UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Place-names of the Island Halkomelem Indian people Rozen, David Lewis 1985

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PLACE-NAMES OF THE ISLAND HALKOMELEM INDIAN PEOPLE By DAVID LEWIS ROZEN. B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE.DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS' in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 1985 © David Lewis Rozen In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. DAVID LEWIS ROZEN Department o f ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date JULY 30, 198 5 /an ABSTRACT The I s l a n d Halkomelem I n d i a n p e o p l e l i v e on t h e s o u t h -e a s t e r n p a r t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and on some o f t h e s o u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A t o t a l o f t h r e e h u n d r e d two (302) p l a c e - n a m e s a r e known t o t h e s e p e o p l e t o d a y , i n t h e i r C o a s t S a l i s h l a n g u a g e . E a c h o f t h e s e names i s t r a n s -c r i b e d i n a p r a c t i c a l w r i t i n g s y s t e m , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n words by some o f t h e t h i r t e e n e l d e r l y I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e who c o l l a b o r a t e d on t h i s s t u d y . F o r e a c h g e o g r a p h i c a l name, i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i t s t r a d i t i o n a l and p r e s e n t u t i l i z a t i o n by t h e I n d i a n s i s g i v e n . T h i s d a t a i s d e r i v e d f r o m i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e c o n d u c t e d by t h e a u t h o r o v e r a t e n y e a r p e r i o d and a l s o i n c l u d e s a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on e a c h p l a c e -name f r o m t h e p e r t i n e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c , l i n g u i s t i c and h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . A f t e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p l a c e - n a m e s i s p r e s e n t e d a b r i e f a n a l y s i s o f t h e I n d i a n names i s a t t e m p t e d , f o c u s i n g on a p r e l i m i n a r y t y p o l o g y o f t h e names d e r i v e d from t h e u s e , E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s and e t y m o l o g i e s o f e a c h name. A c o m p l e t e and d e t a i l e d s e r i e s o f maps i s i n c l u d e d . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s w i t h some s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t how t h e I n d i a n g e o g r a p h i c a l toponymy r e f l e c t s I s l a n d Halkomelem c u l t u r e . TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i Page ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES i v L I S T OF APPENDICES v 0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.2 R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y 14 CHAPTER TWO PLACE-NAMES KNOWN TO THE ISLAND HALKOMELEM INDIAN PEOPLE 2.1 P l a c e - n a m e s N o r t h o f I s l a n d Halkomelem T e r r i t o r y . 22 2.2 P l a c e - n a m e s I n I s l a n d Halkomelem T e r r i t o r y . . . . 38 2.3 P l a c e - n a m e s S o u t h o f I s l a n d Halkomelem T e r r i t o r y . 232 2.4 P l a c e - n a m e s Known To t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem On The Lower M a i n l a n d and F r a s e r R i v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a And I n The Puget Sound A r e a o f W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e . 24 5 CHAPTER THREE ANALYSIS AND PRELIMINARY TYPOLOGY OF ISLAND HALKOMELEM PLACE-NAMES 3.1 A n a l y s i s 253 3.2 S t a t i s t i c a l Summary o f I s l a n d Halkomelem P l a c e -Name Usage and Type s 27 2 3.3 C o n c l u s i o n 288 REFERENCES CITED 294 APPENDICES 30 3 i v L I S T OF TABLES Page T a b l e I N a t i v e I n d i a n P e o p l e C o n t r i b u t i n g I n f o r m a t i o n To T h i s T h e s i s 18 T a b l e I I Band And R e s e r v e Membership Of N a t i v e I n d i a n s C o n t r i b u t i n g I n f o r m a t i o n t o T h i s T h e s i s 19 T a b l e I I I N a t i v e I n d i a n C o n t r i b u t o r s And The Type Of I n f o r m a t i o n S u p p l i e d 20 T a b l e IV M a s t e r L i s t Of I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names 255 T a b l e V M a s t e r L i s t Of I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names W i t h Use Of L o c a t i o n And Place-Name Type A s s i g n e d To E a c h 265 T a b l e VI Usage Of P l a c e s Named By I s l a n d Halkomelem S p e a k e r s 2 73 T a b l e V I I M e a n i n g s (Types) Of I s l a n d H a l k o -melem Place-Names 275 T a b l e V I I I R e c u r r e n c e Of I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names 28 3 T a b l e IX E n g l i s h Place-Names D e r i v e d From I n d i a n Place-Names 284 T a b l e X I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names D e r i v e d From E n g l i s h Place-Names 286 T a b l e XI O r i g i n And A d o p t i o n o f I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names 287 V L I S T OF APPENDICES Page A p p e n d i x 1 Key To The P r a c t i c a l W r i t i n g S y s t e m Used I n T h i s T h e s i s 303 A p p e n d i x 2 I s l a n d Halkomelem Terms F o r S u r r o u n d i n g I n d i a n G r o u p s 306 A p p e n d i x 3 F i s h , B e a c h F o o d s And M a r i n e Mammal S p e c i e s M e n t i o n e d I n T h i s T h e s i s . . . . 307 A p p e n d i x 4 B i r d And Land Mammal S p e c i e s M e n t i o n e d In T h i s T h e s i s 309 A p p e n d i x 5 B o t a n i c a l S p e c i e s M e n t i o n e d I n T h i s T h e s i s 3 1 1 MAP APPENDIX Map I The T r a d i t i o n a l T e r r i t o r y Of The C e n t r a l C o a s t S a l i s h 313 Map I I The T r a d i t i o n a l T e r r i t o r y Of The H a l k o -melem C o a s t S a l i s h 314 Map I I I The T r a d i t i o n a l T e r r i t o r y Of The I s l a n d Halkomelem C o a s t S a l i s h 315 Map IV D i a l e c t B o u n d a r i e s Of The I s l a n d H a l k o -melem Language 316 Map V I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names Numbered 1-7 I n C h a p t e r Two Of T h i s T h e s i s . . . . 317 Map VI I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names Numbered 8-73 I n C h a p t e r Two Of T h i s T h e s i s • • • 3 1 8 v i L I S T OF APPENDICES, CONTINUED Page Map V I I I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names Numbered 74-151 I n C h a p t e r Two Of T h i s T h e s i s . . . . 319 Map V I I I I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names Numbered 152-186 I n C h a p t e r Two Of T h i s T h e s i s . . . . 320 Map IX I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names Numbered 187-229 I n C h a p t e r Two Of T h i s T h e s i s . • • • 321 Map X I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names Numbered 230-280 I n C h a p t e r Two Of T h i s T h e s i s . • • • 322 Map XI I s l a n d Halkomelem Place-Names Numbered 281-302 I n C h a p t e r Two Of T h i s T h e s i s . . . . 323 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i The a u t h o r i s i n d e b t e d t o many p e o p l e , w i t h o u t whose p a t i e n c e and a s s i s t a n c e t h i s s t u d y w o u l d n e v e r have been c o m p l e t e d . F i r s t l y , I s h o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my g r a d u a t e c o m m i t t e e and e s p e c i a l l y D r. M i c h a e l Kew, f r o m whom I have l e a r n e d so much a b o u t N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e s i n c e 1969. The s t a f f s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum, b o t h i n V i c t o r i a , have been o f i m m e a s u r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e t o me o v e r t h e y e a r s . T h e i r h e l p , and t h a t o f Randy B o u c h a r d and D o r o t h y Kennedy, d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1974 t o 1978 must be g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d h e r e . Dr. Wayne S u t t l e s a l s o t o o k e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s s i s t i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y and h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . The o r i g i n a l maps i n t h i s t h e s i s as w e l l a s t h e f i n a l d r a f t were p r e p a r e d by t h e a u t h o r , however Ms. L e i l a K u l l a r p r o v i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r t i s e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e maps i n t h e i r f i n a l s t a g e s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my h e a r t f e l t t h a n k s t o t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e , whose names a p p e a r t h r o u g h -o u t t h i s work and t o whom t h i s s t u d y i s a f f e c t i o n a t e l y d e d i c a t e d . I n p a r t i c u l a r , Abraham J o e and A b e l D. J o e , o f t h e C o w i c h a n I n d i a n Band i n Duncan, gave o f t h e m s e l v e s t i r e -l e s s l y o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s . They made s u r e t h a t I " g o t t h i n g s r i g h t and d i d my b e s t o r b e t t e r " ; t o g e t h e r , we. hope t h a t t h e s e p l a c e - n a m e s w i l l n e v e r be f o r g o t t e n . I a c c e p t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any i n a c c u r a c i e s i n t h i s t h e s i s , however. 1 CHAPTER ONE 1.1 INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s e x a m ines one a s p e c t o f t h e c u l t u r e o f a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f C o a s t S a l i s h I n d i a n p e o p l e , t h e I s l a n d / Halkomelem o r Helk'eminem as t h e y c a l l t h e m s e l v e s . The a s p e c t o f c u l t u r e d e a l t w i t h h e r e has been d e s c r i b e d by a number o f t e r m s , s u c h as " e t h n o g e o g r a p h y " ( t h e s t u d y o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l names as t h e y were known t o t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n s b e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s ) , " a n t h r o p o g r a p h y " ( t h e s t u d y o f t h e t r a d -i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s o f a g r o u p o f p e o p l e ) and "toponymy" ( t h e s t u d y o f g e o g r a p h i c a l names o f any g i v e n g r o u p o f p e o p l e ) . The most c o n v e n i e n t means o f d e l i n e a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s o f I n d i a n p e o p l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and i n t h e r e s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a f o r t h a t m a t t e r , i s by t h e l a n g u a g e s t h e y spoke a t t h e t i m e o f c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e s t r i c t t h i s d e l i n e a t i o n by l a n g u a g e b e c a u s e g r o u p s o f p e o p l e s p e a k i n g d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s and d i a l e c t s o f t h o s e l a n g u a g e s u n d e r w e n t d r a s t i c c h a n g e s w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f n o n - I n d i a n s . Some l a n g u a g e s a r e now e x t i n c t , w h i l e o t h e r s have amalgamated t o f o r m new g r o u p s o f p e o p l e , who now r e s i d e i n a r e a s o u t s i d e o f t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s a t t h e t i m e o f c o n t a c t . V i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d f r o m t h e p r e - c o n t a c t p o i n t o f v i e w , w h i c h s h a l l be g i v e n as t h a t p e r i o d o f t i m e b e f o r e t h e y e a r 1800. T h i s d a t e o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y , b e c a u s e c o m p l e t e c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s d i d n o t r e a l l y o c c u r u n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . However, s u c h i n t r o d u c e d phenomena as s m a l l p o x and o t h e r d i s e a s e s , m e t a l 2 t o o l s and o t h e r t h i n g s had a l r e a d y begun t o i m p a c t t h e C o a s t S a l i s h and o t h e r N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n s by t h e l a t e 1700's. I n what i s now c a l l e d s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e r e were f o r m e r l y s i x C o a s t S a l i s h l a n g u a g e s w h i c h were s p o k e n by t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e . They were Comox ( M a i n l a n d and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d d i a l e c t s ) , P e n t l a t c h (now e x t i n c t ) , S e c h e l t , Squamish, Halkomelem and N o r t h e r n S t r a i t s S a l i s h . O t h e r S a l i s h l a n g u a g e s on the coast include B e l l a Coola, C l a l l a m , Nooksack, L u s h o o t s e e d and Twana, some o f w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . The C o a s t S a l i s h l a n g u a g e s f o r m one o f t h e d i v i s i o n s o f t h e S a l i s h a n l a n g u a g e f a m i l y i n n o r t h w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h e r e a r e s e v e n I n t e r i o r S a l i s h l a n g u a g e s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and i n t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Map I on page 313 shows t h e c u l t u r a l - l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p c a l l e d t h e " C e n t r a l C o a s t S a l i s h " . T h i s c o n t i g u o u s g r o u p o f l a n g u a g e s has been g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r b e c a u s e t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e s p e a k i n g t h e l a n g u a g e s s h a r e many c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s . The l a n g u a g e s i n c l u d e d i n C e n t r a l C o a s t S a l i s h a r e Squamish, Halkomelem, N o r t h e r n S t r a i t s S a l i s h ( i n c l u d i n g t h e S a a n i c h , S o n g i s h , Sooke, Semiahmoo and Lummi d i a l e c t s ) and N o oksack. Map I I on page 314 shows t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y o f t h e s p e a k e r s o f t h e Halkomelem l a n g u a g e . On t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a t h e r e were s e v e r a l d i a l e c t s o f H a l k o -melem s p o k e n , a n d t h e s e c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a g r o u p and c a l l e d " M a i n l a n d Halkomelem" s i n c e t h e y a r e l o c a t e d on t h e m a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The I n d i a n p e o p l e s p e a k i n g 3 t h e M a i n l a n d d i a l e c t s o f Halkomelem c a l l t h e i r d i a l e c t s / , / H e l k ' e m i l e m [ a r o u n d C h i l l i w a c k ] , o r Helk. 1 eminem [ a r o u n d / M aple R i d g e ] , o r Henk 1eminem [a r o u n d Musqueam]. T h e r e a r e many t e r m s and words i n M a i n l a n d Halkomelem d i a l e c t s t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e Halkomelem l a n g u a g e as i t i s s p o k e n on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Map I I I on page 315 shows t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y o f t h e s p e a k e r s o f t h e Halkomelem l a n g u a g e on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and on some o f t h e G u l f I s l a n d s . B e c a u s e t h e s e p e o p l e l i v e d on t h e i s l a n d s i n d i c a t e d on t h e map t h e y have been c a l l e d " I s l a n d Halkomelem". L i k e t h e i r M a i n l a n d Halkomelem r e l a t i v e s t h i s g r o u p , whose p l a c e - n a m e s a r e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s , r a n g e d o v e r a r a t h e r l a r g e a r e a b e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h non-I n d i a n s . The a p p r o x i m a t e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem a r e ; t o t h e n o r t h , an a r e a a l o n g t h e e a s t c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d j u s t s o u t h o f Q u a l i c u m ; t o t h e e a s t , t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a ; t o t h e w e s t , t h e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d m o u n t a i n s * a n d t o t h e s o u t h t h e a r e a a r o u n d M i l l Bay on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . The I s l a n d Halkomelem c a l l t h e g r o u p o f d i a l e c t s o f Halkomelem / t h e y s p e a k Helk'eminem. The N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n s s u r r o u n d -i n g t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem i n c l u d e t h e C e n t r a l and S o u t h e r n N o o t k a ( a l s o c a l l e d West C o a s t , W e s t c o a s t and N u u - c h a h - n u l t h t o d a y ) t o t h e w e s t . To t h e n o r t h , t h e P e n t l a t c h C o a s t S a l i s h f o r m e r l y l i v e d , b u t t h e i r t e r r i t o r y has now been i n c l u d e d i n t h e I s l a n d Comox d i a l e c t a r e a o f t h e Comox C o a s t S a l i s h l a n g u a g e . P e n t l a t c h as a l a n g u a g e i s now e x t i n c t . To t h e e a s t , a c r o s s t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a , were t h e S e c h e l t and 4 Squamish l a n g u a g e - s p e a k e r s and t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem were t h e N o r t h e r n S t r a i t s S a l i s h ( C o a s t S a l i s h ) l a n g u a g e - s p e a k e r s . Map IV on page 316 shows t h e a p p r o x i m a t e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e s p e a k i n g t h e Halkomelem l a n g u a g e on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and on some o f t h e G u l f I s l a n d s . H e r e a f t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s t h e s e p e o p l e and t h e g r o u p o f d i a l e c t s o f Halkomelem t h e y speak w i l l s i m p l y be c a l l e d " I s l a n d H a l k o -melem" . A l s o shown on Map IV a r e t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e t h r e e d i a l e c t s o f Halkomelem spoken by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem. The more n o r t h e r l y d i a l e c t w o u l d b e s t be l a b e l l e d "Nanaimo-Nanoose" b u t t h e r e was a p p a r e n t l y l i t t l e o r no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e d i a l e c t s poken a t t h e n o r t h e r n end o f I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r -i t o r y ( a t Nanoose Bay and n o r t h t o t h e Q u a l i c u m - E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r a r e a ) and t h e one s p o k e n a t D e p a r t u r e Bay, Nanaimo Har-b o u r and Nanaimo R i v e r . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t has s i m p l y been c a l l e d "Nanaimo" h e r e . T h i s i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h i s d i a l e c t i n t h e p e r t i n e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c and l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e . The d i a l e c t s o u t h o f Nanaimo was c a l l e d "Chemainus" and s o u t h o f t h a t , i n t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r a r e a , was t h e "Cowichan" d i a l e c t . The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e C o w i c h a n and Chemainus d i a l e c t s were a p p a r e n t l y n e v e r as g r e a t as t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between b o t h o f t h e s e g r o u p s and t h e Nanaimo. Today t h e d i a l e c t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between a l l t h r e e a r e no l o n g e r d i s -t i n c t i v e ; C o w i c h a n i s t h e d o m i n a n t d i a l e c t . However, i n d e s c r i b i n g and d i s c u s s i n g t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem p l a c e - n a m e s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i a l e c t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s a r e 5 m a i n t a i n e d . A p p e n d i x 2 on page 306 o f t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r m s f o r I n d i a n l a n g u a g e g r o u p s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e f o r m e r . The r e a d e r w i l l n o t e t h a t t h e r e i s no c o m p r e h e n s i v e grammar, p r o d u c e d by l i n g u i s t s , f o r t h e Halkomelem l a n g u a g e . Thus f a r , o n l y two d i a l e c t s o f Halkomelem have been s t u d i e d s u f f i c i e n t l y by l i n g u i s t s t o p r o v i d e s c h o l a r s w i t h a c o m p l e t e grammar. B r e n t G a l l o w a y p r o d u c e d a grammar o f U p r i v e r (Main-l a n d ) Halkomelem i n 1977 w h i c h f o c u s e d on t h e C h i l l i w a c k d i a -l e c t . A d r i a n L e s l i e p r o d u c e d a grammar o f t h e C o w i c h a n d i a l e c t o f Halkomelem i n 1979. T h i s l e a v e s s e v e r a l o t h e r d i a l e c t s o f Halkomelem y e t t o be d e s c r i b e d f u l l y b e f o r e t h e y become c o m p l e t e l y e x t i n c t . T h e r e have been numerous d i a l e c t s u r v e y s and p h o n o l o g i e s o f Halkomelem d i a l e c t s g e n e r a t e d o v e r t h e y e a r s b u t as y e t t h e r e has been no c l e a r d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e d i a l e c t s , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r e c i s e d i f f e r e n c e s between them, o r t h e t e r r i t o r i e s f o r m e r l y h e l d by t h e p e o p l e who spoke them. The r e a d e r w i t h no b a c k g r o u n d on t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem does n o t have a s i n g l e c o m p r e h e n s i v e o r " f u l l - c u l t u r e " e t h n o -g r a p h i c s o u r c e - b o o k upon w h i c h t o g a i n an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e I s l a n d H alkomelem. ( T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e f o r a l l C o a s t S a l i s h g r o u p s . ) O n l y by g l e a n i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a v a r i e t y o f s t a n d a r d r e f e r e n c e works c a n t h e r e a d e r g e t a s e n s e o f what I s l a n d Halkomelem c u l t u r e (as o p p o s e d t o M a i n -l a n d Halkomelem o r o t h e r C o a s t S a l i s h ) was a b o u t t r a d i t i o n a l l y and what i t i s a b o u t t o d a y . 6 Aside from the l i n g u i s t i c works already c i t e d here ( i . e. Galloway, 1977 and L e s l i e , 1979), the reader may f i n d p a r t s of G e r d t s 1 1977 " D i a l e c t Survey of Halkomelem S a l i s h " u s e f u l . By c a r e f u l l y e x t r a c t i n g the Cowichan and Nanaimo data from Homer Ba r n e t t ' s 1938, 1939 and 1955 monographs, a good d e a l of ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i f i c to the I s l a n d Halkomelem can be obtained. The works of C u r t i s (1913), H i l l - T o u t (1902 and 1907) and p a r t i c u l a r l y Wayne S u t t l e s (1960, 1963 and 1968 e s p e c i a l l y ) are a l l u s e f u l , but i n a l l of those works the r e i s no i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i f i c t o the I s l a n d Halkomelem. The e a r l y j o u r n a l s of Grant (18 57) and Brown (18 64) h e l p t o e x p l a i n what v i l l a g e s , f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s and households were l i k e i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , and Lane (1953) a l s o p r o v i d e d data s p e c i f i c to the Cowichan d i a l e c t of Halkomelem. The main u n i t s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n among the I s l a n d Halkomelem were the extended f a m i l y , the household and groups of households, the l a t t e r being d e f i n e d i n t h i s study as "permanent win t e r v i l l a g e s " . The extended f a m i l i e s and householders used t o t r a v e l e x t e n s i v e l y f o r the purposes of p r o c u r i n g r e s o u r c e s and s u s t a i n i n g s o c i a l t i e s w i t h t h e i r Coast S a l i s h r e l a t i v e s and neighbours. As we w i l l see i n the s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s devoted to the Indian place-names, "every bend has a name, every h i l l a s t o r y , every dark pool a t r a d i t i o n " (Brown, 18 64). 7 I n C h a p t e r Two o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e a d e r w i l l f i n d a l i s t i n g o f a l l o f t h e p l a c e - n a m e s known t o t h e I s l a n d H a l k o -melem I n d i a n s , r e g a r d l e s s o f where t h e names a r e l o c a t e d . Of c o u r s e , most o f t h e p l a c e - n a m e s a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e t r a d -i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem, b u t i n d e v e l o p i n g a f o r m a t t o p r e s e n t t h i s d a t a , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was known s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . A l t h o u g h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e t h i r t e e n I s l a n d Halkomelem f r o m 1974 t o 198 4 was c o l l e c t e d w i t h o u t r e f e r r i n g t o any o t h e r t o p o n y m i c s t u d i e s i n i t i a l l y , i t was d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e a l l p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e s t o I s l a n d Halkomelem p l a c e - n a m e s t o e l i m i n a t e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e names. T h e r e f o r e , what i s p r e s e n t e d i s a " h i s t o r y o f I s l a n d H a l k o -melem toponymy" i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e d u p l i c a t i o n , c o n f u s i o n and d o u b t a b o u t eaoh p l a c e - n a m e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a l l o f t h e maps i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e p l a c e d i n a map a p p e n d i x a t the back. A l l t r i b a l b o u n d a r i e s and p l a c e - n a m e l o c a t i o n s shown on t h e s e maps a r e , n e c e s s a r i l y , a p p r o x i m a t e and t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e t e x t i n C h a p t e r Two f o r e x a c t l o c a t i o n s o f p l a c e - n a m e s . Even w i t h some o f t h e l a r g e - s c a l e maps i n t h e map a p p e n d i x , l o c a t i o n s a r e a p p r o x i m -a t e . The s c a l e g i v e n on e a c h map i s r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e . B e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e m a i n body o f t h i s t h e s i s , a s p e c i a l n o t e must be made of t h e use o f t h e " p r a c t i c a l p honemic" w r i t i n g s y s t e m u s e d h e r e i n . T h i s s y s t e m i s e x p l a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x 1 , page 303 . S uch a s y s t e m was u s e d f o r a l l o f t h e o r i g i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y , b e c a u s e c o p i e s o f a c l a s s i f i e d word l i s t u t i l i z i n g t h i s s y s t e m have been g i v e n t o 8 e v e r y I n d i a n Band i n I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s . T h i s means t h a t a t l e a s t some I s l a n d H a l k o -melem have some l e v e l o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e s y s t e m . The o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s t o a p r a c t i c a l w r i t i n g s y s t e m a r e t h a t any t r a n s c r i p t i o n s c a n be made on a s t a n d a r d t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d ( e x c e p t f o r t h e symbol f o r s t r e s s on s y l l a b l e s ) and t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m has been s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r a l l S a l i s h a n ( C o a s t and I n t e r i o r ) l a n g u a g e s by Randy B o u c h a r d , o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n Language P r o j e c t , V i c t o r i a , B. C. As t h e r e a d e r c a n s e e i n t h e a p p e n d i x w h i c h e x p l a i n s t h e s y s -tem, t h e r e a r e e x a c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between t h e symbols u s e d i n t h e p r a c t i c a l w r i t i n g s y s t e m and p h o n e t i c s y m b o l s commonly u s e d by l i n g u i s t s w o r k i n g on N o r t h w e s t C o a s t l a n g u a g e s t o d a y . I t s h o u l d be c l e a r t h a t t h i s t h e s i s i s an example o f " s a l v a g e e t h n o g r a p h y " . No s i n g l e p e r s o n among t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem e v e r knew a l l o f t h e s e p l a c e - n a m e s and t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e t o d a y . The p l a c e - n a m e s a r e b e i n g " r e v e a l e d " a t t h i s t i m e b e c a u s e , e x c e p t f o r t h e m a i n w i n t e r v i l l a g e s , t h e y a r e i n d a n g e r o f b e i n g f o r g o t t e n due t o l a c k o f u s e by t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s . I t was s u g g e s t e d t o me many t i m e s t h a t t h i s s t u d y be done i n o r d e r t o e d u c a t e t h e y o u n g e r I s l a n d Halkomelem a b o u t t h e i r h e r i t a g e , b u t i t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l be u t i l i z e d f o r many o t h e r p u r p o s e s i n t h e f u t u r e . On t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s , a sample o f what a t y p i c a l p l a c e -name l o o k s l i k e i s p r o v i d e d i n t h e f o r m a t u s e d i n C h a p t e r 9 Two o f t h i s s t u d y . E a c h p a r t o f t h e f o r m a t i s e x p l a i n e d i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e what s t a n d a r d s have been employed f o r t h e sa k e o f c o n s i s t e n c y . Sample o f F o r m a t Used i n P r e s e n t i n g Place-Names I n T h i s T h e s i s 3 3 3 . S a l t Water Bay " S a l t Chuck Bay" t l ' a l h e m e l h k e 7 (DR; MK; RR) ' s a l t w a t e r ' o r " s a l t c h u c k " T l ' a t l e m a t l q a (Boas, 1 9 2 9 : 1 2 3 ) " S a l t w a t e r Bay, Van. I s . " T l a y t h u m k a h ( S m i t h , n.d.) I n f o r m a t i o n on p l a c e - n a m e number 3 3 3 i s g i v e n below t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The f i c t i o n a l sample above c o n t a i n s a l l o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f a t y p i c a l Island Halkomelem p l a c e - n a m e as i t w o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o r m a t employed i n C h a p t e r Two o f t h i s s t u d y . In t h e sample t h e p l a c e name i s a s s i g n e d t h e number "333". T h i s number w o u l d a p p e a r on one o f t h e maps i n t h i s s t u d y ' s map a p p e n d i x . The f o l l o w i n g maps c o n t a i n t h e a c t u a l i n d i c a t e d I s l a n d Halkomelem p l a c e - n a m e s f o u n d i n C h a p t e r Two: Map V: Place-Name Numbers 1-7 Map V I : Place-Name Numbers 8-73 Map V I I : Place-Name Numbers 74-151 Map V I I I : Place-Name Numbers 152-186 Map IX: Place-Name Numbers 187-229 Map X: Place-Name Numbers 230-280 Map X I : Place-Name Numbers 281-302 A f t e r t h e number "333" t h e name o f t h e p l a c e u n d e r d i s -c u s s i o n i s g i v e n i n E n g l i s h . T h i s i s t h e p l a c e - n a m e commonly 10 f o u n d on government t o p o g r a p h i c a l maps o r m a r i n e c h a r t s and i s t h e E n g l i s h name most commonly u s e d . I n t h e sample t h e common E n g l i s h name f o r pl a c e - n a m e number 333 i s " S a l t Water Bay". I f t h e r e i s a l o c a l name, f o l k name o r o t h e r means o f i d e n t i f y i n g " S a l t Water Bay", s u c h as " S a l t Chuck Bay" i n t h e sample, i t i s g i v e n i n f u l l q u o t a t i o n marks i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e u s u a l E n g l i s h name. On t h e l i n e d i r e c t l y b elow t h e E n g l i s h p l a c e - n a m e , t h e r e a d e r w i l l f i n d t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem e q u i v a l e n t f o r t h e E n g l i s h name d i r e c t l y above i t . I n t h e sample t h e I n d i a n name f o r " S a l t Water Bay" i s " t 1' alheme^lhke7" . T h i s p r o n u n c i a -t i o n o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem name f o r t h e p l a c e was g i v e n by a t l e a s t one o f t h e I n d i a n c o l l a b o r a t o r s who have s u p p l i e d o r i g i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . A l i s t i n g o f t h e t h i r t e e n I s l a n d Halkomelem c o l l a b o r a t o r s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e s e c t i o n on R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h i s s e c t i o n . I n t h e sample t h e r e were t h r e e p e o p l e who have g i v e n t h e p l a c e - n a m e i n I n d i a n , "DR, MK a n d RR". These p e o p l e s ' i n i t i a l s a p p e a r i n p a r e n t h e s e s i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n ( i n t h e p r a c t i c a l phonemic w r i t i n g s y s t e m f o u n d i n t h e a p p e n d i x a t t h e b a c k o f t h e t h e s i s ) o f t h e p r o n u n c i a ^ t i o n t h e y have s u p p l i e d . The o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e i n i t i a l s a p p e a r , s e p a r a t e d by s e m i - c o l o n s , i s a l p h a b e t i c a l i n a l m o s t a l l c a s e s . B u t i f a c e r t a i n c o l l a b o r a t o r h as s u p p l i e d more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n o t h e r s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e meaning o f t h e pla c e - n a m e o r i t s u s e by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem, t h a t p e r s o n ' s i n i t i a l s a p p e a r f i r s t . I m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e 11 i n i t i a l s o f t h e c o l l a b o r a t o r ( s ) t h e r e i s an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a -t i o n o f t h e t r a n s c r i b e d I n d i a n p l a c e - n a m e . T h e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f " g l o s s e s " g i v e n by t h e I n d i a n s and a l s o e t y m o l o g i e s w h i c h t h e y have p r o v i d e d . Where a t r a n s l a t i o n a p p e a r s i n s i n g l e q u o t a t i o n marks ' l i k e t h i s ' ( ' s a l t w a t e r ' i n t h e sample u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n ) , t h i s i n d i c a t e s a d i r e c t t r a n s -l a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n p l a c e - n a m e . I f t h e r e i s a " f r e e t r a n s -l a t i o n " ( " s a l t c h u c k " i n t h e sample) o r a p p r o x i m a t e g l o s s f o r t h e I n d i a n p l a c e - n a m e ( t 1 ' a l h e m e l h k e 7 i n t h e s a m p l e ) , t h i s i s p l a c e d i n f u l l q u o t a t i o n marks. I n C h a p t e r Two t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p l a c e - n a m e s f o r w h i c h a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s have been g i v e n by I s l a n d Halkomelem c o l l a b o r a t o r s . T h e s e a r e p l a c e d on t h e l i n e b e l o w t h e most common p r o n u n c i a t i o n w h i c h has been t r a n s c r i b e d i n t h e p r a c t i c a l w r i t i n g s y s t e m . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p l a c e - n a m e s i n t h i s s t u d y f o r w h i c h meanings o f t h e I n d i a n t e r m s a r e e i t h e r n o t known o r a r e n o t known e x a c t l y enough t o i n c l u d e them. I n some c a s e s we have o n l y been a b l e t o i s o l a t e l e x i c a l a f f i x e s o r p o s s i b l e stems f o r t h e p l a c e - n a m e and t h e y c a n n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I f t h e meaning i s n o t known, t h e words "meaning n o t known", " e x a c t meaning n o t known", o r a p o s s i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n a r e p l a c e d t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e c o l l a b o r a t o r ' s i n i t i a l s . B elow t h e "new" t r a n s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e p l a c e - n a m e , t h e r e a d e r w i l l f i n d a l l o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h e same p l a c e -name t h a t have been f o u n d i n t h e p e r t i n e n t p u b l i s h e d and un-p u b l i s h e d e t h n o g r a p h i c , l i n g u i s t i c and h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . I n o u r sample we n o t i c e t h a t t h e r e a r e two s u c h r e n d e r i n g s , one by Boas and t h e o t h e r by S m i t h . T h e s e p r o c e e d f r o m most 12 r e c e n t t o e a r l i e s t s o u r c e , p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e l i n e i m m e d i a t e -l y b elow t h e "new t r a n s c r i p t i o n " . I n t h e c a s e o f Boas, h i s o r i g i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n and t h e s o u r c e c i t e d . To t h e r i g h t o f t h e s o u r c e ("Boas, 192 9:123") t h e r e may o r may n o t be i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e p l a c e - n a m e p r o v i d e d . I f t h e r e i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a d i f f e r e n t e t y m o l o g y o r t r a n s l a t i o n t h a n t h e one p r o v i d e d i n t h e "new t r a n s c r i p t i o n " o r , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e sample, a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t f o r t h e p l a c e - n a m e , t h i s i s p r o v i d e d i n f u l l q u o t a t i o n marks. I n t h e c a s e o f S m i t h ' s t r a n s c r i p t i o n , i t w o u l d be assumed t h a t t h e E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t f o r t h e name he has p r o v i d e d , as w e l l as t h e t r a n s l a t i o n g i v e n t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e "new t r a n s c r i p t i o n ' ^ a r e t h e same as t h a t p r o v i d e d i n S m i t h ' s work. I t i s o b v i o u s by t h e " S m i t h , n.d." c i t a t i o n t h a t S m i t h ' s work i s i n u n p u b l i s h e d o r m a n u s c r i p t f o r m and t h e e x a c t d a t e o f t h e work i s n o t known (n.d. means "no d a t e " ) . I n some c a s e s , works by a u t h o r s w i t h "n.d." b e s i d e them a r e p l a c e d i n t h e i r p r o p e r c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e w i t h t h e o t h e r s o u r c e s i f an a p p r o x i m a t e d a t e o f t h e a u t h o r ' s work c a n be d i s c e r n e d . An example w o u l d be C r y e r ( n . d . ) , where t h i s p e r s o n ' s work was done i n t h e mid-1930's and i t i s t h e r e f o r e p l a c e d i n i t s p r o p e r s e q u e n c e . But Humphreys (n.d.) has no t i m e p e r i o d g i v e n w i t h t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l and i t i s p l a c e d a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e s o u r c e s l i s t e d f o r t h e p l a c e - n a m e . In t h e c a s e o f a u t h o r ' s f i e l d n o t e s , r e f e r e n c e s a r e p l a c e d w i t h t h a t a u t h o r ' s p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l . 13 D i r e c t l y b e l o w t h e e a r l i e s t p u b l i s h e d o r u n p u b l i s h e d t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f a g i v e n p l a c e - n a m e , t h e r e a d e r w i l l f i n d t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f t h e p l a c e ( i n t h e sample i t was number 3 3 3 ) , t h e means by w h i c h i t was u t i l i z e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem ( i . e . v i l l a g e , c a m p s i t e , r e s o u r c e - p r o c u r e m e n t s i t e , i m p o r t a n c e i n I s l a n d Halkomelem m y t h o l o g y , and so on) and o t h e r i n f o r m a -t i o n known a b o u t t h e p l a c e . T h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c o r d e r f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n b u t a s e q u e n c e i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e ( t o t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e ) has been a t t e m p t e d where p o s s i b l e . I n t h i s s e c t i o n a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f r o m a l l s o u r c e s known t o t h e a u t h o r have been i n c l u d e d , as w e l l as t h e r e c e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e I n d i a n c o l l a b o r a t o r s c o l l e c t e d f r o m 1974 t h r o u g h 1984. E a c h b i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s c i t e d a s t o s o u r c e , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y a f t e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a p p e a r s o r , i n t h e c a s e o f e n t i r e p a r a g r a p h s , a t t h e end o f t h e p a r a g r a p h . Where t h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s f o r t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e o r d e r o f s o u r c e s i s g i v e n i n t e r m s o f t h e amount o f d a t a p r o v i d e d . The f o r m a t j u s t d e s c r i b e d has been d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e h e l p o f Randy B o u c h a r d and D o r o t h y Kennedy, o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n Language P r o j e c t , V i c t o r i a and by d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o t h e r e t h n o g r a p h e r s and l i n g u i s t s o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s . The a u t h o r n a t u r a l l y assumes a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s d a t a . B u t one o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o s a l v a g e what i s known a b o u t I s l a n d H a l k o -melem p l a c e - n a m e s now a n d t o i n d u c e f u r t h e r s t u d y on them i n t h e f u t u r e . 1.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e means by w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g I s l a n d Halkomelem p l a c e - n a m e s was c o l l e c t e d , t r a n s l a t e d , e d i t e d and c h e c k e d w i l l be d e t a i l e d . The b a s i c m e t h o d o l o g y c o u l d b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as " s a l v a g e e t h n o g r a p h y " . P r i m a r y e t h n o g r a p h i c f i e l d w o r k began i n December, 1974 and c o n t i n u e d , on a v e r a g e , f o u r d a y s p e r week t h r o u g h A u g u s t , 1978. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e , a l l o f t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e m e n t i o n e d as c o n t r i b u t o r s o f o r i g i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n [ l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n ] were i n t e r v i e w e d f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f t i m e . The f o c u s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s was e t h n o s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , p r i m a r i l y e t h n o b o t a n y , e t h n o z o o l o g y and e t h n o g e o g r a p h y . Not a l l o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s were t a p e - r e c o r d e d d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w i n g s i n c e some o f them o b j e c t e d t o t h i s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s f i e l d w o r k were s i x t y r e e l s o f s o u n d t a p e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f w h i c h were n i n e t y m i n u t e s i n d u r a t i o n , f o r a t o t a l o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y - f i v e h o u r s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s . A b o u t t w e n t y books o f f i e l d n o t e s were a l s o t a k e n d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , f o r a t o t a l o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n h u n d r e d p a g e s . T h e s e n o t e s were t a k e n d u r i n g t a p e - r e c o r d i n g s e s s i o n s t o c l a r i f y words i n t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem l a n g u a g e by t r a n s c r i p t i o n s made a t t h e t i m e o f r e c o r d i n g , o r t o make n o t e s o f c o n v e r s a -t i o n s by i n t e r v i e w e e s who p r e f e r r e d n o t t o be r e c o r d e d . As w e l l , some o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s d i d n o t t a k e p l a c e i n t h e i n t e r -v i e w e e s ' homes, and t a p e - r e c o r d i n g a t p u b l i c g a t h e r i n g s was deemed i m p r a c t i c a l o r i n a d v i s a b l e due t o e x t r a n e o u s n o i s e . 15 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t most o f t h e t a p e - r e c o r d i n g s were i n E n g l i s h , i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h I s l a n d Halkomelem words, p h r a s e s and s e n t e n c e s where s u b j e c t s c o u l d be more f u l l y e x p l a i n e d . B u t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l t a p e s c o n t a i n i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n Island Halkomelem o n l y . T hese t a p e s were m a i n l y myths and s t o r i e s t h a t s e r v e d t o c l a r i f y p o i n t s a b o u t p l a c e - n a m e s and r e c o r d i n g s o f i n t e r v i e w e e s who were v i r t u a l l y m o n o l i n g u a l i n I s l a n d Halkomelem. The i n t e r v i e w i n g t e c h n i q u e s u t i l i z e d i n t h e p r i m a r y f i e l d w o r k d e s c r i b e d above c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f q u e s t i o n and answer i n E n g l i s h , b u t o f t e n t h e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e was u s e d by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r and t h e i n t e r v i e w e e when a c o n c e p t o r some o t h e r c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e (known t o b o t h p a r t i e s ) was b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d o r c l a r i f i e d i n t h e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e . By t h e end o f t h e f i r s t y e a r o f f i e l d w o r k , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r was r e a s o n a b l y f l u e n t i n t h e C o w i c h a n d i a l e c t o f I s l a n d Halkomelem, t h e u s u a l I n d i a n l a n g u a g e known t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s . O t h e r methods t o o b t a i n d a t a , u s e d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , i n c l u d e d i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s s u c h as a r c h i v a l p h o t o g r a p h s , l a r g e - s c a l e maps and m a r i n e c h a r t s . P a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a -t e d w i t h t h e p l a c e - n a m e s ( i . e . f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g ) and f i e l d t r i p s t o t h e p l a c e s w i t h I n d i a n names were a l s o an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e f i e l d w o r k i n t h e p e r i o d 1975 t o 1978. I t was o f t e n t h e c a s e t h a t t h e r e was more t h a n one I n d i a n p e r s o n i n v o l v e d i n an i n f o r m a t i o n - r e t r i e v a l s e s s i o n . