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The Tupilaq : image and label : understanding East Greenland carvings Romalis, Sheila Ruth 1985

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THE TUPILAO: I M A G E AND L A B E L : UNDERSTANDING EAST GREENLAND CARVINGS  by SHEILA RUTH A., The U n i v e r s i t y  ROMALIS  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1967  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s to  thesis  the required  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH March © Sheila  COLUMBIA  1985  Ruth R o m a l i s , 1985  In  presenting  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the I  Library  further  for  agree  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  it  written  thesis  for  for  financial  shrill  / ?  t  gain  Columbia  me  of  Columbia,  British for  the  requirements  reference  I agree and this  shall  that  not  copying or  for that  study. thesis  by the Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1WS  of  extensive copying of  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d It  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  Date  freely  that permission  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  This landic its  t h e s i s attempts  image  "Tupilaq"  modern c o n t e x t .  to  a  variety  or  art  of  images and  the  This  The  labelled  "Tupilaq";.  ure  exhibit  exists  which  carvers their  label  these  their that  apart  cessity  from of  that  the  the  carvings  this  and  in  as  traditional frame  to  new  which  carving  East  to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r  and Tupilaq is  This  the  of  TUPILAQ  of  carvings  investigation accounts,  the  and  Tupilaq  material  fig-  culture  with  figures  carried  a  is step  production, and  the  their  not  what  further,  the  market  concerns  of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n demonstrates  Greenlanders  group's  which  the  interviews  artifacts,  production  of  historical  carving  consumers.  in  this  c l e a r that  analysis  cultural  ways  tourist  image.  of  this  in  changed.  support  carvings  content  and  the  inception  category  Green-  in Greenland  for  context  f o r the  records,  and  of  the  the  culture  today  figures  term have  i t s mythic  development  Kalaadlit  examines  the  n a t u r e of  is applied  I t becomes  The  the  small  used  these  implies.  ways  modify  Data  distinct  producers the  a time  reports. a  show  the  ethnographic  analysis  examining for  as  stands An  to  from  as  thesis  describes  establishes  museum  carved  a p p l i c a t i o n of  study  drawn  traditional  same t e r m  This  image and  were  in  images  markets.  to understand  modified  relates directly identity in a  and to  continue their  changing  ne-  cultural  environment.  -Tupilaq-  is  contemporary In cussed  the  symbolic  thesis link  shows  that  between  the  label  traditional  and  society.  conclusion, as  This  i t applies  the  label  f o r a more  the  occurrence  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l to Tupilaq adequate  of c u l t u r a l  figures;  we  culture  need  t o go  is disbeyond  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o n t e n t  images  as m a t e r i a l  objects.  and  PREFACE  The which  reader  are  commonly refers  perhaps  used to  several  unfamiliar.  people".  but  I  (plural  use  the  versions  ers  Greenland's  of the term  Greenland  to  used  by w r i t e r s I  use  ic  from p r e v i o u s w r i t e r s , words.  The  TUPILAT) w h i c h being". nate  same  refers  I use c a p i t a l  the  traditional  I use t h e i r  holds  for  own  the  spelled word  there are  ethnographspelling, used  by my  Where I have  quot-  spelling  term  more  The  the  as i t i s the v e r s i o n  is  is  but and  study  INUIT, and  form.  E a s t G r e e n l a n d i c i n f o r m a n t s and t r a n s l a t o r s . ed  i t  "shaman",  culture.  paper,  in this  KALAADLIT  Greenlandic  refers  indigenous this  instead  East  usages  word  West  of the s p e l l i n g  ANGAKKOK, t h r o u g h o u t  word  The  In  - ANGAKKUT)  variant of  find  i n East Greenland,  "the  KALAALLIT, ANGAKKOK  will  of Greenland-  TUPILAQ  (plural  t o "a humanly c r e a t e d m a l e v o l e n t non-human letters spirit  f o r t h e word  being  of  that  "TUPILAQ" name  and  to  desig-  i t s tradi-  I tional  culture  "Tupilaq" times,  and  image.  to refer to  the  given  lower  t o t h e image carved  which  are  this  words  used  given  i n the g l o s s a r y .  in this  I use  same  thesis,  letters  of the s p i r i t  forms  that  label. and  case  their  being  represent  Other  f o r the  English  i n contact  spirit  KALAADLIT  word  beings  and  translations  INUIT are  iv  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  PAGE L I S T OF TABLES  v i i  L I S T OF FIGURES  viii  L I S T OF PLATES  ix  INTRODUCTION  1  A. B. C. D.  2 5 8 10  I:  II:  III.  Problems of I n t e r p r e t a t i o n C u l t u r a l S i t u a t i o n and A r e a T h e o r e t i c a l Problems M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Approach  The TUPILAQ Knowledge  Being:  R e a l i t y , T r a d i t i o n , and 12  Introduction A. Mythic R e a l i t y B. Oral T r a d i t i o n C. S p i r i t B e i n g s Known and A c c o u n t e d F o r D. The S e m a n t i c F i e l d o f t h e TUPILAQ E. Old Visions: Knowledge and C r e a t i o n  12 15 16 18 21 23  Confrontation  35  and A c c u l t u r a t i o n  Introduction A. H i s t o r i c a l Accounts: Colonization, C o n v e r s i o n , and C o n v e n i e n c e 1. Colonization 2. Conversion 3. Convenience B. Dawning H i s t o r y , F a d i n g Images C. Knowledge o f a V i s i o n , Knowledge o f a Form  35 35 38 41 42 53  Creators  57  and C r e a t i o n s :  Arts  of Acculturation  Introduction A. I n v e s t i g a t i o n and C o n f i r m a t i o n 1. V i s u a l and E t h n o g r a p h i c S t u d y 2. V e r b a l Study  35  57 57 58 70  v  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (continued)  PAGE B.  IV:  Image and I d e n t i t y 1. P r o m o t i o n and S u p p o r t o f a " C u l t u r a l Art Revival" 2. A c c u l t u r a t e d A r t : Promotion of the T u p i l a q L a b e l and Form 3. The Consumer M a r k e t : P r o m o t i o n o f an Image 4. Consumer A r t : P r e s e r v a t i o n o f an Image  77 82 86 92 98  Conclusions  107  A. B.  108 110  V i s u a l P r e s e n t a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l Knowledge Interpretation: Refocus Through A c c u l t u r a t i o n  Bibliography  116  Glossary  128  Appendices  129  vi  L I S T OF TABLES TABLE I.  II.  Mythic S p i r i t Beings Representations Recognition of S p i r i t  PAGE and M a t c h i n g  Spirit 60  Being  Representations  72-73  vii  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Map  of  FIGURES  PAGE  Greenland  6  LIST  OF  PLATES  PLATE  PAGE  1.  "Tupilaq  figures"  13  2a and 2b  "Tupilaq  figures"  14  3.  Harpoon t h r o w i n g  4.  Tupilaq  5.  Model o f a " s p i r i t h e l p e r "  51  6.  Four  54  7a and 7b.  Spirit  figure carving  8.  Spirit  representation  figure  63  9.  Spirit  representation  figure  64  board  47  figure  "Tupilaq  49  f i g u r e s " , 1950-1965  61  10.  Transformation  figure carving  65  11.  Transformation  figure carving  66  12.  Transformation  carving  68  13.  Transformation  carving  69  14.  Transformation  carving  69  15.  "Tupilaq  figure" carving  78  16.  "Tupilaq  figure" carving  79  17.  "Tupilaq  figure" carving  80  18.  "Tupilaq  figure" carving  81  19.  Figure  carving  20.  Figure  carving,  84 1930-1945  85  ix  L I S T OF PLATES  PLATE  PAGE  21.  KUNSTFORENINGEN  figure  22.  Goat  23.  Identity  tag  95  24.  Identity tag  96  25.  Tupilaq  26.  horn T u p i l a q  figure  89  figure  90  stamp  97  Stamp " T u p i l a q  figure"  97  27.  Figure  carving  by A r o n K l e i s t  99  28.  Figure  carvings  by A r o n K l e i s t  100  29.  Figure  carvings  by O l e Kreutzmann  101  30.  Figure  carvings  by Duge Utuak  102  31.  Figure  carvings  by J o h a n  103  32.  Multi-figure carvings  33.  "AJUMAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  133  34.  "AJUMAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  133  35.  "AJUMAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  134  36.  "AJUMAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  135  37.  "AJUMAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  136  38.  "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT"  representational  carving  137  39.  "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT"  representational  carving  137  40.  "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT"  representational  carving  138  41.  "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT"  representational  carving  138  42.  "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT"  representational  carving  139  Elio  105  x  L I S T OF PLATES PLATE  PAGE  43a & 43b. "ERKIGDLEK/ERQQILIK"  representational  carving  140  44.  "ERKIGDLEK/ERQQILIK"  representational  carving  141  45.  "ERKIGDLEK/ERQQILIK"  representational  carving  141  46.  "ERKIGDLEK/ERQQILIK"  representational  carving  142  47.  "ERKIGDLEK/ERQQILIK"  representational  carving  143  48.  "INGNERSSUAK" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  144  49.  "INGNERSSUAK" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  145  50.  "TIMERTSEQ"  representational  carving  146  51.  "TIMERTSEQ"  representational  carving  147  52.  "TIMERTSEQ"  representational  carving  148  53.  "TIMERTSEQ"  representational  carving  149  54.  "TIMERTSEQ"  representational  carving  150  55.  "TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK"  representational  carving  151  56.  "TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK"  representational  carving  151  57.  "TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK"  representational  carving  152  58.  "TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK"  representational  carving  152  59.  "TUPILAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  153  60.  "TUPILAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  154  61c  "TUPILAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  carving  155  62.  "Tupilaq  figure"  158  63.  "Tupilaq  figure"  159  61a, 61b,  xi  LIST  PLATE  OF  PLATES  PAGE  64.  "Tupilaq  figure"  161  65.  "Tupilaq  figure"  163  66.  "Tupilaq  figure"  165  67.  "Tupilaq  figure"  167  68.  "Tupilaq  figure"  172  69.  "Tupilaq  figure"  173  70.  "Tupilaq  figure"  175  71.  "Tupilaq  figure"  178  72.  "Tupilaq  figure"  181  73.  "Tupilaq  figure"  183  xi i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  owe  the  stimulation their  t o my  who  gave me  me  in furthering  valuable both  Vikktoria  K. help  Russell and  a l l of  thesis  to  certain  my  the  people  research.  direction Anna  Sanimuinaq  my  and  Danish  support  and  t o thank  for  I am  my  w h e r e v e r and  Greenland  interpreter, Many  very grate-  Kamilla Kuitse,  Kuitse-Meyer,  Meyer,  interpreters,  a l l o f whom gave helped  thus  I extend  o r d e r they  whenever  Stig  others  Denmark and  In a l p h a b e t i c a l  Nikolaj Abelsen P e t e r and Anna A n d e r s e n Giddeon Bianco Jaffet Boassen Johan E l i o Catherine Enel Karula Engel Jonas Faber Norman G l o a g Elisabeth Hasselager Norma Hundborg Ebbe and Gudrun J o s v a s s e n Karin Kloster Inge K r e u t z m a n n Adam and E l i s a b e t h K u i t s e Anda K u i t s e I s s i a s and J u d i t h e K u i t s e K o r n e l i u s and Thada K u i t s e Madse and K r i s t i a n e K u i t s e To  to  guidance.  i n Greenland  t o them.  and  much o b l i g e d  and  to Grethe  tude  I have  warmth, c o n c e r n , I am  Kemper  field,  this  E a s t G r e e n l a n d i c p a r e n t s , T h o r v a l d and  possible.  and  of  o f many p e o p l e .  valuable help  ful  Anna  completion  me my  in  the  grati-  are:  Milka Kuitse Thomas and K r i s t i a n e K u i t s e W i l l i e Lafrance Aurolia Manikutleq Jorgen Meldgaard F r e d and B o d i l Meyer Thorvald Mikkaelsen T i t u s Nakinge Ruth N i e l s e n Gert Nooter E u n i c e and U l r i k e Pape Robert Petersen K i t t y Pope Egon P o u l s e n P i e r r e and B e r n a d e t t e Robbe Kuneserq Rosing Henrik S i n g e r t a t K r i s t i a n and K a t h e r i n e Singertat  them I s a y , " Q u j a n a r t i v a g a i " .  xiii  I  also  information ures my  and  thank on  Foundation, to  Nuuk  also  access  For  to  Lome  debt  i s owed  for  her  tude and  from  Tara,  and I  Molly and  to  Carell  f o r her  ment  with  support  to  my  at  at  able  the  the  Tupilaq  of  to v a l u a b l e Tupilaq  to photograph. the  N a t i o n a l Museum,  Gronlands  I  Vancouver  which  I was  guidance  and  criticism,  Kew,  my  figextend  Inuit  Art  Copenhagen,  Landsmuseum,  figures  members, M.F.  Joanne and  stages  Dr.  of  Richardson,  for i n my  husband,  Dana, t h u s  insisted  M.  Dr.  a  Godthab-  able  to  work.  I received  G.  thesis  them most  n u r t u r e d my  that  I "do  the  Many  thesis,  but  graduate  manuscript  Romalis,  to  Ames.  I also  my  and  I  chairman,  fellow  typing  I thank  this  M.  this  v a l u a b l e comments.  Alden  B a l s h i n e , who  Dr.  Guedon, and  different  interest  dedicate  who  distribution  B a l s h i n e of  Gilberg  K.O.L. B u r r i d g e , Dr. helped  I was  invaluable  committee  have  and  for access  photo-  study.  their  my  to  Andreasen  for this  thank  management  to Rolf  Klaus  for  graph  the  Seieroe-Andersen  t o c a r v i n g s which  gratitude  and  Bodil  extend in  to  and  Dr.  friends a  great  student, my  grati-  i t s entirety  constant our  wish  encourage-  daughters,  Lisa,  sincerely.  memory  interest  of  my  late  in indigenous  anthropology".  mother, peoples,  INTRODUCTION  Images seem t o speak t o t h e e y e , but t h e y a r e r e a l l y a d d r e s s e d t o the m i n d . They a r e ways o f t h i n k i n g , i n t h e g u i s e o f ways of seeing. The eye can sometimes be s a t i s f i e d w i t h f o r m a l o n e , b u t the mind c a n o n l y be s a t i s f i e d w i t h m e a n i n g s , w h i c h c a n be c o n t e m p l a t e d , more c o n s c i o u s l y o r l e s s , a f t e r the eye i s c l o s e d . (Duff The  aim  of  East Greenland  this  thesis  culture  by  1975:12)  i s to  focusing  t h e TUPILAQ^ i n a l l i t s forms o f Today Denmark) stone,  i n Greenland  the  word  antler,  (and  wood, w a l r u s  thought  refers  to a  tooth.  TUPILAQ; a humanly c r e a t e d h a r m f u l  Ilisitsut  (pi.-evil  ing  hears doers)  them o f f s p e c i f i c a l l y  various  verbal  is  not p o s s i b l e  is  somehow more  TUPILAQ  than  only  grasped  be  and  visual  of  to k i l l  images w h i c h  by  Angakut  others. examining  the  of  culture,  TUPILAT  the  Canada figure  many  images being.  one  East Greenland  meaning  of  them  within  the  these  of  the  In E a s t and send-  Given  TUPILAQ may  The  of  ( p i . ) and  hunters.  and  carved  (pi.-shamans)  observer to f i n d  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  I t has  spirit  particular  as  carved  concrete  constructing  f o r the western  are  supposed  stories  image o f t h a t  small  mythic  one  understanding  and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  a l l of  today,  our  c o u n t r i e s such  o r whale  the  one  forms  Greenland  are  on  other  "Tupilaq"  which  further  the  take, i t  image w h i c h concept images  context  of  of can  their  In quotations from the ethnographic r e c o r d s , I use the l e t t e r e d word forms d i r e c t from t h o s e e t h n o g r a p h e r s . There i s " T u p i l e k " and " T u p i l a k " , b u t t h e y b o t h r e f e r t o t h e same m y t h i c b e i n g , "TUPILAQ".  -  own  cultural reality.  cultural  I propose that a new  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n might lead us  2  -  approach to a c r o s s -  to a b e t t e r  understanding  of such non-western c u l t u r a l images.2 Central  to t h i s  of t r a n s l a t i o n .  study, and  I propose to broaden the  d e a l with the more g e n e r a l al art". intend ers  This  to e x p l i c a t e t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r both East  Greenland-  their possible  to has  the the  images  image b e n e f i t s  the  context  of  the  of  information.  study, by On  My  one the  the  culture, data  subject East  of  my  Greenland.  semantically  inte-  a n a l y s i s to a s i n g l e concept  allowing  f o r a more c o n t r o l l e d  other hand, I have included a l l available  in  pertinent  i n v e s t i g a t i o n encompasses not  also their physical  Problems of  the  environment, ethnographic  only  the  sources carvers,  records,  mar-  consumers.  Interpretation  In order to develop an  2  by  keeping  TUPILAQ/Tupilaq  k e t i n g personnel and  A.  produced  a more adequate i n t e r p r e t a I confine  Furthermore, c o n f i n i n g the  information.  but  to provide  meanings.  advantage  body of  of  scope of t h i s study to  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u l t u r -  i n t o the production  non-Greenlanders  grated.  11  problem  figures, I  of  study  enquiring  problem of  i s the  of T u p i l a q  and  tion  or  By  to anthropology,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the T u p i l a q  image,  However, i t must be kept i n mind that an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n cannot stand as a t r u t h , f o r i t i s but one way of l o o k i n g at a phenomenon, t r a n s l a t i n g what i s seen, and then communicating what i s understood.  -  I  have  elected  to  study  order  t o g i v e a more  being  to carving  that and  picture  My  i n both  non-western  which  idiom.  study  artistic  and  visual  of " T u p i l a q " , covers  images  traditions;  culture  images i n  from of  mythic  "Tupilaq"  that  of c a r v e r  that  phenomenon  i n the o b j e c t i f y i n g into  visual  quality lineal  documentary image.  which  built  dimensional Lineal  on  images,  condification  formulating on  cinctly  of  Western  the  understood  sequential  as:  of r e a l i t y reality  patterns.  a comparable  problem of  or rather,  and makes of  interpretation  a thought  towards  has  -  a  linear  visual  multi-  Seal-Man.  documentary  Lee has s t a t e d  t h a t a member o f a g i v e n s o c i e t y n o t o n l y codifies experienced r e a l i t y through the use o f s p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e and o t h e r p a t t e r n ed b e h a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h i s c u l t u r e , b u t t h a t he a c t u a l l y g r a s p s r e a l i t y as i t i s p r e s e n t e d t o him i n t h i s c o d e .  and  to grasp  on a p p r e h e n d i n g  assumption,  (1950:151)  image i n -  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and being  mythic  a visual  i t difficult  i s premised  Dorothy  western  translating  Man-Spirit  in a  of  language  interpretation  concept  such  into  scientific  of r e a l i t y ,  experienced  i n her  can be b e t t e r  the i d e a ,  reality,  b i a s e s western  codification  reality  based  phenomenon  i f an a p p r o p r i a t e frame o f r e f e r e n c e i s f o u n d  to t r a n s l a t e  reality a  cultural  F o r t h e TUPILAQ image, a f i r s t  arises  a  the v e r b a l  -  of raconteur.  by w e s t e r n  to  complete  subject.  are a v a i l a b l e  A  in  both  3  this  and form suc-  -  Kalaadlit  reality  and  mythic  their  non-lineal  i s not reality  codification  between v e r b a l  limited  and  to a l i n e a l  or f i x e d  i s o r g a n i z e d through systems.  visual  Rink  codification  non-static,  acknowledges a and  -  dimension,  verbal  systems  4  difference  remarked:  G r e e n l a n d t a l e s and l e g e n d s p r e s u p p o s e an oral recitation and an audience which f e e l s q u i t e a t home i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s and the life depicted i n them. In other w o r d s , i f t h e y a r e t o be p r o p e r l y a p p r e c i a t e d , t h e y s h o u l d be h e a r d i n t h e G r e e n l a n d i c tongue and i n G r e e n l a n d i t s e l f , and the h e a r e r ought t o be a b l e t o e n t e r i n t o the G r e e n l a n d mode o f t h o u g h t . ( [1887] 1912:309 ) They a r e i n t e n d e d f o r an a u d i e n c e who l y r e q u i r e a h i n t to understand the ing . ([1887] A mythic come  a  tive  image  1912:317)  as  image when  a verbal i t has  image  gone  can  through  only an  be-  adap-  process. has  construct  the  i s conveyed  concrete v i s u a l  One  to  that  meremean-  offer  o f TUPILAQ and interpretations  carved  torians carved  figures.  have m i s s e d figures"  facts  as  which  exists  graphers carved  t o a t t e n d t o the meanings c o n t a i n e d i n t h e  a  and  apart  Tupilaq,  of  that  from  suggest  both  distinct  the  y e t they remain  ethnographers  significance failed  i s able  image TUPILAQ  quite  of  and  art-his-  "Tupilaq  to p e r c e i v e these  category  mythic  mythic  b e f o r e one  enhance our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  that  t h e y have  the  figures"  might  the e s s e n t i a l  i n that  unique  know  I  of " T u p i l a q  cultural  arti-  of  material  culture  of  TUPILAQ.  Ethno-  and  the  indifferent  more  t o the  recent unique-  ness  of  the  duct  of  a  carved  form.  complex  The  evolution  occurrence,  p r o d u c t i o n , and  form.  is  But  acculturation not.  The  image  of  tions  of  the  the  impact  of  the  did  la  form  label,  find  presented  B.  I  focus  TUPILAQ ical  because  data.  graphies search these  to  that  of  but  result The  the  east  the  and  these  of Angmagssalik  total  carved of  the  use  to  of  think  idea  or  representaphe-  carvers give the  umbrel-  context  reinterpret  "Tupilaq  the  Tupilaq  images u n d e r cultural  I  the  mythic  as  the  spirit  coast  as  that  the  I  images  figures".  with  that  (Kaalund,  the  most  beings  West  to  cultural  the  context  are mentioned  i s where Today  the  1983:70).  carved  the  the  histor-  in  I confine  a l l populated largest  for  consistent  Greenland,  appeared.  spread  district  on  individual  to o f f e r  and  has  -  Area  East,  first  pro-  with  being?  i n which  may  Greenland  beings  figures"  various  uniqueness  category  i t appears  North,  in  It is within this  East  a  the  concordant  process  westerners  Although  mythic  "Tupilaq land,  on  form  acculturation  i n t h e way  Situation  seemed  therefore  TUPILAQ  i n the d i s t i n c t  Cultural  and  has  of  to a l l Greenlandic  which  the  image  image.  "Tupilaq".  clues  idea,  of  or  not  nomenon i s p o r t r a y e d  figure  5  p r e s e n t a t i o n , a complex e v o l u t i o n of  idea  that single  tangible  of  evolution  of  TUPILAQ  Tupilaq  -  ethnomy  re-  form  of  production  of  areas  production  of  Green-  output  is  -  Most  Kalaadlit  was once of  t h e Inugsuk  Canada.  These  wave between They  were  they  other as t h e y  cap  and  were  East  lived  east  from  i n d i v i d u a l s - Holm three f i o r d s :  fiord.  west  Prior  during  spoke  spoken  introduction  begun  i n West  when  district  upheavals  of C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  (Lynge  hunting. few c o n t a c t s  [1887]  1976:32).  mainly  Greenland  was  along  was  which was people  population  and S o u t h  (416  the shores  Greenland  i n 1885. with  and t h e D a n i s h the e a r l y  formally  which  and S e r m i l i k .  connected  During  1912:206-  by t h e Inugsuk  S e r m i l i q a q , Angmagssalik,  social  the w i n t e r , d i -  dialect,  pre-contact  1912:68) l i v e d  AD,  by t h e p o l a r i c e  (Rink own  cen-  ( L . J . D o r a i s 1981:  Greenland  their  the Angmagssalik  great  coast of  t o 1900  had v e r y  i c e flows  isolated  [1887]  1979:27).  the e a s t  Greenlanders  the language  colonization,  reached  Richie  t h e West G r e e n l a n d i c l a n g u a g e ,  The  Northwest  and s o u t h o f S c o r e s b y s u n d ,  other  Greenlanders  1981:59).  from  East  Atlantic  (Dorais  t h e 1950s  along  groupings  c u t o f f from  d e r i v e d from  Danish  family  and  directly  tinuing  who  1969:69,  Greenlanders  different  of  (Bandi  o f what  i n a major m i g r a t i o n  t h e 1890s,  markedly  the  came t o G r e e n l a n d  of the  f o r nomadic summer  heavy  underwent  people  nuclear families  cultures  43)  1721,  or Dorset  of Angmagssalik  i n extended  Before  of  are descendents  1000 AD - 1300 AD  into  210).  Greenland  north of Tingmiarmiut  lived  with  people  i n the area  viding  culture  hunter-gatherers  Greenland, tering  of East  7 -  The  in  people  colonization, Reform  Policy  y e a r s , and  con-  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the  -  Danish  kingdom  underwent  i n 1953  intensive  Danish c u l t u r e .  cultural  change  due  spirits  by  Angakkut  Greenlanders  to the i n f l u e n c e  of  f o r 200 y e a r s .  p r e - c o n t a c t cosmology c o n s i s t e d  of  East  1972:182),  -  A c c u l t u r a t i o n and a s s i m i l a t i o n were a c t i v e pro-  cesses i n Greenland The  (Erngaard  8  which  inhabited  the world  ( p i . shaman) (Holm  of the acknowledgement  and were p e r c e i v e d mostly  [1887]  I t was by the  1912:82).  agency of the Angakkok that the s p i r i t s were rendered h e l p f u l or harmful all  to these  people,  and s u p e r n a t u r a l power was sought  able-bodied i n d i v i d u a l s .  