hayashi has created one of the most memorable of her unfortunate male characters. Recalling the unhappy Ryukichi of Inazuma, the hapless pouchmaker of "Kaki," and other victimized male f i g u r e s , such as the father i n "Fukin to sakana no machi," Tomioka stands out as Hayashi's  172  most c h i l l i n g example of a man gradually reduced to nothingness as much by the sheer force of circumstance as by the flaws of h i s own character. As success i n the postwar world s l i p s steadily beyond his grasp, Tomioka retreats more and more into the past. Taking refuge i n h i s memories of Indochina, Tomioka strives to turn h i s experiences i n the Annamese forests into saleable products by writing a r t i c l e s for various magazines, but t h i s , too, not unexpectedly, meets with f a i l u r e .  Unable  to regain the past or to succeed i n the present, Tomioka becomes increasingly obsessed with these very d e s i r e s , hence h i s a t t r a c t i o n for Yukiko.  This a t t r a c t i o n i s dependent  upon two related f a c t o r s , that i s , how well Yukiko herself seems to be succeeding i n the postwar world as well as. how c l o s e l y her looks resemble those of the fresh and beautiful Yukiko of Indochina.  Finding Yukiko prospering under the  attentions of the American, f o r example, Tomioka experiences feelings of envy and jealousy, and once again desires her, overcome by a " f i e r c e appetite as i f f o r a f i s h escaping 2  [capture] , " ^ And l a t e r , meeting Yukiko at the Ohinata-kyo headquarters, Tomioka desires her again, when he finds Yukiko "completely changed from the Yukiko of the summertime; nicely f i l l e d out and glowing with youth, she once again looked l i k e the Yukiko of Indochina."  21  Yet when Yukiko  17 r  comes to Tomioka's after her abortion, she i s wearing shabby, clothes which reveal her unshaven legs.  Tomioka  cannot believe she i s the same person as the beautiful Yukiko of Dalat, and he does not hesitate to r e j e c t her. Thus, only when Yukiko manages to f u l f i l l Tomioka's fantasies of the past or sustain h i s dreams of the present does Tomioka find t h e i r relationship bearable. Yet, as Ukigumo draws to a close, and Tomioka and Yukiko embark upon t h e i r l a s t journey together, Tomioka finds himself drawn to Yukiko i n spite of her serious illness.  This change of heart, however, does not presage  any change i n the character of Tomioka but i s related:;- _r, d i r e c t l y to the escape from Tokyo (the present) and the shared attempt to rediscover Indochina (the past) i n the forests of Yakushima.  This i s made even more clear at the  end of the story, where Tomioka finds himself moved not so much by Yukiko's l i v i n g presence as by her memory, as Yukiko, through her death, becomes incorporated into the vast body of Tomioka's past r e c o l l e c t i o n s of Indochina, which have provided much of the impetus f o r Yukiko's and Tomioka's postwar a f f a i r .  Thus, while Tomioka's fickleness seems  c l o s e l y related to h i s i n a b i l i t y to f i n d any purpose or meaning amidst the wreckage of the postwar world, Yukiko's alternating bouts of despair and desire seem to r e f l e c t  174  her own  i n a b i l i t y to f i n d any purpose or meaning i n her  relationship with Tomioka or indeed with any man.  Just  as Tomioka struggles to re-create the beauty of the past in the present world, so does yukiko s t r i v e to r e l i v e t h i s b e a u t i f u l past by giving her love to Tomioka.I". Consequently, the mutual indecisiveness and  inconstancy  of f e e l i n g that so pervades Yukiko's and Tomioka*s relationship i s d i r e c t l y connected to the i d e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r wartime l i f e i n Indochina.  This i s the only t i e  that t r u l y binds Yukiko and Tomioka together —  t h e i r shared  memories of t h i s p a r a d i s i a c a l land where they once l i v e d and loved i n harmony and contentment.  Not since "Seihin  no sho" has Hayashi created such a pleasant, idealized world as exists i n the Dalat of Ukigumo.  Here, s i m i l a r to the  azalea-surrounded bungalow of Hayashi's e a r l i e r short s t o r y , love and beauty f l o u r i s h side by s i d e . no sho,"  Yet, unlike "Seihin  the privations of poverty do not intrude.  Instead,  against the c o l o n i a l French background of elegantly whitewashed b u i l d i n g s , mimosa-surrounded tennis courts, vast woodlands f i l l e d with white peacocks, stately t r e e s , and the remnants of an ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n , p a l a t emerges as a land of fairytale,. . where one glorious day i s replaced by another and where the excitement of new  love i s as  heady and i n t o x i c a t i n g as the perfume of any t r o p i c a l flower.  175  In contrast to "Seihin no sho" where the past was  treated  as a hindrance and as an impurity, the past i n Ukigumo appears as a pure and blessed realm whose continued i s entirely desirable.  existence  Indeed, the past i s the only bright  spot i n a world gone hopelessly askew. The sojourn i n Dalat, then, i s a kind of story within a s t o r y , told through lengthy flashbacks or through shorter memory sequences that appear throughout the main framework of Ukigumo. As such, the Dalat episodes help to maintain the s t r i k i n g contrast between past and present, inner and outer that i s such a s t r i k i n g feature, both thematically and s t r u c t u r a l l y , of Ukigumo. F i r s t glimpsed through the eyes of Yukiko who arrives there i n October 1943, Dalat, a forestry station to the north of Saigon, i s bright and e x o t i c , a far cry from the hard, austere world of wartime Japan.  Sent as a t y p i s t  for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Yukiko i s at once fascinated by her new  surroundings.  Here, she comes  to know Tomioka, a stubborn, s i l e n t man, who her, and Kano, h i s f r i e n d , who Yukiko's simple good looks.  at f i r s t ignores  i s immediately attracted to  Rejecting Kano's attentions,  Yukiko follows Tomioka into the forest one day, where, overcome by Yukiko's homely q u a l i t i e s that remind him of h i s wife back i n Japan, Tomioka suddenly embraces her.  1'7'6  Innocently pleased at haying managed to a t t r a c t such a d i f f i c u l t man, Yukiko rejoices i n t h i s , her f i r s t love. Tomioka does nothing to discourage her, and the a f f a i r continues for over two years.  One night, Kano, in -a 1  drunken rage and driven to d i s t r a c t i o n by Tomioka s success with Yukiko, slashes Yukiko's arm with his sword, a wound which leaves a scar.. Nevertheless, t h i s i s small violence compared to the war raging throughout Southeast Asia; and yet,  fortunately f o r Yukiko and Tomioka, Dalat remains  untouched by any of the f i g h t i n g .  Wartime thus comes to  represent not so much a time of death and destruction as a time of romantic attachment and excitement.  Yukiko"s and  Tomioka's hardships do not begin u n t i l they return to Japan, where, amidst the postwar rubble, their wartime happiness begins to take on the nature of a "war-crime" for which 22  they are now to be punished.'  The Dalat. story, then, depicts an i d y l l i c , almost heavenly existence, where, as i f i n a f a i r y t a l e ,  the  b e a u t i f u l young g i r l and her handsome lover seem destined to l i v e happily ever a f t e r .  Indeed, Dalat i s referred to as a  f a i r y t a l e .-. land throughout Ukigumo.  Akin to the undersea  palace of the dragon king i n Urashima Taro legends, Dalat's marvelous beauty also r e c a l l s the magical ambience of "Fukin to sakana no machi" and other: dowa s t o r i e s .  And, also  177  as i n Urashima Taro and "Fukin," the enchanted existence once l o s t i s gone forever.  As a r e s u l t , throughout  Uk igumo, both Yukiko and Tomioka must struggle with the fact that Dalat has now passed forever from t h e i r l i v e s . In order to l i v e more f u l l y i n the present, both Yukiko and Tomioka must give up the past? yet this they cannot do. Regaining the beauty and happiness they once knew i n Indochina becomes an obsession which comes to dominate the innermost psyches of both characters, and thus i n Ukigumo the inner struggle becomes a pursuit of the chimeras of the past and no longer functions as a positive and r e v i t a l i z i n g force for self-rejuvenation and self-preservation as i n e a r l i e r works.  By further emphasizing the outer place of struggle  as a new world that can spawn such strange creatures as generous foreign s o l d i e r s , unscrupulous peddlers of new r e l i g i o n s , and delinquent young g i r l s , and by emphasizing the inner space of struggle as a world based on nothing more substantial than old memories, the author also successfully portrays the f a i l u r e and s t e r i l i t y of the past amid the shocking newness of the present. Unlike Horoki and other works of Hayashi's e a r l i e r periods, where the inner struggle brought personal f u l f i l l m e n t i n spite of outer d i f f i c u l t i e s , the inner struggle i n Ukigumo brings about the f i n a l collapse and destruction of both  1*8  Yukiko and Tomioka, A l s o , i n contrast to e a r l i e r works, outward events i n Ukigumo, although d i f f i c u l t and adverse, follow an upward swing, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of Yukiko, who  meets with unexpected good fortune at the hands of the  American soldier and l a t e r through the wily Iba and his fraudulent r e l i g i o u s sect.  Only Yukiko's death prevents  her from r e a l i z i n g her fondest hope -- to l i v e yet again with her old l o v e r .  Tomioka, too, i n spite of his many  f a i l u r e s , eventually succeeds i n securing a job that w i l l take him back to the forests he loves.  In Ukigumo, then,  the struggle with external events exhibits some improvement and success, while the inner struggle only serves to negate and destroy such achievement.  As both Yukiko and Tomioka  s t r i v e to recapture the love and beauty of the past, they succeed only i n destroying the present.  Thus, the contrast  between the inner and outer struggles i n Ukigumo i s the reverse of that i n Horoki and other early works.  At the  same time, the use of t h i s inner-outer contrast i s much more complex than i n e a r l y w r i t i n g s .  In Ukigumo Hayashi  has created a work i n which these two aspects continually intertwine, coincide, and overlap and yet also remain u t t e r l y separate and apart.  In order to see how  this  contrast i s u t i l i z e d to impart the deep sense of ennui and discontent experienced by both Yukiko and Tomioka,  179:  point of view and structure w i l l now be examined. Consisting of sixty <-seyen chapters, Ukigumo i s written i n the t h i r d person with point of view alternating between Yukiko and Tomioka.  Although most chapters follow  either Yukiko"s or Tomioka's point of view e n t i r e l y , Yukiko's predominates, while roughly one-third of Ukigumo consists of chapters i n which the points of view of both characters are intermingled.  Occasionally the point of view of certain  minor f i g u r e s , such as Kano or Iba, i s presented, thereby providing comment on the actions of Yukiko or Tomioka. However, t h i s kind of outside viewpoint i s r a r e , and the reader's attention i s focused primarily on what Yukiko or Tomioka think and f e e l .  Nonetheless, even though the  thoughts and emotions of the two p r i n c i p a l characters are presented with c l a r i t y and vividness, never once does either Yukiko or Tomioka f u l l y i s actually experiencing.  or t r u l y apprehend what the other Their hearts and minds remain  forever closed to each other.  Even when l o s t i n nostalgic  r e c o l l e c t i o n s of Indochina, both Yukiko and Tomioka can be seen to pursue d i f f e r e n t trains of thought and to respond d i f f e r e n t l y to each r e c o l l e c t i o n and are thus almost t o t a l l y incapable of communicating with one another.  For example,  in one instance, Tomioka, drunk i n the hotel room at Ikao, begins to sing a love-song from Indochina, and Yukiko,  180  enticed by the memories the song conjures up, clings to Tomioka and asks to share his thoughts; "I'm l o n e l y , l o n e l y , so t e r r i b l y lonely," Yukiko cried softly,, c l i n g i n g to Tomioka's breast. Looking hard at the., woman' s h y s t e r i c a l outburst, Tomioka.was not able to f e e l a t h i n g . He thought only that a woman's feelings flow past i n an i n s t a n t , l i k e water under a window. A c t u a l l y , Tomioka was thinking about how he could best k i l l Yukiko and himself. .23 The fact that Tomioka and Yukiko are never able to communicate on a deep or meaningful l e v e l throughout Ukigumo i s the p r i n c i p a l factor which creates and sustains the mutual inconstancy that marks their relationship and which, by i t s continual negation of p o s i t i v e human i n t e r a c t i o n , underlines further the hollowness and ultimate emptiness of the inner realm. The narrative structure of Ukigumo also reinforces the inner-outer, past-present c o n f l i c t .  Although Ukigumo begins  with Yukiko' s. return to Japan . (chapter" 1) and to Tokyo (chapter 2), the story soon retreats into the past with a lengthy flashback extending from chapters 3 to 12.  Here,  the main Dalat story i s presented, a story which i s developed further through shorter flashbacks i n chapters 14, 21,  26,  and 27 as well as by shorter 'recollection's of Dalat by both Yukiko and Tomioka throughout Ukigumo. • The main Dalat  181  flashback of chapter  3 to 12,  i n a scene a t the b e g i n n i n g wakes t o t h e r a i n and  h o w e v e r , comes t o an  of chapter  end  13/ where Y u k i k o  t o the dawning r e a l i z a t i o n  that*,the  p a s t d o e s i n d e e d e x i s t o n l y i n memory:  The r a i n had become a downpour. The s o u n d o f t h e r a i n i n t h e g u t t e r p i p e s was l i k e a w a t e r f a l l , and Y u k i k o was s u d d e n l y b r o u g h t back t o the p r e s e n t . Feeling depressed, she c o u l d n ' t go b a c k t o s l e e p . Her b r i l l i a n t memories o f I n d o c h i n a c o n t i n u e d t o f o r m and re-form l i k e a kaleidoscope w i t h i n her head. P e r h a p s b e c a u s e i t was c h i l l y so n e a r t o dawn, she f e l t c o l d u n d e r o n l y one q u i l t and c o u l d n o t s l e e p . T i r e d a s mud, i t was this s e n s e o f c a m p i n g o u t t h a t made h e r f e e l u n e a s y . W i t h a l o n e l i n e s s she h a d n ' t t h e s t r e n g t h t o r e s i s t , Yukiko l a y w i t h her eyes open i n the d a r k , l i s t e n i n g t o the h e a v i l y falling rain. 24  As  t h e memories o f D a l a t d i s s o l v e  present r e a l i t y ,  the  story of chapters life  immediately  i n c l u d i n g the  13  stage  ill-fated and  from the o u t s e t o f the irreconcilable o u t e r , but separate  i s suitably  freezing rain  s e t f o r the  t o 31, d e p i c t i n g Yukiko's  after  the D a l a t e p i s o d e s  i n the  their trip  to Ikao.  The  ensuing  and  r e t u r n t o J a p a n , up  Tomioka's  to  and  intertwining  the Tokyo-Ikao n a r r a t i v e  creates  s t o r y not o n l y the  of  c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n p a s t and  a l s o a sense of the  r e a l i t i e s , which, l i k e  Y u k i k o and  Tomioka t h e m s e l v e s ,  y e t a t the  same t i m e w h o l l y  of  sense  of  present, inner  interconnectedness t h e h e a r t s and  of  and  two  minds o f  appear d i a m e t r i c a l l y  opposed  d e p e n d e n t upon t h e o t h e r .  This  182  can be seen further i n a scene from the stay i n Ikao. Lying beside Yukiko, Tomioka i s regarding her c r i t i c a l l y , when suddenly the town of Hue i n Indochina f l o a t s unbidden before his mind's eye; Along the road from the station to the centre of town, the young leaves of the camphor trees welled up i n golden colours. Canna and clematis on the promenade beside the Hue r i v e r were as bright and gay as printed s i l k s . Coconut trees, betel-nut palms, and hashidoi grew everywhere. A l o c a l man i n red shorts was s e l l i n g macaws i n cages along the r i v e r pathway. A l l t h i s Tomioka remembered. The beloved l i f e i n Dalat was burnt into his memory, merging into one single design, l i k e the splashed patterns of dyed c l o t h . 