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e f r o m September, 1978 t h r o u g h A p r i l , 1979, no f i e l d w o r k was done and t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem, due t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f 16 c o m p l e t i n g c o u r s e - w o r k r e q u i r e m e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n V a n c o u v e r . B u t t h e r e was f r e q u e n t t e l e p h o n e c o n t a c t w i t h many o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e d u r i n g t h a t t i m e and many o f them v i s i t e d V a n c o u v e r and were c o n t a c t e d as f r i e n d s , r a t h e r t h a n " s u p p l i e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n " . I n J une o f 1979, t h e t o p i c and p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s were a g r e e d upon, and f o r t h e n e x t t h r e e y e a r s t h e p r o c e s s o f e x t r a c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t i n g t o I s l a n d Halkomelem e t h n o g e o g r a p h y f r o m t h e s o u n d - t a p e s and f i e l d n o t e s c o l l e c t e d f r o m 1974 t h r o u g h 1978 was u n d e r t a k e n . T h i s i n v o l v e d l i s t e n i n g t o a l l o f t h e s o u n d - t a p e s i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y and, where n e c e s s a r y , t r a n s l a t i n g them i n t o E n g l i s h . T h e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f r e q u e n t a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem,and s e v e r a l t r i p s t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and some o f t h e G u l f I s l a n d s were made o v e r t h o s e t h r e e y e a r s . A s y s t e m was d e v i s e d by w h i c h 40 c e n t i m e t e r by 60 c e n t i m e t e r i n d e x c a r d s were u s e d i n o r d e r t o make t h e d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o e a c h p l a c e - n a m e more ma n a g e a b l e . The i n d e x c a r d s c o n t a i n e d l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d on t h e s o u n d - t a p e s , and t h i s meant t h a t c o m p l e t e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e t a p e s were u n n e c e s s a r y . E a c h c a r d had i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a s p e c i f i c p l a c e - n a m e , t h e p e r s o n who s u p p l i e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , a t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r r e n d e r i n g o f t h e name i n I s l a n d Halkomelem, t h e p l a c e - n a m e ' s E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t and any o t h e r f a c t s o f i n t e r e s t ( s u c h as t h e u s e o f t h e p l a c e ) . A f t e r a l l o f t h e s o u n d - t a p e s and f i e l d n o t e s ' d a t a were t r a n s f e r r e d o n t o i n d e x c a r d s , t h e c a r d s were s o r t e d 17 f i r s t by g e n e r a l a r e a w i t h i n I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y , n e x t by d i a l e c t a r e a and f i n a l l y by s p e c i f i c p l a c e - n a m e . T h i s l o n g and l a b o r i o u s p r o c e s s t o o k t h e b e t t e r p a r t o f t h r e e y e a r s . From A u g u s t , 1982 t h r o u g h May, 1983 a c o m p l e t e s c a n o f a l l o f t h e p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem was made. Here a g a i n , i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p l a c e - n a m e s was t r a n s f e r r e d o n t o i n d e x c a r d s i n t h e same manner as w i t h t h e p r i m a r y f i e l d w o r k d a t a . On t h i s s e t o f c a r d s , t h e s o u r c e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was p l a c e d on one p a r t o f t h e c a r d , t h e e t h n o g r a p h e r ' s t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p l a c e -name and i t s E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t were p l a c e d on a n o t h e r p a r t and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was p l a c e d on t h e r e s t o f t h e c a r d . I n t h e summer o f 1983, a l l o f t h i s d a t a was i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h t h e i n d e x c a r d s c o n t a i n i n g p r i m a r y d a t a , and t h e p r o c e s s o f c h e c k i n g and r e - c h e c k i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem b e g a n . I t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s u l t w i t h s e v e r a l I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e a t t h i s p o i n t b e c a u s e t h e r e were f r e q u e n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y had g i v e n d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s and t h a t f o u n d i n o t h e r e t h n o g r a p h e r s ' f i e l d n o t e s o r i n p u b l i s h e d / r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s . From J u l y , 1983 t h r o u g h t h e end o f 1984, t y p i n g o f t h e f i n a l d r a f t o f t h i s t h e s i s was u n d e r t a k e n and t h e maps, t a b l e s and a p p e n d i c e s t o t h i s t h e s i s were begun. The f i n a l d r a f t s were p r e p a r e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1985, and d u r i n g t h i s t i m e some r e - c h e c k i n g o f p l a c e - n a m e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n was a g a i n n e c e s s a r y . On t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s , t h e p e o p l e who have s u p p l i e d p r i m a r y i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s t h e s i s a r e l i s t e d . NATIVE INDIAN PEOPLE CONTRIBUTING INFORMATION TO THIS THESIS (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER BY SURNAME) NAME ( I N I T I A L S USED HERE) PLACE OF BIRTH PRESENT (OR LAST KNOWN) RESIDENCE Gus C a m p b e l l (GC) Cowichan (Quamichan) L a d y s m i t h , B. C. M i c h a e l D a v i d (MD) K u l l e e t Bay K u l l e e t Bay, B. C. A r n o l d G u e r i n (AG) V a n c o u v e r (Musqueam) V a n c o u v e r , B. C. Rose James (RJ) Kuper I s l a n d T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r , Kuper • I s l a n d , B.C. A b e l D. J o e (ADJ) Canoe P a s s , F r a s e r R. Duncan, B. C. Abraham J o e (AJ) Cowichan (Somenos) Duncan, B. C. A r t h u r J o e * (ARJ) Cowichan (Somenos) Duncan, B. C. A l e x i s L o u i e * (ALI) S i b e l l B a y / L a d y s m i t h C o f f i n P o i n t , L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r , B. C. A l f r e d L o u i e (AL2) S i b e l l B a y / L a d y s m i t h C o f f i n P o i n t , L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r , B. C. C h r i s P a u l * (CP) Cowichan (Quamichan) Brentwood Bay ( S a a n i c h ) , B. C. D a v i d P e t e r s (DP) Kuper I s l a n d N o r t h Cowichan, B. C. Agnes T h o r n e (AT) V a l d e s I s l a n d Duncan, B. C. H i l d a W i l s o n (HW) Nanaimo Nanaimo, B. C. N o t e : An a s t e r i s k * i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s p e r s o n i s now d e c e a s e d . T a b l e I 19 BAND AND RESERVE MEMBERSHIP OF THE NATIVE INDIAN PEOPLE WHO HAVE CONTRIBUTED INFORMATION TO THIS THESIS NAME (INITIALS USED HERE) CURRENT BAND AND RESERVE Gus Campbell (GC) Cowichan (Off Reserve) Michael David (MD) Chemainus-Siccameen/Kulleetz (#13) Ar n o l d Guerin (AG) Musqueam (Musqueam) Rose James (RJ) Penelakut (Kuper I s l a n d #7) Abel D. Joe (ADJ) Cowichan (Cowichan #1) Abraham Joe (AJ) Cowichan (Cowichan #1) Arthur Joe* (ARJ) Cowichan (Cowichan #1) A l e x i s Louie* (ALI) Chemainus-Siccameen/Kulleetz (#13) A l f r e d Louie (AL2) Chemainus-Siccameen/Kulleetz (#13) C h r i s P a u l * (CP) Saanich ( T s a r t l i p - # 1 ) David P e t e r s (DP) Cowichan (Cowichan #1) Agnes Thorne (AT) Cowichan (Cowichan #1) H i l d a Wilson (HW) Nanaimo (Nanaimo C i t y #1) Note: An a s t e r i s k * i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s person i s now deceased. A f f i l i a t i o n s given are acc u r a t e f o r them, at the time of t h e i r death. Table I I 2 0 NATIVE INDIAN PEOPLE AND THE TYPE OF INFORMATION SUPPLIED NAME TYPE OF ORIGINAL INFORMATION Gus C a m p b e l l (GC) M i c h a e l D a v i d (MD) A r n o l d G u e r i n (AG) Rose James (RJ) A b e l D. J o e (ADJ) Abraham J o e (AJ) A r t h u r J o e (ARJ) A l e x i s L o u i e (ALI) A l f r e d L o u i e (AL2) C h r i s P a u l (CP) D a v i d P e t e r s (DP) Agnes T h o r n e (AT) H i l d a W i l s o n (HW) Myths, t e x t s , C o w i c h a n p l a c e - n a m e s Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a p l a c e - n a m e s G u l f I s l a n d and M a i n l a n d p l a c e - n a m e s , t r a n s l a t i o n s , e t y m o l o g i e s Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a p l a c e - n a m e s Myths, t e x t s , t r a n s l a t i o n s , e t y m o l o g i e s , I s l a n d Halkomelem p l a c e - n a m e s Myths, t e x t s , t r a n s l a t i o n s , I s l a n d Halkomelem p l a c e - n a m e s C o w i c h a n p l a c e - n a m e s Nanaimo and Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a p l a c e -names Nanaimo and Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a p l a c e -names Cow i c h a n and G u l f I s l a n d p l a c e - n a m e s , myths, t e x t s , t r a n s l a t i o n s , e t y m o l o g i e s Chemainus and G u l f I s l a n d a r e a "place-names Chemainus and G u l f I s l a n d a r e a p l a c e - n a m e s Nanaimo d i a l e c t a r e a p l a c e - n a m e s T a b l e I I I 21 CHAPTER TWO PLACE-NAMES KNOWN TO THE ISLAND HALKOMELEM INDIAN PEOPLE T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : 2.1 P l a c e - n a m e s n o r t h o f I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y 2.2 P l a c e - n a m e s i n I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y 2.3 P l a c e - n a m e s s o u t h o f I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y 2.4 P ' l a c e-names known t o t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem on t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d and F r a s e r R i v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and i n t h e P u g e t Sound a r e a o f W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , U. S. A. PLACE-NAMES KNOWN TO THE ISLAND HALKOMELEM INDIAN PEOPLE 2.1 Place-Names N o r t h o f I s l a n d Halkomelem T e r r i t o r y C a m p b e l l R i v e r / C a p e Mudge a r e a [Halkomelem p r o n u n c i a t i o n ] y e k w e l h t a 7 x (AJ; ADJ-; CP) y e k w e l h t e x Y o o k w i l d a E u c l a t a w Y a c u l t a Y u c u l t a Y u k w i l t D (AJ; ADJ) [ a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n ] (Boas, i n C o d e r e , 1966:37, 41) ( D u f f , 1964:10, 22) ( D u f f , 1964:10) ( D u f f , 1964:10) ( B a r n e t t , 1955:24, 26) Y a y a q w i L t a h ( B a r n e t t , 1955:26) Y u k - w i l - t o w ( C r o s b y , 1914:366-367) Y u k - w i l - t o e ( C r o s b y , 1914:366-367) Y u q u h l t a h Yukwilta Yookilta Ucle-tahs ( C u r t i s , 1913:171) (Boas, 1887:131) ( T o l m i e and Dawson, 1884:118) (Mayne, 1862:245) C a m p b e l l R i v e r / C a p e Mudge I n d i a n P e o p l e [ K w a k i u t l term] L i g w i l h d a 7 x w (Grubb, 1977:192) L e g w ^ d a ^ x U (Boas, i n C o d e r e , 1966:37, 41) L a y c o o l t a c h ( D u f f , 1964:10) L e k w i l t o k ( T a y l o r and D u f f , 1956 and Swanton, 1952) L a i c h k w i l t a c h ( R o y a l Comm., 1916, i n D u f f , 1964:22) L e q u i t t i g (Boas, 1886, i n Yampolsky, 1958:317) L e l q u i l t a g (Boas, 1886, i n Yampolsky, 1958:319) L e k w i l t o q (Boas, 1887:131) L i k w i l t o h ( T o l m i e and Dawson, 1884:117, 119) L a y c u l t a s ( D o u g l a s , 1853, i n T a y l o r and D u f f , 1956:63) Lay C u l t a s ( Y a l e , 1839, i n T a y l o r and D u f f , 1956:62) Cape Mudge v i l l a g e [ K w a k i u t l p l a c e - n a m e ] T s ' e k w a l u t e n (Grubb, 1977:213) " f r o m S a l i s h TSQULOTN ( T a y l o r and D u f f , 1956:59) II TSAKWALOSIN ( T a y l o r and D u f f , 1956:64) The I s l a n d Halkomelem r e f e r t o t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l I n d i a n s c u r r e n t l y r e s i d i n g on R e s e r v e s a t C a m p b e l l R i v e r and Cape Mudge [ t h e l a t t e r i s on t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n end o f Q uadra I s l a n d ] as y e k w e l h t a 7 x . T h i s t e r m i s b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e K w a k i u t l [Kwakw'ala] t e r m l i g w i l h d a 7 x w , w h i c h i s u s e d by t h e p e o p l e on t h e s e two R e s e r v e s t o r e f e r t o t h e m s e l v e s . Some I s l a n d Halkomelem s p e a k e r s a l s o u s e t h e t e r m y e k w e l h t a 7 x t o r e f e r t o t h e Cape Mudge R e s e r v e , and a l s o t o a l l non-C o a s t S a l i s h I n d i a n s n o r t h o f C a m p b e l l R i v e r , s u c h as t h e K w a k i u t l a t A l e r t Bay and F o r t R u p e r t , t h e H a i d a , t h e T s i m s h i a n and o t h e r s (AJ; ADJ; C P ) . A c c o r d i n g t o D u f f (1964:22, 2 5 ) , T a y l o r and D u f f (1956) and B a r n e t t (1955:24), t h e E u c l a t a w s f o r c i b l y d r o v e t h e I s l a n d Comox [ C o a s t S a l i s h ] s o u t h f r o m t h e C a m p b e l l R i v e r a r e a sometime i n t h e e a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , p r o b a b l y between 1845 and 1860. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by C o w i c h a n and Nanaimo I n d i a n s t o d a y , who a l s o n o t e t h a t t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l [ E u c l a t a w s ] and t h e i r a l l i e s were t h e most f e a r e d e nemies o f a l l o f t h e C o a s t S a l i s h [and t h e i r a l l i e s ] . T h e r e were a p p a r e n t l y s e v e r a l h u n d r e d y e a r s o f f i g h t i n g between t h e s e two g r o u p s , w i t h t h e more e x p o s e d v i l l a g e s on b o t h s i d e s f r e q u e n t l y d e s t r o y e d and many s l a v e s t a k e n . The l a s t " b a t t l e " between t h e C o a s t S a l i s h and t h e " n o r t h e r n p e o p l e " t o o k p l a c e a t Maple Bay, n e a r t h e p r e s e n t c i t y o f Duncan, a b o u t 18 50 (ADJ; HW; A J ; C P ) . Much more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e K w a k i u t l d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e I s l a n d Comox ca n be f o u n d i n B a r n e t t (1955:24-26), i n T a y l o r and D u f f (1956:56-66) and i n an u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t by t h e l a t e W i l s o n D u f f ( D u f f , n . d . ) . 2. Comox H a r b o u r area/Comox R e s e r v e [ I s l a n d Halkomelem term] s e l h u t x w (AJ; ADJ; CP; GC; HW) s a @ u l © ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) s u h l u h l ( C u r t i s , 1913:34) sah~loh"l*t ( C u r t i s , 1913:171) ["Cowichan name f o r t r i b e " ] s a t l o t l q ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:373) I s l a n d Comox d i a l e c t and s p e a k e r s o f i t [ I s l a n d Comox term] s a l h u l h t x w ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) saL0.Lt ( B a r n e t t , 1955:25) C a t l o l t c h > — (Boas, 1887:131) T l a t h o o l ( T o l m i e and Dawson, 1884:119) T i s i l h o l t s ( Y a l e , 1839, i n T a y l o r and D u f f , 1956:62) komaks (Barnett, 1955:24) komokwe (Barnett, 1955:25) Qomoks (Boas, 1887:132) Kowmook (Tolmie and Dawson, 1884:119) The term selhutxw i s used by the Island Halkomelem to refer to the Comox Harbour area, the Indian people presently residing on the Comox Indian Reserve, the Comox Reserve i t s e l f and to the "language" spoken by the Indians there (AJ; ADJ). Selhutxw i s evidently derived from the Comox [Coast Salish] language term salhulhtxw, which i s used by the Island Comox Indians to refer to the d i a l e c t of the Comox language they speak. There was only one remaining speaker of the Island Comox d i a l e c t [in 1982]. (Bouchard, f i e l d notes). Duff (1964:25; Taylor and Duff, 19 56) reported that the Island Comox currently residing on the Comox Reserve formerly l i v e d i n the Quadra Island area before 1850, and that t h e i r "remnants" were driven south by the Southern Kwakiutl aft e r Cape Mudge was f i r s t s e t t l e d by the l a t t e r around 1846. Barnett's Comox informant placed the date of Comox displace-ment i n the 1830's, while Barnett himself (1955:24) seemed certain only that i t happened after 1792, and that Campbell River was the apparent centre of Island Comox t e r r i t o r y before that time. However, Boas (1887:131-132) gives the e a r l i e s t date, saying that the Island Comox, reduced i n numbers from t h e i r "wars" with the Kwakiutl, " l e f t t h e i r old home[land] 130 years ago [i.e. 1757]." The Comox had sett l e d i n P e n t l a t c h t e r r i t o r y b e c a u s e t h e E u c l a t a w s "now i n h a b i t t h e e n t i r e a r e a t h a t f o r m e r l y was I s l a n d Comox." A l t h o u g h B a r n e t t (1955:24-26) p r o v i d e d more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e I s l a n d Comox " m i g r a t i o n " , t h e " t e r r i t o r i a l r e l a t i o n s o f t h e Comox.. [ s t i l l ] s t a n d i n need o f a s h a r p e r d e f i n i t i o n " t o d a y . Lomas (1882), an I n d i a n a g e n t f o r many y e a r s on s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , s a i d t h a t t h e Comox I n d i a n v i l l a g e [ i n 1882] was composed o f I n d i a n s f r o m t h e Cape Mudge, P u n t l e d g e and S a i l k - e i m [ s o u t h e r n P e n t l a t c h ] "bands". S i n c e Lomas d i d n o t p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s , we c a n n o t know what p r o p o r t i o n s o f e a c h "band" f o r m e d t h e v i l l a g e a t t h a t t i m e . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t Lomas d i d n o t m e n t i o n t h e I s l a n d Comox p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s . The t h r e e g r o u p s he d i d m e n t i o n had e v i d e n t l y amalgamated w i t h t h e I s l a n d Comox by 1882. J e n n e s s , i n h i s f i e l d n o t e s , and B a r n e t t (1955:24) b o t h r e m a r k e d t h a t c e r t a i n n o r t h e r n g r o u p s o f I s l a n d Comox were " a l l i e s o f t h e K w a k i u t l . " T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d , t o some e x t e n t , by c e r t a i n s t o r i e s t o l d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o d a y , c o n c e r n i n g t h e " l a s t b a t t l e between t h e C o a s t S a l i s h and t h e n o r t h e r n p e o p l e " (AJ; A D J ) . B u t i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t n o t a l l o f t h e I s l a n d Comox were a l l i e s o f t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l , s i n c e some o f them were d i s p l a c e d s o u t h w a r d and o t h e r s i n t e r m a r r i e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y weaker P e n t l a t c h . W i l s o n D u f f ' s u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t on t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l (n.d.) has s e c t i o n s w h i c h d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e C o a s t S a l i s h and K w a k i u t l "wars" a n d . w i t h t h e s o u t h e r n e x p a n s i o n o f t h e K w a k i u t l . Some v a l u a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s a r e a l s o 27 i n c l u d e d i n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t . 3. C o u r t e n a y and l o w e r P u n t l e d g e R i v e r a r e a p e n t l ' e t s (AJ; ADJ; A L I ; AL2; CP; RJ) P e n t l a t i s h (Boas, i n Yampolsky, 1958:318) p £ n L a t c ( B a r n e t t , 1 9 5 5 : 2 3 ) P u n t l a t s h ( C u r t i s , 1913:171) Pantlats ( C u r t i s , 1913:171) P e n t l a t s c h (Boas, 1887:132) o The t e r m p e n t l ' e t s , as i t i s u s e d by t h e I s l a n d H a l k o -melem, r e f e r s t o t h e l o w e r P u n t l e d g e R i v e r a r e a and t h e p r e s e n t town o f C o u r t e n a y , t h e s p e a k e r s o f t h e P e n t l a t c h l a n g u a g e who amalgamated w i t h t h e I s l a n d Comox and t o t h e P e n t l a t c h l a n g u a g e i t s e l f [which has been e x t i n c t s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1940's] (AJ; A D J ) . The t e r m p e n t l ' e t s i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e P e n t l a t c h I n d i a n s ' t e r m f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e l a n g u a g e t h e y s p o k e [see B a r n e t t and Boas' r e n d e r i n g s o f t h i s t e r m a b o v e ] . B e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s , t h e P e n t l a t c h were a p p a r e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s p e c i f i c g r o u p s . A c c o r d i n g t o D u f f (1964:25), t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s l i v e d on Comox H a r b o u r , Denman I s l a n d and E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r , b u t between 1850 and 1916 t h e y amalgamated w i t h t h e I s l a n d Comox on t h e Comox R e s e r v e . B a r n e t t (1955:23-24), who c o n s u l t e d t h e w i f e o f t h e l a s t s p e a k e r o f P e n t l a t c h , s t a t e d t h a t t h e P e n t l a t c h " p r o p e r " d i d n o t e x t e n d as f a r s o u t h as Q u a l i c u m , b u t t h e i r l a n g u a g e was sp o k e n as f a r s o u t h as Nanoose Bay. The a c t u a l t e r r i t o r y o f 2 8 t h e P e n t l a t c h , a c c o r d i n g t o B a r n e t t ' s Comox i n f o r m a n t , was s a i d t o e x t e n d f r o m Kye Bay i n t h e n o r t h t o t h e E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r i n t h e s o u t h . The t h r e e g r o u p s and t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s were: t h e " P e n t l a t c h p r o p e r " , i n h a b i t i n g t h e a r e a f r o m Kye Bay t o U n i o n Bay; t h e s : u c k c a n , t h e " l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i v e s " o f t h e P e n t l a t c h [ p r o b a b l y s p e a k i n g a d i a l e c t o f t h e P e n t l a t c h l a n g u a g e ] , who r a n g e d f r o m U n i o n Bay t o Deep Bay; and f i n a l l y t h e saa.La.rn, who spoke a n o t h e r d i a l e c t o f P e n t l a t c h and who o c c u p i e d t h e a r e a f r o m Deep Bay t o t h e E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r . However, Boas (1887:132) a l s o n o t e d t h r e e g r o u p s b u t gave t h e two s o u t h e r n d i a l e c t s d i f f e r e n t names a n d . p l a c e d t h e s o u t h e r n b o u n d a r y o f P e n t l a t c h a t Q u a l i c u m R i v e r . Boas g i v e s t h r e e g r o u p s o f P e n t l a t c h : t h e f i r s t were t h e P e n t l a t s c h , l o c a t e d i n t h e P u n t l e d g e R i v e r v a l l e y ; t h e s e c o n d were t h e s p e a k e r s o f t h e Saamen d i a l e c t who l i v e d a t Q u a l i c u m R i v e r ; and t h e t h i r d were t h e C h u a c h u a t l , whose t e r r i t o r y e v i d e n t l y s p a n n e d t h e a r e a between t h e Saamen and t h e Nanoose, who were s p e a k e r s o f I s l a n d Halkomelem. Bu t Boas s a i d t h a t [ i n 1887] t h e P e n t l a t c h l a n g u a g e was " n e a r l y e x t i n c t and... [was] o n l y s p o k e n by two f a m i l i e s i n t h e I s l a n d Comox s e t t l e -ment and one o r more a t Q u a l i c u m [ R i v e r ] . Between t h e P e n t -l a t c h and Saamen t h e r e i s s u p p o s e d t o be a s l i g h t d i a l e c t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e . " I t i s c l e a r t h a t B a r n e t t and Boas r e c o r d e d d i f f e r e n t names and t e r r i t o r i e s f o r t h e two s o u t h e r n d i a l e c t s o f P e n t l a t c h . I n any c a s e , a l l o f t h e P e n t l a t c h I n d i a n p e o p l e had moved t o t h e Comox R e s e r v e o r had i n t e r m a r r i e d w i t h I s l a n d H a l k o -melem o r N o o t k a I n d i a n s [at P o r t A l b e r n i ] by t h e l a t e 1800's and t h e P e n t l a t c h l a n g u a g e became e x t i n c t by t h e e a r l y 1940's. I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e f r o m Nanaimo and t h e Co w i c h a n v a l l e y a r e aware o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e between P e n t l a t c h and p e o p l e t o t h e s o u t h and t h e y c a n s t i l l r e c a l l who t h e P e n t l a t c h d e s c e n d a n t s a r e t o d a y (AJ; ADJ; HW). More i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s o u t h e r n d i a l e c t s o f t h e P e n t l a t c h l a n g u a g e w i l l be g i v e n l a t e r , i n t h e c o n t e x t o f o t h e r p l a c e - n a m e s . A c c o r d i n g t o B a r n e t t ' s Comox i n f o r m a n t (1955:24), t h e P e n t l a t c h " p r o p e r " had t h e i r "permanent h a b i t a t i o n s . . a l o n g Comox H a r b o u r and a t t h e mouth o f t h e P u n t l e d g e R i v e r w h i c h f l o w s i n t o Comox H a r b o u r . . T h e y had b u t one b i g house on t h e P u n t l e d g e R i v e r n e a r C o u r t e n a y . " 4. Henry Bay, Denman I s l a n d xwa7asxwem (ALI) ' p l a c e h a v i n g h a r b o u r s e a l s ' Denman I s l a n d was a p p a r e n t l y w i t h i n P e n t l a t c h t e r r i t o r y i n p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s ( D u f f , 1964:25). Henry Bay, on t h e n o r t h e a s t t i p o f Denman I s l a n d , may have been a p l a c e where h a r b o u r s e a l s were p r o c u r e d by t h e P e n t l a t c h , s i n c e t h e name f o r t h i s p l a c e i n I s l a n d Halkomelem i n d i c a t e s t h e r e was an abundance o f t h i s m a r i n e mammal t h e r e . 30 5. Hornby I s l a n d k a 7 k i y e t (ALI) (meaning n o t known) A c c o r d i n g t o B a r n e t t (1955:166), t h e P e n t l a t c h h u n t e d d e e r on Hornby I s l a n d . 6. L a s q u e t i I s l a n d / s x w e 7 i t i 7 ( A L I ) ( m e a n i n g n o t known) [Halkomelem l a n g u a g e , C o wichan d i a l e c t ] / x w e 7 i t a y ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) "yew t r e e " [Comox l a n g u a g e ] / s x w e 7 i t a y ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) "yew t r e e " [ S e c h e l t l a n g u a g e ] / t s ' i t s ' e s e m ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) " s m a l l d e e r " [Halkomelem l a n g u a g e , [ c f . T e x a d a I s l a n d ] Nanaimo d i a l e c t ] The I s l a n d Halkomelem name f o r t h i s i s l a n d i s a p p a r e n t l y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e Comox and S e c h e l t l a n g u a g e terms f o r t h e W e s t e r n yew t r e e . A c c o r d i n g t o S u t t l e s 1 Nanoose i n f o r m a n t , t h e r e were many d e e r on t h i s i s l a n d , b u t i t i s u n c l e a r i f t h e p e o p l e f r o m Nanoose Bay went t o L a s q u e t i I s l a n d t o p r o c u r e them ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) . The M a i n l a n d Comox I n d i a n s t r o l l e d f o r salmon i n t h e w a t e r s a r o u n d t h e i s l a n d r e c e n t l y ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) . L a s q u e t i I s l a n d seems t o be l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e P e n t l a t c h and t h e S e c h e l t and t h e more r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d t e r r i t o r y o f t h e I s l a n d Comox. 7. T e x a d a I s l a n d t s 1 a y t s 1 s e m (ALI) "many s m a l l d e e r " [Halkomelem l a n g u a g e , Cowichan d i a l e c t ] x e l t s i i t s e n ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) [Halkomelem l a n g u a g e , Nanaimo d i a l e c t ] S p e a k e r s o f t h e M a i n l a n d Comox [ C o a s t S a l i s h ] l a n g u a g e , Sliammon d i a l e c t , whose main v i l l a g e s were l o c a t e d n e a r t h e p r e s e n t town o f P o w e l l R i v e r , u t i l i z e d t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f Te x a d a I s l a n d and i t s a d j a c e n t w a t e r s f o r s e a s o n a l camping and r e s o u r c e - p r o c u r e m e n t . S p e a k e r s o f t h e S e c h e l t [ C o a s t S a l i s h ] l a n g u a g e , whose main v i l l a g e s were l o c a t e d on t h e S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a , u s e d t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f o f T e x a d a I s l a n d and i t s a d j a c e n t w a t e r s f o r s i m i l a r p u r p o s e s . In b o t h t h e M a i n l a n d Comox and S e c h e l t l a n g u a g e s t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p l a c e - n a m e s w h i c h r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s on t h e i s l a n d ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) . The a p p a r e n t d i v i s i o n between t h e s e two g r o u p s was t h e Lang B a y / S t i l l w a t e r Bay a r e a on t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m a i n l a n d . T e x a d a I s l a n d was e v i d e n t l y " d i v i d e d " between S e c h e l t and M a i n l a n d Comox " t e r r i t o r i e s " b a s e d on t h e Lang B a y / S t i l l w a t e r Bay l i n g u i s t i c b o u n d a r y ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ; Boas, 1887; B a r n e t t , 1955:30). The I s l a n d Halkomelem o n l y remember one name f o r a l l o f Te x a d a I s l a n d t o d a y , and t h e y do n o t r e c a l l any u t i l i z a t i o n by t h e i r a n c e s t o r s , e x c e p t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e t o M a i n l a n d Comox and S e c h e l t I n d i a n p e o p l e who had t h e r i g h t t o u se t h e T e x a d a I s l a n d a r e a f o r f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e I s l a n d H a l k o -melem name f o r Tex a d a I s l a n d i s "many s m a l l d e e r " ; t h i s may p r o v i d e a c l u e t o t h e t y p e o f h u n t i n g a c t i v i t y on t h e i s l a n d ( A L I ) . S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a and S e c h e l t I n d i a n R e s e r v e / s h i s h a l h (AJ; ADJ) / / s h i 7 s h a 7 1 h t (AJ; ADJ) [ a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n ] Shisheh"! ( C u r t i s , 1913:171) "Cowichan name f o r t r i b e " S e c h e l t l a n g u a g e name f o r S e c h e l t I n d i a n p e o p l e i a l s o r e f e r s p l ace-name] / / s h i s h a l h ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) [ a l s o r e f e r s t o a s i c e L t ( B a r n e t t , 1955:30) S i ' c i a t l (Boas, 1889 :324) S i s c h i a t l (Boas, 1887:132) / The I s l a n d Halkomelem use t h e t e r m s h i s h a l h t o r e f e r t o t h e S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a i n g e n e r a l and t h e p r e s e n t S e c h e l t I n d i a n R e s e r v e [ a d j a c e n t t o t h e town o f S e c h e l t ] i n p a r t i c u l a r . They use t h i s same t e r m t o r e f e r t o t h e S e c h e l t I n d i a n p e o p l e and t h e C o a s t S a l i s h l a n g u a g e t h e y s peak. The I s l a n d H a l k o -melem t e r m i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e S e c h e l t l a n g u a g e t e r m s h i s h a l h , w h i c h i s u s e d by t h e S e c h e l t t o r e f e r t o t h e i r l a n g u a g e and t o t h e m s e l v e s , as w e l l as t o a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e - n a m e i n S e c h e l t t e r r i t o r y (AJ; ADJ; B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) . T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e h i s t o r y o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e between t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem and t h e S e c h e l t I n d i a n p e o p l e . A l o n g w i t h t h i s i n t e r m a r r i a g e went c e r t a i n i n h e r i t e d p r i v i l e g e s , s u c h as t h e u s e o f sxwaixwe masks and songs and t h e u s a g e o f c e r t a i n a n c e s t r a l names (AJ; A D J ) . B a r n e t t (1955:30) a l s o n o t e d t h a t c e r t a i n Nanaimo [and Squamish] f a m i l i e s j o i n e d t h e S e c h e l t s a t t h e head o f J e r v i s I n l e t t o f i s h f o r h e r r i n g and s a l m on d u r i n g t h e summer months. A c c o r d i n g t o B a r n e t t , 33 " t h i s i n t e r m i n g l i n g must have been by s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t , a t l e a s t f o r t h e Nanaimo, and n o t p a r t o f a r o u t i n e g r o u p move-ment. P e r h a p s i t o c c u r r e d a f t e r t h e g e n e r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f e t h n i c b a r r i e r s had begun [ i . e . s i n c e c o n t a c t w i t h non-I n d i a n s ] . " 9. G i b s o n ' s L a n d i n g [Halkomelem p r o n u n c i a t i o n ] t s ' k w ' e l h p (AJ) ' S i t k a s p r u c e t r e e ' G i b s o n ' s L a n d i n g [Squamish p l a c e - n a m e ] c h ' k w ' e l h p ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) " s p r u c e t r e e " Chek-welp (Matthews, 1955: map) T h e r e was f o r m e r l y a l a r g e Squamish I n d i a n v i l l a g e l o c a t e d j u s t n o r t h o f t h e p r e s e n t v i l l a g e o f G i b s o n ' s L a n d i n g . The s i t e i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e t h e Squamish p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e " f i r s t p e o p l e " were two b r o t h e r s who d e s c e n d e d f r o m t h e s k y and l a n d e d t h e r e . The v i l l a g e was o c c u p i e d by t h e Squamish u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1900's ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) . The p l a c e - n a m e u s e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem and t h e Squamish does n o t r e f e r t o t h e bay a t G i b s o n ' s L a n d i n g , b u t t o t h e f o r m e r Squamish v i l l a g e - s i t e . E v i d e n t l y , t h e r e u s e d t o be many S i t k a s p r u c e t r e e s i n p r o x i m i t y t o t h e v i l l a g e , s i n c e t h e m e a ning o f t h e pl a c e - n a m e i n b o t h Squamish and I s l a n d Halkomelem r e f e r s t o t h i s s p e c i e s . 34 10. Q u a l i c u m R i v e r and Q u a l i c u m I n d i a n R e s e r v e /• xwkw'olexwem (AJ; ADJ; CP) ' p l a c e h a v i n g chum salmon' x W k W a i a x W d m ( L e s l i e , 1979: 76) " f r o m k W a l 3 x W 'dog salmon ' " xwkw'olexwem ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) " p l a c e h a v i n g dog salmon" o r "dog salmon p l a c e " Kwalaxam ( B a r n e t t , 1955:23) "Nanaimo word..means ' d r i e d dog s a l m o n ' " Hq/lonum ( C u r t i s , 1913:171) "Cowichan name f o r t r i b e " Qualekum (Boas, 1887:132) Q u a l l - e - h u m (Brown, 1864:16) Q u a l i c u m R i v e r and f o r m e r Q u a l i c u m v i l l a g e [ I s l a n d Comox term] / kw'u7uxwem ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) ' h a v i n g s m o k e - d r i e d salmon' S o u t h e r n P e n t l a t c h s p e a k e r s i n h a b i t i n g Q u a l i c u m a r e a s a 7 a l h e m ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) saftlAm ( B a r n e t t , 1955:24) Saamen (Boas, 1887:132) S a i l k - e i m (Lomas, 1882) S a a t l a m ( G r a n t , 1857:269, 277) " V a l d e z I n l e t " The I s l a n d Halkomelem use t h e t e r m xwkw'olexwem ' p l a c e h a v i n g chum s a l m o n 1 o r ' p l a c e h a v i n g dog salmon' t o r e f e r t o t h e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r and t o t h e p r e s e n t I n d i a n R e s e r v e l o c a t e d a t t h e mouth o f t h e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r . They do n o t u s e i t t o r e f e r t o L i t t l e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r o r Q u a l i c u m B e a c h f u r t h e r s o u t h (AJ; ADJ; C P ) . The I s l a n d Comox use t h e t e r m kw'u7uxwem ' h a v i n g s m o k e - d r i e d salmon [of any t y p e ] 1 t o r e f e r t o t h e f o r m e r v i l l a g e - s i t e a t t h e mouth o f t h e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r , where h o u s e s once s t o o d on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e r i v e r . The a n g l i c i z e d t e r m " Q u a l i c u m " i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e I s l a n d H a l k o -melem t e r m and n o t t h e I s l a n d Comox t e r m f o r t h i s s i t e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r i s n o t l o c a t e d i n I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) . Today t h e I n d i a n s l i v i n g on t h e Q u a l i c u m R e s e r v e a r e a " s m a l l new m i x e d g r o u p " ( D u f f , 1964:25). F o r m e r l y , t h e I n d i a n s a t Q u a l i c u m R i v e r spoke a d i a l e c t o f t h e P e n t l a t c h l a n g u a g e c a l l e d s a 7 a l h e m o r sa7alham, and t h e y a p p a r e n t l y r a n g e d as f a r s o u t h as E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r (Boas, 1887:132; B a r n e t t , 1955:24; B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) . B a r n e t t , i n h i s f i e l d n o t e s , s t a t e d t h a t " Q u a l i c u m was t h e a p p r o x i m a t e b o u n d a r y between t h e Cowichan s p e a k i n g p e o p l e [ i . e . I s l a n d Halkomelem] and t h e Comox [ i . e . I s l a n d Comox who had, by J e n n e s s ' t i m e amalgamated w i t h t h e P e n t l a t c h ] . B u t i t i s known t h a t many s a 7 a l h e m p e o p l e moved o n t o t h e Comox R e s e r v e and Nanoose Bay R e s e r v e [ t h e l a t t e r t o t h e s o u t h ] as e a r l y as 1882 (Lomas, 1882). T h e r e i s no r e c o r d e d t e r m i n P e n t -l a t c h f o r t h e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r a r e a . 36 I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e has a l w a y s been a s i z a b l e r u n o f chum o r "dog" salmon on t h e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r . Today, t h e Q u a l i c u m Band o p e r a t e s a f i s h h a t c h e r y on t h e r i v e r . The Band, t h r o u g h an agreement w i t h t h e Dep a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , d i s t r i b u t e s some o f t h e r e t u r n i n g s p a w n ing chum salmon t o o t h e r C o a s t S a l i s h I n d i a n Bands, whose t r a d i t i o n a l s a l m o n - p r o c u r e m e n t a r e a s have been e l i m i n a t e d o r s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d by p o l l u t i o n o r o t h e r c a u s e s . T h i s f i s h i s d i s t r i b u t e d f r e e o f c h a r g e t o s e v e r a l Bands, some as f a r s o u t h as t h e S a a n i c h P e n i n s u l a (CP; A J ) . 11. L i t t l e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r /. /. exwin xwkw'olexwem ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) ' l i t t l e p l a c e h a v i n g dog s a l m o n ' o r ' l i t t l e dog salmon p l a c e ' T h i s t e r m was e l i c i t e d f r o m an i n f o r m a n t a t Nanoose Bay and i s p r o b a b l y a d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m w h i c h came i n t o u s e s i n c e c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s . However, t h e r e i s an I s l a n d Comox p l a c e - n a m e swaxlhu71h, w h i c h i s u s e d t o r e f e r t o L i t t l e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r o r F r e n c h C r e e k o r E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r . The I s l a n d Comox i n f o r m a n t f r o m whom t h e p l a c e - n a m e was e l i c i t e d was u n c e r t a i n t o w h i c h r i v e r t h e name r e f e r r e d , o r e v e n i f t h e word was I s l a n d Comox o r P e n t l a t c h [sa7alhem] ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) . 37 12. E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r kewxemolh ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) 1 s t e e l h e a d p l a c e /. kiwxema ( B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) f r o m ' s t e e l h e a d ' [ I s l a n d Comox o r P e n t l a t c h term] The I n d i a n p l a c e - n a m e f o r t h e E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r a r e a i n I s l a n d Halkomelem, I s l a n d Comox and p e r h a p s a l s o P e n t l a t c h i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t e r m f o r s t e e l h e a d [anadromous r a i n b o w t r o u t ] i n a l l o f t h e s e l a n g u a g e s . E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r was t h e s o u t h e r n " b o u n d a r y " o f t h e P e n t l a t c h I n d i a n s ' t e r r i t o r y [ s a 7 a l h e m o r S o u t h e r n P e n t l a t c h d i a l e c t ] ( D u f f , 1964:25; B o u c h a r d , f i e l d n o t e s ) . E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r s t i l l s u p p o r t s a s i z a b l e s t e e l h e a d p o p u l a t i o n ; i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e p r o c u r e d s t e e l h e a d h e r e and f o r m e r l y had h o u s e s n e a r t h e mouth o f t h e r i v e r . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem p l a c e - n a m e g i v e n above was e l i c i t e d f r o m an i n f o r m a n t f r o m Nanoose Bay. The I s l a n d Comox t e r m was s a i d t o r e f e r t o E n g l i s h m a n R i v e r a n d / o r F r e n c h C r e e k , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e a d j a c e n t t o t h e p r e s e n t town o f P a r k s v i l l e . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n o f p l a c e - n a m e s c o n t a i n s p l a c e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e Nanaimo d i a l e c t a r e a o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem l a n g u a g e . 38 2.2 Place-Names I n I s l a n d Halkomelem T e r r i t o r y 13. N o r t h w e s t Bay t s e l k w o s e m ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) ' f a c i n g t h e w a t e r ' The N o r t h w e s t Bay a r e a was u t i l i z e d by s p e a k e r s o f I s l a n d Halkomelem whose permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e s were l o c a t e d a t Nanoose Bay. 14. B a l l e n a s I s l a n d s / t i k w ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) p o s s i b l y f r o m s t e t i k w ' t i g h t * T h e s e two i s l a n d s were p r o b a b l y u t i l i z e d by t h e Nanoose Bay I n d i a n s . 15. Yeo I s l a n d s t l ' e l a t l ' t ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) 'many l i t t l e p e b b l e s ' T h e s e i s l e t s were a l s o u t i l i z e d by t h e Nanoose Bay p e o p l e . 16. A m e l i a I s l a n d s h x w k w 1 e t s n e t s ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) "two humps" o r 'rumps i n t h e a i r ' T h i s i s l a n d i s a l s o l o c a t e d i n t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e Nanoose Bay I s l a n d Halkomelem. The I n d i a n name f o r t h e i s l a n d i s p r o b a b l y d e s c r i p t i v e . 17. Maude I s l a n d x w t h o o l t h 1 ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) (meaning n o t known) T h i s i s l a n d i s l o c a t e d a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o Nanoose Bay. I t was u n d o u b t e d l y u t i l i z e d by t h e Nanoose p e o p l e . 3 9 18. Nanoose Bay, Nanoose Bay I n d i a n R e s e r v e - / • snewnewes (AJ; ADJ; CP; HW)(meaning n o t known) snewnowes ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) Snonowas ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) Nonoos ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) Sno*nowus ( C u r t i s , 1913:171) "Cowichan name f o r t r i b e Snono'os (Boas, 1889 :325)»Name f o r t r i b e " Nono'os (Boas, 1889 =321)"Name f o r Nanoose Bay" Snonoos (Boas, 1887:132) "Name f o r t r i b e " Nonoos (Boas, 1887:132) "Name f o r Nanoose Bay" Nanoos ( T o l m i e and. Dawson, 18? 34:120) T u t u i s ( G r a n t , 1857:279) Nanouse ( D o u g l a s , 1853) 19. Head o f Nanoose Bay/Mouth o f Nanoose C r e e k / k ' i k ' e l e x e n ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) ' l i t t l e f e n c e ' o r ' l i t t l e f i s h w e i r ' o r ' l i t t l e f i s h t r a p ' • /• The I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r m snewnewes i s u s e d t o r e f e r t o a l l o f Nanoose H a r b o u r , t h e p r e s e n t Nanoose Bay I n d i a n R e s e r v e and t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e r e s i d i n g on t h e Nanoose Bay R e s e r v e . The I n d i a n s a t Nanoose Bay o c c u p i e d t h e most n o r t h e r l y permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e i n I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y ( AJ; D u f f , 1964:25). 40 The I n d i a n p e o p l e a t Nanoose Bay and t h o s e i n t h e Nanaimo a r e a speak what l i n g u i s t s c a l l t h e Nanaimo d i a l e c t o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem l a n g u a g e (AJ; HW; Boas, 1887:132; G e r d t s , 1977:4). T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e h i s t o r y o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e between t h e Nanoose Bay p e o p l e and t h e Nanaimo, Chemainus d i a l e c t [of I s l a n d Halkomelem] s p e a k e r s f r o m K u l l e e t Bay and K u per I s l a n d , C o wichan d i a l e c t [of I s l a n d Halkomelem] s p e a k e r s f r o m t h e C o wichan R i v e r v a l l e y , S o u t h e r n P e n t l a t c h s p e a k e r s f r o m t h e Q u a l i c u m a r e a and Squamish l a n g u a g e s p e a k e r s f r o m t h e Squamish R i v e r a r e a and t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t a r e a (AJ; ADJ; HW). A c c o r d i n g t o B a r n e t t (1955:23), t h e l a r g e r h o u s e s a t t h e Nanoose Bay v i l l a g e "were a t some d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e o t h e r s , t h o s e o f t h e p o o r e r c l a s s b e i n g o u t on a p o i n t [ e . g . R i c h a r d P o i n t a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o Nanoose Bay] and s e r v i n g , so i t was s a i d , as a s o r t o f b u f f e r i n c a s e o f a t t a c k . . . T h i s k i n d o f v i l l a g e s e g m e n t a t i o n d i d n o t o c c u r i n Nanaimo, t h o u g h i t was f o u n d among t h e S e c h e l t . " Some s p e a k e r s o f Halkomelem a l o n g t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e Nanoose Bay v i l l a g e was somehow a " t r i b u t a r y " one t o t h e Nanaimo R i v e r v i l l a g e s ( J e n n e s s , 1955:86). They s a i d t h a t t h e Nanoose p e o p l e e n j o y e d t h e i r own "communal l i f e w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e , b u t t h e o v e r l o r d v i l l a g e s c o u l d r e q u i s i t i o n f r o m them s u p p l i e s o f f i r e w o o d , salmon, d e e r - m e a t , o r w h a t e v e r e l s e t h e y r e q u i r e d . . . [and] a p p a r e n t l y t h e t r i b u t a r y v i l l a g e s a c c e p t e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n and o b e y e d t h e i r o v e r l o r d s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . " I s l a n d Halkomelem I n d i a n p e o p l e t o d a y s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n B a r n e t t ' s i n f o r m a t i o n on v i l l a g e s e g m e n t a t i o n [as d i d B a r n e t t h i m s e l f ] and n e i t h e r a r e t h e y c o n v i n c e d o f J e n n e s s ' K a t z i e i n f o r m a n t s ' v i e w s o f t h e Nanoose as b e i n g s t ' a s h e m ['people o f a l o w e r s o c i a l c l a s s ' ] as compared t o t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e Nanaimo area, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e K a t z i e e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n by J e n n e s s (1955:86). Boas (1887;133) r e c o r d e d some i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t e n d s t o s u p p o r t p r e s e n t -day I s l a n d Halkomelem o b j e c t i o n s . Boas n o t e d t h a t t h e Nanaimo, a l o n g w i t h t h e Nanoose, were t h e o n l y p e o p l e who f o r m e r l y had t h e r i g h t t o use G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e [between G a b r i o l a I s l a n d and V a l d e s I s l a n d ] on t h e i r way t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r i n t h e s p r i n g months [ t o f i s h f o r s a l m o n o r t o v i s i t r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g i n v i l l a g e s t h e r e ] . Such p r e r o g a t i v e s w o u l d s e l d o m be e x t e n d e d t o any Nanoose Bay p e o p l e , r e g a r d l e s s o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e t o Nanaimo p e o p l e , i f t h e y were s t ' a s h e m as J e n n e s s a s s e r t s (AJ; ADJ; HW). A c c o r d i n g t o J e n n e s s ' f i e l d n o t e s , t h e Nanaimo p e o p l e b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f i r s t man a t Nanoose Bay was named " K e a p i l a n u q " . T h i s I n d i a n name, K e y a p e l a n e x w [ t o d a y a n g l i c i z e d as " C a p i l a n o " ] , i s w e l l known t o t h e Squamish who now l i v e a t t h e mouth o f t h e C a p i l a n o R i v e r i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r and t o t h e Musqueam, who l i v e a t t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r ' s n o r t h arm [Matthews, 1955 p r o v i d e s an e x t e n s i v e d i s -c u s s i o n on t h i s m a t t e r ] . The Nanoose Bay I n d i a n p e o p l e a p p a r e n t l y u t i l i z e d t h e Nanoose H a r b o u r a r e a as w e l l as many o f t h e s m a l l i s l a n d s a d j a c e n t t o i t ( p l a c e - n a m e s #13-17 i n t h i s s t u d y ) f o r f i s h i n g and o t h e r t y p e s o f r e s o u r c e - e x p l o i t a t i o n , s u c h as b e a c h f o o d c o l l e c t i o n and t h e h u n t i n g o f l a n d and m a r i n e mammals. U s i n g t h e Nanoose Bay w i n t e r v i l l a g e as a b a s e , t h e y p r o b a b l y e r e c t e d t e m p o r a r y camps d u r i n g t h e summer and autumn months when t h e y were away f r o m t h e Nanoose v i l l a g e . As has been m e n t i o n e d , some o f t h e Nanoose a l s o went t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g and summer months t o f i s h f o r s o c k e y e salmon and p e r h a p s a l s o s t u r g e o n . E v i d e n t l y I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e f r o m s e v e r a l C o w i c h a n R i v e r v i l l a g e s f a r t o t h e s o u t h s t a y e d w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s a t Nanoose Bay t o f i s h f o r " r e d s n a p p e r " [ y e l l o w e y e r o c k f i s h ] . B u t more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e Cowichans who were r e l a t e d t o t h e Nanoose a l s o r a k e d h e r r i n g and c o l l e c t e d h e r r i n g - s p a w n i n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g a t Nanoose H a r b o u r , w h i c h has a l w a y s been one o f t h e most h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d a r e a s f o r h e r r i n g and h e r r i n g - s p a w n p r o c u r e m e n t on t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d [by t h e I n d i a n s and by c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n t o d a y , as w e l l ] (Rozen, 1978:5, 49, 171). O t h e r I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e camped i n Nanoose t e r r i t o r y d u r i n g t h e summer months, i f t h e y had t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e i r Nanoose Bay r e l a t i v e s ( A J ) . The abundance o f r e s o u r c e s a t Nanoose Bay was n o t e d as e a r l y as 1857, by G r a n t (1857; 279), who c a l l e d " T u t u i s . . . a b o u t s e v e n m i l e s n o r t h w e s t o f Nanaimo a l o n g t h e coast... a n o t h e r e x c e l l e n t h a r b o u r . The Nanoose p e o p l e c a l l e d t h e head o f Nanoose Bay, where / Nanoose C r e e k f l o w s i n t o i t , k ' i k ' e l e x e n ' l i t t l e f e n c e ' ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) . I t i s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r t h i s p l a c e -name r e f e r s t o f i s h i n g w e i r - s i t e s l o c a t e d a t t h i s p l a c e , o r p e r h a p s t o some h o u s e s w h i c h were p a l i s a d e d f o r f o r t i f i c a t i o n a g a i n s t e n e m i e s . 