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Relationships between above-average preschool children’s transfer in classification learning and their… Von Wittgenstein, Holly E. 1985

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ABOVE-AVERAGE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S TRANSFER IN CLASSIFICATION LEARNING AND THEIR COGNITIVE ABILITIES By HOLLY E. j o n WITTGENSTEIN B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology & S p e c i a l Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1985 © H o l l y von W i t t g e n s t e i n ; »985" In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) A b s t r a c t The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p r e s c h o o l c h i l d ' s l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e , as measured by the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t (Form L-M), and h i s a b i l i t y to perfo r m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d . The c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e or to s p o n t a n e o u s l y a p p l y p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d c oncepts to s i m i l a r but not i d e n t i c a l t a s k s i s a s s e s s e d . The sample i s composed of 43 t h r e e and f o u r year o l d c h i l d r e n who range from average to s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e . I t was o r i g i n a l l y h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t those c h i l d r e n h a v i n g s u p e r i o r I.Q. s c o r e s would s p o n t a n e o u s l y a p p l y l e a r n e d concepts to new s i t u a t i o n s w i t h or w i t h o u t the a i d of p r o m p t i n g . Those c h i l d r e n h a v i n g the lower I.Q. s c o r e s were expected to r e q u i r e prompting b e f o r e l e a r n e d c oncepts would be a p p l i e d i n n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s were not c o m p l e t e l y as p r e d i c t e d . W h i l e the f o u r y e a r o l d groups g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d the p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n , the t h r e e year o l d groups showed some v a r i a t i o n from the p a t t e r n p r e d i c t e d . The h i g h e r I.Q. t h r e e - y e a r -o l d s made s t r o n g g a i n s when prompted, whereas the lower I.Q. l e v e l group e x h i b i t e d o n l y l o s s e s when prompted. W i t h the f o u r - y e a r - o l d s , t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the prompted and the non-prompted h i g h e r I.Q. group, whereas i i i t he lower I.Q. group r e c e i v i n g p rompting d i d as w e l l as or b e t t e r than the non-prompted group. In e i t h e r i n s t a n c e , age was found to be a major l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . W h i l e not a l l o w i n g f o r a p a r s i m o n i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the r e s u l t s do i n d i c a t e the u s e f u l n e s s o f two h y p o t h e s e s , s p o n t a n e i t y and o p t i m a l use, i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t i e s o f the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . i v T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S P a g e I . S T A T E M E N T S O F P R O B L E M S A N D H Y P O T H E S I S 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r A s s e s s m e n t 7 R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m s a n d H y p o t h e s e s 1 0 I I . M E T H O D , 1 4 S u b j e c t s a n d D e s i g n 1 4 T e s t a n d L e a r n i n g M a t e r i a l s 1 7 P r o c e d u r e 1 8 I I I . R E S U L T S 2 2 P e r f o r m a n c e s o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s b y S i z e a n d S h a p e 2 3 P e r f o r m a n c e s o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s b y C o l o u r a n d a n d S i z e , a n d M a g n e t i s m 2 4 I V . D I S C U S S I O N A N D C O N C L U S I O N . , 2 8 R E F E R E N C E S 3 2 T A B L E S 1 R a n d o m a s s i g n m e n t o f 4 3 s u b j e c t s w i t h i n s u b g r o u p s 3 7 2 O r i g i n a l c e l l m e a n n u m b e r s o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s o n p r e t e s t s a n d p o s t t e s t s o f f i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s ( N = 4 3 ) 3 8 3 O b s e r v e d c e l l m e a n s o f t r a n s f o r m e d m e a s u r e s f o r s i z e a n d s h a p e b y 8 s u b g r o u p s i n d i c a t i n g g e n e r a l p r o f i c i e n c y a n d r e l a t i v e g a i n s c o r e s ( N = 4 3 ) 3 9 4 O b s e r v e d c e l l m e a n s o f t r a n s f o r m e d m e a s u r e s f o r c o l o u r & s i z e a n d f o r m a g n e t i s m b y 8 s u b g r o u p s i n d i c a t i n g g e n e r a l p r o f i c i e n c y a n d r e l a t i v e g a i n s c o r e s ( N = 4 3 ) 4 0 FIGURE 1 Treatment and t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s a s s i g n e d to the f o u r subj e c t groups APPENDICES A. The P a r e n t R a t i n g s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e B. I n s t r u c t i o n and Proc e d u r e f o r the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r Tasks -L e a r n i n g S e s s i o n s C. I n s t r u c t i o n and Proc e d u r e f o r the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r Tasks -P o s t - t e s t S e s s i o n s 1 I. STATEMENTS OF PROBLEMS AND HYPOTHESES  I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a pr e s c h o o l c h i l d ' s l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e (as measured by the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e Test) and h i s / h e r l e v e l of performance on a set of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . The ease with which each c h i l d was able to g e n e r a l i z e or to t r a n s f e r learned i n f o r m a t i o n was assessed. It was thought that c h i l d r e n ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a b i l i t y i n l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f e r s i t u a t i o n s would be an important p r o p e r t y of g i f t e d n e s s . C o n s i s t e n t throughout g i f t e d r e s e a r c h has been an advocacy f o r v a r i e t y and f l e x i b i l i t y i n s c r e e n i n g procedures. As s t a t e d in the book, The G i f t e d and  T a l e n t e d : Programs That Work (1979), "there are perhaps only two g e n e r a l l y accepted statements about i d e n t i f i c a t i o n [of the g i f t e d ] : s t a r t e a r l y , and use many methods." Through the f l e x i b l e use of a v a r i e t y of assessment devices one would be b e t t e r able to p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the young c h i l d to e x h i b i t the range and depth of h i s / h e r true c a p a b i l i t i e s . The q u e s t i o n of which devices should be i n c l u d e d in an assessment b a t t e r y has been s t u d i e d f o r s e v e r a l decades. In d e s i g n i n g a b a t t e r y f o r a s s e s s i n g p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n one f i n d s few devices s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r use wit h 2 th i s age group. In addition, one is faced with problems of questionable r e l i a b i l i t y or long-term v a l i d i t y of the existing devices. Over the years, however, programmes such as the Roeper School or the Seattle Project have provided evidence that when used in an assessment battery individual components tend to balance one another out; where one device is weak another device tends to be strong. These assessment batteries have included a range of devices such as standardized in t e l l i g e n c e tests, parental questionnaires, observations of the child and informal assessment of actual work done by the c h i l d . Over the years, these procedures have been designed, modified and employed, the r e l i a b i l i t y of the battery has been high. Through the use of follow-up data, these assessment procedures have been effe c t i v e in iden t i f y i n g young children as g i f t e d . Programmes functioning in this way have reported great success (Roeper, 1977; Cassidy & Vukelich, 1978; Roedell, Jackson, & Robinson, 1980; Whitmore, 1980; Karnes, Shwedel, & Linnemeyer, 1982; Vantassel-Baska, Schuler, & Lipshutz, 1982). From this supportive research, i t appeared that the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test (Form L-M. Terman & M e r r i l l , 1973) was the most v a l i d and the most r e l i a b l e of the standardized in t e l l i g e n c e tests for use with a preschool group (from age two years, zero months). 3 However, i t was noted that the long-term v a l i d i t y of the scores was not e s p e c i a l l y h igh. F a c t o r s such as formal s c h o o l i n g and i n c r e a s e d s o c i a b i l i t y g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e the c h i l d ' s e v e n t u a l 'mature' i n t e l l i g e n c e s t a n d i n g . The t e s t s such as the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , the Peabody I n d i v i d u a l Achievement Test, the Wechsler Pre s c h o o l and Primary Scale of I n t e l l i g e n c e and the S l o s s e n I n t e l l i g e n c e Test have a l s o been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s f o r p r e s c h o o l g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . These t e s t s a l s o s u f f e r e d to an even g r e a t e r extent from low long-term v a l i d i t y , or from a l a c k of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n with p r e s c h o o l age s u b j e c t s . Since i t i s understood that young c h i l d r e n ' s s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s cores, as long-term p r e d i c t o r s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , s u f f e r from a l a c k of v a l i d i t y , most of the programmes i n c l u d e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed to gather input from the c h i l d ' s parents as p a r t of t h e i r assessment p r o c e s s . There i s s u b s t a n t i a l evidence i n support of using p a r e n t a l input i n i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d r e n . Research has i n d i c a t e d t h at there i s a high degree of accuracy in using parents' s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n to i d e n t i f y g i f t e d p o t e n t i a l i n c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the p r e s c h o o l age range (Jacobs, 1971; Ciha, H a r r i s , Hoffman, & P o t t e r , 1974; Robinson, R o e d e l l , & Jackson, 1979; R o e d e l l et a l . , 1980; Karnes et a l . , 1982; Vantassel-Baska et a l . , 1982). Parents were able to r e p o r t on aspects of the c h i l d ' s performance that 4 were perhaps not c a p t u r e d by a t e s t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , not one o f the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b a t t e r i e s r e p o r t e d u s i n g a component t h a t assessed the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y take i n f o r m a t i o n gained or l e a r n e d i n one s i t u a t i o n and to a p p l y i t to o t h e r s i m i l a r , but not i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e or to s p o n t a n e o u s l y t r a n s f e r o l d l e a r n i n g would seem to be an i n t e g r a l component of g i f t e d b e h a v i o u r . I n young c h i l d r e n , t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c may be seen i n an advanced use of and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of words, symbols, sentences or a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s . W h i l e a l l c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e the a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e or to t r a n s f e r knowledge l e a r n e d , to some degree, from one s i