UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The development of automated light rapid transit in Vancouver : the potential for significant community… Winter, Wayne Francis Alden 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1985_A8 W55_7.pdf [ 4.61MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096528.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096528-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096528-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096528-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096528-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096528-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096528-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096528-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096528.ris

Full Text

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED LIGHT RAPID TRANSIT IN VANCOUVER: THE POTENTIAL FOR SIGNIFICANT COMMUNITY CHANGE by WAYNE FRANCIS ALDEN WINTER B.A.(Honours), Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l Of Community And R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We ac c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g (to the r equ i red s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Fe b r u a r y 1984 © Wayne F r a n c i s A l d e n W i n t e r , 1984 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f School of Community and Regional Planning T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t The development of the Automated L i g h t R a p i d T r a n s i t (ALRT) system i n Vancouver, f i r s t proposed i n the 1970's, has been t o u t e d as a s o l u t i o n t o the contemporary urban problems of i n c r e a s i n g t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , a c c e s s t o the downtown c o r e , and l i m i t e d a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g near the c i t y c e n t r e . Recent c o n c e r n s have been e x p r e s s e d t h a t the development of the ALRT w i l l be accompanied by s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the neighbourhoods a l o n g the r o u t e . T h i s t h e s i s aims t o a s s e s s the p o t e n t i a l f o r s i g n i f i c a n t change o c c u r i n g i n the suburban Vancouver C i t y neighbourhoods a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e a f t e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n i s completed. The i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e a n t i c i p a t e d as an outcome of the development of the ALRT i s regard e d as the f a c t o r most l i k e l y t o produce s i g n i f i c a n t change i n neighbourhoods a l o n g the r o u t e . T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n a r i s e s from the u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o v i d e d by l i t e r a t u r e from the f i e l d s of urban economics and urban e c o l o g y . D i s c u s s i o n s of the b i d - p r i c e c u r v e i n the work of A l o n s o and o t h e r urban economic w r i t e r s a t t r i b u t e s much of the market v a l u e of l a n d , and by i n f e r e n c e the r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y of l a n d , t o the e f f e c t of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s i n the urban e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e , i n c l u d i n g the work of the f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y s c h o o l , o u t l i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n urban a r e a s of s o c i a l rank and of hou s e h o l d t y p e s . From the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t the improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y which w i l l r e s u l t from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT c o u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y change neighbourhoods a l o n g the r o u t e . U s i n g Census d a t a , the t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the s t r e n g t h of the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and each of the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The s t r e n g t h of each r e l a t i o n s h i p was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n between r e l a t i v e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and z - s c o r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d i c a t o r s f o r each of the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and s o c i a l rank was examined u s i n g the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d by the over 15 year o l d p o p u l a t i o n as a proxy f o r s o c i a l rank. The p r o p o r t i o n s of the v a r i o u s household t y p e s , i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y and n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , s i n g l e - p e r s o n and m u l t i p l e - p e r s o n n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , were used t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o v a r i a t i o n s i n t h i s a s p e c t of urban l i f e which i s a f f e c t e d by a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . F i n a l l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g t y p e s was examined by l o o k i n g a t v a r i a t i o n s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d , m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g , and apartment u n i t s a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e . S o c i a l rank was found t o be not s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . I n s t e a d , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank was seen t o have been more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s , such as the h i s t o r i c p a t t e r n of development. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g t y p e s and of the v a r i o u s h o u s e h o l d types were demonstrated t o be r e l a t e d t o i v a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . As the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e i n c r e a s e d , the p r o p o r t i o n of apartment u n i t s i n an a r e a and the p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - f a m i l y households were seen t o i n c r e a s e . The development of the ALRT was not e x p e c t e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank a l o n g the r o u t e . E x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t change would f o l l o w the development of the ALRT was s u p p o r t e d f o r both the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of the v a r i o u s d w e l l i n g t y p e s and the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of the h ousehold t y p e s . The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of both of the s e s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s would be e x p e c t e d t o change s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of the ALRT. V T a b l e of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i i Acknowledgement i x Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Broad Urban C o n t e x t 1 1.2 The Development Of The ALRT 2 1.3 The Problem Statement 4 1.4 The Re s e a r c h Method 5 1.5 The A n t i c i p a t e d R e s u l t s 9 1 .6 Overview . 10 Chapter I I THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS 12 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 12 2.2 Urban Land Economics ...14 2.2.1 O r i g i n s Of The Urban Land Economic L i t e r a t u r e ...14 2.2.2 The Fundamental Urban Land Economics Model 15 2.2.3 A p p l i c a t i o n Of The Model 17 2.2.4 The E f f e c t s Of A Change In A c c e s s i b i l i t y 23 2.3 Urban S o c i a l . E c o l o g y 29 2.3.1 O r i g i n s Of The Contemporary Models Of Urban S o c i a l E c o l o g y 3 1 2.3.2 A p p l i c a t i o n Of The Urban E c o l o g i c a l Models 38 2.4 S y n t h e s i s . ..45 Chapter I I I DATA AND ANALYSIS 48 3.1 T h e o r e t i c a l F o u n d a t i o n Of R e s e a r c h Method 48 3.2 Summary Of Research Method 50 3.2.1 Study Area 51 3.2.2 R e s e a r c h Methods 54 3.3 I n d i c a t o r s Of The S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ...56 3.3.1 S o c i a l Rank 57 3.3.2 D w e l l i n g Type 61 3.3.3 F a m i l y S t a t u s ._. . 63 3.4 S p e c i f i c F i n d i n g s 64 3.4.1 S o c i a l Rank 65 3.4.2 D w e l l i n g Type 70 3.4.3 F a m i l y S t a t u s 74 3.5 Summary 80 Chapter IV DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 82 4.1 Summary Of The F i n d i n g s 82 4.2 S o c i a l Rank 83 4.3 D w e l l i n g Type 85 4.4 F a m i l y S t a t u s 87 v i C h a p ter V CONCLUSIONS 90 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...97 v i i L i s t of T a b l e s 1. Study Area - 1976 and 1981 52 2. Z-Scores: 1981 S o c i a l Rank V a r i a b l e s 66 3. Z-Scores: 1976 S o c i a l Rank V a r i a b l e s 67 4. Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1976 S o c i a l Rank V a r i a b l e s ...69 5. Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1981 S o c i a l Rank V a r i a b l e s ...70 6. Z-Scores: 1 976 D w e l l i n g Type V a r i a b l e s .71 7. Z-Scores: 1981 D w e l l i n g Type V a r i a b l e s 71 8. Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1981 D w e l l i n g Type V a r i a b l e s .72 9. Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1976 D w e l l i n g Type V a r i a b l e s .73 10. Z-Scores: 1 976 F a m i l y S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s 75 11. Z-Scores: 1981 F a m i l y S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s 75 12. Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1981 F a m i l y S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s .77 13. Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1976 F a m i l y S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s .78 v i i i L i s t of F i g u r e s 1. Map of the ALRT C o r r i d o r 8 2. The B i d - P r i c e Curve From A l o n s o , 16 3. The R e l a t i v e L o c a t i o n of Households With D i f f e r i n g F a m i l y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 20 4. The O p t i m a l L o c a t i o n Of The Household 22 5. E f f e c t Of An Improvement In T r a n s p o r t a t i o n On The B i d -p r i c e S t r u c t u r e . . ...... 25 6. E f f e c t Of An Improvement Of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n On The P r i c e S t r u c t u r e . . 27 7. Bur g e s s ' s C o n c e n t r i c R i n g Model .33 8. Hoyt's S e c t o r Concept Model 35 9. The Urban E c o l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e 37 10. Map of the Study Area 53 11. T h e o r e t i c a l O r i g i n s Of The S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s ....57 12. The E d u c a t i o n a l I n d i c e s 60 13. The D w e l l i n g Type C a t e g o r i e s 62 14. The F a m i l y S t a t u s C a t e g o r i e s 64 i x Acknowledgement S i n c e r e thanks a r e extended t o Dr. Henry Hightower, S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , f o r h i s generous g i f t of time and h i s h e l p f u l comments, encouragement and d i r e c t i o n t h roughout the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o Dr. D a v i d H u l c h a n s k i , S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , f o r h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and comments. In a d d i t i o n , I thank Dr. C r a i g D a v i s , S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , and Dr. Ted Droettboom, C i t y of Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department, f o r t h e i r comments on an e a r l i e r d r a f t . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n (C.M.H.C.) which p r o v i d e d some f u n d i n g i n the e a r l y phase of t h i s r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , I thank M a r i o n and her t r u s t y s i d e k i c k , Lucy, f o r p r o v i d i n g much needed s u p p o r t and b a l a n c e over the d u r a t i o n of t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g . 1 I . INTRODUCTION 1.1 Broad Urban Context The development of a l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t system, the p r e c u r s o r of the Automated L i g h t R a p id T r a n s i t (ALRT) system, was f i r s t proposed i n the e a r l y 1970's as a s o l u t i o n t o Vancouver's problems of t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n and e f f i c i e n t a c c e s s t o the downtown. The G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , i n the 1973 L i v a b l e Region P l a n , p o i n t e d t h r e e i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o the development of a l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t system. These were: i . the d e s i r e f o r a r e d u c t i o n i n the time and e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n the j o u r n e y t o work, i i . a c o n c e r n about the h i g h c o s t of h o u s i n g , i i i . a w i l l i n g n e s s t o use f a s t , f r e q u e n t and c o n v e n i e n t p u b l i c t r a n s i t . (GVRD 1973,7) The st a t e m e n t s of i s s u e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p u b l i c would s u p p o r t the i d e a of a r a p i d t r a n s i t system. Though the d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d a l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t system has been made, and c o n s t r u c t i o n i s w e l l under way, new problems a r e a n t i c i p a t e d as a r e s u l t of the new t r a n s i t system. I n c l u d e d a r e the c o n c e r n s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be: i . i n c r e a s e s i n the development p r e s s u r e s on l a n d a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e accompanied by i n c r e a s e s i n h o u s i n g c o s t s ; i i . i n c r e a s e s i n the p r o p o r t i o n persons of h i g h e r s o c i a l rank moving i n t o e s t a b l i s h e d neighbourhoods a l o n g the t r a n s i t c o r r i d o r ; and 2 i i i . changes i n the h o u s e h o l d s t r u c t u r e i n the neighbourhoods a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e . T h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s an e m p i r i c a l assessment of the l i k e l i h o o d f o r these t h r e e t y p e s of changes t o o c c u r based on the t h e o r i e s and methods of two b o d i e s of l i t e r a t u r e , urban l a n d economics and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y . The development of the ALRT system i s e x p e c t e d t o have a major e f f e c t on a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e f o r th o s e neighbourhoods a l o n g t h e r o u t e . A number of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e a r e suggested by the urban l a n d economics and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e . I n t h i s t h e s i s , the s t r e n g t h and s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h r e e of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s examined. The f i n d i n g s from t h i s examination, a r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s which c o u l d g u i d e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e suburban Vancouver s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e . 1.2 The Development Of The ALRT The development of Vancouver's ALRT has been h e r a l d e d as a s o l u t i o n t o problems of l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o the downtown and of t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n w i t h i n the c o r e a r e a . The ALRT i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t w h i l e major p o t e n t i a l f o r o f f i c e development i n the c o r e s t i l l e x i s t s most of t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c a p a c i t y which e x i s t s under p r e s e n t z o n i n g h a s - -a l r e a d y been d e v e l o p e d . U n l e s s r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s can be c r e a t e d w i t h i n Vancouver, f u t u r e r e s i d e n t i a l development w i l l be l i m i t e d t o a d j a c e n t suburban communities. 3 The p o s s i b i l i t y of a c o n t i n u e d employment c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the c i t y c e n t r e and an a c c e l e r a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the suburbs would p o t e n t i a l l y undermine the b u s i n e s s e f f e c i e n c y and the q u a l i t y of l i f e of the c o r e a r e a . The ALRT i s b e l i e v e d t o be a s o l u t i o n t o t h e s e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and growth problems. The C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department e x p e c t s t h a t the development of the ALRT system c r e a t e "hot s p o t s of a c c e s s i b i l i t y " which w i l l i n t u r n , encourage new h o u s i n g and p o p u l a t i o n growth near the s t a t i o n s and a l o n g the c o r r i d o r ( C i t y of Vancouver 1983b,2). In keeping w i t h the C i t y of Vancouver's ongoing p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o l i c y , the c i t i z e n s of the neighbourhoods s u r r o u n d i n g the f o u r suburban s t a t i o n s have been i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r each of the impacted neighbourhoods. P u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s have been i n i t i a t e d i n the neighourhoods s u r r o u n d i n g : the Broadway S t a t i o n ; the Nanaimo and the 29th Avenue S t a t i o n s ; and the J o y c e S t a t i o n ( C i t y of Vancouver 1983b, 1983c, 1983d). The major f o c u s of t h i s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s on the d e t a i l e d n a t u r e of the a n t i c i p a t e d impacts of the ALRT on each of these neighbourhoods. T h i s t h e s i s i s co n c e r n e d w i t h one s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e , from Main S t r e e t t o Boundary Road. The e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s examines the s t r e n g t h and s i g n i f i c a n c e of e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s e neighbourhoods and a c c e s s i o i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . 4 1.3 The Problem Statement The development of the ALRT i s expected to have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the Lower Mainland, and p a r t i c u l a r l y on the C i t y of Vancouver. Immediately f o l l o w i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t r a n s i t l i n e , a strong connection w i l l be made between the o u t l y i n g areas and the c i t y c e n t r e , encouraging t r a v e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y , t o the e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r e s , such as downtown Vancouver. L a t e r , once the development of other c e n t r e s i n o u t l y i n g areas i s completed, such as Metrotown i n Burnaby, i t i s p o s s i b l e that journeys focused on other c e n t r e s c o u l d become a more s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of movement in the r e g i o n . The aim of t h i s t h e s i s i s to understand some of the l i k e l y changes i n the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of neighbourhoods along the ALRT route expected to r e s u l t from improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y . A c cording t o urban la n d economics and urban s o c i a l ecology, change i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be estimated from the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s can provide a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g estimates of the p o t e n t i a l impacts of i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c i t y c e n t r e on the p a t t e r n of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the ALRT c o r r i d o r . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , on the change i n the s o c i a l dimensions of f a m i l y s t a t u s and economic s t a t u s . These elements are key components i n the a n a l y s i s which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the f a c t o r i a l ecology approach to the study of urban ar e a s . In a d d i t i o n , the urban economic l i t e r a t u r e , suggests a t h i r d dimension, d w e l l i n g type, which i s r e l a t e d to the l e v e l of 5 a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . The e m p i r i c a l t e s t s c a r r i e d out by t h i s t h e s i s i n v o l v e e x p l o r a t o r y d a t a a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e l a t i v e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and t h r e e dimensions of s o c i a l d i f f e r i e n t a t i o n : s o c i a l rank, f a m i l y s t a t u s , and d w e l l i n g t y p e . 1.4 The R e s e a r c h Method The l i t e r a t u r e from urban l a n d economics and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y p r o v i d e s two r e l a t e d approaches t o the a n a l y s i s of urban s t r u c t u r e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e i s a fundamental concept i n both t h e o r e t i c a l approaches. The development of the ALRT i s e x p e c t e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y change a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e f o r neighbourhoods a l o n g i t s r o u t e ; i t i s , t h e r e f o r e , i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d what impact such changes have on the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of neighbourhoods a l o n g the r o u t e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the v a r i o u s s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t e d i n the urban l a n d economic and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t the development of the ALRT c o u l d l e a d t o change i n the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the neighbourhoods a l o n g the r o u t e . Both the urban e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e and the urban economic l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f y a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e as a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of many of the a t t r i b u t e s of neighbourhoods. T h i s t h e s i s examines s p e c i f i c a l l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and t h r e e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - : s o c i a l rank, f a m i l y s t a t u s , and d w e l l i n g t y p e . The f i r s t of t h e s e , s o c i a l r ank, i s det e r m i n e d on the b a s i s 6 of the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d . Three c a t e g o r i e s a r e used as measures: h i g h s c h o o l , p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) , and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) . Each c a t e g o r y i s s i g n i f i c a n t and d i s t i n c t i v e and r e p r e s e n t s a major e d u c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s can be a r r a n g e d i n an o r d e r e d sequence r e f l e c t i n g the r e l a t i v e s o c i a l rank of each g r o u p i n g of h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d , ( f o l l o w i n g the l e a d p r o v i d e d by B l i s h e n and McRoberts, 1976). In the d i s c u s s i o n of f a m i l y s t a t u s , a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between f a m i l y and n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , a second l e v e l of d i s t i n c t i o n i s made w i t h i n the f a m i l y and the n o n - f a m i l y d i s t i n c t i o n s . W i t h i n f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , the d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between s i n g l e - f a m i l y and m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s ; w i t h i n n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , the d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between s i n g l e - p e r s o n households and n o n - r e l a t e d m u l t i p l e -p erson h o u s e h o l d s . The d w e l l i n g type i n d i c a t o r s used a r e : s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d house, m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g u n i t , and apartment u n i t . Each of th e s e i n d i c a t e s a d i s t i n c t measure of r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y ; they can r e a d i l y be a r r a n g e d i n an o r d e r e d s c a l e . The t h e s i s f o c u s e s on the g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the Census T r a c t s a l o n g the Main S t r e e t and Boundary Road s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e . Data from both the 1976 and 1981 Census were used. The stu d y a r e a from the 1981 Census i s shown on the map ( F i g u r e 1 ) . The g e o g r a p h i c e x t e n t of the study a r e a was i d e n t i c a l f o r the 1976 Census; however, some of the Census T r a c t s were not y e t d i v i d e d . 7 Each of the i n d i c a t o r s , s o c i a l rank, f a m i l y s t a t u s , and d w e l l i n g t y p e , a l o n g the ALRT c o r r i d o r a r e a n a l y s e d t o determine t h e i r e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n terms of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . T h i s a n a l y s i s i s c o n f i n e d t o the Census T r a c t s w i t h i n the C i t y of Vancouver. The s t r e n g t h and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and each of the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s d e t e r m i n e d from r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of each of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s i n g the K e n d a l l ' s t a u b c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f e c i e n t and i t s t e s t of s t a t i s a t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 8 F i g u r e 1 - Map of t h e ALRT C o r r i d o r 9 1 . 