municating  with  the people  by  S p i r i t beings were capable of comand t h e i r  images  were  f a m i l i a r to  everyone. In  the proper  "TUPILAQ" r e f e r s which and  1875:53).  the  sends  and animated  this  idiom  of  representations called  C.  cultural  image,  transformational s p i r i t  a  specific  now t r a n s l a t e  "Tupilaq  cognitive  by someone knowledgable  o f f to harm  Ethnographers  western  of the t r a d i t i o n a l ^  to a malevolent,  i s composed  who  sense  a r t as  i n magic  individual  the mythic carved  being  (Rink  TUPILAQ  into  images  and  figures".  T h e o r e t i c a l Problems This  paper  i s an attempt  to enquire  into  the manner of  g i v i n g symbolic and p h y s i c a l form to c u l t u r a l knowledge that i s  3  I define " t r a d i t i o n a l " on the east c o a s t .  as the time before Danish  colonization  - 9 undergoing i n t e r n a l and ed  e x t e r n a l change.  images whose meanings and  specific cultural  When speaking of  understanding are  posited  carv-  within  a  reality,  "What we must acknowledge most of a l l i s that our world of r e a l i t y i s very d i f f e r e n t from the world of r e a l i t y w i t h i n which they were c r e a t e d . " (Duff Interpretation  of  such  1975:15)  culture  specific  images  must i n c l u d e r e c o g n i t i o n of the m u l t i - f a c e t e d that  i s the context  imagery due ified  to the  through  of the  image.  imposition  the  study  of  as  the  cultural  knowledge  Misunderstandings of  of f o r e i g n c a t e g o r i e s indigenous  TUPILAQ  cultural  can be  categories.  My  clar-  research  approach i s an example f o r western i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of non-western c u l t u r a l constructs For  Tupilaq  "How  is a specific  into  carved  pose that  figure  carvings,  cultural  images f o r s a l e  East  image i n the  or images. is  a  basic  thought capable of being to o u t - o f - c u l t u r e  Greenlanders do  same way  there  not  as they do  problem: translated  buyers?"  I  r e l a t e to a carved  pro-  "Tupilaq"  to a v e r b a l TUPILAQ image,  be-  cause the v i s u a l image i s the a n t i t h e s i s of the K a l a a d l i t semantic  code f o r TUPILAQ.  My  hypothesis  i s that  the  contemporary  T u p i l a q f i g u r e s are a c u l t u r a l a r t form whose s u b j e c t s range of  concepts which may  have  little  the o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l notion of TUPILAQ. I s h a l l determine e m p i r i c a l l y :  or  nothing  reflect  to  do  a  with  - 10  D.  range of subjects  1.  the  2.  what c u l t u r a l and outside c a r v e r ' s d e c i s i o n to produce form.  3.  c u l t u r a l l y v i a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the maintenance of the l a b e l " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " i n use for this entire genre of c a r v i n g .  4.  consumers' e x p e c t a t i o n s of these f i g u r e  5.  a cross-cultural carvings.  a  figures.  influences direct the p a r t i c u l a r subject or  interpretation  of  carvings.  "Tupilaq  figure"  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Approach This  study  empirical  i s , to  a large  regularities.  My  e x t e n t , an  inductive  method of research  search  for  is three-fold:  1.  an a n a l y s i s of the mythic and o r a l t r a d i t i o n s of s p i r i t beings and the TUPILAQ, with a thorough examina t i o n of the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e .  2.  an a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a t u r e on c o l o n i z a t i o n of West and East Greenland, and the a c c u l t u r a t i o n process as i t affected changes i n the t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge of s p i r i t beings.  3.  an a n a l y s i s of the form and content of T u p i l a q f i g ures, interviews with c a r v e r s and s t o r y - t e l l e r s , as w e l l as, of consumers and marketing management.  In order to c a r r y out field Kap  for Tupilaq  -  studies  Dan  and  were spent  t h i r d step of my  were undertaken Kungmiut, and  i n the  a n a l y s i s , four summer  v i l l a g e s of  i n Copenhagen.  A  Angmagssalik,  total  of  15  i n East Greenland, 3 weeks i n West Greenland,  weeks i n Copenhagen. family  the  took me  which gave me  into  In Angmagssalik, Thorvald t h e i r home and  accepted  me  Kuitse as  a  weeks and  and  3 his  daughter,  an entrance i n t o K a l a a d l i t homes as well as  access  -  to c a r v e r s . my  major  interpreter/informant  Thorvald's my  Thorvald's o l d e s t daughter, Anna K u i t s e  s t e p - s i s t e r , Anna K u i t s e  a  three  year  Kemper, spent  Meyer,  was  period two  -  and  weeks  as  interpreter. Field  research  Interviews with c a r v e r s , shop-keepers, Royal Greenland Trade Department personnel and consumers.  3.  Questionnaires (following a Appendix V I ) . objective of  the  t e r p r e t a t i o n of  Few  stages:  2.  v i s u a l forms.  tory  conducted i n three  P a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n s t u d i e s of c a r v e r s , marketing managers, consumers (purchasers of T u p i l a q f i g u r e s ) and v i l l a g e r s .  translation and  was  1.  The  at  over  11  of  the  were given to carvers and to consumers purchase of a. T u p i l a q figure) (see  of t h i s  t h e s i s i s to provide  TUPILAQ My  aim  image  in a l l i t s oral,  i s to develop a new  "Tupilaq  f i g u r e s " and  development  of  this  a more  complete  documentary  out-of-culture i n -  to document an ethno- h i s -  specific  carving  production.  westerners have ever questioned what they see when they carved  look  Tupilat,  and  I  intend  at non-western images and  to  show how  images must not  c u l t u r e which c r e a t e d  images.  tic  so  also  to r e v e a l how  is misleading carved, but form.  be  set apart  with respect  the present  use  of  the  not  the sta-  static.  term  I  "Tupilaq"  to understanding what image has  i s h e l p f u l f o r understanding and  In-  from  Just as c u l t u r e s are not  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of c u l t u r a l phenomena are  intend  might  see with more understanding.  t e r p r e t a t i o n s of c u l t u r a l the  westerners  look  been  i d e n t i f y i n g the a r t  - 12 I.  The  TUPILAQ B e i n g ;  Reality,  Tradition,  and  Knowledge.  Introduction  they  Tupilaq  figures  deserve  by  culture  1979).  the  term  that  the  c a r v i n g s were  beings  purpose of  are  structure of  presented East  beings  beings, be  and  writers  1 and  this  2,  to  Greenlandic  (extracted  East  Meldgaard and  pages  others  13  and  to  situate  were  c o n d i t i o n s under  which  first  this  1983;  satisfied  figures,  assuming  the  spirit  being  in  the  examine d e s c r i p t i o n s  myths),  such  Kalaadlit  other  TUPILAQ  I  mythic  14).  clarify  the  reality. the  Greenlandic 1940,  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  from  attention  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  is  The  help  of  multifarious  chapter  being.  critical  creators  beings  were  of  such  thought  to  alive. In  tion  the  of  East  spirit  In  beings  field  of  sider  i t to  section  Greenlandic  maintained.  laq  of  TUPILAQ  of  such  1936;  individualistic  (PLATES  the  ethnographers  " T u p i l a q " f o r these  TUPILAQ b e i n g s  given  1914,  These  with  category  been  and  Thalbitzer  1975,  The  not  historians  (e.g.  Ritchie  have  the  from  second the  t h e TUPILAQ  figures.  be  of  reality  and  section  category  i s explored  a different  chapter  of  I  I give  show  how  identify  my  interpreta-  that and  TUPILAQ b e i n g .  reality  differentiate The  semantic  t o show t h a t t h e K a l a a d l i t  category  from  the  is  contemporary  conTupi-  -  13  -  PLATE 1 "Tupilaq figures" , ivory by A n t o n U t u a k , 1978, Kap  and p l a s t i c . Both c a r v e d Dan, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . * **  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as T u p i l a q f i g u r e s , 1978; l e f t s i d e c a r v i n g - i n Kap Dan, r i g h t s i d e c a r v i n g - i n Copenhagen.) Unless otherwise author. **  Unless stance  otherwise placed i n  acknowledged,  stated, the eye  a l l photographs  taken  by  " p l a s t i c " r e f e r s to the b l a c k subsockets of a l l the carved figures.  the  PLATES 2a and 2b "Tupilaq figures" , ivory and p l a s t i c . Carved M a t h i a s U l r i k s e n , 1979, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected l a q f i g u r e , 1979, i n Copenhagen.)  by  as a T u p i -  - 15 A.  Mythic  Reality  "Culture e x i s t s on the conceptual l e v e l and c o n s i s t s of a s e t of concepts, i d e a s , bel i e f s , and a t t i t u d e s about the u n i v e r s e of a c t i o n and being. C u l t u r a l concepts do not j u s t (or even n e c e s s a r i l y ) i d e n t i f y what exists i n the o b j e c t i v e world; cultural systems, i n one sense, c r e a t e the world. R e a l i t y i t s e l f i s c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d , and cultural constructs p a r t i t i o n this r e a l i t y i n t o numerous c a t e g o r i e s . Cultural categ o r i e s are thus conceptual c a t e g o r i e s . " (Witherspoon, 1977:412) Cultural set  knowledge  out r u l e s  observations  of p r e s c r i b e d  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  system.  Collective  offers  a cultural  reality:  understood  and agreed  upon  relations  An i n d i v i d u a l ' s  are p e r c e i v e d as f a c t s  classificatory tem  consists  when they  thoughts and  are placed  in a  acknowledgement of that s y s -  certainties  through  which  group  whose meanings are  experience.  One can  say, then, t h a t : " A l l there i s to know about the world i s a l r e a d y known because the world was o r g a n i zed a c c o r d i n g to t h i s knowledge." (Witherspoon, Traditional world  with and  East G r e e n l a n d i c knowledge maintains  i s inhabited  (Rink,  1977:33)  1875:37).  the c r e a t i o n  by people  The people  (KALAADLIT) know that  of the world  and  that the  spirits  the events  (INUE)  having  (to which many of t h e i r  to do  stories  myths r e f e r ) took place on the same c o a s t , which they them-  s e l v e s or t h e i r immediate ancestors have seen 331).  They  world, that  know  that  spirit  beings  ( T h a l b i t z e r , 1912:  are everywhere  "the sky i s a l s o peopled with s p i r i t s "  in their  (Holm  [1887]  -  1912:85), ledge  and  that  i s supported  images basis  are  spirit  idea  and  social  and  B.  to t h e i r  Oral  of  east  their  wherein  thus  knowledge  the s y m b o l i c  units  m i r r o r the  elements  and  mediate  cognitive  knowthought  providing  the  reality  t o man  (Graburn  1978:14).  w h i c h make up  of  social spirit  cultural  as  im-  symbolic  reality beings  knowledge  to  their  between  function  between  through  to beast  opposition  thus  images  Greenlandic  cultural  images  cultural  -  system.  of  which  These  tradition,  verbal  beings  moral  agents  reality.  interpretants  through These  oral  Such  t r a n s f o r m i n g from man  i s a part  this  classificatory mythic  their  into  of beings  o f myth.  portant  through  ever-present.  identification  back  They e x p r e s s system  are  transformed  of t h e i r The  order  INUE  16  and  and  become give  vocal expression.  Tradition "Words, l i k e t h o u g h t s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have c r e a t i v e power. In m y t h o l o g y t h i n g s came into being or happened as people t h o u g h t o r t a l k e d about them." ( W i t h e r s p o o n , 1978:22)  East Greenlanders  base t h e i r  stories,  experiences  and  from  one  g e n e r a t i o n t o the  told  i n the  long winter  customs next.  cultural which  r e a l i t y on  are  Stories  handed  and  the  myths,  down  orally  legends  evenings.  " A n o t h e r p a s t i m e f o r w i n t e r e v e n i n g s i s the s i n g i n g o f o l d songs w h i c h have been handed down f r o m o l d e n d a y s . The young a r e t a u g h t t o s i n g by t h e i r e l d e r s . Every e x p r e s s i o n , e v e r y t o n e , e v e r y sound, e v e r y movement i s  are  often  -  17 -  world  are  t r a d i t i o n a l and i s handed down f r o m t h e o l d t o t h e young." (Holm [1887] 1912:125-26) The  limits  clearly  defined  stories  give  with  of  the East  through  verbal  this  explanations  the conceptual  forms  images a r e h a r b o u r e d  language.  Their  constituted  by s p e c i f i c  Greenlandic  knowledge  of  oral  conceptual  tradition.  experiences  of t h e i r  that  culture.  i n and r e l e a s e d and  verbal  Myths  ideas  of  images.  are  concurrent  These  patterned  through life  Osargag  and o l d  their  spoken  are, therefore, explains  t h i s as  follows: "Our t a l e s a r e men's e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e things one h e a r s are not always lovely things. But one c a n n o t deck a t a l e t o make i t pleasant, i f a t t h e same t i m e i t s h a l l be t r u e . The t o n g u e must be t h e echo o f t h e e v e n t and cannot adapt itself to taste or c a price. To t h e words o f t h e new b o r n none g i v e much c r e d e n c e , b u t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f older generations contains truth. When I n a r r a t e l e g e n d s , i t i s n o t I who s p e a k , i t i s t h e wisdom o f o u r f o r e f a t h e r s , s p e a k i n g t h r o u g h me." (Rasmussen Through be.  myth  Their  oral  maintenance for  i n that  124) .  possible  Referring  ones,  the t r a d i t i o n s  of  was, what  functions  i t contains  Rasmussen e x p l a i n s  the only  through  know what  tradition  a l l experience.  sponses, not  the people  this  1908:97)  as a mechanism  responses to t h e i r  of  will  cultural  t o and p r e s c r i p t i o n s prescriptions  as f o l l o w s :  but merely their  i s , and what  "They a r e t o them,  the best  forefathers"  and r e -  that  they  know,  (Rasmussen  1908:  - 18 East helpful of  Greenlandic  stories  and  myths  contain  and of malevolent beings who i n h a b i t  these  specific  accounts  of  t h e i r world.  Each  beings  i s d e s c r i b e d i n the myths according to i t s own  domain  and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  symbolic agents of t h e i r mythic  (Thalbitzer  reality,  1938:82).  these s p i r i t  As  beings are  a n a t u r a l p a r t of the t o t a l consciousness of the East Greenlanders.  C.  S p i r i t Beings Known and Accounted For The  concept and abundance of s p i r i t  t i o n e d by the K a l a a d l i t oriented Rasmussen  beings c o n s t a n t l y men-  i s known to have i n t r i g u e d e a r l y  authors and t r a v e l l e r s 1908, T h a l b i t z e r  i n Greenland  1912).  (Holm  western  [1887] 1912,  S e v e r a l of these beings are  noted, but no c o r r o b o r a t i o n or c o m p i l a t i o n of a t t r i b u t e s tempted.  The data  descriptions  of  recorded  amulets  ( T h a l b i t z e r 1912:617). i n c l u d e minimal 232-305, Rink bolic  on s p i r i t  and  i s p e r i p h e r a l to  the ornamentation  Records  of  artifacts  of the myths, t a l e s , and legends  d e s c r i p t i o n s of s p i r i t  beings (Holm  [1887] 1912:  [1887] 1912:311-17, Rasmussen 1908:308-357).  content and s u b j e c t matter  are of f a r l e s s  these e a r l y observers than s t r a i g h t The  beings  is at-  logic  of i n d i v i d u a l  human  Sym-  importance  to  description. beings  and  spirit  beings  occupying the same s p a t i a l t e r r i t o r y r e f l e c t s the East Greenland social  order  Kalaadlit  and the importance  imagery,  of s p i r i t  transformation  is a  beings. power  Throughout  given  to  all  - 19 beings,  a spirit  being  by the symbolic components that are present at a s p e c i f i c  time.  Each  human and  person  spirit  might  otherwise, and  see  a  one  slightly  identifies  different  being due to i t s being i n a d i f f e r e n t  a t i o n , or due time.  to h i s or her own  A l l the  B o d i l Kaalund  beings  are  form  they  the  same  stage of t r a n s f o r m -  personal v i s i o n  known;  of  exist  at a p a r t i c u l a r and  have  names.  writes:  "....as these beings were accepted as having a d e f i n i t e appearance and m a n i f e s t a tion. Nobody doubted that they looked the way they were d e s c r i b e d by the Shaman. They were r e a l i t i e s . " (1983:64) They are e v e r - p r e s e n t and correspond  have  the  ability  to  to those of the East Greenlanders  lead  (Holm  lives [1887]  that 1912:  257,66). A c c o r d i n g to K a l a a d l i t v e r b a l c a t e g o r i e s , s p i r i t thought that  of  are  in  belonging  alive  t h e i r own own  as  as  to  two  human-like  INUA-SPIRIT, and  our  voking spirits  notions of ghosts  the power and known and  individual ability  or  animal  spirit  beings  beings  both  Both types  to whom they  to subjugate  them.  r e c o g n i z a b l e , as a d i s t i n c t  those having  not having  of someone or something  or shades).  f o r o r d i n a r y humans but i f the  non-oppositional states;  those s p i r i t  INUA, but r a t h e r the s p i r i t  beings are  their  else  types are f e a r can  present  also  Each v e r b a l  belong to the indigenous category of TORNAK (a s p i r i t  pro-  be h e l p i n g  themselves  d e f i n e d being.  (as  has  image i s They a l l  helper  who  -  i s a l i v e of i t s own East symbolic  power) (Ebbe Josvassen, Angmaqssalik,  Greenlanders  are  p a t t e r n s of s p i r i t  enthnographic  records  characterized  identically  certain spirit  familiar  attributes beings  are  of  which  beings.  mythic in do  In  1912:84,266).  in  both  form  and  were to meet one from for  the him  (Egon  total  with  seen  Kap  the  there  are  names There  incident  Dan,  inland  (Holm  knowing which being For  1982).  example,  are seven  [1887]  I according seven  he  of are  1908:327,339)  T h e r e f o r e , i f an East  the  [1887]  beings  Greenlander detail  i n order  he  had  met  might  report  a human but  sprang  1912:267).  spirit  beings  both Holm's and Rasmussen's r e c o r d s . to t h e i r more  INGNERSSUIT,  that are I list  physical  common  ERKIGDLIT,  TORNAK (the s p e l l i n g of s p i r i t  4  not  the  names d e f i n e  an ERKILIK that looked l i k e  There  APERKETEQ,  of  is  p a t t e r n a s c r i b e d to the being  the  (Holm  These  aspects,  (Rasmussen  that l i v e  instances  symbolic  a dog  butes. 4  being  of these beings, he would need only one  Poulsen,  Appendix  each  Many  verbal  according to the  their attributes.  people  people  attributes.  to recount  that he had like  these  vary.  -  1983).  individual  Although,  accounts,  not  concomitant  the ERKILIK = g i a n t dog  the  a l l physical  the INGNERSSUIT = n o s e l e s s f i r e and  with  20  o f t e n mentioned  them with others i n  descriptions  spirits  in  are:  TIMERSIT,  and  attri-  ERKINGASEK,  AMOTORTOK,  names v a r i e s according to  and  indivi-  Many s p i r i t being names have been recorded, and I i n c l u d e 15 of the more common names with p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to t e x t s i n Appendex I.  -  dual  ethnographers).  edge, a l l o f these water,  o r on  specific so.  gory  a TORNAK  spirit  locate  Mikkaelsen  1982).  beings  D.  TUPILAQ  (Rasmussen  being  spirit  beings;  a person  necessarily  that  daily  one"  1912:290, i s acknow-  area  as E a s t  For these  are s p e c i f i c  cate-  TARTOK t o  [1887]  lives.  r e c o u n t e d , may  is traditionally  spirit  y e t the  total  vary.  thought  o f as d i f f e r i n g  I t i s n o t a TORNAK o r a TARTOK, r a t h -  c r e a t u r e , made or  by a human b e i n g ,  bringing  As c o g n i t i v e  transform  into  "magically created  skilled  made i t  o f t h e TUPILAQ  beings.  harm  on t h e i r  (plural)  t o do  (the per-  who  t h e same s p a t i a l  the a t t r i b u t e s  1938:159).  beings  power  a TARTOK  (Holm  o f TARTUT  share  identical  Field  doing  spirit  by  they  i t i s "a l i v i n g of  on t h e  t o appear f o r  individual  TUPILAT  image, as i t i s v e r b a l l y  The S e m a n t i c  purpose  destroy  The p r e s e n c e  and l e a d  from o t h e r s p i r i t er,  the powerful  and ANGAKKUT o f t e n c a l l  and  and o t h e r s ,  The  inland,  requested  i t becomes  knowl-  and TARTOK a r e o f t h e same i n d i g e n o u s  and a c c e p t e d ;  Greenlanders  visual  of  1982),  them  ledged  c a n be  i s subjugated  The TORNAK  (Poulsen  help  traditional  c a n be met when h u n t i n g  the i c e , or they  helping  thus).  beings  to Kalaadlit  p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n c e i f one has t h e s p e c i a l  When  sonal  -According  21 -  misfortune  the  another"  images, TUPILAT a r e man-made multi-dimensional beasts,  i n s o r c e r y who m i g h t  (Petersen  over  for  1964:73).  composed  and a n i m a t e d  be a shaman  According  malevolent  though n o t  t o Rasmussen,  -  22  -  the maker of a TUPILAQ "would have put the bones of v a r i o u s a n i mals t o g e t h e r , covered conjured  the o b j e c t  1908:156).  Most  them with  into  TUPILAQ  life  known  and c l o t s  by a s p e c i a l  beings  person they are sent out to k i l l seance.  turf  magic  are i n v i s i b l e , and/or  they  have  the power  that s p e c i f i c purpose,  song"  except  (IBID to the  to an ANGAKKOK d u r i n g a  They are the most feared of a l l s p i r i t  that  of blood, and  to k i l l ,  they  beings f o r i t i s are c r e a t e d f o r  and that they accomplish t h e i r  purpose.  " T u p i l a t were c o n s i d e r e d to be so dangerous that i f they merely appeared to the person they were to harm, he would d i e . " (Rasmussen 1938:164) The  person  ILISITSOQ, e i t h e r  who  creates  a TUPILAQ  i s an ANGAKKOK  a man or a woman who b e l i e v e s  or an  he or she can  c o n t r o l s u p e r n a t u r a l power, and who i s endowed with s p e c i a l  wis-  dom or power (Rink 1875:39). "An Angakok who can c a l l down misfortune on h i s f e l l o w s i s c a l l e d an I l i s i t s o q ; without showing h i m s e l f to h i s v i c t i m , he can k i l l him with a " T u p i l a k " , an animal made by the magician h i m s e l f , as a r u l e a s e a l , which appears to the man a g a i n s t whom he bears a grudge." (Rasmussen 1908:155) East  Greenlanders  know who are the ANGAKKUT i n t h e i r  villages;  they know which persons have s p e c i a l powers and to whom they can go  f o r personal  spirit help  world rather  commune with  aid.  "Whereas  i n the presence than  harm  the s p i r i t  their world  the Angakut  of others fellow  commune  and as a g e n e r a l  c r e a t u r e s , the  i n secret  with the  and only  rule  Ilisitsut  i n order to  - 23 harm  their  enemies or s o c i e t y .  make T u p i l a k s as w e l l as men" The  (Holm  thought  of  bringing  to be  TUPILAQ  as malevolent,  c r e a t e d by a human being f o r the s o l e  harm to another person.  i n the  following  appeared  to  a  member or f r i e n d  of  the  ways: hunting  This r e a l i t y  a)  i s expressed  p e r s o n a l accounts  group  and  r a c o n t e u r ; b)  then  of  killed  shamanic  purpose  how  a  seances  (Rasmussen  ANGAKKUT who tional  have  stories  TUPILAT  (Holm  of  1938:165); confessed hunters  [1887]  c)  personal  to having who  are  wherein  1912:280).  As  TUPILAQ i s a product of the fundamental Greenlanders. for  evil  A person might  purposes.  responsible  Only  for this  as,  accounts  a  by  or  cognitive  has  how  to d i s c o v e r TUPILAT and  their  from the  knowledge system of East  c o n t r o l power and use  the g i f t  tradi-  image,  i t in secret  a c c o r d i n g to East Greenland  i s the ANGAKKOK who  old  escape  a shaman could d i s c o v e r who  "it  of an  of  made TUPILAT; d)  killed  a  family  TUPILAT are d i s c o v e r e d by the ANGAKKOK as being the cause illness  and  [1887] 1912:100).  TUPILAQ, known to a l l East Greenlanders  is  orally  Women can become I l i s i t s u t  might  be  culture,  of s p e c i a l power and knows  makers"  (Holms  [1887]  1912:  101) .  E.  Old V i s i o n s : It  bled, Most  Knowledge and C r e a t i o n  i s known that  always often  in a  the TUPILAQ i s not carved - i t i s assem-  particular  pattern,  i t i s c o n s t r u c t e d of  and  always  the bones of  in  private.  several  animals,  - 24 moss are  and/or taken  contain  turf,  from  parts  1939:159). bones  and implements  a proposed of  a  victim.  corpse  I t i s of l e s s  from  ferent  seaweed,  several  or p o s s e s s i o n s  The assemblage  (Holm  [1887]  importance  could  1912:281,  whether  f o r i t i s known that  also  Rasmussen  a whole  animal,  beasts of the same k i n d , or those from  beasts are used,  that  using bones  diffrom  v a r i o u s b i r d s or animals means that the TUPILAQ w i l l possess the i d e n t i t y of these d i f f e r e n t life.  A TUPILAQ can a l t e r  c r e a t u r e s at d i f f e r e n t stages i n i t s i t s s i z e and shape, transforming from  one animal to the next i n i t s search f o r i t s v i c t i m , but a t t a c k s in  the mode of whichever  its victim  (Holm  animal  form  [1887] 1912:102).  i t i s i n when  The symbolic  i t locates  characteristics  of TUPILAT l i e i n the c u l t u r a l l o g i c that harbours the images of their creation.  