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The role of martial diction and Beowulf borrowings in OE Andreas Simpkins, Linda Margaret 1985

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THE ROLE OF MARTIAL DICTION AND BEOWULF BORROWINGS IN OE ANDREAS By LINDA MARGARET SIMPKINS B.A., Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1985 (Q Linda Margaret Simpkinst 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of H r W > fj The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT Today s c h o l a r l y c r i t i c i s m of the OE poem Andreas s t i l l addresses issues raised almost a century ago. At that time, scholars f i r s t noticed that Andreas resembled the epic Beowulf not only i n narrative structure, but also i n verbal expression. The apparent borrowings together with Andreas" o v e r a l l martial tone seemed often inapposite i n t h e i r context i n t h i s saint's l i f e , suggesting to these c r i t i c s that the author of Andreas was a less than competent poet. While some scholars s t i l l judge both the Beowulf presence and the martial d i c t i o n i n Andreas to be signs of the poet's d e f i c i e n c i e s , other scholars argue that, as hagiography, Andreas i s not subject to the constraints of mimesis, and that the martial d i c t i o n and Beowulf borrowings usually have a n o n - l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . They believe that because Andreas i s therefore an a l l e g o r i c a l narrative, the charge of mimetic incoherence i s i t s e l f i n -appropriate. A close reading of Andreas supports t h i s contention. The poet's martial language i s an apt expression of the C h r i s t i a n metaphor of m a r t i a l i t y found i n Eph. 6. 10-17, and implies a consistent d i s t i n c t i o n between the s o l d i e r of C h r i s t and the s o l d i e r of Satan. In addition, purposeful a l l u s i o n to Beowulf (through i n t e n t i o n a l narrative p a r a l l e l s as well as through verbal duplications and echoes) enriches the p o r t r a i t of the two opposing comitatus and suggests that the s o l d i e r of Chris t i s a more worthy i d e a l than his secular counterpart. These observations strongly suggest that the author of Andreas was an able poet, s k i l f u l l y using the resources of Anglo-Saxon l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n to express his C h r i s t i a n theme. i i i CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 Footnotes to Introduction 3 CHAPTER I CRITICAL ATTITUDES TO MARTIAL DICTION AND BEOWULF BORROWINGS IN ANDREAS •+ Footnotes to Chapter I ^2 CHAPTER II ALLEGORICAL NARRATIVE IN ANDREAS 1 6 Footnotes to Chapter II 2 4 CHAPTER I I I THE MARTIAL METAPHOR IN ANDREAS 2 8 Footnotes to Chapter I II 3 8 CHAPTER IV THE ALLUSION TO BEOWULF IN ANDREAS 4 3 Footnotes to Chapter IV 5 9 CONCLUSION 6 3 APPENDIX A 6 4 APPENDIX B 6 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 7 2 IV A l c u i n ANT AS B BH C i t y CS " D i c t i o n " "Diet" " F i g u r a l " Ingeld "Lives" OE PH "Relationship" Shippey " S o l d i e r " "Typological" ABBREVIATIONS Kenneth R. Brooks, ed., Andreas and the Fates of the  Apostles. W.P. B o l t o n , A l c u i n and Beowulf: An Eighth Century  View. Montaque R. James, trans., The Apocryphal New Testament. Anglo-Saxon Fr. Klaeber, ed. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg. R. Morris, ed., The B l i c k l i n g Homilies. Augustine, The C i t y of God. Claes Schaar, C r i t i c a l Studies i n the Cynewulf Group. Arthur Brodeur, "A Study of D i c t i o n and Style i n Three Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poems." David Hamilton, "The Diet and Digestion of Allegory i n Andreas." Thomas H i l l , " F i g u r a l Narrative i n Andreas." Michael Cherniss, Ingeld and C h r i s t . Rosemary Woolf, "S a i n t s ' L i v e s . " Old English David Hamilton, "Andreas and Beowulf: Placing the Hero." Leonard Peters, "The Relationship of the Old English Andreas to Beowulf." T.A. Shippey, Old English Verse. Joyce H i l l , "The S o l d i e r of C h r i s t i n Old English Prose and Poetry." James E a r l , "The Typological Structure of Andreas." P e r i o d i c a l s w i l l be c i t e d according to the form used i n the PMLA International  Bibliography. 1 INTRODUCTION Anglo-Saxon verse has not always excited an enthusiastic response from i t s audience of modern c r i t i c s . Many scholars i n the l a t e nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, for instance, persisted so r e s o l u t e l y i n c a l l i n g Beowulf an " h i s t o r i c a l document" rather than "a work of a r t , " * that Tolkien was moved to protest that "[n]early a l l the censure bestowed on The Beowulf has been ... due to the b e l i e f that i t was something that i t was not" (Tolkien, p. 54). A decade l a t e r , Bonjour s t i l l found i t necessary to preface h i s able defense of the disgressive episodes i n Beowulf with the assertion that the poet " c e r t a i n l y knew, or thought he knew what he was doing."2 U n t i l very recently, the Old English poem Andreas suffered s i m i l a r l y from scholars' reluctance to grant i t s author anything more than minimal poetic competence.3 Within the past decade, however, t h i s a t t i t u d e has begun to change. Many c r i t i c s studying Andreas i n the context of hagiography rather than of secular epic have urged a reassessment of the poem.^ The charge of poetic incompetence i s s t i l l o c c asionally r a i s e d , nonetheless, i n connection with the Andreas poet's use of martial d i c t i o n , and his debt to Beowulf.5 While a p o l o g i s t s of Andreas have defended the poet's use of Beowulf phraseology as e f f e c t i v e poetic allusion,6 there has not, as yet, been an attempt to in t e r p r e t both the borrowings and the martial d i c t i o n as complementary parts of a complex metaphor elaborating the nature of C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t u a l warfare.'' In the following chapters, I w i l l undertake such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , f i r s t reviewing some of the c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n to the poem, then examining the narrative of Andreas i n the context of hagiographic conventions. F i n a l l y , I w i l l argue that a close reading of the poem suggests that both t r a d i t i o n a l m a r t i a l d i c t i o n and purposeful borrowings from Beowulf not only comprise 2 a t h o u g h t f u l p o r t r a i t o f the C h r i s t i a n h e r o , but a l s o e x p l o r e h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s e c u l a r w a r r i o r o f the t e m p o r a l w o r l d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l , I b e l i e v e , c o n f i r m t h e Andreas p o e t ' s e x p e r t i s e and l e a v e l i t t l e doubt t h a t l i k e most o t h e r A n g l o - Saxon p o e t s , he knew what he was doing.8 3 FOOTNOTES TO INTRODUCTION 1. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Beowulf: The Monsters and the C r i t i c s , " Proceedings  of the B r i t i s h Academy 22 (1936), 245-295. 2. Adrien Bonjour, The Digressions i n "Beowulf" (Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell, 1965), p. xv. 3. Examples abound and w i l l be more f u l l y treated i n subsequent pages. Claes Schaar's c r i t i c i s m of the "narrative gaps" and " l o o s e n e s s " i n Andreas ( C r i t i c a l Studies i n the Cynewulf Group, Lund Studies i n English 17 (1949), pp. 318-319) and Das' opinion that the poem's m a r t i a l i t y can produce a "ludicrous e f f e c t " (Andreas and the Fates of the Apostles, ed. K.R. Brooks (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961), pp. xx-xxi ) are t y p i c a l . -(Henceforth these t i t l e s w i l l be c i t e d as CS and A, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 4. Among these c r i t i c s are J . E a r l , David Hamilton, Constance Hieatt and Thomas H i l l . Their work w i l l be discussed below. 5. These views are held by Michael Cherniss, T.A. Shippey and Joyce H i l l . 6. For instance, Rosemary Woolf, "Saints' L i v e s " i n Continuations and Be- ginnings , ed. E.G. Stanley (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1966), p.51. Henceforth t h i s w i l l be c i t e d as "Lives". 7. Although Hamilton discusses rev e r s a l and irony i n the Andreas poet's use of the Beowulf borrowings, he does not discuss the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these borrowings to the s p e c i f i c metaphor of C h r i s t i a n m a r t i a l i t y ("Andreas and Beowulf: Placing the Hero," Anglo-Saxon Peotry: Essays  i n Appreciation, ed. L.E. Nicholson and D.W. Frese (Notre Dame: Un i v e r s i t y of Notre Dame Press, 1975), pp. 81-98, henceforth referred to as PH). Joyce H i l l discusses the r o l e of conventional heroic d i c t i o n i n the d i s t i n c t i o n of s p i r i t u a l and temporal m a r t i a l i t y i n the work of the Guplac poet ("The Soldier of Chr i s t i n OE Prose and Poetry," Leeds  Studies i n English 12 (1981), 57-80, henceforth referred to as " S o l d i e r " ) . 8. A.C. B a r t l e t t , The L a r g e r R h e t o r i c a l Patterns i n Anglo-Saxon Poetry (1935; r p t . New York: AMS Press, 1966), pp. 17-18, "I believe that poetic d e t a i l i s almost never accidental and that Anglo-Saxon verse i s genuine poetry written by men who/ knew what they were doing." 4 CHAPTER ONE CRITICAL ATTITUDES TO MARTIAL DICTION AND BEOWULF BORROWINGS IN ANDREAS The Old English poem Andreas, unlike the epic Beowulf, has not yet received i t s f a i r share of praise. In the past, Andreas' martial tone, augmented by s p e c i f i c c o l l o c a t i o n s and h a l f - l i n e s apparently drawn from Beowulf, was considered by scholars to be a sign of the Andreas poet's incompetence. 1 While many contemporary c r i t i c s are re-evaluating Andreas and r e a d i l y acknowledge that i t s author transformed "a t a l e of wonder with no d o c t r i n a l purpose"^ into an i n t r i c a t e parable about the workings of salvation,-^ the nature of Beowulf's r e l a t i o n s h i p to Andreas, together with the e f f e c t of martial conventions i n the l a t t e r , s t i l l occupies a c e n t r a l place i n the continuing debate about Andreas' a r t i s t i c m e r i t . 4 Any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Andreas which would transform these apparent l i a b i l i t i e s into assets must f i r s t weigh c a r e f u l l y the arguments of those who f i n d these features inappropriate. In his 1906 e d i t i o n , Andreas and the Fates of the Apostles, Krapp observed that some of the incidents found i n Andreas resembled portions of Beowulf. In addition, Krapp provided an extensive, a l b e i t excessively e c l e c t i c , catalogue of words and phrases common to both Beowulf and Andreas.5 Although the narrative s i m i l a r i t i e s noted by Krapp were too general to be c l e a r l y intentional,'' and were i n any case already part of a well-known apocryphal tale'* (and not, therefore, o r i g i n a l to Beowulf ), many c r i t i c s believed that the presence i n Andreas of s p e c i f i c verbal p a r a l l e l s i n conjunction with these narrative s i m i l a r i t i e s , proved that the author of Andreas r e l i e d on the work of the Beowulf poet, to remedy his own d e f i c i e n c i e s as a writer.8 Once Andreas was accepted as an i m i t a t i o n of Beowulf, t h i s saint's l i f e almost i n e v i t a b l y was judged as i f i t , l i k e Beowulf, was a secular epic with 5 a l i t e r a l n a r r a t i v e . When, on occasion, the Beowulf borrowings and the martial d i c t i o n made less than l i t e r a l sense i n the context of Andreas, scholars i n f e r r e d that the Andreas poet was inept and had scant control over his language and his narrative. 0* In his thorough analysis of Andreas' r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Cynewulf canon, for instance, Schaar concluded that "niwan stefne" (A.v. 123 "borrowed" from B_.v. 1789) "does not r e f e r to anything." 1 0 Likewise, he found Andreas vv. 301-3 ( p a r t i c u l a r l y "landes ne locenra beaga") to be a nonsensical import from Beowulf vv. 2991-5.H Some other phrases or words, while s t i l l making l i t e r a l sense, seemed to c r i t i c s to possess connotations inappropriate to Andreas. Thus Schaar found "heah ond horngeap" (A.v. 668/B_.v. 82) "better suited to Heorot than a temple" and "straete stanfage" (A.v. 1234 / B_.v. 320), too "solemn" for "torture i n the c i t y of cannibals" (CS, pp. 281-2) while Brooks found "to pam beadulace" (A.v. 1118), describing the Mermedonian assault on a helpless youth, to be "another exaggeration by the poet."12 Instead of wondering at the purpose of these s u r p r i s i n g i n f e l i c i t i e s and i n c o n g r u i t i e s , many scholars hastened to conclude, as noted above, that the Andreas poet was not only a p l a g i a r i s t , but an incompetent as w e l l . I-3 While much of today's understanding of Anglo-Saxon l i t e r a t u r e i s deeply indebted to these scholars, t h e i r assessment of Andreas unfortunately helped to d i r e c t s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t s elsewhere, leaving the motivation for the poem's puzzling inconsistencies l a r g e l y unexplored. On what grounds can the rather harsh ve r d i c t of Andreas' detractors be contested? Although t h e i r unfavourable evaluation of the poem can be c h a l l e n g e d c o l l o c a t i o n by c o l l o c a t i o n , such an approach succeeds only i n p i t t i n g one reader's personal opinion against another's.I 4 Instead, we ought to examine some of the assumptions i m p l i c i t i n the conclusions of these early c r i t i c s . When these premises are made e x p l i c i t , we can better decide i f the charge of incompetence i s j u s t i f i e d . I t i s important f i r s t to r e c a l l that before 1950, c r i t i c s hadn't studied the formulaic nature of Old English poetic diction.15 Although t h e i r l i s t s of Beowulf borrowings found i n Andreas consequently included words and c o l -locations which were r e a l l y part of the f a b r i c of a l l 0E verse,16 they assumed that duplications i n Andreas of phrases and h a l f - l i n e s from Beowulf indicated conscious i m i t a t i o n of the l a t t e r by the Andreas poet. Because they did not r e a l i z e that such conventional language recurred i n many poems, these c r i t i c s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t h e i r search for common phraseology to the texts of Andreas and Beowulf alone. Such narrow comparisons further exaggerated Andreas' apparent dependence on Beowulf.1? These e a r l y c r i t i c s also supposed that t h e i r knowledge of Anglo-Saxon language and l i t e r a t u r e was reasonably complete.18 Any anomalies i n Andreas were therefore judged to r e f l e c t the poet's d e f i c i e n c i e s r a t h e r than the l i m i t a t i o n s of modern c r i t i c i s m . According to such l o g i c , however, the Andreas poet lacked an understanding not only of his own l i t e r a t u r e but of h i s native tongue as well.19 As we s h a l l see, t h i s s u r p r i s i n g premise was not challenged u n t i l recent decades. Another premise p a r t i c u l a r l y damaging to the l i t e r a r y reputation of Andreas was the c r i t i c s ' i m p l i c i t b e l i e f that the i m i t a t i o n of Beowulf indicated not only the Andreas poet's poverty of invention, but also that both Andreas and Beowulf belonged to the genre of secular epic, and that a s i n g l e set of c r i t i c a l standards was therefore equally appropriate to both poems. This assumption led scholars, as we have seen, to c r i t i c i z e Andreas' lack of l i t e r a l 7 coherence without considering the l i k e l i h o o d that t h i s saint's l i f e was i n fact an a l l e g o r i c a l rather than a mimetic n a r r a t i v e . 2 0 F i n a l l y , e arly c r i t i c s neglected to examine the p o s s i b i l i t y that the Andreas poet used martial d i c t i o n and Beowulf phraseology not to duplicate the secular epic, but rather to evoke that genre for purposes of comparison and contrast with his work. From t h i s point of view, the borrowings would seem a l l u s i v e rather than merely i m i t a t i v e , and the apparent incongruities and i n f e l i c i t i e s would be transformed i n t o expressions of theme rather than of incompetence. 2 Contemporary c r i t i c s antagonistic to Andreas also seem to accept many of the assumptions of t h i s e a r l i e r c r i t i c i s m . While they argue that Andreas borrows not the language of Beowulf i n p a r t i c u l a r , but rather the conventions of Anglo-Saxon secular verse i n general, they agree with t h e i r predecessors that the poet's purpose was i m i t a t i v e and that his i m i t a t i o n was i n e p t . Thus Shippey says, "Whether he was i m i t a t i n g Beowulf or a whole epic t r a d i t i o n ... the author of Andreas obviously did his best to subordinate new matter to o l d f o r m " 2 2 and concludes that although the borrowed m a r t i a l i t y lends a "wash of epic d i g n i t y " and unity to the poem, Andreas nevertheless f a i l s because of i t s "diminished sense of r e a l i t y " (pp. 124-7). C h e r n i s s a l s o thinks that the Andreas poet was "unable to adapt his Germanic poetic heritage to the demands of his C h r i s t i a n subject matter" and Faigley believes the " s t y l e of Andreas represents the p i t f a l l of unmodified use of epic convention for r e l i g i o u s v e r s e . " 2 3 While no one would contest the claim that the Andreas poet f r e e l y uses the martial conventions and language of OE secular verse, that use does not (as noted above) automatically imply inept i m i t a t i o n . We may, therefore, 8 l e g i t i m a t e l y object to the conclusions of these contemporary c r i t i c s on the same grounds as we object to those of the predecessors. Granted the Andreas of poet uses the language^ Beowulf and of martial convention generally, we need not nec e s s a r i l y conclude from t h i s that he i s attempting, with mixed success, to write a l i t e r a l n a r r a t i v e . Joyce H i l l ' s attack on the Andreas poet's d i c t i o n proceeds from l i n g u i s t i c grounds and deserves s p e c i a l consideration. She argues that much of the t r a d i t i o n a l OE martial vocabulary underwent a semantic change when used i n C h r i s t i a n d i s c o u r s e ( " S o l d i e r , " pp. 59-60). This change allowed writers to use words which had previously denoted the aggressive t r a i t s of pagan heroes, to describe the more s t o i c a t t r i b u t e s of the C h r i s t i a n hero. H i l l judges the martial vocabulary of the Andreas poet, however, to be inappropriate to the depiction of a saint's behavior because that vocabulary i s "so heavily dependent on the heroic t r a d i t i o n that i t i n e v i t a b l y arouses the wrong set of expectations" (p.72). C l e a r l y , t h i s conclusion denies the author of Andreas the r i g h t to put his vocabulary to metaphoric or a l l e g o r i c a l use. In addition, H i l l ' s assessment rests on an inadequately documented inference of semantic s h i f t ^ a s well as an unwillingness to d i s t i n g u i s h narrative differences within the genre of the saint's l i f e . 