25 This passage continues and becomes a short flashback, broken only when Yukiko interrupts Tomioka's recollections with her own.  Together the two attempt to r e c a l l other memories of  the past, hoping to r e v i t a l i z e t h e i r f a i l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . For Yukiko and Tomioka, such attempts at the sharing of memories work on t h e i r distraught emotions l i k e a drug, and the e f f e c t i s s h o r t - l i v e d , bringing nothing but depression and f r u s t r a t i o n i n i t s wake, Yukiko and Tomioka thus continue to d r i f t between the two worlds of past and present; unable to break free of one, they cannot wholly enter the other.  The paradise of Dalat, which exists only i n memory,  i s thus given a powerful v i t a l i t y as the beloved object of  183  Yukiko's and Tomioka's inner struggle, while the external r e a l i t y of postwar Japan appears as an unmitigated h e l l from which there i s no escape, except perhaps i n death. Although these two r e a l i t i e s continually intertwine and i n t e r s e c t , there i s no point of actual synthesis or integration.  Dalat and Japan, l i k e Yukiko and Tomioka them-  selves, must remain forever apart. This unresolved dichotomy between inner and outer, past and present creates a d i s t i n c t l y unsettled mood, which i s thus well-established by the middle of the novel (that i s , by the end of chapter 31), and while the second half of Ukigumo (the Tokyo-Mishima-Yakushima narrative sections) contains no flashbacks, r e c o l l e c t i o n s of Dalat continue to appear, interspersed within the main n a r r a t i v e .  Less  frequent than i n the f i r s t part of Ukigumo, memory sequences are also less complete, becoming mere memory fragments i n the second half of the s t o r y .  This produces an even more  unsettling e f f e c t as Yukiko and Tomioka c l i n g desperately to these small shards of the past, and i n a f i n a l attempt to regain their l o s t happiness, begin to pursue such memories with reckless abandon.  Thus, Tomioka begins to write h i s  lengthy a r t i c l e s on the forests of Dalat and chooses the distant southern island of Yakushima over other more suitable areas for work, while Yukiko steals the Ohinata-kyo money  184  i n order to re-establish her o l d relationship with Tomioka. Nevertheless, their-much sought-for dreams do not ..materialize i n the expected, manner. (chapters.57 to 67),  In the f i n a l chapters of Ukigumo  Yukiko's and Tomioka's- fantasies of the  past slowly and s t e a l t h i l y , l i k e e v i l apparitions, begin to overtake present r e a l i t y , and at the end- of the story, Yukiko i n the extremes of her i l l n e s s imagines she i s once more i n Indochina, l i v i n g i n the forested area around Bien Hoa with Tomioka and Kano: She heard the r u s t l e of the r a i n i n her ears as i f i t were a sea of f o r e s t s , but when she r e a l i z e d i t was only the sound of the r a i n beating on the window panes, Yukiko l o s t heart and f e l t as i f she had been cast into the depths of h e l l . 26 Here, the use of r a i n imagery, as i n the beginning of the story, serves to dissolve dream and past memory, a function that not only t i e s the beginning and end of the story neatly together but also emphasizes the ultimate disjunctiveness of past and present.  Unlike Horoki where nostalgia for  the past brought positive reinforcement for present undertakings, the preoccupation with the past i n Ukigumo reaches extreme proportions and i s , i n the end, overwhelmingly destructive. Narrative tempo, l i k e point of view and structure, also aids i n the development of the inner-outer contrast i n  185  Ukigumo. Although further amplified tha,n i n previous works, narrative tempo maintains a basic slow-fast pattern throughout.  That i s , time moves more slowly i n the f i r s t  part of the work (chapters 1 to 31), speeds up considerably throughout the main body of the story (chapters 32 to 56), and then i n a s i g n i f i c a n t extension of the basic pattern i n the l a t t e r part of the novel (chapters 57 to 67), slows down once again. The slower moving sections of the work are concerned primarily with the development of Yukiko's and Tomioka's relationship i n association with the past.  Thus, i n chapters  1 to 31, the characters of both Yukiko and Tomioka are developed within the framework of the Indochina years and the seven-week period that follows Yukiko's return to Japan from that part of the world.  Here, the relationship between  Yukiko and Tomioka i s probed i n considerable depth, with the emphasis on the past and memory as major catalysts i n the couple's continued a f f a i r .  In the middle chapters of the  work which begin with the return from Ikao and end with Yukiko's stealing of the money (chapters 32 to 56), the focus i s on the numerous events that b e f a l l Yukiko and Tomioka during their attempts to s t a r t a new defeated country.  life in a  During these chapters, time speeds up  considerably, covering a period of over a year.  Here, Yukiko  186  and Tomioka follow separate paths,: caught up i n external circumstances that rapidly forward the a c t i o n , locking the characters into t h e i r f i n a l s i t u a t i o n .  These chapters at  the same time deal much less f u l l y with the inner realm of past love and past memory.  In the f i n a l ten chapters of  Ukigumo which recount Yukiko'arand Tomioka's l a s t journey together, time slows down once again as their relationship i s further explored i n a time period covering the f i n a l two weeks of Yukiko's l i f e and the subsequent a c t i v i t i e s of Tomioka one month l a t e r . o f  Here, too, as i n the f i r s t chapters  Ukigumo, past memory plays an important part i n the  depiction of Yukiko's and Tomioka's unhappy a f f a i r and i t s final dissolution. For both characters, but more p a r t i c u l a r l y for Yukiko, the journey to the south and Yakushima i s equated with the wartime voyage to Indochina.  Hence, Yukiko's hope that her  long-ago love w i l l be rekindled.  So desperately does she  desire t h i s re-creation of the past, she even imagines that the kindly doctor who tends her i n Kagoshima resembles the unfortunate Kano and that.the squalid v i l l a g e on Yakushima is l i k e an Indochinese v i l l a g e .  The f i n a l c r i s i s i n which  Yukiko dies with her l a s t thought on the Indochinese past and the subsequent denouement i n which Tomioka returns to Kagoshima only to spend the night with a woman who reminds  187  him of yukiko bring Ukigumo to a conclusion that i s dominated by the spectres of the past. Thus,. both the slowly moving f i r s t - s e c t i o n and the l a s t chapters of Ukigumo. .deal .primarily with the struggle of Yukiko and Tomioka to come to terms with the inner world of past memory and l o s t love/ while the fast paced middle chapters emphasize events i n the outer world of present r e a l i t y . The u t i l i z a t i o n of a slowly paced f i n a l s e c t i o n , underlining as i t does the preoccupation with inner concerns that we have come to associate with such slower narrative tempos i n Hayashi's work, ensures that the inner struggles of the p r i n c i p a l characters emerge as the most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the outer-inner c o n f l i c t i n Ukigumo. In Ukigumo, then, the author has constructed a lengthy and i n t r i c a t e narrative i n which the contrast between inner and outer functions on several levels <— f i r s t , as a means of providing the progression of events with a compelling narrative tension based on the contrast between the inner struggle to regain the past and the pjateiEristruggle to survive i n the present; second, as a means of imparting form to such events through a narrative structure based on t h i s contrast as well as upon two points of view t h a t , i n their i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y , emphasize the f a i l u r e of the inner struggle; and t h i r d , as a means of ordering the flow of narrative i n  188  a way which also emphasizes the inner struggle and i t s destructive nature.  Although the intertwining of the inner  and outer struggle has been the p r i n c i p a l narrative design employed by Hayashi throughout her career, the u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s design reaches i t s most sophisticated expression in works of the.fourth period, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Ukigumo. Just as the " p l a i t i n g " of Parts 1 and II i n Horoki helped to create a density of mood and atmosphere that s t r i k i n g l y portrayed the vagaries of Fumiko's chaotic world, so, too, does the complex interweaving of inner and outer, past and present i n Ukigumo produce a powerful sense of the overwhelming mental and emotional anguish that characterizes the e v e r - s h i f t i n g v i s t a s of Ukigumo. Like theme and structure, imagery i n Ukigumo also emphasizes the c o n f l i c t between inner and outer.  The  title  i t s e l f , for example, r e f e r s both to the unsettled, wayward existence of Yukiko and Tomioka upon t h e i r return to Japan as well as to the rather ..insubstantial and transitory nature of their inner hopes.and dreams.  Indeed, Yukiko and Tomioka  are nothing more thati " d r i f t i n g .clouds" themselves, continually on the move, blown hither and yon by the changing winds of fortune, t h e i r energies soon dissipated .in the treacherous  cross-currents created by the pursuit of an  impossible love.and beauty.  Closely associated with t h i s  central image are two related motifs —  (1) the ethereal  189  paradise o f Dalat which encompasses Yukiko's and Tomioka's fantasies of the past, and  (2) the journey, the means  whereby Yukiko and Tomioka seek to recapture t h e i r fading dream. Seldom since Horoki has wandering and t r a v e l figured so prominently i n Hayashi's work.  Unlike Horoki, however,  where journeys were undertaken i n response to a r t i s t i c whim or family o b l i g a t i o n , the journey i n Ukigumo i s made primarily i n order to recapture the past.  Of the major  journeys described i n Ukigumo, the two most important undertaken by Yukiko and Tomioka are the t r i p to Ikao and the f i n a l journey to Yakushima.  Both travels underline not  only the c o n f l i c t of past with present, inner with outer, but at the same time add another dimension to t h i s c o n f l i c t , as i n both cases these journeys set Yukiko and Tomioka firmly on the road to death.  Although t h e i r plans for a double  suicide are not carried out at Ikao and Yukiko's death at Yakushima i s due only to misadventure, the long discussion of lovers' suicide at Ikao as well as the hopelessness of Yukiko's and Tomioka's position on their f i n a l journey serve to emphasize t h e i r p l i g h t as two star-crossed lovers who have no other recourse but to disappear from t h i s world.  The  journey i n Ukigumo, then, functions as a kind of michiyuki stressing not only the f u t i l i t y and potential  190  tragedy of Yukiko's and Tomioka's s i t u a t i o n but also the poetic and romantic quality of their unattainable d e s i r e . The t r i p to Ikao, for example, i s imbued with the emotion of an Indochinese love song, which sets the tone for the entire t r i p and for the events that b e f a l l Yukiko and Tomioka i n t h i s Dalat-like resort: Your love and my love only i n the beginning were t r u e . Your eyes were truthful? my eyes, on that day, at that time, were t r u t h f u l , too. But now you and I 2g see only with doubting eyes. Sung i n i t s entirety f i r s t by a drunken Tomioka and l a t e r by Yukiko, c e r t a i n l i n e s of the song are eventually repeated by Yukiko as she begins to suspect Tomioka's relationship with Osei. Just as the t r i p to Ikao i s circumscribed by the sentiments of a love song, so i s the f i n a l journey to Yakushima marked by the beginnings of a belated romance. Here, due to Yukiko's i l l n e s s , Tomioka begins to act with greater kindness and consideration, while Yukiko, her v i t a l i t y greatly reduced, no longer pursues Tomioka so aggressively nor so r e l e n t l e s s l y .  Instead, searching together among the  191  mountains and islands along the route for s i m i l a r i t i e s to the long-ago Indochinese t r i p , Yukiko and Tomioka struggle to recapture the b e a u t i f u l past, only to be continually disappointed. For although the two have begun an attempt at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , i f not understanding, the ultimate bounds of their relationship are too firmly drawn and cannot be erased so e a s i l y .  Thus, i n the end, Yukiko  on her deathbed cannot bring herself to t r u s t Tomioka completely just as he cannot remain f a i t h f u l l y by her s i d e . Nevertheless, Yukiko's and Tomioka*s search for the past as they t r a v e l to the south draws them more closely together than they have been since t h e i r return to Japan, and i t i s on t h i s note, that of the i l l - f a t e d romantic journey, that Ukigumo draws to a c l o s e . The most romantic journey of a l l , however, i s the o r i g i n a l sojourn i n Indochina.  Here, against a backdrop of t r o p i c a l  vegetation and exotic l u x u r i e s , Yukiko and Tomioka explore together a new world and a new love.  Every day brings some  unexpected pleasure, such as the v i s i t to Heiho where Yukiko and Tomioka discover an ancient Japanese cemetery.  Here  are interred the remains of Japanese traders and merchants of three hundred and f i f t y years ago, who, unable to return home due to the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y of the Tokugawa government, l i v e d out t h e i r l i v e s i n Indochina.  Pausing to gaze at the  192  Japanese names inscribed on the tombs: Yukiko f e l t how courageous the s p i r i t of these ancient Japanese had been, wandering about everywhere l i k e f l o a t i n g coconuts. On the stone of one grave mound "Tomb of f • Hanako" was i n s c r i b e d , and Yukiko's heart was touched i n sympathy. 29 Like the unknown Hanako, Yukiko, too, i s a wanderer beyond the  pale of Japanese s o c i e t y , and also l i k e Hanako, Yukiko  w i l l end her ceaseless journeying i n a lonely grave far from home. Yet i t i s the dauntless s p i r i t of these long-ago people that Yukiko so admires, and l i k e them, she too finds romance and adventure on her magical journey through Indochina. Thus, although poetic concerns were of small importance during Hayashi's t h i r d period, works of the!,fourth period l i k e Ukigumo, exhibit a d i s t i n c t resurgence of Hayashi*s poetic v i t a l i t y . the  In Ukigumo t h i s can be seen not only i n  emphasis on the inner struggle for love and for beauty,  but also i n the poetic and romantic treatment of the journey motif as well as i n the l y r i c a l descriptions of Indochina. At the same time, however, the effectiveness of these elements i s heightened s t i l l further by one of Ukigumo's most important s t y l i s t i c features —  the intensely emotive quality  of the prose i t s e l f , a feature which aids not only i n accentuating the v i t a l i t y and immediacy  but also the essential  193  humanity of the protagonists' struggle.  Hayashi's a b i l i t y  to b u i l d l y r i c a l intensity through the s k i l l f u l manipulation of emotional and sensual impressions can be seen throughout Ukigumo  and i s one of the hallmarks of her mature s t y l e .  