Since ANGAKKUT know when TUPILAT are about and  have the knowledge to d e t e c t and catch them without being harmed themselves, seances  i t i s through  that  most  East  ANGAKKUT  Greenlanders  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of TUPILAT (Poulsen Descriptions  do vary  TUPILAQ.and who t e l l s  f o r they  become  and d i s c o v e r y  familiar  with the  1983). depend  on who  the s t o r y of the e x p e r i e n c e .  p l e s of these accounts p r o v i d e First  descriptions  has seen Three  illustrations.  i s the s t o r y "Navagijak" t o l d by Kutuluk: "One day, when Navagijak was out hunting, he h u r l e d h i s harpoon at a t u p i l a k , a l though he was w e l l aware that i t was one; f o r i t had a hood on i t s head, and i t s h i n der p a r t s were l i k e those of a dog." (G. Holm [1887] 1912:272)  a  exam-  Second  i s "A T u p i l a k  Story"  told  25 -  by K u t u l u k :  "The angakok a r t s commenced, and p r e s e n t l y t h e t u p i l a k came i n t o t h e p a s s a g e w a y . It gave f o r t h a l l manner o f s o u n d s ; now i t shrieked: u n g a l , now e r k o ! , now i t c r i e d l i k e a f o x , now l i k e a g r o u s e . I t kept i n the passageway a l l t h e w h i l e . The sounds c h a n g e d ; i t sounded now l i k e u m i a k s , now l i k e k a i a k s , now l i k e t h e r u s t l i n g o f b u s h e s , and now l i k e s e a l s . I t uttered a l l these sounds b e c a u s e i t was made o f a l l these t h i n g s . " (G. Holm [1887] 1912:282) And had  third  been  an  i s the c o n f e s s i o n ILISITSOQ,  TUPILAT he had s e n t  out.  and  of Perkitigsak, relating  revealing  His confession  information  how he  about  i s recorded  the  by Holm:  " I n h i s a n g e r he made a t u p i l a k o f w a l r u s s k i n , f r a g m e n t s o f t h e man's game and many other things. I t r e s e m b l e d a w a l r u s weari n g women's d r a w e r s . He c r e a t e d and made i t grow i n t h e u s u a l way, a f t e r w h i c h he s e n t i t f o r t h t o k i l l t h e man who had t a k e n t h e w a l r u s f r o m him." (Holm [1887] 1912:102) To placed his to  create  a  TUPILAQ  into a prescribed  o r h e r thumb several  ILISITSOQ  knows t h i s  knowledge on t o o t h e r out made one  o r done loses  bones  reports secret  ILISITSUT.  (Peterson of  goes a b o u t making  m a t e r i a l are  (Rasmussen  1964:72).  this  process,  procedure  and who  the p a r t i c u l a r  1938:162).  a TUPILAQ i s g i v e n  An  only  According i t i s the passes  I f any p r e s c r i b e d  i n an i n c o r r e c t manner, i t s power  and o t h e r  p o s i t i o n by an ILISITSOQ who u s e s  and f o r e f i n g e r  ethnographic  who  being,  step  is left  TUPILAQ  example  by G. Holm:  "The most i m p o r t a n t a r t o f t h e i l i s i t s u t i s t o c r e a t e t u p i l e k s w h i c h w i l l k i l l t h e peop l e a g a i n s t whom t h e y a r e s e n t . They a r e  this  thus  o f how  - 26 made from d i f f e r e n t animals, such as bears f o x e s , ptarmigan, and s e a l s . The t u p i l e k must a l s o c o n t a i n a p i e c e of the anorak, or the hunting s p o i l , or something e l s e of the man a g a i n s t whom i t i s to be sent. It is then animated by chanting a magic charm over i t . In order that the t u p i l e k may grow, the i l i s i s o k makes i t suckle h i m s e l f between h i s l e g s . Before doing t h i s he turns h i s anorak so that he has the back of it i n f r o n t ; then he draws up the hood before h i s f a c e . He s i t s on a heap of stones c l o s e t o where a r i v e r d i s c h a r g e s i t s e l f i n t o the sea and makes the t u p i l e k suckle. When the l a t t e r has grown b i g , i t g l i d e s down i n t o the water and d i s a p p e a r s . I t i s t o b r i n g death or misfortune t o the man f o r whom i t i s d e s t i n e d . " (Holm [1887] 1912:100) ANGAKKUT  and ILISITSUT know magic  that blow l i f e  knowledge  Often  other  of these  spirit  beings  powerful  people  mean that time  i s successfully  revenge  will  occur  given  as i t may take  i t s own power or w i l l  so  it  I t i s the maker  the TUPULAQ whom t o a t t a c k , when to a t t a c k , and where  revenge  should  take  place  TUPILAQ has attacked i t s v i c t i m if  some  f o r whom i t i s des-  obeys i t s master, the possessor of such powers.  the  will  to a TUPILAQ i t does not  the person  The TUPILAQ does not have  who t e l l s  1964:75).  [1887] 1912:290,299).  immediately,  f o r the TUPILAQ t o l o c a t e  tined.  (Peterson  under the power of an ILISITSOQ  him i n composing a TUPILAQ (Holm When l i f e  nature  i n t o TUPILAT, but these s e c r e t songs are the per-  sonal  aid  songs of a malevolent  (Rasmussen,  1938:162).  Once a  i t disappears with no t r a c e , but  i t f a i l s to reach the intended v i c t i m i t can turn a g a i n s t i t s  - 27 creator.  Tale  126,  from  "Tales and  makes t h i s knowledge e x p l i c i t l y  Traditions  of the  Eskimo",  clear:  "126. THE TUPILAK - An o l d man named Nikook, who had g i v e n up s e a l - h u n t i n g , once, e n t i r e l y by chance, brought home a walrus. The middle one of some b r o t h e r s with whom he l i v e d grew j e a l o u s of him at t h i s , and every morning r e p a i r e d to the opposite shore of an island, where he s e c r e t l y worked at a t u p i l a k . Nikook got a s u s p i c i o n of t h i s , and f o l l o w i n g him, he s u r p r i s e d the wretch i n the act of a l l o w i n g h i s own body to be sucked by the monster, at the same time r e p e a t i n g the words, "Thou s h a l t take Nikook." But Nikook h u r r i e d down, and s e i z e d him, c r y i n g , "What a r t thou doing there?" At that moment the man f e l l down l i f e l e s s . Meanwhile the b r o t h e r s had a l s o reached the i s l a n d , and on being guided to the p l a c e by Nikook, they found the t u p i l a k s t i l l sucking the dead. They then k i l l e d i t with stones, s i n k i n g i t , as w e l l as the maker of i t , i n t o the sea. During f i v e n i g h t s Nikook was d i s t u r b e d by a bubbling sound, but afterwards nothing more was p e r c e i v e d . " (Rink 1875:461-62) It have  i s the duty of ANGAKKUT to l o c a t e and  turned  searching  on  their  makers  f o r intended  ethnographic  records  victims.  to  overcome  TUPILAT  that  There are many s t o r i e s  that e x p l a i n how  being can be overpowered by An example of t h i s  and  catch TUPILAT that  this  i s done.  the h e l p i n g s p i r i t s  are  i n the  A TUPILAQ  of an ANGAKKOK.  i s provided by Narsingertek and  Adlagdlak,  "When the angakut are c a t c h i n g t u p i l e k s , they c a l l Erkingasek, who then catches them with h i s b i r d - d a r t . The angakut have him now and then f o r t h e i r t a r t o k , and even sometimes v i s i t him." (Holm [1887] 1912:290)  - 28 Ethnographic accounts who have caught Men stories and  do c o n t a i n d e s c r i p t i v e s t o r i e s of ANGAKKUT  and destroyed TUPILAT (Holm and Rasmussen).  and women who of t h e i r  their  beings.  are known  experiences  helping  to have ANGAKKOK power  in locating  spirits  (TARTOK)  ANGAKKUT are known through  TUPILAT, and how kill  these  these become known as people t a l k about  them.  discovered  during a s p e c i a l  ANGAKKOK performance. her pursuer give  and  Once a TUPILAQ i s public  Once the intended v i c t i m i s r i d of h i s or  he or she can t a l k  an e x p l i c i t  they  malevolent  the a c t s they perform,  by an ANGAKKOK i t i s k i l l e d  tell  description  about  of that  the experience particular  and o f t e n  TUPILAQ.  The  TUPILAQ may a l s o be d e s c r i b e d by the ANGAKKOK who has given the performance  or by a s p e c t a t o r .  as a r e l a t i v e that prove  or a n c e s t o r , he or she w i l l  that  o f t e n recount  stories  the s t r e n g t h and power of h i s or her k i n i n order to  r a i s e h i s or her own s o c i a l ries  I f an i n d i v i d u a l has an ANGAKKOK  Kalaadlit  standing.  have formed  their  I t i s through cognitive  these  sto-  images of the  TUPILAQ beings and have come to know and f e a r them.  The f o l l o w -  ing p r e s e n t a t i o n of one such s t o r y w i l l provide an example of an East Greenland  v e r b a l image of "TUPILAQ". 29.  A TUPILEK STORY t o l d by Kutuluk  "In olden days an o l d c h i l d l e s s married couple came here from the south and w i n t e r ed up here. When s p r i n g came, a bear was caught by the people who l i v e d i n the nearest d w e l l i n g - p l a c e up the f i o r d . The o l d f o l k s now t r a v e l l e d up to them to get some of the bear to e a t ; but when they had en-  t e r e d t h e h o u s e , t h e man who had c a u g h t t h e bear s a i d : "Who i n t h e w o r l d wants t o have t h e s e o l d f o l k s as g u e s t s ? " However, t h e y gave them some b e a r ' s f l e s h and b l u b b e r ; but the o l d people d i d not eat of i t , but t i e d i t up t o make a t u p i l e k o f i t . When t h e b e a r ' s paws were b o i l e d , t h e o l d p e o p l e said: " I f t h e y would o n l y g i v e us some o f them!", and when the food was divided amongst the guests, they d i d receive a couple of toes. But they d i d not e a t these e i t h e r , b u t t o o k them home w i t h them. When t h e y g o t home t h e y began t o l o n g f o r t h e s p r i n g , so t h a t t h e y c o u l d t r a v e l s o u t h again. I n t h e meantime t h e w i f e o f t h e man who had c a u g h t the bear brought forth a c h i l d , w h i c h d i e d , and t h e o l d m a r r i e d c o u p l e took i t t o make a t u p i l e k o f . They now t r a v e l l e d s o u t h , and t h e w i f e wrapped up t h e c h i l d w e l l and p u t i t i n f r o n t o f them on the horns o f t h e umiak. When they touched l a n d , the wife stepped out of the b o a t , and t h e n t h e husband handed t h e c h i l d t o h e r . T h i s t h e y d i d t h e whole way w h i l e t h e y were j o u r n e y i n g s o u t h . I t was n o t t i l l t h e y came t o t h e i r own country again that they made from t h e c o r p s e a t u p i l e k which c o u l d k i l l a l l the c h i l d r e n the b e a r - c a t c h e r ' s wife bore. The t u p i l e k was g i v e n a f o x ' s jaw and a g r o u s e s jaw, and i t s head was c o v e r e d w i t h d o g skin. I t was t h e n made a l i v e . When t h e r e came time of s c a r c i t y , the b e a r - c a t c h e r k i l l e d h i s dog and sang m a g i c charms o v e r i t , b e c a u s e he wanted h i s c h i l d r e n t o l i v e . Once when the b e a r - c a t c h e r ' s wife had brought f o r t h a c h i l d which d i e d j u s t l i k e t h e o t h e r s , she j o u r n e y e d up t o K e r n e r t u a r suk. She h e a r d someone s i n g i n g from up t h e f i o r d , and as she w a l k e d she saw an umiak coming down t h e f i o r d . The p e o p l e i n t h e b o a t were g o i n g o u t t o have a drum-match, and t h e y t o o k h e r w i t h them. As she was s o r r o w f u l , t h e y d i d n o t have a drum-match, b u t angakok a r t s were t o be p e r f o r m e d by s i x angakut t o c h e e r h e r up. She went and s a t down n e a r t h e p l a c e where t h e a n g a k u t  were to perform t h e i r were e x t i n g u i s h e d .  arts,  and the lamps  The f i v e angakut performed t h e i r a r t s , and she expected that they should say something to h e r , but they s a i d nothing. I t was now the turn of the s i x t h angakut, who was c a l l e d A k e r d l e g s a n a l i k , to begin. The lamps were l i t , he was given a new s k i n to s i t on, and a s m a l l e r lamp was placed by h i s side. He began to beat the drum and the d r i e d s k i n before the passage, and the s k i n on which he s a t began to move. As he was drumming, h i s n a t i t s l i p p e d down and at l a s t f e l l o f f a l t o g e t h e r . As he drummed, he sometimes made the back of h i s head almost touch the ground, and he threw the drum aside and i t began to move of i t s own accord. A l l t h i s the angakok d i d t o gladden the heart of the s o r r o w f u l one. Then the lamps were e x t i n g u i s h e d . While Akerdlegsanalik was performing angakok a r t s , and the drum was moving by i t s e l f , he s a i d to the g r i e v i n g woman: " I t i s as i f you had a c h i l d i n your bosom". They s t a y ed up the whole night and performed angakok arts. When they were about to depart, the g r i e v ing woman s a i d to the angakut: " I t would be w e l l i f you would come over to Umivik to k i l l the t u p i l e k . " They now a l l went over to Umivik, and when they came there, they cut a s e a l i n p i e c e s and ate i t . When they had f i n i s h e d e a t i n g , they began to perform angakok a r t s i n order to catch the t u p i l e k . F i r s t the f i v e performed angakok a r t s , but d i d not say anything to the g r i e v i n g woman. It was now A k e r d l e g s a n a l i k ' s turn to begin. The s m a l l e r lamp was l i t , and Akerdlegsanal i k drummed and sang. He c a s t the drum a s i d e , and i t went on moving by i t s e l f until at l a s t i t stood q u i t e s t i l l . The angakok sometimes n e a r l y touched the ground with the back of h i s neck and h i s neck and h i s f e e t were f i r m l y planted on the ground. At the time when A k e r d l e g s a n a l i k was l e a r n ing to perform angakok a r t s and stood i n f r o n t of the house, he saw some a s a g i s a t  b e h i n d t h e h o u s e , and i t was them he used as h i s t a r t o k s . When the drum r o s e i n t h e air, t h e lamp was p u t o u t , and the arts were c o n t i n u e d . "There i s the tupilek!" said Akerdlegsanalik. I t was sitting at the b o t t o m o f t h e p l a t f o r m . He l i f t e d up t h e s k i n o f the p l a t f o r m t o s t a b i t ; b u t as he s t a b b e d he c h a n c e d t o p u l l the l i n e , so that t h e h a r p o o n head f e l l o f f , and the t u p i l e k s l i p p e d away. " I t i s as i f the t u p i l e k had not gone f a r away," s a i d the angakok. The t o r n a k a r t s now ceased for t h i s evening. The following evening they took seven p i e c e s o f the g r i e v i n g woman's g a r m e n t s , t i e d them up i n a b u n d l e , and hung them up under the r o o f . The t u p i l e k was to creep i n t o t h e g a r m e n t s , and t h e n when he was w e l l i n s i d e , t h e y were t o p u l l t h e s t r i n g . The angakok a r t s commenced, and p r e s e n t l y t h e t u p i l e k came i n t o t h e p a s s a g e w a y . It gave f o r t h a l l manner of s o u n d s ; now it shrieked: unga!, now e r k o ! , now i t cried l i k e a f o x , now l i k e a g r o u s e . I t kept i n t h e passageway a l l the w h i l e . The sounds c h a n g e d ; i t sounded now l i k e umiaks, now like kaiaks, now like the rustling of b u s h e s , and now l i k e s e a l s . It uttered a l l t h e s e s o u n d s b e c a u s e i t was made o f t h e s e things. I t now e n t e r e d t h e house and c r e p t into the garments. The angakok said: "Dava 1" and t h e o t h e r s p u l l e d the s t r i n g . Then t h e y struck i t with their clenched f i s t s ; b u t w h i l e t h e y were s t r i k i n g i t , i t s l i p p e d away t h r o u g h a l i t t l e h o l e i n t h e outermost garment, a gut-skin coat, a l t h o u g h t h e r e was no h o l e i n the o t h e r g a r m e n t s ; b u t now a h o l e b u r s t i n the o t h e r s , and i t s l i p p e d o u t . The lamps were l i t , the garment was e x a m i n ed, and t h e h o l e was sewn up; then the lamps were a g a i n e x t i n g u i s h e d , so t h a t t h e y m i g h t c a t c h the t u p i l e k . I t came now into t h e passageway u t t e r i n g s i m i l a r sounds as b e f o r e , and came t o the p l a c e where i t was to creep i n t o the garments. Then i t made its way into the garments shrieking: "Erko! Erko!" As soon as i t was w e l l i n -  - 32 s i d e , they p u l l e d the s t r i n g and began to beat i t . Those that beat i t c r i e d , " A l a , a l a ! " , because the t u p i l e k b i t them. When at l a s t i t was q u i e t , the lamps were l i t , and the angakok had the t u p i l e k i n h i s bosom; and she who had made the t u p i l e k ran round about, i n and o u t , p u t t i n g out the lamps, while the others were t r y i n g t o light a fire. The angakok s a i d that those who were not q u i t e w e l l were to turn t h e i r faced inwards, and f i r e was d r i l l e d down i n a u r i n e - t u b , i n order that the t u p i l e k ' s mother might not p u l l i t out. When the lamps had now been p r o p e r l y l i t , they saw a nice l i t t l e c h i l d with grouse's f e e t i n i t s b r e a s t ; but when the angakok had breathed on i t , a l l the grouse f e a t h e r s fell off. I t was red as i f with d r i e d blood i n the corners of the mouth, from a l l the dead c h i l d r e n ' s s o u l s i t had eaten. I t had s t i l l a dog-skin on i t s head, but t h i s they r i p p e d up. G r a d u a l l y a whole p i l e of grouse f e a t h e r s and a l l the t h i n g s the t u p i l e k had been made up of were heaped up about i t . When they had f i n i s h e d with i t , they went up to the mountain above Umivik and b o i l e d it. The b e a r - c a t c h e r s wife brought f o r t h a c h i l d f o r the l a s t time, and i t l i v e d , as w e l l as the c h i l d she had born ( s i c . ) bef o r e the t u p i l e k had been made. The t u p i l e k was now caught, and so t h i s i s the end of our t a l e . " (Holm [1887] 1921:280-83) Thus, being for of  is:  according  1) composed  a specific different  to East  Greenland  and c r e a t e d by a human being;  a  TUPILAQ 2) a l i v e  time; 3) i n a form with the p r o p e r t i e s and images  animals  a l s o present i n the n a t u r a l environment; 4)  capable of being seen by an ANGAKKOK or ers,  knowledge,  and by the intended  person with s p e c i a l pow-  v i c t i m ; 5) capable  of being  k i l l e d by  -  6) a fear  an ANGAKOQ a n d / o r h i s h e l p i n g s p i r i t ; and  7)  human  assembled beings.  cognitive landers ture.  Thus  image  category All nitive  lives  landers,  these  beings  and TUPILAT.  semantic Thus,  cultural Yet  field  Therefore,  system  those  misunderstood.  tion  of  contemporary  of l e a d -  of East a  out the  images o f  there  can be no  both  and d i s t i n c t  Green-  specific  of c a r r y i n g  to group  bet-  spirit  entities in  Greenlanders. c a t e g o r i e s which  hold  to o f f e r  Greenlandic  clues to  of c u l t u r a l  c a t e g o r i e s and/or  c a t e g o r i e s these  In o r d e r east  East  cog-  i s made  as t h e c o g n i t i v e  and t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  often  of  and c a p a b l e  purpose  TUPILAT a r e u n i q u e  of Greenlandic  cul-  cognitive  created with  i n which  due t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f f o r e i g n  application  with  a r e humanly  i t i s the indigenous  meanings  distinct  the  Green-  t h e same G r e e n l a n d i c  are ever-present  of East  from  of K a l a a d l i t  c a t e g o r i e s are not s i m i l a r ,  class ificatory  image; killing  of East  but a d i s t i n c t i o n  and f o r t h e s p e c i f i c  two i n d i g e n o u s  a very  from  t o and c o e x t e n s i v e  the c r e a t o r .  come  -  c a t e g o r i e s and i m a g e s .  reality),  that  of  i s the l i f e - w o r l d  occupy  evolve  that  and b) b e i n g s  of  singular  the  beings  similar  expectancy  intent  beings  beings  (cultural  reality  o f TUPILAT  amongst G r e e n l a n d i c  system  purpose  characteristics  i n the mythic  field  non-human  f o r the s o l e  i s s e t i n the l i f e - w o r l d  y e t these  ween a) s p i r i t  life  which  The s e m a n t i c  life  i t s verbal  and i s imbedded  Greenlanders,  ing  and g i v e n  inspiring  33  cultural  an a d e q u a t e cultural  images. the mis-  images a r e interpreta-  images  i t is  -  necessary ation  to e x p l i c a t e  affected  t h e way  i n which  traditional Kalaadlit  the p r o c e s s  images.  of  34  -  accultur-  -  II.  35  -  C o n f r o n t a t i o n and A c c u l t u r a t i o n  Introduction In  this  section  accounts  which  and  East  Greenlandic  the  acculturation  culture.  My  troduction red, and  and  events and  r e c o r d the  of  early  in this  the  of  contact,  their  effects  I  also  and  historial  c o n t a c t between  include data  chapter  i s to  mythic  images  acculturation  Tupilaq figure.  of  p e r i o d of  data  Danish  concerning  t h e p r o d u c t i o n of e a s t G r e e n l a n d i c m a t e r i a l  production  through  ethnographic  cultures.  purpose  and  label  I present  on  process,  This section  colonization, the  image  indicate as  the  the i n -  artifacts  allowed  and  TUPILAQ  occur-  f o r the  i s organized  conversion, of  how  so  form  that  the  communication  are  examined  in  sequence. It problem  i s i n the of  culture. evidence ery in  the An  examination  form  by  presentation  of  of  and the  adaptations  rechanneling of  of  mythic  traditional  H i s t o r i c a l Accounts: Convenience  1.  Colonization Greenlanders  this  chapter  that I address  colonization  in their  process  imag-  material culture.  This  ethnic  permits  bi-cultural  artifacts.  C o l o n i z a t i o n , Conversion,  abruptly  presents  Kalaadlit  knowledge,  images as  were  the  m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l  to r e s t r u c t u r e t r a d i t i o n a l  A.  East  half  interpretation  of p r e s s u r e s  i n the turn,  latter  confronted  with  and  aspects  of  west  European  Holm's  Danish  sojourn  in  culture  as  Angmagssalik  a in  Holm's a c c o u n t , t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n  result  of  Captain  1884-1885.  -  Gustov  According  p r o c e s s began as  "We found at Angmagssalik a Eskimo who had not p r e v i o u s l y c o n t a c t w i t h Europeans."  36  to  follows:  branch of been into  " I n 1884 I went t o A n g m a g s s a l i k w i t h t h e screwbark "HVIDBJRNEN" f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f establishing the m i s s i o n a r y and trading station j u s t mentioned. The latter was placed under the command of my former interpreter JOHAN PETERSON, now colonial governor, and of t h e m i s s i o n a r y RUTTEL. T h e s e two men have worked w i t h r a r e e n e r g y , p e r s e r v e r a n c e and p a t i e n c e f o r t h e c i v i l i z a t i o n of the n a t i v e s . Some o f t h e p e o p l e have now been c h r i s t e n e d , and murder, p o l y gamy, and o t h e r h e a t h e n p r a c t i c e s a r e now r a r e , i f not e n t i r e l y a b o l i s h e d . " (Holm A  process  "due to was  of  rapid  acculturation  t o the Danish c o l o n i a l  the  same  level  of  (Lynge  by  the  1976:5).  joint Bodil  was  1912:16) begun  power's w i s h  western  i n West G r e e n l a n d ,  (colonized  [1887]  in half kingdom Kaalund  European  i n East  to b r i n g  East  Greenland, Greenland  m o d e r n i z a t i o n , as  t h e time  that  o f Denmark  i t took  and  Norway  there  the  latter  in  1721)"  stated:  "It was only i n 1884 that contact was established on the east coast, however, which, i s why the development of East and West G r e e n l a n d has been q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . " ( I B I D , 1983:36) The  colonial  overall  policy  policy  of  o f Denmark e n c o u r a g e d  rapid  change w i t h i n  isolation:  "The b a s i c Egede has  p r i n c i p l e of Danish been to a s s i s t the  rule since people of  an  -  37  -  Greenland to a c h i e v e the f u l l e s t possible l i f e , p r o t e c t e d as f a r as may be f r o m t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s which might a c c r u e from conn e c t i o n w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d . " ( D a n i s h M i n i s t r y f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s 1952:35) The  attitude  ers  was  of  the  c o l o n i a l government  towards  East  Greenland-  paternalistic: "an a t t i t u d e w h i c h o v e r c e n t u r i e s was confirmed by s t r i c t political, economic and religious measures of a protectionist nature." ( L y n g e , 1976:6)  The  Danes  their  felt  backward  a liberal ty),  i t their condition.  (favourable  industrialized  Danish  moral  and  t h e i r Greenland on  the e a s t  lik  had  Gustav sire  western  the  place 14).  The  to  most  Christianity. and  society  stressed  an  ideologies.  that  Danish  fullest  implicit  liber-  specifically  Danes  the e n t i r e  extended population  the p e o p l e o f Angmagssa-  the t i m e l y 1953:46),  possible  urge  promoted  individual  Thus,  from  to  i n t e r v e n t i o n of and  life"  in their (Holm  integrate  de-  [1887]  them  into  culture. of  suppress  the  colonizers  a l l Eskimo  was  cataclysmic Christians  force  in  suppressed  their  own  "to  traditional  C h r i s t i a n i t y i n i t s Lutheran  stressed  and  that maintained  (Williamson  "the  p r i n c i p l e aim  them w i t h  knowledge  was  to  Greenlanders  r e f o r m and  f r o m e x t i n c t i o n by  them  there  Eskimos,  culture  Danes b e l i e v e d  h i s crew  European  The  East  c o l o n i a l p o l i c y to include  Holm and  1912:16),  rescue  to democratic  religious  coast.  bring  to  Danish  western  been s a v e d  to  duty  beliefs  form"  Danish  and  (Lynge  system  re1976:  colonization  Kalaadlit  belief  Christianize  was  traditional and  social  -  values. as  The  i t had  2.  t o undermine  the  entire  cultural  -  system  to c o l o n i z a t i o n .  Conversion Danish  Greenland  ism  was  existed prior  When  sion  effect  38  to  authorities established  i n 1895 the  (Danish  i t became  Danish  clear  community  to  the  required  M i n i s t r y for Foreign  a  Kalaadlit  the  Affairs  settlement  adoption  in  that of  1952:134).  