t u a t i o n to a n o t h e r , the t r u l y g i f t e d person i s a b l e to make these g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s at a younger age or w i t h fewer concordant l i n k s between the c o n c e p t s . These c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t g r e a t e r i n s i g h t and are more spontaneous i n t h e i r t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g . T h i s i s not to say t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e i n the a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e i s apparent i n a l l o f the c h i l d ' s endeavours, but r a t h e r t h a t i n the s p e c i f i c a r e a ( s ) of g i f t e d n e s s the y o u n gster w i l l show advanced s k i l l s or a b i l i t i e s . T h i s q u a l i t y which seemed to be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f ' f u n c t i o n a l ' g i f t e d n e s s had been l e f t untapped. An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d e v i c e t h a t would a s s e s s the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e i n f o r m a t i o n or knowledge q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y seemed to be both needed and w a r r a n t e d , f o r 5 one's a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e or to make use of o l d l e a r n i n g i s fundamental to one's a b i l i t y to t h i n k , to l e a r n and to a c q u i r e new i d e a s ( c r e a t e ) . A c o r o l l a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f g i f t e d n e s s i s the a b i l i t y t o remember e f f e c t i v e l y . T h i s q u a l i t y i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to t r a n s f e r l e a r n i n g from one s i t u a t i o n to a n o t h e r , f o r the a c q u i r e d r u l e s or g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s must be remembered b e f o r e they can be t r a n s f e r r e d and a p p l i e d e f f e c t i v e l y i n n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s . G i f t e d c h i l d r e n show a keen a b i l i t y to induce complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s or to see c o n n e c t i o n s , a l t e r n a t i v e s or d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the w o r l d around them. Indeed, such a q u a l i t y o f t e n seen i n p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t e d y o u n g s t e r s i s the tendency to i n q u i r e or to q u e s t i o n events which take p l a c e around them, o f t e n t i m e s w i t h s i n g l e - m i n d e d d e t e r m i n a t i o n . P i a g e t ( i n Wadsworth, 1979) suggested t h a t c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s l o g i c l o n g b e f o r e they are a b l e to e x h i b i t t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s t h r o u g h language c h a n n e l s . T h i s was not to say t h a t t h e i r use o f l o g i c was synonymous w i t h a d u l t l o g i c ^ and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s . R a t h e r , c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s a l o g i c w h i c h i s based on t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n o f the w o r l d and t h e i r own c l a s s i f i c a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s t h e r e i n . Indeed, t h e i r l o g i c w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s c o n t e n t , even w h i l e seeming to be f l a w e d ( t o the a d u l t eye) due to the c h i l d ' s e g o c e n t r i c v i e w o f r e a l i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P i a g e t f u r t h e r suggested t h a t the c h i l d ' s l o g i c a l 6 development p r o g r e s s e s through stages or steps i n a s y s t e m a t i c way. He went on to contend t h a t the c h i l d ' s age and h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l or c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t y would i n f l u e n c e h i s p r o g r e s s through these s t a g e s . Indeed, he found t h a t c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n , hampered by l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y , never reached the l a t e r s tages o f development ( c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s and f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s ) . S i m i l a r l y , c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t i n g g r e a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s tended to pass through the stages more q u i c k l y . F o l l o w i n g t h e s e l i n e s of thought, one c o u l d employ measures of a c h i l d ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a b i l i t i e s to determine h i s p r o g r e s s i n r e l a t i o n to h i s age, through P i a g e t ' s s t a g e s o f development. T h i s would g i v e a more complete p i c t u r e of the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . I f P i a g e t ' s c o n t e n t i o n was c o r r e c t , i t would be yet another way to i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n as h a v i n g a p o t e n t i a l f o r g i f t e d n e s s , even at these younger ages. S h i g a k i and Wolf (1982) have a l s o shown t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n are a c c e l e r a t e d i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n o f l o g i c over c h i l d r e n of normal i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . With c h i l d r e n , r a n g i n g i n age from f i v e to ten y e a r s , S h i g a k i and Wolf found the g i f t e d c h i l d r e n to be at l e a s t two y e a r s a c c e l e r a t e d over the normal sample i n l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t i e s . Such f i n d i n g s added support f o r the use o f an assessment d e v i c e or t a s k t h a t combined the a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e w i t h the use of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . 7 In d e s i g n i n g an assessment b a t t e r y , i t seemed a d v i s a b l e to i n c l u d e some device to measure the s u b j e c t ' s p o t e n t i a l c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y ( S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , P.I.A.T., P.P.V.T., or W.P.P.S.I.). Use of a device that would allow f o r p a r e n t a l input, e i t h e r in the form of o b j e c t i v e or open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , or through the use of c h e c k l i s t s was a l s o i n d i c a t e d . F i n a l l y , a device f o r a s s e s s i n g the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t i e s to apply newly learned i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n seemed warranted. J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r Assessment It has been widely accepted that c h i l d r e n with a p o t e n t i a l f o r g i f t e d n e s s should be i d e n t i f i e d at as e a r l y an age as p o s s i b l e . Furthermore, they should r e c e i v e encouragement and be immersed in a s t i n m l a t i n g environment as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e (Terman, 1959; Bloom, 1964; Torrance, 1 967; Robinson _et a l . , 1979; Karnes et a l . , 1982). It was d i s a p p o i n t i n g to r e a l i z e that most i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and programming f o r the g i f t e d occurred only a f t e r the c h i l d was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d in s c h o o l . From the growing body of re s e a r c h on underachievement and school drop-outs, one may c o n j e c t u r e that t h i s p r a c t i c e f a i l e d to meet the needs of l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n who had the p o t e n t i a l f o r g i f t e d n e s s , but who f a i l e d to r e c e i v e adequate encouragement (School Board of Boward County, 8 F l o r i d a , 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 ; O r e g o n D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 9 ; W h i t e r a o r e , 1 9 7 9 ; 1 9 8 0 ) . I t b e c a m e i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t t h a t f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e o r i d e n t i f y s u p e r i o r a b i l i t i e s i n p r e s c h o o l a g e c h i l d r e n s e e m e d , i n s o m e c a s e s , t o h a v e h a d a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . R e c e n t s t u d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s u c h f a i l u r e h a v e s h o w n a l a r m i n g t r e n d s i n s o m e c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r s . S o m e o f t h e s e b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s h a v e i n c l u d e d p o t e n t i a l d e c l i n e i n m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e ( S u t h e r l a n d & G o l d s c h m i d , 1 9 7 4 ) , b o r e d o m o r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c h o o l ( F o x , 1 9 7 1 ; R o e p e r , 1 9 7 7 ; W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ; V a n t a s s e l - B a s k a e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) , s o m e s h i f t s o f e x c e p t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r s t o w a r d t h e m e a n l e v e l o f b e h a v i o u r e x h i b i t e d b y h i s a g e p e e r s ( M a l o n e & M o o n a n , 1 9 7 5 ; W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) , o r t h a t a n y n u m b e r o f a n t i - s o c i a l o r n o n p r o d u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s c o u l d b e a d o p t e d ( O r e g o n D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 9 ; R o e d e l l et a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . W h i l e s o m e p a t t e r n s h a v e e m e r g e d , i t s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h a t s u c h r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t a n d m o r e w o r k n e e d s t o b e d o n e i n t h e a r e a b e f o r e o n e c a n s t a t e a s f a c t t h e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f f a i l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e e x c e p t i o n a l i t y i n y o u n g s t e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e s e a r c h d o e s s u p p o r t a n a r g u m e n t f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f e c o n o m i c a l , e f f i c i e n t a n d e f f e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d e v i c e s f o r u s e w i t h y o u n g , p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . 9 S i m i l a r l y , those c h i l d r e n who were i d e n t i f i e d at an e a r l i e r age and who did r e c e i v e r e c o g n i t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r area(s) of p o t e n t i a l tended to continue to e x c e l , e s p e c i a l l y where the support and encouragement were ongoing throughout t h e i r s c h o o l i n g (Terman, 1959; Whitmore, 1980; Karnes et a l . , 1982). From a review of r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e , i t i s evident that e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n was s t r o n g l y advocated. S i m i l a r l y , p s y c h o l o g i s t s and educators have a l s o i n d i c a t e d that p r o v i d i n g a s t i m u l a t i n g and s u p p o r t i v e environment f o r these c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y in t h e i r area(s) of g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l , i s of utmost importance. There i s a need for more resea r c h in the area of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and programming needs f o r preschool g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Research to date i s sparse and programmes fu n c t i o n e d i n i s o l a t i o n to a l a r g e extent. S p e c i f i c a l l y , r e s e a r c h of t h i s nature was needed f o r s e v e r a l reasons: 1. This age group of c h i l d r e n (3-5 years) had been l a r g e l y overlooked i n g i f t e d r e s e a r c h . A l a r g e r e s e a r c h gap e x i s t e d between i n f a n t r e s e a r c h and school-age r e s e a r c h . 