In order to see how the author achieves her e f f e c t , several l i n e s of text w i l l now be examined, i n p a r t i c u l a r the f i r s t eight sentences with which the novel begins: If p o s s i b l e , she wanted to take the night t r a i n , and so, when she l e f t the reception centre after three days, she d e l i b e r a t e l y spent one day l o a f i n g around the town of Tsuruga. Parting from some s i x t y other women at the centre, she found a place to stay at a kitchen-ware shop near the customs shed. And there, alone, Yukiko was able to l i e down on the tatami of her native land for the f i r s t time i n a long time. Out of kindness, the people of the inn heated up the bath for her. Being a small household, i t looked l i k e they had not changed the water, and i t was d i r t y . But to Yukiko, who had just ended a long sea voyage, the f e e l of the s l i g h t l y unclean hot water that had soaked others' skins was d e l i g h t f u l . From the bath she could hear the cold r a i n beating against the dark, grimy window. In Yukiko's lonely heart came a f e e l i n g of utter peacefulness. The wind was blowing, too. Opening the sooty window, she looked up at the leaden rainy sky. Gazing at the poor sky of her native land which she had not seen i n such a long time, Yukiko caught her breath, entranced by the scene outside the window. With her arms holding onto the edge of the oval-shaped bath tub, the sword-cut scar swollen l i k e an earthworm suddenly became v i s i b l e on her l e f t arm. Yukiko shuddered at the s i g h t . But then as she poured warm water over the scar, Yukiko  194  contemplated the many sweet memories of the past. Yet, from today onwards, she prepared to resign herself to a l i f e that was l i k e l y to become unbearably s t i f l i n g . Narubeku, yofuke_ni tsuku kisha o e r a b i t a i t o , mikkakan no shuyojo o deru t o , wazato, Tsuruga no machi de, i c h i n i c h i burabura shite__ita. Rokujunin amari no onnatachi to wa shuyujo de wakarete, zeikan no soko n i c h i k a i , aramonoyaken oyasumidokoro to i t t a , i e o mitsukete, soko de h i t o r i n i natte, Yukiko wa, hisashiburi n i kokoku no tatami n i nekorobu koto ga d e k i t a . Yado no h i t o b i t o wa_shinsetsu de, furo o wakashite kureta. Koninzu de, furo no mizu o kaeru koto mo shinai to miete, nigotta yu datta ga, nagai funatabi o tsuzukete k i t a Yukiko n i wa, hitohada no shimita, hakunigoshita yu kagen mo, kimochi ga yoku, furo no naka no, usugurai susuketa mado n i ataru, shabushabu s h i t a mizore m a j i r i no ame_mo, Yukiko no h i t o r i na kokoro no naka n i , muryo na kimochi o sasotta. Kaze mo f u i t a . Yogoreta garasu mado o akete, enshoku no amazora o miagete i r u t o , hishashiburi n i miru, kokoku no mazushii sora na no da t o , Yukiko wa i k i o koroshite, sono, mado no keshiki_ni mitorete i r u . Koban-kei no furo no fuchi n i ryote o kakeru to, h i d a r i no^ude n i , mimizu no yo n i mori-agatta, kanari o k i i tosho ga, Yukiko o zotto saseru. Sono kuse, sono tosho n i yu o kakenagara, Yukiko wa natsukashii omgide no kazukazu o meiso s h i t e , kyo kara wa, do n i mo naranai, i k i no tsumaru yo na seikatsu ga tsuzuku no da t o , kannen shinai de shinakatta. While the f i r s t sentence i n the Japanese text gives no i n d i c a t i o n of who i s speaking (a not unusual feature of the Japanese language), several other s i g n i f i c a n t impressions are  aptly conveyed.  Perhaps most s t r i k i n g i s the a i r of  determination that marks the f i r s t l i n e of t e x t .  This i s  indi'clted by the use of the verb erabu (to choose) and the  195  desiderative ending - t a i preceded by a d i r e c t object. Determination i s further strengthened by the wazato and the  decision to make a day-long wait i n Tsuruga.  same time, the f e e l of being on a journey  At the  i s imparted  through!the mention of a night t r a i n and the use of burabura to describe the stay i n Tsuruga.  Idleness and restlessness  overlaid by a strong sense of determination are the p r i n c i p a l factors thus set firmly i n the reader's mind.  By the second  sentence we learn-that t h i s transient yet decisive persona belongs to the figure of Yukiko, who i s now distinguished not only from .thexprevious anonymity of the text but also from a group of fellow women t r a v e l l e r s .  Yukiko, we discover,  intends to set out on her own, staying i n onlysthe poorest of accommodations.  Even so, she immediately experiences a  pleasant nostalgia as well as a r e s t f u l support for her weariness and solitude as she l i e s on the homely tatami. The sense of support and pleasure i s underlined further i n the  next sentence where the people of the house heat Yukiko  a bath. In the fourth sentence, however, the narrative i s temporarily suspended as Yukiko's consciousness moves quickly through a series of subtly changing physical and emotional sensations that induce i n her a deep f e e l i n g of loneliness and also of r e l i e f .  From merely looking at  196  the d i r t y bath water to being pleasurably immersed i n i t to hearing the cold r a i n slapping at the grimy window and being overcome by lonely yet peaceful feelings i s a progression of sensation that indicates Yukiko's response to outer r e a l i t y i s either sensual or emotional without being subjected to any p a r t i c u l a r psychological or i n t e l l e c t u a l analysis or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  This sentence loses -its impact  i n E n g l i s h , having to be broken into several sentences, and thus the steady p i l i n g up of sensation to the point of inducing a sense of peaceful r e l i e f i n the protagonist i s a powerfully evocative feature observable only i n the o r i g i n a l . In the next two sentences, Yukiko's sensation of r e l i e f i s suddenly d i s p e l l e d by new and increasingly complex physical and emotional reactions to her surroundings.  Opening the  d i r t y window, she looks outside, and gazing at the r a i n - f i l l e d sky once again, she experiences a keen f e e l i n g of n o s t a l g i a . As we might expect, she reacts bodily ( i k i o koroshita) and emotionally (keshiki n i mitorete i r u ) .  Here, Yukiko's  nostalgia encompasses a wider range of f e e l i n g than at the beginning of the passage, a s , due primarily to the usage of the phrase i k i o korosu and the verb mltoreru, the phrase kokoku no mazushii sora acquires shadings not only of l o n e l i n e s s , longing, p i t y , and  desperation but also of the  surprise and wonder that can be associated with the  197  unexpected sights and occurrences of t r a v e l .  At the same  time Yukiko's fascination with the "poor" view, similar to her ready acceptance of the d i r t y bath water, stresses most poignantly the very b a s i c , plebeian sensuality of her emotional reactions.  Much of Yukiko's appeal thus l i e s i n  the i n t e n s i t y of her nostalgia which determines to take pleasure even i n the poorest and shoddiest of circumstances. The narrative l i n e of the story resumes i n the next sentence,  where Yukiko catches sight of the scar on her  l e f t arm.  Yukiko's reaction on seeing t h i s disfigurement  i s again e n t i r e l y physical and emotional without any further r e f l e c t i o n (zotto saseru).  As Yukiko washes the scar,  pleasant memories of the past flood her consciousness, and the author takes the f i r s t step i n setting up the major thematic and s t r u c t u r a l elements of her story: the contrast between inner-outer, past-present. Thus, memories c a l l e d up by the scar i n the f i r s t part of the sentence (ending with meiso shite) are juxtaposed with the l a s t h a l f of the sentence i n which Yukiko views her present l i f e as soon to be inescapably s t i f l i n g and f u l l of hardship.  Again,  Yukiko's perceptions are founded solely on emotional reaction (to past memories) based on physical sensation (washing the scar).  By t e l l i n g us constantly and consistently what her  characters f e e l and seldom what they think about their  198  f e e l i n g s , Hayashi stays close to the pulse of l i f e ,  creating  a dense yet ever-shifting texture of f e e l i n g and sensation that, l i k e the d r i f t i n g cloud of the t i t l e , expresses the f l u i d i t y and mutability of human experience. At the same time, the author also hints i n her opening sentences that i n Ukigumo there i s some contamination within the flow and movement of l i f e ' s waters.  Thus, the water  imagery which marks these opening l i n e s emphasizes not only mutability but also p o l l u t i o n .  The bath, for example,  does not impart a sense of cleanliness or p u r i f i c a t i o n ; quite the contrary, the water i s d i r t y ; seldom changed, i t i s stagnant and unappealing.  That Yukiko takes pleasure i n  t h i s polluted bath does not bode well for the future.  Washing  the scar i n t h i s water, too, i s vaguely unpleasant, and thus Yukiko's memories of the past are a t once associated with corruption and defilement. The f i r s t eight sentences of Ukigumo, then, reveal much about Hayashi's mature style and l i t e r a r y technique. The reliance on the depiction of emotional states to delineate character and enhance narrative i s an aspect of Hayashi's prose that i s developed most f u l l y i n Ukigumo.  Closely  related to the torrent of quickly changing emotional states that characterizes a good deal of the early Horoki, and traceable through the creation of l y r i c a l mood pieces such  199  as "Seihin no sho" that exalt the inner poetic struggle as well as incorporating the more mundane or " n a t u r a l i s t i c " portrayal of sentiment seen i n the domestic novella of Hayashi's t h i r d period, the emotive prose of Ukigumo stands out as an extremely accomplished and we11-integrated amalgamation of e a r l i e r techniques.  Here, the romanticism  and profuseness of Horoki becomes c a r e f u l l y constructed emotional experience that helps b u i l d and sustain an entire novel's mood and atmosphere.  At the same time, the ardent  l y r i c i s m of the early autobiographical f i c t i o n tempered by the less personal, more outwardly oriented authorial attitude that characterizes the third-period works produces a unique study of human relationships that, through the contrast of inner and outer, past and present, demonstrates not only a s o l i d mastery of both s t y l i s t i c and narrative devices but also a s k i l l f u l integration of these devices within the parameters of the author's own poetic d i s p o s i t i o n . Although, as we s h a l l see i n the next chapter, s t y l i s t i c development would continue to be of some importance  throughout  the l a s t years of Hayashi's. career, achievement such as that i n Ukigumo would not occur again.  Outstanding as a work  of postwar l i t e r a t u r e , Ukigumo also represents the peak of Hayashi's achievement i n prose f i c t i o n .  Portraying the  hopelessness and f u t i l i t y of defeat as well as the emptiness  200  of the inner struggle for love and beauty, Ukigumo i s nonetheless marked by the f u l l n e s s of Hayashi's mature style and thus remains a powerful and expressive tour de force of the v i c i s s i t u d e s of human experience.  Viewed i n  terms that emphasize the mundane aspects of existence, the human struggle i n Ukigumo also emphasizes the poetic and romantic q u a l i t i e s which may  be found t h e r e i n .  Here, however,  Hayashi's poetic attitude i s devoid of i t s Horoki-style optimism and r e c a l l s instead the n i h i l i s t i c outlook of her early poetry, such as "Kurushii uta" and"Joko no utaeru" which, although celebrating the tenacity of the human struggle, also underlined i t s despair and f u t i l i t y .  In much the same way,  Ukigumo revolves upon complex and composite poetic motifs, which, l i k e the " d r i f t i n g cloud" of the t i t l e , emphasize not only the ubiquitous f o l l y and suffering but also the ultimate transience and i n s t a b i l i t y of human l i f e and love. Hence, the aimless wandering, the struggle with the cloying web  of past memory, and the r e l e n t l e s s search for an  unattainable love and beauty, a l l of which imbue Yukiko's and Tomioka's p l i g h t with a desperate hopelessness and at the same time  provide a poetic foundation for a work which  appeals not only to modern tastes but also s a t i s f i e s the more t r a d i t i o n a l native s e n s i b i l i t y that wholeheartedly celebrates the beauty and pathos inherent i n even the most ignominious f a i l u r e and  defeat.  201  CHAPTER 5 LAST YEARS; THE STRUGGLE FOR SELF-FULFILLMENT (1950-1951)  Hayashi's p r o l i f i c and unconventional literary career was brought to a drastic end by her sudden death on 28 June 1951 at the age of forty-eight.  Very much like the short-  lived flower of her well-known poem, "Hana no inochi wa," Hayashi had lived a l i f e that had been a l l too brief.  A  mere ten months was to elapse between the completion of Ukigumo in August 1950 and her death i n June of the following year.  During this time, Hayashi managed to complete five  major full-length novels: Fuyu no ringo Apple, 1950), Ehon Sarutobi Sasuke  (Winter  %i<$i&  $1 (The  Picture Book of Sarutobi Sasuke, 1950), Aware hitozuma A  $rlK«K^-$:  ( Poor Married Woman, 1950), Sazanami  (Ripples, 1951), and Onna kazoku Women, 1951).  /'J$_ (A Family of  She also continued writing numerous articles  for magazines and newspapers and was working on at least one other major work, Me shi dt) U  (Meals) when death overtook her.  Although the notion that "journalism k i l l e d Hayashi 1  Fumiko" gained a degree of currency i n Japanese literary circles after her death, i t was Hayashi's own zeal and  202  ambition that drove her to overwork/swlth-'fatal  results.  Indeed, i f blame for her death may be placed squarely i n any quarter, i t must l i e solely with Hayashi h e r s e l f . Aware of a heart problem for several years and warned by doctors that the condition was heed.  serious, Hayashi took l i t t l e  She continued to l i v e and write at a hectic pace,  and even though friends and colleagues noticed her rapidly 2 f a i l i n g health,  she herself made no e f f o r t to modify her  l i f e - s t y l e to accommodate t h i s d e b i l i t y .  Instead, she  devoted herself even more wholeheartedly to her work, her voluminous outpourings becoming both the means and the ends of her desire for s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t and success.  In spite  of her strength and courage, Hayashi, l i k e Yukiko i n Ukigumo, was no match for the forces arrayed against her, and i n the end, overwhelmed by i l l n e s s as much as by the demands of her own determined character, she succumbed to a combination of stroke and heart f a i l u r e . Hayashi*s funeral s e r v i c e s , presided over by her longtime friend and mentor, Kawabata Yasunari, were well attended, not only by members of the l i t e r a r y world but also by members of the public who  crowded the streets and f i l l e d the lanes 3  outside her house.  These "humbly-dressed"  folk who  had  come to pay t h e i r l a s t respects were none other than the lowly, ordinary people about whom Hayashi had so movingly  203  written i n her novels and, stories and who were also the most numerous of her admirers.  The presence of both  literati  and common people at her funeral eloquently attests to the broad appeal of Hayashi's l i t e r a t u r e as well as to the s t r i k i n g success of t h i s author i n merging both "popular" and "serious," prosaic and poetic elements within her works. While Ukigumo and other writings of the fourth period displayed a fresh treatment of the c o n f l i c t between the.inner and outer struggle as well as a tendency towards a more p o e t i c a l l y oriented prose s t y l e , the f i f t h period shows a movement away from such concerns and a resurgence of i n t e r e s t i n the domestic sphere that r e c a l l s Hayashi's works of the t h i r d period.  Although such developmentf.. can be seen to  a c e r t a i n extent i n many of Hayashi's completed  fifth-  period pieces, i t i s most f u l l y r e a l i z e d i n Meshi, the novel on which Hayashi was working at the time of her death. Though incomplete, t h i s work reveals much about Hayashi's f i n a l l i t e r a r y evolution, d i s c l o s i n g a new concern with the inner struggle that focuses upon the problems of those who inhabit  a modern world brought into existence by the forces  unleashed at the end of World War I I . While Ukigumo r e f l e c t e d the uncertainties and r e s u l t i n g hardships faced by people caught up i n the t r a n s i t i o n between wartime and immediate postwar l i f e , Meshi deals with the anxieties of  204  a new age.  