2 5 I f the attack on Andreas, then, i s flawed, how well do contemporary c r i t i c s favourable to Andreas defend the poem? Arthur Brodeur begins his assessment of Andreas by saying that Andreas " i s i n no sense an i m i t a t i o n of Beowulf" and that the Andreas poet uses the t r a d i t i o n a l martial d i c t i o n of Anglo-Saxon secular poetry to lend "verve and c o l o r " to his verse ("Diction," p. 102). Brodeur's suggestion that poetic purpose u n d e r l i e s many of the - 9 Beowulf borrowings, i s supported by some useful c r i t e r i a f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i n t e n t i o n a l borrowing from formulaic d i c t i o n . He argues, f o r instance, that phrases i n Andreas which combine two or more separate elements from Beowulf suggest purpose rather than coincidence 2'' as does d u p l i c a t i o n i n Andreas of rare words or c o l l o c a t i o n s found i n Beowulf. 2^ Having thus proven the l i k e l i h o o d of conscious borrowing, Brodeur f a i l s to prove as e f f e c t i v e l y that the Andreas poet was more than a mere imi t a t o r . While Brodeur's analysis of s p e c i f i c passages i n Andreas i s perceptive, i t r e s t s u l t i m a t e l y on his own aesthetic taste. Apologists of Andreas must bu i l d t h e i r defense of the poem on a more sub s t a n t i a l foundation than opinion. Hamilton's analysis of the apparent i n f e l i c i t i e s and inc o n g r u i t i e s of language and convention i n Andreas helps to f i l l the need for an objective evaluation of these troubling features of the poem. In his discussion, Hamilton i s c a r e f u l to avoid issues of either praise or blame and studies instead the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the problematic passages to t h e i r context i n Andreas. Like several other contemporary c r i t i c s , 2 8 Hamilton here assumes that a l l u s i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t feature of OE verse. He argues that i n the "closed f i e l d " of OE verse, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between common c o l l o c a t i o n s , phrases, h a l f - l i n e s or t r a d i t i o n a a l themes, and t h e i r varying contexts i s unusually important. 2 0 . Thus, whether or not the new association of phrase and context f u l f i l l e d t r a d i t i o n a l expectations or v i o l a t e d them, would determine much of a poem's meaning. Armed wit h these assumptions, Hamilton discovers several consistent patterns which connect the problematic passages to t h e i r context i n Andreas. F i r s t , the Andreas poet uses martial imagery and Beowulf borrowings to reverse audience expectations. For instance, the gruesome cannibal practices described 10 i n Andreas vv. 150a-154a, take on new meaning when t h i s passage i s read i n conjunction with d e s c r i p t i o n i n Beowulf of feas t i n g and devouring: paet hie banhringas abrecan bohton, lungre tolysan l i e ond sawle, ond bonne todaelan dugube ond geogobe, werum to wiste ond to wilbege, faeges flaeschoman Here, the verbal p a r a l l e l s to Beowulf (B. vv. 71-73; vv. 1565-68; vv. 1629-30) 3 0 i n v i t e the r e c o l l e c t i o n of Danish f e a s t i n g , and thus c r u e l l y emphasize the degradation of Mermedonian comitatus which i s reduced to dining l i k e p r e - s o c i a l Grendels on human f l e s h . On other occasions, the Andreas poet modifies t r a d i t i o n a l d i c t i o n and theme to make them conform to his own poetic purposes. In the exordium of Andreas, f o r instance, the poet exerts " s e l f - conscious c o n t r o l " and puts "the m a t e r i a l s of Beowulf to new uses," changing established conventions s l i g h t l y to s u i t a C h r i s t i a n context.31 In a d d i t i o n , Hamilton believes that many apparently nonsensical uses of martial borrowings or d i c t i o n , have a metaphoric rather than a l i t e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Thus Andreas vv. 360b-362a ("aefre i c ne hyrde / pon cymlicor ceol gehladenne / heahgestreonum") i s not a mindless addition of heroic phrase, but an a l l e g o r i c a l expression of the s p i r i t u a l treasure i r o n i c a l l y embodied i n the impecunious Andrew and his disguised Lord (pp. 89-90; pp. 92-3). These patterns, then, suggest that the problematic passages i n Andreas have an a l l u s i v e function. I f we are also prepared to agree with Hamilton that the metaphoric s i g n i f i c a n c e of many of these cruces "ind i c a t e [ s ] a separation of genres and also of s t y l e s , " 3 2 we w i l l be ready to grant that d e t a i l e d study of the poem may be repaid by the discovery of an a r t i s t i c organiza-11 t i o n and thematic complexity of considerable merit. Indeed, an a l l e g o r i c a l reading of Andreas permits a r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the poem's m a r t i a l i t y hinted at, but not f u l l y s p e c i f i e d , by Hamilton. In the generic context of hagiography, the martial metaphor together with the Beowulf borrowings, becomes an appropriate expression of the d i s t i n c t i o n between the temporal s e l f - i n t e r e s t of secular m i l i t a r i s m and the s p i r i t u a l a ltruism of C h r i s t i a n m a r t i a l i t y . Before we consider t h i s metaphor i n d e t a i l , however, we must f i r s t a s c e r t a i n the a l l e g o r i c a l nature of the Andreas nar r a t i v e . 12 F O O T N O T E S T O C H A P T E R O N E 1. See L. Peter's excellent survey of Andreas c r i t i c i s m , "The Relationship of the OE Andreas to Beowulf," PMLA 66 (1951), 844-863, c i t e d henceforth as "Relationship." See also CS, pp. 275-287. 2. The Apocryphal New Testament, translated by Montague R. James (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1924), p.453, c i t e d henceforth as ANT. 3. Among the many contemporary c r i t i c s who i n t e r p r e t Andreas as an a l l e r g o r i c a l elaboration of C h r i s t i a n doctrine are James W. E a r l . , "The Typological Structure of Andreas," Old English L i t e r a t u r e i n Context, ed. John D. Niles (Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1980), pp.66-89, c i t e d henceforth as "Typological"; David Hamilton, PH and "The Diet and Digestion of Allegory i n Andreas," ASE 1, (1972), 147-158,henceforth referred to as "Diet"; Thomas H i l l , " F i g u r a l Narrative i n Andreas," NM 77 (1976), 261-273, henceforth referred to as " F i g u r a l . " The a r t i s t r y with which the Andreas poet accomplishes the transformation i s apparent when his poem i s compared to the OE prose v e r s i o n of Andrew's adventures (see The B l i c k l i n g Homilies, ed. R. Morris (London: EETS, 1880), pp.228-249, henceforth referred to as BH). 4. Most recently, Michael Cherniss, Ingeld and Christ (The Hague: Mouton, 1972), h e n c e f o r t h r e f e r r e d to as Ingeld; L.L. Faigley, "Andreas and Poetic S t y l e , " DAT 37 (1976), 2852A (University of Washington)); Joyce H i l l , " S o l d i e r ; " T.A. Shippey, Old English Verse (London: Hutchinson Un i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1972), pp.114-128, henceforth referred to as "Shippey". Some of the d i s t a s t e for Andreas may also a r i s e from c r i t i c s ' personal preference for the pessimistic tone of the secular epic (see B.J. Timmer, "Heathen and C h r i s t i a n Elements i n OE Poetry," Neophilologus 29 (1944), 181). 5. Andreas and the Fates of the Apostles, ed. G.P. Krapp (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1906), pp. l v i - l v i i . The i n i t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n of Andreas and Beowulf was made by F r i t z s c h e i n 1879, (A, p . x x i i i ) . Krapp's other observations about the o r i g i n a l i t y and s t r u c t u r a l importance of martial conventions were l a r g e l y ignored ( p p . l i - l i i ) . 6. I t has been argued that heroes often journey across oceans to help the oppressed i n distant lands (see "Relationship," p.846). 7. Although Andreas" exact source i s unknown, many versions of the saint's adventures i n Mermedonia were extant i n early medieval times. (see CS, pp. 14-24; A., xv-xvi). Consequently, Peters' conclusion may be s i m p l i s t i c (see Chap. 4 below). 8. "Relationship," p.844. 13 9. Klaeber's remarks about "[w]holesale borrowing of phrases, which more than once are forced into a strange context" (Beowulf and the Fight  at Finnsburg, (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1950), p . c x i , henceforth re f e r r e d to as B), assume that phrases from Beowulf ought to make l i t e r a l sense i n the Andreas narrative. S i m i l a r l y , i n CS, the Andreas poet i s repeatedly described as having "taken over" material which i s i n -appropriate to his context (pp.277-9). 10. CS_, p.275. The phrase i s not, however, inappropriate to the sense of renewal which Matthew f e e l s a f t e r God's encouragement. 11. CS_, p. 275. A.v. 303 has also been judged grammatically d e f i c i e n t (A., p. xxv; CS, p. 278; Shippey, p. 116), but Hamilton defends both form and content of the passage (PH, p.83). This disagreement i s t y p i c a l of many debates i n Andreas c r i t i c i s m . Scholars espousing opposite points of view w i l l frequently c i t e i d e n t i c a l passages to corroborate t h e i r contradictory claims. 12. A., p.101. Exaggeration may be p r e c i s e l y the point here, for i t i s a measure of the degradation of the Mermedonian comitatus that they must prepare to attack a s i n g l e youth as i f he were a formidable army. 13. The Andreas poet "pays i n s u f f i c i e n t a ttention to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the p l a g i a r i z e d phrases i n his own n a r r a t i v e " (Schaar, c i t e d i n The  Guplac Poems of the Exeter Book, ed. J . Roberts (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979), pp.53-4), and shows "a" d e f i c i e n c y of taste and judgment" (CS, p.282). Most scholars today consider accusations of plagiarism to be ina p p l i c a b l e to medieval l i t e r a t u r e . 14. We might, f o r i n s t a n c e , contrast Shippey's opinion that the Andreas poet's work cannot be highly rated (p.127) with Brodeur's judgment that "the author of Andreas was an excellent poet" ("A Study of D i c t i o n and Style i n Three Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poems," Nordica et Anglica: Studies  i n Honor of Stefan Einarsson, ed. A.H. Orrick (The Hague: Mouton, 1968), p.102; henceforth referred to as " D i c t i o n " ) . 15. The theory i s proposed by F.P. Magoun i n 1953 i n "The Oral-Formulaic Character of Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poetry," Speculum 28(1953), 446-467. See also L. Benson, "The L i t e r a r y Character of Anglo-Saxon Formulaic Poetry," PMLA 81 (1966), 334-341. For i t s e f f e c t s i n OE verse composition see R.P. Creed, "The Making of an Anglo-Saxon Poem," The 'Beowulf Poet, ed. D. Fry (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1968), pp. 141-153. For the theory's implications i n Andreas, see A., p . x x i i i . 16. Some other apparent borrowings were r e a l l y idioms and commonplace ideas. 17. Although Schaar's excellent analysis of Andreas includes extensive com-parisons with other OE verse, Schaar too assumed that a l l p a r a l l e l s between any two p a r t i c u l a r poems increased the l i k e l i h o o d of one poem's dependence on the other (CS, p.274). 14 18. Healthy challenges to contemporary expressions of such complacency can be found i n K.S. Kiernan, 'Beowulf and the 'Beowulf Manuscript, (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Uni v e r s i t y Press, 1981); W.P. Lehmann, "On Reflections of Germanic Legal Terminology and Situations i n the Edda," Old Norse L i t e r a t u r e and Mythology, ed. E.C. Polome (Austin: U n i v e r s i t y of Texas Press, 1969), pp.227-243; and B. M i t c h e l l , " L i n g u i s t i c Facts and the Interpretation of OE Poetry," ASE 4 (1975), 11-28. 19. Schaar compares A.v. 256 ("Hwanon comon ge ceolum li p a n " ) to B_.v. 237 ("Hwaet syndon ge searohaebbendra") and B_.v. 333 ("Hwanon ferigeab ge f a e t t e s c y l d a s " ) , concluding that the Andreas poet misunderstood the meaning of "hwanon" (CS, p.280-1). 20. The term " a l l e g o r i c a l " i s used here to denote "the kind of discourse by which we say one thing but mean something e l s e , " ( P h i l i p R o l l i n s e n , "Some Kinds of Meaning i n OE Poetry," Annuale Mediaevale 11 (1970), p.9). Such a narrative w i l l sometimes, but not always, imply the f o u r - f o l d a l l e g o r y of p a t r i s t i c exegesis. (David Williams distinguishes between the two kinds of allegory i n Cain and Beowulf: A Study i n Secular Allegory (Toronto: Un i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1982), pp.4-5). 21. This l i k e l i h o o d w i l l be explored i n chapters three and four, below. 22. Shippey adds that the Andreas poet used the heroic tone of Beowulf "simply because i t was ready to hand ... no one could deny the resultant incongruity" (p.117). In f a c t , some do (PH, p.84). 23. Ingeld, pp. 174-5; L. Faigley, "Andreas and Poetic S t y l e . " This d i s l i k e of the martial i s s u r p r i s i n g i n view of the frequency of such imagery i n the B i b l e . 24. Inferences of semantic change i n OE are fraught with p e r i l . Caroline Brady's d e t a i l e d analysis of aspects of martial vocabulary i n Beowulf ("'Warriors' i n Beowulf: An Analysis of the Nominal Compounds and an Evaluation of the Poet's Use of Them," ASE 11 (1983), 199-246), as well as the work of E.G. Stanley ("Two Old English Poetic Phrases I n s u f f i c i e n t l y Understood for L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : ping gehegan and seonap gehegan," Old English Poetry: Essays on Style, ed. D.G. Calder (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1979), pp.67-77) and others, warn us that our knowledge of the OE poetic l e x i c o n i s as yet incomplete. H i l l makes the a d d i t i o n a l mistake of i n f e r r i n g an antecedent meaning change from a subsequent gloss. 25. " S o l d i e r " , pp. 66-67. The colourless martial vocabulary of Guplac A would be inadequate to express the more hectic adventures of Saint Andrew. 26. A.vv. 360-2 / B_.vv. 38-44 ("Diction," pp. 97-8); p a r t i c u l a r l y "cymlicor c e o l " with "peodgestreonum" or "heahgestreonum"). 27. A v. 668 ("heah ond horngeap") / B.v. 82; and A.v. 1236 and 985 ("stig wisode") / B.v. 320 ("Diction," p.98). 15 28. S.B. Greenfield, "The Formulaic Expression of the Theme of ' E x i l e ' i n Anglo-Saxon Poetry," Speculum 30 (1955), 200-206; Randolph Quirk, "Poetic Language and OE Metre," Early English and Norse Studies, ed. A. Brown and P. Foote (London: Methuen and Co., 1963), pp. 150-171; and "Lives," p.51. For a dissenting view, see Norman Blake, The English Language  i n Medieval L i t e r a t u r e , (London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1977). 29. PH, p. 86. Greenfield ("Exile," p.205) elaborates on t h i s feature of t r a d i t i o n a l verse, as does Quirk ("Poetic Language"). For conventional themes, see also B.K. Martin, "Aspects of Winter i n L a t i n and 0E Poetry," JEGP 68 (1969), 375-390 and H. de Roo, "Two OE F a t a l Feast Metaphors: Ealuscerwen and Meoduscerwen," English Studies i n Canada 5 (1979), 247-261. 30. PH, pp. 87-8. To these passages might be added descriptions of Grendel's attack on Heorot, p a r t i c u l a r l y his " w i s t f y l l e wen" (B_.v. 734a) and his r e p u l s i v e e a t i n g habits (B_.vv. 742-743). A more de t a i l e d discussion of these verses w i l l be found i n chapter four. 31. PH, p.84. Even Hamilton sometimes finds the martial material "curious and inapposite" (p.83). Nonetheless, i n "Diet," p.148, he notes that the Andreas poet also a l t e r s i n d i v i d u a l martial c o l l o c a t i o n s i n order to redefine m a r t i a l i t y i n terms of a saint's endurance. 32. PH, p. 73. The r o l e of the a l l e g o r i c a l i n medieval hagiography w i l l be elaborated further i n chapter two. 16 CHAPTER TWO ALLEGORICAL NARRATIVE IN ANDREAS Even the most sympathetic reader of Andreas cannot help but be struck i n i t i a l l y by the poem's lack of documentary realism. Conditioned i n h i s own time by the determinism of science and confronted i n Anglo-Saxon l i t e r a t u r e by the formidable presence of the secular epic of Beowulf, the contemporary reader of Andreas w i l l almost i n e v i t a b l y believe t h i s saint's l i f e to be a c u r i o u s l y flawed example of mimetic nar r a t i v e . Indeed, one of Andreas' apologists, Thomas H i l l , perceptively remarks that as a l i t e r a l n arrative, "Andreas would have been deep under water by the time the Mermedonians noticed they were being flooded" ("Figural," p.264). A b r i e f summary of Andrew's adventures i n the c i t y of Merraedonia should s u f f i c e to show the poem's lack of mimetic coherence.1 The poet's account begins with the imprisonment of Matthew i n a land i n e x p l i c a b l y devastated by material deprivation. The inhabitants' s u r p r i s i n g s o l u t i o n to t h e i r dilemma i s to capture and eat a l l v i s i t o r s to t h e i r shores, hence Matthew's dangerous p l i g h t . Andrew, at f i r s t prudently reluctant to t r a v e l to an unknown and distant land, undergoes a miraculous change of heart and embarks on a dangerous sea journey without food, drink or f i n a n c i a l resources, i n order to rescue Matthew. Discovering a ship f o r t u i t o u s l y p i l o t e d by a disguised Jesus, Andrew crosses a tempestuous ocean, regaling captain, crew and d i s c i p l e s with tales of Jesus' l i f e . Once magically deposited on the shores of his destination, Andrew, with God's help, frees Matthew and his fellow prisoners (who then conveniently disappear from the s t o r y ) , ^ i s taken prisoner himself and proceeds to convert the e n t i r e Mermedon nation with a demonstration of h i s own f a i t h f u l endurance and God's power. 