20. Nanaimo I n d i a n P e o p l e , Nanaimo H a r b o u r a r e a sneneymexw, snenaymexw, o r snenimexw (meaning n o t known) (ADJ; AG; A J ; A L I ; AL2, CP; HW; RJ) sntntymdx (Galloway, pers. comm.) po s s i b l y "people of many names" S n 3 n e y m » x w ( L e s l i e , 1979:70) SnAnemAxw ( M i t c h e l l , 1968:64) SnaNeyMous, Nanymo (Beck, 1966) " a r e a o r m e e t i n g p l a c e " najiaimo ( B a r n e t t , 1955: 22) Nanaimooch ( D u f f , 1952:25) Snanaimux ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) S^Na-Nay-Mo(s) ( C r y e r , n.d.) Snanaimuh ( C u r t i s , 1913:171) "Cowichan name f o r t r i b e " Snana/moq ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:372) "Nanaimo H a r b o u r " Snanaimuq (Boas, 1889) / S n a n a T m u c h (Boas, 1887:132) Sana " M m o x (Boas, 1886, i n Yampolsky, 1958:319) Snanaimooh ( T o l m i e and Dawson, 1884:119) Suanaimuchs ( G r a n t , 1857:293) Nanaimoes ( D o u g l a s , 1853) Nanymois ( D o u g l a s , 1853) N i n i m u c h (Simpson, 1827) 44 The t e r m sneneyraexw i s u s e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o r e f e r t o s p e a k e r s o f t h e Nanaimo d i a l e c t o f t h e I s l a n d H a l k o -melem l a n g u a g e [ e x c l u d i n g t h o s e a t Nanoose Bay] and t o t h e Nanaimo d i a l e c t i t s e l f . I n t h e p a s t , t h e s e were t h e o n l y t h i n g s t o w h i c h t h e t e r m r e f e r r e d . B u t r e c e n t l y , t h i s same t e r m has a l s o been u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e C i t y o f Nanaimo, t h e f o u r Nanaimo I n d i a n R e s e r v e s a d j a c e n t t o t h e C i t y , Nanaimo H a r b o u r and t o t h e Nanaimo R i v e r , e s p e c i a l l y by s p e a k e r s o f t h e Cowichan and Chemainus d i a l e c t s o f I s l a n d Halkomelem (AJ; ADJ; HW). Boas (1889 :321) s a i d t h a t t h e " t e r r i t o r y o f t h e [Nanaimo] t r i b e embraces Nanaimo H a r b o r as f a r n o r t h as F i v e F i n g e r I s l a n d [ j u s t n o r t h o f D e p a r t u r e Bay] and as f a r s o u t h as Dodds N a r r o w s . The c o a s t s t r i p f r o m Dodds Narrows t o Y e l l o w P o i n t b e l o n g s t o b o t h the...[Nanaimo and s p e a k e r s o f t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t o f I s l a n d H a l k o m e l e m ] . The b a s i n o f t h e Nanaimo R i v e r and G a b r i o l a I s l a n d b e l o n g t o t h e . . . [Nanaimo]." B o t h Boas (1889 : 321-325) and B a r n e t t have m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e r e were o r i g i n a l l y f i v e g r o u p s o f Nanaimo p e o p l e , who had permanent h o u s e s a t t h e mouth o f t h e Nanaimo R i v e r . B u t B a r n e t t (1955:22-23) a l s o r e c o r d e d t h a t one o f t h e s e g r o u p s moved t o Nanaimo H a r b o u r i n e a r l y w i n t e r , and t h e o t h e r s moved t o D e p a r t u r e Bay f r o m December u n t i l A p r i l . More i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Nanaimo p e o p l e w i l l be g i v e n i n t h i s s t u d y , i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s and p l a c e - n a m e s w h i c h t h e y u t i l i z e d . 45 21. D e p a r t u r e Bay / s t l ' e t l 1 i i n e p ( A L I ; AL2) p e r h a p s 'deep g r o u n d ' o r ' t i d e goes o u t a l o n g way' S t a l y - U p ( C r y e r , n.d.) D e p a r t u r e Bay was f o r m e r l y t h e s i t e o f a permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e rows o f h o u s e s . I t was s a i d t o be t h e " r e a l home" o f most o f t h e Nanaimo p e o p l e . T h e r e were permanent h o u s e - f r a m e s t h e r e , and p l a n k s were b r o u g h t f r o m some o f t h e Nanaimo R i v e r h o u s e s on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s ( B a r n e t t , 1938:140; 1955:23; f i e l d n o t e s ) . The Nanaimo R i v e r p e o p l e moved h e r e f r o m December o r J a n u a r y u n t i l March ( B a r n e t t , 1955:23; f i e l d n o t e s ) . T h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e D e p a r t u r e Bay v i l l a g e was t h e s i t e o f most o f t h e w i n t e r s p i r i t d a n c i n g by t h e Nanaimo p e o p l e . Thompson (1913:51), i n a r e p o r t t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f F i s h e r i e s , n o t e d t h a t f o u r a c r e s a l o n g t h e i n n e r s h o r e o f D e p a r t u r e Bay and a l o n g t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f N e w c a s t l e I s l a n d were u s e d by t h e Nanaimo I n d i a n s f o r d i g g i n g b u t t e r c l a m s and l i t t l e - n e c k c l a m s . I n h i s t o r i c t i m e s , c l a m s were b r o u g h t t o a c l a m - c a n n e r y a t D e p a r t u r e Bay f r o m F a l s e N a r rows, Comox, T h e t i s I s l a n d and Kuper I s l a n d . D e p a r t u r e Bay was u s e d on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s by I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e f r o m as f a r s o u t h as t h e L a d y s m i t h a r e a f o r t h e s m o k e - d r y i n g o f coho salmon ( A L I ) . Many g r o u p s o f I n d i a n s , f r o m Nanoose Bay i n t h e n o r t h t o Cowichan Bay i n t h e s o u t h , g a t h e r e d a t D e p a r t u r e Bay t o c o l l e c t h e r r i n g - r o e and " r a k e " h e r r i n g a r o u n d l a t e F e b r u a r y and e a r l y March ( A J ) . A c c o r d i n g t o J e n n e s s ( f i e l d n o t e s ) t h e f i r s t Nanaimo man was named "Slamox" [slhemexw ' r a i n ' ] . He was s a i d t o have a p p e a r e d a t a h o l e i n t h e g r o u n d a t a b l u f f n e a r W e l l i n g t o n . He l a t e r moved a few k i l o m e t r e s e a s t , where he s t a r t e d t h e v i l l a g e a t D e p a r t u r e Bay. C r y e r (n.d.) r e c o r d e d a s t o r y c o n c e r n i n g t h e f i r s t [ n o n - I n d i a n ] s h i p t o v i s i t D e p a r t u r e Bay. 22. Snake I s l a n d x w 7 e l h k i 7 e m (AJ; CP) ' p l a c e h a v i n g s n a k e s ' T h i s i s l a n d was so named b e c a u s e o f a s t o r y t o l d a b o u t i t by t h e Nanaimo and C o wichan I n d i a n s . A young boy became s i c k a f t e r e a t i n g u n c o o k e d f e r n - r o o t s . Whenever he l a y down i n t h e s u n , s n a k e s came o u t o f h i s body, b u t e v e r y t i m e he s t o o d up o r moved, t h e y r e t u r n e d i n s i d e him. The boy moved t o an i s l a n d , and a f t e r swimming i n c o l d w a t e r he l a y down and saw t h e s n a k e s coming o u t o f him. A f t e r s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s , t h e boy jumped bac k i n t o h i s canoe b e f o r e t h e s n a k e s c o u l d r e t u r n i n -s i d e him. The s n a k e s f o l l o w e d him and t h e boy f i n a l l y c u t them a l l i n h a l f w i t h h i s p a d d l e . Snake I s l a n d was so named b e c a u s e i t s t i l l had t h e s n a k e s i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s t o r y , some o f them a p p e a r i n g as i f t h e y were c u t i n h a l f (CP; A J ) . 23. N e w c a s t l e I s l a n d / t l ' p i l e s (ADJ) 'deep, g o i n g u n d e r w a t e r ' T h i s i s l a n d was u t i l i z e d by t h e Nanaimo p e o p l e and s t i l l h a s s e v e r a l p e t r o g l y p h s on i t (ADJ). 24. Mouth o f Chase R i v e r / N a n a i m o " P e t r o g l y p h P a r k " s i t e tho7thxwem (CP; A D J ) ( e x a c t meaning n o t known) Thochwam ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) "Name o f a p o w e r f u l man" The p l a c e - n a m e f o r " P e t r o g l y p h P a r k " , n e a r t h e mouth o f Chase R i v e r , i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e name o f a man who l i v e d t h e r e ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) . J e n n e s s , i n h i s f i e l d n o t e s c o l l e c t e d i n t h e mid-1930's, r e c o r d e d a l e n g t h y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e p e t r o g l y p h s . A p o w e r f u l man named [Tho7thxwem] l i v e d n e a r t h e mouth o f Chase R i v e r . Whenever he s p e a r e d f l o u n d e r s , r o c k c o d , o r c r a b s on t h e b e a c h t h e r e , he c a r r i e d them up t h e h i l l t o h i s home. A f t e r l a y i n g t h e f i s h and c r a b s on t h e r o c k s , he m e a s u r e d them by p e c k i n g t h e r o c k a r o u n d them, t h u s making t h e p e t r o g l y p h s s t i l l e v i d e n t t h e r e t o d a y . I n a n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e s t o r y o f t h i s man, t h e s p e c i a l method by w h i c h he c o o k e d h i s f o o d i s m e n t i o n e d . Tho7thxwem c h a l l e n g e d X a a l s , t h e T r a n s f o r m e r , i n a n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e s t o r y o f " P e t r o g l y p h P a r k " . A f t e r a l o n g c o n t e s t , i n v o l v i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o i m p a l e f l o u n d e r s i n t h e a i r , X a a l s f i n a l l y b e a t Tho7thxwem and c hanged him i n t o a f i g u r e on t h e same r o c k where t h e f i s h and c r a b s were. Tho7thxwem's c a n o e was c h a n g e d i n t o a r o c k on t h e b e a c h b e l o w t h e o t h e r p e t r o -g l y p h s . J e n n e s s ( f i e l d n o t e s ) a l s o r e c o r d e d a s t o r y a b o u t some p e t r o g l y p h s a t J a c k P o i n t , w h i c h forms t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f Nanaimo H a r b o u r t o d a y . T h e r e was a name f o r t h i s p l a c e , b u t 48 i t i s no longer remembered. The petroglyphs at Jack Point were said to represent a chum salmon [over which the Nanaimo Indians celebrated t h e i r " F i r s t Salmon Ceremony"], a coho salmon, a spring salmon, a humpback salmon and a flounder. The name of the person who carved these petroglyphs i s not known today, but i t i s possible that they were also made by Tho7thxwem. Jack Point was created by Xaals, at the request of Raven. Raven wanted women to have a long way to walk around Jack Point, so that they could say a l l they wanted during the journey. Nanaimo River Place-Names: Place-names numbered 25, 26, 27 and 28 i n thi s study were not known as v i l l a g e s or house-sites by CP or ADJ. The transcriptions provided i n thi s study and ascribed to them represent attempts to reconstruct these place-names from the transcriptions given i n the pertinent ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e . 2 5 . kw'elsiwelh or kw'elsiwelh (CP; ADJ) possibly from kw'siws 'singe the body1 or kw'elsiws 'barbecue the body' q Icxlsiowtxli (Barnett, 1955:22) q!ul/si/o/wuL (Barnett, f i e l d notes) qwalsi'awai (Jenness, f i e l d notes) "meaning unknown" Kwalsiarwahl (Jenness, n.d.) "meaning unknown" Koltsi'owotl (Boas, 1889 :321) 49 / t ' i w e l h x e n (CP; A D J ) ( m e a n i n g n o t known) tewaxan ( B a r n e t t , 1955:22) te/wu/xun ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ) t e w a i x i n ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) " v i l l a g e t o t h e n o r t h T e w a h l c h i n ( J e n n e s s , n.d.) " v i l l a g e t o t h e n o r t h " Te'wetqen (Boas, 1889 :321) e y t h ' e x e n o r e y t s ' e x e n (CP; ADJ) p o s s i b l y f r o m t h ' e x ' a r e a b u r n e d by f i r e ' y i c a x £ n ( B a r n e t t , 1955:22) y i / c u / x £ n ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ) / i c i x a n ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) "end v i l l a g e " ./ . i c i x a n ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) "name f o r p e o p l e o f ./ i c i x a n v i l l a g e " I s h i h a n ( J e n n e s s , n.d.) "end v i l l a g e " Y e ' c e q e n (Boas, 1889 :321) / enwines (CP; ADJ) 'one i n t h e c e n t r e ' A n w i n i c ( B a r n e t t , 1955:22) u n / w i n / i c ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ) a n u w i n i s ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) " v i l l a g e t o w a r d s t h e c e n t r e " A nuweenis ( J e n n e s s , n.d.) " v i l l a g e i n t h e c e n t r e " Anue'nes (Boas, 1889 : 321) 50 2 9 * (xw)solexwem o r s o l e x w e l o r s o l e x w e n (AJ; ADJ; CP; RJ) ' p l a c e h a v i n g g r a s s ' o r ' g r a s s y p l a c e ' sala.xa.1 ( B a r n e t t , 1955:22) s A . / l u / x u l ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ) sDlaxwan ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) "swampy g r a s s l a n d " s o l a x w a n ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) s o l a c h w a n ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) S o l a c h w a n ( J e n n e s s , n.d.) "swampy g r o u n d " O s a ' l o q u l (Boas, 1889 :321) S a u l e q u u n ( D o u g l a s , 1853) 30. S Q u e ' l E n (Boas, 1981:73) 31. Quamquamqua ( P e a r s e , 1859) 32. J u k l u t o k ( J a c o b s e n , 1882, i n G u n t h e r , 1977:79) The m a j o r i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e Nanaimo I n d i a n s , w h i c h w i l l be p r e s e n t e d h e r e , i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p e r t i n e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e . Some o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has a l s o b e en c o r r o b o r a t e d by p r e s e n t - d a y I n d i a n p e o p l e . T h e r e were a p p a r e n t l y f i v e s e p a r a t e v i l l a g e s on t h e l o w e r Nanaimo R i v e r , b u t a f t e r c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n d i a n R e s e r v e s , most p e o p l e f r o m t h e s e v i l l a g e s were amalgamated i n t o one main community on Nanaimo H a r b o u r ( D u f f , 1964:25). E v i d e n t l y , t h e r e were a l s o f i v e d i s t i n c t e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s i n h a b i t i n g t h e s e f i v e v i l l a g e s , w h i c h f o r m e d t h e "Nanaimo T r i b e " ( B a r n e t t , 1955:22; B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; J e n n e s s , n.d.; Boas, 1889 :321). A c c o r d i n g t o Boas (1889 :324), t h e p e o p l e i n t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s [Boas u s e s t h e t e r m s " c l a n s " o r " g e n t e s " ] l o c a t e d a t t h e p l a c e - n a m e s numbered 26 and 27 i n t h i s s t u d y were c o n s i d e r e d t h e " n o b l e s t " . They a l o n e had t h e r i g h t t o u s e sxwaixwe masks, w h i c h a r e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f c e r t a i n c l e a n s i n g c e r e m o n i e s . B a r n e t t (1955:23) n o t e d t h a t no b o u n d a r i e s o r p r o p e r t y l i m i t s s e p a r a t e d t h e h o u s e s w i t h i n t h e f i v e Nanaimo v i l l a g e s [he d e s c r i b e d t h i s as a l a c k o f " v i l l a g e s e g m e n t a t i o n " ] . As we s h a l l s e e i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e Nanaimo I n d i a n s 1 s e a s o n a l r o u n d below, i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s owned o r c o n t r o l l e d t h e b e s t h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g s i t e s . The r e s i d e n t s o f f o u r o f t h e Nanaimo R i v e r v i l l a g e s [numbered 25, 26, 27 and 28 i n t h i s s t u d y ] c a n be e x amined as a s e p a r a t e g r o u p , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r s e a s o n a l r o u n d . B u t f i r s t , t h e i r l o c a t i o n s s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d . B a r n e t t (1955:22; f i e l d n o t e s ) i s t h e o n l y s o u r c e f o r Nanaimo R i v e r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s . The v i l l a g e - s i t e numbered 25 i n t h i s s t u d y was l o c a t e d n e a r t h e mouth o f t h e Nanaimo R i v e r , and i t c o n t a i n e d f o u r s e p a r a t e h o u s e s [ i n r e c e n t t i m e s ] . The v i l l a g e s numbered 26, 27 and 28 were l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e f i v e k i l o m e t r e s o f r i v e r between number 2 5 and a p o i n t a few h u n d r e d m e t r e s d o w n r i v e r f r o m t h e b r i d g e where t h e I s l a n d Highway c r o s s e s t h e Nanaimo R i v e r . B a r n e t t does n o t g i v e t h e numbers o f h o u s e s w h i c h c o m p r i s e d t h e s e t h r e e o t h e r v i l l a g e s , car t h e i r e x a c t l o c a t i o n s . Taken as a g r o u p , t h e f o u r v i l l a g e s j u s t m e n t i o n e d [numbers 2 5 t h r o u g h 2 8 i n t h i s s t u d y ] a p p a r e n t l y s h a r e d an i d e n t i c a l y e a r l y r o u n d o f r e s o u r c e - p r o c u r e m e n t and g e o g r a p h i c movement. A l t h o u g h B a r n e t t ( 1 9 5 5 : 2 2 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e p e o p l e i n t h e s e v i l l a g e s s t a y e d i n t h e s e l o c a t i o n s i n " t h e f a l l , and t o some e x t e n t , t h e summer", t h e r e i s o t h e r e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h B a r n e t t and J e n n e s s c o l l e c t e d w h i c h i s o f a more p r e c i s e n a t u r e . B a r n e t t , i n h i s f i e l d n o t e s , said t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e f o u r v i l l a g e s r e m a i n e d on t h e Nanaimo R i v e r [ e v i d e n t l y a l s o i n c l u d i n g t h e e n t i r e d r a i n a g e a r e a , e x t e n d i n g as f a r u p r i v e r as t h e Nanaimo L a k e s ] f r o m A u g u s t u n t i l December. J e n n e s s ( f i e l d n o t e s ; n.d.) s t a t e d t h a t t h i s t i m e p e r i o d was " f r o m a b o u t September u n t i l C h r i s t m a s " . [The r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t J e n n e s s n o t e d t h a t many Nanaimo I n d i a n s went t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r on t h e m a i n l a n d , t o f i s h f o r salmon d u r i n g A u g u s t and B a r n e t t was u n c e r t a i n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . ] D u r i n g t h e s e autumn months, t h e Nanaimo p e o p l e u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n f i s h e d f o r chum s a l m o n a l o n g t h e Nanaimo R i v e r ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s , n.d.; A J ) , and f i s h e d f o r h a l i b u t and p r o c u r e d s u c h b e a c h f o o d s as c l a m s and c o c k l e s i n t h e Nanaimo H a r b o u r a r e a (AJ; A D J ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , e v e r y Nanaimo f a m i l y had i t s own bed o f f e r n - r o o t s " n o t f a r f r o m t h e Nanaimo R i v e r " , and f e r n - r o o t s c o u l d have been p r o c u r e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y autumn months ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; n . d . ) . The r e s i d e n t s o f t h e f o u r Nanaimo R i v e r v i l l a g e s u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n moved t o D e p a r t u r e Bay i n l a t e - D e c e m b e r o r e a r l y J a n u a r y f o r t h e i r " w i n t e r s e a s o n " , s t a y i n g t h e r e u n t i l M a r c h ( B a r n e t t , 1955:23; 1938:140;field n o t e s ; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; n . d . ) . The main p u r p o s e o f t h i s s h o r t m i g r a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o J e n n e s s ( f i e l d n o t e s ; n . d . ) , was t o " c e l e -b r a t e t h e i r w i n t e r d a n c e s " . T h e r e were h o u s e - f r a m e s a l r e a d y e r e c t e d a t D e p a r t u r e Bay, and t h e w a l l - p l a n k s and r o o f -b o a r d s f r o m t h e Nanaimo R i v e r h o u s e s were c a r r i e d by canoe t o t h e w i n t e r l o c a t i o n . J e n n e s s (n.d.) n o t e d t h a t " o n l y t h e b a r e [house-] f r a m e s r e m a i n e d on t h e bank o f t h e [Nanaimo] R i v e r . " D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months, many Nanaimo I n d i a n s t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h o u t I s l a n d Halkomelem and S t r a i t s S a l i s h t e r r i t o r y , and a l s o a c r o s s t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a t t e n d i n g w i n t e r s p i r i t - d a n c e s and o t h e r g a t h e r i n g s a t t h e v i l l a g e s o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e s (AJ; ADJ; C P ) . From March o r A p r i l u n t i l A u g u s t , t h e Nanaimo v i l l a g e r s ( a f t e r m o ving t h e i r h o u s e - b o a r d s f r o m D e p a r t u r e Bay back t o t h e l o w e r Nanaimo R i v e r ) e r e c t e d t e m p o r a r y s h e l t e r s on F a l s e N arrows and G a b r i o l a I s l a n d . From t h e s e t e m p o r a r y s i t e s , e x c u r s i o n s were made f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o l l e c t i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e f o o d w h i c h w o u l d be consumed d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g autumn and w i n t e r months ( B a r n e t t , 1955:22; 1938:140; f i e l d n o t e s ; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; n . d . ) . J e n n e s s ( f i e l d n o t e s ; n.d.) n o t e d t h a t t h e F a l s e Narrows and G a b r i o l a I s l a n d a r e a s were u s e d by t h e Nanaimo t o f i s h f o r c o d , g r i l s e [young salmon i n s a l t w a t e r w e i g h i n g l e s s t h a n 1.5 k i l o g r a m s ] and o t h e r s p e c i e s s u c h as h a l i b u t , t o g a t h e r c l a m s , t o h u n t s e a l s and s e a - l i o n s , and t o g a t h e r camas b u l b s . B a r n e t t (1955:22; f i e l d n o t e s ) a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e f o u r Nanaimo v i l l a g e s moved t o t e m p o r a r y s i t e s f o r "clamming, e g g i n g [ c o l l e c t i n g s e a u r c h i n s , known as 'sea e g g s ' ] , and o t h e r g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i -t i e s " . The f i f t h Nanaimo R i v e r v i l l a g e , known as (xw)solexwem and numbered p l a c e - n a m e 29 i n t h i s s t u d y , was l o c a t e d j u s t downstream f r o m t h e I s l a n d Highway b r i d g e ( o v e r t h e Nanaimo R i v e r ) on b o t h b a n k s . The i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h i s v i l l a g e f o l l o w e d a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t s e a s o n a l r o u n d f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e Nanaimo I n d i a n s . They " h e l d a l o o f f r o m t h e o t h e r f o u r v i l l a g e s and a p p e a r t o have been t h e most s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t and d o m i n a n t g r o u p . They c o n t r o l l e d t h e o n l y s a l m o n w e i r on t h e [Nanaimo] r i v e r " ( B a r n e t t , 1955:22). L i k e t h e o t h e r Nanaimo p e o p l e , t h e r e s i d e n t s o f (xw)solexwem went t o summer l o c a t i o n s a t F a l s e Narrows and a r o u n d G a b r i o l a I s l a n d and s p e n t t h e autumn months f i s h i n g f o r s a l m on on t h e Nanaimo R i v e r ( B a r n e t t , 1955:22; f i e l d n o t e s ; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) . U n l i k e t h e o t h e r f o u r Nanaimo v i l l a g e s , t h e (xw)solexwem moved t o Nanaimo H a r b o u r n e a r t h e c o a l mine, r a t h e r t h a n moving t o t h e D e p a r t u r e Bay w i n t e r v i l l a g e . They d i d , however, j o i n t h e o t h e r Nanaimos d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g , a r o u n d t h e end o f A p r i l , f o r f i s h i n g » ( B a r n e t t , 1955:22; f i e l d n o t e s ; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; n . d . ) . B a r n e t t (1955:22, 23) and J e n n e s s ( f i e l d n o t e s ) b o t h r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e (xw)solexwem v i l l a g e was w i t h i n t h e Nanaimo C i t y l i m i t s and t h a t t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e on Nanaimo H a r b o u r (which l a t e r became Nanaimo R e s e r v e #1) was a d j a c e n t t o t h e Number One S h a f t o f t h e o r i g i n a l Nanaimo C o a l M i n e . B a r n e t t commented t h a t t h e movement t o t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e t o o k p l a c e b e f o r e t h e Nanaimo R i v e r had f r o z e n and f i r e w o o d had become h a r d t o g e t . Boas (1981:73) n o t e d t h e name f o r a Nanaimo v i l l a g e i n one o f t h e s t o r i e s he was t o l d by t h e C o w i c h a n p e o p l e t o t h e s o u t h [ i n t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s ] . Boas t r a n s c r i b e d t h i s p l a c e - n a m e as SQue l E n , w h i c h ADJ r e c o n s t r u c t s as s x w i l e n o r s x w i l e n . T h i s p l a c e - n a m e i s v e r y c l o s e t o s o l e x w e n , one o f t h e p o s s i b l e ways o f t r a n s c r i b i n g p l a c e - n a m e number 29 i n t h i s s t u d y . P l a c e - n a m e number 29 i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t e r m s o x w e l ' g r a s s 1 . S i n c e no l o c a t i o n was g i v e n by Boas f o r S Q u e ' l E n , and t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n he made i s n o t t h e same as t h e one he p u b l i s h e d i n 1889 f o r p l a c e - n a m e number 29 i n t h i s s t u d y , i t seems p r o p e r t o a s s i g n p l a c e - n a m e number 30 t o t h i s t erm, w h i c h was n o t e d e x c l u s i v e l y by Boas. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e s t o r y w h i c h Boas t r a n s c r i b e d f r o m t h e C o w i c h a n s g i v e s s i x I n d i a n p e o p l e s ' names as t h e " a n c e s t o r s o f t h e Nanaimo". B u t Boas h i m s e l f n o t e d t h a t t h e Cowichan names d i d n o t c o r r e s -pond w i t h any he f o u n d a t Nanaimo. I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t Boas' C o w i c h a n i n f o r m a n t ( s ) p r o n o u n c e d p l a c e - n a m e number 29 i n t h i s s t u d y S Q u e ' l E n . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f any o t h e r d a t a , i t i s a s s i g n e d p l a c e - n a m e number 30 h e r e . Place-name numbers 31 and 32 i n t h i s s t u d y a r e a l s o some-what p r o b l e m a t i c . P lace-name number 31 i s "Quamquamqua", w h i c h was r e c o r d e d by B.W. P e a r s e , i n A p r i l , 1859 as t h e " c o u n t r y a r o u n d Nanaimo" o r "Nanaimo R i v e r " . T h i s t e r m i s a p p a r e n t l y kw'omkw'em ko7 ' s t r o n g w a t e r ' , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e Nanaimo R i v e r . I t has n o t been n o t e d by any o t h e r e t h n o -g r a p h e r o r l i n g u i s t . P lace-name number 32 was r e c o r d e d by A . J . J a c o b s e n i n 1882 ( G u n t h e r , 1977:79) as " J u k l u t o k . . . a summer v i l l a g e a s h o r t d i s t a n c e f r o m Nanaimo." Though numerous a t t e m p t s have been made t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h i s t e r m w i t h p r e s e n t - d a y s p e a k e r s o f I s l a n d Halkomelem, we s t i l l do n o t know t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h i s v i l l a g e - s i t e , n o r t h e meaning o f t h e t e r m . I t may be " E u c l a t a w " , m i s p l a c e d t o o f a r s o u t h . Many o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e f i v e v i l l a g e s on t h e l o w e r Nanaimo R i v e r t r a v e l l e d a c r o s s t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a t o t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r d u r i n g t h e summer. S o c k e y e and humpback salmon were e x t r e m e l y a b u n d a n t d u r i n g J u l y and A u g u s t , and t h o s e Nanaimo f a m i l i e s w i t h r e l a t i v e s on t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r made t h e j o u r n e y t o t h e m a i n l a n d (AJ; ADJ; AG). D u f f (1952:95) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r m a r r i a g e between s p e a k e r s o f M a i n l a n d Halkomelem and I s l a n d H a l k o -melem. J e n n e s s ( f i e l d notes;n.d.) s a i d that " I n A u g u s t a l l t h e I n d i a n s moved a g a i n t o t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r f o r t h e s o c k e y e and humpbacked salmon s e a s o n , r e t u r n i n g t o Nanaimo i n t i m e f o r t h e d o g - s a l m o n . " But D u f f (1952:11,25), c i t i n g e v i d e n c e f r o m as e a r l y as J u l y , 1827, p o i n t e d o u t t h a t as e a r l y as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J u l y some Nanaimos had a l r e a d y moved t o t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r . Some t i m e l a t e r , u n t i l mid-A u g u s t , t h e y c o n t i n u e d moving up t h e r i v e r t o a c e r t a i n r a p i d s t o p r o c u r e s a l m o n . Simpson (1827) n o t e d a " N i n i m u c h v i l l a g e " on an e a r l y map o f t h e l o w e r F r a s e r a r e a . I t was l o c a t e d a b o u t t h r e e k i l o m e t r e s below Derby, t h e s i t e o f t h e f i r s t F o r t L a n g l e y . F i v e h o u s e s were on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e r i v e r , o p p o s i t e t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n t i p o f B a r n s t o n I s l a n d . T h i s s i t e may have been near the " c e r t a i n rapids" D u f f m e n t i o n e d . B a r n e t t , i n h i s map o f G u l f o f G e o r g i a "Group E x p l o i t a t i o n A r e a s " (1955:24-25) makes h i s o n l y m e n t i o n o f Nanaimo m i g r a t i o n s t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . He shows an a r r o w w i t h a q u e s t i o n mark e x t e n d i n g f r o m D e p a r t u r e Bay t o S t e v e s t o n , on t h e s o u t h w e s t t i p o f L u l u I s l a n d . P r e s e n t - d a y C o w i c h a n i n f o r m a n t s s u g g e s t t h a t B a r n e t t may have c o n f u s e d Nanaimo and C owichan m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s , s i n c e t h i s s i t e was w e l l -known t o t h e Musqueam, Co w i c h a n and Chemainus (AJ; ADJ; AG). D u f f (1952:25) s u g g e s t e d t h a t by t h e end o f September, most o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e had r e t u r n e d home, b u t " t h e r i v e r was n e v e r e n t i r e l y f r e e o f them; v i s i t o r s o r r a i d i n g -p a r t i e s were a r o u n d t h e w i n t e r t h r o u g h . " I t i s c l e a r t h a t some o f t h e a r e a s u s e d by t h e Nanaimo were " c o n t r o l l e d " by some f a m i l i e s . The c a s e s o f t h e w e i r on t h e Nanaimo R i v e r and t h e f e r n - r o o t beds w h i c h were a d j a c e n t t o Nanaimo have a l r e a d y been c i t e d . F a m i l i e s o r e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s "owned" t h e s e l o c a t i o n s . B a r n e t t and J e n n e s s , i n t h e i r f i e l d n o t e s , a l s o s a y t h a t c l a m - d i g g i n g 58 a r e a s were "owned", b u t t h e y do n o t s a y i f t h i s was by f a m i l i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l s . A c c o r d i n g t o J e n n e s s ( f i e l d n o t e s ; n . d . ) , camas beds on G a b r i o l a I s l a n d were "owned by f a m i l i e s " f r o m Nanaimo R i v e r . P r e s e n t - d a y s p e a k e r s o f t h e Nanaimo d i a l e c t b e l i e v e t h a t c e r t a i n members o f e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s " c o n t r o l l e d " t h e more i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e - e x p l o i t a t i o n a r e a s i n t h e p r e - c o n t a c t and e a r l y c o n t a c t p e r i o d , b u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e r i g h t s o r p r i v i l e g e s i s n o t c l e a r l y remembered t o d a y (AJ; HW; A D J ) . Some p r e s e n t - d a y s p e a k e r s o f I s l a n d Halkomelem a r e n o t c e r t a i n o f Boas' (1889b:321) s t a t e m e n t t h a t e a c h o f t h e f i v e e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s i n t h e Nanaimo R i v e r v i l l a g e s had " i t s own c h i e f , w h i l e i n t i m e o f war a war c h i e f l e a d s t h e w a r r i o r s o f t h e whole t r i b e . " They d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e t e r m " c h i e f " , p r e f e r r i n g t h e terms " v i l l a g e headman", "head o f t h e f a m i l y " , o r " g r e a t l y r e s p e c t e d l e a d e r s " (AJ; ADJ; GC; HW). 33. Dodd Narrows [Between V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h e N o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Mudge I s l a n d ] kw'xweyt (AJ; A L I ; AL2; D P ) ( m e a n i n g n o t known) kw'xwat (AG) (meaning n o t knowry1 Dodd Narrows was u s e d by t h e Nanaimo I n d i a n s , on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s , f r o m a r o u n d M a r c h t h r o u g h A u g u s t . H a l i b u t and c o d f i s h i n g was done h e r e , as was some s e a l and s e a -l i o n h u n t i n g ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ; J e n n e s s , n.d.; A J ) . 59 34. B o a t H a r b o u r [Between R e y n o l d s P o i n t and F l e w e t t P o i n t ] t s e l i l t e n e m (ALI) p e r h a p s ' t u r n i n g - o v e r p l a c e ' T h i s s m a l l h a r b o u r was a p o p u l a r p l a c e where c a n o e s c o u l d be h a u l e d up o n t o t h e b e a c h , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g bad w e a t h e r . I t was known as an u n o f f i c i a l " b oundary" between t h e I n d i a n s f r o m Nanaimo and t h o s e f r o m K u l l e e t Bay [ i . e . t h e s o u t h e r n e x t e n t o f t h e f o r m e r and t h e n o r t h e r n e x t e n t o f t h e l a t t e r i n t h e i r s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n s ] ( A L I ) . 35. F a l s e Narrows [Between G a b r i o l a I s l a n d and Mudge I s l a n d ] t l ' a a l t x w (ADJ; AG; A J ; A L I ; AL2; AT; DP; RJ) p e r h a p s ' s t u c k h o u s e s ' t l ' a a l h e l t x w (AJ; MD) [ a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n g i v e n by t h e s e two p e o p l e o n l y ] T l a l t q (Boas, 1981:86) 36. F a l s e Narrows [ G a b r i o l a I s l a n d s i d e ] s e n e w e l e t s (ADJ) 'go i n s i d e [ narrows v i a ] t h e back p a r t ' F a l s e Narrows was f o r m e r l y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p l a c e t o t h e Nanaimo p e o p l e and t o p e o p l e who had i n t e r m a r r i e d w i t h them, b u t who r e s i d e d a t v i l l a g e s on V a l d e s I s l a n d , Kuper I s l a n d , o r a t K u l l e e t Bay (ADJ; A J ; A L I ; AT; DP). A c c o r d i n g t o B a r n e t t (1955:22; f i e l d n o t e s ) , t h e r e were permanent h o u s e - f r a m e s on t h e G a b r i o l a I s l a n d s i d e o f t h e Narrow s . The Nanaimo t h e n t r a n s p o r t e d t h e r o o f and w a l l -p l a n k s f r o m t h e i r Nanaimo R i v e r and D e p a r t u r e Bay h o u s e s . 60 T h e s e p l a n k s were l a i d o n t o t h e f r a m e s a t F a l s e Narrows a r o u n d M arch, and t h e r e s u l t i n g h o u s e s were t h e n o c c u p i e d u n t i l A u g u s t . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , e x c u r s i o n s were made f r o m t h e s e "base camps" t o s e l e c t e d c l a m - d i g g i n g l o c a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a . Thompson (1913:55-56) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e f l a t s a t t h e s o u t h e a s t end o f F a l s e Narrows c o n t a i n e d a b o u t f i f t y a c r e s o f c l a m b e d s . The s p e c i e s p r o c u r e d t h e r e i n 1912 by f o r t y f a m i l i e s c o m p r i s i n g some one h u n d r e d p e o p l e were b u t t e r c l a m s , l i t t l e n e c k c l a m s and m u s s e l s . Thompson s a i d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s ( i n 1912) l i v e d i n t h e i r " s h a c k s o f t e n t s s e t up on t h e Cape Mudge s h o r e " , and t h a t t h i s a r e a was one o f t h e b e s t c l a m b e d s , w i t h a b o u t t h i r t y - f i v e a c r e s r a t e d as "good" and v a l u a b l e . Thompson s a i d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s camped on t h e Cape Mudge s h o r e f r o m September u n t i l May. E v i d e n t l y t h e s e a s o n a l r o u n d o f t h e Nanaimo p e o p l e and t h e i r r e l a t i v e s had a l r e a d y been d i s r u p t e d by t h i s t i m e . B u t t h e " s h a c k s o f t e n t s " Thompson n o t e d were p r o b a b l y an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e m p o r a r y s h e l t e r s u s e d on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s . T h e s e were f o r m e r l y made o f r u s h mats d r a p e d o v e r wooden p o l e s ; by t h i s t i m e , c a n v a s t e n t s were p r o b a b l y i n common use (AJ; A D J ) . J e n n e s s ( f i e l d n o t e s ; n.d.) s t a t e d t h a t t h e Nanaimo f i s h e d f o r c o d and h a l i b u t a t F a l s e Narrows s t a r t i n g i n A p r i l , b u t t h a t t h e r e were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o w a r r a n t d r y i n g t h e s e f o r t h e w i n t e r . They were u n d o u b t e d l y c o o k e d as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r t h e y were c a u g h t . J e n n e s s a l s o o b s e r v e d 61 t h a t i n A p r i l s e a l s and s e a - l i o n s were h u n t e d by t h e Nanaimo a r o u n d F a l s e Narrows, t h e l a t t e r b e i n g f o u n d f u r t h e r o u t f r o m s h o r e . A r o u n d t h i s same t i m e , and w e l l i n t o May, e a c h Nanaimo f a m i l y went t o i t s own camas bed on a c e r t a i n b l u f f a t G a b r i o l a I s l a n d . The camas b u l b s were dug up and were subsequently c o o k e d i n s p e c i a l p i t s . I n one v e r s i o n o f t h e Nanaimo s t o r y o f t h e o r i g i n o f f i r e , Mink had a l a r g e house a t F a l s e Narrows, where he l i v e d a l o n e w i t h h i s g r a n d m o t h e r (Boas, 1981:86). 37. G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e [Between G a b r i o l a and V a l d e s I s l a n d s ] x w k a t h e l h p (ADJ; A J ; A L I ; AT; CP; DP; RJ) ' p l a c e h a v i n g i r o n w o o d [ O c e a n s p r a y ] t r e e s ' G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e was f o r m e r l y i m p o r t a n t as a p l a c e where Nanaimo, Chemainus and C o w i c h a n p e o p l e r a k e d h e r r i n g and c o l l e c t e d h e r r i n g - s p a w n a r o u n d M a r c h . The a r e a was a l s o a b u n d a n t i n O c e a n s p r a y t r e e s , t h e wood f r o m w h i c h was u s e d by a l l o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem f o r m aking d i g g i n g - s t i c k s [used t o d i g c l a m s and camas b u l b s , f o r e x a m p l e ] , bows, a r r o w s , s p e a r and h a r p o o n s h a f t s , b a r b e c u i n g s t i c k s , f i s h -h ooks and, more r e c e n t l y , k n i t t i n g n e e d l e s . The wood was u s u a l l y h a r d e n e d i n t h e f i r e b e f o r e b e i n g f a s h i o n e d i n t o t h e s e a r t i c l e s . Most o f t h e s e u t e n s i l s were u s e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e . F o r example, t h e " t e e t h " f o r h e r r i n g r a k e s were made f r o m " i r o n w o o d " , and t h i s u t e n s i l was p r o b a b l y made and u s e d a t G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e i n March, when 62 t h e h e r r i n g were spawning (ADJ; A J ; A L I ; ARJ; AT; DP). The p e o p l e r e s i d i n g a t S h e l l B e a c h , on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r , c o n s i d e r e d G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t a r e a f o r t h e d i g g i n g o f camas b u l b s and t h e c o l l e c t -i n g o f r u s h e s . The l a t t e r were u s e d t o make t h e mats w h i c h f o r m e d t e m p o r a r y s h e l t e r s d u r i n g t h e summer m i g r a t i o n s t o t h e G u l f I s l a n d s ( A L I ) . P r e s e n t - d a y I s l a n d Halkomelem I n d i a n s do n o t a g r e e w i t h Boas' (1887:133), who s t a t e d w i t h g r e a t c o n v i c t i o n t h a t " o n l y t h e Nanoose and Nanaimo have t h e r i g h t t o use... [ G a b r i o l a Passage...on t h e i r j o u r n e y t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r i n t h e s p r i n g t o c a t c h s a l m o n ] . " A p p a r e n t l y anyone was a l l o w e d t o u s e t h i s waterway, a s s u m i n g t h e y were i d e n t i -f i a b l e as I s l a n d Halkomelem (ADJ; A J ; DP; HW). T h e r e a r e p r e s e n t l y two Nanaimo R e s e r v e s i n Degnen Bay, on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e . One i s t h e s m a l l i s l a n d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e bay, w h i c h was c l a s s i f i e d as a " b u r i a l i s l a n d " ( p r e s u m a b l y f o r t h e Nanaimo). The o t h e r i s a two and o n e - h a l f a c r e R e s e r v e a t t h e w e s t e r n e n t r a n c e t o Degnen Bay, w h i c h was d e s c r i b e d i n 1916 as a " f i s h i n g s t a t i o n " ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:300). G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e i s t h e l a s t p l a c e - n a m e i n t h i s s t u d y w h i c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e Nanaimo d i a l e c t a r e a o f I s l a n d H a l k o -melem. I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t many o f t h e p l a c e - n a m e s on and a r o u n d G a b r i o l a I s l a n d w i l l r e m a i n u n r e c o r d e d . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s p l a c e - n a m e s l o c a t e d i n t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a o f I s l a n d Halkomelem. 38. E a s t S i d e o f V a l d e s I s l a n d , S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a s 7 e t l ' k e l e s (AJ; AG; AT; DP; RJ) ' f a c i n g o u t s i d e ' o r ' o u t s i d e a r e a ' 63 The t e r m s 7 e t l ' k e l e s i s u s e d by s p e a k e r s o f t h e Chemainus and C o wichan d i a l e c t s o f I s l a n d Halkomelem t o r e f e r t o t h e e n t i r e e a s t c o a s t o f V a l d e s I s l a n d and t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a i n t h i s v i c i n i t y . On some o c c a s i o n s i t was a l s o u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e e n t i r e e a s t c o a s t o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d as w e l l b u t t h i s was a p p a r e n t l y r a r e . The p l a c e - n a m e r e f e r s t o t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a ; i t i s n o t as p r o t e c t e d o r as l a r g e as t h e n a r r o w c h a n n e l s w h i c h s e p a r a t e t h e G u l f I s l a n d s . Once an I s l a n d Halkomelem canoe went east through G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e , P o r l i e r P a s s , o r A c t i v e P a s s , i t was " o u t s i d e " I s l a n d Halkomelem I n d i a n s ' g e o g r a p h i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c " t e r r i t o r y " (AJ; AT; DP). Humpback [and o t h e r s p e c i e s o f ] w h a l e s and k i l l e r w h a l e s were f o r m e r l y s e e n , b u t n e v e r h u n t e d , by t h e I s l a n d H a l k o -melem a l o n g t h e e a s t e r n c o a s t o f V a l d e s I s l a n d . The I n d i a n s d i d f i s h f o r l i n g c o d and o t h e r s p e c i e s o f g r o u n d f i s h t h e r e , however ( A J ) . The I n d i a n s r e s i d i n g i n permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e s on K u p er and V a l d e s I s l a n d s u s e d t o g a t h e r b l a c k k a t y c h i t o n s and g i a n t r e d c h i t o n s , and o t h e r b e a c h f o o d s s u c h as m u s s e l s , i n t h e i n t e r t i d a l zone on t h e e a s t c o a s t o f V a l d e s I s l a n d (AT; RJ) . 39. Unnamed Bay on E a s t C o a s t o f V a l d e s I s l a n d / s i k w ' e l w e l h (AG) (meaning n o t known) T h i s p l a c e was named " T e l e g r a p h Bay" by AG, b u t i t does n o t a p p e a r as s u c h on any map. The bay may have been u s e d f o r r e f u g e d u r i n g r o u g h w e a t h e r o r f o r b e a c h f o o d c o l l e c t i o n . 64 40. D e t w i l l e r P o i n t a r e a ( i n c l u d i n g t h e two b a y s n o r t h o f i t ) , V a l d e s I s l a n d t ' t s o s o 7 k w (AT; DP) p e r h a p s ' p o i n t i n g i n s i d e ' t ' t s o s o 7 k w (AG) meaning n o t known [AG gave t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h i s name as t h e l a r g e bay s o u t h o f D e t w i l l e r P o i n t ] No u s a g e f o r t h i s p l a c e was g i v e n by any o f t h e p e o p l e who knew i t s name. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e " t s " i n t h e p l a c e - n a m e i s p r o n o u n c e d " c h " . 41. Shah P o i n t , t h e Bay N o r t h o f i t and t h e Two Unnamed C r e e k s F l o w i n g i n t o t h e Bay ( V a l d e s I s l a n d ) . / xwthewinem (AT; DP) ' p l a c e h a v i n g coho s a l m o n ' - / xwthewinem (AG) [AG s a i d t h i s p l a c e was t h e bay j u s t n o r t h o f D e t w i l l e r P o i n t ] Coho s a l m o n w h i c h spawned i n t h e two c r e e k s n o r t h o f Shah P o i n t i n September and O c t o b e r were c a u g h t by p e o p l e f r o m t h e v i l l a g e s a t S h i n g l e P o i n t and C a r d a l e P o i n t (on V a l d e s I s l a n d ) ( A T ) . 