5 The Anticipated Results Improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c i t y centre anticipated from the development of the ALRT system is expected to affect the future d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Before the potential for change can be discussed, the exis t i n g relationship must be determined. The l i t e r a t u r e from urban land economics and urban s o c i a l ecology suggests l i k e l y d i s t r i b u t i o n s for each of these dimensions based on extensive empirical research. The theoretical d i s t r i b u t i o n s provide hypotheses which this research can t e s t . The anticipated results of indicators for each s o c i a l dimension are discussed below. The s o c i a l rank of neighbourhoods along the route i s expected to be effected by the development of the ALRT. The relationship between the bid-price for land and the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c i t y centre suggested by the urban land economics l i t e r a t u r e creates the expectation that improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c i t y centre w i l l a f f e c t the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank along the ALRT route. In addition, i t i s expected that the so c i a l rank of the residents of the Census Tracts along the ALRT route w i l l increase as a result of improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c i t y centre. The improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c i t y centre is expected to lead to changes ITI the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of family status, as indicated by different household types. Household types presently concentrated in the highly accessible neighbourhoods near the c i t y centre are expected to locate there in the future. More households of the same type would be expected to locate in 10 neighbourhoods which became e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e f o l l o w i n g the development of the ALRT. The improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g t y p e s . Improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y a l o n g the r o u t e i s e x p e c t e d t o f o r c e up t h e b i d - p r i c e f o r h o u s i n g a l o n g the ALRT c o r r i d o r . The i n c r e a s e i n the b i d - p r i c e i s e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e development of denser r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s , such as a p a r t m e n t s , where a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e i s improved. 1.6 Overview The l i t e r a t u r e from urban l a n d economics and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y s u g g e s t s t h r e e s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s , s o c i a l r a n k , d w e l l i n g type and f a m i l y s t a t u s , which a r e r e l a t e d t o the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the development of the ALRT system and t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I . Chapter I I I d e t a i l s the method used t o t e s t the s t r e n g t h and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y s u g g e s t e d by t h e s e l i t e r a t u r e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d i c a t o r s of the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e a re computed; t h e f i n d i n g s form t h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e how a c c u r a t e l y t h e t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e p r e s e n t e d a l o n g the ALRT c o r r i d o r . The f i n d i n g s from t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d a t the end of Chapter I I I . The r e l e v a n c e of these f i n d i n g s t o the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. F i n a l l y , i n Chapter V, the c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d . The main 11 f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s s tudy a r e summarized below. S o c i a l rank was found t o be not s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . I n s t e a d , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank was seen t o have been more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s , such as the h i s t o r i c p a t t e r n of development. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g t y p e s and of the v a r i o u s h o u s e h o l d t y p e s were demonstrated t o be r e l a t e d t o a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . As the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e i n c r e a s e d , the p r o p o r t i o n of apartment u n i t s i n an a r e a and the p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s were seen t o i n c r e a s e . The development of the ALRT was not e x p e c t e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank a l o n g the r o u t e . E x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t change would f o l l o w the development of the ALRT was s u p p o r t e d f o r both the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of the v a r i o u s d w e l l i n g t y p e s and the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of the h o u s e h o l d t y p e s . The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of b o t h of the s e s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s would be e x p e c t e d t o change s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of the ALRT. 1 2 I I . THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS 2. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n In the c o n t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s i t i s n e c e s s a r y to examine e a r l i e r t r a n s i t c o r r i d o r s t u d i e s ( M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Commision 1979, D v e t t et a l 1979, Dewees 1976, and o t h e r s ) as w e l l as t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e which can p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of neighbourhoods. The e a r l i e r s t u d i e s of the l a n d use e f f e c t s of r a p i d t r a n s i t ( T o r o n t o , P h i l a d e l p h i a , and San F r a n s i s c o ) have been f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r e n c e d t o p r o v i d e s upport f o r new r a p i d t r a n s i t i n i t i a t i v e s (De Leuw, Cather and Company i n A l t s h u l e r 1979, 398). R e c e n t l y , the c o n c l u s i o n s reached by the s e s t u d i e s have' been c r i t i c i z e d f o r a t t r i b u t i n g too much of the subsequent development t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s e r a p i d t r a n s i t p r o j e c t s (Webber 1977). Other f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n and r e l a t e d p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t s , have been found by some s t u d i e s ( A l t s h u l e r 1979, 404; K n i g h t and Trygg 1977, 235; K n i g h t 1980, 8) as b e i n g c r i t i c a l i n shaping l a n d use change f o l l o w i n g the development of r a p i d t r a n s i t systems. The s i g n i f i c a n c e which l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s and r e l a t e d p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t s have i n a f f e c t i n g the e x t e n t of the l a n d use change which f o l l o w s the development of a r a p i d t r a n s i t p r o j e c t a t t e s t s t o the need f o r a w e l l c o n s i d e r e d e s t i m a t e of the p o t e n t i a l consequences i n an u n r e g u l a t e d market. Such an e s t i m a t e w i l l e n a b l e r e g u l a t o r y responses which a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the g o a l s of the community t o be de v e l o p e d i n advance of 1 3 the c o m p l e t i o n of the t r a n s i t p r o j e c t . In t h i s way, new development can be encouraged i n l o c a t i o n s a t which g r e a t e r s o c i a l b e n e f i t s can be r e a l i z e d , and d i s c o u r a g e d i n o t h e r l o c a t i o n s . In o r d e r t h a t these e s t i m a t e s of p o t e n t i a l consequences are r e a s o n a b l e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t they are d e v e l o p e d from w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e v e r a l neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has been w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , n o t a b l y , i n the urban l a n d economics c o n t r i b u t i o n s of A l o n s o (1964) and Wingo (1961), i n the f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y s c h o o l f o l l o w i n g Shevky and B e l l (1955) and, i n f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y s t u d i e s of Vancouver ( W o l f b r t h 1966 and P a t t e r s o n 1974). These t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e s p r o v i d e s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the r e s e a r c h method of t h i s s t u d y . These key s o u r c e s were s e l e c t e d because they r e p r e s e n t the e s t a b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e i r f i e l d s , and because they f o c u s on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n an urban s e t t i n g . A l o n s o and Wingo examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a n d p r i c e s ; t h i s _ _ d i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e s as fundamental elements of urban l a n d economics. The A l o n s o model p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r more r e c e n t work i n l a n d economics and r e g i o n a l a n a l y s i s ( G r i g g 1984, and Werczberger 1984). R e p l i c a t i o n s of the landmark work done by Shevky and B e l l (Van A s d o l , J r . , C a m i l l e r i , Schmid 1958, S c h w i r i a n and Matre 1969, M u r d i e 1969), i n c l u d i n g s t u d i e s done i n G r e a t e r Vancouver ( W o l f o r t h 1966 and P a t t e r s o n 1974), a t t e s t 1 4 t o the c o n t i n u e d v i t a l i t y of t h i s body of t h e o r y and i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n the C i t y of Vancouver. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s of t h i s c h a p t e r , the l i t e r a t u r e which p r o v i d e s the a n a l y t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s d i s c u s s e d . For the reasons j u s t n o t e d , the d i s c u s s i o n has two major components, the urban l a n d economics and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e s . Chapter I I I w i l l b u i l d on t h i s c h a p t e r by a p p l y i n g the t h e o r y reviewed and s e l e c t e d i n Chapter I I . 2.2 Urban Land Economics 2.2.1 O r i g i n s Of The Urban Land Economic L i t e r a t u r e Urban l a n d economic t h e o r y ( A l o n s o 1960, Muth 1969, Wingo 1961) has e x p l a i n e d the p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n as the outcome of t r a d e - o f f s between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and the c o s t of l a n d . S o c i o l o g i s t , Leo Schnore (1954) made the assumption t h a t " r e n t or the c o s t of occupancy of a s i t e , d e c l i n e s w i t h  d i s t a n c e from an a c t i v i t y c e n t r e but t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s a r e assumed t o i n c r e a s e w i t h d i s t a n c e " so t h a t "the maximum d i s t a n c e from s i g n i f i c a n t c e n t r e s of a c t i v i t y a t which a u n i t tends t o l o c a t e i s f i x e d a t t h a t p o i n t beyond which f u r t h e r s a v i n g s i n r e n t a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o cov e r the added c o s t s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o t h e s e c e n t r e s " (Schnore 1954, 342). These e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n s of the t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e n t and a c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e were f u r t h e r examined by e c o n o m i s t s , Hoover and Vernon (1959). T h e i r argument was t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s r e s o l v e d the t r a d e - o f f s between easy a c c e s s t o the c i t y c e n t r e and s p a c i o u s l i v i n g away from the c o r e . 15 These e a r l y d i s c u s s i o n s p r o v i d e d the b a s i s on which A l o n s o (1964) and Wingo (1961) d e v e l o p e d t h e i r more r i g o r o u s v e r s i o n s of t h e t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a n d c o s t s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t l a n d v a l u e s d e c r e a s e d as d i s t a n c e from th e c i t y c e n t r e i n c r e a s e d was d e v e l o p e d from t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Wingo f o c u s e d h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the e f f e c t of changes i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system on urban l a n d use; w h i l e A l o n s o was more concerned w i t h t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s of urban l a n d use and l a n d r e n t s . The e a r l y works of A l o n s o and Wingo have c o n t i n u e d as the f o u n d a t i o n of urban l a n d economics. The c r i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and l a n d c o s t s i s e x p e c t e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e development of the ALRT system. 2.2.2 The Fundamental Urban Land Economics Model The e s s e n t i a l element of A l o n s o ' s a n a l y s i s of the t r a d e - o f f between l a n d c o s t and commuting c o s t s t o the c i t y c e n t r e i s a b i d - p r i c e c u r v e which p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l model of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The b i d - p r i c e c u r v e d e p i c t s t h e p r i c e which an. i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d would pay f o r the use of r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d a t each l o c a t i o n on the urban s u r f a c e . The graph of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i l l u s t r a t e s how the b i d - p r i c e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d d e c r e a s e s as d i s t a n c e from the downtown c o r e i n c r e a s e s . (see F i g u r e 2) 16 Redrawn from A l o n s o 1961, f i g . 2 2 . At the o u t s e t of h i s a n a l y s i s , A l o n s o makes a number of ass u m p t i o n s . F i r s t , he makes the s i m p l i f y i n g assumption t h a t a l l w o r k - p l a c e s a r e l o c a t e d a t the c i t y c e n t r e ; i n f a c t , w h i l e not a l l j o b s i n the contemporary p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l c i t y a r e l o c a t e d i n the c i t y c e n t r e , i t i s by f a r the l a r g e s t s i n g l e employment c o n c e n t r a t i o n . Second, the j o u r n e y - t o - w o r k was seen to be the most s i g n i f i c a n t j o u r n e y i n the d a i l y t r a v e l p a t t e r n of the h o u s e h o l d . Each household was assumed t o make o n l y e c o n o m i c a l l y r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . W i t h i n the parameters of th e s e a s s u m p t i o n s , the i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d was e x p e c t e d t o s e l e c t i t s o p t i m a l r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s ; each household was e x p e c t e d t o rea c h t h i s g o a l by b a l a n c i n g the c o s t of t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d w i t h t h e i r c o s t of commuting t o work i n the c i t y c e n t r e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e , because of the importance of 17 the j o u r n e y - t o - w o r k t o the i n d i v i d u a l h ousehold was seen t o be c r i t i c a l t o t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . A l o n s o ' s b i d -p r i c e c u r v e d e s c r i b e s the c r i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the c o s t of r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d which i s e x p e c t e d t o change as a r e s u l t of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT. 2.2.3 A p p l i c a t i o n Of The Model The r e s o l u t i o n of the t r a d e - o f f between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the c o s t of r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d i s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d s . To be u s e f u l f o r m o d e l l i n g purposes, s u i t a b l e d a t a t o t e s t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p would have t o be a v a i l a b l e i n a form c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the census d a t a . Two of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a re seen t o i n f l u e n c e the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of households a r e the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e of the household ( i n c l u d i n g h o u s ehold s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n ) , and household income. The l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r household comes out of a p p l i c a t i o n s of such parameters t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s e t of b i d -p r i c e c u r v e s . The p a r t i c u l a r d w e l l i n g space demands of a h o u s e h o l d are a f f e c t e d by t h e number of members i n the household, and the age s t r u c t u r e of the h o u s e h o l d . The b i d - p r i c e c u r v e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r h o u s e h o l d a r e i n f l u e n c e d by b o t h , the income of the household and any p a r t i c u l a r r e q u i r e m e n t s which the i n d i v i d u a l h o u s ehold may have. The p a r t i c u l a r r e q u i r e m e n t s of the i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d would i n c l u d e any unique f a c t o r s s p e c i f i c t o t h e h o u s e h o l d . 18 Evans (1973) assumes t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n f o r the i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d m i n i m i z e s i t s t o t a l l o c a t i o n a l c o s t s (Evans 1973, 3 0 ) . These c o s t s i n c l u d e the r e n t a l v a l u e of the home, and the c o s t of the j o u r n e y - t o - w o r k , i n c l u d i n g b oth the a c t u a l p r i c e of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o work and the v a l u e of the time i n v o l v e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p d e p i c t e d by the b i d - p r i c e c u r v e has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n the d e n s i t y of d w e l l i n g s and f o r the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of h o u s e h o l d s . As l a n d c o s t s i n c r e a s e w i t h improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e , the h o u s i n g market g e n e r a l l y responds w i t h more i n t e n s i v e development of the l a n d . A l o n s o ' s b i d - p r i c e model was extended by Muth (1969) t o e x p l a i n the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t h o u s e h o l d t y p e s . D i f f e r e n t t y p e s of hou s e h o l d s would v a r y i n t h e i r d w e l l i n g space r e q u i r e m e n t s . S i n g l e - p e r s o n h ouseholds would need l e s s space than f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s ; w h i l e f a m i l y h ouseholds w i t h young c h i l d r e n would need s m a l l e r homes than f a m i l y housholds w i t h o l d e r c h i l d r e n . For h ouseholds w i t h s i m i l a r incomes, the ho u s e h o l d w i t h a h i g h e r d w e l l i n g space r e q u i r e m e n t would be e x p e c t e d t o l o c a t e f u r t h e r from the c i t y c e n t r e than those r e q u i r i n g l e s s space. F o l l o w i n g from the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i c a t e d by the b i d - p r i c e c u r v e , h ouseholds w i t h a h i g h e r space requirement s h o u l d be a b l e t o o b t a i n the a d d i t i o n d w e l l i n g space t h a t they r e q u i r e f o r a p r i c e s i m i l a r t o the p r i c e they would have p a i d f o r l e s s space c l o s e r t o the c i t y c e n t r e . T h i s p o i n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. Muth (1969), ( r e f e r e n c e d i n Evans 1973, 168), found t h a t 19 h o u s e h o l d s i z e was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e . 20 F i g u r e 3 - The R e l a t i v e L o c a t i o n of Households With D i f f e r i n g F a m i l y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ^ - H o s t e l s — | I S i n g l e p e r s o n s s h a r i n • M a r r i e d c o u p l e s -(Both working) | S i n g l e persons-M a r r i e d c o u p l e s (Husband o n l y working) | M a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h c h i l d r e n -(Both p a r e n t s working) | M a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h c h i l d r e n -h u s b a n d o n l y working) C i t y C e n t r e edge of c i t y < > Redrawn from Muth 1969, i n Evans 1973, f i g . 9 . 1 . The g e n e r a l i z e d s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of households i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 3 ( a f t e r from Muth 1969), i s d e r i v e d from the independent d e c i s i o n s of the ho u s e h o l d s i n a c i t y . Each d e c i s i o n i s a f f e c t e d by v a r i a t i o n s i n the h o u s e h o l d c o m p o s i t i o n . The o p t i m a l l o c a t i o n f o r each h o u s e h o l d i s d e t e r m i n e d by l o c a t i n g the p o i n t on t h e i r b i d - p r i c e c u r v e where the c o s t of 21 commuting i s i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h the c o s t of a c q u i r i n g the n e c c e s s a r y d w e l l i n g space. The e x a c t b i d - p r i c e c u r v e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r h o u s e h o l d w i l l v a r y w i t h the income of t h a t h o u s e h o l d . A h i g h e r h o u s e h o l d income w i l l be g e n e r a l l y i m p l y a h i g h e r and s t e e p e r b i d - p r i c e c u r v e f o r h o u s i n g . In F i g u r e 4 , the s h i f t from AB t o CD i n d i c a t e s the outcome of an i n c r e a s e i n h o u s e h o l d income on the b i d - p r i c e c u r v e f o r h o u s i n g . 22 F i g u r e 4 - The Optimal L o c a t i o n Of The Household Rent P.S.U. 0 d i stance Redrawn from Evans 1973, f i g . 6 . 1 . 23 I n i t i a l l y , i t would be. e x p e c t e d t h a t a f t e r an i n c r e a s e i n income, a h o u s e h o l d would be more w i l l i n g t o a l l o c a t e a l a r g e r amount of the household income f o r an e q u i v i l e n t amount of d w e l l i n g space. At the same t i m e , they would l i k e l y want a l a r g e r amount of d w e l l i n g space. The l o c a t i o n f o r a household w i t h an i n c r e a s e d h o u s i n g budget would come from the r e s o l u t i o n of the c h o i c e between a l o c a t i o n w i t h more d w e l l i n g space and a more e x p e n s i v e s i t e . W i t h i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g which a s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n of the t h e o r y p r o v i d e s , the h o u s e h o l d would attempt t o s e l e c t a l o c a t i o n w hich would be b o t h more s p a c i o u s and more c o s t l y . The more s p a c i o u s l o c a t i o n would most l i k e l y be found f u r t h e r from the c i t y c e n t r e ; w h i l e the more c o s t l y l o c a t i o n would be found c l o s e r t o the c o r e . The c o n f l i c t which t h i s d i s c u s s i o n sugggests i s u s u a l l y r e s o l v e d by the household s e l e c t i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n which combines a change i n d i s t a n c e from the c e n t r e w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the ammenity l e v e l . 2.2.4 The E f f e c t s Of A Change In A c c e s s i b i l i t y The b a s i c model of urban l a n d economics, A l o n s o ' s b i d - p r i c e c u r v e , p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s of the i n t e r a c t i o n between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the c o s t of urban l a n d . The e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT w i l l a f f e c t the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e a l o n g the t r a n s i t c o r r i d o r r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s of how such a change might a f f e c t l a n d c o s t s i n t h i s a r e a . As noted above, the d e s i r e t o m i n i m i z e l o c a t i o n c o s t s i s fundamental t o the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n f o r h o u s e h o l d s . One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the l o c a t i o n c o s t s of urban l a n d i s i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y 24 t o the c i t y c e n t r e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s examined by Wingo; he notes t h a t "the q u a l i t y of l o c a t i o n , or ' a c c e s s i b i l i t y ' i s the dominant f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the uses of t h e l a n d or t h e i r i n t e n s i t i e s . " ( W i n g o 1961). A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s d e f i n e d by Wingo as a r e l a t i v e q u a l i t y a c c r u i n g t o a p a r c e l of l a n d by v i r t u e of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system o p e r a t i n g a t some s p e c i f i e d l e v e l of s e r v i c e (Wingo 1961, 2 6 ) . T h i s p o i n t i s key t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the c o s t of urban l a n d . A l o n s o , on the o t h e r hand chooses t o a v o i d some of the ma t h e m a t i c a l u n c e r t a i n i t y i m p l i e d by the s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e of the term " a c c e s s i b i l i t y " . I n s t e a d , he uses p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e i n h i s a n a l y s i s because of the r e l a t i v e ease w i t h which i t can be measured. The u n f o r t u n a t e consequence i s t h a t some of the f u l l e r , a l b e i t l e s s r i g o r o u s , meaning which " a c c e s s i b i l i t y " i n c l u d e s i s l o s t from the a n a l y s i s . In t h i s t h e s i s , the term " a c c e s s i b i l i t y " w i l l be used t o r e f e r t o an o r d e r e d measure of the e f f e c t of d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e . Thus, the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of one l o c a t i o n can be d i s c u s s e d r e l a t i v e t o the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of an o t h e r l o c a t i o n . L e s s e x p e n s i v e commuting and s h o r t e r commuting t i m e s a r e two of the e f f e c t s w h ich, A l o n s o (1964, 111) n o t e s , would be e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w an improvement i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . I n i t i a l l y such changes would g i v e the b i d - p r i c e c u r v e s f o r a f f e c t e d a r e a s much f l a t t e r s l o p e s . A l o n s o a l s o n otes t h a t i n i t i a l r esponses t o the t e c h n o l o g i c a l change would b e g i n w i t h a l o w e r i n g of the p r i c e s t r u c t u r e f o r the a f f e c t e d a r e a . (see 25 F i g u r e 5 ) . F i g u r e 5 - E f f e c t Of An Improvement In T r a n s p o r t a t i o n On The B i d - p r i c e S t r u c t u r e 0 M X B B" B' t Redrawn from A l o n s o 1964, f i g . 