17 Given such a p l o t , i t i s scarcely s u r p r i s i n g that c r i t i c s reading Andreas as a l i t e r a l narrative f i n d t h e i r c r e d u l i t y taxed. Yet, i f t h i s narrative i s interpreted i n other than mimetic terms, i n t e l l i g e n t purpose can be found to underlie the apparent pandemonium. What j u s t i f i c a t i o n , then, i s there f o r r e g a r d i n g Andreas as an a l l e g o r i c a l rather than a l i t e r a l narrative? An abbreviated examination of the medieval idea of h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y ^ as i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n the peculiar generic conventions of hagiography w i l l show that f or Andreas, (as for other saint's l i v e s ) , the concealed s p i r i t of the narrative takes precedence over the s u p e r f i c i a l l i t e r a l l e v e l of h i s t o r i c a l or mimetic account.^ Indeed, i t w i l l become apparent that medieval Christians conflated the s p i r i t u a l and the material into a coherent v i s i o n of r e a l i t y which makes modern d i s t i n c t i o n s of tangible and i n t a n g i b l e , or of actual and abstract, completely inappropriate to the study of these n a r r a t i v e s . For the Andreas poet and his audience, l i v i n g i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l shadow of Saint Augustine and other Fathers of the early Church,5 the h i s t o r y of the world was "a symbolic book, written by God" (Huppe, p.21). Thus the actual or natural world was construed as a c o l l e c t i o n of signs r e f l e c t i n g God's eternal and timeless knowledge of his creation. History, then, included not only the past as recorded i n Scripture,6 but also the future foreknown by God. Although the precise d i s t i n c t i o n between the abstract and the actual i m p l i c i t i n t h i s view of r e a l i t y i s often d i f f i c u l t to discern,^ i t i s at least c l e a r that such an i n t e l l e c t u a l a t t i t u d e produces a version of r e a l i t y which accommodates both the v i s i b l e and the i n v i s i b l e ; the temporal and the s p i r i t u a l . The B i b l e , which i n p a t r i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n manifested t h i s view of the natural world, served as "the model and guide for a l l serious w r i t i n g " (Huppe, pp.3-4). 18 Given t h i s world view i t i s scarcely s u r p r i s i n g that the early European Middle Ages would produce a l i t e r a t u r e often more concerned with the concealed s p i r i t or kernel of meaning than with the v i s i b l e l e t t e r or husk of h i s t o r i c a l account. 8 L i t e r a r y works were intended to e d i f y through an allegory which eased s p i r i t u a l understanding by allowing the reader to di s c e r n the unknown or concealed s p i r i t through the known l e t t e r or text. 0 . C l e a r l y , then, i t i s a mistake for contemporary scholars "to take the l e t t e r for the s p i r i t , to read a l l e g o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as though i t were l i t e r a l and only l i t e r a l " ( Alcuin, p.40). In addition to t h i s caveat, readers of Andreas must also be aware of the peculiar conventions of the saint's l i f e as a l i t e r a r y genre, which spring from t h i s view of l i t e r a t u r e . Hagiographers forsook the mimesis of secular epic f or a romance-like conventionality and a r t i f i c e , i n order to present a p o r t r a i t of the saint which would e d i f y the f a i t h f u l . 1 0 Hagiographers f e l t free to "manipulate facts and use them only as an excuse to praise God""-! through the deeds of his s a i n t . 1 2 The i n t r u s i o n of the marvellous or the i n e x p l i c a b l e into l i t e r a r y accounts of s a i n t s ' l i v e s was, for the medieval audience, i n no way extraordinary or indecorous ("Lives," p.43) because hagio-graphy was intended "to exalt an exceptional person, one who has attained supra-human d i g n i t y " (Albertson, p.26) and to reveal not l i t e r a l h i s t o r y , but "the s p i r i t u a l truths i m p l i c i t i n the saint's very nature" ("Typological," p.70). This c o n f l a t i o n of the actual and the f a n c i f u l produced a narrative which was designed to illuminate the concealed s p i r i t of divine truth and which was, therefore, i n the broadest sense of the term, a l l e g o r i c a l . While R o l l i n s e n wisely cautions against "mechanical and a r b i t r a r y a p p l i c a -t i o n of p a t r i s t i c i n t e r p r e t i v e methodology,"I 3 there are s u f f i c i e n t grounds 19 for regarding Andreas as an allegory, at l e a s t i n the general sense defined above. Indeed, i t i s the passages so frequently judged l i a b i l i t i e s which t e s t i f y to the poem's metaphoric nature, for "a r i d d l i n g inadequacy, inconsistency or i m p o s s i b i i t y ... which impels the reader to seek a meaningful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n from t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n symbolism" i s a common hallmark of such n a r r a t i v e s . ^ In addition, E a r l believes the poet's i n t r u s i o n (A.vv. 1478-91) i s t y p i c a l of the hagiographer's insistence on the s p i r i t u a l truth which underlies apparent f i c t i o n . 1 5 F i n a l l y , both E a r l and Hamilton c i t e the frequent i r o n i c incongruity of many of the passages associated s p e c i f i c a l l y with Beowulf or with m a r t i a l i t y i n general, as proof of a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e n t : any i r o n i c passage must be interpreted so that f i r s t i t contradicts and then i t transcends i t s surface meaning, irony urges us past the l i t e r a l sense of the text and d i r e c t s us toward allegory. ("Diet," p.157) A l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Andreas i n both a general metaphoric sense and i n the narrower t y p o l o g i c a l sense, have not been lacking i n recent y e a r s . Indeed, some of these inte r p r e t a t i o n s seem so obvious that i t i s puzzling that they were not noticed by e a r l i e r scholars. For instance, i n h i s " D i e t , " Hamilton argues that Andreas contains " f o r c e f u l r e p e t i t i o n of a few words and phrases that unfold metaphorically as the poem progresses" (p. 148). Although he includes martial expressions i n such a category, 16 Hamilton concentrates primarily on the poet's varied r e p e t i t i o n of the theme of nourishment throughout the poem and on i t s ro l e as an expression of the presence or absence of s p i r i t u a l sustenance.!^ Indeed, Hamilton says that the Mermedons "are l i t t l e more than a v e h i c l e for the idea of s p i r i t u a l hunger; t h e i r deprivation i s unnaturally strained and can be understood only by recourse to an imposed a l l e g o r i c a l meaning" (p.151). 20 Thomas H i l l and M.M. Walsh are amongst those who would extend the metaphoric sense of the nourishment motif into an allegory with t y p o l o g i c a l and eschato-l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . 1 8 With E a r l , they concur that the ce n t r a l concern of Andreas i s conversion and that "the unity of the poem depends upon the various t r a d i t i o n a l images of conversion i n the early Church, e s p e c i a l l y the imagery of baptism, the Harrowing of H e l l and the Last Judgment" ( " T y p o l o g i c a l , " p.67). Thus, the c a p t i v i t y of Matthew r e c a l l s the e x i l e and bondage of Is r a e l ' s sojourn i n Egypt (or postlapsarian man's bondage to Satan) while the captives' release mirrors the redemption of mankind from the imprisonment of s i n through the metaphoric manna of Jesus, the Paschal Lamb.'-0' Andrew's re-enactment of the Passion reinforces the connection between the s p i r i t u a l refreshment of the Eucharist and the proper nourishment which i s unavailable to the Mermedons except i n the most d i s t o r t e d form.20 S i m i l a r l y , baptism, the nourishing drink denied the Mermedons (A.vv. 21-3), i s also i m p l i c i t i n the cleansing flood and f i r e of Mermedonia's punishment. 2 1 Thus, l i t e r a l food and drink acquire t r o p o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (the correct food f o r s p i r i t u a l perfection) and eschatological s i g n i f i c a n c e ( f i n a l cleansing on the Last D a y ) . 2 2 Other features of Andreas have also suggested a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of various kinds. T. H i l l finds evidence i n the poem of the p a t r i s t i c f i g u r e of heat and cold, denoting res p e c t i v e l y c h a r i t y and s i n , and of the symbolic depiction of hatred as the dragon of m a l i t i a which dwells i n the mind of the wicked. 2 3 Hieatt draws attention to the metaphoric implications of b l i n d -n e s s 2 4 while S z i t t y a explains the implications of the " l i v i n g stone" which i s C h r i s t . 2 5 Indeed, once the legitimacy of an a l l e g o r i c a l reading of Andreas i s acknowledged, i n t e r p r e t i v e p o s s i b i l t i e s multiply, perhaps too abundantly. 2'' 21 Given t h i s thickening jungle of a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i t may be hazardous to venture yet another reading. Nonetheless, I t h i n k there i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r examining Andreas i n the context of a theme which has been l a r g e l y neglected i n c r i t i c i s m of the poem.27 When Andreas i s read as a metaphoric account of the continuous struggle waged by the f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n against the bondage of s i n and the works of the ungodly city,28 the effectiveness of the poem's martial d i c t i o n (as well as of i t s s p e c i f i c a l l u s i o n s to Beowulf) becomes apparent,29 for the poet presents his audience with two versions of the heroism of epic. One i s a p o r t r a i t of the conventional but flawed i d e a l of m a r t i a l i t y represented by the Mermedons, t h e i r earthly c i t y , and, indeed, h i s t o r i c a l pagan Germanic society; the other i s a precise d e s c r i p t i o n of a newly modified, refined and extended d e f i n i t i o n of heroism, manifested by Andrew and God's comitatus on earth. The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of these two martial i d e a l s allows the audience of the f a i t h f u l to le a r n , i n the vocabulary of the secular world, what behavior i s expected of members of the Church M i l i t a n t and per e g r i n i i n the temporal world. What textual grounds are there for arguing that Andreas describes the c o n f l i c t between the heavenly and earthly c i t y ? F i r s t , of course, the metaphor of b a t t l e i s used frequently to describe Mermedonian behaviour (A.vv. 45-47; 1093-97; 1116-1125), often directed against Christians or t h e i r deeds. In a d d i t i o n , the poem contains several hints that Mermedonia represents the archetypal ungodly c i t y described by St. Augustine. It i s an infamous c i t y ("maeran b y r i g , " A.v.40; i n the OE prose variant a "ceaster lana," BH, p.241) repeatedly likened to Rome.30 i t s c i t i z e n r y , ignorant of God and s p i r i t u a l values are obsessed instead with the vanity of s e l f i s h and material g r a t i f i -c ation. They are described as "begn deofles" (lack of concord i n ms., see 22 A.v. 43b) and accept Satan as leader of t h e i r comitatus. In i t s destruction, Mermedonia c l o s e l y resembles the doomed Babylon (Rev. 16.17-18). If the Mermedons are c i t i z e n s of the earthly c i t y , i t i s equally clear that Matthew and Andrew are c i t i z e n s of the heavenly c i t y , sharing for awhile Adam's e x i l e i n the postlapsarian w o r l d . 3 1 As actual missionary peregrin! and l o y a l followers of Jesus, they sojourn i n a foreign land where t h e i r stay i s characterized by s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n . 3 2 As metaphoric e x i l e s , they eat the t r a d i t i o n a l d i e t of a l i e n a t i o n (hay and grass, see Henry, p.202) and endure the emotional c h i l l of d e s p a i r . 3 3 At t h i s point i n the a n a l y s i s , an important paradox emerges. The Mermedons, while actual natives of t h e i r own "epel" (A.v. 21a), themselves l i v e i n a state of metaphoric e x i l e , separated from both God and the heavenly c i t y . They, l i k e others who deny Chris t and his apostles, are "modblinde men" (A.v. 814a), imprisoned by s i n (A.v. 19a "morbre bewunden"), captives of s p i r i t u a l hunger (A_.v. 1158 "hungre gehaefte") and material deprivation (Greenfield, " E x i l e " , p.202; Frey, p.294). I r o n i c a l l y , only t h e i r prisoner, Andrew, can return t h i s pagan nation to i t s true home (A.v. 1683a). Through his teachings and the example of his enduring f a i t h he releases the Mermedons from t h e i r bondage to s i n . Thus the poem presents the reader with several kinds of e x i l e — the actual e x i l e of the missionary apostle or monk; the s p i r i t u a l e x i l e imposed on a l l mankind by Adam's s i n ; and the e x i l e from goodness of the unrepentant s i n f u l man — and f u l l y develops t h e i r often i r o n i c i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . 3 4 This depiction of the struggle between the earthly and the s p i r i t u a l i s p e c u l i a r l y appropriate to St. Andrew, whose feast day f a l l s at the beginning of Advent. In t h i s p e n i t e n t i a l season, the Church remembers man's e x i l e 23 on earth and bondage to Satan, soon to be r e l i e v e d by Jesus' incarnation which i t s e l f foreshadows the f i n a l s a l v a t i o n so g r a p h i c a l l y described i n Andreas (vv. 1579-90). 3 5 To express t h i s s p i r i t u a l struggle, then, the Andreas poet uses the metaphor of m a r t i a l i t y . In t h i s , he i s not content to l i m i t his l i n g u i s t i c scope. Instead, he applies to h i s task the f u l l force of t r a d i t i o n a l Anglo-Saxon martial d i c t i o n , augmented by s p e c i f i c a l l u s i o n s to Beowulf, thus creating within the l i m i t s of the convention an informative d i s t i n c t i o n between the comitatus of God, captained by the s a i n t , and the comitatus of the earthly c i t y , led by Satan. 3'' The d i s t i n c t i o n between these two martial i d e a l s not only c l a r i f i e s the r o l e of the s o l d i e r of C h r i s t , but also illuminates the short-comings of an excessive secular m a r t i a l i t y — a concern perhaps p a r t i c u l a r l y meaningful i n Anglo-Saxon England. 24 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER TWO 1. This summary i s indebted to David Hamilton, "Diet," p.67. 2. E a r l finds t h i s incident (A.vv. 1044-57) p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t typo-l o g i c a l l y . He argues that i t contains "an image obviously drawn from Exodus 14.19-20, where God hides the f l e e i n g I s r a e l i t e s from the pursuing Egyptians by means of a cloud." E a r l also believes that the lack of mimetic coherence i n the episode i s strongly suggestive of a l l e g o r y ("Typological," p.88) 3. That i s , the continuum of d a i l y incident i n the realm of the actual. Such h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y can include the f i c t i o n a l , provided i t conforms to the deterministic constraints of the natural world (see, for instance, Ian Watt, The Rise of the Novel (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1976), pp.9-37). 4. Bernard F. Huppe, Doctrine and Poetry (New York: State U n i v e r s i t y of New York, 1959), p.21. 5. Morton Bloomfield, " P a t r i s t i c s and OE L i t e r a t u r e : Notes on Some Poems," Comparative L i t e r a t u r e , XIV (Winter 1962), 36-37 and 39-41. 6. The Old Testament "had r e a l l i t e r a l meaning" and prefigured the equally r e a l New Testament, which, i n turn, f o r e t o l d the h i s t o r i c a l l y r e a l Parousia ( E r i c h Auerbach, "Figura" i n Scenes from the Drama of European L i t e r a t u r e , trans. R. Manheim (New York: Meridian, 1959, pp.11-78). C l e a r l y , however, S c r i p t u r e was not completely l i t e r a l , f o r St. Paul finds a l l e g o r y i n the Old Testament (Gal. 4.21-5) and does not hesitate to use a l l e g o r y i n his own discourse (Eph. 6.12-17). The precise d i s t i n c t i o n between l i t e r a l , a l l e g o r i c a l and t y p o l o g i c a l i n medieval l i t e r a t u r e i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t , too. See, for instance, " A l l e g o r i c a l , Typological or Neither?"-ed. Stanley Greenfield and Peter Clemoes, ASE 6 (1977), 285-302). 7. The medieval view of r e a l i t y makes the natural world an abstraction of God's mind, whilst turning the intangibles of myth and prophecy into h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t i e s . Thus, for t h i s reader at l e a s t , the boundary between the i d e a l and the r e a l i s obscured. 8. Huppe, pp.8-10. Somtimes concealment i t s e l f became a v i r t u e (pp.10-11; p.30). 9. The reader must, of course, "seek the allegory more than j u s t the p l a i n h i s t o r y i n h i s books" (W.P. Bolton, A l c u i n and Beowulf: An Eighth  Century View (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978), p.39; henceforth referred to as A l c u i n ) . 10. "[R]omanticism i s an elevation beyond the range of the f a m i l i a r into a s p i r a t i o n . A s p i r a t i o n , e l e v a t i o n , e x a l t a t i o n , e d i f i c a t i o n are a l l words used to describe the purpose of romance. They are the purposes of the Saint's l i v e s " (C.W. Jones, Saint's Lives and Chronicles i n Early  England (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1947), p.52). 