2. Information on the nature of g i f t e d n e s s with t h i s age group could provide b a s e l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 10 3. To g a t h e r d a t a which w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the growing body of r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g the e t i o l o g y o f underachievement. I t has been h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t underachievement can o r i g i n a t e as e a r l y as k i n d e r g a r t e n . Follow-up data i n the form of s y s t e m a t i c reassessment c o u l d p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the i n f l u e n c e of such f a c t o r s as f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g , i n c r e a s e d independence and i n c r e a s e d s o c i a b i l i t y on the c h i l d ' s 'measurable' g i f t e d n e s s . 4. To h i g h l i g h t the need f o r the use and development o f p r e s c h o o l assessment d e v i c e s to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t e d y o u n g s t e r s so as to b e t t e r meet t h e i r needs i n both t h e i r s c h o o l and t h e i r s o c i a l l i v e s ( p a r e n t a l and p e e r ) . R e s e a r c h Problems and Hypotheses The p r e s e n t study s e t out to i n v e s t i g a t e the n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p r e s c h o o l c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and h i s a b i l i t y to perform c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . I t a l s o a s s e s s e d the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e l e a r n e d c o n c e p t s . A s p e c i f i c focus of the p r e s e n t study was to e v a l u a t e the r e l e v a n c e of prompting c h i l d r e n to t r a n s f e r o l d l e a r n i n g to s i m i l a r t a s k s i t u a t i o n s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f spontaneous (o r i n s i g h t f u l ) use o f a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d c o n c e p t s . In o r d e r to determine the workings of c h i l d r e n ' s t r a n s f e r s t r a t e g i e s , i t was n e c e s s a r y to o b s e r v e 11 the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f prompting f o r c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t I.Q. l e v e l s and ages p e r f o r m i n g a s e t of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , by the c r e a t i o n of a c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h 'prompting,' as opposed to 'no prompting,' was p r o v i d e d , i t became p o s s i b l e to a s s e s s the amount of s p o n t a n e i t y e x h i b i t e d by the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n o f concepts l e a r n e d i n one s i t u a t i o n to o t h e r new, but s i m i l a r t a s k s . Thus, the p r e s e n t experiment a d d r e s s e d a s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n , " I s i t p o s s i b l e f o r p r e s c h o o l e r s , who are most l i k e l y to be i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g a p o t e n t i a l f o r academic g i f t e d n e s s ( h a v i n g a h i g h I.Q. l e v e l ) , to g e n e r a l i z e what they have l e a r n e d to a t r a n s f e r t a s k as e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h or w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g ? " I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the h i g h e r I.Q. s u b j e c t s would have a more spontaneous, n a t u r a l p r o c l i v i t y to make use of o l d l e a r n i n g i n meeting the _ c u r r e n t t a s k i n hand, than those s u b j e c t s i n the lower I.Q. g r o u p s . I n g e n e r a l , i t was expected t h a t the h i g h e r I.Q. l e v e l s i n b o t h the c o n t r o l and the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups would show e q u a l l y h i g h s c o r e s on the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k s , i f indeed s p o n t a n e i t y i s an i n t r i n s i c a t t r i b u t e o f the h i g h I.Q. group. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the h i g h e r I.Q. c o n t r o l group and the h i g h e r I.Q. e x p e r i m e n t a l group performance on the p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n s of 12 t h e s e t a s k s , whereas t h e r e would be a d i f f e r e n c e g i v e n low I.Q. e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the younger c h i l d r e n . T h i s would be the case because those c h i l d r e n w i t h the h i g h e s t I.Q.s would be l e s s i n need of p r o m p t i n g , as they g e n e r a l i z e or s p o n t a n e o u s l y t r a n s f e r l e a r n i n g more e a s i l y than do the c h i l d r e n w i t h the more average I.Q. s c o r e s . The degree to which prompting was a f a c t o r would v a r y i n accordance w i t h the l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y o f the s p e c i f i c t a s k s i t u a t i o n s . In o t h e r words, g i v e n easy c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s , the h y p o t h e s i z e d r o l e o f p r o m p t i n g may not be e x p e c t e d , but may be f o r o p t i m a l l y d i f f i c u l t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o determine c o n d i t i o n s ( i . e . , age, t a s k d i f f i c u l t y , e t c . ) t h a t l i m i t the n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I.Q. l e v e l s and e f f i c a c y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o m p t i n g . R e l a t e d to the i n t e r a c t i o n h y p o t h e s i s d e s c r i b e d above, i t was a l s o expected t h a t the lower I.Q. c o n t r o l groups would have the lower performance s c o r e s on the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k s i n b o t h age groups. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n performance was e x p e c t e d between the lower I.Q. c o n t r o l group and the lower I.Q. e x p e r i m e n t a l group, w i t h the s c o r e s from the l a t t e r b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those o f the c o n t r o l g roups. These r e s u l t s would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what was e x p e c t e d from the s p o n t a n e i t y h y p o t h e s i s . I t was a l s o expected t h a t the f o u r y e a r o l d groups 13 would perform b e t t e r i n each area when compared to the performance of t h e i r t h r e e year o l d c o u n t e r p a r t s . I t seemed l i k e l y t h a t the f o u r year o l d c h i l d r e n would have a bro a d e r range o f c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , w i t h which to unde r s t a n d and employ new c o n c e p t s , than would the t h r e e year o l d c h i l d r e n . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t the s p o n t a n e i t y h y p o t h e s i s , as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s i n h i g h I.Q. and average I.Q. c h i l d r e n , appears to beg a p r e r e q u i s i t e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . One must f i r s t c o n s i d e r which group of c h i l d r e n , h i g h I.Q. or average I.Q., b e n e f i t s more from i n s t r u c t i o n a l prompting i n the f i r s t p l a c e , even b e f o r e we c o n s i d e r the h i g h I.Q. c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l p r o c l i v i t y o f spontaneous use o f o l d l e a r n i n g . I t may w e l l be t h a t i t i s the h i g h I.Q. i n d i v i d u a l t h a t u n d e r s t a n d s the r e l e v a n c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l prompting q u i c k l y and i s a b l e to make optimum use of i t , i n c o n t r a s t to an i n d i v i d u a l o f a more average I.Q. l e v e l . Thus, i t was a l t e r n a t i v e l y h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t h i g h I.Q. l e v e l c h i l d r e n are those who c o u l d make an o p t i m a l use o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l prompting p r o v i d e d , whereas the more average I.Q. l e v e l c h i l d r e n may not be. S i m i l a r l y , o l d e r c h i l d r e n ( f o u r - y e a r - o l d s ) c o u l d a l s o make b e t t e r use o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l prompting on a p p r o p r i a t e l y c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k s than younger c h i l d r e n ( t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s ) . 14 I I . METHOD Subjects and Design For the purposes of t h i s study, the sub j e c t s were p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n who ranged i n age from three years, zero months to four years, eleven months. F o r t y - t h r e e s u b j e c t s (14 boys and 29 g i r l s ) were s e l e c t e d from across the g r e a t e r Vancouver r e g i o n . These su b j e c t s were placed i n t o groups according to t h e i r ages, r e s u l t i n g i n twenty-three t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s and twenty f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . These groups were then randomly s p l i t i n two, with h a l f of each group being assigned to a c o n t r o l treatment and h a l f to the experimental treatment. The c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s diA not r e c e i v e prompting b e f o r e the p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Learning and T r a n s f e r tasks, whereas the experimental s u b j e c t s d i d r e c e i v e prompting. F o l l o w i n g t h e i r assignment to groups, the c h i l d r e n were administered the St a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e Test (Form L-M). Using the Standford-Binet t e s t scores (I.Q.) the c o n t r o l and experimental groups were s p l i t i n t o two sub-groups c o n s i s t i n g of the higher I.Q. scores (130-164 I.Q.) and the lower I.Q. scores (99-129). A l l of the s u b j e c t s included i n t h i s study were of average or above average a b i l i t y . Any sub j e c t s not o b t a i n i n g at l e a s t an average I.Q. score f o r t h e i r age l e v e l were not i n c l u d e d . 