Foremost among the inner concerns and struggles  that move' the protagonists of Meshi i s the search for s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t amid the tedium of modern l i f e .  Here, Hayashi  departs from her previous emphasis upon the struggle for love and for beauty that dominated the works of the fourth period and concentrates  instead on the kind of personal s t r i v i n g that  i s more c l o s e l y connected to Inazuma and works of the t h i r d period. The search for s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t , i t s origins e a s i l y traceable to the struggles for independence and maturity found i n Inazuma, i s nonetheless a new struggle, one '-that r e f l e c t s the attempt to come to terms with the commonplaceness of domestic l i f e rather than to transcend or r i s e above i t as was the case i n Inazuma.  The quest for s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t  portrays more accurately than the t r a d i t i o n a l l y oriented struggles for love or beauty the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n modern l i f e , as both men and women s t r i v e to discover meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a new world where t r a d i t i o n i s found wanting and where the past provides small consolation. for  Thus,  protagonists of f i f t h - p e r i o d works, love seldom brings  g r a t i f i c a t i o n , while marriage ends not so much i n f a i l u r e as in boredom and i n d i f f e r e n c e . Chaiiro no me ^ 2 ^ * 9 E}$»(Brown Eyes), a novel which Hayashi s e r i a l i z e d i n Fujin asahi from January to September 1949, i s an early example of the d i r e c t i o n most f i f t h - p e r i o d works would take.  The couple i n  205  t h i s story, married for fourteen years and without c h i l d r e n , no longer derive any s a t i s f a c t i o n from each other's company. So enervating has t h e i r l i f e become, they are unable to take any action whatsoever to a l l e v i a t e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  Only  belatedly and after much deliberation does the husband f i n a l l y decide on divorce, relinquishing a t l a s t the f a m i l i a r but d e b i l i t a t i n g relationship with his wife. Although the couple i n Chaiiro no me eventually take steps towards the solution of t h e i r problem, the family of women depicted i n Onna kazoku seem l o s t i n the endless entanglements of domestic l i f e .  Their search for happiness  i s abrogated not only by the engrained patterns of a repressive s o c i a l order but also by t h e i r own i n a b i l i t y to overcome the weariBome p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of t h e i r existence. Here, the struggle for s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t seems paralyzed by the benumbing e f f e c t of the outer world.  Similar to Inazuma,  t h i s family of women consists of three s i s t e r s and their mother; there i s also a granddaughter.  The f a t h e r , a brother,  and the eldest s i s t e r ' s husband are no longer l i v i n g . F i n a n c i a l l y better o f f than the s i s t e r s  of Inazuma, the  protagonists of Onna kazoku;. are nonetheless circumscribed by a l i f e so lacking i n opportunity and stimulation that i t i s almost not worth l i v i n g .  Movies, p a r t i c u l a r l y foreign  f i l m s , provide the only escape from the ennui of t h e i r l i v e s ,  206  while love a f f a i r s evoke l i t t l e passion, and marriage seems at best a questionable goal. up her own  Ruiko, the middle s i s t e r , sums  and her s i s t e r s ' feelings of entrapment at the  end of the story when she remarks; "What kind of happiness i s there for a woman outside of marriage?... "Human happiness does not follow a prescribed route l i k e a boat t r i p or a t r a i n r i d e . Instead, people seem to construct i n t r i c a t e designs i n a sky that contains an unknowable f a t e , don't you think so?" And indeed, i t seems l i k e l y that Ruiko and her s i s t e r s w i l l continue to b u i l d t h e i r castles i n the a i r , at the same time protesting against t h e i r l o t , not with the vehemence and f i e r c e determination of Kiyoko i n Inazuma, but with a sad kind of wistfulness that questions both fate and circumstance but finds no answers. Exhibiting l i t t l e of the strength of w i l l that propelled e a r l i e r characters ever onward i n t h e i r ceaseless battles with l i f e and love, most of Hayashi's f i f t h s - p e r i o d protagonists pursue t h e i r goals with much less abandon and tend to arrive at even fewer destinations. Unlike e a r l i e r figures and d i f f e r e n t even from Yukiko i n Ukigumo, their narrow, constricted world i s one which, l i k e Sartre's well-known p l a y , seems indeed to have "no e x i t . "  And y e t ,  within t h i s t i g h t l y closed realm from which there i s no  207  escape, a new and d i s t i n c t form of inner struggle a r i s e s . Although closely related to the e a r l i e r inner struggles for personal happiness, t h i s struggle exhibits much closer t i e s with the r e a l i t i e s of mundane domestic l i f e .  Here,  as Hayashi attempts to resolve the dichotomy between the inner and outer struggle, producing works .in which such c o n f l i c t s are less contentious and p o t e n t i a l l y more r e c o n c i l able, she creates characters which, for the f i r s t time, embark upon the quest for understanding, both of themselves and of their relationships with others.  While such works as  Chaiiro no me and Onna kazoku e x h i b i t , i n a rudimentary form, Hayashi's early attempts at an inner-outer r e s o l u t i o n , i t i s not u n t i l the appearance of Meshi that we are able to see c l e a r l y the synthesis of Hayashi's thematic interests and concerns i n a novel that, had i t been completed, might have marked the beginning of a new d i r e c t i o n i n Hayashi's work. In order to ascertain the significance of Meshi as Hayashi's f i n a l work and also as one of the most interesting of the f i f t h period, t h i s novel w i l l now be examined, as were preceding selected works, i n terms of theme, structure, characterization, imagery, and s t y l e .  When Hayashi presented the f i r s t installment of Meshi to the Asahi newspaper for publication i n A p r i l 1951, the  208  publishers were most unhappy about the choice of t i t l e  and 5  at f i r s t refused to accept i t , saying i t was too common. Hayashi, however, stood f i r m , and the t i t l e was allowed to remain.  The word meshi means, f i r s t of a l l , "boiled or  cooked r i c e " and a l s o , by extension, "a meal." contains the meaning of ''livelihood"  !  I t also  or " l i v i n g " i n the  sense that t h i s most basic of foodstuffs i s i n Japan, l i k e bread i n Western countries, the s t a f f of l i f e .  Although  Hayashi chose to render meshi i n Japanese s y l l a b i c s c r i p t for her t i t l e , the word may character  .  also be written with the Chinese  Written thus, the connection between meshi  and i t s s l i g h t l y more refined counterpart gohan 4§f  is  evoked, and thus the word loses much of i t s homespun, plebeian connotations.  By keeping the t i t l e i n the s y l l a b i c alphabet,  a choice unusual for Hayashi, who  generally preferred more  elegant or poetic names,^ the author emphasizes more firmly than usual the lowly and indecorous q u a l i t i e s of everyday life.  Indeed, so unprepossessing i s t h i s t i t l e that the  images conjured up i n the reader's mind are at once those of an exceedingly mundane, hum-drum existence.  And i n f a c t ,  throughout her works, Hayashi has depicted few characters who  find t h e i r l i v e s as cramped and s t u l t i f y i n g as do  Okamoto Michiyo and her husband, Hatsunosuke, the main protagonists of Meshi.  209  The story opens i n the springtime i n Osaka as Hatsunosuke accompanies h i s young niece/ Satoko, on a sight-seeing tour of the c i t y .  Satoko, the adopted daughter of Hatsunosuke's  elder brother i n Tokyo, has come to Osaka ostensibly to look for work but also i n hopes of avoiding the marriage which i s being arranged for her i n Tokyo.  Hatsunosuke and h i s  wife, Michiyo, have planned a welcome break i n t h e i r routine to show Satoko the s i g h t s .  But a l l does not go w e l l .  Hatsunosuke and Michiyo, who made a love-marriage f i v e years before, are now insufferably bored with each other, with their r e l a t i o n s h i p , and with the tedium of their l i v e s ; yet both are uncertain how to deal with the problem.  Michiyo,  for her p a r t , tends to blame Hatsunosuke and i s quick to take offense at the smallest s l i g h t , whether r e a l or imagined. After just such an i n c i d e n t , Michiyo decides not to j o i n Hatsunosuke and Satoko on the Osaka tour and remains s p i t e f u l l y at home, pursuing her housewifely chores and entertaining plans for adopting a six-year-old boy.  Hatsuno-  suke, who i s against the adoption, neverthelessr?realizes that Michiyo needs someone or something to r e l i e v e the boredom of her l i f e .  A ''salary-man" employed by a large pharmaceutical  company, Hatsunosuke i s also a considerate and thoughtful person, who i s concerned about the fact that he can no longer communicate with his w i f e .  210  Satoko, a b o l d , l i v e l y , and affectionate g i r l , finds Osaka e x c i t i n g , and after her sight-seeing t r i p , she loses no time i n making a number of acquaintances, including a bar hostess who, much to the discomfiture of the Okamotos, l i v e s on t h e i r s t r e e t .  Satoko also befriends the  irresponsible son of another neighbour, the widow Taniguchi. Although <Ha£sunosQke.y,: too, i s charmed by Satoko, there i s nothing untoward i n t h e i r relationship; yet Michiyo becomes jealous.  Returning home a f t e r a reunion dinner with o l d  classmates, Michiyo i s annoyed to find that Hatsunosuke and Satoko have been upstairs together, and that Hatsunosuke has used Michiyo's towel to staunch a sudden nosebleed that s t r i k e s Satoko.  During t h i s i n c i d e n t , Hatsunosuke's shoes have been  stolen from the fsront door.  Michiyo scolds Hatsunosuke harshly.  The next day when Michiyo goes to meet the c h i l d proposed for adoption, she i s s t i l l uneasy about her differences with Hatsunosuke.  The c h i l d ' s thinness and sad eyes only upset  her further, and she decides against continuing with the proceedings.  Instead she begins to make plans to return to  her mother's house i n Tokyo, where she can look for work. When Hatsunosuke comes home drunk that night, Michiyo r e a l i z e s what d i f f e r e n t l i v e s she and her husband now l i v e , and t h i s further strengthens her resolve to leave. On the following day on a v i s i t to her aunt and uncle's  211  house, Michiyo encounters t h e i r son, Kazuo, to whom she had once almost become engaged.  Kazuo, s t i l l s i n g l e , seems  not to have l o s t i n t e r e s t i n Michiyo and reveals h i s intention of returning to Tokyo on the same traincthat Michiyo plans to take.  Back home, Michiyo finds the Taniguchi boy, Yoshitaro,  and Satoko together, and Michiyo, worried at t h i s sudden turn of events, quickly decides that Satoko must return a t once to Tokyo.  Hatsunosuke agrees with his wife; yet he i s shocked  that Michiyo has not consulted him about her proposed journey. Michiyo refuses to talk about t h e i r problems, and after an uneasy night, she and Satoko leave for Tokyo i n the company of Kazuo. One week passes, and the families begin to wonder i f there i s something wrong between Michiyo and Hatsunosuke. Hatsunosuke assures Michiyo's uncle that nothing i s amiss. V i s i t e d by the bar g i r l who brings tasty dishes and by Michiyo*s unmarried classmate who  i s a l i t t l e too f r i e n d l y ,  Hatsunosuke nevertheless remains r e l a t i v e l y unaffected by the numerous attentions he receives from other women, and he continues to worry about h i s wife.  Taniguchi also c a l l s  on Hatsunosuke, accompanied by the l i t t l e boy who yet been adopted.  has not  She has come to report that her son,  Yoshitaro-; has run away to Tokyo i n pursuit of Satoko. Hatsunosuke, , finding the small c h i l d unexpectedly engaging,  212  begins to reconsider h i s p o s i t i o n on the question of adoption. In Tokyo, Michiyo enjoys a b r i e f f l i r t a t i o n with Kazuo, but her thoughts are with Hatsunosuke who w r i t e s , asking her to come home. Meanwhile, Satoko, who has been scolded by her father for her errant behaviour, continues to see both Yoahitaro and Kazuo with whom she has also become f r i e n d l y . Here, unfortunately, on the esrerVof Michiyo's uncle's a r r i v a l i n Tokyo, the story breaks o f f . Even though Meshi remains unfinished, the e x i s t i n g narrative has been s u f f i c i e n t l y advanced to allow a f a i r l y detailed examination of various aspects relevant to t h i s study of Hayashi's work.  Chief among these i s the author's  u t i l i z a t i o n of the contrast between inner and outer, which as i n previous works, provides the basic tension of the story. In Meshi, however, unlike Ukigumo and other e a r l i e r works, the outward struggle for survival does not hinge simply on the need for money but rather on the need for more money. In Meshi, no one i s poor, and some, l i k e Michiyo's aunt and uncle i n Osaka and Satoko's family i n Tokyo, are f a i r l y well to do.  Nevertheless, the three main protagonists,  Hatsunosuke, Michiyo, and Satoko, are unhappy with t h e i r f i n a n c i a l l o t , and thus the search for f i n a n c i a l success i s a primary concern of a l l .  Hatsunosuke, for example, i s  d i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s s a l a r y , thinking i t i n s u f f i c i e n t for  213  raising a child, while Satoko refuses jobs that pay only ¥4000; she can make that easily in Tokyo.  "Money, money,  money..." Satoko intones to herself, echoing the sentiments of the irrepressible Fumiko of Horoki.  7  Michiyo, too, like  Hatsunosuke, finds her financial situation totally inadequate. Fed up with a household budget that never balances, she wants more money to satisfy an occasional whim and also to gain the freedom she feels i s denied her as a housewife. To Michiyo, holding down her own job in Tokyo begins to look very attractive. In spite of the emphasis on the pursuit of money and the other trappings of worldly success, outer circumstances in Meshi do not improve; neither do they grow worse. Instead, they stay the same. No one manages to improve his or her financial state or position in society, and conversely, no one sustains any losses.  Although matters might have  altered had the story been completed, this seems unlikely for two reasons: (1) byrmaintaining the sameness of outer . circumstances, the tediousness and uneventfulness of everyday l i f e i s aptly conveyed, and (2)aagainst the background of mundane daily existence, the inner struggles of the protagonists are brought more strikingly to the fore.  Thus,  in contrast to the monotony of everyday l i f e , i t i s the inner struggle that i s of most significance in Meshi. Yet, at the  214  same time such struggles do not run counter to outer circumstances, as i s the case i n Ukigumo, but instead are closely bound to external concerns. Hence, Michiyo's growing i n t e r n a l awareness that she i s not deriving any pleasure or s a t i s f a c t i o n out of l i f e i s d i r e c t l y related to her exterior role of housewife.  The  dawning r e a l i z a t i o n that her l i f e and marriage have f a l l e n far  short of expectations i s revealed i n a nicely-drawn,  homely passage where Michiyo, p i l i n g up the clothes she has freshly ironed, also seems to be p i l i n g up a growing number of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s and disappointments.  