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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Women in a community power structure Stonier, Shirley Ann 1985

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WOMEN IN A COMMUNITY POWER STRUCTURE By SHIRLEY ANN STONIER .Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRE-MENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Anthropology and So c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH August 1985 (c) S h i r l e y Ann S t o n i e r , COLUMBIA 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ANTHROPOLeY AND SOCIOLOGY The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date i i A b s t r a c t F e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h e r s have noted the i n v i s i b i l i t y of women i n power s t r u c t u r e s t u d i e s t o d a t e and have suggested t h a t i t i s the methods of main-stream s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h t h a t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y obscure women's p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s t o i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e the women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s at the community l e v e l , as a t e s t of the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a b i a s i n the methods, and as a way of b e g i n n i n g t o c o r r e c t the p r e s e n t l a c k of knowledge about women's c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o community p o l i t i c s . There i s , however, no a c c e p t e d t h e o r y of community power, and the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n a Canadian suburban community, a p r e v i o u s l y u n s t u d i e d s e t t i n g , c o u l d not be tak e n f o r g r a n t e d . T h e r e f o r e , the r e s e a r c h has been d e s i g n e d t o det e r m i n e both the s t r u c t u r e of power i n the community and the l o c a t i o n of women i n t h a t s t r u c t u r e . V a r i a t i o n s on s t a n d a r d r e s e a r c h methods a r e used t o i d e n t i f y men and women a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s , and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e l e c t e d and o t h e r community l e a d e r s p r o v i d e d a t a about the l e a d e r s , t h e i r memberships i n key o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and s t r a t e g i e s . F i c t i c i o u s names are g i v e n t o the community, some of the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and the community l e a d e r s i n or d e r t o p r o t e c t the anonymity of the i n f o r m a n t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n the community i s found t o conform t o the e l i t e power s t r u c t u r e model. An o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n somewhat l i m i t s the power of the dominant c l i q u e , but t h i s does not c o n s t i t u t e e v i d e n c e of the mutual c o n t r o l t h a t some r e s e a r c h e r s s t a t e i s the case i n p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t i e s . A comparison of the data i n t h i s and o t h e r s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e i n s e c t o r s such as b u s i n e s s , government and the independent p r o f e s s i o n s , a r e predominant i n a l l the communities i n the co m p a r a t i v e s u r v e y , no m a t t e r what type of community or what methods a re used t o i d e n t i f y t h e community l e a d e r s . I t i s suggested t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g l e n d s weight t o the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s * assessment of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n the community. I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t the methods of power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o foc u s on the most p o w e r f u l members of the community, and a c t i v e women w i l l be u n d e r - r e p o r t e d because, a l t h o u g h they a re s i m i l a r t o i n f l u e n t i a l men i n p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , women are not o f t e n e l e c t e d t o p o s i t i o n s of power, they a r e l e s s l i k e l y than men t o be members of the a s s o c i a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h which p o l i t i c a l power i s o r g a n i z e d , and they are l e s s o f t e n a c t i v e i n the i s s u e s t h a t a r e im p o r t a n t t o the dominant men. However, main-stream s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h has been d e s i g n e d by men t o foc u s m a i n l y on men's e x p e r i e n c e s . Women have been c l a s s i f i e d o n l y i n terms of the men i n t h e i r l i v e s , t h e i r p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r has been d e f i n e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways than i v men's, and re s e a r c h e r s and informants a l i k e have not thought of women as i n f l u e n t i a l i n p u b l i c decision-making. By using methods which draw a t t e n t i o n to the women who are a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s , i t i s shown that women p a r t i c i p a t e i n many ways to shape p u b l i c p o l i c y , from a c t i v i t i e s that are designed to i n f l u e n c e economic i s s u e s and land use d e c i s i o n s , to those which i n f l u e n c e the type of e d u c a t i o n a l and welfare programs a v a i l a b l e to the community. Women b r i n g many p e r s o n a l resources to the decision-making process, but lack the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l resource bases that men use to exert i n f l u e n c e and gain p o l i t i c a l power. Women, l i k e l e s s powerful men i n the community, e x e r c i s e i n f l u e n c e i n d i f f e r e n t ways than the men i n the dominant c l i q u e . I t i s recommended that the study of women's p o l i t i c a l e x periences be used as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n studying the o r g a n i z a t i o n , e x e r c i s e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power at the community l e v e l from the p e r s p e c t i v e of r e l a t i v e l y powerless i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. I t i s hoped that a p a r t from o f f e r i n g women a way to v a l i d a t e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l e x p eriences and to understand the nature of the l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e i r power, such s t u d i e s w i l l p r o v i d e the impetus to renew e f f o r t s i n developing a comprehensive theory of community power. V TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . x Chapter 1 . INTRODUCTION 1 2. ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF WOMEN AND COMMUNITY POWER O b j e c t i v e s of the r e s e a r c h 8 I s s u e s i n the study of community power . 9 Methods f o r i d e n t i f y i n g i n f l u e n t i a l s 16 Community d i f f e r e n c e s 18 S t r u c t u r a l b i a s 20 I s s u e s i n the study of women 24 Summary of p r o c e d u r e s 29 L i m i t s of the r e s e a r c h 30 3. THE RESEARCH SETTING Community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 32 Type of governance 35 The p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e 37 An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the s t r u c t u r e of power 39 Summary 42 v i 4. THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN NORTH WATERFIELD Sources of i n f l u e n c e on decision-making 44 Contentious i s s u e s and outcomes 49 The o r g a n i z a t i o n of power 51 Summary 55 5. WHAT ABOUT THE WOMEN? Women i n e l e c t e d p u b l i c o f f i c e . . . . 58 Women in other c i v i c p o s i t i o n s 59 Women (and men) with r e p u t a t i o n s f o r i n f l u e n c e 64 S e l e c t i n g a sample of i n f l u e n t i a l s 68 D e s c r i b i n g the i n f l u e n t i a l s 71 Socioeconomic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 72 The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of women 75 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships 88 P o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e s and s t r a t e g i e s 93 Summary 101 6. CONTINUITIES AND CONCLUSIONS Community power i n North W a t e r f i e l d and elsewhere... 105 The women i n community p o l i t i c s 116 Why women are (almost) i n v i s i b l e 123 7. EVALUATION OF THE RESEARCH Research methods 129 V a r i a t i o n s on the p o s i t i o n a l method 131 V a r i a t i o n s on the r e p u t a t i o n a l method 132 V a r i a t i o n s on the d e c i s i o n a l method 136 Toward a theory of community power 139 Toward a theory of women and p u b l i c power... 146 v i i REFERENCES 153 APPENDICES A. Summary of nominations and i n t e r v i e w s 161 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table page I. Comparison of Re p u t a t i o n a l and P o s i t i o n a l l i s t s 69 I I . Socioeconomic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of I n f l u e n t i a l s 73 I I I . Summary of I n d i c a t o r s of Power (Interviewed Women)...77 IV. Summary of I n d i c a t o r s of Power (Interviewed Men) 86 V. P o l i t i c a l Party Memberships (Men) 91 VI. P o l i t i c a l Party Memberships (Women) 91 ix LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e page 1. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Connections of Members of the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and the School Board 40 2. L i a i s o n s Between M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and C i v i c Groups..61 3. Women and Men i n P o s i t i o n s of C i v i c A u t h o r i t y 62 X Acknowledgements I wish to thank my a d v i s o r y committee members, M a r t i n Meissner, George Gray and Helga Jacobson who have helped me develop more f u l l y a sense of independent and c r i t i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p , and who have p a t i e n t l y awaited the evidence of that development. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t i v e of Martin's constant source of guidance through t h i s my f i r s t e f f o r t at "doing o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h " . I would a l s o l i k e to thank N e i l Guppy f o r h i s a v a i l a b l i t y as a c o n s u l t a n t over the ye a r s , on matters both methodological and t e c h n i c a l , and to acknowledge the women who not only provide support s e r v i c e s i n the department but a l s o b e f r i e n d the students d u r i n g those more p r i v a t e moments of f r u s t r a t i o n . I thank my f r i e n d Denise Sketches for her time and e f f o r t i n h e l p i n g me p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e the v i s u a l d i s p l a y s of data. I am deeply g r a t e f u l f o r my'family's f o r t i t u d e and support dur i n g t h i s process of producing a t h e s i s . A s p e c i a l thank you to B a r r i e . L a s t l y , I thank the many informants who provided the m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h . I have made every e f f o r t to represent t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to community p o l i t i c s f a i r l y , but i f I have e r r e d , I take f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any inadequacies i n t h i s e f f o r t to present a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p u b l i c decision-making process. 1 Chapter One I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s i s a study about women's involv e m e n t i n community p o l i t i c s and i t i s an attempt t o document t h e i r p resence i n a community power s t r u c t u r e . "Community p o l i t i c s " i s d e f i n e d here as those a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e i n t e n d e d t o i n f l u e n c e the outcome of p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A community power s t r u c t u r e i s the term used t o denote the i n t e r l o c k i n g network of i n d i v i d u a l s who e x e r t i n f l u e n c e i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The s t u d y p l a c e s emphasis on women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n because the many community power s t u d i e s which have been completed s i n c e the 1950's 1 do not document, i n any d e t a i l , the a c t i v i t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the women who h e l p shape p o l i c y a t the community l e v e l . S t u d e n t s of community power i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s and map the c o n n e c t i o n s between them t o t e s t the n o t i o n of p l u r a l i s m , t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d . My i n t e r e s t i n power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h grew from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n c o m m u n i t y . p o l i t i c s i n t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s e c t o r . Working a t d i r e c t o r s h i p l e v e l i n t h i s s e c t o r i n c l u d e s a s s e s s i n g community w e l f a r e needs, expanding or d e v e l o p i n g s e r v i c e s and f i n d i n g r e s o u r c e s f o r t h a t work. I t was my o b s e r v a t i o n then t h a t Board members were drawn from a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o o l of 1 Community power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h i s c o n s i d e r e d t o have been f o r m a l l y i n i t i a t e d by F l o y d Hunter (1953) i n h i s c l a s s i c work Community Power S t r u c t u r e . 2 v o l u n t e e r s and that i n t e r l o c k s among agency board members were not uncommon. Over time t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n has been - v a l i d a t e d . I a l s o noted that many of the ex e c u t i v e members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s were women. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e on community power supports the ob s e r v a t i o n about the small numbers of people who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s and the i n t e r l o c k i n g memberships, but i n gen e r a l , women are non-persons in these s t u d i e s or p e r i p h e r a l to the a n a l y s i s . F e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h has begun to document the absence of women i n a l l manner of s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h . Bourque and G r o s s h o l t (1974:253) p o i n t out th a t there i s an assumption i n power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h that the most i n f l u e n t i a l community l e a d e r s w i l l be men and r e s e a r c h e r s seem " l i t t l e concerned to i n v e s t i g a t e the few women who do appear. . . . and thus maintain the no t i o n that women are not p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e . " They p o i n t out that i n Hunter's study (1953) s i x women are co n s i d e r e d , l i k e b l a c k s , a subgroup; Dahl (1961) never mentions the gender of the le a d e r s i n the power s t r u c t u r e that he i d e n t i f i e s and f a i l s to d i s c u s s the ni n e t y e i g h t subleaders who are female; Presthus (1964:129-130,165) puts the e i g h t women i d e n t i f i e d i n h i s study of Men at the Top i n t o a s p e c i a l i s t category, i . e . , one-issue a c t i v i s t s , seen as l e s s powerful. Research c e n t r e s on the powerful men, and women are once again "hidden from h i s t o r y " (Rowbotham, 1972:8). 3 The need to t e s t the accuracy of my ob s e r v a t i o n s and the reasons f o r the absence of women i n the l i t e r a t u r e form the b a s i s of t h i s research, and the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to d e s c r i b e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power in a Canadian suburban community with emphasis on the l o c a t i o n of women i n the l o c a l power s t r u c t u r e . The work i s p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e d with what has been l a b e l l e d the " c o r r e c t i v e " category of f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h ( E h r l i c h , 1976) which i s concerned with f i l l i n g i n the gaps i n our knowledge of women. The f i r s t phase of f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h has documented the i n v i s i b i l i t y of women i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h and ,has heightened awareness of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s of s o c i a l s c i e n c e , which has been found to be biased i n that i t i s based on a "masculine view of s o c i a l r e a l i t y " (Roberts, 1981:2). A second phase of the work i n c l u d e s i d e n t i f y i n g the methodological b i a s e s which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y remove women from view, and re c o r d i n g the experiences of women. Work s t i l l needs to be done on developing s u i t a b l e methods to redress the gender b i a s of present r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s . Those engaged i n f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h seek to examine the experiences of both men and women rath e r than assume that the re s e a r c h about men can be g e n e r a l i z e d to women, and they emphasize t h a t the knowledge gained from an a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l expand the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h (Bernard,1973:14; Butler,1976:4). 4 The work a l s o researches a p r e v i o u s l y unstudied s e t t i n g , a Canadian suburban community. E a r l i e r s t u d i e s have concentrated on c i t i e s of v a r y i n g s i z e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s with a few s t u d i e s l o c a t e d i n B r i t a i n and one i n Canada. As the number of American s t u d i e s has lessened d r a m a t i c a l l y s i n c e the 1970's, I hope that a study of Canadian suburban p o l i t i c s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the b e t t e r understanding of community power. Research on community power i s an area of c o n s i d e r a b l e debate. Neither a "Power S t r u c t u r e Theory" (Domhoff, 1980:15) nor a "Theory of Power" (Dahl, 1957:202; Wrong, I 9 7 9 : v i i ; Domhoff, 1978a:130) have been w e l l d e f i n e d t o date. However, a combination of the standard r e s e a r c h methods does appear to h i g h l i g h t those men who are c e n t r a l t o the decision-making process, and with some v a r i a t i o n s , these methods w i l l be used to i d e n t i f y the women who are a c t i v e i n shaping p u b l i c p o l i c y i n the community. Research about women r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to the un d e r l y i n g assumptions and the methods of the pre v i o u s s t u d i e s . From the male p e r s p e c t i v e , women's a c t i v i t i e s may not be important to- the s t u d i e s , but as Freeman (1976:251) suggests, " i t i s an open q u e s t i o n whether women so completely lack access to the higher echelons of p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n making or i f the methods employed by students of community power operate s y s t e m a t i c a l l y to remove women from t h e i r view." 5 In order to write about women i n a community power s t r u c t u r e , s e v e r a l tasks must be attempted: one i s to explore ways i n which a c t i v e women can be i d e n t i f i e d ; a second i s to d e s c r i b e the women who are a c t i v e i n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and d e c i s i o n making; and a t h i r d i s t o o f f e r some e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e i r u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n power s t r u c t u r e s t u d i e s . The community serves as a u s e f u l u n i t of study f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n of women's p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , as i t i s "a primary power c e n t r e and . . . a p l a c e i n which power can most e a s i l y be observed" (Hunter, 1953:2). As Presthus (1964:9) suggests, the l o c a l community i s the most f a v o u r a b l e environment f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of democratic v a l u e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p l u r a l i s m . The community i s a l s o a s u i t a b l e p l a c e to study the power and i n f l u e n c e of women, as i t i s the l e v e l at which women are most l i k e l y to be a c t i v e i n a p o l i t i c a l sense, i . e . , to attempt to i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c decision-making ( B e l l , 1961:43; Stewart, 1979:8; Brodie and V i c k e r s , 1982:16). T h i s r e s e a r c h i s conducted as a case study of one community. The main value of the re s e a r c h l i e s p a r t i a l l y i n adding a set of f i n d i n g s to the study of community power, but p r i m a r i l y i n documenting the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c t i v i t i e s of the women who i n f l u e n c e one community's decision-making p r o c e s s e s . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s h o p e f u l l y a way of combining community power s t r u c t u r e theory and methods with f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h on women's power i n s o c i e t y , i n that i t compares the experiences of p o l i t i c a l l y minded men and women and notes the 6 c e n t r a l i t y of women to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power. The t h e s i s i s organized i n t o f i v e major s e c t i o n s . Chapter two p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to some i s s u e s in the resear c h on community power s t r u c t u r e s , and i n the study of women, the o b j e c t i v e s of the study and procedures used to o b t a i n the data r e q u i r e d . Chapter three presents a d e s c r i p t i o n of the resear c h s e t t i n g , that i s , some p e r t i n e n t community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e . Chapter four focuses a t t e n t i o n on the decision-making process i n the community, from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the p o l i t i c i a n s . I d e t a i l sources of i n f l u e n c e on the process, v o t i n g outcomes in key i s s u e s , o b s e r v a t i o n s about whose i n t e r e s t s p r e v a i l i n decision-making and d e s c r i b e , i n general terms, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n the community. Chapter f i v e i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on the women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s , documenting t h e i r presence i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y , and l i s t i n g those with r e p u t a t i o n s f o r power. I d e s c r i b e i n some d e t a i l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a sample of the women so i d e n t i f i e d , - n o t i n g t h e i r experiences i n community p o l i t i c s and t h e i r connections to the s t r u c t u r e of power o p e r a t i n g i n the community. I i n c l u d e information about some i n f l u e n t i a l men f o r comparative purposes. In chapter s i x , I compare my ob s e r v a t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n t h i s community with data presented i n other research, summarize the data on women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p o l i t i c s found i n other s t u d i e s and o f f e r some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the low p r o f i l e of women i n power s t r u c t u r e l i t e r a t u r e . 7 Chapter seven p r e s e n t s an e v a l u a t i o n of the methods used i n t h i s study and o f f e r s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 8 Chapter Two I s s u e s i n the study of women and community power O b j e c t i v e s of the r e s e a r c h The d i s c r e p a n c y between p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n of women's a c t i v i t i e s i n community p o l i t i c s and the g e n e r a l i n v i s i b i l i t y of women i n r e s e a r c h on community power r a i s e d f o r me s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s : one, who a r e the women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ; two, what i s the n a t u r e and scope of t h e i r i n f l u e n c e ; and t h r e e , why i s i t t h a t they a r e al m o s t i g n o r e d i n the s t u d i e s on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n a community? To answer those q u e s t i o n s I posed t h r e e major o b j e c t i v e s f o r t he r e s e a r c h : 1. To i d e n t i f y the g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n the community under s t u d y , 2. t o i d e n t i f y women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h a t p r o c e s s and d e s c r i b e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s t o the power s t r u c t u r e , and 3. t o o f f e r some e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the absence of women i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on community power. S i n c e t h e r e i s as y e t no body of l i t e r a t u r e t h a t documents the a c t i v i t i e s and power of women i n community p o l i t i c s , p r e s e n t t h e o r i e s and methods of power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h s e r v e as a gu i d e t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 9 In t h i s chapter I present some of the i s s u e s i n rese a r c h i n t o community power s t r u c t u r e s and my p a r t i c u l a r approach to i d e n t i f y i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n the community under study. I d i s c u s s some of the systematic b i a s e s that f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h e r s have noted as reasons f o r women's general i n v i s i b i l i t y i n s t u d i e s on s o c i a l phenomena and present the v a r i a t i o n s on b a s i c power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h methods that I use to emphasize women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p o l i t i c s . The chapter concludes with a summary of the procedures and a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the l i m i t s of the r e s e a r c h . Issues i n the study of community power Power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h focuses on the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power. The r e s e a r c h i s designed t o i d e n t i f y community members who are c e n t r a l to the l o c a l decision-making process and to map the i n t e r p e r s o n a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l connections between those members to determine the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s f i e l d of study i s one of c o n s i d e r a b l e debate, the two predominant schools of thought p r e s e n t i n g on one hand, an account of power co n c e n t r a t e d i n the hands of a small group of non-elected i n f l u e n t i a l men, and on the ot h e r , data to show that the power of the s t a t e i s shared with many groups and th a t no one group dominates the decision-making p r o c e s s . Thus the r e are no i n d i s p u t a b l e g u i d e l i n e s or e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the r e s e a r c h i n t o the power s t r u c t u r e of a p r e v i o u s l y unstudied 1 0 s e t t i n g , a Canadian suburban community, and yet the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n t h i s community has to be determined before women's l o c a t i o n i n that power s t r u c t u r e can be assessed. I n t e r e s t i n the sub j e c t of power as i n f l u e n c e i n community decision-making was p a r t i c u l a r l y aroused when Hunter p u b l i s h e d in 1953 a study of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n an American c i t y . Hunter's r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t grew from p e r s o n a l experience as a s o c i a l worker, of "bumping up a g a i n s t " (Domhoff, 1980:9) the power of some communty l e a d e r s of A t l a n t a , and from personal o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , proposals f o r major community p r o j e c t s appeared to be f u l l y developed before comming to p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . Hunter's r e s e a r c h methods inc l u d e d at l e a s t twenty-one i n d i c a t o r s of power ( M i l l e r , 1982:193), but h i s newly developed " r e p u t a t i o n a l " method i n which those who were most of t e n nominated as i n f l u e n t i a l i n community a f f a i r s were i d e n t i f i e d as key decision-makers, became the focus of c r i t i c i s m of the "bia s e d " f i n d i n g s . The c o n t r o v e r s i a l r e s e a r c h i d e n t i f i e d a power s t r u c t u r e which was made up of a small goup of men, predominantly from the business s e c t o r , but i n c l u d i n g a few who were i n top p o s i t i o n s i n other i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and c i v i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . The men came together r e g u l a r l y through memberships i n p r e s t i g i o u s c l u b s , and through i n t e r l o c k i n g board memberships. Hunter s t a t e d that i t was these men who i n i t i a t e d ideas f o r community p r o j e c t s , found the funding, and worked out the d e t a i l s before any h i n t of the matter came to p u b l i c 11 a t t e n t i o n . He noted that the most powerful men of t h i s group, whom he de s i g n a t e d the "power e l i t e " , formulated the p o l i c i e s , and i t was those i n the " u n d e r s t r u c t u r e " group who attended to the d e t a i l s . Business l e a d e r s made up the key group of p o l i c y makers and e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s were among those i n the l e s s powerful groups (p.107). Personnel i n the pyramid would change depending upon what needed to be done at a p a r t i c u l a r time (p.65). A second major study of power i n America was done by M i l l s (1956) who used the " p o s i t i o n a l " method to suggest that there was a n a t i o n a l power e l i t e made up of men i n top decision-making p o s i t i o n s i n the economic, p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s of s o c i e t y , who c o n t r o l l e d n a t i o n a l p u b l i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . These f i n d i n g s were c h a l l e n g e d by p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s who, t r a i n e d i n "the o l d f a m i l i a r p l u r a l i s t i c assumption about the nature of American p o l i t i c s " (Polsby, 1980:112), focused on the a u t h o r i t y , of the p o l i t i c i a n s , the " l e g i t i m a t e " l e a d e r s of a democratic s o c i e t y , and on a c t u a l behaviour i n more p u b l i c a spects of decision-making. The " p l u r a l i s t s " were l e d by Dahl (1961), who i d e n t i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e i n p u b l i c i s s u e s that he had d e s i g n a t e d as c o n t e n t i o u s , using the " d e c i s i o n a l " method. Dahl a s s e r t e d that power was d e c e n t r a l i z e d i n that " s o c i a l and economic n o t a b l e s " d i d not dominate the decision-making processes and that " i n f l u e n c e tends to be s p e c i a l i z e d " (p. 169). At i s s u e was the concern to show that, i n modern America, the upper c l a s s was no longer the r u l i n g c l a s s : t h a t wealth and 1 2 p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e were not combined ( D a h l , 1 961 :1 5, 25)-. The d e c i s i o n a l method was i n t u r n , c r i t i c i z e d f o r n e g l e c t i n g "the s u b t l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n ' s of power" ( P r e s t h u s , 1964:42). Based on the f i n d i n g s of the f l u r r y of power s t r u c t u r e s t u d i e s t h a t f o l l o w e d , power s t r u c t u r e t h e o r i s t s have p o s t u l a t e d a t y p o l o g y of power s t r u c t u r e s r a n g i n g from an e l i t e model which denotes a s m a l l group of p o w e r f u l p e o p l e c o n t r o l l i n g d e c i s i o n -making over a broad range of i s s u e s or i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s (a r u l i n g group or c o v e r t e l i t e ) , 1 t o a p l u r a l i s t model which i m p l i e s t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s s h a r e d between competing groups of p o l i t i c a l l y minded i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t e r e s t and i n f l u e n c e i n one i s s u e a rea or s e c t o r o n l y (Form and M i l l e r , 1960:538-543; Bonjean and Grimes, 1974:380-381). P r e s t h u s (1964:10) d e f i n e s e l i t i s m as " d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e power ( r e s t i n g ) i n the hands of a m i n o r t y of community members" and p l u r a l i s m as "the power of the s t a t e shared w i t h a l a r g e number of p r i v a t e groups, i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s " . T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:39) d e f i n e a f a c t i o n a l power s t r u c t u r e as one w i t h two major c o n f l i c t i n g groups and a c o a l i t i o n a l one as one i n which v a r i o u s groups form c o a l i t i o n s on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s w i t h no s t a b l e f a c t o r s emerging. They note t h a t e l i t e s t r u c t u r e s a r e thought of as p y r a m i d a l or 1 Domhoff (1983:216) p o i n t s out t h a t t h e o r i s t s of t h e e l i t e s c h o o l of thought suggest t h a t .power i s c o n c e n t r a t e d not i n one c l a s s as do M a r x i s t s c h o l a r s , but among those who manage the major i n s t i t u t i o n s i n s o c i e t y . 1 3 m o n o l i t h i c and p l u r a l i s t s t r u c t u r e s as amorphous or p o l y l i t h i c . In p r a c t i c e , more communities have been d e s c r i b e d to have some form of e l i t e power s t r u c t u r e than p l u r a l i s t , as shown i n a summary of s t u d i e s prepared by Walton (1966). L a t e r s t u d i e s by Hunter (1980), Haugh (1980) and T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982) document that i t i s i n d i v i d u a l s with business i n t e r e s t s who are predominant i n American power s t r u c t u r e s . Dahl's (1961:334) study i d e n t i f i e d a s i g n i f i c a n t number of members of the economic s e c t o r among the i s s u e l e a d e r s i n New Haven, i n s p i t e of s t a t i n g (p.187) that "top l e a d e r s are l i k e l y to be p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s who r e f l e c t the v a r y i n g and even c o n f l i c t i n g segments of the community. Domhoff (1978), i n a r e a n a l y s i s of the New Haven data s t u d i e d by Dahl (1961), has d i s p u t e d the p l u r a l i s t model presented in the e a r l i e r work, n o t i n g the use of methods which d i d not tap the u n d e r l y i n g power base of the community, which had "Yale, the F i r s t New Haven N a t i o n a l Bank and the Chamber of Commerce at i t s h e a r t " (p.113). P o r t ' s (1972) study of a Canadian town i d e n t i f i e d a s i m i l a r preponderance of businessmen. The debate about the p l u r a l i s t i c nature of western democracy has been brought i n t o the 1980's by Polsby (1980) and by Dahl (1982). I t would seem that members.of the two schools of thought have developed t h e i r t h e o r i e s and r e s e a r c h methods using d i f f e r e n t u n i t s of a n a l y s i s and the i s s u e has become an u n n e c e s s a r i l y heated debate. E l i t e t h e o r i s t s s t r e s s that the resource f o r power comes from being l o c a t e d i n a key p o s i t i o n i n 1 4 a dominant i n s t i t u t i o n and i n i n t e r l o c k i n g group memberships, but p l u r a l i s t s a s s e r t that power may be t i e d to i s s u e s which may be f l e e t i n g (Polsby, 1980:115), and i n s i s t on f o c u s i n g on i n d i v i d u a l r e s o u r c e s f o r power which might i n c l u d e "money and c r e d i t , c o n t r o l over jobs, c o n t r o l over i n f o r m a t i o n of o t h e r s , s o c i a l s t a n d i n g , knowledge and e x p e r t i s e , p o p u l a r i t y , l e g i t i m a c y , e t h n i c s o l i d a r i t y , r i g h t to vote, time, and p e r s o n a l energy", a l l of which may be "employed with g r e a t e r or l e s s s k i l l " (Polsby 1980:119-120). S t r a t i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s focus on the e x e r c i s e of power through the more hidden aspect of p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n i n the decision-making process (Hunter, 1953 :113; Domhoff, I978b:62), yet p l u r a l i s t s s t r e s s that power can only be i n d i c a t e d by "an examination of a s e r i e s of concrete cases where key d e c i s i o n s are made" Dahl (1958:469). S t r a t i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s suggest that there i s a " m o b i l i z a t i o n of b i a s " ( S c h a t t s c h n e i d e r , 1960; Bachrach and Baratz,l962; Lukes, 1974) which has been d e f i n e d as "the establishment of a set of v a l u e s which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y serves one group at the expense of o t h e r s " (Trounstine and C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982:34). P l u r a l i s t s d i s m iss r e s e a r c h i n t o m o b i l i z a t i o n of b i a s as being "as y e t e m p i r i c a l l y u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d " (Polsby, 1980:189-218) and c o n t i n u e to maintain that "nobody dominates d e c i s i o n -making. . . t h a t (American) s o c i e t y i s f r a c t u r e d i n t o c o n g e r i e s of hundreds of small s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups, with incompletely o v e r l a p p i n g memberships, widely d i f f e r i n g power bases and a 15 multitude of techniques f o r e x e r c i s i n g i n f l u e n c e on d e c i s i o n s s a l i e n t to them. . . " (Polsby, 1980:113-118). However, while s t a t i n g t h at " i n l a r g e p o l i t i c a l systems, independent o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e l p to prevent domination and to c r e a t e mutual c o n t r o l " , Dahl (1982:32,36) does not exaggerate the p o s s i b i l i t y . There i s a l s o a problem of d e f i n i t i o n of terms. Presthus (1964) designed a study to focus on the p l u r a l i s t i c aspects of decision-making i n two communities, and i n comparing the f i n d i n g s to those i n other communities, concluded t h a t " whereas some s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p o c c u r s , a ' s i g n i f i c a n t amount of o v e r l a p p i n g of d e c i s i o n a l power' i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of members of power e l i t e s . . . to some ex t e n t , where s o c i o l o g i s t s found monopoly and c a l l e d i t e l i t i s m , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s found o l i g o p o l y but d e f i n e d i t i n more h o n o r i f i c terms as p l u r a l i s m " (p.430). However, Tro u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:36) point out that both s c h o o l s of thought: have c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y to our under-standing of power. The e l i t i s t s gave us i n s i g h t s on power as i t e x i s t e d o u t s i d e the formal decision-making s t r u c t u r e s of government . . . the p l u r a l i s t s s h i f t e d the focus somewhat from r e p u t a t i o n to behaviour, i n s i s t i n g on the need f o r s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s . . . and a l e r t e d us to the p o s s i b i l i t y of power v a r y i n g over time ( s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s s a i d that the upper c l a s s would always dominate) and by i s s u e . Because of t h i s u n r e s o l v e d debate, and in s p i t e of the many and v a r i e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the body of r e s e a r c h , the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of power s t r u c t u r e types and t h e i r determinants has not been completed. The e a r l y debate about the d i f f e r e n c e s 1 6 i n d e s c r i b e d power s t r u c t u r e s c e n t r e d on the methods used to i d e n t i f y l o c a l i n f l u e n t i a l s i n case study communities. D i f f e r e n t methods, based on v a r y i n g assumptions about i n d i c a t o r s of power, were found to h i g h l i g h t d i f f e r e n t power s t r u c t u r e s . L a t e r attempts at comparative a n a l y s e s were based on the s p e c u l a t i o n that not only methods but a l s o community type ( p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and composition, economic s t r u c t u r e and type of governance, for example) might o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s (Walton, 1966:435; T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982:40). I review these p o i n t s i n m o r e ' d e t a i l below. Methods f o r i d e n t i f y i n g i n f l u e n t i a l s I m p l i c i t i n the debate about power s t r u c t u r e type i s the n o t i o n that power i s the a b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e or c o n t r o l the outcome of p u b l i c decision-making, and that some i n d i v i d u a l s have a g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y to do so than o t h e r s . Both e l i t e and p l u r a l i s t r e s e a r c h e r s agree with Dahl's (1957:210) o b s e r v a t i o n "that some people have more power than others i s one of the most p a l p a b l e f a c t s of human e x i s t e n c e " , and they a l s o agree that only a small group of i n d i v i d u a l s are a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s (Presthus, 1964:405; Dye 1983:10). Another p o i n t of agreement i s that power i s thought of as a c o l l e c t i v i t y (Domhoff,1983:10), that i s , power of i n d i v i d u a l s "must be s t r u c t u r e d i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n a l c l i q u e s , or i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s to be e f f e c t i v e " (Hunter, 1953:6). The major task i n power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h i s documenting the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s among those r e l a t i v e l y few i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e iTi l o c a l d e c i s i o n -1 7 making. The p l u r a l i s t - e l i t i s t argument i s at base, an i s s u e about whether there i s a systemic o r g a n i z a t i o n of power. The three b a s i c methods used to i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s who are- most i n f l u e n t i a l i n decision-making are based on d i f f e r e n t assumptions about who i s l i k e l y to have the most power to i n f l u e n c e the process. The p o s i t i o n a l method i s used on the premise that highest o f f i c e h o l d e r s in a dominant i n s t i t u t i o n , c o r p o r a t i o n , a s s o c i a t i o n or o r g a n i z a t i o n have the g r e a t e s t c a p a c i t y f o r power in decision-making and are t h e r e f o r e the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s . However, i t has been argued that c a p a c i t y and performance may not be the same t h i n g (Dahl, 1958:465; Wrong,1968:677). The r e p u t a t i o n a l method i s used on the assumption that knowledgeable i n s i d e r s w i l l be a b l e to i d e n t i f y those who a c t u a l l y e x e r t i n f l u e n c e and that the number of nominations f o r each i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t o r of the magnitude of reputed power. V a r i a t i o n s on the r e p u t a t i o n a l method have been designed to i d e n t i f y v i s i b l e , concealed and symbolic l e a d e r s (Bonjean, 1963). P l u r a l i s t s c r i t i c i z e t h i s method, s t a t i n g that r e p u t a t i o n f o r power may not r e f l e c t a c t u a l power, that a l l informants may not have the same understanding of what i s meant by power i n decision-making, and that informants chosen may be a b i a s e d group (Domhoff,1978a:136, summarizing Wolfinger (i960) and Polsby (1963)). Instead, p l u r a l i s t s s t a t e that power can only be i n d i c a t e d by a c t u a l behaviour in key d e c i s i o n s (Dahl, 1958:469). 