15 T h i s p r o c e d u r e r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n o f h i g h and low I.Q. c o n t r o l sub-groups and h i g h and low I.Q. e x p e r i m e n t a l sub-groups. In f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n s the s u b j e c t s were then g i v e n the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t p o r t i o n s o f the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k s . S e v e r a l assumptions were made at t h i s p o i n t . I t was assumed t h a t due to the i n i t i a l random assignment o f s u b j e c t s to the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i g h I.Q. performance down through to the l o w e s t I.Q. performance o b t a i n e d would be b a l a n c e d between the two groups. I t was a l s o assumed t h a t a l l s c o r e s o b t a i n e d would be average or above average, even f o r those s u b j e c t s whose s c o r e s p l a c e d them i n the l o w e r I.Q. group. Two groups were a c t u a l l y compared, one c o n s i s t i n g o f s u p e r i o r I.Q. s c o r e s , the o t h e r c o n s i s t i n g o f h i g h average I.Q. s c o r e s . I n s e r t T a b l e 1 About Here By d i s t r i b u t i n g the s c o r e s i n t h i s f a s h i o n s e v e r a l comparisons became p o s s i b l e . The mean I.Q. s c o r e s f o r each subgroup, as w e l l as the mean s c o r e s f o r the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 16 L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k s were o b t a i n e d f o r each of the e i g h t c e l l s . U s i n g these s c o r e s , one was a b l e to compare, f i r s t l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e (as measured by the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t ) and performance on C l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s . One was a l s o a b l e to compare the performance of those c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d prompts to a i d i n t h e i r t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g ( e x p e r i m e n t a l groups) w i t h the performance of those c h i l d r e n not r e c e i v i n g any p r o m p t i n g ( c o n t r o l s ) . P r o m p t i n g , f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, c o n s i s t e d of a r e v i e w o f what was l e a r n e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n . T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o m p t i n g was to remind and to encourage the use o f o l d l e a r n i n g . The c h i l d worked through the t a s k s and r e c e i v e d feedback from the t e s t e r . The dependent v a r i a b l e s were the c h i l d r e n ' s performance s c o r e s on the f i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k s i n both the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n s . Performance on the f i v e d i f f e r e n t t a s k s i n c l u d e d the number of c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s on two u n i d i m e n s i o n a l t a s k s o f s i z e and shape, one c o n j u n c t i v e t a s k of two d i m e n s i o n s ( s i z e and c o l o u r ) , one i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k o f symmetry, and f i n a l l y , one c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k o f magnetism. The independent v a r i a b l e s were prompting t r e a t m e n t , age, and l e v e l o f I.Q. s c o r e on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t . 17 A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a w a s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . T h e A N O C O V A f o r m e d a 2 ( p r o m p t i n g v s . n o p r o m p t i n g ) x 2 ( 3 v s . 4 y e a r s o l d ) x 2 ( h i g h v s . l o w I . Q . l e v e l ) f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h o n e g a i n ( o r l o s s ) s c o r e ( p o s t - t e s t m i n u s p r e - t e s t m e a s u r e ) . T e s t a n d L e a r n i n g M a t e r i a l s M a t e r i a l s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d t h e p a r e n t r a t i n g s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d o f o b j e c t i v e a n d s u b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t e a c h c h i l d a n d w a s c o m p l e t e d b y t h e p a r e n t s a s a p r e s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e . T h i s p r o v i d e d t h e t e s t e r w i t h a r o u g h e s t i m a t e o f t h e c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e . A f o r m a l , s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t w a s a l s o e m p l o y e d . T h i s c o n s i s t e d o f t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t ( F o r m L - M ) . F o r t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g a n d T r a n s f e r ( C . L . & T . ) t a s k s s e v e r a l s e t s o f m a t e r i a l s w e r e d e v e l o p e d . T h e s e i n c l u d e d l a m i n a t e d c a r d b o a r d f l a s h c a r d s ( S i z e t a s k ) , l a m i n a t e d c a r d b o a r d s h a p e s i n a r a n g e o f c o l o u r s ( f o r S y m m e t r y , S h a p e , a n d S i z e & C o l o u r t a s k s ) , a n d p l a s t i c s h a p e s ( f o r S h a p e s a n d S i z e & C o l o u r t a s k s ) . M a g n e t s a n d a n a s s o r t m e n t o f m a g n e t i c a n d n o n - m a g n e t i c o b j e c t s w e r e a l s o e m p l o y e d ( f o r M a g n e t i s m t a s k s ) . T h e r a n g e s o f c o l o u r s a n d t h e s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s a r e d e t a i l e d i n t h e P r o c e d u r e s e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g a n d T r a n s f e r t a s k s . 18 P r o c e d u r e S u b j e c t s were o b t a i n e d p r i m a r i l y from p r e s c h o o l o r d a y c a r e c e n t r e s i n Vancouver, Richmond and D e l t a . Some a d d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s were o b t a i n e d by "word o f mouth" from West Vancouver, Vancouver and Richmond. C h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study f o l l o w i n g n o m i n a t i o n s by t h e i r p a r e n t s . Those p a r e n t s who responded w i t h i n t e r e s t were asked to complete a paren t r a t i n g s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of both o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s about the c h i l d ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , h o b b i e s , e t c . The o b j e c t i v e p o r t i o n s d e a l t w i t h s p e c i f i c s k i l l s or a b i l i t i e s the c h i l d then possessed as w e l l as w i t h the s p e c i f i c l e v e l of development the c h i l d was a t . The open-ended q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d the p a r e n t s w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y to d e s c r i b e s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s which they f e l t were e x c e p t i o n a l i n t h e i r c h i l d . F o l l o w i n g a r e v i e w of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a rough s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s was performed. C h i l d r e n who seemed to have average to above average a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r age were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . At t h i s p o i n t , the c h i l d r e n were randomly a s s i g n e d e i t h e r to the no prompting treatment or to the prompting tr e a t m e n t f o r t h e i r age range. A l l c h i l d r e n were then g i v e n the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e Test (Form L-M). 19 A l l c h i l d r e n took p a r t i n p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n s o f the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k s . These s e s s i o n s began w i t h an i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n / p l a y s e s s i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e minutes d u r a t i o n . The o b s e r v a t i o n / p l a y s e s s i o n a l l o w e d the c h i l d to demonstrate h i s or her a b i l i t i e s i n a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g s e t t i n g and a l s o to become f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e s t e r . D u r i n g the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k p r e - t e s t s e s s i o n , the c h i d r e n worked through f i v e l e a r n i n g t a s k s ( w i t h feedback from the t e s t e r ) , each of which c o n s i s t e d o f ten items or q u e s t i o n s . These t a s k s i n v o l v e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n problems d e a l i n g w i t h o b j e c t s ' s i z e , shape, c o l o u r & s i z e , symmetry and magnetism a t t r i b u t e s . The t a s k s used i n the p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n were designed to be more d i f f i c u l t f o r the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d by i n c l u d i n g a number of i r r e l e v a n t d i m e n s i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s i n each t a s k . These were to a c t as d i s t r a c t o r s . For example, i n the p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n the f i g u r e s used i n the S i z e t a s k v a r i e d i n c o l o u r , the o b j e c t s used i n the Shape t a s k v a r i e d i n t h i c k n e s s and i n the m a t e r i a l used to form them. In the S i z e & C o l o u r t a s k , o b j e c t s t h a t have the c o l o u r a t t r i b u t e c o r r e c t , but are not the c o r r e c t s i z e , were i n c l u d e d . With the Symmetry p o s t - t e s t t a s k b oth h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l symmetry was used, as were f i g u r e s w i t h v e r y i r r e g u l a r forms. In the Magnetism t a s k o b j e c t s which are v e r y hard 20 ( r o c k ) or have s e v e r a l o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s i n common (metal spoon and p l a s t i c spoon) were used. None o f these d i s t r a c t o r s appear i n the p r e t e s t s e s s i o n s of these t a s k s . In t h i s way, the c h i l d r e n are encouraged to a p p l y concepts l e a r n e d i n a p r e v i o u s s i t u a t i o n to a s i m i l a r , but not i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . The c h i l d r e n were taken s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t h rough these t a s k s w h i l e r e c e i v i n g feedback to t h e i r responses to each q u e s t i o n . The more c o n c r e t e t a s k s ( s i z e and shape) were completed f i r s t , w i t h the c h i l d then p r o c e e d i n g through to the more a b s t r a c t concepts ( c o l o u r & s i z e , symmetry and then magnetism). The t o t a l number of c o r r e c t responses was r e c o r d e d f o r each of the f i v e l e a r n i n g t a s k s . The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n i n v o l v e d s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p rocedures f o r the c o n t r o l and the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups. There was a b r i e f r e v i e w and prompting p e r i o d f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups b o t h age groups. T h i s p e r i o d c o n s i s t e d o f a r e v i e w and d i s c u s s i o n of items from each o f the f i v e l e a r n i n g t a s k s . The c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s d i d not r e c e i v e the r e v i e w and prompting p e r i o d . I n s t e a d , they proceeded d i r e c t l y to the t e s t s e s s i o n of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k s . The t r a n s f e r t e s t s e s s i o n a g a i n r e q u i r e d a l l s u b j e c t s to work through the f i v e l e a r n i n g t a s k s composed of ten 21 items each. The s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d no feedback f o l l o w i n g t h e i r responses to these i t e m s . The t e s t e r s i m p l y nodded and s a i d , ' f i n e , ' i n response to the c h i l d ' s answers. T h i s p rocedure was f o l l o w e d w i t h b o t h the c o n t r o l and the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i n the a c t u a l t e s t s e c t i o n . I n s e r t F i g u r e 1 About Here The t o t a l number of c o r r e c t responses f o r was r e c o r d e d f o r each of the f i v e t a s k s ( s i z e , c o l o u r & s i z e , symmetry and magnetism). each s u b j e c t shape, 22 I I I . RESULTS C h i l d r e n ' s performances on two s e t s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s ( f i v e p r e t e s t and f i v e p o s t - t e s t t a s k s ) used f o r the p r e s e n t study ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by s i z e , shape and c o l o u r , p e r c e p t u a l matching f o r g e o m e t r i c symmetry, and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by magnetic a t t r a c t i o n ) were scored i n terms of 1 0 - p o i n t s . Each p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s a c o r r e c t response to each concept i n s t a n c e of a t a s k . The mean p r e t e s t and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s of 43 c h i l d r e n ' s performances are shown i n Tab l e 2 . I n s e r t Table 2 About Here P r i o r to