Since the complete  passage i s too lengthy to quote i n i t s e n t i r e t y , a few  final  segments w i l l be presented: As she ironed each p i e c e , the laundry p i l e d up, white as snow. Even after she was f i n i s h e d , the iron s t i l l had enough heat l e f t for a few items. Not wanting to waste the heat, Michiyo undid the zipper on the gray wool s k i r t she was wearing and s l i d i t o f f smoothly...She turned the wrinkled s k i r t inside out and, placing i t on a f l o o r cushion, ironed i t with a l l her strength. Bits of r a v e l l i n g and f l u f f had collected i n the hem. Suddenly her two white protruding kneecaps caught her eye... She wanted a c h i l d to hold there, to clasp as i t sat upon her bare l a p . She wanted a c h i l d to play with on her lap i n the bath, pouring warm water over it...Again she began to rub the iron vigorously over the s k i r t . . . If only Hatsunosuke were a l i t t l e more resourcef u l , they could change t h e i r l i v e s somehow... The thought of leaving Hatsunosuke had not once occurred to her, but these days her feelings had grown harsher. Wondering why t h i s was so,  215  Michiyo put the iron with i t s shaky handle back into the wooden box. Under the warm spring sky, she began to f e e l l i k e secretly g running away and searching otit her own world. As the story continues, Michiyo's grievances begin to take the form of questions concerning the reason for her existence; "Could she go on l i v i n g i f Hatsunosuke in  q  longer there??  were no  and "What does a wife l i v e for"?  Tired  of cooking and cleaning, Michiyo f e e l s as i f she i s nothing more than a maid, and her boredom and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n soon mount to the point where she leaves her husband and returns to Tokyo.  Although Michiyo desires Hatsunosuke's love, she  also needs the opportunity to explore the half-formed, burgeoning desires within her s e l f . While one c r i t i c sees Michiyo's awkward attempt to explore her own inner needs as an example of "egocentric female psychology,"  11  such an interpretation ignores the  depth and r e a l i t y of Michiyo's inner struggle.  Even though  her d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i f e may be attributed to the f r u s t r a t i o n of e g o i s t i c desires on one l e v e l , i t may also be viewed as an expression of defiance against the i n e q u a l i t i e s forced upon her by the dictates of society and tradition.  Michiyo, a modern, educated woman of good  background, has found married l i f e wanting, and l i k e the modern woman she i s , she wants to know why.  Nevertheless,  216  similar to other protagonists  i n f i f t h - p e r i o d works,  Michiyo's conviction f a l t e r s when put to the t e s t .  Once  she receives Hatsunosuke's l e t t e r asking her to return home, Michiyo i s overcome by his avowal of l o v e .  Ready "  to throw her new-found freedom to the winds, she i s on  the  verge of returning to Osaka as Meshi draws to a c l o s e . Although Michiyo i s prepared to probe at the roots of her problem, she i s not prepared to undertake any  sustained  action that would r e s u l t i n a r a d i c a l change of the quo.  status  Caught between the desire for love and security on  one  hand and the urge to s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t on the other, i t seems l i k e l y that Michiyo w i l l return to the l i f e she l e f t behind, happy i n the knowledge of Hatsunosuke*s love, yet*we  may  also wonder to what extent reconciled to the t r a d i t i o n a l wifely r o l e . Compared to Michiyo, Hatsunosuke has a somewhat less confining l i f e - s t y l e .  The variety of outlets open to him  through h i s job and position i n society ensures a broader scope for self-expression.  Yet at the same time, he finds  himself increasingly unable to communicate with his wife. Here, i n a reversal of the s i t u a t i o n i n Ukigumo,-, the male protagonist seeks communion with h i s spouse, while she i s intent on following her own  daemon.  Hatsunosuke's struggle  to understand his wife, however, does not meet with f a i l u r e  217  as do such attempts by Yukiko and Tomioka i n Ukigumo. Instead, Hatsunosuke's thoughts frequently run p a r a l l e l to those of Michiyo.  Even during Michiyo's jealous outburst  after the nosebleed i n c i d e n t , Hatsunosuke finds himself agreeing inwardly with her c r i t i c i s m s . delays too long i n speaking out.  Yet Hatsunosuke  I t i s only Michiyo's  decision to go to Tokyo that moves him f i n a l l y to broach a discussion of t h e i r problems. Michiyo departs.  By then, i t i s too l a t e , and  Left on h i s own, Hatsunosuke finds l i f e  gloomy and depressing; i t i s also d i s t i n c t l y uncomfortable, as laundry and other household chores p i l e up.  I t i s not  long after h i s talk with Michiyo's uncle that Hatsunosuke writes so passionately to Michiyo, urging her to come home. Throughout the story there i s never any doubt that Hatsunosuke loves his wife.  Even though attracted by Satoko's  overture of a f f e c t i o n , Hatsunosuke maintainschis equanimity and does not step outside his role towards her as the indulgent uncle.  Hatsunosuke's struggle therefore i s not  so much to a t t a i n or maintain love as to understand his partner's motivations.  For Hatsunosuke, s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t  l i e s i n the attainment of rapport with others. Unskilled at expressing himself on matters of such intimate concern, Hatsunosuke keeps most of h i s thoughts to himself, thus inadvertently contributing further to his wife's unhappiness  218  and to h i s own uneasiness.  Even as he reads the newspaper  on the way to work, Hatsunosuke cannot s t i l l h i s anxieties as he thinks over a remark made by Michiyo the day before: Like him, Michiyo could not deny the agony that rose up these days l i k e a rainbow i n her heart. Before how, neither of them had spoken or talked about doing something to make the foundations of t h e i r household secure, but they both were thinking about i t . They had shared t h e i r l i v e s for f i v e years, but even the aimless eking out of t h e i r d a i l y l i v i n g had become discouraging. When Michiyo schemed to have a c h i l d , perhaps she was envisioaing^he'rl £utuj5er.security. -It :wasv-an old-fashioned way of thinking, and Michiyo would not admit to wanting a grown c h i l d i n her o l d age...The phrase "hope for peace" ? caught his eye. Hatsunosuke suddenly f e l t l i k e changing the characters f o r "peace" into the characters f o r "anxiety." 12 ?  Hatsunosuke i s preoccupied not only with h i s and Michiyo*s problems, he also gives attention to Satoko's troubles and attempts to fathom her psychology.  Michiyo, too, i n  spite of her jealousy, i s attracted to Satoko and also t r i e s to help her.  In Tokyo she helps conceal Satoko's  meetings with Yoshitaro and l a t e r gives Yoshitaro money to go back to Osaka.  Compared to Ukigumo and to Inazuma,  then, Meshi i s a v e r i t a b l e feast of mutual concern and sympathy.  Although not p r o f i c i e n t at such exercises i n  interpersonal communication, the two main protagonists of Meshi  do a t l e a s t t r y to understand themselves and others,  219  a fact which imparts a new q u a l i t y of depth and maturity to the inner struggle. In contrast to Michiyo and Hatsunosuke, the figure of Satoko i s much less r e f l e c t i v e .  Self-centred, immensely  v i t a l , Satoko embodies many©f the t r a i t s of the t y p i c a l rebellious Hayashi heroine.  Her inner struggle for maturity  and independence i s reminiscent of the young Masako's i n "Fukin to sakana no machi."  Indulged by her parents,  e s p e c i a l l y her f a t h e r , Satoko i s a charming but spoiled young lady, who i s much too s p i r i t e d to s e t t l e into any of l i f e ' s more humdrum niches.  Her friendship with Yoshitaro  and the bar hostess, her bold night-time wandering about the entertainment d i s t r i c t of Osaka as well as her brash pursuit of Kazuo help to h i g h l i g h t her impulsive and affectionate nature.  At the same time, her character exhibits  l i t t l e tendency towards s e l f - a n a l y s i s or i n s i g h t , and i n spite of her a t t r a c t i v e ways, Satoko remains a d e l i g h t f u l yet immature young woman as yet unmarked by the hardships of l i f e . Nevertheless, Satoko's struggle, intertwined as i t i s with that of Michiyo and Hatsunosuke *• s attempt to come to terms with themselves and t h e i r marriage, contributes to the i n t r i c a t e mosaic of inner hopes and desires which characterize Meshi and i n which the inner struggles of a l l three characters are contrasted and juxtaposed to b u i l d a complex  220  yet well-ordered and e f f e c t i v e n a r r a t i v e . In order to see how the author achieves t h i s r e s u l t , the structure of Meshi as well as related s t y l i s t i c elements w i l l now be examined.  Divided into nine t i t l e d  chapters, Meshi covers approximately a two-month period i n the l i v e s of the three protagonists.  The f i r s t f i v e  chapters follow a slowly developing l i n e a r time frame t y p i c a l of beginnings i n Hayashi's works —  only four days  pass as the situations and personalities of the main characters are introduced and developed i n a s k i l l f u l blend of dialogue and d e s c r i p t i o n .  In chapter 6, however, time  moves suddenly forward as the scene s h i f t s from the month of A p r i l to May and (by the end of the chapter) from Osaka to Tokyo.  The f i n a l chapters 7 to 9 chronicle events  one week l a t e r , and as matters have begun to move more q u i c k l y , we may conclude, based on our previous examination of similar patterns i n Hayashi's other works, that the novel has now entered the much faster-paced section,, which usually brings Hayashi's works to an end.  The o v e r a l l narrative  structure also supports t h i s assumption.  Unless another  major occurrence i s introduced at t h i s point (chapter 9 ) , the story of Michiyo and Hatsunosuke seems close to conclusion, with only Satoko's story remaining to be resolved. Although Meshi focuses primarily on the Michiyo-  221  Hatsunosuke r e l a t i o n s h i p , the Satoko story provides an important narrative element.  Functioning as a kind of  c a t a l y t i c f i g u r e , Satoko galvanizes both Michiyo and Hatsunosuke to action and f i n a l l y , forces them into confrontation.  Without Satoko and her story, Meshi would  lose much of i t s narrative drdve and v i t a l i t y .  There are  three p r i n c i p a l events i n which Satoko excites Michiyo's and Hatsunosuke*s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r l i f e and with each other.  These occur i n chapter 1, where Satoko and  Hatsunosuke go o f f sight seeing and leave Michiyo behind; i n chapter 3, where Hatsunosuke's attentions to Satoko's nosebleed stimulate Michiyo's jealousy and anger, and i n chapter 5, where Satoko reveals to Hatsunosuke her a f f e c t i o n for him.  In each case, Satoko's actions create further  waves i n already troubled waters.  In chapters 1 and 3, f o r  example, she succeeds i n arousing Michiyo's already strained feelings towards Hatsunosuke to a fever p i t c h , while i n chapters 1, 3, and 5, Satoko, through her outgoing, affectionate attentions to Hatsunosuke, only makeshim r e a l i z e his great loneliness as well as the tremendous lack of rapport with h i s wife. Satoko's motivations are not malicious; instead, her actions are the r e s u l t of an unthinking pursuit of her own d e s i r e s , a fact brought out by the author's s k i l l f u l manipulation of point of view.  Although chapters 1, 3, and  222  5 are marked by the appearance of the point of view of a l l three characters,with most attention given to Michiyo and Hatsunosuke, Satoko's behaviour i n a l l three chapters i s both preceded and followed by a b r i e f presentation of her point of view.  Here we are made to see Satoko not  as a s p i t e f u l i n s t i g a t o r but instead as a r e l a t i v e l y naive onlooker, oblivious to a l l but her own interests and concerns. The best example of t h i s i s i n chapter 3, which opens with Satoko smoking one of Hatsunosuke's cigarettes i n the upstairs bedroom.  Both Michiyo and Hatsunosuke have gone out, and  Satoko i s l e f t to look after the house. the  Quickly bored with  history book taken from Hatsunosuke's desk, she folds  up two of Hatsunosuke's f l o o r cushions and l i e s down on them. Feeling lonely and abandoned, her thoughts wander. She has explored the whole house and found nothing of i n t e r e s t . Curious as to the nature of marriage i n general, Satoko i s disappointed to discover that t h i s uninteresting household represents Michiyo's and Hatsunosuke's l i f e together. To Satoko, such a l i f e seems "as lonely as a waiting room i n 13 a t r a i n station."  Her jumble of thoughts break o f f as  Hatsunosuke arrives home, and with a return to h i s point of view, we see the ensuing nosebleed incident through h i s eyes. As Hatsunosuke goes upstairs to wake Satoko, he no sooner rouses her than her nose suddenly begins to bleed. She  223  catches hold of Hatsunosuke who p u l l s away. The blood on his s h i r t , the cigarette i n the ashtray, and the two closeted together upstairs provide the fuel for Michiyo*s angry outburst on her return home. Upstairs, l i s t e n i n g to Michiyo's scolding v o i c e , Satoko and her point of view are brought to the fore once again.  Crying, Satoko feels  very lonely, when suddenly her r i g h t leg touches the bag of takenoko % \ her rage.  \  (bamboo shoots) set down by Michiyo i n  Imagining she i s married and that the bag of  takenoko i s her husband sleeping beside her, Satoko kicks the parcel away, and i t topples over onto the f l o o r with a thud.  Feeling better after t h i s symbolic r e j e c t i o n of  a new growth into adulthood, Satoko stretches out and daydreams about her boy friend i n Tokyo.  She wonders how  long i t w i l l be before her father sends her money: Satoko had very l i t t l e money l e f t . Money, money;, money, Satoko wanted money so desperately she could almost taste i t . She wondered i f she would be able to borrow something from Hatsunosuke. 14 Here, Satoko's point of view i s discontinued as the narrative s h i f t s back to Hatsunosuke. Satoko*s thoughts reveal her to be an exceedingly s e l f centred and c h i l d l i k e young woman. Her thoughts, searching continually for some puerile s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n , provide a  224  s t r i k i n g contrast with the very adult situations i n which she finds herself and which she i s ill-equipped to handle. Satoko's point of view i s used also i n chapters 1 and 5 as i t was i n chapter 3 to encompass the main action: <of the adults i n the story.  Her point of view emphasizes not only  the innocence and s i m p l i c i t y of her youth and her c u r i o s i t y about adult l i f e but also brings into bold r e l i e f the miserable entanglements of the adult world.  Here, i n the  contrast between Satoko*s world and that of Hatsunosuke and Michiyo, the Hayashi motif of c h i l d v s . adult reaches a polished perfection that b e l i e s the underlying narrative complexity. In Meshi, manipulation of point of view not only enhances the Satoko figure rand her world-view, i t also serves as the p r i n c i p a l means of maintaining and developing the interplay of the various personal struggles.  Just as Satoko's point  of view i s positioned i n such a way as to highlight her struggle f o r independence and maturity i n the adult world, so, too, are the points of view of Michiyo and Hatsunosuke presented i n ways which accentuate the nature of t h e i r own personal c o n f l i c t s .  For example, while chapters 1, 3, asid 5  present the points of view of Satoko, Michiyo, and Hatsunosuke i n i n t e r a c t i o n , the alternating chapters 2, 4, and 6 present the points of view of only Michiyo and Hatsunosuke, as they  225  react to the Satoko-engendered events of the preceding odd-numbered chapters.  