18 The dec i s i o n a l method focuses on the p o l i t i c a l arena to determine "who p a r t i c i p a t e s , who gains and who l o s e s , and who p r e v a i l s i n decision-making" (Polsby 1963:4). T h i s approach draws a t t e n t i o n to the i n f l u e n c e a c t i v i t i e s of e l e c t e d community l e a d e r s but" i s regarded as having severe l i m i t a t i o n s i n i d e n t i f y i n g the hidden i n f l u e n c e s i n the decision-making p r o c e s s . ( M i t c h e l l , 1969:114; Domhoff, 1978:137). Walton's summary of s t u d i e s before 1966 i n d i c a t e d that the three methods, alone or i n a v a r i e t y of combinations l e a d to c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s : "the r e p u t a t i o n a l method tends to i d e n t i f y pyramidal s t r u c t u r e s while the decision-making and combined methods r e f l e c t f a c t i o n a l , c o a l i t i o n a l and amorphous types" (1966:435). N e v e r t h e l e s s , Domhoff (1978a:134) has suggested that no matter what the c r i t i c i s m s are of each method, a l l three generate l i s t s of names which can be used to seek out connections among those i n d i v i d u a l s . And because each method has s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, he recommends that a l l three be used where p o s s i b l e . Community d i f f e r e n c e s V a r i a t i o n s i n communities are a l s o suggested to be a determinant of d i f f e r e n c e s i n i d e n t i f i e d power s t r u c t u r e s . Form and M i l l e r (1960:439) sp e c u l a t e d that the i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l make-up of the l o c a l economy would be a f a c t o r in the kinds of people who would be a c t i v e i n the community. T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:40-47) extended the number of 19 v a r i a b l e s , based on the work of C l a r k (1968) and L i n e b e r r y and Sharkansky (1978:182-186), t o i n c l u d e s i z e , p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n , economic f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g b u s i n e s s ' mix, i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , u n i o n i z a t i o n , absentee ownership, m o b i l i t y of i n d u s t r y , s t r u c t u r e of government and p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e , a term used t o d e s c r i b e "shared v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n s , myths and a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o u r s " . They found t h a t w h i l e the e f f e c t of some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s t i l l u n c l e a r , r a p i d growth, i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n , economic d i v e r s i t y , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and absentee o w n e r s h i p , and an "unreformed" m a y o r - c o u n c i l form of government appear t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a more p l u r a l i s t i c t r e n d i n power s t r u c t u r e s . Community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be i d e n t i f i e d i n any attempt t o document the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power. However, t h e r e are a l s o o t h e r changes t h a t may a f f e c t the n a t u r e of the power s t r u c t u r e . T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:40,49) p o i n t out t h a t "the r i s e of the n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t e economy and the dominance of absentee-owned economic i n s t i t u t i o n s i n most communities, r e s u l t s i n many d e c i s i o n s b e i n g made o u t s i d e the community", and they note r e s e a r c h by W i r t (1974), M i l l e r (1975) and Domhoff (1978a:152) t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t "the arena f o r e l i t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n has s h i f t e d from th e s t r i c t l y l o c a l community t o h i g h e r l e v e l s : the r e g i o n , the s t a t e , the n a t i o n . E l i t e i n f l u e n c e a t these l e v e l s a l l o w s them t o r u l e l o c a l communities t h r o u g h broad p o l i c y , l e a v i n g a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l s t o the l e s s i n f l u e n t i a l . . . the n o n - e l i t e s " . 20 S t r u c t u r a l b i a s T h i s s t r u c t u r a l change, and the c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g "of a high i n c i d e n c e of businessmen among community l e a d e r s , even in Dahl's survey, encourages me to c o n s i d e r another theme found i n s t r a t i f i c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , i n s p i t e of the p l u r a l i s t c l a i m that no group dominates decision-making. That theme notes the r e l a t i v e dominance of some s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the economic and p o l i t i c a l s e c t o r s compared to those such as education, r e l i g i o n and the f a m i l y ( M i l l e r and Form, 1951:853-859; M i l l s , 1958:32; Hunter, I 9 8 0 : x v i i i ) . T h i s n o t i o n of r e l a t i v e dominance of c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s a l l o w s a focus on the s i m i l a r i t i e s of the f i n d i n g s r a t h e r than on the d i f f e r e n c e s , and the approach has three advantages. F i r s t , i t p r o v i d e s a way to widen the.focus from j u s t mapping the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n a l o c a l area, a focus which tends to t r e a t the community as a c l o s e d system ( C l a r k , 1973:5), to viewing the e x e r c i s e of power w i t h i n a s o c i e t a l context (Domhoff,1978a:152). Secondly, i t more r e a d i l y o f f e r s a conceptual framework f o r understanding the l i k e l i h o o d of f i n d i n g forms of e l i t e power s t r u c t u r e s i n a l l manner of communties d e s p i t e v a r i a t i o n s i n economic base and s o c i a l c l a s s among i d e n t i f i e d i n f l u e n t i a l s i n l a r g e c i t i e s and small towns. T h i r d l y , i t i s a l s o u s e f u l i n examining the power of women who are p e r c e i v e d to be a s s o c i a t e d l e s s with business i n t e r e s t s than with e d u c a t i o n a l , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e or f a m i l y concerns. 21 Form and M i l l e r (1960:439) have suggested that the r e l a t i v e dominance of i n s t i t u t i o n s may be r e f l e c t e d i n the p r o p o r t i o n s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s which each c o n t r i b u t e to s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n s i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and c i t e as an example the p o s s i b i l i t y of "the c i t y c o u n c i l , board of e d u c a t i o n , church boards of c o n t r o l and w e l f a r e boards" a l l dominated by the business e l i t e . However, they note that the p r o p o r t i o n s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n can be a l t e r e d somewhat by the i n d u s t r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n a l makeup of the l o c a l economy, the area perhaps being a one company manufacturing town, a u n i v e r s i t y town or a c e n t r e f o r government o f f i c e s . I f i n d some c o n f i r m a t i o n of Form and M i l l e r ' s h y p o t h e s i s i n Haugh (1980) who found that business l e a d e r s r e f l e c t i n g the major economic a c t i v i t i e s i n the southern American c i t y he s t u d i e d , were dominant in the " p u b l i c - v o l u n t a r y - n o t - f o r - p r o f i t s e c t o r " , although that was not my o b s e r v a t i o n while working i n that s e c t o r i n a Canadian community. In summary, there are many v a r i a b l e s i n the e x p l a n a t i o n s given about the v a r i o u s power s t r u c t u r e s i d e n t i f i e d : v a r i o u s methods and community types, the r e l a t i v e dominance of some s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , as w e l l as v a r i a t i o n s i n d e f i n i n g terms fo r the power s t r u c t u r e s documented in the r e s e a r c h . I judged that I had to f i n d out the answers to s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s i n order to i d e n t i f y the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power in the community: who are the p o l i t i c i a n s and the non-elected c i t i z e n s who i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c decision-making; what are the i n t e r p e r s o n a l , i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l connections 22 among those p e o p l e ; and whose i n t e r e s t s p r e v a i l i n d e c i s i o n -making. I a l s o would need t o document the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the community i n which the study was t o take p l a c e . I t was my i n t e n t , as a newcomer to the f i e l d , t o d e v e l o p a r e s e a r c h d e s i g n which would b r i d g e the opposing s e t s of r e s e a r c h methods used by " p l u r a l i s t s " and " e l i t i s t s " : the e l i t i s t s f o c u s i n g on the b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , c l a i m i n g t h a t i t i s the economic l e a d e r s who a r e the a c t u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and t h a t i n some c a s e s they "have the machinary of government a t t h e i r b i d d i n g " (Hunter,1 953: 2 4 ) ; and the p l u r a l i s t s p a y i n g more a t t e n t i o n t o the g o v e r n i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s as " l e g i t i m a t e l e a d e r s " and f a i l i n g t o note t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s t o n o n - e l e c t e d community i n f l u e n t i a l s . I d e c i d e d t o use the term i n f l u e n t i a l ( s ) t o denote any i n d i v i d u a l who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n some way i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and t h o s e i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s who appear t o have broader scopes of i n f l u e n c e than o t h e r s or who are i n a dominant group, would be c o n s i d e r e d more p o w e r f u l . My approach i s informed p a r t l y by J e n n i n g s (1964:201), who n o t e d the h i g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n of l o c a l government o f f i c i a l s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h community i n f l u e n t i a l s , and by T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:54), who s t r e s s t h a t t h e r e i s . a need t o f i n d out "who a n n o i n t s and f i n a n c e s c a n d i d a t e s " f o r e l e c t e d o f f i c e . In other words, p o l i t i c i a n s do not f u n c t i o n i n a vacuum, and however the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g or p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n p a r t s of the p r o c e s s are a t t r i b u t e d t o the v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s , the l i n k a g e s between the two most dominant i n s t i t u t i o n s 23 cannot be denied. T h e r e f o r e , my f i r s t e f f o r t to gain a gen e r a l sense of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n the suburban community was to ask the p o l i t i c i a n s to i d e n t i f y the major i n f l u e n c e s and i n f l u e n c e r s i n t h e i r experience as l e g i t i m a t e decision-makers, and to l i s t t h e i r memberships i n l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In t h i s way I assumed I would be pr o v i d e d with i n d i c a t i o n s of some i n f l u e n t i a l members of the community and i n f l u e n t i a l groups with whom the p o l i t i c i a n s were connected. The focus on the p o l i t i c a l arena was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h as Dahl's (1961) study of those a c t i v e i n the p u b l i c decision-making arena had h i g h l i g h t e d more women than i n any other study, although he f a i l e d to d e s c r i b e them i n any d e t a i l . To f u r t h e r e x p l o r e which i n d i v i d u a l s , men and women, were a c t i v e i n the p o l i t i c s of community decision-making, I employed v a r i a t i o n s of a l l three methods c i t e d i n power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h . I used the p o s i t i o n a l and r e p u t a t i o n a l methods independently to i d e n t i f y i n f l u e n t i a l c i t i z e n s , and compared those l i s t s as a check on p o t e n t i a l and a c t u a l i n f l u e n c e . I monitored the r e p u t a t i o n a l l i s t by ask i n g some nominated i n f l u e n t i a l s to d e s c r i b e the i s s u e s i n which they a c t u a l l y e xerted i n f l u e n c e . I was a l s o c o n s t a n t l y a l e r t d u r i n g the resear c h process f o r in f o r m a t i o n about connections of any of the men and women i d e n t i f i e d through the surveys or i n the in t e r v i e w s with p o l i t i c i a n s . That i n f o r m a t i o n came from the i n f l u e n t i a l s who were i n t e r v i e w e d , from knowledgeable informants 24 as they nominated i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e , from newspapers and l o c a l TV programs, h i s t o r y books and p l a q u e s on p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . I v a r i e d the s t a n d a r d methods somewhat t o ensure t h a t I i d e n t i f i e d women who c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , but b e f o r e I d i s c u s s the p a r t i c u l a r forms used, I rev i e w the reasons why I made some changes t o the methods. I s s u e s i n the study of women I have noted t h a t the methods of power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h , no m a t t e r what the c r i t i c i s m s a r e of each method, a l l g e nerate l i s t s of names of i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s , and t h a t t h e s e l i s t s can be used t o d i s c o v e r c o n n e c t i o n s among p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . However, the i s s u e e x p l o r e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t a c t i v e women a r e seldom i d e n t i f i e d , o r i f i d e n t i f e d , i g n o r e d i n the a n a l y s i s t h a t f o l l o w s . We must t h e r e f o r e b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l b i a s which has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the absence of women i n the f i n d i n g s of s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h , i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s the changes i n methods t h a t must be made. Three major b i a s e s a re d e s c r i b e d below. The f i r s t b i a s i s t h a t the s u b j e c t a r e a s which have been s t u d i e d most c l o s e l y by the men who dominate academia, have been tho s e i n whi c h men p r e d o m i n a t e . ( O a k l e y , 1975:4; Snyder, 1979:39-78). The outcome of the r e s e a r c h f o c u s has been the development of a base of knowledge t h a t has i g n o r e d the a c t i v i t i e s of women (Sm i t h , 1974:7) and i n the p r o c e s s , has s u b l i m i n a l l y shaped our 25 t h i n k i n g about the " i m p o r t a n t " members of our s o c i e t y . One r e s u l t i s t h a t women have no base of p u b l i c knowledge a g a i n s t which t o v a l i d a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s or p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . A second b i a s i s noted by S i l t a n e n and St a n w o r t h (I984a:94-95) who draw t o g e t h e r examples of work showing how p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r of men and women have been l a b e l l e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y , w i t h men's a c t i v i t i e s b e i n g d e f i n e d as " p o l i t i c a l engagement" whereas women's a c t i v i t i e s are d e s i g n a t e d as b e h a v i o u r based on "moral or s o c i a l " c o n c e r n s . The e f f e c t of t h i s b i a s i s t o f u r t h e r l i m i t t he i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of women's a c t i v i t i e s which a r e i n f a c t , p o l i t i c a l , t h a t i s , d e s i g n e d t o i n f l u e n c e the outcome of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I n t u r n , t h i s b i a s c o n t r i b u t e s t o a b e l i e f , commonly h e l d by both men and women, t h a t what women do i s not p o l i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t , and i s t h e r e f o r e not i n f l u e n t i a l b e h a v i o u r . Another example of a b i a s which has s y s t e m a t i c a l l y removed women from view has been the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system used i n s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s t u d i e s . S t r a t i f i c a t i o n systems a re based p r i m a r i l y on o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s f o r men, and on the o c c u p a t i o n of the dominant man i n t h e i r l i v e s ( f a t h e r or husband) f o r women (Ac k e r , 1973; Delphy, 1981), c r e a t i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of women and any i n d i v i d u a l s i n unpaid l a b o u r . D a h l (1961:177) f o r example, c l a s s i f i e s women i d e n t i f i e d i n h i s su r v e y by t h e i r husband's o c c u p a t i o n ; P r e s t h u s (1964:186) l i s t s a t a b l e of 26 o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o f i l e s which notes t h a t "housewives . . . and u n c l a s s i f i a b l e s a r e e x c l u d e d . " ; f i v e of the s i x women i n Hunter's (1953:13) l i s t of f o r t y l e a d e r s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d as " l e i s u r e p e r s o n n e l " as they have s o c i a l or c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n l e a d e r s h i p c a p a c i t i e s but do not have b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s or s i m i l a r p l a c e s i n which they conduct t h e i r day-to-day a f f a i r s . T h i s f a c t appears t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r near i n v i s i b i l i t y i n the a n a l y s i s of community l e a d e r s t h a t f o l l o w s . Such examples of b i a s u n d e r s c o r e the c o n v i c t i o n of f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h framework has t o be r e v i s e d (Andersen, 1983:15; M e i s , 1983; K l e i n , 1983) a l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h e r s a r e reminded t h a t , i n r e v i s i n g the "male as norm" paradigm, we must t r e a t men and women by the same s t a n d a r d s ( S i l t a n e n and S t a n w o r t h , 1984b:191). In r e v i e w i n g the methods d e v i s e d by male r e s e a r c h e r s t o i d e n t i f y community l e a d e r s , I judged t h a t the p o s i t i o n a l method has l i m i t a t i o n s f o r the study of women i n t h a t i t i s used t o gene r a t e l i s t of names of those who h o l d key p o s i t i o n s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the dominant s e c t o r s , and i n the c i v i c a s s o c i a t i o n s which t e n d t o be the "core o r g a n i z a t i o n s which a r e l a r g e and r e l a t e d t o economic i n s t i t u t i o n s " (McPherson and S m i t h - L o v i n , 1982:883). Few women h o l d p o s i t i o n s of power i n any dominant o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( S t a c e y and P r i c e , 1981:4-5), e s p e c i a l l y i n the economic s e c t o r (Marchak, 1977:202; Boyd,1982:66; Armstrong and A r m s t r o n g , 1983). They a r e seldom found i n h i g h o f f i c e i n the f i e l d of p o l i t i c s , a l t h o u g h B r o d i e and V i c k e r s 27 (1982:16) note that women are more l i k e l y to h o l d e l e c t e d o f f i c e at the community l e v e l than i n p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . I t h e r e f o r e vary the p o s i t i o n a l method to concentrate on i d e n t i f y i n g women i n e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s and i n ex e c u t i v e o f f i c e i n important c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s rather than attempting to l i s t women busin e s s l e a d e r s . I suggest that the r e p u t a t i o n a l method a l s o has l i m i t a t i o n s in the study of women. The two-step r e p u t a t i o n a l method used by Hunter (1953) and Tr o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982), f o r example, i n v o l v e s generating l i s t s of names of people i n key p o s i t i o n s and as k i n g knowledgable c i t i z e n s to rank those names . by r e p u t a t i o n f o r power i n decision-making. T h i s method, as I noted above, p l a c e s emphasis on men who are i n a u t h o r i t y i n v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s , p r i m a r i l y business and government, and i n key c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . When e f f o r t s are made by post-women's l i b e r a t i o n movement students of community power to i n c l u d e "as many women . . . as are l o g i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n the e a r l y stages (to) l e s s e n the l i k e l i h o o d of inadequately r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r presence i n the power s t r u c t u r e " ( T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982:60), we . s t i l l have the problem that only two women are i d e n t i f i e d among the top f o r t y l e a d e r s i n the community under study, and we l e a r n l i t t l e about the r o l e of women i n community p o l i t i c s . The "add women and s t i r " method (Andersen, 1983:13), i n t h i s case does not take i n t o account the f a c t t h at most respondents are l i k e l y to nominate men as the most i n f l u e n t i a l members of the community. 28 The v a r i a t i o n I used was to choose knowledgeable men and women from a broad range of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s to i d e n t i f y women and men who are i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r f i e l d s of endeavour and i n g e n e r a l . To ensure that those c o n t a c t e d in the r e p u t a t i o n a l survey would not overlook or underestimate the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of women to community p o l i t i c s , I noted the focus of the study as a cue to everybody to h i g h l i g h t women. I f necessary, I probed fo r names of men. The v a r i a t i o n should a l s o appease p l u r a l i s t r e s e a r c h e r s who have c r i t i c i z e d Hunter's (1953:11) c o n c e n t r a t i o n on only four s e c t o r s , namely business, government, c i v i c - a s s o c i a t i o n s and ' s o c i e t y ' a c t i v i t i e s . Polsby (1980:47) s t a t e d that t h i s approach i n c o r p o r a t e s an a p r i o r i assumption of a m o n o l i t h i c power s t r u c t u r e . M i l l e r (1958:10) had suggested that l i s t s of le a d e r s should be gathered from many i n s t i t u t i o n a l areas, and I think that suggestion i s u s e f u l i n attempting to explore the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women who are not u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d key p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the dominant i n s t i t u t i o n s . The d e c i s i o n a l method i s thought to have some general l i m i t a t i o n s i n that the key d e c i s i o n s that are s t u d i e d are based on the r e s e a r c h e r ' s view of what the c r u c i a l i s s u e s a r e . Although attempts have been made to ask c i t i z e n s t h e i r opinions about key i s s u e s (Port,1972), or to use as a c r i t e r i o n of importance, the sum of money i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n and the number of people a f f e c t e d by the d e c i s i o n -(Presthus, 1964:53), the i s s u e s examined w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i f y those in which 29 women are a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s . In a s s e s s i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n the community, I i d e n t i f y key is s u e s to be those which cause the g r e a t e s t c o n f l i c t between the competing p a r t i e s on C o u n c i l , and note whose i n t e r e s t s p r e v a i l i n the outcome of those debates (Dahl, 1958:466). But I a l s o ask some of the nominated women and men f o r d e t a i l s about t h e i r i n f l u e n c e a c t i v i t i e s to assess where they, the women i n p a r t i c u l a r , f i t i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power over decision-making. To overcome the b i a s of c l a s s i f y i n g women according to the occupations of the male i n t h e i r l i v e s , or i g n o r i n g the " u n c l a s s i f i a b l e s " , I d e s c r i b e the pe r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both men and women, not i n g r e t i r e d men as w e l l as housewives. I ask the same quest i o n s of women and men and compare t h e i r connections t o the i d e n t i f i e d dominant c l i q u e s , t h e i r areas of i n f l u e n c e and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e e x p e r i e n c e s . Summary of procedures To summarize, i n order to i d e n t i f y the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n the decision-making process, so that I might determine the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n the community, I f i r s t i n t e r v i e w the p o l i t i c i a n s to ask them who they l i s t e n to when making p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , a n d to a c q u i r e a l i s t of t h e i r memberships i n order to gain an i n i t i a l sense of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l and i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l connections among community i n f l u e n t i a l s . P o s i t i o n a l and r e p u t a t i o n a l methods are used as independent surveys to i d e n t i f y i n f l u e n t i a l community 30 members. I n t e r l o c k s among those people are sought through a v a r i e t y of sources, to e s t a b l i s h the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power. A review of the most c o n t e n t i o u s m u n i c i p a l i s s u e s i s undertaken to d i s c o v e r i f any group p r e v a i l s i n community decision-making. To i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the decision-making process, I l i s t those who are i n p o s i t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l power and i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e and in c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s and then i n t e r v i e w a number of the women who are nominated as i n f l u e n t i a l , choosing a sample which i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the v a r i o u s s e c t o r s i n which women p a r t i c i p a t e . To f i n d out how the women f i t i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power which operates i n the community, I ask those women d e t a i l s of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships, and compare that i n f o r m a t i o n to the data I gather from men. L i m i t s of the research T h i s study does not set out to o f f e r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the most powerful community members. The purpose i s to exp l o r e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of women to community p o l i t i c s , and to assess why i t i s that women are not v i s i b l e i n mainstream s t u d i e s on community power. To i d e n t i f y women's i n f l u e n c e i n p u b l i c decision-making, I request names of c i t i z e n s a c t i v e i n many i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s , r a t h e r than f o c u s i n g on the r e l a t i v e l y dominant ones. However, i n the a n a l y s i s of women's 31 p o t e n t i a l f o r power, and the re a s o n s why they a r e almost i n v i s i b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e on community power, I . p l a c e the f i n d i n g s about women i n t o the a c t u a l w o r l d of power, the w o r l d of men and men's i n t e r e s t s . As a woman, I am more a t t u n e d t o the e x p e r i e n c e s of o t h e r women, but I make every e f f o r t t o use the "d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e " which a t t e m p t s t o "combine male and female p e r s p e c t i v e s " i n the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s ( E i c h l e r and L a p o i n t e , 1 9 8 5 : 1 9 ) . 32 Chapter Three The r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g In t h i s c h a p t e r I o f f e r a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the community and i t s r e s i d e n t s and an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e . An a n a l y s i s of common memberships of the m u n i c i p a l p o l i c i t i a n s , w i t h supportng e v i d e n c e from o t h e r s o u r c e s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t two c l i q u e s of r e s i d e n t s dominate c i v i c p o l i t i c s . Community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d (a pseudonym), i s a suburb of about 100,000 p e o p l e i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. From the time of f i r s t w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t by people of m a i n l y B r i t i s h s t o c k i n 1876, u n t i l the m u n i c i p a l i t y became a d o r m i t o r y community f o r the n e i g h b o u r i n g c i t y i n the l a t e 1950's, the a r e a was p r o d u c t i v e f a r m l a n d . From 1951 t o 1981 the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d f o u r f o l d (Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada, 1951, Table 12; S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981, Cat.No. E580.) D u r i n g t h a t same p e r i o d , the economic base of the community a l s o expanded and d i v e r s i f i e d . Long term p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s were j o i n e d by an i n c r e a s i n g number of economic a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g " h i g h - t e c h " e n t e r p r i s e s , and by 1981, the i n d u s t r y c o m p o s i t i o n of the a r e a , l i s t e d i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r i n terms of p e r c e n t a g e of p e o p l e employed, ranged from Community, b u s i n e s s and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e ; Trade; M a n u f a c t u r i n g ; and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communications and u t i l i t i e s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30% t o 10%); t o F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e and r e a l e s t a t e ; P u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and . d e f e n c e ; C o n s t r u c t i o n ; 33 and P r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s (below 10%) ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981, Cat. No. E580). The p o p u l a t i o n growth and economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n has p r o v i d e d the f o u n d a t i o n f o r g r e a t e r s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y i n the community t a x base, an e x p a n s i o n i n the l o c a l j o b market, and a v a r i e t y of g e n e r a l s e r v i c e s such as a h o s p i t a l , major shopping c e n t r e s , s p o r t s grounds, a r t s f a c i l i t i e s , two l o c a l l y based newspapers, and community t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o s t a t i o n s . The p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n of N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d i n c l u d e s many e t h n i c groups. Those of B r i t i s h o r i g i n make up a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% of the r e s i d e n t s . Other e t h n i c groups which r e p r e s e n t between ten p e r c e n t and one p e r c e n t of t h e p o p u l a t i o n a r e : C h i n e s e , German, I n d p / P a k i s t a n , Dutch, J a p a n e s e , U k r a i n i a n , S candanavian, F r e n c h , P a c i f i c I s l a n d s , and J e w i s h ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981, C a t . No. SPC81B18). As a l s o n o t e d i n the 1981 Census, females make up 50.5% of the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n ; e i g h t y -e i g h t p e r c e n t of r e s i d e n t s l i v e i n f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , and the average number of c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y i s 1.3. The median f a m i l y income i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y $31,000, a f i g u r e which i s about f o u r t h h i g h e s t when compared t o o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the r e g i o n . There a r e many community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . They i n c l u d e an a c t i v e Chamber of Commerce, s e v e r a l s e r v i c e c l u b s whose memberships a r e d e c l i n i n g , f o u r p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h r e e p o l i t i c a l groups w h i c h campaign a t the c i v i c l e v e l . There a r e more than 50 c h u r c h e s s e r v i n g the 34 v a r i o u s e t h n i c , c u l t u r a l and language groups which make up the p o p u l a t i o n , and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . Many l o c a l s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o r g a n i z e a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l age groups and r e c e i v e some m u n i c i p a l s u p p o r t through s t a f f i n g and f a c i l i t i e s . To the v i s i t i n g o b s e r v e r , the community r e t a i n s s i g n s of i t s f a r m i n g economy i n the o u t l y i n g a r e a s . There i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e of heavy i n d u s t r y but t h e r e a r e many i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s and m e r c h a n d i z i n g complexes, u t i l i t a r i a n and low p r o f i l e i n appearance, i n the n o r t h e r n s e c t o r . Housing s u b d i v i s i o n s are found i n the e a s t , s o u t h and west s e c t o r s , w i t h h i g h - d e n s i t y apartments and town-house complexes b e i n g b u i l t a t a f a s t r a t e i n the town c o r e . Most b u i l d i n g s a r e t h r e e s t o r e y s or l e s s and the s k y l i n e i s broken by o n l y a few h i g h r i s e s t r u c t u r e s . A g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w of a s p e c t s of p r e s t i g e i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , g a t h e r e d from i n f o r m a n t s , newspapers and the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , s u g g e s t s t h e r e i s l i t t l e outward sense of a p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s : no s e l e c t C l u b rooms (Hunter,1953:16) or major s o c i a l e v e n t s (Dahl,1961:64) where the p o w e r f u l meet i n an o s t e n t a t i o u s manner, and no n o t i c e a b l y e x c l u s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a (Hunter,1953:18; Dahl,1961:341; Haugh,1980:43). The Country C l u b was mentioned by o n l y one p e r s o n , an e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l , but the new c u l t u r a l a r t s complex i s becoming a meeting place, f o r l o c a l n o t a b l e s . Newsworthy meetings and luncheons appear t o be c e n t r e d around the l o c a l Chamber of Commerce or S e r v i c e C l u b f u n c t i o n s . 35 O l d p i o n e e r f a m i l i e s show l e s s c o n s p i c u o u s i n f l u e n c e over t i m e , as the economic - base of the community has changed from f a r m i n g t o i n d u s t r i a l and o t h e r development. A l t h o u g h some o f f s p r i n g a re a c t i v e i n c i v i c a f f a i r s , o n l y two f a m i l i e s have descendents on C o u n c i l , on opposing s i d e s . Land development s i n c e the 1950's has a l l o w e d some l o n g e r term r e s i d e n t s . t o a c q u i r e w e a l t h and s t a t u s i n the community, but few names were mentioned i n terms of community power. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the l a r g e r c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s e s , which have moved t o the ar e a because of lower l a n d c o s t s , a re not p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e a t the c i v i c l e v e l , a c c o r d i n g t o a Chamber of Commerce member. Type of governance The m u n i c i p a l i t y i s governed a c c o r d i n g t o the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l A c t . Under the terms of the Act (1979), the b u s i n e s s of each m u n i c i p a l i t y i s run by a c o u n c i l e l e c t e d a t l a r g e and b i e n n i a l l y . The A c t s p e c i f i e s the s i z e of C o u n c i l , and e l i g i b i l i t y f o r v o t i n g by age, c i t i z e n s h i p and r e s i d e n t i a l s t a t u s , a l t h o u g h n o n - r e s i d e n t s who own l a n d or l o c a l c o r p o r a t i o n s a l s o have one v o t e each. The m u n i c i p a l i t y r e c e i v e s some funds from s e n i o r l e v e l s of government, and C o u n c i l has the mandate t o r a i s e o t h e r funds t h r o u g h t a x e s : t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o the community, t o pay i n t e r e s t and p r i n c i p a l on m u n i c i p a l d e b t s , and t o pay i t s share of r e g i o n a l expenses and d e b t s . I t i s a l s o the agent f o r the T r u s t e e s of the S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i n c o l l e c t i n g t a x e s f o r t h e i r 36 use, a l t h o u g h C o u n c i l has no j u r i s d i c t i o n over e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C o u n c i l i s g i v e n a u t h o r i t y t h rough the e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s t o d e c i d e the a l l o c a t i o n of f u n d s , and t o shape economic and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s of t h e community through the use of z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and bylaws. C o u n c i l members t h e r e f o r e h o l d c o n s i d e r a b l e power i n the p r o c e s s of p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . However, the d e c i s i o n s a r e not made i n a vacuum. Community i n p u t i n t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s f o r m a l i z e d t h r o u g h c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y committees, through l i a i s o n s between c o u n c i l members and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o which they a r e a p p o i n t e d as members, and through i n d i v i d u a l and group b r i e f s p r e s e n t e d t o C o u n c i l a t b i - m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s . The i n f o r m a l i n p u t i s l e s s , p u b l i c and some i n f l u e n c e s on the outcome of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e not r e a d i l y d i s c e r n a b l e . My f i r s t s t e p i n d i s c o v e r i n g j u s t who i s i n v o l v e d i n community p o l i t i c s i n the community was t o i n t e r v i e w the Mayor and members of C o u n c i l , p l u s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of S c h o o l Board T r u s t e e s . S t a r t i n g a power s t r u c t u r e s t u d y by i d e n t i f y i n g the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s has the e f f e c t of f o c u s i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r on the p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e of the community, and t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s the reader w i t h a d d i t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s e t t i n g i n which d e c i s i o n s a re made. 37 The p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e In B r i t i s h Columbia, l o c a l e l e c t i o n campaigns are waged between a s s o c a t i o n s of l i k e minded p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s who present " s l a t e s " of candi d a t e s , as w e l l as between independents. The c i v i c p o l i t i c a l groups have t i t l e s which do not r e f l e c t the party l e a n i n g s at the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l l e v e l s of p o l i t i c s . T h i s "non-connectedness" i s h e l d to be an example of non-p a r t i s a n s h i p at the c i v i c l e v e l ( V i c k e r s and Br o d i e , 1981:58). North W a t e r f i e l d ' s l o c a l e l e c t i o n s are c e n t r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y on two major a s s o c i a t i o n s , the l e f t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , the North W a t e r f i e l d C i v i c V o t e rs (NWCV) and the c o a l i t i o n of r i g h t -l e a n i n g sympathizers, the North W a t e r f i e l d V o t e r s A s s o c i a t i o n (NWVA). NWCV members and ca n d i d a t e s , a c c o r d i n g to an ex e c u t i v e member, have the same p h i l o s o p h i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l base as the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of the New Democratic Party, a f a c t that p r o v i d e s c r i t i c s with a reason to decry the use of "p a r t y p o l i t i c s " i n c i v i c government. In c o n t r a s t , the NWVA c l a i m s t o be non- p a r t i s a n because the candidates and workers have v a r i e d a f f i l i a t i o n s at p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s with one or two of the major p a r t i e s , S o c i a l C r e d i t , P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e or L i b e r a l , although members who were i n t e r v i e w e d suggested that " s o c i a l i s t s " would not f i t i n t o the "no n - p a r t i s a n " group. A t h i r d group, the C i v i c E l e c t o r s League (CEL), which d i d not e l e c t any member to C o u n c i l or School Board in the 1983 e l e c t i o n s , has some i n d i v i d u a l member a f f i l i a t i o n s to the L i b e r a l p a r t y . 38 The two major c i v i c campaign groups have b u i l t and strengthened t h e i r l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i n c e 1978. Both groups f i n d such o r g a n i z a t i o n helps the e f f i c i e n c y of mounting campaigns and they have been so s u c c e s s f u l that there have been no independent candidates e l e c t e d to C o u n c i l i n the l a s t two e l e c t i o n s . (The long term incumbent e l e c t e d as the only independent i n the 1979 e l e c t i o n i s now a f f i l i a t e d with one of the p a r t i e s . ) However, no-one in e i t h e r group suggested d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s that e l e c t e d members had to adhere to set p a r t y p l a t f o r m s and the amount of caucusing i n e i t h e r camp was minimal, two or three times i n the l a s t two ye a r s , and then over key i s s u e s . The s p l i t on C o u n c i l i s f i v e - f o u r , with the NWVA h o l d i n g the f i v e s e a t s i n c l u d i n g the p o s i t i o n of mayor. There are a few major i s s u e s such as land use ( p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n cerning r e z o n i n g from farmland to i n d u s t r i a l purposes), and environmental and labour concerns, when the NWVA and the NWCV vote i n opposing i d e o l o g i c a l l y based b l o c k s . On other i s s u e s where the d e c i s i o n s are made more on pragmatism than p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , there are two members of e i t h e r group who are c o n s i d e r e d more f l e x i b l e i n t h e i r stance and who sometimes form an a l l i a n c e which, with one other vote, can decide the outcome of a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . A l l C o u n c i l members show concern f o r i n d i v i d u a l s at v a r i o u s times, p a r t i c u l a r l y to small business people who have d i f f i c u l t i e s with zoning r e g u l a t i o n s or business l i c e n c e s . Time i s u s u a l l y allowed f o r those people to work out t h e i r s t a t u s with the p e r t i n e n t m u n i c i p a l department. P u b l i c servants are p r e s e n t l y making 39 e f f o r t s to st a n d a r d i z e r e g u l a t i o n s i n the r a p i d l y growing m u n i c i p a l i t y . There i s a p a r t i c u l a r need to reformulate the town plan s i n c e developers have gained concessions over the years, a l t e r i n g an e a r l i e r o r i e n t a t i o n of the business d i s t r i c t . The membership of the Board of School Trustees a l s o shows a p o l i t i c a l s p l i t , with the standing i n 1983 being f i v e NWVA, one NWCV and one CEL before the e l e c t i o n and s i x NWVA and one NWCV a f t e r . The c h a i r of the Board has been h e l d by the NWVA f o r the l a s t three terms of o f f i c e . Although I d i d not search f o r documentation of monetary or voter support f o r the two dominant campaign groups, i t was suggested to me on two occasions that the two s i d e s draw on d i f f e r e n t bases of support: the NWVA backed by " b i g bu s i n e s s e s , b i g farmers and some small business people" and the NWCV g e t t i n g support from "some small business people, small farmers and market gardeners, and unions". An i n t r o d u c t i o n to the s t r u c t u r e of power An examination of common types of c i v i c group memberships l i s t e d by the s e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s , combined with other i n f o r m a t i o n about the p o l i t i c a l c l i q u e s i n North W a t e r f i e l d gathered from i n t e r v i e w s with e l e c t e d and non-elected community l e a d e r s , and from newspaper a r t i c l e s about candidates d u r i n g e l e c t i o n campaigns, i n d i c a t e s t h at there are two d i s t i n c t c l i q u e s i n v o l v e d i n community p o l i t i c s . The most common o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s are presented i n Fi g u r e 1. 40 F i gu re O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o n n e c t i o n s o f Members o f t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and t h e S c h o o l B o a r d 41 Common memberships among NWVA p o l i t i c i a n s were noted to be in the Chamber of Commerce and l o c a l s e r v i c e c l u b s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Kiwanis. The Mayor and one other NWVA alderman mentioned that they h o l d s e v e r a l honorary memberships i n c i v i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . The Chamber i s an a c t i v e sponsor of the NWVA and some candidates on the NWVA s l a t e have connections to the Chamber, e i t h e r as members or as s t a f f . NWVA members were found to have v a r i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s to the three r i g h t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . At a recent NWVA campaign v i c t o r y c e l e b r a t i o n f i l m e d by the l o c a l TV s t a t i o n , the S o c i a l C r e d i t MLA v i s i t e d to give h i s c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s , c o n f i r m i n g p u b l i c l y f o r the f i r s t time, as one member remarked, the support given by h i s p o l i t i c a l machine. Although few of those i n t e r v i e w e d had re g u l a r church going h a b i t s , most NWVA C o u n c i l members l i s t e d church a f f i l a t i o n s , with two members a t t e n d i n g the same church. NWVA School. T r u s t e e s were repo r t e d by two of the respondents to be a c t i v e church members. Three NWVA members s a i d that one of the fundamentalist churches i n the community, with a r e p o r t e d l y c h a r i s m a t i c p a s t o r , i n v i t e s the p o l i t i c i a n s to Christmas ceremonies at h i s church. No NWCV member mentioned a t t e n d i n g the event. Some church support f o r the NWVA was rep o r t e d to me, support which might c o n s i s t of f u n d r a i s i n g among members of the cong r e g a t i o n , or guidance from the p u l p i t about v o t i n g p r e f e r e n c e s . 42 In c o n t r a s t , NWCV e l e c t e d members had a s i n g l e common bond in t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n to the p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n of the New Democratic Party at c i v i c , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s . Summary Fi g u r e 1 pro v i d e s a general sense of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n North W a t e r f i e l d . There are two major c l i q u e s of i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e i n c i v i c p o l i t i c s with no apparent membership o v e r l a p s . The resources of the Chamber of Commerce and r i g h t -l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s are combined with support from some church members to form a broadly based dominant c l i q u e , which has as i t s c i v i c p o l i t i c a l arm, the North W a t e r f i e l d Voters A s s o c i a t i o n . NWVA p o l i t i c i a n s are i n the m a j o r i t y on C o u n c i l and on the Board of School T r u s t e e s . The opposing p a r t y , the North W a t e r f i e l d C i v i c V o t e r s , has i t s support c e n t r e d i n the p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of the New Democratic P a r t y . T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the community and to the p r e v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e serves as an o r i e n t a t i o n to decision-making process i n North W a t e r f i e l d . In the next chapter I present the p o l i t i c i a n s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s of who has input i n t o t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s on p u b l i c p o l i c y . Here we w i l l f i n d that the community cannot be t r e a t e d as a c l o s e d system, as there are e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s as w e l l as i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s on the p u b l i c decision-making process. 43 Chapter Four The d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d In the l a s t c h a p t e r , I r e p o r t e d the presence of two c i v i c p a r t i e s on C o u n c i l , w i t h d i f f e r e n t bases of s u p p o r t and w i t h d i f f e r i n g p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s . The presence of an o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n on C o u n c i l and the f a c t t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s do not always v o t e a l o n g " p a r t y " l i n e s would suggest a p o t e n t i a l f o r p l u r a l i s m i n community p o l i t i c s . However, the m a t e r i a l g a t h e r e d from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s , i n which I asked them t o i d e n t i f y t o whom they l i s t e n e d i n the p r o c e s s of making p u b l i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and who they thought were i n f l u e n t i a l community members, i n d i c a t e d t h a t C o u n c i l members a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y somewhat c o n s t r a i n e d by some s i g n i f i c a n t p r e s s u r e s on the outcome of t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s . These i n f l u e n c e s on C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g come from r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments, major t a x p a y e r s , f i n a n c i a l a d v i s o r s , and b i g d e v e l o p e r s . Other i d e n t i f i e d i n f l u e n t i a l groups a r e the p u b l i c s e r v a n t s and two community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Only a few community r e s i d e n t s were i n d i v i d u a l l y named as i n f l u e n t i a l . S c h o o l Board T r u s t e e s mentioned p r e s s u r e s from p a r e n t groups. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the v a r i o u s p r e s s u r e s on the outcome of l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , whose i n t e r e s t s p r e v a i l i n the most c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s , and an assessment of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power form the c o n t e n t of t h i s c h a p t e r . 44 Sources of i n f l u e n c e on d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g M u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s come under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l government and, i n an e r a of s t r o n g r e s t r a i n t measures on p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and of i n c r e a s i n g c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of powers, s e v e r a l C o u n c i l members noted t h e i r c o n c e r n ( l i k e many o t h e r m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s ) t h a t they do not a n t a g o n i z e the p r e s e n t S o c i a l C r e d i t government and i n c u r f u r t h e r c u t b a c k s i n f u n d i n g and power over l o c a l d e c i s i o n -making. T h i s l i m i t s the o p t i o n s C o u n c i l members have i n s e t t i n g budgets, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e debate between the two s e t s of p o l i t i c i a n s about s e t t i n g t a x a t i o n l e v e l s , f u n d i n g c i v i c p r o j e c t s and how s t r o n g l y t o c h a l l e n g e the p r o v i n c i a l government. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of f e d e r a l commissions w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y must a l s o be r e c e i v e d f o r t h e i r i n p u t i n t o community management. The m a j o r i t y of C o u n c i l tend t o a c c e p t commission p l a n s f o r the a r e a , a l t h o u g h one r e c e n t NWVA-backed d e c i s i o n f o r a f e d e r a l commission's l a n d use a c t i v i t i e s was s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e d through p r e s s u r e from community groups. Another group which has i n f l u e n c e i n t h e outcome of budgetary d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s c o m p r i s e d of major t a x p a y e r s . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s of l a r g e f e d e r a l or p r i v a t e l y run c o r p o r a t i o n s i n the community have c l o s e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the mayor. However, the importance of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s e c o r p o r a t i o n s i s not u n d e r e s t i m a t e d by any c o u n c i l members and these o f f i c i a l s , as s i g n i f i c a n t t a x p a y e r s , a r e g i v e n a f a i r 45 h e a r i n g on t h e i r c o n cerns about s e r v i c e s and t a x a t i o n l e v e l s . C o u n c i l members a l s o l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y t o the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of l o c a l f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s who p r o v i d e both a r e p o s i t o r y f o r l o c a l government funds and f i n a n c i a l a d v i c e . A s i g n i f i c a n t p r e s s u r e group i s made up of l a r g e s c a l e d e v e l o p e r s . The mayor, who was v o t e d i n t o o f f i c e some y e a r s ago as a s u p p o r t e r of a c o n t r o v e r s i a l l y l o c a t e d shopping complex, i s approached f i r s t by t h e s e businessmen. As a f u l l - t i m e p o l i t i c i a n , he i s a b l e t o g i v e the p r o p o s a l s a f i r s t r e a d i n g , i n v i t i n g s e n i o r m u n i c i p a l s t a f f t o r e v i e w the p r o p o s a l s a t t h i s s t a g e i f he t h i n k s they s h o u l d be i n on the i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n s , or o f f e r i n g a d v i c e t o the d e v e l o p e r s i n d r a w i n g up a c c e p t a b l e p r o p o s a l s . Some development i s s u e s a r e a major s o u r c e of c o n t e n t i o n among p r e s e n t C o u n c i l members. In f a c t , the c o n t r o v e r s i a l development noted above had s p l i t a p a r t an e a r l i e r c e n t r a l i s t n o n - p a r t i s a n campaign group and f o s t e r e d the development of the p r e s e n t l e f t ^ r i g h t s p l i t on C o u n c i l . D e v e l o p e r s , or t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a l s o lobby aldermen i n d i v i d u a l l y , sometimes b y - p a s s i n g t h o s e who run on the same s l a t e as the mayor and c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the moderates of the o p p o s i n g p a r t y . The i s s u e s a r e so i n t e n s e l y debated a t t i m e s t h a t , on one o c c a s i o n , a major o u t - o f - p r o v i n c e d e v e l o p e r sent two former B.C. government c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s t o l o b b y f o r r e z o n i n g f a v o u r a b l e t o the p r o j e c t . 46 Some p o l i t i c i a n s , as I found out d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h p e r i o d , b oth c u r r e n t and out of o f f i c e , on C o u n c i l and oh S c h o o l Board, spoke of a w a r i n e s s of t h e power of s e n i o r p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . S e n i o r s t a f f members s e r v e ' as a d v i s o r s t o e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s by making recommendations f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y and they a l s o have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r implementing the d e c i s i o n s made. P o l i t i c i a n s must weigh the i n f o r m a t i o n and p o l i c y recommendations by the s t a f f a g a i n s t p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n s by i n t e r e s t groups and the g e n e r a l v o t i n g p u b l i c who e l e c t them t o o f f i c e , sometimes f o r a s h o r t d u r a t i o n . They are not always sure t h a t they a r e g i v e n the f u l l e s t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n of an i s s u e . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was c o n f i r m e d by an i n s i d e r , who noted t h a t s t a f f a r e c h a r g e d t o " p r o v i d e the t r u t h , but n e v e r t h e l e s s they f i n d ways of g i v i n g the t r u t h which i s s l a n t e d the way the p u b l i c s e r v a n t w i s h e s i t t o be r e a d . " L o c a l v o t e r s a l s o p r e s s u r e t h e i r e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s on a v a r i e t y of m a t t e r s , i n groups and as i n d i v i d u a l s . Only two community groups were i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g on-going i n f l u e n c e i n p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , the Chamber of Commerce, and a l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d neighbourhood group, r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s r e s e a r c h as the S o u t h s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n . The Chamber a c t s as a watchdog f o r l o c a l b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s , and as has been noted e a r l i e r , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n has t h e ear of a m a j o r i t y of the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s . The more e x p e r i e n c e d p o l i t i c i a n s , however, r e c o g n i s e a r e d u c t i o n i n the power of t h i s group over the y e a r s . They note t h a t the l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s do not j o i n the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , an o b s e r v a t i o n c o n f i r m e d by a Chamber i n s i d e r , and 47 i n s t e a d c o n c e n t r a t e on l o b b y i n g C o u n c i l or more s e n i o r l e v e l s of government d i r e c t l y . And a l t h o u g h the Chamber has a member who a t t e n d s a l l C o u n c i l meetings t o keep a b r e a s t of p o l i c y developments, i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e ti m e s when l o c a l b u s i n e s s p e o p l e a r e too busy w i t h t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n s t o a c t i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s over t a x changes or o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n . The S o u t h s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d as the o n l y neighbourhood a s s o c i a t i o n t o be p o l i t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d enough t o p r o v i d e ongoing i n p u t i n t o d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a r e a of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . A l t h o u g h a r e c e n t l y e l e c t e d NWVA p o l i t i c i a n remarked t h a t the group was not p o w e r f u l enough t o i n f l u e n c e h i s v o t e , members of t h i s group have, a p a r t from r a i s i n g a l a r g e sum of money over the y e a r s f o r community improvements, been a b l e t o f i g h t a l o n g but s u c c e s s f u l b a t t l e t h r o u g h the c o u r t s t o o v e r t u r n a C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n t o a l l o w d e v e l o p e r s t o buy some of the zoned park l a n d f o r h o u s i n g . That d e c i s i o n had been made as a way of l e s s e n i n g the c o s t s of park development t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y . They were s u p p o r t e d i n t h e i r f i g h t by many o t h e r community groups w i t h v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s , i n c l u d i n g c h u r c h , y o u t h , r e c r e a t i o n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups, as w e l l as some members of the NWCV. When the p o l i t i c i a n s were asked t o i d e n t i f y i n f l u e n t i a l community members, o n l y a few names were mentioned more than once. The most named i n d i v i d u a l s were mentioned not f o r p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s but f o r more hidden s o u r c e s of i n f l u e n c e : a l o c a l 48 p h i l a n t h r o p i s t businessman, a fund r a i s e r f o r the dominant c i v i c campaign p a r t y , and those i n d i v i d u a l s who were respected f o r t h e i r informed and a s t u t e o p i n i o n s on a v a r i e t y of p u b l i c i s s u e s . The names of i n f l u e n t i a l community members s u r f a c e d again d u r i n g the p o s i t i o n a l and r e p u t a t i o n a l surveys and they w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The l o c a l Member of Parliament, who a p p r e n t i c e d i n p o l i t i c s as a C o u n c i l member before running s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r e l e c t i o n as a P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e , was a l s o named. The community's S o c i a l C r e d i t Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, who has a r e p u t a t i o n of having l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s , was not mentioned. School Board Trus t e e s who were int e r v i e w e d , although they are becoming c o n s i d e r a b l y c o n s t r a i n e d i n decision-making by p r o v i n c i a l government e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s , spoke only about the pre s s u r e s which come from p a r e n t s . The PTA movement, strong i n North W a t e r f i e l d i n the 1960's and 1970's, has d i e d out, to be r e p l a c e d by i s s u e - o r i e n t e d groups that are community wide, as i n the cases of the group demanding French Immersion c l a s s e s , or parents who pressured f o r the removal of a c o n t r o v e r s i a l book from school l i b r a r i e s , or by more narrowly based groups such as parents p r o t e s t i n g a proposed school c l o s i n g . In summary, the decision-making process i s one of b a l a n c i n g many i n t e r e s t s . To e s t a b l i s h whose i n t e r e s t s p r e v a i l , I use the suggestion from p l u r a l i s t s to focus on the d e c i s i o n outcomes of the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s . What f o l l o w s i s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 49 of key i s s u e s and whose i n t e r e s t s p r e v a i l i n the d e c i s i o n s made, and how t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n of p o w e r - i s a c c o m p l i s h e d . C o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s and outcomes In N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d I found t h a t the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s are those d e a l i n g w i t h l a n d use, p a r t i c u l a r l y the i s s u e of r e z o n i n g farm l a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes or thos e which a r o u s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s , and w i t h the c o s t s of p r o v i d i n g c i v i c s e r v i c e s . NWCV aldermen have g e n e r a l l y argued a g a i n s t r e z o n i n g farm l a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l use. They note t h a t t he p r a c t i c e i n c r e a s e s the v a l u e of the l a n d o v e r n i g h t , sometimes t e n - f o l d , p r o v i d i n g immediate p r o f i t f o r the d e v e l o p e r s . They a l s o s t r e s s t h a t i t removes f e r t i l e s o i l from food p r o d u c t i o n purposes when a l r e a d y i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned l a n d i s u n d e r - u t i l i z e d or r e q u i r i n g r e -development . The c o s t s of c i v i c s e r v i c e s and l a b o u r have a l s o c r e a t e d h e a t e d d e b a t e s . A r e c e n t d e c i s i o n t o ' p r i v a t i z e ' the m u n i c i p a l l y owned garbage s e r v i c e meant s e l l i n g equipment and l a y i n g o f f s t a f f and drew c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e from NWCV p o l i t i c i a n s , s u p p o r t e d by un i o n members and r e s i d e n t s opposed t o the p r i n c i p l e of p r i v a t i z a t i o n of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . On such i s s u e s , the NWCV and NWVA v o t e i n op p o s i n g b l o c k s , and t h e NWVA m a j o r i t y on C o u n c i l e n s u r e s a win f o r b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d development and f o r ' p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e ' 50 i n t e r e s t s i n reducing 'big government' c o s t s . However, other c o n t e n t i o u s d e c i s i o n s made i n favour of NWVA supported i n t e r e s t s have been overturned when community groups have combined to support the NWCV o p p o s i t i o n . As has been mentioned, the Southside Residents A s s o c i a t i o n gathered support from many other community groups to f i g h t the iss u e of s e l l i n g some of the proposed park s i t e f o r a housing development through the c o u r t s . Although not a l l the p r o t e s t o r s can be s a i d to be NWCV supporters, two a c t i v i s t s l a t e r became aldermen on the NWCV s l a t e . A more recent c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s over land use arose because of NWVA supported plans by a f e d e r a l commission to use land near a r e s i d e n t i a l area f o r a dump s i t e . Again the m i n o r i t y NWCV were outvoted on the i s s u e . In t h i s case, v a r i o u s community groups, l e d by a p o l i t i c a l l y a s t u t e r e s i d e n t of the area, were able to have the d e c i s i o n f i n a l l y r e s c i n d e d . Chamber of Commerce members and a f f i l i a t e d V i s i t o r s and Covention Bureau personnel were among the groups drawn i n t o support the p r o t e s t . Perhaps only c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , the most a c t i v e Chamber member i n that p r o t e s t was dropped from the NWVA s l a t e i n the f o l l o w i n g e l e c t i o n campaign. To summarize, t h i s review of c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s i n d i c a t e s that the i n t e r e s t s of business and r i g h t - l e a n i n g s e n i o r governments p r e v a i l unless there are con c e r t e d e f f o r t s by r e s i d e n t s i n o p p o s i t i o n to the d e c i s i o n . I d e s c r i b e below how I thi n k that comes about. 51 The o r g a n i z a t i o n of power The tendency i n t h i s community i s t o sup p o r t the i n t e r e s t s of b u s i n e s s , both b i g and s m a l l . A l l C o u n c i l members appear t o acc e p t t h a t b u s i n e s s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the growth of the community. The main d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n between the two p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s tends t o be one of t i m i n g and p l a n n i n g of t h a t growth, t y p e s of l a n d use and conc e r n f o r the h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n i t s r a p i d development from a f a r m i n g s e t t l e m e n t t o i t s p r e s e n t suburban and i n c r e a s i n g l y urban c h a r a c t e r . Some p o l i t i c i a n s s u g g e sted d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s t h a t t h e r e were no d o m i n a t i n g groups or v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s ; o t h e r s e i t h e r c o u l d not g a i n a sense of the power s t r u c t u r e or r e p o r t e d t h a t they were t o o new i n p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e t o have l e a r n e d enough about who w i e l d e d the most power i n the community. Some noted the i n f l u e n c e of the mayor and ' h i s group', which i n c l u d e d h i s b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t e s . The sur v e y of i n t e r l o c k i n g memberships and the m a j o r i t y p o s i t i o n of NWVA e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s would appear t o support t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n . A member of the dominant c l i q u e of i n d i v i d u a l s s u p p o r t i n g the NWVA ob s e r v e d t h a t t h e r e i s a group of l o n g term r e s i d e n t s who have f o r many y e a r s been c e n t r a l i n the development of v a r i o u s community s e r v i c e s and a r e s t i l l a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s . Indeed, I had n o t i c e d the same names o c c u r i n g over t i m e , on v a r i o u s community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and committees, as I re v i e w e d h i s t o r y books, newspapers and names on pl a q u e s i n 52 v a r i o u s p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . The l i s t of people nominating NWVA p o l i t i c i a n s as candidates i n the recent e l e c t i o n a l s o showed some of those names. Fewer names of NWCV a f f i l i a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s were found i n t h i s type of survey. I was t o l d by t h i s same informant, that there i s a sa y i n g in t h i s group that i f they work hard enough, they can get anybody e l e c t e d to p o l i t i c a l power. However, I found that the p o t e n t i a l to "get anybody e l e c t e d " i s somewhat c o n s t r a i n e d by the organized o p p o s i t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n . The NWCV " g r a s s - r o o t s " campaign o r g a n i z a t i o n has ensured the e l e c t i o n of some NWCV candidates to c o u n c i l s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n , even though the i n c r e a s i n g l y middle c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n has voted f o r L i b e r a l or Cons e r v a t i v e MP's and S o c i a l C r e d i t MLA's si n c e 1975. The dominance of the r i g h t - l e a n i n g c i v i c p a r t y i n the ma j o r i t y of c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n d e c i s i o n s r e s t s , I suggest, i n the e l e c t i o n of a mayor who shares the p o l i t i c a l values of the dominant pressure groups. The mayor has c o n s i d e r a b l e formal power under the terms of the M u n i c i p a l Act and t h i s , combined with the backing of a broad-based c l i q u e of r e s i d e n t s , a s s u r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e power i n decision-making. The mayor can shape the outcome of C o u n c i l decision-making i n s e v e r a l ways. One avenue i s through j u d i c i a l appointments of e l e c t e d members to the v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e committees of C o u n c i l , and by c a r e f u l d e s i g n a t i o n of the chairman of each committee. In North W a t e r f i e l d , NWVA members are dominant on committees to do with budgets and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n matters, 53 whereas NWCV members predominate on S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Committee. In a d d i t i o n , the mayor a l s o e x e r c i s e s h i s power t o r e t u r n f o r r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , any committee recommendations which i n h i s o p i n i o n are not i n "the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the community". Having put a s i d e h i s b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s f o r the d u r a t i o n of h i s time i n o f f i c e , the mayor i s a b l e t o read a l l agendas and m i n utes of a l l committee meetings t o keep f u l l y i nformed of i s s u e s and recommendations. Working aldermen a r e a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n the amount of time they have t o keep a b r e a s t of the i s s u e s and ways of d e a l i n g w i t h them. The mayor i s a l s o a b l e t o d i r e c t i f n e c e s s a r y , the work of s e n i o r m u n i c i p a l s t a f f and he i s the f i n a l a r b i t e r of t h e i r performance e v a l u a t i o n s . Other members of c o u n c i l appear t o have l e s s c o n t r o l , as i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t i n some c a s e s , b u r e a u c r a t s work e x c e e d i n g l y s l o w l y t o implement some d e c i s i o n s won by m i n o r i t y members of c o u n c i l . In s p i t e of a l l the power a v a i l a b l e t o the mayor, however, f r i e n d s and c r i t i c s a l i k e remarked t h a t N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d ' s mayor a t t e m p t s t o be f a i r i n h i s h a n d l i n g of m a y o r a l t y powers and i s l e s s of a d i c t a t o r than the p r e v i o u s mayor. N e v e r t h e l e s s one f r u s t r a t e d a c t i v i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t " i f the mayor and the s e n i o r b u r e a u c r a t s were i n f a v o u r of a d e c i s i o n , even 75% of the p o p u l a t i o n up i n arms would not a l t e r the outcome!". Another s o u r c e of s t r e n g t h f o r b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s community i s the c o n f l u e n c e of p e o p l e w i t h ' r i g h t - l e a n i n g ' and ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' v a l u e s found i n the membership network b e h i n d the 54 NWVA (Fi g u r e 1). T h i s p r o v i d e s a broad based and e f f e c t i v e campaign support system, which generates more ext e n s i v e a d v e r t i s i n g than the NWCV, anddraws gre a t e r support from the reasonably a f f l u e n t suburban community with i t s high i n c i d e n c e of church o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l a r g e number of small to medium b u s i n e s s e s . NWVA candidates u s u a l l y top the p o l l s l o c a l l y and r i g h t - l e a n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are now r e g u l a r l y e l e c t e d to other l e v e l s of government. However, the dominance of the mayor and h i s group i s not a b s o l u t e . F i r s t l y , I. r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r that f o r some c o u n c i l d e c i s i o n s , there are v a r i o u s a l l i a n c e s i n v o t i n g which c r o s s p a r t y l i n e s . The reasons f o r the v a r i a t i o n s i n v o t i n g p a t t e r n s may be a response to the v o t i n g p u b l i c , a suggestion made by Dahl (1961:92-93), or may i n d i c a t e the f a c t t h at not a l l i s s u e s engage the a t t e n t i o n of the power c l i q u e (Rossi,1957:438), but as the mayor noted dur i n g my i n t e r v i e w with him, .the unexpected a l l i a n c e s on v a r i o u s i s s u e s t h a t show up at c o u n c i l meetings, sometimes mean that h i s one vote f a i l s to shape the f i n a l outcome of the d e c i s i o n on the otherwise e q u a l l y s p l i t c o u n c i l . Secondly, the s t r e n g t h of the o p p o s i t i o n balances much of the power of the other group. Few community concerns can be suppressed e i t h e r on c o u n c i l or i n the media. I f one si d e would p r e f e r to keep a low p r o f i l e on an i s s u e , the other w i l l see i t becomes p u b l i c . One newspaper o f f i c i a l noted that whereas in another community he had had the power through h i s newspaper to swing v o t e r support from a New Democratic Party MLA to a S o c i a l 55 C r e d i t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n one e l e c t i o n p e r i o d , i n t h i s community he f e l t h i s power was l i m i t e d t o i n f l u e n c i n g the few uncommitted v o t e r s i n the p o l i t i c a l l y s p l i t community. S i m i l a r l y , an o f f i c i a l of a l o c a l l y based C r e d i t Union noted t h a t he had t o appear p u b l i c l y a - p o l i t i c a l because of the p o l i t i c a l l y s p l i t membership. T h i r d l y , when community a c t i v i s t s draw t o g e t h e r v a r i o u s groups t o p r o t e s t NWVA-backed d e c i s i o n s a l r e a d y c h a l l e n g e d by NWCV members, the dominance can a l s o be a l t e r e d . Summary T h i s o v e r v i e w of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n No r t h W a t e r f i e l d i n d i c a t e s t h a t w h i l e t h e r e a r e some e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s on a l l p o l i t i c a n s i n the community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p r o c e s s i s dominated by two l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s . The predominant c l i q u e draws t o g e t h e r members of the b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , independent p r o f e s s i o n a l s and members of ch u r c h c o n g r e g a t i o n s who espouse r i g h t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s . C o n t r o l of the o f f i c e of mayor i n an o t h e r w i s e p o l i t i c a l l y b a l a n c e d C o u n c i l ensures t h a t t he i n t e r e s t s of b u s i n e s s p r e v a i l most o f t e n , a l t h o u g h I document ways i n which opposing groups can o v e r t u r n d e c i s i o n s . On S c h o o l Board, the dominance of NWVA members e n s u r e s t h a t t he e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y of t h a t c l i q u e p r e v a i l s . 