east  admis-  LutheranThalbitzer  wrote: "Heathens r e g a r d b a p t i s m as e q u i v a l e n t t o i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n the E u r o p e a n community." (1912:343) Christianity morals,  a  not new  only  introduced  pattern  of  social  symbolic/semantic  domain.  changes  Greenlandic  East  in  Greenlanders  recorded  had  a conversation  "Christian", his  East  and  who  newly a c q u i r e d  cultural  had  These  to with  adapt  beliefs,  but  relationships,  brought  society, and  Autdaruta,  been an  religious  new  about belief,  and  almost and  who  was  Autdaruta  as a b e t r a y a l o f  " I had a g r e a t many h e l p i n g - s p i r i t s among the f i r e p e o p l e . When I made up my mind t o j o u r n e y t o the West C o a s t t o be b a p t i z e d , t h e y a p p e a r e d t o me and u r g e d me not t o do so. But I d i d what I w i l l e d , a l l the same. S i n c e t h e n t h e y have not shown t h e m s e l v e s t o me, b e c a u s e I b e t r a y e d them by my baptism." (Rasmussen 1908:308)  new  knowledge.  a newly  knowledge:  a  new  immediate  reorganize.  ANGAKKOK.  situation  also  Rasmussen baptized explained specific  -  The ledged  Kalaadlit  Christian  tion  to  their  pect  of  their  grations  were not beliefs  changing  a s s i m i l a t e d with  Danes  old  ed  this  symbolic  but  they  early  the  sets could  stage  of  life  as  production old.  were still  i n the  as  - they  required  A s s i m i l a t i o n was  way  and  converted  teachings  world.  materials  being  portant,  and  traditional  new  immediately  Thus  not be  with  negated,  they  recognized.  acknowadaptaas-  countless  mi-  were  the  -  a positive  in their  methods  for  39  constantly  arrival became  of  the  less  im-  Rasmussen e x p l a i n -  a c c u l t u r a t i o n process:  "the a c c o u n t s w h i c h I have r e c e i v e d f r o m o l d shamans who have t r i e d t o t e l l me a b o u t their a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s and communion with t h e s p i r i t s made t h e d e f i n i t e i m p r e s s i o n on me t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s b e l i e v e d i n i t ; and e v e n shamans who have been b a p t i z e d and have had e x p l a i n e d t o them by t h e i r p r i e s t s and t e a c h e r s t h a t t h e i r a n c i e n t a r t s were n o t h i n g but lies and self d e c e i t , to me have e x p l a i n e d t h e whole q u e s t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t the s u p e r - n a t u r a l world i n which they had f o r m e r l y l i v e d had not c e a s e d t o e x i s t , but that they themselves through their C h r i s t i a n f a i t h had t u r n e d t h e i r b a c k s on i t and g i v e n up i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h i t . " (Rasmussen 1938:103) Mythic instruments  and of  social  mythic  symbols  tural  knowledge  es  spirit  of  discredited. and  was  oral  were  traditions and  no  cultural  longer  (see page 1 7 ) .  beings  were  still  Christianity  promoted  by  early  was  the  were  no  longer  communication paramount  ushered  catechists:  but  their  as  traditional  containers  D e s c r i p t i o n s and known,  and  adequate  of  cul-  c o g n i t i v e imagvalue  i n v i a the  had  written  been word  -  40 -  "clergy and catechists had, from 1900 taught at schools f o r East Greenland c h i l d ren." (Danish M i n i s t r y With  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  began t o r e p l a c e m y t h i c al  communication.  through  of l i t e r a c y ,  reality  word,  was  and  was  another  document  symbols as  force  presented  with  i t was  value.  and m a i n t a i n e d and  stressed  new  with  which  1973:252) brought  a visual  to regulate by D a n i s h  symbols  to  process.  the semantic  new  Mythic  visual  images  traditions  which  forms:  Danish  Greenlanders replaced which were  with  visual  Literacy, i t specific  written  documentary  Danish reality  aided  i n the  o l d boundaries  of cog-  were  and  new  the w r i t -  strict  domain.  carried  communicative  Literacy  Greenlanders  containing  society,  East  East  To K a l a a d l i t ,  image  West G r e e n l a n d i c E s k i m o .  acculturation nition  instrument of c u l t u r -  i t promoted  of r e a l i t y .  and e x p e r i e n t i a l  written  presented  which  offered  perceptual and  reality  a t o o l of Danish s o c i e t y : "A d o c u m e n t a r y r e a l i t y i s fundamental t o the process o f g o v e r n i n g , managing, and administration of this form of society. The p r i m a r y mode o f a c t i o n and d e c i s i o n i n the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s of business, government, t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , and o t h e r l i k e agenc i e s , i s i n s y m b o l s , w h e t h e r words, mathem a t i c a l symbols, o r some o t h e r . It is a mode o f a c t i o n w h i c h depends upon a r e a l i t y c o n s t i t u t e d i n documentary form."  modes f o r t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n ten  1952:140)  documentary  introduced  thus  (Smith Literacy  a  as a m a j o r  Christianity  the w r i t t e n  literacy,  f o r Foreign A f f a i r s  accorded  presented  orally  cultural were n o t  -  considered  concomitant  semblance ceptive  to Lutheran  to  the  accepted  the  cause  their  Yet  of  i t was  new,  with  Christianity,  doctrine, written  a slow  so  t o be  their  own  accepted  p r o c e s s as K a a l u n d  Kalaadlit Thus  the  re-  Greenlanders  cultural  into  became  no  knowledge  Danish  be-  community.  a l l East  Green-  Convenience I t was  tional tions  t h e Danes who,  Kalaadlit of  system for  contained  -  wrote:  " I t was o n l y i n 1921 t h a t l a n d e r s were b a p t i z e d . " (1983:62)  3.  the  they  communications.  r e c h a n n e l i n g of desire  and  as  41  how  had  the  tions  culture,  the  convenience  on  experience,  tended  to  (through  m e a n i n g , and For  that  East Greenland  Danish  coded  These  presented  verbal  oral  information  mythic  t h e i r meaning when t r a n s l a t e d .  and  what  as  images were  Danish  that  to  put  of  belief given  became  a  classificaaccounts  of  interpretations  East  necessarily  accounts  and  tradi-  explana-  were  and  These  relevant  Rink  and  their  the u n f a m i l i a r ,  i n Danish.  imagery)  accounts  interpretations  They  c o n s e q u e n t l y remained  example,  lived  Danish  culture.  the e x p e r i e n c e o f  written  Danish  imposed  cultural  from  had  of e x p l i c a t i n g  reality  bypass  created  Greenlanders  entailed.  documentary  removed  Greenlanders  their  system  of  incomplete.  spirit  the c a s e  beings  clearly:  "When t h e s e emmanations f r o m the s p i r i t u a l l i f e o f a p e o p l e a r e committed to w r i t i n g , and s t i l l more, when t h e y a r e t r a n s l a t e d , the p o e t i c s p i r i t w i t h which they are i n b r e d more o r l e s s e v a p o r a t e s . " ( R i n k 1912:309)  lost  -  Acculturation images. and  For  the  powerless  cerning  set.  precepts  which  of  tized  about  Kalaadlit  required  Such  to  synthesis render  resulted  in varying  images.  Angmagssalikers  and  of  verbal  a l l spirit of  and  beings  their  were  generated  degrees,  Rasmussen  commented  met  the with  by  visible con-  classi-  Christian  cultural some  -  visual  old ideas  i n a modified symbolic  modifications  negated,  traditional  a  a reorganization  t h e s e b e i n g s and  fication  ity  brought  42  valid-  newly  bap-  that:  " A l l t h o s e f o r m e r E a s t G r e e n l a n d e r s were, in spite of their baptism, only very s l i g h t l y r e g e n e r a t e d s p i r i t u a l l y , and s t i l l spoke their own d i a l e c t . . . . they by no means, i n t h e i r h e a r t s , c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r pagan beliefs to be deception, rather regarding them as s o m e t h i n g forbidden to them by t h e i r new f a i t h . " (Rasmussen 1908:285)  B.  Dawning H i s t o r y , The  its  change  origin  ficatory  in  Fading  the  the purpose  system  perception of  gave  began  "the a c c u l t u r a t i o n  in  this  their  tion  interpretations  point  i n time  c a t e g o r y of  i s as  of  benefiting  (Thalbitzer  first  from  Images the  a western  1912:643). of  the  TUPILAQ  westerners  "Eskimo A r t . "  My  had  as  classi-  westerners  figures  p r o c e s s o f the T u p i l a q that  European  I t was  TUPILAQ  image  who  and  which  image" as  i t was  included  definition  these of  follows: "Those phenomena w h i c h r e s u l t f r o m g r o u p s of individuals having d i f f e r i n g cultures coming i n t o f i r s t - h a n d c o n t a c t , w i t h s u b s e -  figures  accultura-  - 43 quent changes e i t h e r or both  i n the o r i g i n a l groups."  culture  of  ( R e d f i e l d , L i n t o n , H e r s k o v i t z 1936:149) In  order  Greenlanders  to  be  included  turned  their  i n t o impotent carved which was the  provided  Kaaladlit  spirits  in  (Kaalund,  and  of  bounded  forms and  produced to  aid  wide  accepted  images  potent  their  f i g u r e s became the  landers. carved  mic  a s s i s t a n c e and  ders. was  A had  figures called  Since  for  carvings  their  helping  general  well-being  once  traditional  images, became s e c u l a r "Tupilaq"  considered  being  under  by  "TUPILAQ."  r e s t r u c t u r e d category meaning  to  both  westerners Thus, c a r v -  and  Danes and  " T u p i l a q " , and  and  a  (spirit modified  East  Green-  purchase s p e c i of econo-  c u l t u r a l p r i d e became a v a i l a b l e to  Greenlan-  "Tupilaq both  that  figures"  cultures  could  be  to  a new  the  source  i t was  convenient  figure  or  Non-Greenlanders began to request  fic  of  a c c u l t u r a t e d r e n d i t i o n of TORNAT  TUPILAT. which  P r i o r to c o l o n i z a t i o n ,  figures,  "Eskimo a r t " , and  ed  evolved,  system  labelled  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s p i r i t  form  a classification  multi-level  categorically  East images  hunting  to  and  community spirit  carvings  Carved  ranging  western c o n s t r u c t of  beings)  European  s u p e r n a t u r a l l y powered  1979:19,110).  expressions  the  to them by the Danes.  had  order  in  that were requested,  attach  placed  in  this the  label  new  it  to a l l  category  -  "representational a r t " . Ivory carved  relief  i n Greenland  ornamentation from 500  A.D.  and  minature  to the  f i g u r e s have been  present  day  (Erngaard  -  1973:8; people  Kaaland,  1983:12).  According to Carpenter  ( e a r l y East Greenlanders) produced  animals  and  humans  (1973:126,129,149).  be n e a t l y c l a s s i f i e d  tiny  the  44  -  Dorset  c a r v i n g s of both  Figures that  could  not  as human or animal were a l s o produced,  and  have been c o n s i d e r e d i n many Danish enthnographies as s p i r i t r e presentations  or  transformational  beings  (Thalbitzer  1912:617-  618) .  In Gustav Holm's account of h i s f i r s t he mentions spirits" ture he  stay i n Angmagssalik,  s e v e r a l f i g u r e s as being " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of h e l p i n g  (Holm  [1887] 1912:120).  In the e a r l i e r  Danish  litera-  i s c r e d i t e d with asking f o r a carved " T u p i l a q " and  this  i s thought to be the beginning of the present day " T u p i l a q " p r o duction  throughout  1976:3). graphic  Greenland  Yet Holm makes no mention records.  Holm d i d document miniature  toys,  not  include  i n any of h i s ethno-  statement  specific  beings which  and  spirit as  ivory  ( F i g u r e 1) (Holm  "TUPILAQ".  relief  were  carved  as  ornamentation  on  [1887] 1912:120)  Carving has to  but  been a c u l t u r a l  cultural  images having both s e c u l a r and/or mythic natures.  or  Greenlanders  i s uncorroborated.  by  not  East  Department  utilized  It  the  of t h i s  Trade  Thus, the p r i o r  models,  v a r i o u s implements, did  (Royal Greenland  express  i s important to note that the l a b e l  and  "Tupilaq  these medium  communicate  Figure" i s  seen i n ethnographic records d e s c r i b i n g c a r v i n g , models, a r t ornamentation p r i o r  Both  Hans  Egede  to T h a l b i t z e r ' s w r i t t e n  (1721)  and  Henry  Rink  account  (1875)  have  i n 1912. recorded  stories their  o f TUPILAQ b e i n g s writings  TUPILAT do  (Rink  accounts  1875:  Holm  in  [1887] coast ssalik  his  of  angakkut  148,197,414,461).  they mention s p e c i f i c  Greenlanders.  i n West G r e e n l a n d  Verbal material  carved  accounts on  myths  1912:101,272,280,289). of Greenland, a r t and  ornamentation.  "As f o r m e r l y t h e y drawing, engraving tistic ideas are carving.  who  have  tried  o f TUPILAQ b e i n g s and  Angakkut his  a lengthy Of  this  1887  to  are  performances stay  on  writes:  a r e not a c q u a i n t e d with and p a i n t i n g , t h e i r a r always represented in  As examples of t h e s e c a r v i n g s may be named a human head on a drum h a n d l e ( f i g . 362), and a bear's head on a k n i f e ( f i g . 42) e x c e l l e n t l y carved i n i v o r y , f u r t h e r a soc a l l e d angakok-bear ( f i g . 45), r e c o g n i z a b l e by i t s t h i c k neck and thin body, and a block o f wood w i t h carved f a c e s on a l l s i d e s , the f a c e s b e i n g s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t INERSUAKS ( f i g . 4 5 ) . Both t h i s b l o c k of wood and the angakok-bear are carved as toys." (Holm [1887] 1912:115-116) of  their  c a r v i n g he  records by  recorded  T h e i r d o l l s and m o d e l s of a n i m a l s show a keen p e r c e p t i o n , p r o m i n e n c e b e i n g g i v e n t o essential characteristics.  And  discover  "Tupilaq"  description  a r t he  -  included in  Nowhere i n t h e i r  figures designated  After  Holm o f f e r s  and  45  writes:  " A n o t h e r f o r m w h i c h the a r t of t h i s p e o p l e assumes a r e t h e ornaments w h i c h a r e c a r v e d i n t h e shape o f low r e l i e f f i g u r e s of i v o r y and bone, and a r e f a s t e n e d by means of bone n a i l s on t o h u n t i n g i m p l e m e n t s (especially t h r o w i n g s t i c k s ) , e y e - s h a d e s , and cooper's work." (Holm [1887] 1912:118)  the  by  (Holm east  o f Angmag-  - 46 "Among r e l i e f ornaments there occur occas i o n a l l y e f f i g i e s of c e r t a i n m y t h i c a l f i g ures ( f i g s . 48 and 49). On the throwing s t i c k ( f i g . 48) s e v e r a l of these f i g u r e s are seen; these occur not merely i n the bottom row, but a l s o higher up i n the wood. The n a t i v e s t o l d us they were meant to represent TORNARSUKS (p. 83), and the low figures i n the bottom-most row but one r e p r e s e n t APERKETEKS, which, according to the d e s c r i p t i o n , are f u r n i s h e d with claws. These f i g u r e s are, however, c e r t a i n l y q u i t e conventional." (PLATE 3, page  47)  "As we might n a t u r a l l y suppose, the c r a f t s men execute with t h e i r own hand the ornaments on the o b j e c t s they have made; moreover - with the e x c e p t i o n of the convent i o n a l s e a l s and TORNARSUKS - they always produce something original, yet without departing to any great extent from the c u r r e n t type." (Holm  [1887] 1912:119-122)  Thus, the e a r l i e s t ethnographic do  not  records from East  i n c l u d e d e s c r i p t i o n s of c a r v i n g s designated  tations  of TUPILAQ beings.  carving  and  carved  Because of a c u l t u r a l  ornamentation  ethnographers  Greenland  as  represen-  tradition  after  of  Holm have  assumed that the s u b j e c t s d e p i c t e d i n the carvings are c a t e g o r i cally  the same s u b j e c t s that are mentioned  i n the myths.  Yet,  as has been s a i d , Holm never mentions a carved form of a TUPILAQ being. until record  From  the  time  Thalbitzer's v i s i t from  East  or  "TUPILAQ" or a carved first  of  figures  West  Holm's v i s i t in  1905,  Greenland  to Angmagssalik  there which  is  no  in  ethnographic  mentions  a  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a TUPILAQ being.  were carved  i n 1905  by  1884  carved "The  the shaman M i t s i v a r n i a n n g a  PLATE  3  Harpoon throwing board, wood and i v o r y , Greenland. C a r v e r unknown, d a t e unknown. Museum o f G r e e n l a n d , G o d t h a b - N u u k . )  from East (National  -  for  the Danish  portraits"  of  ethnologist William Thalbitzer, the  shaman  misfortune-beings" It carved  is  "Tupilaq of  his  who  Petersen  (1912:643-644)  beings.  It  family's  was  -  were  "tupilak  altogether  concrete  1983:68).  Thalbitzer  t h a t Johan  figures"  TUPILAQ  carved  (Kaalund,  William  figures  and  and  48  at  in  1912,  collected  and  first  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f TUPILAQ b e i n g s  some  i n Angmagssalik  identifies  Thalbitzer's  labels  them  request  were made.  as that  He  as  models these  writes:  "Fig. 365c a l s o shows a wooden model o f a t u p i l a k made by M i t s u a r n i a n g a , who himself was s u r e t h a t he had seen i t a l i v e . The r e a l t u p i l a k c o n s i s t e d o f the body o f a dog w i t h t h e l e g s o f a f o x and a human head. I t had o r i g i n a l l y been made by a man called P i k i n a k who had been dead f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s when M i t s u a r n i a g a and h i s companion P e r q i l aak suddenly one day c a u g h t s i g h t of the t u p i l a k w h i l e t h e y were r o w i n g along the f o o t o f t h e Angeen m o u n t a i n i n S e r m i l i k . The t u p i l a k was t h e n on t h e p o i n t of c r e e p i n g on s h o r e d r a g g i n g b e h i n d i t two i n f l a t ed s e a l i n g b l a d d e r s , w h i c h were made f a s t on i t s back by means of l o n g l i n e s , b e c a u s e it had once been harpooned, unknown by whom." ( T h a l b i t z e r 1912:644) (PLATE 4, Thalbitzer  page  49)  sees  as d i d Holm, w i t h  the  same  forms  and  the e x c e p t i o n of  the the  use  of  "Tupilaq  the  same mediums  figures."  "The t h r e e wood c a r v i n g s of r e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s seen i n f i g s . 354-355 ( J o h a n P e t e r s o n c o l l . ) have p r o b a b l y not been used as t r u e a m u l e t s ; l i k e t h e angakoq b e a r ( f i g . 355a) p r o b a b l y f o u n d i n a g r a v e , t h e y a r e o l d or modern imitations showing us the native  -  PLATE 4 T u p i l a q f i g u r e , wood, f o x f u r and s e a l s k i n ; made by M i t s i v a r n i a n n g a , Angmagssalik, East Greenland. The c a r v i n g r e p r e s e n t s a TUPILAQ once s e e n by t h e c a r v e r . (National Museum, Copenhagen, by J o h a n P e t e r s e n , 1911)  No.  L5359.  Collected  49 -  -  50  -  a r t i s t ' s conception of the a u x i l i a r y s p i r i t s of the angakut. The shape which he allows h i s phantasy to give these c a r v i n g s i s i n accordance with the Ammassaliker's c o n v e n t i o n a l conception of these. It i s p o s s i b l e that these d o l l s are o l d i d o l s , or that l i k e the wooden masks they are the l a s t v i s i b l e remnants of a r e l i g i o u s c u l t long f o r g o t t e n . F i g . 355A and b are wooden c a r v i n g s of two d i f f e r e n t f e a r - i n s p i r i n g s p i r i t s (gimarrat) i n the s e r v i c e of the angakok;" (PLATE 5, page Thus appearance  51)  the  first  of  carved  Both C h r i s t i a n i t y land  documentary  and  "Tupilaq" literacy  f o r 15 years p r i o r  l a q " models.  Although  statements  attesting  representations had  in  the 1912.  i n East  Green-  to T h a l b i t z e r ' s documentation of  "Tupi-  I question  Jorgen Meldgaard confirmed  been present  occur  to  h i s category  that when there was  being, there were no carved r e p l i c a s .  for "Tupilaks", extreme f e a r of a  He wrote:  "But i n the Angmassalik c u l t u r e the communi t y was so dominated by f e a r that even the o r d i n a r y hunter would have Helping S p i r i t s , known as t u p i l a k s . Except i n a few rare cases these c r e a t u r e s of i l l - o m e n do not appear i n the form of s c u l p t u r e u n t i l r e cent times." (1960:33) The  a c c u l t u r a t i o n process,  established  by  1912,  and  with i t s constant p r e s s u r e s , was East  Greenlanders  had  already  well begun  adaptive measures to ensure the maintenance of t h e i r ideas about spirit been  beings.  Spirit  acknowledged  powers r e f u t e d by  and  beings, whose v i s u a l accepted  the b e l i e f  in  a  carved  images had medium,  s t r u c t u r e of C h r i s t i a n i t y  always  had and  their thus  PLATE 5 Model land.  of s p i r i t helper, C a r v e r unknown.  wood; A n g m a g s s a l i k ,  ( N a t i o n a l Museum, Copenhagen, No. L5357. J o h a n P e t e r s e n , 1911; termed by c o l l e c t o r animal.")  East  Green-  C o l l e c t e d by "a r e l i g i o u s  -  52  -  became s e c u l a r and non-powerful.The p r i v a t e and sacred realm of the TUPILAQ being, never  having a v i s u a l  image i n a carved med-  ium,  was r e c o n s t r u c t e d through  sult  that the "TUPILAQ" became a s e c u l a r v i s u a l  image; a c a r v -  ing,  having  This  no c o n n o t a t i o n  the adaptive process with the r e -  of power or f e a r .  case, v e r b a l images of TUPILAT were transformed into  carved  through  representations.  form  took  precedence  minds of Greenlanders. the  g o r i e s of s p i r i t  the development  their  knowledge  of t h i s  relevance that they  t o everyday  carvings l a b e l l e d "Tupilaq."  new and l a b e l l e d  society,  form  subject  but the t r a d i t i o n a l  were man-made remained.  Therefore we must and by whom,  the development process of t h i s genre of c a r v i n g i n order to  begin t o i n t e r p r e t It given  i t s forms.  i s , however, i n t e r e s t i n g  to p a r t i c u l a r  which gained new  carved  images of i t s o r i g i n a l  look at where and what i n n o v a t i o n s were accepted, for  image c a t e -  being and TUPILAQ coalesced to become a s i n g l e  gained momentum, the t r a d i t i o n a l lost  images occured i n  the two once separate  category of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s p i r i t As  s u b j e c t s , and thus  over the image i n the myths and  A s y n t h e s i s of v i s u a l  transformation process:  and t r a n s f e r r e d  A c c u l t u r a t e d ideas were s t r e s s e d  t h i s newly accepted medium f o r mythic  the carved  being the  genre  spirit  precedence  of carved  'TUPILAQ' o r i g i n a l l y  over  beings,  As  that of a l l the l a b e l s  i t i s the term  the other  figures. belonged  to note  we  "Tupilaq"  terms to designate have  seen,  to man-made beings  the  this label  - so from the  man-made being  to the man-made a r t i f a c t ,  connection l e f t ,  C.  there i s one symbolic  the l a b e l .  Knowledge of a V i s i o n , Knowledge of a Form Western-oriented w r i t e r s have given v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  of  "Tupilaq  labels  Figures"  i n attempts  and have  to e x p l a i n  produced them.  many  definitions  One such  and  interpretation  states: "A Greenland t u p i l a k , as known to t o u r i s t s , i s a small grotesque f i g u r e carved i n s t e a t i t e or i n a sperm whale t o o t h . I t has a body, head and four limbs, but resembles some s o r t of composite animal. I t often possessed a d i s t o r t e d face and sometimes i s adorned with s k e l e t o n ornamentation." (PLATE 6, page 54) "Strictly speaking, experts do not c a l l these " t u p i l a k s " , but " t u p i l a k f i g u r e s " , as i n r e a l i t y they are d e p i c t i o n s of the genuine t u p i l a k , but without i t s magical properties . However, i t i s only i n recent years that the eyes of the o u t s i d e world have been opened t o the f a c t that these f i g u r e s cons t i t u t e a r t i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l a s s . " (Royal Greenland Such  interpretations  behind  fail  Department 1972:67)  t o i n c o r p o r a t e the indigenous  the s u b j e c t and forms  nent  i n f o r m a t i o n i s bypassed  tion  which  i s considered  Trade  of these  carved  figures.  ideas Perti-  i n favour of a c c u l t u r a t e d informa-  t o be more  p a l a t a b l e t o westerners.  Danes c a t e g o r i z e a c c u l t u r a t e d v i s i o n s of the TUPILAQ being or s p i r i t beings " i n a modern context and idiom as " a r t " , which  -  PLATE 6 F o u r " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " c a r v i n g s , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . C a r v e r s unknown, c a . 1955-1965, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n land. P h o t o g r a p h e d by W.J.G. G a r v i e . (Private figures,  c o l l e c t i o n , V a n c o u v e r , c o l l e c t e d as T u p i l a q c a . 1960's, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . )  54 -  - 55 suggests  a  states,  new  way  of  seeing  them"  (Duff  1975:12).  As  they seek "ways of seeing" as the i n t e r p r e t i v e  "ways of  knowing".  I contend  that  i t i s not  the  Duff  route  vision  alone  that e x p l a i n s the form  and  the i d e a , but a l s o the knowledge  hind  the  carved  the  vision.  As  r e n d i t i o n of K a l a a d l i t both  West Europe and  form  i s now  be-  the a c c u l t u r a t e d  imagery, i t c o n t a i n s the symbolic East Greenland.  