25 11. C l i n t o n Albertson, Anglo-Saxon Saints and Heroes, (New York: Fordham Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1967), p.25. 12. The presence of a s i m i l a r t r a i t i n the h i s t o r i e s of Asser and Bede shows how r e a d i l y medieval writers combined the actual and the mythical. 13. P h i l i p R o l l i n s e n , "The Influence of C h r i s t i a n Doctrine and Exegesis on OE Poetry," ASE 2 (1973), p.273. 14. R o l l i n s e n , "Influence," p.283. For example, i n Andreas, incidents such as the blossoming of Andrew's t r a i l of blood, the three day duration of h i s ordeal and the c a l l i n g f o r t h of water from a stone, urge an a l -l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 15. "Typological," pp.68-9. This i s i n addition to the conventional assertion of narrators that despite t h e i r lack of expertise, they are t r u t h f u l witnesses. 16. Hamilton c i t e s the transformation i n Andreas of a martial c o l l o c a t i o n l i k e "sweord beran" (B.v. 2518) i n t o "feorh beran" (A.v. 216) as an example of concrete expression of the a b s t r a c t ( " D i e t , " pp. 148-9). He does not, however, elaborate on the r o l e of martial d i c t i o n i n Andreas. 17. This motif i s pervasive and includes not only the Mermedons' depraved d i e t and Andrew's shipboard provender, but also the poison drink which reduces man to the l e v e l of beast (A.vv. 34-39. See "Diet," pp. 148-151). This l a s t a l l e g o r i c a l l y represents the r e a l danger confronting Matthew — that i n a godless land he, too, w i l l loose f a i t h and as a consequence, l i k e a beast, f o r f e i t his hope of heaven (A.vv. 83-7). E a r l would read t h i s metaphor as part of the f o u r - f o l d a l legory. He believes " s y l f a e t a n " (A.v. 175b), for instance, demands to be understood as a t r o p o l o g i c a l warning against vanity. 18. See " F i g u r a l " and M.M. Walsh, "The Baptismal Flood i n OE Andreas: L i t u r g i c a l and Typological Depths," T r a d i t i o 33 (1977), 137-158. 19. For S c r i p t u r a l references to s p i r i t u a l food and drink, see I Cor. 10. 1-4 (Walsh, "Baptismal Flood," p.141). Appropriately, Andrew f u l f i l l s Jesus' i n j u n c t i o n to 'Feed my sheep' (John 21.15-17; see "Typological," p.78), thus counteracting the poison drink of the Mermedons' j u s t as i n baptism the r e s u l t s of Eve's " b i t r a n drync" (Guplac B_ v. 868b) are counteracted. 20. For instance, the parody of the Eucharist i n the attack on the youth (A.vv. 1108-1116; E a r l , p.79). 21. Walsh, p. 157. John baptizes with water, Jesus with f i r e and the Holy S p i r i t . 26 22. See "Typological," p.74, John 7.8. Walsh, pp. 142-3, c i t e s John 7.37-8 (baptism as d r i n k ) . The Noahic flood i s a frequent type of baptism ("Figural," p.265), as i s water from rock (Exodus 17.1-7; H i l l , p.267) and the path through the Red Sea, H i l l , p.272). This l a s t i s strongly suggested i n Andreas (vv.1577-85), when Andrew leaves his prison and the f l o o d waters part for him. 23. See T. H i l l , "The Tropological Context of Heat and Cold Imagery i n Anglo-Saxon Poetry," NM 69 (1968), 522-32, and "Two Notes on P a t r i s t i c A l l u s i o n i n Andreas," Anglia 84 (1966), 156-7. Cold also figures i n t r a d i t i o n a l AS poetic desciptions of e x i l e (see Thomas Rendall, "Bondage and Freeing from Bondage i n OE Religious Poetry," JEGP 73 (1974), 497-512). Such a c o n j u n c t i o n of metaphor i s not unusual i n Andreas. For instance, the dragon figures i n the Parousia as well as i n Germanic myth (see H.R. E l l i s Davidson, Gods and Myths of Northern Europe, (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1981), p.38). 24. Constance H i e a t t , "The Harrowing of Mermedonia: Typological Patterns i n the OE Andreas, "NM 77 (1976), p.51. E s p e c i a l l y the b l i n d i n g i n prison (A.vv. 30-2) and the "modblinde menn" (A.v. 814a) who w i l l not harken to Jesus" words. 25. Penn S z i t t y a , "The L i v i n g Stone and the Patriarchs: Typological Imagery i n Andreas vv. 706-810," JEGP 72 (1973), P.172. 26. Notably, R.E. Boenig's gruesome i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the shipboard fare offered Andrew and his d i s c i p l e s ("Andreas, the Eucharist and V e r c e l l i , " JEGP 79 (1980), 313-31). 27. Although E a r l emphasizes the r o l e of conversion i n Andreas, he doesn't construe the process i n terms of the combat between the two c i t i e s . 28. A u g u s t i n e , C i t y of God, t r a n s . H. Bettenson (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972), pp. 593-4; pp. 911-912 (henceforth referred to as C i t y ) . A l v i n Lee argues that the Mermedons represent "the dryht of H e l l and t h e i r kingdom i s the place of damnation" (The Guest H a l l of Eden (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972), p.91). That place would seem to be the earthly c i t y , under the rule of Satan ( C i t y , p. 923 and Guest  H a l l , p.94, "Babylonian confusion"). The f i n a l defeat of the earthly c i t y and the f i n a l binding of Satan are prefigured by the Harrowing of H e l l and both events seem i m p l i c i t In Andrew's triumph over the Mermedons (see " T y pological," p.77). C e r t a i n l y the impending cataclysm i s s i g n a l l e d by the Parousia-like events which occur i n Mermedonia — famine (Matt. 24.7), parent - c h i l d d i s c o r d (Mark 13.12-13), and the persecution of God's apostles (Luke 21.12). 29. M.M. Walsh, i n " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Backgrounds of Imagery i n the OE Andreas," DAI 36 (1975), 1492A (Catholic U n i v e r s i t y of America), argues that m i l i t a r y t e r m i n o l o g y i s "an e s s e n t i a l element i n the p a t r i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the perpetual c o n f l i c t between good and e v i l . " The r o l e of such language i n e a r l y C h r i s t i a n l i t e r a t u r e i n general and i n Andreas i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i l l be discussed i n the next chapter. 27 30. P.J. Frankis argues that references to ruins i n phrases such as "enta geweorc" and "straete stanfage" are intended to evoke pagan Rome as the earthly c i t y (see "The Thematic Significance of enta geweorc and Related Imagery i n The Wanderer," ASE 2 (1973), 253-269; and C i t y , p.600). 31. "pu scea l t operne epel secean / wynleasran wic, and on wraec hweorfan / nacod niedwaedla neorxnawanges / dugubum bedaeled." (Genesis A vv. 927-30a i n P.L. Henry, The Early English and C e l t i c L y r i c (London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1966), p.181; see also Rendall, "Bondage," p.497). S i m i l a r l y , the C h r i s t i a n i s "a p i l g r i m and stranger i n the world" ( C i t y , p.596). See also I Peter 2.11 and Peter Hunter B l a i r , The Wold of Bede (London: Secher and Warburg, 1970), p.4). Indeed, Jesus Himself seems to regard his time on earth as e x i l e (A.w. 161-7). In addition, peregrinus evokes the missionary C e l t i c monk. 32. O.J. H. Grosz, "The Island of E x i l e s : A Note on Andreas 15," ELN 7 (1970), 241-2). Grosz says " i g l a n d " (A v. 15) denotes not i s l a n d but place of i s o l a t i o n . 33. Leonard H. Frey, " E x i l e and Elegy i n AS C h r i s t i a n Epic Poetry," JEGP 62 (1963), p.297 (see A.vv. 1253-65, "Weder coledon"). 34. The irony i m p l i c i t i n the contrast between temporal and s p i r i t u a l c a p t i v i t y i s c l e a r i n A.vv. 57-58, where Matthew, although p h y s i c a l l y confined, i s s p i r i t u a l l y free becasue he i s bound by Ch r i s t ' s love ("him waes Cr i s t e s l o f / on fyrhplocan faeste bewunden"). The Mermedons, although p h y s i c a l l y unrestrained are, as already noted, unwitting s p i r i t u a l captives of Satan. 35. The "sombre" vestments of the p r i e s t r e f l e c t the g r i e v i n g , p e n i t e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r of Advent (see J . J . Campbell, Advent L y r i c s of the Exeter  Book (Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959), p.4). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , many of the OE Advent L y r i c s describe man's s p i r i t u a l state i n t h i s season as one of c a p t i v i t y ( I I v. 8b-9a, "be we i n carcerne / s i t t a b sorgende") and homelessness ( I I v. 15b" eble bescyrede"). God's people await i n bonds (VI v. 18a, " i n bendum;" V v. 18a, "gebunden bealorapum") l i k e weary e x i l e s (VIII 51a, "wergum wreccan." C i t a t i o n s are from Campbell). These concerns seem c l o s e l y associated with those of the Andreas poet and, although I have been unable to f i n d any s p e c i f i c reference to Andrew i n AS Advent l i t e r a t u r e , the l o c a t i o n of his feast day at the beginning of the season suggests a probable connection between t h i s s a i n t and the Advent season. 36. Cherniss compares the Mermedons to "a t r i b e of Germanic warriors" (Ingeld, p.183). His examination of the differences i n the a p o s t o l i c and Mermedon comitatus are infomative, but are preceded by his opinion that the exordium of Andreas i s "grossly inaccurate both In terms of C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n and the context of the poem" (p.175). Like Joyce H i l l , Cherniss denies the poet the r i g h t to metaphoric language. 28 CHAPTER THREE THE MARTIAL METAPHOR IN ANDREAS Once we acknowledge that Andreas may be an example of C h r i s t i a n allegory, the metaphoric implications of the poem's martial language* become apparent. C e r t a i n l y , early C h r i s t i a n writers often used the language of warfare to describe the continuous c o n f l i c t between v i r t u e and v i c e . Examples abound not only i n the discourse of the Fathers of the early Church, but i n Scripture i t s e l f . The Psalms of the Old Testament, for instance, r e f e r to God as a s h i e l d for the righteous and an enemy of the wicked (Ps. 3.3; 7.10).2 The Lord w i l l attack his enemies l i k e a s o l d i e r wielding a s h i e l d and a bow (Ps. 7.12-13); Deut. 32.23-25).3 i n the New Testament, Jesus describes his earthly mission as a kind of warfare: 'Do not think that I have come to bring peace on earth, I have not come to bring peace, but a sword.' (Matt. 10.34) St. Paul likens the endurance, pu r i t y , love and t r u t h f u l speech of the f a i t h f u l C h r i s t i a n to the "weapons of righteousness" ( I l C o r . 6.4-7) and i n t e r p r e t s the c o n f l i c t between good and e v i l as an actual b a t t l e i n which the f a i t h f u l must p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y armed: Put on the whole armour of God that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the d e v i l ... the breastplate of righteousness ... the s h i e l d of f a i t h , with which (you can quench a l l the flaming darts of the e v i l one. And take the helmet of s a l v a t i o n and the sword of the s p i r i t which i s the word of God. (Eph. 6. 11-17) 4 This metaphor formed part of the r h e t o r i c a l arsenal of the e a r l y Church Fathers, who also found i t convenient to express the i n t e r a c t i o n s of v i r t u e and vice i n the language of epic warfare. Thus, St. Augustine of Hippo describes the struggle between good and e v i l as i f i t were an almost endless series of b a t t l e s between two mutually antagonistic c i t i e s . ( C i t y , pp.911-912; p.919). 29 The Benedictine Rule^ also c a p i t a l i z e d on t h i s conceit, urging monks i n the best martial t r a d i t i o n to behave as warriors p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n armed combat.6 Service and obedience to God were construed as weapons and the e n t i r e membership of the monastic movement was metaphorically conscripted into a "holy army."7 Even martyrdom, the ultimate expression of non-violence, was regarded as a "conquest of the d e v i l , " and thus took a ce n t r a l place i n God's arsenal ("Lives," p.42). This metaphoric expression of the Chri s t i a n ' s r o l e i n the temporal world f e l l on f e r t i l e ground i n 7th century England, for the Anglo-Saxons were well acquainted with the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s of martial heroism. Not only d i d t h e i r comitatus society spring from an e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n of constant warfare,8 p o l i t i c a l conditions i n England at the time of Augustine's a r r i v a l and long a f t e r were characterised by violence and h o s t i l i t y within and without the seven kingdoms.^ The chief player i n t h i s h i s t o r i c a l drama of aggression was the noble w a r r i o r who belonged to the king's comitatus. He possessed, i n addition to the paramount v i r t u e of s k i l l at arms, the a t t r i b u t e s of courage and l o y a l t y and was rewarded for his services with "land, treasure, food and d r i n k . " l u In OE verse, t h i s p o l i t i c a l l y e s s e n t i a l man was i d e a l i z e d as a f e a r l e s s hero who confronted the temporal world "against odds, undaunted even i n death."H Although far more destructive and v i o l e n t than the C h r i s t i a n version of a hero,12 t h i s Germanic warrior shared with the C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r a t t r i b u t e s of l o y a l t y , i n t e g r i t y and a disdain f or death, which permitted Anglo-Saxon poets to use h i s person as a metaphoric representation of the C h r i s t i a n hero, even though the l a t t e r was "a man of mind rather than body."13 30 In Anglo-Saxon England, the conjunction of actual Germanic m a r t i a l i t y with the metaphoric m a r t i a l i t y of C h r i s t i a n theologians' r h e t o r i c occurred a f t e r Augustine's a r r i v a l . ^ Warfare and feud continued to be the predominant forms of p o l i t i c a l discourse, while actual armed combat was a necessary adjunct to s p i r i t u a l weaponry i n the defence of the faith.15 The r e s u l t i n g c o n f l a t i o n of these two a n t i t h e t i c a l expressions of m a r t i a l i t y i s i m p l i c i t i n Bede's account of C o i f i ' s conversion. Not only does Bede's d e s c r i p t i o n r e f l e c t an acquaintance with St. Paul's exhortation, but also a knowledge of the violence of these times: so he [ C o i f i ] formally renounced his empty s u p e r s t i t i o n and asked the king to give him arms and a s t a l l i o n — for h i t h e rto i t had not been lawful for the chief p r i e s t to carry arms ... Girded with a sword and with a spear i n h i s hand, he mounted the king's s t a l l i o n and rode up to the i d o l s ... as soon as he reached the temple, he c a s t into i t the spear he c a r r i e d . (Bede, History, p.28) This conjunction of actual and a l l e g o r i c a l m a r t i a l i t y provided Anglo-Saxon poets with a topic of profound i n t e r e s t and paradox. While the t r a d i t i o n a l language and conventions of OE martial verse 1* 3 could be applied to expressions of the f a i t h f u l Christian's moral duty, they remained signs of a s e c u l a r e t h i c which valued an actual aggressiveness and m a t e r i a l i t y repugnant to the C h r i s t i a n ideology. Poets c l e a r l y recognized t h i s paradox and explored i t i n t h e i r verse. In "Dream of the Rood," for instance, although Jesus i s denoted by the conventional warrior noun haeleb (v.39) 1? the poet i s c a r e f u l to imply that t h i s warrior's chief v i r t u e s are submission and endurance (vv. 40-1). S i m i l a r l y , the poet personifies the cross i t s e l f as a thane of C h r i s t , paradoxically most l o y a l when, contrary to secular heroic t r a d i t i o n , i t f a i l s to defend i t s Lord and instead submits to His enemies (vv.37-8). 1 8 Thus, 31 using the language and conventions of Anglo-Saxon secular m a r t i a l i t y , the poet i m p l i c i t l y transforms the s p i r i t u a l v i r t u e s of obedience, humility and endurance into the metaphoric weaponry described i n the Benedictine Rule. In Gublac, the language of secular heroism also becomes a v e h i c l e f or the expression of C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s . Gublac, once an actual warrior ("Hwaet we hyrdon o f t baet se halga wer / i n pa aerestan aeldu gelufade / frecnessa f e l a " vv. 108a-110a)19 becomes a monk and thus a cempa (v.153a) and an oretta (v.569b) who f i g h t s f o r God. He confronts his demonic enemies, however, not w i t h an actual sword, but with "gaestlicum waepnum" (vv. 177-8), the most notable of which seems to be t h e o l o g i c a l debate.20 With t h i s weaponry, the s a i n t , l i k e a secular hero, conquers new t e r r i t o r y f o r h i s Lord (vv. 742-748)21 and thus demonstrates his s p i r i t u a l prowess i n vanquishing e v i l . A close reading of Andreas shows that i t s author, too, was c l e a r l y aware of the d i s t i n c t i o n s between the a n t i t h e t i c a l i d e a l s of secular and s p i r i t u a l m a r t i a l i t y . Although he uses the martial metaphor to unify his poem,22 a n d seems to apply the t r a d i t i o n a l d i c t i o n and convention of the Anglo-Saxon secular epic i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y to C h r i s t i a n and pagan a l i k e , the Andreas poet i s , i n f a c t , preoccupied throughout his poem with the d i s t i n c t i o n s between the secular and C h r i s t i a n e t h i c a l system (PH, p.84; "Diet" p.155). His explora-t i o n of the actual differences between the two produces abundant a l l e g o r i c a l implications and suggests his thorough knowledge of St. Paul's metaphor. The Andreas poet i s quick to d i s t i n g u i s h between the C h r i s t i a n comitatus and i t s secular counterpart i n the exordium of his poem. Although he refers to members of both troops as haeleb (v.2b, v.21a), he emphasizes t h e i r actual differences and begins to draw from those differences s p i r i t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . The C h r i s t i a n warriors, for instance, are c a l l e d "peodnes begnas" (v. 3a) 32 and the Mermedons designated "deofles begn" (v.43b; Brooks notes lack of concord, A., p.64) suggesting t h e i r respective allegiance to powers beyond the temporal sphere. Appropriately, the C h r i s t i a n comitatus i s armed only with defensive weaponry ("cumbol" v. 4b; "rond ond hand" v. 9b; "helm" v. 10). The Mermedons, on the other hand, carry spears suitable to t h e i r role as servants of "morbres b r y t t a " (v. 1170). 