56 However, a t t h i s p o i n t we do not have any sense of the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . That i s the f o c u s of the next c h a p t e r , i n which I i d e n t i f y i n more d e t a i l , t he i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s and d e s c r i b e some of the i n f l u e n t i a l women, t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and s t r a t e g i e s , and t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s t o the i d e n t i f i e d c l i q u e s . 57 Chapter F i v e What about the women? As the p o l i t i c i a n s responded to my q u e s t i o n about the people to whom they l i s t e n e d i n d e c i d i n g community p o l i c y , I was a l e r t f o r names of women. However, i n the l i s t i n g of p r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c i a l s , commission r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , government and p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t e l e a d e r s , f i n a n c i a l e x p e r t s , l a r g e s c a l e developers and s e n i o r p u b l i c s e r v a n t s no woman was mentioned. The most named community r e s i d e n t s i n c l u d e d one woman, and women were named as a c t i v e i n the two community groups which w i e l d some i n f l u e n c e i n l o c a l decision-making. But that does not document the t o t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s of women to community p o l i t i c s , and i n t h i s chapter I set out the ways i n which I have found the women who p a r t i c p a t e i n the decision-making process of t h i s community. I i d e n t i f y women who are i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y and those who have r e p u t a t i o n s f o r being i n f l u e n t i a l . From in t e r v i e w s with a sample of women a c t i v e i n . v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s , I am a b l e to d e s c r i b e t h e i r areas of i n t e r e s t and i n f l u e n c e , t h e i r connections t o the dominant c l i q u e s , and the ways i n which they exert i n f l u e n c e i n the decision-making p r o c e s s . I i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n about some inte r v i e w e d men f o r purposes of comparison. 58 Women i n e l e c t e d p u b l i c o f f i c e In s p i t e of the re s e a r c h which suggests that Canadian women are l i k e l y to be a c t i v e in p o l i t i c s at the community l e v e l (Welch, 1975:557; Brodie and V i c k e r s , 1982:16), there have only been f i v e women e l e c t e d to C o u n c i l i n the h i s t o r y of North W a t e r f i e l d . Three have been C o u n c i l members i n the 1970's and 1980's, with one in o f f i c e as a member of the NWVA at the time of the r e s e a r c h . Two of these recent women p o l i t i c a n s have run for the p o s i t i o n of mayor although n e i t h e r was s u c c e s s f u l . One noted that she was encouraged to run f o r mayor i n the 1970's by men from both s i d e s of the p o l i t i c a l spectrum because her p e r s o n a l i t y was thought to be more c o n c i l i a t o r y than the incumbent mayor. I t was a c l o s e two-way race, but the woman was t o l d by some o f the businessmen she had helped while on c o u n c i l , that they would not vote f o r a woman. The other woman contender f o r the p o s i t i o n of mayor d i d not a t t r a c t as many votes i n a l a t e r four-way race, but. a l s o d i d not have the outstanding p o p u l a r i t y or the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l connections of the e a r l i e r c a n d idate. The l a c k of women e l e c t e d to c o u n c i l i s not because they do not seek o f f i c e . Women candidates are never as numerous as men, but a review of candidates f o r e l e c t i o n s i n the past e i g h t years shows that the percentage of women running f o r c o u n c i l seats has ranged from 12% to 26% of the c a n d i d a t e s . Women candidates f o r School Board are more numerous, ranging from 31% to 42% i n the same time p e r i o d . 59 There have been more women e l e c t e d as School Board T r u s t e e s . F i v e of seven Trust e e s were women in 1977, 1978 and 1979 d u r i n g annual e l e c t i o n s . T h e i r numbers were reduced to three i n 1980-81, to two i n 1981-83 and to one f o r the 1983-85 term. With the r i s e i n p o p u l a r i t y of the NWVA candidates f o r School Board, the number of women T r u s t e e s has diminished as only one woman has run on the NWVA s l a t e for School Board. Two women have c h a i r e d the Board for a time i n those years and the lone woman p r e s e n t l y holds that p o s i t i o n , p a r t l y because she has proven her s k i l l s i n the r o l e , but a l s o because she i s able to devote the most time to the task, as the only Trustee without a pa i d o c c u p a t i o n . Women i n other c i v i c p o s i t i o n s North W a t e r f i e l d ' s s e n i o r p u b l i c servants have c o n s i d e r a b l e input i n t o community decision-making, but few women are i n p o s i t i o n s of any a u t h o r i t y . A l l department heads are men. Four of the f i v e women i n more se n i o r p o s i t i o n s are i n the Health department, which has an a l l - f e m a l e s t a f f except f o r the male doctor who heads the department. The other woman i s in the Personnel Department. Three women h o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l m i d - l e v e l p o s i t i o n s , i n Planning and i n L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s . Three others are o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r s i n the male dominated departments of En g i n e e r i n g , B u i l d i n g and Law. A l l sen i o r School Board a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are male. 60 A s u r v e y of women i n e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s on key community o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r s a s l i g h t l y more e n c o u r a g i n g p i c t u r e . I have taken as an i n d i c a t o r of c e n t r a l i t y t o community p o l i t i c s t hose committees and o r g a n i z a t i o n s which have f o r m a l i z e d l i a i s o n s w i t h C o u n c i l . C o u n c i l l i a i s o n s a r e w i t h two t y p e s of committee: c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y committees and v a r i o u s c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s c e n t r a l t o community l i f e . F i g u r e 2 i d e n t i f i e s t he committees w i t h l i n k s t o C o u n c i l . The a d v i s o r y committees a r e co m p r i s e d of l o c a l c i t i z e n s a p p o i n t e d by C o u n c i l t o s e r v e as board members. Committees such as the L i b r a r y Board, the Community P l a n n i n g Committee and the F a m i l y C o u r t A d v i s o r y Committee have members of C o u n c i l a p p o i n t e d t o s e r v e as Board members, a l t h o u g h the two o t h e r committees i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , the De s i g n P a n e l and the Board of V a r i a n c e do n o t . Seven c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o have c o u n c i l members r e g u l a r l y a p p o i n t e d t o " t h e i r Board of D i r e c t o r s : the H o s p i t a l Board, Chamber of Commerce, V i s i t o r s and C o n v e n t i o n Bureau, S o u t h s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n , the l o c a l U n i t e d Way, and two combined agency c o u n c i l s which s e r v e as a n e t w o r k i n g system f o r the a r t s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s communities. There a r e women on a l l the committees except the De s i g n P a n e l and the Board of V a r i a n c e . F i g u r e 3 shows the number of men and women who h o l d e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s on the committees and thos e who a r e i n the c h a i r . 61 C i v i c O r g a n i z a t i o n s C i t i z e n A d v i s o r y Committees F i g u r e 2. L i a i s o n s Between M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and C i v i c Groups 62 C i v i c O r g a n i z a t i o n s (Boards of D i r e c t o r s ) M u n i c i p a l S t a f f (Department Heads) H o s p l t a l Board Women Men* Women Men S o c i a l Women* aaattnnnnnnnnnntinnnnnnn C i t i z e n A d v i s o r y Committees Serv1ces Counc11 Men U n i t e d Way Women Men* nnnnnnnn L I b r a r y Board Women Men* • • • • Souths1de Res I d e n t s A s s ' n Women Men* nnnnannn Commun1ty P1ann1ng Women* Men nnnnnnng Comm11 tee A r t s Counc11 Women Men* tt n n u n n a n a • • • • Fam11y Court Comm11 tee Women* Men DananQDua Chamber of Commerce Women Men* nnann Design Panel Women Men* Convent 1 on Bureau Women Men* nnrja Board of Var 1 ance Women Men* Key * C h a i r • I n d i v i d u a l member n Exec. P o s i t i o n F i g u r e 3. Women and Men 1n P o s i t i o n s of C i v i c A u t h o r i t y . 63 We s h o u l d not be s u r p r i s e d by the h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s of women on some of the committees, f o r example, the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and a r t s c o u n c i l , j u d g i n g from r e s e a r c h by Babchuk, Marsey and Gordon (1963) and McPherson and S m i t h - L o v i n (1982), which documents the l o c a t i o n of women i n " p e r i p h e r a l " and "non-i n s t r u m e n t a l " a g e n c i e s . But we s h o u l d note t h a t the H o s p i t a l Board has o n l y one woman, somewhat u n e x p e c t e d l y i n t h a t t h e r e have been g r e a t debates a t the l a s t few Annual G e n e r a l meetings over the R i g h t - t o L i f e v s . P r o - C h o i c e a b o r t i o n i s s u e . Three committees, two a d v i s o r y and one c i v i c , a r e c h a i r e d by women at t h i s t i m e . The Community P l a n n i n g Commission, which has the mayor and two aldermen a p p o i n t e d as r e g u l a r members, i s c h a i r e d by a woman who i s a l s o an e x e c u t i v e member of the Chamber of Commerce. The Chamber has i n the p a s t few y e a r s had s e v e r a l women a c t i v e as members and d i r e c t o r s , as w e l l as a woman b u s i n e s s manager. One of th e s e women became the most p o p u l a r C o u n c i l member f o r some y e a r s and a m a y o r a l t y c a n d i d a t e . Another woman i s the immediate p a s t p r e s i d e n t . The F a m i l y Court A d v i s o r y Committee i s c h a i r e d by a woman who has been a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e i n the development of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l and i n i n i t i a t i n g a n e t w o r k i n g system between the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s t h a t d e a l w i t h f a m i l y c o n c e r n s . The S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l , which draws t o g e t h e r government and non-governmental a g e n c i e s t h a t o f f e r a wide v a r i e t y of human c a r e s e r v i c e s t o the r e s i d e n t s , i s a l s o p r e s e n t l y c h a i r e d by a woman. 64 Women (and men) with r e p u t a t i o n s f o r i n f l u e n c e In order to gather a l i s t of names of people thought to be i n f l u e n t i a l community members, I t a l k e d with e i g h t men and s i x women who might be considered knowledgeable about community p o l i t i c s . A l l but one were long term community r e s i d e n t s and a l l worked i n a u t h o r i t a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Most had a l s o been a c t i v e f o r many years i n v a r i o u s c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The one man who, as i t turned out, had not been i n the community long, was p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d to observe l o c a l power s t r u c t u r e s and in s p i t e of the short time i n North W a t e r f i e l d , was ab l e to o f f e r a remarkably d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power, one which confirmed my own impressions, but which was more d e t a i l e d i n th a t he named " r i s i n g " and " f a l l i n g " s t a r s . These informants represented many s e c t o r s of community a c t i v i t y , the business s e c t o r , the p o l i t i c a l scene, p u b l i c s e r v i c e , education, r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and the media. The person who was asked to o f f e r i n f o r m a t i o n about members of North W a t e r f i e l d who might be " s o c i e t y and wealth" turned out to be the only r e s i d e n t who was l i s t e d i n r e g i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l r e g i s t e r s . I asked these people to t e l l me who they p e r c e i v e d to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n community decision-making, both i n t h e i r own f i e l d s of experience, and i n g e n e r a l . I noted that the focus of the r e s e a r c h was on women, to p r o v i d e an impetus to i d e n t i f y a c t i v e women. I f necessary I probed f o r names of men. 65 At the end of t h i s r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v e y , I added i n the names of r e s i d e n t s who had been noted by t h e i n t e r v i e w e d p o l i t i c i a n s t o be i n f l u e n t i a l i n the community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . In a l l , s i x t y - t h r e e men and f o r t y - s i x women were nominated one or more ti m e s as being i n f l u e n t i a l i n community p o l i t i c s , a s m a l l number perhap s , c o n s i d e r i n g the p o p u l a t i o n of 100,000, but one which matches o b s e r v a t i o n s i n o t h e r communities. I n f o r m a t i o n about these i n d i v i d u a l s , g a t h e r e d from the knowledgeable i n f o r m a n t s , from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p o l i t i c i a n s , or c o l l e c t e d as g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g the time spent i n t h e community, i n d i c a t e d t h a t most of the men and women had been a c t i v e i n v a r i o u s community a c t i v i t i e s f o r many y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the p e r i o d of growth i n the 1950's. S i x of t h o s e p e o p l e nominated were members of p i o n e e r f a m i l i e s , a few were o f f s p r i n g of o t h e r e a r l y s e t t l e r s . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n was the i n d i c a t i o n t h a t of the f o r t y - s i x women nominated, n i n e were mentioned f o r pr e s e n t or p a s t p o s i t i o n s as e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , s i x b e i n g on the Sch o o l Board. E i g h t were b u s i n e s s owners or managers, or i n r e a l e s t a t e ; f o u r were s o c i a l s e r v i c e agency d i r e c t o r s ; t h r e e were p u b l i c s e r v a n t s (one m u n i c i p a l , and two i n p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s i n the community); two were media p e r s o n n e l and one was an e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r . Women who were d e s c r i b e d by t h e i r v o l u n t a r y community e f f o r t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v a r i o u s s p h e r e s of a c t i v i t y . F i v e were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the development of s o c i a l 66 s e r v i c e s , three noted f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to development of a l o c a l forum f o r the a r t s , one f o r spo r t s promotion and one fo r h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y work. Others were known f o r v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ; three f o r long term e l e c t o r a l campaign work, two fo r peace a c t i v i s m ; two for a c t i v i s m in e d u c a t i o n a l matters and two fo r a c t i v i s m on neighbourhood i s s u e s . E i g h t women were noted to have connections to the Chamber, and four of those women were p u b l i c l y connected with the NWVA. F i v e of the women were i d e n t i f i e d as a f f i l i a t e d with the NWCV. Nine women were members of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l . Among the s i x t y - t h r e e men who were nominated, twenty-six were business owners or managers, developers, i n r e a l e s t a t e or in banking. Eleven were or had been p o l i t i c i a n s , although only one School Board Trustee was mentioned. Four of the p o l i t i c i a n s named were from pioneer f a m i l i e s . Nine were past or present s e n i o r p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . F i v e independent p r o f e s s i o n a l s , four media p e r s o n n e l , and three church m i n i s t e r s were nominated. Two were c i v i c union o f f i c i a l s , two were noted f o r t h e i r c o n t i b u t i o n s to community s p o r t s and f o r t h e i r recent a c t i v i s m over the use of an h i s t o r i c park, and one was a s o c i a l s e r v i c e s p r o f e s s i o n a l . Other i n f o r m a t i o n which s u r f a c e d d u r i n g the course of the re s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d that eighteen of the men named had connect i o n s to the Chamber of Commerce, and nine to the NWVA, f i v e to the NWCV. 67 A l t h o u g h t h i s s u p e r f i c i a l o v e r v i e w of i n t e r e s t s and c o n n e c t i o n s of the nominated i n f l u e n t i a l s l a c k s i n - d e p t h documentation of o c c u p a t i o n s and memberships, i t n e v e r t h e l e s s p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t l o c a l businessmen and women are w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d among those who a r e a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s . P o l i t i c i a n s and s e n i o r p u b l i c s e r v a n t s a r e a l s o prominent on the l i s t . In terms of common memberships, the i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Chamber of Commerce draws t o g e t h e r many of the nominated i n f l u e n t i a l s . I t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r number of the people nominated were r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the NWVA than w i t h the NWCV. The one c l i q u e t h a t had not s u r f a c e d b e f o r e was the common memberships of some of the women and one man i n the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l . ; At t h i s p o i n t I had two l i s t s of names: a l i s t of those who ar e i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y as p o l i t i c i a n s , p u b l i c s e r v a n t s , a p p o i n t e d members of c i v i c a d v i s o r y committees or e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s of c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and a l i s t of those w i t h r e p u t a t i o n s f o r power f o r a c t i v i t i e s i n v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I compared the l i s t s f o r two re a s o n s : one, t o f i n d out which names were on both l i s t s , and two, t o l e a r n j u s t how much o v e r l a p t h e r e was between the two l i s t s as a t e s t of two methods used as an i n d i c a t o r of power. In f a c t t h e r e was l i t t l e o v e r l a p i n the two l i s t s t h a t were g e n e r a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Of the 213 names l i s t e d by p o s i t i o n and the 109 names g e n e r a t e d by the r e p u t a t i o n a l s t u d y , o n l y 46 names 68 were on both l i s t s . For men, a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d (23) of tho s e w i t h r e p u t a t i o n s f o r power were a l s o l i s t e d by p o s i t i o n . One h a l f (23) of the women w i t h r e p u t a t i o n s f o r power were on the p o s i t i o n a l l i s t . A summary of the comparison of the two l i s t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n Table I . I must s t r e s s , however, t h a t i n t h i s r e s e a r c h the p o s i t i o n a l l i s t c a p t u r e d o n l y the names of men and women who s e r v e d i n v a r i o u s c a p a c i t i e s d u r i n g the time of the r e s e a r c h , whereas the r e p u t a t i o n a l l i s t g e n e r a t e d names of r e s i d e n t s who have been a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s i n v a r i o u s c a p a c i t i e s over a number of y e a r s , a l t h o u g h a t the time of the s t u d y , they were not a c t i n g i n the p o s i t i o n s of p o l i t i c i a n , p u b l i c s e r v a n t or c i v i c group l e a d e r . I n f a c t , i n t h i s s u r v e y , one o f t e n -nominated i n d i v i d u a l had d i e d some y e a r s e a r l i e r and a few o t h e r s were now l i v i n g o u t s i d e the community. Having g a t h e r e d and compared the two l i s t s of names of pe o p l e who might be i n f l u e n t i a l , I i n t e r v i e w e d some of the women and men to check the g e n e r a l knowledge I had ga i n e d about the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of power and t o ga t h e r more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about some of the women and men a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s . S e l e c t i n g a sample of i n f l u e n t i a l s The sample of i n f l u e n t i a l s was chosen u s i n g t h r e e c r i t e r i a : f i r s t l y by number of n o m i n a t i o n s , s e c o n d l y by b e i n g noted on bo t h p o s i t i o n a l and r e p u t a t i o n a l l i s t s and t h i r d l y , by a r e a of 69 T a b l e I Comparison of R e p u t a t i o n a l and P o s i t i o n a l L i s t s (Men and Women) Men Women Pos111 on Number In Pos i 11 on Number Norn 1nated Number In Pos11 i on Number Norn i n a t e d M u n i c i p a l Govt. P o l i 11ci an 13 7 3 3 P u b l i c S e r v a n t 10 5 - -A d v i s o r y Cmtes. P l a n n i n g Cmte. 15 2 S 2 F a m i l y C o u r t Cmte 5 1 9 3 L i b r a r y Board 4 0 2 0 De s i g n Panel 9 0 - -Bd. Of V a r i a n c e 5 2 - -C i v i c Orqs. Chamber/Commerce 1 1 2 5 3 C o n v e n t i o n Bureau 10 0 4 1 H o s p i t a l Board 10 1 1 0 S o u t h s l d e Ass'n 17 2 • 8 1 Soc. S e r v i c e C. 15 1 22 8 Uni t e d Way 6 0 8 2 A r t s Counc11 4 0 9 0 S u b t o t a l 134 23 79 23 Nominated but not i n a p o s i t i o n 40 23 T o t a l 134 63 79 46 70 a c t i v i t y i n an attempt t o g a i n a sample of men and women who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v a r i o u s ways i n the p o l i t i c s of community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . 1 Not a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who were nominated were a v a i l a b l e or w i l l i n g t o g i v e i n t e r v i e w s and i n a l l I t a l k e d w i t h f i f t e e n women and f o u r t e e n men, t e n men and two women be i n g the p o l i t i c i a n s I had i n t e r v i e w e d e a r l i e r . A summary of n o m i n a t i o n s and those i n t e r v i e w e d i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix A. The a c t i v i t i e s of the women chosen t o be i n t e r v i e w e d were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the many ways i n which women p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s ; as p o l i t i c i a n s on C o u n c i l and on Sc h o o l Board, i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e , i n b u s i n e s s , i n the f i e l d s of e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , the a r t s , s p o r t s , e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s and as a c t i v i s t s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s . T a b l e I I I w i l l summarize the number of n o m i n a t i o n s , p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y , a r e a s of i n f l u e n c e and membership c o n n e c t i o n s of the women. The men from whom I ga t h e r e d p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n were l e s s b r o a d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Two o f t e n - n o m i n a t e d i n f l u e n t i a l s r e f u s e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , and two of the ten p o l i t i c i a n s I i n t e r v i e w e d i n i t i a l l y were not named i n the r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v e y . The sample i n c l u d e s the t e n p o l i t i c i a n s , one of whom was a s e n i o r p u b l i c s e r v a n t b e f o r e h i s e l e c t i o n t o o f f i c e . Four n o n - e l e c t e d community i n f l u e n t i a l s were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d and the sample t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e s men who have e x p e r i e n c e i n e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s , 1 I d i d not i n t e r v i e w c i v i c u n i o n o f f i c i a l s as t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , n o t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r , was a t a low ebb, and I had l e a r n e d t h a t the women who had been i n f l u e n t i a l i n the un i o n i n the 1970's had t r a n s f e r e d t o p o s i t i o n s a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l and e l s e w h e r e . 71 i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e , i n banking, i n the newspaper b u s i n e s s , i n the church community, or as a c i t i z e n a c t i v i s t and a d v i s o r . Table IV w i l l provide a summary of the p e r t i n e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the men i n t e r v i e w e d . D e s c r i b i n g the i n f l u e n t i a l s In power s t r u c t u r e r esearch, s e v e r a l s e t s of i n f o r m a t i o n are c o l l e c t e d about people who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s i n order to assess the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power. E f f o r t s are made to determine, through an examination of s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , whether those who p a r t i c i p a t e form an " e l i t e " group or whether they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community as a whole. P e r s o n a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s among i n f l u e n t i a l s are sought and a number of i s s u e s i n community p o l i t i c s are examined to note whether there are i n d i v i d u a l s or groups of i n d i v i d u a l s who i n f l u e n c e more than one area of decision-making. Because that i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d mainly about men, i n t h i s study I focus on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c o n t r i b u t i o n s and the p o l i t i c a l e xperiences of' the women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s . I o f f e r i n f o r m a t i o n about men f o r purposes of comparison. During i n t e r v i e w s with the p o l i t i c i a n s I had s o l i c i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r socio-economic s t a t u s , c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships, i n d i v i d u a l areas of i n f l u e n c e and the ways i n which they went about i n f l u e n c i n g the p u b l i c d ecision-making process. I had a l s o asked them i f they noted any 72 l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o be i n f l u e n t i a l . As w e l l , I asked 'them f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r f a m i l i e s , because so much r e s e a r c h assumes t h a t women's f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e x p l a i n why women a r e not a c t i v e i n the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and l i t t l e r e s e a r c h notes the e f f e c t s of f a m i l y l i f e on men's p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s . I asked the same q u e s t i o n s of the n o n - e l e c t e d community l e a d e r s whom I i n t e r v i e w e d . Socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T a b l e I I no t e s key soc i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i n d i c a t o r s of the men and women i n t e r v i e w e d , and compares the i n f o r m a t i o n about the sample of i n f l u e n t i a l s w i t h d a t a about the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . The pe r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n s of these i n d i c a t o r s w i t h i n the community and i n the r e g i o n a r e s i m i l a r and t h i s p r o c e d u r e p r o t e c t s the anonymity of the community. The d a t a g a t h e r e d about t h i s p u r p o s i v e or judgmental sample of i n f l u e n t i a l s , i n d i c a t e t h a t a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e of the men and women i n f l u e n t i a l s have p o s t - s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n than i s found i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . 78% of the men and 86% of the women i n t e r v i e w e d noted s t u d i e s and t r a i n i n g beyond h i g h s c h o o l , compared t o 48% of the p o p u l a t i o n i n the r e g i o n . The main d i f f e r e n c e between the i n t e r v i e w e d men and women i s t h a t whereas most of the men r e p o r t a t l e a s t some u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , most women have taken t r a i n i n g o u t s i d e the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g . Women's p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e s R e g i s t e r e d Nurse t r a i n i n g or b u s i n e s s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u r s e s . Of t h e 73 Table II Socioeconomic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Community I n f l u e n t i a l s (Compared to Regional Population) Inf1uent1a1 Inf1uent ia 1 Regional Men Women Popu1 at 1 on Socio-economic Number Percent Number Percent Men % Women % C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Hiqhest Level of Education Grade 8 or Less 0 ( 0%) 0 ( 0%) ( 12% ) Grade 9 to 13 3 (21%) 2 ( 13%) (40%) Non-Univers 1ty T r a i n i n g (1) 2 ( 14%) 8 (53%) (25%) U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g (2) 9 (64%) 5 (33%) (23%) T o t a l s 14 (99%) 15 (99%) (100%) Occupat i on Pol 11 I d a n 1 0 Business Owner, Manager 3 4 Adm1ni strator-Educat1 on 2 1 S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 1 2 P1anner 1 1 Teacher 1 0 Nurse 0 2 Lab. T e c h n i c i a n 1 0 Sports Coach 0 1 Subtotals 10 (71%) 1 1 (73%) (27%) (25%) Housew i f e 0 4 (26%) Ret 1 red 4 (28%) 0 T o t a l s 14 (99%) 15 (99%) In d i v i d u a l Income Under $10,000 0 4 (27%) (30%) (58%) $10,000 - 14,999 0 2 ( 13%) ( 13%) (19%) 15,000 - 19,999 0 3 (20%) ( 14%) 20,000 - 24,999 3* (21%) 1 ( 7%) (15%) 25,000 - 39.999 3** (21%) 2 ( 13%) -(22%) 40,000 - 59.999 4 (29%) 3 (20%) - (28%) 60,000 - 79.999 2 ( 1 4%) 0 100,000 and over 2 ( 14%) 0 To t a l s 14 (99%) 15 (100%) (99%) (100%) Fam11v Income $19,999 and under 0 0 (29%) 20,000 - 39,999 5 (38%) 4 (27%) (45%) 40,000 - 69,999 4 (28%) 8 (53%) 70,000 - 99,999 2 ( 14%) 1 ( 7%) h- (25%) 100,000 and over 3 (20%) 0 Not ava11able 0 2 ( 13%) T o t a l s 14 (100%) 15 (100%) .(99%) (1) Post-secondary t r a i n i n g (2) 2 or more years of study * 3 Ret i r e d ** 1 Ret i r e d Source: Table 1. "Selected Population, Dwelling. Household and Family D i s t r i b u t i o n s , Showing Selected Soc i a l and Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , for Census D i v i s i o n s , 1981." S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981, Cat. No. 95-942: 252-260. 74 fourteen men and women who have taken university courses, four men and two women have Masters degrees in their professional f i e l d s . A review of occupations of the community i n f l u e n t i a l s , shows the interviewed men and women to have similar occupations, and to d i f f e r from the Occupational composition of the general population. More women than men in th i s sample were in business, but the women's business ventures did not generate as much revenue as the men's. Three women and three men were in administrative positions in education and in the s o c i a l services. One woman and one man held positions as planners. Three women and one man were in health or recreation-related professions, as nurses, as a lab technician or as the coach for a l o c a l sports club. Whereas 27% of men in the regional population and 25% of the women are found in these higher status occupational categories, 71% of the men and 73% of the women interviewed were in these occupations, which suggests that those active in community p o l i t i c s are disproportionately drawn from among small business people and from among those in administrative and professional types of occupations. Four women were housewives and four men were r e t i r e d . There are differences in individual income between the men and women, a finding which has been documented in many recent studies. But while many interviewed women earn less than the interviewed men (even the r e t i r e d men), 60% of those women earn $15,000 or more, although only 22% of the population of women in 75 t h e r e g i o n e a r n t h a t amount. S e v e n t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t of t h e i n t e r v i e w e d men e a r n more t h a n $25,000, whereas t h e number of men i n t h e r e g i o n e a r n i n g t h a t amount o r more i s o n l y 28%. Women r e p o r t e d l o w e r f a m i l y i n comes t h a n d i d t h e men. Lower f a m i l y incomes f o r men were f o u n d m o s t l y among r e t i r e d men, and some women a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e i r h u s b a n d s were r e t i r e d . B e i n g s i n g l e a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l o w e r f a m i l y income f o r one woman. The d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i s not a p p a r e n t f r o m T a b l e I I i s t h a t f a m i l y incomes f o r t h e men a r e b a s e d m a i n l y on t h e man's income as o n l y f o u r men had w i v e s who were i n p a y i n g j o b s , whereas o n l y f o u r of t h e i n t e r v i e w e d women d i d n o t work f o r an income o u t s i d e t h e home. T h e r e f o r e most of t h e f a m i l y incomes f o r women a r e b a s e d on two s a l a r i e s , compared t o t h e one income t h a t i s t h e b a s i s f o r most men's f a m i l y income. In summary, T a b l e I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t on s e v e r a l s o c i o -e c onomic i n d i c a t o r s t h e men a n d women a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s a r e "a somewhat s e l e c t g r o u p " , a s n o t e d by D a h l ( 1 9 6 1 : 1 7 0 ) . I t a l s o shows s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e men and women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n terms o f l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n and t y p e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h most o f t h e women have l o w e r i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y i n comes t h a n t h e men. The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f women t o community p o l i t i c s T a b l e s I I I and IV d e t a i l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t a r e u s e d a s i n d i c a t o r s o f power, i . e . , r e p u t a t i o n f o r i n f l u e n c e , o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g 76 p r o c e s s , i s s u e s i n w h i c h i n f l u e n c e i s e x e r t e d , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e mberships. In t h i s s e c t i o n I d e s c r i b e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e women I i n t e r v i e w e d . The p u r p o s e i s t o show t h e v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s a nd c o n t r i b u t i o n s of women i n community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s , and t h e d e t a i l s f l e s h o ut T a b l e I I I . I w i l l l a t e r d e s c r i b e t h e c o n n e c t i o n s of women t o t h e c l i q u e s t h a t d o m i n a t e l o c a l p o l i t i c s . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i n f l u e n t i a l men f o u n d i n T a b l e IV i s summarized f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . The names of t h e men and women a r e f i c t i c i o u s i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e i r a n o n y m i t y . The s t a r s o f t h e r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v e y were two women b o t h o f whom have e x p e r i e n c e a s p o l i t i c i a n s a nd who a r e a c t i v e i n t h e NWVA. E l e a n o r H i b b e r t and Anne B r a i t h w a i t e have l i v e d i n t h e community s i n c e t h e 1950's. B o t h have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c h u r c h a c t i v i t i e s a nd as f o u n d i n g members o f some of t h e c i v i c a s s o c i a t i o n s a s t h e community d e v e l o p e d i n t h e l a t e f i f t i e s and e a r l y s i x t i e s , a s w e l l as r a i s i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s . H i b b e r t ' s i n t e r e s t s were f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a u x i l i a r y h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l s p o r t s , whereas B r a i t h w a i t e worked i n t h e f i e l d s of t h e a r t s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . B o t h have been s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners. T h e i r b r o a d i n t e r e s t s a nd c o n t a c t s w i t h many d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s i n c l u d i n g t h e do m i n a n t b u s i n e s s -p o l i t i c a l - c h u r c h c l i q u e may p a r t l y e x p l a i n t h e f a c t t h a t e a c h woman has t o p p e d t h e p o l l s i n p a s t e l e c t i o n s . H i b b e r t i s f i r s t named whenever i n f l u e n t i a l women a r e d i s c u s s e d . Her h a r d work, i n n o v a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b o u t l a n d u se m a t t e r s and community b y l a w s and h e r e x t r a o r d i n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s , u s e d p r i m a r i l y f o r 77 Table I I I Summary of I n d i c a t o r s of Power ( I n t e r v i e w e d Women) Name Number of Norn 1na t I o n s Pos 1t1ons Inf1uence (Pr1mary) I n f l u e n c e (Secondary) Number of Membersh i ps Common Memberships E1eanor H i b b e r t 12 Ex-Counc11 Member Bu s i n e s s Advocate Swing Voter L o b b y i s t C o n s u l t a n t Commun1ty Organ i z e r E1ectora1 Campa t gn Act 1 v i s t 6 Chamber NWVA Anne Bra ithwa1te 12 A Iderman L i b r a r y Bd. Soc.Serv1ce Counc 1 \ Moderate/ Swing V o t e r Soc i a l Serv1ces A c t i v i s t A r t s Act i v i s t E 1 ectoraI Campa ign A c t I v i s t 8 NWVA U n i t e d Way Soc.Serv i ce Counc11 Norah Jones 5 Soc.Serv1ce Counci1 U n i t e d Way Soc fa 1 Serv i c e s A c t i v i s t C111 zen Adv1sor 6 U n i t e d Way Soc.Serv1ce Counc11 Peggy Lomansk1. 