3 2 . T h i s i n i t i a l d e c r e a s e i s d e p i c t e d i n the diagram by the s h i f t from AB t o A'B. F o l l o w i n g t h i s i n i t i a l i n c r e a s e i n the a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e , the p r i c e of the l a n d i n the a r e a OM would be much lower than the i n i t i a l p r i c e under AB, the p r i c e s t r u c t u r e would then r e - a d j u s t and would s t a b i l i z e a t A"B". The outcome of a change i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y which improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e would be lower 26 l a n d c o s t s i n c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s ; w h i l e h i g h e r 'land c o s t s would be the case i n l o c a t i o n s f u r t h e r from the c e n t r e . A second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e f f e c t of improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e comes from Wingo; i t can be summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g diagram (see F i g u r e 6 ) . The change i n the p r i c e s t r u c t u r e which would be e x p e c t e d t o accompany an improvement i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 6. The d o t t e d l i n e , b - M1, r e p r e s e n t s the i n i t i a l b i d -p r i c e c u r v e under the p r e - e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . The new b i d - p r i c e c u r v e which would f o l l o w an improvement i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y i s i n d i c a t e d by the s o l i d l i n e , e M2. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g e f f e c t of a change i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y on the d e n s i t y of r e s i d e n t i a l development i s i n d i c a t e d by s h i f t from a - M1 t o c - M2 i n the lower c u r v e . The a r e a between e and m2 i n F i g u r e 6 r e p r e s e n t s the a r e a which would e x p e r i e n c e an i n c r e a s e i n the p r i c e of l a n d as the r e s u l t of an improvement i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . 27 Figure 6 - Effect Of An Improvement Of Transportation On The Price Structure 28 Redrawn from Wingo 1961, f i g . 3 6 and f i g . 3 7 . The l i t e r a t u r e from urban l a n d economics s u g g e s t s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t e r and the b i d - p r i c e f o r l a n d . An improvement i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y , such as would be a n t i c i p a t e d a f t e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT, would be e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t the c o s t of l a n d a l o n g the t r a n s i t c o r r i d o r . The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e o r y i s postponed to the next c h a p t e r , a f t e r development of 29 s o c i a l e c o l o g y . 2.3 Urban S o c i a l E c o l o g y The l i t e r a t u r e of urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y i s e x t e n s i v e ; i n s p i t e of the e x t e n t of the l i t e r a t u r e and the wide v a r i e t y of the methods which have been a p p l i e d t o the s t u d y of urban s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e r e has been a c o n s i s t e n c y t o the f i n d i n g s . S t u d i e s of the urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y of N o r t h American c i t i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h r e e s o u r c e s of v a r i a t i o n , s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , f a m i l y s t a t u s , and, e t h n i c i t y / s e g r e g a t i o n , o r i g i n a l l y s u g g e sted by Shevky and B e l l (1955) a r e needed t o d i s t i n g u i s h urban s o c i a l a r e a s . The t h r e e s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s were d e v e l o p e d w i t h a view t o e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and a v a i l a b l e d a t a s o u r c e s . Each of the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s noted by Shevky and B e l l a r i s e s from o b s e r v a t i o n s of the c h a n g i n g c h a r a c t e r of s o c i e t i e s . Change which c o u l d be r e a d i l y measured u s i n g census d a t a was seen i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s k i l l s , the s t r u c t u r e of p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y , and i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n . t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s can a l s o be used t o i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s between urban sub-areas ( H e r b e r t and Evans 1974). The c h a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of s k i l l s which a f f e c t s the f u n c t i o n a l arrangement of o c c u p a t i o n s i n the s o c i e t y can be measured by v a r i a t i o n s i n the s o c i a l rank d i m e n s i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , changes i n the s t r u c t u r e of p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y of the s o c i e t y can be i n d i c a t e d by v a r i a t i o n s i n the f a m i l y s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n . The changing c o m p o s i t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by Shevky and B e l l u s i n g the e t h n i c • s t a t u s or e t h n i c i t y d i m e n s i o n . 30 S u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s have been noted i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of the t h i r d v a r i a b l e , e t h n i c i t y or s e g r e g a t i o n , between the Canadian and American c o n t e x t s ( S c h w i r i a n and Matre 1969). In Canada, the e t h n i c d i m e n s i o n was seen by S c h w i r i a n and Matre t o be b e s t i d e n t i f i e d when i t i n c l u d e d n a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e ; w h i l e i n A m e r i c a , i t r e f e r e d t o r a c e , and s p e c i f i c a l l y , the p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n which i s Negro. Anderson and Egeland (1961) i n d i c a t e t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the e t h n i c i t y d i m e n s i o n v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y between c i t i e s ; f o r t h i s r e a s o n , they d i d not i n c l u d e e t h n i c i t y i n t h e i r study of the s p a t i a l a s p e c t s of s o c i a l a r e a a n a l y s i s . The t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s , s o c i a l s t a t u s , f a m i l y s t a t u s , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n Canada, e t h n i c i t y , a l l o w d i s t i n c t i o n s t o be made i n the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r between urban a r e a s . The s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s d i s p l a y e d by the major d i m e n s i o n s (Anderson and Eg e l a n d 1961, B e r r y 1965, B e r r y and Kasarda 1977, Murdie 1969, Rees 1979, S c h w i r i a n and Matre 1969, S c h w i r i a n and Smith 1971) has suggested t h a t each d i m e n s i o n has a d i s t i n c t i v e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . S o c i a l rank i s d i s t r i b u t e d i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y s e c t o r a l p a t t e r n ; w h i l e f a m i l y s t a t u s i s d i s t r i b u t e d i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o n c e n t r i c r i n g p a t t e r n . W h i l e some a u t h o r s (Anderson 1962, B o a l 1976) have suggested t h a t e t h n i c i t y i s d i s t r i b u t e d s e c t o r a l l y ; r e s u l t s i n o t h e r s t u d i e s ( P a t t e r s o n 1974) have not i n d i c a t e d a c o n c l u s i v e p a t t e r n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of e t h n i c i t y v a r i e s between c i t i e s . In some c i t i e s , d i f f e r e n t a t i o n a l o n g r a c i a l or l i n g u i s t i c l i n e s does not occur (Pederson 1967, i n B e r r y and R a r s a r d a 1977, 131). Where e t h n i c 31 d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s a f a c t o r , i t can be d i s t r i b u t e d e i t h e r by s e c t o r s or by c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s . P a t t e r s o n (1974) c o n c l u d e s t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e t h n i c i t y i n m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver had "a unique p a t t e r n u n l i k e any of the urban models". B e r r y (1977) and o t h e r s have h i g h l i g h t e d the s i m i l a r i t y between the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the o t h e r s o c i a l d i mensions and the c l a s s i c models: s o c i a l rank (Hoyt's s e c t o r a l model), and f a m i l y s t a t u s ( B urgess's c o n c e n t r i c r i n g model). The l i t e r a t u r e of contemporary urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y i s viewed as a " f i e l d of i n q u i r y t h a t d e a l s w i t h form, s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e s s r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l systems ... (which p r o v i d e s ) ... a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of urban s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s from a r e s i d e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e " ( P e r l e 1983). Recent urban g e o g r a p h i c thought (Ley 1983) s u p p o r t s t h i s c o n t e n t i o n and p o i n t s t o the v a l u e of s o c i a l a r e a a n a l y s i s as a method f o r a n a l y s i n g s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of urban a r e a s . Ley (1983) reminds us t h a t the f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y method can p r o v i d e the i n s i g h t s i n t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which might w e l l a l l o w the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the Burgess and Hoyt models of l a n d use and s o c i a l a r e a s . 2.3.1 O r i g i n s Of The Contemporary Models Of Urban S o c i a l E c o l o g y Contemporary u n d e r s t a n d i n g of urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y ( B e r r y and Rees 1969, and Murdie 1976) i s d e r i v e d from both f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y and t h e c l a s s i c s o c i a l e c o l o g y models. The m a t h e m a t i c a l r i g o u r of the f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y s t u d i e s i d e n t i f i e s the d i m ensions of urban s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s ; w h i l e the c l a s s i c a l urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y models p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s p a t i a l 32 d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i m e n s i o n s . C l a s s i c a l urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y r e s e a r c h has p r o v i d e d two models (Burgess 1925, and Hoyt 1939) which a r e b a s i c t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l a n d use change. More r e c e n t f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y s t u d i e s ( W o l f o r t h 1965, Murdie 1969, P a t t e r s o n 1974, and Rees 1977) have a g a i n demonstrated the i n s i g h t i n t o l a n d use change which the c l a s s i c a l models of urban e c o l o g y have p r o v i d e d . W h i l e the e x p l a n a t i o n s which were deve l o p e d by Burgess and Hoyt attempted, t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive p o r t r a i t of t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s s h a p i n g the l a n d use p a t t e r n s of the c i t y , more r e c e n t s t u d i e s (Murdie 1969, Rees 1969) suggest t h a t the g r e a t e s t v a l u e of t h e s e c l a s s i c s t u d i e s i s i n showing how the s e p r o c e s s e s have d i f f e r e n t i a l l y molded the urban l a n d s c a p e of the contemporary Western c i t y . The Burgess (1925) model p r o v i d e s a framework which d e s c r i b e s the l o c a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s i n urban a r e a s . The " c o n c e n t r i c - z o n e t h e o r y " (see F i g u r e 7) viewed t h e c i t y as a s e r i e s of f i v e c o n c e n t r i c zones: the l o o p or c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , t he t r a n s i t i o n zone, the zone of workingmen's homes, the r e s i d e n t i a l zone, and commuter's zone. The growth of the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a was r e g a r d e d by Burgess as the outcome of an urban e x p a n s i o n which d e v e l o p e d from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new homes f o r the hig h e r - i n c o m e p o p u l a t i o n s a t the p e r i p h e r y of the c i t y . As hi g h e r - i n c o m e p o p u l a t i o n s moved t o new homes i n the o u t e r r i n g s , the homes which were abandoned by the h i g h e r - i n c o m e groups were then o c c u p i e d by lower-income h o u s e h o l d s . T h i s f i l t e r i n g p r o c e s s was seen as the source of the homes f o r the lower-income h o u s e h o l d s . A major f e a t u r e of 33 t h e B u r g e s s h y p o t h e s i s was t h e c o n c e n t r i c - r i n g p a t t e r n o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n t a k e n by t h e v a r i o u s s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p s i n t h e c i t y . The l o w e r - i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s were l o c a t e d n e a r t h e i r p l a c e s o f work i n t h e c i t y c e n t r e , w h i l e t h e h i g h e r - i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s s o u g h t newly c o n s t r u c t e d homes n e a r t h e o u t s k i r t s o f the c i t y . F i g u r e 7 - B u r g e s s ' s C o n c e n t r i c R i n g Model 1. Central Business District 2. Zone of Transition 3. Zone of Workingmen's Homes 4. Zone of Better Residences 5. Commuters' Zone 5 A d a p t e d from B u r g e s s 1925 i n C h a p i n 1965, f i g . 2 . The B u r g e s s model has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r b e i n g a 34 " g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e of one c i t y a t one p o i n t i n t i m e " ( S e n i o r 1973, 171), and f o r t h i s reason i t was seen as h a v i n g l i t t l e a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o o t h e r c i t i e s . The e x t e n s i o n of the Burgess h y p o t h e s i s as an e x p l a n a t i o n of urban s t r u c t u r e was q u e s t i o n e d e a r l i e r by Schnore (1963, 1964) f o l l o w i n g h i s a n a l y s i s of the socioeconomic p a t t e r n s of a number of American c i t i e s . W h i l e he d i d f i n d t h a t some c i t i e s were p a t t e r n e d l i k e the c o n c e n t r i c - r i n g model of Chicag o was d e p i c t e d i n the Burgess model, Hoyt found t h a t t h e r e were many o t h e r c i t i e s whose form d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the Burgess model. More r e c e n t works ( B e r r y and Rees 1969, and Murdie 1976) i n f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y i n d i c a t e the v a l u e of the Burgess model i n d e s c r i b i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f a m i l y s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n . The second c l a s s i c s p a t i a l model i s the s e c t o r a l model of Homer Hoyt (1939). Hoyt d e r i v e d the s e c t o r a l model from an a n a l y s i s of the l o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of d i f f e r e n t r e n t a l a r e a s i n a number of American c i t i e s . In each m u n i c i p a l i t y he found t h a t each d i s t i n c t s o cioeconomic group o c c u p i e d a d i s c r e t e s e c t o r . The a m e n i t i e s of t h e s e l o c a t i o n s and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t e were found t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s made by the hig h e r - i n c o m e group. Hoyt f e l t t h a t t h o s e who c o u l d pay the h i g h r e n t which was demanded f o r h i g h amenity l o c a t i o n s would pay the p r i c e demanded. From Hoyt's a n a l y s i s , the high-income households were e x p e c t e d t o seek accommodation a l o n g "the best e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n e s " , on " h i g h ground - f r e e from r i s k of 35 f l o o d s " and on " l a n d a l o n g l a k e , bay, r i v e r • and ocean f r o n t where such water f r o n t s a r e not used f o r i n d u s t r y " (Hoyt 1939, 117-19). The t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t the v a r i o u s income c l a s s e s i n a c i t y w i l l be found s e g r e g a t e d i n s e p a r a t e wedge-shaped s e c t o r s , f o c u s e d on the c i t y c e n t r e (see F i g u r e 8 ) . The wedge-shaped s e c t o r s would be a r r a n g e d so t h a t h o u s e h o l d s of h i g h e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s would be found i n the h i g h e r amenity a r e a s ; w h i l e h ouseholds of lower s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s would occupy the r e m a i n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s between the h i g h amenity a r e a s . Recent work ( B e r r y and Rees 1969, and Murdie 1976) c o n c l u d e s t h a t the s o c i a l rank dimension i s d i s t r i b u t e d s e c t o r a l l y . F i g u r e 8 - Hoyt's S e c t o r Concept Model 1. Centra l Bus iness District 2. Who lesa le and Light Manufactur ing 3. L o w - C l a s s Resident ia l 4. M idd le -C lass Resident ia l 5. H igh -C lass Resident ia l Adapted from Hoyt 1939 i n Chapin 1965, f i g . 2 . 36 Some e a r l i e r s t u d i e s of urban s t r u c t u r e ( B e r r y 1965) have c o n c l u d e d t h a t the c l a s s i c a l models p r o v i d e c o n f l i c t i n g and c o n t r a d i c t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n s of the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of the c i t y . Other s t u d i e s (Anderson 1961, B e r r y and Rees 1969, Murdie 1969, and Murdi e 1976) suggest t h a t the c l a s s i c models of Burgess and Hoyt complement one a n o t h e r , w i t h each model d e s c r i b i n g a s e p a r a t e a s p e c t of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n a c i t y . The c o n c e n t r i c r i n g model which Burgess used t o d e s c r i b e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of so c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i n the c i t y more a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s , such a s , f a m i l y or n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . Hoyt's s e c t o r a l model, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of the r e s u l t s from f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the urban e c o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e ( B e r r y and Rees 1969, Murdie 1969., Murd i e 1976 and P a t t e r s o n 1 974), p r o v i d e s the more a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the a n a l y s i s i s foc u s e d on the c e n t r a l c i t y i n a l a r g e r urban a g g l o m e r a t i o n . The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between the c l a s s i c models i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 9. 37 F i g u r e 9 - The Urban E c o l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e R e p r i n t e d from Murdie 1969, f i g . 2 . 38 2.3.2 A p p l i c a t i o n Of The Urban E c o l o g i c a l Models Recent urban e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d on the growth and development which i s a major f e a t u r e of the p r o c e s s of urban e x p a n s i o n . Three a s p e c t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o the f o c u s of t h i s t h e s i s ; they a r e t h e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of h o u sehold t y p e s and the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the downtown c o r e . R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n D e c i s i o n The c o n c e n t r i c - r i n g concept has been p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n r e l a t i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s t o h o u s e h o l d income and the c o s t of h o u s i n g , stage i n the l i f e c y c l e , and type of d w e l l i n g . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of each f a c t o r s v a r i e s w i t h the d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e . The i n s i g h t s p r o v i d e d by the c o n c e n t r i c - r i n g concept p a r a l l e l s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o v i d e d by the b i d - p r i c e s u r f a c e concept of l a n d - u s e . Both the b i d - p r i c e c u r v e and the c o n c e n t r i c - r i n g model i n d i c a t e how v a r i a t i o n i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e i s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r components of the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . The s e c t o r concept p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t s i n t o the more s u b t l e a s p e c t s of the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n which a r i s e from s o c i o e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p o p u l a t i o n . F a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y s t u d i e s ( W o l f o r t h 1965, Murdie 1969, P a t t e r s o n 1974, Rees 1977) have demonstrated t h a t i n Western c i t i e s s o c i a l rank i s d i s t r i b u t e d s e c t o r a l l y . The e x i s t i n g s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of s o c i a l rank i n the c i t y has an i n f l u e n c e on the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n as households g e n e r a l l y seek l o c a t i o n s which c o n t a i n o t h e r s of s i m i l a r s o c i a l rank. Income and w e a l t h a r e c o r r e l a t e d 39 w i t h s o c i a l rank and a f f e c t the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n outcome by p l a c i n g l i m i t a t i o n s on the range of the p o s s i b l e t r a d e - o f f s between h o u s e h o l d income and c o s t of h o u s i n g . In a d d i t i o n , the l i f e - s t y l e p r e f e r e n c e and the community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which a re fundamental t o the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n a r e a f f e c t e d by the s o c i a l rank of the h o u s e h o l d . The D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Household Types The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i o u s h o u s e h o l d t y p e s i s a f f e c t e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n the h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s of d i f f e r e n t h o u s e h o l d s . The l i f e - s t y l e and stage i n the f a m i l y l i f e - c y c l e l i m i t the accommodation which i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the h o u s e h o l d . S t u d i e s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t h o u s e h o l d t y p e s (Abu-Lughod and F o l e y 1960) have examined the importance of t h e s e f a c t o r s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i o u s h o u s e h o l d t y p e s . Household l i f e - s t y l e i n c l u d e s the c h o i c e s made among t h e major a d u l t g o a l s , r a i s i n g a f a m i l y , p u r s u i n g a c a r e e r , and e n j o y i n g the 'good l i f e ' . W h i l e t h e s e g o a l s a r e not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , each h o u s e h o l d must make i t s c h o i c e amongst them. The c h o i c e s which a f f e c t i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n have a f u r t h e r e f f e c t on the broader p a t t e r n of hou s e h o l d t y p e s . A major d i s t i n c t i o n can be made between ho u s e h o l d s f o r whom the r a i s i n g of a f a m i l y i s the major f o c u s , and ho u s e h o l d s f o r whom p u r s u i n g a c a r e e r or l i v i n g the 'good l i f e ' i s the major f o c u s of t h e i r l i f e . None of thes e l i f e - s t y l e s i s n e c e s s a r i l y e x c l u s i v e ; a s p e c i f i c h o u sehold would be ex p e c t e d t o make d e c i s i o n s based on the importance they a t t a c h t o the s e f a c t o r s . F a m i l y households w i l l have s p e c i f i c needs, and t h e s e needs 40 w o u l d d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e o f t h e c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d o r 'good l i f e ' o r i e n t e d h o u s e h o l d . D i f f e r e n c e s i n h o u s e h o l d n e e d s w i l l a f f e c t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s o f e a c h h o u s e h o l d t y p e ; e a c h h o u s e h o l d t y p e s w o u l d l o c a t e i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h c o n t a i n t h e most s u i t a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n . V a r i a t i o n s i n s h e l t e r n e e d s o f h o u s e h o l d s a r i s i n g f r o m l i f e - s t y l e d i f f e r e n c e s o b s c u r e t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f f a m i l y s t a t u s a n d s o c i a l r a n k . L i f e - s t y l e d i f f e r e n c e s a f f e c t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n b u t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s c a n n o t be r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by u s i n g c e n s u s d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r l i f e - s t y l e c h o i c e s , t h e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s o f f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s a r e f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by h o u s e h o l d c o m p o s i t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s e v o l v e t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f l i f e - c y c l e s t a g e s w h i c h m i r r o r t h e p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o f f s p r i n g . E a c h s t a g e h a s b r o a d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n o f t h e h o u s e h o l d a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s