2 3 The poet implies, however, that the C h r i s t i a n s , being " t i r e a d i g e " (v. 2b) and strong i n b a t t l e (vv. 3a-4b), have nonetheless won t e r r i t o r y at the behest of t h e i r divine leader (vv. 14a-17a; vv. 329b-331b) (perhaps through the metaphoric weaponry of the word of G o d ) 2 4 while the Mermedons with t h e i r more deadly weapons, have earned nothing but famine (vv. 21b-23a). The d i f f e r e n c e s between the two comitatus become even more apparent as the narrative unfolds. The epithets the poet uses to describe the leaders of the two troops, for example, imply that the secular comitatus i s dependent on the temporal world, while the apostles and t h e i r d i s c i p l e s require only s p i r i t u a l sustenance and reward. The poet suggests t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n by modifying the t r a d i t i o n a l heroic epithet "beaga b r y t t a . " 2 5 He ref e r s to the C h r i s t i a n c h i e f , instead, as a dispenser not of rings but of the intangible e n t i t y of l i f e i t s e l f ( " l i f e s b r y t t a " v. 8 2 2 ) . 2 6 Satan, however, i s "morbres b r y t t a " (v. 1170) as well as a "bana" (v.17; 1293) and "morbres manfrea" (v.1313). As dispenser of death, Satan f i t t i n g l y i s unable to provide even the simplest of his f o l l o w e r s ' needs: naes b a e r hlafes wist werum on bam wonge, ne waeteres drync to bruconne. (vv. 21b-23a) Further emphasizing the other-worldly q u a l i t y of the C h r i s t i a n reward, the poet makes the issue of material wealth a ce n t r a l part of Andrew's dialogue 33 with the disguised Jesus. In language strongly evocative of the epic Beowulf2 7 Andreas proudly declares that Naebbe i c faeted gold ne feohgestreon, welan ne wiste, ne wira gespann, landes ne locenra beaga. (vv. 301a-3) and that for his Lord, such treasure i s an unnecessary measure of merit (vv. 329b-338a). The poet, however, again makes clear that bereft of earthly treasure, Andrew and a l l s i m i l a r l y f a i t h f u l followers of Jesus constitute i n themselves a s p i r i t u a l treasure.28 C l o s e l y a l l i e d with treasure dispensing i n the OE l i t e r a r y complex of martial topics, i s the environment i n which the g i f t - g i v i n g o c c u r s . The Andreas poet emphasizes the s a t i s f a c t i o n of s p i r i t u a l reward and the contrasting inadequacy of temporal reward by comparing the C h r i s t i a n and Mermedonian contexts of treasure dispensing. While the C h r i s t i a n comitatus has an e t e r n a l l y b e a u t i f u l and j o y f u l h a l l awaiting them (vv. 102-6), f i l l e d with the songs of praise (vv. 871-4), the Mermedons must be content with a deserted h a l l (vv. 1158-1159). When they gather, the Mermedons sing not songs of c e l e b r a t i o n but rather utter incomprehensible roars of rage (v. 41b / v. 1125b) or lament t h e i r p l i g h t (vv. 1155a-l157a). It i s a measure of the Andreas poet's s e n s i t i v i t y to both the conventions of secular heroism and the implications of s p i r i t u a l heroism, that he uses t h i s topic of fe a s t i n g and h a l l c e l e b r a t i o n to describe the eventual s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the Mermedon redemption. The much disputed vv. 1526-1535b29 constitute simultaneously an i r o n i c conclusion to the Mermedons' actual de-p r i v a t i o n and a metaphorical expression of the s p i r t i r u a l v i c t o r y of s a l v a t i o n . It i s i r o n i c that the "meoduscerwen"30 coming to the Mermedons a f t e r a meagre feast day should be a death-dealing f l o o d . This flood, however, i s at the 34 same time the agency of t h e i r redemption (Walsh, "Baptismal F l o o d " ) . I t i s f i t t i n g , therefore, that t h i s s p i r i t u a l v i c t o r y be expressed i n language which evokes the j u b i l a n t gathering of triumphant warriors. 3*-The conventional epic preoccupation with weaponry provides the Andreas poet with an opportunity to describe St. Paul's a l l e g o r i c a l arsenal as r e a l weapons. Thus, the strength of f a i t h becomes a s h i e l d . 3 2 Against such pro-t e c t i o n , the heavily armed Mermedons are powerless. Although the poet emphasizes the sight (vv.45-7) and sound of t h e i r weapons (v.127), these actual arms remain i n e f f e c t u a l and s l i g h t l y r i d i c u l o u s . 3 3 P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the i n v i s i b l e weapons of the Christians are f a r more e f f e c t i v e . In vv. 981a -1003b, the Andreas poet describes the work of these s p i r i t u a l weapons i n a way which s k i l f u l l y avoids a t t r i b u t i n g the t a i n t of graphic bloodshed to eit h e r Andrew or his God. Armed only with trus t i n God (vv. 984b), Andrew nonetheless ar r i v e s at the prison l i k e a "beorn beaduwe hearde," an "anraed o r e t t a " and a "maga mode r o f . " His mere presence seems to p r e c i p i t a t e the guards' death, which i s described as a sleep (v.1002b) induced by death i t s e l f (v. 994b) rather than by God or by Andrew. Indeed, the saint's s i n g l e action i n a l l t h i s i s to touch the prison door (v. 999b-1000a), leaving his victims l y i n g on the ground, the only evidence of t h e i r death being a reddening f l o o r (v. 1003b). The means of the saint's f i n a l v i c t o r y over Satan and his demons also draws heavily on St. Paul's imagery, f o r Andrew uses the word of God as his sword. 3 4 Having already suggested that s i n i n i t s a b i l i t y to wound i s a metaphoric weapon (v. 407a; vv. 1189b-l 190a), the poet arms h i s C h r i s t i a n hero w i t h the Gospel (v. 12; also "haliges l a r " v. 654, 709,819 e t c . ) , 3 5 while his Satanic opponent wields a " l a b s p e l l " of f a l s e teaching (vv. 1079; 35 see also "hearmcwide," vv.79-81). The poet describes the subsequent confrontation as i f i t were a l i t e r a l battle.36 i n t h i s f l y t i n g - l i k e contest, Satan im-mediately recognizes that Andrew's most powerful weapon i s his preaching, and he therefore orders the saint to be struck across the mouth (v. 1300). This actual blow i s followed by the metaphoric assault of i n s u l t s (v. 1315b) and l i e s . 37 Andrew defends himself with a simple r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the truth which Satan has d i s t o r t e d , and thus wins the struggle.38 These examples, then, show the Andreas poet s u c c e s f u l l y manipulating the resources of his native poetic t r a d i t i o n to elaborate the C h r i s t i a n martial metaphor. A b r i e f analysis of the heroic vocabulary the poet uses to describe the Christians and t h e i r Mermedon counterparts, shows that d i s t i n c t i o n s which encourage a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are present even at t h i s l e v e l . One of the obvious (and to some c r i t i c s d i s t r e s s i n g ) features of the Andreas lexicon i s the abundance of i t s warrior nouns. Compared to the Gublac poet, for example, the author of Andreas seems p r o f l i g a t e i n h i s use of these words. While the Gublac poet i s content with o r e t t a and cempa ("Soldier," pp. 63-9; 71-3), the Andreas poet uses r i n c , guprinc, beorn, haeleb, wigend, h i l d f r e c a , begn, and maecg to denote protagonists and antagonists a l i k e ; and gubfreca, oretmaecg, treowgebofta, and wiga ( i n addition to cempa and oretta) to describe Christians (see Appendix A). Although without more l i n g u i s t i c data than are presently a v a i l a b l e to us, we cannot automatically i n f e r that these d i s t i n c t i o n s r e f l e c t nuances i n meaning,39 a comparison of warrior nouns which apply e x c l u s i v e l y to e i t h e r C h r i s t i a n or Mermedon / demon, suggests some semantic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . T y p i c a l l y , only the saint's enemies are described i n terms of t h e i r death-dealing armament (aescberend, frumgar, or l i n d g e s t e a l l a ) , while Christians receive the le s s s p e c i f i c designation of haeleb, r i n c or 36 begn. This l e x i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n conforms well to the poet's d e s c r i p t i o n of the apostles' lack of actual weapons, and t h e i r r e l i a n c e instead on the arsenal of God. While both Christians and t h e i r enemies are described as part of a group (feba, heap, preat, werod or here), only Mermedons are c a l l e d a hlop or gedraeg. This d i s t i n c t i o n seems appropriate on several counts. Although Brooks defines hlop as "troop, company, throng," Bosworth and. T o l l e r add that hlop can denote a band with an unsavoury and perhaps criminal reputation. 4"-- Elsewhere i n OE verse, hlob r e f e r s to demons.4"- Gedraeg also has pejorative connotations, being used occasionally to r e f e r to a group of demons or to a multitude of sorrows. 4 2 The connotations of these two nouns help to stress not only the disorder inherent i n the d e v i l ' s comitatus, but also the f a c t that the allegiance of the Mermedons to Satanic and temporal values perverts t h e i r human nature. The C h r i s t i a n troop, on the other hand, i s restrained, d i s c i p l i n e d and free from the angry emotional excesses of the Mermedon mob. 4 3 A b r i e f look at the adjectives used by the poet to describe each comitatus i s also i n s t r u c t i v e , f o r he d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between adjectives equally t y p i c a l of OE martial d e s c r i p t i o n , i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h unique and s i g n i f i c a n t features of the C h r i s t i a n warriors and the Mermedons. The C h r i s t i a n troop i s repeatedly described i n terms of the abstractions of courage, strength, wisdom and fame ("maga mode r o f " v. 984, hildedeor, ellenheard, anraed, dom-weorbung, f rome, waerfaest). The Mermedons and t h e i r demonic associates, however, are not only domleas, they are also described i n adjectives which emphasize t h e i r b l o o d t h i r s t i n e s s (heorugraedig, heorugrim, waelgif re, waelgraedig, waelgrim, waelreow). Their eagerness f o r violence i s also i m p l i c i t i n adjectives which emphasize t h e i r anger (eorre, bolgenmod, gealgmod). In t h i s way, the 37 repeated as s o c i a t i o n of the Mermedons with the excesses of s l a u g h t e r and anger strengthens the reader's impression of the C h r i s t i a n comitatus as a co n t r a s t i n g l y s t o i c force, constant i n i t s duty even i n the midst of c h a o s . ^ F i n a l l y , and perhaps most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the adjective t i r e a d i g i s reserved for God's heroes alone u n t i l the Mermedon nation i n i t s s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h also earns the designation t i r e a d i g (v. 1681). This examination of martial l e x i c o n , together with a consideration of some of the common conventions of m a r t i a l i t y i n Andreas, shows that the author i s consciously manipulating OE poetic martial t r a d i t i o n s to elaborate the p o r t r a i t of the C h r i s t i a n hero — the embattled p i l g r i m of the heavenly c i t y . These are not, however, the only means used by the poet to d i s t i n g u i s h secular hero from s p i r i t u a l hero. He also i n t e n t i o n a l l y evokes Beowulf, i n s e r t i n g features of that epic into h i s own narrative to further enrich his descriptions of secular and s p i r i t u a l m a r t i a l i t y . The complex e f f e c t s of t h i s process w i l l be discussed i n the next chapter. 38 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER THREE 1. Like Schaar, I include here "notions which belong to the martial sphere" (CS,. p.309)); that i s , the warrior and his ba t t l e s together with his weapons, feasts and treasure. 2. A l l S c r i p t u r a l c i t i a t i o n s are from The Holy B i b l e , Revised Standard Version (New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1952). 3. See " S o l d i e r , " p.63, for more c i t a t i o n s . 4. St. John's d e s c r i p t i o n of the Apocalypse i s also indebted to the language of epic warfare (Rev. 21.7-10). 5. Composed i n the e a r l y 6th century and probably brought to England by Augustine's m i s s i o n , according to H. Logeman, The Rule of S. Benet: L a t i n and Anglo-Saxon (London: EETS 90, 1888), p.xv. J.V. Fleming also believes Benedictinism to have been a powerful force i n AS England ("'The Dream of the Rood' and Anglo-Saxon Monasticism," T r a d i t i o 22 (1966), p.43). 6. They were "C r i s t e s fcegnas compiende wip deoflu daeges and ni h t e s " ("Soldier," p.59. See also Rule, p . l , 11. 8-10). 7. " S o l d i e r " and B l a i r , The World of Bede, p.133. Even the peaceful scribe became a warrior capable of wounding Satan with his words ( B l a i r , p.127). 8. Germanic society "depended for i t s nourishment upon continuing warfare and violence" ( B l a i r , p.33.) Later, i n the 5th and 6th centuries, the constant need for gold with which to reward the comitatus continued to f u e l t r i b a l aggression (see Christopher Brooke, The Saxon and Norman  Kings (Glasgow: Fontana / C o l l i n s , 1963), pp.58-9). 9. In the 7th century, the AS king played a game of "endlessly repeated wars" and was " l i k e l y to end ... s l a i n i n b a t t l e with h i s head and hands stuck up on stakes" (The Anglo-Saxons, ed. James Campbell (Ithaca: Cornell U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1982), p.56). In addition, r i v a l r y for l e a d e r s h i p encouraged feuding and produced bands of e x i l e s who preyed on the countryside (Campbell, p.56). In l a t e r centuries, Viking predation replaced c i v i l discord as a common form of aggression. 10. Peter Hunter B l a i r , Anglo-Saxon England (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni v e r s i t y Press, 1977), p.211. See also B.vv. 1192-1198; and 1866-9) where Hropgar rewards Beowulf for h i s brave deeds. 11. H.L. Rogers, "Beowulf's Three Great Fi g h t s , " Review of English Studies 6 (1955), p.340. Beowulf provides a clear expression of t h i s i d e a l i n vv. 438-455, when Beowulf s t o i c a l l y accepts the l i k e l i h o o d of his own death (see also Brooke, pp.54-5). The fa c t that t h i s epic can also be interpreted as C h r i s t i a n allegory shows how e a s i l y a l l e g o r i c a l and l i t e r a l m a r t i a l i t y could be combined. 39 12. L e v i n L. S c h u c k i n g , "The I d e a l o f K i n g s h i p i n B e o w u l f , " Modern H u m a n i t i e s  R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n 3 ( 1 9 2 9 ) , 143-154. See a l s o t h e B r e c a a d v e n t u r e i n Beowulf and B e o w u l f ' s prophecy about I n g e l d ' s wedding f e a s t ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w . 2041-2069a). 13. J.T. C a s t e e n , "'Andreas': An OE Poem and i t s C o n t e x t s , " DAI 31 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 4708 A ( U n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a ) . A l t h o u g h o t h e r poems ( n o t a b l y J u d i t h ) d e s c r i b e a C h r i s t i a n h e r o p e r f o r m i n g a c t s of p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e , t h i s w a r r i o r u s u a l l y f i g h t s s p i r i t u a l and m e n t a l b a t t l e s , ( s e e G u b l a c A, v v . 344a-347, p a r t i c u l a r l y "swa s c e a l o r e t t a a i n h i s mode / Gode compian") 14. Even t h e metaphor of t h e w a r r i o r - m o n k was r e a l i z e d w i t h t h e i n f l u x o f young w a r r i o r s t o m o n a s t i c l i f e ( A l b e r t s o n , AS S a i n t s and H e r o e s , p . 1 9 ) . 15. Bede's h i s t o r y i s f u l l o f a c c o u n t s of armed c o n f l i c t i n d e f e n c e o f f a i t h . F o r i n s t a n c e , Oswald, l i k e t h e l a t e r B y r h t n o b , was f a c e d w i t h t h e l i t e r a l n e c e s s i t y , of d e f e n d i n g h i s f a i t h . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he armed h i m s e l f f o r t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h s p i r i t u a l as w e l l as a c t u a l weaponry ( s e e Bede, A H i s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h Church and P e o p l e , t r a n s . Leo S h e r l e y - P r i c e ( H armondsworth: P e n g u i n Books, 1977, pp.141-2). I n The A n g l o - S a x o n s , C a m p b e l l a l s o n o t e s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f Oswald's c r o s s w i t h a c t u a l weaponry ( p . 5 6 ) . See a l s o B l a i r , AS E n g l a n d , p.122, f o r W i l f r e d ' s a r r i v a l i n pagan Sussex. 16. E x c e p t f o r B e o w u l f , t h e e x i s t e n c e of s u c h s e c u l a r m a r t i a l v e r s e i s hypo-t h e t i c a l . The d i g r e s s i o n s i n Beowulf and t h e F i n n s b u r g Fragment, however, argue t h a t t h i s k i n d o f v e r s e d i d e x i s t , i f o n l y i n o r a l form. 17. "The Dream o f t h e Rood," The V e r c e l l i Book, V o l . 1 1 of The A n g l o - S a x o n  P o e t i c R e c o r d s , e d . G.P. Krapp (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 32), pp. 61-65. 18. F l e m i n g , p.54. F o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l o p i n i o n o f u n a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r l i k e t h i s , see W i g l a f ' s c a s t i g a t i o n o f B e o w u l f ' s c o w a r d l y c o m i t a t u s . 19. The G u b l a c Poems of the E x e t e r Book, ed. J . R o b e r t s ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1979). 20. G u b l a c ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t h e demons o f h i s i s l a n d p r o v i d e t h e poet w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o show t h e word of God a c t i n g as a sword. " S o l d i e r , " c o n t a i n s a more e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f h e r o i c v o c a b u l a r y i n G u b l a c , pp.65-9. 