the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the d a t a o b t a i n e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y to determine the t a s k d i f f i c u l t y and e f f i c i e n c y i n a s s e s s i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s . In doing' so, p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s were performed on t h r e e performance measures o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by s i z e , shape, and symmetry m a t c h i n g . As can be seen i n Table 2 , c e l l mean s c o r e s on the t h r e e measures, e s p e c i a l l y those on symmetry m a t c h i n g , appear to i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n performed at c e i l i n g l e v e l f o r each t a s k ( e . g . , the c e l l mean of 10 means t h a t everyone performed p e r f e c t l y , 23 r e s u l t i n g i n no w i t h i n c e l l v a r i a n c e ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t was d e c i d e d f i r s t to a n a l y z e o n l y two measures on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s , u s i n g the s i z e and shape t a s k s as measures of elementary l e a r n i n g . T h i s was done to see i f p r e s c h o o l e r s ' performances on s i m p l e r t a s k s d i s c r i m i n a t e two age groups as w e l l as two I.Q. l e v e l s . Performances of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s by s i z e and by shape. A n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were performed on g e n e r a l p r o f i c i e n c y s c o r e s o f the p r e t e s t and the p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s and o f the g a i n s c o r e s from p r e t e s t s c o r e s f o r these two measures. The observed c e l l means of f o u r t r a n s f o r m e d measures are shown by 8 subgroups i n Table 3. I t was found I n s e r t Table 3 About Here t h a t none of the g a i n s c o r e s d i f f e r e d so s i g n i f i c a n t l y as to be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t o r s o f age, I.Q. l e v e l s , and p r o m p t i n g , and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . I t should be noted here t h a t the p o s t - t e s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s are a l i t t l e more complex than the p r e t e s t t a s k s i n terms of one more i r r e l e v a n t d i m e n s i o n added. T h e r e f o r e , s c o r e s from the p o s t - t e s t t a s k s are somewhat depressed r e l a t i v e to the p r e t e s t s c o r e s . 2 4 A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e g a i n s c o r e s i s n o t a b s o l u t e , b u t r a t h e r r e l a t i v e a c r o s s t h e s u b g r o u p s d e f i n e d b y a g e , I . Q . l e v e l s , a n d p r o m p t i n g t r e a t m e n t s . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e g e n e r a l p r o f i c i e n c y s c o r e s o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y s i z e a n d s h a p e i n d i c a t e t h a t f o u r - y e a r -o l d s d i d b e t t e r t h a n t h r e e - y e a r o l d s ( 1 . 0 9 f o r s i z e ; 0 . 8 6 f o r s h a p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) , F s ( 1 , 3 5 ) = 11 . 7 9 a n d 4 . 5 4 ; JJS < 0 . 0 0 1 6 a n d 0 . 0 4 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y s i z e a n d s h a p e . S i m i l a r l y , h i g h I . Q . p r e s c h o o l e r s o f a b o v e 1 3 0 1 . Q . p e r f o r m e d m o r e a c c u r a t e l y t h a n l o w I . Q . p r e s c h o o l e r s o f 9 9 u p t o 1 2 9 I . Q . ( 0 . 7 6 f o r s i z e ; 0 . 9 9 f o r s h a p e ) . F s ( 1 , 3 5 ) = 5 . 7 8 a n d 6 . 0 7 , JJS < 0 . 0 2 2 a n d 0 . 0 1 9 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r s i z e a n d s h a p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . T h e s e t w o f i n d i n g s a p p e a r t o b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o n e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s b a s e d o n a s s u m e d v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e s c o r e s o n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y s i z e a n d s h a p e . T h a t i s , i t w a s a s s u m e d t h a t o l d e r a n d h i g h I . Q . p r e s c h o o l e r s w o u l d d o b e t t e r o n t h e s e t a s k s i f t h e t a s k s h a v e a n y r e l e v a n c e t o c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , a s t h e y s h o u l d . A l l o t h e r p e r f o r m a n c e v a r i a n c e s i n i n t e r a c t i o n s w e r e e i t h e r t r i v i a l i n t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g c o n f o u n d e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o m p t i n g o r w e r e n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . P e r f o r m a n c e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s b y c o l o u r a n d s i z e , a n d  m a g n e t i s m C l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y c o l o u r a n d s i z e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n j u n c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y m a g n e t i s m 25 i s a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l task having a b s t r a c t a t t r i b u t e values along with many i r r e l e v a n t s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s , both of which are more complex f o r p r e s c h o o l e r s . As with the two p r e v i o u s task performance s c o r e s , scores on the c o n j u n c t i v e and magnetism tasks were transformed i n t o g e n e r a l p r o f i c i e n c y and g a i n s c o r e s . C e l l mean scores of these two are shown in T a b l e 3 by e i g h t subgroups. Analyses of I n s e r t Table 4 About Here v a r i a n c e were performed on the two measures. The four year o l d p r e s c h o o l e r s , i n g e n e r a l , performed more a c c u r a t e l y than the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s on the c o n j u n c t i v e and magnetism tasks (0.54 f o r the c o n j u n c t i v e ; 1.42 f o r the magnetism t a s k s ) , Fs(1,35) = 2.58 and 7.94; £ S = 0.117 and 0.008; r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the c o n j u n c t i v e and magnetism t a s k s . S i m i l a r l y , the high I.Q. p r e s c h o o l e r s d i d b e t t e r than the low I.Q. (0.61 f o r the c o n j u n c t i v e ; 1.34 f o r the magnetism) Fs (1,35) = 3.35 and 7.07; £ S < 0.076 and 0.012; r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the c o n j u n c t i v e and magnetism t a s k s . Again, a l l other performance v a r i a b l e s i n i n t e r a c t i o n s were e i t h e r t r i v i a l i n the sense of being confounded w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l prompting, or were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . 26 I t should be noted here that the gain score determined, in g e n e r a l , i s n e g a t i v e because of the p o s t - t e s t ( t r a n s f e r task) being more complex than the p r e t e s t . It was found that the high I.Q. p r e s c h o o l e r s a c t u a l l y gained more than the low I.Q. p r e s c h o o l e r s (-1.35 g i i n f o r the low I.Q. and -0.27 f o r the high I.Q.) only on the c o n j u n c t i v e task, Fs (1,35) = 6.10 and 0.19; £ S < 0.019 and 0.67, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the c o n j u n c t i v e and magnetism t a s k s . There were s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between age and i n s t r u c t i o n a l prompting in terms of the g a i n score only on the c o n j u n c t i v e task, Fs(1,35) = 6.68 and 0.06; p_s < 0.014 and 0.81, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the c o n j u n c t i v e and magnetism t a s k s . The nature of the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n i s such t h a t , g i v e n the three year o l d p r e s c h o o l e r s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l prompting y i e l d e d l e s s t r a n s f e r than no prompting ( i . e . , -1.65 vs -0.59), whereas given the f o u r - y e a r - o l d s the prompting produced r e l a t i v e l y more t r a n s f e r than no prompting ( i . e . , 0.10 vs -1.10). A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was observed f o r the magnetism t a s k s . The c r i t i c a l experimental hypothesis of the present study was examined by the a n a l y s i s of the gain scores from the p r e t e s t performance in a 2(age) X 2(1.Q. l e v e l ) X 2(prompting) X 2 ( p r e t e s t vs. p o s t - t e s t ) design, the l a s t f a c t o r being a repeated measure f a c t o r i n d i c a t i n g the t r a n s f e r performance a t t r i b u t a b l e to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l prompting treatment. 27 The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t such a four-way i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of the g a i n s c o r e o n l y on the magnetism t a s k s . The n a t u r e o f the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n i s such t h a t the t h r e e year o l d h i g h I.Q. l e v e l  p r e s c h o o l e r s y i e l d e d more t r a n s f e r ( i . e . , g a i n ) when g i v e n  promptJTy j than g i v e n no prompting ; but the t h r e e year o l d low I.Q. l e v e l p r e s c h o o l e r s showed the o p p o s i t e r e s u l t s . On the o t h e r hand, the f o u r y e a r o l d h i g h I.Q. l e v e l  p r e s c h o o l e r s showed as much t r a n s f e r when g i v e n no  i n s t r u c t i o n a l p rompting as when g i v e n p r o m p t i n g , but the f o u r year o l d low I.Q. l e v e l p r e s c h o o l e r s showed the o p p o s i t e to be the c a s e , t h a t i s , more t r a n s f e r w i t h o u t the pro m p t i n g . The same p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s can be seen i n the g a i n s c o r e o f e i g h t subgroups g i v e n t h e t c o n j u n c t i v e t a s k p erformance. On the b a s i s o f t h i s l a s t a n a l y s i s , n e i t h e r the o r i g i n a l ' s p o n t a n e i t y ' h y p o t h e s i s , nor the a l t e r n a t i v e ' o p t i m a l use' h y p o t h e s i s , can be s a i d to be c l e a r l y and c o m p l e t e l y supported i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l forms. I n s t e a d , an a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e , t h a t i s , age l e v e l , has to come i n t o p l a y i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r the observed i n t e r a c t i o n of a complex n a t u r e . Simply p u t , the ' s p o n t a n e i t y ' h y p o t h e s i s was support e d by the f o u r - y e a r - o l d ' s d a t a ; w h i l e the ' o p t i m a l use' h y p o t h e s i s , by the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d ' s d a t a . IV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION From a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s i t becomes apparent t h a t n e i t h e r o f the proposed hypotheses was t r u e a l l o f the t i m e . The age v a r i a b l e i n t e r v e n e s to a c t as a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h a t the l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s of p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n are v e r y much i n f l u e n c e d by the c h i l d r e n ' s age l e v e l s , as w e l l as t h e i r I.Q. l e v e l s . From the a n a l y s i s o f the p o s t - t e s t performance of the c h i l d r e n on the s i m p l e r , more c o n c r e t e t a s k s of s i z e and shape, the o r i g i n a l ' s p o n t a n e i t y ' h y p o t h e s i s g a i n e d s u p p o r t . The o l d e r s u b j e c t s and those s u b j e c t s h a v i n g the h i g h e r I.Q.s o b t a i n e d b e t t e r s c o r e s than d i d the lower I.Q. or younger s u b j e c t s . On the more d i f f i c u l t t a s k s o f c o