42. P o r l i e r P a s s [Between V a l d e s and G a l i a n o I s l a n d s ] s k t h a k o r s k t h o k o 7 1 h (ADJ; AG; A J ; A L I ; AL2; AT; CP; DP; RJ) 'narrows' o r ' l i t t l e n a r r o w s ' P o r l i e r P a s s i s known l o c a l l y as t h e "Cowichan Gap" by b o t h I n d i a n s and n o n - I n d i a n s a l i k e . The P a s s i s one o f t h e few "gaps" o r b r e a k s i n t h e s o u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s a r c h i p e l a g o , t h e o t h e r s b e i n g G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e and A c t i v e P a s s . I n d i a n s s p e a k i n g t h e C o w i c h a n d i a l e c t o f I s l a n d Halkomelem ( i n a d d i -t i o n t o o t h e r I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e ) f o r m e r l y u s e d t h e a r e a , and a t one t i m e a l l o f t h e s p e a k e r s o f t h e Halkomelem l a n g u a g e were c a l l e d "Cowichan" by n o n - I n d i a n s (AJ; A D J ) . H e r r i n g were " r a k e d " and h e r r i n g spawn was c o l l e c t e d a t P o r l i e r P a s s by I n d i a n s f r o m V a l d e s and Kuper I s l a n d s , K u l l e e t Bay, L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r and t h e C o w i c h a n v a l l e y . T h e s e a c t i v i t i e s were u s u a l l y done i n M a r c h (AT; A J ) . S p r i n g , chum and coho salmon were c a u g h t a t t h e P a s s i n the summer and autumn months by r e s i d e n t s o f t h e S h i n g l e P o i n t , C a r d a l e P o i n t and C a y e t a n o P o i n t v i l l a g e s on V a l d e s I s l a n d , and by t h e s e p e o p l e s ' r e l a t i v e s , f i s h i n g w i t h them o r w i t h t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n (AT; A J ) . P o r l i e r P a s s was u n d o u b t e d l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t a r e a i n I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y f o r t h e h u n t i n g o f m a r i n e mammals. H a i r s e a l s o r " h a r b o u r s e a l s " and h a r b o u r p o r p o i s e s were f o r m e r l y v e r y a b u n d a n t i n t h e a r e a a t a l l t i m e s o f t h e y e a r , and t h e y were h u n t e d by men e x c l u s i v e l y . The h u n t e r s were r e s i d e n t s o f V a l d e s and Kuper I s l a n d v i l l a g e s , who a l s o p e r -m i t t e d o t h e r I s l a n d Halkomelem men t o h u n t i n t h e a r e a i f t h e y were r e l a t e d by m a r r i a g e o r had made s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s t o do s o . The l a s t e x t e n s i v e s e a l and p o r p o i s e h u n t i n g t o o k p l a c e a r o u n d 1915 (AT; A J ; R J ) . The most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e w h i c h was p r o c u r e d a t P o r l i e r P a s s by t h e I n d i a n s was t h e n o r t h e r n s e a - l i o n . The h a r p o o n i n g o f t h e s e s e a mammals i n I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y was a p p a r e n t l y r e s t r i c t e d t o men who p e r m a n e n t l y r e s i d e d a t w i n t e r v i l l a g e s a t S h i n g l e P o i n t and C a r d a l e P o i n t on V a l d e s I s l a n d and P e n e l a k u t S p i t on Kuper I s l a n d (AT; DP; S u t t l e s , 1952:11-12; L ane, 1953:76). R a r e l y , p e o p l e f r o m K u l l e e t Bay c o u l d a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i f t h e y were r e l a t e d t o h u n t e r s f r o m V a l d e s o r Kuper I s l a n d s (AT; DP; S u t t l e s , 1952:11). T h e r e a r e t h r e e s p e c i f i c s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e p e r t i n e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n r e s t r i c t i n g s e a - l i o n h a r p o o n i n g t o t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s . F i r s t ^ C r y e r ("The M a g i c S e a - L i o n " , n.d.) m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e "Cowichan" c o n s i d e r e d P o r l i e r P a s s t o be t h e i r own s e a - l i o n h u n t i n g g r o u n d s , and d r o v e away p e o p l e f r o m o t h e r [ u n s p e c i -f i e d ] g r o u p s . RJ b e l i e v e d , and o t h e r e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s , t h a t C r y e r r e c e i v e d h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Tommy P i e r r e , who was o r i g i n a l l y f r o m Kuper I s l a n d , b u t who l a t e r l i v e d i n Duncan among t h e C o w i c h a n s . RJ f e l t t h a t C r y e r [and by i m p l i c a t i o n Tommy P i e r r e ] was a c t u a l l y r e f e r r i n g t o P o r l i e r P a s s as a h u n t i n g l o c a t i o n o f t h e Kuper I s l a n d p e o p l e f r o m P e n e l a k u t S p i t , and t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e p e o p l e were erroneously c o n s i d e r e d as s p e a k e r s o f t h e Cowichan d i a l e c t ( r a t h e r t h a n t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t ) o f I s l a n d Halkomelem i n h i s t o r i c t i m e s . S e c o n d l y , J e n n e s s m e n t i o n e d i n h i s f i e l d n o t e s t h a t t h e Quamichan v i l l a g e r s f r o m t h e Cowichan v a l l e y went o u t t o t h e G u l f I s l a n d s t o h u n t s e a - l i o n s i n J u n e . T h i r d l y , we have an a s s e r t i o n by J e n n e s s (n.d.) t h a t t h e f i v e Nanaimo v i l l a g e s 67 moved t o F a l s e Narrows and G a b r i o l a I s l a n d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h u n t i n g s e a - l i o n s . I n t h e s e l a s t two s t a t e m e n t s , t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f t h e means by w h i c h s e a - l i o n s were h u n t e d , o r o f t h e r e q u i r e d " r e s t r i c t i o n s " , r i t u a l s , o r " s p e c i a l h e l p " w h i c h were m a n d a t o r y f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g o f s e a - l i o n s by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem. P e r h a p s J e n n e s s was r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c l u b b i n g o f t h e s e a n i m a l s , i n w h i c h c a s e h i s s t a t e m e n t s w o u l d be p l a u s i b l e . B u t n e i t h e r t h e Co w i c h a n n o r t h e Nanaimo p e o p l e t o d a y (AJ; ADJ; HW) remember F a l s e Narrows o r G a b r i o l a I s l a n d as p a r t i c u l a r l y good s e a - l i o n l o c a t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t b o t h o f J e n n e s s 1 s t a t e m e n t s were made a l m o s t p a r e n t h e t i c -a l l y , i n t h a t s e a l s were m e n t i o n e d f i r s t , b e f o r e s e a - l i o n s i n b o t h c a s e s . A p p a r e n t l y a l l Chemainus d i a l e c t - a r e a s e a - l i o n h u n t i n g was done a t P o r l i e r P a s s ( S u t t l e s , 1952:12; Lane, 1953:76; AT; DP) and i n t h e Howe Sound a r e a ( S u t t l e s , 1 952:13). [Note t h a t t h i s s e c o n d p l a c e i s i n Squamish I n d i a n t e r r i t o r y and no I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e t o d a y r e c a l l any t r a v e l l i n g t o t h i s a r e a f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ] . A t P o r l i e r P a s s t h e p e o p l e f r o m V a l d e s , I s l a n d camped a t t h e s o u t h end o f t h a t i s l a n d and t h e p e o p l e f r o m Kuper I s l a n d camped a t t h e n o r t h end o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d . A t b o t h camps, l o o k o u t s were s t a t i o n e d t o watch f o r s e a - l i o n s and warn t h e h u n t e r s t h a t i t was t i m e t o l e a v e i n o r d e r t o h a r p o o n them (AT; RJ; Lane, 1953:76). A c c o r d i n g t o Lane (1953:76-77), t h e r e was a f i e r c e r i v a l r y between t h e s e two camps, and i f a h a r p o o n e r f r o m one g r o u p s p e a r e d a s e a - l i o n o r g r o u p o f them, 68 t h e c a n o e s f r o m h i s camp " c l a i m e d " t h e a n i m a l s and t h e c a n o e s f r o m t h e o t h e r camp r e t u r n e d home. However, t h e p e o p l e f r o m t h e s e a r e a s t o d a y do n o t r e c a l l s u c h f i e r c e r i v a l r y (RJ; AT; DP). S u t t l e s (1952:12) m e n t i o n e d t h a t s i x t o t w e n t y c a n o e s l e f t t h e s h o r e a f t e r a s e a - l i o n was s p o t t e d , and t h a t t h e h e a v i e s t h u n t i n g began a r o u n d M a r c h . S e a - l i o n s c o n g r e g a t e d a t P o r l i e r P a s s b e g i n n i n g i n March b e c a u s e t h e y were f o l l o w i n g t h e m i g r a t i n g h e r r i n g w h i c h was t h e i r f o o d . The a n i m a l s s t a y e d a t t h e i r r o o k e r i e s t h e r e w e l l i n t o t h e summer ( A J ) . The l a s t e x t e n s i v e , t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - b o u n t y t y p e o f s e a - l i o n h a r p o o n i n g t o o k p l a c e a t P o r l i e r P a s s a r o u n d 1915 (AT; A J ; DP). S u t t l e s (1952) has g i v e n much more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s a s p e c t o f I s l a n d Halkomelem r e s o u r c e - p r o c u r e m e n t , a l s o p r o v i d i n g a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n o f m a r i n e mammal h u n t i n g and u t i l i z a t i o n f o r t h e C o a s t S a l i s h , N o r t h w e s t C o a s t and o t h e r c u l t u r e a r e a s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t Boas' s t a t e m e n t (1887:133) t h a t a l l o f t h e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d S a l i s h c o u l d u s e P o r l i e r P a s s on t h e i r way t o t h e m a i n l a n d i n t h e summer i s n o t e n t i r e l y a c c u r a t e . T h i s i m p o r t a n t waterway was c o n s t a n t l y g u a r d e d by t h e r e s i -d e n t s o f t h e v i l l a g e s a t C a r d a l e and C a y e t a n o P o i n t s on V a l d e s I s l a n d , and o n l y p e o p l e w i t h p e r m i s s i o n c o u l d p a s s t h r o u g h . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n h i s t o r i c t i m e s , when t h e t h r e a t o f r a i d s by t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l became more p r e v a l e n t (AT; A J ) . 69 43. Canoe I s l e t [Between Shah P o i n t and V e r n a c i P o i n t , V a l d e s I s l a n d ] kw'ukw'iyekwen (AT) ' p l a c e t o f i s h w i t h a hook and l i n e ' o r ' t r o l l i n g p l a c e ' 44. V i r a g o Rock [ A l m o s t i n t h e C e n t r e o f P o r l i e r P a s s ] /• n e m s e t s e n (AT) meaning n o t known /' mamthetsen (AG) ' t e s t i c l e s ' B o t h o f t h e s e s m a l l i s l a n d s a r e s e a l and s e a - l i o n r o o k e r i e s , where t h e s e m a r i n e mammals h a u l t h e m s e l v e s o u t o f t h e w a t e r t o b r e e d o r t o b a s k i n t h e s u n . Plac e - n a m e number 43 was an a r e a u s e d f o r salmon f i s h i n g by t h e V a l d e s I s l a n d v i l l a g e r s a t any t i m e o f t h e y e a r . As t h e name i n d i c a t e s , t r o l l i n g was t h e main method o f f i s h i n g t h e r e ( A T ) . Place - n a m e number 44 was u s e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e h u n t i n g o f s e a l s and s e a - l i o n s . The name a p p a r e n t l y r e f e r s t o a s p e c i f i c u s a g e o f V i r a g o Rock, known o n l y t o c e r t a i n s e a - l i o n h a r p o o n e r s , w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s d a n g e r o u s l o c a t i o n (AG;AT) . 45. C a y e t a n o P o i n t , V a l d e s I s l a n d th'xwemksen (AT; AJ) ' s h i n i n g (or g l i t t e r i n g ) p o i n t ' F o r m e r l y t h e r e was a s m a l l permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e l o c a t e d j u s t e a s t o f C a y e t a n o P o i n t . A c c o r d i n g t o AT, who was b o r n and who s p e n t h e r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d y e a r s a t t h i s v i l l a g e , t h e r e were o n l y two o r t h r e e h o u s e s r e m a i n i n g t h e r e by 1915. B u t AT e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e may have been f i v e 70 l a r g e houses i n the area between Cayetano P o i n t and V e r n a c i P o i n t ( i . e . the southern coast of Valdes Island) and t h a t these houses may have housed about one hundred or one hundred and f i f t y people on a f u l l time b a s i s before c o n t a c t with non-Indians . As with s e v e r a l other place-names on the G u l f I s l a n d s , there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Cayetano P o i n t v i l l a g e and another v i l l a g e near the mouth of the Cowichan R i v e r . There was f o r m e r l y a permanent winter v i l l a g e near the present-day government wharf at Cowichan Bay which was / c a l l e d th'ith'xwemksen [diminutive form of place-name number 45]. T h i s v i l l a g e a p p a r e n t l y extended about one k i l o m e t r e n o r t h along Cowichan Bay and had a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l popula-t i o n , s i n c e i t was i n such c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the other main v i l l a g e s a t the mouth of the Cowichan R i v e r . The r e s i d e n t s of t h i s Cowichan Bay v i l l a g e moved to Cayetano P o i n t on Valdes I s l a n d s e v e r a l hundred years ago, t a k i n g the name of t h e i r v i l l a g e with them. The exact reasons f o r t h i s migra-t i o n are not remembered today, but i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the Cowichan Bay v i l l a g e was e i t h e r f l o o d e d , o r t h a t f o r some reason the v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s were unable to procure enough food a t t h a t l o c a t i o n . They moved to P o r l i e r Pass, where salmon and many other foods are p l e n t i f u l on a year-round b a s i s (AT; ADJ). The Cayetano P o i n t v i l l a g e was abandoned around 1915, and i t s r e s i d e n t s moved to Indian Reserves at S h i n g l e P o i n t on Valdes I s l a n d , Penelakut S p i t and Telegraph Harbour on Kuper I s l a n d , K u l l e e t Bay, Westholme, the Cowichan R i v e r 71 v a l l e y and e v e n as f a r s o u t h as E s q u i r a a l t n e a r V i c t o r i a . AT moved t o t h e C o wichan R i v e r v i l l a g e o f Somenos ( A T ) . T h e r e was an abundance o f s e a l s , s e a - l i o n s and b e a c h f o o d s a d j a c e n t t o C a y e t a n o P o i n t and t h e s e were u t i l i z e d by t h e r e s i d e n t s and by t h e i r r e l a t i v e s f r o m o t h e r v i l l a g e s , p r i m a r i l y d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g and summer months. H e r r i n g , h e r r i n g - s p a w n and s e v e r a l s p e c i e s o f s a l mon were p r o c u r e d i n s e a s o n by t h e C a y e t a n o P o i n t v i l l a g e r s , as t h e s e were a l s o e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e f r o m t h e v i l l a g e . D u r i n g t h e summer some o f t h e p e o p l e went t o t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r t o f i s h f o r s o c k e y e and humpback sal m o n , and o t h e r s t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e G u l f I s l a n d s t o h u n t f o r d e e r and t o c o l l e c t v a r i o u s b e a c h f o o d s . A f a v o u r i t e l o c a t i o n f o r c l a m s , u s e d by t h e P o r l i e r P a s s p e o p l e , was A n n e t t e I n l e t a t t h e n o r t h end o f P r e v o s t I s l a n d ( A T ) . T oday t h e r e i s s t i l l a two h e c t a r e R e s e r v e a t t h e un-named p o i n t o f l a n d e a s t o f C a y e t a n o P o i n t . I t i s d e s c r i b e d as a " f i s h i n g s t a t i o n " b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Chemainus T r i b e , L y a c k s u n [ S h i n g l e P o i n t ] Band ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:297) . I n one v e r s i o n o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem s t o r y o f t h e "Wooden S e a - L i o n " , a r e d c e d a r s e a - l i o n came t o l i f e and towed s e v e r a l men who were t r y i n g t o h a r p o o n i t . A f t e r some d i f f i c u l t y , t h e men c u t t h e h a r p o o n - l i n e and t h e n d r i f t e d t o w a r d C a y e t a n o P o i n t [some p e o p l e s a y t h e e a s t s i d e o f K u p e r I s l a n d ] . T h i s was e v i d e n t l y one o f t h e r e a s o n s why t h e I n d i a n s a t V a l d e s [and Kuper] I s l a n d had t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " r i g h t " t o h a r p o o n s e a - l i o n s (AT; A J ) . 72 S u t t l e s (1952:13) p r o v i d e s more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s s t o r y and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t AG r e c a l l e d t h e p l a c e - n a m e th'xwemksen, b u t he s a i d i t was l o c a t e d a t Race P o i n t , on /' t h e n o r t h end o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d . AG s t a t e d t h a t th 1xwemksen ' s h i n i n g o r g l i t t e r i n g p o i n t ' a c t u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e P o r l i e r P a s s " o u t e r l i g h t o r A l l i s o n L i g h t " , a m a r i n e r s ' b e a c o n a t Race P o i n t . 46* C a r d a l e P o i n t , V a l d e s I s l a n d t h ' a x e l (AG; A J ; AT; DP; RJ) ' g r a v e l l y p l a c e ' c V x a i ( S u t t l e s , 1952:11) T h e r e was f o r m e r l y a permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e a t C a r d a l e P o i n t . AT, whose f a t h e r was b o r n t h e r e and who had a h o u s e t h e r e b e f o r e he moved t o C a y e t a n o P o i n t , b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e were once a b o u t f i v e o r s i x l a r g e h o u s e s i n t h e v i l l a g e , w i t h a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f p e r h a p s one h u n d r e d and f i f t y . S u t t l e s (1952:11) has b r i e f l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e C a r d a l e P o i n t v i l l a g e m i g h t have been amalgamated w i t h t h e v i l l a g e a t S h i n g l e P o i n t , s e v e r a l k i l o m e t r e s up t h e w e s t c o a s t o f V a l d e s I s l a n d . He s t a t e d t h a t t h e C a r d a l e P o i n t v i l l a g e was "perhaps... a s e p a r a t e v i l l a g e . . . " f r o m t h e one a t S h i n g l e P o i n t . AT a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e a f f i n i t y between t h e s e two v i l l a g e s . However, t h e y were d i s c r e t e c l u s t e r s o f h o u s e s . The C a r d a l e P o i n t v i l l a g e r s h u n t e d s e a l s and s e a - l i o n s a t P o r l i e r P a s s w i t h t h e S h i n g l e P o i n t p e o p l e , b u t t h e y d i d n o t r e f e r t o t h e m s e l v e s as T ' a a t ' k a 7 ' p e o p l e i n h a b i t i n g t h e v i l l a g e a t S h i n g l e P o i n t ' . W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n d i a n R e s e r v e s i n 73 1913, some V a l d e s I s l a n d r e s i d e n t s began r e f e r r i n g t o them-s e l v e s as members o f t h e " L y a c k s u n Band", r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r p r e c i s e v i l l a g e o f b i r t h o r r e s i d e n c e . The Band name i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p l a c e - n a m e f o r S h i n g l e P o i n t , t h e s i t e o f one V a l d e s I s l a n d v i l l a g e (see p l a c e - n a m e number 47 i n t h i s s t u d y ) . B u t t h e C a r d a l e P o i n t p e o p l e r e f e r r e d t o them-s e l v e s as b e i n g f r o m t h ' a x e l [ C a r d a l e P o i n t ] , b e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s ( A T ) . 47. A r e a Between C a r d a l e P o i n t and S h i n g l e P o i n t , V a l d e s I s . /-( x ) w e l e t s e n (AT; AG) ' p l a c e h a v i n g b u l r u s h e s ' o r ' t u l e p l a c e ' The I n d i a n s r e s i d i n g i n v i l l a g e s on V a l d e s and Kuper I s l a n d s f o r m e r l y g a t h e r e d b u l r u s h e s i n t h e marshes and f r e s h -w a t e r s t r e a m s between C a r d a l e and S h i n g l e P o i n t s . T h i s was u s u a l l y done i n t h e l a t e summer and e a r l y autumn months. The b u l r u s h e s were t i e d i n t o b u n d l e s and l a t e r d r i e d i n t h e s u n . L a t e r t h e y were made i n t o mats i n a v a r i e t y o f s i z e s ( A T ) . The l a r g e r mats were u s e d t o l i n e t h e w a l l s o f t h e l a r g e w i n t e r h o u s e s and f o r t h e w a l l s and r o o f s o f t e m p o r a r y summer s h e l t e r s . F o r t h e l a t t e r , t h e mats were a t t a c h e d t o p o l e s made o f f i r o r c e d a r wood. The s m a l l e r r u s h mats were u s e d f o r m a t t r e s s e s and f o r c u t t i n g and d r y i n g f i s h and meat. S m a l l e r bags and s i t t i n g mats were a l s o an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e h o u s e h o l d i n v e n t o r y i n I s l a n d Halkomelem homes, and b u l r u s h e s were a l s o u s e d t o make t h e s e (AT; A J ; ADJ; T u r n e r , 1979:129-130). 74 48. Shingle Point, Valdes Island / 1 laayksen (ADJ; AG; AJ; AT; CP; DP; RJ) 'Douglas f i r point' /• / layksen, layksen [these forms were also given by a l l of the people above, esp e c i a l l y when speaking rapidly] leyqsan (Leslie, 1979:84) le«3qsBn (Hudson, 1971:16) "Reid Island" leeuqsun (Hudson, 1971:16) "Reid Island" Lyacksun (Duff, 1964:26) l€3qs3n (Suttles, 1952:11) Lyack-sun (Cryer, n.d.) Ly-aack-sun (Cryer, n.d.) "bark standing up" Lyacksun (Jenness, f i e l d notes) 49. Indian V i l l a g e at Shingle Point, Valdes Island t'aat'ka7 (AJ; AT; DP; RJ) 'place with many s a l a l berries' ta ?Atka (Lane, 1953:76) t^fttVlS (Suttles, 1952:11) Taatka (Harris, 1901:22) T^aAiEkE (Boas, 1889a: 239) T'a'teke (Boas, 1889 :325) T'ateqe (Boas, 1887:132) O C Tait-ka (Lomas, 1882) Tut-cha (Douglas, 1853) Tataka (Douglas, 1853) 50. Cave Entrance at Shingle Point shek'shek'em (AT; ADJ) 'opening mouth' The t e r m l a a y k s e n i s u s e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o r e f e r t o S h i n g l e P o i n t on V a l d e s I s l a n d . T h i s same term, a n g l i c i z e d t o " L y a c k s u n " o r " L y a c k s o n ^ has been u s e d s i n c e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n d i a n R e s e r v e s i n I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y t o r e f e r t o a l l of the members of t h e L y a c k s u n Band and t o a l l I n d i a n s o r i g i n a l l y f r o m v i l l a g e s on V a l d e s I s l a n d . The L y a c k s u n Band was a l l o t t e d a t h i r t y - t w o h e c t a r e ( s e v e n t y -n i n e a c r e s ) R e s e r v e a t S h i n g l e P o i n t a d j a c e n t t o t h e v i l l a g e c a l l e d t ' a a t ' k a 7 and a s e v e n h u n d r e d and two h e c t a r e (one t h o u s a n d s e v e n h u n d r e d and f i f t y - s i x a c r e s ) R e s e r v e e n c o m p a s s i n g a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l l a n d a r e a o f V a l d e s I s l a n d i n 1913. However, most o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e v i l l a g e s on V a l d e s I s l a n d moved t o o t h e r R e s e r v e s by 1920. A p p a r e n t l y t h e m a j o r i t y moved t o P e n e l a k u t S p i t on Kuper I s l a n d , and t o t h e R e s e r v e a t Westholme, s o u t h o f Chemainus on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Today t h e r e i s s t i l l some s e a s o n a l u s a g e o f t h e s e two R e s e r v e s by members o f t h e L y a c k s u n Band (AT; A J ; D u f f , 1964:26; R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:297). The v i l l a g e c a l l e d t ' a a t ' k a 7 a t S h i n g l e P o i n t was t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t i n p o p u l a t i o n [ n e x t t o P e n e l a k u t S p i t v i l l a g e on t h e n o r t h e a s t t i p o f Kuper I s l a n d ] o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem v i l l a g e s on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s ( b e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h non-I n d i a n s ) . T h e r e were p e r h a p s t e n l a r g e h o u s e s , s p r e a d o u t between t h e s m a l l b a y s n o r t h and s o u t h o f S h i n g l e P o i n t and i n c l u d i n g t h e P o i n t i t s e l f . The p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n s between t h i s v i l l a g e and o t h e r s f u r t h e r s o u t h on V a l d e s I s l a n d have a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d ( A T ) . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e was an abundance o f D o u g l a s f i r t r e e s and s a l a l b e r r i e s i n t h e S h i n g l e P o i n t a r e a , s i n c e t h e I n d i a n p l a c e - n a m e s t r a n s l a t e d i r e c t l y t o mean t h e s e b o t a n i c a l s p e c i e s i n E n g l i s h . F i r s t - h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e a r e a does c o n f i r m an abundance o f t h e s e two s p e c i e s t o d a y . B o t h s p e c i e s were v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem. F i r p o l e s were u s e d t o c o n s t r u c t t e m p o r a r y s h e l t e r s and s a l a l b e r r i e s were g a t h e r e d i n t h e summer and autumn months as an i m p o r t a n t f o o d , u s e d f o r v a r i a t i o n i n t h e d i e t (AT; A J ) . The S h i n g l e P o i n t a r e a was u t i l i z e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem f o r t h e " r a k i n g " o f h e r r i n g and t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f h e r r i n g spawn d u r i n g M a r c h . R e l a t i v e s o f t h e S h i n g l e P o i n t v i l l a g e r s , some f r o m as f a r away as t h e C o w i c h a n v a l l e y and t h e S a a n i c h P e n i n s u l a on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , were a l s o p e r m i t t e d t o engage i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i f t h e y a c q u i r e d p e r m i s s i o n ( A J ) . Some p e o p l e f r o m V a l d e s I s l a n d o n c e h a r p o o n -ed a w h a l e , b u t i t i s n o t known i f i t was e a t e n ( S u t t l e s , 1952:11). Former r e s i d e n t s o f v i l l a g e s a d j a c e n t t o S h i n g l e P o i n t s t a t e t h a t humpback whale-meat was e a t e n by I n d i a n s i n v i l l a g e s on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s , b u t o n l y i f t h e a n i m a l s " b e a c h e d t h e m s e l v e s " (AT; R J ) . By f a r t h e most i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e v i l l a g e o f t ' a a t ' k a 7 at S h i n g l e P o i n t was t h e h u n t i n g o f s e a -l i o n s by t h e men o f t h e v i l l a g e . T h i s was done f r o m " b a s e -camps" a t t h e s o u t h end o f V a l d e s I s l a n d . H u n t e r s f r o m Kuper I s l a n d camped a t t h e n o r t h end o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d . The a c t u a l h u n t i n g t o o k p l a c e i n t h e summer months i n P o r l i e r P a s s (AT; DP; RJ; S u t t l e s , 1952:11-13; Lane, 1953:76). 77 D o u g l a s (1853) n o t e d t h a t t h e " T a t a k a " c h i e f ' s name i n 1853 was " T s a - s e - g e " . P r e s u m a b l y D o u g l a s was r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s p e r s o n as one o f t h e heads o f e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s o c c u p y i n g h o u s e s a t S h i n g l e P o i n t , s i n c e t h e I s l a n d H a l k o -melem d i d n o t have " c h i e f s " b e f o r e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n d i a n Bands by n o n - I n d i a n s . D o u g l a s (1853) a l s o p l a c e d t h e t'a'at'ka? v i l l a g e " i n Comiaken Gap". I t has been n o t e d i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t "Cowichan Gap" was a l o c a l name f o r P o r l i e r P a s s . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t D o u g l a s was r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s body o f w a t e r , b u t he has p o i n t e d o u t an i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f p l a c e - n a m e s i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p l a c e - n a m e s on t h e l o w e r C o w i c h a n R i v e r . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p l a c e - n a m e s w h i c h r e f e r t o v i l l a g e s and h o u s e - s i t e s on t h e l o w e r C o w i c h a n R i v e r , w h i c h a l s o r e f e r t o s i m i l a r c a t e g o r i e s o f p l a c e - n a m e s on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s . I n some c a s e s t h e d i m i n u t i v e o f t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r name has been a p p l i e d t o t h e G u l f I s l a n d p l a c e . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e pl a c e - n a m e t'aat'ka7/ t h e r e was f o r m e r l y a v i l l a g e b e a r i n g t h i s name n e a r t h e mouth o f t h e Co w i c h a n R i v e r . When t h i s v i l l a g e became f l o o d e d , p e r h a p s one h u n d r e d and f i f t y y e a r s ago, t h e r e was a mass m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e v i l l a g e t o V a l d e s I s l a n d ( p r e s u m a b l y t o S h i n g l e P o i n t ) . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e Co w i c h a n s d i s m a n t l e d t h e i r h o u s e s and moved them by means o f c a n o e s l a s h e d t o g e t h e r t o S h i n g l e P o i n t . F o r t h e s e p e o p l e , t h e new v i l l a g e was a l s o named t'aa't'ka? (although t h e r e were a l r e a d y p e o p l e l i v i n g a t S h i n g l e P o i n t when t h e y a r r i v e d ) . T h e r e i s , t h e n , a d u a l i t y f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e - n a m e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e remembered o r i g i n o f one's e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , s i n c e t h e r e were a l s o m i g r a t i o n s f r o m t h e G u l f I s l a n d s t o t h e C o wichan R i v e r i n o r d e r t o e s c a p e t h e f r e q u e n t r a i d s by t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l and t h e i r a l l i e s ( A J; AT; A D J ) . Boas (1887:132) p r o v i d e d some i m p o r t a n t d e t a i l s on t h i s m a t t e r . He n o t e d t h e "wars" between t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l and t h e s p e a k e r s o f t h e C o w i c h a n and Chemainus d i a l e c t s o f I s l a n d Halkomelem. He s a i d t h a t f o r many y e a r s a l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e l i v e d i n t h e a r e a o f t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r , i n l a n d where t h e y were n o t e x p o s e d t o t h e open G u l f and s a f e f r o m t h e N o r t h e r n t r i b e s ' war c a n o e s . A f t e r t h e end o f t h e wars [ p r e s e n t - d a y I n d i a n s p l a c e t h i s d a t e a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1850] t h e p e o p l e o f t h e G u l f I s l a n d s and i n e x p o s e d l o c a t i o n s moved back t o t h e i r own v i l l a g e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Boas, "even today... [ i . e. 1 8 8 7 ] . . . a l l t h e s e p e o p l e o c c u p y a r e a s a l o n g t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r . " I t i s c l e a r f r o m Boas' s t a t e m e n t s , and f r o m t h o s e o f p r e s e n t - d a y I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e , t h a t t h e r e was, i n h i s t o r i c t i m e s a t l e a s t , a two-way f l o w o f p e o p l e between t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r and t h e G u l f I s l a n d s s u c h as V a l d e s I s l a n d . When t h e p e o p l e moved f r o m one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r , t h e y e v i d e n t l y t o o k t h e name o f t h e i r v i l l a g e - s i t e w i t h them. S i n c e D o u g l a s (1853) r e f e r r e d t o P o r l i e r P a s s as "Comiaken Gap" i n s t e a d o f "Cowichan Gap", we c a n be q u i t e c e r t a i n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two t ' a a t ' k a 7 v i l l a g e s . The C o w i c h a n R i v e r t ' a a t ' k a 7 v i l l a g e i s a d j a c e n t t o a n o t h e r C o w i c h a n v i l l a g e on Comiaken H i l l . T h i s may be t h e r e a s o n f o r D o u g l a s ' more p r e c i s e naming o f P o r l i e r P a s s i n h i s p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s . Place-name number 50 r e f e r s t o t h e e n t r a n c e t o a s e c r e t u n d e r w a t e r p a s s a g e f r o m S h i n g l e P o i n t t o T h e t i s I s l a n d , u s e d by t h e f o r m e r r e s i d e n t s o f b o t h i s l a n d s when t h e y were u n d e r a t t a c k . More w i l l be s a i d a b o u t t h i s l a t e r when r e f e r r i n g t o p l a c e - n a m e s on T h e t i s I s l a n d (see p l a c e - n a m e number 75) (AT; RJ; A D J ) . 51. A r e a From S h i n g l e P o i n t t o B l a c k b e r r y P o i n t , V a l d e s I s . x w i y a l e k ' (AJ; AT; AG; DP) ' p l a c e h a v i n g f a l l e n t r e e s ' [Note t h a t AG s a i d t h i s p l a c e was l o c a t e d i n t h e bay n o r t h o f B l a c k b e r r y P o i n t ] The c a u s e o f t h e f a l l e n t r e e s i n t h e a r e a n o r t h o f S h i n g l e P o i n t , on t h e w e s t s i d e o f V a l d e s I s l a n d , i s n o t remembered t o d a y . However, t h i s p l a c e was s a i d t o be t h e o r i g i n o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem a n c e s t r a l name X w i x w e y e l e k ' (AJ; DP). 52. A r e a N o r t h o f B l a c k b e r r y P o i n t , V a l d e s I s l a n d s k ' e x (ADJ; AT; DP; R J ) ( m e a n i n g n o t known) skw'exw (AG)(meaning n o t known) T h i s p l a c e i s known l o c a l l y as t h e " H o l e i n t h e W a l l " by t h e I n d i a n s f r o m V a l d e s and Kuper I s l a n d s . O n l y AG was a b l e t o g i v e an e x a c t l o c a t i o n . He s t a t e d t h a t t h e " H o l e " i n t h e s t e e p c l i f f s a l o n g t h e w e s t e r n s i d e o f V a l d e s I s l a n d was l o c a t e d a t t h e same l a t i t u d e as t h e n o r t h end o f R u x t o n I s l a n d . I n d e e d , t o p o g r a p h i c maps t e n d t o s u p p o r t AG's l o c a t i o n o f t h i s p l a c e - n a m e . G o i n g t h r o u g h t h e " H o l e i n t h e W a l l " was e v i d e n t l y t h e e a s i e s t way o f c r o s s i n g t h e n o r t h end o f V a l d e s I s l a n d (by l a n d f r o m west t o e a s t ) . 80 The n e x t s e r i e s o f p l a c e - n a m e s i n t h i s s t u d y , l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem l a n g u a g e , e x t e n d s f r o m Y e l l o w P o i n t i n t h e n o r t h t o L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r i n t h e s o u t h , on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , Chemainus d i a l e c t p l a c e - n a m e s on T h e t i s , K u p e r , G a l i a n o , P r e v o s t and S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d s w i l l be examined. I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o r e c o r d any p l a c e - n a m e s between B o a t H a r b o u r [place-name number t h i r t y - f o u r i n t h i s s t u d y ] and Y e l l o w P o i n t [place-name number f i f t y - t h r e e i n t h i s s t u d y ] . A l l o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem I n d i a n p e o p l e who p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y were a s k e d a b o u t t h i s a r e a and none was a b l e t o p r o v i d e any p l a c e - n a m e s . N e i t h e r were any r e c o r d e d i n t h e p e r t i n e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s a r e a was a p p a r e n t l y " s h a r e d " , i n t erms o f r e s o u r c e -p r o c u r e m e n t and t e m p o r a r y h a b i t a t i o n s , by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem f r o m t h e Nanaimo R i v e r and Nanaimo H a r b o u r a r e a s , who speak t h e Nanaimo d i a l e c t o f I s l a n d Halkomelem,and by t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t - s p e a k e r s who m a i n t a i n e d permanent w i n t e r h o u s e h o l d s a t K u l l e e t Bay (AJ; A L I ; AL2; MD; Boas, 1889:321). 81 53. Area Between Yellow P o i n t and Deer P o i n t xaaymetsen or xaametsen (AJ; ALI; AL2) ' c r y i n g on beach' One of the guardian s p i r i t powers of the I s l a n d Halko-melem was c a l l e d the xweltep. People having t h i s power were s a i d to be able to f l y around Coast S a l i s h t e r r i t o r y , dropping down at w i l l a t whatever v i l l a g e s or p l a c e s they d e s i r e d . These people c o u l d be recognized by t h e i r s p e c i a l " c r y " . The l a s t time t h i s s p i r i t power was seen on the southern coast of Vancouver I s l a n d was on the beach between Yellow P o i n t and Deer P o i n t . T h i s p l a c e was t h e r e f o r e named '(one who i s ) c r y i n g on the beach' a f t e r t h i s s p i r i t power (AJ). Much more i n f o r m a t i o n on the xweltep power can be found i n the w r i t i n g s of Diamond Jenness (1955:60-61; f i e l d n o t e s ) . 54. K u l l e e t Bay (Generic Term, f o r Whole Bay) . / k ' e l i t s ' (ADJ; AJ; ALI; AL2; AT; CP; MD; RJ) ' s h e l t e r e d area'; 'protected [bay]' k ' e l i t s ( t h i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n was given by a l l of the people above, e s p e c i a l l y when speaking r a p i d l y ) k S l i ' c 1 ( S u t t l e s , 1952:11) K u l l - e e t s (Cryer, n.d.) " s a l t water running back" K u l l e e t s (Jenness, n.d.) K u l l e e t z (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1) K a l i t s ( C u r t i s , 1913:175) Q 7 a l a t s (Boas, 1887:132) 82 Name f o r I n d i a n V i l l a g e and P e o p l e R e s i d i n g a t K u l l e e t Bay [ F o r m e r l y Known as "Chemainus Bay"] . / s l i t s ' e m i n e s (ADJ; A J ; A L I ; AL2; AT; CP; DP; MD; RJ) p o s s i b l y ' b i t e o u t o f t h e b e a c h ; e r o d e d b e a c h ' o r 'dry b e a c h a t low t i d e 1 s - c ' 3 m - ? i n ^ s ( G a l l o w a y , p e r s . comm.) " p o s s i b l y 'an a b r u p t f a l l - o f f o f t e r r a i n ' " s t 9 m i n 3 s ( L e s l i e , 1979:80) " c h e s t b o n e - s h a p e d " . / s c h ' A m ? i n A s ( M i t c h e l l , 1968:86) V i n / s c ' 3 m ' i ' n 3 s ( S u t t l e s , 1952:11) Chemainus (Cowichan Leader, Feb. 22, 1934) " b i t t e n breast" Shtsumenus ( C u r t i s , 1913:175) T s i m e n e s (Boas, 1887:132) Chimenes ( J a c o b s e n , 1882, i n G u n t h e r , 1977:79) C h e m a i n i s (Lomas, 1881) Chemainos (Brown, 1864:15) "bad s m e l l i n g p r o m o n t o r y N o r t h S i d e o f K u l l e e t Bay x w e t h n a t s (ALI; AL2; MD) (meaning n o t known) P e n i n s u l a a t N o r t h End o f K u l l e e t Bay / xwsexwaan (ALI; AL2; MD) ' h e r r i n g spawn p l a c e ' C r e e k R u n n i n g i n t o K u l l e e t Bay and Mouth o f t h i s C r e e k x w a l a 7 a l h p o r x w a l a 7 e l h p ( A L I ; AL2; MD) ' w i l l o w t r e e ' S o u t h S i d e o f K u l l e e t Bay ( s ) k ' e w i n e s ( A L I ; AL2; MD) p e r h a p s ' b e a t i n g t h e c h e s t ' o r 'one who b e a t s a drum on t h e b e a c h ' 83 60. U n i d e n t i f i e d S i t e on K u l l e e t Bay T l p / l a q ( C u r t i s , 1913:37) " p l a c e on Chemainus Bay" 61. U n i d e n t i f i e d I s l a n d Near K u l l e e t Bay / . T s i u n u m ( C u r t i s , 1913:37) " s m a l l i s l a n d n e a r Chemainus Bay" The I s l a n d Halkomelem u s e t h e t e r m k ' e l i t s 1 t o r e f e r t o . / a l l o f K u l l e e t Bay and t h e t e r m s h t s ' e m i n e s t o r e f e r t o t h e I n d i a n v i l l a g e and I n d i a n p e o p l e t h e r e . The l a t t e r t e r m was a n g l i c i z e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y ; t h e bay was f o r m e r l y known as "Chemainus Bay" and t h e I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s became known as t h e Chemainus Band. B u t e a r l y i n t h i s c e n t u r y Chemainus Bay was changed t o K u l l e e t Bay on a l l maps and c h a r t s t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h t h e town o f Chemainus s e v e r a l k i l o m e t r e s t o t h e s o u t h and, p r o b a b l y i n c i d e n t a l l y , t o r e f l e c t t h e a c t u a l name o f t h e bay i n t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t o f I s l a n d Halkomelem. Many e l d e r l y s p e a k e r s o f I s l a n d Halkomelem s t i l l r e f e r t o K u l l e e t Bay as Chemainus Bay, however (AJ; ADJ; A L I ) . Today t h e Chemainus Band o c c u p i e s a l a r g e R e s e r v e o f one t h o u s a n d and e i g h t y - f i v e h e c t a r e s (two t h o u s a n d s i x h u n d r e d and n i n e t y - t w o a c r e s ) w h i c h e x t e n d s f r o m L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r t o K u l l e e t Bay. B u t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l I n d i a n s e t t l e -ments w i t h i n t h i s R e s e r v e w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Chemainus Band has two s m a l l e r R e s e r v e s , c l a s s i f i e d as " f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s " , on t h e l o w e r Chemainus R i v e r [ f a r t o t h e s o u t h o f t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s f o r m e r l y u t i l i z e d by t h e K u l l e e t Bay I n d i a n s f o r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s . ] They were a s s i g n e d t o t h e Chemainus and L a d y s m i t h 84 H a r b o u r Bands i n 1913 and a r e t h i r t y - t w o and o n e - h a l f h e c t a r e s ( e i g h t y - o n e a c r e s ) and s i x h e c t a r e s ( f i f t e e n a c r e s ) i n a r e a ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:298; A L I ) . Boas (1887:132) n o t e d t h a t t h e K u l l e e t Bay p e o p l e o c c u p i e d t h e "Chemainus Bay and R i v e r " . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e l o w e r Chemainus R i v e r was u t i l i z e d by t h e K u l l e e t Bay v i l l a g e r s on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s [by 1 8 8 7 ] . T h e r e i s a l s o documented i n t e r m a r r i a g e between t h e K u l l e e t Bay p e o p l e and t h e I n d i a n s who f o r m e r l y o c c u p i e d W i l l y I s l a n d , b u t who moved o n t o t h e Westholme R e s e r v e by 1920. The W i l l y I s l a n d and Westholme p e o p l e a r e t o d a y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e H a l a l t Band, and t h e i r R e s e r v e s a r e a d j a c e n t t o t h e Chemainus R i v e r e s t u a r y . P e r h a p s t h e e a r l y R e s e r v e C o m m i s s i o n e r s a l l o c a t e d t h e Chemainus R i v e r f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s t o t h e K u l l e e t Bay p e o p l e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n t e r m a r r i a g e w i t h t h e H a l a l t . I t i s more l i k e l y t h a t t h i s was done on t h e b a s i s o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e between t h e L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r v i l l a g e r s and t h e H a l a l t , how-e v e r , s i n c e t h e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s were h e l d i n common. I n any c a s e , a l l o f t h e p e o p l e m e n t i o n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s m a t t e r were w e l l known t o e a c h o t h e r and o f t e n c l o s e l y r e l a t e d (AJ; ADJ; A L I ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h e s e m a t t e r s b e c a u s e o f a n o t h e r s t a t e m e n t made by Boas (1889b:321) t h a t t h e H a l a l t "owned t h e c o a s t a l s t r i p f r o m Dodds Narrows t o Y e l l o w P o i n t " i n common w i t h t h e Nanaimo. I t i s u n c l e a r i f Boas was r e f e r r i n g t o what i s now known as t h e H a l a l t Band, o r i f h i s i n f o r m a n t was a f o r m e r r e s i d e n t o f W i l l y I s l a n d l i v i n g a t K u l l e e t Bay. I t was t h e r e s i d e n t s o f K u l l e e t Bay who u t i l i z e d t h e a r e a i n q u e s t i o n . 85 The v i l l a g e a t K u l l e e t Bay, s h t s ' e m i n e s , i s v e r y c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f o r m e r v i l l a g e n e a r t h e mouth o f th e C o w i c h a n R i v e r . T h i s l a t t e r v i l l a g e was named s h t s ' e t s ' m i n e s ' l i t t l e e r o d e d r i v e r b a n k ' o r ' l i t t l e C hemainus' (ADJ; A J ) . C u r t i s (1913:175) s t a t e d t h a t " s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s ago p e o p l e f r o m t h i s . . . [Cowichan R i v e r ] . - , v i l l a g e m i g r a t e d n o r t h w a r d and e s t a b l i s h e d a s e t t l e m e n t c a l l e d K a ' l i t s . . . t h e p e o p l e o f w h i c h a r e s t i l l known as Shtsumenus." C o w i c h a n I n d i a n s t o d a y a g r e e w i t h C u r t i s ' s t a t e m e n t , a d d i n g t h a t t h e Cowichan v i l l a g e r s were n o t so much " m i g r a t i n g " n o r t h w a r d as camping a t K u l l e e t Bay f o r f i s h i n g and f o r d i g g i n g c l a m s . Then, a f t e r many y e a r s o f t h e s e s e a s o n a l e x c u r s i o n s , some e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s d e c i d e d t o r e m a i n a t K u l l e e t Bay a l l y e a r r o u n d , p e r h a p s w i t h r e l a t i v e s a l r e a d y l i v i n g a t K u l l e e t Bay o r L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r (AJ; A D J ) . T h e r e i s a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e C o w i c h a n v i l l a g e was f l o o d e d f o r a number o f y e a r s , f o r c i n g t h e p e o p l e t h e r e t o l i v e i n o t h e r C o w i c h a n and I s l a n d Halkomelem v i l l a g e s (ADJ). T h e r e i s no e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Cowichan v i l l a g e t o d a y has t h e d i m i n u t i v e f o r m o f t h e t e r m s h t s ' e m i n e s , e v e n t h o u g h i t was t h e " f i r s t " v i l l a g e t o have t h i s name (AJ; A D J ) . In any c a s e , t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e l i v i n g a t K u l l e e t Bay t o d a y have r e l a t i v e s as f a r n o r t h as Nanoose Bay and as f a r s o u t h as t h e S a a n i c h P e n i n s u l a (AJ; A T ) . A t t h e K u l l e e t Bay v i l l a g e t h e r e may have been some " v i l l a g e s e g m e n t a t i o n " , w i t h t h e l a r g e r h o u s e s some d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s m a l l e r ones and t h e " p o o r e r c l a s s " h o u s e s away f r o m th e c e n t r e o f t h e bay t o a c t as b u f f e r s i n c a s e o f a t t a c k 86 ( B a r n e t t , 1955:23). However, B a r n e t t e x p r e s s e d some d o u b t s a b o u t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and members o f t h e Chemainus Band t o d a y a l s o a r e s k e p t i c a l a b o u t any t r a d i t i o n a l d e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e K u l l e e t Bay v i l l a g e , on t h e b a s i s o f " c l a s s " ( A L I ; AL2; MD). K u l l e e t Bay i s s i t u a t e d i n an a r e a where t h e r e i s , even t o d a y , an abundance o f f o o d r e s o u r c e s , b u t o n l y d u r i n g c e r t a i n t i m e s o f t h e y e a r . I n March, t h e h e r r i n g were " r a k e d " and h e r r i n g spawn c o l l e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e bay a t a p l a c e named xwsexwaan. T h i s p l a c e - n a m e i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t e r m sexwe7 ' t o u r i n a t e ' , b u t t h i s same t e r m i s a l s o u s e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o d e s c r i b e , h e r r i n g as t h e y a r e spawn-i n g and t h e l o n g s t r a n d s o f t h e spawn i t s e l f ( A L I ; AL2; MD; A J ; AG). B u t t e r c l a m s , l i t t l e n e c k c l a m s and c o c k l e s were p r o c u r e d a l m o s t anywhere a l o n g t h e b e a c h a t K u l l e e t Bay, p r i m a r i l y i n t h e s p r i n g and summer months (AJ; ADJ; A L 2 ) . D u r i n g t h e summer some men f r o m K u l l e e t Bay went t o h u n t s e a - l i o n s w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s a t P o r l i e r P a s s and o t h e r s went t o t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r t o f i s h f o r s o c k e y e o r humpback salmon (AJ; AL2) . Boas (1887:132) n o t e d t h a t t h e K u l l e e t Bay v i l l a g e r s , a l o n g w i t h p e o p l e f r o m " S h e l l B e a c h " [ S i b e l l Bay on L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r ] and W i l l y I s l a n d , a l l o f whom Boas r e f e r r e d t o as "Chemainus" [ t h i s i s t r u e , s i n c e t h e y s p o k e t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t o f t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem l a n g u a g e ] , " o c c u p i e d t h e u p p e r Chemainus R i v e r " . Chemainus Band members t o d a y r e c a l l summer m i g r a t i o n s t o t h e upper Chemainus R i v e r ( A L I ; AL2;.MD). S p r i n g , chum and coho salmon c o u l d be t a k e n t h e r e , o r by means o f t r o l l i n g o r n e t s 87 i n S t u a r t C h a n n e l , e a s t o f K u l l e e t Bay, p r i m a r i l y d u r i n g t h e summer and autumn months (AL2; A J ) . No d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e d i g g i n g o f camas b u l b s on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s d u r i n g May a r e r e c a l l e d t o d a y by I n d i a n p e o p l e a t K u l l e e t Bay (MD; A L 2 ) . T h e r e a r e two p l a c e - n a m e s a r o u n d K u l l e e t Bay m e n t i o n e d e x c l u s i v e l y by C u r t i s (1913:37) whose e x i s t e n c e o r l o c a t i o n s a r e no l o n g e r remembered c l e a r l y . The f i r s t , T l p / l a q , was n o t e d as "a p l a c e on Chemainus Bay". I t i s s u s p i c i o u s l y c l o s e t o a p l a c e named t l ' e l p o l e s , w h i c h i s l o c a t e d on C o w i c h a n Bay. C u r t i s r e c o r d e d a myth i n w h i c h one o f t h e f i r s t a n c e s t -o r s o f t h e Chemainus d r o p p e d f r o m t h e s k y a t T l p a ^ l a q . The s e c o n d , Tsiuhum, was s a i d t o be an " i s l a n d n e a r Chemainus Bay" where t h e a n c e s t o r m e n t i o n e d above moved a f t e r he d r o p p e d down f r o m t h e s k y . AL2 had h e a r d o f a p l a c e c a l l e d / th'ixwem, b u t he was n o t c e r t a i n o f i t s l o c a t i o n . He t h o u g h t i t was n e a r T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r on t h e w e s t s i d e o f Kuper I s l a n d . I n any c a s e , t h e s t o r y i n w h i c h b o t h o f t h e s e p l a c e -names o c c u r s i s s t i l l t o l d t o d a y by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem, b u t i n t h e i r v e r s i o n s n e i t h e r p l a c e i s m e n t i o n e d (AJ; ADJ; AL2; CP) . 6 2 . A r e a Between K u l l e e t Bay and C o f f i n P o i n t x w kw'elhten (ALI; AL2; MD) ' p l a c e where, [ w a t e r is] s p i l l e d / p o u r e d o u t / d i p p e d up' The e x p o s e d c o a s t between K u l l e e t Bay and C o f f i n P o i n t r e c e i v e s f r e q u e n t h i g h w i n ds w h i c h " d i p up and p o u r o u t " t h e w a t e r s o f S t u a r t C h a n n e l , c a u s i n g heavy e r o s i o n [ e s p e c i a l l y j u s t n o r t h o f C o f f i n P o i n t ] (AL2; MD). 88 63. C o f f i n P o i n t A r e a xwkwemlexwethen (ADJ; A J ; A L I ; AL2; MD) ' p l a c e with r o o t s ' xwkwemlekwethen (AJ; AL2) [ t h i s f o r m g i v e n i n r a p i d speech] x W k W j m i a x W a © 3 n ( L e s l i e , 1979: 86) Ku m a l o c k a s u n ( D u f f , 1964:26) Com- l o - q u o t h u n ( C r y e r , n.d.) " b i g r o o t s c l o s e t o t h e water... Y e l l o w P o i n t " I n t h e C o f f i n P o i n t a r e a l a r g e t r e e r o o t s a r e e x p o s e d by e r o s i o n f r o m f r e q u e n t h i g h w i n ds and t h e c o n s t a n t p o u n d i n g o f t h e t i d e s . A L I and AL2 moved t o t h i s a r e a f r o m " S h e l l B e ach" v i l l a g e a t S i b e l l Bay many y e a r s ago and e s t a b l i s h e d a c o m m e r c i a l campground w h i c h i s s t i l l i n u s e t o d a y . F o r m e r l y t h e C o f f i n P o i n t a r e a was u t i l i z e d d u r i n g M a r c h f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f h e r r i n g spawn by I n d i a n p e o p l e f r o m K u l l e e t Bay, L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r and t h e i r r e l a t i v e s e l s e w h ere,who had t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n (AL2; A J ) . 6 4 - C o f f i n P o i n t s h e s t h 1 epsem o r shth'efpsem (ALI; AL2; MD) (meaning n o t known) 65. C o f f i n I s l a n d kw'ayowes ( A L I ; AL2; MD) (meaning n o t known) I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t C o f f i n P o i n t and C o f f i n I s l a n d were b o t h f o r m e r l y u s e d as b u r i a l g r o u n d s f o r t h e L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r p e o p l e who r e s i d e d i n w i n t e r v i l l a g e s a t S i b e l l Bay and a t t h e head o f t h e H a r b o u r ( A L 2 ) . 89 66. E v e n i n g Cove ( s h ) x w e l h n e t s (AL2; MD) (meaning n o t known) 67. S h a r p e P o i n t ( xw)kwtooythen ( A L I ; AL2; MD) ' ( p l a c e h a v i n g ) s t u r g e o n ' W h i t e s t u r g e o n were f o r m e r l y s e e n a t S h a r p e P o i n t , b u t t h e y were a p p a r e n t l y n o t c a u g h t by t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e . T h e s e f i s h were p r o b a b l y " s t r a y s " f r o m t h e F r a s e r R i v e r ( A L 2 ) . 