Thus, a period of interaction  and confrontation i s followed by a period of questioning and d e l i b e r a t i o n , as both Michiyo and Hatsunosuke struggle to come to terms with t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  The odd-numbered  chapters also possess t i t l e s which r e f l e c t t h i s interchange 1  and movement: chapter 1 - "Yuranbasu ' (Sight-seeing Bus) , chapter 3 - "Amekaze" (Rainstorm), and chapter 5 - "Jan-jan yokocho" (Jingle-jangle Lane); while the even-numbered chapters possess t i t l e s which emphasize the inner r e f l e c t i o n and deliberation that follow such turmoil: chapter 2 "Nichijo" (Daily L i f e ) , chapter 4 - "Tsuma wa nande i k i r u ka" (What Does the Wife Live F o r ? ) , and chapter 6 - "Aijo no seishitsu"  (The Nature of Love).  In these even-numbered  chapters both Michiyo and Hatsunosuke embark upon <tortuous personal examinations of t h e i r boredom with each other and with t h e i r marriage.  Chapter 7 breaks t h i s pattern of  i n t e r a c t i o n - d e l i b e r a t i o n , being presented solely from the point of view of Hatsunosuke, as he attempts to come to terms with the shock and dismay he experiences at Michiyo's departure.  Thus, unlike' Ukigumo where point of view  emphasized the disjunctiveness of Yukiko and Tomioka's relationship as well as the mutual incompatibility of t h e i r inner struggles, Meshi demonstrates, through e f f e c t i v e  226  positioning of point of view, the growing need and desire of the two main protagonists to reach some kind of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n either within themselves o r , more hopefully, with each other. Within t h i s o v e r a l l pattern, the author develops further the inner struggles of both Michiyo and Hatsunosuke. These are shown to be c o n f l i c t s which, although exacerbated by d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s with the tedium of everyday l i f e as well as by the presence of Satoko, have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n an additional contraposition of inner and outer.  Although  both Michiyo and Hatsunosuke are looking f o r answers,to their problem, the fact that the two cannot immediately agree : upon nor even discuss possible solutions l i e s primarily i n the  c o n f l i c t between the two d i f f e r e n t worlds which each  inhabit.  In Meshi, as i n "Seihin no sho," the domestic  s i t u a t i o n i s portrayed very much as an inner sanctum, peaceful, safe, and secure.  Although disrupted by outside  forces such as the presence of Satoko or the unexpected shoe t h i e f , the Okamoto household remains by and large a place of repose and r e t r e a t .  I t . i s , however, much too quiet  for Michiyo, who turnsvfcQ>the.outside'world"for.amusement and stimulation.  I t i s the outer world, a place wherein  she has no place and i n which she lacks any achievement or d i s t i n c t i o n , that Michiyo begins to look f o r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t .  227  Hatsunosuke, on the other hand, an already active p a r t i c i p a n t i n the world outside the home, looks inward to the domestic setting and at h i s relationship with h i s wife i n h i s search for happiness.  For Hatsunosuke, any  man without a wife i s weak and does not have the necessary 15 "strength for l i v i n g . "  Consequently, while Michiyo  looks for s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t independent of her relationship with Hatsunosuke, hoping to acquire her own  job or to adopt  a c h i l d , her husband seeks f u l f i l l m e n t within the marriage relationship and not outside i t .  This contrast marks the  presentation of both Michiyo's and Hatsunosuke' s pointsf.of view throughout the f i r s t s i x chapters of Meshi and i s a consistent factor i n the portrayal of t h e i r inner struggles. By chapter 7, however, such matters begin to undergo some transformation, as Hatsunosuke alone i n Osaka reconsiders his previous stand against adoption and writes to Michiyo, pouring out h i s love and pent-up emotion.  At the same time,  Michiyo prepares to return home. With both husband and wife prepared to compromise, i t seems l i k e l y that t h e i r struggles for s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t w i l l be at least p a r t i a l l y realized.  That i s , Michiyo w i l l get a chance at r a i s i n g a  c h i l d , while Hatsunosuke w i l l once again enjoy the company of a wife no longer bored and d i s s a t i s f i e d .  For both  Michiyo and Hatsunosuke, t h e i r separation has brought pain  228  and hardship but also the p o s s i b i l i t y of self-knowledge and new growth.  The story breaks o f f before we can discover  whether such experiences w i l l bring true contentment or eventually, as the tedium of d a i l y l i f e reasserts i t s e l f , serve only to renew old d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s .  In Meshi,  although no solution i s forthcoming, the impetus for renewal and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s present and a c t i v e , and thus, more so than i n other works, the p o s s i b i l i t y exists that husband and wife may at l a s t reach some degree of mutual understanding and acceptance. Just as the expert handling of narrative technique imparts an underlying sense of union and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n to the work, so, too, does the choice of style and the u t i l i z a t i o n of s t y l i s t i c devices contribute to the sense of appeasement and accord.  Whereas poetic and romantic elements were  brought to the fore i n Ukigumo, primarily through the evocative portrayal of f e e l i n g and emotion, the use of such a technique i s considerably reduced i n Meshi.  In this work,  the cerebral i s of almost equal importance with the emotive, as the author presents characters who are prepared to approach t h e i r problems with a degree of thoughtful considerationnand inquiry not hitherto seen i n Hayashi's works.  The inner world of desire and emotion i s thus  subjected to the demands of outer abstraction as both Michiyo  229  and Hatsunosuke ruminate upon the d i f f i c u l t i e s  inherent  i n their r e l a t i o n s h i p . This new  conjoining of i n t e l l e c t u a l processes and  emotional states i s instrumental wherein husband and wife may as well as i n understanding.  i n creating an atmosphere  at l a s t draw together i n love Such harmony i s further  reinforced by the author's e f f e c t i v e combination of poetic and prosaic elements.  This can be seen most c l e a r l y i n the  use of the Osaka s e t t i n g .  Here, the author blends both  mundane and poetic i n c o l o u r f u l descriptions of a c i t y wholeheartedly given over to the pursuit of commercial success yet at the same time g l o r i f i e d and  immortalized  by the poetic imagery found i n the domestic tragedies of the celebrated playwright of the puppet theatre, Chikamatsu Monzaemon UL  1653-1725).  With i t s reputation  for brash f i n a n c i a l enterprise as well as for the elegant romances of the puppet stage, t h i s c i t y represents  a  congenial amalgamation of outer and inner concerns that so frequently characterize Hayashi's work.  The harmonizing  of thought and d e s i r e , outer and inner, prosaic and poetic i s apparent throughout the story but can be seen most r e a d i l y i n the very f i r s t pages of Meshi, where Hatsunosuke and Satoko tour Osaka on a sight-seeing  bus:  230  Hatsunosuke thought over Michiyo's sudden r e f u s a l to go that morning: "Was i t perhaps because, after having l i v e d together for f i v e years, they had now entered what some c a l l the stage of boredom with married l i f e " ? No sooner had the thought crossed his mind when he heard again the mellifluous tones of the tour guide's soft Osaka pronunciation: "Farewell to t h i s world, and to the night, too, f a r e w e l l . We who walk the road to death, to what should we be likened? To the f r o s t by the road that leads to the graveyard, vanishing with each step we take ahead. How sad i s this dream of a dream." S t a r t l e d , Hatsunosuke looked at the tour guide. She had raised her r i g h t hand to her shoulder, as she pointed out the Tenshin shrine where the young Ohatsu and her lover had died long ago. The area was also c a l l e d Rotenshin and had recently become a lane of grocery shops and small restaurants. In the morning, the doors were s t i l l closed, but at night i t was no doubt a bright and busy thoroughfare. Hatsunosuke caught a glimpse of a signboard menu and a large paper lantern on which the word "Meals" had been painted i n bold brushstrokes. 16 Here, the author merges poetic and mundane motifs,x,as.ah ordinary sight-seeing tour proceeds through a variety of romantic and picturesque spots.  The world of aware  (sadness, pity) and the world of meshi (meals) are made to share common ground i n a unique juxtaposition that avers t r a d i t i o n a l poetic values while at the same time underlining the v i t a l i t y of contemporary modern l i f e . Although i t hangs above the scene of a long-ago lovers'  231  s u i c i d e , the paper lantern boldly affirms the concrete r e a l i t i e s of everyday existence.  Thus, i n Meshi, unlike  Ukigumo, the past l i v e s within the present and i s not separate from i t , while death, especially the lovers' s u i c i d e , no longer seems l i k e a viable a l t e r n a t i v e to the problems of l i f e .  Never once do any of Meshi's characters  consider death as a possible solution to their d i f f i c u l t i e s , and as the tour guide goes on to point out the scene of another such suicide from the Chikamatsu r e p e r t o i r e , Shinju Ten no Amijima tvr ^ K  M$\ j|]  (The Love Suicides at  Amijima), we learn that Satoko, the epitome of modern womanhood, i s not even f a m i l i a r with the names of the main protagonists of t h i s famous p l a y . Nonetheless, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Shinju Ten  no  Amijima portrays a love t r i a n g l e i n which a young wife  and  a b e a u t i f u l courtesan are both r i v a l s for the husband's affection.  This i s a s i t u a t i o n similar to that of Meshi,  where Hatsunosuke finds both Michiyo and Satoko demanding his  attentions.  Similar to J i h e i i n Shinju Ten no Amijima,  Hatsunosuke, too, derives pleasure and g r a t i f i c a t i o n from the company of both women; yet whereas J i h e i eventually chooses to remain with the courtesan and d i e , Hatsunosuke, somewhat less romantically, chooses his wife and  life.  The churlish grandfather i n Shinju Teh no Amijima would also  232  seem to have a counterpart i n the figure of Michiyo's uncle.  A much more pleasant character than the e v i l  grandfather of Shinju Ten no Amijima, Michiyo's uncle i s nonetheless an uncompromising sort of gentleman  who,  similar to Chikamatsu's grandfather, abides s t r i c t l y by the dictates of Osaka-style giri>-ninjo 17 and human f e e l i n g ) .  j|  ^ ^\  (duty  Although i n essence a rather  d i f f e r e n t kind of story from Chikamatsu's p l a y , Meshi exhibits several important l i n k s with the c l a s s i c a l theatre piece, thereby acquiring the poetic flavour of the domestic tragedy.  Atv.the same time through i t s own emphasis on the  more vigourous and s e l f - a s s e r t i v e s p i r i t of modern love, i t offers a fresh interpretation of an old and f:amiliar story. Meshi, then, as the t i t l e implies, i s about l i f e  and  about a l l those things which, to Hayashi, help sustain human existence —  love, food, and money. Even though the  inner c o n f l i c t s of the protagonists are brought to the fore and provide the central focus of t h i s novel, the author's expert handling of setting and character stresses the charm and substance of everyday l i f e and thus, together with!the emphasis on the inner struggle, helps to erect within the bounds of her commonplace scenario a more a r t i s t i c l e v e l of meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Unfinished as i t i s , we can but  speculate upon the further development and eventual conclusion  233  of the story.  Yet, even i n t h i s incomplete s t a t e ,  Meshi o f f e r s s u f f i c i e n t food f o r thought, not only as Hayashi's f i n a l work but also as a work which marked new directions f o r the author and which, with i t s vigourous treatment of the problems and concerns of modern l i f e and love, allows us to appreciate s t i l l further the persistent v i t a l i t y of Hayashi's a r t .  234  CONCLUSION  From the early tempestuous beginnings to the sudden denouement a t the height of success, Hayashi Fumiko's l i t e r a r y career proceeded along a route seldom equalled i n the annals of modern Japanese l i t e r a t u r e .  Her sheer  dauntlessness i n the face of a l l odds, her tenacity of purpose, and her uncompromising dedication to success f i n d a corresponding energy and forcefulness i n the contexture of her l i t e r a t u r e i t s e l f .  Yet at the same time, the extent  of t h i s powerful v i t a l i t y i s s t a r t l i n g and, as this[--thesis shows, encompasses not only thematic and s t r u c t u r a l elements of t h i s author's style and technique but the entire mode of her l i t e r a r y a r t .  For Hayashi, the b a t t l e f o r survival  and success i n her own l i f e was transformed i n her writings into the poetic and romantic struggles of her l i t e r a r y creations.  Focusing upon the hardships and deprivations  suffered by the downtrodden classes of Japanese  society,  Hayashi gave voice to the thoughts and feelings of those who could not speak f o r themselves and, through her own considerable talent and a b i l i t y , succeeded more eloquently than many proletarian writers i n capturing the v i t a l essence of t h i s human struggle and r a i s i n g i t to the realm of great a r t .  In spite of her early successes, however,  235  Hayashi's achievement was  not a sudden f a i t accompli but  involved a protracted process of change and development which took place over a period of years and which, as t h i s dissertation  shows, may  be viewed i n terms of f i v e major  stages of accomplishment. The", e a r l i e s t stage, covering the years 1922-1930, saw f i r s t of a l l the establishment of the author as a poet and secondly ; as a writer of her own poetry and prose.  Her work here was  d i s t i n c t i v e brand of to culminate i n the  s e r i a l i z a t i o n and eventual publication of Horoki, her l i t e r a r y success.  first  In Horoki Hayashi depicted, a l b e i t i n  f i c t i o n a l form, her own  struggles for l i t e r a r y recognition.  At the same time she also set up a basic narrative and thematic framework which was  to underlie a l l of her  subsequent f i c t i o n a l w r i t i n g .  Based upon the c o n f l i c t and  contrast between the outer struggle with necessity and circumstance and the inner struggle for a r t i s t i c r e a l i z a t i o n , t h i s framework was extended and developed further i n Hayashi's work of the second period (1931-1938).  Here, the inner  struggle i s amplified to include the struggle for maturity and independence ("Fukin to sakana no machi") as well as the struggle for true love ("Seihin no sho").  In both  s t o r i e s , the inner struggle p r e v a i l s , engendering positive growth and change.  Although Hayashi's treatment of  236  autobiographical material would no longer be an important feature i n her work a f t e r these early phases, the poetic and l y r i c a l treatment of struggle i n these early writings would continue to flavour her l a t e r novels and s t o r i e s , imbuing them with a powerful emotive quality which would emerge most f u l l y i n works of the mature fourth p e r i o d . Hayashi was to make a major break with her early work during the years 1935-1942, the t h i r d or middle period of her career, i n which she undertook the writing of "objective" novels based primarily upon domestic themes and upon the hardships of women who seek to f i n d their own way through life.  Inazuma chronicles the misfortune and unhappiness  of two such women and sets the tone for other works from t h i s period —  dark pieces i n which the inner struggles of  the protagonists succumb to the dictates of the outer struggle with circumstance.  