h o u s e h o l d t y p e s . As e x p e c t e d , f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s a r e f o u n d i n much h i g h e r numbers i n t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h c o n t a i n s u i t a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y , s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d h o u s e s , w h i c h a r e most f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d away f r o m t h e c i t y c e n t r e i n t h e s u b u r b s . L i k e h o u s e h o l d l i f e - s t y l e , t h e s t a g e i n f a m i l y l i f e - c y c l e i n f l u e n c e s i t s s h e l t e r n e e d s . The f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d p a s s e s t h r o u g h a number o f s t a g e s w h i c h i m p l y d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . P r i o r t o t h e b i r t h o f t h e f i r s t c h i l d , t h e r e s i d e n t i a l n e e d s o f a f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f 41 a n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s ; a l t h o u g h i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of s t a r t i n g a f a m i l y , the hou s e h o l d may choose a l a r g e r home. As the f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d grows i n s i z e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the c h i l d r e n a re bor n , the f a m i l y household's d e s i r e f o r l a r g e r accommodation grows. O f t e n , the f a m i l y h o usehold w i l l f o r e g o easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e f o r the more s p a c i o u s , l e s s e x p e n s i v e accommodation which can be found i n the suburbs. L a t e r , as the c h i l d r e n b e g i n t o re a c h a d u l t h o o d , the household a g a i n f e e l s a need f o r s t i l l more s p a c i o u s h o u s i n g t o accomodate the i n c r e a s e i n the number of a d u l t members and t o meet the a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l demands f a c e d by the h o u s e h o l d . Once the c h i l d r e n l e a v e home, the hou s e h o l d no l o n g e r needs the l a r g e f a m i l y home, but o f t e n i t i s m a i n t a i n e d t o accomodate f a m i l y v i s i t s . F o l l o w i n g the death of one of the h o u s e h o l d heads, t h e s u r v i v i n g spouse may seek accommodation of a more managable s i z e . The s i z e of the r e s i d e n t i a l accomodation r e q u i r e d by a p a r t i c u l a r h o u s e h o l d i s seen t o change as the s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n of the hou s e h o l d changes (A f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s s u b j e c t can be found i n Abu-Lughod and F o l e y 1960). The d i f f e r i n g s p a t i a l demands of both n o n - f a m i l y and f a m i l y h o useholds a t the v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n the f a m i l y l i f e - c y c l e a f f e c t s t h e i r h o u s i n g needs. These d i f f e r e n c e s i n h o u s i n g needs a f f e c t s the c h o i c e of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n made by the h o u s e h o l d . As noted above, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e and the c o s t of r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation d e p i c t e d by the b i d - p r i c e c u r v e , has an impact on the s e l e c t i o n of a r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t 42 d w e l l i n g t y p e s i s a f f e c t e d by v a r i a t i o n s i n the c o s t of l a n d . Each households seeks a s u i t a b l e r e s i d e n c e from the a v a i l a b l e accommodation. A c c e s s i b i l i t y To The C i t y C e n t r e Recent r e s e a r c h i n urban e c o l o g y has examined the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a c c e s s i b i l i t y on the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e has been the b a s i s f o r the c l a s s i c a l models of urban e c o l o g y , p a r t i c u l a r l y , the models d e v e l o p e d by Burgess and Hoyt. The importance of a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n was c r i t i c i s e d by W o l f o r t h (1965) and Stegman (1969) who contend t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s , such as neighbourhood q u a l i t y , were more i n f l u e n t i a l . E a r l i e r work on s t a g e s i n f a m i l y l i f e - c y c l e (Abu-Lughod and F o l e y 1960) undermines t h i s d i s m i s s a l of the importance of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e i n the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . W h i l e the r e s u l t s of the s u r v e y done by Stegman suggest t h a t the a c c e s s i b i l i t y assumptions a r e no l o n g e r v a l i d because most suburban f a m i l i e s are more con c e r n e d about neighbourhood q u a l i t y than a c c e s s i b i l i t y . F a m i l y households w i t h c h i l d r e n a r e key t o Stegman's c o n c l u s i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d by Abu-Lughod and F o l e y as the h o u s e h o l d type which would be l e a s t concerned w i t h the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e i s b a s i c t o many r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n models i n c l u d i n g the model d e v e l o p e d by K a i n (1961). The major premise of these models i s t h a t f a m i l y h ouseholds w i l l l o c a t e a t a p o i n t away from the c i t y c e n t r e where the c o s t s of a p p r o p r i a t e accommodation i s b a l a n c e d 43 w i t h t h e i r need f o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . In making t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n , the h o u s e h o l d s w i l l t r a d e -o f f the i n c r e a s e d c o s t s of commuting w i t h the b e n e f i t s i n the amount of r e s i d e n t i a l space which they can o b t a i n i n the s u b u r b s . Stegman (1969) contends t h a t the a c c e s s i b i l i t y a ssumptions upon which the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n models a r e founded a r e no l o n g e r v a l i d . H i s study c o n c l u d e s t h a t neighbourhood q u a l i t y was a more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n of new suburban r e s i d e n t s than was a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e . H i s e v i d e n c e i n c l u d e s h i s f i n d i n g s t h a t a s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n of c e n t r a l c o r e households and suburban h o u s e h o l d s drove t o work, suburban f a m i l i e s and c e n t r a l c o r e f a m i l i e s h e l d s i m i l a r v a l u e s and so the neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r would not be d i f f e r e n t , and freeways o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n the suburban neighbourhoods h a v i n g b e t t e r a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c o r e than those l i v i n g i n t h e c e n t r a l c o r e neighbourhoods. J o h n s t o n (1971) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s d i s m i s s a l of the r o l e of a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s might be "too sweeping". However, J o h n s t o n does note the e a r l i e r c o n c l u s i o n of W o l f o r t h (1965) t h a t the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e i s not a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . W o l f o r t h ' s f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t e d t h a t w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a l i m i t e d number of w o r k e r s , d i s t a n c e from work was not a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . D i s t a n c e from work was i m p o r t a n t i n the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n of females w o r k i n g i n c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s i n the CBD, 44 m a r r i e d women who worked, p l a n t workers i n p e r i p h e r a l w o r k p l a c e s where a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e q u a n t i t y of l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g was a v a i l a b l e ( W o l f o r t h 1965, 75). The a v a i l a b i l i t y of adequate a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g near the w o r k p l a c e was more f r e q u e n t l y mentioned as a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n than was a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . In t h e i r d i s c u s i o n s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y c y c l e and r e s i d e n t i a l c h o i c e , Abu-Lughod and F o l e y (1960) suggested t h a t f a m i l y households a r e the h o u s e h o l d type l e a s t concerned w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . T h i s f i n d i n g i s not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s which Stegman p r e s e n t s . I t i s a t odds w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n s which Stegman draws, p a r t i c u l a r l y , h i s o u t r i g h t d i s m i s s a l of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n theory.. Stegman suggests t h a t the suburban f a m i l y i s "more concerned w i t h neighbourhood q u a l i t y than w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o o t h e r p a r t s of the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n " (Stegman 1969, 22) and c o n c l u d e s from the f i n d i n g s from t h i s sample t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n t h e o r y s h o u l d be d i s m i s s e d . The e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h of Abu-Lughod and F o l e y s u g gests t h a t the suburban f a m i l y h o usehold would have a minimal need f o r a c c e s s t o the c i t y c e n t r e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o l o c a t i o n s o t h e r than the c i t y c e n t r e would be e x p e c t e d t o be more i m p o r t a n t f o r f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d than f o r non-f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . The s a l i e n t p o i n t from Abu-Lughod and F o l e y which c o u n t e r s t h i s argument i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t h o u s e h o l d s , because of t h e i r v a r y i n g h o u s i n g demands, w i l l p l a c e d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of importance on a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the w o r k p l a c e . Only those 45 h ouseholds f o r whom the j o u r n e y - t o - w o r k i s the most imp o r t a n t d a i l y t r i p would be e x p e c t e d t o l o c a t e t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s t o r e c o n c i l e the t r a d e - o f f between the c o s t of a p p r o p r i a t e s h e l t e r and the c o s t of commuting t o the w o r k p l a c e . A l l o t h e r h o useholds would l o c a t e t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s based on o t h e r c r i t e r i a . 2.4 S y n t h e s i s P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s of r a i l t r a n s i t c o r r i d o r s have not p r o v i d e d c l e a r i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of neighbourhoods a l o n g the r o u t e s . Many of the s t u d i e s have measured changes i n s e l e c t e d s o c i a l d i mensions a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n df r a p i d t r a n s i t p r o j e c t s ; but few have a p p l i e d t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o the p r e d i c t i o n of i m p a c t s . A major c o n c l u s i o n from these s t u d i e s has been t h a t l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s and o t h e r p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t s a r e u s u a l l y more c r i t i c a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the e x t e n t of the l a n d use change which r e s u l t s from the development of a r a p i d t r a n s i t p r o j e c t than i s the change i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . Because of the impact which l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s and o t h e r p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t s w i l l have on the development which f o l l o w s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r a p i d t r a n s i t p r o j e c t , i t i s c r u c i a l t h a t t h e s e p o l i c i e s a r e c o n c e i v e d w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p o t e n t i a l outcomes so any subsequent development can be s o c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l . The l i t e r a t u r e from urban l a n d economics and from urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r u n r e g u l a t e d response t o the 46 development of the ALRT. The fundamental r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the c o s t of l a n d d e s c r i b e d by the b i d - p r i c e c u r v e i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o be a l t e r e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l t r a n s i t system. Urban l a n d economic t h e o r y d e s c r i b e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which h i g h l y a c c e s s i b l e l a n d i s more e x p e n s i v e . Because of the h i g h e r c o s t , such l a n d i s more l i k e l y t o be d e v e l o p e d as m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g u n i t s or ap a r t m e n t s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r a p i d t r a n s i t system i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e the a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e f o r neighbourhoods a l o n g i t s r o u t e l e a d i n g t o h i g h e r l a n d c o s t s a l o n g i t s r o u t e . W i t h i n a s u i t a b l e z o n i n g regime, the h o u s i n g market would be e x p e c t e d t o respond t o the h i g h e r c o s t s of l a n d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of more m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s . The r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e from urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y i n c l u d e s m a t e r i a l from the c l a s s i c a l models, and from the f a c t o r i a l models. The r e l e v a n t c l a s s i c a l models i n c l u d e the c o n c e n t r i c zone model (Burgess 1925), and the s e c t o r model (Hoyt 1939). These c l a s s i c a l models suggest two competing hypotheses about the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the c i t y . The f a c t o r i a l model d i s t i n g u i s h e s the b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s of the s o c i e t y which a l l o w s o c i a l change t o be measured. The s o c i a l a r e a a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e , d e v e l o p e d by Shevky and B e l l (1955), i n d i c a t e s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s which can be used t o i d e n t i f y s o c i a l change, s o c i a l rank, f a m i l y s t a t u s , and e t h n i c i t y . E a r l i e r r e s e a r c h ( B e r r y and Rees 1969, and S c h w i r i a n and Matre 1969) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the two d i m e n s i o n s , s o c i a l rank and f a m i l y s t a t u s , i s c o n s i s t e n t f o r 47 many c i t i e s . S o c i a l rank i s d i s t r i b u t e d by s e c t o r ; w h i l e f a m i l y s t a t u s i s d i s t r i b u t e d by c o n c e n t r i c zone. Some urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y r e s e a r c h ( S c h w i r i a n 1974, Sweetser 1969) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t the f a c t o r i a l , c o n c e n t r i c zone, and s e c t o r models can be used j o i n t l y t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o urban s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s o f t e n used t o d i s t i n g u i s h s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s and t o i d e n t i f y s u i t a b l e s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s . The c o n c e n t r i c zone and s e c t o r a l models a r e used t o i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o the c i t y ' s c e n t r e and t o each o t h e r . The urban l a n d economic l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r model which p a r a l l e l s the c o n c e n t r i c - r i n g model and can be used t o f u r t h e r the i n s i g h t s p r o v i d e d by the urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e . 48 I I I . DATA AND ANALYSIS The a i m of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of th e ALRT s y s t e m m i g h t a f f e c t t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f V a n c o u v e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a l o n g t h e t r a n s i t c o r r i d o r . S e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been s u g g e s t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f r o m u r b a n l a n d e c o n o m i c s and u r b a n s o c i a l e c o l o g y . A majo r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e , s u c h as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e ALRT would be e x p e c t e d t o a l t e r e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h a s s o c i a l r a n k , d w e l l i n g t y p e and f a m i l y s t a t u s . T e s t i n g t h e s i g n f i c a n c e of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l o n g t h e ALRT r o u t e was u n d e r t a k e n u s i n g r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e d a t a f r o m S t a t i s t i c s C a n ada. The e x t e n t and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e S t a t i s t i c s Canada v a r i a b l e s l i m i t e d b o t h t h e c h o i c e of t h e v a r i a b l e s and t h e s c a l e o f t h e a n a l y s i s w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . The e a r l y s e c t i o n s o f t h e c h a p t e r d e t a i l s t h e methods u s e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h and p o i n t s t o i t s f o u n d a t i o n i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The f i n a l s e c t i o n s examine t h e a c t u a l i n d i c a t o r s u s e d i n t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e f i n d i n g s w h i c h t h i s a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s . 3.1 T h e o r e t i c a l F o u n d a t i o n Of R e s e a r c h Method Improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e ~ f o r t h o s e l i v i n g i n o r n e a r t h e t r a n s i t c o r r i d o r w i l l be an immediate outcome o f th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ALRT. C h a p t e r I I r e v i e w e d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r y i n u r b a n l a n d e c o n o m i c s and f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a n t i c i p a t e d improvement i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o 49 t h e c i t y c e n t r e c o u l d p r e c i p i t a t e change i n t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a l o n g t h e ALRT r i g h t - o f - w a y . In t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e and a number o f s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s e x p l o r e d i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e p o t e n t i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e ALRT on n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a l o n g t h e s u b u r b a n s e c t i o n o f t h e r o u t e t h r o u g h V a n c o u v e r . The u r b a n l a n d economic l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e and t h e b i d - p r i c e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d . The a n t i c i p a t e d improvement i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a l o n g t h e ALRT r o u t e would be e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t t h e c o s t o f l a n d i n l o c a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c i n g i m p r o v e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , t h e l i t e r a t u r e on urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y s u g g e s t s two f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h can a l s o be a f f e c t e d by t h e l e v e l o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e . The B u r g e s s c o n c e n t r i c r i n g has been f o u n d by t h e f a c t o r e c o l o g y s c h o o l t o a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of f a m i l y s t a t u s i n u r b a n a r e a s ; i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e change i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y w i l l a f f e c t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a m i l y s t a t u s . The s e c t o r model o f Homer Hoyt has been n o t e d by t h e f a c t o r e c o l o g y s c h o o l t o a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s o c i a l r a n k i n u r b a n a r e a s ; i t i s not e x p e c t e d t h a t a change i n t h e l e v e l o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y would d r a m a t i c a l l y a f f e c t t h i s p a t t e r n . The o r i g i n a l s e c t o r model of Homer Hoyt r e l i e s on t h e l o c a t i o n o f major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r t e r i e s f o r t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e s e c t o r s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e ALRT w i l l p r o v i d e an 50 a d d i t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r t e r i a l w hich c o u l d a f f e c t the o r i e n t a t i o n of s o c i a l rank s e c t o r s i n the c i t y . However, t h i s consequence of the t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and s o c i a l rank was not t e s t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The urban l a n d economic t h e o r y summarized i n A l o n s o ' s b i d -p r i c e c u r v e and the t h e o r y from urban geography and f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y d e s c r i b e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and a number of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e d i c t t h a t the improvement i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e coming from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT would a f f e c t s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of neighbourhoods a l o n g the ALRT. The s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x p e c t e d t o be a f f e c t e d by the improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e i n c l u d e the r e l a t i v e s o c i a l r a n k , f a m i l y s t a t u s , and the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i o u s d w e l l i n g t y p e s . An i n c r e a s e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e would be e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l o n g the ALRT c o r r i d o r . 3.2 Summary Of Research Method The g e o g r a p h i c f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y i s the r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e from Main S t r e e t t o Boundary Road. The most a p p r o p r i a t e d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y was the Census T r a c t d a t a from S t a t i s t i c s Canada; f o r t h i s r e a s o n , the r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods have been o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as the Census T r a c t s which the ALRT c r o s s e s a l o n g t h i s s e c t i o n of the r o u t e t h r o u g h Vancouver. L e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , d w e l l i n g t y p e , and h o u s e h o l d s t r u c t u r e v a r i a b l e s , were s e l e c t e d from the 1976 51 and the 1981 Census which c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s , s o c i a l rank, d w e l l i n g t y p e , and f a m i l y s t a t u s , i n d i c a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . D e t a i l s of the r e s e a r c h methods a r e d i s c u s s e d below, f o l l o w e d by p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s . 3.2.1 Study Area The study a r e a f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e s a l l of the Census T r a c t s t h r o u g h which the ALRT w i l l pass between Main S t r e e t and Boundary Road. T h i s a r e a was s e l e c t e d because i t i s ex p e c t e d t o be the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the change i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The e x t e n t of the Study Area i s shown on F i g u r e 1 1 . A comparison of the Census T r a c t s f o r the 1976 and 1981 Censuses which were i n the Study Area a r e i n c l u d e d i n Ta b l e 1 . The same g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a i s i n c l u d e d f o r both census d a t e s . 52 Table 1 - Study Area - 1976 and 1981 Census T r a c t Number 1976 1981 C l o s e s t t o CBD 050.00 * 050.01 050.02 037.00 032.00 034.00 035.00 017.00 037.00 032.00 034.00 035.00 017.00 016.00 * 016.01 016.02 F a r t h e s t from CBD d i v i d e d i n t o two Census T r a c t s f o r the 1981 Census Data from the 1976 and 1981 Censuses, p r o v i d e the substance f o r the t e s t i n g of the model of change a n t i c i p a t e d t o f o l l o w from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT. The Census T r a c t was s e l e c t e d as the most a p p r o p r i a t e g e o g r a p h i c u n i t f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . Much of the data used i n t h i s s t u d y was a v a i l a b l e a t t h i s l e v e l . I n some c a s e s , however, the n e c e s s a r y d a t a was a v a i l a b l e o n l y a t the enumeration a r e a l e v e l . In those c a s e s , some i n i t i a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of the d a t a was n e c e s s a r y p r i o r t o the a n a l y s i s , so t h a t a l l data was a t the Census T r a c t L e v e l . 