l o u r and s i z e , and magnetism, the a l t e r n a t e ' o p t i m a l use' h y p o t h e s i s g a i n s s u p p o r t . Once a g a i n , the f o u r year o l d c h i l d r e n were more a c c u r a t e than the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s , and the h i g h e r I.Q. p r e s c h o o l e r s had the g r e a t e s t g a i n s and, i n g e n e r a l , performed b e t t e r than the l o w e r I.Q. p r e s c h o o l e r s . The i n f l u e n c e o f p r o m p t i n g on the c h i l d r e n ' s g a i n s c o r e s f o r t h e s e t a s k s was a f f e c t e d by the age l e v e l s o f the groups. The t h r e e year o l d , h i g h e r I.Q. l e v e l groups b e n e f i t e d most from r e c e i v i n g p r o m p t i n g , whereas the f o u r y e a r o l d , h i g h e r I.Q. groups d i d n o t . These r e s u l t s add s u p p o r t to the a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s , i n so f a r as the 2 9 y o u n g e r h i g h I . Q . c h i l d r e n w e r e b e t t e r a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a n d u t i l i z e t h e p r o m p t s o n t h e s e t a s k s . O t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e a l s o r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n ' s I . Q . l e v e l s , t h e i r a g e s , a n d t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o e f f e c t i v e l y u s e p r o m p t i n g , p r i m i n g , o r r e c a l l o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . R o h w e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t I . Q . m a y b e a r o u g h i n d e x o f t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a p r o p e n s i t y f o r u s i n g e l a b o r a t i o n t o s o l v e l e a r n i n g a n d m e m o r y p r o b l e m s . H e r e p o r t s , " t h e e f f e c t s o f v e r b a l l y a u g m e n t e d p r o m p t s . . . t o b e g e n e r a l a c r o s s a n I . Q . r a n g e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 5 t o 1 4 0 . " H e a l s o f o u n d t h a t a s t h e c h i l d g o t o l d e r h e / s h e b e c a m e b e t t e r a b l e t o u s e p r o m p t s e f f e c t i v e l y , a n d w i t h l e s s e x p l i c i t p r o m p t s . M i l g r a m ( 1 9 6 7 ) f o u n d t h a t b o t h n o r m a l a n d r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n h a d h i g h e r p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s o n r e c a l l i n g w o r d p a i r s f o l l o w i n g p r o m p t i n g . O n l y t h e n o r m a l c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d c a r r y - o v e r b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e p r o m p t i n g o n e w e e k l a t e r , h o w e v e r . T h e s e s t u d i e s a d d s u p p o r t t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s w h e r e b y t h e m o r e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c a p a b l e c h i l d r e n a r e t h e b e s t a b l e t o b e n e f i t f r o m p r o m p t i n g . T h e s e s t u d i e s a l s o r e c o g n i z e a g e a s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . G o l l i n a n d G a r r i s o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o u n d a g e t o b e a n i n f l u e n c e o n w h e t h e r a c h i l d c o u l d u s e ' p r i m i n g ' e f f e c t i v e l y . T h e y o b s e r v e d t h a t f o r t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d r e n ( 4 y e a r s o l d ) i n t h e i r s t u d y , p r i m i n g d i d n o t f a c i l i t a t e 3 0 t r a n s f e r . O n c e t h e c h i l d r e a c h e d 4 . 5 t o 5 . 0 y e a r s o f a g e , h o w e v e r , t h e y w e r e o b s e r v e d t o b e n e f i t f r o m c e r t a i n , v e r y c o n c r e t e , f o r m s o f p r i m i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s s t u d y d o e s n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n t h e r e s p e c t i v e I . Q . l e v e l s o f i t s s u b j e c t s . W h i l e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y r e c o g n i z e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a g e o n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s t o e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e p r o m p t s , i t a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i n s i g h t , o r t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e b r i g h t e r c h i l d r e n t o s p o n t a n e o u s l y t r a n s f e r c o n c e p t s l e a r n e d i n o n e s i t u a t i o n . S t e r n b e r g a n d D a v i d s o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e ' i n s i g h t s k i l l s ' o f t h e g i f t e d a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s p e c i a l t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s p r e s e n t i n t h e s e p e o p l e . T h e y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a b i l i t i e s t o s i f t o u t r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , t o c o m b i n e i s o l a t e d p i e c e s o f s e e m i n g l y i r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , o r t o r e l a t e n e w l y g a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l , a r e a l l c r u c i a l e l e m e n t s o f g i f t e d n e s s . On t h e m o r e d i f f i c u l t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s , t h e f o u r y e a r o l d , h i g h e r I . Q . c h i l d r e n p e r f o r m e d i n t h i s m a n n e r . W h i l e o b t a i n i n g t h e b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s , t h e y d i d n o t r e q u i r e p r o m p t i n g t o d o s o . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e b a s i c c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e s e f o u r - y e a r - o l d s a r e m o r e f u n c t i o n a l t h a n f o r t h e s e t h r e e y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n , i n b o t h I . Q . 31 l e v e l s , were b e t t e r a b l e to i n c o r p o r a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t they had r e t a i n e d from the p r e t e s t s e s s i o n . The h i g h e r I.Q. l e v e l f o u r - y e a r - o l d s were t h e r e f o r e a b l e to e x h i b i t g r e a t e r s p o n t a n e i t y i n t h e i r t r a n s f e r of p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d concepts than were the t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s o f h i g h I.Q. In c o n c l u s i o n , the f i n d i n g s " e p o r t e d here i n d i c a t e t h a t as p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t e d p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n approach s c h o o l age, they show l e s s need of prompting and g r e a t e r s p o n t a n e i t y i n t h e i r t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n e d c o n c e p t s . W h i l e these r e s u l t s are not c o n c l u s i v e , due to the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of s u b j e c t s o b s e r v e d , the r e s u l t s do encourage f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . To s t r e n g t h e n these r e s u l t s , a f o l l o w - u p study s i m i l a r to the p r e s e n t study c o u l d i n c l u d e ;wo-year-olds ( t o r e p r e s e n t even more b a s i c c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s ) and f i v e - y e a r - o l d s ( t o a s s e s s the impact o f s c h o o l i n g and s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g ) . T h i s would p r o v i d e a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t between the p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t e d and the more average young c h i l d . A f o l l o w - u p study would a l s o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t i n t o the q u e s t i o n o f age as a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r f o r the e f f e c t i v e use o f prompts. 3 2 R e f e r e n c e s B a u e r , H . , & H a r r i s , R . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . " P o t e n t i a l l y A b l e L e a r n e r s ( P . A . L . S . ) : A p r o g r a m f o r G i f t e d P r e s c h o o l e r s a n d P a r e n t s . " J o u r n a l f o r t h e E d u c a t i o n o f t h e G i f t e d , 2 ( 4 ) , 2 1 4 - 2 1 9 . B l o o m , B . S . ( 1 9 5 6 ) . T a x o n o m y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s , H a n d b o o k I : C o g n i t i v e D o m a i n . N e w Y o r k : D a v i d M c K a y C o . B l o o m , B . S . ( 1 9 6 4 ) . S t a b i l i t y a n d C h a n g e i n H u m a n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . N e w Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s . C a s s i d y , J . & V u k e l i c h , C . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . " P r o v i d i n g f o r t h e Y o u n g A c a d e m i c a l l y T a l e n t e d : A P i l o t P r o g r a m f o r T e a c h e r s a n d C h i l d r e n . " J o u r n a l f o r t h e E d u c a t i o n o f t h e G i f t e d , 1 ( 1 ) , 7 0 - 7 6 . C i h a , T . E . , H a r r i s , R . , H o f f m a n , C . & P o t t e r , M . W . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . " P a r e n t s a s I d e n t i f i e r s o f G i f t e d n e s s , I g n o r e d b u t A c c u r a t e . " G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1 8 , 1 9 1 - 1 9 5 . E r n h a r t , C . B . , S p a n e r , S . C . & J o r d a n , T . E . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . " V a l i d i t y o f S e l e c t e d P r e s c h o o l S c r e e n i n g T e s t s . " C o n t e m p o r a r y E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 2, 7 8 - 8 9 . 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Terman, L.M. 6c M e r r i l l , M.A. (1 960). S t a n f o r d - B i n e t  I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e , Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n . 3 6 T o r r a n c e , P a u l . ( 1 9 6 7 ) . " E d u c a t i o n a n d t h e C r e a t i v e P o t e n t i a l . " i n B e n j a m i n F i n e ( e d . ) U n d e r a c h i e v e r s : H o w  T h e y c a n b e H e l p e d , N e w Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n & C o . , I n c . , p . 9 8 . V a n t a s s e l - B a s k a , J . , S c h u l e r , A . , & L i p s c h t z , J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . " A n e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o g r a m f o r g i f t e d f o u r y e a r o l d s . " J o u r n a l f o r t h e E d u c a t i o n o f t h e G i f t e d , 5 9 1 ) , 4 5 - 5 5 . W a d s w o r t h , B . J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . P i a g e t ' s T h e o r y o f C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t ( 2 n d e d . ) , N e w Y o r k : L o n g m a n I n c . W e l l m a n , B e t h L . ( 1 9 3 2 - 1 9 3 3 ) . " T h e E f f e c t o f P r e s c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e u p o n t h e I . Q . " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , ]_, 4 8 - 6 9 . W e l l m a n , B e t h L . ( 1 9 4 5 ) . " I . Q . c h a n g e s o f p r e s c h o o l a n d n o n - p r e s c h o o l g r o u p s d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s : A s u m m a r y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . " J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 2 0 , 3 4 7 - 3 6 8 . W h i t m o r e , J . R . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . " T h e E t i o l o g y o f U n d e r a c h i e v m e n t i n H i g h l y G i f t e d Y o u n g C h i l d r e n . " J o u r n a l f o r t h e  E d u c a t i o n o f t h e G i f t e d , 3 , 3 8 - 5 1 . W h i t m o r e , J . R . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . G i f t e d n e s s , C o n f l i c t a n d  U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t , B o s t o n : A l l y n & B a c o n , I n c . 