4 So c . S e r v I c e Counc11 E 1 e c t o r a ! Campaign Act W i s t P o l i t t e a l O r g a n l z e r S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Act W i s t Env1r'ment Act t v i s t 4 NWCV Soc.Serv1ce Counc11 Anthea Wlntaw 4 S o c . S e r v i c e Counc11 Fam11y C r t . Committee S o c i a l Serv f ces Act 1 v i s t 2 Soc.Serv1ce Counc11 E s t h e r McLean 3 Spor ts Act W i S t 1 May Jenn i ngs 3 Commun1ty P1ann1ng Comte. U n i t e d Way Chamber Bus f ness Advocate Commun1ty P1ann i ng A C t W I S t S o c i a l Serv fees A c t i v i s t 8 Chamber NWVA U n i t e d Way Joan Seymour 3 Fundra1ser ( A r t s ) Commun1ty Organ t z e r 5 Lynne Murdoch 2 P u b l i c S ervant ' Soc.Serv1ce Counc11 Commun1ty P1ann1ng Promoter 1 Soc.Serv i ce Counc i ( M argaret Borden 2 Ex-Schoo1 T r u s t e e F a m i l y C r t . Cmte. Soc.Serv1ce Counc11 Educat i o n Pol i c y Act t v l s t Soc i a 1 Serv tees Act W 1 s t 8 Soc.Serv i ce Counc i1 NWCV Dorothy Campbel1 2 Chamber of Commerce Smal 1 Bus t ness Advocate Tax Act W1st 5 Chamber Susan L o e f f 1 e r 2 E nv t r'ment Act 1 v i S t Pol 1 t l e a l Organ 1zer 1 Rose M i s a 2 Educat1 on Adm1n'str. 0 C a r r 1 e Seeburg 2 EducatIon Program Act 1vi s t 4 V a l e r l e L l s t e r 1 School T r u s t e e Educat1 on Pol Icy Act 1vi s t 5 78 the l o c a l business community and the NWVA campaign group, but a l s o f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y when i t hosted a major p r o v i n c i a l s p o r t s event, suggest that the a c c l a i m she r e c e i v e s i s w e l l deserved. B r a i t h w a i t e ' s s t a t u s as the only woman on C o u n c i l and a "swing v o t e r " , and her sometimes dramatic performances d u r i n g c o u n c i l meetings have maintained her high p r o f i l e i n the l o c a l newspapers and on the l o c a l TV s t a t i o n . Her e f f o r t s as a p o l i t i c i a n have r a i s e d awareness of the needs of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s s e c t o r . Norah Jones, nominated f i v e times, i s a long time community v o l u n t e e r , a c t i v e at the p o l i c y making l e v e l on boards of v a r i o u s c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The r e p u t a t i o n f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n that Jones had gained i n her e f f o r t s f o r a n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n another province q u i c k l y caught up with her when she moved to North W a t e r f i e l d , and she continued to provide input i n t o the pl a n n i n g process of the l o c a l and r e g i o n a l branches of the a s s o c i a t i o n . Her t a l e n t s were a l s o used i n developing s e r v i c e s f o r youth, the i n f i r m , and a l c o h o l i c s , and f i n d i n g p r i v a t e and p u b l i c funding for those s e r v i c e s . She has a l s o been a c t i v e i n the community groups which have addressed the need f o r c o o r d i n a t e d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n the community. I t i s s a i d that Jones' presence on any board lends l e g i t i m a c y to the cause. Jones' c o n t a c t s are not c o n f i n e d to members of s o c i a l s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , however, and she i s w e l l known by l o c a l businessmen and businesswomen, s e r v i c e c l u b members and church groups and by the p o l i t i c i a n s who resp e c t her o p i n i o n s . 79 Three women were nominated f o u r t i m e s . Peggy Lomanski's i n f l u e n c e has been s t r o n g both i n l o c a l e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s and i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . She has been a c t i v e f o r many y e a r s i n the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the NWCV campaign p a r t y , i n a v a r i e t y of e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s . She has. a l s o been i n f l u e n t i a l i n d e v e l o p i n g the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l as an i n f o r m a t i o n - s h a r i n g system and as a v e h i c l e f o r o r g a n i z e d l o b b y i n g on b e h a l f of thos e a c t i v e i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s s e c t o r . Her i n f l u e n c e i s as an " i n i t i a t o r " , one who p o i n t s out l o c a l problems and needed programs, and Lomanski a t t e m p t s t o focus p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n on those i s s u e s t h r o u g h her v o l u n t e e r e f f o r t s w i t h the NWCV, her ( u n s u c c e s s f u l ) c a n d i d a c y f o r S c h o o l Board T r u s t e e , and her s t a f f r o l e on the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l . Her s t r e n g t h has been as a p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z e r , be i t i n a n t i - p o l l u t i o n c o n c e r n s , e l e c t i o n campaigns, or i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e i s s u e s . Anthea Winlaw has been i n s t r u m e n t a l as a v o l u n t e e r p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e v e l o p i n g community awareness and programs f o r support of abused c h i l d r e n . The work has e n t a i l e d a g r e a t d e a l of l o b b y i n g of l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s and p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . She h e l p e d d e v e l o p and has c o n t i n u e d t o shape the fo c u s of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e C o u n c i l over the y e a r s . Winlaw c h a i r s an a d v i s o r y committee w i t h t h e same d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r c o n f r o n t i n g the i s s u e s . 80 E s t h e r McLean i s known f o r her f o r c e f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o C o u n c i l i n her e f f o r t s t o g a i n m u n i c i p a l support in- "terms of p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r her s p o r t s c l u b . McLean's p r e s e n t a t i o n s over the y e a r s have r e s u l t e d i n m u n i c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e t o her c l u b a t c e r t a i n t i m e s . However, a newly formed r i v a l c l u b i s now a l s o l o b b y i n g f o r m u n i c i p a l support and C o u n c i l has o r d e r e d t h a t the time a l l o t t e d t o McLean's group be reduced t o accommodate the new c l u b . A spunky f i g h t e r , her l i v e l y p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o C o u n c i l and i n d e f a t i g a b l e defense of the c l u b of which she i s both p r e s i d e n t and coach, g i v e her a h i g h p r o f i l e i n the media r e p o r t s of c o u n c i l meetings and draw q u i e t , but s y m p a t h e t i c "go get Vem" remarks from o t h e r c i t i z e n s who happen t o be i n the C o u n c i l Chambers d u r i n g her p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Two women r e c e i v e d t h r e e n o m i n a t i o n s each. May J e n n i n g s has a s m a l l b u s i n e s s i n the community, i s on the e x e c u t i v e of the Chamber of Commerce, a member of t h e Board of D i r e c t o r s of the l o c a l U n i t e d Way and c h a i r s an i m p o r t a n t c i t i z e n ' s a d v i s o r y committee. She has a l s o I n i t i a t e d and p r e s e n t l y p r e s i d e s o v e r , a r e g i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n of o t h e r s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners i n the same sphere of economic a c t i v i t y as h e r s e l f . In s p i t e of her c e n t r a l i t y t o v a r i o u s i m p o r t a n t c i v i c groups she was not s u c c e s s f u l i n her b i d f o r a C o u n c i l s e a t as a NWVA c a n d i d a t e . Joan Seymour has r e c e n t l y been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r a i s i n g the funds t o b u i l d the m u l t i - m i l l i o n - d o l l a r a r t s complex. In a v o l u n t e e r c a p a c i t y , she has g a t h e r e d f u n d i n g from s e n i o r and l o c a l governments, from p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s and f o u n d a t i o n s and 81 the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , i n s p i t e of a s l u g g i s h economy. Her s k i l l s as a f u n d r a i s e r were honed when she r a i s e d funds f o r the p r i v a t e s c h o o l a t t e n d e d by her c h i l d r e n . Her o t h e r major community involv e m e n t was t o h e l p c o o r d i n a t e the p l a n s f o r c e n t e n n i a l c e l e b r a t i o n s i n the community. S i x of the women who r e c e i v e d two n o m i n a t i o n s i n c l u d e d a l o c a l p u b l i c s e r v a n t , a pa s t s c h o o l board c h a i r p e r s o n , two o t h e r women w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n e d u c a t i o n , a businesswoman l o n g a c t i v e i n b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s and a c i t i z e n a c t i v i s t c oncerned w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . Lynn Murdoch i s one of the few women who a r e r e l a t i v e l y s e n i o r i n the m u n i c i p a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e . L i k e the male p u b l i c s e r v a n t t o whom I spoke, she i s c o n s c i o u s t h a t her r o l e i s l i m i t e d t o one of sup p o r t f o r the e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . However, her work w i t h many community groups and her a b i l i t y t o p l a c e community-group co n c e r n s i n t o t he p o l i c y making p r o c e s s has made her a two-way sour c e of i n f o r m a t i o n : an informed r e p o r t e r about the needs of community groups f o r m u n i c i p a l g r a n t s and a sour c e of a d v i c e i n h e l p i n g a g e n c i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e v e l o p p r o p o s a l s which e n a b l e s them t o "get thro u g h c i t y h a l l " . M a r g a r e t Borden was f o r t en y e a r s a S c h o o l Board T r u s t e e , i n c l u d i n g a term as c h a i r p e r s o n and as the l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the p r o v i n c i a l Board of T r u s t e e s . Borden was one of a group of c i t i z e n s who s u c c e s s f u l l y l o b b i e d f o r a p r o v i n c i a l l y funded community c o l l e g e f o r the a r e a , and she s a t on t h e c o l l e g e board 82 as the S c h o o l Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r some y e a r s . At the s t a r t of her term as a T r u s t e e she was a l o n e woman, but she s u c c e s s f u l l y ' worked f o r u p g r a d i n g the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l and f o r a d d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m space. Her p a r t i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e was t o i n i t i a t e a p o l i c y which a l l o w e d g r e a t e r c h o i c e s f o r boys and g i r l s i n t h e i r c o u r s e work: g i r l s b e i n g a l l o w e d t o ta k e woodworking and boys home economics, i f they so d e s i r e d . A l t h o u g h her r e p u t a t i o n f o r work i n the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n p r e d o m i n a t e s , Borden has a l s o been a c t i v e i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s e c t o r . As w e l l as b e i n g a f o u n d i n g member of community a g e n c i e s t o s e r v e y o u t h and the i n f i r m , she i s a l s o the e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r of a v o l u n t e e r - s t a f f e d community s e r v i c e agency, and i s a member of a c i t i z e n ' s a d v i s o r y committee. Dorothy Campbell has owned v a r i o u s r e t a i l s t o r e s i n the pa s t f o r t y y e a r s and has been an e x e c u t i v e member of two l o c a l b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the past t w e l v e . She i n i t i a t e d a l o c a l merchant's a s s o c i a t i o n a t a time when merchants were i n c r e a s i n g l y drawn t o g e t h e r i n t o shopping m a l l s . As a member of the Chamber of Commerce, Campbell has c o n t r i b u t e d t o p r e s e n t a t i o n of b r i e f s t o l o c a l and s e n i o r l e v e l s of government. Rose M i s a ' s i n f l u e n c e i s l i m i t e d t o the e d u c a t i o n system, as an i n n o v a t o r i n t e a c h i n g methods and as a t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r w i t h an a b i l i t y t o b u i l d a s t r o n g r a p p o r t w i t h p a r e n t s . She i s one of o n l y t h r e e women t o be promoted t o an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n the N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d e d u c a t i o n system. 83 C a r r i e Seeburg's i n f l u e n c e on the e d u c a t i o n system has been t o i n i t i a t e the f o r m a t i o n of a l o c a l p a r e n t s group and t o s u c c e s s f u l l y p e t i t i o n f o r F r e n c h Immersion t r a i n i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n s p i t e of economic r e s t r a i n t . She c h a i r e d the group, r e s e a r c h e d the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the S c h o o l Board f o r the programmes and "wrote the manual on l o b b y i n g " f o r the l o c a l group and the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n t o w hich they a f f i l l i a t e d . The p a r e n t s group a l s o s u c c e s s f u l l y promoted the i d e a t h a t o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n , such as s p o r t s e v e n t s and a r t s a c t i v i t i e s , c o u l d a l s o accommodate Fr e n c h - l a n g u a g e usage, so t h a t the c h i l d r e n c o u l d have broad e x p e r i e n c e i n u s i n g more than one language. Susan L o e f f l e r has r e c e n t l y become "news" because of a s u c c e s s f u l c h a l l e n g e t o C o u n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n t o a l l o w a f e d e r a l commission t o dump m a t e r i a l i n an a r e a c l o s e t o a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t . L o e f f l e r r e p o r t e d no p o l i t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s , but has a superb sense of " p o l i t i c k i n g " . A few y e a r s e a r l i e r she had s u c c e s s f u l l y p e t i t i o n e d c i t y - h a l l s t a f f on b e h a l f of some l o c a l f a r m e r s , t o postpone u p g r a d i n g a main d r a i n a g e system u n t i l the growing season was p a s t . L o e f f l e r p r e s e n t e d a p r e c i s e d o c u m e n t a t i o n of the v a r i o u s c r o p s grown and the times of h a r v e s t , and won r e s p e c t from the e n g i n e e r i n g department f o r her a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n . In the r e c e n t round of n e g o t i a t i o n s , L o e f f l e r i n i t i a t e d support from v a r i o u s groups i n c l u d i n g l o c a l p a r e n t s , t h e neighbourhood a s s o c i a t i o n , s p o r t s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s , the T o u r i s t Bureau and members of t h e Community P l a n n i n g Commission, and used her c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h s k i l l s i n 84 l o b b y i n g C o u n c i l and s e n i o r government commission r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . A f t e r each of t h e s e s u c c e s s f u l rounds of a c t i v i s m she has r e t u r n e d t o her r o l e as a homemaker. I i n t e r v i e w e d o n l y one woman who r e c e i v e d one nom i n a t i o n f o r i n f l u e n c e , a School Board T r u s t e e . V a l e r i e L i s t e r i s the o n l y member of the l e a s t dominant campaign group, the C i v i c E l e c t o r s League, t o be e l e c t e d t o o f f i c e d u r i n g her t h r e e terms as a p o l i t i c i a n . D u r i n g her time i n o f f i c e , L i s t e r has worked t o have the b u s i n e s s of the S c h o o l Board made more p u b l i c , as she noted t h a t more time was spent i n in-camera m eetings than i n f r o n t of the p u b l i c . N o t i c e s of meetings and agendas a r e now l i s t e d i n the l o c a l newspapers t o draw p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o the b u s i n e s s of the Board. A l t h o u g h she managed t o get working c o n d i t i o n s i n the s c h o o l s upgraded, and more p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s , those g a i n s have been eroded by the p r e s e n t c u t s i n p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g f o r e d u c a t i o n . In summarizing the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of women t o community p o l i t i c s , from the p a r t i c u l a r s i d e n t i f i e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h i s sample of women and from the g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about a l l the nominated women, I f i n d t h a t the women's a t t e m p t s t o i n f l u e n c e the outcomes of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f a l l w i t h i n a broad range of i n t e r e s t s . There a r e women who a r e i n b u s i n e s s i n the community and they a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h a t s e c t o r , which i n c l u d e s c o n c e r n f o r community growth. Women work i n e l e c t o r a l campaigns, run f o r o f f i c e and sometimes get e l e c t e d . They a l s o e x e r t i n f l u e n c e i n community p o l i t i c s by 85 c h a l l e n g i n g d e c i s i o n s made on environmental i s s u e s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community p l a n n i n g , developing e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y , or by demanding that funding be a l l o c a t e d f o r new programmes i n sc h o o l s , the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and the a r t s , and that m u n i c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s be made a v a i l a b l e to new spo r t s groups. They a l s o work to r a i s e the awareness of p o l i t i c i a n s , p u b l i c servants and members of the business community about the welfare needs of community r e s i d e n t s . A c c o r d i n g to the infor m a t i o n gathered from the sample of men i n t e r v i e w e d and the general i n f o r m a t i o n gathered about a l l the nominated men, t h e i r g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t s are concern f o r , or about, business and community growth. More men, of course, are in e l e c t e d p u b l i c o f f i c e and i n s e n i o r municipal s t a f f p o s i t i o n s through which that area of decision-making i s c o n t r o l l e d . In Table IV we see that s i x of the e i g h t C o u n c i l members report that they have some i n f l u e n c e i n v a r i o u s aspects of community management. The other two, both moderates, do not emphasize t h e i r r o l e s i n that area. Two NWCV C o u n c i l members use the newspapers as a means of r a i s i n g p u b l i c awareness of the economic i s s u e s they t h i n k should be of concern to the e l e c t o r a t e . Men are a l s o dominant i n key p o s i t i o n s i n the education system, but men who act as v o l u n t e e r s i n i n f l u e n c i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y were not named i n the r e p u t a t i o n a l survey. Table IV shows that the two School Board members interviewed r e p o r t d i f f e r e n t areas of i n f l u e n c e , the NWVA member noting h i s r o l e i n the 86 Table IV Summary of I n d i c a t o r s of Power ( I n t e r v i e w e d Men) Name Number of NomtnatIons P o s 1 t I o n s Inf1uence (Pr1mary) Inf1uence (Secondary) Number of Memberships Common Memberships Stephen Fox 7 Mayor Commun1ty P1ann1ng Cmte. Commun1ty Growth Act i v i s t Commun1ty Ambassador 6 Hon. Mem. var1ous S e r v i c e CI. Chamber NWVA Ha r r y Odham 5 A\derman Chamber/ Commerce Sr. P u b l i c Servant Commun1ty Budget Act i v i s t Commun i t y Ambassador Commun1ty P1annlng Act i v l s t 5 K1 wants NWVA Chamber Ian N o r r l s 4 A 1derman H o s p i t a l B. Un1ted Way Convent'n B Commun 1ty P1ann i ng Act W i s t School/Pk. P1ann1ng Act i v i s t 5 NWCV U n i t e d Way B e r t G l a s s 4 A 1derman Commun1ty P l a n n i n g C. Cmte. Souths ide Res 1 dents Assn. Land Use/ Env1r'ment Act W1st At Prov/Loca1 L e v e l s P u b l i c Educator V i a Newspaper Co 1umn € NWCV Tony Herzog 3 Innovat1ve Bank 1ng P r a c t 1 c e s Act i v l s t 3 Chamber Jim Sma11ey 3 Fami1y Ct . Cmte. Ci t i z e n Adv1sor Land Use Act i v 1 s t S o c i a l Serv i ces Act i v l s t 4 Char 1 l e M i t c h e l 1 3 Church A c t i v i s t i n Commun1ty Se r v I c e s 9 Kl w a n l s C h a p l a i n to many groups Cy S1r1pawa 2 A 1derman Bus 1ness Advocate Mun ic 1 pa 1 Budget Act W i s t E1ectora1 Campa1gn Act 1 v i s t 6 Hon. Mem. var 1ous Serv 1ce C1. NWVA Bruce CannIng 2 A 1derman A r t s Counc11 Moderate/ Swing Voter MunIc i p a l Budget Act W i s t E l e c t o r a 1 Campa1gn A c t I v l s t Spor t s Act W i s t A r t s Promoter 9 K1wani s NWVA Tom N e v e r t o n 1 A1derman Fa m i l y C t . Cmte. Moderate/ Swing Vo t e r P u b l I c Educator V i a Newspaper Co 1umn 4 NWCV Harvey Buttram 1 P u b l i c •p1nIon Inf1uencer v i a Newpaper S t a n l e y Oennlson 1 School Bd. Tr u s t e e School book Censorsh1p Act W i s t Upho1der Trad 11'na1 Values f o r Schools 2 NWVA George Sei 1g 0 A1derman Communi t y P1ann1ng Cmte. Educat1 on Admln'str . Moderate/ Swing Vo t e r 4 Gordon McCauley 0 School 8d. T r u s t e e School Env1r'nment Act i v i s t E 1 e c t o r a l Campa1gn Act W i s t 4 NWCV 87 removal of a book from the s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s because of i t s " s t r e e t language", ' and the NWCV member p l e a s e d t h a t he was s u c c e s s f u l i n r a i s i n g an e n v i r o n m e n t a l concern about some s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s . Three n o n - e l e c t e d community l e a d e r s and one C o u n c i l member note t h a t t h e i r p r i m a r y i n f l u e n c e comes th r o u g h t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s i n the community, i n banki n g , the newspaper b u s i n e s s , the c h u r c h and i n e d u c a t i o n . Three of the p o l i t i c i a n s ^ r e p o r t e d e l e c t o r a l campaign a c t i v i t i e s , f o r m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . Campaign a c t i v i s m i s r e p o r t e d l e s s among the i n t e r v i e w e d men than among the women, a l t h o u g h i t seemed d u r i n g the r e p u t a t i o n a l survey t h a t s i m i l a r numbers of men and women i n f l u e n t i a l s were r e p o r t e d t o be a c t i v e i n v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p a r t y campaigns. Only two of the men r e p o r t e d a broad range of a r e a s of i n t e r e s t and i n f l u e n c e , a l t h o u g h many women had s e v e r a l c o n c e r n s . More men than women were i d e n t i f e d as sponsors and v o l u n t e e r coaches of s p o r t s groups. However, few of the nominated or i n t e r v i e w e d men were i d e n t i f i e d as v o l u n t e e r s i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s or the a r t s s e c t o r , a l t h o u g h S e r v i c e C l u b members r a i s e funds f o r c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and men a r e more i n e v i d e n c e than women on the board of the new o r g a n i z a t i o n t o o v e r s e e the b u i l d i n g and development of the a r t s complex. 88 In r e v i e w i n g the c o n t r i b u t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s of men and women, I - f i n d t h a t t h e r e a r e men and women a c t i v e i n a l l s e c t o r s of community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b u t , whereas most men c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s on economic i s s u e s such as b u s i n e s s and community growth and p l a n n i n g , women have a wider range of concerns t h a t i n c l u d e not o n l y economic i n t e r e s t s , but a l s o i n t e r e s t s i n s e r v i c e s t o the needy, a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t s , and the i n t e r e s t s of c h i l d r e n and s p o r t s . What i s c l e a r from the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n t h i s s u r v ey i s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t women can be c a t e g o r i z e d as "one i s s u e s p e c i a l i s t s " . Indeed, many of them ar e a c t i v e i n a broad range of i s s u e s . To t h i s p o i n t , I have shown s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r s t i c s and a r e a s of i n f l u e n c e and a c t i v i t y i n community p o l i t i c s . I now compare the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s among i n t e r v i e w e d men and women. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships O r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y q u i c k way of i d e n t i f y i n g "who knows whom" i n a community. Memberships i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e an i n d i c a t i o n of common i n t e r e s t s among i n d i v i d u a l s , i n s p e c i f i c g o a l s and shared v a l u e s . Through o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships, i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o get t o know many more community r e s i d e n t s than would be found i n a c i r c l e of i n t i m a t e s , and those c o n n e c t i o n s a r e u s e f u l when i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o m o b i l i z e r e s o u r c e s t o s u p p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r c ause. Examples of t h a t m o b i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s appear t o be i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 89 1, which shows the shared o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships of p o l i t i c i a n s i n each of the two m u n i c i p a l p a r t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d on C o u n c i l . What I w i l l show i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t n o n - e l e c t e d i n f l u e n t i a l men and women from the b u s i n e s s or c h u r c h communities a r e l i k e l y t o h o l d memberships i n the same o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the NWVA p o l i t i c i a n s , some a c t i v e women and the man who a c t s as a c i t i z e n a d v i s o r a re not a f f i l i a t e d w i t h any of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h rough which the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n t h i s community i s c o n t r o l l e d . I d i s c u s s f i r s t the number of memberships h e l d by the men and women as a way of showing t h a t t h e y , l i k e i n f l u e n t i a l s i n o t h e r communities a r e " j o i n e r s " and l i k e l y t o be community l e a d e r s . 1 I a l s o note the p o s i t i o n s the men and women have h e l d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n my e f f o r t t o f u l l y document the e x p e r i e n c e s and s k i l l s of the women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s . The i n t e r v i e w e d men and women h e l d s i m i l a r numbers of memberships i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S e v e n t y - e i g h t per cent of the men and s i x t y per cen t of the women have h e l d t h r e e or more memberships i n the pas t f i v e y e a r s , w i t h t h r e e of the women b e l o n g i n g t o as many as e i g h t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and one man t o n i n e . Women do not shun the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h o l d i n g key o f f i c e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s sample. Ten .women had a c t e d as c h a i r or p r e s i d e n t of an a s s o c i a t i o n compared t o s i x of the men. Three men had h e l d no e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e , compared t o two of the women. 1 Freeman e t . a l . (1963:793) s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t community l e a d e r s h i p r e s u l t s from a h i g h degree of v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t y i n community a f f a i r s . 90 The types of memberships, however, are not so s i m i l a r . Twelve of the fourteen men were noted to have a f f i l i a t i o n s to p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s or to the campaign groups o p e r a t i n g d u r i n g c i v i c e l e c t i o n s . Table V summarizes the p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s of the men. In c o n t r a s t , 7 of the 15 women d i d not re p o r t being members of any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . Three were d e l i b e r a t e l y n e u t r a l . Table VI shows the p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s of women. Tables V and VI a l s o i n d i c a t e that i n d i v i d u a l s do not mix l e f t - l e a n i n g and r i g h t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l p arty a f f i l i a t i o n s . Table IV shows that the int e r v i e w e d men's most o f t e n shared memberships are i n the Kiwanis s e r v i c e c l u b . There are two interviewed men who are members of both the Kiwanis c l u b and the Pro g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y , a party that i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l of the most i n f l u e n t i a l men i n the community. Three P r o g r e s s i v e Conservative p a r t y members are a l s o found to have memberships in the Chamber of Commerce and a f f i l a t i o n s to. the NWVA campaign p a r t y . Two of the three non-elected men a c t i v e i n business or i n the church are members of one or more of the c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s to which NWVA p o l i t i c i a n s belong. The t h i r d man noted that he had h e l d the same kinds of memberships in another community. In t h i s sample, none of the non-elected i n f l u e n t i a l s i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d common memberships with NWCV p o l i t i c i a n s . The man who a c t s as a c i t i z e n a d v i s o r has no o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships i n common with other men in t e r v i e w e d . The data about the types of memberships h e l d by these few non-e l e c t e d i n f l u e n t i a l s lend support to the evidence that there i s 91 T a b l e V P o l i t i c a l p a r t y memberships (Men) P r o v i n c i a 1 -Federa1 C i v i c S.C. LIB. P.C. NDP . NONE D.K. NWVA 4 1 NWCV 5 CEL NONE 1 1 D.K. 1 1 T a b l e VI P o l i t i c a l p a r t y memberships (Women) Prov i n c 1 a 1-Federa 1 C i v i c S.C. LIB . P.C. NDP . NONE D.K. NWVA 1 2 1 NWCV 2 CEL 1 NONE 1 7 D.K. 92 a w e l l d e f i n e d group of o r g a n i z a t i o n s through which support for the NWVA i s generated. Table III shows that two women who are a f f i l i a t e d with the Chamber of Commerce are a l s o a c t i v e in the NWVA. The businesswomen are a l l a f f i l i a t e d with a one or more of the four r i g h t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . However, i n c o n t r a s t to the number of men found to have memberships i n the Progessive Conservative p a r t y , many of the most i n f l u e n t i a l women have been drawn together by membership i n the L i b e r a l p a r t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Table III shows that the most common o r g a n i z a t i o n a l membership l i s t e d among the sample of women intervi e w e d i s i n the S o c i a l S e r v i c e C o u n c i l , and i t i s here and i n the United Way that women of a l l p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s meet t o address the wel f a r e needs of community r e s i d e n t s . And while Table III shows t h a t two of the women rep o r t NWCV a f f i l a t i o n s , i t a l s o h i g h l i g h t s the f a c t that e i g h t of the women are not members of any of the a s s o c i a t i o n s which are i d e n t i f i e d i n F i g u r e 1 as c e n t r a l to community dec i sion-making. In summary, while four of the women hold memberships i n one or more of . the o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are l i n k e d to the NWVA campaign group, and two of the women are a f f i l a t e d with the NWCV, e i g h t of the f i f t e e n women intervi e w e d have no d i r e c t a f f i l a t i o n to any of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are c e n t r a l to decision-making i n the community. T h i s i s very much i n c o n t r a s t to the men who, i n most cases, share memberships w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l i q u e s through the v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l , business or 93 s e r v i c e c l u b o r g a n i z a t i o n s which s e r v e as a n e t w o r k i n g system and a r e s o u r c e base. P o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e s and s t r a t e g i e s S i n c e few women h o l d p o s i t i o n s c e n t r a l t o the community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s and few a r e found t o h o l d memberships i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s through which p o l i t i c a l power i s o r g a n i z e d , I wanted t o know how women e x e r t i n f l u e n c e i n the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s . I d e s c r i b e the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t women e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n outcomes, and the s t r a t e g i e s t h a t they use. Once a g a i n , I p r o v i d e c o m p a r a t i v e m a t e r i a l about men. S i x of the f i f t e e n i n t e r v i e w e d women had run f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e , two of them u n s u c c e s s f u l l y so f a r . Two who had been s u c c e s s f u l t o l d me t h a t they had each run t h r e e t i m e s as c a n d i d a t e s b e f o r e g e t t i n g e l e c t e d . They each noted f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t male c a n d i d a t e s would get v o t e d i n a l t h o u g h they were o b v i o u s l y l e s s w e l l i n f o r m e d on im p o r t a n t i s s u e s than t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s h u r t both women d e e p l y and almost caused them t o drop any p l a n s f o r f u t u r e c a n d i d a c y . As I have a l r e a d y r e p o r t e d , a n o t h e r woman, when she ran f o r the p o s i t i o n of mayor, was shocked t o f i n d t h a t the same businessmen she worked so hard t o s e r v e when she was a member of C o u n c i l , t o l d her t h a t they would not vot e f o r a woman mayor. 94 When I asked one of the d i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l a t c i t y h a l l why t h e r e were no women heads of deparments, the woman r e p l i e d t h a t women, u n l i k e men, a p p a r e n t l y do not p r e p a r e themselves f o r the v a c a n c i e s by t a k i n g u p g r a d i n g c o u r s e s . Yet one woman p u b l i c s e r v a n t t o whom I t a l k e d h e l d a M a s t e r ' s degree p e r t a i n i n g t o her work but was s t i l l r a n k e d , a f t e r many y e a r s , s e v e r a l l e v e l s below the t o p p o s i t i o n s i n her department. When women do get i n t o p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y , they f a c e o t h e r problems. Two women r e p o r t e d t h a t i n meetings where they were the o n l y woman p r e s e n t , t h e r e were e i t h e r crude j o k e s ( w i t h a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g comments t h a t the j o k e s were out of p l a c e because t h e r e was a " l a d y " p r e s e n t ) ; a t t e m p t s t o draw out s i g n s t h a t the woman was a " f e m i n i s t " ; or t h a t her remarks would be i g n o r e d , u n t i l p i c k e d up l a t e r by a man and then deemed n o t i c e a b l e and a c c e p t a b l e . T h i s b e h a v i o u r toward " t o k e n " members of a group has been documented by Kan t e r (1977). D u r i n g my i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the men, many d i s c u s s e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s about women who a r e moving i n t o p o s i t i o n s of power. The remarks of some of the men w i t h a f f i l i a t i o n s t o the b u s i n e s s - c h u r c h - r i g h t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c i a l p a r t y c l i q u e c o n f i r m e d the gender b i a s t h a t women were r e p o r t i n g . Some men noted e i t h e r a h o s t i l i t y t o " f e m i n i s t s " , 1 or an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t women s h o u l d t a k e t h e i r r i g h t f u l p l a c e "behind the men". One noted t h a t i t was not e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e f o r women t o get e q u a l pay even 1 t h a t i s , t o any woman who seemed t o be t o o a s s e r t i v e or who f o c u s e d on i s s u e s t h a t p e r t a i n e d t o women i n p a r t i c u l a r , 95 though he s a i d he agreed with the i d e a . Another was convinced that women were emotional, and not l o g i c a l i n p r e s e n t i n g thei-f ideas, although he pointed out that he p a i d a t t e n t i o n to women's ideas because they were o f t e n c r e a t i v e and most v a l u a b l e to h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . From the in t e r v i e w s with three women a f f i l i a t e d with the NWVA, and c e n t r a l to the decision-making process, I gathered that they o f t e n were c r e a t i v e i n dev e l o p i n g s o l u t i o n s to c i v i c problems. One noted f r u s t r a t i o n that key men " s t i c k to the law", when i n f a c t they are i n the p o s i t i o n s to change the laws. Women r e p o r t e d that they pay great a t t e n t i o n to the s t r a t e g i e s they use to i n f l u e n c e decision-making. Nine of the f i f t e e n women mentioned that they are w e l l prepared on the subje c t before they act to i n f l u e n c e the outcome of an i s s u e at C o u n c i l or School Board meetings. Some mentioned that they double-checked i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by others i n order to be completely i n charge of knowledge about the t o p i c . I t was the women with p o l i t i c a l experience who were p a r t i c u l a r l y c a u t i o u s about the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . They noted that they always made an independent check of the f a c t s , going to the source of the inf o r m a t i o n where p o s s i b l e . They s a i d they were annoyed when . they found that men had not done t h e i r homework and yet were s t i l l i n f l u e n t i a l members of committees, both on l o c a l decision-making bodies and at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . One woman v o l u n t e e r s t a t e d that w e l l documented background m a t e r i a l meant that she c o u l d not be i n t i m i d a t e d and that she 96 c o u l d s u s t a i n her argument w i t h o u t g e t t i n g a n g r y . Women i n e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s were a l s o c a r e f u l t o word motions i n such a way t h a t t h e i r i d e a s would be a c c e p t a b l e t o the g o v e r n i n g body. I f they c h a i r e d a committee, women would-make sure t h a t a l l members were i n aggreement on the i s s u e they p e r s o n a l l y thought was i m p o r t a n t , b e f o r e b r i n g i n g the matter t o t h e l a r g e r group. N o t h i n g was tak e n f o r g r a n t e d . L e a r n i n g who were the key p l a y e r s was a l s o p a r t of the p r e p a r a t i o n mentioned by fou r of the women. These women noted t h a t t h e i r knowledge of community p o l i t i c s had drawn them i n t o b e i n g a d v o c a t e s f o r l e s s knowledgeable c i t i z e n s , a l t h o u g h each was now r e f u s i n g t o do t h i s work f o r o t h e r s , or a t l e a s t c h a r g i n g a f e e f o r the s e r v i c e . One woman r e p o r t e d t h a t w h i l e she d i d most of the l o b b y i n g f o r her "cause", t h e r e were times when i t was more opportune t o have a man " f r o n t " f o r h e r . That her assumption was c o r r e c t was c o n f i r m e d when one NWCV p o l i t i c i a n n o t e d t h a t women would be more s u c c e s s f u l i f they would e i t h e r get more women e l e c t e d , or send men t o lo b b y the p r e d o m i n a n t l y male C o u n c i l . None of the u n a f f i l i a t e d women mentioned l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the key c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o be a problem. Some non-connected community v o l u n t e e r s s u g g ested t h a t they had c o n s i d e r a b l e freedom t o r a i s e i s s u e s of c o n c e r n . One remarked t h a t she makes sure t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s and p u b l i c s e r v a n t s know t h a t she t h i n k s of them as s e r v a n t s of the community. Another