21. The p o s s i b l e m e t a p h o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f " i g l a n d " i s d i s c u s s e d by G r o s z , " I s l a n d o f E x i l e , " pp. 241-2. 22. See Krapp's 1906 e d i t i o n o f A n d r e a s , p. I i i and A., p . x x v i . 40 23. The poet emphasizes t h e i r deadly weaponry with varied r e p e t i t i o n of nouns denoting or containing the idea of 'spear': Eodon him pa togenes garum gehyrsted, lungre under l i n d e ; nalas l a t e waeron eorre aescberend to bam orlege. (vv. 45a-47b) 24. Matthew's r o l e as writer of Gospel i s inserted i n the exordium where we would more usually expect a d e s c r i p t i o n of armed might conquering new t e r r i t o r y (see B. vv. 3a-6a). 25. In Beowulf, an epithet describing a king and leader of the comitatus (B.v. 35, 352 e t c . ) . 26. As b l a e d g i f a (v.84, 656) God also d i s t r i b u t e s "vigour, s p i r i t , l i f e " (Brooks' d e f i n i t i o n ) . The epithet, unique to Andreas, also emphasizes the intangible s p i r t u a l benefits won by the C h r i s t i a n hero. Appropriately, the saint w i l l be the agency through which God introduces t h i s vigour to the formerly d e s t i t u t e Mermedons ( c f . vv. 1517 and vv. 1718-1720). 27. Although i t i s somewhat a r t i f i c i a l to separate them from martial d i c t i o n . i n general, the Beowulf borrowings w i l l be discussed i n the next chapter. Here i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to note that these l i n e s emphasize the d i s t i n c t i o n between a t r a d i t i o n a l temporal measure of worth and the s p i r i t u a l measure of merit. 28. A.vv. 360b-362a. See also PH, pp. 89-90. The point w i l l be more f u l l y discussed i n chapter four, below. 29. Meoduscerwen wearp aefter symbeldaege; slaepe tobrugdon searuhaebbende. Sund grunde onfeng, deope gedrefed; dugup wearp afyrhted. (vv.l526b-1529) waes sorgbyrben, b i t e r beorbegu. (vv.1532b-1533a) 30. I t r a n s l a t e "ale-dispensing" and with R.M. Lumiansky ("The Contexts of OE "Ealuscerwen,' and 'Meoduscewen,'" JEGP 48 (1949), 116-126) and Harvey de Roo ("Two OE F a t a l Feast Metaphors: Ealuscerwen and Meoduscerwen,") in t e r p r e t the noun to be i r o n i c i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n of flood as part of a feast (for d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s see B_., p. 466 and, " D i c t i o n , " pp. 100-2. E.B. I r v i n g J r . (A Reading of "Beowulf (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), p. 108) disagrees with Brodeur's t r a n s l a t i o n ) . In a d d i t i o n , I a t t r i b u t e to "meoduscerwen" the p o s i t i v e connotations appropriate to the redeeming drink of baptism and E u c h a r i s t i c wine, as well as the usual connotations of celebratory f e a s t . This " i n malo" / " i n bono" i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was not unusual i n the discourse of the time (see Alcuin, p.40 and p.84). 41 31. A p p r o p r i a t e l y , the joy of the s p i r i t u a l l y redeemed i s also described i n the language of h a l l c elebration: secga seledream ond sincgestreon beorht beagselu (vv.l656-7a; see too, vv.1672-3) 32. For i n s t a n c e , both Matthew and Andreas are secure i n the protection of God's love (vv. 54a-58b; 116a-117b; 534-5), while God i s Himself defined as "aebelinga helm" (v. 277, 623, 655) and "helm aelwihta" (v.118). In addition, Hamilton i n "Diet" argues that the poet transforms the a c t u a l weapons of Beowulf (v. 437a and 2653b) into a l l e g o r i c a l arms (A.v. 174, 216, 282, 430 e t c . ) . 33. Even with a heavily armed force the Mermedons f a i l to k i l l e ither the s a c r i f i c i a l youth, or Andrew himself. 34. Words also i n i t i a t e the f i n a l flood (vv. 1492a-1496b) which i t s e l f originates from the word of God carved i n stone (vv. 1508b-1516b). 35. Hamilton ("Diet," p.155) notices that Andrew i s a warrior who teaches. 36. The demons c a l l t h e i r confrontation with the defenseless Andrew a gup (v. 1349b), secgplega (v. 1353a), and gegnslega (v.1356a). Satan concurs (v. 1369a). While the d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n of good and e v i l as a b a t t l e i s frequent throughout the poem (v.47, 1146, 1205, 234, 951 e t c . ) , i t seems i n t h i s passage p a r t i c u l a r l y to reinf o r c e the i m p l i c a t i o n that the word of God i s a metaphoric sword. 37. Satan accuses Andrew of pride (v. 1318a), of s i n (v. 1300), and of p r a c t i c i n g e v i l arts (v. 1362). Satan also exaggerates Andrew's physical strength, c a l l i n g him aeglaeca (v. 1359). F i n a l l y , the d e v i l misconstrues (through deceit or s t u p i d i t y ) the s p i r i t u a l nature of Jesus' v i c t o r y over death. 38. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Satan's flawed verbal weaponry i s often composed of p l a -titudinous heroic exhortations (vv. I182b83b; 1328-1333) which i r o n i c a l l y f a i l to s t i m u l a t e his brave warriors (vv. 1343b; 1332b) to v i c t o r y . Cherniss notices, as w e l l , that Satan behaves l i k e a t r a d i t i o n a l war chief i n urging the Mermedons on to revenge (vv. 1179all83; see Ingeld, p.183). Thus, i n making Satan the spokesman for t r a d i t i o n a l m a r t i a l i t y , the poet again undermines the worth of that e t h i c . 39. For a d i s c u s s i o n of problems attending attempts to discover semantic differences i n synonymous nouns, see Caroline Brady, "'Warriors,'" pp. 199-207. 40. hlob: "II a band, troop, company, gang, crew, body of robbers ... I l l the crime of taking part i n the action of a hlob" from T.N. T o l l e r , An Anglo-Saxon Dictonary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1898). 42 41. Gublac B, vv. 894a-897a: Oft to bam wicum weorude cwomun deofla deabmaegen duguba byscerede, hlobum bringan See also v. 915. 42. Brooks (A., p.63 i n a footnote to v. 43) disagrees but see B_.v. 756a ("secan deofla gedraeg") and "The Wife's Lament," v.45a ("sinsorgna gedraeg"). It ought to be repeated here that the inference of these d i s t i n c t i o n s i s te n t a t i v e . Nouns such as here, f o r instance, can also have pejorative connotations (although not, I th i n k , as emphatic as those of hlob and gedraeg. See here i n T o l l e r ) . It would require a thorough analysis of OE nouns designating "army" to make t h i s hypothetical d i s -t i n c t i o n a c e r t a i n t y . 43. Mermedon vocal performance i s reminiscent of the cacophony of d e v i l s ( c f . Gublac A, vv. 262-265). 44. Adreogan i s the verb t y p i c a l l y used to describe the saint's actions i n a f i g h t (v. 73; vv. 1482-6). 43 CHAPTER FOUR THE ALLUSION TO BEOWULF IN ANDREAS Any a n a l y s i s of the martial metaphor i n Andreas i s incomplete i f i t neglects the r o l e played i n t h i s saint's l i f e of a l l u s i o n to Beowulf. Before discussing the function such a l l u s i o n , however, we must f i r s t show that i t e x i s t s , f o r although echoes of Beowulf have long been heard i n Andreas (A, p. x x i i i and "Relationship," p.844), the reason for the s i m i l a r i t i e s (pp.4-7 above) together with the mechanics of the a l l u s i v e process, have been favourite topics of c r i t i c a l debate. In h i s 1906 e d i t i o n of Andreas, Krapp observed that the o v e r a l l narrative structure of Andreas was s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to portions of the Beowulf narrative (p. I v ) . In each poem, the hero undertakes an ocean voyage i n the company of f a i t h f u l companions i n order to reach a distant land and there free the oppressed from the g r i s l y attentions of cannibal foes. Although these narrative p a r a l l e l s are obvious, both Peters and Brooks argue that they are too commonplace to be s i g n i f i c a n t and are, i n any case, r e f l e c t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l apocryphal t a l e and not, therefore, the product of poetic invention. *• These arguably f o r t u i t o u s p a r a l l e l s to Beowulf i n Andreas do not, however, ex i s t i n i s o l a t i o n . Instead, they are often accompanied by d e s c r i p t i v e passages which echo the language or content of s i m i l a r scenes i n Beowulf. These passages are found i n neither the early Greek version of Andrew's story, nor i n the tenth century OE prose account. The unique conjunction i n Andreas of ready-made narrative p a r a l l e l s with such verbal embellishment suggests a poet i n t e n t i o n a l l y re-arranging his material i n order to emphasize his a l l u s i o n to another work. Thus while a l l extant versions of Andrew's adventures describe the Mermedons as cannibals, not a l l accounts devote equal attention to the h o r r i f i c implications 44 of t h e i r nature. 2 To emphasize the p a r a l l e l between the antagonists of Andrew and Beowulf, the Andreas poet includes i n his narrative an unusually extensive d e s c r i p t i o n of the Mermedon diet which echoes accounts of Grendel's depravity. A. 23b-5: ah hie blod ond f e l , f i r a flaeschoman feorran cumenra, pegon geond pa b eode. A. 150-4a: p a e t hie banhringas abrecan pohton, lungre to lysan l i e ond sawle, ond bonne todaelan dugube ond geogupe, werum to wiste ond to wilbege, faeges flaeschoman. B_.731-34a: mynte b a e t he gedaelde, aer b o n daeg cwome, at o l aglaeca anra gehwylces l i f wib l i c e , b a him alumpen waes w i s t f y l l e wen. B_. 741b-43a: s l a t unwearnum, bat banlocan, blod edrum dranc, synsnaedum swealh. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the Greek version says only "the men of that c i t y ... ate the f l e s h and drank the blood of men" (ANT, p.453), and the OE prose account i n B l i c k l i n g Homilies s i m i l a r l y understates the Mermedons' unpleasant d i e t : segb bonne b a e t P a m e n P e o n b a e r e ceastre waeron b a e t h i hlaf ne aeton, ne waeter ne druncon, ac aeton manna lichaman, and heora blod druncon. 3 Thus of a l l variants of the t a l e extant, only the Andreas poet's version i s s p e c i a l l y t a i l o r e d to emphasize t h i s p a r t i c u l a r n a r r a t i v e p a r a l l e l to Beowulf. Andreas i s also unique i n i t s elaboration of the saint's sea journey. 4 The Andreas poet describes the p i l o t ' s ship i n language which duplicates the Beowulf poet's praise of Scyld's v e s s e l : 45 A.360b-62: aefre i c ne hyrde bon cymlicor ceol gehladenne heahgestreonum. B_.38-39a: ne hyrde i c cymlicor ceol gegyrwan hildewaepnum. He also strengthens the s p e c i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n between Andrew and Beowulf as fellow ocean t r a v e l l e r s , by c a l l i n g Andrew's ship a "famigheals fugole g e l i c o s t " (A.497).5 F i n a l l y , the manner of Andrew's a r r i v a l i n Mermedonia i s described i n language c l e a r l y suggestive of Beowulf's approach to Heorot, r e i n f o r c i n g the s t r u c t u r a l p a r a l l e l s to Beowulf inherent i n Andrew's journey. A.985: Stop on straete ( s t i g wisode) B_.320: Straet waes stanfah s t i g wisode. Such emphasis of broad narrative p a r a l l e l s between the two poems through t h e i r conjunction with other echoes of Beowulf argues that Andreas' resemblance to Beowulf i s not f o r t u i t o u s , but perhaps planned. Nonetheless, some further s i m i l a r i t i e s of language or content must be found to increase the l i k e l i h o o d of a l l u s i o n . Yet while the text of Andreas contains a wide v a r i e t y of verbal and narrative echoes of Beowulf^ the question of t h e i r a l l u s i v e force p r e c i p i t a t e s considerable debate. 7 Naturally, i f a poet wishes to allude to another l i t e r a r y work, he must include i n his own text an i m i t a t i o n of that other work s u f f i c i e n t l y obvious to be recognized by his audience. The c r i t i c who intends to prove the presence of a l l u s i o n , must likewise be able to show that the composite parts of that a l l u s i o n c l e a r l y p r o c l a i m t h e i r provenance. Unfortunately, the peculiar nature of OE verse complicates t h i s usually straightforward task. 46 Since Magoun applied Lord and Parry's theories to Anglo-Saxon verse, arguing that i t was composed i n the main of l i n g u i s t i c units co n s i s t i n g of "a group of words which i s r e g u l a r l y employed under the same metrical conditions to express a c e n t r a l idea" ("Oral-Formulaic Character," p. 194), s c h o l a r s have agreed that the frequent d u p l i c a t i o n of c o l l o c a t i o n and phrase i n OE verse r e f l e c t s some g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the composition process. 8 Indeed, OE poets may have composed t h e i r verse by modifying i n d i v i d u a l expressions from a communal formulaic stock to s u i t the a l l i t e r a t i v e and metrical require-ments of t h e i r own work.9 This sharing of poetic expression extended to the d u p l i c a t i o n of conventional themes as well (Greenfield, " E x i l e , " pp.200-6). As a r e s u l t , the Anglo-Saxon verse canon i s f i l l e d with the varied r e p e t i t i o n of a l i m i t e d number of verbal expressions and thematic conventions. C l e a r l y , i n such a l i t e r a t u r e , the provenance of an i n d i v i d u a l c o l l o c a t i o n or phrase ,is d i f f i c u l t to a scertain. This verbal conventionality has caused some c r i t i c s to doubt the existence of i n t e n t i o n a l a l l u s i o n i n OE verse.!0 we need not be so extreme, however, fo r despite the homogeneity of OE verse (Shippey, p.95) Anglo-Saxon poets s t i l l had the freedom to decide what formulae best suited t h e i r needs. The d u p l i c a t i o n of expression i n two poems implies s i m i l a r poetic needs f u l f i l l e d , and thus suggests a possibly s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between two otherwise independent contexts. In addition, i t i s l i k e l y that a poet could emphasize the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y of his borrowings by organizing them i n a way which made th e i r a l l u s i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e p l a i n . This, indeed, i s the assumption i m p l i c i t i n Brodeur's suggestion that i t i s the conjunction of apparently i n s i g n i f i c a n t verbal echoes of Beowulf within i n d i v i d u a l passages of Andreas, which implies i n t e n t i o n a l a l l u s i o n . H 47 In attempting to determine which passages i n Andreas allude to Beowulf, I have taken Brodeur's argument a step further. While I assume that extensive v e r b a l p a r a l l e l s ^ are usually i n t e n t i o n a l and a l l u s i v e , 1 ^ T also include i n my catalogue of a l l u s i o n s those verbal e c h o e s ^ which coincide with some other n a r r a t i v e or r h e t o r i c a l p a r a l l e l to Beowulf. For instance, A.125b-28 contains verbal echoes of two passages found i n Beowulf, and a l l three passages re f e r to armed men gathering to discuss plans of attack. I t seems l i k e l y , therefore, that readers of Andreas already f a m i l i a r with Beowulf would be reminded of that secular epic when they encountered these verbal echoes of Beowulf i n the text of Andreas. A. 125b-28: Dugub samnade haebne h i l d f r e c a n heapum prungon (gubsearo gullon, gara hrysedon) bolgenmode under bordhreoban. B. 226b-7a: syrcan hrysedon gubwaedo 15 B_327b-30a: byrnan hringdon, gubsearo gumena; garas stodon, saemanna searo samod aetgaedere, aescholt ufan graeg. S i m i l a r l y , by combining conventional epic e x p r e s s i o n ^ with a synonymous v a r i a t i o n of a Beowulf b l i n e (A.lb "on fyrndagum /B. l b " i n geardagum") and an a l l i t e r a t i v e emphasis of "prym" also found i n the f i r s t l i n e s of Beowulf (A.3 / B.2), the Andreas poet evokes the introductory portion of Beowulf. The content of the verses immediately following the f i r s t three l i n e s of Andreas further strengthens the exordium's a l l u s i v e f o r c e . I 7 On other occasions, the p a r a l l e l between scenes found i n both Andreas and Beowulf i s emphasized by the Andreas poet's incorporation i n his own work of a r h e t o r i c a l convention used by the Beowulf poet i n a s i m i l a r scene, 48 again i n conjunction with some form of verbal echo. Thus the verbal echo of B_.237a ("Hwaet syndon ge") and B_. 333a ("Hwanon ferigeab ge") contained i n A.256 ("Hwanon comon ge") and A.258b-59 ("Hwanon eagorstream / ofer yba gewealc eowic brohte?") i s augmented by the poet's use of a r h e t o r i c a l convention of the superlative also found i n the beach encounter i n Beowulf: A.471: Naefre i c saelidan selran mette. A. 493-4: swa i c aefre ne geseah aenigne mann brypbearn, haeleb be ge l i c n e . B_.247b-8: Naefre i c maran geseah eo r l a ofer eorpan, ponne i s eower sum. Likewise, the poet applies to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the Mermedons, the envelope p a t t e r n from Beowulf which so e f f e c t i v e l y conveys the ominous q u a l i t y of Grendel's approach. 1 8 By combining t h i s r h e t o r i c a l device with an a d d i t i o n a l verbal p a r a l l e l , the Andreas poet forces h i s reader to recognize an a l l u s i o n to Beowulf. A. 1219: Aefter pam wordum com werod unmaete A. 1269b: pa com haeleba b r e a t B_.702b: com on wanre niht B. 710a: pa com of more under misthleopum B_. 720a: Com b a to recede r i n c s i p i a n The envelope concludes with an a r r e s t i n g verbal p a r a l l e l . A. 1388: Com pa on uhtan mid aerdaege B. 126: p a waes on uhtan mid aerdeage In both instances, the coming of dawn brings e v i l t i d i n g s of physical s u f f e r i n g . 