to  Interpretation  mined by whichever c u l t u r a l knowledge base i s used  s e t s of  i s deter-  as the  refer-  rant system. Misunderstandings fusion stituted  of  images  of  Tupilaq figures  revitalized  through  i n a contemporary c o n t e x t .  arise  from  acculturation  For example:  1.  U n l i k e s p i r i t beings, whose l i v e s m i r r o r e d those of the East Greenlanders but on the s p i r i t plane, TUPILAT d i d not lead i d e n t i cal l i v e s to Greenlanders, nor d i d they come a l i v e i n the same manner; TUPILAT were of a different conceptual category than s p i r i t beings (Holm [1887] 1912:100).  2.  According to K a l a a d l i t knowledge, a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was e q u i v a l e n t to the l i v i n g a n i mal or s p i r i t , having a s o u l and possessing the same i n h e r e n t power or p o t e n t i a l danger (Thalbitzer 1912:630); TUPILAT formed a d i f f e r e n t s u b s t a n t i v e category from s p i r i t b e i n g s , and a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a TUPILAQ would not have been d e s i r e d by a nonmagical person, as i t would c o n t a i n the power to k i l l .  3.  U n l i k e TARTUT, s p i r i t beings who were capable of communicating with and being recognized by K a l a a d l i t , TUPILAT were avoided at all c o s t s , seldom mentioned and greatly f e a r e d . ( T h a l b i t z e r 1912:219)  the  and  conrecon-  - 56 Westerners their that and the  carved  images  westerners that  those  original  labels  request  "Tupilaq".  assign meanings  Kalaadlit  h i s carving  "Tupilaq figures",  their may  However  i t must  own meanings have  notion  "Tupilaq",  little  of  and so K a l a a d l i t  to these  "TUPILAQ".  then  as a mode  carved  as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a TUPILAQ  the  content  for cultural  f o r the c u l t u r a l  logic  the  with  carver  accustomed  understanding,  of the l a b e l .  forms  t o do  If  westerners,  i n mind  carved  or nothing  documentation figure  be k e p t  name  being,  to  accept the bypassing  -  III.  Creators  and  Creations:  A r t s of  57  -  Acculturation  Introduction Tupilaq sale  figures  that  are  produced  to non-Greenlandic consumers.  cribe  the  subjects  images which are  represented  stimulated  intended  for  In t h i s chapter I w i l l  des-  in  and  elicit  are  carvings,  indicate  those  by consumers, i n d i c a t e the marketing  procedure which governs the production carvings,  today  carvers'  output of  these  specific  views of what consumers want i n a  Tupilaq f i g u r e .  Also, tinuity To  I o f f e r an  of  the  understand  explanation  Greenlandic this  label  f o r the  artifact  we  must  maintenance  l a b e l l e d "Tupilaq  look  and  con-  figure".  at o u t - o f - c u l t u r e  inter-  p r e t a t i o n s of t h i s m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e because T u p i l a q f i g u r e s have become consumer a r t .  A.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n and During  mark,  I  carved  and  have  Confirmation  p r i o r to my observed  Greenlandic  that  figures  field  trips  although of  to Greenland  there  non-human  are  beings  a  and  Den-  variety  of  for  sale  in  they a l l  shops, they are a l l l a b e l l e d " T u p i l a q f i g u r e . "  Why  are  assigned  are  tangible  re-  premise i s that carvers  are  the  presentations not  only  same l a b e l ?  Perhaps few,  of mythic TUPILAT.  carving  representations  My of  i f any,  TUPILAT known from  tradi-  tional  s t o r i e s , but  of  many  the  spirit  Greenlandic  oral  criptive  of  the  carvings  today  old  label.  studies. tion  - the  whose  tradition.  seem  to  set  out  object  -  of  and  the  tion  the  verbal  to  specific  1.  Visual  label  a l l of  be  a to  explicate first  my  of  Ethnographic  are  this  of  by  analysis and  desThe  with  an  conducting  i s subject  corroborate  and  carvings. form  two  determina-  physical a  -  through  necessarily  c o r r e l a t i o n of  carvers  beings  known  culture  analysis  second  consensus  spirit  i s not  material  attributes  of  of  t h i s genre  new  names f o r s p e c i f i c  char-  named  is subject consumers  spirit recogni-  pertaining  carvings.  Study  Method I  took  (designated I saw  photographs as  such  my  search  s a m p l e , as  during  the  conjunction spirit  East which  by  of  the  either  first the  i n homes, s h o p s , b o o k s , and  during  of  The  ethnographic  object  and  visions  descriptions  of  my  physical  being,  a)  beings  v i s u a l and  acteristics  -  t h e i r own  content  I The  also  58  first  years  two  field  the  beings  Greenlandic illustrated  the  I  used  I studied  stories  TUPILAT.  myths  there  specific  figures"  label)  that  museums b o t h p r i o r t o these  p h o t o g r a p h s encompassed  mythic and  "Tupilaq  owner o r  trips.  1912-1982.  with  300  and In  were named  as  and  my  carvings  remade  these photographs ethnographic  several  spirit  accounts  publications  accompanying beings  in  of  drawings (Gitz-  -  Johansen, my  own  beings  I also  1949:10,14,18,30).  direct taken  recordings  from  of  present  1982,  Thorvald  Henrik  Singertat, 1 9 8 3 ) .  used  stories  1982,  concerning  Ebbe  (Egon  mythic Poulsen,  Josvassen,  1983,  I read the ethnographic d e s c r i p -  t i o n s r e p e a t e d l y i n order to d i s c e r n whether s p e c i f i c sical  characteristics  -  t r a n s l a t i o n s of  day Greenlanders  Mikkaelsen,  59  were a s s o c i a t e d with  phy-  s p e c i f i c named  beings, and then I looked f o r these same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the  photographs  listic to  b)  of the carved  and p h y s i c a l  figures.  similarities  I looked  for sty-  between c a r v i n g s i n order  a s c e r t a i n t h e i r designated s u b j e c t s .  Results  i)  In the t r a d i t i o n a l  label  given  physical  stories  to a l l beings  attributes.  there was no s i n g l e  identifiable  No  one  being  according to  name  could  be  matched to a l l of the c a r v i n g s i n my research sample.  ii)  Twenty-nine photographed  I) from my tics  sample corresponded  carvings i n carved  (see Appendix characteris-  with the p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of s p e c i f i c  beings  encountered  in  matched with a p a r t i c u l a r deceased  Angakkok  ethnographic  mythic  records.  s t o r y about the s p i r i t  (Appendix  V ) , and I have s i n c e  One of a seen  - 60 several  carvings  of  this  specific  spirit  figure.  (PLATES 7a and 7b, page 61).  iii)  The twenty-nine  ed mythic  photographed c a r v i n g s that match-  d e s c r i p t i o n s (as i n [ i i ] ) matched with e i g h t  named s p i r i t  beings:  TABLE I MYTHIC SPIRIT BEINGS AND MATCHING.CARVED REPRESENTATIONS* 1) P l a t e No. of Matching Carved R e p r e s e n t a t i o n 2) .  Name of S p i r i t Being  T o t a l No. of Carvings Matching .Mythic Being  AJUMAQ  PLATES 33 and 34 ...  2  AMOTORTOQ  PLATES 35 - 37  3  APERKETEQ/ANGUIT(3)  PLATES 38 - 42  5  ERKIGDLEK/ERQQILIK.  PLATES 43 - 47  5  INGNERSSUAK  PLATES - 48 and 49  2  TIMIRTSEQ  PLATES 50 - 54  5  TORNAT/TOORNAARSUK  PLATES 55 - 58 .  TUPILAQ  PLATES 59 - 61a, b and . c  (1) Matching beings.  .  4 3  by author of carved r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s with  (2) These photographs are found  mythic  i n Appendix I I , P l a t e s 2 - 5 .  (3) west G r e e n l a n d i c i s before East G r e e n l a n d i c , but i t i s the same being.  - 61 -  PLATES 7a and 7b F i g u r e c a r v i n g , i v o r y , wood, and s t r i n g . Carver known, c a . 1973-78, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as a laq figure", identified as "angakkok s p i r i t " s e n t a t i o n by J . F a b e r , 1983.) Note:  un-  "Tupirepre-  P l a t e 7b shows t h e l a c k o f s h o u l d e r b l a d e and l e g bone on skeleton. R e f e r t o A p p e n d i x 4, f o r s t o r i e s c o l l e c t e d by Holm and a u t h o r w h i c h d e s c r i b e a s p i r i t being of t h i s nature.  Ten  percent  of  my  photographic  matched  descriptions  of s p i r i t  matched  descriptions  o f TUPILAT.  iv)  Eighty-nine percent  match the  to descriptions  available  were  not s p e c i f i c  what my  v)  I t was  spirit  beings  physical  es  to  had no  beings  beings  physical  t o be f o u n d i n of s u b j e c t s  existing  to recognize  characteristics  mythic  presented  the t o t a l  obvious  teristics  of s p i r i t  or f a c i a l  8 and 9, pages fic to  physical  65  and  66).  transformed  of  being.  1983:68)  (Plates  of transforming Many into  of  that  and/or  (PLATES  10 and  or of  told  speci-  connect  beings  t h e myths  animals,  would  Many o f t h e f i g u r e s  multi-form  to  charac-  63 and 6 4 ) , b u t d i d n o t c o n t a i n  a named m y t h i c  process  match-  as p r o m i n e n t s k e l e t a l  (Kaalund,  characteristics  presentations the  striation  Very  in particular  S e v e r a l o f t h e c a r v i n g s had s y m b o l i c such  with  in carvings.  beings,  beings,  named  descriptions  sample were  described  specific  TUPILAT.  parts  within  know o f E a s t G r e e n l a n d i c m y t h o l o g y .  by c o r r e l a t i n g  specific  therefore,  and one p e r c e n t  The m a j o r i t y  spirit  difficult  few c a r v i n g s from  sample  of s p i r i t  named  informants  beings,  o f my  literature.  sample,  of  animals  them  were r e -  beings  in  11, pages people  that  who  trans-  PLATE 8 Spirit representation figure, ivory and C a r v e r unknown, c a . 1960's, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . (Private "Tupilaq  collection, Vancouver. f i g u r e " , 1980, V a n c o u v e r . )  plastic.  Collected  as  a  PLATE 9 S p i r i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f i g u r e , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carv e r unknown, c a . 1945-1957, A n g m a g s s a l i k , E a s t G r e e n land. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d from E l i s a b e t h Seward C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, San F r a n c i s c o . Collected as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " . )  -  PLATE  10  Transformation figure carving, ivory. Carver unknown, c a . 1970-78, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . P h o t o g r a p h e d by F. Cheng. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d i n 1978, i n Copenhagen. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , and t e r m e d by c o l l e c t o r , " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n f i g u r e " . )  65  -  -  PLATE  11  Transformation figure carving, ivory and plastic. C a r v e d by T o b i a s U t u a k , 1980, Kap Dan, East Greenland. (Private collection, Vancouver. Collected as a "Tupilaq figure", i n 1981, i n G o d t h a b - Nuuk, West Greenland. Termed by c o l l e c t o r , " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n f i g u r e o f man and s p i r i t being".)  66  -  -  formed it  i n t o other  being  my  name was  sample  several  had  beings  through  lund,  but o f t e n  69)  that  into  one  figures  a  are  -  another  capacity  inherent  by  logic  of  12  -  stor-  1938:82;  Kaa-  assumes  i n a l l beings  Kalaadlit  definition  in  images  (PLATES  Kalaadlit  [1887]1912: 2 5 7 - 6 4 ) , t h u s ,  tional  carvings  nature  (Thalbitzer,  Traditional as  of  -  spir-  - and were l i n k e d t o m y t h i c  imagery  1983:35).  no s p e c i f i c  The m a j o r i t y  transformational  flowing  transformation (Holm  given.  a  14, p a g e s 68 and ies  animals,  67  representa-  figures  capable  of  transformation.  C.  Conclusions "Tupilaq tures,  but  figure"  they  are  do  they  Tupilaq  figures  are  TUPILAT,  but a l s o  TUPILAQ,  tural  not  have  a l l of  often not  one  represent only  transformational single a  subject  specific  representations  representations  of  na-  a  TUPILAQ. of  the c a r v e r s '  mythic  own  cul-  images.  The my  nor  carvings  q u a l i t y and  photographic  expanded  by  do n o t t h i n k mythic  quantity  sample.  using that  a  o f my  Although  larger  sample  the percentage  descriptions  would  differ  data this  of  that  are f u n c t i o n s exercise  "Tupilaq would  be  figures", I  match  significantly  could  of  specific from  that  -  PLATE  12  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n c a r v i n g , C a r i b o u a n t l e r and p l a s t i c . C a r v e d by A s s e r S i n g e r t a t , 1982, A n g m a g s s a l i k , E a s t Greenland. (Private collection, Vancouver. Collected as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , i n 1983, i n A n g m a g s s a l i k . Termed by c a r v e r E . J o s s v a s s e n , " s p i r i t b e i n g s t o g e t h e r " . )  68 -  -  PLATE  13  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . U l r i k Keke, Kungmiut, E a s t G r e e n l a n d .  Carved  by  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , 1981, Godthab-Nuuk, West G r e e n l a n d .  PLATE T r a n s f o r m a t i o n c a r v i n g , bone. Amgmagssalik, East G r e e n l a n d .  14 Carver  unknown, 1970's,  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q s p i r i t " , 1980, S o n d r e S t r o m f j o r d , West G r e e n l a n d . )  69 -  - 70 which  I first  thesis  that  obtained.5 My f i n d i n g s s u b s t a n t i a t e my hypomost  of the c a r v i n g s  do not possess  carved  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are s p e c i f i c to e i t h e r the s p i r i t and name TUPILAQ or to other s p i r i t  beings w i t h i n the K a l a a d l i t  cultural  of the carved f i g u r e s  tradition.  What each  does  c o n t a i n i s imagery from t r a d i t i o n a l Greenland c u l t u r e w i t h i n a contemporary 2.  c u l t u r a l context and p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  form.  V e r b a l Study a)  Method I proposed to ask contemporary  sented  i n the photographs.  identify  specific  spirit  I f Greenland  carvers  could  beings by name or s p e c i f i c  TUPI-  LAT, by viewing these photographed borate the f i n d i n g s of my f i r s t in  the f i e l d ,  I chose  carvers what was r e p r e -  f i g u r e s , i t would  analysis.  a smaller  sample  For convenience consisting  photographs from each of the seven named s p i r i t two  from  thirteen of  of two  being s e t s ,  the TUPILAQ s e t , one of the Angakkok s p i r i t , and from the unmatched remaining 270.  30 photographs  quested  corro-  my  to Greenland  interpreters,  and V i k k t o r i a Sanimuinaq  Anna  I took a t o t a l  (See Appendix Kuitse  III).  Meyer, Anna  I re-  Kemper,  to arrange i n t e r v i e w s with o l d and  Since 1983 I compared another s e t of 200 photographs with the same corpus of mythic d e s c r i p t i o n s and found o n l y 11 of these to be c l o s e matches i n p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to s p e c i f i c described s p i r i t beings. Only one matched a mythic TUPILAQ description.  -  young  carvers  Angmagssalik proposed  to  represented b)  in  side  met  ask  of  Greenland  Danes  numbered  with  each  who  Kap  (See  had  Dan,  Kungmiut  Appendix  lived  V).  i n Greenland  and  I  also  what  was  photographs,  record include  kept  their  in  and  the  data  to  and  had  the  the  her  wife  asked tell  recorded obtained.  status)  and  him me the  i n an  of  and  unmarked  together.  and  date  asked  I also  information  or her  to look  anything  about  responses  right  a deceased  (place  responses.  name  upper  been mixed  information  marital  h i s or  on  them a l l t o g e t h e r  photographs  and  I then  I tape  photograph  carver  thesis. order  each  personal  occupation, tape  and  A l l the  exchanged  on  villages  East  i n the  corner  lope.  ed.  the  -  Procedure I  to  in  71  in  enveAs  I  carver,  I  of  birth,  permission  asked the  a t the the  back-  permission body  a  of  my  photographs  figure  to enable  to  present-  cross-check  - 72 c)  Results TABLE I I RECOGNITION OF.SPIRIT.BEING REPRESENTATIONS  NO.  INFORMANTS  SPIRIT REPRESENTED  1  AJUMAQ  2  INGNERSSUAK  3  NSN(2)  4  NSN  5  APERKETEQ/ANGUAK  6  NSN  7  AMOTORTOQ  8  NSN  9  TUPILAQ  10  NSN  11  TIMERTSEQ  12  NSN  13  AJUMAQ  14  TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK  15  NSN  16  INGNERSSUAK  u  E L I 0  M I K K A E L S E N  X  X  X  J 0 S V A S S E N  p 0  X  L S E N  N A K I N G E  A M A G T A N G N E Q X  s  I N G E R T A T  N G I I E L L B S E E R N G (1) (1)  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  .X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  - 73 -  TABLE II RECOGNITION NO.  SPIRIT  (continued)  OF SPIRIT BEING  REPRESENTATIONS INFORMANTS  REPRESENTED  17  NSN  18  NSN  19  ERKIGDLEK/ERQQILIK  20  NSN  21  TIMERTSEQ  22  ANGAKKOK SPIRIT  23  NSN  24  TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK  25  APERKETEQ/ANGUAK -  26  NSN  27  AMOTORTOQ  28  NSN  29  ERKIGDLEK/ERQQILIK  30  TUPILAQ  J 0 S V A S S E N  p 0  X  X  E L I 0  u  L S E N  N A K I N G E  A M A G T A N G N E Q  S I N G E R T A T  X  X  X  X  X.  X  X  N G I I E L L B S E E R N G (1) (1)  X  -  X  M I K K A E L S E N  X  • ••  X  X X  X  X X  X  X  X  1  Danish informants who agreed to allow t h e i r to be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study.  2  NSN - Not a s p e c i f i c named being characteristic.  X  information  according to p h y s i c a l  X  -  i)  A l l s i x c a r v e r s recognized  t a t i o n s , and  The  more than one  deceased  carver's  TUPILAT r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s sentation.  She  and  other  wife  -  represen-  the ANGAKKOK SPIRIT r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  c a r v e r s recognized  ii)  both TUPILAT  74  Five  representation.  recognized  the  two  the ANGAKKOK SPIRIT r e p r e -  a l s o recognized  one  of the AJUMAQ r e -  presentations .  iii)  The  describing  Greenlandic these  respondents  spirit  beings,  had  and  heard  others,  stories and  knew s p e c i f i c names f o r most of the represented that they  iv) LAQ  recognized  representations,  the  but  beings  sample.  Both Danes recognized  recognized  All  i n my  they  at l e a s t  no  other  one  of  the  TUPI-  representation  was  by name.  photographs of c a r v i n g s  that I had  matched  to  mythic being d e s c r i p t i o n s and  names other  than TUPILAQ were  verified  carvers  not  by  known mythic  east  TUPILAQ.  were commented referred  Greenland Many  upon by  the  of  the  form,  unmatched  informants,  to a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s ,  presentational  as  particularly  but  quality with  my  representing photographs  these of  comments  carving,  Danish  and  inform-  - 75 ants.  S e v e r a l c a r v e r s recognized the work  vers. of  d)  Two of the photographed  car-  f i g u r e s were executed by two  the c a r v e r s interviewed.6  Conclusions The  ity  of other  i n t e r v i e w e d c a r v e r s a l l concurred  that  the major-  of carved f i g u r e s were not r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a mythic  TUPILAQ. spirit  They i n d i c a t e d  beings  informants represent  that only a few of the many known  were d e p i c t e d as these carved f i g u r e s . A l l  insisted beings  that  that  the m a j o r i t y of T u p i l a q  took  shape  through  the thoughts and  imagination of the c a r v e r s who c r e a t e d them. maintained  that  unpleasant  or  b e t t e r to the non-Greenlandic  frightening  public  figures  Each  carver  figures  sold  than d i d n a t u r a l i s t i c  carvings. "Today i t i s hard to hunt s e a l and f i s h so that men have l i t t l e time to be o r i g i n a l i n what they c a r v e . They take a kind (form) they know and do i t over and over with l i t t l e changes. In other times men got ideas from t h e i r f a t h e r s l i k e I d i d , but today T u p i l a q f i g u r e s are of s p i r i t - m e n o r s p i r i t s from the o l d s t o r i e s or they come from the head of the c a r v e r . " (Egon Poulsen, 1982, Kap Dan) Carvers tourists  that  they  sold  their  Tupilaq  f i g u r e s to  on a one-to-one b a s i s , to a Royal Greenland  Department  6  said  representative,  or  directly  to  shop  Trade  keepers  Photograph No. 4 was carved by Thorvald Mikkaelsen, 1980; Kap Dan; photograph No. 24 was carved by Johan E l i o , 1978, Kap Dan  - 76 (this  latter  Greenlanders  opportunity  i s not o f t e n  had always requested  available).  Non-  " T u p i l a q f i g u r e s " by that  name, and whatever the c a r v e r c r e a t e d , i f i t was non-human, was accepted as such. "We s e l l T u p i l a t to t o u r i s t s and the Royal Greenland Trade Department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , for that i s what they ask us to carve. They do not ask f o r other s p i r i t s , they ask only f o r T u p i l a t . Whatever we make them, i f i t i s not l i k e a r e a l animal or man, they take as a T u p i l a q . (Johan E l i o , All  the  carvers  carvings  interviewed  (realistic  1980, Kap Dan)  avowed  and n a t u r a l i s t i c  that  natural  animals,  figure  birds,  and  humans) d i d not s e l l as w e l l as the ones c a l l e d " T u p i l a q " , which possessed Bodil  Kaalund  non-human or quasi-animal wrote  that,  " I t soon  b i z z a r e and alarming the f i g u r e ating it  call  on d i s p l a y  that  made, and that  they  Kalaadlit  were to be a g i f t  tions  Tupilaq  d i d not purchase  for a tourist  cultural  fascin-  (1983:n7).  Thus,  requested  and t o  Kalaadlit.  every  The c a r v e r s produced of t h e i r  the more  the more  homes, and they  of other sold  that  None of the c a r v e r s kept  in their  at the request  maintained  dent.  appeared,  to carve the type  them a l l " T u p i l a q " .  figures them  proved  i t was to the European purchasers"  was more p r o f i t a b l e  characteristics.  imagery  s e n t a t i o n s of a s p e c i f i c TUPILAQ.  d i d not carve  The c a r v e r s figure  that  all they  them unless they  or non-Greenlandic  these  these  figures  resi-  as r e p r e s e n t a -  not n e c e s s a r i l y  as r e p r e -  - 77 The my  data obtained  i n t h i s study are a d i r e c t  i n t e r v i e w s with a number of s p e c i f i c c a r v e r s and  ants. may  With  a different  have a l t e r e d  knowledge younger and  held  by  carvers  thus  they  day,  both  test  did may  not not  have  old,  powers a t t r i b u t e d  to  spirit  culture  in  ures.  order  to  figures,  Mikkaelsen, 81). their  B.  Their  work, as  Kap  Dan)  is  Image and  indigenous maintains  stories physical  carvers to-  transformational own  and  of t h e i r  logic  cultural  transformation  c a r v i n g s may  uniquely  not are  Greenlandic  (PLATES they  the  in their  non-human  that  of  15  are  not  i t c o n t a i n s Greenlandic  18,  own fig-  a l l be sold  as  (Thorvald  pages  78  -  misrepresenting  imagery, and  thus,  production.  Identity  figures  culture  stand  of  today  of Greenland.  the e t h n i c i t y  consumers  Yet  of  i s a p a r t of t h e i r m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e  Tupilaq  and  are  logic  Some  TUPILAT but, as they  they  1982,  aware  that these  cultural  specific  beings.  symbols  results  traditional  the  beings  carve  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of mythic Tupilaq  are  the  Carvers maintain  known  spirit  and  utilize  individuals.  of  inform-  c a r v e r s my  traditional  know c e r t a i n  of c e r t a i n  They  to the  different  young  context.  group of  s l i g h t l y due  characteristics  it  result  this  d e p i c t e d on a Greenland  as  of  the  I t i s mainly  of K a l a a d l i t cultural  one  symbols this  of  the  image which  to o u t - o f - c u l t u r e v i s i t o r s  a r t form.  postage stamp, on  A Tupilaq figure s w e a t s h i r t s , on  is  news-  - 78 -  PLATE 15 "Tupilaq by Josef  f i g u r e " c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carved Nakinge, 1979, Kap Dan, East Greenland.  (Private c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , 1981, i n Sondre Greenland.)  Collected as a Stromfiord, West  PLATE 16 "Tupilaq figure" carving, i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carved by J o h a n K i l i m e , 1980, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , 1981, Sondre S t r o m f i o r d , West G r e e n l a n d . )  - 80 -  PLATE 17 " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " c a r v i n g , Caribou a n t l e r and p l a s t i c . Carved by Otto K i l i m e , 1981, Godthab-Nuuk, West Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as a "Tupil a q f i g u r e " , but carver termed i t " s p i r i t h e l p e r s " . ) Note:  0. K i l i m e i s from Kap Dan, Godthab-Nuuk, 1980-1982.  but he was  residing in  - 81 -  PLATE 18 " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carved by T i t u s Nakinge, 1980, Kap Dan, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , but carver termed i t "a s p i r i t h e l p e r " . )  - 82 paper l o g o s , and on shopping bags from the Greenland chain  Bruggsen  ment).  (operated by  the  Royal  Greenland  Trade  These occurrences pose s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s :  images  say  Tupilaq  to  image  the  out-of-culture  ( i n a carved  a r t consumers?  form) one  which  following  sections  I offer  possible  Depart-  What do these Why  should  r e p r e s e n t G r e e n l a n d i c indigenous c u l t u r e , and who the  supermarket  i s the  symbolically  chose  it?  answers to these  In  prob-  lems .  1.  