noted t h a t her n e u t r a l i t y gave her freedom t o p r e s s u r e o f f i c i a l s 97 because she was not p e r c e i v e d t o be a l i g n e d w i t h any " i n t e r e s t group". Another s a i d she r e f u s e d t o "toady" up t o any group and r e l i e d on her p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f a c t s t o sway d e c i s i o n s . Some women were, however, f r u s t r a t e d by the l a c k of adequate f u n d i n g f o r the s e c t o r s i n which they were a c t i v i s t s ( e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , or the a r t s ) , and sug g e s t e d t h a t t h a t was a l i m i t a t i o n on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . Many women f e l t t h a t t h e i r g r e a t e s t problem was a l a c k of tim e . Many j u g g l e d f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and j o b s as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s or c i t i z e n a c t i v i s t r o l e s . Some i n v o l u n t e e r c a p a c i t i e s l a c k e d the support s t a f f u s u a l l y found i n e s t a b l i s h e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h i s p l a c e d a d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s on t h e i r t i m e , andwomen p o l i t i c i a n s n o t e d t h a t c o n s t i t u e n t s f o r g e t t h a t women have f a m i l i e s t o look a f t e r and hou s e h o l d c h o r e s t o do: c o n s t i t u e n t s seem s u r p r i s e d t o see alderwomen shopping f o r g r o c e r i e s or t a k i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o the d e n t i s t ! Many women had become a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s t h r ough w orking t o support c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s and most had combined c h i l d r e a r i n g w i t h a c t i v i t i e s i n community p o l i t i c s . As one woman remarked, " I s t a r t e d out s e r v i n g hotdogs f o r s c h o o l s p o r t s days and ended up c h a i r i n g t h e Board of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s ! " . Many women p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were s t a b l e , independent i n d i v i d u a l s and p r o b a b l y more p o l i t i c a l l y a s t u t e because of t h e i r mother's a c t i v i s m . Some women d i d n o t e , however, t h a t t h e i r husbands were not v e r y accommodating t o t h e i r community 98 a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l the men were convinced that such c h a l l e n g e s were e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e i r wife's mental and p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . In s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that were repor t e d , the women maintained a stubborn p e r s i s t e n c e i n working f o r the i s s u e s that they f e l t were important. Men's p r a c t i c e s i n community p o l i t i c s tended to vary depending on whether or not the men were a f f i l i a t e d with the members of the most dominant campaign group, the NWVA. Four of the f i v e men who repor t e d few d i f f i c u l t i e s i n being able to exert i n f l u e n c e in the decision-making process observed that being w i t h i n the group which holds a m a j o r i t y of seats on C o u n c i l and on School Board assured them of some power. The other man, a seasoned veteran of community p o l i t i c s , although not a member of t h i s group, was p h i l o s o p h i c a l about d e c i s i o n s won and l o s t . These men noted that they p r e f e r e d to lobby i n d i v i d u a l s p r i v a t e l y i n order to i n f l u e n c e the outcome of a d e c i s i o n and they were ready to l i s t e n to i n f l u e n t i a l l o b b y i s t s . Some NWCV members, however, d i d not lobby i n t h i s manner and resented being l o b b i e d p r i v a t e l y by key i n f l u e n t i a l s , p r e f e r i n g i n s t e a d the process of reasoned argument i n a group s e t t i n g . One NWVA p o l i t i c i a n noted that t h i s r e j e c t i o n of the lob b y i n g technique l i m i t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of NWCV members i n i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n s , and that he would be open to a p r i v a t e lobby from them. 99 Two of the moderates on C o u n c i l thought that t h e i r a b i l i t y to swing the votes of other moderate c o u n c i l members on some i s s u e s gave them c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e . The lone NWCV member of the School Board s a i d that the only way he c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the outcome of an is s u e was to word motions c a r e f u l l y so t h a t they c o u l d not be defeat e d . He a l s o found that a thorough knowledge of the background m a t e r i a l was necessary i n order f o r him to sway the o p p o s i t i o n to h i s viewpoint. Although lac k of time was a problem mentioned by some of the men, those who were NWVA p o l i t i c i a n s and those who were a s s o c i a t e d with the c l i q u e of i n d i v i d u a l s s u p p o r t i n g the NWVA tended to have jobs w i t h i n the community and more f l e x i b l e working hours, so that i n t e r a c t i o n s with other i n f l u e n t i a l s were e a s i l y f i t t e d i n t o d a i l y schedules. T h i s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y to be c e n t r a l to the decision-making p r o c e s s . The men whose jobs prevented them from these daytime a c t i v i t i e s (most of them NWCV p o l i t i c i a n s ) a l l wished that they had more time to become more f u l l y informed on a l l p o l i t i c a l matters. The c i t i z e n a d v i s o r noted that h i s i n a b i l i t y to take time o f f work p r e c l u d e d him from running f o r o f f i c e . Only f i v e men, i n d i s c u s s i n g time c o n s t r a i n t s , made r e f e r e n c e to the needs of t h e i r f a m i l i e s , but i t must be remembered that ten of the fourteen men had wives who were f u l l time homemakers. Two of the NWCV aldermen were f i t t i n g i n home chores or c h i l d r e a r i n g d u t i e s as I in t e r v i e w e d them at home i n the evening, i n d i c a t i n g that at l e a s t some men were c o n s t r a i n e d 100 by the same schedules as the women. Two other p o l i t i c i a n s s t r e s s e d that being i n e l e c t e d o f f i c e takes a great d e a l of time and that can undermine a f a m i l y u n i t . Men d i d not mention any d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g e t t i n g p u b l i c funding f o r the p r o j e c t s i n which they were i n t e r e s t e d . One man noted that h i s connections to e l e c t e d members and s t a f f of s e n i o r governments have f a c i l i t a t e d g e t t i n g funds f o r l o c a l p r o j e c t s . The church leader had r e c e i v e d funding f o r a major s o c i a l s e r v i c e c e n t r e . Men with long experience in l o c a l government, e i t h e r as p o l i t i c i a n s or as s e n i o r s t a f f r e p o r t e d that there were ways to shape m u n i c i p a l budgets to accommodate long range p l a n s f o r the community, even i f v o t e r s r e j e c t e d a money referendum. In summary, men's and women's s t r a t e g i e s d i f f e r somewhat acc o r d i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l s c e n t r a l i t y to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power. Men who are w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the predominant c l i q u e experience few d i f f i c u l t i e s , e i t h e r through l a c k of c o n t a c t s or through lack of time. There i s an ease with which these men pass i n f o r m a t i o n , e x e r t i n f l u e n c e and are i n f l u e n c e d . Men o u t s i d e t h i s c l i q u e tend to be l e s s p r i v i l e g e d i n terms of f l e x i b l e time, and few mix s o c i a l l y with members of the dominant c l i q u e . They are more l i k e l y to use the p u b l i c forum to i n f l u e n c e the outcome of i s s u e s , and to i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and they have to r e l y on a v a r i e t y of a l l i a n c e s to get support f o r t h e i r i d e a s . 101 Women who are i n the dominant c l i q u e a r e more l i k e l y t o be i n p o s i t i o n s c e n t r a l t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s than o t h e r women, but a l l women, as o u t s i d e r s t o the male-dominated p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , must work h a r d e r and d e v e l o p more c a r e f u l s t r a t e g i e s i n o r d e r t o be i n f l u e n t i a l . In t h i s r e s p e c t they a r e s i m i l a r t o men who a r e o u t s i d e r s , except t h a t when women l a c k c o n n e c t i o n s t o the dominant c l i q u e , they have both l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n and gender b i a s t o cope w i t h . Added t o thos e c o n s t r a i n t s , more women than men r e p o r t f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s which must be f i t t e d i n t o d a i l y r o u t i n e s t h a t i n c l u d e j o b s and c i v i c a c t i v i t i e s . Summary The d a t a about women p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n the community of N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , women are not among the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of government and p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t s who lobby C o u n c i l members d i r e c t l y f o r f a v o u r a b l e l e g i s l a t i o n . They a r e not w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n p o s i t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l power or i n s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s among p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . They do, however, h o l d some e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n a v a r i e t y of c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but a r e i n a m a j o r i t y o n l y on the S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l , the U n i t e d Way and the A r t s C o u n c i l . They a r e not r e p r e s e n t e d a t a l l on two " t e c h n i c a l " c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y c ommittees, and a r e i n a m a j o r i t y o n l y on the F a m i l y C o u r t A d v i s o r y Committee. Women p r e s e n t l y c h a i r o n l y two a d v i s o r y committees and one c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l t h o u g h many of them have e x p e r i e n c e i n committee l e a d e r s h i p . 1 0 2 Fewer women than men have r e p u t a t i o n s as i n f l u e n t i a l community l e a d e r s . The women nominated were i d e n t i f i e d as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a wide range of community a c t i v i t i e s and i s s u e s , although more women were i n t e r e s t e d i n the is s u e s which concern the w e l f a r e of community r e s i d e n t s than with the economic development of the community. However, the two most o f t e n -nominated women are business owners, have experience as mun i c i p a l c o u n c i l members, have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a v a r i e t y of community a c t i v i t i e s , and as NWVA members are c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d in the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n North W a t e r f i e l d . The woman r e c e i v i n g the next highest number of nominations i s not in any p o l i t i c a l c l i q u e but bri d g e s the g u l f between them through her work i n developing many community s e r v i c e s . Women a c t i v e i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s s e c t o r were nominated more o f t e n than those who work to i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . Men, on the other hand, predominate i n most of the key p o s i t i o n s which c o n t r o l the decision-making p r o c e s s . They are the p o l i t i c i a n s , the p u b l i c servants and the dominant business l e a d e r s . They are in a m a j o r i t y on most c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y committees. More men than women are nominated as i n f l u e n t i a l , and those most o f t e n nominated concentrate on a c t i v i t i e s which concern business i n t e r e s t s , community growth, p l a n n i n g and budgets, and community boosterism. I have found that the men and women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s are s i m i l a r on s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s i t i c s such as age, len g t h of re s i d e n c e , f a m i l y p r o f i l e s and number of 1 03 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships. They have s i m i l a r l e v e l s of p o s t -secondary e d u c a t i o n and t y p e s of o c c u p a t i o n s ; and a l t h o u g h the men g e n e r a l l y have h i g h e r i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y incomes than the women i n t h i s group, i n f l u e n t i a l men and women a r e s i m i l a r i n t h a t they a r e drawn d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y from among the r e s i d e n t s w i t h h i g h e r than average e d u c a t i o n and income, and who own or manage l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s or who are i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . I have a l s o found t h a t women d i f f e r from men i n t h a t fewer women than men a r e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h r o u g h which power over community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s e x e r c i s e d . Some be l o n g t o a t h i r d c l i q u e , a group of i n d i v i d u a l s who are i n t e r c o n n e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r work w i t h v a r i o u s s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . O t h e r s have o n l y t i m e - l i m i t e d c o n n e c t i o n s t o o t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l s t h r o u g h t h e i r a c t i v i s m on p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s . I have a l s o shown t h a t , i n s p i t e of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s , a wide v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s i n the community, and an e x t r a o r d i n a r y amount of energy, women have t o overcome the problem of b e i n g "not male". The women's r e p o r t s of gender b i a s a r e c o n f i r m e d by some of the men who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they do not f u l l y s u b s c r i b e t o the n o t i o n of e q u a l i t y f o r women or t h a t they have d i f f i c u l t y i n coming t o terms w i t h the change i n a s s e r t i v e n e s s of women i n p u b l i c and i n p r i v a t e l i f e . As o u t s i d e r s i n a male-dominated s o c i e t y , women pay g r e a t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s t r a t e g i e s they use, e s p e c i a l l y when the i s s u e s t h a t they c o n s i d e r i m p o r t a n t a r e p e r i p h e r a l t o the p r i o r i t i e s of the dominant d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . 1 04 What i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d in t h i s r e s e a r c h i s that the women who c o n t r i b u t e to community p o l i t i c s i n North W a t e r f i e l d cannot be d e s c r i b e d as " l e i s u r e p e r s o n n e l " (Hunter, 1953) and most cannot be desig n a t e d as "one-issue s p e c i a l i s t s " (Dahl,1961; Presthus, 1964). Many women juggle jobs and c i v i c d u t i e s as w e l l as f a m i l y r e s o n s i b i l i t i e s , and many women p a r t i c i p a t e i n a v a r i e t y of i s s u e s concerning the q u a l i t y of community l i f e . The l a s t three chapters have d e s c r i b e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n North W a t e r f i e l d with an emphasis on the l o c a t i o n and experiences on women in the community power s t r u c t u r e . In the next chapter, I compare the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered about the the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n North W a t e r f i e l d with data from other s t u d i e s . I then draw on the inf o r m a t i o n presented about women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community decision-making "and t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n the power s t r u c t u r e i n t h i s and other s t u d i e s , to e x p l a i n t h e i r i n v i s i b i l i t y i n the previous r e s e a r c h . 105 Chapter s i x C o n t i n u i t i e s and c o n c l u s i o n s In t h i s c h a p t e r I a n a l y z e the f i n d i n g s of ' the r e s e a r c h which has been fo c u s e d on women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s i n a Canadian suburban community. The ch a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s t o a d d r e s s each of the t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n r e v i e w s the s i m i l a r i t i e s between da t a g a t h e r e d about the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n t h i s r e s e a r c h and t h a t found i n o t h e r s t u d i e s . In t h i s way I am a b l e t o a s s e s s the r e l i a b i l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n about community p o l i t i c s which has been g a t h e r e d i n a new s e t t i n g , and u s i n g v a r i a t i o n s on s t a n d a r d methods t o i n s u r e t h a t women a r e i n c l u d e d i n the scope of the r e s e a r c h . The second s e c t i o n compares the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of women documented i n t h i s and o t h e r s t u d i e s . That i n f o r m a t i o n i s used t o gauge how women f i t i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n community p o l i t i c s . In the t h i r d s e c t i o n I use the i n f o r m a t i o n I have g a t h e r e d about women's e x p e r i e n c e i n community p o l i t i c s i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d and elsewhere t o o f f e r some e x p l a n a t i o n s about women's g e n e r a l i n v i s i b i l i t y i n e a r l i e r power s t r u c t u r e s t u d i e s . . The s t r u c t u r e of power i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d and el s e w h e r e From the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r s 3, 4 and 5, I f i n d e v i d e n c e t h a t would suggest t h a t t h r e e t y p e s of power s t r u c t u r e f u n c t i o n i n t h i s community: namely th o s e d e s c r i b e d by the e l i t e , f a c t i o n a l and c o a l i t i o n a l models. U s i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n 1 06 of power as the guide t o i d e n t i f y i n g type of power s t r u c t u r e , I f i n d t h a t o n l y a few i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t e r e g u l a r l y i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and t h a t i s one of the d e f i n i t i o n s of an e l i t e power s t r u c t u r e . However, t h e r e i s p o s i t i v e e v i d e n c e of two c o n f l i c t i n g , p o l i t i c a l l y - b a s e d groups which would suggest a f a c t i o n a l power s t r u c t u r e . But a t times i t i s a l s o demonstrated t h a t t h e r e a re c o a l i t i o n s among a wide v a r i e t y of community groups t o p r o t e s t s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . Those a l l i a n c e s a re dropped when the f i n a l d e c i s i o n i s made, and t h a t b e h a v i o u r i s i n d i c a t e d i n the c o a l i t i o n a l model. I can f i n d no evidence of a p l u r a l i s t i c power s t r u c t u r e i n which no one group dominates. W i t h i n the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l group of c i t i z e n s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s , t h e r e a r e two competing f a c t i o n s , but the f a c t i o n s a r e not e q u a l l y p o w e r f u l . I n f l u e n t i a l members of the dominant c l i q u e a re drawn p r i m a r i l y from the b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , government and the independent p r o f e s s i o n s , and they a r e con n e c t e d through memberships i n the Chamber of Commerce, S e r v i c e C l u b s , c h u r c h e s and r i g h t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . E l e c t e d members of t h i s c l i q u e h o l d a m a j o r i t y of s e a t s on m u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and S c h o o l Board and r e p r e s e n t l o c a l c i t i z e n s i n the F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t and the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. The i n t e r e s t s of c l i q u e members l e a d them t o be a c t i v e i n d e c i s i o n s about b u s i n e s s m a t t e r s , community growth (which i n c l u d e s community budgets and b o o s t e r i s m ) , e d u c a t i o n , s p o r t s and the a r t s . The most i n f l u e n t i a l c l i q u e members pay l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e development of community-wide s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . •1 07 The competing c l i q u e which supports NWCV p o l i t i c i a n s , draws i t s members p r i m a r i l y from among members of the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l New Democratic Party a s s o c i a t i o n s . Any power NWCV p o l i t i c i a n s have i n i n f l u e n c i n g the outcome of decision-making comes mainly from the a b i l i t y to form a l l i a n c e s with members of the NWVA on n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s , and from support, on c e r t a i n neighbourhood i s s u e s , from a c o a l i t i o n of groups s p e c i f i c to the d e c i s i o n at hand. I found fewer NWCV supporters than NWVA supporters as lead e r s of key c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y committees. NWCV members a l s o show i n t e r e s t i n community growth, but from the p e r s p e c t i v e of long term p l a n n i n g and environmental p r o t e c t i o n . A few of the more i n f l u e n t i a l members of the NWCV a f f i l a t e d c l i q u e do appear to be a c t i v e i n the development and maintenance of a v a r i e t y of community s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , such as a C r i s i s Centre, Intermediate Care housing f o r s e n i o r s , or s e r v i c e s to youths i n t r o u b l e with the law. There are times when groups form a l l i a n c e s to p r o t e s t a C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n . Two c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s that were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study had to do with land use. The s u c c e s s f u l c o a l i t i o n s of groups i n those cases i n c l u d e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a neighbourhood a s s o c i a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n a l s p o r t s c l u b s , church groups and business o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Jennings(1964:146-147) a l s o r e p o r t e d c o a l i t i o n s of groups on some i s s u e s , remarking that the Chamber of Commerce found i t s e l f with strange bedfellows i n an urban renewal debate i n A t l a n t a . C o a l i t i o n s which comprise only p o l i t i c a l l y l e f t - l e a n i n g groups appear to be l e s s s u c c e s s f u l , as 108 I documented i n the i s s u e about p r i v a t i z a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l garbage s e r v i c e s . The development of o r g a n i z e d and opposing c i v i c p a r t i e s i n t h e p a s t e i g h t y e a r s has deepened the p o l i t i c a l s p l i t i n the community. 'Although the presence of an o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l l y -l e f t o p p o s i t i o n has somewhat l i m i t e d the power of the dominant c l i q u e , on i s s u e s of major c o n c e r n t o t h i s r i g h t - l e a n i n g , b u s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d c l i q u e , the i n t e r e s t s of the dominant c l i q u e g e n e r a l l y p r e v a i l . The e v i d e n c e of a predominant c l i q u e g i v e s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h t o the d e n o t a t i o n of an e l i t e power s t r u c t u r e . 1 In N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , businessmen c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r i t y community d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . T h i s f i n d i n g c o n c u r s w i t h d a t a i n o t h e r s t u d i e s ( n o t e d i n Chapter 2) and w i t h Walton (1970:446) who f i n d s t h a t on the b a s i s of a r e view of 39 s t u d i e s i n 61 c o m m u n i t i e s , "the p r o p o r t i o n of businessmen found i n the l e a d e r s h i p group i s h i g h i r r e s p e c t i v e of the t ype of community power s t r u c t u r e found". P o l i t i c i a n s and p u b l i c s e r v a n t s are a l s o l i s t e d as i n f l u e n t i a l s i n most of the s t u d i e s and some ar e nominated as h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . These f i n d i n g s appear to s t r e n g t h e n the p o i n t made by L i n e b e r r y and Sharkansky (1978:179) t h a t power i s h e l d i n v a r y i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s by economic l e a d e r s , 1 A more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the most p o w e r f u l i n d i v i d u a l s i n community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g would be r e q u i r e d t o r e f i n e the d e s c r i p t i o n t o compare i t t o the v a r i o u s e l i t e forms p r e s e n t e d by Form and M i l l e r (1960:540-541). 109 p o l i t i c i a n s and b u r e a u c r a t s , depending on c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . There have been i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t when key i n f l u e n t i a l s from a l l t h r e e s e c t o r s a re i n agreement on an i s s u e , they a r e i m p e r v i o u s t o opposing groups. The power of the mayor, which I d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noted i n some s t u d i e s ( f o r example D a h l , 1961:137, 182, 200; J e n n i n g s , 1964:110; T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982:114, 138). Stone e t . a l . (1979:155) c o n s i d e r mayors t o be "perhaps the p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s on the urban scene". The n o m i n a t i o n of some newspaper and r a d i o p e r s o n n e l as i n f l u e n t i a l i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d matches the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of members of the media i n o t h e r s t u d i e s ( D a h l , 1961:156; P r e s t h u s , 1964:215; T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982:167). However, as I p o i n t e d out i n Chapter 4,. i n t h i s community, a l t h o u g h media p e r s o n n e l a r e nominated as i n f l u e n t i a l , a t l e a s t one newspaper o f f i c i a l n o tes a r e d u c t i o n i n h i s power t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n -making i n the p o l i t i c a l l y s p l i t community. The presence of independent p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s a l s o n o t e d among i n f l u e n t i a l community l e a d e r s by r e s e a r c h e r s such as Hunter (1953:76), Dahl (1961:334), Haugh (1980:45) and T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:115). S e v e r a l members of t h i s s e c t o r who were nominated as i n f l u e n t i a l s i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d were noted t o be, or have been, d i r e c t o r s of the Chamber of Commerce or a c t i v e i n r i g h t - l e a n i n g p a r t y p o l i t i c s . 1 1.0 Church l e a d e r s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d (Hunter, 1953:98; P r e s t h u s , 1964:178). Hunter (1953:83) p o i n t s out t h a t c h u r c h l e a d e r s do not make t o p b i l l i n g , a l t h o u g h c h u r c h b a c k i n g i s one way t o get a p r o j e c t underway. J e n n i n g s (1964:192, fn.11) suggests t h a t c h u r c h l e a d e r s h i p i s one e s t a b l i s h e d f u n n e l t o community l e a d e r s h i p . In N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t a t l e a s t some i n f l u e n t i a l c h u r c h l e a d e r s have c o n n e c t i o n s t o the dominant c l i q u e , e i t h e r t h r o u g h shared memberships i n c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , or through t h e i r a b i l i t y t o encourage NWVA p o l i t i c a n s t o a t t e n d C h r i s t m a s s e r v i c e s a t t h e i r c h u r c h . Those i n e d u c a t i o n a re l e s s o f t e n mentioned as b e i n g i n the power c l i q u e . Dahl (1961) had fo c u s e d on an i s s u e i n e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y and t h e r e f o r e some members of t h i s s e c t o r were i n c l u d e d among h i s l e a d e r s and s u b - l e a d e r s . 1 T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:160) r e p o r t the unexpected i n f l u e n c e of a s c h o o l board a d m i n i s t r a t o r , but judged t h a t he was i n f l u e n t i a l more f o r h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l network than because of h i s j o b . I i n f e r from the J e n n i n g s (1964:187) review of "major a c t i v i t y a r e a s f o r a t t r i b u t e d i n f l u e n t i a l s i n two communities over an extended l e n g t h of t i m e " , t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e a low p r i o r i t y among i n f l u e n t i a l s . The low p r o f i l e of members of t h i s s e c t o r i n some of the s t u d i e s p a r a l l e l s the l a c k of i n f l u e n c e of people i n the e d u c a t i o n a l s e c t o r i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d . 1 I note t h a t the New Haven mayor had j u r i s d i c t i o n t o a p p o i n t s c h o o l board members, i n c o n t r a s t t o the case i n " my Canadian community. 111 A few union l e a d e r s are noted in some s t u d i e s , f o r example, Dahl(1961), Port (1972) and T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982). The union o f f i c i a l i n P o r t ' s one-industry town was a c t i v e i n promoting new i n d u s t r i a l development proposals which would mean an expansion of the job market in the community. North W a t e r f i e l d ' s expanding economy may perhaps e x p l a i n why p r i v a t e union l e a d e r s d i d not s u r f a c e as i n f l u e n t i a l s i n p u b l i c d ecision-making. However, as I have noted, c i v i c union l e a d e r s sometimes work with NWCV e l e c t e d members to put pressure on the outcome of p u b l i c p o l i c y when there i s a d e c i s i o n to s h r i n k the s i z e of the c i v i c workforce, but those e f f o r t s are not always s u c c e s s f u l . In g e n e r a l , i t would seem that the same c a t e g o r i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s are found to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c decision-making, no matter what type of North American community i s s t u d i e d . Molotch's (1976) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of "any l o c a l i t y " as a "growth machine" i s u s e f u l as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the predominance of c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n community power s t r u c t u r e s . He a s s e r t s (p.311-314) that "land i s a market commodity p r o v i d i n g wealth and power and that some very important people consequently take an i n t e r e s t i n i t " . Molotch s t a t e s that " p a r t i c u l a r p r o p e r t y owners and i n v e s t o r s i n l o c a l l y o r i e n t e d f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s need l o c a l government i n t h e i r d a i l y money-making r o u t i n e s and that lawyers . . . and r e a l t o r s a l s o need to put themselves i n s i t u a t i o n s where they can be most u s e f u l to those with land and property r e s o u r c e s " . He a l s o notes 1 1 2 there are those who, although not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n land use, have t h e i r f u t u r e s t i e d to growth of the area. C e r t a i n l y , these people would i n c l u d e small business owners, as w e l l as those whose homes and prop e r t y gain value as land use i s i n t e n s i f i e d and the community gains more m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and urban l i f e s t y l e f a c i l i t i e s . Thus community growth and progress would be important to a l a r g e number of people in the community, i n c l u d i n g union l e a d e r s , whose members b e n e f i t from an expanded job market. Molotch's hypothesis that a l l community le a d e r s work fo r an expansionary economy, p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the dominance of the NWVA c l i q u e i n t e r e s t s i n North W a t e r f i e l d , and f o r the s i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by NWCV members f o r growth i n the community, but i t does not e x p l a i n why there would be o p p o s i t i o n to c e r t a i n developments. Logan (1976:339) p o i n t s out that r e s i s t a n c e to i n d u s t r i a l growth among suburban communties can be found: The ' q u a l i t y of community' i s a s i g n i f i c a n t value among suburban r e s i d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n o l d e r , more e s t a b l i s h e d , or more r u r a l communities. The i s s u e s of growth may t h e r e f o r e c r e a t e a stro n g p o l i t i c a l cleavage i n the employing suburbs, so that the p u r s u i t of i n t e n s i v e development depends on the a b i l i t y of the r e a l e s t a t e and b i g business c o a l i t i o n s to dominate l o c a l p o l i t i c s . T h i s would seem to d e s c r i b e s u c c i n c t l y , the o r g a n i z a t i o n or power i n the suburb of North W a t e r f i e l d . I a l s o compared the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the men i d e n t i f i e d i n other s t u d i e s with that of the men in t e r v i e w e d in North W a t e r f i l e d . " Once again I f i n d s i m i l a r i t i e s . Although 1 1 3 data i n the s t u d i e s I have chosen to review are not completely comparable, i n those s t u d i e s I f i n d that most i n f l u e n t i a l s have r e s i d e d i n t h e i r community f o r f i f t e e n years or more, are over f o r t y years of age and o f t e n c o n s i d e r a b l y o l d e r , and are " j o i n e r s " , belonging to three or more o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The i n f l u e n t i a l s are a l s o white. T h i s p r o f i l e g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e s the men I i n t e r v i e w e d , although some of my respondents cannot be c o n s i d e r e d the most i n f l u e n t i a l members in the power s t r u c t u r e . The only d i f f e r e n c e that i s r e a d i l y apparent i s that some of the i n f l u e n t i a l s i n North W a t e r f i e l d have only r e s i d e d i n the community f o r ten years, but that may be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t that there was a major expansion i n the p o p u l a t i o n ten years ago at a time when the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e was hardening i n t o • two camps. P o l i t i c a l l y - m i n d e d migrants were immediately drawn i n t o the p o l i t i c a l realignment p r o c e s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , those men who r e c e i v e d the h i g h e s t number of nominations were a l l long term r e s i d e n t s . The h i g h e s t p r o f i l e members of the most i n t e g r a t e d v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y group have a l s o been long term r e s i d e n t s . Income and e d u c a t i o n a l data are not r e a d i l y comparable a c r o s s s t u d i e s , because of v a r i a t i o n s i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of data, but there i s enough i n f o r m a t i o n to make some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and to suggest t h a t of those who p a r t i c i p a t e r e g u l a r l y i n the decision-making process, most have the b e n e f i t s of income above the community average. Although education and income l e v e l s of i n f l u e n t i a l s may vary from community to community (Presthus,1964:187; Jennings, 1964:46), Dahl (1961:230) had noted the tendency of l e a d e r s i d e n t i f i e d i n h i s 1 1 4 survey t o be above average i n income and e d u c a t i o n , and t h a t the s u b l e a d e r s were a l s o . a "somewhat s e l e c t group" (p.170). In N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , most of the men I i n t e r v i e w e d had some form of p o s t -secondary e d u c a t i o n , and a p a r t from some r e t i r e d men, they earned more than the community median i n f a m i l y income. Dahl (1961:91) has s t a t e d t h a t the p o l i t i c a l s t r a t u m i s f a r from b e i n g a c l o s e d or s t a t i c group, but the e v i d e n c e from t h i s study and from the o t h e r s i s t h a t t h e r e a r e too many s i m i l a r i t i e s among i n f l u e n t i a l men t o expect t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the s m a l l group of l e a d i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l c i t i z e n s . Another s i m i l a r i t y a c r o s s the s t u d i e s i s t h a t some o r g a n i z a t i o n s are i d e n t i f i e d as c e n t r a l t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n e v e r y community. The-Chamber of Commerce i s noted as a key o r g a n i z a t i o n i n e v e r y study I use f o r c o m p a r i s o n s . Other o r g a n i z a t i o n s mentioned r e g u l a r l y a r e s e r v i c e c l u b s and f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and the Community Chest or U n i t e d Appeal Fund. Q u i t e o f t e n t h e r e i s a community i n d u s t r i a l development or p r o g r e s s p l a n n i n g committee. Common memberships i n t h e s e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s and committees a r e f r e q u e n t l y documented. In N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , the Chamber of Commerce and v a r i o u s s e r v i c e c l u b s a r e i m p o r t a n t meeting p l a c e s f o r r i g h t -l e a n i n g i n f l u e n t i a l s a l t h o u g h , as has been r e p o r t e d i n t h i s study and i n the T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:72) research., the i n f l u e n c e of the Chamber of Commerce has d e c l i n e d i n the p ast few y e a r s . In N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , the Community P l a n n i n g 1 1 5 Committee i s under the a u s p i c e s of m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . S e v e r a l members of t h i s committee are a l s o members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s through which NWVA members are i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , although there are a l s o some members of the NDP on the committee. The U n i t e d Way i s not an important o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r male i n f l u e n t i a l s i n North W a t e r f i e l d , but perhaps that i s because i n the past decade i t has been a committee more i n v o l v e d with s o c i a l s e r v i c e p l a n n i n g than with fund r a i s i n g , a f u n c t i o n that has been c e n t r a l i z e d through the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i n the neighbouring c i t y . However, through the work of t h i s committee over the past ten years, many of the women i n f l u e n t i a l s have come to know each other and draw on each o t h e r s ' r e s o u r c e s . In summary, there are many s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power found in North W a t e r f i e l d and i n other North American communities. No matter what the community type, business owners and managers predominate, along with p o l i t i c i a n s , p u b l i c servants and independent p r o f e s s i o n a l s . No matter what type of community, there i s a tendency that community l e a d e r s w i l l be long r e s i d e n t , over f o r t y , w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o community p o l i t i c s through a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships, and g e n e r a l l y above average f o r t h e i r community in l e v e l s of education and income. The predominant o r g a n i z a t i o n s are the Chamber of Commerce and s e r v i c e c l u b s and community p l a n n i n g committees; the predominant i s s u e s are l i k e l y to be community growth and business development. I t h e r e f o r e have some assurance from t h i s comparative overview that I have captured the essence of the s t r u c t u r e of power i n North W a t e r f i e l d . I can now assess 116 where women f i t i n t o t h a t s t r u c t u r e . The women i n community p o l i t i c s In the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n I suggested t h a t i n s p i t e of the debate i n the l i t e r a t u r e about the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n a community, t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s a c r o s s communities of v a r i o u s types i n terms of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s of men who i n f l u e n c e l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In t h i s s e c t i o n , I compare the d e s c r i p t i o n s of women i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n t i a l i n o t h e r s t u d i e s t o the m a t e r i a l g a t h e r e d about women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d ' s community p o l i t i c s t o determine women's r e l a t i o n t o the s t r u c t u r e of power. In N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d no women were mentioned t o be among those government and b u s i n e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who p r i v a t e l y l obby c o u n c i l members f o r t a x a t i o n and z o n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . But t h e i r names appear o c c a s i o n a l l y as e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , m o s t l y on S c h o o l Board. No women a r e department heads i n the m u n i c i p a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e . Some women nominated as i n f l u e n t i a l s a r e found t o be s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners or managers of medium s i z e d economic e n t e r p r i s e s . They and o t h e r women p a r t i c i p a t e as members and e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s on a v a r i e t y of c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y committees. These o r g a n i z a t i o n s and committees i n c l u d e ones c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and the a r t s , as w e l l as t h o s e which m o n i t o r and promote neighbourhood development or a r e f o c u s e d on b u s i n e s s or community growth 117 i n t e r e s t s . In o t h e r s t u d i e s we f i n d the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . H u n t e r ' s (1953) survey i d e n t i f i e d s i x women among the t o p f o r t y community l e a d e r s . He l a b e l l e d f i v e of the s i x " l e i s u r e p e r s o n n e l " , perhaps because they were members of the " s o c i e t y and w e a l t h " s e c t o r , and because they d i d not have p a i d o c c u p a t i o n s . One was noted t o be a source of funds f o r community p r o j e c t s , a p h i l a n t h r o p i s t . He found them t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s but assumed they d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the power network, because t h a t was f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h the downtown c l u b s , boardrooms and o f f i c e s t h a t s e r v e d as meeting grounds f o r the p o w e r f u l men. The s i x t h woman was a s c h o o l s s u p e r v i s o r but was not co n n e c t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y w i t h the prominant male community l e a d e r s ( p . 