49 These subtle echoes of the language and content of Beowulf, together w i t h the broad narrative p a r a l l e l s noticed by Krapp, make Andreas into a kind of l i t e r a r y palimpsest whose most recent text occasionally permits a view of an e a r l i e r work. What i s the purpose of such continual evocation of Beowulf? Close reading shows that t h i s a l l u s i o n enriches the texture of the Andreas poet's martial metaphor by juxtaposing well-known examples of secular m a r t i a l i t y with the s p i r i t u a l m a r t i a l i t y of the s a i n t . The e f f e c t s of t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n , however, are v a r i o u s l y i m i t a t i v e and contrastive, and need some i n d i v i d u a l explanation. The Andreas poet often alludes to Beowulf i n order to convince his audience of the extraordinary merits of his C h r i s t i a n heroes and t h e i r d i s c i p l e s . By describing Matthew, Andrew or even Jesus as i f each were a Danish king or a Geatish warrior, he creates a communion of heroes, not unlike the communion of s a i n t s . Indeed, the technique of f o s t e r i n g a f l a t t e r i n g comparison through the i m i t a t i o n of other works i s a t r a d i t i o n a l practice of hagiographers.19 In Andreas, the device not only makes an unfamiliar heroism part of an accepted t r a d i t i o n , but also permits a comprehensible d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n e f f a b l e . As already noted (see above, p. 31 ) } the exordium of Andreas places the C h r i s t i a n hero f i r m l y i n the t r a d i t i o n of conventional epic heroism and i n v i t e s us to compare him p a r t i c u l a r l y to the Danish warriors and kings described i n Beowulf. A. 1-3: Hwaet, we gefrunon on fyrndagum twelfe under tunglum t i r e a d i g e haeleb peodnes begnas. No h i r a brym alaeg.20 B. l - 3 : Hwaet, we Gardena i n geardagum beodcyninga brym gefrunon hu ba aebelingas e l l e n fremedon. 50 Like the Danes of long ago, the Christians are v i c t o r i o u s warriors who possess "might, f o r c e ... greatness, g l o r y , " (B_., p.414) and are also part of an ancient mythical t r a d i t i o n of heroism, begun "on fyrndagum." They are therefore a f i t subject for celebration i n epic verse. The connection between Dane and C h r i s t i a n i s further strengthened when Matthew l i k e Scyld, overcomes the obstacle of being "feasceaft funden" (A. 181a / B_.7a), and demonstrates his pre-eminence by becoming a p i v o t a l force i n the establishment of C h r i s t i a n i t y j u s t as Scyld was c e n t r a l to the founding of Danish power.21 Andrew and Beowulf also share heroic t r a i t s . Like the secular warrior, the saint i s a "haele hildedeor" (A. 1002 / B. 1816) whose steadfast bravery merits supernatural assistance.22 As i s usual i n heroic t r a d i t i o n , both Beowulf and Andrew are supported by a l o y a l c o m i t a t u s 2 3 a n < j excite genuine a f f e c t i o n i n others: A. 1011-13: Aras ba togenes Gode bancade, baes be hie onsunde aefre moston geseon under sunnan. B_. 1626-8: Eodon him b a togeanes, Gode bancodon, b r y b l i c begna heap, beodnes gefegon, baes b e h i hyne gesundne geseon moston. Unswerving r e s o l u t i o n i n the pursuit of a goal i s another t r a i t t y p i c a l of both Beowulf and Andrew and i s implied i n the p a r a l l e l drawn between them as they confront t h e i r respective tasks i n a f o r e i g n land. Andrew, l i k e Beowulf and h i s Geats, follows the path set out for him: A. 984-5: maga mode rof , meotude getreowe. Stop on straete ( s t i g wisode). B_.320-la: Straet waes stanfah, s t i g wisode gumum aetgaedere.24 51 Even the intangible q u a l i t i e s of d i v i n i t y can be expressed as actual heroic t r a i t s . To emphasize the resemblance of the disguised Jesus to the i d e a l warrior hero, the Andreas poet makes Andrew's reaction to the divine p i l o t conform i n part to the Dane's i n i t i a l reaction to Beowulf and his com-panions. Andrew's questioning of the p i l o t , for instance, echoes the Geats' i n t e r r o g a t i o n by the coastguard and h a l l guard (see A.256-9 / B_.237-40a; 333-5a, p. 48 above). 2 5 The s a i l ors on both vessels c l e a r l y excite a s i m i l a r c u r i o s i t y . Indeed, Andrew's rather s u r p r i s i n g inquiry "Where have you come from?" instead of the expected "Where are you going?" suggests a remarkable appearance i n need of explanation. The nature of t h i s extraordinary q u a l i t y i s made e x p l i c i t l a t e r i n the narrative by the r e p e t i t i o n of superlatives noted above (p. 48 ) . 2 ^ Like Hropgar, Andrew i s amazed at the presence of this excellence i n one "nalas wintrum f r o d " (A.506b). 2 7 Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , Andrew also addresses the p i l o t as "wigend hleo," an epithet used elsewhere to describe king Beowulf (B_. 2337b). If the Andreas poet i s thus able to describe the s p i r i t u a l hero i n the language and conventions used i n Beowulf to portray the secular hero, he i s also able to juxtapose the Germanic and C h r i s t i a n warrior i n order to emphasize the d i s t i n c t i o n s between them. The s t o i c f a t a l i s m of the secular hero, for instance, i s inappropriate to the saint whose f a i t h i n God must not waver. Thus, while Beowulf rather proudly asserts that: B.632-6: 'Ic paet hogode, pa i c on holm gestah, saebaet gesaet mid minra secga gedriht, paet i c anunga eowra leoda w i l l a n geworhte, oppe on wael crunge feond grapum f a e s t . ' Andrew c r i t i c i z e s his d i s c i p l e s f o r s i m i l a r expectations of death: 52 A.429-34: 'Ge baet gehogodon, b a g e on holm stigon, baet ge on f a r a f o l c feorh gelaeddon ond for dryhtnes lufan deab b r°wodon, on aelmyrcan e b e l r i c e sawle gesealdon. Ic baet s y l f a wat, b a e t us gescyldeb scyppend engla. The same d i s t i n c t i o n i n the a t t i t u d e of the two heroes i s expressed l a t e r i n the n a r r a t i v e , again i n the idiom of Beowulf. A. 458-60: Forbon i c eow to sobe secgan w i l l e , baet naefre forlaeteb lifgende God e o r l on eorban, g i f his e l l e n deah. B_.572b-3: Wyrd o f t nereb unfaegne e o r l , b o n n e his e l l e n deah! Although equal i n f o r t i t u d e and courage, only the C h r i s t i a n hero i s assured of God's support, while the temporal hero must r e l y instead on the whim of fa t e . Thus "ban gebraec," deadly i n the world of Beowulf (B_. 1565b-68a; 2507-8a), may be rendered harmless by God's power, and "hatan h e o l f r e " i s no longer a sign of death as i t was for Aeschere (B_. 1423a), but of r e b i r t h (A. 1277a; 1441-1449). In h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of Germanic warrior and C h r i s t i a n , the Andreas poet a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the rewards sought by the two comitatus. The nations of Beowulf, l i k e t h e i r h i s t o r i c counterparts, r e l y on tangible wealth to s i g n i f y an i n d i v i d u a l ' s merit and to maintain the unity on the comitatus . 2 8 The C h r i s t i a n , however, prides himself on a temporal poverty which he judges i n d i c a t i v e of s p i r i t u a l wealth.29 Thus Jesus t e l l s his followers to eschew earthly treasure, while Wealbeow recognizes Beowulf's merits by bestowing material g i f t s : A. 332-9: "Farab nu geond e a l l e eorban sceatas emne swa wide swa waeter bebugeb, obb e stedewangas straete gelicgab 53 337 Ne burfan ge on pa fore fraetwe laedan, gold ne s e o l f o r ; i c eow goda gehwaes on eowerne agenne dom est ahwette." B.1221a-26a: "Hafast pu gefered, paet be feor ond neah ealne wide ferhp weras ehtigab, efne swa side swa sae bebugeb windgeard, weallas. Wes penden pu l i f i g e , aebeling, eadig! Ic pe an t e l a sincgestreona. (PH, pp. 88-89) S i m i l a r l y , when Andrew discusses with the p i l o t his i n a b i l i t y to pay for passage, he describes his own poverty as an absence of the treasure prized i n Beowulf. Andrew t e l l s the disguised Jesus, however, that he w i l l be paid nonetheless i n the intangible tokens of s p i r i t u a l reward. A.271-6: 'Wolde i c pe biddan (beh i c be beaga l y t sincweorbunga s y l l a n meahte,) baet bu us gebrohte brante ceole, hea hornscipe, ofer hwaeles ebel on baere maegbe; bib be meorb wib God, baet bu us on lade l i b e weorbe'. A.301-3a: 'Naebbe i c faeted gold ne feohgestreon, welan ne wiste, ne wira gespann, landes ne locenra beaga."30 In the world of Beowulf, however, reward i s tangible and i s frequently earned by bloodshed rather than by c h a r i t y . Hygelac, for instance, gives his warriors "hund busenda/ landes ond locenra beaga" (B_.2994b-5) as a reward for the murder of Ongenbeow. Even Beowulf himself earns his "fraetwe ond faetgold" (B.1921) by k i l l i n g his enemies. This comparison of treasures reaches an emphatic conclusion i n the poet's j u x t a p o s i t i o n of Scyld's magnificent ship with the p i l o t ' s v e s s e l . Using a c o l l o c a t i o n drawn from Beowulf, he describes Jesus' boat, f i l l e d with indigents, as a vessel whose cargo i s as valuable as a l l Scyld's wealth (A.359-63a; B.36b-39a, p. 45 above). 3 1 F i t t i n g l y , Scyld's ship of death i s here transformed into an instrument of s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h and renewal by v i r t u e of i t s excellent 54 cargo. A l l u s i o n to Beowulf i s also used to encourage a comparison of Mermedon and monster.32 Although the r e s u l t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n between the v i l l a i n s of Andreas and Beowulf strengthens the resemblance of the two heroes who each must struggle with s i m i l a r opponents, i t also reveals the extent to which the search for material g r a t i f i c a t i o n has transformed the Mermedons i n t o a b e s t i a l parody of the secular i d e a l . Their eating habits, for instance, might e a s i l y have been learned at Grendel's table (A.23b-5 / B_.741b-45a, p. above). In t h e i r excessive aggression, the Mermedons become monstrous e n t i t i e s . Like Grendel, they mindlessly and r e l e n t l e s s l y pursue the taste of blood. As already noted, the Andreas poet emphasizes the p a r a l l e l by borrowing the r e p e t i t i o n of the verb "com" from the d e s c r i p t i o n of Grendel's approach to Heorot (A.1219, 1269b, 1388-90a / B.702, 710a, 720a, 126-7, p. 48 above). 3 3 As leader of the Mermedons, Satan shares i n t h i s communion of monstrosity. Like Grendel, he i s an " a t o l aeglaeca" (A. 1312 / B.592), as well as a " h e l l e h a e f t l i n g . " Even his discourse resembles the howls of Grendel. A. 1341-2: Ongan e f t swa aer ealdgenibla, h e l l e h a e f t l i n g hearm leob galan. B_.785-88a: wop gehyrdon, gryre leob galan Godes andsacan, sigeleasne sang, sar wanigean h e l l e haefton (see also A., p.110). The poet's d e s c r i p t i o n of Mermedonia i t s e l f suggests that c i t y has a f f i n i t i e s with the l a i r of a dragon. The comparison i s f i t t i n g f o r two reasons. F i r s t , the dragon, l i k e Grendel, t y p i f i e s the aggressive excesses of the Mermedon s o c i e t y . 3 ^ In addition, t h i s monstrous serpent i s a c e n t r a l player i n the apocalyptic drama, 3 5 and i s therefore appropriately associated with a c i t y 55 whose collapse suggests the ultimate destruction of the earthly c i t y . Like the dragon's l a i r , Mermedonia i s set among "harne stan" (A.841a / B.887; 2553; 2744). Although not i t s e l f a cave l i k e the dragon's home (B. 3046), the c i t y i s surrounded by caves (A. 1232; 1539) and shares some of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l features of the i n t e r i o r of the dragon's l a i r . A. 1492-95a: He be wealle geseah wundrum faeste under saelwage sweras u n l y t l e stapulas stondan storme bedrifene, eald enta geweorc.36 B. 2715b-19: ba se aebeling giong, baet he b i wealle wishycgende gesaet on sesse, seah on enta geweorc hu ba stanbogan stapulum faeste ece eorbreced innan healde. The s i m i l a r i t y between the two abodes does not, however, extend to t h e i r ultimate f a t e , f o r while the temporal hero can neither undo the harm caused by the dragon, nor make th i s cave into f i t human habi t a t i o n , the saint with God's help, can transform the l a i r of the Mermedons into a f a c s i m i l e of the heavenly city.37 F i n a l l y , to make p e r f e c t l y c l e a r that the monstrous nature of the Mermedons i s the r e s u l t of an excess of c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s of the secular hero, the Andreas poet juxtaposes the Beowulf comitatus with the c i t i z e n r y of Mermedonia. This comparison, of course, i s scarcely f l a t t e r i n g to the warriors of Beowulf. In one of his f i r s t descriptions of the Mermedons, the Andreas poet emphasizes t h e i r impressive armed appearance, evoking memories of s i m i l a r descriptions i n Beowulf (A.125b-28 / B.226b-7a; 327b-31a, p. 47 above). The Mermedons, unlike the Geats, however, are not armed to encounter dangerous monsters, but rather to accost helpless t r a v e l l e r s . Indeed, the poet i m p l i e s that the Mermedon v e r s i o n of heroic aggression i s s u f f i c i e n t l y exaggerated to be almost comic. The unequal confrontation between comitatus and unarmed 56 v i c t i m i s thus described a "beadulac" (A.1118b). 3 8 Like Beowulf, the Mermedons trust i n strength 3 0" but t h e i r t r u s t i s both excessive and inappropriate. In Mermedonia the i d e a l of epic combat i s trans-formed into indiscriminate and cowardly slaughter. The Andreas poet implies t h i s perversion of the heroic e t h i c by approximating portions of the d e s c r i p t i o n of Beowulf's struggle with Grendel's mother and with Daeghraefn, into h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the Mermedon feast plans: B_.1565b-68a: [H]e yrringa sloh baet h i r e wib halse heard grapode, banhringas braec; b i l eal burhwod faegne flaeschoman. B_.2507-8a: ac him hildgrap heortan wylmas, banhus gebraec. A.150-4a: baet hie banhringas abrecan b°hton, lungre tolysan l i e ond sawle ond b o n n e todaelan dugube ond geogobe, werum to wiste ond to wilbege, faeges flaeschoman. Aggression usually directed toward enemies i s , i n Mermedonia, turned toward innocent strangers. In t h i s v i o l e n t and barren land, whose h a l l s are permanently deserted (A. 1158-9 / B_. 145-6, CS, p.284), the lack of any s p i r i t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s expressed metaphorically i n a dearth of treasure as well as an absence of food (A.1113alll6b). The t e r r i b l e cycle of feast and fear which p r e v a i l s i n Beowulf (PH, p.91) i s here replaced by continuous misery, and no celebration precedes the Mermedons' constant laments. B_.128-9a: pa waes aefter wiste wop up ahafen, micel morgensweg. A. 1155-58b: ba waes wop haefen i n wera burgum , hlud heriges cyrm; hreopan f r i c c a n maendon meteleaste, mepe stodon hungre gehaefte. 57 The Mermedons i n t h e i r desperation, v i o l a t e the laws of h o s p i t a l i t y to strangers and to the indigent s t i l l sacred to the Danes^l and thus postpone t h e i r s a l v a t i o n and extend t h e i r misery.^2 The t r a g i c decay of a once noble i d e a l i s most s u c c i n c t l y expressed i n the Andreas poet's j u x t a p o s i t i o n of Danish and Mermedon h a l l celebration (see A.150-4a, p.44 above) also: A. 1121-23a: baet hie baes cnihtes cwealm corbre gesohton dugube ond eogobe, dael onfengon l i f e s to leofne. B. 71-3: ond baer on innan e a l l gedaelan geongum ond ealdum swylc him God sealde buton f o l c s c a r e ond feorum gumena. I r o n i c a l l y , the Mermedons, unlike the Danes, have nothing to share except the l i v e s of men.^3 Throughout his narrative, then, the Andreas poet modifies the materials of Beowulf to s u i t his own purposes. The r e s u l t i s a complex comparison of saint and secular hero which sometimes enhances the merits of the saint and at other times emphasizes the extent of the Mermedon f a l l from the high standards of epic heroism found i n Beowulf. The consequent e l u c i d a t i o n of the C h r i s t i a n martial metaphor transforms the abstract c o n f l i c t between cup i d i t y and c h a r i t y into a dramatic struggle between two kinds of warriors. Th i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s o makes the Andreas poet's narrative p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to an Anglo-Saxon audience, i t s e l f s t i l l caught i n the t o i l s of a feud-riven comitatus society. It i s therefore no accident that Andreas, l i k e Beowulf, concludes with a r e c i t a t i o n of the kin g l y power to which the C h r i s t i a n owes al l e g i a n c e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s king's dominion i s i n f i n i t e and His rule e t e r n a l . For the Andreas poet and the newly converted Mermedons, He i s the "god cyning" (B. l i b ) . 58 B.3180-2: cwaedon baet he waere wyruldcyningfa] manna mildust ond mon[bw]aerust, leodum l i b o s t ond lofgeornost. A.1717b-22: ond cwaedon bus: "An i s ece God e a l l r a gesceafta! Is his miht ond his aeht ofer middangeard breme gebledsod, ond h i s blaed ofer e a l l i n heofonbrymme halgum scineb w l i t i g e on wuldre to widan aldre, ece mid englum; baet i s aebele cyning!" 59 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER FOUR 1. Although the Andreas poet's "ultimate" source was probably the Greek apocryphal t a l e (A.p. xv), the version to which he had immediate access i s no longer extant. Frey warns us, however, against automatically a t t r i b u t i n g to a l o s t source, modifications which may be the product of a l a t e r poet's i n g e n u i t y (see Frey, " E x i l e and Elegy," p.293). Indeed, the heterogeneity of l a t e r redactions (CS_, pp. 14-24; A. pp. x v — x v i i i ) suggests the popular t a l e may have existed i n our poet's time i n many forms. The p a r a l l e l s between Andreas and Beowulf may well therefore be the product of the poet's i n t e n t i o n a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of sources. This p o s s i b i l i t y has s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t implications from those a r i s i n g from early c r i t i c s ' c o n t e n t i o n that Beowulf was a model for Andreas (see pp. 4 - 7 , above). 2. The 12th century L a t i n Codex Casanatensis contains the most graphic d e s c r i p t i o n s of the Mermedons' unpleasant nature (CS. p. 15). Some e a r l i e r version of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r account may have suggested to the Andreas poet a s i m i l a r emphasis i n his own work. 3. BH, p. 229. Matthew's probable fate i s s i m i l a r l y understated: "bry dagas nu to l a f e syndon, \>aet we hine w i l l a b acwellan & us to mete gedon," (p.231). See also the s i m i l a r prose version i n Corpus C h r i s t i Ms. 198, i n B r i g h t ' s Anglo-Saxon Reader, revised J.R. Hulbert (New York: Holt and Co., 1935), p.113). 