68. S i b e l l Bay, " S h e l l B e a c h " V i l l a g e / t h e k ' m i n (ADJ; A J ; A L I ; AL2; AT; CP; DP; MD; RJ) ' s p e a r i n g p l a c e ' S i c a m e e n ( D u f f , 1964:26) S i c c a m e e n ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; n.d.) S t h i c k - a - m e e n ( C r y e r , n.d.) " s p e a r t h e f i s h " S i c c a m e e n ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1) S i c k a m e e n ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . .1) pk'Eme^n (Boas, 1889a: 39) Cek^eme'n (Boas, 18 89b: 32 5) Ceqemen (Boas, 1887:132) " O y s t e r H a r b o r " S i c - c a - m e e n (Lomas, 1883) The I n d i a n v i l l a g e a t S i b e l l Bay i s known l o c a l l y as " S h e l l B e a c h " . The S h e l l B e a c h Band was p l a c e d on t h e one t h o u s a n d and e i g h t y - f i v e h e c t a r e (two t h o u s a n d s i x h u n d r e d and n i n e t y - t w o a c r e ) R e s e r v e w h i c h e x t e n d e d f r o m L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r t o K u l l e e t Bay when I n d i a n R e s e r v e s were f i n a l i z e d by t h e R o y a l Commission i n 1913 ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:298). Thus the S i c c a m e e n [ S h e l l Beach] and K u l l e e t Bay 90 Bands [Chemainus] were amalgamated w i t h o t h e r I n d i a n s f r o m t h e C o f f i n P o i n t a r e a [Kumalockasun] t o f o r m t h e "Chemainus T r i b e " . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e S h e l l Beach p e o p l e had a c c e s s t o t h e two Chemainus T r i b e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s w h i c h were c o n f i r m e d as I n d i a n R e s e r v e s a t t h e mouth o f t h e Chemainus R i v e r , and t o f i s h i n g s i t e s on t h e u p p e r Chemainus R i v e r ( A L I ; AL2; R o y a l Commission, 1916, V o l . 1:298; Boas, 1887:132). B e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s t h e r e were p r o b a b l y a b o u t f i v e l a r g e h o u s e s a t S h e l l B each, whose o c c u p a n t s s t a y e d t h e r e f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e y e a r . The i d e a l l o c a t i o n a f f o r d e d e a s y a c c e s s t o a wide v a r i e t y o f f o o d r e s o u r c e s . As t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n name f o r S h e l l B e a c h i n d i c a t e s , s a l m on were s p e a r e d o r h a r p o o n e d f r o m c a n o e s i n L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r (AJ; A L 2 ) . A r o u n d March h e r r i n g c o u l d be " r a k e d " and h e r r i n g spawn c o l l e c t e d by t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e S h e l l B e a c h v i l l a g e a d j a c e n t t o t h e i r h o u s e s . S e v e r a l s p e c i e s o f c l a m s were a v a i l a b l e a t S h e l l Beach; t h i s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e name, s i n c e t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l l a r g e middens composed o f c l a m s h e l l s t h e r e . Clams, as w e l l as n a t i v e o y s t e r s , r o c k o y s t e r s and r o c k s c a l l o p s were a l s o f o r m e r l y a b u n d a n t i n L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r . T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e e a r l i e r name f o r L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r , w h i c h was " O y s t e r H a r b o u r " . Many I s l a n d Halkomelem I n d i a n s s t i l l r e f e r t o L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r by i t s e a r l i e r name (AJ; ADJ; R J ) . 69. Dunsmuir I s l a n d s , L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r shxwatheken (AL2; MD) (meaning n o t known) T h e s e two s m a l l i s l a n d s i n f r o n t o f S h e l l B e a c h v i l l a g e were e v i d e n t l y u t i l i z e d as b u r i a l g r o u n d s , b e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s n e c e s s i t a t e d r e - i n t e r m e n t t o t h e g r a v e y a r d s a t S h e l l B e a c h o r C o f f i n P o i n t ( A L 2 ) . 70. S o u t h e a s t End o f B u r l e i t h Arm ( L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r ) t i 7 t k e m e l e (ALI;ADJ; MD) (exact meaning n o t known) p r o b a b l y ' l i t t l e d u c k - n e t p l a c e 1 I f t h e p r o p o s e d e t y m o l o g y g i v e n above i s c o r r e c t , d uck-n e t s may have been r a i s e d on p o l e s a t t h i s p l a c e . F l o c k s o f d u c k s f l y i n g t h r o u g h t h e a r e a may have been t r a p p e d and u s e d by t h e S h e l l B e a c h p e o p l e t h e r e (ADJ). 71. W a l k e r C r e e k Mouth and Head o f L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r x e t l ' n e t s t e n (ADJ; A J ; A L I ; AL2; AT; MD) 'way t o c r o s s t h e back end/bottom ' Today t h e r e i s a " l o n g h o u s e " s i t u a t e d a t t h i s p l a c e , j u s t w e s t o f t h e I s l a n d Highway a t t h e head o f L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r . I t was b u i l t i n t h e mid-1970's and i s m o s t l y u s e d d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r f o r s p i r i t d a n c e s (ADJ). The name f o r t h i s p l a c e e v i d e n t l y r e f e r s t o i t s u s e as a way o f t r a v e r s i n g t h e e x t e n s i v e t i d a l f l a t s i n t h e a r e a . 72. Bush C r e e k A r e a and I v y G r e e n P a r k kwi7kwemlexw(AL2; MD) ' l i t t l e r o o t ' T h i s p l a c e i s t h e s i t e o f a f o r m e r I n d i a n R e s e r v e w h i c h was " c u t o f f " by t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i n 1913. The R e s e r v e was a b o u t one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y h e c t a r e s (two h u n d r e d and n i n e t y - s i x a c r e s ) i n a r e a and was known as Chemainus R e s e r v e Number T w e l v e ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:298). The t y p e o f r o o t i m p l i e d by t h e name i s n o t remembered t o d a y ( A L I ; AL2) . 73. H o l l a n d C r e e k and i t s Mouth xwsookw'em ( A L I ; AL2; MD) ' p l a c e h a v i n g cow p a r s n i p ' T h i s p l a c e was u t i l i z e d by t h e p e o p l e f r o m S h e l l Beach and e l s e w h e r e f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f cow p a r s n i p , w h i c h had a v a r i e t y o f u s e s as f o o d and m e d i c i n e (AL2; A D J ) . 74. T h e t i s I s l a n d ( G e n e r i c Term) t h a t h ' e s (ADJ; AG; A J ; AT; DP; RJ) (meaning n o t known) th'a^.h'es (ADJ; DP) [ a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n g i v e n by t h e s e two p e o p l e o n l y ] T h e r e were I n d i a n h o u s e s on T h e t i s I s l a n d u n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , and t h e i s l a n d was a l s o u s e d f o r t h e h u n t i n g o f d e e r and b i r d s and t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f b e a c h f o o d s by I n d i a n s f r o m K u l l e e t Bay, L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r , V a l d e s I s l a n d and Kuper I s l a n d . However, no l a n d s on t h e i s l a n d were a l l o c a t e d as I n d i a n R e s e r v e s (ADJ; A J ; R J ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e I n d i a n p l a c e - n a m e f o r t h e whole i s l a n d , g i v e n above, i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e E n g l i s h p l a c e -name . 75. N o r t h Cove, T h e t i s I s l a n d xwey (AT; DP; RJ) po s s i b l y 'warm place' or 'water at ebb t i d e ' N o r t h Cove and t h e l o n g i n l e t w h i c h l e a d s t o Moore H i l l were f o r m e r l y u t i l i z e d f o r salmon f i s h i n g and b e a c h f o o d c o l l e c t i o n by p e o p l e r e s i d i n g i n permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e s a t K u l l e e t Bay, S h e l l B each, V a l d e s I s l a n d and Kuper I s l a n d . T h e r e was s a i d t o be a s e c r e t p a s s a g e between T h e t i s and V a l d e s I s l a n d s , w h i c h was u s e d i n c a s e o f a t t a c k . T h i s e s c a p e - r o u t e e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e head o f t h e l o n g un-named i n l e t s o u t h o f P i l k e y P o i n t t o an o p e n i n g i n t h e c a v e s on Moore H i l l (on t h e e a s t s i d e o f T h e t i s I s l a n d ) . From t h e c a v e s t h e r e was an u n d e r g r o u n d p a s s a g e and a p a s s a g e u n d e r T r i n c o m a l i C h a n n e l w h i c h ended a t S h i n g l e P o i n t on t h e west s i d e o f V a l d e s I s l a n d . I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e c o u l d f l e e f r o m t h e i r enemies by u s i n g t h i s s e c r e t e s c a p e - r o u t e , by g o i n g f r o m T h e t i s I s l a n d t o t h e v i l l a g e a t S h i n g l e P o i n t o r v i c e v e r s a . Numerous a t t e m p t s have been made t o l o c a t e t h e p a s s a g e , t h u s f a r t o no a v a i l (AT; R J ) . 76. S o u t h e a s t End o f T h e t i s I s l a n d • s t ' k ' i n (AG) p e r h a p s 'bad s m e l l i n g p l a c e ' T h i s a r e a was u s e d by t h e p e o p l e r e s i d i n g a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t v i l l a g e on Kuper I s l a n d , f o r h u n t i n g and t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f b e a c h f o o d s (AG). 77. p r e e d y H a r b o u r ( T h e t i s I s l a n d F e r r y L a n d i n g ) /• kwewmeks (RJ; DP) "Comox" The a r e a a d j a c e n t t o t h e T h e t i s I s l a n d F e r r y l a n d i n g was o c c u p i e d by r e l a t i v e s o f p e o p l e f r o m Comox H a r b o u r f o r a s h o r t t i m e i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , b u t t h e d e t a i l s o f t h i s a r e n o t remembered c l e a r l y t o d a y (RJ; DP). 78. T h e t i s - K u p e r I s l a n d " B r i d g e " s h e t s ' e w e l h (AG; DP; RJ) ' d r a g g i n g [canoe] i n between' I n o r d e r t o t r a v e l f r o m Clam Bay t o T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r by canoe o r b o a t , t h e v e s s e l has t o be d r a g g e d t h r o u g h t h e t i d a l f l a t s o f mud and sa n d , hence t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s p l a c e - n a m e . 94 The people at Penelakut v i l l a g e a l s o r e f e r to the two p e n i n s u l a s (one on Kuper and one on T h e t i s Island) which / • almost j o i n a t t h i s p l a c e as shk'etewelh 'bridge', s i n c e i t i s the b e s t way to t r a v e l by f o o t between the two i s l a n d s . But t h i s second name i s used i n a c o l l o q u i a l sense only (RJ; DP). 79. Telegraph Harbour and V i l l a g e There yexwelo7es (ADJ; AG; AJ; AT; DP; RJ) 'place with eagle yAxwAla?As ( M i t c h e l l , 1968:133) "Kuper I s l a n d " Y e k o l o a s ( D u f f , 1964:26) Y e k o - L o a s ( C r y e r , n.d.) " e a g l e " Y e c o - L o a s ( C r y e r , n.d.) " e a g l e " y o k h o l a s ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ) " i s l a n d n e a r K uper I Y e q o ' l a o s (Boas, 1889a:239) Y e q o ' l a o s (Boas, 1889 :325) Yechc^laos (Boas, 1887:132) " T h e t i s I s l a n d " Y u c h u - l o s ( D o u g l a s , 1853) " C h i e f was I l . t a u c h -• s u t" T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r i s t h e s i t e o f one o f t h e t h r e e v i l l a g e s on K u per I s l a n d ( t h e o t h e r two b e i n g L a m a l c h i Bay and P e n e l a k u t S p i t ) . I n March, h e r r i n g were " r a k e d " and h e r r i n g spawn c o l l e c t e d by t h e Kuper I s l a n d v i l l a g e r s (AJ; R J ) . I n T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r , and a s h o r t d i s t a n c e t o t h e s o u t h a t a p l a c e known l o c a l l y as " H i g h R o c k s " , b i g s k a t e s were c a u g h t by t h e I n d i a n s . The b o d i e s (but n o t t h e "wings o f t h e s e f i s h were p i t - c o o k e d f o r m e r l y , and t h e y c o u l d a l s o be d r i e d f o r l a t e r u s e (AJ; ADJ; R J ) . The T e l e g r a p h Harbou a r e a was a v e r y i m p o r t a n t b e a c h f o o d g a t h e r i n g l o c a t i o n b e f o r e p o l l u t i o n c l o s e d t h e a r e a t o t h e t a k i n g o f s h e l l f i s h . S e v e r a l s p e c i e s o f c l a m s , as w e l l as o y s t e r s , c o c k l e s , s e a u r c h i n s and c r a b s c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d i n abundance by t h e I n d i a n s l i v i n g on Kuper I s l a n d , o r by t h e i r r e l a t i v e s who had p e r m i s s i o n (ADJ; R J ) . " L i z a r d s " ( a c t u a l l y s a l a m a n d e r s ) , w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d p o w e r f u l and d a n g e r o u s t o humans and were t h e r e f o r e n e v e r h u n t e d o r e a t e n , were ab u n d a n t a r o u n d T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r ( A J ) . The I n d i a n name w h i c h r e f e r s t o T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r and t o t h e c l i f f s w h i c h e x t e n d f r o m D o n c k e l e P o i n t t o A c t i v e P o i n t i s y e x w e l o 7 e s . T h i s name i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t e r m y e x w ( e ) l a , w h i c h i s u s e d t o r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o 'immature b a l d e a g l e s ' and g e n e r a l l y t o 'any e a g l e 1 by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem. T h e r e a r e s t i l l many e a g l e s i n t h e T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r a r e a t o d a y (AJ; ADJ; R J ) . The I n d i a n s a t Kuper I s l a n d s t i l l t e l l a l o n g s t o r y t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e e a g l e s t h e r e ( R J ) . B. M. C r y e r a l s o r e c o r d e d t h i s s t o r y i n t h e 1930's. I n t h e v e r s i o n p u b l i s h e d by C r y e r ( n . d . ) , T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r and t h e p e o p l e l i v i n g t h e r e were named a f t e r a woman was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an e a g l e . A f t e r she s a v e d a baby f r o m d e a t h , she was r e w a r d e d by b e i n g c h anged b a c k i n t o a woman [ p r e s u m a b l y one o f t h e a n c e s t o r s o f t h e p e o p l e r e s i d i n g a t T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r ] . T h i s was a l s o t h e r e a s o n why e a g l e s were so a b u n d a n t t h e r e . The r e s i d e n t s a t T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r were amalgamated w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t by 1916, f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by I n d i a n A g e n t s and o t h e r s . T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r t o d a y i s t h e s i t e o f t h e f e r r y l a n d i n g a t Kuper I s l a n d , s e v e r a l modern h o u s e s and o f t h e r e c e n t l y abandoned Kuper I s l a n d I n d u s t r i a l - R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l . Many e l d e r l y I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e r e c e i v e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a t t h e Ku p e r I s l a n d S c h o o l (AJ; ADJ; RJ; AG; D u f f , 1964:26). 80. A l a r m Rock / / t h i t h o x w o 7 k w (AJ; AT; RJ) ' h i g h t i d e c o v e r s head [of r o c k ] 1 The r e s i d e n t s o f t h e T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r v i l l a g e u s e d t o f i s h f o r salmon i n t h e a r e a a r o u n d A l a r m Rock and Hudson I s l a n d a d j a c e n t t o i t [ t o t h e n o r t h ] ( R J ) . 81. L a m a l c h i Bay x w l e m a l h t s e (ADJ; AG; A J ; AT; DP; RJ) ' l o o k o u t p l a c e ' / x w l h e m a l h t s e [ t h x s a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n was g i v e n by t h e p e o p l e above, when s p e a k i n g r a p i d l y ] s l e m a l h t s e o r s l e m 7 a l h t s e (ADJ; AG; CP; RJ) [ t h i s t e r m was u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e L a m a l c h i Bay v i l l a g e ] L i l m a l c h e ( D u f f , 1964:26) L a m a l c h a s ( C r y e r , n.d.) " P e o p l e f r o m L a m a l c h a Bay" / L E m a l t c a ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:370) S e m a l t c a ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:371) " P e o p l e on Kuper I s l a n d " L e m a t l s c h a (Boas, 1887:132) "Kuper I s l a n d " L i l m a l c h e (Lomas, 1883) Sumlumalcha ( D o u g l a s , 1853) 97 The v i l l a g e a t L a m a l c h i Bay has n o t been o c c u p i e d s i n c e t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h i s c e n t u r y ( R J ) , b u t t h e r e were f o r m e r l y s e v e r a l I n d i a n h o u s e s t h e r e , o f t h e s h e d - r o o f e d t y p e (RJ; H i l l - T o u t , 1907:371). The L a m a l c h i Bay v i l l a g e was i d e a l l y s i t u a t e d f o r salmon f i s h i n g i n t h e a d j a c e n t w a t e r s (RJ; ADJ; AJ) and f o r c l a m - d i g g i n g a d j a c e n t t o t h e v i l l a g e and a t s u c h n e a r b y l o c a t i o n s as S o u t h e y P o i n t and Fernwood P o i n t on t h e n o r t h end o f S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d and t h e S e c r e t a r y I s l a n d s (RJ; A J ; A T ) . The L a m a l c h i Bay v i l l a g e r s j o i n e d t h e i r r e l a t i v e s a t t h e P e n e l a k u t S p i t v i l l a g e by 1916 ( D u f f , 1964: 2 6 ) . E x c e p t f o r a s m a l l [ p e r h a p s ten h e c t a r e s ] p l o t o f l a n d a t t h e n o r t h end o f t h e Bay, w h i c h was a l l o c a t e d f o r c h u r c h p u r p o s e s by t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i n 1913, a l l o f Kuper I s l a n d i s an I n d i a n R e s e r v e t o d a y . T h i s R e s e r v e i s a b o u t e i g h t h u n d r e d and s i x t y - f i v e h e c t a r e s (two t h o u s a n d one h u n d r e d and t h i r t y - e i g h t a c r e s ) i n a r e a ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:297) . The C o w i c h a n I n d i a n s s t i l l t e l l t h e s t o r y o f t h e g r e a t w a r r i o r T z o u h a l e m [ T s ' e w x i l e m ] , who was m u r d e r e d by t h e p e o p l e a t L a m a l c h i Bay i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . T z o u h a l e m had been warned t h a t i f he g o t t o o g r e e d y a woman wo u l d c a u s e h i s d e a t h . I g n o r i n g t h i s , he went t o L a m a l c h i Bay t o t r y and s t e a l a woman he had wanted f o r a l o n g t i m e . B e t r a y e d by h i s own p e o p l e and t h e women o f L a m a l c h i v i l l a g e , T z o u h a l e m was d e c a p i t a t e d . He d a n c e d a r o u n d w i t h o u t h i s head f o r a l o n g t i m e . Some t i m e l a t e r , T z o u h a l e m ' s r e l a t i v e s t o o k h i s body bac k t o h i s v i l l a g e a t t h e mouth o f t h e n o r t h arm o f t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r . B u t t h e L a m a l c h i p e o p l e k e p t h i s 98 head i n a b u r i a l - h u t on t h e b e a c h f o r a l o n g t i m e a f t e r t h a t , u n t i l T z o u h a l e m ' s f a m i l y f i n a l l y came t o r e c l a i m i t . Then T z o u h a l e m was b u r i e d i n t h e c a v e s on Cowichan M o u n t a i n , w h i c h was l a t e r a l s o c a l l e d T z o u h a l e m M o u n t a i n (ADJ; A J ; C r y e r , n . d . ) . 82. T e n t I s l a n d / x w t h ' i s e t s e n (AJ; ADJ; AG; DP; RJ) ' p l a c e where [ s p i t o f land on i s l a n d ' s north end i s ] n a i l e d t o s i d e ' / x w t h ' i s e t s e m (CP) ' p l a c e t h a t i s n a i l e d ' Q u a t - t h i s - s u s u n ( C r y e r , n.d.) " d r y a t low t i d e " T e n t I s l a n d was a l l o c a t e d as a t h i r t y - f o u r h e c t a r e ( e i g h t y - f i v e a c r e ) I n d i a n R e s e r v e [ a s s i g n e d t o t h e P e n e l a k u t Band] b e c a u s e i t was s t i l l i n t e r m i t t e n t l y o c c u p i e d when R e s e r v e s were f i n a l i z e d i n 1913 ( R o y a l C ommission, 1916, V o l . 1:297). When t h e t i d e i s low, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o wa l k f r o m J o s l i n g P o i n t , a t t h e s o u t h end o f Kuper I s l a n d , t o T e n t I s l a n d (RJ; C r y e r , n . d . ) . T e n t I s l a n d was f o r m e r l y u s e d as a camping p l a c e and f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f b e a c h f o o d s by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem ( R J ) . 83. Rock on t h e E a s t C o a s t o f Kuper I s l a n d spekw (AG; DP; RJ) ' b r o k e n - o f f one' o r 'one t h a t i s b r o k e n i n h a l f ' The name f o r t h i s one r o c k i s o b v i o u s l y d e s c r i p t i v e . I t s e x a c t l o c a t i o n h as n o t y e t been d e t e r m i n e d (RJ; AG). V i l l a g e a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t , Kuper I s l a n d p e n a l e x e t h ' (ADJ; AG; A J ; AL2; AT; CP; DP; RJ) 1 [ l o g ] b u r i e d [ w a i s t - d e e p ] on t h e b e a c h ' p e n a l e x e t s ' [ t h i s a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n was a l s o g i v e n by t h e p e o p l e l i s t e d above, b u t o n l y r a r e l y ] s p e n a l e x e t h ' [ t h i s t e r m i s u s e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o r e f e r t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e v i l l a g e a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t ] p 7 A n e ? l A x A c ' ( M i t c h e l l , 1968:73) " P e n e l e k e t S p i t [ s i c ] " P e n e l a k u t s ( D u f f , 1964:26) P e n e l a k u t ( D u f f , 1964:26) [ n o t e t h a t t h i s i s t h e c u r r e n t s p e l l i n g u s e d by the D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r t h e P e n e l a k u t Band] / penCiaxats (Lane, 1953:15) panC'Tiaxac* ( S u t t l e s , 1952:11) P i n e l l a h u t z ( D u f f , 1952:25) P e n e l e k u t s ( S u t t l e s , 1951:238) P e n e l a k u t ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; n.d.) P e n e l e k h u t ( s ) ( C r y e r , n.d.) "two l o g s h a l f c o v e r e d w i t h s a n d " P e n e l a c a t e (Humphreys, n.d.) " v i l l a g e on K u p p e r s [ s i c ] I s l a n d " P e n a ' l e q a t s (Boas, 1889a:239) P e n a ' l e q a t s (Boas, 1889 :324, 325) P e n a l e c h a t s (Boas, 1887:132) "Kuper I s l a n d " P e n e l a k u t (Lomas, 1883) P e n a l a k u t (Lomas, 1882) P i n a l e k a h t ( J a c o b s e n , 1882, i n G u n t h e r , 1977:78) 100 P e n a l a c u t (Lomas, 1881) P e n a l a c h u t ( D o u g l a s , 1853) " C h i e f was L a c h u l i t c h " P a n a l a h a t s ( D o u g l a s , 1853) " A t Comiaken Gap" 85. P e n e l a k u t S p i t ( E a s t S i d e ) ( s h ) t e t o 7 t e x w n e t s (AG; DP; RJ) ' l i t t l e rump o f f t h e t i d e ' o r " r o c k s s t r u n g o u t on b e a c h " 16. P e n e l a k u t S p i t ( N o r t h w e s t S i d e ) /. ( s ) l i l p o k w (ADJ; AG; DP; RJ) ' l o o s e a t t h e t o p end' o r ' s h r i v e l l e d / w r i n k l e d / m e s s y head' 87. P e n e l a k u t S p i t (Beach A r e a Below P r e s e n t V i l l a g e ) l h e l e t (AG; DP; RJ) ' b a i l i n g [water f r o m canoe] p l a c e ' 18. Rock on B e a c h a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t i / 1 / I I I smelew o r smimelew (AG; DP; RJ) P r o p e r Name o r t h e d i m i n u t i v e f o r m o f t h i s name 89. West S i d e o f Clam Bay (Kuper I s l a n d S i d e ) / s h i 7 s h e m ( A G ; DP; RJ) ' l i t t l e s h a l l o w c r e e k ' , ' l i t t l e d r i e d - u p [ s p r i n g o r c r e e k ] ' /' The I s l a n d Halkomelem u s e t h e t e r m p e n a l e x e t h ' t o r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e v i l l a g e l o c a t e d j u s t s o u t h o f P e n e l a k u t S p i t , on t h e n o r t h e a s t t i p o f Kuper I s l a n d . T h i s same t e r m , u s u a l l y w i t h an " s " [ n o m i n a l i z e r ] i n f r o n t o f i t i s a l s o u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h i s v i l l a g e , o r t h e i r d e s c e n d -a n t s , w h e t h e r t h e y l i v e a t t h e v i l l a g e t o d a y o r r e s i d e e l s e -101 where due t o i n t e r m a r r i a g e t o people r e s i d i n g on other Indian Reserves or t r a n s f e r s t o other Indian Bands f o r other reasons. The main c r i t e r i o n f o r being c a l l e d a "person from penalexeth'" (or a "Kuper I s l a n d e r " ) seems t o be t h a t one must have a d i r e c t "blood k i n " r e l a t i o n s h i p to a person born at Penelakut S p i t v i l l a g e a t some time i n the past, or be born there one-s e l f . In r e c e n t times, perhaps i n the l a s t f i f t y years o n l y , people who became i n i t i a t e d i n t o the winter g u a r d i a n - s p i r i t dancing complex i n longhouses at Penelakut S p i t have a l s o / i come to i n c l u d e themselves as people from penalexeth', or have had t h a t l a b e l a s c r i b e d t o them by others (ADJ; RJ; DP). Since the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of [almost a l l of] Kuper I s l a n d as an e i g h t hundred s i x t y - f i v e h e c t a r e Reserve and the amal-gamation of a l l of the winter v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s ( i . e . those a t Lamalchi Bay, Telegraph Harbour and Penelakut S p i t on Kuper I s l a n d and probably those who formerly l i v e d on T h e t i s Island) i n the area i n t o a s i n g l e Penelakut Band i n 1916, there has been another usage f o r the term penalexeth'. The term i s now used to r e f e r t o a l l of the present and former r e s i d e n t s of the Kuper I s l a n d Indian Reserve (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1:297; Duff, 1964:26; ADJ; RJ), i n c l u d i n g those l i v i n g at the T s u s s i e Reserve (which i s a Penelakut Band Reserve) near the Town of Chemainus, on Vancouver I s l a n d (ADJ; R J ) . The v i l l a g e a t Penelakut S p i t was f o r m e r l y l o c a t e d on the beach t h e r e u n t i l the 1920's, and t h i s accounts f o r the o r i g i n of the v i l l a g e ' s name i n the Chemainus d i a l e c t of I s l a n d Halkomelem. Acco r d i n g to CP, DP and RJ, the term penalexeth' o r i g i n a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way. The f i f t e e n (or more) l a r g e 1 0 2 h o u s e s u s e d t o be on t h e b e a c h a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t , a l m o s t a t s e a l e v e l . When t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s o c c u p y i n g t h e h o u s e s were i n s i d e t h e i r h o u s e s , t h e y seemed t o be " b u r i e d " i n t h e sandy b e a c h . T h i s i s c a l l e d s p e p i n 'many b u r i e d ' and t h e name /• p e n a l e x e t h ' i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s t e r m . T h i s a l s o a c c o u n t s f o r t h e a n g l i c i z e d names i n t h e a r e a s u c h as P e n e l a k u t S p i t and t h e P e n e l a k u t Band. I t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r t h e h o u s e s on t h e b e a c h were a c t u a l l y s e m i - s u b t e r r a n e a n w i n t e r h o u s e s , t h e e x i s t -e n c e o f w h i c h has been n o t e d by B a r n e t t ( 1 9 5 5 : 3 8 ) , among o t h e r s (CP; DP; R J ) . B.M. C r y e r (n.d.) p r o v i d e d a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t s t o r y a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e o r i g i n o f t h e name " P e n e l e k h u t " , w h i c h she s a i d "means 'two l o g s h a l f c o v e r e d w i t h s a n d ' " . I n t h e s t o r y C r y e r r e c o r d e d f r o m Tommy P i e r r e (who, i n c i d e n t a l l y , c a l l e d h i m s e l f a member o f t h e "Cowichan t r i b e " ) , t h e r e was a s p r i n g o f w a t e r a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t w i t h two g r e a t c e d a r l o g s b e s i d e i t . A f t e r t h e sun shone on one o f t h e l o g s , t h e b a r k c r a c k e d open and t h e f i r s t human b e i n g on Kuper I s l a n d , a man, emerged. L a t e r , a woman emerged f r o m t h e sand between t h e two l o g s . T h e s e two p e o p l e b u i l t a house b e s i d e t h e s t r e a m and named i t "two l o g s h a l f c o v e r e d w i t h s a n d " ( C r y e r , n . d . ) . RJ had h e a r d t h i s s t o r y as w e l l , b u t t o l d i t so as t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f i r s t p e o p l e a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t , r a t h e r t h a n f o r t h e o r i g i n o f t h e name p e n a l e x e t h . J e n n e s s ( 1 9 5 5 : 8 6 ) r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a Nanaimo p e r s o n who s t a t e d t h a t t h e v i l l a g e s a t S e c h e l t and Kuper I s l a n d were " t r i b u t a r y " ( i . e . s u b s e r v i e n t and o f a l o w e r s o c i a l c l a s s ) t o o t h e r v i l l a g e s , p r e s u m a b l y t h o s e a t Nanaimo R i v e r . The 103 P e n e l a k u t v i l l a g e r s t o d a y c an p r o v i d e g e n e o l o g i e s l i n k i n g p e o p l e f r o m t h e i r v i l l a g e t o p e o p l e a t K u l l e e t Bay and Nanaimo b u t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d a b l y a r e vehement i n t h e i r d e n i a l t h a t t h e y (or t h e i r a n c e s t o r s ) were e v e r " t r i b u t a r y " t o anyone. D o u g l a s (1853) n o t e d t h a t t h e " C h i e f " o f t h e P e n e l a k u t i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y was named " L a c h u l i t c h " b u t t h e P e n e l a k u t t o d a y do n o t know t h i s a n c e s t r a l name as t h e l e a d e r o f a h o u s e h o l d o r e x t e n d e d f a m i l y . They c o u l d n o t eve n r e c o n s t r u c t D o u g l a s 1 name i n t o a p l a u s i b l e a n c e s t r a l name (DP; R J ) . ADJ g u e s s e d t h a t D o u g l a s was t r y i n g t o r e c o r d a name l i k e " L e x e t s e w l e t s " , b u t he had n e v e r h e a r d t h a t name o a n y t h i n g r e m o t e l y c l o s e t o i t [ f r o m K u p e r I s l a n d o r anywhere e l s e ] . The P e n e l a k u t v i l l a g e r s f o r m e r l y " r a k e d " h e r r i n g and c o l l e c t e d h e r r i n g spawn i n t h e s p r i n g a d j a c e n t t o t h e i r v i l l a g e a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t and on t h e we s t s i d e o f Kuper I s l a n d . They c o l l e c t e d b e a c h f o o d s i n t h e i n t e r - t i d a l z o n e s on Kuper I s l a n d and on t h e numerous i s l a n d s i n S t u a r t and T r i n c o m a l i C h a n n e l s (RJ) and a r o u n d S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d (RJ; Boas, 1887:132). Boas n o t e d t h a t S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d was a l s o v i s i t e d by t h e H a l a l t . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e p e o p l e f r o m P e n e l a k u t S p i t dug c l a m s a d j a c e n t t o t h e i r own v i l l a g e , as w e l l a s a t L a m a l c h i Bay and T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r on K u p e r I s l a n d , and f i s h -i n g f o r salmon was done by P e n e l a k u t men i n a l l s a l t - w a t e r a r e a s s u r r o u n d i n g Kuper I s l a n d (AG; DP; R J ) . The P e n e l a k u t , l i k e o t h e r G u l f I s l a n d groups, f r e q u e n t l y saw w h a l e s i n t h e i r w a t e r s i n t h e p a s t . B u t t h e s e were n o t h u n t e d and whale meat was p r o b a b l y o n l y e a t e n i f t h e a n i m a l s " b e a c h e d t h e m s e l v e s " 104 (AT; R J ) . The P e n e l a k u t p e o p l e f o r m e r l y t r a v e l l e d t o t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r t o f i s h f o r s o c k e y e and humpback salmon i n t h e / summer months. They camped a t t l ' e k t i n e s (place-name number 288 i n t h i s s t u d y ) and a c r o s s t h e r i v e r f r o m New W e s t m i n s t e r a t a p l a c e c a l l e d k i k e y t (DP; R J ) . D u f f (1952:25, 26) n o t e d t h a t as l a t e as 1827 t h e " P i n e l l a h u t z " [ p e n a l e x e t h 1 ] and p e o p l e who r e s i d e d a t t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r v i l l a g e s o f Somenos and Quamichan were s t i l l u t i l i z i n g l a r g e p l a n k h o u s e s on t h e "South Arm o f t h e F r a s e r a b o u t h a l f - w a y between t h e mouth and New W e s t m i n s t e r " , a l t h o u g h t h e a n t i q u i t y o f t h i s s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n i s n o t m e n t i o n e d . J o h a n A d r i a n J a c o b s e n s t o p p e d a t " P i n a l e k a h t " on May 2nd, 188 2 and n o t e d t h a t t h e v i l l a g e "had a r a t h e r l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n " . B u t most o f t h e p e o p l e were a t a p o t l a t c h a t k i k e y t [ m e n t i o n e d above] ( G u n t h e r , 1977:78). As S u t t l e s has p o i n t e d o u t i n good d e t a i l (1952:11-14) t h e n a t u r e o f t h e P e n e l a k u t v i l l a g e r s ' s e a - l i o n h u n t i n g a t P o r l i e r P a s s , and more i n f o r m a t i o n i s c i t e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e p l a c e - n a m e s t h e r e i n t h i s s t u d y , no u s e f u l p u r p o s e w o u l d be a c h i e v e d i n r e i t e r a t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h e r e . The m a i n P e n e l a k u t s a l m o n f i s h i n g and sea-mammal h u n t i n g camps were on t h e G a l i a n o I s l a n d s i d e o f P o r l i e r P a s s , and t h e l a s t s e a -l i o n h u n t i n g by t h e P e n e l a k u t seems t o have been i n t h e e a r l y 1920's. B u t i t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h i s was a r e s p o n s e t o t h e " b o u n t y " p l a c e d on s e a - l i o n s by t h e C a n a d i a n g o vernment ( i n an u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o p r e s e r v e s a l m o n s t o c k s a f t e r t h e H e l l ' s G a t e s l i d e i n 1913)(ADJ; DP; R J ) . S u t t l e s n o t e d e l s e w h e r e (1951:238) t h a t t h e P e n e l a k u t " s u p p l i e d t h e i r n e i g h b o r s [ t h i s 105 e v i d e n t l y i n c l u d e d t h e S t r a i t s S a l i s h as w e l l as t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem] w i t h b o w s t r i n g s " made f r o m s e a - l i o n g u t . "The f r e s h g u t was c l e a n e d , s p l i t t o t h e d e s i r e d s i z e , and d r i e d i n t h e sun u n t i l i t was t h e c o l o r o f a f i d d l e s t r i n g . I t was made i n s e v e r a l t h i c k n e s s e s . A whole g u t was s a i d t o h o l d a t h o u s a n d pounds" ( S u t t l e s , 1951:238). DP r e c a l l e d t h e u s e o f s e a - l i o n s i n e w o r g u t f o r h u n t i n g b o w s t r i n g s i n t h e p a s t . C r y e r (n.d.) r e c o r d e d a s t o r y e x p l a i n i n g how t h e Squamish f i r s t f o u n d Kuper I s l a n d , when a "magic wooden s e a l i o n " towed two Squam i s h b r o t h e r s t o Kuper I s l a n d . T h i s same s t o r y i s s t i l l t o l d , i n q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t f o r m , by t h e P e n e l a k u t and t h e f o r m e r r e s i d e n t s o f V a l d e s I s l a n d v i l l a g e s t o d a y (AT; R J ) . In t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , a r o u n d t h e 1880's, when non-I n d i a n s began t o i n h a b i t some o f t h e r e s o u r c e - p r o c u r e m e n t l o c a t i o n s u s e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem, f i s h i n g by s u c h g r o u p s as t h e P e n e l a k u t c h a n g e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . As Lomas, an I n d i a n A g e n t s t a t e d i n h i s r e p o r t t o t h e I n d i a n S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , (Lomas, 1882) a t Kuper I s l a n d t h e r e was "a hea v y d o g f i s h - e r y . . . [The I n d i a n s ' ] c h i e f income i s d e r i v e d f r o m f i s h - o i l f r o m grampas [ k i l l e r w h a l e ] , p o r p o i s e and d o g - f i s h , no v i l l a g e on t h e c o a s t b e i n g b e t t e r s i t u a t e d f o r c a r r y i n g on t h i s i n d u s t r y . P o r p o i s e a r e k i l l e d by s p e a r i n g o r s h o o t i n g . The d o g - f i s h l i n e s . . . [ a r e b a i t e d ] ... w i t h h e r r i n g on a b o u t 800 h o o k s . " Lomas saw, i n A u g u s t o f 1882, one d o g f i s h l i n e p u l l e d i n a t Kuper I s l a n d and a l m o s t a l l e i g h t h u n d r e d hooks had a f i s h . The o i l f r o m t h e d o g f i s h was smuggled i n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r u s e d f o r l a n t e r n s o r l u b r i c a t i n g l o g g i n g s k i d r o a d s (ADJ; C P ) . Lomas a l s o s e n t t h e I n d i a n S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o t h e r v a l u a b l e 106 e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e P e n e l a k u t , Chemainus ( p r e s u m a b l y a t K u l l e e t Bay and Chemainus H a r b o u r ) and " T a i t - k a " ( v i l l a g e a t S h i n g l e P o i n t , V a l d e s I s l a n d ) . Lomas 1 comments i n h i s r e p o r t on t h e C o w i c h a n Agency f o r 1882 a r e w o r t h c i t i n g i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y h e r e , s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o l a r s . A c c o r d i n g t o Lomas, " F i f t y y e a r s ago [ i n 1832] a l l t h e s m a l l e r bands o f t h i s t r i b e l i v e d on d i f f e r e n t b r a n c h e s o f t h e Cow-i c h a n R i v e r , and t h e p l a c e s where t h e y have now e r e c t e d v i l l a g e s were t h e n o n l y f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e y r e s o r t e d i n l a r g e numbers f o r m u t u a l p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e a t t a c k s o f t h e Kwah-kewlth n a t i o n • [ t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l and t h e i r a l l i e s ] w i t h whom t h e y were c o n s t a n t l y a t war. But when p e a c e was e s t a b l i s h e d between them, s e v e r a l bands s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e C o w i c h a n t r i b e and went t o r e s i d e p e r m a n e n t -l y a t t h e s e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , t h u s f o r m i n g t h e m i n o r bands o f Chemainus, T a i t - k a , P e n a l a k u t and o t h e r s , g i v i n g t o e a c h t h e name o f t h e i r o l d v i l l a g e on t h e C o w i c h a n . " B e f o r e commenting on Lomas 1 r e m a r k s , i t i s w o r t h r e f e r r i n g t o B oas' e a r l y work (1887:132), w h i c h s t a t e s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l i d e a s t o Lomas. A c c o r d i n g t o Boas, " D u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s [ t h e N i n e t e e n t h ] c e n t u r y , t h e t r i b e s o f t h i s s u b d i v i s i o n [ t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem] were c o n s t a n t l y a t war w i t h t h e E u c l a t a w s , who f r e q u e n t l y r a i d e d t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t s , m u r d e r i n g t h e 107 i n h a b i t a n t s o r t a k i n g them as s l a v e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , f o r many y e a r s t h e s e t r i b e s l i v e d i n t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r r e g i o n , i n l a n d and n o t e x p o s e d t o t h e open G u l f , where t h e y were s a f e f r o m t h e war c a n o e s o f t h e N o r t h e r n t r i b e s . O n l y a f t e r t h e end o f t h e wars d i d t h e y move back t o t h e i r own a r e a on t h e s e a and on t h e i s l a n d s . E ven t o d a y , a l l t h e s e p e o p l e own s t r e t c h e s o f Cow-i c h a n R i v e r f r o n t a g e [ o r o c c u p y a r e a s a l l a l o n g t h e Co w i c h a n R i v e r ] where t h e y a r e a l l o w e d t o e r e c t d w e l l i n g - p l a c e s . " B o t h Boas and Lomas have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be a o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e names o f C o w i c h a n R i v e r v i l l a g e s and v i l l a g e names i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d s ( i n c l u d -i n g P e n e l a k u t S p i t ) o r e l s e w h e r e i n t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a o f I s l a n d Halkomelem. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y tend t o q u e s t i o n t h e a n t i q u i t y o f t h e Chemainus a r e a v i l l a g e s . We w i l l l e a v e a s i d e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e v i l l a g e s named t ' a a t , k a 7 , /. , / x e l a l t x w , s h t s ' e m i n e s [or a d i m i n u t i v e o f t h i s name] and / x i n e p s e m [ o r a d i m i n u t i v e o f t h i s name], w h i c h a r e v i l l a g e s on t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r t h a t have c o r r e s p o n d i n g names i n t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a . We w i l l d i s c u s s a l l o f t h e s e i n t h e a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . B u t t h e r e a d e r w i l l n o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e s i m p l y t o o many v i l l a g e names i n t h e Chemainus d i a -l e c t a r e a w i t h o u t s i m i l a r o r i d e n t i c a l names on t h e Cowichan R i v e r , and t h a t one o f t h e s e i s p e n a l e x e t h ' ( A D J ) . 108 Lomas (188 2) has s a i d t h a t t h e Chemainus a r e a v i l l a g e s were o r i g i n a l l y f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s o n l y , and Boas (1887:132) s a i d t h a t t h e s e v i l l a g e s were e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e t h e y were abandoned d u r i n g t h e " I n d i a n w a r s " . The P e n e l a k u t t o d a y s a y t h a t t h e i r v i l l a g e has been c o n t i n u o u s l y o c c u p i e d ( e x c e p t f o r s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e - p r o c u r e m e n t m i g r a t i o n s e l s e w h e r e ) f o r h u n d r e d s , i f n o t t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s . T h i s i s b o r n e o u t by g e n e o l o g i e s , and by t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e P e n e l a k u t do n o t t r a c e t h e i r o r i g i n s t o t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r and c l a i m t o speak a d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t f r o m t h e C o w i c h a n . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f any v i l l a g e named p e n a l e x e t h ' on t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r , and t h i s w o u l d c e r t a i n l y be remembered by e i t h e r t h e C o w i c h a n o r P e n e l a k u t t o d a y . We have a l r e a d y s e e n t h a t s e v e r a l C o w i c h a n R i v e r v i l l a g e s w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g names i n t h e Chemainus a r e a a r e remembered by s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y have n o t been o c c u p i e d f o r many g e n e r a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o d a y s a y t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d "wars" w i t h t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l o n l y t o o k p l a c e on a l a r g e s c a l e [ i . e . l a r g e enough t o f o r c e abandonement o f e x p o s e d v i l l a g e s on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s ] f r o m a b o u t 1790 t o 1850, and t h a t t h e abandonement o f v i l l a g e s was s e a s o n a l s i n c e E u c l a t a w r a i d s were much more f r e q u e n t i n t h e summer months. I t seems q u i t e c l e a r t h a t b o t h Boas and Lomas r e c e i v e d t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m C o w i c h a n p e o p l e , a n d t h i s i s p r o v e n by t h e i r d i a r i e s and f i e l d n o t e s . The v i l l a g e a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t has been and r e m a i n s t o d a y t h e l a r g e s t p ermanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e on t h e s o u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s and i t s r e s i d e n t s , l i k e t h o s e a t K u l l e e t Bay, L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r and Westholme 109 b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y a l o n g - s t a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a few f a m i l i e s a t C o w i c h a n and t h e i r e x t e n d e d f a m i l -i e s . A l l o f t h e v i l l a g e r s i n t h e Chemainus a r e a say t h a t t h e y have been t h e r e f o r a l o n g t i m e . I n any c a s e , t h e v i l l a g e a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t was named f o r t h a t l o c a t i o n o n l y and t h e name f o r t h e v i l l a g e i s d e s c r i p t i v e f o r t h a t p l a c e . The e n t i r e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n t e r v i l l a g e m i g r a t i o n s between t h e C o w i c h a n and Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a s a w a i t s f u r t h e r g e n e o l o g i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s among p r e s e n t - d a y r e s i d e n t s and v i l l a g e s i n b o t h r e g i o n s (ADJ; A J ; AT; RJ) . T h e r e a r e a number o f p l a c e - n a m e s a d j a c e n t t o P e n e l a k u t S p i t and t h e s e c o u l d a l l be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f p e n a l e x e t h 1 v i l l a g e . The o r i g i n a l v i l l a g e s t o o d on t h e b e a c h j u s t s o u t h o f t h e S p i t , and t h e o n l y r e m a i n s o f t h e o l d v i l l a g e a r e t h e h o u s e - p o s t h o l e s o f f a l l e n h o u s e s and one l o n g h o u s e s t i l l s t a n d i n g . The p r e s e n t v i l l a g e i s l o c a t e d on t o p o f t h e h i l l , a l m o s t d i r e c t l y above t h e o l d v i l l a g e - s i t e . P l a c e - n a m e number 85, ( s h ) t e t o 7 t e x w n e t s , r e f e r s t o t h e e a s t s i d e o f P e n e l a k u t S p i t and p l a c e - n a m e number 86, ( s ) l i l p o k w r e f e r s t o t h e n o r t h -w e s t s i d e o f t h e S p i t . C l o s e t o t h e n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y o f t h e f o r m e r v i l l a g e i s a p l a c e c a l l e d " B a i l e r P o i n t " ( l h e l e t , p l a c e - n a m e number 87 i n t h i s s t u d y ) . T h i s p l a c e was so named b e c a u s e i t was a p l a c e t o b a i l o u t w a t e r f r o m c a n o e s upon r e a c h i n g P e n e l a k u t v i l l a g e i n t h e o l d d a y s (AG; DP; R J ) . A l a r g e b o u l d e r on t h e b e a c h a t P e n e l a k u t S p i t i s named smelew o r smimelew. T h i s r o c k i s named a f t e r a man who was t h e c h a r a c t e r i n a " t r u e s t o r y " t o l d by t h e I s l a n d and M a i n -l a n d Halkomelem. P u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n s o f t h e " S t o r y o f Smelo" 110 c a n be f o u n d i n t h e works o f H i l l - T o u t [a K w a n t l e n v e r s i o n ] (1902:80-82, 84-85) and J e n n e s s [a K a t z i e v e r s i o n ] (1955:57-5 8 ) . The b o u l d e r i n q u e s t i o n (place-name number 88 i n t h i s s t u d y ) i s a p p a r e n t l y n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Smelo's g u a r d i a n -s p i r i t power, w h i c h was s a i d t o be t h e s o u t h w i n d , a n d i t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a " s a c r e d p l a c e " by t h e P e n e l a k u t t o d a y ( R J ) . On t h e west s i d e o f Clam Bay, a b o u t two k i l o m e t e r s f r o m t h e p r e s e n t P e n e l a k u t v i l l a g e , t h e r e i s a s m a l l c r e e k w h i c h / r u n s i n t o C lam Bay. T h i s c r e e k i s c a l l e d s h i 7 s h e m and i s t e c h n i c a l l y n o t l o c a t e d i n p e n a l e x e t h ' v i l l a g e ' s b o u n d a r i e s . T h e r e i s an anomaly c o n c e r n i n g t h e name f o r t h i s c r e e k , p l a c e - n a m e number 89 i n t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h i t s name t r a n s -l a t e d l i t e r a l l y means ' l i t t l e s h a l l o w c r e e k ' o r ' l i t t l e d r i e d - u p c r e e k ' , a l l t h e p e o p l e who know t h i s p l a c e - n a m e seem t o a g r e e t h a t t h e c r e e k " n e v e r d r i e s up, e v e n i n t h e m i d d l e o f summer o r a f t e r a l o n g t i m e w i t h o u t r a i n " . The c r e e k i s e v i d e n t l y f e d by u n d e r g r o u n d s p r i n g s (AG; DP; R J ) . From Kuper I s l a n d , we now c o n t i n u e w i t h o t h e r p l a c e - n a m e s known t o t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a . We move f r o m Clam Bay t o t h e s m a l l i s l a n d s between Kuper I s l a n d and t h e G a l i a n o I s l a n d s i d e o f P o r l i e r P a s s . From t h e r e we w i l l c o n t i n u e a r o u n d G a l i a n o I s l a n d and d i s c u s s t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t p l a c e - n a m e s known i n H o u s t o n P a s s a g e and a l s o t h o s e i n T r i n c o m a l i C h a n n e l (between G a l i a n o and S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d s . ) 90. Norway or "Rice" Island xa7xtl'eken (AG; AT; DP; RJ) 'crossing the top end [or head]' xaxetl'eken (AG) 'crossways [Island]' [alternate form] The name for t h i s i s l a n d was meant to describe the way i t looked "crossing the middle of the water" in front of Penelakut v i l l a g e . The Indians c a l l t h i s "Rice Island", because the Rice extended family used to l i v e there. The beaches on t h i s small i s l a n d were a favourite place to c o l l e c t giant red sea urchins and small green sea urchins (AT; RJ). 