8 9 ) . Dahl (1961) p l a c e d women i n a s u b l e a d e r c a t e g o r y , and they made up about one t h i r d of the t o t a l i n t h a t group. He s t a t e d t h a t the s u b l e a d e r s were found, g e n e r a l l y , t o be a c t i v e i n one i s s u e o n l y ( p.174), and t h a t t h e i r s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d " f o r m u l a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s and p o l i c i e s and c a r r y i n g out d u l l , r o u t i n e , time consuming. . . work" (p. 9 6 ) . Some who were a c t i v e i n t he urban renewal i s s u e were noted t o be wives of e x e c u t i v e s or p r o f e s s i o n a l men (p.177) but no mention was made of the o t h e r s . In J e n n i n g s ' (1964:40) survey of A t l a n t a i n f u e n t i a l s , seven women' " q u a l i f i e d f o r e l i t e s t a t u s " . Three o c c u p i e d l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the League of Women V o t e r s , the 118 A t l a n t a V o t e r s G u i l d and the c i t y - w i d e PTA. Three of the seven were a c t i v e i n e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s e s , two i n e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s , one i n human r e l a t i o n s (a term t h a t i s not e x p l a i n e d f u r t h e r ) , and one i n a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s i n e l e c t o r a l , c i v i c and c h a r i t a b l e m a t t e r s . One of thes e women was noted t o be a s c h o o l s s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . P r e s t h u s (1964:129) o f f e r s a l i t t l e more d e t a i l about the women " s p e c i a l i s t s " i n the community of Edgewood. Three of the s i x women i d e n t i f i e d had f u l l t i m e , w h i t e c o l l a r j o b s i n s e c r e t a r i a l or s a l e s p o s i t i o n s . F i v e of the s i x were u n i v e r s i t y e d ucated. He note t h a t "they and t h e i r husbands a r e i n the mid d l e income c a t e g o r i e s , r a n k i n g lower than economic and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i n both income and group memberships". A l l the women had " e x c e p t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n ' w e l f a r e ' k i n d s of community improvements" and one was a l s o " a p p a r e n t l y m o t i v a t e d even more s t r o n g l y by t a x r e d u c t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " . She worked f o r the manager of a l o c a l c o r p o r a t i o n as a "leg-woman". Three of the women were S c h o o l Board members. In R i v e r v i e w , the o t h e r community s t u d i e d by P r e s t h u s , o n l y one of the two women s p e c i a l i s t s was i d e n t i f i e d , a 70 year o l d woman who had been member of the Sc h o o l Board f o r seventeen y e a r s , was p o l i t i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d and a staunch R e p u b l i c a n (p.165). T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:138-142) d e s c r i b e , i n some d e t a i l , 1 the most i n f l u e n t i a l woman i n the power s t r u c t u r e they 1 I would recommend t h i s p o r t r a y a l t o o t h e r s who a r e s t u d y i n g women and power. 1 19 i d e n t i f i e d i n San J o s e . T h i s woman was the mayor, but was c o n s i d e r e d by knowledgeables t o be p o w e r f u l more f o r her p o s i t i o n than f o r her p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A r e s i d e n t i n the community f o r twenty n i n e y e a r s as the w i f e of a p h y s i c i a n , she was f o r many y e a r s a c t i v e i n v a r i o u s community p r o j e c t s i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s w e l f a r e . She t u r n e d l a t e r t o work w i t h the League of Women V o t e r s and t o s i t on a number of c o u n c i l -a p p o i n t e d committees. She e v e n t u a l l y ran f o r a c o u n c i l seat " w i n n i n g e a s i l y " , and f o u r y e a r s l a t e r was e l e c t e d mayor. T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (p.116) note t h a t a f t e r the e l e c t i o n of a woman mayor, San Jose was dubbed "the f e m i n i s t c a p i t a l of the n a t i o n " . The other woman, a county s u p e r v i s o r , was not d e s c r i b e d . A l t h o u g h Haugh (1980) d i d not i d e n t i f y any women among the 19 Upper L i m i t Leaders of the P u b l i c - V o l u n t a r y - N o t - F o r - P r o f i t s e c t o r i n a c i t y i n V i r g i n i a , he d i d d e s c r i b e h i s key inf o r m a n t and some of the o t h e r women nominated i n h i s r e p u t a t i o n a l survey (77,86). These women were a l l h i g h l y educated and were i n t e r c o n n e c t e d e i t h e r t h r o u g h t h e i r a f f i l a t i o n s t o one u n i v e r s i t y and one c h u r c h , or through membership i n the J u n i o r League. Some of them were members of the a l l - f e m a l e Board of D i r e c t o r s which was t o t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the C h i l d r e n ' s H o s p i t a l . However, a l t h o u g h t h e s e women were m a r r i e d t o l o c a l b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s , they were not members of the b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h r o u g h which the i n f l u e n t i a l men g a i n e d knowledge of t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . 1 20 In summarizing the d a t a on women from o t h e r s t u d i e s , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t over the p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s , women have seldom been l o c a t e d i n p o s i t i o n s of power i n the t r i u m v i r a t e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s found t o be c e n t r a l t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n any community. No women have been documented i n key p o s i t i o n s i n the b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , and few a r e shown t o be e l e c t e d l e a d e r s . One woman was a c o u n c i l member, then became mayor i n 1974 (which was noted as a remarkable n a t i o n a l e vent) and f o u r were i d e n t i f i e d as S c h o o l Board members. Three were i d e n t i f i e d as c i v i l s e r v a n t s w i t h some a u t h o r i t y . The s c a r c i t y of i n f l u e n t i a l women i n th e s e i m p o r t a n t s e c t o r s i s c o n f i r m e d by the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , and i t has been i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s study t h a t i t can be d i f f i c u l t f o r women t o get i n t o t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . In s p i t e of the a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s of men, t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the s t u d i e s on community power about women's l i n k s t o the c l i q u e s of dominant men. Hunter (1953) had o b s e r v e d t h a t the " s o c i a l l e a d e r s " of A t l a n t a and the s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r were not co n n e c t e d t o the main n e t w o r k i n g system. In t h i s s t u d y , I found t h a t t h e r e were a s u b s t a n t i a l number of the i n t e r v i e w e d women who were not f o r m a l members of e i t h e r dominant p o l i t i c a l c l i q u e i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d . P r e s t h u s (1964:407) had s t r e s s e d t h a t the women he i d e n t i f i e d were p a r t of "a t h i r d e l i t e . . . a r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y of w e l f a r e - o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r s i n the 121 e l i t e s t r u c t u r e by t h e i r m a r g i n a l power and p r e s t i g e " . Haugh i d e n t i f i e d the same phenomenon (1980:77). I a l s o d i s c o v e r e d the presence of a c l i q u e of w e l f a r e - o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s , whose p r e s t i g e i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , i f I note the number of C i t i z e n - o f - t h e - Y e a r awards which a r e g i v e n t o members of t h i s c l i q u e , but whose power i s l i m i t e d . Some of the most i n f l u e n t i a l women do have c o n n e c t i o n s t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y of a f f i l i a t i o n s , t o key o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s , and t o a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of v o t e r s . The woman who was mayor of San Jose drew on her t i e s w i t h " s c h o o l s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s and neighbourhood groups . . . t o n a r r o w l y d e f e a t her opponent f o r the p o s i t i o n . . . . She a l s o r e c e i v e d h e f t y c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r her e a r l i e r campaigns from San J o s e ' s power s t r u c t u r e " . Her p o l i t i c a l a d v i s o r s i n c l u d e d a d e v e l o p e r and a c o u p l e who between them h e l d the p r e s i d e n c y of the l o c a l bar a s s o c i a t i o n and the a r t museum" ( T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982:139-140). T h i s woman's p r o f i l e i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o those of the two most f r e q u e n t l y nominated women i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d . Another i n t e r v i e w e d woman, who was on the N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d S c h o o l Board f o r t e n y e a r s was a l s o w e l l i n t e r g r a t e d i n t o an e a r l i e r s t r u c t u r e of power a t a time when the dominant c i v i c p o l i t i c a l p a r t y was c e n t r a l i s t i n p o l i t i c a l b i a s , drawing t o g e t h e r many of the key i n f l u e n t i a l s from a l l p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . The mayor a t t h a t time was a l s o a member. 1 22 When I s e a r c h f o r d e t a i l s about the n a t u r e and scope of women's i n f l u e n c e , I f i n d t h a t n e a r l y a l l s t u d i e s r e p o r t women as a c t i v e i n i s s u e s t h a t concern the w e l f a r e of community r e s i d e n t s , e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s and e l e c t o r a l c o n c e r n s . In N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , women a l s o show concern f o r thos e m a t t e r s , but because of my more d e t a i l e d s t u d y of women's a c t i v i t i e s , I su s p e c t t h a t women's i n t e r e s t i n economic m a t t e r s i s u n d e r p l a y e d . P r e s t h u s (1964:129) sounded somewhat s u r p r i s e d t o r e p o r t one woman's concern f o r t a x m a t t e r s , y e t J e n n i n g s (1964:109) r e p o r t e d a Women's Chamber of Commerce i n A t l a n t a . N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d ' s businesswomen a r e members o f , and ta k e l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s i n the l o c a l Chamber of Commerce, a l t h o u g h not i n as l a r g e numbers as men. They are a l s o members (and C h a i r ) of the Community P l a n n i n g Committee, and the V i s i t o r s and Co n v e n t i o n Bureau, as w e l l as t a k i n g an a c t i v e r o l e i n some of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t respond t o the s o c i a l needs of r e s i d e n t s . I n f o r m a t i o n about women's p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e not d e t a i l e d enough t o make many comparisons a c r o s s s t u d i e s , but t h e r e a r e h i n t s of some s i m i l a r i t i e s among the women. The s u r v e y of i n f l u e n t i a l women i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d i n d i c a t e s t h a t on a t t r i b u t e s such as age, l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e , and number of memberships, women are s i m i l a r t o the l o c a l men. The d e s c r i p t i o n of San J o s e ' s mayor suggests t h a t her p r o f i l e i s s i m i l a r on thos e v a r i a b l e s . Most s t u d i e s note t h a t women a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s , l i k e the men, have h i g h e r than average l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n , but i n P r e s t h u s (1964:129) and t h i s s t u d y , found women t o have lower f a m i l y incomes than t h o s e o f the men 1 23 who were p o l i t i c a l and economic l e a d e r s . One common f e a t u r e among the women i n e v e r y study i s t h a t they a re r e p o r t e d t o have o u t s t a n d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s . I now have an overview of the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women, i n terms of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n dominant i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s and i n key community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as w e l l as i n a r e a s of i n f l u e n c e and i n p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I am now i n the p o s i t i o n t o o f f e r some e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n about women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p o l i t i c s . Why women a r e (a l m o s t ) i n v i s i b l e Power s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h has always f o c u s e d on the most p o w e r f u l members of any community, and the s i m p l e s t and b a l d e s t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the i n v i s i b i l i t y of women i n thos e s t u d i e s i s t h a t i n e v e r y community the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s dominated by men and men's groups, f o r men's i n t e r e s t s , and u s i n g men's s t y l e s of p o l i t i c k i n g . Women a r e the o u t s i d e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s t e r e o t y p i c a l p r o f i l e of women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , which s t r e s s e s t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n t o concern f o r community w e l f a r e m a t t e r s , and t h e i r memberships i n " p e r i p h e r a l " o r g a n i z a t i o n s , has been somewhat d i s c r e d i t e d by the i n f o r m a t i o n about women documented i n t h i s s t u d y . Yes, women are concerned w i t h e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l 1 24 s e r v i c e s , but some a l s o attempt t o e x e r t i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n s about b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s , community growth, l a n d use and e l e c t o r a l m a t t e r s . They a re i n v i s i b l e i n the s t u d i e s of community power, I s u g g e s t , f o r f o u r major r e a s o n s : one, they a r e not predominant i n p o s i t i o n s of power; two, they a re seldom a c t i v e i n the dominant groups which c o n t r o l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; t h r e e , fewer women than men p a r t i c i p a t e i n the economic i s s u e s t h a t a r e c e n t r a l t o community p o l i t i c s ; and f o u r , as non-males they l a c k p r e s t i g e and a r e p u t a t i o n f o r power, so have been, i n g e n e r a l , i g n o r e d by the i n f o r m a n t s and r e s e a r c h e r s who make judgements on who i s i n f l u e n t i a l . I f the a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s i s f a c i l i t a t e d by be i n g i n key p o s i t i o n s i n the dominant i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s , then we must note t h a t women a r e seldom i n the p o s i t i o n s which have been i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s and o t h e r s t u d i e s as c e n t r a l t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power. Women a r e moving i n t o some key p o s i t i o n s as i s shown i n the example of the the mayor of San J o s e . However, as T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:140) p o i n t o u t , the female mayor came t o power "at a time of g r e a t upheaval i n the b a l a n c e of power; her own s u r v i v a l was made p o s s i b l e by the s h i f t away from the s t r a n g l e h o l d the d e v e l o p e r s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y once h e l d a t C i t y H a l l " . I f a b i l i t y t o be p o w e r f u l i s f a c i l i t a t e d by b e i n g f i r m l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n a p o w e r f u l group or c l i q u e , then we have i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t many women a r e not conn e c t e d w i t h the dominant men thr o u g h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships. Women are 1 25 moving i n t o the Chamber of Commerce and are t a k i n g p o s i t i o n s such as the manager or e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s but they do so at a time when the l o c a l l y based o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e l o s i n g power i n the s t r u c t u r a l changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the economic s e c t o r , a change which r e s u l t s i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c o r p o r a t e power a t r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t many of the women a c t i v e i n community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g may not be i n the same economic and t h e r e f o r e s o c i a l c l a s s as the men i n the dominant c l i q u e , i n s p i t e of h a v i n g many o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common w i t h i n f l u e n t i a l men. A l t h o u g h the d a t a p r o v i d e d i n some s t u d i e s such as Hunter (1953), Dahl (1961) and Haugh (1980) i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n f l u e n t i a l women a r e wives of i n f l u e n t i a l men, t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e , i n P r e s t h u s (1964) and i n t h i s s t u d y , t h a t many of the a c t i v e women have f a m i l y incomes below those of the most i n f l u e n t i a l men. My e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the wives of the most p o w e r f u l men do not get i n v o l v e d i n community p o l i t i c s , and t h a t the wives of l e s s prominant men do. The t h i r d reason f o r women's i n v i s i b i l i t y i n power s t r u c t u r e s i s t h a t r e l a t i v e l y few women foc u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the i s s u e s t h a t a r e of key importance t o the dominant c l i q u e s of men, i . e . , b u s i n e s s s e c t o r i n t e r e s t s and community growth. In N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , Chamber of Commerce businesswomen and women c o u n c i l members have a c t i v e l y promoted growth i n the community. Another woman i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d has been e f f e c t i v e i n o r g a n i z i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o one l a n d use p r o p o s a l . The mayor of San 126 Jose drew s u p p o r t from some l e a d e r s because she was a b l e t o slow down l a n d use i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n ' a l t h o u g h "every person a f f e c t e d by t h a t d e c i s i o n had c a l l e d her a numbskull and a n i t w i t " ( T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982:140). In g e n e r a l , though, few women a r e a c t i v e i n t h i s a r e a . Most of the women i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n t i a l i n any community a r e more concerned w i t h the w e l f a r e i s s u e s of community l i f e than w i t h economic m a t t e r s . Some a l s o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n e l e c t o r a l campaigns. Most women, at l e a s t i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , a re not the o n e - i s s u e s p e c i a l i s t s t h a t Dahl (1961) and P r e s t h u s (1964) p o r t r a y e d them t o be. The f o u r t h r e a s o n why women ten d t o be i n v i s i b l e i n thes e s t u d i e s i s t h a t women are not p e r c e i v e d as i n f l u e n t i a l . B e i n g i n an e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n l e n d s some a u t h o r i t y b u t , as I noted i n Chapter 5, some women must be p e r s i s t e n t i n r u n n i n g as c a n d i d a t e s i n o r d e r t o get e l e c t e d . Once i n o f f i c e t h e y a g a i n must overcome t h e b i a s a g a i n s t women. The harshness of the c r i t i c i s m about the woman mayor documented by T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:140): She's j u s t i n e p t . She's a n i c e charming h o u s e w i f e . She ought t o go back t o b e i n g one. . . She's not a l e a d e r q u a l i f i e d t o head a major c i t y . . . She's j u s t an o p p o r t u n i s t who's s i m p l y t h e r e by the p e r s i s t e n c e of the women's movement. a t t e s t s t o the d i f f i c u l t y women f a c e when they attempt t o move beyond t h e i r e x p e c t e d r o l e i n s o c i e t y . Women have a hard time p r o v i n g the v a l u e of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o community p o l i t i c s , i n s p i t e of sometimes b e i n g i n t he dominant c l i q u e and i n s p i t e of the e v i d e n c e t h a t women 127 have been shown t o have imp o r t a n t p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s such as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s , an a t t e n t i o n t o the need f o r w e l l - r e s e a r c h e d background m a t e r i a l , p l u s the energy and a b i l i t y t o j u g g l e many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s . As I r e v i e w the da t a g a t h e r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , I come t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the problem f o r women i n g e t t i n g t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o community p o l i t i c s v a l u e d and t h e r e f o r e documented i n power s t r u c t u r e s t u d i e s i s not j u s t one of chan g i n g methods of r e s e a r c h . The u n d e r l y i n g problem i s t h a t t h e r e i s a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b i a s which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s e r v e s economic s e c t o r i n t e r e s t s a t the expense of o t h e r s e c t o r s , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t many women and some men c o n s i d e r the o t h e r s e c t o r s e q u a l l y worthy of p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a b i a s which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a c c e p t s dominant men's i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s as the norm, and which u n d e r v a l u e s women's s k i l l s and t h e i r e f f o r t s t o shape community p o l i c y t o the p r i o r i t i e s t h a t many women h o l d t o be i m p o r t a n t . Women, l i k e l e s s i n f l u e n t i a l men, must work h a r d e r and use d i f f e r e n t methods t o e x e r t i n f l u e n c e i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s because, i n one or more ways, they a r e o u t s i d e r s t o the groups which dominate community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a f o c u s on d e v e l o p i n g methods which w i l l r e d r e s s t h e i n v i s i b i l i t y of women i n the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s has two p a r t i c u l a r b e n e f i t s : i n the f i r s t p l a c e , i t w i l l more f u l l y d e s c r i b e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s women make t o community p o l i t i c s and document the n a t u r e of women's e x c l u s i o n from the 1 2 8 c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of power; i n the second p l a c e , i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n augmenting the r e s e a r c h d e v i s e d t o d e v e l o p a t h e o r y of power. The study of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , e x e r c i s e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power from the p e r s p e c t i v e of" l e s s p o w e r f u l i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d s e r v e as an a d d i t i o n a l check on the v a l i d i t y of the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s i n t h a t body of r e s e a r c h . In the next c h a p t e r , I e v a l u a t e the methods t h a t were used t o i d e n t i f y women who are a c t i v e i n community power s t r u c t u r e s , and o f f e r some recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 1 29 Chapter seven E v a l u a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h and recommendations f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s There a r e two p a r t s t o t h i s e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . One i s t o a s s e s s the v a l u e of the methods used t o h i g h l i g h t t he c o n t r i b u t i o n s of women t o community p o l i t i c s and t o i d e n t i f y t he o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n o r d e r t o note the l o c a t i o n of women i n the l o c a l power s t r u c t u r e . The o t h e r i s t o a s s e s s the v a l u e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h d e s i g n t o the p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g a t h e o r y of community power and a t h e o r y of women and community power. I e v a l u a t e the r e s e a r c h methods f i r s t . R esearch methods I s e t out i n t h i s s t u d y t o answer t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : who a r e the women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a community power s t r u c t u r e ; what i s the n a t u r e and scope of t h e i r i n f l u e n c e ; and why a r e they almost i n v i s i b l e i n power s t r u c t u r e s t u d i e s ? Because t h e r e a r e c o n t i n u i n g debates about the d e t e r m i n a n t s and d e f i n i t i o n s of power s t r u c t u r e t y p e s , I was o b l i g e d t o i d e n t i f y t he o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n the Canadian suburban community, i n or d e r t o a s s e s s women's l o c a t i o n i n t h a t s t r u c t u r e of power. I p r e s e n t f i r s t a b r i e f summary of the methods used i n the r e s e a r c h and then comment on the b e n e f i t s or d i f f i c u l t i e s of each phase of the work. 1 30 To g a i n an i n i t i a l sense of the i n d i v i d u a l s and groups most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h community p o l i t i c s , ' I i n t e r v i e w e d p o l i t i c i a n s from m u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and the S c h o o l Board, t o ask them t o l i s t t he i n d i v i d u a l s they l i s t e n e d t o i n making d e c i s i o n s , and t o ga t h e r the names of l o c a l groups i n which they h e l d memberships. I a l s o g a t h e r e d the names of l o c a l women and men who were a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s , by u s i n g two methods of d e t e r m i n i n g power. The p o s i t i o n a l method l i s t e d men and women i n e l e c t e d o f f i c e , i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e , a n d i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s on c i v i c committees and the c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y committees w i t h f o r m a l l i a i s o n s t o C o u n c i l . In the r e p u t a t i o n a l method I r e q u e s t e d knowledgeable c i t i z e n s from a number of s e c t o r s of community a c t i v i t y t o l i s t the names of men"and women who they thought were i n f l u e n t i a l i n community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I then i n t e r v i e w e d some of the i n d i v i d u a l s named, t o ask them t o s p e c i f y the ways i n which they had been i n f l u e n t i a l i n the community. The two q u e s t i o n s I pose i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the methods used a r e : d i d I a d e q u a t e l y i d e n t i f y t he women who a r e a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s , and how a c c u r a t e was the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d about the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n t h i s community? I had not c o m p l e t e l y a n t i c i p a t e d the u s e f u l n e s s of the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the p o l i t i c i a n s . That method p r o v i d e d a w e a l t h of i n f o r m a t i o n about the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the p o l i t i c i a n , a l t h o u g h I l e a r n e d l i t t l e about 131 women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p o l i t i c s . F i r s t l y , the p o l i t i c i a n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the most i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s on the outcome of C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g came from r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s e n i o r governments and b i g c o r p o r a t i o n s w i t h economic i n t e r e s t s i n the community, r a t h e r than from the l o c a l n o t a b l e s . The names of t h o s e h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s d i d not s u r f a c e i n e i t h e r the p o s i t i o n a l or r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v e y s t h a t were done l a t e r . S e c o n d l y , by t a l k i n g w i t h members of the two c i v i c p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d on C o u n c i l , I was p r o v i d e d w i t h i n s i g h t s i n t o the c o n s t r a i n t s under which a l l l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s make c h o i c e s , even when t h e r e i s o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n t o the dominant group. T h i r d l y , documenting common memberships and ty p e s of memberships of p u b l i c l y e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s was u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g me w i t h a w o r k i n g base from which t o s t a r t i d e n t i f y i n g c l i q u e s of i n d i v i d u a l s who might be c o n t r o l l i n g community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In the f o u r t h p l a c e , i t was from the p o l i t i c a n s t h a t I l e a r n e d about the most c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s . F i n a l l y , t he f a c t t h a t I was g a t h e r i n g m a t e r i a l from the p e r s p e c t i v e s of members from o p p o s i n g p a r t i e s on C o u n c i l made me r e a s o n a b l y s u r e of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n o f f e r e d . V a r i a t i o n s on the p o s i t i o n a l method In o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y women who were i n p o s i t i o n s w i t h p o t e n t i a l f o r power over d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , I d i d not spend time l i s t i n g the names of prominent b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s , but f o c u s e d on p o s i t i o n s i n which women were more l i k e l y t o be l o c a t e d ; i n 1 32 p u b l i c o f f i c e , the p u b l i c s e r v i c e , and on key c i v i c committees and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s v a r i a t i o n s e r v e d w e l l t o h i g h l i g h t the women i n p o s i t i o n s c e n t r a l t o the community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s and i n f l u e n t i a l business-women not s e r v i n g i n these p o s i t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g the r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v e y . Businessmen who were c e n t r a l t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p o l i t i c i a n s as w e l l as through the r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v e y . T h i s v a r i a t i o n a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d the names of p o l i t i c i a n s and p u b l i c s e r v a n t s , whose r e p u t a t i o n s f o r i n f l u e n c e would be ranked i n the r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v e y . I a c q u i r e d names of e x e c u t i v e members of each o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the p o s i t i o n a l s u r v e y , a l t h o u g h f u l l membership l i s t s would have h e l p e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g t he c o n n e c t i o n s and i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s of the i n f l u e n t i a l s not i n t e r v i e w e d . And c o n s i d e r i n g the a t t e n t i o n t h a t I p a i d t o the p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s of the i n f l u e n t i a l s , i t would have a l s o been u s e f u l t o have c o l l e c t e d l i s t s of members of the v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and campaign groups, a l t h o u g h I susp e c t t h a t t h e s e would not be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Some p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s d i d p u b l i s h l i s t s of e x e c u t i v e members i n the newpapers, and I had found them of some v a l u e i n i d e n t i f y i n g c o n n e c t i o n s among i n f l u e n t i a l s . V a r i a t i o n s oh the r e p u t a t i o n a l method The i n f o r m a n t s who were asked t o nominate i n f l u e n t i a l community members were drawn from v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s , and they were urged t o i d e n t i f y the women as w e l l as t h e men who 133 were i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r own s e c t o r s and i n the community i n g e n e r a l . 1 The r e s u l t was t h a t the l i s t of names i n c l u d e d a s i z e a b l e number of both men and women who, i n a v a r i e t y of ways h e l p shape the community environment, b o t h i n i t s p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s and i n the s e r v i c e s which a r e a v a i l a b l e t o r e s i d e n t s . Some names were mentioned more than once, p r o v i d i n g a r a n k i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l s named. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the i n f o r m a n t s d i d not mention those b u s i n e s s and government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who were i d e n t i f i e d by the p o l i t i c i a n s as t h e i n d i v i d u a l s most i n f l u e n t i a l i n shaping d e c i s i o n s of C o u n c i l . The knowledgeable i n f o r m a n t s named o n l y the community-based i n f l u e n t i a l s , t h a t i s , t h o s e who e x e r t e d i n f l u e n c e not o n l y f o r t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s but who a l s o worked f o r the community as a whole: f o r example, the businessmen who were mentioned i n c l u d e d the l o c a l p h i l a n t h r o p i s t , and those who are a c t i v e i n community b o o s t e r ism or s p o r t s p r o m o t i o n . I t would appear t h a t t h e r e are some i n f l u e n c e s on the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s t h a t a r e not r e a d i l y p e r c e i v e d by i n f o r m a n t s o u t s i d e t h e government s e c t o r . 1 I r e c o g n i z e t h a t e t h n i c i t y must a l s o be ta k e n i n t o account when s t u d y i n g the power of d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . I d i d ask f o r names of members of v i s i b l e - m i n o r i t y r a c i a l groups who were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the community. Members of t h e most i n t e g r a t e d m i n o r i t y group were most o f t e n mentioned and they a re as y e t the o n l y v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y group which has been c e n t r a l t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Two members of t h i s group were i n t e r v i e w e d . 1 34 In comparing these f i r s t t h r e e methods, I f i n d t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the p o l i t i c i a n s complemented the r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r vey i n two ways. From them I had knowledge of the p r e s s u r e s which come from i n f l u e n t i a l s o u t s i d e the community; and, because the community i n f l u e n t i a l s named by the p o l i t i c i a n s were a l s o nominated by the i n f o r m a n t s i n the r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v e y , I had some measure of the r e l i a b l i t y of the d a t a . The f a c t t h a t the o v e r l a p between the l i s t s from the p o s i t i o n a l and r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v e y s was s m a l l has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r 5. 