At the same time, the defiance  and determination of the i n d i v i d u a l i s set forth as a dynamic and elemental force, which harks back to the e a r l i e s t poetry and proclaims i n the idiom of Hayashi*s new prose format the i r r e p r e s s i b l e s p i r i t and courage of those whose struggles i n l i f e seem destined to go unrewarded. The fourth period, extending from the years 1946 to 1949, brings evidence of a new maturity and fresh a r t i s t i c v i s i o n , as Hayashi chronicles the ultimate struggle of  237  humankind against the tides of war and death.  Although  the main protagonists of Ukigumo, the representative work of t h i s period, fare rather badly i n t h i s often unequal b a t t l e , t h i s work nonetheless stands out as Hayashi's most evocative and poignant portrayal of the vagaries and v i c i s s i t u d e s of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Here,  the inner struggle comes to dominate the outer with t r a g i c r e s u l t s , as Hayashi reaches the acme of her career. I r o n i c a l l y , t h i s most intense and least successful of a l l the struggles depicted i n Hayashi's works seems to have brought out the best i n t h i s w r i t e r , making Ukigumo Hayashi's undoubted masterpiece not only i n i t s complexity of theme and character but also i n i t s new sophistication of style and  technique.  Although the l a s t period of Hayashi's career (1950-1951) i s b r i e f , i t i s nonetheless remarkable for the author's attempt to forge ahead, searching out new  themes and taking  new d i r e c t i o n s i n her never-ending quest for l i t e r a r y  success.  In Meshi, the unfinished yet most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c work of t h i s period, we f i n d the c o n f l i c t between the inner and outer struggle i n a new,  contemporary setting as the author  endeavours to reconcile the antagonisms inherent i n her l i t e r a r y world-view.  No longer preoccupied with wartime  own  238  themes, Meshi brings domestic concerns once again to the fore.  Yet here, unlike the domestic-oriented works of  the t h i r d period, the touch i s l i g h t , with the two protagonists coming together i n love and understanding. In t h i s sense, Meshi seems to echo Hayashi's youthful works, such as "Seihin no sho" and "Fukin to sakananno machi," where the inner struggle flourished amidst the hardship of trying circumstances and i n the end brought new growth and eventual happiness.  Although the new promise  evinced by Meshi was never f u l f i l l e d due to Hayashi's untimely death, t h i s work nevertheless stands out as a fine example of t h i s writer's attempt, i n her l a s t years, to achieve a harmonious integration of theme and technique within the bounds of the f a m i l i a r domestic n o v e l l a . While t h i s evaluation of Hayashi's works has attempted to o f f e r some insight into the tremendous v i t a l i t y and d i v e r s i t y of an important modern Japanese author r e l a t i v e l y unknown i n the West, i t also implies the need for further study and reassessment of modern Japanese women writers i n general. Even though forced to f i g h t against a l i t e r a r y world which relegated women writers to a position of r e l a t i v e i n f e r i o r i t y as well as against the d i f f i c u l t conditions of her own early upbringing, Hayashi was able  239  to emerge as an acclaimed and respected author, a f a c t which t e s t i f i e s not only to her own personal courage and determination but a l s o , more importantly, to the powerful appeal of her f i c t i o n , which even today stands out as a unique and d i s t i n c t i v e contribution to modern l i t e r a t u r e . Setting her stories amid the lowest orders of s o c i e t y , Hayashi d i d not hesitate to depict the s t r i f e and hardship therein.  At the same time, by juxtaposing the individual's  inner struggles with the struggle f o r survival i n the outer world, Hayashi was able to a f f i r m not merely the worth and v i t a l i t y of the inner world of human f e e l i n g but also the essence of struggle i t s e l f .  Thus, with consummate s k i l l  and a l i v e l y , uncommon a r t i s t r y , Hayashi managed to capture the elemental nature of humanity's most basic needs and d e s i r e s , and by elevating these mundane passions to a poetic realm where the commonplace and the t r i v i a l become the very force and substance of l i f e i t s e l f , she succeeded i n creating an extensive body of l i t e r a t u r e that celebrates with bravura and gusto the endless human struggle f o r s u r v i v a l , happiness, and success.  240  NOTES  Introduction 1  Notable among these are three volumes of translations:  Rabbits, Crabs, Etc.: Stories by Japanese Women, ed. and t r . by P h y l l i s Birnbaum; This Kind of Woman: Ten Stories by Japanese Women Writers, 1960-1976, ed. and t r . by Yukiko Tanaka and Elizabeth Hanson; Stories by Contemporary Japanese Women Writers, ed. and t r . by Noriko Mizuta L i p p i t and Kyoko Iriye Selden. A l l of these appeared i n 1982.  Also deserving  mention i s Donald Keene's study "The Revival of Writing by Women," i n Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era:  Fiction.  thesis. 2  For f u l l c i t a t i o n s , see Bibliography of t h i s  . _ Ozaki Ichio, Mogura yokocho and Mayumi Ichio, Hayashi  Fumiko, i n Hayashi Fumiko: gendai no esgp;uri»^id.- itagaki  ;  Naoko (Tokyo: Shibundo, 1965), pp. 146-174 and pp. 175-189. 3  Nakamura Mitsuo, "Hayashi Fumiko ron," i n Gendai nihon bungaku zehshu, V o l . 45 (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1954), p. 405. Chapter 1 1  According to her biographers, Hayashi seems to have  f i r s t entered primary school i n Nagasaki, but her name i s not found i n the school r e g i s t e r i n question.  See Itagaki  Naoko, Hayashi Fumiko no shogai: uzushio ho j i n s e i (Tokyo:  241  Daiwa Shobo, 1965), p p . 57-^58.  A l s o Imagawa E i k o , "Nenpu,"  i n Hayashi Fumiko zenshu, V o l . 16 (Tokyo: Bunsendo, 1977), p. 286.  Subsequently she attended primary s c h o o l s i n Sasebo  and then i n Shimonoseki. 2 I t a g a k i Naoko, e d . , "Hayashi Fumiko no s h o g a i , bungaku, h i t o o y o b i j i n s e i k a n , " i n Gendai no esupu'ri;, *pp. 7-9. 3 _ H i r a b a y a s h i T a i k o , Hayashi Fumiko (Tokyo: Shinchosha, 1969), p . 44. 4 Hana no xnochx wa mijikakute k u r u s h i koto nomi okariki. Adachi  K e n ' i c h i , e d . , Gendai nihon bungaku arubamu 13:  Hayashi Fumiko (Tokyo: Gakushu Kenkyusha, 1974), p . 178. T r a n s l a t i o n s o f t i t l e s , quoted passages, o r phrases i n t h i s t h e s i s are mine u n l e s s otherwise i n d i c a t e d .  Due t o the  s p e c i a l i z e d nature o f p o e t i c language i n g e n e r a l , Japanese t e x t s o f Hayashi's p o e t r y w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the notes i n romanized form.  The t e x t s o f prose passages s e l e c t e d f o r  t r a n s l a t i o n , however, w i l l not appear u n l e s s the o r i g i n a l Japanese i s necessary t o the a n a l y s i s . 5 "' - , Itagakx, S h o g a i , p . 86. c Hayashi Fumiko, "Oshaka-sama," i n Aouma o m i t a r i , i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 1, p p . 14-15:  242  Watakushi wa; oshaka-sama n i koi o shimashita' honoka n i tsumetai kuchibiru n i seppun sureba aa mottainai hodo no shibiregokoro n i narimasuru. 8 i n kara k i r i made mottainasa n i nadaraka na chishio ga gyakuryu shimasuru renge n i suwashita kokoro nikui made ochitsuki haratta sono otokoburi n i sukkari watakushi no tamashii wa tsurarete shimaimashita. Qshaka-sama anmari tsurenaide wa gozarimasenuka! Hachi no su no yo n i kowareta watakushi no shinzo no naka n i oshaka-sama namu amida butsu no mujo o satosu no ga no de mo arimasumai n i sono otokoburi de hono no sama na watakushi no mune n i tobikonde kudasarimase zokusei n i yogoreta kono onna no kubi o shinu hodo dakishimete kudasarimase Namu amida butsu no oshaka-sama! This poem also appears i n the Horoki t e x t . 7 — Itagaki, Shogai, p. 91. 8 — Hiyashi Fumiko, ''Joko no utaeru," i n Adachi, p. 133: Watakushi wa bimbo de arinagara sora e tobiagaru koto o kangaeru watakushi wa — * t e t s u no kusari de ashi o iwaerarete i r u no da! Rogoku no naka de watakushi no me wa saegirarete i r u ! - Chiisa na mado no aoba ichiyo no furue n i watakushi wa 5zora no hirosa oshiete i r u zo! Baka n i suru na!  243  watakushi wa watakushi no chikara o s h i n j i t e i r u . Bimbo de mo chikara wa arun'da! Jibun no chikara o s h i n j i , watakushi wa kanashimanu. Keredo mazushii bakkari ni? t a t t a h i t o r i no chikara yue ne —•< dara dara to mimizu no yo n i sono h i sono h i o xxx no tame n i , sainamarete i k i t e iruv Koraekirenu kuyashisa n i , watakushi no maeba wa, kuishibatta kuchibiru no aida de, hibana o c h i r a s h i nagara, surierasarete yuku! Hayashi, "Kurushii uta," i n Aouma o m i t a r i , pp. 18-20: Tonaribito to ka nikushin to ka k o i b i t o to ka sore ga nan de aro •— seikatsu no naka no kuu to i u koto ga manzoku de nakattara egaita a i r a s h i i hana wa shibondeshimau kaikatsu n i hatarakitai mono da to omotte mo akko-zogon no naka n i watakushi wa i j i r a s h i i hodo chilsaku shagande i r u . Ryote o takaku sashiagete mo miru ga konna n i mo kawaii onna o uragitte iku ningen bakari na no Ra!__ Itsu made mo ningyo o daite damatte i r u watakushi de wa n a i . Onaka ga suite mo shoku ga nakute mo wo! to sakende wa naranain'desu yo kofuku na kata ga mayu o ohisome n i naru. Chi o f u i t e monshi s h i t a t t e biku to mo suru d a i c h i de wa nain'desu ato kara ato kara karera wa kenko na hogan o y o i shite i r u . Chinretsu bako n i fukashitate no pan ga aru ga watakushi no shiranai seken wa nan to maa piano no yo n i karuyaka n i utsukushii no desu. Soko de hajimete kamisama konchikusho to hakinaritaku narimasu.  244  " K u r u s h i i uta'' a l s o appears i n H o r o k i . Since the name o f the author and p r o t a g o n i s t a r e i d e n t i c a l , Fumiko w i l l be used when r e f e r r i n g t o the Horoki p r o t a g o n i s t , and Hayashi w i l l be used when r e f e r r i n g to the author o f the work. 1 1  Hayashi Fumiko, H o r o k i , i n Hayashi zehshu, V o l . 1,  p . 281. 12  H a y a s h i , H o r o k i , p . 290.  13 H i r a b a y a s h i , p . 63. 1 4  See Imagawa, p p . 291-293, f o r t i t l e s and dates o f  p u b l i c a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s e p i s o d e s . 1 5  H a y a s h i , H o r o k i , p . 340: Shinchu t t e donna mono daro kane da kane da kane ga h i t s u y o na no da! Kane wa tenka no mawarimono d a t t e i u kedo watakushi wa h a t a r a i t e mo h a t a r a i t e mo mawatte k o n a i .  1 6  H a y a s h i , H o r o k i , p . 547. I t a g a k i , S h o g a i , p . 85; Yamamoto K e n k i c h i , "Hayashi  Fumiko," i n Gendai ho e s u p u r i , yp.45.  Nakamura Mitsuo o f f e r s  another s u g g e s t i o n i n h i s "Hayashi Fumiko ron," i n Gendai nihon bungaku zenshu, p . 407; he c a l l s Horoki a " c o l l e c t i o n of notes on one's p e r s o n a l l i f e . ' ' TO  — .  Wada Y o s h i e , " K a i s e t s u , " i n Hayashi Fumiko shu: gendai no bungaku 17 (Tokyo: Kawade Shobo S h i n s h a , 1965), p . 504.  245  19  - _ Hayashi Fumiko, "Ketteiban Horoki hashigaki," i n  Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 16, p. 218, and also 'Horoki I I : Hayashi Fumiko bunko atogaki," i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 16, p. 268. 20 Months alone are given i n the text; I have assigned years to the chronology to provide a convenient point of reference. 21 ""Itagaki, Shogai, p. 98. 22 Itagaki, Shogai, p. 98. Part III was not published u n t i l several years a f t e r Nomura's death i n 1940. 23 _ _ Hayashi, Horoki, p. 436. Calmotin i s a sleeping medicine. 24 Hayashi, Horoki, p. 437. 25 - - . Hayashi, Horoki, p. 275. 26 — — Hayashi, Horoki, p. 410. 27 _ — Hayashi, Horoki, p. 417. 28 Yamamoto, "Hayashi Fumiko,'' p. 48. jq  _  _  While both Basho and Saigyo are well-known as poetwanderers, Basho i s also distinguished as a writer of prose essays and t r a v e l d i a r i e s .  Lady Nijo's Towazugatari  t fo  recounts her journeys about Japan and has been translated by Karen B r a z e l l as The Confessions of Lady Nijo (Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a : Stanford University Press, 1973). 30 Hayashi, Horoki, p. 461.  246  31 Hayashi, Horoki, p. 336. 32  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 295.  33 ' im/ ' im' ' ' ' ~ Hayashi, Horoki, p. 416. 34 Hayashi, Horoki, p. 328: Kaze ga naru s h i r o i sora da! Fuyu no suteki n i tsumetai umi da kyojin datte k i r i k i r i mai o shite me no sameso na ounabara d a z Shikoku made ipponsuji no koro da. Mofu_ga n i j u sen okashi ga juwsen santo kyakushitsu wa kutabarikaketa dojo nabe no yo n i monosugoi futto da Shibuki da ame no yo na shibuki da miharukasu s h i r o i sora o nagame juisseini^xi zaichu no s a i f u o n i g i t t e i t a . Aa batto* de mo s u i t a i wo! to sakende mo kaze ga fukikeshite iku yo. S h i r o i ozora n i watakushi n i su o nomaseta otoko no kao ga anna n i okiku, anna n i okiku aa yappari s a b i s h i i h i t o r i t a b i da! *Batto (Bat) i s a cheap brand of c i g a r e t t e . 3 5  3 6  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 395. Hayashi, Horbki, pp. 349-350: F u j i o mita Fujiyama o mita akai yuki de mo furaneba F u j i o i i yama da to homeru n i wa ataranai anna yama nanka n i makete naru mono ka kisha no mado kara nando mo omotta kaiso togatta yama no kokoro wa watakushi no yabureta seikatsu o obiyakashi watakushi no me o samuzamu to miorosu.  247  F u j i o mita Fujiyama o mita t o r i yo ano yama no yane kara chojo e to tobikoete i k e shinku na kuchi de hitotsu azawaratte yare kaze yo! F u j i wa yuki no taihiden da biyun, biyun fukimakure Fujiyama wa Nippon no imeji da sufinkusu da yume no koi nosutarujia da ma no sumu taihiden da. F u j i o miro Fujiyama o miro Hokusai no egaita katte no omae no sugata no naka n i waka wakashii omae no hibana o mita keredo ima wa oikuchita tsuchi manju giro giro s h i t a me o i t s u mo sora_ni mukete i r u omae naze futomei na yuki no naka n i tohi shite i r u no da t o r i yo kaze yo ano s h i r a j i r a to saekaetta Fujiyama no kata o t a t a i t e yare a r e n a s gin no shiro de wa n a i fuko no hisomu yuki no taihiden da Fujiyama! omae n i atama o sagenai onna go koko n i h i t o r i y tatte i r u omae o azawarashite i r u onna ga koko n i i r u . Fujiyama yo F u j i yo sassatsu to shita omae no h i no yo na jonetsu ga biyun_biyun unatte gorajo na kanojo no kubi o tataki kaesu made watakushi wa yukai n i kuchibue o f u i t e matte i y o . 37 A v i s i t to Sarashina i s a t r a d i t i o n a l pilgrimage for poet-travellers i n Japan.  Basho's v i s i t to Sarashina to view  the moon i s recorded i n his Sarashina kiko  ^^#t!_,ff  (Sarashina Diary, 1688). For one t r a n s l a t i o n , see Donald Keene's "Basho*s Journey to Sarashina," Transactions of the A s i a t i c Society of Japan, Third S e r i e s , V (December, 1957),  248  pp. 56-83.  Basho also v i s i t e d Hiraizumi i n h i s well-known  t r a v e l d i a r y , Oku no hosomichi  "> (£ "? \jf,  (1689.). For  one t r a n s l a t i o n , see E a r l Miner's "The Narrow Road Through the Provinces," i n Japanese Poetic Diaries (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969), pp. 155-197. 38 Itagaki, "Hayashi Fumiko no shogai," i n Gendai no esupuri, p. 78. 39  **_ „  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 468. 40 "_ Hayashi, Horoki, p. 290. 41 -Hayashi, Horoki, p. 542. 4 2  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 472. chiisakute daruma* mitai de yoku naite i r u okorinbo i i e mo i i no yo otoko nanka do demo i i dakiatte neru dake no koto  *Daruma: a small rocking d o l l that, when tumbled over, always rights i t s e l f . Hayashi, Horoki, p. 401. 4 4  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 402. 45 —— Hayashi, Horoki, p. 410.  