91. H a l l Island xw7eyem (AG; AT; DP; RJ) 'clear water' This i s l a n d was also used for the c o l l e c t i o n of beach foods by the people inhabiting adjacent winter v i l l a g e s , such as the ones on Kuper and Valdes Islands (AT; RJ). 92. Centre Reef (Between Penelakut Spit And Reid Island) thi7thoxwo7xw (AT; DP) ' l i t t l e [one] disappearing [at high t i d e ] ' The name for t h i s place i s self-explanatory, since i t was covered at high t i d e . This place-name i s similar to / / number 80 i n t h i s study, thithoxwo7kw [Alarm Rock] (AT). 93. Reid Island / kwoles (AT; DP) possibly 'peaceful place' kwxwoles (AG) (meaning not known) A family named Silvey used to l i v e on t h i s island (AT). Long ago i t was used by Kuper and Valdes Island fishermen to catch octopi, used as bai t for halibut and dogfish (DP; RJ). 94. G a l i a n o I s l a n d s w i i k w 1 (AT) (meaning n o t known) S q o e ' t e (Boas, 1981:81) Boas r e c o r d e d a s t o r y i n t h e 1890's t h a t s a i d "Sqo"e^te" was " G a l i a n o I s l a n d " . The I s l a n d Halkomelem t o d a y do n o t r e -c o g n i z e t h i s t e r m f o r a l l o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d , any p l a c e on i t , o r any p l a c e a d j a c e n t t o i t . I t i s b e l i e v e d (and j u d g i n g by t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e name i n Boas' s t o r y ) t h a t Boas was a c t u a l l y / r e f e r r i n g t o L a s q u e t i I s l a n d , s x w e 7 i t i 7 [place-name number 6 i n t h i s s t u d y ] ( A L I ) . AT t h o u g h t t h a t Boas may have been t a l k -i n g a b o u t s k w ' i t h ' i ' g r e e n s e a u r c h i n s ' o r p e r h a p s an u n l o c a t e d bay on t h e " e a s t s i d e o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d " named s w i i k w ' . 95. V i r a g o P o i n t - R a c e P o i n t ' A r e a , P o r l i e r P a s s / x i n e p s e m (AJ; AT; DP; RJ) p o s s i b l y ' c aught by t h e n e c k ' o r ' caught i n t h e n e c k ' / x i x n e p s e m (AJ; AT; DP; RJ) ' l i t t l e [one] c a u g h t by [ o r / i n ] t h e n e c k ' , " l i t t l e x i n e p s e m " J u s t as t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a v i l l a g e on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f P o r l i e r P a s s and one on C o w i c h a n Bay ( p l a c e -names 45 and 241 i n t h i s s t u d y , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , t h e f o r m e r v i l l a g e on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f P o r l i e r P a s s i n t h e V i r a g o - R a c e / P o i n t a r e a named x i n e p s e m has t h e same name (or d i m i n u t i v e ) as a v i l l a g e a t t h e mouth o f t h e n o r t h arm o f t h e C o w ichan R i v e r . However, t h e r e a d e r w i l l n o t e t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t e name f o r t h e V i r a g o - R a c e P o i n t v i l l a g e i s a d i m i n u t i v e , making t h e p o s s i b i l i t y g r e a t e r t h a t t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r v i l l a g e was e s t a b -l i s h e d f i r s t (AJ; A T ) . The I s l a n d Halkomelem t o d a y s a y t h e 113 / two v i l l a g e s (Green P o i n t , x i n e P s e m and V i r a g o - R a c e P o i n t on G a l i a n o I s l a n d ) were a c t u a l l y o c c u p i e d by t h e same e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s , p e r h a p s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h a t i s , t h e r e may have been members o f t h e same e x t e n d e d f a m i l y o c c u p y i n g b o t h v i l l a g e s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r s u n t i l t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , o r p e r -haps t h e G a l i a n o I s l a n d v i l l a g e was o n l y o c c u p i e d d u r i n g t h e summer months f o r f o o d - g e t t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t P o r l i e r P a s s by some (or ev e n most) o f t h e C o w i c h a n v i l l a g e r s . I n any c a s e , t h e r e were o n l y a few permanent h o u s e s a t t h e G a l i a n o I s l a n d v i l l a g e and summer r e s i d e n t s e r e c t e d t e m p o r a r y s h e l t e r s i n most c a s e s . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e C o w i c h a n v i l l a g e r s t r a n s p o r t e d t h e i r w i n t e r h o u s e - b o a r d s by ca n o e t o f r a m e s a l r e a d y e r e c t e d a t t h e G a l i a n o I s l a n d s i t e (AJ; A T ) . T h e r e was an abundance o f b e a c h f o o d s i n t h e V i r a g o -Race P o i n t a r e a , a n d salmon were a l s o t a k e n i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s by t h e I n d i a n s t h e r e i n t h e p a s t . H e r r i n g and h e r r i n g spawn c o u l d be t a k e n i n t h e s p r i n g and summer. H a r b o u r s e a l s were c l u b b e d on t h e r o o k e r i e s i n t h e a r e a d u r i n g t h e summer as w e l l . A l l o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s were u n d e r t a k e n by t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e V i r a g o - R a c e P o i n t v i l l a g e , a s w e l l as by p e o p l e who t r a v e l l e d t o t h i s a r e a f r o m K u l l e e t Bay, Kuper I s l a n d and L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r (AJ; AT; R J ) . P e r h a p s o n l y t h e P e n e l a k u t S p i t v i l l a g e r s had t h e r i g h t t o h u n t s e a - l i o n s a t P o r l i e r P a s s and o t h e r s , t o o , by i n t e r m a r r i a g e w i t h t h e s e people.-B u t t h e P e n e l a k u t camped on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f P o r l i e r P a s s n e a r t h e v i l l a g e b e i n g d i s c u s s e d h e r e (AT; RJ; Lane, 1953: 76; S u t t l e s , 1952:11-13). As was made c l e a r by t h e d i s c u s s i o n 114 o f P o r l i e r P a s s u s a g e f r o m t h e V a l d e s I s l a n d s i d e , s e a - l i o n h u n t i n g was r e s t r i c t e d t o s p e c i f i c men who had " s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g ' ^ and t h e a c t i v i t y t o o k p l a c e o n l y d u r i n g a s p e c i f i c t i m e i n t h e summer when t h e a n i m a l s were h a u l i n g o u t on r o o k -e r i e s a t P o r l i e r P a s s (AJ; AT; R J ) . Inasmuch as t h e G a l i a n o I s l a n d s i d e o f P o r l i e r P a s s was s u c h an i m p o r t a n t a r e a t o t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem, t h e r e was an I n d i a n R e s e r v e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e . I t e x t e n d s f r o m t h e e a s t s i d e o f A l c a l a P o i n t t o t h e s e c o n d bay e a s t o f Race P o i n t (and i n c l u d e s V i r a g o P o i n t ) . U n o c c u p i e d t o d a y , i t o r i g i n a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f a b o u t t h i r t y - o n e h e c t a r e s . B u t p a r t o f t h i s r e s e r v e , known as Chemainus R e s e r v e #9 ( P o r l i e r P a s s F i s h i n g S t a t i o n ) , was " c u t o f f " so t h a t two l i g h t h o u s e s c o u l d be e r e c t e d a b o u t 1915. The a r e a o f R e s e r v e #9 t o d a y i s p r e -c i s e l y t w e n t y - n i n e h e c t a r e s ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1: 297) . The V i r a g o - R a c e P o i n t v i l l a g e , a nd t h e f a c t t h a t i t has t h e same name as one on t h e l o w e r C o w i c h a n R i v e r , does l i t t l e t o e i t h e r s u p p o r t o r r e f u t e Boas' (1887:132-133) c l a i m s a b o u t w h i c h v i l l a g e s were b u i l t f i r s t . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e P o r l i e r P a s s v i l l a g e w o u l d be open t o a t t a c k f r o m t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l and t h e i r a l l i e s , b u t t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o d a y c a n n o t s t a t e w i t h t h e same a s s u r a n c e as Boas t h a t " o n l y a f t e r the... ["Ind-ian"]...wars d i d the... [ I s l a n d Halkomelem] ...move b a c k t o t h e i r own a r e a on t h e s e a and on t h e i s l a n d s " , a f t e r h a v i n g l i v e d on t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r (AJ; AT; R J ) . P r e s e n t - d a y I n d i a n s a l s o d i s a g r e e w i t h B oas' a s s e r t i o n (1887:132-133) t h a t " t h e o t h e r t r i b e s . . . [ b e s i d e s t h e Nanaimo and Nanoose] ...who l i v e on V a n c o u -v e r I s l a n d own t h e n a r r o w s between V a l d e z and G a l i a n o I s l a n d s [ t h a t i s , P o r l i e r P a s s ] (AJ; A T ) . The r e a d e r i s a g a i n r e f e r -r e d t o t h e e x c e l l e n t work o f S u t t l e s (1952) c o n c e r n i n g s e a -mammal h u n t i n g a t P o r l i e r P a s s . 96. Race P o i n t A r e a l h k e n e (AG) ' a n c h o r 1 No f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was f o r t h c o m i n g on t h i s p l a c e -name by AG. 97. Unnamed Bay E a s t Of Race P o i n t x w 7 a 7 i t e n (AG) (Meaning n o t known, b u t AG c a l l e d t h i s t h e "bay i n t h e m i d d l e " o f P o r l i e r P a s s , on t h e G a l i a n o I s l a n d s i d e . ) 98. D i o n i s i o P o i n t And "Coon Bay" S o u t h Of I t /' k w e l w i 7 e s (AT; DP; RJ) p o s s i b l y ' w h i r l p o o l a t ebb t i d e ' /• k w e l w i 7 e s (AG; MD) [Note t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o n u n c i a t i o n and p l a c e m e n t o f t h i s name below.] (meaning n o t known) T h i s p l a c e - n a m e i s v e r y p r o b l e m a t i c and s e r v e s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i n h e r e n t p r o b l e m s o f u n d e r t a k i n g a s a l v a g e e t h n o g r a p h i c s u r v e y s u c h as t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . AT and DP s a i d t h a t t h i s p l a c e - n a m e r e f e r r e d t o D i o n i s i o P o i n t and t h e l a r g e bay s o u t h o f i t , known l o c a l l y a s "Coon Bay". AG s a i d t h a t t h e name, w h i c h he p r o n o u n c e d a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m AT, DP, or RJ was a c t u a l l y " C a b l e Bay" ( l o c a t i o n unknown). AG f e l t t h a t " C a b l e Bay" was "where t h e u n d e r g r o u n d t e l e p h o n e c a b l e comes o n t o G a l i a n o I s l a n d f r o m t h e m a i n l a n d " . On t h e e a s t s i d e o f G a l -i a n o I s l a n d , t h e r e a r e two " s u b m a r i n e c a b l e " s t a t i o n s . The c l o s e s t t o D i o n i s i o P o i n t i s a b o u t t e n k i l o m e t e r s s o u t h o f 116 "Coon Bay" (midway between Bodega H i l l and Quadra H i l l ) a nd t h e s e c o n d i s j u s t n o r t h o f W h a l e r Bay, t o o f a r s o u t h o f t h e D i o n i s i o P o i n t a r e a t o be c r e d i b l e . MD, on t h e o t h e r hand, p r o n o u n c e d t h e name t h e same way a s AG b u t p l a c e d i t f u r t h e r n o r t h and w e s t t h a n anyone e l s e . He t h o u g h t i t was on t h e V a l d e s I s l a n d s i d e o f P o r l i e r P a s s , between C a r d a l e and Ca y e -t a n o P o i n t s . I n any c a s e , a l l o f t h e p e o p l e who knew t h i s p l a c e - n a m e f e l t t h a t t h i s p l a c e was u s e d as a t e m p o r a r y c a m p i n g - s i t e by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem d u r i n g t h e summer on t h e i r way o v e r t o t h e m a i n l a n d t o f i s h f o r humpback and s o c k e y e s a lmon (AG; AT; DP; MD; R J ) . 99. S t u r d i e s Bay A r e a / ( s h ) x i x n a t e n (AJ; GC) ' ( p l a c e w i t h ) f o o t p r i n t 1 x e ' x n i t c t 3 n ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) " S p r i n g o p p o s i t e G o s s i p I s l a n d " Somewhere on t h e i s t h m u s between S t u r d i e s Bay and W h a l e r Bay (AJ; GC), on t h e C a i n P e n i n s u l a , o r p e r h a p s i n W h a l e r Bay t h e r e was s a i d t o be a f o o t p r i n t o f t h e T r a n s f o r m e r X a a l s . A c c o r d i n g t o GC, X a a l s p u t h i s r i g h t f o o t down a t C h u c k a n u t Bay, s o u t h o f B e l l i n g h a m , W ashington, and h i s f o o t p r i n t c a n be s e e n t h e r e t o d a y . Then X a a l s t o o k a g i a n t s t e p o v e r t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a a n d p l a c e d h i s l e f t f o o t down i n t h e W h a l e r -S t u r d i e s Bay a r e a . GC l a s t saw t h e f o o t p r i n t on G a l i a n o I s l a n d i n t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h i s c e n t u r y , b u t we were u n a b l e t o l o c a t e i t on a f i e l d t r i p t o t h i s a r e a i n 1980. T h e r e f o r e , / t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f ( s h ) x i x n a t e n r e m a i n s unknown. P e r h a p s 117 t h e " s p r i n g o p p o s i t e G o s s i p I s l a n d " , r e f e r r e d t o by S u t t l e s ( f i e l d n o t e s ) , can be f o u n d and f u r t h e r f i e l d w o r k t o f i n d t h e " f o o t p r i n t " c a n be done i n t h e f u t u r e . 100. A c t i v e P a s s s k t h o k o 7 1 h (ADJ; A J ; AT; CP; DP; GC; HW; RJ) ' l i t t l e n a r r o w s ' s k t h a k (AJ; AT; CP) 'narrows' [Note t h a t t h i s t e r m i n I s l a n d Halkomelem i s t h e same as t h e S t r a i t s S a l i s h ( S a a n i c h d i a l e c t ) t e r m f o r A c t i v e P a s s . T h i s i s an a l t e r n a t e f o r m f o r t h i s p l a c e - n a m e , u s e d v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem.] s q s a q a v l ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ; 1951:26) " l i t t l e p a s s " / s q s S q ( S u t t l e s , 1951:26) " p a s s " / sq3e€q (Hudson, 1971:18) " b i g n a r r o w s " s q u t h e q (Hudson, 1971:18) sk363k (Hudson, 1971:18) "Mayne I s l a n d . . . p a s s " s k u t h u k (Hudson, 1971:18) S c t h - a u c k h ( H a m i l t o n , 1969:56) " b i g v i l l a g e " s q s e q ( M i t c h e l l , 1968:96) A c t i v e P a s s was u t i l i z e d by t h e C o w i c h a n and a few Chemainus on t h e i r way t o t h e m a i n l a n d i n t h e summer. T h e r e f o r m e r l y were many d e e r on t h e i s l a n d , a n d t h e r e s t i l l a r e many p r o t e c t e d b a ys i n t h e P a s s w h i c h w o u l d have a f f o r d e d e x c e l l e n t c amping l o c a t i o n s (ADJ; A J ; ,AT). The I s l a n d Halkomelem t o d a y f e e l t h a t A c t i v e P a s s was t h e u n o f f i c i a l " b o u n d a r y " between t h e S t r a i t s S a l i s h ( S a a n i c h ) and t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem, i n t e r m s o f t h e two I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s and t h e f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g and o t h e r f o o d - g e t t i n g t e r r i t o r i e s , as w e l l (ADJ; A J ; AT; C P ) . 118 B a r n e t t (1955:22) n o t e d t h a t t h e C o w i c h a n came t o A c t i v e P a s s f o r h e r r i n g , s e a l , p o r p o i s e s and h a l i b u t . A J and AT s a i d t h a t t h e C o w i c h a n and Chemainus h u n t e d s e a l s a t t h e Pass and S u t t l e s (1951:337) s u p p o r t e d t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s . H e r r i n g , w h i c h r a n t h r o u g h t h e p a s s i n t h e s p r i n g , a t t r a c t e d s e a l s , s e a - l i o n s and k i l l e r - w h a l e s , as w e l l as some s o c k e y e salmon, l i n g c o d , c o r m o r a n t s and l o o n s , w h i c h a l l f e d on them (ADJ; A J ; AT; RJ; HW). T h e r e were s t i l l I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e s t a y i n g on t h e S a a n i c h R e s e r v e a t A c t i v e P a s s ( H e l e n P o i n t ) i n 1951, a c c o r d i n g t o S u t t l e s (1951:27). T h e r e were many t y p e s o f b e a c h f o o d s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a r e a a t a l l s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r (ADJ; A J ; AT; H a m i l t o n , 1969:56). AT u s e d t h e p l a c e - n a m e s k t h o k o 7 1 h t o r e f e r t o a l l o f Mayne I s l a n d i n g e n e r a l and A c t i v e P a s s i n p a r t i c u l a r . She f e l t t h a t A c t i v e P a s s was t r a d i t i o n a l l y " s h a r e d " by t h e S a a n i c h , C o w i c h a n and Chemainus due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s o n l y one o f t h r e e " b r e a k s i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d s " ( t h e o t h e r two b e i n g P o r l i e r P a s s and G a b r i o l a P a s s a g e ) t h a t t h e I n d i a n s c o u l d use t o t r a v e l t o t h e m a i n l a n d by canoe " i n t h e o l d d a y s " . I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t A c t i v e P a s s has t h e same name i n I s l a n d Halkomelem as P o r l i e r P a s s (place-name number 42 i n t h i s s t u d y ) . 101. P r e v o s t I s l a n d (s)xw(e)7asxwem (AJ; AT; CP) ' p l a c e h a v i n g [many] h a r b o u r s e a l s ' 102. A n n e t t e I n l e t , P r e v o s t I s l a n d x w t l ' e k ' e y x e m (AT) ' w h i r l p o o l p l a c e ' 119 P r e v o s t I s l a n d , w i t h i t s many bays and i n l e t s , p r o v i d e d t h e C o w i c h a n and Chemainus w i t h abundant q u a n t i t i e s o f c l a m s , h a l i b u t and p o r p o i s e s (AJ; AT; B a r n e t t , 1955:22). H e r r i n g were a l s o f o u n d i n A n n e t t e I n l e t , and t h e s e were r a k e d i n t h e s p r i n g and t h e i r spawn was a l s o c o l l e c t e d (AT; S u t t l e s , 1951: 2 2 ) . As i t s name s u g g e s t s , h a r b o u r [ o r " h a i r " ] s e a l s f r e -q u e n t e d t h e w a t e r s a r o u n d t h e i s l a n d , a n d t h e y were c l u b b e d as t h e y h a u l e d o u t o n t o r o o k e r i e s by I s l a n d Halkomelem men (AT; CP) . 10 3. Montague H a r b o u r , G a l i a n o I s l a n d •/• senew (AJ; AT) ' i n s i d e [ p l a c e ] ' , " e n t e r i n g p l a c e " /' /' semnew (AT) [ a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n w i t h same t r a n s l a t i o n as t e r m above] Montague H a r b o u r was a f a v o u r i t e summer camping p l a c e o f t h e C o w i c h a n and Chemainus. The I n d i a n s u s e d t o d i g c l a m s t h e r e and d r y them on c e d a r b a r k t w i n e f o r l a t e r u s e (AJ; A T ) . 104. P a r k e r I s l a n d ( N o r t h w e s t Of Montague H a r b o u r ) / kwi7kwens (AG) (meaning n o t known) The I n d i a n u s e o f t h i s p l a c e i s no l o n g e r remembered (AG). 105. T r i n c o m a l i C h a n n e l (Between G a l i a n o And S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d s ) t l ' o o l t x w (MD) ( e x a c t meaning n o t known) t l ' a a l t x w (RJ) (meaning n o t known) t l ' i y a a ' l t x w (RJ) (meaning n o t known) T h i s p l a c e - n a m e i s s i m i l a r t o p l a c e - n a m e number 35 i n t h i s s t u d y [ t l ' a a l t x w ( F a l s e N a r r o w s ) ] . 120 106. R e t r e a t Cove, G a l i a n o I s l a n d xath'akem (AG) 'measure p e n i s p l a c e 1 AG d i d n o t remember why t h i s p l a c e was so named. 107. W a l l a c e I s l a n d smimkwetses (AG; AT; DP; RJ) 'one f i n g e r ' , "clenched f i n g e r s " T h i s i s l a n d was e v i d e n t l y named a f t e r a man w i t h e i t h e r one o r no f i n g e r s who l i v e d t h e r e (AT; DP; R J ) . AG t h o u g h t t h a t t h i s man's name was J a c k C h i v e r s . 108. S o u t h e y P o i n t , N o r t h T i p Of S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d p'k'e'nep (RJ) 'white g r o u n d ' T h i s p l a c e was u s e d i n t h e p a s t by t h e L a m a l c h i Bay, T e l e g r a p h H a r b o u r and P e n e l a k u t S p i t v i l l a g e r s on Kuper I s l a n d f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f b e a c h f o o d s ( R J ) . 109. J a c k s c r e w I s l a n d / ' • / shmemewkw1 a l e (AT; DP; RJ) ' g r a v e y a r d [ p l a c e ] ' T h i s i s l a n d was e v i d e n t l y u s e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem f o r b u r i a l s i n t h e p a s t . 110. J a c k s c r e w I s l a n d A r e a s h s e s k ' e t s e n (AG) ' c u t i n t h e m i d d l e ' No i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d a b o u t t h i s p l a c e f r o m AG. 111. S e c r e t a r y I s l a n d s And The I n t e r t i d a l Zone Between Them • / s h e m e t s e n (AG; AT; DP; RJ) 'beach [between] goes d r y ' S e c r e t a r y I s l a n d s , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e a r e a between them, was a f a v o u r i t e p l a c e t h a t t h e Kuper I s l a n d p e o p l e went t o c o l l e c t c l a m s , c o c k l e s , s e a u r c h i n s and s e a cucumbers (DP;RJ)« 121 112. D a v i s L agoon, Mouth Of S t o c k i n g C r e e k xwkwatsem (AL2; MD) ' f a l l i n g i n t o w a t e r ' T h i s a r e a was u s e d by t h e p e o p l e i n h a b i t i n g w i n t e r v i l l a g e s on L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r f o r b e a c h f o o d c o l l e c t i o n and some f i s h i n g d u r i n g t h e summer (AL2; MD). 113. Chemainus H a r b o u r , Chemainus Bay, Former V i l l a g e a t Chemainus /' • / s enewnats (ADJ; A J ; AT; DP; RJ) 'go i n s i d e t o b o t t o m end', ' e n t e r i n g b a c k end o f bay, o r ' g o i n g i n s i d e b a c k w a r d s ' Sun-now-netz ( C r y e r , n.d.) " f r e s h w a t e r b e h i n d h o u s e s " 114. B a r e P o i n t , Chemainus Bay ( " C r a d l e P o i n t " ) p ' o t h ' e s (ADJ; A J ; AT; RJ) ' c r a d l e ' T h e r e was f o r m e r l y a w i n t e r v i l l a g e where t h e p r e s e n t Chemainus s a w m i l l now s t a n d s . I t p r o b a b l y had f o u r o r f i v e h o u s e s a t one t i m e , b u t i t s r e s i d e n t s moved t o Kuper I s l a n d , K u l l e e t Bay, o r Westholme i n t h e l a t e 1800's and t h e r e a r e no I n d i a n r e s e r v e s i n t h e a r e a t o d a y . I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t d e s i g n a t i o n on maps o f Chemainus H a r b o u r a s "Chemainus Bay" c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t E n g l i s h name u s e d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem. The I n d i a n s s t i l l u s e t h e name "Chemainus Bay" t o r e f e r t o K u l l e e t Bay, s i n c e t h a t i s where t h e o r i g i n a l w i n t e r v i l l a g e o f "Chemainus" [ s h t s ' -e m i n e s ] i s l o c a t e d (ADJ; A J ; RJ) . On t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f B a r e P o i n t , I s l a n d Halkomelem women d e p o s i t e d t h e i r b a b i e s ' c r a d l e s i n t h e c l i f f s , hence t h e I n d i a n name " C r a d l e P o i n t " . T h i s c u s t o m o f d i s p o s i n g o f c r a d l e s when a c h i l d i s o l d enough n o t t o r e q u i r e them i s s t i l l 122 practised today. Bare Point was used for th i s purpose i n the past by women from Ladysmith Harbour, Kuper Island and, of course, those from the former v i l l a g e at Chemainus Harbour (ADJ; AJ; AT; RJ). The area around Chemainus Harbour was formerly used for the c o l l e c t i o n of beach foods during the summer and for the c o l l e c t i o n of herring spawn in the early spring. The waters of Stuart Channel, east of Chemainus, were once r i c h with several species of salmon and are s t i l l used for commercial f i s h i n g today (ADJ; AJ; RJ). 115. Shoal Island #70/Ll4 (Northwest Of Willy Island And Due East Of F u l l e r Lake) t l ' a t l ' k t (AT) ' l i t t l e long' or 'narrow and long' 116. Shoal Island #135/L13 (Southeast Of Island Above) wekw'wewkw' (AT) 'd r i f t e d down [slowly]' 117. Area West Of Mainguy Island, Opposite Chemainus Reserve #7 pi7penem (AT) ' l i t t l e buried [place]' A l l three of the places named above were u t i l i z e d by the Chemainus Island Halkomelem for f i s h i n g and beach foods c o l l -ection, but not since the early decades of this century (AT). 118. Chemainus River (Including Upper River and Mouth) / / / . . silokwo7elh (stolew) (AJ; AT) (meaning not known, but / • ' stolew means 'river') S^e 'lak'oatl (Boas, 1981:74) Selwacuth Stalow (Brown, 1864:15) 119 _ Mount Brenton 123 p e l e m e t s e n (ALI) ( e x a c t meaning n o t known) A l t h o u g h t h e l o w e r Chemainus R i v e r and i t s d e l t a were u t i l i z e d by a l l a d j a c e n t Chemainus w i n t e r v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s (AJ; A T ) , t h e u p p e r Chemainus R i v e r was s h a r e d i n common by Chemainus p e o p l e f r o m K u l l e e t Bay, L a d y s m i t h H a r b o u r , S i b e l l Bay and W i l l y I s l a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y ( AJ; AT; Boas, 1887:132). In t h e u p p e r Chemainus R i v e r v a l l e y and a r o u n d Mount B r e n t o n , t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem h u n t e d f o r d e e r , e l k and o t h e r l a r g e l a n d mammals. Chum salmon and t r o u t were f o r m e r l y a b u n d a n t i n t h e Chemainus R i v e r and were c a u g h t t h e r e by t h e Chemainus. W e i r s were s e t up on t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e r i v e r ; names o f b u i l d e r s o r headmen who e r e c t e d them ( n o t i n t h i s c e n t u r y , due t o e x t e n s i v e l o g g i n g and p o l l u t i o n on t h e r i v e r ) a r e n o t remembered t o d a y (AJ; ADJ; A L I ) . B a r n e t t ( f i e l d n o t e s ) s a i d t h a t r o c k w e i r s o r " r o c k t i d a l impoundments" u s e d t o be l o c a t e d a t t h e mouth o f t h e r i v e r on t h e mud f l a t s , and he e v e n p r o v i d e d a d i a g r a m o f what t h e s e l o o k e d l i k e . A J n o t e d t h a t a t l e a s t f o u r s p e c i e s o f c l a m s were p r o c u r e d by t h e Chemainus p e o p l e a t t h e mouth o f t h e r i v e r and t h a t numerous s p e c i e s o f w a t e r f o w l were a l s o c a u g h t t h e r e by means o f n e t s s t r u n g on h i g h p o l e s . Boas (1981:74) r e c o r d e d t h a t t e n p e o p l e who d r o p p e d f r o m t h e s k y went t o t h e Chemainus R i v e r and became t h e a n c e s t o r s o f t h e Chemainus p e o p l e . More w i l l be s a i d a b o u t t h e a n c e s t o r myths o f t h e Chemainus when S i c k e r M o u n t a i n i s d i s c u s s e d . A c c o r d i n g t o A L I , Mount B r e n t o n f o r m e d t h e w e s t e r n b o u n d a r y o f t h e Chemainus. T h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y was s a i d t o " l o o k l i k e a diamond, g o i n g f r o m a t a l l t r e e n e a r I v y Gr e e n 124 P a r k ( j u s t n o r t h o f L a d y s m i t h ) , west t o Mount B r e n t o n s o u t h t o C r o f t o n and e a s t t o t h e G u l f I s l a n d s . " A L I was r e f e r r i n g t o t h e Chemainus p e o p l e o c c u p y i n g w i n t e r v i l l a g e s f r o m L a d y -s m i t h H a r b o u r s o u t h , s i n c e t h e p e o p l e f r o m K u l l e e t Bay had t h e i r own b o u n d a r i e s f o r f i s h i n g a n d h u n t i n g . 120, N o r t h End Of W i l l y I s l a n d (Chemainus R e s e r v e #1) and Westholme (Chemainus R e s e r v e #2), H a l a l t Band x e l a l t x w (ADJ; A J ; ARJ; AT; CP) 'marked h o u s e s ' o r ' p a i n t e d h o u s e s ' Q a l a ' l t q (Boas, 1981:76) "Chemainus V a l l e y " H a l a l t ( D u f f , 1964:26) H a l a l t ( J e n n e s s , n.d.) H e l l e l t ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) H e l - l e l t ( C r y e r , n.d.) "marks" H a l a l t ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:297) H a l l a ^ l t n w ( C u r t i s , 1913:38) C h a l a l t c h (Boas, 1887:132) "Chemainus R i v e r " S k a l a l t u c h ( D o u g l a s , 1853) " C h i e f was Swoo-tun" 121. B o n s a l l C r e e k (Chemainus R e s e r v e #6) x w t s ' e s i 7 (ADJ; A J ; ARJ; AT; CP; RJ) 'go [ i n - ] between' T s u s s i e ( C r y e r , n.d.) " l i t t l e c r e e k o r s t r e a m " T s u s s i e ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:297) T h e r e u s e d t o be a permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e on t h e n o r t h end o f W i l l y I s l a n d , t h e l a r g e s t o f t h e S h o a l I s l a n d s e a s t o f t h e mouth o f t h e Chemainus R i v e r . T h e r e i s s t i l l a f i f t y -s e v e n h e c t a r e I n d i a n R e s e r v e a t t h e s i t e o f t h a t v i l l a g e ( c a l l e d Chemainus #1), b u t t h e a r e a has b een abandoned by t h e Chemainus ( H a l a l t Band) s i n c e t h e 1920's. T h i s v i l l a g e has t h e same name as one on t h e l o w e r C o w i c h a n R i v e r n e a r t h e p r e s e n t V i l l a g e G r e e n M o t e l on t h e I s l a n d Highway. B e c a u s e t h i s C o w i c h a n R i v e r v i l l a g e became f l o o d e d i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , i t s r e s i d e n t s moved t o W i l l y I s l a n d , t a k i n g t h e v i l l a g e name x e l a l t x w w i t h them (AJ; ADJ; AT; Boas, 1981:76; B a r n e t t , 1955:21; C u r t i s , 1913:38, 175). A c c o r d i n g t o an e a r l y map o f W i l l y I s l a n d ( d ' H e u r e u s e , 1860), t h e r e were t h r e e h o u s e s a t t h e W i l l y I s l a n d v i l l a g e . But t h e Chemainus t o d a y r e c a l l t h e r e b e i n g a t l e a s t f i v e o r s i x t h e r e i n t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d ( A L I ; A T ) . I t i s presumed t h a t t h e H a l a l t p e o p l e , e i t h e r w h i l e t h e y were l i v i n g oh t h e Co w i c h a n R i v e r , on W i l l y I s l a n d , o r s u b s e q u e n t l y , d e c o r a t e d t h e i r h o u s e p o s t s by " m a r k i n g o r p a i n t i n g them", hence t h e word f o r t h e i r v i l l a g e x e l a l t x w " p a i n t e d o r marked h o u s e s " (ADJ; A J ) . The W i l l y I s l a n d a r e a was f o r m e r l y a b u n d a n t i n b e a c h f o o d r e s o u r c e s , salmon and ev e n d e e r . The l a t t e r c r o s -s e d o v e r t h e m u d - f l a t s a t t h e mouth o f t h e Chemainus R i v e r t o W i l l y I s l a n d . W a t e r f o w l were c a u g h t i n t h e W i l l y I s l a n d a r e a as w e l l . F l o u n d e r s were p r o c u r e d by " s t e p p i n g on them" i n t h e i n t e r - t i d a l zone between V a n c o u v e r and W i l l y I s l a n d s . T h i s s p e c i e s was a l s o t a k e n by means o f a s p e c i a l p i t c h f o r k s p e a r and by a s p e c i a l s e i n e n e t ( A J ) . The H a l a l t p e o p l e moved f r o m W i l l y I s l a n d t o t h e p r e s e n t H a l a l t R e s e r v e (Chemainus R e s e r v e #2) a t Westholme i n t h e e a r l y d e c a d e s o f t h i s c e n t u r y . The p r e s e n t Westholme R e s e r v e i s a b o u t one h u n d r e d f i f t e e n h e c t a r e s i n a r e a and i s a c t u a l l y c o m p r i s e d o f Chemainus p e o p l e f r o m W i l l y I s l a n d and o t h e r 1 2 6 Chemainus R e s e r v e s t h a t a r e now u n o c c u p i e d ( A J ; AT; RJ; Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1:297). As i t was w i t h t h e prev-^. i o u s m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r , t h e p e o p l e f r o m W i l l y I s l a n d t o o k t h e name x e l a l t x w w i t h them when t h e y moved t o Westholme (AJ; A T ) . The Chemainus f r o m Westholme t r a v e l l e d t o t h e m a i n l a n d i n t h e summer t o f i s h f o r s o c k e y e salmon on t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r and a t P o i n t R o b e r t s ( A J ; A T ) . J e n n e s s (n.d.) s t a t e d t h a t t h e Chemainus p e o p l e f r o m Westholme n e t t e d humpback salmon o f f t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r i n J u l y and A u g u s t and t h a t t h e y "owned t h e f i s h i n g r i g h t s a t . . . [Tsawwassen] ... f o r t i m e i m m e m o r i a l " . He a l s o r e c o r d e d a r a t h e r l e n g t h y " F i r s t Salmon Ceremony" t h a t t h e Westholme p e o p l e p e r f o r m e d o v e r t h e f i r s t s o c k e y e salmon c a u g h t i n t h e f i s h i n g s e a s o n . T h i s ceremony was s a i d t o be a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e S a a n i c h " F i r s t Salmon Ceremony". H i l l - T o u t (1907:365) was n o t a b l e t o r e c o r d t h e name o f t h e " f i r s t c h i e f " o f t h e Chemainus, b u t a man who f e l l f r o m t h e sky a t e i t h e r Mount P r e v o s t o r B i g S i c k e r M o u n t a i n named S t ' e t s ' e n was c e r t a i n l y t h e f i r s t a n c e s t o r o f t h e Chemainus. L i k e S i y o l e t s e , a C o w i c h a n a n c e s t o r , S t ' e t s ' e n was f i r s t named Sweten ' n o i s e o f s o m e t h i n g f a l l i n g on t h e g r o u n d ' (ADJ; A J ; AT; A L I ; CP; Boas, 1981:76; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; C u r t i s , 1913: 37; D o u g l a s , 1 8 5 3 ) . Boas (1981:76) s a i d a Chemainus a n c e s t o r was " S i t q o e •'metsten" and t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o d a y r e c o g n i z e / t h i s a n c e s t r a l name as S e t x w i i m e t s t e n ( A D J ) . A n o t h e r g r o u p o f p e o p l e l i v i n g n e a r t h e mouth o f t h e Chemainus R i v e r t o d a y ( a c t u a l l y t h e mouth o f B o n s a l l C r e e k ) a r e t h e T s u s s i e , named a f t e r t h e i r v i l l a g e x w t s ' e s i 7 . The 127 T s u s s i e R e s e r v e i s l e g a l l y known as Chemainus R e s e r v e #6 (ADJ; AJ) and o c c u p i e s an a r e a o f a b o u t t h i r t e e n and o n e - h a l f h e c -t a r e s ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1:297). The a r e a a r o u n d t h i s p r e s e n t v i l l a g e and r e s e r v e was f o r m e r l y a b u n d a n t w i t h d u c k s and b e a v e r . The Chemainus h u n t e d b o t h o f t h e s e w i t h bows and arrows, and d u c k s were a l s o c a u g h t i n s p e c i a l n e t s r a i s e d on h i g h p o l e s ( A J ) . The T s u s s i e R e s e r v e i s p a r t o f t h e P e n e l a k u t Band on Kuper I s l a n d . Many f o r m e r r e s i d e n t s o f Kuper I s l a n d v i l l a g e s now r e s i d e a t T s u s s i e , j u s t as many o f t h e f o r m e r v i l l a g e r s f r o m V a l d e s I s l a n d and Chemainus H a r b o u r now r e s i d e a t t h e Westholme R e s e r v e (ADJ; A J ; AT; R J ) . 122. V e s u v i u s Bay, S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d s t e l o n (CP; DP) (meaning n o t known) s t i ' l a n (Hudson, 1971:15) "Booth Bay" [Note t h a t t h i s i s s t l ' l a n (Hudson, 1971:15) t h e n e x t bay s o u t h o f V e s u v i u s . ] No i n f o r m a t i o n was f o r t h c o m i n g a b o u t t h e p r e - c o n t a c t u s e o f t h i s bay (CP; DP). 123. O s b o r n Bay ( C r o f t o n ) / s t h i x e m (AT) ' l i t t l e s p r i n g o f w a t e r p l a c e ' V e r y l i t t l e i s known a b o u t t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem u s a g e o f O s b o r n Bay, b u t i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e a r e a was u s e d f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f b e a c h f o o d s and f o r salmon f i s h i n g (ADJ; A T ) . * 6 C u r t i s (1913:37) s a i d t h a t a Chemainus a n c e s t o r ("Swutun", p r o -/ / . b a b l y S t ' e t s ' e n ) moved t o "Tsiuhum" (place-name #61 i n t h i s / s t u d y ) . C u r t i s ' name i s q u i t e c l o s e t o s t h i x e m and i t may be O s b o r n Bay, o r an i s l a n d n e a r i t , t h a t he was n o t i n g . 128 124. B i g S i c k e r M o u n t a i n , L i t t l e S i c k e r M o u n t a i n , Or B o t h skw'ookw'nes (AJ) (meaning n o t known) skw'ekw 1eno7es (ADJ) ' f a c i n g o v e r ' o r ' l o o k i n g down' 125, k w ' i 7 i m (AJ) (meaning n o t known) [ T h i s was g i v e n as a s e c o n d name f o r one o r b o t h S i c k e r Mount-a i n s . ] S i n c e t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o d a y r e f e r t o b o t h B i g S i c k e r M o u n t a i n and L i t t l e S i c k e r M o u n t a i n r i g h t b e s i d e i t as " S i c k e r M o u n t a i n " , t h e two names f o r t h e s e m o u n t a i n s a r e combined and t h e y r e f e r t o t h e g e n e r a l a r e a (ADJ; A J ) . S i c k e r M o u n t a i n i s an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t p l a c e t o t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem. T h i s a r e a was t h e m u t u a l l y u n d e r s t o o d l i n g u i s t i c and t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d a r y between t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t -s p e a k e r s and t h e C o w i c h a n d i a l e c t - s p e a k e r s o f t h e I s l a n d H a l k o -melem l a n g u a g e . B o t h g r o u p s ( t h e Chemainus and t h e Cowichan) r e f e r t o p e o p l e l i v i n g s o u t h o f t h e l a t i t u d e o f S i c k e r M o u n t a i n as "Cowichan" [ k e w e t s e n ] . S t r a n g e l y , p e o p l e l i v i n g n o r t h o f S i c k e r M o u n t a i n a r e not referred to as "Chemainus" [ s h t s ' e m i n e s ] , s i n c e t h a t w o u l d d e s i g n a t e them as r e s i d e n t s />• o f t h e v i l l a g e a t K u l l e e t Bay o n l y . They a r e c a l l e d s n a 7 a l e t s ' t h o s e l i v i n g on t h e o t h e r s i d e ' . T h i s t e r m , d e r i v e d f r o m / i t h e word s n a l e t s ' o t h e r s i d e ' , i s u s e d by t h e Cowxchan t o r e f e r t o a l l the Chemainus p e o p l e b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem i n t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . The Chemainus and Nanaimo d i a l e c t a r e a r e s i d e n t s most o f t e n r e f e r t o t h e m s e l v e s by t h e i r v i l l a g e name; a t l e a s t t h i s has been t h e c a s e s i n c e t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d (ADJ; A J ) . S u t t l e s (1952:11, 12) h i n t e d a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e C o w i c h a n and Chemainus d i a l e c t s . Two l i n g u i s t s , L e s l i e (1979) and G e r d t s (1977), b o t h worked w i t h s p e a k e r s o f C o w i c h a n and Chemainus and sh e d a b s o l u t e l y no l i g h t on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between d i a l e c t s , i t may be t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e C o w i c h a n , Chemainus and Nanaimo d i a l e c t a r e a s b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t engage i n a s t u d y o f t h e e t h n o g e o g r a p h y o f e a c h g r o u p . T h i s i s a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e u t i l i t y o f p l a c e - n a m e s i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . The S i c k e r M o u n t a i n a r e a was u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y by t h e Cowichan and Chemainus f o r t h e h u n t i n g o f s u c h l a r g e l a n d mammals as d e e r , e l k and b l a c k b e a r s (AJ). S i c k e r M o u n t a i n i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e ' i t i s s a i d t o be t h e o r i g i n a l home o f t h e f i r s t a n c e s t o r o f a l l o f t h e Chemainus I n d i a n s ( i . e . t h o s e i n t h e Chemainus d i a l e c t a r e a ) . T h i s man's name was S t ' e t s ' e n , a l t h o u g h he was f i r s t c a l l e d Sweten ' n o i s e o f s o m e t h i n g f a l l i n g t o t h e g r o u n d ' (ADJ; AJ; CP; Boas, 1981:76 [b u t note t h a t Boas a l s o named S t ' e t s ' e n as one o f t h r e e Quamichan a n c e s t o r s ] ; C u r t i s , 1913:37, 3 8 ) . S t ' e t s ' e n i s sometimes d e s c r i b e d as t h e b r o t h e r o f S i y o l e t s e (a C o w i c h a n a n c e s t o r ) and t h e p l a c e where he d r o p p e d f r o m t h e sk y i s e i t h e r Mount P r e v o s t o r S i c k e r M o u t a i n , d e p e n d i n g on t h e p e r s o n t e l l i n g t h e a n c e s t o r myth (ADJ; AJ; C P ) . More w i l l be s a i d a b o u t S t ' e t s ' e n when Mount P r e v o s t i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The f o l l o w i n g p l a c e - n a m e s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e s p e a k e r s o f t h e C o w i c h a n d i a l e c t o f I s l a n d Halkomelem. 130 126. Sansum Narrows (And P e r h a p s A l s o B o o t h Bay, S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d ) t o m e l (ADJ; A J ; CP) 'lukewarm [ w a t e r ] ' tamai (Hudson, 1971:15) " V e s u v i u s Bay" t a ? m a l ( H u d s o n , 1971:15) "Sansum Narrows" 127. Sansum Narrows, Between M a x w e l l P o i n t And E r s k i n e P o i n t ( S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d ) t o 7 t e m e l (AJ; CP) ' c o o l e r t h a n lukewarm [ w a t e r ] ' t a t m a l (Hudson, 1971:15) Sansum Narrows was u s e d by t h e C o w i c h a n f o r salmon f i s h -i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o ADJ, A J and C P ) . 128. Maple Bay x w t l ' e p n a t s (ADJ; A J ; CP) 'deep w a t e r b e h i n d [ o r on b o t t o m o f ] bay' xwtl'Apnech ( M i t c h e l l , 1968:130) " V i l l a g e a t Maple Bay" K l u p - n i c h ( C r y e r , n.d.) K l u p - n i t z ( C r y e r , n.d.) Maple Bay f o r m e r l y had a few h o u s e s i n w h i c h e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s f r o m t h e l o w e r C o w i c h a n R i v e r d w e l t on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s . The bay i t s e l f and Sansum Narrows e a s t o f i t were us e d e x t e n s i v e l y by t h e C o w i c h a n i n t h e p a s t . P e r c h , r e d s n a p p e r and l i n g c o d were t a k e n f r o m t h e w a t e r s and h e r r i n g spawn was c o l l e c t e d t h e r e i n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g . Beach f o o d s s u c h as c l a m s , n a t i v e o y s t e r s , s c a l l o p s , a b a i o n e and o c t o p u s were a l s o a b u n d a n t p r e v i o u s l y . K i l l e r - w h a l e s and humpback w h a l e s were o f t e n s e e n i n M a p l e Bay, b u t t h e y were n o t h u n t e d by t h e C o w i c h a n . However, s e a l s and s e a - l i o n s were h u n t e d i n t h e M a ple Bay a r e a , b u t n o t i n t h i s c e n t u r y ( A J ) . M a p l e Bay was s a i d by t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t o be t h e s i t e o f t h e l a s t b a t t l e between t h e " N o r t h e r n P e o p l e " [ t h a t i s , t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l and t h e i r a l l i e s ] , Y e k w e l h t a 7 x and t h e C o a s t S a l i s h . T h i s b a t t l e , w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y t o o k p l a c e a b o u t 1860, was t h e l a s t o f t h e s o - c a l l e d " I n d i a n Wars". S'ome o f t h e C o a s t S a l i s h g r o u p s i n v o l v e d a t M a p l e Bay i n c l u d e d t h e S t r a i t s S a l i s h ( f r o m Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ) , t h e Halkomelem ( I s l a n d and M a i n l a n d ) , t h e Squamish, t h e S e c h e l t and t h e P uget Sound S a l i s h . The C o a s t S a l i s h were v i c t o r i o u s b e c a u s e t h e y u s e d a s p e c i a l s y s t e m o f b i r d c a l l s ( t h e l o o n , s m a l l owl and b i g owl) t o warn o f t h e i m p e n d i n g N o r t h e r n r a i d e r s and b e c a u s e t h e y p l a c e d huge b o u l d e r s on t o p o f t h e c l i f f s a t M a p l e Bay. They r o l l e d t h e b o u l d e r s o n t o t h e un-s u s p e c t i n g N o r t h e r n P e o p l e (who t h o u g h t t h e y had e n t e r e d C o w i c h a n B a y ) , f l o o d i n g and d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r c a n o e s (ADJ; A J ; Boas, 1889 ; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) . The o r i g i n o f t h e "Cowichan V i c t o r y Song" was a t t h i s b a t t l e . A young Somenos w a r r i o r d i d n o t s u f f o c a t e f r o m b l o o d e n t e r i n g h i s l u n g s b e c a u s e f l i e s and maggots k e p t h i s w i n d p i p e c l e a r . H i s song i s t r a n s c r i b e d below: Xwe7i7 stam [ t s ' a 7 ] yexw t s ' i 7 o 7 kw'e7 h e l i 7 t h ? The meaning o f t h i s song i s "What b r o u g h t me b a c k t o l i f e " , and t h e answer was t h e f l i e s and maggots t h a t k e p t b l o o d f r o m h i s mouth (ADJ; A J ; A R J ) . Paddy M i l e S t o n e , a t t h e s o u t h e n t r a n c e t o Maple Bay, once had an I n d i a n p l a c e - n a m e , b u t i t i s no l o n g e r remembered. The S t o n e was s a i d t o be t h e s e c o n d r o c k s l u n g by Smokw'ets (ADJ) 132 / ( o r p e r h a p s t h e f i r s t , a c c o r d i n g t o GC). Smokw'ets was a man who t r i e d t o h i t t h e m o n s t e r a t O c t o p u s P o i n t by h u r l i n g huge b o u l d e r s f r o m a h a n d - s l i n g somewhere n e a r P o i n t R o b e r t s (ADJ; G C ) . 129. U n d e f i n e d A r e a Between Mount R i c h a r d s and Mount T z u h a l e m /• ' / xweyxweyepale7 (ADJ) "wake up c r e e k " 130. N o r t h S i d e Of Mount Tzuhalem, J u s t S o u t h Of M a p l e Bay ( s ) t h ' a m t e x e n (ADJ) 'dry p l a c e 1 T h e s e two a r e a s a r e l o c a t e d between Maple Bay and Mount T z u h a l e m . The f i r s t i s an u n l o c a t e d c r e e k , p e r h a p s one o f t h e many f l o w i n g f r o m Mount R i c h a r d s s o u t h . The s e c o n d p l a c e i s so named b e c a u s e a f t e r t h e g r e a t f l o o d w h i c h c o v e r e d t h e C o w i c h a n v a l l e y , i t was one o f t h e f i r s t p l a c e s where t h e w a t e r r e c e d e d ( A D J ) . 131. L a r g e Cave A t O c t o p u s P o i n t shashek'em (ADJ; A J ; CP) 'wide open mouth 1 s £ s 3 q 3 m (Hudson, 1971:16) "Bay j u s t above C o w i c h a n Bay" sheshuq'um (Hudson, 1971:16) She'shekam ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) " A c t o n ' s Pass...open mouth" T s a a s c h - a - k h u n ( C r y e r , n.d.) 132. A r e a J u s t S o u t h Of O c t o p u s P o i n t / -xwekwekwelesh (AJ) 'many s h o o t i n g [bow and a r r o w s ] ' 133. Mount M a x w e l l , S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d (Baynes Peak) xwmat'etsem (ADJ; A J ; AT; GC) 'bent o v e r p l a c e ' 133 The t h r e e p r e c e d i n g p l a c e - n a m e s a r e a l l i m p o r t a n t t o t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem. They a r e p l a c e - n a m e s d e r i v e d f r o m a s t o r y t o l d by t h e C o w i c h a n . I n t h e m y t h i c a l p a s t t h e r e was a huge m o n s t e r i n a c a v e n e a r O c t o p u s P o i n t . T h i s m o n s t e r [ C u r t i s , / 1913:170 s a i d i t was T s ' i n k w o 7 , t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l l i g h t n i n g -s n a k e , b u t t h e I n d i a n s t o d a y do n o t a g r e e w i t h t h i s ] a l w a y s had i t s mouth wide open, hence t h e name shashek'em 'wide open mouth' f o r t h e p l a c e and t h e m o n s t e r . T h i s c a v e opened up and t h e m o n s t e r s u c k e d i n p e o p l e i n c a n o e s p a s s i n g by. C u r t i s (1913:170) s a i d t h a t t h e m o n s t e r ' s s h a r p t o n g u e c u t c a n o e s i n h a l f , d r o w n i n g t h e p e o p l e a b o a r d . I n one v e r s i o n o f t h e s t o r y , t h i s m o n s t e r was k i l l e d a t t h e p r e s e n t s i t e o f t h e Mohawk Gas S t a t i o n , on t h e I s l a n d Highway i n Duncan, by Skw'-/' / i l e m and h i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r Swelho7kw' ( A J ) . I n a n o t h e r v e r -s i o n , t h e m o n s t e r was k i l l e d by Smokw'ets, who h u r l e d a s t o n e a t i t f r o m t h e P o i n t R o b e r t s a r e a . The f i r s t few a t t e m p t s by Smokw'ets f a i l e d and t h i s i s why Mount M a x w e l l (Baynes Peak) on S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d i s " b ent o v e r " . One o f t h e b o u l d e r s h i t t h a t m o u n t a i n , o r p e r h a p s Smokw'ets c a l l e d o v e r t o t h e m o u n t a i n and a s k e d i t " t o bend o v e r " so he c o u l d h i t t h e m o n s t e r . I n any c a s e , i t was t h e f o u r t h and l a s t r o c k h u r l e d by Smokw'ets t h a t k i l l e d shashek'em. To t h i s day, t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem a r e s t i l l wary o f p a s s i n g by t h e c a v e o r O c t o p u s P o i n t (ADJ; A J ; AT; GC). A n o t h e r p l a c e j u s t s o u t h o f O c t o p u s P o i n t was s a i d t o be a p l a c e where t h e C o w i c h a n p r a c t i s e d w i t h bows and a r r o w s t o k i l l t h e m o n s t e r . T h e r e was a c r a c k i n t h e c l i f f s t h e r e t h a t was u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ( A J ) . 134. B u r g o y n e Bay, S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d xwookw'em (ADJ; A J ; CP) 'merganser [ " s a w b i l l duck"] p l a c e ' w/lw x aq 3m (Hudson, 1971:15; xwaqw'um (Hudson, 1971:15) Whaukan ( d ' H e u r e u s e , 1860) A l t h o u g h h e r r i n g were r a k e d and h e r r i n g spawn was c o l l e c t ed a r o u n d B u r g o y n e Bay and t h e a r e a was u s e d by t h e C o w i c h a n f o r c l a m d i g g i n g and m a r i n e mammal h u n t i n g ( s e a l s a n d s e a -l i o n s ) , as t h i s p l a c e - n a m e i n d i c a t e s , i t was a duck h u n t i n g a r e a . Many s p e c i e s o f w a t e r f o w l , b u t e s p e c i a l l y common mergan s e r s (known t o t h e I n d i a n s by t h e i r f o l k name " s a w b i l l d u c k " ) , were n e t t e d and s p e a r e d h e r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e summer and autumn months (ADJ; A J ) . 