1 Used as an independent method f o r g a t h e r i n g names of i n f l u e n t i a l s , however, the r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r v ey i s u s e f u l f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : one, i t augments the l i s t of i n d i v i d u a l s i n key p o s i t i o n s , because i n f o r m a n t s p r o v i d e names of those c i t i z e n s who have been c e n t r a l t o community p o l i t i c s f o r some t i m e , whether or not they a r e p r e s e n t l y i n p o s i t i o n s of c i v i c a u t h o r i t y ; two, the r e p u t a t i o n a l s u r vey s e r v e s t o rank the p e r c e i v e d i n f l u e n c e of those p r e s e n t l y i n p o s i t i o n s of c o n t r o l over d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , even w i t h o u t a l i s t of names b e i n g shown t o the knowledgeable i n f o r m a n t s . Most i m p o r t a n t l y f o r me, i t s e r v e d t o i d e n t i f y women who were s u c c e s s f u l a c t i v i s t s i n community p o l i t i c s even i f they were not i n any p o s i t i o n s of p o t e n t i a l power, or members of a s s o c i a t i o n s c e n t r a l t o the 1 There i s a g r e a t d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e about the v a l i d i t y of each of the methods i n d e t e r m i n i n g who i s i n f l u e n t i a l i n community p o l i t i c s ( f o r example, S c h u l z e and Blumberg, 1957; Freeman e t . a l . 1963). 135 o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n the community. N e v e r t h e l e s s , I d i d f i n d two d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h i s method, one b e i n g the problem of c h o o s i n g i n f o r m a n t s who a r e t h o r o u g h l y knowledgeable about community p o l i t i c s , the o t h e r a d i f f i c u l t y i n d e c i d i n g who among the nominated i n d i v i d u a l s i s v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l , and who has l e s s i n f l u e n c e but i s "newsworthy". Let me e x p l a i n . o Among t h e men and women I chose as knowledgeable i n f o r m a n t s , t h e r e were v a r i a t i o n s i n the a c u t e n e s s of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the p r o c e s s of community p o l i t i c s . Some were p e r f e c t l y a t t u n e d t o my need t o know "who runs t h i s town", but o t h e r s , a l t h o u g h a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s , had not thought about how power was o r g a n i z e d i n the community. One might t r y u s i n g the method suggested by Bonjean (1963), which g a t h e r s one l i s t of i n f l u e n t i a l s from i n f o r m a n t s and then uses the most nominated i n d i v i d u a l s on t h a t l i s t as the "knowledgbles", t o check whether t h i s would p r o v i d e more " p o l i t i c i z e d " i n f o r m a n t s , a l t h o u g h I.have a l r e a d y noted i n Chapter 4 t h a t even some p o l i t i c i a n s f a i l t o d i s c e r n the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of power. A drawback i n t h a t r e f i n e m e n t i s t h a t , i n my r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , one might then i n t e r v i e w the same p e o p l e more than once t o g a t h e r d i f f e r e n t s e t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . I was f a c e d w i t h t h a t d i f f i c u l t y when I found two of the knowledgable i n f o r m a n t s t o be among the i n f l u e n t i a l s I wanted t o i n t e r v i e w i n some d e p t h . However, t h e s e women r e s p o n d e n t s were g r a c i o u s i n g i v i n g me the e x t r a time and a t t e n t i o n . 136 The o t h e r c a u t i o n a r y note i s t h a t , as one of the i n f o r m a n t s from the media no t e d , some nominated i n d i v i d u a l s a re very i n f l u e n t i a l whereas o t h e r s a r e "newsworthy" but l e s s c e n t r a l t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power. I was a b l e t o check t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n o n l y by i n t e r v i e w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and by a s k i n g them t o t e l l me ways i n which they had been i n f l u e n t i a l i n the community. These d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e s i m i l a r t o the co n c e r n s about t h i s method noted by p l u r a l i s t s . V a r i a t i o n s on the d e c i s i o n a l method I d i d not use the d e c i s i o n a l method, which f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n on the p u b l i c forum of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , as a d e v i c e t o g a t h e r names of i n f l u e n t i a l s . I n s t e a d I g a t h e r e d names by the o t h e r methods and then t r i e d t o a s s e s s how the s e i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the v a r i o u s i s s u e s t h a t were p a r t of the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . As i t t u r n e d o u t , I t h i n k I overcame some of the problems t h a t have been r a i s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e about t h i s method, f o r example, the problem of d e c i d i n g which i s s u e s a r e c o n t e n t i o u s enough t o warrant a t t e n t i o n of the most p o w e r f u l members of the community and a t the same time address the need t o show t h a t some i s s u e s do not engage the i n t e r e s t of community l e a d e r s ; the problem t h a t some im p o r t a n t i s s u e s may i n f a c t be v e t o e d and a r e t h e r e f o r e not s u b j e c t t o the s c r u t i n y of the r e s e a r c h e r (Bachrach and B a r a t z , 1962:952); and the problem t h a t some a s p e c t s of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s may be h i d d e n . I a l s o overcame the problem of i d e n t i f y i n g women's c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o community p o l i t i c s . 1 37 By t a l k i n g w i t h p o l i t i c i a n s from both p o l i t i c a l camps I was a b l e t o i d e n t i f y c l e a r l y the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s - i n t h i s community. 1 I a l s o l e a r n e d t h a t t h e r e a r e some i s s u e s t h a t a l l p o l i t i c a n s agree are "too hot t o h a n d l e " and which a r e t h e r e f o r e s u p p r e s s e d , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , from b e i n g d i s c u s s e d a t C o u n c i l . (Those i s s u e s might i n c l u d e the a v a i l a b l i t y of p o r n o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s i n the community or the e x i s t e n c e of i l l e g a l s u i t e s . ) I a l s o found out by i n t e r v i e w i n g i n f u e n t i a l s t o ask them t o how they e x e r t e d i n f u e n c e , t h a t t h e r e a r e some hi d d e n c o n n e c t i o n s among i n f l u e n t i a l s t h a t would l e a v e the o b s e r v e r of the p u b l i c meeting unaware of who a c t u a l l y i n i t i a t e s a c t i o n on an i s s u e . And as I have a l r e a d y n o t e d , some p u b l i c d e c i s i o n s get shaped b e h i n d the scenes by the most i n f l u e n t i a l l o b b y i s t s t o Counc i 1 . By a s k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o l i s t the ways i n which they have been i n f l u e n t i a l , I have been a b l e t o document more a c c u r a t e l y the n a t u r e and scope of i n f l u e n c e of tho s e men and women who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In t h i s way I am a b l e t o l i s t i s s u e s t h a t a r e s a l i e n t t o i n d i v i d u a l s o t h e r than businessmen, which overcomes what P o l s b y (1980:68) s t r e s s e s i s a common m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e r r o r of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s . I am a b l e t o l i s t the number of i s s u e s i n which the men and women a r e 1 Bonjean and Grimes (1974:393) note t h a t t h i s i s a l e s s common p r o c e d u r e , but suggest t h a t i t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o the use of " o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a " . 1 38 a c t i v e and which iss u e s are important to which i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s procedure should be u s e f u l i n breaking down the ste r e o t y p e s about men's and women's behaviour that i s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e on p o l i t i c a l behaviour of a l l k i n d s . I t w i l l a l s o prevent some i n f l u e n t i a l s from being d i s m i s s e d as "one-issue s p e c i a l i s t s " . In summary, by using these v a r i a t i o n s of the p o s i t i o n a l and r e p u t a t i o n a l methods to gather names and by u r g i n g informants to prov i d e names of women who were i n f l u e n t i a l members of the community, I am c o n f i d e n t I overcame the i n v i s i b i l i t y of women in community p o l i t i c s . By aski n g women to l i s t the ways i n which they have been a c t i v e i n community decision-making I have been a b l e to show the number and v a r i e t y of c o n t r i b u t i o n s ' they make in shaping p u b l i c p o l i c y . By t r e a t i n g women as independent i n d i v i d u a l s i n s t e a d of c l a s s i f y i n g then as appendages to men, I have been a b l e to d e s c r i b e the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s , although f o r fu t u r e r e s e a r c h I would draw a sample of men more c l o s e l y matched to the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the sample of women. By f o c u s i n g f i r s t on the types of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l memberships of the p o l i t i c i a n s and checking the shared memberships-between them and some non-elected i n f l e n t i a l s , I was able to determine that there are two d i s t i n c t c l i q u e s of i n d i v i d u a l s who are dominant i n community p o l i t i c s i n North W a t e r f i e l d . By documenting the p o s i t i o n s t h a t members of these two c l i q u e s h o l d on v a r i o u s c i t i z e n committees and c i v i c 1 3 9 o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and the i s s u e s i n which they p a r t i c i p a t e , I am r e a s o n a b l y sure t h a t I tapped the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n the community. The comparisons t h a t can be drawn between the data g a t h e r e d here and i n oth e r s t u d i e s a l s o p r o v i d e some a s s u r a n c e t h a t the p r o f i l e s o f f e r e d about women and men a c t i v e i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d a re r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e , even though I d i d not c e n t r e a t t e n t i o n on the most p o w e r f u l members of the community. In f a c t , by f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on the p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of l e s s p o w e r f u l members of the community as w e l l as the p o w e r f u l i n d i v i d u a l s , I have been a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t he v a r i e t y of ways i n which power i s e x e r c i s e d , both by members of the dominant c l i q u e and the op p o s i n g group, and by n o n - a l i g n e d i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s f i r s t e f f o r t t o document the a c t i v i t i e s of women i n community p o l i t i c s has att e m p t e d t o cover a g r e a t d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n . A second t a s k of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s t o a s s e s s the v a l u e of t h i s s t u d y t o t h e o r y b u i l d i n g . I now want t o d i s c u s s some of my t h o u g h t s about the stu d y of community power and the study of women and p u b l i c power and t o make some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n thes e a r e a s . Toward a t h e o r y of community power L i k e many of my i n f o r m a n t s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , I knew v e r y l i t t l e about the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n a community when I s t a r t e d t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , and had o n l y a b e g i n n i n g 140 awareness of the need to develop a f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e i n order to adequately document women's c o n t r i b u t i o n s to community p o l i t i c s . I had not f u l l y r e a l i s e d that so few women were i n p o s i t i o n s of c i v i c power in t h i s "democratic s o c i e t y " or that women were " p o l i t i c a l l y " a c t i v e i n so many other ways i n the l o c a l decision-making pr o c e s s . My na i v e t y about the o r g a n i z a t i o n and e x e r c i s e of power caused me to approach t h i s study e x a c t l y as Polsby (1980:113) would have wished, that i s , "assuming nothing c a t e g o r i c a l about power i n any community". Thus I was r e c e p t i v e to the arguments of both schools of thought i n the debate about community power s t r u c t u r e s . In the attempt to accommodate the two dominant p e r s p e c t i v e s , I designed the res e a r c h to examine both the power bases a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l s f o r the e x e r c i s e of power, and the e x e r c i s e of power. I have documented the i n s t i t u t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l connections of i n d i v i u a l s who act to i n f l u e n c e the outcome of p u b l i c decision-making as w e l l as some of the pers o n a l s k i l l s that i n d i v i d u a l s b r i n g to bear on the i n f l u e n c e p r o c e s s . The design has focused e q u a l l y on the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the p o l i t i c i a n s and the non-elected community a c t i v i s t s . I have a l s o used a l l the standard methods recommended i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , v a r y i n g them s l i g h t l y i n the attempt to h i g h l i g h t the l e s s powerful members of the power s t r u c t u r e as w e l l as the more powerful ones. 141 In s p i t e of t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r a v o i d i n g an a p r i o r i b i a s i n the d e s i g n , I have found t h a t t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n community p o l i t i c s , whether as o n e - i s s u e s p e c i a l i s t s or as l o n g term a c t i v i s t s w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of power, must be d e s c r i b e d as p a r t of the e l i t e of the community because they a r e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y drawn from among t h o s e community r e s i d e n t s who have h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , h i g h e r incomes and h i g h e r s t a t u s j o b s . I have a l s o shown t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e two competing c i v i c p a r t i e s who share c o n t r o l over the p u b l i c l y e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s , one p a r t y c o n t r o l s the d e c i s i o n -making on the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s . T h i s p a r t y i s s u p p o r t e d by the predominant c l i q u e of r e s i d e n t s c o m p r i s e d of members of the b u s i n e s s , independent p r o f e s s i o n a l and c h u r c h communities who a r e drawn t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h s i m i l a r r i g h t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s and g o a l s , and who a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d t h r o u g h memberships i n the Chamber of Commerce, the v a r i o u s s e r v i c e c l u b s , c h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s and r i g h t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The p r e s ence of an o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n somewhat l i m i t s the d o m i n a t i o n of t h i s c l i q u e i n community p o l i t i c s , but does not p r e v e n t the tendency t h a t community p o l i c y i s shaped a c c o r d i n g t o the v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s of members of the ascendant c l i q u e . The f a c t t h a t the most a c t i v e members of the dominant c l i q u e a r e s i m i l a r t o those d e s c r i b e d i n o t h e r N o r t h American s t u d i e s sampled f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , no m a t t e r what methods a r e used t o i d e n t i f y i n f l u e n t i a l community members or what type of community i s examined, s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s support f o r the 1 42 c l a i m by s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a s y s t e m i c b i a s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power. A l t h o u g h the c o n t r i b u t i o n s p l u r a l i s t s have made t o the r e f i n e m e n t of methods cannot be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , t h e i r a s s e r t i o n t h a t no one group dominates the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s , cannot be u p h e l d , even by those who attempt t o s t a r t from a n e u t r a l p e r s p e c t i v e ( P r e s t h u s , 1964; t h i s s t u d y ) . I would argue t h a t p l u r a l i s t s o v e r s t a t e the p o t e n t i a l f o r p l u r a l i s m i n community p o l i t i c s . I suggest t h a t we need t o view the o r g a n i z a t i o n of power i n a s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t , r a t h e r than f o c u s on i n d i v i d u a l power a t the community l e v e l . Even i f we then t a k e the p l u r a l i s t p e r p e c t i v e and assume t h a t the S t a t e , whether i n the form of n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l or c i v i c governments, i s c e n t r a l i n i t s power t o mediate between competing i n t e r e s t s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from v a r i o u s s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as t h e economic, e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s s e c t o r s , we must be a b l e t o show t h a t s t a t e s u p p o r t i n terms of p u b l i c f u n d s , t a x c o n c e s s i o n s and o t h e r non-monetary b e n e f i t s i s d i s t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y t o the v a r i o u s s e c t o r s , t o show t h a t no one group or s e c t o r dominates. At the community l e v e l we need t o examine the p r e s s u r e s on the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s which come from s o u r c e s o u t s i d e the community, t h a t i s , from s e n i o r governments, absentee b u s i n e s s owners, n o n - l o c a l development companies, and t o show t h a t the v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s of n a t i o n a l economic l e a d e r s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h n a t i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s (Domhoff, 1978:172). 1 43 At the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , we need t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o u t power bases a v a i l a b l e f o r the e x e r c i s e of power are l e s s l i k e l y t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n i n f l u e n c i n g the outcome of d e c i s i o n making on i s s u e s c o n s i d e r e d c r u c i a l t o the dominant c l i q u e , but t h a t from time t o time t h e r e a r e p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h i s c l i q u e (and sometimes from w i t h i n ) who, w i t h d i f f e r i n g p r i o r i t i e s or p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s , w i l l s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e the p o l i c i e s and d e c i s i o n s of the dominant c l i q u e . For as Domhoff (1983:2) p o i n t s o u t , " d o m i n a t i o n does not mean t o t a l c o n t r o l , but t h e a b i l i t y t o s e t the terms under which o t h e r groups and c l a s s e s must o p e r a t e " . Thus l a b o u r u n i o n s and even the most p o w e r l e s s of i n d i v i d u a l s can g a i n d e c i s i o n s i n t h e i r f a v o r or d i s r u p t t h e system even i f f o r a s h o r t time ( p . 2 - 3 ) . S t u d i e s which f o c u s on the i n d i v i d u a l as the u n i t of a n a l y s i s can e a s i l y l e a d the r e s e a r c h e r t o a p r e s u m p t i o n of p l u r a l i s m . I have shown i n Chapter 4 t h a t t h r e e p o s s i b l e power s t r u c t u r e t y p e s c o u l d have been d e s i g n a t e d f o r t h i s community depending on t h e i s s u e s t u d i e d or the p e r s p e c t i v e of the r e s e a r c h e r . Two of these t y p e s might be c o n s t r u e d as e v i d e n c e of p l u r a l i s m . As we view the number of i n d i v i d u a l s p e t i t i o n i n g the p o l i t i c i a n s d u r i n g c o u n c i l meetings on a v a r i e t y of i s s u e s , and we observe th e v a r i e d ways i n which e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s v o t e on d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s , we might assume t h a t a d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s i s a t work. And t h a t happens a g r e a t d e a l , I s u s p e c t . C o n s i d e r the f a c t t h a t some of the key a c t i v i s t s i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d suggested t h a t t h e r e was no dominant group i n the community. T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:129) a l s o n o t e d the same 1 44 phenomenon: "Most- l e a d e r s maintained t h a t there was no formal or i n f o r m a l bloc that a c t e d i n concert to shape p u b l i c p o l i c y , determine the course of c i v i c events, or i n any other way r u l e the c i t y . Yet they recognized that c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s e x e r t e d g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e and wielded more e x t e n s i v e power than o t h e r s . " We may be b e t t e r served by d e v e l o p i n g our r e s e a r c h designs to address the a s s e r t i o n by Form and C l e l l a n d (1962), that p l u r a l i s m i n values i s a b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n of p l u r a l i s m than the number of i n d i v i d u a l s or the number of groups rep r e s e n t e d . I suggest that we s t a r t a l l s t u d i e s with an assumption of b i a s towards c o n t r o l of p u b l i c - decision-making by those with economic i n t e r e s t s and t h e i r a l l i e s , and c o n c e n t r a t e the r e s e a r c h on i d e n t i f y i n g the e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s r u l e by studying the e x e r c i s e of power by i n d i v i d u a l s who are "the o u t s i d e r s " i n community p o l i t i c s . I have i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s study that the a b i l i t y of the dominant c l i q u e to c o n t r o l i s s u e s of great i n t e r e s t to i t s members r e s t s i n the e l e c t i o n of a mayor who holds the same values as the members of t h i s c l i q u e , as w e l l as in having a m a j o r i t y of the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s from the same camp. We might examine what happens when there i s a mayor or a c o u n c i l e l e c t e d who espouse p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s that are d i f f e r e n t to those of the normally dominant c l i q u e . How i s power e x e r c i s e d then? How much can these " o u t s i d e r s " change the e x i s t i n g system of b e n e f i t s ? What are the e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s under which they must make d e c i s i o n s and what i s s u e s are the most c o n t e n t i o u s ones i n these c a s e s ? We might a l s o examine how power i s organized, e x e r c i s e d and d i s t r i b u t e d under the 1 45 a l t e r n a t e s t r u c t u r e of government found i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h a t "of the "reformed" c o u n c i l - m a n a g e r type of government ( T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982:43). We can a l s o view the e x e r c i s e of power from the p e r s p e c t i v e of t h o s e who a r e o u t s i d e by v i r t u e of c l a s s , r a c e or gender, and ask what i s s u e s a re r a i s e d by those groups and what c o a l i t i o n s a r e most s u c c e s s f u l i n mounting o p p o s t i o n s t o the p r e v a i l i n g b i a s i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . R e s e a r c h d e s i g n e d t o answer these q u e s t i o n s a t the community l e v e l w i l l add t o the d e t a i l e d work a l r e a d y done i n d e v e l o p i n g a t h e o r y of power and a t h e o r y of community power and w i l l h o p e f u l l y combine the r e s e a r c h f o c i of both s o c i o l o g i s t s and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s i n t o a " d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e " . I would urge t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n of the term "power s t r u c t u r e " be c l a r i f i e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . In some of the l i t e r a t u r e on community power the term i s used t o denote the most p o w e r f u l members of the community; i n o t h e r s t u d i e s the term i s taken t o i n c l u d e anybody who i s found t o be a c t i v e i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , from the most p o w e r f u l members of the community t o those who a r e " o n e - i s s u e s p e c i a l i s t s " . And f o r the sake of p r e v e n t i n g o b f u s c a t i o n of the term " p l u r a l i s m " , l e t us s t a t e c l e a r l y t h a t our r e s e a r c h o n l y f o c u s e s on t h o s e few members of any community who have both the p e r s o n a l and c o l l e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s t o be a c t i v e i n i n f l u e n c i n g p u b l i c dec i s i o n - m a k i n g . 1 46 I f power i s more e a s i l y e x e r c i s e d through the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o c o l l e c t i v e s , then l e t us a l s o examine the a c t i v i t i e s of t h o s e members of the community who l a c k t h a t r e s o u r c e as a base f o r power, t o see how they e x e r t i n f l u e n c e i n community p o l i t i c s , and the k i n d s of i s s u e s i n which they a re s u c c e s s f u l . And l e t us not be so b l i n d e d by the need f o r e m p i r i c i s m t h a t we i g n o r e some a s p e c t s of the e x e r c i s e of power because we have not as y e t found ways of a d e q u a t e l y measuring them. We must ask why i t i s t h a t so many community a c t i v i s t s a r e not aware of the way power i s o r g a n i z e d and d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h e i r community. By s e e k i n g t o d i s c o v e r the o r g a n i z a t i o n , e x e r c i s e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the r e l a t i v e l y p o w e r l e s s we may ha s t e n our a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p a t h e o r y of community power. I t i s i n t h a t l i g h t t h a t the study of women and power w i l l be u s e f u l t o the stu d y of power and community power i n g e n e r a l . Toward a t h e o r y of women and p u b l i c power The study of women i n community p o l i t i c s i s one s t e p toward the development of a t h e o r y of women and power, but i t i s a l s o an a l t e r n a t e way of s t u d y i n g p u b l i c power i n g e n e r a l . Women a r e unique i n t h a t a l t h o u g h they a r e " o u t s i d e r s " i n a male dominated s o c i e t y , they n e v e r t h e l e s s s hare many of the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the men i n t h e i r l i v e s , i . e . , c l a s s , race and p o l i t i c a l b i a s . Thus w h i l e c l a s s or race may be a b a r r i e r t o 1 4 7 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p o l i t i c s , we can s t i l l study l e s s p o w e r f u l members of the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l e l i t e by s t u d y i n g the women of t h i s group. I d e n t i f y i n g those i n d i v i d u a l s who are l e s s p o w e r f u l i s not d i f f i c u l t , as I have shown i n t h i s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , but t o do so r e q u i r e s t h a t one must t e m p o r a r i l y assume t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e i n community p o l i t i c s a r e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , no matter i n what i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r they spend t h e i r w o r k i n g h o u r s , what i s s u e s they a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n , what r e s o u r c e s f o r power they have or what i n d i v i d u a l methods a r e used. We know t h a t the number of i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l not be l a r g e and t h a t we can d e v i s e ways t o g e n e r a t e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s when the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h a t sample of community a c t i v i s t s a r e examined and compared, t h a t we can b e g i n t o c o n f i r m how power i s o r g a n i z e d and e x e r c i s e d , because we can show the ways t h a t some members of the community a r e e x c l u d e d from, or a r e p e r i p h e r a l t o , the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . In t h i s s t u d y I i n d i c a t e d t h a t women, as o u t s i d e r s i n the male-dominated p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , f i n d i t more d i f f i c u l t t o g a i n a c c e s s t o p o s i t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l power, t h a t t hey a re not o f t e n i n the a s s o c i a t i o n s t h r o u g h which power over p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s o r g a n i z e d , and t h a t they a r e seldom a c t i v e i n the i s s u e s deemed i m p o r t a n t t o the dominant c l i q u e s of men. I w i l l d i s c u s s each of the s e p o i n t s i n t u r n , i n terms of s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 148 I t was s uggested i n t h i s s tudy and i n T r o u n s t i n e and C h r i s t e n s e n (1982:140) t h a t women might more e a s i l y move i n t o key p o s i t i o n s when t h e r e i s a s h i f t i n the b a l a n c e of power. The examples g i v e n were the case of the woman mayor who came t o o f f i c e a t the time when d e v e l o p e r s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y were l o s i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l h o l d on c i t y h a l l p o l i t i c s ; i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d i t seems t h a t women a r e g a i n i n g power i n the Chamber of Commerce at a time when the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s are l o s i n g power as " b i g b u s i n e s s " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r l o b b y i n g a t the s e n i o r l e v e l s of government or bypass the l o c a l b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n t o l o b b y p o l i t i c i a n s p e r s o n a l l y . Another h i n t t h a t t h i s might be the case comes from my own e x p e r i e n c e . D u r i n g the 1960's and p a r t i c u l a r l y the 1970's i n Canada, the expanding economy produced enough s u r p l u s revenue t h a t governments made more f u n d i n g a v a i l a b l e t o e d u c a t i o n and t o the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s e c t o r . D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d many women took the o p p o r t u n i t y t o upgrade t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , and many took over the management and the d i r e c t o r s h i p of the b u r g e o n i n g number of s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s s e t up t o meet the needs of community r e s i d e n t s . Women ran these a g e n c i e s , o f t e n w i t h none or few men i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s ( c f . Haugh,1980:77). S i n c e the downturn i n the economy, the l e v e l of p u b l i c f u n d i n g f o r t h e s e s e c t o r s i s d r o p p i n g , and w i t h t h a t t u r n of e v e n t s , board members of s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , a t l e a s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y s e a r c h i n g f o r d i r e c t o r s not so much f o r t h e i r empathy t o the needs of the c l i e n t s , but f o r t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s t o s o u r c e s of p r i v a t e f u n d i n g and t o o t h e r s who can get p u b l i c 149 and p r i v a t e f u n d i n g f o r the agency. Those i n d i v i d u a l s a r e once a g a i n more l i k e l y t o be pe o p l e w i t h b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s and w i t h a b i a s towards r i g h t - l e a n i n g p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s . I t would seem then t h a t the 1960's and the 1970's might be an example of a temporary s h i f t ' i n b a l a n c e of power between i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s which a l l o w e d women t o have g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a t l e a s t i n t h i s s e c t o r . 1 I t was a l s o d u r i n g the 1970's t h a t t h e r e were so many women on the Board of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d , t h e i r numbers now reduced t o one. I suggest t h a t s t u d y i n g s h i f t s i n the b a l a n c e of power may be one avenue of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e study of women and community power. But we must a l s o f o l l o w up t h i s work by examining what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of power women need t o get i n t o p u b l i c l y e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s . In t h i s s t u d y I noted t h a t the women most l i k e l y t o get i n t o o f f i c e were a f f i l i a t e d w i th,, and a n n o i n t e d and f i n a n c e d by, members of the dominant c l i q u e and t h a t they were a l s o w e l l known community l e a d e r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t because of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h many community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . But how then do we e x p l a i n the e l e c t i o n of women who belong t o " t h i r d p a r t i e s " or run as independents and who a r e l e s s a c t i v e i n community a s s o c i a t i o n s ? And why, i n N o r t h 1 Why Haugh (1980) would i d e n t i f y t he t o p 19 l e a d e r s i n the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s e c t o r i n a s o u t h e r n c i t y i n V i r g i n i a t o be male and b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s , when I am s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i n a suburban community i n Canada women might p r e d o m i n a t e , would r e q u i r e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 1 50 W a t e r f i e l d have women r u n n i n g on the o p p o s i n g NWCV s l a t e been unable t o get e l e c t e d t o C o u n c i l or t o Sc h o o l Board? Another p o i n t t o be s t u d i e d f u r t h e r i s the f a c t t h a t so few women are members of the a s s o c i a t i o n s t h r o u g h which power over l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s o r g a n i z e d . There a re some ob v i o u s r e a s o n s why women a r e not members of the s e r v i c e s c l u b s and not as many women a r e i n b u s i n e s s i n o r d e r t o q u a l i f y them as members of the Chamber of Commerce, but many of the women are not members of the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t h r o u g h which c i v i c p o l i t i c s a r e c o n t r o l l e d . We must ask why i t i s t h a t so many women are " u n a l i g n e d " . Can we compare t h a t phenonemon a t the community l e v e l t o the examples of n a t i o n a l women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o b e i n g " n o n - p a r t i s a n " or " u n a l i g n e d " , f o r example, the League of Women V o t e r s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the S t a t u s of Women C o u n c i l i n Canada? Do women f i n d i t e a s i e r t o get c o n c e s s i o n s t h i s way, i n the same way t h a t some of the women i n N o r t h W a t e r f i e l d suggest t h a t b e i n g u n a l i g n e d g i v e s them g r e a t e r freedom t o c h a l l e n g e the views of bo t h p o l i t i c a l s i d e s ? The t h i r d f o c u s on women and p u b l i c power might be t o examine women who attempt t o shape community p o l i c y i n i s s u e s p e r i p h e r a l t o the i n t e r e s t s of the dominant men t o a s c e r t a i n i f they a r e aware of the way i n which power i s o r g a n i z e d , e x e r c i s e d and d i s t r i b u t e d . I t i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y and i n P r e s t h u s (1964) and Haugh (1980) t h a t women i n the " w e l f a r e - o r i e n t e d " c l i q u e i g n o r e the r e s o u r c e base of those c o l l e c t i v e s t o demand h i g h e r l e v e l s of f u n d i n g from a l l l e v e l s of government f o r the 151 s e c t o r i n which they d e v e l o p p o l i c y . I n s t e a d , they appear t o spend t h e i r energy on the management of the s c a r c e "resources t h a t they do r e c e i v e . I s t h i s an example of a " m o b i l i z a t i o n of b i a s " so d e e p l y e n t r e n c h e d t h a t we cannot even t h i n k t h a t p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d i n o t h e r ways? The most i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n t o come out of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s the i n d i c a t i o n t h a t women a c t i v i s t s may have lower f a m i l y incomes than t h o s e of the economic and p o l i t i c a l d ominants. What ar e the reasons f o r t h i s a p p a r e n t l y s y s t e m a t i c anomoly? I r e c a l l t h a t i t was men from the dominant c l i q u e who more o p e n l y e x p r e s s e d a b i a s a g a i n s t women i n p u b l i c p o l i t i c s , and we must a l s o remember t h a t i t i s t h i s group of men and women who a r e more l i k e l y t o a t t e n d churches where the t e a c h i n g u p h o l d s the " t r a d i t i o n a l " p l a c e of women "behind the men". I s i t the case t h a t the " p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e " of t h i s group c o n s t r a i n s t h e v e r y women who would be most l i k e l y t o get i n t o p o s i t i o n s of power? Or i s i t the case t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y enough f a m i l y t i m e and energy f o r one a c t i v i s t per f a m i l y , and where the men a r e l e s s d i s p o s e d t o community p o l i t i c s , women s t e p i n ? In c o n c l u s i o n , I want t o s t r e s s t h a t t h e r e a r e many ways i n which we can pursue development of a t h e o r y of community power. An a l t e r n a t i v e approach, which examines power from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the r e l a t i v e l y p o w e r l e s s s w i l l j o l t us from our mainstream paradigms, and cause us t o re v i e w many of our unexamined assumptions. U s i n g women as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n t h i s study of " o u t s i d e r s " s h o u l d have two advantages. F i r s t i t w i l l •1 52 show women the v a l u e of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o p u b l i c d e c i s i o n -making and g i v e them a way of v a l i d a t i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n p u b l i c l i f e . S e c o n d l y i t o f f e r s ' s t u d e n t s of community power a way of d e v e l o p i n g methods to study the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of o u t s i d e r groups as a t e s t of the p r e s e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s about the e x e r c i s e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power. The study of women 1s p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n s t o t h i s body of knowledge. 1 53 R e f e r e n c e s A c k e r , Joan 1973 "Women and s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n : a case of i n t e l l e c t u a l s e x i s m " . Pp. 174-183 i n Joan Huber ( e d . ) , Changing Women i n a Changing S o c i e t y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s . Andersen, M a r g a r e t L. 1983 T h i n k i n g about Women: S o c i o l o g i c a l and F e m i n i s t P e r s p e c t i v e s . New York: M a c m i l l a n . 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