4. "Andrew and his d i s c i p l e s ... found a l i t t l e boat and three men" ... 'I never saw such steering: t h i s ship i s as i f on land'" (ANT, p.454). In the tenth century OE version, the p i l o t has a "medmyclum s c i p e " (BH, p.233), and the actual journey receives l i t t l e a t tention even though i t excites "saewe ege" (p.235; s i m i l a r l y i n the Corpus C h r i s t i v a r i a n t , pp.116-7). 5. Compare to " f l o t a famiheals fugle g e l i c o s t . " (B.218). 6. Krapp l i s t s 145 p a r a l l e l s i n h i s 1906 e d i t i o n , p . l v i . 7. Almost a l l catalogues of Beowulf borrowings d i f f e r i n t h e i r contents. A.359-63a, for instance i s v a r i o u s l y judged i n s i g n i f i c a n t (CS_ omits i t ) ; inappropriate (A., p. x x i v ) ; or part of an e f f e c t i v e metaphor (PH, pp.97-8). 8. The exact nature of t h i s process i s problematic. While a d e t a i l e d examination of theories of AS verse composition i s beyond the scope of t h i s chapter, i t i s important to note that there i s no consensus on the supposed o r a l nature of the composition process (L. Benson " L i t e r a r y C h a r a c t e r , " pp.334-5; Shippey, p.96). In addition, the d e f i n i t i o n of "formulaic" remains ambiguous (F.H. Whitman, "The Meaning of 'For-mulaic' i n OE Verse Composition, "NM76 (1975), 529-537). 60 9. Creed describes t h i s hypothetical composition process. Shippey i s more succinct: "In one sense the poetic d i c t i o n i s l i k e a meccano-set; i t stays the same but you can do a l l sorts of things with i t " (p.95). Naturally, these ideas remain co n j e c t u r a l . 10. See " R e l a t i o n s h i p , " p.845 and Blake, English Language, who argues that i n medieval times "[no] s i n g l e English text was s u f f i c i e n t l y well known for an author to assume his readers would be so f a m i l i a r with i t that he could allude to i t s verbal expressions" (p.21). 11. " D i c t i o n . " In a s i m i l a r way, A.1492-95a implies B.2715b-19. 12. The phrase " v e r b a l p a r a l l e l " denotes an Imitation which consists of the verbatim d u p l i c a t i o n of two or more words. Thus A.985 suggests B_. 320 and A. 1011-13 suggests B. 1626-28. To a l e s s e r degree A.429 r e c a l l s B.632. 13. Not a l l duplications of Beowulf have a l l u s i v e force. Some act merely as convenient verbal f i l l e r s , permitting ease of poetic expression (see Appendix B). 14. The phrase " v e r b a l echo" denotes imitations which are synonymous rather than i d e n t i c a l , or imitations which are composed of s i n g l e words rather than extensive c o l l o c a t i o n s ( f o r instance, A.127b "garas hrysedon" / B.226b "syrcan hrysedon"). 15. Peters notes the resemblance, p.857. These are the only two occurences of "hrysedon" extant i n OE verse. 16. J u l i a n a 1-3; Exodus 1-3 and other poems use v a r i a t i o n s of "hwaet" "gefrunan" i n t h e i r i n i t i a l verses. Peters (pp.853-4) and B a r t l e t t (p.91) argue, therefore, that the exordium i s completely conventional. Schaar disagrees (C£, p.275). 17. Brooks reaches the same conclusion (A., p. x x i v ) . 18. C. H i e a t t , "Harrowing of Mermedonia," pp. 52-3. A. Brodeur, The  Art of Beowulf (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1959) discusses the e f f e c t s of the r e p e t i t i o n of "com" i n Beowulf. 19. Hagiographers borrowed f r e e l y from one another i n order to endow the i n d i v i d u a l saint with the t r a i t s of a l l s a i n t s . See C.W. Jones, Saint"s Lives and Chronicles, pp.60-1. 20. Passages c i t e d i n t h i s chapter are drawn from Schaar, Peters and Hamilton. 21. A.12-13: "se mid Iudeum ongan aerest / wordum writan." See also, B.4-11. 22. In both Andreas and Beowulf swords miraculously d i s s o l v e (A.1145-6; B.1608-1615). 61 23. At l e a s t i n i t a l l y , Beowulf and Andrew are followed by f e a r f u l yet f a i t h f u l men (A.377b-80a / B.691-2). In the end, however, i t i s only C h r i s t i a n l o y a l t y which endures (A.405-14) for the secular warriors, bought by treasure, f a i l to support t h e i r l o r d i n b a t t l e (B_. 2864-72). 24. Because Mermedonia resembles Heorot i n some ways, the p a r a l l e l i s streng-thened. Both c i t y and h a l l are equally well-known (A.40b / B_.74-82a). Although both await destruction by f i r e (A.1550-53a / B_.82b-85), Mermedonia unlike Heorot, w i l l be saved by Andrew's f a i t h . 25. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Jesus' ship i s also a "brante c e o l " (A.273b). 26. In his a l l u s i o n , the Andreas poet i s c a r e f u l to apply to h i s C h r i s t i a n hero o n l y those a t t r i b u t e s a p p r o p r i a t e to t h i s s p i r i t u a l warrior. Jesus i s therefore praised for his wisdom and seamanship and Beowulf for his physical prowess and his weaponry. 27. Compare B_.1842-43a: "ne hydre i c s n o t o r l i c o r / on swa geogum feore." This designation i s also a common r h e t o r i c a l topos (see E.R. Curtius, European L i t e r a t u r e and the L a t i n Middle Ages, trans. W.R. Trask (New York: Pantheon Books, 1953), p.98). 28. Gold was "the symbol of wealth and grandeur: a king must be able to di s p l a y i t i n his h a l l , on h i s armour, on his wife: he must be able to l a v i s h g i f t s of gold on his followers — but yet remain wealthier than they. This meant a constant struggle to provide ... l o o t " Brooke, Saxon and Norman Kings, p.58. The t r a g i c consequence of t h i s scramble are predicted by Beowulf i n his report to Hygelac (B_.2032-69). See also P a t r i c i a S i l b e r , "Gold and i t s Significance i n Beowulf," Annuale  Mediaevale 18 (1977), 5-19. 29. The Mermedons' d e s t i t u t i o n , however, i s s p i r i t u a l as well as material. See "Diet," p. 151. 30. A.474a-479 conclude t h i s r h e t o r i c a l envelope with a varied restatement of A. 271-6. There i s , of course, another j u x t a p o s i t i o n i m p l i c i t here, for the Mermedons too lack rings and treasure. Their poverty, however, implies no s p i r i t u a l merit. 31. PH, pp.97-8 and Wallace Gober, "Andreas 11.360-2," NM 73 (1972), 672-4. 32. Anglo-Saxon Poetry, trans. S.A.J. Bradley (London: Everyman's Libr a r y , 1982), p . l l l . 33. The verb neosan (A.v. 1389b) i s p a r t i c u l a r l y associated with Grendel's f i r s t examination of Heorot (B_. 115: "Gewat b a neosian sybpan niht becom"). 34. Both Grendel and the dragon use t h e i r great strength only to destroy. The dragon's rage at the theft of a sin g l e cup implies i n addition an obsessive r e l i a n c e on the things of t h i s world, echoed i n the Mermedons' hunger for f l e s h , rather than for the word of God. 62 35. C i t y , p.906 and Davidson, Gods and Myths, p.205. 36. The c o l l o c a t i o n "eald enta geweorc" may be intended to evoke the earthly c i t y as w e l l . (See Frankis, "enta geweorc," pp.253-69). 37. Thus Wiglaf can only stare h e l p l e s s l y at the source of his people's r u i n . Andrew, on the other hand, transforms "eald enta geweorc" into an instrument of cleansing and r e b i r t h (A.1503-8). 38. See B_. 1561a for a more appropriate use of "beadulac." 39. See B2540b; 1533b and compare to A.984, i n which the saint i s said to t r u s t i n God. 40. See also PH, pp.87-8. The re l a t e d t r a i t of anger i n combat i s shared by Beowulf and Mermedon a l i k e (A.128, 1221 / B.1539, 2550). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t y p i c a l of monsters as well (B_.723, 2220, 2304) but i s lacking i n the s a i n t . 41. Compare B_.4-7a to A. 177b-81a. Scyld "feasceaft funden" i s nurtured nevertheless, while Matthew i s imprisoned. 42. In imprisoning Matthew and his followers, they f a i l to hear Matthew's message of s a l v a t i o n . 43. F i t t i n g l y , the Andreas poet's words also echo Grendel's h a l l behavior (B.731-34a) and thus i m p l i c i t l y equate Mermedon, Dane and monster. 63 CONCLUSION It i s c l e a r that Andreas cannot be dismissed as a pale i m i t a t i o n of Beowulf. When we concede that the author of Andreas probably knew what he was doing (as Tolkien, Bonjour and B a r t l e t t have argued on behalf of other OE poets) the apparent incoherence and loose ends of the Andreas narrative are resolved and the poem's a l l e g o r i c a l intent becomes p l a i n . As the preceding discussion shows, studied i n i t s appropriate hagiographic context, t h i s saint's l i f e can be understood as a complex d e s c r i p t i o n of s p i r i t u a l warfare which s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c r i t i c i z e s the actual m a r t i a l i t y of the Anglo-Saxon world and i t s secular heroes. Of what importance i s the recognition that Andreas i s not merely the pathetic e f f o r t of a mediocre talent? Naturally, a better understanding of any poem i s i t s own reward. There are, I think, at l e a s t two a d d i t i o n a l implications a r i s i n g from t h i s re-assessment of Andreas which are worthwhile. F i r s t , we may have i n Andreas evidence that at l e a s t one Anglo-Saxon poet c o n s c i o u s l y alluded to the work of another. Given the l i m i t e d nature of extant OE verse, we may never know how unusual or how widespread such a practice was. The l i k e l i h o o d of i t s having some ro l e i n other Anglo-Saxon poems, however, ought not to be dismissed without further study. Second, and perhaps more important, we have i n Andreas, an excellent example of the f l e x i b i l i t y of OE poetic d i c t i o n i n the hands of an able w r i t e r . We can, therefore, r e a d i l y dismiss c r i t i c i s m which denies the creative p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the highly conven-t i o n a l Anglo-Saxon verse form, i n favour of scholarship which i s prepared to grant the l i k e l i h o o d of a r t i s t i c merit where we l e a s t expect i t . As the work of Tolkien, Bonjour, B a r t l e t t and others proves, such open-mindedness i s r a r e l y misplaced. 64 APPENDIX A NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES CITED (an elaboration of "Heroic Vocabulary," CS, p.309-14) M—Mermedon D—Demon S—Satan C h — C h r i s t i a n Warriors aeglaeca: M-1131; S-1312 aescberend: M-47, 1076, 1537 beorn: M-219; Ch-239. frequent indiscriminate use cempa: Ch-230, 324, 461, 538, 991, 1055, 1446 frumgar: M-1068 gubfreca: Ch-1333 guprinc: M-155; Ch-392 haeleb: M-21,38; Ch-2. frequent indiscriminate use h i l d f r e c a : M-126; M-1070 l i n d g e s t e a l l a : D-1344 maecg: doubting Jews 772; M-1708; Ch-422 oretmaecg: Ch-664 oret t a : Ch-463,983; David-879 r i n c : Roman-967; M-1116; D-1343 treowgebofta: Ch-1050 begn: frequent indiscriminate use wiga: Ch-1711 Groups gedraeg: M-43, 1555 hlob: M-42, 992, 1389, 1543 65 . Adjectives: p o s i t i v e anraed: Ch-232, 983 collenferhb: Ch-349,538,1578 doraweorbung: Ch-355,1006 ellenheard and e l l e n r o f : Ch-350,410,1254,1392 from: Ch-8, 234 hildedeor: Ch-1002 modrof: Ch-1496 rof : Ch-9, 473,625,984,1469,1676 si g e r o f : Ch-1225 t i r e a d i g : Ch-2,665,883; M+Ch-1681 waerfaest: Ch-416,1273,1310 Adjectives: Negative bolgenmod: M-128,1221 (deab)reow: S-1116, 1314, M-1334 domleas: M-995 eorre: M-47, 1076 gealgmod: M-32, 563 heorugrim: M-31 heorugraedig: M-79; perverted prisoners 38 waelgifre: M-1271 waelgraedig: M-135 waelgrim: wounds given to Andrew-1415 waelreow: M-1211 Adjectives: i r o n i c use cene: M-1204 collenferhb: M-1108 rof: D-1343 Nouns: i r o n i c use aeglaeca: Ch-1359 APPENDIX B A PARTIAL CATALOGUE OF BEOWULF BORROWINGS IN ANDREAS (Ci t a t i o n s not discussed i n chapter four, and derived from Peters, Schaar, and Hamilton) Conventional Collocations: no s p e c i f i c a l l u s i o n to Beowulf (see Peters' c r i t i q u e of Krapp, 1906) "to widan feore" "beacna beorhtost" "ofer ypa gewealc" "ofer fealowne f l o d " "ondlangne daeg" "windige weallas" "sibe gesohte" "wigend weccean" "brim weallende" "feorh gesaeldon / feorh seleb" no s p e c i f i c a l l u s i o n to Beowulf 1. (see Schaar, pp. 281-2) A. (737b-9) baet he onfoldan stod, stan fram stane. Stefn aefter cwom B. (2552b-3) st e f n i n becom heabotorht hlynnan under harne stan. The c i t a t i o n from Andreas refers to the voice of the stone angel; the c i t a t i o n from Beowulf, to Beowulf's challenge to the dragon. Although the passages contain s i m i l a r vocabulary, they are otherwise unrelated and i t i s therefore u n l i k e l y a l l u s i o n to Beowulf i s intended. The Andreas poet seems, instead, to be borrowing only to enhance d e s c r i p t i o n . A. 106 / B.933: A. 242 / B.2777: A. 259 / B.464: A.421 / B.1950: A. 818 / B.2115: A.843 / B.572: A.845 / B.1951: A.850 / B.3024: A. 1574 / B.847: A. 1616 / B.1370: Verbal Echoes: 68 2. (see Hamilton, "Placing the Hero," p.90) A. (1135-38a) pa paet Andrea earmlic puhte, peodbealo p e a r l i c to gebolianne, paet he swa unscyldig ealdre sceolde lungre linnan. B. (1474-8) 'Gebenc nu se maera maga Healfdenes, snottra fengel, nu i c eom sipes fus, goldwine gumena, hwaet wit geo spraecon g i f i c aet bearfe binre scolde aldre linnan. This conjucntion of expression may be idiomatic, f o r 'to loose one's l i f e ' s carcely seems an unusual c o l l o c a t i o n . 3. (See Schaar, p.285) A. (1279) purh paes beornes breost b l a t ut faran B_.(2551) Weder-Geata leod word ut faran The phrase "ut faran" c e r t a i n l y emphasizes Andrew's pain, but t h i s c o l l o c a t i o n of a commonplace prepostion and verb may be idiomatic. I t seems u n l i k e l y to a t t r a c t s u f f i c i e n t a ttention to imply s p e c i f i c a l l u s i o n to Beowulf. (see also Daniel 6 "ut aforon" and Vainglory 41 "word ut faran.") 4. A.123 / B.1789: "niwan stefne" and "nihthelm" "Niwan stefne" i s a common c o l l o c a t i o n , but i t s conjunction with "nihthelm" i s exclusive to Beowulf and Andreas. This d u p l i c a t i o n , however, seems too pedestrian to be a l l u s i v e . It i s u n l i k e l y that the s i m i l a r i t y would stimulate an audience to associate the passage with a s p e c i f i c context. 5. (see Brodeur, " D i c t i o n , " p.100) A.1094b-96a / B. 853-6 These two descriptions of mounted s o l d i e r s share no s i m i l a r i t y of expression. Juxtaposition of "Beowulf" with Old Testament Jews 1. A.668 / B.82 "heah ond horngeap" Both Heorot and the Jewish temple are described i n t h i s way. Although Schaar finds the p a r a l l e l inappropriate (pp. 281-2), the excessive pride r e f l e c t e d i n the construction of the giant h a l l i s c e r t a i n l y i m p l i c i t i n the High P r i e s t who so aggressively confronts Jesus. 69 2. A.(767b-70a) Man wridode geond beorn breost, brandhata nib weoll on gewitte, weorm blaedum fag, attor a e l f a e l e . B_.(2714b-5a) bealonibe weoll attor on innan (See T. H i l l , "Two Notes on P a t r i s t i c A l l u s i o n i n Andreas," Anglia 84 (1966). The Association of Beowulf Warriors and Christians 1. (from Schaar, p.280) A. 474b-6: Ic w i l l e be, e o r l unforcub, anre nu gena bene biddan (Andrew to p i l o t ) B. (426-28) Ic be nu ba, brego Beorht-Dena, biddan w i l l e , eodor Scyldinga, anre bene (Beowulf to Hrobgar) These passages are quite s i m i l a r i n both form and content. Andrew, l i k e Beowulf, asks a favor which w i l l speed his task. Nevertheless, because the d u p l i c a t i o n of expression may be commonplace, we cannot be c e r t a i n that the s i m i l a r i t y between Beowulf and Andrew would be remarked. 2. (see Peters, p.857) A. 1037: generede fram nibe (Andrew saves Mermedons) B_.827: generede wib nibe (Beowulf saves Danes) V e r b a l d u p l i c a t i o n , i n conjunction with s i m i l a r content (each hero saves the oppressed) i s counterbalanced by the p o s s i b l i t y of idiomatic expression, ( c f . "Genere me wib nibe" Psalms 139.1) The Association of Beowulf Warriors and Mermedons 1. (see Schaar, p.285) A. (1349-50) baer pu gegninga gube findest frecne feohtan g i f bu furbur dearst B. (525-8) b o n n e wene i c to be wyrsan gebingea beah pu heabonraesa gehwaer dohte, grimre gube, g i f bu Grendles dearst nihtlongne f y r s t nean bidan.' The demons behave l i k e Unferhb. 70 2. (see Schaar, p.286) A.(1526b-7) Meoduscerwen wearb aefter symbeldaege B_.(767b-69) Denum eallum wearb ceasterbuendum, cenra gehwylcan eorlum ealuscerwen. Th i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l passage helps to emphasize the decay of h a l l - f e a s t i n g i n Mermedonia. In Andreas, the drink-dispensing i s a devastating f l o o d , following a non-existent f e a s t . See chap. 3, t h i s t h e s i s . 3. (see Peters, p.857) A. (1270 / B.498) dugup u n l y t e l This i s a rare c o l l o c a t i o n , but i t s meaning i s too commonplace to have much a l l u s i v e force. "Dugupe ond geogupe", however, i s frequent i n Beowulf (160, 621, 1674) and rare elsewhere. Its use i n Andreas (152 and 1122) i s probably a l l u s i v e (see chap. 4, t h i s t h e s i s ) . 4. A.(999b-1000a) 1002b-3: B.(721b-2) B.(728-30a) Duru sona onarn burh handhrine Haebene swaefon dreore druncne, deabwang rudon. Duru sona onarn fyrbendum faest sybpan he h i r e folmum aethran Geseah he i n recede swefan sibbegedriht magorinca heap. r i n c a manige, samod aetgaedere, Hamilton ("Placing the Hero," p.86) c i t e s t h i s as an example of the Andreas poet's reversal of expectations i n t h i s a l l u s i o n to Beowulf. In Andreas, the touch on the door brings release f or the C h r i s t i a n s , but i s associated with death f o r both Mermedon and Dane. Although s i m i l a r i t y of s i t u a t i o n could account for the p a r a l l e l here, the resemblance seems s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r i k i n g to be a l l u s i v e . The Association of Monster and Mermedon 1. (see Schaar, pp.284-5) A.(1275b-77a) Swat ypum weoll, burh bancofan, blod l i f r u m swealg hatan heolfre B.(741b-43a) s l a t unwearnum bat banlocan blod edrum dranc 71 synsnaedum swealh The Mermedons' torture of Andrew i s compared to Grendel's dismemberment of Danish warriors. 2. A.(1072-4) Wendan ond woldon wiberhycende, paet hie on elbeodigum aet geworhton weotude wiste; him seo wen geleah. B_.(w. 2321-3) Haefde landwara l i g e befangen, baele one bronde beorges getruwode wiges ond wealles him seo wen geleah. 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