135. B o l d B l u f f , S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d / s l h e k ' l h e k ' w e s (ADJ; A J ; CP) ' [ p l a c e where] many l y i n g down' s"£uq' s^dq W£ s (Hudson, 1971:16) " b i g r o c k " s l h u q ' s l h u q w u s (Hudson, 1971:16) 136. B o l d B l u f f P o i n t (Wharf A r e a ) k ' i k ' e w e t e m (AJ) ' l i t t l e drummer' 137. B o l d B l u f f P o i n t (Cave I n C l i f f s A t P o i n t ) shxwexwo7es/le (AJ) ' p l a c e o f t h e T h u n d e r b i r d ' The B o l d B l u f f a r e a was t h e s i t e o f some s t r a n g e n o i s e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o w i c h a n . The r e a s o n why B o l d B l u f f i t s e l f was named " l o t s l y i n g down" was t h a t i t a p p e a r e d t o t h e I n d i a n s i n c a n o e s i n Sansum Narrows o r B u rgoyne Bay t h a t t h e b l u f f s were l i k e many p e o p l e l y i n g down w i t h t h e i r b a c k s e x p o s e d ( A J ) . The w h a r f a r e a n e a r B o l d B l u f f P o i n t was a p l a c e where t h e C o wichan h e a r d a " l i t t l e drumming sound" i n t h e p a s t , b u t t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s n o i s e was n o t known. B u t t h e s o u n d o f t h u n d e r c o u l d o f t e n be h e a r d e m a n a t i n g f r o m a c a v e a t B o l d B l u f f P o i n t . F o r t h a t r e a s o n t h e p l a c e was named " T h u n d e r b i r d C a v e " . The I s l a n d Halkomelem b e l i e v e d t h a t t h u n d e r was t h e sound o f t h e T h u n d e r b i r d f l a p p i n g h i s w i n g s . The c a v e a t B o l d B l u f f P o i n t was o n l y one o f s e v e r a l p l a c e s i n I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y t h a t was s a i d t o be home t o t h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e . The C o w i c h a n t o d a y r e c a l l t h a t i n t h e p a s t t h e r e were a l w a y s b a l d e a g l e s f l y i n g a r o u n d B o l d B l u f f (AJ) . 138 » Musgrave Rock, S o u t h w e s t Of Musgrave P o i n t , S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d kw'oth'o7kw (ADJ; A J ; AT; GC) 'excrement (on) head' q W a c ? w q W (Hudson, 1971:15) "manure" w / w q aes^wq (Hudson, 1971:15) qw'az'uwqw (Hudson, 1971:15) The r e a s o n why t h i s p l a c e was so named i s e i t h e r n o t remembered o r w i l l n o t be r e v e a l e d t o n o n - I n d i a n s f o r some r e a s o n t o d a y (ADJ; A J ; GC). 139. Mount Tuam, S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d . / t s'ewaan (ADJ; A J ; AT; CP) ' l a n d [mountain] goes r i g h t down t o t h e w a t e r ' T s o ' w a n (Boas, 1981:77) 136 c3w?e?3n (Hudson, 1971:15) " f a c i n g w e s t " tzuw'e'un (Hudson, 1971:15) Chu-an ( H a m i l t o n , 1969:6) " f a c i n g t h e s e a " cuwen ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) tcuwan ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) " I n d i a n p e o p l e who i n h a b i t -ed S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d " Tuan ( d ' H e u r e u s e , 1860) Chuan ( D o u g l a s , 1853) [Note t h a t D o u g l a s 1 map shows t h e words Chuan I s l a n d where S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d i s now.] The a r e a o f S a t e l l i t e C h a n n e l d i r e c t l y b e l o w Mount Tuam was f o r m e r l y a s e a s o n a l c a m p i n g l o c a t i o n o f t h e Cow i c h a n and t h e S a a n i c h . T h e r e was an i n c r e d i b l e d i v e r s i t y o f f o o d - g e t t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s a r e a u n t i l t h e t u r n o f t h i s c e n t u r y . S h a r k s were s e e n i n t h e w a t e r s o f S a t e l l i t e C h a n n e l ( A J ) . In t h e s p r i n g , h e r r i n g were r a k e d and h e r r i n g spawn c o l l e c t e d by t h e C o w i c h a n (ADJ; A J ; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; n . d . ) . D u r i n g t h e summer months, l i n g c o d , h a l i b u t , c l a m s , g i a n t r e d s e a u r c h i n s , s e a l s and s e a - l i o n s were a l s o t a k e n by t h e S a a n i c h and C owichan, who u s e d t h e b e a c h below t h e m o u n t a i n as a f o o d - p r o c e s s i n g a r e a (ADJ; A J ; AT; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; n . d . ) . * / I n t h e C o w i c h a n s t o r y o f S x a l e k e n , t h e "Man W i t h t h e F l a s h i n g E y e s " , a man was l e f t up on Mount Tuam t o d i e . He had been b l i n d e d by s l i v e r s . E v e n t u a l l y he was a b l e t o c a u s e l i g h t n i n g t o s t r i k e e v e r y t i m e he opened h i s e y e s . The S a a n i c h v e r s i o n o f t h i s s t o r y i n c l u d e s a p l a c e - n a m e a t t h e t o p o f Mount Tuam, named s x a l e k e n ( a f t e r t h e c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s t o r y j u s t r e l a t e d ) (ADJ; A J ; Hudson, 1971:15). I n a n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h i s s t o r y , r e c o r d e d by Boas i n t h e 189O's (Boas, 137 1981:76, 77) a t Duncan, S x a l e k e n ' s f a c e was whipped w i t h r e d c e d a r b r a n c h e s and l a t e r w i t h b l u e b e r r y b u s h e s . A f t e r S x a l e k e n was l e f t f o r dead f o r t e n d a y s , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e T h u n d e r b i r d gave S x a l e k e n h i s e y e s . T h i s was t h e r e a s o n t h a t f i r e [ o r l i g h t n i n g ] f l a s h e d f r o m Sxa'leken' s e y e s and why he k i l l e d t h e b r o t h e r who had p r e v i o u s l y w h i p p e d him j u s t by l o o k i n g a t t h e b r o t h e r . From t h i s p o i n t , a t t h e s o u t h w e s t end o f S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d , we w i l l move t o t h e n o r t h s i d e o f C o w i c h a n Bay a t S e p a r a t i o n P o i n t . From t h e r e we w i l l examine a l l o f t h e C o w i c h a n p l a c e - n a m e s a l o n g t h e n o r t h s i d e o f C o w i c h a n Bay. We w i l l t h e n p r o c e e d a l l t h e way up t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r t o C o w i c h a n Lake and beyond t o t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e W e s t c o a s t (Nootka) I n d i a n s . We w i l l t h e n l o o k a t p l a c e - n a m e s i n t h e K o k s i l a h R i v e r v a l l e y , p r o c e e d a l o n g t h e s o u t h e a s t s i d e o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d as f a r as Sooke, and t h e n examine t h e p l a c e -names known t o t h e I s l a n d Halkomelem t h a t a r e s o u t h o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y , o r were s h a r e d w i t h t h e S t r a i t s S a l i s h I n d i a n s s p e a k i n g t h e S a a n i c h d i a l e c t . 138 140. S e p a r a t i o n P o i n t s n e s t s e (ADJ) (meaning n o t known) s n e s t s ' e (AJ) (meaning n o t known) / sn£sce ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:5) T h i s p o i n t o f l a n d i s an i m p o r t a n t landmark b e c a u s e when one t r a v e l s by canoe s o u t h t h r o u g h Sansum Narrows and west i n t o Genoa Bay and Co w i c h a n Bay, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p a s s t h e P o i n t w i t h s u f f i c i e n t d i s t a n c e t o a v o i d r u n n i n g a g r o u n d . A l s o , as one e n t e r s Cowichan Bay, t h e a r e a a r o u n d t h e P o i n t i s p a r t o f Cow i c h a n R e s e r v e #1 ( A J ) . 141. Genoa Bay ( S o u t h e a s t S i d e ) k w i k w t h o t h e n (AJ) ( e x a c t meaning n o t known) k w i ? k W < 9 a ^ 9 n ( S u t t l e s , 1976a: 5) T h e r e i s a p p a r e n t l y n o t a s p e c i f i c p l a c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s p l a c e - n a m e . The name seems t o r e f e r t o t h e s o u t h e a s t s i d e o f Genoa Bay i n t h e a r e a w e s t o f S e p a r a t i o n P o i n t ( A J ) . 14 2. Genoa Bay ( F o r m e r l y Known as Mahoney's Bay) xwtemelhem (ADJ; A J ; CP) ' p l a c e h a v i n g r e d o c h r e ' w, tsmafem ( L e s l i e , 1979:76) x W u t ^ m 9 ^ 3 n (Hudson, 1971:16) hwutumulhun (Hudson, 1971:16) t 3 m 9 ^ (Hudson, 1971:16) " r e d p a i n t " t u m u l h (Hudson, 1971:16) x W t 3 m 3 ± 3 m ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:5) x 139 A l t h o u g h t h e t e r m xwtemelhem was p r e v i o u s l y u s e d t o r e f e r e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e a r e a a r o u n d t h e f o r m e r s a w m i l l a t Genoa Bay, t o d a y i t i s u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e e n t i r e bay. The e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f t h e r e d o c h r e d e p o s i t s , w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s u t i l i z e d and f o r w h i c h t h i s p l a c e was named, has n o t been f o u n d (AJ; C P ) . A J was n o t c e r t a i n t h a t o c h r e was c o l l e c t e d h e r e a t a l l . The residents o f t h e permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e s on t h e l o w e r C o w i c h a n R i v e r " r a k e d " h e r r i n g and f i s h e d f o r s a l m o n a t Genoa Bay and c o l l e c t e d h e r r i n g spawn t h e r e i n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g . A t o t h e r t i m e s o f t h e y e a r t h e r o c k y i n t e r t i d a l z ones were u s e d f o r t h e p r o c u r e m e n t o f s u c h b e a c h f o o d s as cl a m s and c o c k l e s ( A J ) . 14 3. Mount T z u h a l e m o r "Cowichan M o u n t a i n " - / s h k e w e t s e n (ADJ; A J ; CP; DP) 'warm b a c k ' o r ' b a s k i n g on i t s s i d e i n t h e s u n ' q^w?/csn ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:4) Kftwutsun ( C u r t i s , 1913:32) / KAuwEtsEn Smant ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:369) 144. V i l l a g e a t t h e F o o t o f Mount T z u h a l e m , named f o r t h e C o w i c h a n W a r r i o r T z o u h a l e m [ a l s o a l t e r n a t e name f o r Mount Tzuhalem] t s ' e w x i l e m (ADJ; A J ; CP) P r o p e r Name t s ' u x a l e m (ADJ; A J ; CP) [ a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n ] 145. k.eWo7s (ADJ) ' f a c i n g t h e w a t e r ' c S w x i l P m ( L e s l i e , 1979:5) 140 t s u h e l a m ( B a r n e t t , 1955:21) t s ^ h e l u m ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ) T z o » x e l £ m ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) T s o h e l i m ( C u r t i s , 1913:102) [Name f o r Mount Tzuhalem] 146- T l k o t a s ( C u r t i s , 1913:35, 175) [Name f o r t h e W a r r i o r T z o u h a l e m ' s " S t o c k a d e d V i l l a g e " ] T s o q e l E m ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:369) T s a h l e m (Humphreys, n.d.) T c h o l a m (Humphreys, n.d.) T s o u h a i l i m ( d'Heureuse Map, 1860) 147. " F r o g Rock" on Mount T z u h a l e m p ' i p ' d o m (ADJ; AJ) ' l i t t l e s w e l l e d - u p one' Bipaam ( F r a n c i s , 1928) 14 8. West Peak o f Mount Tz u h a l e m , Where C r o s s Now S t a n d s s h p ' a p ' t l ' (ADJ; AJ) ' p l a c e t o f e e l a r o u n d f o r s o m e t h i n g [ w i t h t h e h a n d s ] 1 s h p u p a > p t l ( C u r t i s , 1913:102) The I s l a n d Halkomelem p e o p l e who speak t h e C o w i c h a n d i a l e c t and who l i v e on t h e l o w e r Cowichan R i v e r t r a c e t h e o r i g i n o f t h e i r name t o Mount T z u h a l e m . T h i s l a r g e m o u n t a i n , named s h k e w e t s e n , e v e n t u a l l y became s h o r t e n e d t o k e w e t s e n , w h i c h was a n g l i c i z e d t o Cowichan (ADJ; A J ) . Boas (1887:129, 130) s t a t e d t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l name r e f e r r e d t o S k i n n e r B l u f f s a b o u t two k i l o m e t e r s s o u t h e a s t o f t h e m o u n t a i n . I n any c a s e , t h e a n g l i c i z e d name i s now a p p l i e d t o t h e I n d i a n Band, t h e 141 r i v e r along which the people l i v e and the l a k e t h a t forms the source of the r i v e r , as w e l l as to the l a r g e bay a t the mouth of the r i v e r (among other l o c a l place-names). « / The reason f o r naming Mount Tzuhalem, shkewetsen, Cowichan Mountain i s obvious; the o r i g i n of the Indian name i s not as apparent to the non-Indian. ADJ e x p l a i n e d i n h i s v e r s i o n of the Cowichan "Story of the Great F l o o d " t h a t before t h i s deluge, t h a t happened thousands of years ago, there was a l a r g e f r o g on top of what i s now Mount Tzuhalem. The Indian people saw the f r o g and n o t i c e d t h a t i t was "basking on i t s s i d e i n the warm sun", shkewetsen. The people decided to take t h e i r name from t h i s f r o g ' s a c t i o n s , and t h a t i s the o r i g i n of the word "Cowichan". Today, some people "who have very good eyes" can s t i l l see the image of t h a t f r o g i n the rock on the west s i d e of Mount Tzuhalem. T h i s p l a c e i s known l o c a l l y as "Frog Rock" and i s known i n the Cowichan d i a l e c t as p'ip'oom ' l i t t l e swelled-up one'. I t i s now the s i t e of a l a r g e c r o s s e r e c t e d i n the mid-1970's. J u s t e a s t of "Frog Rock" ( a l s o known as " R i s i n g Rock") i s a s m a l l p o o l of water. T h i s pool i s s a i d to have v a r i o u s o b j e c t s i n i t , such as f i s h bones, cedar c h i p s , deer h a i r and duck f e a t h e r s . The p o o l i s used by the Cowichan to t e l l t h e i r f o r t u n e s . I f a man reaches i n t o the p o o l and p u l l s out some cedar c h i p s , he might be a good c a r v e r ; i f he p u l l s out some deer h a i r , he might be a good hunter. I f a woman p u l l s out some wool, she might be a good spinner or weaver, and so on (AJ; ADJ). C u r t i s (1913:102) s t a t e d t h a t the pool was a c i r c u l a r , hollow rock on the h i g h e s t p a r t of Mount 142 Tzuhalem, somewhat l i k e a s m a l l c r a t e r w i t h w a t e r i n t h e b o t t o m . T h i s f o r t u n e - t e l l i n g p o o l was s a i d t o f o r e t e l l one's "power" l a t e r i n l i f e , a c c o r d i n g t o A J . The t r a n s l a t i o n f o r t h i s p l a c e - n a m e s u g g e s t s t h e way i n w h i c h i t was u s e d : " f e e l -i n g a r o u n d f o r s o m e t h i n g w i t h t h e h a n d s " . Mount T z u h a l e m a l s o f i g u r e d i n s e v e r a l o t h e r C o w i c h a n s t o r i e s . F o r example, t h e c a v e s t h e r e were s a i d t o be t h e home o f t h e m y t h i c a l T h u n d e r b i r d . and h i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r T z i n q u a w . The l a t t e r i s v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as a two-h e a d e d s e r p e n t , l i g h t n i n g d r a g o n , o r a f l y i n g l i g h t n i n g m o n s t e r . I n t h e C o w i c h a n s t o r y o f t h e " O r i g i n o f Salmon", a l a r g e w h a l e was b l o c k i n g many salmon a t t h e mouth o f t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r , n o t a l l o w i n g them t o a s c e n d t h e r i v e r and spawn. T h u n d e r b i r d (or Tzinquaw, d e p e n d i n g on t h e s t o r y -t e l l e r ) swooped down f r o m Mount T z u h a l e m and p i c k e d up t h e w h a l e i n i t s c l a w s , t h e n p l a c i n g i t i n a c a v e on t h e m o u n t a i n . T h i s a l l o w e d t h e f i s h t o spawn, t h u s e n s u r i n g f o o d f o r t h e C o w i c h a n p e o p l e f o r e v e r . T h u n d e r b i r d t h e n a t e t h e w h a l e , and t h i s was s a i d t o be t h e r e a s o n why w h a l e bones c a n some-t i m e s be f o u n d on t h e m o u n t a i n (AJ; A D J ) . I n a v e r s i o n o f t h i s same s t o r y r e c o r d e d by Boas (1981:76) , some h u n t e r s were c h a s i n g t h e w h a l e b e f o r e T h u n d e r b i r d swooped down and p i c k e d i t up. A c c o r d i n g t o A J , b l a c k b e a r s , d e e r and e l k c o u l d be f o u n d on Mount T z u h a l e m i n t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The b e a r s u s e d t o h i b e r n a t e i n t h e c a v e s t h e r e . The o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p o i n t w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g a b o u t Mount T z u h a l e m i s t h e f o r m e r v i l l a g e o f t h e g r e a t C o w i c h a n w a r r i o r 143 named Tzouhalem, s a i d to be l o c a t e d somewhere a t the f o o t of the mountain (AJ; ADJ). B a r n e t t (1955:42) c a l l e d t h i s a "stockaded v i l l a g e " , but elsewhere (1955:21) he e x p l a i n e d t h a t there was a c t u a l l y only one l a r g e house and t h a t i t was an " o f f s h o o t of another v i l l a g e . " Some Cowichan people today f e e l t h a t Tzouhalem probably l i v e d c l o s e t o h i s b i r t h p l a c e at Green P o i n t (AJ; ADJ). C u r t i s (1913:35, 175) p r o v i d e d the name T l k o t a s f o r Tzouhalem's v i l l a g e , but t h i s name i s not known to the Cowichan today. ADJ named Tzouhalem's house kewo7s. C u r t i s (1913:35) a l s o p r o v i d e d d e t a i l s of the supposed s i t e of Tzouhalem's house, i t s dimensions and r e s i -dents. 149. Skinner P o i n t area / -hoomesem (AJ; ADJ) ' d r i n k i n g with head down i n water' / ha«?m9s3m ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:5) The name f o r t h i s p l a c e i s d e r i v e d from the Cowichan s t o r y of Xaals the Transformer, who changed a man who was d r i n k i n g water a t Skinner P o i n t (with h i s head down i n the water) i n t o stone (AJ; S u t t l e s , 1976a:5). 150. Area Between Skinner P o i n t and Green P o i n t xexetsawiye (AJ) (meaning not known) xsxBceweye ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:5) " e v e r y t h i n g i s dry (?)" The t i d a l f l a t s at the mouth of the north arm of the Cowichan R i v e r , a few k i l o m e t e r s e a s t of Green P o i n t , were used e x t e n s i v e l y by the Cowichan f o r c o l l e c t i n g beach foods (AJ) . 144 SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT THE WINTER VILLAGES ON THE LOWER COWICHAN The permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e s on t h e l o w e r C o w i c h a n R i v e r f o r m e d a k i n d o f c o n t i g u o u s c u l t u r a l u n i t . E x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s f r o m any h o u s e h o l d i n any o f t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o u l d h u n t f o r l a n d mammals anywhere t h e y w i s h e d . T h a t i s , t h e r e were no s e p a r a t e h u n t i n g g r o u n d s f o r e a c h v i l l -age where d e e r , e l k , b e a r s and o t h e x l a n d a n i m a l s s u c h as b e a v e r were h u n t e d . B u t e a c h f a m i l y f o r m e r l y had i t s own f i s h i n g w e i r i n f r o n t o f i t s v i l l a g e , i f i t d e s i r e d one. I n some c a s e s w e i r s were s e t up i n f r o n t o f t h e house and ex-t e n d e d a c r o s s t h e r i v e r . B e c a u s e salmon w e i r s had " s c r e e n s " o r " g a t e s " on them, some salmon were alw a y s a l l o w e d t o p a s s t h r o u g h e a c h w e i r , s u c h t h a t t h e p e o p l e i n t h e v i l l a g e s f u r t h e r u p r i v e r a l w a y s had p l e n t y o f s a l m o n . I n any c a s e , t h e number o f w e i r s on t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r n e v e r c a u s e d any d i s p u t e s among t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s i n t h e p a s t . The w e i r s were removed ( e x c e p t f o r t h e i r u p r i g h t m a i n - p o s t s ) a r o u n d November d u r i n g t h e h i g h w a t e r and t h e s c r e e n s were r e p l a c e d i n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g when t h e w a t e r was low, i n o r d e r t o c a t c h s t e e l h e a d and t h e w i n t e r r u n o f s p r i n g s a l m o n . I n t h e d a ys b e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s , C o w i c h a n p e o p l e s t a y e d c l o s e t o t h e i r own v i l l a g e , e x c e p t f o r v i s i t i n g and a t t e n d i n g d a n c e s o r p o t l a t c h -es o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e s . B u t most i m p o r t a n t l y , a l l o f t h e r e s -i d e n t s o f t h e l o w e r C o w i c h a n R i v e r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be "Cowichan"; e v e n i f t h e y t r a v e l l e d o u t s i d e I s l a n d Halkomelem t e r r i t o r y , t h e y were a l s o r e c o g n i z e d as s u c h . On t h e f o l l o w i n g page i s a s a m p l i n g o f t h e a t t e m p t s t o t r a n s c r i b e t h e t e r m "Cowichan", f r o m most r e c e n t t o e a r l i -145 e s t s o u r c e . Note t h a t t h e t e r m "Cowichan" i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p l a c e - n a m e s h k e w e t s e n 'Mount Tz u h a l e m ' o r "Cowichan M o u n t a i n " (ADJ; A J ; J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; B a r n e t t , 1955:21,22) COWICHAN ke w e t s e n (ADJ; AG; A J ; A L I ; AL2; ARJ; AT; CP; DP; GC; HW; RJ) ' b a s k i n g on i t s s i d e i n t h e s u n ' , 'warm back' k e w e t s e n [ a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n g i v e n by a l l p e o p l e above] K ' a u ^ e t c i n (Boas, 1981:70) " C o w i t c h i n T r i b e " C o w i t c h i n (Boas, 1981:70) ( L e s l i e , 1979:128) (Hudson, 1971:21) "Cowichan Bay" (Hudson, 1971:21) "warm, l i k e an o l d man b e s i d e a q9 w i c 3 n Kowlc'an Kowichun qawAchAn k D w i t c a n / K a u i t s E n f i r e " ( M i t c h e l l , 168:73) ( B a r n e t t , 1955:21) ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:363) Q a u i t s c h i n (Boas, 1887:132) K a w i t s h i n ( T o l m i e and Dawson, 1884:120) C o w i t c h a n ( W i l s o n , 1866:278, 283) C o w i c h i n ( G r a n t , 1857:293) C o w i t c h i n ( G r a n t , 1857:280) C o w e t c h i n ( D o u g l a s , 1853) K o w i t c h e n ( D o u g l a s , 18 53) ( D o u g l a s , 1853) ( D o u g l a s , 1853) Cowegin Cowegan K a - w a y - c h i n s (Simon F r a s e r , 1808 , c i t e d i n Rozen, 1977:1) 146 151. Cowichan R i v e r (About S i x t y - F i v e Kilometers Long) stolew (ADJ; AJ; ARJ; AT; DP) ' r i v e r ' /> s t o l u [ a l t e r n a t e s p e l l i n g f o r the term given above] / /' ' kewetsen stolew (ADJ; AJ) 'Cowichan R i v e r ' [ t h i s r e c e n t term r e f l e c t s the kinds of changes t h a t I s l a n d Halkomelem has undergone s i n c e i t s speakers have come i n c o n t a c t w i t h E n g l i s h ] / ' • The Cowichan use the g e n e r i c term stolew ' r i v e r ' to r e f e r to the Cowichan R i v e r . On the lower Cowichan R i v e r there are a t l e a s t three d i s t r i b u t a r i e s , one of which l i n k s the Cowichan R i v e r with the K o k s i l a h R i v e r . A l l of these d i s t r i b u t a r i e s combine to form the Cowichan-Koksilah e s t u a r y . I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to l o c a t e some of the place-names on the lower Cowichan and K o k s i l a h R i v e r s because there i s today, and has always been, frequent f l o o d i n g causing new channels and d i s t r i b u t a r i e s to be formed. In naming and d e s c r i b i n g the place-names i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the presen t study, the f o l l o w i n g order w i l l be employed. The nor t h arm or d i s t r i b u t a r y o f the Cowichan River and i t s place-names w i l l be examined f i r s t , p r o g r e s s i n g upstream u n t i l the main channel of the Cowichan i s reached. Then the south arm of the Cowichan River w i l l be d e s c r i b e d , a l s o s t a r t i n g a t the mouth and extending to the j u n c t i o n of t h i s arm and the middle arm. F o l l o w i n g t h a t , the middle arm or d i s t r i b u t a r y of the Cowichan R i v e r w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . T h i s middle arm l i n k s the north and south arms of the Cowichan R i v e r with the K o k s i l a h R i v e r . In examining the middle arm, 147 the order of place-names d i s c u s s e d w i l l proceed from the j u n c t i o n of the middle arm and the south arm to the j u n c t i o n of the middle arm and the n o r t h arm. A f t e r t h a t , the remainder of the Cowichan R i v e r w i l l be d e s c r i b e d , proceeding from the p o i n t where a l l of the three d i s t r i b u t a r i e s combine to form a s i n g l e channel on the Cowichan R i v e r to the source of the r i v e r a t Cowichan Lake. I t should be noted t h a t the Cowichan Indians do not re c o g n i z e the v a r i o u s arms of the Cowichan R i v e r as d i s t i n c t , nor do they employ any s p e c i a l names f o r these segments of the r i v e r . T h e i r p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e i s u s u a l l y a s p e c i f i c place-name or a p l a c e known to the person to whom they are speaking. The reader w i l l note t h a t some of the place-names covered i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the study are not l o c a t e d e x a c t l y on the Cowichan R i v e r . Some may be a k i l o m e t e r or two from the r i v e r bank, but as much as p o s s i b l e , these names or terms w i l l o n l y be i n c l u d e d when they have an a s s o c i a t i o n with other Cowichan R i v e r place-names. For example, Quamichan Creek and Quamichan Lake are i n c l u d e d here because both flow i n t o the Cowichan R i v e r and are c l o s e l y t i e d to r i v e r v i l l a g e s , mythology and resource-procurement. F o l l o w i n g , then, are the place-names known to the Cowichan t h a t are l o c a t e d on the nor t h arm of the Cowichan R i v e r from i t s mouth to the j u n c t i o n of the n o r t h arm and the main channel of the Cowichan R i v e r . 148 152. Green P o i n t , Khenipsen Road Area, Green P o i n t V i l l a g e / xinepsem (ADJ; AJ; AT; CP; DP; GC) p o s s i b l y 'caught by the neck' or 'caught i n the neck' / xm9ps3m ( L e s l i e , 1979:5) / xin3ps3m ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:l) Kenipsen (Duff, 1964:26) xena.psd.rn (Barnett, 1955:21) xenupsum (Barnett, f i e l d notes) xenipsim (Lane, 1953:15) Khenipsim (Lane, 1953:15) Xenipsim (Jenness, f i e l d notes) He 'nflpsc(m Henipsam K h e n i p s o n K a n i p s i n K i n i p s i n Henipsum / H a i n i p s E n L . C h e n i p s e n Henipsam Hanipsam (Jenness, f i e l d notes) (Jenness, f i e l d notes) (Jenness, n.d.) (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1) (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1) ( C u r t i s , 1913:168) ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) (Boas, 1887:132) (Humphreys, n.d.) (Humphreys, n.d.) 15 3. Khenipsen Road Area, A Few Hundred Meters Northwest of Green P o i n t kw'atkem (ADJ; AJ) p o s s i b l y " c r a c k i n g n o i s e " kwatkem (ADJ; AJ) [ a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n , used i n r a p i d speech] 149 w / k etqam ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:1) "water coming down ( ? ) " Quaht-khum (Cryer, n.d.) " s h o r t people... name f o r t r i b e " Kwetikum ( C u r t i s , 1913:168) Kwatkum ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) Green P o i n t i s a s m a l l h i l l a t the mouth of the nor t h arm of the Cowichan R i v e r , on the north bank. I t i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the massive (about twenty-three hundred hectares) Cowichan #1 Indian Reserve, on which most of the Cowichan Indians l i v e and which encompasses most of the lower Cowichan and K o k s i l a h R i v e r s (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1:299). There are s e v e r a l houses at Green P o i n t today; t h i s comm-u n i t y i s separated from the r e s t of the Cowichan Reserve by Khenipsen Road. About one-half k i l o m e t e r northwest of Green P o i n t i s another place-name, kw'atkem, which i s c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of the Green P o i n t community (ADJ; A J ) . C u r t i s (1913:175) d e s c r i b e d the Green P o i n t v i l l a g e , / xinepsem, as "a group of houses on a k n o l l a t the mouth of the Cowichan R i v e r , b u i l t about 1850 by people from... Quamichan, a v i l l a g e s e v e r a l k i l o m e t e r s upstream]." When C u r t i s v i s i t e d the Green P o i n t v i l l a g e i n 1912, there were nine houses wi t h f i f t e e n f a m i l i e s . / Jenness ( f i e l d notes) c o n s i d e r e d xinepsem v i l l a g e t o be a " c o a s t a l " one. He c o r r e c t l y p o i n t e d out t h a t the r e s i d e n t s of t h i s v i l l a g e were more o r i e n t e d towards the s a l t water ( i . e . Cowichan Bay and the Gulf Islands) i n t h e i r f o o d - g e t t i n g a c t i v i t i e s than the Cowichan R i v e r . For example, 150 / although the xinepsem people d i d not e r e c t f i s h i n g weirs on the Cowichan R i v e r i t s e l f , some people b u i l t weirs on the t i d a l f l a t s adjacent to Green P o i n t , where the r e c e d i n g t i d e l e f t f i s h s tranded (ADJ; AJ; Jenness, f i e l d n o t e s ) . A l s o , a s e t t l e m e n t a t Virago-Race P o i n t s at the n o r t h end of / G a l i a n o I s l a n d on P o r l i e r Pass was named xixnepsem ' l i t t l e / xinepsem' [some people say t h i s settlement was a l s o named / simply xinepsem, the same name as the Green P o i n t s e t t l e m e n t ] . There are s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s today t h a t can t r a c e h o u s e - s i t e s and camping p l a c e s to both l o c a t i o n s . I t i s not p o s s i b l e to s t a t e which of the two settlements e x i s t e d f i r s t , but some Cowichan people today f e e l t h a t the Galiano I s l a n d v i l l a g e might have been the o r i g i n a l one, and t h a t i t s i n h a b i t a n t s moved to the Cowichan R i v e r [about 1850, i f C u r t i s (1913:175) i s c o r r e c t about the date of the Green P o i n t v i l l a g e ' s establishment] to escape the frequent r a i d s of the Southern Kwakiutl and t h e i r a l l i e s (ADJ; AJ; DP). Dougan (1973:223) noted t h a t the "Keenupsoms had t h e i r v i l l a g e a t the f o o t of Mount Tzouhalem" and v e r i f i e d t h a t / xinepsem was a l s o the name of the c h i e f a t the Green P o i n t v i l l a g e . The g r e a t Cowichan w a r r i o r Tzouhalem was a l s o born / a t xinepsem (AJ; CP). / The Cowichan s t o r y of K'isak and the Stoneheads accounts f o r the o r i g i n of t r o u t , s e v e r a l Cowichan p l a c e -names and some aspects of Cowichan ceremonialism. The s t o r y concerns a boy named K'isak ' t i e d g e n i t a l s ' who overcame a group of people w i t h stone heads who were k i l l i n g the f i r s t -151 born sons of the Green P o i n t v i l l a g e r s . I t i s a s t o r y t h a t has been recorded by most of the ethnographers who have v i s i t e d the Cowichan, s t a r t i n g with Boas' v e r s i o n i n 1890 (Boas, 1 9 8 1:71). Other v e r s i o n s were recorded by C u r t i s (1913:168), Jenness ( f i e l d n o t e s ) , Cryer (n.d.), and AJ, ADJ and CP have a l l p r o v i d e d v e r s i o n s r e c e n t l y . K'isak was born c l o s e to Green P o i n t , but the Stoneheads i n a l l v e r s i o n s of t h i s s t o r y except the one t o l d by CP l i v e d at kw'atkem. / E v e n t u a l l y , K'isak was able to k i l l the Stoneheads and thus he was regarded as a hero of h i s people (ADJ; A J ) . / Jenness ( f i e l d notes) noted t h a t the v i l l a g e a t xinepsem had a p a l i s a d e around i t . Cryer s t a t e d t h a t there were a c t u a l l y three d i f f e r e n t names f o r the occupants of the houses a t Green P o i n t , although i t i s not made c l e a r which names r e f e r to r e a l people and which r e f e r to m y t h o l o g i c a l beings. The t h r e e names Cryer p r o v i d e d were: Mun-maan-taks "Stoneheads" [ t h i s term i s p r o p e r l y w r i t t e n menmo'onto7kw] , Quaht-khum "Short People" [kw'atkem] and Smut-sun-tus "HammerHeads". / 154. Area Between Green P o i n t (kw'atkem, s p e c i f i c a l l y ) and Comiaken H i l l / s x i x e l e s (AJ) (exact meaning not known) / s x i x q s t ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:l) There does not appear to be any s p e c i f i c use f o r t h i s area by the Cowichan, nor i s i t c l e a r whether the name r e f e r s to a s p e c i f i c p l a c e (AJ). I t i s l o c a t e d on Cowichan Indian Reserve #1, however. 152 155. Comiaken V i l l a g e and I t s Residents, Comiaken H i l l - / kw'emiyaken (ADJ; AJ; ARJ; AT; CP; DP) (exact meaning not c e r t a i n ) perhaps ' p u l l out of water a t top' . / kw'emiyi7ken [ a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n given by AJ and ADJ) K'umie'k'en (Boas, 1981:70) q 3 yiqSn L e s l i e , 1979:5) 'w_ / q amieqan 'w. q 3mi?eq3n 'w ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:1) "an i n l e t w i t h an uprooted ( S u t t l e s , 1976b:l) t r e e a t the mouth (?)" ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d notes) ( S u t t l e s , f i e l d notes) Comiaken (Dougan, 1973:59) " p u l l up the grass-hay by r o o t s " q 3mi£q9n q 3m9yeqan qw Ami?iqAn ( M i t c h e l l , 1968:30) Komieqian (Barnett, 1955:21) Komt£q!un (Barnett, f i e l d notes) / qomi£k9n (Lane, 1953:15) Komiaken ( S u t t l e s , 1951:195) Komiakin (Jenness, n.d.) Comeakan (Jenness, n.d.) Comeakin (Jenness, f i e l d notes) Comeaken (Cryer, n.d.) Comiaken (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1) Komiekun KwameyekEn ( C u r t i s , 1913:175) ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) Qumieqen (Boas, 1887:132) Comiaken (Brown, 18 64:1, 2) "Indians by the sea Comiaken (d'Heureuse, 1860) Komiakun (Douglas, 1853) 153 Comeaken (Humphreys, n.d.) Comeakan (Humphreys, n.d.) Comecan (Humphreys, n.d.) 156. Former Name f o r V i l l a g e - S i t e Now C a l l e d Comiaken / • tl'axewten (ADJ; AJ) (meaning not known) ^e?xawt9n ( S u t t l e s , 1976a: 1) K l a - h u l t - u n (Dougan, 1973:60) "home, my home" Tlahotun ( C u r t i s , 1913:37, 175) 157. Stream Running From Comiaken H i l l to Cowichan R i v e r s h x e x i i y a l e (ADJ; AJ; CP) 'place of much c r y i n g ' xexeyela (Jenness, f i e l d notes) "weeping creek...Kwamichan" Schy-Elah (Cryer, n.d.) "Cry Creek" ' / Today the Cowichan use the term kw'emiyaken to r e f e r to the g e n e r a l area around Comiaken H i l l and the "Stone Church" / • or " B u t t e r Church". Formerly t h i s area was c a l l e d tl'axewten. / -Tl'axewten was a permanent winter v i l l a g e on the nor t h arm of the Cowichan R i v e r j u s t below Comiaken H i l l . I t contained four l a r g e houses and about f i f t y extended f a m i l i e s i n 1850 (ADJ; AJ; C u r t i s , 1913:175). Some of the f a m i l i e s at tl'axewten had r e l a t i v e s at a v i l l a g e c a l l e d kw'emiyaken, t h a t was l o c a t e d o n the south bank of the main channel of the Cowichan R i v e r , o p p o s i t e and downstream from Quamichan. About one hundred and f i f t y years ago the Comiaken v i l l a g e became / • f l o o d e d i n the winter, so t h e i r r e l a t i v e s a t tl'axewten / • i n v i t e d them to move to tl'axewten permanently (ADJ; AJ; S u t t l e s , 1976a:l; S u t t l e s , f i e l d n o t e s ) . A f t e r t h i s amalgamation the tl'axewten v i l l a g e became known as 154 kw'emiyaken. T h i s term became a n g l i c i z e d to Comiaken and was a p p l i e d to the v i l l a g e , the people l i v i n g t h e r e , the h i l l above the v i l l a g e and the v a l l e y below the h i l l (ADJ). Some r e s i d e n t s of the new Comiaken v i l l a g e b e l i e v e d t h a t the former Comiaken v i l l a g e was l o c a t e d on the lower K o k s i l a h R i v e r , and not on the Cowichan R i v e r (Dougan, 1973:60). In d i s c u s s i n g the Comiaken v i l l a g e i n t h i s study henceforth, i t i s the "new" / -Comiaken v i l l a g e (at the p l a c e f o r m e r l y c a l l e d tl'axewten) t h a t w i l l be r e f e r r e d to and not the o r i g i n a l p l a c e c a l l e d Comiaken. As C u r t i s has noted (1913:175)^ the o r i g i n a l Comiaken v i l l a g e i s now " e x t i n c t " or de s e r t e d . Jenness ( f i e l d notes) s t a t e d t h a t Comiaken, l i k e the Green P o i n t v i l l a g e , was considered to be " c o a s t a l " because of i t s p r o x i m i t y to the s a l t water of Cowichan Bay. T h e r e f o r e , the Comiaken v i l l a g e r s were o r i e n t e d more towards the s a l t water i n t h e i r f i s h i n g than the Cowichan R i v e r . They e r e c t e d t i d a l weirs to t r a p f i s h as the t i d e receded. S u t t l e s (1976b:1) has p o i n t e d out, however, t h a t there was a weir s i t e at Comiaken i t s e l f (which i s on the Cowichan R i v e r above the p o i n t where s a l t water mixes with f r e s h water on the Cowichan e s t u a r y ) . But i t i s not c l e a r i f t h i s weir s i t e had a r i v e r weir (made of wood) and the owner of the s i t e i s not known. AJ r e c a l l e d t h a t s e t - n e t s and d r i f t - n e t s were used e x t e n s i v e l y a t Comiaken, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the Comiaken v i l l a g e r s were u s i n g the Cowichan River f o r f i s h i n g , i n historic times a t l e a s t . S u t t l e s (1951:195) noted t h a t at l e a s t one Comiaken man had the r i g h t to s e t up a r e e f - n e t at S t u a r t I s l a n d i n the 1880's. 155 Comiaken H i l l i s an important p l a c e to the Comiaken people because two men were s a i d to have dropped from the sky on t h i s h i l l . They were the f i r s t a ncestors of the Comiaken people. The f i r s t man to drop was Kwelimeltxw, one of the f i r s t r i t u a l i s t s o f the Cowichan. The second man was named Kwetxatsa, and he dropped onto the h i l l with a c l e a n s i n g r a t t l e i n h i s hand. T h i s was e v i d e n t l y the o r i g i n of t h i s type of r a t t l e , c a l l e d shelmexwtses. Both of these men were s a i d t o have been the " i n v e n t o r s " of the f i r e - d r i l l and the p i t f a l l used f o r hunting deer as w e l l (ADJ; AJ; Boas, 1981: 76; C u r t i s , 1913:37). There i s a sma l l stream t h a t runs from Comiaken H i l l to the n o r t h arm of the Cowichan R i v e r . T h i s i s c a l l e d "Cry-/ baby Creek" by the Cowichan because i n the s t o r y of K'isak / and the Stoneheads, t h i s was the p l a c e where K'isak was bathed by h i s mother when he was a baby. T h i s took p l a c e / when K'isak and h i s mother escaped from the Stoneheads. The / creek i s so named because the water was c o l d and K'isak kept c r y i n g . His mother was unable to stop h i s c r y i n g , so they moved on to other p l a c e s i n the Cowichan v a l l e y (ADJ; AJ; CP; Cryer, n.d.; Jenness, f i e l d n o t e s ) . A c c o r d i n g to Cryer (n.d.), "In the o l d days no young w i f e would ever d r i n k water from...[Cry-baby Creek]... i f she d i d her babies would be poor, c r y i n g c h i l d r e n . " There are s t i l l s e v e r a l houses at Comiaken today; they are l o c a t e d on Cowichan Indian Reserve #1 adjacent to the d e s e r t e d (but soon to be res t o r e d ) Stone Church, b u i l t by Father Peter Rondeault i n the e a r l y 1860's (ADJ). 156 158. Unnamed P o i n t E a s t of Comiaken H i l l /• sk'ewksen (AJ) 'curved p o i n t ' sq3wqs3n ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:1) 7 / sqawqsSn ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:l) T h i s p o i n t of land i s l o c a t e d on the north arm of the Cowichan R i v e r , below Comiaken H i l l and about one k i l o m e t e r west of i t (AJ). / • 15 9. hemth'el (AJ) (meaning not known) / •> ' h9mz8>l ( S u t t l e s , 1976a: 1) / HumtsEn ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) Th i s p l a c e was used by the Comiaken v i l l a g e r s f o r sp e a r i n g and g a f f - h o o k i n g salmon (AJ). Acco r d i n g t o S u t t l e s (1976a:l), i t was a s m a l l stream but now i t i s a wide channel. H i l l - T o u t (1907:365) d e s c r i b e d t h i s p l a c e as a " v i l l a g e " , but i t was probably a temporary camping s i t e (ADJ). The following place-names are l o c a t e d on the south arm or d i s t r i b u t a r y of the Cowichan R i v e r . 160. Mouth of the South Arm Of The Cowichan R i v e r / xwkw'okw'elexwem (AJ) ' l i t t l e p l a c e having chum salmon' ' w /_ w k a ? l 3 x 3 m ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:4) U n l i k e some other s p e c i e s of salmon t h a t ascend the Cowichan R i v e r to spawn, chum salmon have a very s p e c i f i c time f o r spawning. A f t e r spawning, t h i s s p e c i e s u s u a l l y does not r e - e n t e r the main channel of the r i v e r . But some chum salmon c o u l d be seen a t the mouth of the south arm of 157 the Cowichan R i v e r , e i t h e r ascending to the spawning grounds or d r i f t i n g back down to Cowichan Bay a f t e r they had spawned and d i e d (AJ). There i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s p l a c e and place-name number 10 i n t h i s study (Qualicum R i v e r ) . 161. V i l l a g e At The Mouth Of The South Arm Of Cowichan R i v e r / shts'ets'mines (AJ) [exact meaning not known, but some g l o s s e s i n c l u d e " l i t t l e bone i n the c h e s t " , " l i t t l e eroded r i v e r b a n k " , "dry beach" and " l i t t l e Chemainus". See etymologies for place-name number 55 i n t h i s study (ADJ; AJ).] scacamin^s ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:3) Shtsumenus ( C u r t i s , 1913:175) TsEmenus ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) Tsimenes (Boas, 1887:132) Chemanis (Douglas, 1853) "In Comiaken V a l l e y " There was formerly a v i l l a g e at the mouth of the south arm of the Cowichan R i v e r , but t h i s area i s now s u b j e c t t o frequent f l o o d i n g and the.former r e s i d e n t s have moved to other v i l l a g e s nearby. The t i d e ( i . e . s a l t water from Cowichan Bay) on l y comes u p r i v e r as f a r as t h i s v i l l a g e - s i t e (AJ). C u r t i s (1913:175) mentions t h a t the former v i l l a g e had "three houses near the s i t e of the second b r i d g e from the Tzouhalem Post O f f i c e to Cowichan, B. C." In d i s c u s s i n g the v i l l a g e named shts'emines at K u l l e e t Bay (place-name number 55 i n t h i s s t u d y ) , the r e l a t i o n s h i p 158 between t h a t v i l l a g e and i t s r e s i d e n t s and the v i l l a g e p r e s e n t l y being d e s c r i b e d was e x p l i c a t e d . The probable time of the m i g r a t i o n from the Cowichan R i v e r to K u l l e e t Bay i s the e a r l y 1800's, a c c o r d i n g to AJ. Boas (1981:74) recorded a segment of the Story of S i y o l e t s e , one of the ancestors of the Cowichan, t h a t a l s o e x p l a i n e d who the f i r s t ten ancestors of the "Tsime^nes" (Chemainus) people were. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t Douglas (1853), Boas (1887), H i l l - T o u t (1907) and C u r t i s (1913) a l l recorded the , / term shts'emines f o r the Cowichan R i v e r v i l l a g e of / s h t s 1 e t s ' m i n e s . Some Cowichan people today f e e l t h a t " i n the e a r l y days", when there was s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t two-way flow of people between the two v i l l a g e s , the former term may have been used to r e f e r t o the extended f a m i l i e s and v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s and t h a t the d i m i n u t i v e term was not used as f r e q u e n t l y once the K u l l e e t Bay v i l l a g e was e s t a b l i s h e d (ADJ; AJ) . 162. V i l l a g e At The J u n c t i o n of South Arm of Cowichan R i v e r And The Middle Arm of the Cowichan R i v e r xwkwo7kwxwnets (ADJ; AJ) 'knocking on the bottom end' or 'knocking on [Cowichan] bay' k W a k W x W n » c ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:4) KwakQonets ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) There are s t i l l some houses on t h i s former v i l l a g e - s i t e , l o c a t e d across Tzouhalem Road from the prese n t C l e m c l e m a l i t s longhouse. The l a t e Anthony Jimmy's house was probably the 159 e a s t e r n extent of the former v i l l a g e (AJ; ADJ). 163. C l e m c l e m a l i t s V i l l a g e , "The F l a t s " , "Clem-Clem" lhemlhemelets' (ADJ; AJ; ARJ; AT; CP; DP; GC; RJ) 'eroding r i v e r b a n k ( ? ) ' , " r i v e r bank goes to p i e c e s i n winter and r i v e r widens" / i i9m43mal3c ( L e s l i e , 1979:5) "Clemclemutz Reserve" / i ±3m±3m3lsc ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:4) Klem-Klem-a-litz (Dougan, 1973:59) Clemclemaluts (Duff, 1964:26) L£mL€maLt (Barnett, 1955:21) LfemLEmult (Barnett, f i e l d notes) Airi&mlets (Lane, 1953:7) Cl e m c l e m a l i t z ( S u t t l e s , 1951:211, 356, 403) Clem-clem-a-letz (Cryer, n.d.) Klemklemalets (Jenness, f i e l d notes) Clemclemluts (Jenness, f i e l d notes) Clemclemaluts (Jenness, n.d.) Cl e m c l e m a l i t z (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1) C l e m - c l e m - a - l i t s (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1) HlumrTlumiluts ( C u r t i s , 1913:175) TlumtlumElets ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) Tlemtlemelts (Boas, 1887:132) Clem-clem-alats (Brown, 1864:12) Clemclemalats (d'Heureuse, 1860) Thlimthim (Douglas, 1853) Themu-litch (Douglas, 1853) Clemclemlatse (Humphreys, n.d.) 160 C l e m c l e m a l i t s was one of the l a r g e s t v i l l a g e s on the lower Cowichan R i v e r . In 1912 there were s t i l l ten l a r g e houses at Cl e m c l e m a l i t s (ADJ; AJ; C u r t i s , 1913:175) and the main v i l l a g e was l o c a t e d j u s t n o r t h of xwkwo7kwxwnets (pl a c e -name number 162 i n t h i s study) a t the j u n c t i o n of the south and middle d i s t r i b u t a r i e s of the Cowichan R i v e r (ADJ; A J ) . Humphreys (n.d.) mentioned t h a t t h i s v i l l a g e was the "only one of any g r e a t s t r e n g t h " on the south arm of the r i v e r . An e a r l y map shows two other v i l l a g e s with the name Clemclem-a l i t s , other than the one a t the l o c a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above. They are about ten k i l o m e t e r s away, on the southwest shore of Cowichan Bay, and were probably camping l o c a t i o n s used by the Cl e m c l e m a l i t s people on a seasonal b a s i s (d'Heureuse, 1860; ADJ). Bar n e t t p r o v i d e d a s t o r y t h a t accounts f o r the o r i g i n of C l e m c l e m a l i t s v i l l a g e (1955:21). The f i r s t Cowichan woman dropped from the sky at the v i l l a g e of K o k s i l a h . Her daughters married the fo u r boys who were sons of the f i r s t Cowichan man. These four couples moved to Cl e m c l e m a l i t s and founded the v i l l a g e t h e r e . In 1853 the C h i e f of the v i l l a g e was named Tse-aul- s o o t ( D o u g l a s , 1853), but acc o r d i n g t o H i l l - T o u t (1907:365), the f i r s t C h i e f of the v i l l a g e was named SQasilEm. Cowichan people today r e c o g n i z e both of these a n c e s t r a l names (ADJ; A J ) . L i k e the other v i l l a g e s on the lower Cowichan R i v e r , C l e m c l e m a l i t s amalgamated i n 1888 to form the Cowichan Band or "Cowichan T r i b e " as i t was then known (Duff, 1964:26). L i k e the other v i l l a g e s , C l e m c l e m a l i t s i s a l s o l o c a t e d on 161 the Cowichan Reserve #1 today (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1: Cowichan Agency Table A3). The s i t e of the pr e s e n t longhouse i s a c t u a l l y c l o s e r to xwkwo7kwxwnets than lhemlhe'melets' . The o l d C l e m c l e m a l i t s longhouse t h a t burned down i n 1983 was probably the approximate c e n t r e of the o l d v i l l a g e (ADJ). Lane (1953:7) noted t h a t the C l e m c l e m a l i t s people hunted beaver a t P a t r o l a s Lake near Cobble H i l l [now c a l l e d Dougan Lake, on the west s i d e of the I s l a n d Highway a few k i l o m e t e r s pas t the Cobble H i l l t u r n o f f ] and mentioned t h a t they f i s h e d on the upper K o k s i l a h R i v e r at Marble F a l l s . The f i r s t l o c a -t i o n i s the s i t e of Cowichan Indian Reserve #4 today, and i s known as E s t - P a t r o l a s (Rogers Lake) as w e l l (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1). The C l e m c l e m a l i t s people a l s o had camping p l a c e s a t the f o o t of Mount Tuam on S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d , where they c o l l e c t e d beach foods and f i s h e d f o r salmon i n S a t e l l i t e Channel. At the C l e m c l e m a l i t s v i l l a g e , salmon c o u l d be caught with s e t - n e t s , d r i f t - n e t s , beach-seines and by harpooning and g a f f - h o o k i n g (AJ; ADJ). S u t t l e s (1951:211) noted t h a t some men from the v i l l a g e a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r e e f - n e t f i s h e r y a t P o i n t Roberts. The f o l l o w i n g place-names are l o c a t e d on the middle arm or d i s t r i b u t a r y of the Cowichan R i v e r . T h i s arm l i n k s the Cowichan and K o k s i l a h R i v e r s . 