53 F i g u r e 10 - Map of the Study Area Main S t a t i o n 54 3.2.2 R e s e a r c h Methods The methods used t o t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s suggested by the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e a r e d i s c u s s e d below. The d a t a base f o r t h i s s tudy was assembled from the 1976 and 1981 Census, User Summary Tape f i l e s , a v a i l a b l e from S t a t i s t i c s Canada. D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e C i t y of Vancouver was a v a i l a b l e f o r 76 census t r a c t s from t h e 1981 Census and f o r 72 census t r a c t s from the 1976 Census. A number of Census T r a c t s d e f i n e d f o r the 1976 Census were s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o two Census T r a c t s f o r the 1981 Census. From the a v a i l a b l e d a t a , i n f o r m a t i o n was s e l e c t e d on the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d , the d w e l l i n g t y p e , and the h o u s e h o l d t y p e . V a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d from the a v a i l a b l e d a t a which r e p r e s e n t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s of the problem, s o c i a l rank, d w e l l i n g t y p e , and f a m i l y s t a t u s , were i n d i c a t e d by the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d , d w e l l i n g t y p e , and h o u s e h o l d t y p e . Two of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , s o c i a l rank and d w e l l i n g t y p e , were c o m p r i s e d of a s e t of o r d e r e d c a t e g o r i e s , as d e t a i l e d below (see F i g u r e s 12 and 13). The t h i r d v a r i a b l e , f a m i l y s t a t u s , was composed of a s e t of n e s t e d dichotomous c a t e g o r i e s (see F i g u r e 14) . Some m a n i p u l a t i o n s of the d a t a were r e q u i r e d t o a l l o w f o r c o m p a r i s o n s between the two Census d a t e s ; some v a r i a b l e s had t o be combined i n t o c a t e g o r i e s which a l l o w e d the d a t a f o r both d a t e s t o be compared. These were c o n v e r t e d i n t o p e r c e n t a g e s of 55 the Census T r a c t s p o p u l a t i o n i n each c a t e e g o r y , e.g. the Census T r a c t p o p u l a t i o n over 15 y e a r s of age w i t h h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n or l e s s e d u c a t i o n was c o n v e r t e d i n t o a pe r c e n t a g e by d i v i d i n g by the t o t a l Census T r a c t p o p u l a t i o n over 15 y e a r s of age. The c a l c u l a t e d p e r c e n t a g e s of Census T r a c t p o p u l a t i o n were s u b s e q u e n t l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o z - s c o r e s . A u s e f u l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of z - s c o r e s or s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r e i s t h a t i t s mean i s 0 and i t s s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i s 1. The z - s c o r e i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r each v a l u e of the v a r i a b l e by f i r s t s u b t r a c t i n g the mean from the raw s c o r e and then d i v i d i n g the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . z-score=(Raw Score - Mean) / (S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n ) A g i v e n z - s c o r e i s d i r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e as i n d i c a t i v e of the number of s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s t h a t a s c o r e i s above or below the mean. Z-scores p r o v i d e a common b a s i s of measurement which i s u s e f u l i n making comparisons between d i s t r i b u t i o n s . The z - s c o r e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l l o w e d the r e l a t i v e s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n t o be r e a d i l y compared. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l l o w e d easy comparisons t o be made between the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of c o r r e s p o n d i n g i t e m s , i n t h i s c a s e , Census T r a c t s , i n d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s . A f t e r the data was t r a n s f o r m e d t o z - s c o r e s , the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s of s o c i a l rank, d w e l l i n g type and f a m i l y s t a t u s was t e s t e d . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by computing a ranked-56 o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f e c i e n t ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b) between the z-s c o r e f o r the c a t e g o r i e s of each v a r i a b l e and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to t h e c i t y c e n t r e . . The K e n d a l l ' s t a u b i n d i c a t e d the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the t h r e e s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s . 3.3 I n d i c a t o r s Of The S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e from urban l a n d economics and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y has e x p l o r e d some of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a number of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l rank, f a m i l y s t a t u s , and d w e l l i n g t y p e . Each of these s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s . I t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t the v a r i a b l e s used f o r the a n a l y s i s were a v a i l a b l e i n a census t r a c t format and c o u l d p r o v i d e u n c l u t t e r e d measures of the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s . 57 F i g u r e 1 1 - T h e o r e t i c a l O r i g i n s Of The S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s SOCIAL ECOLOGY URBAN ECONOMICS S o c i a l Rank F a m i l y S t a t u s E t h n i c i t y R e s i d e n t i a l D e n s i t y * L e v e l of S c h o o l i n g •Household Type *not used i n • D w e l l i n g Type a n a l y s i s • D w e l l i n g Type S u i t a b l e v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d from the Census T r a c t d a t a which a l l o w e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o be t e s t e d . The i n d i c a t o r s of t h e s o c i a l rank d i m e n s i o n was dev e l o p e d from the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d . The f a m i l y s t a t u s i n d i c a t o r was d e r i v e d from the number of f a m i l y and n o n - f a m i l y households i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s of the c i t y . V a r i a t i o n s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g t y p e s p r o v i d e d the t h i r d i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a l l o w i n g f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o the f a m i l y s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n and i n t o v a r i a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y . 3.3.1 S o c i a l Rank S o c i a l rank i s most commonly measured u s i n g one of the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n c o m p l e t e d , l e v e l of income, or type of o c c u p a t i o n . For t h i s s t u d y , the h i g h e s t l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g a t t a i n e d was used as a measure of the l e v e l of s o c i a l r ank. The l e v e l of income was not c o l l e c t e d f o r the 1976 Census and so i t c o u l d not be used f o r t h i s s t u d y . A d d i t i o n a l problems w i t h u s i n g l e v e l of income a r e i m p l i e d because the a v a i l a b l e income d a t a i s average h o u s e h o l d income 58 f o r the Census T r a c t and does not i n d i c a t e the range of v a l u e s ; o t h e r problems i n c l u d e the d i f f i c u l t y of s t a n d a r d i z i n g f o r f a m i l y s i z e and f o r f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n . Problems a r i s e when the attempt i s made t o o r d e r the s o c i a l rank u s i n g the o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p i n g s which a r e p r o v i d e d by S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Much of the d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s from the broad range of s o c i a l ranks which each of the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e . The o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a a v a i l a b l e from S t a t i s t i c s Canada i s c o m p r i s e d of a s m a l l number of o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . In c o n t r a s t w i t h the l a r g e number of d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s used by B l i s h e n , each of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n s a wide range of o c c u p a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g a wide range of s o c i a l r a n k i n g s . Each of the S t a t i s t i c s Canada o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d c o n t a i n members from a numerous s o c i a l r a n k i n g s ; i n e a ch.geographic a r e a , the c o m p o s i t i o n of each o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y c o u l d e a s i l y v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y . To a v o i d c o m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s s o r t , the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d was chosen t o i n d i c a t e s o c i a l rank. The e d u c a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s p r e s e n t a more s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s t r u c t u r e f o r o r d e r i n g the c a t e g o r i e s of d a t a , based on the number of y e a r s of e d u c a t i o n and the d i s t i n c t i o n between academic and non-academic programs. The d e c i s i o n t o use the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d was t a k e n f o r t h e s e p r a g m a t i c reasons and because of the c o n s i d e r a b l e support f o r the v a l i d i t y of the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d as a measure of s o c i a l rank i n the s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d was seen t o be the most d i r e c t measure f o r s o c i a l rank a v a i l a b l e f o r the time p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 59 In a d d i t i o n , the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d p r o v i d e s an a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l rank which i s not s u b j e c t t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s which o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s p r o v i d e . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g of the s o c i a l rank of the Census T r a c t s was made u s i n g the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d by the over 15 year o l d p o p u l a t i o n . The h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d v a r i a b l e was a v a i l a b l e f o r both the 1976 and the 1981 Census p e r i o d s . There were however, d i f f e r e n c e s between the e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s of the two y e a r s . T h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y was overcome by combining the c a t e g o r i e s t o o b t a i n e q u i v a l e n t groups. The v a r i a b i l i t y of the e d u c a t i o n v a r i a b l e between sub-areas became more apparent a f t e r the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d v a r i a b l e s were combined i n t o the t h r e e comparable c a t e g o r i e s , h i g h s c h o o l , p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) , and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) . Each c a t e g o r y r e p r e s e n t s a broad range of e d u c a t i o n a l background which i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l rank. The h i g h s c h o o l c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a l l p e r s o n s over the 15 y e a r s o l d who have as t h e i r h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t : l e s s than grade 9, some h i g h s c h o o l , or h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n . The p o s t -secondary ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a l l persons over the 15 y e a r s o l d who have as t h e i r h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l -a t t a i n m e n t : t r a d e c e r t i f i c a t e s , some n o n - u n i v e r s i t y p o s t -secondary t r a i n i n g , n o n - u n i v e r s i t y p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t r a i n i n g w i t h a t r a d e c e r t i f i c a t e , or n o n - u n i v e r s i t y p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t r a i n i n g w i t h a d i p l o m a or a c e r t i f i c a t e . The p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a l l p e r s o n s over the 15 y e a r s o l d 60 who have as t h e i r highest l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l attainment: some u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l t r a i n i n g without a diploma or a c e r t i f i c a t e , some u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l t r a i n i n g with a diploma or a c e r t i f i c a t e , or a u n i v e r s i t y graduate at the Bachelor's degree l e v e l or hi g h e r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s can be seen i n F i g u r e 1 2 . F i g u r e 12 - The E d u c a t i o n a l I n d i c e s TOTAL POPULATION OVER 15 YEARS High School I ndex *Less than Grade9 *Some High School w/ no C e r t i f i c a t e *Some High School w/ C e r t i f i c a t e *High School Graduate Post Secondary (No U n i v e r s i t y ) Index •Trade C e r t i f i c a t e • N o n - U n i v e r s i t y w/ no C e r t i f i c a t e • N o n - U n i v e r s i t y w/ no C e r t i f i c a t e Post Secondary ( U n i v e r s i t y ) I ndex • U n i v e r s i t y w/ no C e r t i f i c a t e • U n i v e r s i t y w/ C e r t i f i c a t e The percentage of the Census T r a c t p o p u l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d f o r f o r each category of s o c i a l rank, high s c h o o l , post-secondary ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) , and post-secondary ( u n i v e r s i t y ) . These values allowed comparisons to be made between Census T r a c t s along the ALRT route. Each of the percentages were converted to z-scores which enabled f u r t h e r comparisons to be made w i t h i n each category. The s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the c a t e g o r i e s of the s o c i a l rank dimension was t e s t e d by computing the rank-ordered c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f e c i e n t ( K e n d a l l ' s tau b) f o r each 61 r e l a t i o n s h i p . 3.3.2 D w e l l i n g Type The d w e l l i n g type v a r i a b l e i s a v a i l a b l e d i r e c t l y from the Census d a t a . The v a r i a b l e s were r e a s o n a b l y comparable f o r both Census d a t e s . However, the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n method changed from the d a t a b e i n g r e p o r t e d by the C e n s u s - t a k e r i n the 1976 Census, t o the da t a b e i n g r e p o r t e d by the householder i n the 1981 Census. T h i s change r e s u l t e d i n some d a t a problems b e i n g noted by S t a t i s t i c s Canada. These problems were p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the assignment of c e r t a i n m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g t y p e s i n t o the S t a t i s t i c s Canada c a t e g o r i e s . S t a t i s t i c s Canada i n c l u d e s a c a u t i o n a r y note i n t h e i r d o c u m e n t a t i o n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s e problems can be overcome by c o m b i n i n g some of the m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g c a t e g o r i e s . The f i n e - g r a i n e d d a t a which i s a v a i l a b l e from the 1981 Census was not needed f o r the purposes of t h i s a n a l y s i s , so the combining of the d a t a i n t h i s f a s h i o n d i d not l i m i t the a n a l y s i s which f o l l o w e d . For t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of d w e l l i n g type were d e s i g n a t e d , the s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d house, the m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g u n i t and the apartment. Each of the c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d an i n c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y of r e s i d e n c e s from s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d t o apartment. The s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d house c a t e g o r y r e f e r r e d t o the s i n g l e houses a t t a c h e d t o no o t h e r d w e l l i n g or n o n - r e s r d e n t i a l p r e m i s e s . The m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d d w e l l i n g s i n s i d e - b y - s i d e d u p l e x e s , over-under d o u b l e houses, and row houses. F i n a l l y , the apartment c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d d w e l l i n g s i n h i g h - r i s e a p a r t m e n t s , l o w - r i s e a p a r t m e n t s , and s u i t e s i n s t r u c t u r e s o t h e r 62 than d u p l e x e s , double houses, and row houses. The d e c i s i o n t o s e p a r a t e the m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g c a t e g o r y from the apartment c a t e g o r y was ta k e n when a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g c a t e g o r y might d i f f e r from t h a t of the apartment c a t e g o r y . F i g u r e 13 - The D w e l l i n g Type C a t e g o r i e s TOTAL DWELLINGS S i n g l e - D e t a c h e d * S i n g l e 'House M u l t i p l e - D w e l i n g *Double House *Duplex *Row House *House A t t a c h e d To A N o n - R e s i d e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e Apartment * A p a r t m e n t - l e s s than 5 s t o r e y s *Apartment-over 5 S t o r e y s * S u i t e s i n B u i l d i n g s not i n c l u d e d i n the M u l t i p l e D w e l l i n g C a t e g o r y The Census T r a c t d a t a i n c l u d e d a count of the d w e l l i n g s i n each c a t e g o r y of d w e l l i n g t y p e . T h i s d a t a was combined t o c r e a t e t h r e e d w e l l i n g t y p e c a t e g o r i e s , the s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d house, the m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g u n i t , and the apartment (See F i g u r e 13). The s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d house c a t e g o r y r e f e r r e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s which are a t t a c h e d t o no o t h e r d w e l l i n g s or non-r e s i d e n t i a l p r e m i s e s . The m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g u n i t c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s i n d u p l e x e s , double houses, row houses, and r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a t t a c h e d t o n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l p r e m i s e s . The apartment c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d d w e l l i n g s i n h i g h -r i s e a p a r t m e n t s , l o w - r i s e a p a r t m e n t s , and s u i t e s i n s t r u c t u r e s o t h e r than d u p l e x e s , double houses, and row houses. A f t e r the d a t a was combined i n t o t h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s the 63 p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l number of d w e l l i n g s i n each Census T r a c t s was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each c a t e g o r y ; t h i s a l l o w e d comparisons t o be made between Census T r a c t s . F i n a l l y , t hese p e r c e n t a g e s were t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o z - s c o r e s . The z- s c o r e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a l l o w e d f u r t h e r comparisons t o be made w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y . The s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the c a t e g o r i e s of the d w e l l i n g type dimension was t e s t e d by computing the r a n k - o r d e r e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f e c i e n t ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b) f o r each r e l a t i o n s h i p . 3.3.3 F a m i l y S t a t u s The f a m i l y s t a t u s d a t a from S t a t i s t i c s Canada i n c l u d e d the number of f a m i l y and n o n - f a m i l y households i n each Census T r a c t . The f a m i l y households d a t a was f u r t h e r d i s a g g r e g a t e d i n t o s i n g l e - f a m i l y households and m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . The n o n - f a m i l y household d a t a was broken down i n t o s i n g l e - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d s and m u l t i p l e - p e r s o n n o n - r e l a t e d h o u s e h o l d s . The hous e h o l d v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be used w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o combine any of the c a t e g o r i e s used by S t a t i s t i c s Canada (See F i g u r e 14). 64 F i g u r e 14 - The F a m i l y S t a t u s C a t e g o r i e s TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS F a m i l y Households Non-Family Households One F a m i l y Households M u l t i p l e - F a m i l y Households S i n g l e - P e r s o n Households Two or More Pers o n Households The p e r c e n t a g e of the Census T r a c t p o p u l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g h o u s e h o l d t y p e s , f a m i l y and non-f a m i l y , s i n g l e - f a m i l y and m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y , and s i n g l e - p e r s o n and m u l t i p l e - p e r s o n n o n - r e l a t e d . These v a l u e s a l l o w e d c o m p a r i s o n s t o be made between Census T r a c t s a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e . Each of the p e r c e n t a g e s were c o n v e r t e d t o z - s c o r e s which e n a b l e d f u r t h e r comparisons t o be made w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y . The s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the c a t e g o r i e s of the f a m i l y s t a t u s dimension was t e s t e d by computing the rank-o r d e r e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f e c i e n t ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b) f o r each r e l a t i o n s h i p . 3.4 S p e c i f i c F i n d i n g s The a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e was undertaken i n two phases. In the i n i t i a l phase of the a n a l y s i s , the p e r c e n t a g e s of the Census T r a c t p o p u l a t i o n which each v a r i a b l e i n the data c a t e g o r y were t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o z - s c o r e s . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n e n a b l e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between 65 a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o be d e t e r m i n e d and a l l o w e d comparisons t o be made between the v a r i a b l e s . In the second phase, the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of neighbourhoods a l o n g the r o u t e was examined. The s t r e n g t h of the s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were det e r m i n e d by c a l c u l a t i n g the r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b) between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the v a r i a b l e s . 3.4.1 S o c i a l Rank In the i n i t i a l phase of t h i s a n a l y s i s , comparisons were made between the z - s c o r e s f o r the pe r c e n t a g e of the over 15 year o l d p o p u l a t i o n i n each s o c i a l rank v a r i a b l e , h i g h s c h o o l , p o s t -secondary ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) , and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) . The z - s c o r e s f o r the s o c i a l rank v a r i a b l e s i n the 1981 Census a r e summarized i n the Table 2. For each Census p e r i o d , t h e s e z-s c o r e s were compared w i t h the z - s c o r e s of the o t h e r Census T r a c t s a l o n g t h e ALRT c o r r i d o r . In 1981, the da t a f o r most Census T r a c t s a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e i n d i c a t e d t h a t a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of the over 15 year o l d p o p u l a t i o n were i n the h i g h s c h o o l c a t e g o r y than the mean f o r the C i t y of Vancouver. W i t h i n the study a r e a , t h e _ z - s c o r e s f o r the h i g h s c h o o l v a r i a b l e ranged from .272 t o 1.231 w i t h most z-s c o r e s g r e a t e r than 1.000. In c o n t r a s t , t h e z - s c o r e s f o r the po s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e i n 1981 ranged from -.390 t o -1.096, w i t h most z - s c o r e s l e s s than -1.000. The z - s c o r e s f o r the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e i n 1981 ranged from .314 t o -.905. 66 Table 2 - Z-Scores: 1981 S o c i a l Rank V a r i a b l e s Census T r a c t High S c h o o l P o s t - S e c o n d a r y  ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) Post-Secondary  ( u n i v e r s i t y ) 050.01 050.02 037.00 032.00 034.00 035.00 017.00 016.01 016.02 .797 1 . 189 .272 1 .038 1 . 1 05 1 .054 .972 1 .231 1 .231 .191 -.658 .314 -.264 -.805 -.255 -.050 -.905 -.904 -.919 -1.077 -.390 -1.037 -.941 -1 .057 -1.032 -1.046 -1.046 The h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d d a t a from the 1976 Census demonstrated a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a l t h o u g h , w i t h l e s s extreme v a r i a t i o n i n z - s c o r e s . The z - s c o r e s f o r the s o c i a l rank v a r i a b l e s i n the 1976 Census a r e summarized i n T a b l e 3. For the h i g h s c h o o l v a r i a b l e , the z - s c o r e s ranged from .486 t o 1.138, w i t h more s c o r e s f a l l i n g between the low p o i n t , .486, and 1.000. On the o t h e r hand, the z - s c o r e s f o r the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e ranged from -.575 t o 1.126, w i t h most s c o r e s between the h i g h p o i n t , -.575, and -1.000. The z - s c o r e s f o r the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e ranged from .069 t o -.799, w i t h most s c o r e s between -.553 and -.799. 67 Ta b l e 3 - Z-Scores: 1976 S o c i a l Rank V a r i a b l e s Census T r a c t High S c h o o l P ost-Secondary Post-Secondary  ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) ( u n i v e r s i t y ) 050.00 037.00 032.00 034.00 035.00 017.00 016.00 .486 .660 .899 1 .008 1 . 1 38 1 . 