Promotion and Support of a " C u l t u r a l A r t R e v i v a l " In order to begin to answer the questions s t a t e d  above, I  went t o the o f f i c e s of the Royal Greenland Trade Department centred the  i n Copenhagen, Denmark. Danish  trade  government  between Greenland  ween Greenland t h e i r own  and  in  This department  order  to  control  and Denmark and  a l l other c o u n t r i e s .  was  established  both  the  trade bet-  I quote  one  from  publications:  From t h i s Greenland there comes a stream of highly processed consumer goods to the world market.... The Royal Greenland Trade Department i s now, as b e f o r e , the n a t u r a l l i n k between the world market and the Greenland f i s h e r men, hunters and farmers...." (Welcome to Greenland, 1972:14) issue  stated:  internal  the e x t e r n a l  "Since 1774 the Danish State has, through t h i s o f f i c i a l body, taken care of m a n i f o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards the p o p u l a t i o n of A r c t i c Greenland....  Another  by  of  - 83 "The Danish P a r l i a m e n t , by decree i n 1952, set out the tasks of the Royal Greenland Trade Department. We were charged to buy a l l produce from Greenland's own fishermen, farmers, and hunters. We a l s o had to find outlets for market - however (Welcome to Thus  i t became the  marketable  innovate, manufacture and new products on the world remote from Greenland." Greenland, 1973:10)  responsibility  of the R.G.T.D.7 to look f o r  products that were made i n Greenland  from  indigenous  m a t e r i a l s and by the indigenous p o p u l a t i o n . It was  during World  War  II that  Denmark became aware  East Greenlanders were producing s p i r i t and  selling  them to American,  nel  stationed  f i g u r e s from whale tooth  Danish, and  i n the Angmagssalik-Kulussuk  20, pages 84 and 85).  that  Canadian area  army person-  (PLATES 19  and  As some c a r v e r s s t a t e d :  " I t was T u p i l a q f i g u r e s that the s o l d i e r s wanted and that i s what the c a r v e r s made. The c a r v e r s carved beings which they knew from our o l d s t o r i e s , but s o l d them as "TUPILAQ". "During the b i g war the hunters had more time to carve f o r t h e i r hunting was r e s t r i c t e d by the s o l d i e r s . A l s o the white men wanted to buy e v e r y t h i n g we carved." (Ebbe Josvassen, 1983, An American suk  7  and J o i n t - F o r c e s s e r v i c e base was  I s l a n d , East Greenland  tion  with  Angmagssalik)  readily  thus s u p p l y i n g the indigenous popula-  available  The a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r used by the Danish language.  s i t u a t e d on Kulus-  consumers  of  their  carvings.  As  the Royal Greenland Trade Department government when using the English  PLATE 19 Figure c a r v i n g , East Greenland.  ivory.  Carver unknown,  Angmagssalik  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d from E l i s a beth Seward C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, i n San F r a n c i s c o . Col l e c t e d as as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " . )  - 85 -  PLATE 20 F i g u r e c a r v i n g , 1930-45, i v o r y and wood. C a r v e r unknown, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . P h o t o g r a p h e d by F. Cheng. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d from E l i s a b e t h Seward C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, i n San F r a n c i s c o . Coll e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " . )  - 86 more c a r v i n g s were requested, more hunters turned to c a r v i n g and found  that  they  encouraged  had an a p t i t u d e  a large scale  for i t .  Thus  r e v i v a l of c a r v i n g  the R.G.T.D.  i n the e a r l y  1960's  i n order to e s t a b l i s h a market p r o d u c t i o n which would u t i l i z e an a l r e a d y v i a b l e product n a t i v e to Greenland. In the 1960's a separate d i v i s i o n tablished  as an autonomous  umbrella  promote, market and d i s t r i b u t e the K a l a a d l i t  (Bodil  of the R.G.T.D. was e s organization  the c r a f t s ,  Seieroe-Andersen,  sparked a resurgence of f i g u r e  to support,  c a r v i n g s and a r t of  1982, Copenhagen).  carving  This  the success of which was  a t t e s t e d to by a l l of my informants.  2.  Acculturated Art: Nelson  Graburn  Promotion  of the T u p i l a q Label and Form  d e f i n e d the a r t s  of a c c u l t u r a t i o n  p r o d u c t i o n , which d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y sions  i n form,  differs  from  ever-growing ity  content,  Greenland label.  from t r a d i t i o n a l  and medium,  civilization"  and a r t c o l l e c t o r s ,  Greenlandic  medium  (1969a:457).  because  expres-  and which  (whale  The combinations  cultural tooth)  As a marketable Tupilaq  elements  also  as w e l l  of these  carvings  were  aesthetically  they maintained  commod-  figures  carved  offered  i n an  as a c u l t u r e  Arctic  specific  three phenomena were a c c e p t -  able to both G r e e n l a n d i c and western-European These  "art  the v a r i o u s forms of a r t p r o d u c t i o n indigenous to  for tourists  traditional  function,  as  aesthetic  acceptable  to  systems.  Greenlanders  a t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l form of c u l t u r a l  - 87 expression  while  Greenlanders presented ture.  they  because  were  they  aesthetically  reflected  i n a t r a d i t i o n a l western  Kaalund  recently  acceptable  to non-  an " o t h e r - c u l t u r e "  quality  form of a r t - that of s c u l p -  wrote:  "Apart from the f a c t that the o l d concepts are s t i l l remembered i n East Greenland, exc e p t i o n a l l y many and t a l e n t e d a r t i s t s are found t h e r e . T h i s i s probably the reason why so many people a u t o m a t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e Greenlandic sculpture with tupilak figures" . (1983:67) My study Greenland  showed  that  s c u l p t u r e with T u p i l a q  licity  campaign  tained  by the Royal  played  a most d e c i s i v e  and promotional  non-Greenlander's and  inspiring  genre  titled  Greenland  associated  f i g u r e s due to the strong pubprogrammes developed  Trade  Department.  and i n f l u e n t i a l  aesthetic  public  attitude  and main-  The R.G.T.D.  role  i n f o r m u l a t i n g the  to t h i s  carving production  the c r e a t i o n of new s u b j e c t s to be s o l d w i t h i n the  of " T u p i l a q  carvings.  the o u t - o f - c u l t u r e  figures",  An excerpt from  under  the umbrella  label  "Tupilaq"  a R.G.T.D. promotional pamphlet en-  "Greenland T u p i l a k s " s t a t e s : "The t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo a r t i s represented i n d i f f e r e n t types of T u p i l a k f i g u r e s , such as: 1) 2)  the "magic" s t y l i z e d a r t i n the grotesque animal and human f i g u r e s the spontaneous, often naturalistic productions" (R.G.T.D., 1978:2)  Carvers' ground  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of t r a d i t i o n a l  rules  beings  s e t out by the R.G.T.D., which  were  guided  by  d e f i n e d what was  - 88 acceptable the  to the  western  must be stand  consumer market and  category  of  art.  concept  Contemporary auspices  of the  presentatives  and  Tupilaq  Artists'  coast  carvers  centres,  such as Godthab-Nuuk, so  of  carved  sent  to  form and  subjects  Mikkaelsen,  the  prolific  ations  were  of  along  the  R.G.T.D. r e -  s i z e and  coast  seminars  that  1982,  i n Danish,  east  attend  with  under  c a r v e r s on what consumers  KUNSTFORINEGEN  i n the major v i l l a g e s  art  to under-  occurred  Royal Greenland Trade Department.  guilds, called  standardized  acculturated  i n order  figure production  l e c t u r e d east  included in  context.  of T u p i l a q f i g u r e s (Thorvald  lished  of  a p p l i e d to T u p i l a q f i g u r e p r o d u c t i o n  i t s c u l t u r a l content  pected  The  what could be  they  Kap  were  area. held  might  on  Tupilaq  the  westcoast  f i g u r e s carved  lage a r t i s t s ' g u i l d  and  estab-  The at  more  various  l e a r n a more  they might d i s c u s s combin-  their  own  southcoast  i n the  work.  By  the  of  late  and  well  women who  known  carvers.  R.G.T.D. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s popular such Vol.5  as  with whale  the  to become c a r v e r s  It  was that  consumer  teeth  No.2:125), narwal  through some  public  from tusk  Some  1970's were a t t r i b u t e d to a  r a t h e r than an a r t i s t .  wished  vil-  Greenland.  Japan and  or who  the  carvers' than  vil-  (PLATE 21, page  R.G.T.D. v i l l a g e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s gave t h e i r support men  ex-  Dan).  1960's there were a r t i s t s ' g u i l d s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d i n major lages  -  works  others.  to both  were  influence  89).  already  of  these  became  Raw  materials  (Etudes/Inuit/Studies, goat horn  (PLATE 22,  more  page  1981, 90)  - 89 -  PLATE 21 KUNSTFORENINGEN f i g u r e , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Attributed to the a r t i s t s ' g u i l d , 1979, Kap Dan, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d i n 1981, i n Sondre S t r o m f i o r d , West Greenland. C o l l e c t e d as a "Tupilaq figure".)  PLATE 22 Goat horn T u p i l a q f i g u r e , i v o r y and goat horn. Carved by Kora Tukula, 1972, Angmagssalik, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected Copenhagen as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " . )  i n 1978, i n  - 91 were  d i s t r i b u t e d by the R.G.T.D. through  (Bodil own  Seieroe-  hunting  carving  1983, Copenhagen),  had not procured  of T u p i l a q  personal  enough  figures.  Most  representatives  to c a r v e r s  quality material  output v i l l a g e s and sent  centre  monthly  i n Copenhagen.  with  i n the pro-  to the warehouse and d i s t r i b u -  By 1981 the R.G.T.D. i n s t i t u t e d a representative  could buy ( S e i e r o e - Andersen, 1982, Copenhagen).  T h i s warehouse  connecting  f o r how many  the  a village  and  quota  whose  for  f i g u r e s were purchased  d i s c r e t i o n by the R.G.T.D. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  duction tion  Andersen,  their  offices  centre  f o r Tupilaq  amount  f o r a carving  carving,  then  sent  carvings  became  carvings.  the o f f i c i a l Carvers  by the R.G.T.D.  were  ings  to the d i s t r i b u t i o n  centre  price  (Ruth N i e l s e n ,  marketing a certain  would  and that have i t s  Shopkeepers who pur-  at the R.G.T.D. warehouse would then s e l l  i n t h e i r own shops with  chase  given  representative  p r i c e r a i s e d by approximately ten percent. chased stock  R.G.T.D.  the c a r v -  t h e i r own markup added to the pur1983, Angmagssalik).  A carver  from  East Greenland who was paid 150 Kroner f o r h i s carving might see it  o f f e r e d f o r s a l e at 350 Kroner i n Denmark or West Greenland.  Often the  i f the R.G.T.D. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d i d not purchase a c a r v i n g ,  carver  "ready  would  cash".  sell  i t to a t o u r i s t  Consumers  of T u p i l a q  or a r e s i d e n t  f i g u r e s were  Dane f o r  not hard to  f i n d , as Kaalund s t a t e d : " I f , f o r some reason, you don't have any other work, you can make a l i t t l e money selling figures to t o u r i s t s , resident Danes, the l o c a l f u r n i t u r e s t o r e , or the  - 92 Royal crafts  Greenland Trading department."  Company's  home  (1983:42) Thus Denmark played ing,  a significant  and m a i n t a i n i n g  culture. consumed  this revitalized  One c u l t u r e produced by  the other,  y e t both  The Consumer Market: It  which  was  these l a b e l - s p e c i f i c  form of Greenland m a t e r i a l that was marketed and  cultures  of l a b e l e d  contributed  ( i n a carved  represent  division,  and determined Greenland  centred  western  carvings.  i n Copenhagen,  attitudes  society.  This  combination,  label-specific occured  carvings  aesthetically  of Greenlandic  culture-specific  these  acculturated  could  not have  Yet, according figures  own o u t - o f - c u l t u r e  because of the carved  to  remained concep-  form and the  label.  These f i g u r e s are presented ers  symbolically  western-oriented  Figures,  years.  for their  context  to  the T u p i l a q  form of TUPILAQ or r a t h e r  Tupilaq  contact  society,  appropriate  culture  a carved  called  i n pre-European  western-European  tion  Greenland  towards  The R.G.T.D., through  form) as an image which would  traditional  to the  "Tupilaq".  promotional campaigns and p u b l i c a t i o n s , e s t a b l i s h e d image  formulat-  Promotion of an Image  the government  s e t the p o l i c y  i n encouraging,  the o b j e c t  a c c u l t u r a t e d c a r v i n g production 3.  role  of Greenlandic  traditional  to the p u b l i c as being c u l t u r e and t h e i r  contain-  production i s  - 93 supported  by a western-oriented  t r a d i t i o n a l Greenlandic "There i s Greenland, an a r t i s t b u i l d s on fathers . "  p u b l i c as a v e h i c l e to maintain  knowledge.  Kaalund wrote:  t r u l y a broad t r a d i t i o n i n East and a l s o the r e a l i z a t i o n that as one has roots i n the past and the experience of one's f o r e (1979, p.86)  Promoted through R.G.T.D. p u b l i c a t i o n s , o u t - o f - c u l t u r e consumers of t h i s a r t form are t o l d , " i t i s only i n recent years that the eyes of the o u t s i d e world have been opened t o the f a c t that these f i g u r e s c o n s t i t u t e a r t i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l a s s . I t has a l s o been r e a l i z e d that t h i s o l d c u l t u r e w i l l die out unless something e f f e c t i v e i s done to preserve i t . " ("Welcome t o Greenland", 1972:67) The  consumer  market  has deemed  Tupilaq  figures  collectible.  They are now c l a s s e d as " a r t " and are marketed as such: "The Danish N a t i o n a l Museum i n Copenhagen has sumptuous c o l l e c t i o n s from the "undisturbed" e r a i n the a r t of East Greenland, i n which the grotesque masks and m y t h i c a l e f f i g i e s - the s o - c a l l e d t u p i l a k s - are especially intriguing. O l a f Olsen, State Antiquary and D i r e c t o r of the N a t i o n a l Museum Copenhagen, Denmark. (Kaalund, 1983:overleaf) By signed  the 1970's an " o f f i c i a l " and designated  landic"  - made  R.G.T.D. i d e n t i t y  tag was de-  f o r a l l carvings authenticated  i n Greenland  by a  native  Greenlander.  T u p i l a q f i g u r e s r e q u i r e d t h i s tag i n order to be s o l d t e r n a t i o n a l marketplace, the  date  and a f t e r  as "GreenAll  i n the i n -  1975 the name of the c a r v e r ,  and place of the c a r v i n g were i n c l u d e d on the back of  - 94 the card  (Seieroe-Andersen,  pages 95 and 96).  1982, Copenhagen) (PLATES 23 and 24,  Those c a r v i n g s that were not marketed  the proper R.G.T.D. channels ers could not request The  through  d i d not r e c e i v e t h i s tag, and c a r v -  a similar price  f o r a non-tagged c a r v i n g .  R.G.T.D. promoted the growth of t h i s now economically  product  f o r o u t - o f - c u l t u r e markets  publications.  T h e i r brochures  should expect  i n the d i f f e r e n t  most f a r reaching  promotional  with  pictures  "types" of T u p i l a q f i g u r e s . mechanism f o r t h i s s p e c i f i c i n 1976, of a Greenland  the image of a whale tooth T u p i l a q f i g u r e  purple background  (PLATE 25, page 97).  sumer p u b l i c was guided  by v i s u a l  The carvstamp on a  From 1976-1980 the con-  i n f o r m a t i o n which gave  that a u t h e n t i c a t e d " a r t " T u p i l a q f i g u r e s were carved tooth  in their  e x p l a i n e d j u s t what the consumer  ing p r o d u c t i o n was the issuance, imprinted  through  viable  proof  from whale  (PLATE 26, page 97). T h i s , too, was devised and executed  under the auspices of the R.G.T.D.: "In 1953, when Greenland changed s t a t u s from a colony t o a p r o v i n c e on equal f o o t ing with the r e s t of the Danish kingdom, the Greenland P o s t - O f f i c e remained an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y recognized p o s t a l o r g a n i z a tion under the Royal Greenland Trade Department (R.G.T.D.)." ("Welcome t o Greenland", 1972:71) According  to R.G.T.D. p u b l i c a t i o n s , Greenland  traditional landic  Greenlandic  content  stamps  and were expressions  context: "Greenland stamps are g r e a t l y esteemed and sought a f t e r amongst p h i l a t e l i s t s . This i s probably due t o the choice of themes and m o t i f s and not l e a s t because the Greenland-  contained of Green-  PLATE 23 I d e n t i t y tag f o r a u t h e n t i c Greenland a r t . Artist's name - Johan K i l i m e , place and date of c a r v i n g - Kap Dan, August, 1980, and east or west Greenland - East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Carving on l e f t side was c o l l e c t e d i n Copenhagen i n 1978, and c a r v i n g on r i g h t side was c o l l e c t e d i n Sondre S t r o m f i o r d i n 1981. Both c a r v i n g s were c o l l e c t e d as " T u p i l a q f i g u r e s " . )  - 96 -  PLATE 24 I d e n t i t y tag f o r a u t h e n t i c Greenland a r t . Front of card has the R.G.T.D. c r e s t . Figure carved by Ole Poulsen, 1976-78, Kap Dan, East Greenland. Ivory and plastic. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d i n 1978 i n Copenhagen. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " . )  PLATE T u p i l a q f i g u r e stamp. land Post O f f i c e .  25  Issued  PLATE  i n 1976 by t h e G r e e n -  26  Stamp " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , made i n image o f t u p i l a q stamp, i v o r y and p l a s t i c . C a r v e d by Duge U t u a k , 1976-78, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . (Private collection, Vancouver. 1978, i n Copenhagen, as an a u t h e n t i c ing. )  Collected in Tupilaq carv-  - 98 born d e s i g n e r , Jens Rosing, who does the m a j o r i t y of such work f o r the Greenland P o s t - O f f i c e , knows j u s t how to g i v e the stamps t h e i r genuine Greenland c h a r a c t e r . " ("Welcome to Greenland", 1972:79) While  the R.G.T.D. continues to present the t u p i l a q  important  symbol of t r a d i t i o n a l  Greenland  culture,  image as  an  the a r t mar-  ket and the consumer p u b l i c continue to accept i t as such.  4.  Consumer A r t : The  tupilaq  P r e s e r v a t i o n of an Image  image was  not chosen  by K a l a a d l i t  as the image  which s y m b o l i c a l l y represented t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l or culture.  First  c a r v e r s and  then  t i o n , came to accept the l a b e l imply  after  the g e n e r a l Greenland  and v a r i o u s images that  years of continued p u b l i c i t y  c u l t u r e consumers and  contemporary  maintained  the a r t marketplace.  by  populai t might out-of-  As c a r v e r s consented  to a m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e commodity p r o d u c t i o n i n the form of these specifically  labelled  not only images and but  also  f i g u r e s , T u p i l a q c a r v i n g s were imbued with  ideas from the c a r v e r s ' t r a d i t i o n a l  contemporary  carvers.  images and  ideas held  by  the  R e f e r r i n g to T u p i l a q f i g u r e s , B o d i l Kaalund  culture,  individual wrote:  " I t would appear that the Greenlandic a r t i s t gets a g r e a t d e a l of r e l e a s e f o r h i s i m a g i n a t i o n and sense of the s u r r e a l i n making these d r e a d - i n s p i r i n g f i g u r e s . " (1983:24) Through t h e i r ity  within  carving  an accepted  style  c a r v e r s expressed t h e i r  acculturated  artifact  31, pages 99 - 103), and one's trademark  form  individual(PLATES 27  became one's s t y l e ,  -  - 99  PLATE  27  Figure carving by A r o n Kleist, ivory and plastic. C a r v e d i n J u l i a n e h a b - Q a k o r t o q , 1973. P h o t o g r a p h e d by L. B a l s h i n e . ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. and termed by c o l l e c t o r , "a s p i r i t  Collected i n 1973, representation".)  -  - 100 -  PLATE 28 Figure Carved 1972.  c a r v i n g s by Aron K l e i s t , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . I n Julianehab-Qakortoq, Southwest Greenland,  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d i n 1973 i n Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as " s p i r i t f i g u r e s " . )  -  PLATE  29  F i g u r e c a r v i n g s by O l e Kreutzmann, i v o r y . K a n g a a m i u t , West G r e e n l a n d , c a . 1930-1950.  Carved i n  (Private c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected i n 1978 from t h e E l i s a b e t h Sewart C o l l e c t i o n , San F r a n c i s c o . No s u b j e c t a t t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e s e t h r e e c a r v i n g s . )  101  -  -  PLATE 30 Figure Carved  carvings by Duge Utuak, i v o r y and plastic. i n Kap D a n E a s t G r e e n l a n d , 1976-1978. f  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. i n Kap Dan. C o l l e c t e d as T u p i l a q  Collected figures.)  i n 1978,  102 -  - 103 -  PLATE 31 Figure c a r v i n g s by Johan E l i o , Kap Dan, East Greenland, 1972.  soapstone.  Carved i n  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d i n 1978, i n Copenhagen. C o l l e c t e d as " r e a l TUPILAQ r e p r e s e n tations" . )  - 104 "Some s t i l l c a r r y on the o l d t r a d i t i o n , others blend something of the t u p i l a k s t y l e i n t o o r d i n a r y f i g u r e s , but each f o l l o w s h i s own bent and i n v e n t s h i s i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e . " ( B o d i l Kaalund, Through  the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n  image was transformed  into  1983:77)  their  the consumer's  traditional Tupilaq  image.  Greenlanders' ideas of T u p i l a t c o a l e s c e d under a s i n g l e image with a s i n g l e serving ers,  because  ently  image  Angmagssalik).  and  marketplace.  was i n t r i g u i n g l y  and f o r Greenlanders,  Greenlandic  The  cultural  l a b e l which they deemed worth pre-  of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  the a r t i s t i c  covetable,  cultural  TUPILAQ  thus  non-western  the a r t i s t i c  desirable  For westernand thus  image was  inher-  Nielsen,  1983,  (Ruth  Greenlanders, then, had an a r t i f a c t ,  c l a s s e d by  westerners as a r t i s t i c , which was d e s i r e d as a symbol and appreciated  by consumers f o r i t s " o t h e r - c u l t u r e n e s s " .  Those  images  which were represented i n f i g u r e c a r v i n g s became a c u l t u r a l product requested and preserved by the consumer market: "The t o u r i s t s ask f o r T u p i l a q f i g u r e s and t e l l me that they think they are t r u l y Greenlandic. I think i t i s because other Eskimo people don't make these types of figures." (Ruth N i e l s e n , 1983, Angmagssalik) The  contemporary  western  marketplace  expects  traditional  themes and s u b j e c t s i n the a r t of an indigenous people, f o r example  - a hunter  harpooning  a TUPILAQ  T u p i l a q c a r v i n g s are c o n s i d e r e d e t h n i c art  marketplace  and as such  (PLATE  32, page 105).  a r t by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  they o f f e r Greenlanders  which to present and to preserve t h e i r  cultural  a place i n  identity.  But  - 105 -  PLATE 32 Multi-figure carvings, ivory, plastic and Carver unknown, ca. 1970's, East Greenland.  string.  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d i n 1979 i n Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as a "hunter who has harpooned a r e a l TUPILAQ".)  - 106 cultural  images are  a linear fashion. ges  not  of  Tupilaq  - a vital I t i s an  of-culture  market,  production  Kalaadlit  objects  and Yet,  but  not  perceived  multi-vocal  multi-dimensional label  and  their  they stand  as an  i n the  c o n t r o l l e d and  purchased  in  ima-  thought  pro-  imagery  link  a r t of  accul-  process  of  develop-  influenced  by  the  out-of-  through i t s development process,  Tupilaq  the  through  nurtured  presentation  its culturally  h i s or  labeled material culture production  of  symbolic  preservation  her  by  out-  the  ensures  and  consumer ensures the  images"  are  f i g u r e s are  art s t i l l  images because of  out-of-culture culture's  ethnic  the Their  past,  artifact  c u l t u r e consumer. figure  from  Kalaadlit.  f i g u r e s to the  turation ment.  the  and  Today's T u p i l a q  which have emerged  cesses  static  -  continued  of  traditional label. "that  support  - as " e t h n i c a r t " .  of  The other this  - 107 IV.  Conclusions  Through  this  demonstrated tion  that  study  of Greenland  that m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e  Tupilaq  embodies a c c e s s i b l e  can i n c r e a s e our understanding  which  i t i s created.  these  carvings  Earlier,  i s thought  figures,  I have  to p o r t r a y  I have informa-  of the c u l t u r e  shown  that  from  the s u b j e c t  i s not the sole  subject  d e p i c t e d but, r a t h e r , i t i s the s u b j e c t whose name i s adopted as the  label  that  for this  the c u l t u r a l  becomes  genre  of c a r v i n g s .  My research has shown  i n f o r m a t i o n expressed  accessible  through  to o u t - o f - c u l t u r e observers  a c c u l t u r a t e d context as w e l l as the mythic laq  figure  through  i s studied simultaneously.  