4fi 47 4 8  — -  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 299. "_  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 480. T.A. Sebeok, trans,, Morphology o f the F o l k t a l e , by  Vladimir Propp, 2nd ed. (1928 o r i g . ed.; 1958 f i r s t translation  249  ed. by Lawrence Scott; r p t , Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968), passim. 49 Itagaki, "Hayashi Fumiko no shogai, bungaku, h i t o oyobi jinseikan," p, 10. 50 - Hayashi, Horoki,, p. 364. 51 Hayashi, Horoki, ., pp. 29,1-292. 52 Hayashi, Horoki, ., pp. 462-463. 53 Hayashi, Horoki,, p. 290. :  54 Hayashi, Horoki, ., p. 269. 55 Hayashi, Horoki, p. 459. 56 Hayashi, Horoki, ., p. 459. 57 Hayashi, Horoki, ., pp. 476-477. 58 Hayashi, Horoki, ., pp. 432-433. 59 Hayashi, Horoki, , p. 521. Hunger (1890) was the f i r s t : novel of the Norwegian n o v e l i s t , Knut Hamsun, who received the Nobel Prize for Literature i n 1920. I t recounts the torments of a struggling young writer as he attempts to make a l i v i n g from h i s work. 60 Hayashi, Horoki, pp. 453-454: Ude tamago tonde k o i . Anko no t a i y a k i tonde k o i . Ichigo no jamupan tonde k o i . Horaiken no shina soba tonde k o i . 61 The legend of Mount Shigi features a f l y i n g r i c e bowl that magically brings food to i t s owner.  250  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 543, 63 64 6 5  — —'  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 473. _ _  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 503. Hayashi, Horoki, p. 273: Minna '.iu-sopipachi^bakari no sekai datta Koshu* yuki no shuressha ga atama no ue o _hashitte yuku_ maketto no okujo no yo n i ryoryo to shita zenseikatsu o furisutete watakushi wa kichin-yado no futon n i jomyaku o nobashite i r u ressha n i funsai sarete_shigai o watakushi wa tanin no yo n i dakishimete mita mayonaka susuketa shoji o akeru to konna tokoro n i mo sora ga atte tsuki ga odokete i t a . Minasama sayonara! watakushi wa yuganda saikoro n i natte mata gyaku modori koko wa kichin-yado no yaneura desu watakushi wa t a i s e k i sareta ryoshu o tsukamu de hyohyo to kaze n i fukarete i t a .  *Koshu i s modern Yamanashi Prefecture. 6 6  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 408: Kingu obu* o juhai nomasete kuretara watakushi wa anata n i seppun o hitotsu nagemasho aa, aware na k y u j i j o yo. aoi mado no soto wa ame no k i r i k o garasu rantan no akari no shita de minna sake n i natte shimatta kakumei to wa hoppo n i fuku kaze ka! sake wa buchimakete shimattan'desu. teiburu no sake no ue n i shinku na kuchi o a i t e h i o haita no desu aoi epuron de maimashoka kinkonshiki, soretomo kyaraban konban no butokyoku wa... sa mada ato sanpai mo aru  251  shikkari shite i r u ka t t e ee daijobu yo watakushi wa ^oriko na h i t o na no n i honto n i oriko na hito na no n i watakushi wa watakushi no kimochi o tsumaranai buta no yo na otokotachi e oshigemonaku kiribana no yo n i furimaite- irun'desu aa kakumei to wa hoppo n i fuku kaze ka. *Kingu obu  (King of Kings) i s a brand of whisky.  Hayashi, Horoki, p. 4 3 9 . Hayashi, Horoki, p. 4 4 7 . Hayashi, Horoki, pp.  463-464:  Inki o katte kaeru. ^ ^ Nantoka shite omemoji itashitaku.sOro. Okane ga hoshiku soro. Tada no juen de mo yoroshiku soro. _ Manon Resuko* t o , yukata t o , geta to kaitaku soro. Shina soba ga ippai tabetaku soro. _ _ Kaminari-mon Sukeroku**o k i k i n i i k i t a k u soro. Chosen de mo Manshu e de mo hataraki n i i k i t a k u soro. Tatta ichido omemoji itashitakuf.soro. Honto n i okane ga hoshiku sbro. *Manon Resuko (Manon Lescaut), an eighteenth century French romance by Abbe Prevost d'Exiles, i s the story of the beautiful but u n f a i t h f u l Manon, who  treats her lovers with a  callous but charming disregard similar to that expressed i n the above poem. * * Sukeroku i s a well-known Kabuki p l a y . Hayashi, Horoki, p. 4 7 7 : Mo j i k i fuyu ga kuru sora ga so i t t a mo j i k i fuyu ga kuru  252  yama no k i ga so i t t a . Keeame ga hashitte i i n i ikita yubinya-^san ga marui boshi o kabutta. Yoru ga i i n i k i t a mo j i k i fuyu ga kuru nezumi i i n i k i t a tenjo ura de nezumi ga su o tsukuri hajimeta. Fuyu o seotte ningen ga inaka kara takusan yatte kuru. Hayashi, Horoki, p. 518. Hayashi, Horoki, p. 547. Aoi kabi no haeta ni-sen doka yo ushigoya no mae de haratta ni-sen doka okikute omokute nameru to amai hebi ga magarikunette i r u moyo M e i j i sanju yonnen umare no kokuin t o i mukashi da ne watakushi wa mada umarete mo i n a i . aa totemo shiawase na tezawari nandemo kaeru shokkan usugawa manju mo kaeru oki na amedama ga yotsu ne hai de migaite pika pikafiikarasete r e k i s h i no aka o otoshite jitton -watakushi wa tanagokoro n i o i t e nagameru marude kinka no yo n i pika pika hikaru ni-sen doka bunchin n i shite m i t a r i hadaka no heso no ue n i nosete m i t a r i nakayoku asonde kureru ni-sen doka yo.  Chapter 2 ^ Adachi, p. 2  217.  Hayashi Fumiko, "Bungakuteki j i j o d e n f " i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 10, p. 7.  253  3  Hayashi, "Bungakuteki jijoden," p. 8. 4 Fukuda Kiyoto and Ehdb Mitsuhiko, Hayashi Fumikot h i t o to sakuhin 5  (Tokyo: Shimizu Shoin, 1966), p. 71.  Fukuda, pp. 71-72. 6  Hayashi,Fumiko, "Fukin to sakana no machi," i n  Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 2, p. 7  8  9  1 0  1 1  1 2  13  14.  Hayashi, "Fukin," p. 18. Hayashi, "Fukin," p.  14.  Hayashi, "Fukin," p. 7. Hayashi, "Fukin," p. 8. A kind of cheap l o c a l f i s h . Hayashi, "Fukin," p. 16. — Hayashi Fumiko, "Fukin to sakana no machi —  gendai  bungakusen (14) atogaki," i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 16, p. 1 4  1 5  1 6  Hayashi, "Fukin," p. Adachi, p.  237.  16.  217.  Thought Police (tokko  <ff" %\  ) was the name  given to that branch of the Japanese p o l i c e force which, under the Peace Preservation Law of 1925, investigated so-called r a d i c a l or subversive groups which threatened the p o l i t i c o i d e o l o g i c a l status quo. 17 Eleazar M. Meletinsky, "Marriage: Its Function and Position i n the Structure of Folktales," i n Soviet Structural F o l k l o r i s t i c s , ed. P. Maranda (The Hague: Mouton, 1974), p. 61.  254  18  The equation of the pure with the b e a u t i f u l i s  not only an aesthetic concept but a c u l t u r a l attitude that pervades Japanese l i f e .  The wholesale acceptance of this  attitude can perhaps be most r e a d i l y seen i n the f a m i l i a r Japanese word k i r e i ^  ^  which has a dual meaning of both  beautif uMand:.pure. 19 Hayashi Fumiko, "Seihin no sho," i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 2, p.. 110 110. 20 Hayashi, "Seihin no sho," p. 110. 21 22 23 24  Hayashi, "Seihin no sho," p. 111. Hayashi, "Seihin no sho," p. 116. Hayashi, "Seihin no sho," p. 120. Hayashi, "Seihin no sho," p. 118. from Basho's haibun Sharakudo no k i y$i) i n 1691.  This quotation i s  'H ~tt^  written  For complete t e x t , see Komiya Toyotaka, ed., Basho  zenshu, V o l . 6 (Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 1962), pp. 451-453. 2 5  2 6  2 7  Hayashi, "Seihin no sho," p. 109. Hayashi, "Seihin no sho," p. 129. Hayashi, "Seihin no sho," pp. 130^131: Akikaoru susuki karu kaya aki kusa no s a b i s h i k i kiwami kimi n i okuramu.  28 Itagaki, Shogai, p. 118,  255  Itagaki, Shogai, p. 118, remarks upon the exchange of love l e t t e r s i n Eugene Onegin as a possible i n s p i r a t i o n for "Seihin no sho."  According to D.J. Richards, "Russian  Views of Pushkin," i n Eugene Onegin, trans. Walter Aimdt (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1963), p. x x x i , Pushkin i s also noted for his bright and optimistic tone, perhaps another feature of h i s work that attracted Hayashi.  Chapter 3 1  Itagaki, Shogai, p. 135.  2 Hayashi, "Bungakuteki jijoden," p. 4. 3  Adachi, p. 210.  "Kaki" f i r s t appeared i n the September  1935 issue of Chuo koron. 4 — Itagaki, Shogai, pp. 132-134. ^ This information i s from my supervisor, Professor Kinya Tsuruta. fi  —  Itagaki, Shogai, pp. 133-134. 7 — Itagaki, Shogai, p. 144. Q Imagawa,Fumiko, p. 299,Naklmushi kozo, i n Hayashi zenshu, Hayashi 9 V o l . 2, pp. 298-299. 1 0  Adachi, p. 210.  Tama i n Japanese means newel or precious stone. 12 — — Hayashi Fumiko, "Sosaku noto: Inazuma n i t s u i t e , " i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 16, p. 168.  256  l  3  14  Hayashi, "Inazuma n i t s u i t e , " p. 1 7 0 .  _ Hayashi Fumiko, Inazuma, i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 3 , p. 1 0 2 . 15  Hayashi, Inazuma, p.16.  6  * Hayashi, 17 Hayashi, lg Hayashi, 19 Hayashi, 20 Hayashi,  Inazuma, p. 3 5 ; p. 3 8 . Inazuma, p. 9 9 . Inazuma, p. 3 6 . Inazuma, p. 1 7 . Inazuma, p. 1 .  Chapter 4 1 Vol.  Hayashi Fumiko, "Dowa no sekai," i n Hayashi zenshu,  1 6 , pp. 4 6 - 4 7 . 2  Hayashi, "Dowa no sekai," pp. 4 8 - 4 9 .  3  _  Hayashi, "Dowa no sekai," p. 4 9 . ^ "Bangiku" appeared f i r s t i n Bungei shunju j t ^ ^ ^ ^ v i n November 1 9 4 8 . 5  Nakamura Mitsuo, "Hayashi Fumiko ron," i n Gendai  nihon bungaku zenshu, p. 409. 6  7  l  W a d a , ! » K a i s e t s u v ^ P . ^ 5 Q 9 . 1 •>• Nakajima Kenzo, "Ningen: Hayashi Fumiko," i n Gendai  no esiupjuri,;p.^66. 8 — — Okubo Norio, "Sengo bungakushi no naka no joryu bungaku —  Hayashi Fumiko Ukigumo no i c h i , "  i n Kokubungaku  257  kaishaku to kansho 9 10  (March  1972),  p.  48,  -  Okubo, p. 4 9 . Hayashi Fumiko, "Ukigumo atogaki," i n Hayashi  zenshu, V o l . 1 6 , p. 2 8 1 . 1 1  Hayashi Fumiko, Ukigumo, i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 8 ,  p. 1 7 0 . Urashima Taro i s a poor fisherman i n Japanese folktale who returns to a changed Japan after a lengthy stay i n the palace of the dragon k i n g .  He quickly turns into an o l d  man when he breaks h i s promise to the dragon princess. 12  Hayashi, Ukigumo, p. 2 8 4 .  13  Hayashi, Ukigumo, p. 4 2 0 .  14  Kawazoe Kunimoto, "Hayashi Fumiko *Bangiku" n i  t s u i t e , " i n Kokubungaku kaishaku to kansho (September p.  8. 15  Hirabayashi, p. 1 6 9 .  16  Hayashi, Ukigumo r  P.  239.  17  Hayashi, Ukigumo  f  P.  214.  Hayashi, Ukigumo  f  P.  198.  Hayashi, Ukigumo  t  P.  255.  Hayashi, Uk igumo, t  P.  242.  Hayashi, Ukigumo  t  P.  357.  Hayashi, Ukigumo  f  18 19 20 21 22 23 24  PP .  246-247.  Hayashi, Ukigumo r  P.  261.  Hayashi, Ukigumo  P.  207.  t  1951),  258  25  Hayashi, Ukigumo, p. 268.  2g Hayashi, Ukigumo, p. 411. 27 Michiyuki: Japanese theatre.  a "journey" scene i n t r a d i t i o n a l In the domestic plays of Kabuki and the  puppet theatre, the michiyuki i s often the scene of two lovers setting out on the road to death. 2g Hayashi, Ukigumo, p. 260. 29 Hayashi, Ukigumo, p. 270. 3  ^ Hayashi, •Ukigumo, p. 169.  Chapter 5 1  Togaeri Hajime, "Hayashi Fumiko n i t s u i t e , " i n  Gendai no esupuri ,:>p .61. 2 Imagawa, p. 309. 3 ^ Muramatsu Sadataka, "Hayashi Fumiko," i n Nihon joryu bungaku s h i ? ^Tokyoj Dobun Shoin, 1969), I I , p. 292. 4 . . . _ Hayashi Fumiko, Onna kazoku, i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 9, pp. 535-536. Onna kazoku f i r s t appeared i n s e r i a l form i n F u j i n koron 5  6  from January to August 1951.  Itagaki, Shogai, p. 197.  Hayashi Fumiko, "Watakushi no shosetsu noto," i n Hayas h i ze n s hu, V o l . 16, p. 183. 7 _ Hayashi Fumiko, Meshi, i n Hayashi zenshu, V o l . 9, p. 316.  259  o 9 ^ 1 1  H a y a s h i , M e s h i , pp. 280-281. H a y a s h i , M e s h i , p . 317. H a y a s h i , M e s h i , p . 316. Adachl/tp. 228.  12 13 14  H a y a s h i , Meshi, p . 288. H a y a s h i , Meshi, p . 302. H a y a s h i , Meshi, p . 316.  15 H a y a s h i , Meshi,.p. 300. 1 6  H a y a s h i , M e s h i , pp. 274-275.  marks are from Sonezaki s h i n j u Suicides  The l i n e s ^ i n : q u o t a t i o n  ]f i-t^^^l ^  l  a t S o n e z a k i , 1703) by Chikamatsu, t r a n s , by Donald  Keene, i n Four Major P l a y s o f Chikamatsu U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p . 51. Ten no Amijima, w r i t t e n Chikamatsu's ^  (The Love  domestic  (New York: Columbia  Sonezaki s h i n j u  and S h i n j u :  i n 1721, are ^0v'^£/;the>jbe €tea£.\]<»sown-of  plays.  H a y a s h i , M e s h i , p . 406.  260  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Adachi Ken'ichi, ed. MA>  &  "~  .' Gendai hihon bungaku J| ^fl4~jtlT  arubamu 13: Hayashi Fumiko. Tokyo: Gakushu Kenkyusha  'If ^ Jtf $L%*-  , 1974.  Bester, John, trans. "Late Chrysanthemum." By Hayashi Fumiko. In Modern Japanese Short S t o r i e s . Ed. Japan Quarterly E d i t o r i a l Board. Tokyo: Japan Publications Trading Co., 1960. Birnbaum, P h y l l i s , ed. and trans. Rabbits, Crabs, Etc.: Stories by Japanese Women. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1982. Bly, Robert, trans. Hunger. By Knut Hamsun. New York: F a r r a r , Straus and Giroux, 1967. B r a z e l l , Karen, trans. The Confessions of Lady N i j o . Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a : Stanford University Press, 1973. Fukuda Kiyoto and Endo Mitsuhiko c jfa & **f ^ ''&M-t* k- Hayashi Fumiko: h i to to sakuhin. ^ K. X f Shoin  >^«K*frX#  Hayashi Fumiko. ti  K t  :  K t <f: aa Tokyo: Shimizu  1966. \  . Hayashi Fumiko zenshu.  V o l s . 1-16. Tokyo: Bunsendo £ & i f  , 1977.  Hibbett, Howard S. "The P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t i n Japanese F i c t i o n . " Far Eastern Quarterly, 14 (1955) , 347^-354. k  Hirabayashi Taiko. ^ ti ^ " I . Hayashi Fumiko. ti K X T Tokyo: Shinchosha $rr ifyi-X  , 1969.  261  Imagawa E i k o . 4 ''|*A\  . "Nenpu."  s  i ^ d  In Hayashi Fumiko  1 6 . Tokyo; Bunsendo, 1 9 7 7 , pp. 2 8 5 - 3 1 0 .  zenshu, V o l .  Itagaki N a o k o . * £ . i 11| \  . "Hayashi Fumiko"  K £ $•  Kokubungaku kaishaku to kanshb (March 1 9 7 2 ) ,  101-104.  , ed. Hayashi Fumiko:. Gendai ho esupuri ii t 14^*9 XX7°i| . Tokyo: Shibundo :  i}  , 1965.  % k'f  Hayashi Fumiko no shogai: uzushio no j i n s e i .  iil^ilrV  t'&~7f>toAXL.  Tokyo: Daiwa ShobS  , 1965.  Ki^'iA  Kaneko Hisakazu, trans. "Homecoming." By Hayashi Fumiko. Orient West, 8, No. 1 (May-June 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 4 8 . Kawai Michiko.  % •£ *g £  . "Hayashi Fumiko —  seikatsu no ba n i t s u i t e . " ii *?{ \ - *<* i f  In Joryu bungei kenkyu -it Kenzoro  >&. & 5- ?f  *L % ^"f  onna no °>  u  °  X  . Ed. Umawatari  . Tokyo: Nansosha $  , 1973,  pp. 2 0 9 - 2 1 8 .  Kawamori Yoshizo. #  £JU  ^  . "Hayashi Fumiko-san no koto." . Tembo 4c J  ^*  f  1  Kawazoe Kunimoto. *'[ J] ill n i t s u i t e . " H *K %. \ to kansho l l j ^ ' f  r f l  , No. 8 ( 1 9 5 1 ) , p.45.  . "Hayashi Fumiko 'Bangiku* ^  /Sjf -If t  **-?>.-T Kokubungaku kaishaku  f £ 'jf  (September 1 9 5 1 ) ,  115^119.  Keene, Donald, t r a n s . "Bashd's Journey to Sarashina." Transactions of the A s i a t i c Society of Japan, Third  262  Series, V (December 1957), 56-83, , trans.  Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu. New York:  Columbia University Press, 1961. "The Revival of Writing by Women." In h i s Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era: F i c t i o n . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984, pp. 1113-1166. In Kitani Kimie.  k&^JbtL  .  Nihon gendai bungaku kenkyu hijifcei. $ Ed. Miyoshi Yukio  J~-k%i\&\i.  't^tfe  '  £3*  ''Hayashi Fumiko;" ^  1 9 8 3  .  i\' '*f &<] ^ Tokyo:  Ggkutbsha  ' PP- 176-177.  Koitabashi Yoshiyuki, trans. Floating Cloud. By Hayashi Fumiko. Tokyo: The Information Publishing Co., 1957. Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai, ed. and pub., "Horoki (A Roving Record);" In Introduction to Contemporary Japanese Literature 19021935.  Tokyo, 1939, pp. 192-197.  Komiya Toyotaka, ed. V o l . 6.  /)*'»!> 4^  .  Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten  Basho zenshu.  jt| >'|  /&  , 1962.  Kono Ichiro and Fukuda Kikutaro, ed. and trans.  "Song i n  despair." By Hayashi Fumiko. In An Anthology of Modern Japanese Poetry.  Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1957, p. 23.  Kumasaka Atsuko.  "Hayashi Fumiko."  Kokubungaku kaishaku to kansho (July 1975) , 80-81.  li) iL'f  ^  I  263  Kusabe Kazuko. ^' »| ^  . "Miyamoto Yuriko, Hayashi Fumiko  t £ 'i - 'H £. 4 \ °> Kfy  no buntai." (Ui^f  t  Kokubungaku  , No. 5 (I960), 66-70.  L i p p i t , Noriko Mizuta and Kyoko Iriye Selden, ed. and trans. 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