167 .971 .069 -.355 -.761 -.553 -.799 -.696 -.417 -.575 -.649 -.801 -.987 -1.062 -1.126 -.985 In the second phase of the a n a l y s i s , r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b) were computed f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t h r e e s o c i a l rank v a r i a b l e s , h i g h s c h o o l , p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) , and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) , and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . The rank-o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed f i r s t f o r the i n n e r suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e , from Main S t r e e t t o 29th Avenue; and t h e n , the r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed f o r the e n t i r e suburban s e c t i o n of the r o u t e , from Main S t r e e t t o Boundary Road. In the 1976 Census, s t r o n g e r rank-o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were i n d i c a t e d f o r the i n n e r suburban s e c t i o n of the r o u t e . The r e s u l t s of the r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the s o c i a l rank v a r i a b l e s f o r the 1976 Census are i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4. There was a p e r f e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the h i g h s c h o o l v a r i a b l e and a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n the 1976 Census ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-1.00, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l ) ; as a c c e s s i b i l i t y d e c r e a s e d , the p r o p o r t i o n of the Census T r a c t p o p u l a t i o n w i t h h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n or l e s s d e c r e a s e d . There was a p e r f e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e and 68 a c c e s s i b i l i t y ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=1.00, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l ) ; as a c c e s s i b i l i t y d e c r e a s e d , the p r o p o r t i o n of the a r e a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h some p o s t - s e c o n d a r y , u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l e d u c a t i o n or a completed u n i v e r s i t y programme i n c r e a s e d . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e and a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n the 1976 Census was weaker than i t was f o r the o t h e r two v a r i a b l e s ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-.80, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n between b o t h , the h i g h s c h o o l v a r i a b l e and the u n i v e r s i t y v a r i a b l e , and a c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r the e n t i r e suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e was not as s t r o n g as i t was f o r the i n n e r s e c t i o n , ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=.71, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s t han the 0.'05 l e v e l f o r the h i g h s c h o o l v a r i a b l e and K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-.7.1, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l f o r t h e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e . When the e n t i r e suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e was viewed, the c o r r e l a t i o n between the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e was a l s o not as s t r o n g as i t was f o r the i n n e r s e c t i o n of the r o u t e ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-.33, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l ) . 69 T a b l e 4 - Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1976 S o c i a l Rank V a r i a b l e s K e n d a l l C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f e c i e n t s Inner Suburban CT's E n t i r e Suburban CT's (n=5) (n=7) t a u b s i g . t a u b s i g . High -1.00 <0.05 .71 <0.05 S c h o o l P o s t - S e c o n d a r y -.80 <0.05 -.33 <0.05 ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) P o s t - S e c o n d a r y 1.00 <0.05 -.71 0.147 ( u n i v e r s i t y ) For t h e 1981 Census, the s o c i a l rank v a r i a b l e s were not as s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y as they were f o r the 1976 Census. For both the i n n e r suburban s e c t i o n and the e n t i r e suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e , the s o c i a l rank v a r i a b l e s were not as s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y , as they were f o r the 1976 Census. For the 1981 Census, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the s o c i a l rank v a r i a b l e s were weak and not p a r t i c u l a r i l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the i n n e r s e c t i o n of the r o u t e ( f o r the h i g h s c h o o l and the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e s , K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=.20, s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.287 l e v e l ; f o r the p o s t -secondary ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) v a r i a b l e s , K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =-.20, s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.287 l e v e l ) For the e n t i r e s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e i n 1981, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y - and the s o c i a l "rank v a r i a b l e s were m a r g i n a l l y s t r o n g e r , ( f o r the h i g h s c h o o l v a r i a b l e , K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-.33, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l ; and f o r the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( u n i v e r s i t y ) 70 v a r i a b l e , K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-.28, s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .149 l e v e l ) . T a b l e 5 - Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1981 S o c i a l Rank V a r i a b l e s K e n d a l l C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f e c i e n t s Inner Suburban CT's E n t i r e Suburban CT's (n=7) (n=9) t a u b s i g . t a u b s i g . High .20 0.287 .33 0.105 Sc h o o l P o s t - S e c o n d a r y -.20 0.287 -.33 0.105 ( n o n - u n i v e r s i t y ) P o s t - S e c o n d a r y ) .20 0.287 -.28 0.149 ( u n i v e r s i t y ) 3.4.2 D w e l l i n g Type In the f i r s t phase of t h i s a n a l y s i s , comparisons were made of the p e r c e n t a g e of the d w e l l i n g s i n each c a t e g o r y of d w e l l i n g type f o r the Census T r a c t s a l o n g the Main S t r e e t t o Boundary Road s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e . For each Census p e r i o d , t h e s e z - s c o r e s were compared. T h i s comparison i n d i c a t e d two d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the p r o p o r t i o n of d w e l l i n g s of a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e . A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of apartments were found i n the Census T r a c t s c l o s e s t t o the c i t y c e n t r e ; w h i l e a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses were found i n the Census T r a c t s which were f u r t h e r from the c i t y c e n t r e . The z - s c o r e s f o r the d w e l l i n g t ype v a r i a b l e s a r e summarized i n T a b l e s 6 and 7. 71 Ta b l e 6 -- Z-Scores: 1976 D w e l l i n g Type V a r i a b l e s Census T r a c t S i n g l e -Detached M u l t i p l e U n i t Apartment 050.00 -1.073 -1.063 1 .057 037.00 -.452 2.085 -.077 032.00 .581 .742 -.750 034.00 .701 .417 -.756 035.00 .928 .049 -.881 017.00 .997 -.034 -.945 016.00 .730 .156 -.771 Ta b l e 7 -- Z-Scores: 1981 D w e l l i n g Type V a r i a b l e s Census T r a c t S i n g l e -Detached M u l t i p l e -U n i t Apartment 050.01 -1.230 1 .269 .854 050.02 -.956 1 .257 .495 037.00 -.512 1 .689 -.332 032.00 .463 .129 -.675 034.00 .733 -.409 -.697 035.00 .959 -.648 -.850 017.00 1.069 -.774 -.946 016.01 .687 -.689 -.689 016.02 .687 -.517 -.575 When s u c c e s s i v e Census T r a c t s a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e were examined, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the p r o p o r t i o n of a s p e c i f i c d w e l l i n g type became more e v i d e n t . At each s u c c e s s i v e Census T r a c t a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e , as a c c e s s i b i l i t y d e c r e a s e d , the p r o p o r t i o n of apartments d e c r e a s e d . In c o n t r a s t , the p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses i n c r e a s e d as the a c c e s s i b i l i t y d e c r e a s e d . For the 1981 Census, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e -d e t a c h e d houses was not c o n s t a n t over the e n t i r e ALRT r o u t e ; a t a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e , the p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses began t o de c r e a s e w i t h d e c r e a s i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y . One e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s r e v e r s a l c o u l d be t h a t 72 at t h i s p o i n t the i n f l u e n c e of o t h e r s econd-order c e n t r e s i n c r e a s e d and a f f e c t e d the demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l space i n t h i s a r e a . The p a t t e r n d e monstrated by the m u l t i p l e - u n i t v a r i a b l e was l e s s c o n s i s t a n t t h a n t h e p a t t e r n s of the o t h e r d w e l l i n g type v a r i a b l e s . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the 1976 Census. In the second phase of the a n a l y s i s , the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the d w e l l i n g type v a r i a b l e s was t e s t e d by computing the r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s c o e f f i c i e n t s between t h e z - s c o r e s f o r the d w e l l i n g type v a r i a b l e s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The s t r e n g t h of the s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were t e s t e d f o r both the i n n e r suburban s e c t i o n and the e n t i r e suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e . T a b l e 8 - Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1981 D w e l l i n g Type V a r i a b l e s K e n d a l l C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f e c i e n t s I n n e r Suburban CT's E n t i r e Suburban CT's (n=7) (n=9) t a u b s i g . t a u b s i g . S i n g l e 1.00 <0.05 .65 <0.05 Detached M u l t i p l e -.73 <0.05 -.72 <0.05 U n i t Apartment -1.00 <0.05 -.61 <0.05 The r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s computed between a c c e s s i b i l i t y a l o n g f o r the Main S t r e e t t o Boundary Road s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e and the s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d house v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b = . 8 1 , • s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976, and K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =.65, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). When the r a n k - o r d e r 73 c o r r e l a t i o n was c o n f i n e d t o the Main S t r e e t t o 29th Avenue s e c t i o n df the r o u t e , the c o r r e l a t i o n was p e r f e c t , ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =1.00, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n b o t h 1976 and 1981). T h i s confimed the e a r l i e r s u s p i c i o n t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of the c i t y c e n t r e on the p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e -d e tached homes d i m i n i s h e d beyond a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e where the i n f l u e n c e of o t h e r second-order c e n t r e s became more i m p o r t a n t . T a b l e 9 - Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1976 D w e l l i n g Type V a r i a b l e s K e n d a l l C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f e c i e n t s I n n e r Suburban CT's E n t i r e Suburban CT's -(n=5) Tn=T) t a u b s i g . t a u b s i g . S i n g l e 1.00 <0.05 .81 <0.05 Detached M u l t i p l e -.20 .312 -.24 .226 U n i t Apartment -1.00 <0.05 -.81 <0.05 The r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y a l o n the Main S t r e e t t o Boundary Road s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e and t h e z - s c o r e s f o r the apartment v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b = -.81, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976, and K e n d a l l ' s t a u b = -.61, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). S i m i l a r t o the f i n d i n g s f o r the s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d homes, when the r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n was computed f o r the Main S t r e e t t o 29th Avenue s e c t i o n of the r o u t e , the c o r r e l a t i o n between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and t h e r d w e l l i n g type v a r i a b l e was s t r o n g e r . In t h i s c a s e , the c o r r e l a t i o n was 74 p e r f e c t , ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =1.00, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n both the 1976 and the 1981 C e n s u s ) . The r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the z-s c o r e s f o r the m u l t i p l e - u n i t v a r i a b l e were almost i d e n t i c a l f o r the i n n e r s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e i n both Censuses. The major d i s t i n c t i o n was between the two Census d a t e s , ( f o r the i n n e r s e c t i o n of the r o u t e , K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-.20, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .312 l e v e l i n 1976, compared w i t h K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-.73, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than 0.05 i n 1981; f o r the e n t i r e s e c t i o n , K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-.24, s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .226 l e v e l i n 1976, compared w i t h K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=-.72, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than 0.05 i n 1981). 3.4.3 F a m i l y S t a t u s In the i n i t i a l phase of t h i s a n a l y s i s , comparisons were made of the f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s f o r the Census T r a c t s a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e . For each Census, the z - s c o r e s f o r each f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e were compared. The f o c u s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s on the downtown c o r e was not as s t r o n g as a n t i c i p a t e d . In a d d i t i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l s o d i f f e r e d between the two Census d a t e s . The d a t a from the 1976 Census i n d i c a t e d a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n i n which the Census T r a c t s c l o s e r t o the c i t y c e n t r e c o n t a i n e d a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - f a m i l y households than the Census ~ -T r a c t s f u r t h e r from the c i t y c e n t r e . Each s u c c e s s i v e Census T r a c t a l o n g the r o u t e from Main S t r e e t t o 29th Avenue had a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of the f a m i l y households than the p r e c e d i n g Census T r a c t (See Table 10). The da t a from the 1981 Census 75 demonstrated a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n (See Table 11); a l t h o u g h , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l y h o useholds was not as c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as i t was i n the 1976 Census. T a b l e 10 - Z-Scores: 1976 F a m i l y S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s Census T r a c t 050.00 037.00 032.00 034.00 035.00 017.00 016.00 F a m i l y /  Non-Family -.768 -.481 .227 .826 .884 .764 .717 F a m i l y -. 1 48 .251 .627 .780 .792 .768 .759 Non-Family . 1 48 -.251 -.627 -.780 -.792 -.768 -.759 Ta b l e 11 Census T r a c t 050.01 050.02 037.00 032.00 034.00 035.00 017.00 016.01 016.02 - Z-Scores: 1981 F a m i l y S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s F a m i l y /  Non-Family -.854 .652 -.848 .697 .885 1 .399 .970 .769 1 .081 F a m i l y -.609 .795 -.598 .814 .887 1 .047 .918 .844 .955 Non-Family .609 -.795 .598 -.814 -.887 -1.047 -.918 -.844 -.955 In the second phase of the a n a l y s i s , a r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n was computed t o d e t e r m i n e the . s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the z - s c o r e s f o r the f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 12 and 13. The f i r s t r e l a t i o n s h i p which was a s s e s s e d was t h a t between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the r a t i o of f a m i l y t o n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . The f a m i l y t o n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d r a t i o p r o v i d e d s i m i l a r 76 i n s i g h t s t o those which c o u l d have been d e t e r m i n e d from e i t h e r the f a m i l y or n o n - f a m i l y v a r i a b l e . When the i n n e r s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e , the Main S t r e e t t o 29th Avenue s e c t i o n , was c o n s i d e r e d , the r e s u l t s f o r the f a m i l y / n o n - f a m i l y r a t i o i n d i c a t e d a p e r f e c t c o r r e l a t i o n i n the 1976 Census, and a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n i n the 1981 Census, ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =1.00, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976 compared w i t h K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =.87, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). When the e n t i r e suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e was c o n s i d e r e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p was not as s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d as i t was f o r the i n n e r suburban s e c t i o n of the r o u t e . For the e n t i r e suburban s e c t i o n of the r o u t e , the r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n was s t r o n g e r i n the 1981 Census, ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =.61, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l f o r the 1981 Census, compared w i t h K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =.52, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l f o r the 1976 Ce n s u s ) . 77 T a b l e 12 - Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1981 F a m i l y S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s K e n d a l l C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f e c i e n t s Inner Suburban CT's E n t i r e Suburban CT's (n=7) (n=9) F a m i l y t a u b .87 s i g . <0.05 t a u b .61 s i g . <0.05 Non-Family -.87 <0.05 -.61 <0.05 F a m i l y / Non-Family .87 <0.05 .61 <0.05 One-Person -.73 <0.05 -.56 <0.05 Mul t i - P e r s o n / Non-Family -.60 <0.05 -.28 . 1 49 S i n g l e -F a m i l y .73 <0.05 .50 <0.05 M u l t i p l e -F a m i l y .60 <0.05 .56 <0.05 In a d d i t i o n t o the b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n between f a m i l y and n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , a second l e v e l of f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e can be d i s t i n g u i s e d . The p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - f a m i l y households and the p r o p o r t i o n of m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the downtown c o r e . As c o u l d be e x p e c t e d from the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a t i o of f a m i l y t o n o n - f a m i l y households and a c c e s s i b i l i t y , the p r o p o r t i o n of both s i n g l e - f a m i l y and m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y households was seen t o i n c r e a s e w i t h the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the s i n g l e - f a m i l y household v a r i a b l e and a c c e s s i b i l i t y was s t r o n g e r i n the 1976 Census f o r b o t h , the i n n e r suburban s e c t i o n and the e n t i r e suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e . The z - s c o r e s f o r s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , 78 g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e d as a c c e s s i b i l i t y d e c r e a s e d . The c o r r e l a t i o n was s t r o n g e r f o r the Main S t r e e t t o 29th Avenue s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e , ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =1.00, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976 and K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=.73, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). A l t h o u g h , a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n was noted f o r the Main S t r e e t t o Boundary Road s e c t i o n i n the 1976 Census, ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =.90, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976), the c o r r e l a t i o n was somewhat, weaker f o r the 1981 Census, ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b=.50, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). T a b l e 13 - Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n : 1976 F a m i l y S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s K e n d a l l C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f e c i e n t s I nner Suburban CT's E n t i r e Suburban CT's (n=5) (n=7) F a m i l y t a u b 1 .00 s i q . <0.05 t a u b .52 s i g . <0.05 Non-Family -1 .00 <0.05 -.52 <0.05 F a m i l y / Non-Family 1 .00 <0.05 .52 <0.05 One-Person -1 .00 <0.05 -.33 . 1 47 Mul t i - P e r s o n Non-Family -.60 .071 -.81 <0.05 S i n g l e -F a m i l y 1 .00 <0.05 .90 <0.05 Mul t i p l e -P erson 1 .00 <0.05 .62 <0.05 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the m u l t i p l e -f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d v a r i a b l e was s i m i l a r t o the p a t t e r n found f o r the f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d v a r i a b l e . When the i n n e r suburban s e c t i o n 79 of the ALRT was c o n s i d e r e d , s t r o n g e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were o b s e r v e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the 1976 Census, ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =1.00, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976 and K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =.60, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). When the e n t i r e suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e was examined, the r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were not as s t r o n g , ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =.62, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976, and K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =.56, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y d i s c u s s e d above i n c l u d e d a t a second l e v e l , the two f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the s i n g l e -p e rson household v a r i a b l e and the m u l t i p l e - p e r s o n n o n - f a m i l y h o u sehold v a r i a b l e . As noted above, the s e h o u s e h o l d t y p e s were more predominant i n the r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods c l o s e t o the c i t y c e n t r e . As a c c e s s i b i l i t y d e c r e a s e d , the p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - p e r s o n households and m u l t i p l e - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d s was found t o d e c r e a s e . The c o r r e l a t i o n between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and t h e z - s c o r e s f o r the s i n g l e - p e r s o n h o usehold v a r i a b l e was s t r o n g e r a l o n g the i n n e r suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 1976 Census, ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =-1.00, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976 compared w i t h K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =-.73, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). When the Main S t r e e t t o Boundary Road s e c t i o n of the r o u t e was examined, the c o r r e l a t i o n was not as s t r o n g , ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =-.33, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976, and K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =-.56, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). 80 When the Main S t r e e t t o 29th Avenue s e c t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d , the c o r r e l a t i o n between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the z - s c o r e s f o r the m u l t i p l e - p e r s o n n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d v a r i a b l e was not as s t r o n g as t h a t f o r the s i n g l e - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d v a r i a b l e , ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =-.60, s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.07 l e v e l i n 1976 and K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =-.60, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the. 0.05 l e v e l i n 1981). For the ALRT r o u t e from Main S t r e e t t o Boundary Road, the c o r r e l a t i o n was s t r o n g e r f o r the 1976 Census, ( K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =-.81, s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than the 0.05 l e v e l i n 1976 and K e n d a l l ' s t a u b =-.28, s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.15 l e v e l i n 1981). 3.5 Summary The l i t e r a t u r e from urban l a n d economics and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which might be a l t e r e d by the development of the ALRT system. T h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y were noted f o r t h r e e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s i c s , s o c i a l rank, f a m i l y s t a t u s , and d w e l l i n g t y p e . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y were t e s t e d u s i n g i n d i c a t o r s f o r each s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , s o c i a l rank ( h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d ) , f a m i l y s t a t u s ( h o u s ehold t y p e ) , and d w e l l i n g t y p e ( t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of d w e l l i n g t y p e ) . Rank-o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d between the i n d i c a t o r s f o r the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s and r e l a t i v e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . S t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s were i n d i c a t e d between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and two s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f a m i l y s t a t u s and d w e l l i n g t y p e ; w h i l e s o c i a l rank, on the o t h e r hand, was l e s s s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h w i t h r e l a t i v e a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The 81 i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g f o r f u t u r e development i n the Vancouver s e c t i o n of the ALRT c o r r i d o r a r e d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 8 2 IV. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4.1 Summary Of The F i n d i n g s P o t e n t i a l impacts of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of Vancouver's ALRT were t e s t e d by comparing t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and t h r e e v a r i a b l e s of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s ( s o c i a l rank, d w e l l i n g t ype and f a m i l y s t a t u s ) were r e l a t e d t o a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT would a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s . The b o d i e s of l i t e r a t u r e used i n t h i s s tudy s u ggested two a l t e r n a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r s o c i a l rank. The urban l a n d economic l i t e r a t u r e suggested t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank would be a f f e c t e d by the v a r i a t i o n s i n the b i d - p r i c e f o r l a n d ; under the urban l a n d economic p e r s p e c t i v e , the b i d - p r i c e f o r l a n d would v a r y w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . On the o t h e r hand, the urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e sted t h a t s o c i a l rank was d i s t r i b u t e d s e c t o r a l l y and thus would not be r e l a t e d t o a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g type was i n d i c a t e d , by both the urban l a n d economic and the urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e , as b e i n g a f f e c t e d by the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . F i n a l l y , b o th the urban l a n d economics and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a m i l y s t a t u s i s r e l a t e d t o the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . The s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p suggested by each of the hypotheses was t e s t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y , and the s i g n i f i c a n c e and s t r e n g t h of 83 t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d i n the next t h r e e s e c t i o n s . 4.2 S o c i a l Rank The urban l a n d economic and the urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and s o c i a l rank. The urban l a n d economic l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t l a n d c o s t i s t i e d t o a c c e s s i b i l t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e ; f o r t h i s r e a son under t h i s t h e o r y , the neighbourhoods near the c i t y c e n t r e would be e x p e c t e d t o be o c c u p i e d by pe r s o n s of h i g h e r s o c i a l rank. A second competing h y p o t h e s i s under urban l a n d economic t h e o r y i s t h a t the p e r s o n s of h i g h e r s o c i a l rank would be e x p e c t e d t o r e s i d e away from t h e c i t y c e n t r e because of t h e i r b e t t e r a b i l i t y t o pay the h i g h e r c o s t s of commuting t o suburban l o c a t i o n s . In e i t h e r c a s e , t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank would be e x p e c t e d t o be a f f e c t e d by a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . The l i t e r a t u r e of urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y s u g g e s t s t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank i s not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . The h y p o t h e s i s which comes from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of s o c i a l rank i s independent of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . For t h i s s t u d y , the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d by r e s i d e n t s of the Census T r a c t s was used t o i n d i c a t e the l e v e l of s o c i a l rank of the p o p u l a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s of the Census T r a c t s a l o n g the suburban s e c t i o n of the ALRT r o u t e i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n s o c i a l rank. T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s of P a t t e r s o n (1974) which i n d i c a t e t h a t the Vancouver neighbourhoods a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e a r e p o p u l a t e d by 84 persons of the lower q u a r t i l e of socioeconomic s t a t u s . In f a c t , only a weak c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the d i s t a n c e from the downtown core and the i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l rank along the ALRT c o r r i d o r . Within the ALRT c o r r i d o r , d i s t a n c e from the downtown does not s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t the i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l rank. Contrary to the hypothesis from urban lan d economics, i n t h i s p a r t of Vancouver s o c i a l rank i s not r e l a t e d to a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c i t y c e n t r e . T h i s leads to the s p e c u l a t i o n that another f a c t o r , such as the p a t t e r n of h i s t o r i c a l development of the c i t y , i s more s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank i n Vancouver than was a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c o r e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank observed i n t h i s c o r r i d o r i n 1981 i s c o n s i s t e n t with a v a r i e t y of past r e s u l t s , (Van A r d o s o l , C a m i l l e r i and Schmid 1958, Anderson and Bean 1961, Schwirian and Matre 1974, L a t i f 1971, Berry and Rees 1969, Berry and Spodek 1971, Sweetser 1965). Because of the c o n s i s t e n c y of t h i s f i n d i n g , both over time and i n a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s , i t was expected that the change i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c i t y c e n t r e r e s u l t i n g from the development of the ALRT system would a f f e c t the f u t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l rank i n Vancouver. The s e c t o r a l p a t t e r n demonstrated by s o c i a l rank in e a r l i e r s t u d i e s of Vancouver (Wolforth, 1969 and P a t t e r s o n , 1974), has a l s o been noted i n many other j u r i s d i c t i o n s (Van A r d o s o l , C a m i l l e r i and Schmid 1958, Anderson and Bean 1961, Schwirian and Matre 1974, L a t i f 1971, Berry and Rees 1969, Berry and Spodek 1971, Sweetser 1965). One of the e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e s i s the d i s c u s s i o n of socioeconomic s t a t u s i n the Chicago area by Homer 85 Hoyt (1939). F a c t o r s , such as the a e s t h e t i c f e a t u r e s of the l o c a t i o n and neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , were noted by Hoyt as b e i n g more f r e q u e n t l y r e l a t e d t o the s o c i a l rank of an a r e a than i s the p r o x i m i t y or the a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the downtown c o r e . 4.3 D w e l l i n g Type The urban l a n d economic l i t e r a t u r e ( A l o n s o , 1961; Wingo, 1964) s u g g e s t s t h a t the a r e a s f u r t h e s t from the c i t y c e n t r e would be the l e a s t d e n s e l y d e v e l o p e d and t h a t those a r e a s c l o s e s t t o the c i t y c e n t r e would be the most d e n s e l y d e v e l o p e d . The development p a t t e r n i n the study a r e a was e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w the c l a s s i c a l p a t t e r n of the A l o n s o ' s b i d - r e n t c u r v e . An e x t e n s i o n of the urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y f i n d i n g s on the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g type as a measure of f a m i l y s t a t u s l e a d s t o the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t more s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s would be l o c a t e d i n the suburban areas,, w h i l e more apartments and o t h e r m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g would be l o c a t e d n e a r e r the c i t y c e n t r e . To t e s t t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s t a n c e from the downtown c o r e and the dominant d w e l l i n g form i n t h e Census T r a c t s a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e was a n a l y s e d . In t h i s a n a l y s i s , the d w e l l i n g t y p e s found i n Vancouver were c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h r e e groups: s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses, m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g u n i t s , and a p a r t m e n t s . The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e from the downtown c o r e and the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of two d w e l l i n g t y p e s , s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses and apartments. The p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses i n c r e a s e d as the d i s t a n c e 86 from the c i t y c e n t r e i n c r e a s e d ; i n c o n s t r a s t , the p r o p o r t i o n of apartments d e c r e a s e d as d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e i n c r e a s e d . W h i l e the p r o p o r t i o n of b oth apartments and s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses were found t o be s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the d i s t a n c e from the downtown c o r e , the p r o p o r t i o n of o t h e r m u l t i p l e -d w e l l i n g s , such as d u p l e x e s and s u i t e s i n houses, was found t o be weakly c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r o p o r t i o n of households i n the apartment and s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d house c a t e g o r i e s and d i s t a n c e from the downtown c o r e was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p p r e d i c t e d by the c l a s s i c model of the b i d - r e n t c u r v e . S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from these f i n d i n g s . The more i n t e n s i v e development of i n n e r c i t y l a n d as apartments s u g g e s t s t h a t l a n d c o s t s a r e r e l a t e d t o d i s t a n c e from the downtown c o r e . In c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e of the z o n i n g p a t t e r n , a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e has h e l p e d t o shape the p h y s i c a l development of the c i t y . More apartments than s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses have been c o n s t r u c t e d near the c i t y c e n t r e where the l a n d c o s t would be h i g h e r . On the o t h e r hand, more s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d homes have been c o n s t r u c t e d i n l e s s a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s where the l a n d c o s t s have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y been lower away from the c i t y c e n t r e . T h i s p a t t e r n of development r e f l e c t s the most r a t i o n a l market response t o the o p p o r t u n i t i e s which the p r o p e r t y market has p r e s e n t e d . The h i g h c o s t of the i n n e r c i t y l a n d has come i n p a r t as a p r o p e r t y market response t o the easy a c c e s s t o the downtown c o r e which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c e n t r a l a r e a . The i n f l u e n c e of d i s t a n c e 87 from the c e n t r a l downtown on the r e s i d e n t i a l development p a t t e r n was observed t o d i m i n i s h beyond a c e r t a i n range from the c o r e . In the absence of c o n t r a r y z o n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT would a f f e c t the f u t u r e form and p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l development. F o r m e r l y , the o u t l y i n g a r e a s , the l e s s a c c e s s i b l e p a r t s of the c i t y away from the c e n t r e have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by lower l a n d c o s t s w h ich, i n t u r n , have made lower d e n s i t y developments e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses a r e found i n neighbourhoods a t a d i s t a n c e from the c o r e . Under the r u b r i c of A l o n s o ' s t r a d e - o f f t h e o r y , the r e s i d e n t s of t h i s a r e a a c c e p t d e c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c e n t r a l c i t y i n exchange f o r a lower l a n d c o s t . F o l l o w i n g the c o s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT system, the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a n d c o s t s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y w i l l be a l t e r e d . A reas made more a c c e s s i b l e t o the c i t y c e n t r e w i l l s u s c e p t i b l e t o more i n t e n s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l development i f the z o n i n g bylaws were t o p e r m i t such development. 4 . 4 F a m i l y S t a t u s The f i n d i n g s of f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y s t u d i e s (Abu-Lughod 1961; Joh n s t o n 1974) suggest t h a t neighbourhoods n e a r e s t the c o r e would have a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - p e r s o n h ouseholds than the neighbourhoods f u r t h e r from the c o r e . These f i n d i n g s f u r t h e r suggest t h a t a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o useholds would be l o c a t e d i n the neighbourhoods f u r t h e r from the c o r e than would be found i n the neighbourhoods of the i n n e r -88 c i t y . In o t h e r words, i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - f a m i l y households would be l a r g e r i n the i n n e r - c i t y neighbourhoods and t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l y households would be l a r g e r i n the neighbourhoods f u r t h e r from the c i t y c e n t r e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g t y p e s suggested by the urban l a n d economic l i t e r a t u r e has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of h o u s e h o l d t y p e s . The s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g which urban l a n d economic l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s would be developed i n the suburbs i s a more s u i t a b l e r e s i d e n c e f o r f a m i l y h o u seholds and, t h e r e f o r e , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s would be e x p e c t e d t o s e t t l e i n these neighbourhoods. S i m i l a r i l y , the h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of apartments i n the i n n e r - c i t y would be e x p e c t e d t o a t t r a c t a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . W i t h i n t h e f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e , a number of dichotomous r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been i d e n t i f i e d . They i n c l u d e : f a m i l y / n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , s i n g l e - f a m i l y / m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , s i n g l e - p e r s o n / m u l t i p l e - p e r s o n n o n - f a m i l y households. The m u l t i - f a c e t e d n a t u r e of the f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e has meant t h a t a s e r i e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s were a n t i c i p a t e d between the v a r i o u s sub-components of the v a r i a b l e and the d i s t a n c e from the downtown c o r e . An a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and the components of the h o u s e h o l d v a r i a b l e was completed. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n f a c t , a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - p e r s o n households were l o c a t e d i n neighbourhoods near the downtown c o r e than i n neighbourhoods away from the downtown. The p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - f a m i l y 89 h o u s e h o l d s , as e x p e c t e d , was h i g h e r i n neighbourhoods f u r t h e r from the c i t y c e n t r e . F i n a l l y , a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of the non-f a m i l y households were l o c a t e d i n c e n t r e c i t y neighbourhoods, a l t h o u g h t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was weaker than the r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i s c u s s e d above. I n i t i a l l y , a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the downtown c o r e would appear t o be the main f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A d e t a i l e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g t y p e s i n t h e s e Census T r a c t s h e l p s t o p r o v i d e a f u l l e r and more p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n . More s i n g l e - f a m i l i e s a r e t o found i n t h o s e a r e a s which a r e dominated by s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses; s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses are more a p p r o p r i a t e accommodation f o r s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . C o n v e r s e l y , more s i n g l e - p e r s o n households a r e found i n t h o s e a r e a s which a r e dominated by apartments; t h i s t y pe of accommodation b e t t e r meets the needs of the s i n g l e - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d . A more t h o u g h t f u l c o n c l u s i o n would be t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r d w e l l i n g type i s r e l a t e d t o the d i s t a n c e from the downtown c o r e f o r the reasons i n d i c a t e d above; and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d w e l l i n g t y p e s , i n t u r n , a f f e c t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i o u s h o u s e h o l d t y p e s thoughout the r e g i o n . 90 V. CONCLUSIONS Changes i n development, a t t h e s c a l e of the t r a n s i t c o r r i d o r , caused by the development of the ALRT are the main i n t e r e s t of t h i s t h e s i s . Zoning may l i m i t , i ndeed p r e v e n t , development. Zoning i s , however, a n e c e s s a r y but not s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r development t o o c c u r . P r e d i c t i o n of what would be changed i f the z o n i n g bylaw were t o a l l o w i t i s one among many f a c t o r s which s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d by those making d e c i s i o n s about changes i n the z o n i n g bylaws. That s o r t of p r e d i c t i o n i s the r a t i o n a l e b ehind the s e l e c t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n s used i n t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s t h e s i s s e t out t o examine how improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e a r i s i n g from the development of the ALRT system w i l l a f f e c t the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of neighbourhoods a l o n g the r o u t e . B e f o r e t h i s q u e s t i o n c o u l d be answered, i t was ne c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d the t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . An e x a m i n a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e s of urban l a n d economics and urban s o c i a l e c o l o g y p r o v i d e d a number of s p e c i f i c neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d t o a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The l i t e r a t u r e f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t changes i n the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r of neighbourhoods c o u l d be measured a l o n g t h r e e s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s , s o c i a l r a n k , f a m i l y s t a t u s , and d w e l l i n g t y p e . Once the s e s p e c i f i c d i m e n s i o n s of s o c i a l change were i d e n t i f i e d , the s i g n i f i c a n c e and s t r e n g t h of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e c o u l d be t e s t e d . 91 L o g i c a l l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y c o u l d range from v e r y s t r o n g t o v e r y weak or n o n - e x i s t e n t . I f t h e r e were a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , then the development of the ALRT system would be e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t the f u t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h a t s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . I f on the o t h e r hand, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c were found t o be weak or n o n - e x i s t e n t , , t h e n the development of the ALRT system would not be e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h a t s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and i n d i c a t o r s of the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s "was ' u n d e r t a k e n . The r e s u l t s of these t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t two i n d i c a t o r s of the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s , d w e l l i n g type and f a m i l y s t a t u s , were s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and would be ex p e c t e d t o be a f f e c t e d by the improvement i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from the development of the ALRT system. The t h i r d d i m e n s i o n , s o c i a l rank, was found t o be weakly c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e and would not be ex p e c t e d t o be a f f e c t e d by the improvement i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The l i t e r a t u r e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i c a t o r s of the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s and the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e has been c o n s i s t e n t both over time and i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . For t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s not a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l change d r a m a t i c a l l y . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t any improvement i n the l e v e l of 92 a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e w i l l a f f e c t t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h o s e s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h a r e s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o t h e l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c e n t r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e ALRT s y s t e m would be e x p e c t e d t o improve a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e f o r t h o s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a l o n g t h e ALRT r o u t e . The improvement i n t h e l e v e l o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e would l e a d t o i n c r e a s e s i n t h e b i d - p r i c e f o r l a n d a l o n g t h e ALRT r o u t e . The u r b a n l a n d e c o n o m i c s l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e h i g h e r b i d -p r i c e f o r l a n d i n more a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s of t h e c i t y would be c a p i t a l i z e d i n t o l a n d v a l u e r e s u l t i n g i n more i n t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a n d i f t h e z o n i n g bylaw p e r m i t t e d s u c h i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . I f t h e z o n i n g bylaw d o e s p e r m i t t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , t h e e x p e c t a t i o n i s t h a t ' more a p a r t m e n t s and m u l t i p l e - u n i t d w e l l i n g s would r e s u l t . C hanges i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of d w e l l i n g t y p e s have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e f a m i l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e . More i n t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , s u c h as a p a r t m e n t s , would l i k e l y be a c c o m p a n i e d by an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f s i n g l e - p e r s o n and n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s i n t h e s e a r e a s . H o u s e h o l d s o f t h i s t y p e w ould f i n d t h e s e m u l t i p l e - u n i t d w e l l i n g s more s u i t e d t o t h e i r l i f e - s t y l e and needs t h a n would f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . A h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f s i n g l e - p e r s o n and n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s would be e x p e c t e d t o s e t t l e i n a r e a s w h i c h c o n t a i n l a r g e numbers of m u l t i p l e - u n i t d w e l l i n g s . The r e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e l a n d a l o n g t h e ALRT r o u t e i s by no means g u a r a n t e e d ; r a t h e r , s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t i s s i m p l y e n c o u r a g e d 93 by n a t u r a l market dynamics due t o the improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the c i t y c e n t r e . Zoning r e g u l a t i o n s and o t h e r development p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t s p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n c o n t r o l l i n g the form and e x t e n t of new development which would t a k e p l a c e . Such c o n t r o l s can i n t e r c e d e t o c o n s t r a i n or p r o h i b i t development which might o t h e r w i s e be a p p r o p r i a t e a c c o r d i n g t o the l o g i c of l a n d market dynamics. The key r o l e of the p l a n n e r i n t h i s p r o c e s s i s t o p r o v i d e a d v i c e t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . Such a d v i c e c o u l d i n d i c a t e p o t e n t i a l consequences of a wide range of a l t e r n a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . P r o v i s i o n of t h i s a d v i c e e a r l y i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s c o u l d l e s s e n the p o s s i b i l i t y of u n d e s i r a b l e outcomes. C a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n needs t o be g i v e n t o the r e l a t e d s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s which w i l l i n f l u e n c e the e v e n t u a l s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e of any redevelopment e f f o r t s . The e x t e n t of the a c t u a l change induced by the development of the ALRT cannot be d e f i n i t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d ; however, an i n d i c a t i o n of the d i r e c t i o n i n which the change w i l l l i k e l y t a k e p l a c e has been e s t a b l i s h e d . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s t h e s i s p o i n t t o a number of s p e c u l a t i o n s about the f u t u r e of the neighbourhoods a l o n g the ALRT c o r r i d o r . F i n d i n g s of the s t r e n g t h and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s , s o c i a l rank, d w e l l i n g t y pe and f a m i l y s t a t u s , suggest p o t e n t i a l changes f o r t h e s e neighbourhoods which c o u l d r e s u l t from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT system. Some of these changes a r e d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . The f i n d i n g t h a t a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o 94 s o c i a l rank a l o n g t h e V a n c o u v e r s e c t i o n of t h e ALRT c o r r i d o r s u g g e s t s t h a t l i t t l e c hange would be e x p e c t e d i n t h e s o c i a l rank of t h i s a r e a as a r e s u l t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ALRT. The r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s moving t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a l o n g t h e ALRT r o u t e a r e n o t a n t i c i p a t e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s o c i a l rank o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a l o n g t h e r o u t e . Once t h e d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r has been t a k e n , s u b s e q u e n t d e c i s i o n s between s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e a r e a a r e u n l i k e l y t o be f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r e l a t i v e s o c i a l rank of t h e s e l o c a t i o n s . I n s t e a d , o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h a s t h e l o c a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e d w e l l i n g s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o be more i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e s e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . S o c i a l r a n k d i f f e r e n c e s between n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o have a m i n i m a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t i n g r e s i d e n c e s i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a l o n g t h e ALRT r o u t e . W h i l e t h e s o c i a l r a n k d i m e n s i o n i s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y a l o n g t h e ALRT r o u t e , t h e d w e l l i n g t y p e d i m e n s i o n i s a f f e c t e d by a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The u r b a n l a n d e c o n o m i c s l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e b i d - p r i c e f o r l a n d would e n c o u r a g e more i n t e n s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t on s u c h l a n d i f t h e z o n i n g bylaw were t o p e r m i t s u c h i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ALRT w i l l improve a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e c i t y c e n t r e f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a l o n g t h e r o u t e . T h i s improvement i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t i n a co n c o m m i t a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e b i d - p r i c e f o r l a n d i n t h e s e a r e a s . Such change 95 would be e x p e c t e d t o make i n t e n s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l development more l i k e l y and t h e r e b y i n c r e a s e the development p r e s s u r e s on l a n d a l o n g the r o u t e . W h i l e the p r e c i s e t i m i n g of t h e i n c r e a s e s i n development p r e s s u r e i s u n c e r t a i n , i t i s e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t i n p r e s s u r e t o change the z o n i n g bylaw t o p e r m i t t h e development of more apartment and m u l t i p l e - d w e l l i n g u n i t s a l o n g the r o u t e . The impact of improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f e r e n t d w e l l i n g t y p e s w i l l a l s o have an impact on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t h o u s e h o l d t y p e s i n c l u d e d i n the f a m i l y s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n . One e x p l a n a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of hou s e h o l d t y p e s f o c u s e s on the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s made by the i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d s . Under t h i s paradigm, each h o u s e h o l d makes i t s l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n by making t h e t r a d e - o f f s , s u g g e sted by A l o n s o , between the lower l a n d c o s t s (and thus lower o v e r a l l h o u s i n g c o s t s ) i n neighbourhoods f u r t h e r from the c i t y c e n t r e , and the h i g h e r c o s t s of commuting t o the downtown c o r e from t h e s e l e s s a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s . Households of lower s o c i a l rank have fewer h o u s i n g c h o i c e s because the p r i c e range of the more s p a c i o u s accommodation i n the suburbs i s beyond t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e a c h . Households of lower s o c i a l rank must make t h e i r o p t i m a l r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n c o n t r a i n e d by the l o c a t i o n of a f f o r d a b l e accommodation. Because of t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s , they a r e unable t o make a more comprehensive d e c i s i o n based s o l e y on the t r a d e - o f f between the c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the downtown c o r e and the c o s t of s u i t a b l e •accommodation. T h e i r d e c i s i o n s a r e r e s t r i c t e d i n s t e a d t o accommodation which i s w i t h i n t h e i r l i m i t e d accommodation and 96 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n budgets. The households i n neighbourhoods a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e a r e not e x p e c t e d t o r e l o c a t e elsewhere f o l l o w i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT. T h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be l i m i t e d t o the p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n of a f f o r d a b l e , s u i t a b l y l a r g e accommodation. Some households which a r e w h o l l y dependant on p u b l i c t r a n s i t f o r t h e i r j o u r ney-to-work c o u l d be expected t o r e l o c a t e i n h o u s i n g s t i m u l a t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT. A major c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r these households would be the a f f o r d a b i l i t y of the accommodation. The a c t u a l impact which the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT w i l l have on households i n the neighbourhoods a l o n g the ALRT r o u t e w i l l depend on the degree t o which i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d s r e l y on the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system. For those households which do not r e l y on the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system, the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT would be u n l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . B u t , f o r those r e s i d e n t s who r e g u l a r l y use p u b l i c t r a n s i t t o t r a v e l t o work i n the c i t y c e n t r e , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ALRT system -- accompanied by the development of a p p r o p r i a t e , a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g a l o n g the suburban ALRT r o u t e — c o u l d r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d demand f o r s u i t a b l e accommodation i n th e s e neighbourhoods by the p u b l i c t r a n s i t dependent h o u s e h o l d s . 9 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abu-Lughod, J . and M. F o l e y . 1960. In F o o t e , N.N., J . Abu-Lughod, M.M. F o l e y , and L. W i n n i c k . 1960. Housing  C h o i c e s and C o n s t r a i n t s . New York:McGraw H i l l . A l c a l y , R.E. 1976. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and urban l a n d v a l u e s : A r e v i e w of the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . Land economics. V o l . 5 2 . No.1:42-53. A l o n s o , W. 1960. A t h e o r y of the urban l a n d market. Papers  and p r o c e e d i n g s of the r e g i o n a l s c i e n c e a s s o c i a t i o n . Vol.6.:149-57. A l o n s o , W. 1964. L o c a t i o n and l a n d use. Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . A l t s h u l e r , A. 1979. The urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m : P o l i t i c s  and p o l i c y i n n o v a t i o n . C ambridge,Massachusetts: M.I.T. P r e s s . Anderson, T. and E g e l a n d , J . 1961. S p a t i a l a s p e c t s of s o c i a l a r e a a n a l y s i s . American s o c i o l o g i c a l r e v i e w . Vol.26.:392-98. Anderson, T.R. and L.L. Bean. 1961. The S h e v k y - B e l l s o c i a l a r e a s : C o n f i r m a t i o n of the r e s u l t s and a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . S o c i a l f o r c e s . Vol.40.No.2. 119-124. Anderson, T.R. 1962. S o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the l o c a t i o n s of r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods. Papers and  p r o c e e d i n g s of the r e g i o n a l s c i e n c e a s s o c i a t i o n . Vol.9.:161-70. B a j i c , V. The e f f e c t s of a new subway l i n e on h o u s i n g p r i c e s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . Urban s t u d i e s . V o l . 2 . No.2.:147-1 58. B a l l , M. and K i r w a n , R. 1977. A c c e s s i b i l i t y and s u p p l y c o n s t r a i n t s i n the urban h o u s i n g market. Urban s t u d i e s . Vol.14.:11-32. B e r r y , B . J . and K a s a r d a , J.D. 1977. Contemporary Urban  E c o l o g y . New York: M a c M i l l a n . B e r r y , B.J.L. and P.H. Rees. 1968. The f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y of C a l c u t t a . American j o u r n a l of s o c i o l o g y . V o l . 7 4 . 445-491 . B e r r y , B.J.L. and Spodek, H. 1971. Comparative e c o l o g i e s of l a r g e I n d i a n c i t i e s Economic geography. V o l . 4 7 , No.2. 266-285. 98 B l i s h e n , B.R. and H.A. McRoberts. 1976. A r e v i s e d s o cioeconomic index f o r o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada. Canadian  review of s o c i o l o g y and a n t h r o p o l o g y . V o l . 3 . No.1.:71-79. B o a l F.W. 1976. E t h n i c r e s i d e n t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n . In D.T. H e r b e r t and R . J . J o h n s t o n . S p a t i a l p r o c e s s e s and form. London:John W i l e y and Sons. 41-79. Bourne, L.S. 1967. P r i v a t e redevelopment of the c e n t r a l c i t y . R e s earch Paper No.112. C h i c a g o : Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Bourne, L.S. 1968. Apartment l o c a t i o n and the h o u s i n g market. 321-28. In Bourne, L.S. ed. 1971. I n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of  the c i t y . T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r i t y P r e s s . Brown, J.A. 1975. Changes i n w o r k p l a c e and r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s . J o u r n a l of the American i n s t i t u t e of p l a n n e r s . V o l . 4 1 . No.1.:32-39. Catanese, A . J . 1971. Home and w o r k p l a c e s e p a r a t i o n i n f o u r urban r e g i o n s . J o u r n a l of the American i n s t i t u t e of  p l a n n e r s . Vol.37.:331-337. C e r v e r o , R. 1984. L i g h t r a i l t r a n s i t and urban development. J o u r n a l of the American p l a n n i n g a s s o c i a t i o n . V o l . 5 0 . No.2.:133-147. C h a p i n , F.S. and E . J . K a i s e r . 1979. Urban l a n d use p l a n n i n g . 3rd ed. Urbana, 111.: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s . C i t y of C a l g a r y . 1976. L i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t f o r C a l g a r y . C a l g a r y : The c i t y of C a l g a r y , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n department. C i t y of Vancouver. 1983a. P l a n n i n g f o r the community and r a p i d  t r a n s i t : An o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t f o r ALRT development. Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department. C i t y of Vancouver. 1983b. P l a n n i n g f o r the community and r a p i d  t r a n s i t : The Broadway S t a t i o n A r e a . Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department. C i t y of Vancouver. 1983c. P l a n n i n g f o r the community and r a p i d  t r a n s i t : The Joyce S t a t i o n A r e a . Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department. C i t y of Vancouver. 1983d. P l a n n i n g f o r the community and r a p i d  t r a n s i t : Nanaimo and 29th S t a t i o n A r e a . Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department. C l a r k , W.A.V. and J.E. B u r t . 1980. The impact of w o r k p l a c e on r e s i d e n t i a l r e l o c a t i o n . A n n a l s of the a s s o c i a t i o n of  American geographers. V o l . 7 0 . No.1.:59-67. 99 Dewees, D.N. 1977. Changes i n urban a c c e s s i b i l i t y : A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o , 1964-1971, Research Paper No.89. Centre f o r Urban and Community S t u d i e s , T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o . D i c k e y , J.W. 1983. M e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g . Second e d i t i o n . New York: Hemisphere P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r t a t i o n . D v e t t , M. e t a l . 1979 Land use and urban development impacts  of BART: I n t e r p r e t i v e summary of the f i n a l r e p o r t . Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Evans, A.W. 1973. The economics of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . London: M a c M i l l a n . F e r g u s o n , B. 1984. The e f f e c t of Vancouver advanced l i g h t  r a p i d t r a n s i t on s i n g l e f a m i l y p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . M.Sc. T h e s i s . Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Fe r g u s o n , B., M. G o l d b e r g , and J . Mark. 1984. The p r e - s e r v i c e impacts of the Vancouver advanced l i g h t r a p i d  t r a n s i t on s i n g l e f a m i l y p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . U n p u b l i s h e d paper. Department of Commerce. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia. F o o t e , N.N., J . Abu-Lughod, M.M. F o l e y , and L. W i n n i c k . 1960. Housing C h o i c e s and C o n s t r a i n t s . New York:McGraw H i l l . G e r a, S. 1977 R e s i d e n t i a l and job l o c a t i o n and the j o u r n e y t o  work: A review and t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Urban Paper No.1. Ottawa: Economic C o u n c i l of Canada. G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . 1975. The l i v a b l e r e g i o n  1976/1986: P r o p o s a l s t o manage the growth of G r e a t e r  Vancouver. Vancouver: G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . 1982. The j o u r n e y t o  work: An o v e r v i e w of G r e a t e r Vancouver's t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  s i t u a t i o n . P l a n n i n g Department. Vancouver: G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . G r i g g , T.J. 1984. P r o b a b i l i s t i c v e r s i o n s of the s h o r t - r u n H e r b e r t - S t e v e n s model. Environment and p l a n n i n g A. V o l . 1 6 . 715-732. Guest, A.M. 1976. O c c u p a t i o n and j o u r n e y t o work. Soc i a l  f o r c e s . V o l . 5 5 . No.1.:166-181. Hansen, W.G. 1959. How a c c e s s i b i l i t y shapes l a n d use. J o u r n a l  of the American i n s t i t u t e of p l a n n e r s . Vol.25.:73-96. H a r r i s o n , D. 1978 The impact of t r a n s i t systems on l a n d use 100 p a t t e r n s i n the p r e - a u t o m o b i l e e r a . D i s c u s s i o n Paper D78-21, Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d Department of C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . H a r r i s o n , D. 1978 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the dynamics of urban l a n d  use. D i s c u s s i o n Paper D78-22. Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d Department of C i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . Hecht, A. 1974. The j o u r n e y t o work d i s t a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o the s o c io-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of w o r k e r s . Canadian  geographer. Vol.18.:367-78. H e r b e r t , D.T. and D.J. Evans. 1974. Urban s u b - a r e a s as s a m p l i n g framework f o r s o c i a l s u r v e y . Town p l a n n i n g  r e v i e w . V o l . 4 5 . No.2. 171-188. Hoover, E.M. and R. Vernon. 1959. Anatomy of a m e t r o p o l i s : The c h a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of p e o p l e and j o b s w i t h i n t h e New  York m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Hoyt, H. 1939. The s t r u c t u r e and growth of r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods i n American c i t i e s . Washington, D.C.: F e d e r a l Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . J o h n s t o n , R.J. 1971. Urban r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s . Lonbon: B e l l . . J o h n s t o n , R.J. 1976. R e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : R e s e a r c h methods f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s u b - a r e a s . 193-235. In D. H e r b e r t and R. J o h n s t o n , eds. S o c i a l a r e a s i n c i t i e s . V o l . 1 . London:Wiley and Sons. K a i n , J.F. 1962. The j o u r n e y t o work as a d e t e r m i n a n t of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . Papers and p r o c e e d i n g s of t h e  r e g i o n a l s c i e n c e a s s o c i a t i o n . Vol.9.:137-60. K a s a r d a , J.D. 1972. The t h e o r y of e c o l o g i c a l e x p a n s i o n : An e m p i r i c a l t e s t . S o c i a l f o r c e s . Vol.51.:165-175. L a t i f , A.H. 1971. F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e and change a n a l y s i s of A l e x a n d r i a , Egypt, 1947 and 1960. In S c h w i r i a n , K.B.. Comparative urban s t r u c t u r e . L e x i n g t o n , Mass.:D.C. Heath and Company. 338-349. Lee, D.B., J r . and O.Yujnovsky. 1971. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l a n d  use: R e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o r the a n a l y s i s of BART i m p a c t s . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , I n s t i t u t e f o Uuban and r e g i o n a l development. M c A f f e e , A. 1972. E v o l v i n g i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s : The case of Vancouver's West End. I n J . M i n g h i . ed. P e o p l e s of the l i v i n g l a n d . B.C. G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s . No.15. Vancouver: T a n t a l u s R e s e a r c h 101 L i m i t e d . McCann, L.D. 1975. Neighbourhoods i n t r a n s i t i o n : P r o c e s s e s s of l a n d use and p h y s i c a l change i n Edmonton's r e s i d e n t i a l  a r e a s . O c c a s i o n a l Paper No.2. Edmonton: Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Commission. 1979. BART i n the San F r a n c i s c o Bay A r e a : Summary of the f i n a l impact program. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . M o r r i s o n , P.S. 1978. The e f f e c t of subway c o n s t r u c t i o n on the market f o r n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s i n T o r o n t o : E x p e c t a t i o n s and s p e c u l a t i v e p r i c i n g . C e n t r e f o r Urban and Community S t u d i e s . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o . M u r d i e , R.A. 1969. F a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y of M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o ,  1951-1961. Dept.of Geography. R e s e a r c h Paper No.116. C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Ch i c a g o . M u r d i e , R.A. 1976. S p a t i a l form i n the r e s i d e n t i a l mosaic. In H e r b e r t , D.T., and R.J. J o h n s t o n , e d . S p a t i a l p r o c e s s e s  and form. London: John W i l e y and Sons. 237-272. Muth, R. 1969. C i t i e s and h o u s i n g . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicag o P r e s s . Ottensmann, J.R. 1980. Changes i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o employment i n an urban a r e a : Milwaukee, 1927-1963. P r o f e s s i o n a l  g eographer. V o l . 3 2 . No.4.:421-30. P a t t e r s o n , J.M. 1974. The f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y of G r e a t e r Vancouver: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d a t a base. M.A. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, Vancouver. Pederson, P o u l 0. 1967. M o d e l l e r f o r b e f o l k n i n g s s t r u k t u r og  b e f o l k n i n g s s u d v i k l i n g : Storbymorader s p e c i e l t med h e n b l i k  pa s t o r k o b e n h a r n . Copenhagen: S t a t e urban p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t e . P e u c ker, T.K. and W.D. Rose. 1971. A f a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y of G r e a t e r Vancouver: Contemporary geography. 80-96. Western  v i e w p o i n t s . B.C. G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , V o l . 1 2 . Vancouver: T a n t a l u s Research L i m i t e d . P l e e t e r , S. 1974. R e s i d e n t i a l - l o c a t i o n t h e o r y : Some m o d i f i c a t i o n s . G e o g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s . Vol.6.:369-75. P r i c e , W i l l i a m s and A s s o c i a t e s . 1982. R a i l t r a n s i t impact s t u d i e s : A t l a n t a , Washington, San Diego. Washington, D.C.: Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Rees, P.H. 1979. R e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s i n American c i t i e s : 1960. C h i c a g o : The Department of Geography, The U n i v e r s i t y 102 of C h i c a g o . R o s s i , P. 1955. Why f a m i l i e s move: A study i n the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y of urban r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y . G l e n c o e , 111.: The F r e e P r e s s . Schnore, L.F. 1954. The s e p a r a t i o n of home and work: A problem f o r human e c o l o g y . S o c i a l f o r c e s . Vol.32.:336-43. Schnore, L.F. 1963. The socioeconomic s t a t u s of c i t i e s and suburbs. American s o c i o l o g i c a l r e v i e w . Vol.28.:76-85. Schnore, L.F. 1964. Urban s t r u c t u r e and suburban s e l e c t i v i t y . Demography. Vol.1.:164-76. S c h w i r i a n , K.P., and M.D. Matre. 1969. The e c o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of Canadian c i t i e s . In S c h w i r i a n , K.B.. Comparative urban s t r u c t u r e . L e x i n g t o n , Mass.:D.C. Heath and Company. 309-323. S c h w i r i a n , K.P., and R.K. Smith. 1971. Primacy, m o d e r n i z a t i o n and urban s t r u c t u r e : The e c o l o g y of P u e r t o R i c a n c i t i e s . In S c h w i r i a n , K.B.. Comparative Urban S t r u c t u r e . L e x i n g t o n , Mass.:D.C. Heath and Company. 324-337. S e n i o r , M.L. 1973. Approaches t o r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n m o d e l l i n g 1: Urban e c o l o g i c a l an s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n models - A r e v i e w . Environment and p l a n n i n g . Vol.5.:165-177. Shevsky, E. and W. B e l l . 1955. S o c i a l a r e a a n a l y s i s . W e s t p o r t , Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s . Stegman, M.A. 1969. A c c e s s i b i l i t y models and r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . J o u r n a l of the American i n s t i t u t e of p l a n n e r s . V o l . 3 5 . No.1.:22-29. Sweetser, F.L.S. 1965. F a c t o r i a l e c o l o g y : H e l s i n k i , i 9 6 0 . Demography. V o l 2 . 372-385. Theodorson, G.A., ed. 1961. S t u d i e s i n human e c o l o g y . Evanston,I11.:Row, P e t e r s o n and Company. Theodorson, G.A., ed. 1982. Urban p a t t e r n s . Rev.ed. U n i v e r s i t y P a rk, Penn.: P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P a r k . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h Board. 1982. L i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t : P l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . S p e c i a l Report 195. Washington,D.C.: N a t i o n a l Academy of S c i e n c e s . Urban Systems Research and E n g i n e e r i n g . 1976. The growth  s h a p e r s . Washington, D.C: C o u n c i l on E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y . Van A r s d o l , M.D., C a m i l l e r i S.F., Schmid, C F . 1958. The 1 03 g e n e r a l i t y of urban s o c i a l a r e a i n d e x e s . American  s o c i o l o g i c a l r e v i e w . V o l . 2 3 . No.3. 277-289. V i c k e r m a n , R.W. 1984. Urban and r e g i o n a l change, m i g r a t i o n and commuting - The dynamics of w o r k p l a c e , r e s i d e n c e and t r a n s p o r t c h o i c e . Urban s t u d i e s . Vol.21.:15-29. Werczberger, E. 1984. M o d e l l i n g the s e g r e g a t i o n of the urban p o p u l a t i o n . Environment and p l a n n i n g B. V o l . 1 1 . 15-28. Wingo, L. 1961. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and urban l a n d . Washington, D.C: Resources f o r the F u t u r e . W o l f o r t h , J.R. 1965. R e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n and the p l a c e of work. B.C. G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s No.4. Vancouver: T a n t a l u s R e search L i m i t e d . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096528/manifest

Comment

Related Items