this  study,  the content  these only  when the  content of each T u p i -  As I have  of these  figures  demonstrated  figures  i s not what  t h e i r name i m p l i e s . My comprehension  of c e r t a i n  e x p r e s s i o n s of K a l a a d l i t  cul-  ture was made p o s s i b l e through a study of two aspects of T u p i l a q carvings.  The f i r s t ,  statements  about  TUPILAQ beings. ings,  and t h e i r  content  spirit Something  and  beings,  form,  transformational  of the nature  relationship  communicate  of each  to the K a l a a d l i t ,  aspect,  symbolic  examine TUPILAT as they e x i s t e d t i o n with the ' T u p i l a t ' that  and  i s transmitted  the c a r v e r s ' use of form, medium, and s t y l e . i s l e s s obvious.  beings  of these be-  through  imagery,  visible  The second  I t was necessary to  i n p r e - c o n t a c t times i n conjunc-  arose out of the process of a c c u l -  - 108 turation, the  once e s t a b l i s h i n g  label.  label.  'Man'  produces  Statements  interpersonal spirit  and  After  about  came to  humankind  and  being,  artifact,  and  man's  relations  adaptations  to  a  the  man's  with  the  colonizing  a c c e l e r a t e d i n the  became a province of Denmark), these c a r -  represent at  connection to be  these c a r v i n g s about  , about  society's  the  the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n  1950's (when Greenland vings  the  are made through  relationships  world  society.  the major symbolic  -  the  images which  same  time  resided  in  the  content  and  i n the  realm  of  contemporary  logic  of  Greenlanders. Once both r e v e a l e d and in  the  issues: through  cultural  c o n s i d e r e d through  phenomenon  interpretation To  the  the knowledge that  these  carvings,  a  are  i s expressed  more  adequate  is possible.  conclude one  of  context of T u p i l a t  this  i s the  study,  visual  material culture;  I  would  like  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  the other  to  consider  cultural  two  knowledge  is out-of-culture interpre-  t a t i o n of c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c carved o b j e c t s .  A.  V i s u a l P r e s e n t a t i o n of C u l t u r a l Knowledge The  c o n t r a s t between s p i r i t  beings and TUPILAT i s e x p l i c i t  i n K a l a a d l i t myth and t h i s o p p o s i t i o n i s v e r i f i e d  i n the  a l context w i t h i n which both beings have t h e i r p l a c e . graphic  accounts  there  was  never  any  stated  cultur-  In ethno-  contrast  between  TUPILAT r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , the p r o d u c t i o n of which began i n  1905,  - 109 and  other  ing  sets  leave  spirit  of mythic  unchallenged  designated one  different combined  images  are f a m i l i a r to Greenlanders,  the o u t - o f - c u l t u r e  multi-subject  spirit,  Although the c o n t r a s t -  TUPILAQ.  definitions  carvings I suggest  c e r t a i n mythic  that  there  present  many  cultures involved. in this  have of  evolved  a  new c u l t u r a l  knowledge  elements of t r a d i t i o n a l  knowledge  c r e a t i o n of a new m a t e r i a l  dimensions  of the d i a l e c t i c  accul-  between the  In t h i s case, the v i s u a l images  new a r t form are i n f l u e n c e d  cul-  consumer.  images which are produced by a c u l t u r e undergoing  turation  they  as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  category which was imbued with with  that  form shaped by the demands of the o u t - o f - c u l t u r e  Mythic  ed  representations.  which, i n t u r n , f a c i l i t a t e d  ture  two  these  single  and  being  simultaneously  presentby know-  ledge from both c u l t u r e s . I assume that carved  figures  the c a r v e r s .  the e n t i r e context  reflects  the thoughts  Images i n the c a r v i n g s  t e r s that both express and challenge today's  native  Greenlanders.  from t h e i r a c c u l t u r a t e d  of these v i s u a l images as and day-to-day present  r e a l i t y of  multi-vocal  charac-  a c c u l t u r a t i o n as i t a f f e c t s  Carvers present  images that  come  knowledge as does the use of the c l a s s i -  f i c a t o r y l a b e l ; they are now i n c r e a s i n g the r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t y of images that are not s t a t i c . ethnic  Images presented i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  a r t form come from an a c c u l t u r a t e d  images are v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s what t r a d i t i o n a l  that stand  reality.  These newer  as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  knowledge was capable of and what  acculturated  -  knowledge might be capable of today. the  l a b e l , "Tupilaq  new meanings act  figure",  that  and p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of applying  the l a b e l  l a n d e r s ensure that  I t i s through  these  carved  "Tupilaq"  to carved  image i n a r t .  still  undergoing many changes due to the s t i l l and the occurrence of T u p i l a q  some of those  changes.  the  no  carvings ary  As they  longer  look  Green-  a vital,  l a b e l of a genre imagery.  a t t e s t s to  now make t h e i r own  'Tupilat',  beings  v i s u a l aspect "Tupilaq  of carvings  Tupilaq  a c t i v e process of  and men  their daily lives.  knowledge of the K a l a a d l i t .  Greenlandic  figures,  carvings  to s p i r i t  power to c o n t r o l  are t h e r e f o r e  categoric  By the very  The c u l t u r a l knowledge of the K a l a a d l i t i s  acculturation,  supernatural  take on  t h e i r image i n myth no longer corresponds to  their  Kalaadlit  the use of  images  f o r both c u l t u r e s .  110 -  These  with figure  of the contempor-  f i g u r e " has become the containing  f i g u r e s , as a v i s u a l  acculturated presentation  of c u l t u r a l knowledge, have become a v e h i c l e f o r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s between n a t i v e G r e e n l a n d i c and Danish p o p u l a t i o n s i n Greenland.  B.  Interpretation: It  Refocus Through  seems i r o n i c that  the ethnographic  the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of T u p i l a q fered  record  f i g u r e s but that  f o r t h e i r form and content are obscure.  tions,  usually  no meaning  i s usually  forms are a t t r i b u t e d to the a r t i s t i c er.  Acculturation  For example:  given,  demonstrates  the meanings o f In many  publica-  and the d i f f e r e n t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the carv-  - Ill "The a r t i s t was i n s p i r e d by the shape of the t o o t h , and consequently no two f i g u r e s are ever e x a c t l y a l i k e . " (R.G.T.D. pamphlet, 1976:3) When meaning i s given, culture  individuals,  e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s given by by interpretations  always been made i n r e f e r e n c e t i o n a l a r t marketplace. and in  art historians subject,  shape,  one they  category  sentational sorbed  into  (Blodgett,  they  the  and  secular  colonialist  usually  subsuming under one As  and  unable  the  souvenir  these f i g u r e s d i s r e g a r d s and  stops at the  perpetrated failed  by  to think  writers,  differences  l a b e l and  thus  "Tupilaq  figures",  spirit  repre-  carved models of TUPILAT, they are category,  "contemporary  1976:40).  i n the to  service  tell  market  Graburn  of  Eskimo  wrote  and  the  whether  the  (1976:2).  abArt"  that  the  c r a f t s as  sou-  empire, but  that  the  Their  multi-dimensionality  l a b e l "Tupilaq  I suggest that  interna-  non-  items  bought were t r u l y t r a d i t i o n a l or whether they were made f o r  have  a l l the  even as  powers c o l l e c t e d a r t s  of t h e i r sojourns were  individual  figures".  Eskimo A r t ,  1978:7; Graburn,  agents of venirs  carvings  the  f i g u r e carvings  genre of  carvings  ethnographers,  content,  c a l l e d , "Tupilaq  become one  1979,  to e x p l a i n  s t y l e , and  human or m u l t i - s u b j e c t  Tupilaq  to t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the  P r i o r to  failed  of  out-of-  they  had  specifically  ways of of  the  knowing images  figure".  the misconception of the  t r a v e l l e r s , ethnographers, about or to i n c l u d e  l a b e l was and  begun  historians  the Greenlanders'  and who  accultura-  - 112 ted  knowledge of the represented  i s requested i n a carved of  a TUPILAQ  word as t h e i r  spirit  Carvers  approximate  i s i t "a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  identity.  their  use the l a b e l  to purchase.  that  man-  being) so Greenlanders experience the  ings so that o u t - o f - c u l t u r e ings  It i s "Tupilaq"  image of a t r a d i t i o n a l  own image of c u l t u r a l  images which  label.  form, no longer  (the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  made d e a t h - b r i n g i n g  tute  beings.  acculturated  "Tupilaq  In many instances  logic  of the  f i g u r e " f o r these  consumers w i l l  a c a r v i n g s t y l e not t o a s u b j e c t  Carvers s u b s t i -  recognize  which  today, " T u p i l a q "  (Kaalund, 1983:77).  carvcarv-  r e f e r s to As Graburn  wrote: "A s p e c i a l case of " a r t metamorphosis" o c curs when o b j e c t s produced i n one s o c i e t y are t r a n s p o r t e d t o another and l a b e l l e d as art. " (1976:3) It  follows  that  out-of-culture  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of these f i g u r e s  are made on the b a s i s of the c a r v i n g s ' art der  market.  their  category  understanding  of  of  'art'  them  western  beyond  that  to the c u l t u r a l are subsumed un-  observers  seek  no  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and  label. I  tions that  Once these l a b e l - s p e c i f i c c a r v i n g s  the western  deeper  relation  propose  that  concerning are " T u p i l a q  with merely 'art*.  meanings  alone  cannot  and images  figures".  a label,  Labels  a label  answer a l l the ques-  presented  i n the v i s i o n s  M a t e r i a l c u l t u r e cannot be d e f i n e d  be i t the term  'implement',  'weapon', or  are the product of i n t e r p r e t i v e processes ground-  - 113 ed  in culture-specific  which these the  of their  knowledge  around,  The c o g n i t i v e  plane  from  s p e c i f i c c a r v i n g s emerged i s not the d e s i g n a t o r nor  perpetrator  Danish  knowledge.  on  specific  Kalaadlit  and the c o n t i n u a t i o n  label.  The i n f l u e n c e s of  knowledge,  and  the other  way  of the a c c u l t u r a t i o n process  in  East Greenland have a l l i n combination taken part i n the d e s i g n ation  and p e r p e t r a t i o n of the l a b e l ,  ethnographer f a i l s overlooks signated label  content  f o r these  because western  carvings  i s already  " T u p i l a q " q u a l i f y s which c u l t u r e area  terpretation  i s the bridge  between  man-made a r t i f a c t s ;  s o c i e t y ' s de-  i n place.  to r e f e r  of the forms, but does not e x p l a i n  the c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c l o g i c w i t h i n these laq"  Frequently an  t o look at i n f e r r e d background i n f o r m a t i o n or  the s u b j e c t i v e label  "Tupilaq".  forms.  to f o r i n -  the content or The l a b e l  the man-made s p i r i t  The  beings  i t i s a l i n k between t r a d i t i o n a l  "Tupiand the  s o c i e t y and  acculturated society. To  begin  t o understand  the c u l t u r a l  continuum of the East  Greenland c a r v e r , which makes p o s s i b l e the evocation tional  image w i t h i n a contemporary a c c u l t u r a t e d form and c l a s s i -  f i c a t i o n , w i l l be t o begin facts. creators.  For T u p i l a q  to know and to "see" h i s or her a r t i -  f i g u r e s , we must  One needs t o c o n s i d e r  t r y to understand  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the c u l t u r a l  images.  We must look  their  the p l a c e that these people oc-  cupy i n t h e i r own c u l t u r a l continuum i n order fer  of a t r a d i -  logic  to e f f e c t i v e l y o f -  within  their  carved  to the everyday l i v e s of the Greenlanders  - 114 for  clues  to the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  day-to-day r e a l i t y  of  the  carvings  their material and  vide meanings f o r these f i g u r e s now Thus my carvings  seem to be  undergoing  i s the  re-create  imaging  their  through t h i s e t h n i c culture, has  labels. and  if  and  Labels they  culture's  set  objects,  by  then  of  the  producers  their material  images  the  the  not  culture  or  audience.  "Tupilaq  figures"  are  Greenlandic  material  culture  that  into  a  s o l e l y within  its  absolute d e f i n i t i o n s ,  become  called  culture its  upon  obfuscated.  span the bridge  are  material  within  society  artifacts.  process  Greenlandic  not  are  and  public  ongoing  meanings  The  c u l t u r e f o r people, so that adaptation  an  of Greenlandic  contains  innovation  out-of-culture  as  carving,  in  aspect  meanings  as  Tupilaq  create  they  materials  is:  of K a l a a d l i t knowledge of  context  one  form  from which Greenlanders  culture  but  pro-  label  changed  cultural  will  the  As one  s u b j e c t s , s t y l e s , and do  carving  genre  podium  has  define,  are  this  form.  Material  content,  this  acculturated  figure carving  changed.  forms,  For  carvers  The  l a b e l l e d "Tupilaq".  t a n g i b l e expressions  change.  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New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971:412  - 128  -  GLOSSARY  In order to help the reader who  i s not  f a m i l i a r with  Greenlandic words used i n the t e x t or i n quotes, been  assembled  beings are l i s t e d  and  explained  i n Appendix  here.  those  such words have  (Specific  named  spirit  I.)  Angakkok (Angakkut, p i . )  -  shaman, necromancer, e x o r c i s t .  Anorak  -  s k i n parka, upper hood attached.  Asagisat  -  "your l o v e r " , one's l o v e r or loved  clothing  with  one. Dava Ilisitsok  (Ilisitsut,  pi.) -  "stop, enough". evil  practitioner.  Inua (Inue, p i . )  -  spirit, soul, one's inner life essence. a man's boat, made from s e a l s k i n sewn together, used i n the a r c t i c .  Kajak (Kaiak)  -  Kalaadlit  -  native born Greenlanders Greenlandic s p e l l i n g ) .  Kroner  -  Danish money, used i n Denmark, Faroe I s l a n d s and Greenland.  Natit  -  shorts, seal skin short panty, used as undergarment by women.  Quanartivagai  -  "thank-you Greenlandic  very  much",  (East  East  spelling.  Tartoq  -  one's personal  spirit.  Tornak (Tornat, p i . )  -  future s p i r i t  Tornarssuk  -  Umiak  -  s p e c i a l personal s p i r i t helper (a s p i r i t under c o n t r o l by a person). women's boat, open boat made of s e a l or walrus s k i n sewn together, can take 10-20 women rowers, used i n the a r c t i c .  helper.  - 129 APPENDIX I SPIRIT BEING NAMES AND SPIRIT BEING NAME  ETHNOGRAPHIC MYTHIC DESCRIPTIONS DESCRIPTION  1.  AJUMAQ  "Ajuraaq i s a f a m i l i a r s p i r i t of a very unp l e a s a n t type. Everything that i t touches r o t s and p e r i s h e s . I t has a dog's head but a human body. I t s arms and l e g s are b l a c k , and i t has only three f i n g e r s on each hand and three toes on each f o o t . I t never walks, but hovers." (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:14) (Bak, 1977:22) ( P l a t e s 33 and 34, Appendix II)  2.  AMAGAIAT  "Deep i n the heart of the mountains l i v e s a h o r r i b l e o l d t r o l l who takes l o n e l y t r a v e l l e r s by s u r p r i s e and puts them i n her knapsack (amauten) and c a r r i e s them home to her hut, where she devours them." (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:54)  3.  AMOTORTOQ*  V  - "Most Angakut have an Amotortok as t h e i r tartok. I t a c t s during the per formances of the angakok as a kind of o r a c l e, b r i n g ing news from f a r d i s t a n c e s and answering questions l a i d before i t . I t has long black arms and i s dangerous to approach, .... I t walks with a heavy t read, and roars c r y i n g out, "Amo." (Holm [1887]1912:88) (Bak, 1977:8) - "Amo i s a f a m i l i a r s p i r i t ; q u i t e i n d i s p e n s i b l e to any s o r c e r e r . I t has a huge head and p r a c t i c a l l y no body, but r a t h e r long arms." (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:10) ( P l a t e s 35, 36 and 37, Appendix II)  4.  APERKETEQ/ ANGUIT*  - "Aperketek may be as much as four f e e t long. He i s black and has nippers i n h i s head." (Holm [1887]1912:83) - " I t can resemble a s e a l f o r the hind p a r t , i t has long arms and can have claw f e e t . It i s the helper of the s p i r i t h e l p e r of the Angakuk." (Rink, 1975:43)  (*Denotes graphs )  Spirit  d e s c r i p t i o n which matched  study  sample  photo-  - 130 APPENDIX I DESCRIPTION "When people are i l l or r e q u i r e informat i o n about the success of a s e a l hunt, the s o r c e r e r must c a l l upon Anguit, a s p i r i t who looks l i k e a s e a l . " (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:22) ( P l a t e s 38-42, Appendix II) " I t has happened more than once that a whole settlement has been t e r r i f i e d to death because there appeared an Agajarops i o r p u a , a huge monster which k i l l s everyone at the mere s i g h t of i t s h o r r i b l e form as i t thunders down to the settlement l i k e a l i v e boulder." (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:34) " A s i a q i s the goddess of the weather and l i v e s somewhere out i n the pack i c e . When the i c e f a i l s to crack i n the springtime the s o r c e r e r (Angakkok) must go t o her and p a c i f y her, so that she may unloose the warm mountain winds and r a i n , break up the i c e and send i t out to sea." (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:26) (Bak, 1977:23-25) "The ERKILIKS have the form of a man above and that of a dog below. They dwell on the i n l a n d i c e and are i n i m i c a l to man." (Holm [1887]1912:83) (Rink, 1975:47 (Bak, 1977:34-7) (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:30) ( P l a t e s 43a-47, Appendix II) "On a l a r g e i s l a n d f o r out t o sea l i v e s a solitary man, called ERKINGASEK. He throws h i s harpoon with h i s l e f t hand, and he catches people at very long d i s t a n c e s with h i s b l a d d e r - d a r t . He crushes them up so that they d i e .... When the Angakut are c a t c h i n g TUPILEKS, they c a l l ERKINGASEK, who then catches them with h i s b i r d dart." (Holm [188711912:289-90)  - 131 APPENDIX I SPIRIT BEING NAME 9.  INGNERSSUIT/ INERSUAK*  DESCRIPTION "When a k a i a k e r i s at sea, he i s surrounded by INERSUAKS. They l i v e under the sea but otherwise engage i n the same occupat i o n s as men. They are somewhat broader than men, are c l o s e l y cropped and have no noses." (Holm [1887]1912:82-3) (Rink, 1875:46) "He heard a man c a l l out - "Help me; I am upset." He paddled up t o him and put h i s kayak r i g h t side up, then saw he was one of the n o s e l e s s people, the f i r e people." (Rasmussen, 1908:327 and 339) (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:46) ( P l a t e s 48 and 49, Appendix I I )  10. QIVITTOQ  "a man who has f l e d mankind to the i n t e r i o r and returned as a s p i r i t i n another state. He understands the speech of a n i mals and has t h e i r powers." (Rink, 1875:45)  11. TIMERTSEQ/ TIMERSIT*  "Timerseks have the form of a man, but are much b i g g e r , being as t a l l as an umiak i s long. T h e i r s o u l alone i s as l a r g e as a man. They l i v e by the chase, ... they are at enmity with the human race, ...." (Holm [1887]1912:83) (Rasmussen, 1903:339) Tale 7, t o l d by Utuak (Holm 246) Tale 12, t o l d by Kutuluk (Holm 256) ( P l a t e s 50-54, Appendix I I )  12. TORNAK/ TOORNAARSUK*  [1887]1912: [1887]1912:  "Tornarssuk i s c h i e f of the f a m i l i a r s p i r its. If there i s anything that other fami l i a r s cannot do, Tornarssuk can do i t , but he must l i v e a f e a r l e s s and l o n e l y life. He goes through mountains as i f they were a i r ; f o r him there are no o b s t a cles." (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:18) (Bak, 1977:14)  - 132 APPENDIX I SPIRIT BEING NAME 12. TORNAK/ TOORNAARSUK*  DESCRIPTION - "He has long arms, a short neck and short legs. His hind part can be the body of a s e a l with a human head r e s t i n g on i t . He i s the guardian s p i r i t of the Angakok." (Holm [1887]1912:82) - "Three days a f t e r , the c h i l d made her d o l l s perform TORNAK i n c a n t a t i o n s ; (Holm [1887]1912:252) ( P l a t e s 55-58, Appendix I I )  13. TUPILAQ*  - "Tupilak i s an e v i l s p i r i t , which may be c r e a t e d by s o r c e r e r s or witches. Bones of animals or b i r d s are p i l e d together and hidden i n a l o n e l y p l a c e . When, one f i n e day, the s o r c e r e r f e e l s so disposed, he v i s i t s h i s heap of bones and puts them t o gether i n the shape of a f a n t a s t i c c r e a t u r e , but he must touch i t only with h i s thumb and l i t t l e f i n g e r , otherwise the Tupilak loses i t s strength. As he i s r e c i t i n g magic words over i t , i t draws nourishment from the s o r c e r e r s sexual p a r t s . When i t has reached the r e q u i r e d s i z e , he sends i t out to sea. One day, when he has need of i t , he summons i t and orders i t to go and k i l l h i s enemy. The l a t t e r u s u a l l y d i e s at the mere s i g h t of the T u p i l a k ' s h o r r i b l e shape." (Gitz-Johansen, 1949:58) - Tale 22, t o l d by Kutuluk (Holm [1887]1912: 272) T a l e 29, t o l d by Kutuluk (Holm [1887]1912: 280) (Bak, 1977:49-52) - "For some time she had been c o l l e c t i n g the v a r i o u s p a r t s - s n a r l s of h a i r , f i n g e r n a i l s , and b i t s of c l o t h i n g that had belonged to the intended v i c t i m s - to make the t u p i l a k , which was moreover t r i c k e d out with a male sex organ on i t s chest. The g i r l had been a s s i s t e d i n working on the t u p i l a k by one of the o l d e r women of the settlement, who wanted revenge on her d i v o r c e d husband." (Kaalund, 1983:23-4) ( P l a t e s 59-61a, b, and c, Appendix I I )  -  133 -  APPENDIX I I PHOTOGRAPHS OF CARVINGS THAT MATCHED WITH NAMED MYTHIC SPIRIT BEINGS  PLATE 33 "AJUMAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , wood and p a i n t . Carved by S i n g e r t a t , 1983, A n g m a g s s a l i k , E a s t G r e e n l a n d . ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d i n Angmagss a l i k , 1983. C o l l e c t e d as a " s p i r i t f i g u r e " . )  PLATE 34 "AJUMAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , wood. Carved S i n g e r t a t , 1981, A n g m a g s s a l i k , E a s t G r e e n l a n d .  by G e r t  ( R o y a l G r e e n l a n d T r a d e Department C r a f t s C e n t r e C o l l e c t i o n , Copenhagen. Termed by c o l l e c t o r " l i k e t h e Ajumaq s p i r i t i n Ove Bak's book".)  APPENDIX II  PLATE 35 "AMOTORTOQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c Carved by Axel Nuko, 1978, Kap Dan, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected Kap Dan. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " . )  i n 1980, i  - 135 APPENDIX I I  PLATE 36 "AMOTORTOQ" representational carving, Buffalo horn. Carved by P e r i t a r K u i t s e , 1966, Kap Dan, East Greenland. (R.G.T.D. C r a f t s Centre C o l l e c t i o n , Copenhagen. l e c t e d as a " s p i r i t f i g u r e " . )  Col-  - 136 APPENDIX I I  PLATE 37 "AMOTORTOQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c C a r v e d by A n d e r s S i a n i a l e , 1980, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n land. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected i n 1980 i n Angmagssalik. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q s p i r i t " . )  -  137 -  APPENDIX I I  PLATE 38 "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT" representational carving, C a r v e r unknown, c a . 1930-1932, A n g m a g s s a l i k , E a s t land.  ivory. Green-  (National Museum, Copenhagen. Collected by Therkel M a t h i a s s e n , 1931-32, A n g m a g s s a l i k . Termed by c o l l e c t o r , "helping s p i r i t " . )  PLATE 39 "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT representational carving, wood and paint. C a r v e r unknown, c a . 1920-30, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . ( N a t i o n a l Museum o f G r e e n l a n d , Godthab-Nuuk, West land. C o l l e c t e d as an "Angakkok's h e l p e r " . )  Green-  -  138 -  APPENDIX I I  PLATE 40 "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT" representational carving, wood, i v o r y , and p a i n t . C a r v e r unknown, caT 1930-32, Angmagss a l i k , East Greenland. (National Museum, Copenhagen. Collected M a t h i a s s e n , 1931-32, i n A n g m a g s s a l i k .  by  Therkel  PLATE 41 "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT" and i v o r y . Carver land .  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , goat horn unknown, 1972, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n -  (Private collection, Vancouver. Collected i n 1978, Copenhagen. C o l l e c t e d as a " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a h e l p ing s p i r i t " . )  -  139 -  APPENDIX I I  PLATE 42 "APERKETEQ/ANGUIT" and i v o r y . Carved East Greenland.  representational carving, goathorn by Henning A g t i g k a t , 1972, Kap Dan,  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d i n 1978, Angmagssalik. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " . ) Photog r a p h by F. Cheng.  - 140 APPENDIX I I  PLATES 43a and 43b "ERKIGKLEK/ERQQILIK" representational carvings, soaps t o n e and p a i n t . C a r v e r unknown, c a . 