37 T a b l e 1 Random Assignment o f 43 s u b j e c t s w i t h i n subgroups Three-Year-Olds Four-Year-Olds Lower I.Q. C o n t r o l Ss n = 6 n = 5 H i g h e r I.Q. C o n t r o l Ss n = 7 n = 5 Lower I.Q. E x p e r i m e n t a l Ss n = 5 n = 5 H i g h I.Q. E x p e r i m e n t a l Ss n = 5 n = 5 Not Prompted Prompted T a b l e 2 O r i g i n a l C e l l Mean Numbers o f C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s on P r e t e s t and P o s t - T e s t s o f F i v e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  T a s k s (N=43) Mean I.Q. S c o r e s T r e a t m e n t s P r o m p t e d Not P r o m p t e d C T . o f L. T a s k s S i z e Shape C o l o u r & S i z e Symmetry M a g n e t i s m S i z e Shape C o l o u r & S i z e Symmetry M a g n e t i s m T h r e e -Y e a r -O l d s 122.2 Low P r e t e s t 7.20 7.40 9.20 9.40 6.60 8.40 8.40 9 .40 9.80 6.60 I.Q. P o s t - t e s t 6.40 6.80 6.40 9.40 6.60 8.20 8.80 8.80 9.80 6.80 141.23 Low P r e t e s t 8.50 9.33 10.00 10.00 7.00 8.14 9.14 9.29 9.43 8.14 I.Q. P o s t - t e s t 9.17 9.83 9.50 9.83 8.16 8.29 9.43 8.71 10.00 7.57 F o u r -Y e a r -O l d s 121 .8 Low P r e t e s t 9.00 9.60 9.60 9.60 6.60 9.20 8.60 10.00 9.00 9.00 I.Q. P o s t - t e s t 7.80 9.80 9.40 10.00 7.80 9.40 9.20 8.20 8.80 7.80 138.5 Low P r e t e s t 9.60 9.40 9.20 10.00 9.60 9.60 10.00 10.00 10.00 9.00 I.Q. P o s t - t e s t 9.20 9.60 9 .60 10.00 9.60 9.20 9.40 9 .60 1 0.00 9.40 CO CO T a b l e 3 O b s e r v e d C e l l M e a n s o f T r a n s f o r m e d M e a s u r e s f o r S i z e a n d S h a p e b y E i g h t S u b g r o u p s  I n d i c a t i n g G e n e r a l P r o f i c i e n c y a n d R e l a t i v e G a i n S c o r e s ( N = 4 3 ) . G e n e r a l P r o f i c i e n c y G a i n S c o r e s ( T r a n s f e r ) n S u b g r o u p S i z e S h a p e S i z e S h a p e T h r e e -Y e a r -O l d s L o w I . Q . - N o P r o m p t 1 6 . 6 0 0 0 0 1 7 . 2 0 0 0 0 - 0 . 2 0 0 0 0 0 . 4 0 0 0 0 5 L o w I . Q . - P r o m p t 1 3 . 6 0 0 0 0 1 4 . 2 0 0 0 0 - 0 . 8 0 0 0 0 - 0 . 6 0 0 0 0 5 H i g h I . Q . - N o P r o m p t 1 6 . 4 2 8 5 7 1 8 . 5 7 1 4 3 0 . 1 4 2 8 6 0 . 2 8 5 7 1 7 H i g h I . Q . - P r o m p t 1 7 . 6 6 6 6 7 1 9 . 1 6 6 6 7 0 . 6 6 6 6 7 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 6 F o u r -Y e a r -O l d s L o w I . Q . - N o P r o m p t 1 8 . 6 0 0 0 0 1 7 . 8 0 0 0 0 0 . 2 0 0 0 0 0 . 6 0 0 0 0 5 L o w I . Q . - P r o m p t 1 6 . 8 0 0 0 0 1 9 . 4 0 0 0 0 - 1 . 2 0 0 0 0 0 . 2 0 0 0 0 5 H i g h I . Q . - N o P r o m p t 1 8 . 8 0 0 0 0 1 9 . 4 0 0 0 0 - 0 . 4 0 0 0 0 - 0 . 6 0 0 0 0 5 H i g h I . Q . - P r o m p t 1 8 . 8 0 0 0 0 1 9 . 4 0 0 0 0 - 0 . 4 0 0 0 0 0 . 6 0 0 0 0 5 a T h e g e n e r a l p r o f i c i e n c y s c o r e i s t h e s u m o f p r e - a n d p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . Table 4 Observed C e l l Means of Transformed Measures f o r Colour and S i z e and f o r Magnetism by E i g h t Subgroups I n d i c a t i n g General P r o f i c i e n c y and R e l a t i v e Gain Scores (N=43) . General P r o f i c i e n c y Gain Scores ( T r a n s f e r ) n Subgroup Colour & Size Magnetism Colour & S i z e Magnetism Three-Year-Olds Low I.Q. - No Prompt 18.20000 13.40000 -0.60000 0.20000 5 Low I.Q. - Prompt 15.60000 13.20000 -2.80000 0.00000 5 High I.Q. - No Prompt 18.00000 15.71429 -0.57143 -0.57143 7 High I.Q. - Prompt 19.50000 15.16667 -0.50000 1 .16667 6 Four-Year-Olds Low I.Q. - No Prompt 18.20000 16.80000 -1.80000 -1.20000 5 Low I.Q. - Prompt 19.00000 14.40000 -0.20000 1 .20000 5 High I.Q. - No Prompt 19.60000 18.40000 -0.40000 0.40000 5 High I.Q. - Prompt 18.80000 19.20000 0.40000 0.00000 5 4> O 41 S u b j e c t Group Task or Test Three-Year-Olds F o u r - Y e a r - o l d s C o n t r o l E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n t r o l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a n f o r d - B i n e t * * * * C.T. & L. L e a r n i n g Tasks * * * * Review & Prompts x * x * C.T. & L. T e s t Tasks * * * * F i g u r e 1. Treatment and t e s t i n g procedures a s s i g n e d to the f o u r s u b j e c t groups. 'x' r e p r e s e n t s groups not r e c e i v i n g t r e a t m e n t . 4 2 Appendix A THE PARENT RATINGS QUESTIONNAIRE C h i l d ' s name Age B i r t h d a t e P a r e n t ' s name I . Has the c h i l d a c q u i r e d these s k i l l s ? G i v e the approximate date when the s k i l l was f i r s t n o t i c e d (where p o s s i b l e ) . w a l k i n g d a t e t a l k i n g date r e a d i n g words da t e examples o f words r e a d i n g sentences or phrases date examples o f phrases r e a d i n g of books date t i t l e s o f the books • c o u n t i n g - to t e n _ date - to one hundred date s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c d a t e examples o f some knowledge ( s ) h e has shown 4 3 I I . Background i n f o r m a t i o n , f a v o u r i t e a c t i v i t i e s o f the c h i l d _ s p e c i a l hobbies or i n t e r e s t s p r o f i c i e n c y i n - music example_ - a r t example_ a keen i n t e r e s t i n - c l o c k s - c a l e n d a r s - n o n - c h i l d r e n ' s books examples How l o n g i s the c h i l d a b l e to c o n c e n t r a t e on an a c t i v i t y ? Does the c h i l d u n d e r s t a n d the f o l l o w i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? - m o t h e r / f a t h e r - c o u s i n / u n c l e / a u n t - husband/wife - f r i e n d / f a m i l y - c h i l d / p a r e n t - b r o t h e r / s i s t e r Does your c h i l d know - the days o f the week? - the months o f the ye a r ? - how to t e l l time? - the names f o r the d i f f e r e n t p i e c e s o f money? Can your c h i l d - g i v e h i s / h e r f i r s t name? - g i v e h i s / h e r l a s t name?_ - g i v e h i s / h e r age? - g i v e h i s / h e r complete address' 4 4 - i d e n t i f y shapes? c i r c l e • square t r i a n g l e _ d iamond - compare o b j e c t s by s i z e ? by weight? b i g g e r / s m a l l e r s h o r t e r / t a l l e r b i g / l i t t l e . h e a v y / l i g h t - i d e n t i f y the p a r t s o f the body? on s e l f ( p o i n t i n g ) i n a p i c t u r e ( p o i n t i n g ) - r e p e a t a sentence from memory? - produce rhyming words? I I I . What b e h a v i o u r s or q u a l i t i e s p o s s e s s e d by your c h i l d l e a d you to b e l i e v e t h a t ( s ) h e might be g i f t e d or e x c e p t i o n a l l y a b l e ? 45 Appendix B INSTRUCTION AND PROCEDURE FOR THE CLASSIFICATION LEARNING AND TRANSFER TASKS - LEARNING SESSIONS The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k s c o n s i s t s o f f i v e p o r t i o n s . These i n c l u d e S i z e , Shape, C o l o u r & S i z e , Symmetry and Magnetism t a s k s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the l e a r n i n g t a s k s are as f o l l o w s : 1. S i z e : P r e s e n t the car d s one a t a time to the c h i l d . T e l l the c h i l d : In u s i n g the f l a s h c a r d s , the t e s t e r w i l l show one c a r d a t a t i m e . Have the c h i l d p o i n t to the shape t h a t doesnot b e l o n g . Ask the c h i l d to e x p l a i n why the chosen shape does not b e l o n g . I f the c h i l d i s i n c o r r e c t or seems u n c l e a r , g i v e the c o r r e c t r e ason to the c h i l d ( i . e . , t h i s one i s b i g w h i l e the o t h e r s are a l l s m a l l ) . Cards: " P o i n t to the shape t h a t i s not the same as a l l o f the o t h e r shapes on each c a r d . P o i n t to the one t h a t i s b i g g e r or s m a l l e r than a l l o f the o t h e r s . " 1. • • • W • • • 46 7. A A A A A 9. O O O O O s . - f r Of ikixi? ,0. • • • • • 2. Shape: Using a p l a s t i c hexagon shape and a p l a s t i c c i r c l e shape, e x p l a i n to the c h i l d what a corner i s . Have the c h i l d p o i n t to a corner on the hexagon shape. Say to the c h i l d , "That i s r i g h t . T h i s i s a p o i n t y c o r n e r . " I f the c h i l d needs a f u r t h e r example p o i n t to the corner of the t a b l e . Then e x p l a i n that the c i r c l e has no corners to p o i n t t o. I t has round edges. Spread the t e s t shapes ( a l l ten shapes) out on the t a b l e so that none of the shapes o v e r l a p . T e l l the c h i l d : "We are going to s o r t these shapes, can you p i c k up the shapes that have the p o i n t y corners and give them to me? Only p i c k up the shapes that have c o r n e r s . " The cutout shapes w i l l be as f o l l o w s : 1. c i r c l e 6. wide r e c t a n g l e 2. square 7. e l l i p s e 3. t r i a n g l e 8. hexagon 4. t a l l r e c t a n g l e 9. pear shape 5. o v a l 10. t e a r drop shape Run through the ten shapes, having the c h i l d p l a c e the shapes wi t h corners on your hand or on the t a b l e in f r o n t of you. Respond with, "Good. T h i s o b j e c t does belong here because i t has c o r n e r s . " Or, i f the c h i l d ' s choice i s i n c o r r e c t , ask f o r h i s / h e r reason and then say, "Well, a c t u a l l y t h i s o b j e c t has no c o r n e r s , only round edges, so 47 i t does not belong here." 3. S i z e fit Colour: Set a pie c e of white cardboard on the t a b l e . Then set out the p l a s t i c shapes onto the t a b l e . Make sure that none of the shapes are ov e l a p p i n g . T e l l the c h i l d : "Look at a l l of these shapes. They are d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s and d i f f e r e n t s i z e s . P i c k out a l l of the shapes that ae Big and Red. They must be Red as w e l l as B i g . Put the Big and Red shapes onto t h i s p i e c e of cardboad." (Note: S t r e s s the words 'and' and 'as w e l l as'.) The p l a s t i c shapes w i l l be as f o l l o w s : 1. b i g red c i r c l e 6. small y e l l o w square 2. b i g yel l o w square 7. small y e l l o w r e c t a n g l e 3. small blue c i r c l e 8. b i g red t r i a n g l e 4. b i g blue t r i a n g l e 9. b i g red hexagon ( t h i n ) 5. b i g red hexagon ( t h i c k ) 10. b i g red r e c t a n g l e p r a i s e and r e i n f o r c e when the s e l e c t i o n i s c o r r e c t , or c o r r e c t and e x p l a i n when the s e l e c t i o n i s i n c o r r e c t . 4. Symmetry: This sub-session has three p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t i s the demonstration s e c t i o n . T e l l the c h i l d : "We are going to match shapes so that the two p i e c e s go together and make two halves that are e x a c t l y the same. Watch me do these." Match the shapes. Trace the o u t l i n e of each s i d e , p o i n t i n g out the symmetry. Ensure that the l i n e of symmetry i s kept on the v e r t i c a l . 48 D e m o n s t r a t i o n Shapes 1 . • 2. 3. I n the second s e c t i o n , the t e s t e r w i l l put p i e c e s t o g e t h e r , t e l l i n g the c h i l d : "Now, you t e l l me whether these p i e c e s go t o g e t h e r . I s each s i d e the same as the o t h e r ? " ( P r e s e n t one at a time.) Second S e c t i o n Shapes: 1 . In the t h i r d s e c t i o n , s e p a r a t e the h a l v e s i n t o two p i l e s . Do not have any o f the shapes o v e r l a p p i n g . Ask the c h i l d t o : " F i n d a shape i n t h i s p i l e ( p o i n t to one o f the p i l e s ) t h a t goes t o g e t h e r w i t h a shape i n t h a t p i l e ( p o i n t to the o t h e r p i l e ) . F i n d the matching p i e c e s and put them t o g e t h e r f o r me." I f c o r r e c t , p r a i s e the c h i l d and e x p l a i n why they were c o r r e c t . I f i n c o r r e c t , e x p l a i n why the shapes are not s y m m e t r i c a l and o u t l i n e the d i f f e r e n c e . A l l o w one more attempt to c o r r e c t l y match the p i e c e s . T h i r d S e c t i o n Shapes: 6. )>7.n s.a 9. 10.) D • ^ D 5. Magnetism: The t e s t e r w i l l g i v e the f o l l o w i n g i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s s u b - s e s s i o n . 