164. V i l l a g e J u s t North Of Cl e m c l e m a l i t s t'aat'ka7 (ADJ; AJ; AT; CP; DP; RJ) 1 s a l a l b e r r i e s ' t e - t q e ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:4) ta? a t k 3 (Lane, 1953:76) Taatka ( C u r t i s , 1913:175) TatkE ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) T'ateqe (Boas, 1887:132) T a i t k a (d'Heureuse, 1860) Tataka (Douglas, 1853) There fo r m e r l y was a v i l l a g e c o n t a i n i n g a t l e a s t f o u r l a r g e houses about f i f t y meters north of C l e m c l e m a l i t s , on the west bank of the Cowichan R i v e r middle arm (ADJ; AJ; C u r t i s , 1913:175; d'Heureuse, 1860). The h o u s e - s i t e s are now covered over i n dense underbrush or are submerged by frequent winter f l o o d i n g (ADJ). H i l l - T o u t (1907:365) s t a t e d t h a t the f i r s t C h i e f of the v i l l a g e was named T s a s i E t E n , a name t h a t i s s i m i l a r t o Douglas' r e n d e r i n g of the v i l l a g e headman i n 1853, Tsa-se-ge (Douglas, 1853). Cowichan people today r e c o g n i z e t h i s a n c e s t r a l name as Th'osiya(ten) (ADJ). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s v i l l a g e and one with an i d e n t i c a l name on Valdes I s l a n d (place-name number 49 i n t h i s study) has been e x p l a i n e d a l r e a d y . I t i s 'apparent t h a t the people from the Cowichan River v i l l a g e moved to Valdes I s l a n d and j o i n e d others a l r e a d y l i v i n g a t Sh i n g l e P o i n t . A f t e r t h i s o c c u r r e d , there was a two-way flow of people between the two v i l l a g e s (ADJ; A J ) . AT f e l t t h a t the o r i g i n a l m i g r a t i o n to Sh i n g l e P o i n t probably took p l a c e i n the middle o f the Nineteenth Century. 163 165. V i l l a g e Across Cowichan R i v e r From T ' a'a't' ka7 / kwthothines (AJ) p o s s i b l y 'beach on an i s l a n d ' w / k 0aOin3s ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:3) Kw 1sasinus ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) T h i s former v i l l a g e - s i t e was l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y across the middle arm of the Cowichan R i v e r from t'a'at'ka7. T h i s was probably p a r t of the l a t t e r v i l l a g e , or at l e a s t members of the same extended f a m i l y . There were probably not more than one or two houses a t kwthothines (AJ). H i l l - T o u t (1907:365) recorded the name of the f i r s t C h i e f a t t h i s v i l l a g e as / Ci a k E s E t [ T s i y o k e t h e t ] . / 16 6. S i t e Between Kwthothines and C l e m c l e m a l i t s V i l l a g e s / pi7pkweles (ADJ; AJ) ' l i t t l e b roken-off r i v e r b a n k ( ? ) ' / / The area between kwthothines and lhemlhemelets', on the e a s t s i d e of the middle arm of the Cowichan R i v e r , was s u b j e c t t o f l o o d i n g d u r i n g the w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g . The area encompassed by t h i s place-name e v i d e n t l y i n c l u d e s the b r i d g e over the Cowichan j u s t east of lhemlhemelets' (AJ). / 167. House-Site Between Kwthothines and J u n c t i o n of Cowichan Ri v e r Main Channel and Middle Arm skemene7 (AJ) p o s s i b l y ' w h i r l p o o l ' or 'back-eddy' qamene? ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:3) "bent ear" There was one l a r g e house on the e a s t s i d e of the middle arm of the Cowichan R i v e r , about one k i l o m e t e r below the junction with the main channel. The exact l o c a t i o n of t h i s former h o u s e - s i t e has not been found (AJ; S u t t l e s , 1976a:3). The f o l l o w i n g place-names are l o c a t e d on the main channel 164 o f t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r . 168. M a i n C h a n n e l Of The C o w i c h a n R i v e r S i n a - w o w - s t a l o w (Brown, 1864:3) "main r i v e r " T h i s t e r m i s a p p a r e n t l y no l o n g e r u s e d by t h e C o w i c h a n . ADJ b e l i e v e d t h a t Brown had r e c o r d e d t h e t e r m s e n i w s t o l e w 'go i n s i d e t h e r i v e r ' and t h a t t h i s was a d e s c r i p t i v e way o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e main c h a n n e l o f t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r f r o m i t s d o w n r i v e r d i s t r i b u t a r i e s . I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s p l a c e - n a m e was i n v e n t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r R o b e r t Brown's e x p e d i t i o n , i n 1864. 16 9. A r e a A b o u t F i v e K i l o m e t e r s U p s t r e a m From J u n c t i o n Of C o w i c h a n R i v e r M a i n C h a n n e l And M i d d l e Arm t s ' a w i t e n (ADJ; A J ; AT) 'clam s h e l l p l a c e ' , ' d i s h ' ' b a s i n ' 7 c e ? w i ? t f c n ( S u t t l e s , 1 9 7 6 a : l ) A l t h o u g h A J was n o t c e r t a i n o f t h e a c t u a l l o c a t i o n o f t h i s p l a c e , o t h e r s have been q u i t e s p e c i f i c . S u t t l e s ( 1 9 7 6 a : l ) s a i d i t was " e a s t o f Quamichan" and p l a c e d i t a c c u r a t e l y on a map a b o u t two k i l o m e t e r s downstream f r o m t h e l o w e s t segment o f Quamichan v i l l a g e . T s ' a w i t e n i s a l m o s t d i r e c t l y a c r o s s t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r f r o m t h e f o r m e r v i l l a g e o f Comiaken, whose r e s i d e n t s moved downstream t o what i s now c a l l e d Comiaken H i l l (ADJ; S u t t l e s , 1 976a:3). ADJ p l a c e d i t a t t h e l o c a t i o n g i v e n above [ n e x t t o t h e number o f t h i s p l a c e - n a m e ] and n o t e d t h a t t h e p l a c e was a c t u a l l y a r a t h e r l a r g e a r e a b e c a u s e i t o r i g i n a t e d i n a s t o r y t o l d by t h e C o w i c h a n . In t h e swampy a r e a s o u t h o f t h e p r e s e n t S t . Ann's C h u r c h on T z o u h a l e m Road, and t h e c r e e k t h a t f l o w s f r o m t h e C o w i c h a n R i v e r i n t o 165 i t , events o c c u r r e d long ago. / In the Story of K'isak and the Stoneheads [mentioned " / e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y ] , the l i t t l e baby K'isak was given a bath by h i s mother at t s ' a w i t e n . She dipped up the water there with a clam s h e l l . The I s l a n d Halkomelem term from which t h i s place-name i s d e r i v e d i s ts'awi7 'any clam s h e l l ' . But the Cowichan f o r m e r l y used l a r g e clam s h e l l s t o d i p up water, f o r s m a l l dishes and other t h i n g s . So the term ts'awi7 was a l s o used f o r " d i s h e s " , " b a s i n s " and the l i k e , in the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . e s p e c i a l l y . Ts'awiten i s a l s o c l o s e l y assoc-/ •/ l a t e d w i t h s t s ' a t s ' e w i 7 t e n , a place-name l o c a t e d f u r t h e r up-r i v e r i n Quamichan (ADJ; AT). ADJ a l s o remembered t h a t long ago, some Cowichan men f o l l o w e d a Sasquatch i n t o a hole a t t s ' a w i t e n . 170. A Place Almost D i r e c t l y Across The Cowichan R i v e r From Quamichan And About One Kilometer Downstream / kwekwmotsin (AJ) ' l i t t l e h u n c h b a c k ' , ' l i t t l e humped back' w w ^ k ak macin ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:3) w / w k ak 3mac3n ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:3) Th i s p l a c e i s on the south s i d e of the Cowichan R i v e r . S u t t l e s (1976a:3) s t a t e d t h a t i t was "across from Quamichan", but AJ b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was c l o s e r t o the j u n c t i o n of the main channel and the middle arm of the r i v e r than t h a t . / The term kwekwmotsin ' l i t t l e hunchback' r e f e r s t o the f a c t t h a t t h i s p l a c e was named a f t e r the younger s i s t e r of the m y t h i c a l "Cannibal-Giantess-Ogress". Both of these beings had hunchbacks. H a r r i s (1901:15) d e s c r i b e d the younger s i s t e r as "a very s m a l l woman [who] hated Quamichan [the e l d e r s i s t e r ] b i t t e r l y " . I t was the younger s i s t e r who saved hundreds of c h i l d r e n from Quamichan by p l a c i n g p i t c h only on t h e i r e y e l i d s , i n s t e a d of t h e i r e n t i r e c l o s e d eyes (AJ; H a r r i s , 1901:16, 17). AJ s a i d t h a t the younger s i s t e r b u r i e d h e r s e l f i n the ground to escape from the Transformer Xaals, a f e a t t h a t Quamichan c o u l d not accomplish. AJ a l s o thought t h a t the a c t u a l p l a c e named kwekwmotsin was the s i t e of a former playground around Quamichan, but on the south s i d e of the r i v e r . A c c o r d i n g to ADJ, the v i l l a g e of Quamichan was named / f o r the g i r l hunchback kwekwmotsin. His v e r s i o n of the Cowichan s t o r y of the "Basket-Ogress" i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n other ways from the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n and those of other people c o n s u l t e d f o r t h i s study. The next place-name to be d e s c r i b e d i s the v i l l a g e of Quamichan, which formerly occupied s e v e r a l h e c t a r e s on the lower Cowichan R i v e r . There are s e v e r a l place-names t h a t are known to the Cowichan t h a t are w i t h i n the "boundaries" of t h i s v i l l a g e and they s h a l l be d e s c r i b e d a f t e r they are w r i t t e n on the f o l l o w i n g pages. 167 171 . Quamichan V i l l a g e and People R e s i d i n g There kwometsen (ADJ; AJ; ARJ; AT; CP; DP; RJ) 'humpback', 'hump on back', or 'hunchback' K'ua'mitcan (Boas, .1981:71). k WanQc2n ( L e s l i e , 1979:5) w k artvsc3n ( S u t t l e s , 1976a: 2) w / k a?mac3n ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:2) Quamichan (Duff, 1964:26) qlmctcan (Barnett, 1955:21) Qlmctcun (Barnett, f i e l d notes) w/ q<x-mttctn (Lane, 1953:10) Quomitzen (Duff, 1952:25) Kwamichan (Jenness, f i e l d notes) Qwamichan (Jenness, f i e l d notes) Quamichan (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1) ( C u r t i s , 1913:34, 103, 175) ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) / v ^  u amutsun KwamtcEn Q u a m a t s i n (Boas, 1887:132) Quamichan (Brown, 1864: 1, 2) "hump-backs" Quamichan ( d ' H e u r e u s e , 1860) C o m i t c h e n ( D o u g l a s , 1853) Quamichen ( D o u g l a s , 1853) Euamicham (Humphreys, n.d.) 172. Cowichan R i v e r , A t Quamichan [ E x a c t L o c a t i o n Unknown] h w i n t a t h w e t a n ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ) " P o o l a t Kwamichan" 168 173. "Whale Rock", In Cowichan River Near E a s t End Of Quamichan V i l l a g e kwenes (AJ) 'whale' w/ q 3n3s ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:2) 174. E a s t e r n (Downriver) End of Quamichan V i l l a g e xwkw'emkw'emiimet (AJ) 'place to p u l l [canoes] out of the water' 7 1 , / qamqamiirot ( S u t t l e s , 1976a: 2) 175» Middle S e c t i o n of Quamichan V i l l a g e t s ' i t s ' aaltxw (AJ) p o s s i b l y 'houses on r i v e r b a n k ' or 'houses on s i d e h i l l ' cace»wdtx ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:2) 176. Western (Upriver) End Of Quamichan V i l l a g e / . • / ( s ) t s ' a t s ' e w i 7 t e n (ADJ; AJ) 1 l i t t l e clam s h e l l p l a c e ' i i • ce?cawi?t3n ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:2) tc£>wetfcn (Jenness, f i e l d notes) "Pool a t Kwamichan... meaning i s 'bath-pan'" Tzaatz-Whytn (Cryer, n.d.) " l i k e a b a s i n " 177. "Octopus Rock", or " D e v i l f i s h Rock", or "White Rock" /. xwkimekw'em (AJ) 'octopus p l a c e ' qi?m3k 3m ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:2) 178. Quamichan Creek or "Trout Creek" xwkw'setsem (ADJ; AJ) ' t r o u t p l a c e ' kw'setsem (CP) ' t r o u t p l a c e ' xwk sdcdm ( L e s l i e , 1979:76) w^  w / x ksgcsra ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:2) xts«(tso(m (Jenness, f i e l d notes) 179. Quamichan Lake / xotse (ADJ; AJ) 'any l a k e ' /• / kwometsen xotse 'Quamichan Lake' [Note t h a t some Cowichan people use t h i s term to avoid c o n f u s i o n w i t h the other lakes in Cowichan t e r r i t o r y simply named xotse, f o r example Somenos Lake and Cowichan Lake.] Qa'tsa (Boas, 1981:71, 72) Qa'tsa Lake (Boas, 1981:71, 72) Qamut°sn-hatsa ( C u r t i s , 1913:168) 18 0. V i l l a g e At J u n c t i o n of Somenos Creek, Quamichan Creek and The Cowichan R i v e r s i l o t h e n (AJ) p o s s i b l y ' t u r n i n g r i v e r b a n k ' / s i l a e a n ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:2) 181- Boulder a t Somenos Creek and Tzouhalem Road kw'ukw'okinem (ADJ; AJ; CP) (meaning not known) Quamichan was fo r m e r l y the l a r g e s t of the v i l l a g e s on the Cowichan R i v e r and arguably the best known of them, s i n c e many of the e a r l i e r ethnographers' and h i s t o r i a n s ' informants came from t h e r e . In a d d i t i o n , most of the o b j e c t s i n museums around the world t h a t are from Cowichan are from Quamichan. 170 Although Robert Brown, an e a r l y e x p l o r e r on Vancouver I s l a n d , noted t h a t Quamichan meant "humpbacks... from the nature of the country [around Quamichan v i l l a g e ] " (Brown, / -1864:1, 2), the term kwometsen i s d e r i v e d from a c h a r a c t e r i n a s t o r y t o l d by the Cowichan and other Coast S a l i s h groups. Kwometsen (Quamichan) was a hunchbacked c a n n i b a l - o g r e s s -g i a n t e s s who kept c h i l d r e n i n a basket and p l a c e d p i t c h over t h e i r eyes before she ate them. The most complete p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n of the s t o r y i s by H a r r i s (1901:15-17) and i t a l s o e x p l a i n s how the Cowichan got f i r e and how the name Quamichan came to be a p p l i e d to the v i l l a g e under d i s c u s s i o n . AJ, ADJ and CP have a l s o p r o v i d e d more r e c e n t v e r s i o n s of the s t o r y . C u r t i s (1913:175) c o r r e c t l y p l a c e d Quamichan about h a l f -way between the mouth of the Cowichan R i v e r and the p r e s e n t C i t y of Duncan. He a l s o s a i d t h a t the v i l l a g e contained t h i r t y - t w o l a r g e houses, but i t i s not c l e a r i f t h i s was the number of d w e l l i n g s i n 1912 when he v i s i t e d the Cowichan or i f t h i s was the number of houses before c o n t a c t with non-Indians. S u t t l e s (1976a:2) noted and Cowichan people today agree t h a t there were at l e a s t three and probably f o u r segments or s e c t i o n s to the v i l l a g e i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d (AJ; ADJ; CP; GC). I t i s worth commenting here t h a t d'Heureuse only showed s i x houses at Quamichan on h i s map of the Cowichan v a l l e y (1860); f o u r of these were on the south s i d e of the Cowichan R i v e r and two were on the n o r t h s i d e . Cowichan people today d i s a g r e e with t h i s placement of houses, however (ADJ; AJ; GC). 171 A c c o r d i n g t o Jenness ( f i e l d n o t e s ) , the f i r s t man at Quamichan was named "Hwanam". Cowichan people today r e c o g n i z e t h i s a n c e s t r a l name but do not r e s t r i c t i t to Quamichan, as i Jenness' i n f o r m a t i o n from Nanaimo suggests. The name Xwnam appears i n the Cowichan s t o r y of the "Men Who Dropped From The Sky", t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s study (ADJ). H i l l -Tout s a i d t h a t the f i r s t " C h i e f " at Quamichan was named "QultEmtEn", a name s t i l l used by people from Quamichan today ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365; ADJ). In an e a r l y census con-ducted i n the Cowichan v a l l e y , Douglas (1853) r e p o r t e d t h a t the " C h i e f [at] Comitchen [was named] Tsoughclum". T h i s i s undoubtedly the name ts'ewxilem (Tzouhalem), d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s study i n the context of Mount Tzuhalem and the Cowichan v i l l a g e at Green P o i n t (ADJ). The v i l l a g e of Quamichan was so l a r g e t h a t i t extended about f i v e k i l o m e t e r s along the Cowichan R i v e r main arm, from a p o i n t about one k i l o m e t e r upstream from the j u n c t i o n of Quamichan Creek and the r i v e r downstream almost to the former v i l l a g e s i t e of Comiaken [whose r e s i d e n t s moved s t i l l f u r t h e r downstream a f t e r the r i v e r f l o o d e d i t s banks]. There were three main segments or s e c t i o n s of the Quamichan v i l l a g e and each of these was named. The s e c t i o n f u r t h e s t downstream was xwkw'emkw'emiimet, e v i d e n t l y so named because t h i s was a good p l a c e to p u l l canoes out of the water when v i s i t i n g or r e t u r n -i n g to Quamichan. Near t h i s v i l l a g e , i n the Cowichan R i v e r , there i s a l a r g e boulder t h a t the Cowichan c a l l kwenes 'whale'. The Cowichan b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s rock was once a whale t h a t was transmuted by Xaals 'The Transformer' (AJ; ADJ). 172 S u t t l e s (1976b:1) noted the owner of a w e i r - s i t e a t Quamichan was named s y ^ l t i - m . AJ was able to s p e c i f y t h a t / the a n c e s t r a l name S y e l t i i m was indeed a s s o c i a t e d with a weir-• / s i t e a t xwkw'emkw'emiimet, "the o l d p a r t of Quamichan." . / About one k i l o m e t e r upstream from xwkw'emkw'emiimet was the middle s e c t i o n of Quamichan v i l l a g e c a l l e d t s ' i t s ' a'altxw. T h i s p a r t of the v i l l a g e was l o c a t e d at the j u n c t i o n of the Cowichan River and Quamichan Creek and the area e a s t of t h e r e . The t h i r d main s e c t i o n of Quamichan v i l l a g e was on the west (upri v e r ) s i d e of the j u n c t i o n of Somenos and Quamichan Creeks and the Cowichan R i v e r . T h i s s e c t i o n was c a l l e d ( s ) t s ' a t s ' e w i 7 t e n ' l i t t l e clam s h e l l p l a c e ' . T h i s place-name, l i k e s e v e r a l others i n the area, has i t s o r i g i n i n the Cowichan / s t o r y of K'isak and the Stoneheads. A young male baby was born at Green P o i n t v i l l a g e , at the mouth of the n o r t h d i s t r i b u t a r y of the Cowichan R i v e r . A group of e v i l beings c a l l e d "Stoneheads" were k i l l i n g the f i r s t -born sons of the Cowichan people, so the baby's mother decided to t i e h i s g e n i t a l s to a v o i d h i s d e t e c t i o n by the Stoneheads. / Thus the boy was named K'isak ' t i e d g e n i t a l s ' . [This i s o n l y one of s e v e r a l elements i n the s t o r y t h a t c o i n c i d e with the Old Testament s t o r y of Moses.] The boy was bathed f o r the / -f i r s t time at the p l a c e c a l l e d t s ' a witen (place-name number / 169 i n t h i s study, l o c a t e d e a s t of Quamichan). K'isak's mother used a clam s h e l l to d i p up water, and t h i s accounts f o r t h a t place-name's t r a n s l a t i o n 'clam s h e l l p l a c e ' . L a t e r , the mother and baby t r a v e l l e d f u r t h e r up the Cowichan R i v e r to the Quamichan area. At ( s ) t s ' a t s ' e w i 7 t e n , the s e c t i o n of 173 Quamichan v i l l a g e j u s t upstream from Quamichan Creek, t h e r e was a "bubbling s p r i n g of water and an oval-shaped rock" where K'isak's mother bathed her baby (ADJ). A f t e r camping there f o r awhile, she threw some clam s h e l l s down and they changed i n t o r o c k s . Some people say t h a t one of the clam s h e l l s turned to stone and was named kw'ukw'okinem. T h i s boulder can s t i l l be seen i n f r o n t of a church on Tzouhalem Road, where Somenos Creek passes under a b r i d g e (ADJ; CP; Cryer, n.d.; Jenness, f i e l d n o t e s ) . Jenness ( f i e l d notes) recorded a v e r s i o n of t h i s s t o r y , but gave hwintathwetan [xwintothwaten] as a name f o r the p o o l where K'isak was bathed by h i s mother. Jenness gave no l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s p o o l and Cowichan people today do not r e c o g n i z e t h i s as a place-name (ADJ; A J ) . However, Jenness d i d p r o v i d e the place-name tc£Dwet£n i n h i s v e r s i o n of the s t o r y . T h i s name seems c l o s e r t o t s ' a w i t e n , mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s study, but i t i s e a s t of Quamichan, and Jenness s a i d h i s name was "at Kwamichan [ s i c ] " . Jenness' g l o s s f o r the name "bath-pan" i s a c c u r a t e s i n c e i t i s a reasonable t r a n s l a t i o n f o r / ' / ( s ) t s ' a t s ' e w i 7 t e n ' l i t t l e clam s h e l l p l a c e ' or 'dish p l a c e ' (ADJ). A few meters below Quamichan Creek, t h e r e used to be a l a r g e rock on the n o r t h s i d e of the Cowichan R i v e r . I t was s t i l l e xtant i n photographs of Quamichan v i l l a g e taken i n the 1930's, but i t i s no longer t h e r e . T h i s rock was c a l l e d " D e v i l f i s h Rock", "Octopus Rock", or "White Rock" and the Cow-ichan name f o r i t was xwkimekw'em 'place having octopus'. The Transformer, X a a l s , changed an octopus i n t o t h i s rock (AJ). 174 / A man named Keyk'elanexw was the owner of a w e i r - s i t e at xwkimekw'em, ac c o r d i n g to AJ. S u t t l e s (1976b:1) d i d g i v e t h i s man's name as the owner of a weir, but c o u l d only say t h a t i t was i n the more g e n e r a l area of Quamichan. Quamichan Creek, a l r e a d y mentioned s e v e r a l times i n t h i s / -study, i s a stream t h a t flows from Quamichan Lake [(kwpmetsen) xotse] i n t o the Cowichan R i v e r [ a f t e r j o i n i n g with Somenos Creek, which flows from Somenos Lake]. I t i s named xwkw'setsem ' t r o u t p l a c e ' and i s known l o c a l l y to the Cowichan as "Trout Creek". The o r i g i n f o r t h i s creek's Indian name can / be found i n the s t o r y of K'isak and the Stoneheads (ADJ; CP; Boas, 1981:71, 72; C u r t i s , 1913:168; Jenness, f i e l d notes; / Cryer, n.d.). K'isak's mother bathed him at Quamichan Creek, rubbing him with red cedar branches [Jenness ( f i e l d notes) s a i d Western yew and Cryer (n.d.) s a i d hemlock branches] t h a t had been dipped i n t o the creek f i r s t . A f t e r she had f i n i s h e d b a thing the boy, she shook the branches and the drops of water t h a t f e l l from them became t r o u t [rainbow t r o u t , c o a s t a l c u t -t h r o a t t r o u t and probably D o l l y Varden as w e l l ] . T h e r e a f t e r , the creek was c a l l e d "Trout Creek" and t r o u t became p l e n t i f u l i n the Cowichan River system (ADJ; CP). Boas (1981:71, 72) recorded a v e r s i o n of the s t o r y t h a t s t a t e d t h a t K'isak c r e a t e d t r o u t i n Quamichan Lake. CP maintained t h a t s i n c e the s t o r y of K'isak and the Stoneheads took p l a c e i n the myth-i c a l e r a , i t was the Transformer who changed the drops of water i n t o t r o u t . In any case, t r o u t are s t i l l found i n Quamichan Creek and the Cowichan used to pit-lamp f o r t h i s s p e c i e s there and on Quamichan Lake, u s i n g multi-pronged spears from canoes (AJ) . / At Quamichan Lake, K'isak's mother b u i l t a house f o r her-s e l f . L a t e r i n the s t o r y , the Transformer changed her i n t o an / i s l a n d near the south end of the la k e . K'isak was changed i n -to a rock, but i t s exact l o c a t i o n has not been found. I t i s l i k e l y near the source of Quamichan Creek (ADJ; CP). Cryer (n.d.) s a i d t h a t K'isak's grandmother and mother were changed i n t o stone a t "the end of the l a k e " , h i s w i f e was " i n the middle" and he was changed to rock "at the mouth of the stream [Quamichan Creek]." According t o Cryer, the rock t h a t / once was K'isak i s deep i n the water, i s " j u s t a b i g stone and a t t h a t p l a c e the water never f r e e z e s . " I t should be noted t h a t none of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the s t o r y of K'isak t h a t were changed i n t o stone are f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as place-names by the Cowichan. They are r e f e r r e d t o , by the / / Cowichan who know and t e l l the s t o r y of K'isak, as "K'isak's / Rock" or "K'isak's Mother's Rock/Island" and these are c l e a r l y c o n t r i v e d terms (ADJ; CP). B a r n e t t (1955:22) recorded a s t o r y about Quamichan Lake from a person i n Comox. The s t o r y concerned an ince s t u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p between a bro t h e r and s i s t e r who f l e d to the l a k e . AJ r e c a l l e d t h a t wolves were f r e q u e n t l y seen around Quamichan Lake, but t h a t these animals were never hunted or k i l l e d s i n c e they were co n s i d e r e d to be the "sacred p r o t e c t -o r s " of land animal hunters. At the south end of Quamichan Lake b u l r u s h e s , used f o r mats among other t h i n g s , have been c o l l e c t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s by the Cowichan. They can s t i l l be found there i n g r e a t numbers. C u r t i s (1913) p u b l i s h e d a 176 s e r i e s of f o u r photographs of a Cowichan woman g a t h e r i n g , d r y i n g and t r a n s p o r t i n g bulrushes a t Quamichan Lake. Another s e c t i o n of Quamichan v i l l a g e , back on the Cowichan R i v e r , about one k i l o m e t e r upstream from the j u n c t i o n of Somenos Creek and the r i v e r was c a l l e d s i l o t h e n . There used to be three houses th e r e , at what has been c a l l e d "the western edge of Quamichan'^ and t h i s was a l s o the s i t e of a f i s h i n g weir whose owner's name has now been f o r g o t t e n (AJ). L i k e the other r e s i d e n t s of lower Cowichan R i v e r v i l l a g e s , the Quamichan extended f a m i l i e s t r a v e l l e d to the lower F r a s e r R i v e r i n the summer and autumn months to f i s h f o r salmon. There were at l e a s t three Cowichan camping s i t e s on the F r a s e r R i v e r south d i s t r i b u t a r y and these w i l l be d i s -cussed l a t e r i n t h i s study when place-names known to the I s l a n d Halkomelem on the mainland are s p e c i f i e d . But i t i s apparent t h a t the Quamichan v i l l a g e r s had e s t a b l i s h e d summer " v i l l a g e s " h a l f way between the mouth of the F r a s e r R i v e r and New Westminster by 1827 (ADJ; AJ; Duff, 1952:25). I t i s probable t h a t the Quamichan people s t a r t e d u s i n g d r i f t - n e t s and s e t - n e t s to c a t c h salmon i n the Cowichan R i v e r (adjacent to Quamichan) i n the e a r l y years of the Nineteenth Century, and some Cowichan people f e e l t h a t t h i s technology may have been l e a r n e d (or at l e a s t improved upon) through c o n t a c t with other Coast S a l i s h groups congregating i n the summer months on the lower F r a s e r River and a t P o i n t Roberts (AJ). On t h e i r journey over to the mainland, the Quamichan hunted s e a l s and s e a - l i o n s i n the waters around the Gulf I s l a n d s i n June (AJ; Jenness, f i e l d n o t e s ) . 177 Quamichan v i l l a g e i s l o c a t e d on the massive (about twenty-three hundred hectares) Cowichan #1 Reserve, e s t a b l i s h -ed i n the e a r l y years of t h i s century (Royal Commission, 1916, V o l . 1). But many of the descendants of the Quamichan extend-ed f a m i l i e s have moved from the former v i l l a g e - s i t e t o the "Quamichan S u b d i v i s i o n " , along and adjacent to Boys Road, a few k i l o m e t e r s southeast of the C i t y of Duncan. T h i s sub-d i v i s i o n i s composed of new houses and continues to expand r a p i d l y (ADJ). In c l o s i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of Quamichan, i t must be mentioned t h a t one of the f i r s t and most important Cowichan people to come i n c o n t a c t w i t h Indian Agents and government a u t h o r i t i e s was the g r e a t Quamichan leader named Sehalten. Some Cowichan people today f e e l t h a t Seha^Lten and h i s descendants were chosen as spokesmen f o r a l l of the Cowichan because Quamichan had the l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n of the v i l l a g e s on the lower Cowichan R i v e r a t the time of f i r s t c o n t a c t with non-Indians (at l e a s t seventeen hundred people) (ADJ; AJ; Douglas, 1853). Silo^then, the s e c t i o n of Quamichan f u r t h e s t u p r i v e r [or west] was the l a s t place-name to be examined. Now the remainder of place-names on the Cowichan R i v e r w i l l be g i v e n . 182 4 V i l l a g e On The Lower Cowichan R i v e r SetsmElkun ( H i l l - T o u t , 1907:365) H i l l - T o u t was the only person to r e c o r d t h i s place-name. The Cowichan today do not r e c o g n i z e i t , nor c o u l d they p r o v i d e 178 / / a t r a n s l a t i o n f o r a term l i k e s i t s e m e l k e n [an approximate e q u i v a l e n t of H i l l - T o u t ' s name] (ADJ; AJ; GC). From H i l l -Tout's l i s t i n g of Cowichan v i l l a g e s , which i s i n random g e o g r a p h i c a l o r d e r , i t i s im p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n t h i s p l a c e -name's l o c a t i o n , but i t i s l i k e l y a former h o u s e - s i t e somewhere around Quamichan or perhaps a t the mouth of the Cowichan R i v e r (ADJ). 183. North Bank of Cowichan River About One Ki l o m e t e r Below The " S i l v e r B ridge" siyaykw (AJ; ADJ) (exact meaning not known, p o s s i b l y 'burned-over place') s i y e y q W ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:2) T h i s p l a c e i s l o c a t e d near the M u n i c i p a l Playground, j u s t below the " S i l v e r B ridge" [the b r i d g e on the I s l a n d High-way c r o s s i n g the Cowichan R i v e r ] , on the nor t h s i d e of the r i v e r . Apparently there were "many people l i v i n g a t t h i s p l a c e i n the o l d days" and there was another name f o r t h i s p l a c e t h a t has now been f o r g o t t e n (AJ). S u t t l e s (1976a:2) p l a c e d t h i s s i t e c o n s i d e r a b l y f u r t h e r downriver than the l o c a t i o n g i v e n by the Cowichan today, s a y i n g i t was " h a l f way between Quamichan and Duncan, j u s t below the new [ i n 1962] b r i d g e " , but the l a t t e r p a r t of t h i s statement seems c o r r e c t . ADJ f e l t t h a t p a r t of t h i s place, was l o c a t e d on the south s i d e of the Cowichan R i v e r along Boys Road. S u t t l e s / w (1976b:1) noted t h a t someone from Quamichan named t i t e y x 91-/ / ece? owned a weir. AJ s a i d t h a t T i t a y x w e l a t s a 7 owned the w e i r - s i t e a t siyaykw, which i s s e v e r a l k i l o m e t e r s west of Quamichan. 179 184. Un-named Creek Between Siyaykw And The " S i l v e r Bridge" (s)ki7kmene (ADJ; AJ) probably ' l i t t l e w h i r l p o o l ' or ' l i t t l e back-eddy' There i s a sm a l l stream t h a t runs i n t o the Cowichan R i v e r about f i f t y meters downstream from the S i l v e r B r i d g e . T h i s p l a c e was probably named f o r the r e s u l t i n g w h i r l p o o l there (ADJ). AJ noted t h a t r i v e r o t t e r s were for m e r l y very abundant i n t h i s area. 185. V i l l a g e Formerly Located At S i l v e r Bridge x e l a l t x w (ADJ; AJ; ARJ; AT; DP) 'marked houses' or 'painted houses' x a l e l t x W ( S u t t l e s , 1976a: 2) / . H a l l a l t h w ( C u r t i s , 1913:38, 175) /-The former v i l l a g e of x e l a l t x w [ h e r e a f t e r a n g l i c i z e d as H a l a l t ] had a t l e a s t seven houses i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d (AJ; C u r t i s , 1913:175). The r e s i d e n t s of the v i l l a g e i n i t i a l l y moved to a v i l l a g e a t the north end of W i l l y I s l a n d , t a k i n g the name of the Cowichan R i v e r v i l l a g e with them. Subsequent-l y , they moved from W i l l y I s l a n d onto the Chemainus #2 Indian Reserve near Westholme, again t a k i n g the name of H a l a l t w i t h them and a p p l y i n g i t to the Indian Reserve and i t s r e s i d e n t s (ADJ; AJ; ALI; S u t t l e s , 1976a:2; Boas, 1981:76). The Cowichan today f e e l t h a t the i n i t i a l m i g r a t i o n from the Cowichan River to W i l l y I s l a n d probably took p l a c e i n the e a r l y years of the Nineteenth Century and the second m i g r a t i o n to Westholme ( B o n s a l l Creek) was the d i r e c t r e s u l t of the establishment of Indian Reserves i n the f i r s t decades of t h i s century (ADJ). 180 Two men who "dropped from the sky" i n the m y t h i c a l e r a became the f o r e f a t h e r s of the Cowichan and Chemainus people. The f i r s t man t o drop, S i y o l e t s e , i s an ancestor of the Cowichan people a t the v i l l a g e of Somenos, and the second man, S t 1 e t s 1 en, became an ancestor o f the Chemainus people. Both of these men were s a i d to have o r i g i n a t e d the Cowichan v i l l a g e of H a l a l t , moving t o the v i l l a g e - s i t e sometime a f t e r they had dropped from the sky a t Mount Pr e v o s t . Some Cowichan b e l i e v e t h a t the H a l a l t v i l l a g e r s were descendants of S t ' e t s ' e n only and t h a t these people i n t e r m a r r i e d with people from K u l l e e t Bay, thus a l l o w i n g them the r i g h t to move from Cowichan to Chemainus t e r r i t o r y (ADJ; AJ; ALI; C u r t i s , 1913:38). AJ noted t h a t the Chemainus people were descended from S t ' e t s ' e n because S i y o l e t s e made the former move from Mount Pr e v o s t to B i g S i c k e r Mountain. B i g S i c k e r Mountain i s the "boundary between Cowichan and Chemainus t e r r i t o r y " . Boas a l s o r e c o r d -ed t h a t S t ' e t s ' e n "was giv e n p o s i t i v e l y as one of the... [Halalt]... a n c e s t ors (Boas, 1981:76). The reason f o r naming the Cowichan R i v e r (and subsequent) v i l l a g e H a l a l t 'marked or p a i n t e d houses' i s not c l e a r l y understood by the I s l a n d Halkomelem today. They do not r e -c a l l the o r i g i n a l v i l l a g e having more d e c o r a t i o n on i t s houses than any other Cowichan v i l l a g e (ADJ; AJ; CP). Apparently the houses a t H a l a l t were on both s i d e s of the Cowichan R i v e r , almost e x a c t l y where the I s l a n d Highway now cr o s s e s the r i v e r with twin b r i d g e s (ADJ). 181 186. West S i d e Of The " S i l v e r B r i d g e " , A b o u t F i f t y M e t e r s U p s t r e a m From Former V i l l a g e Of H a l a l t s h t 1 a a t s ' a l e (ADJ; AJ) ' p l a c e t o g e t f i s h - s p r e a d e r s ' T ^ a e t s e ' l a (Boas, 1981:72) T h i s p l a c e i s l o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e Cowichan R i v e r and e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e r i v e r bank n o r t h as f a r as t h e p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n o f t h e Mohawk Gas S t a t i o n on t h e I s l a n d Highway. T h i s a r e a was f o r m e r l y u s e d by t h e C o wichan f o r c o l l e c t i n g Ocean S p r a y ("Ironwood") and S p i r e a woods u s e d t o s p r e a d s a l mon and o t h e r f i s h when b a r b e c u i n g o r smoke-dry-/ / i n g them (ADJ; A J ) . The C o wichan a n c e s t o r named Swelhokw 1 / was s a i d t o have k i l l e d Ts'inkw'o7, t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l l i g h t n i n g -m o n s t e r , a t s h t ' a a t s ' a l e . A f t e r p i e r c i n g t h e m o n s t e r ' s t o n g u e s e v e r a l t i m e s , Swelhokw' l u r e d i t i n t o a p i t and b u r n e d i t , a c c o r d i n g t o some v e r s i o n s o f t h e s t o r y (AJ; Boas, 1981:72). 187. Un-named C r e e k F l o w i n g I n t o The C o wichan R i v e r A t The "White B r i d g e " xweso7om (ADJ; AJ) P r o p e r Name T h e r e i s a s m a l l c r e e k f l o w i n g f r o m t h e s o u t h i n t o t h e C o w ichan R i v e r , a t t h e A l l e n b y Road B r i d g e a c r o s s f r o m Somenos v i l l a g e . The c r e e k g e t s i t s I n d i a n name f r o m t h e s t o r y o f a C o w i c h a n boy named Xweso7om. As ADJ, on whose p r o p e r t y most o f t h e c r e e k i s l o c a t e d , e x p l a i n s t h e s t o r y [ g r e a t l y a b b r e v -i a t e d h e r e ] , a young Cowichan boy named Xweso7om d e c i d e d n o t t o s h a r e t h e f i s h he had c a u g h t i n t h e c r e e k u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h h i s f a m i l y and r e l a t i v e s . H i s p a r e n t s p u n i s h e d him by p l a c i n g h i m i n t o a c o f f i n - b o x w h i l e he was s t i l l a l i v e . The 182 p a r e n t s f i l l e d t h e box w i t h d r i e d coho salmon and t r o u t . They t i e d t h e box s h u t and t h e n t h e y p l a c e d i t i n t o t h e c r e e k . When Xweso7om d i e d i n s i d e t h e c o f f i n - b o x , h i s body t u r n e d c o l d . T h e r e a f t e r t h e w a t e r i n t h e c r e e k was a l w a y s c o l d e r t h a n t h e w a t e r i n Cowichan R i v e r , and as one w a l k s t o w a r d t h e c r e e k t o d a y t h e a i r f e e l s n o t i c e a b l y c o l d e r t o o . T h i s s t o r y e x p l a i n s why coho salmon and t r o u t a r e t h e o n l y s p e c i e s o f f i s h f o u n d i n t h e c r e e k today, and i s meant t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n [ a l b e i t f o r c e f u l l y ] t h a t s h a r i n g w i t h o t h e r s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t (ADJ). 188. Somenos V i l l a g e And R e s i d e n t s ; Duncan, B. C. s7omene (ADJ; A J ; ARJ; AT; CP; DP; RJ) (meaning n o t known) S'a'menos (Boas, 1981:72) - / s?am9n3 ( L e s l i e , 1979:5) . / s?amsna? ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:3) " h u n t e r " „ / s?am3na ( S u t t l e s , 1976a:3) [ a l t e r n a t e form] s?amAnA ( M i t c h e l l , 1968:106) Somenos ( D u f f , 1964:26) samcuift. ( B a r n e t t , 1955:21) saJ d.mena. (Lane, 1953:9) Saumni ( D u f f , 1952:25) Somenos ( J e n n e s s , f i e l d n o t e s ; n.d.) Samun3 ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ) Sflraunu ( B a r n e t t , f i e l d n o t e s ) Somenos ( R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1916, V o l . 1) S"amuna ( C u r t i s , 1913:175) 1 8 3 S'amEna (Hill-Tout, 1907:365) / o Samenos (Boas, 1887:132) Samena (Brown, 1864:1, 2) "Upper River Indians" Somenos (d'Heureuse, 1860) Saumina (Douglas, 1853) 189. Southeast Part Of Somenos V i l l a g e (Former Creek) . / sts'ewalets (AJ) perhaps 'land [riverbank] at bottom end' The Cowichan use the term s7omene to refer to the v i l l a g e southwest of the present City of Duncan, as well as Somenos Lake northwest of Duncan and Somenos Creek, which runs from Somenos Lake into the Cowichan River. Sometimes the terms / / / / ' s7omene xotse 'Somenos Lake' and s7omene stotelew 'Somenos Creek' are used today, but these are probably recent and some-what contrived terms invented to distinguish these bodies of water from others adjacent to them. [Formerly the Island Halkomelem used only generic terms to refer to most lakes and streams.] The term s7omene i s also used today to refer to the City of Duncan i t s e l f and to the residents of Somenos v i l l a g e , now located along Allenby Road (ADJ; A J ; A R J ) . The Indian term s7omene has been anglicized to Somenos since the early h i s t o r i c period and the l a t t e r term w i l l be used i n discussing t h i s place-name i n this study. Somenos residents today state that the Somenos people o r i g i n a l l y occupied the Somenos Lake and Somenos Creek areas, but many years (probably centuries) ago they moved closer to the Cowichan River to f a c i l i t a t e salmon f i s h i n g . I n i t i a l l y / i they moved to Jtewamen, a few hundred meters upstream from the present Allenby Road Bridge, but the high b l u f f s there made 184 f i s h i n g i m p r a c t i c a l . A second m i g r a t i o n to the p r e s e n t v i l l a g e - s i t e was necessary and the Somenos people have remained there (AJ). Robert Brown, an e a r l y e x p l o r e r on Vancouver I s l a n d who v i s i t e d the Cowichan River area noted t h a t Somenos was at t h a t time "the h i g h e s t v i l l a g e on the r i v e r " and he "engaged Ka k a l a t z a , a c h i e f of the tribe... t o accompany [them] to the g r e a t [Cowichan] l a k e " (Brown, 1864:1). The b e s t e a r l y d e s c r i p t i o n of Somenos v i l l a g e was g i v e n by F r e d e r i c k Whymper, the a r t i s t f o r Brown's 1864 e x p e d i t i o n . He d e s c r i b e d the houses a t Somenos, the manner i n which f i s h and clams were d r i e d and the l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n a t t h a t time. More im p o r t a n t l y , Whymper d e s c r i b e d the Somenos people as f e a r f u l "of surrounding t r i b e s , e s p e c i a l l y those of the west c o a s t , who... o c c a s i o n a l l y [kidnapped] 'unprotected males' and c a r r i e d them o f f as s l a v e s " (Whymper, 1868:63). As we w i l l see l a t e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of Somenos v i l l a g e , Whymper's d e s c r i p t i o n i s somewhat d i s c o r d a n t with what the Somenos today t e l l us about Cowichan r e l a t i o n s with the Nootka (West Coast) Indians. B a r n e t t (1955:21) c o r r e c t l y noted t h a t the Somenos v i l l a g e and people were o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as "Duncan(s)" by other I s l a n d Halkomelem people, but t h i s has o b v i o u s l y only been the case s i n c e 1912 when the C i t y of Duncan was estab-l i s h e d (ADJ). C u r t i s (1913:175) s a i d t h a t Somenos was "formerly a group of ten houses on the s i t e of Duncans", which would make the v i l l a g e second i n s i z e [of the lower Cowichan r i v e r settlements] only to Quamichan and the same s i z e as C l e m c l e m a l i t s . I t i s not c l e a r i f C u r t i s ' f i g u r e s 185 are f o r the s i z e s of the v i l l a g e s i n 1912, but the Cowichan today r e c a l l h e a r i n g about more houses than C u r t i s mentions from t h e i r grandparents (ADJ; AJ; ARJ). An e a r l y map of the Cowichan v a l l e y (d'Heureuse, 1860) shows three houses on the n o r t h bank and two on the south bank of the Cowichan R i v e r , next to the word "Somenos" and a t i t s c o r r e c t l o c a t i o n . The Somenos v i l l a g e r s today f e e l t h a t the main v i l l a g e was always on the n o r t h s i d e of the Cowichan R i v e r , but there were a few houses on the south s i d e i n h i s t o r i c times. In a d d i t i o n , the course of the Cowichan River adjacent t o Somenos has changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e the t u r n of t h i s century (AJ; ADJ). H i l l - T o u t (1907 :365) noted t h a t Somenos v i l l a g e was p r e -v i o u s l y l o c a t e d a t Sahtlam, many k i l o m e t e r s west up the Cow-ichan R i v e r , and t h a t the f i r s t " c h i e f " at Somenos was named LamEqEsEt. The Cowichan today d i s a g r e e with H i l l - T o u t ' s i n f o r m a t i o n . They say t h a t Shlhomekethet [ H i l l - T o u t ' s LamEqEsEt] was an a n c e s t r a l name used by the head of one of the extended f a m i l i e s a t Somenos who had the r i g h t [with h i s household] to f i s h and camp f u r t h e r up the Cowichan R i v e r a t Sahtlam [ts'olho7em a t Riverbottom Road].(AJ; ADJ; ARJ). There i s a l s o a d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n today concerning Brown's (1864;1) d e s c r i p t i o n of "Kakalatza [as a] c h i e f of / the [Somenos] t r i b e . " K i x e l a t s a 7 i s a l s o an a n c e s t r a l name s t i l l used today by the l e a d e r of a household at Somenos, but t h i s name was never used t o designate a " c h i e f " , a c c o r d i n g to AJ, ADJ and ARJ. 186 ADJ, AJ, ARJ and AT have a l l been r e s i d e n t s of Somenos v i l l a g e f o r most of t h e i r l i v e s . They b e l i e v e , as do a l l Somenos people (and o t h e r Cowichan) t h a t they are descended from a man named S i y c d e t s e , who was s a i d to have descended from the sky onto Mount Prevost, near Somenos. These four c o l l a b o r a t o r s i n t h i s study f e e l t h a t the o r i g i n myth of S i y o l e t s e would be b e t t e r p l a c e d i n t h i s study under the place-names f o r Mount Pr e v o s t and kewamen, the l a t t e r a s i t e j u s t upstream from Somenos. For now, i t should s u f f i c e t o c i t e two r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s man. Jenness ( f i e l d notes) s a i d t h a t "the f i r s t man" at Somenos was " S i a l a t c a " . Norcross (1959:3) s t a t e d t h a t "Seahletsa... [was] ... the f i r s t - c o m e r and founder of the Somenos band and i s r e c o g n i z e d a l s o as head of a l l the Cowichan people". The Cowichan today, the reader w i l l r e c a l l , do not f e e l t h a t there ever was a s i n g l e "head" or " c h i e f " o f a l l of the Cowichan people (ADJ; AJ; CP). Jenness ( f i e l d notes) r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t one of the f a m i l i e s who moved t o the lower Cowichan v a l l e y from the headwaters of the Cowichan R i v e r brought sxwaixwe masks w i t h them to Somenos. But t h e i r a c t i o n s f r i g h t e n e d away the f i s h and the Somenos t o l d them to move away. They went t o Malahat, and t h i s i s one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the presence of the Cowichan at t h a t p l a c e . Although the Cowichan today d i s p u t e t h i s o r i g i n s t o r y f o r the sxwaixwe c l e a n s i n g ceremony i n t h e i r area, they agree w i t h Jenness t h a t "formerly each v i l l a g e kept to i t s own s e c t i o n of the r i v e r " (ADJ; A J ) . Although salmon-weir f i s h i n g has not been p e r m i t t e d on the Cowichan R i v e r s i n c e the 1930's, Somenos was the s i t e of 187 s e v e r a l such s t r u c t u r e s i n the past (ADJ). S u t t l e s (1976b:l) d i d not r e c o r d any weir owners a t Somenos, but we are now able to g i v e s e v e r a l weir-headmen's a n c e s t r a l names. Jenness (n.d.) was e v i d e n t l y c o r r e c t when he s t a t e d t h a t "around Duncan. ..[weirs]... stood i n f r o n t of every l a r g e d w e l l i n g f a c i n g the Cowichan R i v e r " . J u s t as two men who dropped from the sky onto Comiaken H i l l were s a i d to have "invented" the f i r e - d r i l l and the deer p i t f a l l , S i y o l e t s e , who dropped from the sky near Somenos, was s a i d t o have "invented" [or at l e a s t erected] the f i r s t r i v e r -weir used t o c a t c h salmon. I t i s apparent t h a t o n l y the Cowichan (and probably people at the Somenos v i l l a g e only) people w i t h a " d i r e c t or r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p by blood to S i y o l e t s e " were allowed to e r e c t weirs at Somenos and the area j u s t upstream from i t (ADJ; AJ; ARJ). Some of the descendants of S i y o l e t s e who were weir headmen i n the past / / / i n l c u d e d : Shlhomekethet, Xelhk'inem, Shmokwethet and (Jim) Yelo7xw. Two of these men were ADJ and AJ's f a t h e r s ; they had weirs i n the e a r l y decades of t h i s c e n t u r y (ADJ; A J ) . At the weirs around Somenos, harpoons, d i p - n e t s , l e i s t e r s and spears were used t o remove salmon from the w e i r - s c r e e n s . Set-nets and d r i f t - n e t s , as w e l l as a technique c a l l e d "beach-s e i n i n g " were a l s o used i n the Somenos area i n the past (AJ). The p r e s e n t b r i d g e at the Somenos v i l l a g e (on A l l e n b y Road, c a l l e d the "Wagon Brid g e " by the Somenos) i s now the f u r t h e s t p o i n t upstream on the Cowichan R i v e r from which Cowichan Indians can p a r t i c i p a t e i n the n a t i v e food f i s h e r y . T h i s b r i d g e i s a d j a c e n t to an o l d t r i b u t a r y of the r i v e r t h a t 188 i s no longer extant. T h i s southeast p a r t of Somenos v i l l a g e • / used to be c a l l e d s t s 1 e w a l e t s (AJ; ADJ). The people from s7omene, l i k e t h e i r f e l l o w Cowichan v i l l a g e r s , t r a v e l l e d t o the F r a s e r R i v e r and P o i n t Roberts d u r i n g the summer. In 18 27 the "Saumni" were camped around the present s i t e of the George Massey Tunnel (at the n o r t h / end, a t a p l a c e c a l l e d t l ' e k t i n e s ) , a c c o r d i n g t o e a r l y j o u r -n a l s of the Hudson Bay Company (Duff, 1952:25;.ADJ; A J ) . AJ p o i n t e d out t h a t not a l l of the Cowichan went over to the mainland to f i s h i n the summer, because there were so many salmon i n the Cowichan R i v e r ( u n t i l the e a r l y 1950's) t h a t "you c o u l d hear the salmon coming up the r i v e r from s e v e r a l hundred yards away". Somenos Lake and ScSmenos Creek were a l s o used by the people from s7omene v i l l a g e . The former was s a i d to have been an e x c e l l e n t waterfowl hunting area abundant with ducks/ geese, swans and grebes. River o t t e r s were known to f r e q u e n t Somenos Lake i n the p a s t as w e l l . Somenos Creek s t i l l sup-p o r t s a l a r g e t r o u t p o p u l a t i o n and these were caught by the Cowichan i n the past (AJ). Somenos hunters t r a v e l l e d t o K o k s i l a h Ridge and, l i k e other Cowichan men, as f a r west as Cowichan Lake. The Somenos today cannot g i v e a t r a n s l a t i o n of the name f o r t h e i r v i l l a g e , but they do not agree w i t h S u t t l e s ' (1976a:3) g l o s s "hunter" and c l a i m never to have heard t h i s b e f o r e (ADJ; AJ; ARJ). Brown (1864:2) noted that "one or two Samena f a m i l i e s hunt on Cowichan Lake i n the autumn. ..[and t h a t the Somenos]... are the o n l y t r i b e to frequent the upper waters of the... 189 C o w i c h a n R i v e r . " B u t Somenos p e o p l e t o d