1920-30, T a s i i l a q , East Greenland. Plate  43b shows t h e bones o f t h e s p i n e .  (Private collection, Angmagssalik. s p i r i t t h a t c a n be v e r y p o w e r f u l " . )  Collected  as  "a  -  141 -  APPENDIX I I  PLATE 44  "ERKIGKLEK/ERQQILIK" representational carving, stone. C a r v e d by J o h a n E l i o , 1973, Kap Dan, E a s t land . (Private c o l l e c t i o n , figure".)  Vancouver.  Collected  as a  soapGreen-  "Tupilaq  PLATE 45 "ERKIGKLEK/ERQQILIK" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , i v o r y and plastic. C a r v e r unknown, c a . 1950-70, Kap Dan, E a s t Greenland. (Private "Tupilaq  collection, figure".)  Vancouver.  Collected,  1980  as  a  APPENDIX I I  PLATE 46 "ERKIGKLEK/ERQQILIK" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , bone and wood. C a r v e r unknown, c a . 1940-1957, K u l u s u k , East Greenland. (Private collection, Vancouver. Collected from the E l i s a b e t h Sewart C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, San F r a n c i s c o . Termed by c o l l e c t o r , " T u p i l a q S p i r i t " . )  142 -  -  143  APPENDIX I I  PLATE 47 "ERKIGKLEK/ERQQILIK" representational carving, ivory. C a r v e d by O l e K r e u t z m a n n , 1940's, Kangaaraiut, S o u t h w e s t Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d from the E l i s a b e t h Sewart C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, San F r a n c i s c o . Termed by c o l l e c t o r , " s p i r i t c a r v i n g " . )  - 144 APPENDIX I I  PLATE 48 "INGNERSSUAK" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , bone and p l a s tic. Carver unknown, Kap Dan, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d from the E l i sabeth Sewart C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, San F r a n c i s c o . Termed by c o l l e c t o r , "a s p i r i t representation".)  - 145 APPENDIX I I  PLATE 49 "INGNERSSUAK" tic. Carver land.  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , bone and p l a s unknown, c a . 1950's, K u l u s u k , E a s t G r e e n -  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d from the E l i s a b e t h Sewart C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, San F r a n c i s c o . Termed by c o l l e c t o r , " s p i r i t representation".)  -  146 -  APPENDIX I I  PLATE 50 "TIMERTSEQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , i v o r y . known, c a . 1940's, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n l a n d .  C a r v e r un-  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d from t h e E l i s a b e t h Sewart C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, San F r a n c i s c o . Termed by c o l l e c t o r , "an e v i l s p i r i t " . )  -  147  APPENDIX II  PLATE 5 1 "TIMERTSEQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carver unknown, c a . 1 9 4 0 - 1 9 5 5 , l o c a t i o n unknown. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Godthab-Nuuk. "an e v i l s p i r i t " . )  Termed by c o l l e c t o r ,  -  - 148 APPENDIX II  PLATE 52 "TIMERTSEQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carver unknown, c a . 1940, Kulusuk, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d from the E l i sabeth Sewart C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, San F r a n c i s c o . Termed by c o l l e c t o r , " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " . )  -  149 -  APPENDIX I I  PLATE 53 "TIMERTSEQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . C a r v e r unknown, c a . 1955-1965, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . (Private c o l l e c t i o n , figure".)  Vancouver.  Collected  as a  "Tupilaq  - 150 APPENDIX II  PLATE 54 "TIMERTSEQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . C a r v e r unknown, c a . 1940's, K u l u s u k , E a s t G r e e n l a n d . ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d from the E l i s a b e t h Sewart C o l l e c t i o n , 1978, San F r a n c i s c o . Collected as a , " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " . )  -  151 -  APPENDIX I I  PLATE 55 "TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK" representational carving, wood, i v o r y , and p a i n t . C a r v e r unknown, c a . 1930, t a s i i l a q , East Greenland. (National Museum, Copenhagen. Collected M a t h i a s s e n , 1931-32, A n g m a g s s a l i k .  by  Therkel  PLATE 56 "TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK" C a r v e d by J o h a n E l i o , (Private c o l l e c t i o n , figure".) Photograph  representational carving, ivory. 1976, Kap Dan, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . Vancouver.  by F. Cheng.  Collected  as a  "Tupilaq  APPENDIX II  PLATE 57 "TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK" representational carving, ivory. Carver by Johan E l i o , 1978, Kap Dan, East Greenland. (Private laq" . )  collection,  Vancouver.  Collected  as a  "Tupi-  I PLATE 58 "TORNAK/TOORNAARSUK" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , wood and paint. Carved by Jonathan K i l i m e , 1982, Amgmagssalik, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. figure".) Photograph by F. Cheng.  C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q  - 153 APPENDIX II  PLATE 59 A "TUPILAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , soapstone. Carved by Johan E l i o , 1965-70, Kap Dan, East Greenland. Refer to Appendix IV, page 188, f o r matching traditional story. (Royal Greenland Trade Department C r a f t s Centre C o l l e c t i o n , Copenhagen. Termed by c o l l e c t e d "a T u p i l a q representation" . )  - 154 APPENDIX I I  PLATE  60  A "TUPILAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l carving, ivory. C a r v e d by Lunde Kuko, 1970, Kungmiut, E a s t G r e e n l a n d . Refer to A p p e n d i x IV, page 190, f o r m a t c h i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s t o r y . ( R o y a l G r e e n l a n d T r a d e Department C r a f t s C e n t r e C o l l e c t i o n , Copenhagen. Termed by c o l l e c t e d "a T u p i l a q figure".)  -  155  APPENDIX II  61a  61c PLATES 61a, b, and c A "TUPILAQ" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a r v i n g , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carved by Kora Tukula, 1980, Kap Dan, East Greenland. Refer to Appendix IV, page 192, f o r matching t r a d i t i o n a l story. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. figure".)  C o l l e c t e d as a  "Tupilaq  -  #1  PLATE 34 APPENDIX I I , page 133  - 157 APPENDIX I I I  #2  PLATE 48 APPENDIX I I , page 144  APPENDIX  III  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected 1978 f r o m E l i s a b e t h S e w a r d Collection.)  in  158  -  APPENDIX I I I  #4  PLATE 63  " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carved by Thorvald Mikkaelsen, 1980, Kap Dan, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d as a " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , 1981, Godthab-Nuuk, West Greenland.)  APPENDIX I I I  PLATE 38 APPENDIX I I , page  APPENDIX I I I  #6  PLATE 64  "Tupilaq f i g u r e " , 5yAron Kleist, Greenland.  i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carved 1981, Q'kortoq, Southwest  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. 1973, Vancouver.)  Collected i n  - 162 APPENDIX I I I  #7  PLATE 35 APPENDIX I I , page 134  APPENDIX I I I  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected in 1978 from the E l i s a b e t h Seward C o l l e c t i o n , San F r a n c i s c o . )  - 164 APPENDIX I I I  PLATE 60 APPENDIX I I , page 154  APPENDIX I I I  #10  PLATE 66  " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carved by Nikolai Abelsen, 1978, Kap Dan, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected 1980, Angmagssalik, East Greenland.  in  - 166 APPENDIX I I I  #11  PLATE 54 APPENDIX I I , page 150  APPENDIX I I I  #12  PLATE 67  " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carver unknown, 1974-76, Kap Dan, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. 1978, Kap Dan, East Greenland.  Collected in  168 APPENDIX I I I  #13  PLATE 33  APPENDIX I I , page 133  169 APPENDIX  III  - 170 APPENDIX I I I  #15  PLATE 10 Page 66  - 171 APPENDIX III  APPENDIX I I I  #17  PLATE 68  "Tupi1aq f i g u r e " , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . Carved by Georg Nuko, 1980, Kap Dan, East Greenland. ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected in 1981, Godthab-Nuuk, West Greenland.  APPENDIX I I I  #18  PLATE 69  "Tupilaq f i g u r e " , ivory By Jakob U i t s a l i k t s e k , Greenland.  and p l a s t i c . Carved 1979, Kungmiut, East  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected 1980, Angmagssalik, West Greenland.  in  - 174 APPENDIX I I I  PLATE 43a APPENDIX I I , page 140  APPENDIX I I I  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected in 1978 from the E l i s a b e t h Seward C o l l e c t i o n , San F r a n c i s c o . )  - 176 APPENDIX I I I  #21  PLATE 50 APPENDIX I I , page 146  - 177 APPENDIX I I I  #22  PLATE 7b Page 62  APPENDIX I I I  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. 1978, Copenhagen.)  Collected in  - 179 APPENDIX I I I  #24  PLATE 56 APPENDIX I I , page 151  - 180 APPENDIX I I I  #25  PLATE 39 APPENDIX I I , page 137  APPENDIX I I I  #26  PLATE 72  " T u p i l a q f i g u r e " , i v o r y and p l a s t i c . unknown, ca. 1940's, East Greenland.  Carver  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. C o l l e c t e d i n 1978 from the E l i s a b e t h Seward C o l l e c t i o n , San F r a n c i s c o . )  - 182 APPENDIX I I I  APPENDIX I I , page 135  APPENDIX I I I  ( P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. Collected in 1978 from the E l i s a b e t h Seward C o l l e c t i o n , San F r a n c i s c o . )  - 184 APPENDIX I I I  #29  PLATE 44 APPENDIX I I , page 141  PLATE 59 APPENDIX I I , page  - 186 APPENDIX IV MYTHIC ACCOUNTS OF A SPIRIT BEING AND TUPILAT WHICH MATCH TO PHOTOGRAPHS IN MY STUDY SAMPLE PLATES 7a and 7b S t o r y t o l d to S. Romalis  by Jonas  Faber, Vancouver,  1983  "One time i n the v i l l a g e of T a s i i l a p there was a great angakkok. He was o l d and when he died the people b u r i e d him c l o s e to the v i l l a g e . Many times the c h i l d r e n of the v i l l a g e played b a l l near the p l a c e where the angakkok was b u r i e d . Many times the c h i l d r e n ran over h i s grave or played on h i s grave or made so much noise around h i s grave that the soul of the angakkok was d i s t u r b e d and angry. One day the s o u l of the angakkok became so angry that he decided t o teach the c h i l d r e n the way to behave. The next day when the c h i l d r e n came to p l a y , the s o u l of the angakkok took the shoulder-blade from h i s s k e l e t o n and a l s o one of h i s l e g bones and he decided to f r i g h t e n the c h i l d r e n . As the c h i l d r e n played over h i s grave, he suddenly came up from the grave. He drum danced on h i s grave stone with h i s shoulder blade as the drum and h i s l e g bone as the drumstick and the words he sang f r i g h t e n e d the c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n never played over the graves again and they never d i s t u r b e d the s o u l s of the dead. The g r e a t angakkok could then r e s t i n peace and q u i e t . "  - 187 APPENDIX IV  PLATES 7a and 7b C o l l e c t e d by G. Holm, t r a n s l a t e d by J . Petersen, 1887, Angmagssalik, and t o l d by Kutuluk: ARIAGSUAK (Tale 35) "Ariagsuak was having a drum-match with a dear f r i e n d of his. While h i s f r i e n d was having some new c l o t h e s sewn f o r him, because he wanted to t r a v e l to Ariagsuak, the l a t t e r d i e d . The other went on a journey with four umiaks, one of which had an alugsugak (a f o s t e r ) as an amulet. As they approached A r i a g suak' s house, they sang i n the umiak, and he that was to have the drum-match, c r i e d : "Ariagsuak! When one of us d i e s , s h a l l we s t i l l have our drum-match?" I t was q u i t e s t i l l up i n the house, but the stone on the top of the grave began to t u r n around. The people i n the umiak shouted: "A...h", and saw Ariagsuak come f l u t t e r i n g down from the sky to the stone, which r a i s e d i t s e l f o f f the grave; and out of the grave he took the shoulder-blade f o r a drum and the thigh-bone f o r a drumstick. The eyes hung out of the head on t h e i r f i b r e s . As he went up i n t o the a i r , he went round the same way as the sky. The umiaks r o l l e d i n h i s d i r e c t i o n and c a p s i z e d ; only the one which had an alugsugak as an amulet r i g h t e d i t s e l f again, turned her s t e r n post towards him, and got home. 'Kutuluk has seen with h i s own eyes the grave which l i e s between I g d l o l u a r s u k and A k o r n i n a r miut'." (G. Holm [188711912:290)  - 188 APPENDIX IV  PLATE 59 Story t o l d to S. Romalis by Thorvald Mikkaelsen and Egon Poulsen, Kap Dan, 1982. "There were two brothers who l i v e d i n S e r m i l i g a q i n U l o r g a r miit. There was an i s l a n d nearby that they c a l l , N u n a g i t s i t , and a f a m i l y there that had four sons i n a row, c a l l e d Amerdardivagaiit. One day i n s p r i n g the o l d e r brother from U l o r g a r m i i t s a i d t o h i s younger b r o t h e r , "I w i l l f i s h the Ammassat and you hunt seals f o r drying." The younger brother d i d what he was t o l d . The o l d e r brother t o l d him not to go near where the Amerdardivg a i i t hunt, but to go south near Kungmiut. A f t e r the o l d e r brother came back from hunting to the f j o r d , he heard that h i s younger brother was dead. He d i s c o v e r e d that h i s brother had been standing on a small i s l a n d watching s e a l s when the four b r o t h e r s pursued him to k i l l him. He had hidden i n a hole i n a c l i f f at low t i d e while the A m e r d a r d i v a g a i i t waited f o r him to come out at high t i d e . When the t i d e came i n he had p r e f e r r e d to drown then to be k i l l e d by the harpoons of the four b r o t h e r s . The o l d e r brother decided to revenge h i s brother's death, to make a T u p i l a q . He thought to h i m s e l f , "I must do t h i s i n the r i g h t way, and I must get a s e a l s k u l l from the cache of the Amerdardivagaiit. There should be s k i n s l e f t and bones from when they took the s e a l meat away." He was never i n that p l a c e , but he hoped that there was a s k u l l l e f t behind that was f a c i n g the house of the four b r o t h e r s . He set out to look f o r i t . When he a r r i v e d at t h e i r cache the s k u l l was l y i n g the r i g h t way, so he took i t and some s e a l s k i n . Now he was hopeful i n f i n i s h i n g h i s work. Then he s t a r t e d to make h i s T u p i l a q , not by h i s t e n t , but not f a r away, beside the water. When he s t a r t e d to make h i s T u p i l a q he needed help from h i s grandparents who had been b u r i e d a long time ago. He thought, " I f they loved me when they were a l i v e , so they can now help me revenge my brother through the Tupilaq". He dug out h i s grandmother's grave and he heard, "Mmmmmmm". That meant she had loved him, so he cut o f f her r i b s  - 189 and her l e g , she s t i l l had c l o t h e s on, and he buried the r e s t . Then he s t a r t e d the T u p i l a q : what the Angakkok used to do when they made a T u p i l a q was j u s t to put a l l the things i n t o the s k i n and the T u p i l a q would be formed by the Angakkok's breath. When he f i n i s h e d forming the T u p i l a q , there was no doubt t h a t i t was a s e a l but i t s other side had r i b s and a l e g l i k e a human s i d e . When an Angakkok has f i n i s h e d forming g i v e i t l i f e energy.  a Tupilaq,  he has t o  When he f i n i s h e d making the T u p i l a q he could see that i t was f u l l of energy and l i f e , and he t o l d i t to go. He knew that i f he made a mistake i n making the T u p i l a q he could be k i l l e d by i t himself. he had to t e l l i t with h i s own voice what to do. I t went i n t o the water and he followed i t on land. The T u p i l a q came up i n the water c l o s e by and s a i d "What am I going to do?" So he s a i d to i t , "Go to the Amerdardivagaiit and k i l l them and take even the women." I t went down i n t o the water showing the leg with the kamik (boot) on. Then he went home with the hope he would get revenge. He l i s t e n e d a l l summer, but heard nothing about the four b r o t h e r s . He heard that they went to t h e i r winter place near T i i l e r i l a q . Then he a l s o went there and was welcomed by the people. He f o r got about h i s T u p i l a q because he was having such a good time. Suddenly one day someone s a i d , "Look, a s e a l ! " , so everyone rushed to t h e i r kayaks. The s e a l come up near the four brothers and went down again, and he thought, " i t w i l l come up near me". He was ready with h i s harpoon ... i t came up, but only the eyes were above water .. . then he remembered the T u p i l a q . I f he had harpooned the T u p i l a q he could have been k i l l e d , but now he s a i d , "Ah, at l a s t i t came." He waited f o r what would happen next. I t came up again i n f r o n t of the o l d e s t b r o t h e r , he harpooned i t , and when i t went down, the brother held the harpoon l i n e to p u l l i n the s e a l . I t was too heavy, and the other brothers came to help him. They p u l l e d three times but the kayak went down more and more and he f e l l i n t o the water. Foam and bubbles came up and then he f l o a t e d up dead. Then he was the f i r s t one t o be k i l l e d by the T u p i l a q . When autumn came, he heard that the youngest brother had drowned, and a f t e r that the middle two brothers d i e d . Then he heard that one of the wives had disappeared when the women went out to pick blueberries. They had gone to look f o r her and found out that she had put her ear down i n t o the bush and she was dead.  - 190 The o l d e r brother smiled when he heard t h i s and s a i d that i t was the t r u t h of the T u p i l a q . This was the proof that the T u p i laq had taken the l i f e of the g i r l i n the way that she d i e d . Then he went back to S e r m i l i g a q and he heard that the other wives had died i n the same way. Then he went back to U l o r g a r m i i t and l i v e d i n peace afterwards.  - 191 APPENDIX IV  PLATE 60 Story  told  to S. Romalis by Egon Poulson, Kap Dan, 1982: T r a n s l a t e d by Anna Kuitse-Meyer  "Once there was a f a m i l y that l i v e d i n S e r m i l i k . The man was a good hunter and he had s e v e r a l wives. I t was a large fami l y with many c h i l d r e n . One of the man's daughters became very sick. Nothing could cure her so f i n a l l y the angakkok asked her to make a c o n f e s s i o n of what she had done. She confessed that she had wanted to k i l l her whole f a m i l y , her f a t h e r , her s t e p mothers, her b r o t h e r s , and her s i s t e r s . In order to k i l l her f a m i l y she had made a t u p i l a q which looked l i k e an o r d i n a r y woman but i t had male sex organs on i t s chest. She had made t h i s t u p i l a q by c o l l e c t i n g things that belonged to a l l her famil y members - c u t t i n g s of t h e i r h a i r , t h e i r f i n g e r n a i l s , a tooth, and p i e c e s of c l o t h i n g . When she had gathered a l l these t h i n g s she had gone o f f with another o l d e r woman from the settlement who was i l i s i t s o q , and the o l d e r woman had helped her to make the t u p i l a q . She had decided to make i t i n the form of a woman so that i t would be able to e a s i l y f o l l o w a l l her f a m i l y members and k i l l them, but i t had many powers to overcome the men because i t had the male p a r t s a l s o . Then they sent the t u p i l a q out. The g i r l was sure that she had made i t i n the wrong way so that now i t was going to k i l l her. The t u p i l a q had not k i l l e d her f a m i l y members and she was sure that the o l d woman had done t h i n g s , not to help, but i n order to k i l l her, so now the t u p i l a q was causing the i l l n e s s . A f t e r the g i r l confessed this about her strange t u p i l a q they heard a c r y . Then the g i r l became w e l l . "  - 192 APPENDIX IV  PLATE 60 "Johan Petersen, f i r s t manager of the t r a d i n g s t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n Angmagssalik i n 1894, ten years a f t e r Gustav Holm's uniak e x p e d i t i o n , r e l a t e s : "Our neighbours, who had returned from a v i s i t i n S e r m i l i k , s a i d that a young g i r l i n S e r m i l i k had been very s i c k . During her i l l n e s s , she had confessed that i n order to harm her f a m i l y - she wanted to k i l l her f a t h e r and stepmother, or r a t h e r her two stepmothers and her brothers and s i s t e r s - she had fashioned herself a tupilak. For some time she had been c o l l e c t i n g the v a r i o u s p a r t s - s n a r l s of h a i r , f i n g e r n a i l s , and b i t s of c l o t h ing that had belonged to the intended v i c t i m s - t o make the tupi l a k , which was moreover t r i c k e d out with a male sexual organ on i t s chest. The g i r l had been a s s i s t e d i n working on the t u p i l a k by one of the o l d e r women of the settlement, who wanted revenge on her d i v o r c e d husband." (Kaalund, 1980, p.23-24)  - 193 APPENDIX IV  PLATES 32 and 61a, b and c Story r e l a t e d by Gustav Holm: "The most s k i l l f u l hunter on the Angmagsalik f j o r d , P e r t i t i g s a k , who had gone through the t r a i n i n g without openly proc l a i m i n g himself as an angakok, was the sworn enemy of the angakut and l o s t no o p p o r t u n i t y of h o l d i n g them up t o r i d i c u l e . When he was a f f l i c t e d with a b o i l on h i s back and afterwards caught f e v e r , angakut appeared from a l l sides to cure him. When the f e v e r got worse they d e c l a r e d that he was i n danger of going mad. We have a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d the treatment to which he would be s u b j e c t e d i n t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y . He then had to confess that he was an i l i s i t s o k and t e l l a great deal of absurd nonsense about h i s having sent out four t u p i l e k s , who had managed together to k i l l a score of persons, some of whom were members of h i s own family. The l a s t t u p i l e k he made i n s p r i n g . He was j u s t about t o harpoon a walrus, when someone e l s e a n t i c i p a t e d him and caught it. In h i s anger he made a t u p i l e k of walrus s k i n , fragments of the man's game and many other t h i n g s . I t resembled a walrus wearing women's drawers. He created and made i t grow i n the u s ual way, a f t e r which he sent i t f o r t h to k i l l the man who had taken the walrus from him. One day a f t e r t h i s he saw a walrus at Ikerasarsuak, and was j u s t about to harpoon i t , when he d i s covered that i t was the t u p i l e k . I t made f o r the shore and went on land, where i t turned i n t o a human being. Some time a f t e r i t k i l l e d the man a g a i n s t whom i t was sent to to  A w a t e r - p o u l t i c e which we sent P e r k i t i g s a k caused the b o i l open, and the f e v e r l e f t him. H i s cure was a s c r i b e d s o l e l y h i s c o n f e s s i o n of the crimes he had committed." Holm [1887]1912:p.102-103.  - 194 APPENDIX V  EAST GREENLAND CARVERS INTERVIEWED  WORK  NAME  DATE OF BIRTH/ PLACE OF BIRTH  R.G.T.D. Worker and Hunter  18 Sept. 1947 Kap Dan, Kulussuk I s .  J . Thorvald J.S.P. Mikkaelsen  Hunter  19 Aug. 1928 Noordi i t , Kulussuk I s .  J.J.G. Egon Poulsen  Hunter  10 Feb. 1925 Kap Dan, Kulussuk I s .  K.K.E. Johan  Hunter  12 Sept. 1938 Kap Dan, Kulussuk I s .  Titus A.J.J.  Nakinge  Elio  Dec. 1903 Ikkatseq  A u r o l i a K.A. Amagtangneq (Wife of Jacob Amagtangneq 1897-1975 - Hunter & Carver) Ebbe Josvassen  Parish Clerk and Hunter  Autumn, 1909 Ikkatseq  Henrik  Hunter  1907 Tiniteqilaaq  Singertat  - 195 APPENDIX  VI  QUESTION GUIDE FOR CARVING SURVEY 1.  Where were you born? Where do you l i v e ? Please look at these photographs. Please comment on each one, i n t h e i r s e q u e n t i a l order. (Use a d d i t i o n a l page). Are there any of these c a r v i n g s that you p a r t i c u l a r l y Which one(s)? Why?  like?  Are there any of these c a r v i n g s that you p a r t i c u l a r l y Which one(s)? Why?  dislike?  Do you ever buy any of t h i s type of carving? If y e s , what and why? Do you c o n s i d e r T u p i l a q f i g u r e art?  c a r v i n g to be a u t h e n t i c  Greenland  How do you f e e l about the f a c t that most of the contemporary a r t forms are made f o r s a l e to non-Greenlanders? Does t h i s have an e f f e c t on the c a r v i n g ? Choose the 5 f a c t o r s that most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e your d e c i s i o n when you are buying a Tupilaq figure ( i n order of t h e i r importance to your d e c i s i o n ) . price s u b j e c t matter a r t i s t ' s name  design size media(material)  q u a l i t y of workmanship investment p o t e n t i a l advice of acquaintance  What other kinds of a r t do you c o l l e c t or own? 10.  Your age: under 20 20 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49 50 - 59 60 - 69 70 and over  11. 12.  Your sex:  Your occupation: professional executive sales clerical s k i l l e d labour u n s k i l l e d labour  male female homemaker retired unemployed other  13. How were you introduced to T u p i l a q f i g u r e c a r v i n g s ? f a m i l y , or f r i e n d s museum e x h i b i t s Greenlander acquaintances n o t i c e d them i n s t o r e s  books newspaper or magazine articles other (please s p e c i f y )  

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