49 "We are going to p l a y with a magnet. Magnets are very s p e c i a l f o r they only l i k e o b j e c t s that are made of metal. Here i s a magnet. Le t ' s see which of these o b j e c t s i t w i l l p u l l towards i t . " Put the magnet near each o b j e c t from the demonstration l i s t . E x p l a i n that the magnet l i k e s the n a i l , p i n and key because they are metaJ. E x p l a i n that the magnet does not l i k e the paper, wood or e l a s t i c band because they are not metal. Set out the t e s t o b j e c t s on the t a b l e . Now present the c h i l d with the magnet. T e l l the c h i l d : " P o i n t to an o b j e c t that you t h i n k the magnet w i l l p i c k up. Then you t e s t i t to see i f you were r i g h t . Which one are you going to t e s t f i r s t ? Which one w i l l the magnet p i c k up?" Encourage the c h i l d to p o i n t to the o b j e c t s one at a time and then to t e s t the ob j e c t s using the magnet. Demonstration O b j e c t s : 1. N a i l 4. Pin 2. Paper 5. Key 3. Wood 6. E l a s t i c Band T e s t O b j e c t s : 1. Spoon 5. P e n c i l 9. P l a s t i c Ruler 2. Cardboard 6. E r a s e r 10. Paper C l i p 3. Tack 7. S c i s s o r s 4. P l a s t i c Shape 8; K n i f e Response Record - Le a r n i n g S e s s i o n 1. S i z e : Card Number Response (choice) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 T o t a l C o r r e c t / 1 0 51 2. Shape; 3. Category Placement 1. C i r c l e 2. Square 3. T r i a n g l e 4. T a l l Rectangle 5. Oval 6. Long Rectangle 7. E l l i p s e 8. Hexagon 9. Pear Shape 10. Tear Drop Shape T o t a l C o r r e c t /10 Si z e & Colour: Obj ect Category Placement 1. Big Red C i r c l e 2. Big Yellow Square 3. Small Blue C i r c l e 4. B ig Blue T r i a n g l e 5. Big Red Hexagon ( t h i c k ) 6. Small Yellow Square 7. Small Yellow Rectangle 8. Big Red T r i a n g l e 9. Big Red Hexagon ( t h i n ) 10. Big Red Rectangle T o t a l C o r r e c t /10 52 4. Symmetry: The t e s t e r w i l l record e i t h e r a ' C' f o r a c o r r e c t response or an ' I ' f o r an i n c o r r e c t response. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. T o t a l C o r r e c t /10 5. Magnetism: Obj ect C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1 . Spoon (metal) 2. Cardboard 3. Tack 4. P l a s t i c Shape 5. P e n c i l 6. E r a s e r 7. S c i s s o r s 8. K n i f e 9. P l a s t i c Ruler 10. Paper C l i p T o t a l C o r r e c t /10 53 Appendix C INSTRUCTION AND PROCEDURE FOR THE CLASSIFICATION LEARNING AND TRANSFER TASKS - POST-TEST SESSIONS The p o s t - t e s t i n g s e s s i o n o f the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L e a r n i n g and T r a n s f e r t a s k s a l s o c o n s i s t s o f f i v e p o r t i o n s . One s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s i s f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group. These i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l i n c l u d e a r e v i e w and p r o m p t i n g p e r i o d . The o t h e r s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s i s f o r b o t h the c o n t r o l group and the e x p e r i m e n t a l group ( f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e v i e w and prompting p e r i o d ) . These i n s t r u c t i o n s are f o r the a c t u a l p o s t - t e s t i t e m s . A g a i n , ten items w i l l be t e s t e d f o r each p o s t - t e s t t a s k . The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n s are as f o l l o w s . 1. S i z e : The e x p e r i m e n t a l group w i l l be g i v e n a r e v i e w s e s s i o n and the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : "Remember when you were p o i n t i n g out the shapes t h a t d i d not belong? They were e i t h e r too b i g or too s m a l l f o r the o t h e r shapes i n the group. Can you p o i n t to the shapes t h a t are d i f f e r e n t s i z e on these c a r d s ? " Review Cards: 3. O O O O • Q 5 4 These four review cards w i l l not be covered s e p a r a t e l y f o r the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s . Rather, the c o n t r o l group w i l l have these four cards i n c l u d e d with the p o s t - t e s t c a r d s . Both the experimental and the c o n t r o l groups w i l l r e c e i v e the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . "On these cards, p o i n t to the shape that i s a d i f f e r e n t s i z e from the others and does not belong." With each card presented, ask: "Which one i s a d i f f e r e n t s i z e ? " P o s t - t e s t Cards: 1. O O O O O 6. O • O O • 2. • • • • • 3. A A A A A 8. A A A A A 5 . A A A A A , 0 . . i • • o In the second h a l f of the p o s t - t e s t s e s s i o n , the f i g u r e s on the card w i l l a l s o vary i n c o l o u r . T h i s c o l o u r v a r i a t i o n i s meant only to be an i r r e l e v a n t a t t r i b u t e . The c h i l d ' s task i s s t i l l o nly to s e l e c t s i z e v a r i a t i o n . No mention of t h i s v a r i a t i o n i s to be c a l l e d to the c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n . I f the c h i l d comments on the c o l o u r changes, simply s t a t e , "Yes, but which one i s a d i f f e r e n t s i z e ? " 55 2. Shape: The experimental group w i l l be reminded: "In the other games we were l o o k i n g f o r a l l of the shapes that had p o i n t y c o r n e r s . Remember the shapes w i t h c o r n e r s ? " ( P o i n t to a corner.) The i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t are to be given to both the experimental and the c o n t r o l groups are as f o l l o w s : "Now, we are going to p i c k out a l l of the ob j e c t s that are a t r i a n g l e shape. These shapes have three c o r n e r s . (Count and p o i n t to three corners.) Give me a l l of the shapes that have three c o r n e r s . Give me the t r i a n g l e shapes." The shapes w i l l be as f o l l o w s : Cardboard P l a s t i c 1. Large T r i a n g l e 6. Small C i r c l e 2. Large C i r c l e 7. Small T r i a n g l e 3. Small Square 8. Large C i r c l e 4. Small T r i a n g l e 9. Large Square 5. Large Square 10. Large T r i a n g l e F i v e of the o b j e c t s w i l l be laminated cardboard cutouts and f i v e w i l l be p l a s t i c shapes. The shapes w i l l be set out i n f r o n t of the c h i l d , ensuring that none of the shapes are o v e r l a p p i n g . 3. S i z e & Colour: The experimental group w i l l r e c e i v e the f o l l o w i n g review: "Remember when we were p i c k i n g out shapes that were B ig and Red? T h i s shape i s Big and Red." (Po i n t to an a p p r o p r i a t e shape.) 56 Both the experimental and the c o n t r o l groups w i l l r e c e i v e the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . " T h i s time I would l i k e you to p i c k out shapes t h a t are Big and Blue. Remember, they must be Big as w e l l as Blue." The p l a s t i c shapes w i l l be as f o l l o w s : 1. Small Yellow C i r c l e 6. Small Red C i r c l e 2. Big Red Square 7. Big Blue T r i a n g l e 3. Big Blue C i r c l e 8. Big Yellow T r i a n g l e 4. Small Blue T r i a n g l e 9. Small Red Rectangle 5. Big Blue Square 10. Big Blue Rectangle The shapes w i l l a l l c o n s i s t of c o l o u r e d p l a s t i c . The shapes w i l l be placed in f r o n t of the c h i l d , ensuring that none of the shapes are o v e r l a p p i n g . 4. Symmetry: The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the review s e s s i o n f o r the experimental groups are as f o l l o w s : "Last time I had you f i n d the pieces of shapes that went together so that both sides had e x a c t l y the same shape. L e t ' s look at these and see which ones have both s i d e s e x a c t l y the same." Use the demonstration p i e c e s ( f o u r p a i r s i n t o t a l ) and put the p i e c e s together while d i s c u s s i n g and o u t l i n i n g the shape of each h a l f . Encourage the c h i l d to t e l l you which are c o r r e c t and which are not [ s y m m e t r i c a l ] . Demonstration Shapes: 1 . 2. 4. D i e I j 57 The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s are f o r b o t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l and the c o n t r o l groups f o r the f i r s t h a l f o f the symmetry p o s t - t e s t . "Now, can you t e l l me wh i c h o f these shapes have b o t h s i d e s e x a c t l y the same?" The shapes u t i l i z e d w i l l appear as f o l l o w s . E nsure t h a t the l i n e o f symmetry i s h o r i z o n t a l . 3. 4 . For the second h a l f o f the p o s t - t e s t the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r b o t h groups are as f o l l o w s . " T h i s time can you f i n d a shape from t h i s group t h a t p e r f e c t l y matches a p i e c e from t h i s o t h e r group?" A f t e r the c h i l d has assembled one p a i r c o r r e c t l y , prompt the c h i l d to f i n d o t h e r shapes t h a t a l s o go t o g e t h e r p e r f e c t l y . 6. 7. 8 . ^7 9. 10. 0= The shapes w i l l a l l c o n s i s t o f l a m i n a t e d c a r d b o a r d c u t o u t s , 5. Magnetism: The e x p e r i m e n t a l group w i l l r e c e i v e r e v i e w i n s t r u c t i o n s as f o l l o w s : " L e t ' s work w i t h the magnets a g a i n . Remember t h a t they l i k e to be near some m e t a l o b j e c t s . Can you p o i n t to the o b j e c t s t h a t the magnet w i l l want to be near? Now use the magnet to see i f you were c o r r e c t . " 58 Review O b j e c t s : 1. S c i s s o r s 3. Tack 2. Cardboard 4. E r a s e r The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r both the experimental and the c o n t r o l groups are as f o l l o w s : Hand the c h i l d one o b j e c t at a time and ask the f o l l o w i n g : "Do you t h i n k the magnet w i l l p i c k t h i s one up?" Wait f o r a response, then allow the c h i l d to t e s t the o b j e c t s using the magnet. Place the o b j e c t to one s i d e and hand the c h i l d the next o b j e c t . Repeat the i n s t r u c t i o n s . Obj e c t s : 1. Metal Spoon 6. Rock (non-magnetic) 2. Ribbon 7. J a r L i d (magnetic) 3. Paper C l i p 8. E l a s t i c Band 4. P e n c i l 9. Dime 5. P l a s t i c Spoon 10. Chestnut 5 9 P o s t - t e s t Response Record 1. S i z e : Card Number Response ( c h o i c e ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 T o t a l C o r r e c t / 1 0 2 . Shape: Categ o r y Placement 1. Large T r i a n g l e 2 . Large C i r c l e 3 . S m a l l Square 4 . S m a l l T r i a n g l e 5 . Large Square 6 . S m a l l C i r c l e 7 . S m a l l T r i a n g l e 8 . Large C i r c l e 9 . Large Square 1 0 . Large T r i a n g l e T o t a l C o r r e c t / 1 0 S i z e & C o l o u r : O b j e c t C a t e g o r y Placement 1. S m a l l Y e l l o w C i r c l e 2 . B i g Red square 3 . B i g B l u e C i r c l e 4 . S m a l l B l u e T r i a n g l e 5 . B i g B l u e Square 6 . S m a l l Red C i r c l e 7 . B i g B l u e T r i a n g l e 8 . B i g Y e l l o w T r i a n g l e 9 . S m a l l Red R e c t a n g l e 1 0 . B i g Bl u e R e c t a n g l e T o t a l C o r r e c t / 1 0 Symmetry: P a i r Number Does i t Belong? (Y/N) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . T o t a l C o r r e c t / 5 P a i r N u m b e r C o r r e c t M a t c h ( Y / N ) 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . T o t a l C o r r e c t / 5 5 . M a g n e t i s m : O b j e c t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1 . M e t a l S p o o n 2 . R i b b o n 3 . P a p e r C l i p 4 . P e n c i l 5 . P l a s t i c S p o o n 6 . R o c k 7 . J a r L i d 8 . E l a s t i c B a n d 9 . D i m e 1 0 . C h e s t n u t T o t a l C o r r e c t / 1 0 T o t a l C o r r e c t / 5 0 

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